WorldWideScience

Sample records for cfu

  1. Epicardial origin of cardiac CFU-Fs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slukvin, Igor I

    2011-12-02

    The epicardium has been recognized as a source of cardiovascular progenitors during embryogenesis and postnatal life. In this issue of Cell Stem Cell, Chong et al. (2011) identify cardiac CFU-Fs as cardiac-resident cells of epicardial origin with broad multilineage differentiation potential.

  2. CFU-MK assay for acute thrombocytopenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parent-Massin, Dominique; Sibiril, Yann

    2008-08-01

    In this unit, protocols to culture human platelet progenitors (Colony Forming Unit-Megakaryocyte; CFU-M) with or without toxicants are described. Platelet progenitors are obtained from human umbilical cord blood. After separation of mononuclear cells, the cell suspension can be cryopreserved or plated immediately. Megakaryocytes are identified by immunocytochemistry. Test chemicals are added to the culture medium before cells are plated. Megakaryocytes are scored after 12 days of culture. IC(10), IC(50) and IC(90) can be calculated by comparison to control cultures. A predictive model is proposed to evaluate the hazard of thrombocytopenia induced by chemicals. When IC(50) and IC(90) are below C(max) in humans, the likelihood of thrombocytopenia is strong.

  3. rhIL-2对人骨髓CFU-GM与CFU-E和BFU-E的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨吉成; 盛伟华; 金苏华; 李丽娥; 郝思国

    1997-01-01

    目的:为了探索rhlL-2对人骨髓造血干祖细胞体外增殖的影响。方法:本文采用甲基纤维紊体外半固体培养法。结果:证明了50~1000U/mlrhlL-2单用时对人骨髓造血祖细胞的CFU-GM、CFU-E及BFU-E无直接刺激增生作用,当与GM-CSF联合应用时,100~400U/mlrhlL-2其CFU-GM集落形成率明显高于单用GM-CSF(100U/ml)的对照组(P<0.05),当与EPO(2U/ml)联合应用时其CFU-E,及BFU-E集落形成率也明显高于单用EPO对照组(P<0.05),而1000U/mlrhlL-2其三种集落形成效目呈下降趋势,可能有抑制作用。结论:以上结果说明100-400U/mlrhlL-2可应用于协同GM-CSF及EPO体外扩增骨髓干/祖细胞来进行骨髓移植。

  4. P物质体外对骨髓CFU-GM和CFU-C21的影响%The effect of in vitro substance P on bone marrow CFU-GM and CFU-C21

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    夏长青; 王逸兰; 陆道培

    1999-01-01

    目的:探讨P物质(SP)与造血的关系.方法:采用甲基纤维素半固体造血祖细胞培养法检测正常血浓度的SP以及不同浓度的SP 对骨髓CFU-GM和CFU-C21的作用.结果:10-10 mol*L-1和10-11 mol.L-1 SP组CFU-GM的产率分别为193±19和206±40,与对照(136±17)相比具有显著差异(P<0.05); 10-10mol.L-1和10-11mol.L-1 SP对CFU-C21也有明显刺激作用,前者CFU-C21为143±16,后者为153±15,与对照(80.3±31)相比具有显著性差异 (P<0.05);高于或低于上述浓度时,SP对CFU-GM和CFU-C21的刺激作用均减弱,与对照相比无显著性差异(P>0.05).结论:适当浓度的SP对体外CFU-GM和CFU-C21具有明显的刺激效应.SP对正常骨髓造血具有重要的意义.

  5. The effects on murine CFU-GM、CFU-E、CFU-S formation by vascular endothelial growth factor%血管内皮细胞生长因子对小鼠CFU-GM、CFU-E、CFU-S生成的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    仲照东; 胡中波; 刘凌波; 邹萍; 黄士昂

    2003-01-01

    目的:研究血管内皮细胞生长因子(VEGF)对小鼠骨髓单个核细胞(MNC)粒-巨噬细胞系集落形成单位(CFU-GM)、红系集落形成单位(CFU-E)、脾集落形成单位(CFU-S)生成数量的影响.方法:一部分小鼠骨髓MNC样本在加入或不加入外源性hVEGF的体系中预先培养24 h,分别进行体外造血细胞集落培养和小鼠体内CFU-S试验,计数CFU-GM、CFU-E、CFU-S集落生成数目;另外对剩余骨髓样本不经处理直接在含rhVEGF的体系中进行体外CFU-GM、CFU-E集落培养,观察集落培养体系中添加VEGF对集落生成的影响.结果:CFU-GM、CFU-E、CFU-S数目分别为33.21±2.84、72.00±4.55和12.20±1.32,显著高于未处理组(分别为19.60±2.10、38.86±2.77和6.10±1.52)(P<0.05),但均低于正常对照组(分别为51.97±2.45、164.20±5.70和19.50±2.46).外源性hVEGF的存在使VEGF组CFU-GM、CFU-E产率较正常对照组显著提高(73.12±3.80∶51.39±2.60,198.98±4.92∶164.40±5.32)(P<0.05).结论:VEGF不仅对造血细胞集落生成能力具有保护作用,还具有促进造血细胞集落生成的作用.

  6. Research interface for experimental ultrasound imaging - the CFU grabber project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Mads Møller; Hemmsen, Martin Christian; Jensen, Jørgen Arendt

    PC aquires pre processed data from the scanner in real time. Further post processing is required to create the final images. In house software (CFU Grabber tool) was developed to review and store the pre processed data. Using MatLab image processing with a new post post processing method the final...

  7. Further Enrichment and Analysis of Rat CFU-s

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-01-01

    consistent With CFU-s having been characterized as non-proliferating cells [24]. The hemato - logical function of the 0x720, Ox22-, and W3/13b is, at the...Exp Hematol 1988;16:245-249. 17 Harris RA, Hogarth PM, Wadeson L, Collins P, McKenzie IFC, Penington DG. An antigenic difference between cells

  8. Quantitation of Candida CFU in initial positive blood cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfeiffer, Christopher D; Samsa, Gregory P; Schell, Wiley A; Reller, L Barth; Perfect, John R; Alexander, Barbara D

    2011-08-01

    One potential limitation of DNA-based molecular diagnostic tests for Candida bloodstream infection (BSI) is organism burden, which is not sufficiently characterized. We hypothesized that the number of CFU per milliliter (CFU/ml) present in an episode of Candida BSI is too low for reliable DNA-based diagnostics. In this study, we determined Candida burden in the first positive blood culture and explored factors that affect organism numbers and patient outcomes. We reviewed records of consecutive patients with a positive blood culture for Candida in the lysis-centrifugation blood culture system (Isolator, Wampole Laboratories, Cranbury, NJ) from 1987 to 1991. Descriptive statistics and logistic regression analyses were performed. One hundred fifty-two episodes of Candida BSI were analyzed. Patient characteristics included adult age (72%), indwelling central venous catheters (83%), recent surgery (29%), neutropenia (24%), transplant (14%), and other immune suppression (21%). Rates of treatment success and 30-day mortality for candidemia were each 51%. The median CFU/ml was 1 (mode 0.1, range 0.1 to >1,000). In the multivariate analysis, pediatric patients were more likely than adults to have high organism burdens (odds ratio [OR], 10.7; 95% confidence interval [95% CI], 4.3 to 26.5). Initial organism density did not affect patient outcome. Candida CFU/ml in the first positive blood culture of a BSI episode varies greatly; >50% of cultures had ≤1 CFU/ml, a concentration below the experimental yeast cell threshold for reliable DNA-based diagnostics. DNA-based diagnostics for Candida BSI will be challenged by low organism density and the need for sufficient specimen volume; future research on alternate targets is warranted.

  9. CFU-GM assay for evaluation of drug myelotoxic activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pessina, Augusto; Bonomi, Arianna

    2007-11-01

    To study hematotoxicity of compounds on the myeloid cell compartment, the authors describe a standard procedure developed as a workable good laboratory practices-compliant protocol to determine the in vitro myelotoxic effect of drugs and chemicals. Specific protocols are presented to prepare human and murine myeloid progenitors (CFU-GM) for testing in a validated CFU-GM assay. Details are given for performing a screening test when toxicity data are not available and for passing on to an accurate inhibitory concentration-determination phase. To quantify the potential hematotoxicity of xenobiotics from their direct adverse effects on CFU-GM, the unit describes how to manage the results by means of an algorithm able to predict the acute xenobiotic exposure levels that cause maximum tolerated decreases (MTD) in absolute neutrophil count (ANC). A protocol describes a miniaturized application of the procedure in 96-well plates for high-throughput screening of compounds or for testing compounds that are available in very small quantities.

  10. [CFU-HPP colony formation of bone marrow hematopoietic proginitor cells in psoriatic patients and methylation of p16 gene promotor in CFU-HPP colony cells].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Rui-Li; Niu, Xu-Ping; Li, Xin-Hua; Zhang, Kai-Ming; Yin, Guo-Hua

    2007-08-01

    This study was purposed to investigate the colony formation of high-proliferative potential colony-forming units (CFU-HPP) from bone marrow-derived hematopoietic cells of psoriatic patients and p16 gene promotor methylation in CFU-HPP cells, and to explore the relationship between the colony formation and the methylation status of p16 gene promoter. Bone marrow-derived mononuclear cells from psoriatic patients and normal controls were separated by density gradient centrifugation, and were cultured in methycellulose semi-solid culture medium with SCF, GM-CSF, IL-3 and IL-6 for 14 days to measure the colonies of CFU-HPP. The CFU-HPP colony cells were collected and methylation status of p16 gene promoter of CFU-HPP cell DNA modified with sodium bisulfite was detected by the methylation-specific polymerase chain reaction (MSP). The results showed that in methycellulose semi-solid culture system, the number and the size of CFU-HPP colonies of bone marrow of psoriatic patients were all significantly less than that of normal controls, the positive frequency of p16 gene promoter methylation in CFU-HPP cells was lower than that in CFU-HPP colony cells of normal controls. It is concluded that the colony formation capability of CFU-HPP from bone marrow hematopoietic progenitor cells in psoriatic patients is lower than that in normal controls, and the lower positive frequency of P16 gene promoter methylation in CFU-HPP cells perhaps closely correlated with lower CFU-HPP colony-forming capability.

  11. [Effect of continuous gamma-radiation at low doses on clonogenic hemopoietic (CFU-S) and stromal (CFU-F) bone marrow cells ].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domaratskaia, E I; Starostin, V I; Tsetlin, V V; Butorina, N N; Bueverova, E I; Bragina, E V; Khrushchov, N G

    2002-01-01

    We studied the effects of low doses of continuous gamma-irradiation (Co60, 10 days, mean daily dose power 1.5-2.0 mGy, total dose 15 mGy) on hemopoietic and stromal progenitor cells of murine bone marrow. The content of hemopoietic clonogenic cells representing a "younger" (CFU-S-11) and more "mature" (CFU-S-7) categories in the compartment of stem cells was determined in the bone marrow. The state of bone marrow stroma was estimated by the method of in vitro cloning according to the number of progenitor cells that form colonies of fibroblasts (CFU-F) and by the method of ectopic transplantation according to the capacity of stroma of organizing and building new hemopoietic territories. Continuous gamma-irradiation at low doses, that were by one order of magnitude lower than those inducing hermesis, exerted a stimulating effect on both hemopoietic (CFU-S) and stromal (CFU-F) progenitor cells. The number of CFU-S in the compartment of stem cells of the bone marrow markedly increased and they formed larger hemopoietic territories but these cells appeared to create a qualitatively different microenvironment, which stimulated the proliferation of CFU-S.

  12. The effect of human cytomegalovirus on the formation of CFU-MK in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Junxia; Song, Sanjun; Hu, Lihua

    2004-01-01

    To investigate the mechanism and the suppressive effect of human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) on colony forming unit-megakaryocyte (CFU-MK), semi-solid culture system was used to observe the effect of HCMV AD169 strain on CFU-MK's growth of 18 cord blood samples. HCMV DNA and immediate early (IE) protein mRNA in CFU-MK was detected by PCR and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Our results showed that HCMV AD169 significantly suppressed the formation of CFU-MK in vitro. Compared with the mock group, the CFU-MK colonies decreased by 21.6%, 33.8% and 46.3%, respectively, in all the 3 infected groups (PCFU-MK by directly infecting their progenitors. There was early transcription of HCMV IE protein in CFU-MK infected by virus.

  13. REMOVAL OF ARSENIC IN DRINKING WATER: ARS CFU-50 APC ELECTROFLOCCULATION AND FILTRATION WATER TREATMENT SYSTEM

    Science.gov (United States)

    ETV testing of the ARS CFU-50 APC Electroflocculation and Filtration Water Treatment System (ARS CFU-50 APC) for arsenic removal was conducted at the Town of Bernalillo Well #3 site from April 18 through May 2, 2006. The source water was chlorinated groundwater from two supply w...

  14. The Effect of Human Cytomegalovirus on the Formation of CFU-MK In Vitro

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姚军霞; 宋善俊; 胡丽华

    2004-01-01

    To investigate the mechanism and the suppressive effect of human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) on colony forming unit-megakaryocyte (CFU-MK), semi-solid culture system was used to observe the effect of HCMV AD169 strain on CFU-MK's growth of 18 cord blood samples. HCMV DNA and immediate early (IE) protein mRNA in CFU-MK was detected by PCR and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Our results showed that HCMV AD169 significantly suppressed the formation of CFU-MK in vitro. Compared with the mock group, the CFUMK colonies decreased by 21. 6 %, 33. 8 % and 46.3 %, respectively, in all the 3 infected groups (P<0. 05), suggesting the suppression and the titer of the virus was dose-dependent. Both HCMV DNA and the expression of HCMV IE protein mRNA were positively detected in the colony cells of viral infected group,. It is concluded that HCMV AD169 strain could inhibit the differentiation and proliferation of CFU-MK by directly infecting their progenitors. There was early transcription of HCMV IE protein in CFU-MK infected by virus.

  15. Murine model of disseminated fusariosis: evaluation of the fungal burden by traditional CFU and quantitative PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, Gloria M; Márquez, Jazmín; Treviño-Rangel, Rogelio de J; Palma-Nicolás, José P; Garza-González, Elvira; Ceceñas, Luis A; Gerardo González, J

    2013-10-01

    Systemic disease is the most severe clinical form of fusariosis, and the treatment involves a challenge due to the refractory response to antifungals. Treatment for murine Fusarium solani infection has been described in models that employ CFU quantitation in organs as a parameter of therapeutic efficacy. However, CFU counts do not precisely reproduce the amount of cells for filamentous fungi such as F. solani. In this study, we developed a murine model of disseminated fusariosis and compared the fungal burden with two methods: CFU and quantitative PCR. ICR and BALB/c mice received an intravenous injection of 1 × 10(7) conidia of F. solani per mouse. On days 2, 5, 7, and 9, mice from each mice strain were killed. The spleen and kidneys of each animal were removed and evaluated by qPCR and CFU determinations. Results from CFU assay indicated that the spleen and kidneys had almost the same fungal burden in both BALB/c and ICR mice during the days of the evaluation. In the qPCR assay, the spleen and kidney of each mouse strain had increased fungal burden in each determination throughout the entire experiment. The fungal load determined by the qPCR assay was significantly greater than that determined from CFU measurements of tissue. qPCR could be considered as a tool for quantitative evaluation of fungal burden in experimental disseminated F. solani infection.

  16. 骨髓内皮细胞产物对CFU-F、CFU-GM和WEHI-3细胞生长的作用%Effects of Products Derived from Murine Bone Marrow Endothelial Cells on the Growth of CFU-F, CFU-GM and WEHI-3 Cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汪保和; 王绮如

    2000-01-01

    为了研究骨髓内皮细胞的造血调控功能,采用串联超滤枝求从小鼠骨髓内皮细胞无血清条件培养液(mBMEC-CM)中制备出不同相对分子质量(Mr)范围的超滤组分,进行细胞集落形成实骚,检测了 mBMEC-CM及其超滤组分对骨髓成纤维祖细胞(CFU-F)、粒巨噬系造血祖细胞(CFU-GM)和小鼠粒单系白血病细胞系WEHI-3细胞生长的作用.结果显示:mBMEC-CM抑制CFU-F的生长,对CFU-GM和WEHI-3细胞的生长却未见明显影响;Mr>104组分对CFU-F的生长无明显作用,但促进CFU-GM的生长和抑制WEHI-3细胞的生长;Mr<3×103组分对这3种细胞的集落形成均有抑制作用.

  17. Differential expression of HLA-DR antigens in subsets of human CFU-GM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, J D; Sabbath, K D; Herrmann, F; Larcom, P; Nichols, K; Kornacki, M; Levine, H; Cannistra, S A

    1985-10-01

    Expression of HLA-DR surface antigens by granulocyte/monocyte colony-forming cells (CFU-GM) may be important in the regulation of proliferation of these cells. Using immunological techniques to enrich for progenitor cells, we investigated the expression of HLA-DR in subsets of CFU-GM. "Early" (day 14) CFU-GM express higher levels of HLA-DR than do "late" (day 7) CFU-GM. Among late CFU-GM, cells destined to form monocyte (alpha-naphthyl acetate esterase-positive) colonies express higher levels of HLA-DR than do CFU-GM destined to form granulocyte (chloroacetate esterase-positive) colonies. Because high-level expression of DR antigen was a marker for monocyte differentiation, we examined several lymphokines for their effects on both DR expression and in vitro commitment to monocyte differentiation by myeloid precursor cells. DR antigen density could be increased by more than twofold over 48 hours upon exposure to gamma-interferon (gamma-IFN), whereas colony-stimulating factors had no effect. This was associated with a dose-dependent inhibition of total CFU-GM number, and a relative, but not absolute, increase in the ratio of monocyte colonies to granulocyte colonies. Similarly, in day 7 suspension cultures of purified myeloid precursor cells, gamma-IFN inhibited cell proliferation and increased the ratio of monocytes to granulocytes. Thus, despite the induction of high levels of HLA-DR antigen on precursor cells (a marker of monocyte commitment), the dominant in vitro effect of gamma-IFN was inhibition of granulocyte differentiation.

  18. Observations in vitro on the CFU-F Number and Osteogenic CFU-F Number in Bone Marrow of New Zealand White Rabbits%体外状态下新西兰白兔骨髓中CFU-F集落及成骨性CFU-F集落数量观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘丹平; 栗刚; 关振家; 胡蕴玉; 郭韬; 张男

    2003-01-01

    目的观察体外状态下新西兰白兔骨髓中成纤维细胞集落形成单位(CFU-F)及成骨性的CFU-F集落数量,为探讨骨髓的成骨能力提供实验依据.方法将实验动物分为幼年组(6个月~1岁)、壮年组(2.5~3.2岁)两组,在无菌状态下,在每只动物的股骨上穿刺点抽取骨髓0.8 ml,每个培养瓶(25 ml)接种含8×10 5个有核细胞的骨髓量,在体外培养12 d时计数CFU-F集落数量.计数后将培养瓶中CFU-F集落进行ALP染色,在肉眼下计数着色的CFU-F集落(即成骨性CFU-F集落)数量.结果按照集落着色的深浅,本研究把CFU-F集落分为3种:①强阳性集落;②弱阳性集落;③阴性集落.两组成骨性CFU-F集落数量约占CFU-F集落总数的1/4,主要为弱阳性集落,占成骨性CFU-F集落的70%~80%;幼年组与壮年组强阳性集落分别占CFU-F集落总数的1/13和1/17,幼年组明显高于壮年组,两组差异有显著性(P<0.05).由于每个CFU-F集落均来源于一个骨髓基质干细胞,通过集落形成率可推算出新西兰白兔骨髓中每11 000~13 000个有核细胞中有一个骨髓基质干细胞,后者仅占骨髓细胞的百万分之一.结论骨髓中骨髓基质干细胞数量极少,成骨性骨髓基质干细胞就更少了,但就骨髓细胞总量来说骨髓中骨髓基质干细胞也是相当可观的.

  19. Isolation and transcriptome analyses of human erythroid progenitors: BFU-E and CFU-E.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jie; Hale, John; Bhagia, Pooja; Xue, Fumin; Chen, Lixiang; Jaffray, Julie; Yan, Hongxia; Lane, Joseph; Gallagher, Patrick G; Mohandas, Narla; Liu, Jing; An, Xiuli

    2014-12-04

    Burst-forming unit-erythroid (BFU-E) and colony-forming unit-erythroid (CFU-E) cells are erythroid progenitors traditionally defined by colony assays. We developed a flow cytometry-based strategy for isolating human BFU-E and CFU-E cells based on the changes in expression of cell surface markers during in vitro erythroid cell culture. BFU-E and CFU-E are characterized by CD45(+)GPA(-)IL-3R(-)CD34(+)CD36(-)CD71(low) and CD45(+)GPA(-)IL-3R(-)CD34(-)CD36(+)CD71(high) phenotypes, respectively. Colony assays validated phenotypic assignment giving rise to BFU-E and CFU-E colonies, both at a purity of ∼90%. The BFU-E colony forming ability of CD45(+)GPA(-)IL-3R(-)CD34(+)CD36(-)CD71(low) cells required stem cell factor and erythropoietin, while the CFU-E colony forming ability of CD45(+)GPA(-)IL-3R(-)CD34(-)CD36(+)CD71(high) cells required only erythropoietin. Bioinformatic analysis of the RNA-sequencing data revealed unique transcriptomes at each differentiation stage. The sorting strategy was validated in uncultured primary cells isolated from bone marrow, cord blood, and peripheral blood, indicating that marker expression is not an artifact of in vitro cell culture, but represents an in vivo characteristic of erythroid progenitor populations. The ability to isolate highly pure human BFU-E and CFU-E progenitors will enable detailed cellular and molecular characterization of these distinct progenitor populations and define their contribution to disordered erythropoiesis in inherited and acquired hematologic disease. Our data provides an important resource for future studies of human erythropoiesis.

  20. Binding of erythropoietin to CFU-E derived from fetal mouse liver cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fukamachi, H.; Saito, T.; Tojo, A.; Kitamura, T.; Urabe, A.; Takaku, F.

    1987-09-01

    The binding of recombinant erythropoietin (EPO) to fetal mouse liver cells (FMLC) was investigated using a radioiodinated derivative which retained full biological activity. FMLC were fractionated using a preformed Percoll density gradient. Using the fractionated FMLC, the ability to form CFU-E colonies in a semisolid culture was examined, and the binding of (/sup 125/I)EPO was measured. The highest specific binding of (/sup 125/I)EPO was observed in a fraction with a density between 1.062 and 1.076 g/ml. The same fraction showed the highest ability to form CFU-E-derived colonies. After suspension culture of FMLC with EPO for 2 days, differentiated erythroid cells with higher density markedly increased. The specific binding of (/sup 125/I)EPO to these cells almost disappeared with differentiation. Scatchard analysis with cells of the CFU-E-enriched fraction showed a nonlinear curve, suggesting the existence of two classes of binding sites. One binding site was high-affinity (Kd1 = 0.41 nM), and the other low-affinity (Kd2 = 3.13 nM). These results suggest that the expression of EPO receptors on the erythroid cells is highest in CFU-E.

  1. THERMAL SENSITIVITY OF THE MURINE CFU-S-12 - ROLE OF ENVIRONMENTAL CELLS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    WIERENGA, PK; KONINGS, AWT

    1991-01-01

    The hyperthermic sensitivity of the CFU-S-12 in bone marrow from normal and anaemic mice was determined. The terminal slope of the survival curves, demonstrated by the T0 values, does not significantly differ in the resting and active cycling stem cells. In the active cycling stem cells the initial

  2. Application of human CFU-Mk assay to predict potential thrombocytotoxicity of drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pessina, A; Parent-Massin, D; Albella, B; Van Den Heuvel, R; Casati, S; Croera, C; Malerba, I; Sibiril, Y; Gomez, S; de Smedt, A; Gribaldo, L

    2009-02-01

    Megakaryocytopoiesis gives rise to platelets by proliferation and differentiation of lineage-specific progenitors, identified in vitro as Colony Forming Unit-Megakaryocytes (CFU-Mk). The aim of this study was to refine and optimize the in vitro Standard Operating Procedure (SOP) of the CFU-Mk assay for detecting drug-induced thrombocytopenia and to prevalidate a model for predicting the acute exposure levels that cause maximum tolerated decreases in the platelets count, based on the correlation with the maximal plasma concentrations (C max) in vivo. The assay was linear under the SOP conditions, and the in vitro endpoints (percentage of colonies growing) were reproducible within and across laboratories. The protocol performance phase was carried out testing 10 drugs (selected on the base of their recognised or potential in vivo haematotoxicity, according to the literature). Results showed that a relationship can be established between the maximal concentration in plasma (C max) and the in vitro concentrations that inhibited the 10-50-90 percent of colonies growth (ICs). When C max is lower than IC10, it is possible to predict that the chemicals have no direct toxicity effect on CFU-Mk and could not induce thrombocytopenia due to bone marrow damage. When the C max is higher than IC90 and/or IC50, thrombocytopenia can occur due to direct toxicity of chemicals on CFU-Mk progenitors.

  3. CFU-S(11) activity does not localize solely with the aorta in the aorta-gonad-mesonephros region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Bruijn, M F; Peeters, M C; Luteijn, T; Visser, P; Speck, N A; Dzierzak, E

    2000-10-15

    The aorta-gonad-mesonephros (AGM) region is a potent hematopoietic site in the midgestation mouse conceptus and first contains colony-forming units-spleen day 11 (CFU-S(11)) at embryonic day 10 (E10). Because CFU-S(11) activity is present in the AGM region before the onset of hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) activity, CFU-S(11) activity in the complex developing vascular and urogenital regions of the AGM was localized. From E10 onward, CFU-S(11) activity is associated with the aortic vasculature, and is found also in the urogenital ridges (UGRs). Together with data obtained from organ explant cultures, in which up to a 16-fold increase in CFU-S(11) activity was observed, it was determined that CFU-S(11) can be increased autonomously both in vascular sites and in UGRs. Furthermore, CFU-S(11) activity is present in vitelline and umbilical vessels. This, together with the presence of CFU-S(11) in the UGRs 2 days before HSC activity, suggests both temporally and spatially distinct emergent sources of CFU-S(11). (Blood. 2000;96:2902-2904)

  4. Bone marrow CFU-GM and human tumor xenograft efficacy of three antitumor nucleoside analogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagley, Rebecca G; Roth, Stephanie; Kurtzberg, Leslie S; Rouleau, Cecile; Yao, Min; Crawford, Jennifer; Krumbholz, Roy; Lovett, Dennis; Schmid, Steven; Teicher, Beverly A

    2009-05-01

    Nucleoside analogs are rationally designed anticancer agents that disrupt DNA and RNA synthesis. Fludarabine and cladribine have important roles in the treatment of hematologic malignancies. Clofarabine is a next generation nucleoside analog which is under clinical investigation. The bone marrow toxicity, tumor cell cytotoxicity and human tumor xenograft activity of fludarabine, cladribine and clofarabine were compared. Mouse and human bone marrow were subjected to colony forming (CFU-GM) assays over a 5-log concentration range in culture. NCI-60 cell line screening data were compared. In vivo, a range of clofarabine doses was compared with fludarabine for efficacy in several human tumor xenografts. The IC90 concentrations for fludarabine and cladribine for mouse CFU-GM were >30 and 0.93 microM, and for human CFU-GM were 8 and 0.11 microM, giving mouse to human differentials of >3.8- and 8.5-fold. Clofarabine produced IC90s of 1.7 microM in mouse and 0.51 microM in human CFU-GM, thus a 3.3-fold differential between species. In the NCI-60 cell line screen, fludarabine and cladribine showed selective cytotoxicity toward leukemia cell lines while for clofarabine there was no apparent selectivity based upon origin of the tumor cells. In vivo, clofarabine produced a dose-dependent increase in tumor growth delay in the RL lymphoma, the RPMI-8226 multiple myeloma, and HT-29 colon carcinoma models. The PC3 prostate carcinoma was equally responsive to clofarabine and fludarabine. Bringing together bone marrow toxicity data, tumor cell line cytotoxicity data, and human tumor xenograft efficacy provides valuable information for the translation of preclinical findings to the clinic.

  5. Effect of leukaemic sera & cell-extracts on splenic colony counts (CFU-S).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, S; Rusia, U; Agarwal, S; Sood, S K

    1991-08-01

    Sera and leukaemic cell extracts from patients of acute leukaemia were evaluated for their effect on the repopulating ability of the pluripotent stem cells and erythroid differentiation by an in vivo splenic colony count (CFU-S) technique. Normal donor marrow cells of mice were treated with sera and cell extracts from patients of acute leukaemic and healthy controls and injected in the recipient mice. The CFU-S performed on the seventh day to assess repopulating ability of the stem cell showed consistently lower CFU-S counts in the test groups, with leukaemic sera (P less than 0.01) as well as leukaemic cell-extracts (P less than 0.001). The erythroid differentiation assessed by 59Fe uptake by the spleens also showed significantly reduced counts in the two test groups (P less than 0.01 and less than 0.001 respectively). The results indicate that both leukaemic sera and cell-extracts exert a significant suppressive effect on the repopulating ability of the stem cells and on their erythroid differentiation.

  6. Prevalidation of the rat CFU-GM assay for in vitro toxicology applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pessina, Augusto; Bonomi, Arianna; Cavicchini, Loredana; Albella, Beatriz; Cerrato, Laura; Parent-Massin, Dominique; Sibiril, Yann; Parchment, Ralph; Behrsing, Holger; Verderio, Paolo; Pizzamiglio, Sara; Giangreco, Manuela; Baglio, Carolina; Coccè, Valentina; Sisto, Francesca; Gribaldo, Laura

    2010-05-01

    In vitro haematotoxicity assays are thought to have the potential to significantly reduce and refine the use of animals for haematotoxicity testing. These assays are used successfully in all types of studies - however, their use is not so common in human toxicology studies in the preclinical setting, as they are not required for regulatory testing in this case. Furthermore, these assays could play a key role in bridging the gap between preclinical toxicology studies in animal models and clinical investigations. In previous studies, the Colony Forming Unit-Granulocyte Macrophage (CFU-GM) assay has been validated for testing drug haematotoxicity (with both mouse bone-marrow and human cord blood) and for predicting the in vivo human maximal tolerated dose (MTD) by adjusting in vivo data on mouse toxicity. Recently, a Colony Forming Unit-Megakaryocyte (CFU-MK) assay has also been prevalidated for testing drug toxicity toward megakaryocytes. The rat CFU-GM assay has been used by many researchers for its ability to evaluate in vitro haematotoxicity. Although it is not yet available, a standardised procedure for data comparison could be very important, since the rat is the most widely-used species for the in vivo testing of toxicants. This report presents the results of the prevalidation study developed to analyse the intra-laboratory and inter-laboratory variability of a standardised operating procedure for this assay and its performance for the in vitro determination of the inhibitory concentration (IC) values of drugs on rat myeloid progenitors (CFU-GM). The results demonstrate that the CFU-GM assay can be performed with cryopreserved rat bone-marrow cells (rBMC). The assay represents a useful tool for evaluating the toxicity of a compound, in terms of both relative toxicity (when different molecules are compared) and the prediction of the degree of in vivo toxicity. The use of this assay could greatly reduce the number of rats used in experimental procedures, and

  7. CFU-S(11) activity does not localize solely with the aorta in the aorta-gonad-mesonephros region

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.F.T.R. de Bruijn (Marella); M.C. Peeters (Marian); T. Luteijn; P. Visser (Pim); N.A. Speck; E.A. Dzierzak (Elaine)

    2000-01-01

    textabstractThe aorta-gonad-mesonephros (AGM) region is a potent hematopoietic site in the midgestation mouse conceptus and first contains colony-forming units-spleen day 11 (CFU-S(11)) at embryonic day 10 (E10). Because CFU-S(11) activity is present in the AGM region b

  8. Modeling the relationship between most probable number (MPN) and colony-forming unit (CFU) estimates of fecal coliform concentration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gronewold, Andrew D; Wolpert, Robert L

    2008-07-01

    Most probable number (MPN) and colony-forming-unit (CFU) estimates of fecal coliform bacteria concentration are common measures of water quality in coastal shellfish harvesting and recreational waters. Estimating procedures for MPN and CFU have intrinsic variability and are subject to additional uncertainty arising from minor variations in experimental protocol. It has been observed empirically that the standard multiple-tube fermentation (MTF) decimal dilution analysis MPN procedure is more variable than the membrane filtration CFU procedure, and that MTF-derived MPN estimates are somewhat higher on average than CFU estimates, on split samples from the same water bodies. We construct a probabilistic model that provides a clear theoretical explanation for the variability in, and discrepancy between, MPN and CFU measurements. We then compare our model to water quality samples analyzed using both MPN and CFU procedures, and find that the (often large) observed differences between MPN and CFU values for the same water body are well within the ranges predicted by our probabilistic model. Our results indicate that MPN and CFU intra-sample variability does not stem from human error or laboratory procedure variability, but is instead a simple consequence of the probabilistic basis for calculating the MPN. These results demonstrate how probabilistic models can be used to compare samples from different analytical procedures, and to determine whether transitions from one procedure to another are likely to cause a change in quality-based management decisions.

  9. Comparison between bioluminescence imaging technique and CFU count for the study of oropharyngeal candidiasis in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabrielli, Elena; Roselletti, Elena; Luciano, Eugenio; Sabbatini, Samuele; Mosci, Paolo; Pericolini, Eva

    2015-05-01

    We recently described a bioluminescence in vivo imaging technique, representing a powerful tool to test the real-time progression of oropharyngeal candidiasis, hence potentially useful to evaluate the efficacy of antifungal therapies. In this study, the in vivo imaging technique was compared with CFU measurement of target organs (tongue, esophagus and stomach) for monitoring and quantifying oropharyngeal candidiasis. We have correlated these two analytical methods at different times post-infection using engineered, luminescent Candida albicans in mice rendered susceptible to oral candidiasis by cortisone-acetate. Scatter plots, Pearson correlation and Student's t test were used to compare the methods. We observed that the bioluminescence in vivo imaging technique was more reliable than CFU counts in detecting early infection of, and its extent in, the oral cavity of the mouse. This was also evident following the introduction of a variable such as treatment with fluconazole. The results described in this study could validate the bioluminescence in vivo imaging technique as a method to monitor and quantify oropharyngeal candidiasis and to assess early discovery of active compounds in vivo.

  10. Sampling and Pooling Methods for Capturing Herd Level Antibiotic Resistance in Swine Feces using qPCR and CFU Approaches

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Gunilla Veslemøy; Mellerup, Anders; Christiansen, Lasse Engbo;

    2015-01-01

    in the same swine fecal samples. The results showed that the qPCR assays were capable of detecting differences in antibiotic resistance levels in individual animals that the coliform bacteria colony forming units (CFU) could not. Also, the qPCR assays more accurately quantified antibiotic resistance genes...... when comparing individual sampling and pooling methods. qPCR on pooled samples was found to be a good representative for the general resistance level in a pig herd compared to the coliform CFU counts. It had significantly reduced relative standard deviations compared to coliform CFU counts in the same...

  11. Standardization of the CFU-GM assay: Advantages of plating a fixed number of CD34+ cells in collagen gels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobo, Irène; Pineau, Danielle; Robillard, Nelly; Geneviève, Frank; Piard, Nicole; Zandecki, Marc; Hermouet, Sylvie

    2003-10-01

    We investigated whether plating a stable amount of CD34(+) cells improves the CFU-GM assay. Data of CFU-GM assays performed with leukaphereses products in two transplant centers using a commercial collagen-based medium and unified CFU-GM scoring criteria were pooled and analyzed according to the numbers of CD34(+) cells plated. A first series of 113 CFU-GM assays was performed with a fixed number of mononuclear cells (i.e., a variable number of CD34(+) cells). In these cultures the CFU-GM/CD34 ratio varied according to the number of CD34(+) cells plated: median CFUGM/CD34 ratios were 1/6.2 to 1/6.6 for grafts containing or =2% CD34(+) cells. The median CFU-GM/CD34 ratio also varied depending on pathology: 1/9.3 for multiple myeloma (MM), 1/6.8 for Hodgkin's disease (HD), 1/6.5 for non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL), and 1/4.5 for solid tumors (ST). A second series of 95 CFU-GM assays was performed with a fixed number of CD34(+) cells (220/ml). The range of median CFU-GM/CD34 ratios was narrowed to 1/7.0 to 1/5.2, and coefficients of variation for CFU-GM counts decreased by half to 38.1% (NHL), 36.1% (MM), 49.9% (HD), and 22.4% (ST). In addition, CFU-GM scoring was facilitated as the percentages of cultures with >50 CFU/GM/ml decreased from 6.7% to 43.8% when a variable number of CD34(+) cells was plated, to 4.5% to 16.7% when 220 CD34(+) cells/ml were plated. Hence, plating a fixed number of CD34(+) cells in collagen gels improves the CFU-GM assay by eliminating cell number-related variability and reducing pathology-related variability in colony growth.

  12. Soluble factor cross-talk between human bone marrow-derived hematopoietic and mesenchymal cells enhances in vitro CFU-F and CFU-O growth and reveals heterogeneity in the mesenchymal progenitor cell compartment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baksh, Dolores; Davies, John E; Zandstra, Peter W

    2005-11-01

    The homeostatic adult bone marrow (BM) is a complex tissue wherein physical and biochemical interactions serve to maintain a balance between the hematopoietic and nonhematopoietic compartments. To focus on soluble factor interactions occurring between mesenchymal and hematopoietic cells, a serum-free adhesion-independent culture system was developed that allows manipulation of the growth of both mesenchymal and hematopoietic human BM-derived progenitors and the balance between these compartments. Factorial experiments demonstrated a role for stem cell factor (SCF) and interleukin 3 (IL-3) in the concomitant growth of hematopoietic (CD45+) and nonhematopoietic (CD45-) cells, as well as their derivatives. Kinetic tracking of IL-3alpha receptor (CD123) and SCF receptor (CD117) expression on a sorted CD45- cell population revealed the emergence of CD45-CD123+ cells capable of osteogenesis. Of the total fibroblast colony-forming units (CFU-Fs) and osteoblast colony-forming units (CFU-O), approximately 24% of CFU-Fs and about 22% of CFU-Os were recovered from this population. Cell-sorting experiments demonstrated that the CD45+ cell population secreted soluble factors that positively affect the survival and proliferation of CFU-Fs and CFU-Os generated from the CD45- cells. Together, our results provide insight into the intercellular cytokine network between hematopoietic and mesenchymal cells and provide a strategy to mutually culture both mesenchymal and hematopoietic cells in a defined scalable bioprocess.

  13. Study of CFU for individual microorganisms in mixed cultures with a known ratio using MBRT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nandy, Subir Kumar; Venkatesh, Kv

    2014-01-01

    Determination of metabolically active cell count is an important step in designing, operating and controlling fermentation processes. It's particularly relevant in processes involving mixed cultures, where multiple species contribute to the total growth. The motivation for the current study is to develop a methodology to estimate metabolically active cell counts for the individual species in a mixed culture with approximate equal numbers. Further, the methodology should indicate the presence of a contaminant in short time periods since in the agar plate methods used frequently it takes about 24 h. We present a methodology based on the rate of Methylene blue (MB) reduction to evaluate total count of metabolically active cells. The standard curve relating the slope of MB reduction and CFU of the individual species could be used to measure the metabolic activity of each species in the mixed culture. The slope of MB reduction could also be used to obtain the growth rate of individual species in a mixed culture and that of the total cell count. These measurements were achieved in less than 6 minutes during the growth of the cells. Evaluating the metabolic activity of individual species in a mixed culture is tedious, difficult and time consuming. The Methylene Blue dye Reduction Test (MBRT) presented here is capable of quickly estimating colony forming units (CFU) of individual species in a mixed culture if the ratio of the numbers of cells is known. The method was used to dynamically detect the occurrence of a contaminating microorganism during fermentation. The protocol developed here can be adapted to applications in processes involving mixed cultures.

  14. Prospective isolation and global gene expression analysis of the erythrocyte colony-forming unit (CFU-E).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terszowski, Grzegorz; Waskow, Claudia; Conradt, Peter; Lenze, Dido; Koenigsmann, Jessica; Carstanjen, Dirk; Horak, Ivan; Rodewald, Hans-Reimer

    2005-03-01

    The erythrocyte colony-forming unit (CFU-E) is a rare bone marrow (BM) progenitor that generates erythrocyte colonies in 48 hours. The existence of CFU-Es is based on these colonies, but CFU-Es have not been purified prospectively by phenotype. We have separated the "nonstem," "nonlymphoid" compartment (lineage marker [lin]-c-Kit+Sca-1-IL-7Ralpha-) into interleukin 3 receptor alpha negative (IL-3Ralpha-) and IL-3Ralpha+ subsets. Within IL-3Ralpha- but not IL-3Ralpha+ cells we have identified TER119-CD41-CD71+ erythrocyte-committed progenitors (EPs). EPs generate CFU-E colonies at about 70% efficiency and generate reticulocytes in vivo. Depletion of EPs from BM strongly reduces CFU-E frequencies. EPs lack potential for erythrocyte burst-forming unit, megakaryocyte, granulocyte (G), and monocyte (M) colonies, and for spleen colony-forming units. Chronically suppressed erythropoiesis in interferon consensus sequence-binding protein (ICSBP)-deficient BM is associated with reduced frequencies of both the EP population and CFU-E colonies. During phenylhydrazine-induced acute anemia, numbers of both the EP population and CFU-E colonies increase. Collectively, EPs (lin-c-Kit+Sca-1-IL-7Ralpha-IL-3Ralpha-CD41-CD71+) account for most, if not all, CFU-E activity in BM. As a first molecular characterization, we have compared global gene expression in EPs and nonerythroid GM progenitors. These analyses define an erythroid progenitor-specific gene expression pattern. The prospective isolation of EPs is an important step to analyze physiologic and pathologic erythropoiesis.

  15. 骨髓内皮细胞分泌的抑制CFU-F生长的因子%Bone Marrow Endothelial Cell-Derived Factors Inhibit the Growth of Marrow CFU-F

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汪保和; 黄炜琦; 王绮如

    2000-01-01

    为探讨骨髓微环境中内皮细胞调节造血的可能机制,本实验研究了骨髓内皮细胞无血清条件培养液(BMEC-CM)及其不同分子量组分对骨髓成纤维祖细胞(CFU-F)生长的作用.在体外培养条件下,收集人和小鼠纯骨髓内皮细胞无血清条件培养液,应用连续超滤技术从其中制备出分子量>10 kD,3-10 kD和<3 kD三种组分,进行骨髓CFU-F集落形成实验,检测这些条件培养液及其超滤组分的作用.结果显示,人和小鼠骨髓内皮细胞无血清条件培养液和分子量<3 kD超滤组分都抑制CFU-F的生长,但是分子量>10kD和3-10 kD组分却不产生这种效应.两种条件培养液及其<3 kD组分不仅减少CFU-F集落形成数,同时也使集落变小,而且,<3 kD组分与CFU-F集落数之间有明显的负相关浓度依赖性关系.这些结果提示,骨髓内皮细胞至少能分泌一种分子量小于3 kD的对骨髓CFU-F生长有抑制作用的细胞因子.%The present study investigated the effects of the serum-free conditioned media of the bone marrow endothelial cells on CFU-F for potential mechanisms upon which hematopoiesis may be regulated by them within the bone marrow microenvironment. After obtaining the serum-free conditioned media of human and murine purified bone marrow endothelial cells (hBMEC-CM and mBMEC-CM) in vitro, MW>10 kD, 3 - 10 kD and <3 kD components were sifted out from these media by means of serial ultrafiltration. Assays of CFU-F were performed to test the effects of BMEC-CM and their ultrafiltrated components. The results showed that every one of hBMEC-CM, mBMEC-CM and their MW<3 kD components exerted a suppressive effect on the proliferation of corresponding CFU-F but MW>10 kDand 3 - 10 kD components. The BMEC-CM and MW <3 kD components decreased the number as well as the size of CFU-F. There were the markedly negative concentration-dependent relations between the concentrations of MW<3 kD component and the

  16. In vitro assays for cobblestone area-forming cells, LTC-IC, and CFU-C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Os, Ronald P; Dethmers-Ausema, Bertien; de Haan, Gerald

    2008-01-01

    Various assays exist that measure the function of hematopoietic stemcells (HSCs). In this chapter, in vitro assays are described that measure the frequency of progenitors (colony-forming unit in culture; CFU-C), stem cells (long-term culture-initiating cell; LTC-IC), or both (cobblestone area-forming cell assay; CAFC). These assays measure the potential of a test cell population retrospectively, i.e., at the time its activity is evident when the stem cell itself is often not detectable anymore. Although the in vitro LTC-IC and CAFC assays have been shown to correlate with in vivo activity, in vivo transplantation assays, where it can be shown that cells possess the ability to indefinitely repopulate all blood lineages, are the ultimate proof for HSC activity. Nevertheless, these in vitro assays provide an excellent method to screen for stem cell activity of a putative stem cell population or for screening the effect of a certain treatment on HSCs.

  17. Effects of CreERT2, 4-OH Tamoxifen, and Gender on CFU-F Assays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McHaffie, Sophie L; Hastie, Nicholas D; Chau, You-Ying

    2016-01-01

    Gene function in stem cell maintenance is often tested by inducing deletion via the Cre-loxP system. However, controls for Cre and other variables are frequently not included. Here we show that when cultured in the presence of 4-OH tamoxifen, bone and marrow cells containing the CreERT2 construct have a reduced colony forming ability. Inactive CreERT2 recombinase, however, has the opposite effect. Young female marrow cells containing the inactive CreERT2 construct grew more colonies than cells lacking the construct altogether. Young female control marrow cells (i.e., negative for CreERT2) also produced significantly greater colony numbers when cultured with 4-OH tamoxifen, compared with the ethanol vehicle control. In conclusion, we report that the use of the Cre-loxP system is inadvisable in combination with CFU-F assays, and that appropriate controls should be in place to extend the future use of Cre-loxP in alternate assays.

  18. Activities of the Climate Forecast Unit (CFU) on regional decadal prediction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guemas, V.; Prodhomme, C.; Doblas-Reyes, F.; Volpi, D.; Caron, L. P.; Davis, M.; Menegoz, M.; Saurral, R. I.; Bellprat, O.

    2014-12-01

    The Climate Forecasting Unit (CFU) is a research unit devoted to develop climate forecast systems to contribute to the creation of climate services that aims to 1) develop climate forecast systems and prediction methodologies, 2) investigate the potential sources of skill and understand the limitation of state-of-the-art forecast systems, 3) formulate reliable climate forecasts that meet specific user needs and 4) contribute to the development of climate services. This presentation will provide an overview of the latest results of this research unit in the field of regional decadal prediction focusing on 1) an assessment of the relative merits of the full-field and the anomaly initialisation techniques, 2) a description of the forecast quality of North Atlantic tropical cyclone activity and South Pacific climate, 3) an evaluation of the impact of volcanic aerosol prescription during decadal forecasts, and 4) the strategy for the development of a climate service to ensure that forecasts are both useful and action-oriented. Results from several European projects, SPECS, PREFACE and EUPORIAS, will be used to illustrate these findings.

  19. 银屑病患者骨髓CFU-HPP集落形成及集落细胞p16基因启动子甲基化的研究%CFU-HPP Colony Formation of Bone Marrow Hematopoietic Proginitor Cells in Psoriatic Patients and Methylation of p16 Gene Promotor in CFU-HPP Colony Cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张瑞丽; 牛旭平; 李新华; 张开明; 尹国华

    2007-01-01

    本研究检测银屑病患者骨髓高增殖潜能集落形成单位(CFU-HPP)的集落形成能力及集落细胞p16基因启动子甲基化状态,并探讨两者之间的关系.收集了24例银屑病患者及正常时照者骨髓,采用密度梯度离心法分离单个核细胞,并于含SCF/GM-CSF/IL-3/IL-6细胞因子组合的甲基纤维素半固体培养液中,培养14天计数CFU-HPP集落,然后收集集落.提取纯化集落细胞的DNA,经亚硫酸盐修饰后,采用甲基化特异PCR(MSP)检测CFU-HPP集落细胞的p16基因启动子甲基化状态.结果发现:在甲基纤维素半固体培养基中,银屑病患者骨髓CFU-HPP集落数显著低于正常对照(t=5.91,p<0.01),且集落形态较小;正常对照骨髓CFU-HPP集落细胞的p16基因启动子甲基化阳性率较高(66.7%),而银屑病患者骨髓CFU-HPP集落细胞p16基因启动子甲基化阳性率(37.5%)低于正常人.结论:银屑病患者骨髓CFU-HPP细胞集落形成能力降低;银屑病患者骨髓CFU-HPP集落细胞的p16基因甲基化降低可能与其相对较低的CFU-HPP集落形成能力密切相关.

  20. OpenCFU, a new free and open-source software to count cell colonies and other circular objects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geissmann, Quentin

    2013-01-01

    Counting circular objects such as cell colonies is an important source of information for biologists. Although this task is often time-consuming and subjective, it is still predominantly performed manually. The aim of the present work is to provide a new tool to enumerate circular objects from digital pictures and video streams. Here, I demonstrate that the created program, OpenCFU, is very robust, accurate and fast. In addition, it provides control over the processing parameters and is implemented in an intuitive and modern interface. OpenCFU is a cross-platform and open-source software freely available at http://opencfu.sourceforge.net.

  1. 自动化单采血小板后CFU-MK的动力学分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄海龙

    2003-01-01

    @@ 血小板生成刺激素(TPO)和巨核细胞集落形成细胞(CFU-MK)的分化是调节血小板再生的主要因素,血小板计数随之而变化.本文就机采献血者血小板后其体内TPO水平、CFU-MK的分化和血小板计数的变化及其关系做了研究.

  2. [Analysis of sensitivity of stromal stem cells (CFU-f) from rat bone marrow and fetal liver to 5-fluorouracil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paiushina, O V; Damaratskaia, E I; Bueverova, E I; Nikonova, T M; Butorina, N N; Molchanova, E A; Starostin, V I

    2006-01-01

    The sensitivity of stromal stem cells (CFU-f) from rat bone marrow and fetal liver to the cytotoxic effect of 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) was compared in vivo and in vitro. Cells from both tissues demonstrated a similar resistance to 5-FU in vitro; however, stromal stem cells from fetal liver proved notably more sensitive to 5-FU compared to marrow CFU-f in vivo. Cells forming colonies of different size were identified in stem cell populations from both tissues. Cells giving rise to small colonies had a higher resistance to 5-FU both in vivo and in vitro.

  3. In vitro assessment of bone marrow endothelial colonies (CFU-En) in non-Hodgkin's lymphoma patients undergoing peripheral blood stem cell transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanza, F; Campioni, D; Punturieri, M; Moretti, S; Dabusti, M; Spanedda, R; Castoldi, G

    2003-12-01

    The distribution and functional characteristics of in vitro bone marrow (BM) endothelial colonies (CFU-En) were studied in 70 non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) patients in different phases of the disease to explore the association between CFU-En growth and angiogenesis, and between the number of CFU-En and the presence of hematopoietic and mesenchymal progenitor cells. The mean number of CFU-En/10(6) BM mononuclear cells seen in remission patients was significantly higher than that seen in newly diagnosed patients (P=0.04), and in normal subjects (P=0.008). Patients with low-grade NHL in remission displayed a higher CFU-En value compared with high-grade NHL (P=0.04). In the autograft group (40 patients), a significant reduction of CFU-En number was detected in the first 4-6 months after transplantation. In remission patients, the CFU-En number positively correlated with the incidence of BM colony-forming unit granulocyte-macrophage (CFU-GM) (P=0.013) and CFU-multilineage (CFU-GEMM) hematopoietic colonies (P=0.044). These in vitro data show that CFU-En numbers increase following standard-dose chemotherapy, thus providing a rationale for further investigating the effects of different cytostatic drugs on BM endothelial cells growth and function.

  4. 环孢菌素A体外对再生障碍性贫血、骨髓增生异常综合征患者造血祖细胞作用的研究%Effect of CSA in vitro on CFU-GM and CFU-E growth from patients with aplastic anemia and myelodysplastic syndrome

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贾志凌; 巩伟丽; 梅巍; 杨科; 王景文; 陈书长

    2002-01-01

    目的观察了环孢菌素A(CSA)体外对18例再生障碍性贫血(AA),17例骨髓增生异常综合征(MDS)和10例正常对照粒系和红系祖细胞(CFU-GM、CFU-E)的作用.方法采用RPMI1640琼脂和McCoy'S5A甲基纤维素半固体平皿法.结果 (1)AA和MDS患者的CFU-GM和CFU-E较正常对照明显减低(P<0.0001);(2)CsA能明显促进AA和MDS患者CFU-GM、CFU-E的增殖,这种促增殖作用随CsA 剂量增加而增加;(3)SAA患者CFU-GM 和CFU-E对CsA 的有效率较CAA高;(4)MDS-RAEB和RAEB-T型患者CFU-GM、CFU-E对CsA有效率较RA、RAS高;(5)MDS和AA患者中CFU-GM、CFU-E值重、中度减低者对CsA有效率较零者高.结论 CsA体外可促进部分AA和MDS患者CFU-GM、CFU-E的增殖.

  5. Association of post-thaw viable CD34+ cells and CFU-GM with time to hematopoietic engraftment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, H; Acker, J P; Cabuhat, M; Letcher, B; Larratt, L; McGann, L E

    2005-05-01

    In all, 78 peripheral hematopoietic progenitor cell collections from 52 patients were evaluated using our previously published validated post-thaw assays at the time of collection and following transplantation by assessment of viable CD34(+) cells, and granulocyte-macrophage colony-forming units (CFU-GM) cryopreserved in quality control vials. The median (range) post-thaw recovery of viable CD34(+) cells and CFU-GM was 66.4% (36.1-93.6%) and 63.0% (28.6-85.7%), respectively, which did not show significant correlation with the engraftment of either neutrophils (P=0.136 and 0.417, respectively) or platelets (P=0.88 and 0.126, respectively). However, the reinfused viable CD34(+) cells/kg of patient weight pre- or post-cryopreservation showed significant correlation to engraftment of neutrophils (P=0.0001 and 0.001, respectively) and platelets (P=0.023 and 0.010, respectively), whereas CFU-GM pre- or post-cryopreservation was significantly correlated to neutrophils (P=0.011 and 0.007, respectively) but not to platelets (P=0.112 and 0.100, respectively). The results show that post-cryopreservation assessment of viable CD34(+) cells or CFU-GM is as reliable a predictor of rapid engraftment as that of pre-cryopreservation measures. Therefore, the post-cryopreservation number of viable CD34(+) cells or CFU-GM should be used to eliminate the risks of unforeseen cell loss that could occur during cryopreservation or long-term storage.

  6. Rat granulocyte colony-forming unit (CFU-G) assay for the assessment of drug-induced hematotoxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumura-Takeda, K; Kotosai, K; Ozaki, A; Hara, H; Yamashita, S

    2002-06-01

    To assess the drug-induced hematotoxicity to granulocyte progenitors, we established a modified colony-forming assay using rat bone marrow cells (BMCs). In the presence of various colony-stimulating factors (CSFs), rat BMCs were disseminated on methylcellulose at a concentration of 1.3 x 10(4) cells/cm(2) (5 x 10(4) cells/0.5 ml/well in a 12-well plate). Mouse granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (mGM-CSF) stimulated the formation of almost all macrophage colonies. Human granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (hG-CSF) alone or in combination with mouse interleukin-3 (mIL-3) did not significantly effect on the number of rat colony-forming units in culture (CFU-C). When BMCs were seeded at 5.2 x 10(4) cells/cm(2) (5 x 10(5) cells/1 ml/dish in a 35-mm dish), hG-CSF increased the number of the colonies in a dose-dependent manner, and resulted in about 50 colonies at 50 ng/ml. The constituent cells of the colonies were identified as neutrophils. Under these conditions, the effects of 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) on granulocyte colony-forming units (CFU-G) were examined in rats and mice. The inhibitory effect of 5-FU on rat CFU-G was similar to the effect on mouse CFU-G. These results indicate that the rat CFU-G induced by hG-CSF is capable of being used for the evaluation of drug-induced hematotoxicity.

  7. Comparative in vitro and ex-vivo myelotoxicity of aflatoxins B1 and M1 on haematopoietic progenitors (BFU-E, CFU-E, and CFU-GM): species-related susceptibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roda, E; Coccini, T; Acerbi, D; Castoldi, A F; Manzo, L

    2010-02-01

    Haemato- and myelotoxicity are adverse effects caused by mycotoxins. Due to the relevance of aflatoxins to human health, the present study, employing CFU-GM-, BFU-E- and CFU-E-clonogenic assays, aimed at (i) comparing, in vitro, the sensitivity of human vs. murine haematopoietic progenitors to AFB1 and AFM1 (0.001-50microg/ml), (ii) assessing whether a single AFB1 in vivo treatment (0.3-3mg/kgb.w.) alters the ability of murine bone marrow cells to form myeloid and erythroid colonies, and (iii) comparing the in vitro with the in vitro ex-vivo data. We demonstrated (i) species-related sensitivity to AFB1, showing higher susceptibility of human myeloid and erythroid progenitors (IC(50) values: about 4 times lower in human than in murine cells), (ii) higher sensitivity of CFU-GM and BFU-E colonies, both more markedly affected, particularly by AFB1 (IC(50): 2.45+/-1.08 and 1.82+/-0.8microM for humans, and 11.08+/-2.92 and 1.81+/-0.20microM for mice, respectively), than the mature CFU-E (AFB1 IC(50): 12.58+/-5.4 and 40.27+/-6.05microM), irrespectively of animal species, (iii) regarding AFM1, a species- and lineage-related susceptibility similar to that observed for AFB1 and (iv) lack of effects after AFB1 in vivo treatment on the proliferation of haematopoietic colonies.

  8. Sampling and Pooling Methods for Capturing Herd Level Antibiotic Resistance in Swine Feces using qPCR and CFU Approaches

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Gunilla Veslemøy; Mellerup, Anders; Christiansen, Lasse Engbo

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this article was to define the sampling level and method combination that captures antibiotic resistance at pig herd level utilizing qPCR antibiotic resistance gene quantification and culture-based quantification of antibiotic resistant coliform indicator bacteria. Fourteen qPCR assays...... for commonly detected antibiotic resistance genes were developed, and used to quantify antibiotic resistance genes in total DNA from swine fecal samples that were obtained using different sampling and pooling methods. In parallel, the number of antibiotic resistant coliform indicator bacteria was determined...... when comparing individual sampling and pooling methods. qPCR on pooled samples was found to be a good representative for the general resistance level in a pig herd compared to the coliform CFU counts. It had significantly reduced relative standard deviations compared to coliform CFU counts in the same...

  9. In vitro myelotoxicity of propanil and 3,4-dichloroaniline on murine and human CFU-E/BFU-E progenitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malerba, I; Castoldi, A F; Parent-Massin, D; Gribaldo, L

    2002-10-01

    Because of the wide use of pesticides for domestic and industrial purposes, the evaluation of their potential effects is of major concern for public health. The myelotoxicity of the herbicide propanil (3,4-dichloroproprioanilide) and its metabolite 3,4-dichloroaniline (DCA) is well documented in mice, but evidence that pesticides may severely compromise hematopoiesis in humans is lacking. In this study, an interspecies comparison of in vitro toxicity of these two compounds on murine and human burst- and colony-forming unit-erythrocyte (BFU-E, CFU-E) and colony-forming unit-granulocyte/macrophage (CFU-GM) progenitors, has been carried out. Murine bone marrow progenitors and human cord blood cells were exposed to propanil or DCA in doses ranging from 10 micro M to 1000 micro M, and the toxic effect was detected by a clonogenic assay with continuous exposure to the compounds. The results on murine cells indicate that the erythrocytic lineage is the most sensitive target for propanil and DCA. On the other hand, human progenitors seem to be less sensitive to the toxic effects of both compounds than murine progenitors at the same concentrations (IC(50) values are 305.2 +/- 22.6 micro M [total erythroid colonies] and >500 micro M [CFU-GM] for propanil). Propanil was significantly more toxic to human erythroid progenitors than to human CFU-GM progenitors, as was found for the murine cells, emphasizing the role of the heme pathway as the target for propanil. These data confirm the evidence that the compounds investigated interfere with erythroid colony formation at different stages of the differentiation pathway and have different effects according to the dose.

  10. Attached segment has higher CD34+ cells and CFU-GM than the main bag after thawing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hye Ryun; Shin, Sue; Yoon, Jong Hyun; Roh, Eun Youn; Song, Eun Young; Han, Kyou Sup; Kim, Byoung Jae

    2015-01-01

    A contiguous segment attached to the cord blood unit (CBU) is required for verifying HLA types, cell viability, and, possibly, potency before transplantation since such a segment is considered to be representative of the CBU. However, little is known regarding the characteristics of contiguous segments in comparison to main bag units due to the difficulty experienced in accessing a large number of cryopreserved CBUs. In this study, we used 245 nonconforming CBUs for allogeneic transplantation. After thawing the cryopreserved CBU, the number of total nucleated cells (TNCs), CD34(+) cells, and CFUs in CB from main bags and segments, as well as cell viability and apoptosis, were examined. The comparative analysis showed that the number of TNCs was significantly higher in CB from main bags, whereas the numbers of CD34(+) cells and CFU-GM were significantly higher in CB from segments. While the cell viability of TNCs in segments was higher, the proportion of apoptotic TNCs was also higher. In contrast, no difference was observed between the proportion of apoptotic CD34(+) cells in main bags and segments. In the correlation analysis, the numbers of TNCs, CD34(+) cells, and CFU-GM in main bags were highly correlated with those in segments, indicating that CB from segments is indeed representative of CB in main bags. Taken together, we conclude that segments have higher CD34(+) cells and CFU-GM and lower TNCs than the main cryopreserved bag, although the two compartments are highly correlated with each other.

  11. Sampling and Pooling Methods for Capturing Herd Level Antibiotic Resistance in Swine Feces using qPCR and CFU Approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Gunilla Veslemøy; Mellerup, Anders; Christiansen, Lasse Engbo; Ståhl, Marie; Olsen, John Elmerdahl; Angen, Øystein

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this article was to define the sampling level and method combination that captures antibiotic resistance at pig herd level utilizing qPCR antibiotic resistance gene quantification and culture-based quantification of antibiotic resistant coliform indicator bacteria. Fourteen qPCR assays for commonly detected antibiotic resistance genes were developed, and used to quantify antibiotic resistance genes in total DNA from swine fecal samples that were obtained using different sampling and pooling methods. In parallel, the number of antibiotic resistant coliform indicator bacteria was determined in the same swine fecal samples. The results showed that the qPCR assays were capable of detecting differences in antibiotic resistance levels in individual animals that the coliform bacteria colony forming units (CFU) could not. Also, the qPCR assays more accurately quantified antibiotic resistance genes when comparing individual sampling and pooling methods. qPCR on pooled samples was found to be a good representative for the general resistance level in a pig herd compared to the coliform CFU counts. It had significantly reduced relative standard deviations compared to coliform CFU counts in the same samples, and therefore differences in antibiotic resistance levels between samples were more readily detected. To our knowledge, this is the first study to describe sampling and pooling methods for qPCR quantification of antibiotic resistance genes in total DNA extracted from swine feces.

  12. Assessing the potential of colony morphology for dissecting the CFU-F population from human bone marrow stromal cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gothard, D; Dawson, J I; Oreffo, R O C

    2013-05-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) provide an ideal cell source for bone tissue engineering strategies. However, bone marrow stromal cell (BMSC) populations that contain MSCs are highly heterogeneous expressing a wide variety of proliferative and differentiation potentials. Current MSC isolation methods employing magnetic-activated and fluorescent-activated cell sorting can be expensive and time consuming and, in the absence of specific MSC markers, fail to generate homogeneous populations. We have investigated the potential of various colony morphology descriptors to provide correlations with cell growth potential. Density-independent colony forming unit-fibroblastic (CFU-F) capacity is a MSC prerequisite and resultant colonies display an array of shapes and sizes that might be representative of cell function. Parent colonies were initially categorised according to their diameter and cell density and grouped before passage for the subsequent assessment of progeny colonies. Whereas significant morphological differences between distinct parent populations indicated a correlation with immunophenotype, enhanced CFU-F capacity was not observed when individual colonies were isolated according to these morphological parameters. Colony circularity, an alternative morphological measure, displayed a strong correlation with subsequent cell growth potential. The current study indicates the potential of morphological descriptors for predicting cell growth rate and suggests new directions for research into dissection of human BMSC CFU-F populations.

  13. Quantification of metabolically active biomass using Methylene Blue dye Reduction Test (MBRT): measurement of CFU in about 200 s.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bapat, Prashant; Nandy, Subir Kumar; Wangikar, Pramod; Venkatesh, K V

    2006-04-01

    Quantification of viable cells is a critical step in almost all biological experiments. Despite its importance, the methods developed so far to differentiate between viable and non-viable cells suffer from major limitations such as being time intensive, inaccurate and expensive. Here, we present a method to quantify viable cells based on reduction of methylene blue dye in cell cultures. Although the methylene blue reduction method is well known to check the bacterial load in milk, its application in the quantification of viable cells has not been reported. We have developed and standardized this method by monitoring the dye reduction rate at each time point for growth of Escherichia coli. The standard growth curve was monitored using this technique. The Methylene Blue dye Reduction Test (MBRT) correlates very well with Colony Forming Units (CFU) up to a 800 live cells as established by plating. The test developed is simple, accurate and fast (200 s) as compared to available techniques. We demonstrate the utility of the developed assay to monitor CFU rapidly and accurately for E. coli, Bacillus subtilis and a mixed culture of E. coli and B. subtilis. This assay, thus, has a wide applicability to all types of aerobic organisms.

  14. Combination of interferon alpha with either Ara-C or ATRA in vitro reduces the selective action of interferon against CML CFU-GM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marley, S B; Davidson, R J; Goldman, J M; Gordon, M Y

    2000-08-01

    Although interferon (IFN)-alpha has no specific inhibitory effect on the plating efficiency of granulocyte-macrophage colony-forming cells (CFU-GM) from patients with chronic myeloid leukaemia (CML), it does selectively inhibit the replating ability (secondary colony formation) of CML CFU-GM. Thus, amplification of CFU-GM may be a target for IFN-alpha and other agents used in the treatment of CML. Here we examined whether cytarabine (Ara-C) or all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) exert similar effects and whether they might in combination with IFN-alpha enhance its efficacy. We found that Ara-C preferentially inhibits the formation of CML CFU-GM compared to normal CFU-GM, but this inhibition was not increased by addition of IFN-alpha. When Ara-C was added to cultures containing IFN-alpha, the inhibition of replating by CML progenitors was abrogated. ATRA increased significantly the plating efficiency of normal CFU-GM. The addition of IFN-alpha to ATRA had no effect on CML or normal colony numbers. However, addition of ATRA to cultures containing IFN-alpha reversed the selective inhibition of CML CFU-GM replating seen in cultures containing IFN-alpha alone. In four IFN-alpha/Ara-C experiments, secondary CML patient-derived colonies were examined by fluorescence in situ hybridisation (FISH). All of them were Ph chromosome positive. No significant effects on CFU-GM production were observed when CML primitive haemopoietic progenitor cells were investigated in a delta (delta) assay. Thus we conclude that combining IFN-alpha with Ara-C or ATRA neutralises the effect of IFN-alpha on CML CFU-GM. This observation provides a rationale for treating patients with alternating courses of IFN-alpha and Ara-C or ATRA, rather than giving either of these two agents in combination with IFN-alpha.

  15. A methylcellulose microculture assay for the in vitro assessment of drug toxicity on granulocyte/macrophage progenitors (CFU-GM).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pessina, Augusto; Croera, Cristina; Bayo, Maria; Malerba, Ilaria; Passardi, Laura; Cavicchini, Loredana; Neri, Maria G; Gribaldo, Laura

    2004-03-01

    In a recent prevalidation study, the use of a methylcellulose colony-forming unit-granulocyte/macrophage (CFU-GM) macroassay for two independent in vitro tests (human and murine cell based) was suggested for quantifying the potential haematotoxicity of xenobiotics. In this paper, we describe the transfer of the macroassay to a 96-well plate microassay, in which the linearity of the response was studied (both in terms of CFU-GM and optical density [OD] versus the number of cells cultured), and the inhibitory concentration (IC) values for doxorubicin, 5-fluorouracil and taxol were determined and compared with those obtained by using the original macroassay. Fresh murine bone marrow and human umbilical cord blood mononuclear cells were used as a source of myeloid progenitors. The cells were cultured in methylcellulose containing granulocyte/macrophage-colony-stimulating factor, and in the presence of increasing drug concentrations. The cloning capacity of the progenitors was measured both as the number of colonies counted manually (CFU-GM), and as OD evaluated with an automated plate reader in an MTT test. Our results show that, in the microassay, up to 20 colonies/well could be easily counted, and that this range (20 to zero) gave a regression line from which IC values were calculated, which were very close to those obtained by using the macroassay (where the range of colony numbers was from 100 to zero). The test did not give good results when the OD (instead of the colony count) was used as the endpoint, because, although a high coefficient of determination was obtained, the OD values ranged from 0.6 to zero and the IC values determined were not comparable to those obtained by manual counts. The use of the microassay dramatically reduces the quantity of methylcellulose needed, and permits hundreds of cultures to be processed in the same experiment, contributing to significant reductions in both the work involved and the cost. A further important benefit is a

  16. Sampling and Pooling Methods for Capturing Herd Level Antibiotic Resistance in Swine Feces using qPCR and CFU Approaches

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Gunilla Veslemøy; Mellerup, Anders; Christiansen, Lasse Engbo;

    2015-01-01

    for commonly detected antibiotic resistance genes were developed, and used to quantify antibiotic resistance genes in total DNA from swine fecal samples that were obtained using different sampling and pooling methods. In parallel, the number of antibiotic resistant coliform indicator bacteria was determined...... in the same swine fecal samples. The results showed that the qPCR assays were capable of detecting differences in antibiotic resistance levels in individual animals that the coliform bacteria colony forming units (CFU) could not. Also, the qPCR assays more accurately quantified antibiotic resistance genes......The aim of this article was to define the sampling level and method combination that captures antibiotic resistance at pig herd level utilizing qPCR antibiotic resistance gene quantification and culture-based quantification of antibiotic resistant coliform indicator bacteria. Fourteen qPCR assays...

  17. The FMCA-GM assays, high throughput non-clonogenic alternatives to CFU-GM in preclinical hematotoxicity testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haglund, Caroline; Aleskog, Anna; Håkansson, Lena Douhan; Höglund, Martin; Jacobsson, Stefan; Larsson, Rolf; Lindhagen, Elin

    2010-05-04

    One of the most common dose limiting adverse effects in cancer treatment is myelotoxicity. The aim of this study was to develop an in vitro method for measuring potential myelotoxic properties of a drug candidate in a high throughput setting. Human CD34(+) progenitor cells from umbilical cord blood were plated in 384-well microplates with drugs in liquid culture, supplemented with specific cytokines for the granulocytopoietic-macrophage lineage. After 7 or 14 days of proliferation and differentiation the cells were analyzed using the automated non-clonogenic fluorometric microculture cytotoxicity assay (FMCA). Two types of assays setups were evaluated, the FMCA-GM7 where cells were exposed to drugs directly after thawing and cytotoxicity measured on day 7 in contrast to the FMCA-GM14 where the cells were cultured 7 days prior to plating and drug exposure, with viability analysis on day 14 of differentiation. Drug sensitivity was similar in both assays and method validation was performed using 24 drugs with known myelotoxic profile (acyclovir, bortezomib, busulfan, carboplatin, chloramphenicol, chlorpromazine, cisplatin, cytarabine, clozapine, doxorubicin, erlotinib, etoposide, 5-fluorouracil, fludarabine, gefitinib, gemcitabine, hydroxyurea, imatinib, lomustine, melphalan, sorafenib, sunitinib, taxol and 6-thioguanine). The 50% inhibitory concentrations (IC(50)) from the FMCA-GM7 and the FMCA-GM14 correlated highly (r = 0.83) and (r = 0.82), respectively, with IC(50) from the established clonogenic assay (CFU-GM), obtained from the literature. The current data suggests that the FMCA-GM could offer a simple and robust alternative to the CFU-GM assay in preclinical hematotoxicity studies.

  18. Quantification of nucleated cells, CD34-positive cells and CFU-GM colonies in single bone marrow samples and bone marrow harvests derived from healthy children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schündeln, Michael M; Walde, Gabriele; Basu, Oliver; Havers, Werner; Kremens, Bernhard

    2014-05-01

    Little is known regarding bone marrow (BM) cellularity, CD34+ fraction, and CFU-GM colony formation in relation to age and whether healthy children require a reference range distinct from healthy adults. We therefore analyzed a series of single BM aspirates from 45 healthy children who were evaluated as potential BM donors. Thirty-three of these children subsequently donated BM. We quantified the nucleated cell count, fraction of CD34+ cells, and number of CFU-GM colonies in single aspirates and BM harvests. Single aspirates displayed a mean nucleated cell count of 31.3 × 10(6) cells/mL, a mean fraction of 1.17% CD34+ cells, and a mean colony forming potential of 66.6 CFU-GM/10(5) cells. Harvests yielded the same number of nucleated cells but increased numbers of CD34+ cells and CFU-GM compared with single aspirates. The mean nucleated cell count in BM harvests was 31.1 × 10(6) /mL with a mean fraction of 1.95% CD34+ cells and a mean of 112.4 CFU-GM colonies/10(5) cells. The concentration of nucleated cells was elevated compared with reported adult counts, while CD34+ percentage and CFU-GM counts were similar. In this series of healthy children, the fraction of CD34+ cells, CFU-GM colonies, and nucleated cells decreased with age. We did not identify gender specific differences. To our knowledge, this represents the first comprehensive study of CD34+ cell fraction, CFU-GM counts, and nucleated cell numbers in the BM of healthy children. The findings provide valuable information for practical use for BM transplantation and contribute to the understanding of hematopoiesis from birth to adulthood.

  19. Granulocyte colony-stimulating factor mobilized CFU-F can be found in the peripheral blood but have limited expansion potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lund, Troy C; Tolar, Jakub; Orchard, Paul J

    2008-06-01

    Bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells are multipotent cells found lining the bone marrow cavity supporting the growth and differentiation of hematologic progenitors. There is growing evidence that these cells can, under the right circumstances, enter the peripheral circulation. We show that granulocyte colony-stimulating factor mobilized peripheral blood contains cells which form colonies and have a similar fibroblastic morphology (termed CFU-F) to bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells. These cells were found at a very low incidence (0.0002%). Mobilized peripheral blood CFU-F were successfully differentiated into osteogenic and adipogenic lineages. FACS analysis showed that the cells had a similar profile to bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells. Importantly, mobilized peripheral blood CFU-F had limited expansion potential and became senescent 20-25 days after isolation. Mobilized peripheral blood CFU-F also did not have any telomerase activity and displayed significant telomere shortening. The rarity of CFU-F in mobilized peripheral blood and the subsequent pressure to divide in cell culture probably contribute to early cellular senescence. Their potential for use in transplant or gene therapy is, therefore, limited.

  20. A new assay method for late CFU-S formation and long-term reconstituting activity using a small number of pluripotent hemopoietic stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Guoxiang; Hisha, Hiroko; Cui, Yunze; Fan, Tianxue; Jin, Tienan; Li, Qing; Lian, Zhexiong; Hosaka, Naoki; Li, Yulin; Ikehara, Susumu

    2002-01-01

    We have previously reported that Lin-/CD71-/MHC class Ihigh/c-kitCFU-S) on days 8 to 14 but form late CFU-S (after 16 days). In the present study, to confirm that c-kitCFU-S and reconstitute lethally irradiated recipients. We have established a new method to rescue lethally irradiated mice by transplantation of a few cells so that they survive for more than 16 days: 0.2 ml of 20 Gy-irradiated peripheral blood (PB) was injected into the recipients every 3 days. All the mice that had been transplanted with 25 or 50 c-kitCFU-S were detected in their spleens. However, when 25 or 50 c-kitCFU-S were detected after 16 days. About 40% of the recipients injected with 50 c-kit

  1. Detection of 5 CFU/g of Escherichia coli O157:H7 on lettuce using activated charcoal and real-time PCR without enrichment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jung-Lim; Levin, Robert E

    2011-05-01

    A sample treatment method which separates Escherichia coli O157:H7 from lettuce and removes PCR inhibitors allowing 5 CFU/g of target cells to be detected using real-time PCR is described. Lettuce leaves inoculated with E. coli O157:H7 were rinsed with 0.025% sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS). In this study, there were two major factors that strongly affected the recovery of E. coli O157:H7 during sample preparation, the amount of bentonite coated activated charcoal used to remove PCR inhibitors and the agitated contact time of the samples with the coated charcoal. When 3.0 g of activated carbon coated with bentonite were mixed with target cell suspensions (30 ml) derived from 50 g of lettuce, a high recovery of E. coli O157:H7 (93%) was obtained. Sample agitation with bentonite coated activated charcoal for 15 min resulted in 95% recovery of E. coli O157:H7. When a commercial DNA purification resin was used for detection of E. coli O157:H7 without the use of the bentonite treated charcoal, the real-time PCR (Rti-PCR) failed to detect 1 × 10(2) CFU/g. In contrast, with the use of use of bentonite coated activated charcoal and a commercial DNA purifying resin together, Rti-PCR was able to detect 5 CFU of E. coli O157:H7/g of lettuce which was equivalent to 2.8 CFU/Rti-PCR. Such a successful detection level was the result of the bentonite coated activated charcoal's ability to absorb the PCR inhibitors released from seeded lettuce during detachment. A standard curve was generated by plotting the Ct values against the log of CFU of target bacterial cells. A linear range of DNA amplification was exhibited from 5.0 × 10(0) to 1.0 × 10(4) CFU/g by using Rti-PCR.

  2. Impact of mobilized blood progenitor cell quality determined by the CFU-GM/CD34+ ratio on rapid engraftment after blood stem cell transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, S Q; Abboud, C N; Brennan, J K; Ifthikharuddin, J J; Nichols, D; Liesveld, J L

    2002-01-01

    To find a parameter to predict the quality of collected mobilized CD34+ blood as hemopoietic reconstituting cells, the ratio of CFU-GM to CD34+ cells was examined. One hundred six consecutive patients who underwent blood stem cell transplantation at the University of Rochester from 01/01/99 to 12/31/99 were examined retrospectively for the number of days to reach an absolute neutrophil count of 500 or 1000 cells/microl and an absolute platelet count of 20,000 or 50,000 cells/microl without transfusion support as measures of engraftment. Linear regression analyses were conducted to determine factors influencing engraftment. The number of CD34+ cells/kg and CFU-GM/kg correlated highly with the number of nucleated blood cells/kg. In this population, in which 90% of patients received >2 x 10(6) CD34+ cells/kg, neither the number of CD34+ cells/kg nor the number of CFU-GM/kg correlated with the time to engraftment as judged by neutrophil or platelet levels. In contrast, the lower the ratio of CFU-GM to CD34+ cells, the more rapid the reconstitution of platelets to 20,000/microl (P = 0.03) and 50,000/microl (P = 0.02). Thus, a lower ratio of the CFU-GM/CD34+ appended to reflect a greater number of hematopoietic reconstituting cells in the blood cell collection. The CFU-GM/CD34+ ratio is an apparent predictor of earlier platelet engraftment, suggesting that the ratio reflects the engraftment potential of mobilized donor progenitor cells.

  3. Efficacy of caspofungin against central nervous system Aspergillus fumigatus infection in mice determined by TaqMan PCR and CFU methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Gaurav; Imai, Jackie; Clemons, Karl V; Stevens, David A

    2005-04-01

    We have reported previously that prolonged caspofungin (CAS) dosing enhances survival in a murine model of central nervous system aspergillosis. In this study we determined by quantitative PCR (qPCR) and CFU enumeration whether CAS could reduce fungal burdens, prior to the deaths of untreated animals, and also assessed progressive infection in untreated mice. Mice were infected intracranially and treated for 4 days with CAS (1, 5, or 10 mg/kg of body weight/day) or amphotericin B (AMB) (3 mg/kg/day) starting 1 day postinfection. Fungal burdens in brains and kidneys of untreated controls were determined on days 1, 3, and 5 to assess progressive infection; burdens in treated animals were determined on day 5. qPCR showed higher burdens than CFU enumeration in all comparisons. In untreated animals, qPCR showed transiently increased burdens in brains, while CFU enumeration showed a decrease. qPCR showed increased burdens in kidneys, but CFU enumeration did not. Neither method indicated drug efficacy in the brain. Both methods showed AMB efficacy in the kidneys, and qPCR demonstrated CAS efficacy at all doses. Spearman correlations of qPCR and CFU determination results showed a significant correlation for most untreated groups; results correlated well for kidneys (P CFU groups indicated different slopes for progressive infection in untreated animals but the same slopes for CAS dose-response efficacy. qPCR appeared to better reflect the progression of untreated infection. The lack of demonstration of efficacy in the brain suggests that longer dosing is necessary to cause burden reduction. These results also suggest that, when there is drug efficacy in a therapeutic study, either method appears to be useful for determining Aspergillus fumigatus burdens.

  4. Refinement and optimisation of the rat CFU-GM assay to incorporate the use of cryopreserved bone-marrow cells for in vitro toxicology applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pessina, Augusto; Bonomi, Arianna; Baglio, Carolina; Cavicchini, Loredana; Gribaldo, Laura

    2009-09-01

    The colony-forming unit-granulocyte-macrophage (CFU-GM) assay has been validated for testing drug haematotoxicity (with both mouse bone-marrow and human cord blood cells) and for predicting in vivo human Maximal Tolerated Dose (MTD) values by extrapolating in vivo data on mouse toxicity. The rat CFU-GM assay is widely used for its capability to evaluate in vitro haematotoxicity, but no standardised procedure suitable for data comparison has been developed. A validated rat CFU-GM assay is needed for many reasons - not least because the rat is the most commonly-used species for the in vivo testing of toxicants. This report describes the refinement and optimisation of a standardised protocol for entering into the prevalidation phase of test development. The sensitivity of rat progenitors to granulocyte-macrophage-colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF), the correlation between the number of cells seeded and the number of colonies obtained, the role of mesenchymal cells on CFU-GM proliferation and the performance of the assay, and the effects of using different types of plastic dishes and sources of cytokines, are described. A standard operating procedure (SOP) based on the use of cryopreserved progenitors has been generated, to be applied to the in vitro toxicity testing of compounds. This SOP dramatically reduces the number of rats used and increases the homogeneity of the data obtained.

  5. [The effects of an aroma candy on oral Candida albicans colony-forming units (CFU) and oral hygiene states in healthy elderly carrying Candida albicans].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Motofumi; Hayama, Kazumi; Takahashi, Miki; Ezawa, Kunio; Yamazaki, Masatoshi; Matsukawa, Taiji; Kishi, Akinobu; Satou, Nobuya; Abe, Shigeru

    2015-01-01

    In a preceding paper, we showed that aroma candy containing oligonol, capric acid, and cinnamon (cassia) powder had potent inhibitory activity against mycelial growth of Candida albicans in vitro and protective activity against murine oral candidiasis. In order to assess the effects of this candy (the test candy) on oral C. albicans colony-forming units (CFU) and oral hygiene states, a placebo-controlled double-blind crossover comparative study was performed. Twenty subjects were divided into two groups. One group ingested the test candy in the first 7 days followed by 2 weeks washing-off period, then ingested the placebo candy (control candy) for 7 days. The other group was vice versa. C. albicans CFU in all oral rinse samples from the subjects before and after 7 days ingestion of candy was measured. The degree of oral malodor in all subjects was monitored using a portable measuring instrument. The results showed no statistically significant difference between test-candy group and placebo group for C. albicans CFU. However, C. albicans CFU in test-candy group with>4,000 CFUs was significantly decreased after 7 days ingestion of test-candy (poral malodor in the test-candy group was significantly decreased after 7 days ingestion of test-candy (poral hygiene states indicated that in the test-candy group, oral malodor, glutinous feeling, and refreshing feeling significantly improved in comparison with control-candy group (poral health care of elderly carrying C. albicans.

  6. In vitro comparison of O4-benzylfolate modulated, BCNU-induced toxicity in human bone marrow using CFU-GM and tumor cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behrsing, Holger Peter; Furniss, Michael J; Robillard, Kristine A; Tomaszewski, Joseph E; Parchment, Ralph E

    2010-05-01

    2-Amino-O4-benzylpteridine derivatives inactivate the human DNA repair protein O6-alkylguanine-DNA alkyltransferase and have been tested as modulators of alkylating agent chemotherapy. Recently, the therapeutic potential of O4-benzylfolate (O4BF) in modulating bis-chloroethylnitrosourea (BCNU) toxicity was demonstrated in vitro using human HT29 and KB tumor lines. The current studies replicated the previous findings in HT29 and KB cells using ATP as an endpoint. However, the effective treatment conditions were severely toxic to human neutrophil progenitors called CFU-granulocyte/macrophage (CFU-GM), which could not tolerate > or =40 microM BCNU at any O4BF concentration. A lower BCNU concentration (10 microM) in combination with O4BF (2-100 microM) was only moderately tumoricidal. To screen for conditions tolerated by CFU-GM, bone marrow (BM) cells were pre-incubated (5 h) with O4BF, co-treated with O4BF and BCNU (42 h), washed, and plated to quantify CFU-GM survival. O4BF at 2 or 5 microM progressively lowered the inhibitory concentrations (ICs) for BCNU, but further increases in O4BF concentrations did not. Increasing O4BF concentrations with constant BCNU (10 microM) under the same prolonged exposure as in the human marrow study achieved only modest tumoricidal effects. In summary, the unexpected finding that normal BM cells are impacted by an agent developed to target malignant tissue refutes speculation that normal beta-folate receptor expressing hematopoietic cells will be spared. Further, the validated IC90 endpoint from the huCFU-GM assay has provided a reference point for judging the potential therapeutic effectiveness of this investigational combination in man using in vitro assays.

  7. Macrophage-like cell transformation and CFU(c) fluctuations in normal and leukemic human marrow cultures treated by phorbol diester.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svet-Moldavskaya, I A; Zinzar, S N; Svet-Moldavsky, G J; Mann, P E; Bekesi, J G; Holland, J F; Clarkson, B D; Arlin, Z; Koziner, B

    1979-12-01

    Bone marrow from normal and chronic myeloid leukemia donors was grown in liquid cultures without feeder layers and with and without 12-u-tetradecanoyl-phorbol-13-acetate (TPA). In 24-96 hours most of the cells (60-70%) cultured with 10(-7) M and 10(-8) M TPA stuck to the bottom of the flasks and had a peculiar shape resembling macrophages possessing strong phagocytizing activity and surface markers of monocyte-macrophage lineage of differentiation. 10(-7) M and 10(-8) M TPA fully inhibited CFU(c) in cultures of normal marrow as well as of chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) patients; 10(-9) M and 10(-10) M exhibited individually varied partial suppression. Cultivation of bone marrow with 10(-11) M to 10(-13) M TPA led in some cases to statistically significant increase of CFU(c) on day 4 and day 7.

  8. [The influence of some retarding agents NOS of dihydrothiazine-thiazoline rank on postradiational of recovery endogenous CFU-S-8 of mice].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konopliannikov, A G; Proskuriakov, S Ia; Konopliannikov, O A; Trishkina, A I; Shteĭn, L V; Verkhovskiĭ, Iu G; Kolesnikova, A I; Trofimova, T P; Mandrugin, A A; Fedoseev, V M; Bachurin, S O; Proshin, A N; Skvortsov, V G

    2007-01-01

    In this work the attempt to estimate a nitric oxide (NO*) role in regulation of the number of pool haemopoietic stem cells at the irradiated mice was made. With this purpose the number of new compounds from dihydrothiazine-thiazoline line was synthesized, their NO-inhibiting activity was investigated in vivo by the method of ESR-spectroscopy of spin trap and their influence on an output endogenous spleen colonies (CFU-S-8) after the total sublethal y-irradiation of mice in a doze of 6 Gy was also investigated. Was shown, that the tested compounds reduced the contents of NO* in a liver tissue of mice which have received an injection of nitric oxide synthesis inductor - lipopolysaccharide, and also increased an output CFU-S-8 forming endogenous colonies in the spleen of the irradiated mice. Received data testify to perceptivity of search radioprotective agents among NO* synthesis inhibitors.

  9. Use of CFU-GM assay for prediction of human maximum tolerated dose of a new antitumoral drug: Yondelis (ET-743).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez, Susana G; Bueren, Juan A; Faircloth, Glynn; Albella, Beatriz

    2003-01-01

    Acute cytotoxic exposure causes decreases in bone marrow progenitors that precedes the neutrophil nadir. Experiments in animal models reveal a relationship between the reduction in granulocyte-macrophage progenitors (CFU-GM) and the decrease in absolute neutrophil count [Toxicol. Pathol. 21 (1993) 241]. Recently, the prevalidation of a model for predicting acute neutropenia by the CFU-GM assay has been reported [Toxicol. In Vitro 15 (2001) 729]. The model was based on prediction of human MTD by adjusting the animal-derived MTD for the differential sensitivity between CFU-GM from animal species and humans. In this study, this model has been applied on a new antitumoral drug, Yondelis (Ecteinascidin; ET-743). Preclinical studies showed that hematotoxicity was the main side effect in mice, being the MTD of 600 microg/m2 [Drugs Future 21 (1996) 1155]. The sensitivity of myeloid progenitors was higher in mice than in humans, with IC90 values of 0.69+/-0.22 nM and 1.31+/-0.21 nM for murine and human CFU-GMs respectively. This study predicts a human MTD of 1145 microg/m2. The reported human MTD of ET-743 given as a 24-h continuous infusion every 3 weeks is 1800 microg/m2 [J. Clin. Oncol. 19 (2001) 1256]. Since our predicted MTD is within fourfold of the actual MTD (the interspecies variation in tolerated dose due to differences in clearance rates, metabolism pathways and infusion rate) the result confirms the profit of the prediction model.

  10. In vitro toxicity of naphthalene, 1-naphthol, 2-naphthol and 1,4-naphthoquinone on human CFU-GM from female and male cord blood donors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croera, C; Ferrario, D; Gribaldo, L

    2008-09-01

    In animal models, naphthalene toxicity has been studied in different target organs and has been shown to be gender-dependent and metabolism related. In humans, it is readily absorbed and is metabolised by several cytochrome P450's. Naphthalene and its metabolites can cross the placental barrier and consequently may affect foetal tissues. The aim of this study was to compare the in vitro toxicity of naphthalene and its metabolites, 1-naphthol, 2-naphthol and 1,4-naphthoquinone, on human haematopoietic foetal progenitors (CFU-GM) derived from newborn male and female donors. The mRNA expression of Cyp1A2 and Cyp3A4 was also evaluated. Naphthalene did not affect CFU-GM proliferation, while 1-naphthol, 2-naphthol and particularly 1,4-naphthoquinone strongly inhibited the clonogenicity of progenitors, from both male and female donors. mRNA of Cyp1A2 and Cyp3A4 was not expressed neither at the basal level, nor after naphthalene treatment, while treatment with 1,4-naphthoquinone induced expression of both enzymes in both genders, with Cyp1A2 being expressed four times more than Cyp3A4. Female CFU-GM was significantly more sensitive to 1,4-naphthoquinone than male and after treatment both enzymes were expressed twice as much as in the male precursors. These results suggest that a gender-specific 1,4-naphthoquinone metabolic pathway may exist, which gives rise to unknown toxic metabolites.

  11. CKbeta8-1 alters expression of cyclin E in colony forming units-granulocyte macrophage (CFU-GM) lineage from human cord blood CD34+ cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noh, Eui Kyu; Ra, Jae Sun; Lee, Seong Ae; Kwon, Byoung S; Han, In Seob

    2005-12-31

    A C6 beta-chemokine, CKbeta8-1, suppressed the colony formation of CD34+ cells of human cord blood (CB). Molecular mechanisms involved in CKbeta8-1-medicated suppression of colony formation of CD34+ cells are not known. To address this issue, the level of various G1/S cell cycle regulating proteins in CKbeta8-1-treated CD34+ cells were compared with those in untreated CD34+ cells. CKbeta8-1 did not significantly alter the expression of the G1/S cycle regulation proteins (cyclin D1, D3, and E), CDK inhibitor (p27and Rb), and other cell proliferation regulation protein (p53) in CB CD34+ cells. Here we describe an in vitro system in which CB CD34+ cells were committed to a multipotent progenitor lineage of colony forming units-granulocyte/macrophage (CFU-GM) by a simple combination of recombinant human (rh) GM-CSF and rhIL-3. In this culture system, we found that cyclin E protein appeared later and disappeared faster in the CKbeta8-1-treated cells than in the control cells during CFU-GM lineage development. These findings suggested that cyclin E may play a role in suppressing the colony formation of CFU-GM by CKbeta8-1.

  12. The Assessment of Parameters Affecting the Quality of Cord Blood by the Appliance of the Annexin V Staining Method and Correlation with CFU Assays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radke, Teja Falk; Barbosa, David; Duggleby, Richard Charles; Saccardi, Riccardo; Querol, Sergio; Kögler, Gesine

    2013-01-01

    The assessment of nonviable haematopoietic cells by Annexin V staining method in flow cytometry has recently been published by Duggleby et al. Resulting in a better correlation with the observed colony formation in methylcellulose assays than the standard ISHAGE protocol, it presents a promising method to predict cord blood potency. Herein, we applied this method for examining the parameters during processing which potentially could affect cord blood viability. We could verify that the current standards regarding time and temperature are sufficient, since no significant difference was observed within 48 hours or in storage at 4°C up to 26°C. However, the addition of DMSO for cryopreservation alone leads to an inevitable increase in nonviable haematopoietic stem cells from initially 14.8% ± 4.3% to at least 30.6% ± 5.5%. Furthermore, CFU-assays with varied seeding density were performed in order to evaluate the applicability as a quantitative method. The results revealed that only in a narrow range reproducible clonogenic efficiency (ClonE) could be assessed, giving at least a semiquantitative estimation. We conclude that both Annexin V staining method and CFU-assays with defined seeding density are reliable means leading to a better prediction of the final potency. Especially Annexin V, due to its fast readout, is a practical tool for examining and optimising specific steps in processing, while CFU-assays add a functional confirmation.

  13. Combination of stem cell factor and granulocyte colony-stimulating factor mobilizes the highest number of primitive haemopoietic progenitors as shown by pre-colony-forming unit (pre-CFU) assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horsfall, M J; Hui, C H; To, L B; Begley, C G; Basser, R L; Simmons, P J

    2000-06-01

    Fifty-two patients with poor prognosis carcinoma of the breast underwent peripheral blood stem cell (PBSC) mobilization using five different regimens. The yields of primitive haemopoietic progenitors were quantified by a recently described pre-colony-forming unit (pre-CFU) assay using limiting dilution analysis (LDA). Results of days 14 and 35 pre-CFU were also correlated with conventional CD34+ cell enumeration, CFU-GM (granulocyte-macrophage) and long-term culture-initiating cell (LTCIC) assays. The yield of pre-CFUs with the combination of granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) and stem cell factor (SCF) was significantly higher than with G-CSF alone, cyclophosphamide (Cyclo) and granulocyte-monocyte colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF), interleukin (IL)-3 and GM-CSF, or Cyclo alone. No significant correlation between neutrophil engraftment and pre-CFU could be demonstrated. Furthermore, CFU-GM was shown to bear a stronger correlation with pre-CFU and LTCIC than CD34+ cell measurement; thus, CFU-GM remains a useful biological tool for haemopoietic stem cell assay. We conclude that the combination of G-CSF and SCF mobilizes the highest number of pre-CFUs as measured by functional pre-CFU assay, which provides an alternative measurement of primitive haemopoietic progenitors to the LTCIC assay.

  14. Stimulatory effects of androgens on normal children's bone marrow in culture: effects on BFU-E, CFU-E, and uroporphyrinogen I synthase activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claustres, M; Sultan, C

    1986-01-01

    We studied the effect of natural and synthetic androgens on children's erythropoietic precursor cells in culture. Cultures of normal marrow were carried out according to a miniaturized methylcellulose method in the presence of erythropoietin. We then evaluated the effects of testosterone, nortestosterone, fluoxymesterone and etiocholanolone (10(-9)-10(-6) M) on erythroid colony-forming units (CFU-E) and burst-forming units (BFU-E). Androgen-induced growth of erythroid progenitors was quantified by directly scoring colonies and by a biochemical determination of the uroporphyrinogen I synthase activity (UROS). We observed a significant increase (p less than or equal to 0.05) in the number of CFU-E and BFU-E and in the UROS activity of derived colonies in the presence of androgens (10(-8) or 10(-7)M). This microculture assay could be useful not only to study the effect of androgens on erythroid progenitor cells in culture, but also to predict the best androgenic treatment of anemia in children and adults.

  15. In vitro CFU-E and BFU-E responses to androgen in bone marrow from children with primary hypoproliferative anaemia: a possible therapeutic assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claustres, M; Margueritte, G; Sultan, C

    1986-02-01

    The effects of natural and synthetic androgens on erythroid colony formation in children's bone marrow cultures were studied using a methylcellulose microculture assay. In an attempt to predict the clinical response to androgens in two children with Fanconi anaemia (FA) and two children with Diamond-Blackfan syndrome (DB), we tested the hormonal stimulation of testosterone, nortestosterone and etiocholanolone on CFU-E, BFU-E and uroporphyrinogen I synthase activity (UROS). We observed that colony formation and UROS activity were reduced when compared to values obtained with normal children's bone marrow cultures. The addition of steroids to the cultures significantly enhanced the numbers of CFU-E and BFU-E derived colonies and their UROS activity in marrow from patients with FA and one patient with DB. The strong depletion of marrow progenitor cells in the unresponsive marrow from child 4 with DB could explain the absence of hormonal response. Whereas the responsiveness to steroids varied according to the individual, the in vitro testing of erythroid differentiation in the presence of androgens theoretically may lead to an effective prediction of response to therapy in children with hypoplastic anaemia.

  16. 大肠菌群MPN计数法与CFU计数法相关性初探%Investigation of Correlation Between Coliform Bacteria MPN and CFU Counting Methods

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙慧; 李天添

    2012-01-01

    Coliform bacteria are common and important food quality evaluation index. Today, there are two parallel units of MPN and CFU in both detection of coliform bacteria and limitation of national standards of various products. In this paper, combined the principles of these two detection techniques with author's own experience in food inspection for many years, the correlation between MPN and CFU were investigated.%大肠菌群是常见且重要的食品质量评价指标。如今,大肠菌群检验方法和各类产品国家限量标准值都存在MPN、CFU两种计数单位并行的现象,结合两种技术方法的原理与作者多年从事食品检验的经验,对MPN单位与CFU单位的相关性进行初步探讨。

  17. Risk assessment of human myelotoxicity of anticancer drugs: a predictive model and the in vitro colony forming unit granulocyte/macrophage (CFU-GM) assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masubuchi, N

    2006-02-01

    Myelotoxicity is one of the major limitations to the use of anticancer drugs. It is desirable to evaluate human myelotoxicity before a Phase I study, however, this is difficult because of the differences in susceptibility between humans and animals. The purpose of this study was to establish a reliable method to predict the human maximum tolerated dose (MTD) of five camptothecin derivatives: SN-38, DX-8951f, topotecan (TPT), 9-aminocamptothecin (9-AC), and camptothecin (CAM). The myelotoxicity of camptothecin derivatives was evaluated on bone marrow from mice, dogs, and humans using a 14-day colony-forming unit-granulocyte/macrophage (CFU-GM) assay to determine the 50%, 75%, and 90% inhibitory concentration values (IC50, IC75, and IC90, respectively). Then, using human and murine IC90 values for myelotoxicity of these compounds, in vivo toxicological data, and pharmacokinetic parameters (data referred to the literature), human MTDs were predicted retrospectively. The mechanism-based prediction model which is proposed uses the in vitro CFU-GM assay and in vivo parameters on the basis of free fraction of area under the concentration-curve (AUC) at the MTD (r2 = 0.887) and suggests that the human MTDs were well predicted for the five camptothecin derivatives by this model rather than by other models. The application of this model for in vitro hematotoxicology could be very useful in the development of new anticancer agents.

  18. Development of a microwave-accelerated metal-enhanced fluorescence 40 second, cfu/ml point of care assay for the detection of Chlamydia trachomatis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yongxia; Agreda, Patricia; Kelley, Shannon; Gaydos, Charlotte; Geddes, Chris D

    2011-03-01

    An inexpensive technology to both lyse Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) and detect DNA released from CT within 40 s is demonstrated. In a microwave cavity, energy is highly focused using 100-nm gold films with "bow-tie" structures to lyse CT within 10 s. The ultrafast detection of the released DNA from less than 100 cfu/mL CT is accomplished in an additional 30 s by employing the microwave-accelerated metal-enhanced fluorescence technique. This new "release and detect" platform technology is a highly attractive alternative method for the lysing of bacteria, DNA extraction, and the fast quantification of bacteria and potentially other pathogenic species and cells as well. Our approach is a significant step forward for the development of a point of care test for CT.

  19. NS-018, a selective JAK2 inhibitor, preferentially inhibits CFU-GM colony formation by bone marrow mononuclear cells from high-risk myelodysplastic syndrome patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuroda, Junya; Kodama, Ayumi; Chinen, Yoshiaki; Shimura, Yuji; Mizutani, Shinsuke; Nagoshi, Hisao; Kobayashi, Tsutomu; Matsumoto, Yosuke; Nakaya, Yohei; Tamura, Ayako; Kobayashi, Yutaka; Naito, Haruna; Taniwaki, Masafumi

    2014-05-01

    JAK2/STAT signaling promotes survival and expansion of myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) clones, but little is known about the potential of JAK2/STAT as a therapeutic target in MDS. We investigated the effect of NS-018, a novel antagonist for JAK2, on the colony-forming ability of bone marrow mononuclear cells (BMMNCs) from high-risk MDS patients. NS-018 decreased colony-forming unit-granulocyte/macrophage (CFU-GM) colony numbers from MDS-derived BMMNCs in a dose-dependent manner, and this effect was significantly more potent than against normal BMMNCs. In addition, NS-018 suppressed the phosphorylation of STAT3 in colony-forming cells from MDS patients. Collectively, NS-018 could be a new therapeutic option for high-risk MDS.

  20. A method for enriching myeloid (CFU-GM) and erythroid (BFU-E) progenitor cells from human cord blood by accessory cell depletion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowton, L A; Ma, D D

    1992-10-01

    Human cord blood provides a convenient alternative to bone marrow as a rich source of hemopoietic progenitor cells. This study reports a simple means for enriching a cord blood progenitor cell population by accessory cell depletion. Two methods of monocyte depletion were tested. A Cytodex 3 microcarrier system using collagen coated dextran beads was compared to the more commonly used method of plastic plate adhesion. The method of plastic plate adhesion gave a significantly higher cell recovery. T cell depletion using a recently characterized rat monoclonal antibody which fixes human complement was also investigated. A combined method of monocyte depletion by plate adhesion and T cell depletion resulted in the removal of > 96% of monocytes and > 98% of T cells. This led to a significant enrichment of myeloid (CFU-GM) and erythroid (BFU-E) colony growth. Such enriched progenitor cell populations provide a useful starting population for any study on hemopoiesis.

  1. The effects of the EW dipeptide optical and chemical isomers on the CFU-S population in intact and irradiated mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deigin, V I; Semenets, T N; Zamulaeva, I A; Maliutina, Ya V; Selivanova, E I; Saenko, A S; Semina, O V

    2007-03-01

    The influence of Glu-Trp (EW) synthetic dipeptide isomers on hemopoietic progenitor cells and certain immune response reactions is determined by their optical and chemical properties. Thus, the all L-amino acid containing dipeptides L-Glu-L-Trp and L-gammaGlu-L-Trp have no effect on proliferation of committed and pluripotent CFU-S in intact bone marrow. The optical isomers of the Glu residue are an essential determinant of the EW dipeptide biological activity. The inversion of the amino acid optical form imparts suppressor properties: D-Glu-D-Trp,D--gammaGlu-D-Trp, D-Glu-L-Trp and D-gammaGlu-L-Trp inhibit proliferation of hemopoietic progenitors in intact bone marrow. The type of the peptide bond between L-Glu and Trp is another important factor for the biological activity of the L-Glu-containing peptides. Unlike L-Glu-D-Trp with alpha-peptide bond, the dipeptide L-gammaGlu-D-Trp with gamma-peptide bond stimulates CFU-S-8 proliferation in intact bone marrow. The diverse effects of the EW optical isomers on hemopoietic progenitors underlie the radioprotective properties of the D-Glu-containing dipeptides and the radiotherapeutic ones of the L-Glu dipeptides. In animals, pre-irradiation injection of D-Glu-D-Trp, D-gammaGlu-D-Trp, D-Glu-L-Trp, D-gammaGlu-L-Trp, or post-irradiation injection of L-Glu-L-Trp, L-gammaGlu-L-Trp promoted regeneration of the hemopoietic progenitor population.

  2. CFU-Mk content of immunoselected CD34+ peripheral blood progenitor cells, evaluated with an adapted serum-free methylcellulose assay, is predictive of platelet lineage reconstitution in children with solid tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boiret, N; Kanold, J; Fouassier, M; Bons, J M; Halle, P; Rapatel, C; Berger, J; Pireyre, P; Blanzat, V; Travade, P; Bonhomme, J; Demeocq, F; Berger, M G

    2000-08-01

    Immunoselected CD34+ peripheral blood progenitor cell (PBPC) transplantation is now frequently used to support autologous hematopoiesis after myeloablative therapy, its feasability having been proved by several groups. However, we and others observed delayed platelet recovery. We hypothesized that immunoselection processing might induce selective loss of megakaryocyte progenitors, or a decrease in their proliferation. We used a colony-forming units megakaryocyte (CFU-Mk) assay to evaluate these consequences and predict platelet recovery in patients. In CD34+ PBPCs from 10 children with solid tumors, we observed no selective loss in CFU-Mk numbers during immunoselection processing and no impairment of clonogenicity. The CFU-Mk yield (59.2 +/- 11.3%) was at least similar to the CD34+ yield (44.2 +/- 3.8%). We assessed the predictive value of CFU-Mk numbers infused for recovery of platelet lineage. We found an inverse correlation between the time taken to reach a platelet count greater than 50 x 10(9)/L and only the CFU-Mk dose (r = -0.71; p = 0.022) among the different type of progenitors, including colony-forming units granulocyte-macrophage (CFU-GM), burst-forming units erythrocyte (BFU-E) and colony-forming units-mixed (CFU-Mix). These findings suggest that CFU-Mk number could be used as sole predictive functional parameter for platelet reconstitution in children after immunoselection of CD34+ cells, in particular for low CD34+ cell dose, and thus as an indicator for initial quality of hematopoietic cells before in vitro expansion.

  3. Development of CFU Counting Culture Medium for Clostridium sporogenes%生孢梭菌CFU计数培养基的研制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高尚先; 孙彬裕; 康国华; 曲守方

    2005-01-01

    目的:研制一种适宜生孢子梭状芽孢杆菌(简称生孢梭菌)菌落形成单位(Colony Forming Units,CFU)计数的微生物培养基(简称培养基),使其CFU计数能够接近最大活菌数.方法:将生孢梭菌接种于硫乙醇酸盐培养基(不含琼脂),置35℃培养24-48 h;将生孢梭菌的新鲜培养物置无菌离心管中,500 r·min-1离心5 min.取上层菌液,用0.9%无菌氯化钠溶液稀释至与标准比浊管相同浓度,并作10倍系列稀释至1×10-6备用.将上述菌液分别浇注混匀于琼脂浓度为0.5%,0.6%和0.7%的3个生孢梭菌CFU计数研究培养基(简称3个生孢梭菌CFU计数研究培养基),置厌氧条件下35℃培养.优选18 h进行CFU/mL计数并观察菌落形态,优选琼脂浓度为0.5%的上述培养基作为生孢梭菌CFU计数培养基并与其他5个培养基进行生孢梭菌CFU计数的比较试验.将上述菌液采用浇注法和L棒涂抹法接种于上述6个不同的培养基,置不同培养条件及培养时间进行生孢梭菌的CFU计数.结果:生孢梭菌CFU计数培养基,浇注法接种,在厌氧条件下35℃培养18 h,CFU计数最多,且菌落形态良好,可能最接近最大活菌数.结论:新研制的生孢梭菌CFU计数培养基是目前最适于生孢梭菌CFU计数的培养基.

  4. Predicting the maximum-tolerated dose of PNU-159548 (4-demethoxy-3'-deamino-3'-aziridinyl-4'-methylsulphonyl-daunorubicin) in humans using CFU-GM clonogenic assays and prospective validation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moneta, D; Geroni, C; Valota, O; Grossi, P; de Jonge, M J A; Brughera, M; Colajori, E; Ghielmini, M; Sessa, C

    2003-03-01

    A haematotoxicity model was proposed by Parchment in 1998 to predict the maximum-tolerated dose (MTD) in humans of myelosuppressive antitumour agents by combining data from in vitro clonogenic assays on haematopoietic progenitors and in vivo systemic exposure data in animals. A prospective validation of this model in humans was performed with PNU-159548, a novel agent showing selective dose-limiting myelosuppression in animals. PNU-159548 and its main metabolite, PNU-169884, were tested in vitro on murine, canine and human colony forming units-granulocyte macrophages (CFU-GM) and in vivo on mice and dogs. The IC(90x) ratios (IC(x)=concentration inhibiting x% of colony growth) for CFU-GM and drug plasma protein binding were used to adjust the target plasma concentrations versus time curve (AUC) and predict the human MTD. The predicted MTD was compared with values achieved in phase I studies. Canine CFU-GM were 6-fold more sensitive (PCFU-GM 1.7-fold less sensitive (PCFU-GM ratio between species can predict the human MTD with a good quantitative accuracy. Inhibition of common haemopoietic progenitors by PNU-159548 induced neutropenia/thrombocytopenia in animals and thrombocytopenia in patients, probably due to the higher sensitivity to the compound observed in human colony forming units-megakaryocyte (CFU-MK).

  5. Optimization of single plate-serial dilution spotting (SP-SDS with sample anchoring as an assured method for bacterial and yeast cfu enumeration and single colony isolation from diverse samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pious Thomas

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available We propose a simple technique for bacterial and yeast cfu estimations from diverse samples with no prior idea of viable counts, designated as single plate-serial dilution spotting (SP-SDS with the prime recommendation of sample anchoring (100 stocks. For pure cultures, serial dilutions were prepared from 0.1 OD (100 stock and 20 μl aliquots of six dilutions (101–106 were applied as 10–15 micro-drops in six sectors over agar-gelled medium in 9-cm plates. For liquid samples 100–105 dilutions, and for colloidal suspensions and solid samples (10% w/v, 101–106 dilutions were used. Following incubation, at least one dilution level yielded 6–60 cfu per sector comparable to the standard method involving 100 μl samples. Tested on diverse bacteria, composite samples and Saccharomyces cerevisiae, SP-SDS offered wider applicability over alternative methods like drop-plating and track-dilution for cfu estimation, single colony isolation and culture purity testing, particularly suiting low resource settings.

  6. A new experimental protocol as an alternative to the colony-forming unit-granulocyte/macrophage (CFU-GM) clonogenic assay to assess the haematotoxic potential of new drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dal Negro, Gianni; Vandin, Luca; Bonato, Monica; Repeto, Paolo; Sciuscio, Davide

    2006-08-01

    In this work, a first attempt to set-up a new in vitro experimental protocol with culture in liquid medium and flow cytometry analysis of bone marrow progenitors is described. This protocol is proposed as an alternative to the colony-forming unit-granulocyte/macrophage (CFU-GM) clonogenic in vitro assay currently used to assess the toxic potential of new drugs in the bone marrow. This new experimental approach should enable to speed up the procedure of the in vitro haematotoxic potential assessment, to reduce inter-experimental variability and to enhance result accuracy. Preliminary results obtained demonstrated that the progenitor cell count by flow cytometry replacing the light microscopy granulocyte/macrophage colony count represents a tremendous improvement in terms of accuracy and standardisation. Moreover, differential counts of cell sub-populations can be performed by using specific monoclonal antibodies. Furthermore, this method demonstrated to be time-saving, since 4 day cell incubation period is required instead of 7-14 day incubation in the CFU-GM clonogenic assay. On the basis of results obtained so far, the new experimental protocol proposed looks a promising alternative to the CFU-GM clonogenic assay currently used.

  7. Effects of Sheng-Mai injection on the PRPP synthetase activity in BFU-es and CFU-es from bone marrows of mice with benzene-induced aplastic anemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, L P; Liu, J F; Lu, Y Q

    2001-08-10

    160 Kunming mice were divided at random into 3 groups. Group 1: normal control (40 mice). Group 2: aplastic anemia (AA) control (60 mice); benzene inhalation was carried out for 2.5 months and sterilized normal saline was injected i.p. for another 6 weeks. Group 3: treated AA (60 mice); benzene was administered by inhalation in a similar manner, Sheng-Mai Injection (SMI) was administered i.p. for 6 weeks after the AA models were established. SMI is a famous Chinese traditional prescription of Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer (0.1 g/ml), Ophiopogon japonicus (Thunb.) Ker-Gawl (0.312 g/ml) and Fructus Schisandrae (0.158 g/ml). Activities of phosphoribosylpyrophosphate (PRPP) synthetase in BFU-Es and CFU-Es were estimated by ion pair reversed phase HPLC (IPrHPLC). Accompanying the sharp drop in counts of erythroid progenitor cells, the PRPP synthetase activity in CFU-Es of AA mice was reduced significantly (PCFU-Es returned nearly to normal levels following treatment with SMI of mice in Group 3 (PCFU-Es from their bone marrow. The impairment of PRPP formation would explain ATP depletion and disorders of energy metabolism in AA erythrocytes. SMI can distinctly increase the reduced quantity of erythroid progenitor cells and promote rapid restoration of PRPP synthetase activity in CFU-Es of AA mice.

  8. Comparison of in vivo and in vitro pharmacodynamics of a humanized regimen of 600 milligrams of Ceftaroline Fosamil every 12 hours against Staphylococcus aureus at initial inocula of 106 and 108 CFU per milliliter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    So, Wonhee; Crandon, Jared L; Zhanel, George G; Nicolau, David P

    2014-11-01

    In light of the in vivo/in vitro discordance among beta-lactams against Gram-negative pathogens, we compared the in vivo pharmacodynamics of humanized ceftaroline against 9 Staphylococcus aureus strains (MICs of 0.13 to 1 mg/liter) from published in vitro studies using standard and high inocula in the murine thigh infection model. Consistent with the in vitro findings, mean reductions of ≥1 log10 CFU were observed for ceftaroline against all strains using both standard and high inocula. These results suggest in vivo/in vitro concordance with no observed inoculum effect.

  9. Effects of Gene Recombinant Erythropoietin on CFU-E Growth of Patients with Myelodysplastic Syndrome and Aplastic Anemia%基因重组人红细胞生成素对骨髓增生异常综合征、再生障碍性贫血患者红系祖细胞的作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贾志凌; 巩伟丽; 王鑫; 杜建梅; 杨科

    2000-01-01

    观察大剂量基因重组人红细胞生成素(rh-Ep)体外对10例正常人,17例骨髓增生异常综合征难治性贫血(MDS-RA),19例再生障碍性贫血(AA)患者红系祖细胞(CFU-E)的作用.结果:MDS-RA和AA患者的CFU-E明显低于正常人(P均<0.01),随rh-Ep剂量加大,各组红系祖细胞(CFU-E)均有不同程度增高,至100u/ml达最高值,并接近或超过正常值.结果表明,大剂量rh-Ep可促进部分MDS-RA趾和AA患者CFU-E增殖.

  10. Experimental studies on relation between CFU-F in bone marrow and osteogenesis%小鼠骨髓基质成纤维细胞与成骨关系的实验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王莉馨; 刘雅娟; 熊文; 林军; 于洪臣; 范洪学; 于志刚

    2001-01-01

    目的:研究骨髓基质成纤维细胞与成骨的关系.方法:Luria多器官培养器体外器官培养法、肾被膜下移植技术以及石蜡切片技术.结果:移植物在移植处形成软骨细胞团及骨基质.结论:骨髓基质成纤维细胞集落形成细胞(CFU-F)为基质多能干细胞,能增生分化为成骨所必需的基质细胞.

  11. Inoculum effects of ceftobiprole, daptomycin, linezolid, and vancomycin with Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus pneumoniae at inocula of 10(5) and 10(7) CFU injected into opposite thighs of neutropenic mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Dong-Gun; Murakami, Yoichi; Andes, David R; Craig, William A

    2013-03-01

    Reduced bactericidal efficacy at a high inoculum is known as the inoculum effect (IE). We used neutropenic mice to compare the IEs of ceftobiprole (CFB), daptomycin (DAP), linezolid (LZD), and vancomycin (VAN) against 6 to 9 strains of Staphylococcus aureus and 4 strains of Streptococcus pneumoniae at 2 inocula in opposite thighs of the same mice. Neutropenic mice had 10(4.5) to 10(5.7) CFU/thigh (low inoculum [LI]) in one thigh and 10(6.4) to 10(7.2) CFU/thigh (high inoculum [HI]) in the opposite thigh when treated for 24 h with subcutaneous (s.c.) doses every 12 h of DAP at 0.024 to 100 mg/kg of body weight and LZD at 0.313 to 320 mg/kg and s.c. doses every 6 h of CFB at 0.003 to 160 mg/kg and VAN at 0.049 to 800 mg/kg. Dose-response data were analyzed by a maximum effect (E(max)) model using nonlinear regression. Static doses for each drug and at each inoculum were calculated, and the difference between HI and LI (IE index) gave the magnitude of IE for each drug-organism combination. Mean (range) IE indexes of S. aureus were 2.9 (1.7 to 4.6) for CFB, 4.1 (2.6 to 9.3) for DAP, 4.6 (1.7 to 7.1) for LZD, and 10.1 (6.3 to 20.3) for VAN. In S. pneumoniae, the IE indexes were 2.5 (1.3 to 3.3) for CFB, 2.0 (1.6 to 2.8) for DAP, 1.9 (1.7 to 2.2) for LZD, and 1.5 (0.8 to 3.2) for VAN; these values were similar for all drugs. In S. aureus, the IE was much larger with VAN than with CFB, DAM, and LZD (P < 0.05). An in vivo time course of vancomycin activity showed initiation of killing at 4- to 16-fold-higher doses at HI than at LI despite similar initial growth of controls.

  12. IN VITRO GROWTH CHARACTERISTICS OF rIL3 STIMULATED MEGAKARYOCYTIC PROGENITOR CELLS (CFU-MK) OF FETAL LIVER%基因重组白细胞介素3刺激胎肝巨核细胞祖细胞生长的特性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马东初; 孙英慧; 常奎忠

    1997-01-01

    本文采用血浆凝块、甲基纤维素半固体和液体培养体系结合流式细胞仪巨核细胞DNA双荧光分析,观察了4~5个月胎肝和成人骨髓CFU-MK在体外的增殖和分化特点.结果表明,无论以基因重组白细胞介素3(Interleukin-3,rIL3)或再障狗血清(Meg-CSA)作为刺激因子,胎肝CFU-MK集落均较大(大于50个细胞/集落),而成人骨髓CFU-MK集落均较小(小于50个细胞/集落).在以rIL3(2 ng/ml)为刺激因子时,胎肝巨核细胞祖细胞(CFU-MK)集落产率(36.40±16.60)高于成人骨髓(10.05±2.81)(P<0.01).与此相反,胎肝CFU-MK源巨核细胞DNA倍性分布以2N和4N为主,成人骨髓则以8N和4N为主,前者的平均倍性值(5.46±0.86)明显低于后者(10.13±1.30)(P<0.01).同样,在以Meg-CSA为刺激因子时,也获得了类似的结果,提示胎肝CFU-MK具有很强的增殖能力和较低的分化(倍体化)能力.另外,胎肝CFU-MK集落产率在rIL3浓度为0.5~2 ng/ml时逐渐上升,而在2~8 ng/ml则持续下降.但在相同浓度范围内,rIL3对成人骨髓CFU-MK和胎肝CFU-GM的作用均无这种双向效应.Meg-CSA(5%~25%)对胎肝、成人骨髓CFU-MK和胎肝CFU-GM的作用也呈明显的剂量效应曲线.而且,胎肝CFU-MK源巨核细胞DNA倍性分布在两种不同刺激因子作用下无明显差别,在含有rIL3体系中加入rIL6后,对巨核细胞DNA倍性分布也没有影响.这似乎在暗示胎肝CFU-MK通过细胞内的自身修饰以适应胚胎时期的生理特点.

  13. Growth advantage of chronic myeloid leukemia CFU-GM in vitro: survival to growth factor deprivation, possibly related to autocrine stimulation, is a more common feature than hypersensitivity to GM-CSF/IL3 and is efficiently counteracted by retinoids +- alpha-interferon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrero, D; Foli, C; Giaretta, F; Argentino, C; Rus, C; Pileri, A

    2001-03-01

    Bcr/abl fusion gene, in experimental models, induces survival to growth factor deprivation and hypersensitivity to IL3. However, conflicting data were reported about chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) progenitors. We investigated the responsiveness of purified CML CFU-GM to GM-CSF/IL3 and their survival to growth factor deprivation. CFU-GM hypersensitivity to IL3 and/or GM-CSF was found in 3/11 CML cases only. CML CFU-GM survived well in stroma-free 'mass' culture (5 x 10(4) cells/ml) without cytokine addition, up to day 11, average recovery being around 95% in medium + 10% fetal bovine serum and 67-81% in serum-free medium. Conversely, normal progenitors declined steadily, particularly after extensive purification (18 +/- 10% recovery at the 7th day), and in serum-free medium (4 +/- 6% recovery). By contrast, normal and CML CFU-GM declined in a similar way in limiting dilution cultures (1-10 cells/50 microl). We also investigated the effects of retinoic acid and alpha-interferon on CFU-GM survival. Both all-trans- and 13-cis retinoic acid, particularly in combination with alpha-interferon, reduced CML CFU-GM recovery down to normal progenitors' values. In conclusion, hypersensitivity to CSFs is rare in CML, whereas resistance to growth factor deprivation has been confirmed in mass, but not in limiting, dilution cultures. Both stereoisomers of retinoic acid, at therapeutic concentrations and in combination with alpha-interferon, can overcome the survival advantage of CML progenitors.

  14. Study on bone marrow CFU-F and soteogenesis in vivo and in vitro%骨髓CFU-F体内、体外成骨功能研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘雅娟; 王莉馨; 于洪臣; 范洪学; 林军

    2001-01-01

    Objective To study the reationship between bone marrow stromal cells and osteogenesis for clinical application.Method The Luria organ culture in vitro,transplantation under the renal capsule and paraffin sections,Gomori-dye and Von Kossa-dye were used.Results Cartilage and bone stroma were foumed under the renal capsule and calcificated bone were observed in vitro in the presence of β-GP.Conclusion Bone marrow CFU-F are pluripotential stromal stem cells which are capable of proliferating and differentiating into all stromal cells lines necessary for the formation of bone and reconstitution of the hematopoietic inductive microenvironment.%目的:研究骨髓基质成纤维细胞与成骨的关系,为临床应用奠定基础。方法:采用Liuria多器官培养器体外器官培养法、肾被膜下移植技术以及石蜡切片技术、Gomori染色和Von Kossa染色技术。结果:移植物在肾被膜下形成软骨细胞团及骨基质;在β-GP存在下,骨髓基质CFU-F体外培养可见形成钙化的骨板。结论:骨髓基质CFU-F为基质多能干细胞,能增生分化为成骨以及造血诱导微环境所必需的各种基质细胞系。

  15. Supportive effects of stromal cells derived from human embryonic aorta-gonad-mesonepheros(AGM) region on the ability of umbilical cord blood CD34+ cells to form HPP-CFU%人AGM区基质细胞对脐血CD34+细胞形成HPP-CFU能力的支持作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈惠芹; 张涤华; 张绪超

    2007-01-01

    目的 探讨人主动脉-性腺-中肾(AGM)区基质细胞对脐血CD34+细胞形成高增殖潜能集落形成单位(HPP-CFU)能力的支持作用.方法 采用免疫磁珠方法分离人脐血CD34+细胞,接种于底层已制备好人AGM区基质细胞S1~S5饲养层的24孔板中,同时设无饲养层组及取自同期胚胎的躯干成纤维细胞hFT为对照,体外培养28天,每7天收获细胞行造血细胞集落培养.结果 5株人AGM区基质细胞hAGMS1~S5对HPP-CFU均有不同程度的扩增及维持作用,HPP-CFU在培养14天达到峰值,与无饲养层组、hFT组比较差异有统计学意义(P<0.05).hAGMS1~S5的造血支持作用组间比较差异亦有统计学意义(P<0.05),其中hAGMS3、S4优于S1、S2及S5.结论 人AGM区基质细胞S1~S5对脐血CD34+细胞形成HPP-CFU的能力具有支持作用,特别是hAGNS3、S4两株细胞具有更好的造血干性维持作用,为胚胎早期造血发生机制研究提供了重要的模式细胞和基础资料.

  16. Alternative methods in toxicology: CFU assays application, limitation and future prospective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Navneet Kumar; Shukla, Pooja; Omer, Ankur; Singh, Poonam; Singh, R K

    2016-01-01

    Blood is a fluid connective tissue which plays a vital role for normal body function. It consist different type of blood cells which is continuously reproduce inside the bone marrow from hematopoietic system. Xenobiotics could be specifically toxic to the hematopoietic system and they can cause hematological disorders by disturbing the normal functions. In vitro hematopoietic colony-forming cell assays play a crucial role to evaluate potential toxic effects of new xenobiotics and also helpful in bridging the gap between preclinical toxicology studies in animal models and clinical investigations. Use of these assays in conjunction with, high-throughput screening reduces the cost and time associated with these assays. This article provides a critical view over in vitro hematopoietic colony-forming cell assays in assessment of hematotoxicity.

  17. Counting mycobacteria in infected human cells and mouse tissue: a comparison between qPCR and CFU.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pathak, Sharad; Awuh, Jane A; Leversen, Nils Anders; Flo, Trude H; Asjø, Birgitta

    2012-01-01

    Due to the slow growth rate and pathogenicity of mycobacteria, enumeration by traditional reference methods like colony counting is notoriously time-consuming, inconvenient and biohazardous. Thus, novel methods that rapidly and reliably quantify mycobacteria are warranted in experimental models to facilitate basic research, development of vaccines and anti-mycobacterial drugs. In this study we have developed quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) assays for simultaneous quantification of mycobacterial and host DNA in infected human macrophage cultures and in mouse tissues. The qPCR method cannot discriminate live from dead bacteria and found a 10- to 100-fold excess of mycobacterial genomes, relative to colony formation. However, good linear correlations were observed between viable colony counts and qPCR results from infected macrophage cultures (Pearson correlation coefficient [r] for M. tuberculosis = 0.82; M. a. avium = 0.95; M. a. paratuberculosis = 0.91). Regression models that predict colony counts from qPCR data in infected macrophages were validated empirically and showed a high degree of agreement with observed counts. Similar correlation results were also obtained in liver and spleen homogenates of M. a. avium infected mice, although the correlations were distinct for the early phase (< day 9 post-infection) and later phase (≥ day 20 post-infection) liver r = 0.94 and r = 0.91; spleen r = 0.91 and r = 0.87, respectively. Interestingly, in the mouse model the number of live bacteria as determined by colony counts constituted a much higher proportion of the total genomic qPCR count in the early phase (geometric mean ratio of 0.37 and 0.34 in spleen and liver, respectively), as compared to later phase of infection (geometric mean ratio of 0.01 in both spleen and liver). Overall, qPCR methods offer advantages in biosafety, time-saving, assay range and reproducibility compared to colony counting. Additionally, the duplex format allows enumeration of bacteria per host cell, an advantage in experiments where variable cell death can give misleading colony counts.

  18. Radioprotection of bone marrow stem cell subsets by interleukin-1 and kit-ligand : Implications for CFU-S as the responsible target cell population

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Os, Ronald; Lamont, G; Witsell, A; Mauch, PM

    1997-01-01

    Various cytokines have been reported to have radioprotective effects on the bone marrow. Of these, c-kit-ligand (KL) and interleukin-1 (IL-1) have the most dramatic effect when given prior to total body irradiation (TBI). Given simultaneously, KL and IL-1 demonstrated a strong effect on increasing t

  19. 环孢素在体外对再生障碍性贫血的干预作用%Intervention Effect of Cyclosporine A in Vitro on Hematopoietic Cells in Patients with Aplastic Anemia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贾志凌; 何学鹏; 刘畅; 刘端琪; 陈书长

    2005-01-01

    目的:观察环孢素(CsA)在体外对再生障碍性贫血(AA)的粒/巨噬系祖细胞(CFU-GM)和红系祖细胞(CFU-E)的作用,为临床应用提供实验依据.方法:采用RPMI1640琼脂和McCoy's5A甲基纤维素半固体平皿法,观察了CsA在体外对54例AA患者CFU-GM和CFU-E的影响,并以30例正常人作对照.结果:①AA患者的CFU-GM、CFU-E较对照组明显减低(P<0.01).②CsA能明显促进AA患者CFU-GM、CFU-E的增殖,这种促增殖作用随CsA剂量增加而增加.③重型AA患者CFU-GM和CFU-E对CsA的有效率较慢性AA高.④CFU-GM和CFU-E值中、重度减低的AA患者对CsA的有效率较无CFU-GM和CFU-E生长的AA患者高.结论:CsA在体外可促进部分AA患者CFU-GM、CFU-E的增殖,故可作为治疗AA的一种有效方法.

  20. STUDIES ON THE HYPERTHERMIC SENSITIVITY OF THE MURINE HEMATOPOIETIC STEM-CELL COMPARTMENT .1. HEAT-EFFECTS ON CLONOGENIC STEM-CELLS AND PROGENITORS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    WIERENGA, PK; KONINGS, AWT

    1993-01-01

    The heat sensitivity at 42 degrees, 43 degrees and 44 degrees C of various hematopoietic subsets in murine bone marrow (MRA, CFU-S-12, CFU-S-8, CFU-GM, BFU-E and CFU-E) was investigated in order to determine whether there is a relationship between heat sensitivity and the position of cells within th

  1. A comparison of environmental contamination by patients infected or colonized with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus or vancomycin-resistant enterococci: a multicenter study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knelson, Lauren P; Williams, David A; Gergen, Maria F; Rutala, William A; Weber, David J; Sexton, Daniel J; Anderson, Deverick J

    2014-07-01

    A total of 1,023 environmental surfaces were sampled from 45 rooms with patients infected or colonized with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) or vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) before terminal room cleaning. Colonized patients had higher median total target colony-forming units (CFU) of MRSA or VRE than did infected patients (median, 25 CFU [interquartile range, 0-106 CFU] vs 0 CFU [interquartile range, 0-29 CFU]; P = .033).

  2. 人巨细胞病毒对造血系统的影响%Effect of human cytomegalovirus on hematopoietic system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何政贤; 潘思年; 陈健良; 熊伟; 李琨; 王清文; 邹小兵; 黄略峰; 陈美莲; 杨默

    2003-01-01

    目的探讨人巨细胞病毒(HCMV)对造血系统的影响及其机制.方法采用造血祖细胞体外半固体培养技术,研究HCMV AD169株对粒-巨噬系祖细胞(CFU-GM)、红系祖细胞(CFU-E)、多向造血祖细胞(CFU-Mix)及巨核系祖细胞(CFU-MK)集落生长的影响;分别用原位聚合酶链反应(IS-PCR)和聚合酶链反应(PCR)检测CFU-GM、 CFU-Mix、 CFU-MK及CFU-E集落细胞中的HCMV DNA; 用逆转录聚合酶链反应(RT-PCR)检测CFU-E集落细胞中的晚期抗原(late antigen,LA) mRNA及CFU-MK集落细胞中的前早期抗原(immediate early antigen,IEA)) mRNA;用免疫组化方法检测CFU-Mix集落细胞中HCMV早期蛋白P52.结果 HCMV AD169株在体外能明显抑制CFU-GM、CFU-E, CFU-Mix及CFU-MK的生长,抑制程度与病毒感染滴度呈剂量依赖关系;经IS-PCR或PCR检测发现病毒感染组CFU-GM, CFU-E, CFU-Mix及CFU-MK细胞中有HCMV DNA存在;RT-PCR检测发现病毒感染组CFU-MK细胞中有IEA mRNA的表达,而CFU-E细胞中的LA mRNA为阴性;免疫组化(IHC)检测发现病毒感染组CFU-Mix集落细胞中有HCMV P52的表达.结论 HCMV AD169可抑制CFU-GM, CFU-E, CFU-Mix及CFU-MK的分化和增殖;HCMV AD169对造血系统有直接损害作用.此作用可能是HCMV感染所致的粒细胞和血小板减少及贫血的原因之一.

  3. Effect of human cytomegalovirus on proliferation of hematopoietic progenitor cells of cord blood%人类巨细胞病毒感染对脐血造血祖细胞增殖的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘文君; 金润铭; 付晓冬; 刘斌; 郭渠莲; 邓正华

    2006-01-01

    目的探讨人类巨细胞病毒(HCMV)感染对脐血造血祖细胞(CFU-GM、CFU-E、BFU-E、CFU-Mix及CFU-Mk)体外增殖的抑制作用及其机制.方法20例脐血标本收集于正常足月顺产新生儿.实验共分5组:(1)3个HCMV感染组,每个感染组分别加入0.1 mL的103、104及105空斑形成单位(PFU)HCMV-AD169病毒液于培养体系中;(2)灭活对照组,加入同体积灭活HCMV病毒液;(3)空白对照组,不加HCMV病毒液,代之以同体积的IMDM.采用造血祖细胞体外半固体培养技术,培养、观察、计数HCMV-AD169株对脐血CFU-GM、CFU-E、BFU-E、CFU-Mix及CFU-Mk集落数、抑制率和集落维持时间;并用聚合酶链反应(PCR)技术检测集落细胞内HCMV-DNA.结果(1)在造血祖细胞培养体系中加入不同滴度的HCMV-AD169后,104和105PFU滴度感染对CFU-GM、CFU-E、BFU-E、CFU-Mix及CFU-Mk集落形成均有显著的抑制作用,103PFU滴度感染对CFU-Mix及CFU- Mk集落形成有显著的抑制作用,与空白对照组和灭活对照组比较,差异有显著性(P<0.05).病毒滴度越高,抑制程度越明显(P<0.05).(2)104和105 PFU滴度感染组CFU-GM、CFU-E、BFU-E、CFU-Mix及CFU-Mk集落维持时间较对照组明显缩短(P<0.01),103 PFU滴度感染组CFU-Mix和CFU-Mk集落维持时间较对照组明显缩短(P<0.01).(3)PCR显示3个感染组的CFU-GM、CFU-E、CFU-Mix及CFU-Mk集落细胞内均有HCMV-AD169 DNA存在.结论HCMV-AD169能直接感染CFU-GM、CFU-E、BFU-E、CFU-Mix及CFU-Mk造血祖细胞,并抑制造血祖细胞的增殖,这可能与HCMV感染患儿出现粒细胞减少、血小板减少和贫血等造血功能紊乱有关.%Objective This study was designed to investigate the effect of human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) on the proliferation of colony forming unit granulocyte-macrophage ( CFU-GM ), CFU-erythroid ( CFU-E), burst forming uniterythroid (BFU-E), CFU-multipotential (CFU-Mix) and CFU-megakaryocytic (CFU-Mk) progenitor cells of cord blood in vitro as well as

  4. 环孢菌素A体外对再生障碍性贫血患者造血祖细胞的作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贾志凌; 何学鹏; 刘端祺; 陈书长

    2003-01-01

    目的 观察了环孢菌素A(CSA)体外对18例再生障碍性贫血(AA)和10例正常对照粒系祖细胞(CFU-GM)和红系祖细胞(CFU-E)的作用。方法 采用RPMI 1640琼脂和Mc-CoY’S5A甲基纤维素半固体平皿法。结果 (1)从患者的CFU-GM、CFU-E较正常对照明显减低(P<0.001)。(2)CSA能明显促进AA患者CFU-GM、CFU-E的增殖,这种促增殖作用随CSA剂量增加而增加。(3)重型AA患者CFU-GM和CFU-E对CSA的有效率较慢性AA高。(4)CFU-GM和CFU-E值中、重度减低的AA患者对CSA的有效率较无CFU-GM和CFU-E生长的AA患者高。结论 CSA体外可促进部分AA患者CFU-GM、CFU-E的增殖。

  5. Effect of cytomegalovirus infection on proliferation of committed stem cells with the presence of Astragalus Membranaceus injection in vitro%巨细胞病毒感染对定向干细胞增殖的影响及黄芪的干预作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘文君; 金润铭; 郭渠莲; 刘斌; 邓正华; 付晓冬; 张迎春; 袁亚杰

    2006-01-01

    目的:探讨巨细胞病毒(CMV)感染对定向干细胞(CFU-Gm、CFU-E、BFU-E、CFU-Mk及CFU-TL)体外增殖抑制的影响及黄芪的干预作用.方法:采用造血细胞培养技术,培养、观察、计数CMV-AD169感染CFU-Gm、CFU-E、BFU-E、CFU-Mk及CFU-TL后各祖细胞集落及维持时间;用聚合酶链反应(PCR)和荧光定量PCR技术检测集落细胞内CMV-AD169DNA;根据细胞毒性实验结果,将黄芪作用于CMV感染的CFU-Gm、CFU-E、BFU-E、CFU-Mk及CFU-TL祖细胞,再分别计数集落、峰期及维持时间.结果:(1)CMV感染组CFU-Gm、CFU-E、BFU-E、CFU-Mk及CFU-TL集落数较对照组明显减少(P<0.01);集落维持时间CMV感染组较对照组明显缩短;(2)用PCR在感染组集落细胞内检测到HCMV-DNA的存在;(3)黄芪作用于CMV感染的定向干细胞后,与病毒组比较集落数明显提高(P<0.01),集落增殖提高率分别为CFU-GM 27.2%;CFU-E 45.2%;BFU-E49.1%;CFU-Mk11.9%,CFE-TL55.2%,且集落维持时间明显延长;(4)荧光定量PCR技术检测集落细胞内CMV-DNA复制较CMV感染组明显减少(P<0.01).结论:CMV-AD169株在体外能明显抑制CFU-Gm、CFU-E、BFU-E、CFU-Mk及CFU-TL集落细胞的增殖;在体外黄芪有明显抗CMV作用,能促进CMV感染的定向干细胞增殖.

  6. Microorganisms associated with Maari, a Baobab seed fermented product

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parkouda, Charles; Thorsen, Line; Compaoré, Clarisse S.;

    2010-01-01

    , as the predominant LAB. In Maari collected from retail outlets the AMB count ranged from 6.7 log10 CFU/g to 10 log10 CFU/g while the LAB load ranged from 4.4 log10 CFU/g to 9.9 log10 CFU/g. The AMB were identified as belonging to genus Bacillus (12 species), Staphylococcus (3 species) and one species of Aerococcus...

  7. [Effects of nitrogen fertilization on seasonal dynamics of soil microbial biomass carbon and nitrogen in Larix gmelinii and Fraxinus mandshurica plantations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Shu-xi; Zhao, Yan-li; Sun, Yue; Chen, Li; Wang, Zheng-quan

    2009-09-01

    This paper studied the seasonal dynamics of soil microbial biomass C (Cmic) and N (Nmic), and of bacteria (cfu(b)), fungi (cfu(f)), and actinomyces (cfu(a)) in Larix gmelinii and Fraxinus mandshurica plantations in 2007-2008 under N fertilization. The two-year averaged soil Cmic and Nmic in L. gmelinii plantation were 13.8% and 18.3% lower than those in F. mandshurica plantation, respectively, but the soil Cmic and Nmic in the two plantations had similar seasonal patterns, being the lowest in May and the highest in September. The Cmic and Nmic, and the cfu(b), cfu(r), and cfu(a), were all greater in topsoil (0-10 cm) than in subsoil (10-20 cm), but the seasonal patterns of cfu(b), cfu(f), and cfu(a), were different from those of Cmic and Nmic. N fertilization decreased the Cmic and Nmic, and the cfu(b), cfu(f), and cfu(a), significantly, with the decrements of Cmic and Nmic being 24% and 63% in L. gmelinii plantation, and 51% and 68% in F. mandshurica, respectively, which suggested that N fertilization limited soil microbial biomass and altered soil microbial communities in the two plantations.

  8. Population of bacteria from soil in Tudu-Aog village, Passi district, Bolaang Mongondow, North Sulawesi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RIANI HARDININGSIH

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available An experiment was conducted in order to know the population of bacteria from soil in Tudu-Aog village, Passi district, Bolaang Mongondow, North Sulawesi, the purpose of the research was to study the population of bacteria from soil. Fourthy six soil samples were taken from two location, namelyTudu-Aog village and Bugis mountain. Isolation was done by dilution methods on YEMA medium (for Rhizobium bacteria, Winogradsky’s (for Azotobacter bacteria, Pycosvkaya (for Phosphat Solubilizing Bacteria, and selective Difco Pseudomonas (for Pseudomonas bacteria. Incubation at room temperature (27-280C until 15 days, and the enumeration with plate count method. The highest enumeration of Rhizobium bacteria with plant rhizosphere of Alocasia esculenta (27x105 CFU/g soil, Theobroma cacao (29x105 CFU/g soil,and Euphorbia paniculata (26x105 CFU/g soil, Azotobacter bacteria with plant rhizosphere of Lycopersicum esculantum (38x105 CFU/g soil, Eugenia aromaticum (43x105 CFU/g soil, Andropogon sp. (34x105 CFU/g soil, Phosphat Solubilizing bacteria with plant rhizosphere of Sechium edule (27x105 CFU/g soil, Cinnamomum sp. (48x105 CFU/g soil, Cyathea sp. (72x105 CFU/g soil, and Pseudomonas bacteria with plant rhizosphere of Oryza sativa (18x105 CFU/g soil, Vanilla sp. (12x105 CFU/g soil, dan Saurauia sp.(19x105 CFU/g soil.

  9. Ineffectiveness of handwashing with lotion soap to remove nosocomial bacterial pathogens persisting on fingertips: a major link in their intrahospital spread.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bottone, Edward J; Cheng, Mark; Hymes, Saul

    2004-03-01

    The effectiveness of five 30-second handwashes with a non-antiseptic lotion soap to remove nosocomial pathogens (10(8) CFU) applied to fingertips was studied. CFU for all species dropped rapidly after the first handwash; persistence (10 to 15 CFU) was maintained thereafter. Wiping hands with an antiseptic (70% isopropyl or 10% povidone-iodine) sponge removed persisters.

  10. Epithelial entry rather than the ensuing systemic immune response determines the pathogenicity of two Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium strains in a mouse model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Rikke Brandt; Petersen, Anne; Pedersen, Susanne Brix;

    2013-01-01

    .Oral administration of a ten-fold lower number of SL1344 (106 CFU) as compared to DT120 (107 CFU) resulted in higher bacterial counts in liver and lymph nodes, and led to massive neutrophil infiltration of the spleen, while DT120 administration did not. In contrast, administration of the same dose (103 CFU...

  11. Influence of environmental factors on airborne fungi in houses of Santa Fe City, Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basilico, Maria de la Luz Z; Chiericatti, Carolina; Aringoli, E Elena; Althaus, Rafael L; Basilico, Juan Carlos

    2007-04-15

    This study investigated concentration and types of airborne fungi spores of indoor air. Forty nine houses of Santa Fe city (Argentina) were examined during one year. This city is characterized by a warm climate with an annual mean temperature of 18.6 degrees C and a relative humidity of 74.6%. Based on similar characteristics, a group of representative houses were selected from both urban and suburban areas. The study began by evaluating the airborne fungal concentrations on environmental factors such as area (urban-suburban), season (winter-summer) and presence/absence of a convection gas-fired heating system during winter. Samples were taken with a Standard RCS centrifugal air sampler which operates on the principle of impact onto an agar media strip by centrifugal force. Strips were filled with malt extract agar containing chloramphenicol to inhibit bacterial growth. After incubation and identification, concentrations of airborne fungi were calculated as CFU/m(3). Indoor results showed the presence of thirteen dominant genera: Cladosporium (58.90%), Alternaria (8.68%), Epicoccum (5.74%), Fusarium (5.37%), Curvularia (3.50%), Acremonium (1.27%), Drechslera (1.26%), Penicillium (1.25%), Aspergillus (1.14%), Mucor (0.61%), Ulocladium (0.57%), Nigrospora (0.48%), Chrysosporium (0.42%) and yeast (3.74%), whose presence varied throughout the year. Multivariate Analyses of Variance were performed to study the influence of environmental factors on concentrations of fungal flora. The results obtained were significant for season (lambda=0.1225), area (lambda=0.6371) and for the presence of a convection gas-fired heating system during winter (lambda=0.4765). ANOVA test for the season showed the highest fungal levels (Geometric Mean) in the summer for Alternaria (181.97 CFU/m(3) vs. 17.38 CFU/m(3)), Fusarium (158.49 CFU/m(3) vs. 2.14 CFU/m(3)), Curvularia (66.07 CFU/m(3) vs. 1.62 CFU/m(3)), Acremonium (7.24 CFU/m(3) vs. 2.29 CFU/m(3)), Mucor (3.16 CFU/m(3) vs. 1.15 CFU/m(3

  12. 3种不同血清型副溶血弧菌对异育银鲫的急性毒性研究%The Acute Toxicity Test about the Different Serological Type of Vibrio parahaemolyticus for Carassius auratus gibelio var.Songpu

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孟小亮; 贺中华; 田甜; 李波

    2009-01-01

    在静水条件下,采用1×109 CFU/ml,1×108 CFU/ml,1×107 CFU/ml,1×106 CFU/ml,1×103 CFU/ml的副溶血弧菌(Vibrio parahaemolyticus)对异育银鲫幼苗进行人工注射感染,通过96小时急性毒性试验,测定不同浓度副溶血弧菌血清型对异育银鲫LC50值和安全浓度.结果显示,血清型为01:KⅢ,01:KⅥ,05:KⅣ的副溶血弧菌对异育银鲫96小时的LC50值分别为7.9×106 CFU/ml,2.0×106 CFU/ml,7.9×106 CFU/ml.异育银鲫对血清型01:KⅢ,01:KⅥ,05:KⅣ的安全浓度分别为6.3×104 CFU/ml,1.66×103 CFU/ml,3.7×103 CFU/ml.

  13. Serological diagnosis of experimental Enterococcus faecalis endocarditis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjerulf, A; Espersen, F; Gutschik, E;

    1998-01-01

    in an increase in the CFU/g vegetation and the CFU/g spleen, the ID50 being about 10 CFU/ml and the ID90 about 1x10(2) CFU/ml. The lowest bacterial inoculum infecting 100% of the rats was 3x10(3) CFU/ml, and for further investigations we used this inoculum size. Rats were sacrificed on day 2, 5, 7, 9, 11 and 28...... after infection. The CFU/g vegetation and the CFU/g spleen increased until day 7 and then decreased. Serum samples were collected from 129 rats at different times after challenge. Three different ELISA systems were established to measure the IgG antibody responses: E. faecalis sonicate ELISA (a pool...

  14. Relationship between microbe amount and security of steamed-bread%馒头的微生物指标与安全性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘长虹

    2007-01-01

    贮存实验证明,馒头的菌落总数超过106 cfu/g时出现感观品质劣变;保温贮存馒头,12h内菌落总数在104 cfu/g以下,霉菌数不超过60 cfu/g;4℃贮存5天馒头感官品质没有变化,菌落总数可以保证在106 cfu/g以下;冷馒头复热后菌落数从不超过106 cfu/g可以降低到103 cfu/g以下.市场馒头检验结果显示,商品馒头菌落总数多在800~5000 cfu/g之间,过严的要求企业难以实现.

  15. Microbial Effects on Selected Stored Fruits and Vegetables under Ambient Conditions in Makurdi, Benue State, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.E. Obetta

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Information on the level of contamination due to bacterial and fungal infestations on some of the freshly supplied fruits and vegetables in Makurdi, Benue State, Nigeria is lacking. This study investigated the microbial load of some freshly supplied fruits and vegetables in Makurdi which included Apples, Banana, Carrots and Oranges. As part of food quality surveillance study, this work looked at the incidence of pathogen associated with fruits and vegetables from three locations in Makurdi. The samples were evaluated for bacterial (coliforms and mesophiles and fungal (mold and yeast loads. Results of the microbial test showed that Apple had the average absolute highest microbial load with mesophilic aerobic plate count of 127 log10CFU/in2, coliform, 71 log10CFU/in2, yeast, 30 log10CFU/in2 and mold, 22.3 log10CFU/in2. Carrot and Banana followed with average absolute mesophilic aerobic plate count of 122.3 log10CFU/in2 and 113 log10CFU/in2, coliform of 97.7 and 42.7 log10CFU/in2, yeast, 23.7 and 23.7 log10CFU/in2 and mold, 20.7 and 28 log10CFU/in2, respectively. Orange had the least microbial load with an average absolute mesophilic aerobic plate count of 27.3 log10CFU/in2, coliform - 30.3 log10CFU/in2, yeast - 21 log10CFU/in2 and a mold count of 29.3 log10CFU/in2. The ANOVA results showed highly significant effects (p<0.01 of bacteria, fungi and the fruit/vegetable types in the three locations. The interaction effects between the microbes and the fruit/vegetables were significant and increased with length of storage.

  16. 脐带血清在骨髓造血祖细胞培养中的效应

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄友章; 罗晖; 杨平地; 汪声恒; 沈建良; 钱世德; 向丹; 唐亚辉; 岑坚; 李战强; 兰雨; 林园

    2000-01-01

    目的:探讨人脐带血清(CBS)在骨髓造血祖细胞培养中的效应,为脐血的应用提供实验依据.方法:用人骨髓单个核细胞,分别加入CBS或混合脐带血清(MCBS)和细胞因子,进行造血祖细胞(CFU-GM、CFU-E、BFU-E、CFU-GEMM)培养,观察集落数.结果:10%CBS能直接刺激骨髓细胞CFU-GM的形成.CBS的刺激活性和骨髓细胞血型相同与否无关.4人份以上的MCBS,刺激产生的CFU-GM显著高于单人份、双人份混合者,活性稳定.在CFU-GM培养时,20%MCBS与100ng/mlGM-CSF、20%马血清具有相同的效果.MCBS可提高CFU-GM、CFU-E、BFU-E、CFU-GEMM常规体系的集落产率.10%MCBS相当于65.6ng/ml GM-CSF、0.23U/ml、0.3U/ml 0.46U/ml Epo对CFU-GM、CFU-E、BFU-E、CFU-GEMM所起的作用.20%MCBS可直接刺激CFU-E形成.如培养体系内无BpA(爆式集落活性)存在时,形成 BFU-E、CFU-GEMM较少或几乎为零,当含BpA时,可形成一定量的BFU-E、CFU-GEMM集落.结论:CBS(MCBS)内含有能刺激CFU-GM、CFU-E、BFU-E、CFU-GEMM的生长活性;同血型或不同血型4人份以上混合,其刺激活性高,且稳定.具有良好的应用前景.

  17. 原料奶微生物HACCP控制体系的研究%Studies on the control system of hazard analysis critical control point (HACCP) of the raw milk's microbe quality

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    范江平; 毛华明

    2004-01-01

    系统评价了昆明雪兰牛奶有限公司来自6个机械挤奶规模化奶牛场、6个机械挤奶奶牛合作社和6个手工挤奶奶站的原料奶的微生物指标,研究了原料奶生产贮运过程关键控制点和控制措施.结果表明:(1)机械挤奶规模化奶牛场原料奶、机械挤奶奶牛合作社原料奶和农户手工挤奶站原料奶细菌总数分别平均为346 875 cfu/ml(60750~180000 cfu/ml)、155206cfu/ml(2 950~812500cfu/ml)和2 385 167cfu/ml(298 500~6 700000 cfu/ml);芽孢总数分别为424 cfu/ml(30~2380 cfu/ml)、102 cfu/ml(10~310 cfu/ml)和762 cfu/ml(70~2 270 cfu/ml);耐热芽孢总数分别为100cfu/ml(5~610 cfu/ml)、45 cfu/ml(10~100 cfu/ml)和102cfu/ml(10~350 cfu/ml);嗜冷菌数分别为2366cfu/mi(42~5 900 cfu/ml)、1 912 cfu/ml(90~4600 cfu/ml)和6 082 cfu/ml(1075~18 000 cfu/ml).(2)牛奶中微生物数量第1滴至第5滴奶中最高,随后有明显下降.(3)刚挤下牛奶,贮藏前、后的牛奶,运输前、后的牛奶中微生物数量逐渐增加,其中运输前、后增加最多.(4)通过挤奶时对奶牛乳房采用一次性纸巾清洁、废弃头三把奶、乳头药浴、牛奶贮藏温度维持在4~8℃、采用奶槽车运输将温度保持在4~8℃等措施,原料奶中微生物数量明显减少.

  18. Surveillance on Fungi in hospital environment%医院病房环境真菌监测分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕小林; 章登珊; 曹先伟

    2012-01-01

    Objective To survey the fungal density and distribution characteristics in wards of the hospital. Methods Fractional cultivation and DNA sequencing method were used to analyze fungi in hospital environment. Results In the air of respiratory, haematology and paediatrics wards, the fungal densities were higher than that of other wards, which were 400 GFU/m3, 225 CFU/rn and 200 CFU/m respectively, including mainly Aspergillus fumigatus (325 GFU/m 3) , Aspergilus flavus (275 CFU/m3) , Branch spore mold (125 CFU/m3 ) and Rhizopus (125 CFU/m3). At the air vent of air conditioning in geriatrics, oncology and haematology departments, fungal densities were higher, at 0. 559 CFU/cm2, 0. 5 CFU/cm 2and 0.323 CFU/cm2 respectively, which were mainly composed of Alternaria (0.441 CFU/cm2), Rhizopus (0.412 CFU/cm2) and Aspergillus fumigatus (0. 294 CFU/cm ) . The samples collected from air and air conditioning vent showed the highest concentrations of fungi, at 130 CFU/m3 and 0. 173 CFU/cm2 respectively. Conclusion Fungi exist extensively in the hospital, and its contamination varies in different environments. The cleansing and disinfection systems must be further improved to prevent nosocomial fungus infection.%目的 调查医院各病区环境中真菌含量及分布特点.方法 运用分离培养及DNA测序方法对医院不同病区、不同环境中真菌进行监测分析.结果 医院不同病区真菌含量不同,呼吸科、血液科、小儿科空气中真菌含量较高,分别为400、225和200 CFU/m3,其中以烟曲霉菌( 325 CFU/m3)、黄曲霉菌( 275 CFU/m3)、枝孢霉菌( 125 CFU/m3)、根霉( 125 CFU/m3)为主;老年病科、肿瘤科和血液科空调出气口真菌含量较高,分别为0.559、0.500和0.323 CFU/cm2,以链格孢霉(0.441 CFU/cm2)、根霉(0.412 CFU/cm2)、烟曲霉菌(0.294 CFU/cm2)为主;不同环境中真菌含量不同,其中以空气和空调出气口真菌含量最高,分别为130 CFU/m3、0.173 CFU/cm2.结论 真菌广泛存在于

  19. AFRRI (Armed Forces Radiobiology Research Institute) Reports, October, November and December 1987.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-03-01

    phagocytosis of the extruded mast cell granule by neutrophils, macrophages, or eosinophils could also lead to the production of various eicosanoids. The...1979) Identification of mega- T-cell subpopulation on the immune system in a rhesus mon- karyocyte, macrophages, and eosinophils in colonies of hu- key...units (CFU- tribution of recovered day 8 CFU-S was different S) was well separated from that of in vitro granu - from the distribution of day 12 CFU-S

  20. 75 FR 43072 - Trichoderma Hamatum Isolate 382; Exemption from the Requirement of a Tolerance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-23

    ... have been measured at levels between 1 x 10 4 and 1 x 10 8 colony- forming units (cfu) per gram dry... hamatum isolate 382 was not toxic, infective, and/or pathogenic to rats when dosed at up to 3.9 x 10 8 cfu... pathogenic to rats when dosed intratracheally at 1.3 x 10 7 cfu/animal (U.S. EPA 2009, 2010b, 2010c)....

  1. 沙棘油在体外对肾虚型再生障碍性贫血作用的实验研究%Experimental research on effect of sea buckthorn oil on marrow hematopoiesis in patients with aplastic anemia of kidney deficiency type in vitro GE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    葛志红; 王栋范; 宾冬梅; 李宜真

    2008-01-01

    目的 观察沙棘油在体外对肾阳虚、肾阴虚不同证型再生障碍性贫血(AA)患者红系集落形成单位(CFU-E)、粒巨噬细胞系集落形成单位(CFU-GM)的影响.方法 20例AA患者(肾阴虚型组及肾阳虚型组各10例),正常对照组10例,取其骨髓分离单个核细胞,以琼脂半固体培养联合沙棘油的方法,培养3、7 d后分别对比各组CFU-E、CFU-GM集落形成情况.结果 不同证型AA患者的CFU-E、CFU-GM较正常对照组明显减低(P<0.01);沙棘油能明显促进不同证型AA患者CFU-E、CFU-GM的集落生成,这种促进作用随沙棘油体积分数增加而增加;在体积分数不低于20%时,沙棘油对肾阳虚患者CFU-E、CFU-GM的疗效明显好于对肾阴虚患者的疗效(P<0.05).结论 沙棘油在体外对AA患者CFU-E、CFU-GM有一定的促增殖作用,且高剂量时对肾阳虚证型患者的作用优于肾阴虚证型患者.

  2. Contamination Profile For Staphylococci And Its Enterotoxins And Monitorization Of The Conditions Of Hygiene In A 'coalho' Cheese Production Line [perfil De Contaminação Por Staphylococcus E Suas Enterotoxinas E Monitorização Das Condições De Higiene Em Uma Linha De Produção De Queijo De Coalho

    OpenAIRE

    Borges M.D.F.; Nassu R.T.; Pereira J.L.; De Andrade A.P.C.; Kuaye A.Y.

    2008-01-01

    This research aimed to evaluate the contamination by staphylococci and its enterotoxins as well as to monitor the conditions of hygiene from a coalho cheese production line, using ATP bioluminescence assay. Staphylococcus sp. population varied from <1CFU mL-1, in pasteurized milk to 1.5 x 107CFU mL-1, in raw milk, whereas coagulase-positive staphylococci count ranged from <1CFU mL-1, in pasteurized milk to 5.0 x 106CFU mL-1 in raw milk. Coagulase-positive staphylococci were detected in ...

  3. Some soil properties and microbial biomass of Pinus maritima, Pinus pinea and Eucalyptus camaldulensis from the Eastern Mediterranean coasts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nacide Kizildag

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Salt-affected soils occupy wide areas that have ecological importance in semi-arid and arid regions. Excessive amounts of salt have adverse effects on soil physical and chemical properties and also on the microbiological processes. The soils of Pinus maritima, Pinus pinea, and Eucalyptus camaldulensis were found to be under salinity stress in the present study area. Thus, the carbon, nitrogen, phosphorus contents, microbial biomass, and carbon mineralization were determined in the soils sampled from the Tarsus-Karabucak Forest of the Eastern Mediterranean Region (Turkey. Method: Carbon mineralization of all samples was measured by the CO2 respiration method over 30 d at 28�C and constant moisture. Results: There were no significant differences in the carbon mineralization among the soils. The average fungi count in 1 g of air dried soils of E. camaldulensis, P. pinea, and P. maritima were found to be a 72000 colony forming unit (cfu/g, 25300 cfu/g, and 28500 cfu/g, respectively. The total bacterial counts were 4x103 cfu/g, 10x103 cfu/g, and 7x103 cfu/g and the counts of anaerobic bacteria were 17800 cfu/g, 42900 cfu/g, and 27300 cfu/g, respectively. Conclusion: It is possible to conclude that salt, as an ecological factor, had no effect on microbial activity. This may be as a result of heavy rains which decreased the salt concentrations of the soil in the sampling region.

  4. Development and Evaluation of Integrity Assessment Tests for Polymeric Hermetic Seals

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-02-19

    inoculated) 5 samples Total Polytrays 80 Microorganism Washes 1. Prepare Cultures of Enterobacter aerogenes a. 5 tubes (10 mL each) in...initial number – 6 log CFU/mL a. Add two tubes (20 mL) of Enterobacter aerogenes culture to 5 gallons of water with sodium thiosulfate b. Ca. 9 log CFU... Enterobacter aerogenes bucket to 5 gallon water with thiosulfate b. 1.06 x 108 CFU/18,925 mL – 5.6 x 103 CFU/mL 7. Dip all retorted polytrays for 2

  5. Reduction of thermotolerant Campylobacter species on broiler carcasses following physical decontamination at slaughter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boysen, Louise; Rosenquist, Hanne

    2009-01-01

    . The effects of all three techniques were evaluated and compared with the effect of freezing. Mean reductions obtained were 0.44 log CFU per carcass, 0.42 log CFU per sample, and 2.51 log CFU per carcass, respectively. All techniques resulted in significant reductions of the Campylobacter concentration...... in an increase of 0.9 log CFU per carcass, suggesting that Campylobacter counts also may be reduced by optimizing the hygienic design of equipment or by physical removal of fecal contamination....

  6. Effect of SS8, the Active Part of Spatholobus suberectus Dunn, on Proliferation of Hematopoietic Progenitor Cells in Mice with Bone Marrow Depression%鸡血藤活性成分SS8对骨髓抑制小鼠造血祖细胞增殖的作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王东晓; 陈孟莉; 殷建芬; 刘屏

    2003-01-01

    目的:研究鸡血藤单体成分SS8对骨髓抑制小鼠造血祖细胞(CFU-GM,CFU-E,BFU-E,CFU-Meg)增殖的影响.方法:采用甲基纤维素半固体培养法,通过对长期接受SS8治疗后的骨髓抑制小鼠造血祖细胞的培养,观察SS8对CFU-GM,CFU-E,BFU-E,CFU-Meg生长的作用.结果:SS8可显著刺激骨髓抑制小鼠CFU-GM,CFU-E,BFU-E,CFU-Meg生长,与对照组比较有显著差异(P<0.05).随时间延长、剂量增加,刺激作用逐渐加强.结论:SS8对骨髓抑制小鼠造血祖细胞的增殖有明显刺激作用,且有时间、剂量相关性.

  7. 儿茶素对小鼠造血祖细胞的刺激增殖作用%Effect of Catechin on the Proliferation of Hematopoietic Progenitor Cell in Mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    闫丽莎; 刘屏; 王东晓; 陈孟莉; 陈桂芸

    2008-01-01

    目的:观察儿茶素对小鼠造血祖细胞增殖作用.方法:通过造血祖细胞培养观察儿茶素对小鼠CFU-E、BFU-E、CFU-GM、CFU-Meg生长的作用.结果:加入儿茶素工作液后,CFU-GM、CFU-E、BFU-E、CFU-Meg集落数均明显升高.至100 nag·L-1时,各系造血祖细胞集落数均增加至最高,与未加儿茶素的实验组相比均有统计学差异(P<0.01).结论:儿茶素可明显促进小鼠造血祖细胞(CFU-GM、CFU-E、BFU-E、CFU-Meg)的增殖,并可与造血生长因子起协同效应,具有明显的造血促进作用.

  8. Seasonal Variations of Indoor Microbial Exposures and Their Relation to Temperature, Relative Humidity, and Air Exchange Rate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frankel, Mika; Bekö, Gabriel; Timm, Michael;

    2012-01-01

    inflammatory potential, particles (0.75 to 15 μm), temperature, relative humidity, and air exchange rates. Significant seasonal variation was found for all indoor microbial exposures, excluding endotoxin. Indoor fungi peaked in summer (median, 235 CFU/m3) and were lowest in winter (median, 26 CFU/m3). Indoor...... bacteria peaked in spring (median, 2,165 CFU/m3) and were lowest in summer (median, 240 CFU/m3). Concentrations of fungi were predominately higher outdoors than indoors, whereas bacteria, endotoxin, and inhalable dust concentrations were highest indoors. Bacteria and endotoxin correlated with the mass...

  9. 人类巨细胞病毒感染对脐血造血祖细胞体外增殖的影响%Influence of human cytomegalovirus on proliferation of Hematopoietic progenitor cells of cord blood in vitro

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘文君; 金润铭; 付晓冬; 郭渠莲; 刘斌; 邓正华; 袁亚杰; 张迎春

    2006-01-01

    目的:探讨人类巨细胞病毒(HCMV)感染对脐血造血祖细胞(CFU-Gm、CFU-E、BFU-E、CFU-Mix及CFU-Mk)体外增殖的抑制作用及其机制.方法:采用造血祖细胞体外半固体培养技术,培养、观察HCMV-AD169株对脐血CFU-Gm、CFU-E、BFU-E、CFU-Mix及CFU-Mk集落数、抑制率、集落峰值时间和集落维持时间;并用聚合酶链反应(PCR)技术检测集落细胞内HCMV-DNA.结果:①HCMV-AD169株的不同感染滴度[103、104及105空斑形成单位(PFU)/ml]均能明显抑制CFU-Gm、CFU-E、BFU-E、CFU-Mix及CFU-Mk集落的形成,集落数随病毒感染滴度的增高而明显减少;②与对照组比较集落的抑制率分别是a.105PFU感染组依次为40.9%、47.9%、53.3%、55.2%、42.1%(均P<0.01);b.104PFU感染组32.7%、30.2%、36.1%、35.1%、29.7%(均P<0.01);c.103PFU感染组8.0%、6.9%、8.2%、20.3%、14.5%(CFU-Gm、CFU-E、BFU-E与对照组比较差异无统计学意义,余均P<0.01),显示抑制程度与病毒感染滴度呈剂量依赖关系;③集落维持时间感染组较对照组明显缩短(P<0.05);④PCR检测感染组发现CFU-Gm、CFU-E、CFU-Mix及CFU-Mk集落细胞内均有HCMV-AD169DNA存在.结论:HCMV-AD169能直接感染CFU-Gm、CFU-E、BFU-E、CFU-Mix及CFU-Mk造血祖细胞,并抑制造血祖细胞的增殖,此可能与HCMV感染患儿出现粒细胞减少、血小板减少和贫血等造血功能紊乱有关.

  10. Expansion of cord blood primitive and committed progenitors cells in vitro%脐血造血干/祖细胞体外定向诱导扩增的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王秋实; 张锦华

    2002-01-01

    目的 观察不同因子组合在体外对脐血(CB)中的巨核系等造血祖细胞的诱导扩增作用.方法用体外液体悬浮培养法,将白细胞介素-3(IL-3)、白细胞介素-6(IL-6)、血小板生成素(TPO)、脐血血浆(CBP)作为刺激因子,添加不同的细胞因子组合,对CB的单个核细胞(MNC)短期培养21d.在培养的0、7、14、21d检测新鲜细胞和培养细胞中的有核细胞数(NC)、巨核系祖细胞(CFU-Mk)、粒巨噬系祖细胞(CFU-GM)、混合系祖细胞(CFU-GEMM)增殖倍数.结果在21d内,3个实验组的NC数,CFU-GM、CFU-Mk、CFU-GEMM都有不同程度的增加,其中NC、CFU-GM在培养的21d达到高峰.CFU-Mk、CFU-GEMM在培养的14d达高峰.在含有TPO的实验组中,CFU-Mk的增殖倍数高于不含TPO的实验组,CFU-GM、CFU-GEMM增殖的倍数也高于不含TPO的实验组.含有CBP的实验组对CFU-GM、CFU-Mk、CFU-GEMM有明显的促增殖作用.结论 CB中的含有丰富的造血干/祖细胞,可以在不同细胞因子的刺激下进行定向扩增,TPO可以促进干/祖细胞向巨核系分化,对粒巨噬系祖细胞也有促进作用.脐血血浆可以作为协同刺激因子促进CB中干/祖细胞增殖.

  11. Occurrence of Pathogenic Bacteria in Traditional Millet-Based Fermented Gruels for Young Children in West Africa: Ben-Saalga and Ben-Kida in Ouagadougou (Burkina-Faso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akaki David

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available A study was conducted to evaluate microbiological quality of traditionally millet-based fermented gruels consumed as weaning foods at different stages of the processes as prepared at household level in Ouagadougou, capital of Burkina Faso in 2004, February to May. Our methodology is based on the use of traditional enumeration of four categories of micro-organisms like the enterobacteria that cause fecal contaminations, staphylococcal for the hygiene of producers, Bacillus as cereals contaminant and diarrhea and vomiting agents for young children; Clostridium like telluric agents. These enumerations were coupled with the identification of the characteristic colonies. Fermentation followed by sufficient cooking remains a good means of reduction of the microbial population, especially non-sporulated micro-organisms. MC agar count at 35ºC went from 4.0×106 cfu/mL (before fermentation to 1.9×105 cfu/mL (after fermentation to reach zero values. On BP agar at 35ºC, the count was 5.1×105 cfu/mL (before fermentation, 2.3×105 cfu/mL (after fermentation and 7.2×104 cfu/mL (after cooking. On MYP agar at 35ºC, the results are as follows: 9.9×106 cfu/mL (before fermentation, 1.0×107 cfu/mL (after fermentation and 1.6×103 cfu/mL (after cooking. Finally, we obtained on TSC agar at 46ºC about 4.1×106 cfu/mL (before fermentation, 2.7×107 cfu/mL (after fermentation and 8.0×103 cfu/mL (after cooking. Identifications showed a strong presence of sporulated germs and non-sporulated acid tolerant germs especially after cooking. These results show how difficult these types of germs are to eliminate.

  12. The significance of colony culture and cell factor in the differential diagnosis of AA and MDS-RA%集落培养及细胞因子检测在AA与MDS-RA鉴别诊断中的意义

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁建英; 张宏; 孙兰云; 傅晋翔

    2002-01-01

    目的提高对再生障碍性贫血(AA)及骨髓增生异常综合征难治性贫血(MDS-RA)的鉴别诊断.方法对28例AA及16例MDS-RA患者进行骨髓单个核细胞(MNC)体外集落培养(CFU-GM及CFU-C)及血浆中多种细胞因子(IL-3、IL-6、IL-2、IL-8、γ-IFN及TNF-α)的检测.结果 AA及MDS-RA患者CFU-GM及CFU-C集落数均低于正常对照组,AA患者CFU-C集簇数低于正常对照组,MDS-RA患者CFU-GM及CFU-C集簇数与正常对照组无显著差异.AA与MDS-RA相比较,CFU-GM及CFU-C集落和集簇数均较低.AA及MDS-RA患者血浆中IL-3及IL-6与正常组无显著差异,AA患者IL-2、IL-8、γ-IFN、TNF-α及MDS-RA患者TNF-α均高于正常对照组,MDS-RA患者IL-2及IL-8低于AA组.结论 AA及MDS-RA患者骨髓MNC的CFU-GM及CFU-C集落及集簇数量以及血浆中某些细胞因子含量存在差异,有助于两者的鉴别.

  13. 两种乳杆菌在牙鲆消化道的定植%Colonization of two lactobacillus strains in gastro-intestine of flounder

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王福强; 呙于明; 陈营; 邵占涛

    2005-01-01

    利用从牙鲆肠道分离的1株鼠李糖乳杆菌P15和1株干酪乳杆菌,通过试验研究其在牙鲆消化道的定植和演替规律.在投喂含有1.2×109 cfu/g乳杆菌的饲料5 d后,消化道定植的乳酸菌超过106 cfu/g,其后维持在106~108 cfu/g动态平衡中;同时随着乳酸菌的增加,2组鱼消化道的弧菌均从107~108 cfu/g降低到105~107 cfu/g.停喂乳杆菌7 d后,2个试验组鱼消化道的乳酸菌均从105~106 cfu/g下降到104~105 cfu/g,P15组鱼小肠中弧菌从105 cfu/g回升到107 cfu/g;LC组鱼盲囊中弧菌从105 cfu/g回升到106 cfu/g,小肠中弧菌数量也有显著的增加.试验结果表明,2种乳杆菌均能在牙鲆消化道内定植;乳杆菌的投喂和定植,使牙鲆消化道中的弧菌数量明显下降.

  14. Evaluation of Bioaerosol in a Hospital in Tehran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Negar Darvishzadeh

    2013-05-01

    Conclusion: Comparison of bacteria density in different parts of the hospital with the recommended limits of ACGIH (500 CFU/m3 showed that density exceeded the limits in all units except in operating room whereas, density of fungi was less than the recommended limits of ACGIH (100 CFU/m3 in all units of hospital.

  15. A traditional Sudanese fermented camel's milk product, Gariss, as a habitat of Streptococcus infantarius subsp. infantarius

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abdelgadir, Warda; Nielsen, Dennis Sandris; Hamad, Siddig

    2008-01-01

    Samples of the traditional Sudanese fermented camel's milk product Gariss representing 9 different regions in Sudan were microbiologically characterized using an integrated approach including phenotypic and genotypic methods. Lactic acid bacteria [log(CFU/g) = 7.76-8.66] and yeasts [log(CFU/g) = 6...

  16. Efficient Generation of Corticofugal Projection Neurons from Human Embryonic Stem Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Xiaoqing; Ai, Zongyong; Hu, Xintian; Li, Tianqing

    2016-06-27

    Efforts to study development and function of corticofugal projection neurons (CfuPNs) in the human cerebral cortex for health and disease have been limited by the unavailability of highly enriched CfuPNs. Here, we develop a robust, two-step process for generating CfuPNs from human embryonic stem cells (hESCs): directed induction of neuroepithelial stem cells (NESCs) from hESCs and efficient differentiation of NESCs to about 80% of CfuPNs. NESCs or a NESC faithfully maintain unlimitedly self-renewal and self-organized abilities to develop into miniature neural tube-like structures. NESCs retain a stable propensity toward neuronal differentiation over culture as fate-restricted progenitors of CfuPNs and interneurons. When grafted into mouse brains, NESCs successfully integrate into the host brains, differentiate into CfuPNs and effectively reestablish specific patterns of subcortical projections and synapse structures. Efficient generation of CfuPNs in vitro and in vivo will facilitate human cortex development and offer sufficient CfuPNs for cell therapy.

  17. Immune responses of bison and efficacy after booster vaccination with Brucella abortus strain RB51

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thirty-one bison heifers were randomly assigned to saline (control; n=7) or single vaccination (n=24) with 1010 CFU of B. abortus strain RB51 (RB51). Some vaccinated bison were randomly selected for booster vaccination with 10**10 CFU of RB51 at 11 months after initial vaccination (n=16). When comp...

  18. Virulence of Escherichia coli B2 Isolates from Meat and Animals in a Murine Model of Ascending Urinary Tract Infection (UTI): Evidence that UTI Is a Zoonosis ▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakobsen, Lotte; Hammerum, Anette M.; Frimodt-Møller, Niels

    2010-01-01

    In vivo evidence of a connection between urinary tract infections (UTI) and foods is lacking. The virulence of 13 Escherichia coli B2 isolates from healthy animals and fresh meat was investigated in a murine model of ascending UTI. All isolates produced positive bladder cultures (102 to 107 CFU), and nine isolates produced positive kidney cultures (102 to 105 CFU). PMID:20519476

  19. Volumetric assessment of airborne indoor and outdoor fungi at poultry and cattle houses in the Mazandaran Province, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajoudanifar, Hatef; Hedayati, Mohammad T; Mayahi, Sabah; Khosravi, Alireza; Mousavi, Bita

    2011-09-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the volume of airborne fungi in the indoor and outdoor environment of poultry and cattle houses in the Mazandaran Province in Iran. Indoor and outdoor air of twenty cattle houses and twenty-five poultry houses were sampled using a single-stage impactor, which draws air at 20 L min-1 and impacts sampled material onto Petri plates containing malt extract agar. The plates were incubated at 30 °C for seven days, after which the resulting colonies were counted. The fungi were identified and counted microscopically and macroscopically. A total of 4,662 fungal colonies were isolated from 90 plates collected from indoor and outdoor air of cattle and poultry houses. Cladosporium (55.3 %), yeast (10.0 %), and Aspergillus (9.4 %) were the most common findings. The concentration of airborne fungi in cattle and poultry houses ranged from 10 CFU m-3 to 1700 CFU m-3 in indoor and 10 CFU m-3 to 2170 CFU m-3 in outdoor environments. Cladosporium had the highest mean indoor (424.5 CFU m-3) and outdoor (449.7 CFU m-3) air concentration in the cattle houses. In the poultry houses, the highest mean concentrations were measured for Cladosporium (551.0 CFU m-3) outdoors and yeast (440.7 CFU m-3) indoors. These levels might present an occupational risk, but threshold levels for these environments have yet to be established worldwide.

  20. KARAKTERISTIK KIMIA DAN MIKROBIOLOGISASAM DRIEN (DURIAN FERMENTASI DARI ACEH PADA BERBAGAI METODE PEMBUATAN Chemical and Microbiological Characteristics of Asam Drien (Fermented Durian from Aceh Made by Various Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murna Muzaifa

    2015-10-01

    mikrobiologis asam drien adalah sebagai berikut: kadar air 66.49%, pH 4.1, total asam 2.30%, total padatan terlarut 30.50%, total bakteri asam laktat 99×1010 CFU/g dan total khamir 18×10 6CFU/g. Kata kunci: Aceh, asam drien, durian fermentasi

  1. Influence of the blood bacterial load on the meningeal inflammatory response in Streptococcus pneumoniae meningitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, C; O´Reilly, T; Brandt, C

    2006-01-01

    was induced by intracisternal injection of approximately 1 x 10(6) CFU Streptococcus pneumoniae, type 3, and the 26 rabbits were either provided with approximately 1 x 10(6) CFU S. pneumoniae intravenously at 0 hour ("bacteraemic" rabbits, n = 9), immunized with paraformaldehyde-killed S. pneumoniae for 5...

  2. Urine Culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... with greater than 100,000 colony forming units (CFU)/mL of one type of bacteria usually indicate ... lower numbers (1,000 up to 100,000 CFU/mL) may indicate infection, especially if symptoms are ...

  3. 基因重组干扰素γ体外对骨髓增生异常综合征患者治疗作用的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贾志凌; 杨科; 陈书长; 梅巍; 江滨; 刘抗援; 张之南

    1998-01-01

    目的方法:用基因重组干扰素γ(IFN-γ)体外对41例骨髓增生异常综合征(MIDS)患者造血祖细胞的作用进行了观察,结果结论:①IFN-γ体外对正常对照组患者的CFU-E和CFU-GM无明显促增殖作用。而对MDS患者CFU-E和CFU-GM有明显促增殖作用。其作用为剂量依赖型,在1~U/ml时作用最小,100~U/ml时作用最强;②IFN-γ对MDS原CFU-E和CFU-GM增殖正常组加入IFN-γ后集落数增加最明显,而对增殖明显减低组集落效无明显增加;③IFN-γ对MDS不同FAB亚型患者CFU-E和CFU-GM作用不同,其中对RAEB-T型患者有效率较高。

  4. Adult Cardiac-Resident MSC-like Stem Cells with a Proepicardial Origin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chong, James J. H.; Chandrakanthan, Vashe; Xaymardan, Munira; Asli, Naisana S.; Li, Joan; Ahmed, Ishtiaq; Heffernan, Corey; Menon, Mary K.; Scarlett, Christopher J.; Rashidianfar, Amirsalar; Biben, Christine; Zoellner, Hans; Colvin, Emily K.; Pimanda, John E.; Biankin, Andrew V.; Zhou, Bin; Pu, William T.; Prall, Owen W. J.; Harvey, Richard P.

    2011-01-01

    Colony-forming units fibroblast (CFU-Fs), analogous to those giving rise to bone marrow (BM) mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), are present in many organs, although the relationship between BM and organ-specific CFU-Fs in homeostasis and tissue repair is unknown. Here we describe a population of adult c

  5. 40 CFR 432.125 - New source performance standards (NSPS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 16 Fecal Coliform (2) (3) O&G (as HEM) 14 8.0 TSS 30 20 1 mg/L (ppm). 2 Maximum of 400 MPN or CFU per... (ppm). 2 Maximum of 400 MPN or CFU per 100 mL at any time. 3 No maximum monthly average limitation....

  6. Sub-chronic lung inflammation after airway exposures to Bacillus thuringiensis biopesticides in mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barfod, Kenneth K; Poulsen, Steen Seier; Hammer, Maria;

    2010-01-01

    of BALB/c mice were i.t instilled with one bolus (3.5 × 105 or 3.4 × 106 colony forming units (CFU) per mouse) of either biopesticide. Control mice were instilled with sterile water. BALFs were collected and the inflammatory cells were counted and differentiated. The BALFs were also subjected to CFU...

  7. 40 CFR 432.115 - New source performance standards (NSPS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... ) O&G (as HEM) 14 8.0 TSS 30 20 1 mg/L (ppm). 2 Maximum of 400 MPN or CFU per 100 mL at any time. 3 No...&G (as HEM) 14 8.0 TSS 30 20 Total Nitrogen 147 103 1 mg/L (ppm). 2 Maximum of 400 MPN or CFU per...

  8. 消毒供应室的质量管理效果分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陆丽华

    2016-01-01

    分析消毒供应室的质量管理措施之后,对门诊部消毒供应室进行细菌监控发现,包装区空气细菌总数小于等于100 cfu/m3(≤500 cfu/m3合格),无菌存放室空气细菌总数小于等于50 cfu/m3(≤200 cfu/m3合格),无菌物体表面细菌0.1 cfu/cm2(≤10 cfu/cm2合格),工作人员手细菌2 cfu/cm2(≤10 cfu/cm2合格),均处于十分良好的状态.消毒供应室作为医院所有病菌的集中处理场所,同时又是无菌物品的提供场所,严把质量关,通过各种管理措施,做到以防为主,防检结合,全面提高消毒供应室的管理质量,从而有效地防止医源性感染的发生.

  9. A study of the antimicrobial properties of impression tray adhesives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herman, D A

    1993-01-01

    Three impression tray adhesives were tested for their antimicrobial actions on three bacteria strains used for disinfectant studies. The colony forming unit (CFU) counts from plating the adhesive-exposed bacteria showed a significant reduction in number compared with the CFU of the controls. Statistical analyses confirmed the significant reduction (p impression tray adhesives can help prevent cross contamination.

  10. Microbiological Quality of Cream-Cakes Sold in Tekirdag Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. Konyalı

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available This study was aimed to determine the microbiological qualities of totally 120 cream cakes including chocolate and fruit type, purchased from 30 randomly selected pastry shops in Tekirdağ province. Based on the Turkish Food Codex Microbiological Criterias Communique; 59, 50, 16 and 53 out of 60 chocolate cake samples tested were found to be potentially hazardous/unacceptible respectively for total mesophilic aerobic bacteria (98.3% of the total >105 cfu/g, coliform bacteria (83.3%of the total >102 cfu/g, Staphylococcus aureus (26.6% of the total >102 cfu/g and yeast and mould (88.3% of the total >103 cfu/g. On the other hand, 60, 56, 19 and 55 out of 60 fruit cake samples tested were found to be potentially hazardous/unacceptible respectively for total mesophilic aerobic bacteria (100 % >105 cfu/g, coliform bacteria (93.3%of the total >102 cfu/g, Staphylococcus aureus (31.6% of the total >102 cfu/g and yeast and mould (91.6% of the total >103 cfu/g. Salmonella were not detected in any of the chocolate and fruit cake samples. Obtained results showed that the microbiological qualities of cakes were poor due to poor hygiene and poor food handling practices in pastry shops.

  11. The influence of ethanol on the stem cell toxicity of benzene in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seidel, H J; Bader, R; Weber, L; Barthel, E

    1990-08-01

    BDF1 mice were exposed to 100, 300, and 900 ppm benzene vapor, and the numbers of hematopoietic progenitor cells, early and late erythroid progenitors (BFU-E and CFU-E) and granuloid progenitors (CFU-C), were determined with and without additional exposure to ethanol (5, 10, 15 vol%) in the drinking water. The duration of benzene inhalation was up to 4 weeks, 6 hr per day, 5 days per week. It was shown that the number of CFU-E per femur was depressed in a dose-dependent manner by benzene alone and also by ethanol combined with a given benzene concentration. CFU-E showed rapid regeneration after the end of the exposure, but not BFU-E and CFU-C. Prolongation of the ethanol exposure after withdrawal of benzene had only a marginal effect on progenitor cell regeneration.

  12. 山莨菪硷治疗再生障碍性贫血与体外试验的相关性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    纪树荃

    1989-01-01

    用人骨髓细胞培养贴壁细胞层,建立基质层,在此层上培养粒系祖细胞(CFU-c),以不带基质层的CFU-c为对照(100%),发现第3周有基质层CFU-c产率为无基质层对照150.7±17.63%。此方法发现基质层上接种CFU-c,可反映再障病人骨髓微环境病变,基质层上生长CFU-c状况与山莨菪硷治疗呈负相关,本文为确定再障患者微环境病变建立了方法。

  13. FUNGAL CONTAMINATION OF AIR ON HOSPITAL WARDS AND COMPARISON OF DISINFECTION METHODS%医院病区空气霉菌污染及消毒方法的比较

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王彩萍; 章永川; 沈树标; 谢忠俭

    1998-01-01

    南方海洋性气候医院病区春、夏、秋、冬季室内空气中霉菌数分别平均为1191.4、435 8、525.4、1154.6 cfu/m3.0.2%过氧乙酸按1000 ml/m2用量拖地作用0.5 h,可使霉菌数由472 cfu/m3减至0 cfu/m3.1.8 mg/m3臭氧作用2 h,仅可使之由419 cfu/m3减至105 cfu/m3.

  14. Seasonal variation in bioaerosol exposure during biowaste collection and measurements of leaked percolate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Birgitte Herbert; Nielsen, Eva Møller; Breum, Niels O.

    2000-01-01

    /compactor truck (P/C) and paper sack/platform truck (P/P). The maximum personal exposure was found to occur during the summer at the following median levels: total microorganisms 9.2 x 10(5) cells m(-3), culturable fungi (moulds) 7.8 x 10(4) cfu m(-3), Aspergillus fumigatus 2.9 x 10(-3) cfu m(3), mesophilic...... actinomycetes 9.0 x 10(2) cfu m(-3), bacteria 1.0 x 10(4) cfu m(-3), endotoxin 16 EU m(-3) (1.0 ng m(-3)) and dust 0.33 mg m(-3). A seasonal variation was observed for microorganisms, moulds, A. fumigatus, mesophilic actinomycetes and endotoxin (P ....2 to 2.3 x 10(9) cfu ml(-1)). A seasonal variation was observed for concentrations of total microorganisms, moulds and endotoxin with a maximum occurring during the summer (P

  15. 更昔洛韦和黄芪对巨细胞病毒感染所致造血祖细胞增殖抑制的影响%Influence of ganciclovir and astragalus membranaceus on proliferation of hematopoietic progenitor cells of cord blood after cytomegalovirus infection in vitro

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘文君; 刘斌; 郭渠莲; 张迎春; 袁亚杰; 付晓冬; 邓正华; 林江

    2004-01-01

    目的探讨更昔洛韦(GCV)和黄芪对巨细胞病毒(CMV)感染所致脐血粒-巨噬系祖细胞(CFU-GM)、红系早、晚期祖细胞(CFU-E、BFU-E)、多向造血祖细胞(CFU-Mix)及巨核系祖细胞(CFU-Mk)体外增殖抑制的影响.方法采用造血祖细胞培养技术,培养、观察、计数巨细胞病毒AD169株(CMV-AD169)感染CFU-GM、CFU-E、BFU-E、CFU-Mix和CFU-Mk后各祖细胞集落、峰期及维持时间;用聚合酶链反应(PCR)检测集落细胞内CMV-DNA;根据细胞毒性实验结果,将GCV和黄芪作用于CMV感染的CFU-GM、CFU-E、BFU-E、CFU-Mix及CFU-Mk祖细胞,再分别计数集落、峰期及维持时间.结果 (1)CMV感染组CFU-GM、CFU-E、BFU-E、CFU-Mix及CFU-Mk集落数较对照组明显减少(P<0.01);集落维持时间CMV感染组较对照组明显缩短;(2)用PCR在感染组集落细胞内检测到CMV-DNA的存在;(3) 黄芪和(或)GCV作用于CMV感染的祖细胞后,与病毒组比较集落维持时间明显延长,集落数和集落增殖率明显提高(P<0.01), 黄芪组集落增殖率分别为27.2%、45.2%、49.1%、39.0%、11.9%;GCV组分别为37.4%、74.2%、71.7%、67.4%、38.9% ; GCV+黄芪组分别为53.6%、83.8%、88.7%、87.8%、61.5% .结论 CMV-AD169在体外能明显抑制CFU-GM、CFU-E、BFU-E、CFU-Mix及CFU-Mk集落细胞的增殖;在体外GCV和黄芪均有抗CMV的活性,能有效对抗CMV感染所致造血祖细胞增殖抑制的发生.

  16. Broilers with low serum Mannose-binding Lectin show increased faecal shedding of Salmonella enterica serovar Montevideo

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ulrich-Lynge, Sofie Louise; Juul-Madsen, Helle Risdahl; Kjærup, Rikke Brødsgaard;

    2016-01-01

    swabs was used, the log10 CFU quantification was based on a standard curve from artificially spiked cloacal swab samples pre-incubated for 8 h with known concentrations of Salmonella ranging from 101 to 106 CFU/swabs, with an obtained amplification efficiency of 102% and a linear relationship between...... the log10 CFU and the threshold cycle Ct values of (R2 = 0.99). The L/L chickens had significantly higher Log10 CFU/swab at week 5 post infection (pi) than the L/H chickens. A repetition of the study with 86 L/L and 18 L/H chickens, also gave significantly higher log10 CFU ± SEM in cloacal swabs, using...

  17. Microbial presence on kitchen dishcloths in Chinese households.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Jin; Zhao, Bin Xiu; Li, Tao; Ban, Hai Qun; Tian, Liang; Ge, Yi Lin; Chen, Tai Yao; Li, Shi Yue; Zhang, Liu Bo

    2014-12-01

    To study the microbiological contamination of kitchen dishcloths in Chinese housholds, 1010 'in-use' kitchen dishcloths were collected from residential premises in Beijing and Shanghai, and they were sent to the laboratory for microbiological quality analysis. The aerobic plate counts for dishcloths were 10-109 cfu/cm2 in the range of 150 cfu/cm2 to 1.776×109 cfu/cm2 (Beijing) and 62.5 cfu/cm2 to 8.75×108 cfu/cm2 (Shanghai). Nineteen species of bacteria were detected in the dishcloths, most of which were conditional pathogenic bacteria. This study found a significant difference in the aerobic plate counts of dishcloths with regard to type, number of the days used, activities used for, and some family factors. The findings of the study highlight the potential for contamination of kitchen dishcloths within homes.

  18. The Genomes of the Fungal Plant Pathogens Cladosporium fulvum and Dothistroma septosporum Reveal Adaptation to Different Hosts and Lifestyles But Also Signatures of Common Ancestry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    de Wit, Pierre J. G. M.; van der Burgt, Ate; Okmen, Bilal; Stergiopoulos, Ioannis; Abd-Elsalam, Kamel A.; Aerts, Andrea L.; Bahkali, Ali H.; Beenen, Henriek G.; Chettri, Oranav; Cos, Murray P.; Datema, Erwin; de Vries, Ronald P.; DHillon, Braham; Ganley, Austen R.; Griffiths, Scott A.; Guo, Yanan; Gamelin, Richard C.; Henrissat, Bernard; Kabir, M. Shahjahan; Jashni, Mansoor Karimi; Kema, Gert; Klaubauf, Sylvia; Lapidus, Alla; Levasseur, Anthony; Lindquist, Erika; Mehrabi, Rahim; Ohm, Robin A.; Owen, Timothy J.; Salamov, Asaf; Schwelm, Arne; Schijlen, Elio; Sun, Hui; van den Burg, Harrold A.; van Burg, Roeland C. H. J.; Zhang, Shuguang; Goodwin, Stephen B.; Grigoriev, Igor V.; Collemare, Jerome; Bradshaw, Rosie E.

    2012-05-04

    We sequenced and compared the genomes of the Dothideomycete fungal plant pathogens Cladosporium fulvum (Cfu) (syn. Passalora fulva) and Dothistroma septosporum (Dse) that are closely related phylogenetically, but have different lifestyles and hosts. Although both fungi grow extracellularly in close contact with host mesophyll cells, Cfu is a biotroph infecting tomato, while Dse is a hemibiotroph infecting pine. The genomes of these fungi have a similar set of genes (70percent of gene content in both genomes are homologs), but differ significantly in size (Cfu >61.1-Mb; Dse 31.2-Mb), which is mainly due to the difference in repeat content (47.2percent in Cfu versus 3.2percent in Dse). Recent adaptation to different lifestyles and hosts is suggested by diverged sets of genes. Cfu contains an tomatinase gene that we predict might be required for detoxification of tomatine, while this gene is absent in Dse. Many genes encoding secreted proteins are unique to each species and the repeat-rich areas in Cfu are enriched for these species-specific genes. In contrast, conserved genes suggest common host ancestry. Homologs of Cfu effector genes, including Ecp2 and Avr4, are present in Dse and induce a Cf-Ecp2- and Cf-4-mediated hypersensitive response, respectively. Strikingly, genes involved in production of the toxin dothistromin, a likely virulence factor for Dse, are conserved in Cfu, but their expression differs markedly with essentially no expression by Cfu in planta. Likewise, Cfu has a carbohydrate-degrading enzyme catalog that is more similar to that of necrotrophs or hemibiotrophs and a larger pectinolytic gene arsenal than Dse, but many of these genes are not expressed in planta or are pseudogenized. Overall, comparison of their genomes suggests that these closely related plant pathogens had a common ancestral host but since adapted to different hosts and lifestyles by a combination of differentiated gene content, pseudogenization, and gene regulation.

  19. 臭氧水浓度对鲜切菠萝品质的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    覃海元; 胡冰冰; 梁金姐; 韦春平

    2011-01-01

    为研究臭氧水浓度对鲜切菠萝的保鲜效果,分别采用0 mg/L、0.87 mg/L、1.1 mg/L、1.4 mg/L、1.8 mg/L的臭氧水浸泡处理鲜切菠萝2 min,装在塑料托盘中并用聚乙烯保鲜膜包裹,在冷藏(5℃)过程中每3 d测定鲜切的菌落总数、抗坏血酸、失重率、可溶性固形物和色泽。结果表明:经0 mg/L、0.87 mg/L、1.1 mg/L、1.4 mg/L、1.8 mg/L臭氧水处理的鲜切菠萝的菌落总数,在处理当天分别为5.3×105 CFU/g、9.3×104 CFU/g、2.6×104 CFU/g、3.6×103 CFU/g、2.5×103 CFU/g;第9 d分别为4.7×108 CFU/g、2.4×107 CFU/g、4.5×106 CFU/g、4.1×105 CFU/g、2.3×105 CFU/g;臭氧水处理可以抑制鲜切菠萝的褐变,减少失重和可溶性固形物消耗,对还原型抗坏血酸含量有一定影响。臭氧水处理可以延长鲜切菠萝的保质期。

  20. 细胞因子联合应用对小鼠再障骨髓细胞体外扩增造血祖细胞的作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵怀顺; 魏虎来

    2003-01-01

    目的:探讨细胞因子(IL-3,IL-6,IL-11,rhG-CSF)联合应用对小鼠再障骨髓细胞体外扩增造血祖细胞(CFU-GM,CFU-MK,CFU-E)的作用。方法:将小鼠再障分别皮下注射同浓度不同组合的细胞因子(rhG-CSF,IL-3+rhG-CSF,IL-6+rhG-CSF,IL-11+rhG-CSF,IL-3,IL-6,IL-11)300μg·kg-1·d-1,连续7d,观察骨髓细胞体外扩增CFU-GM,CFU-MK,CFU-E的形成数,结果:注射细胞因子后,小鼠再障骨髓细胞扩增CFU-GM,CFU-MK,CFU-E集落数明显高于对照组。联用细胞因子组比单独应用细胞因子组要强,尤其是CFU-MK的产率最为明显(P<0.01)。结论:细胞因子对造血祖细胞生长具有刺激作用,同时还具有协同扩增的作用。

  1. Effect of Sargassum Hemiphyllum Polysaccharides on the Colony-Forming Unit of Bone Marrow Cells in Irradiated Mice%半叶马尾藻多糖对辐射损伤小鼠骨髓细胞集落生成的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孟庆勇; 刘志辉; 郑辉

    2005-01-01

    探讨半叶马尾藻多糖[Sargassum hemiphyllum (Turner) C.Ag. polysaccharides, SHP]对辐射损伤小鼠骨髓细胞集落生成的影响.检测辐射损伤小鼠脾集落生成单位、红细胞集落生成单位、爆裂型红细胞集落生成单位、粒细胞-巨噬细胞集落生成单位、巨核细胞集落生成单位、混合集落生成单位的变化.5Gy γ射线照射后小鼠CFU-S,CFU-E,BFU-E 和CFU-Mix明显减少,而SHP(20mg/kg~40mg/kg)可以抑制CFU-S,CFU-E,BFU-E 和CFU-Mix下降.辐射损伤也可以引起小鼠CFU-GM显著降低,但是,SHP(10mg/kg~40mg/kg)具有拮抗辐射损伤的作用,使CFU-GM增加.单纯照射组小鼠CFU-Meg显著低于正常对照组,SHP(40mg/kg)加照射组小鼠CFU-Meg却显著高于单纯照射组.SHP对辐射损伤小鼠多能干细胞和造血祖细胞具有保护作用.

  2. Efek Penyimpanan Kultur Kering Lactobacillus plantarum 1B1 terhadap Kualitas Mikrobiologi Sosis Fermentasi Daging Sapi dan Domba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. I. Arief

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Lactic acid bacteria of Lactobacillus plantarum 1B1 species was isolated from fresh beef and used as dried starter culture fermented sausage (Salami. Dried starter culture was stored at 100C for 0 (control, 15, 30 and 45 days to evaluate the starter viability and its effect on microbiological charasteristics of beef and mutton fermented sausages. Initial viability of dried starter culture of L. plantarum was 7.08 x 1012 CFU/g. There was no alteration (P>0.05 in viability (5.33 x 1012 CFU/g during 15 days storage. The population significantly decreased (P<0.01 to 4.55 x 108 CFU/g and 3.00 x 108 CFU/g during 30 and 45 days storage, respectively. Mutton salami had higher average total bacterial count than beef salami. Both salami had constant lactic acid population at more than 10 log10 CFU/g during 15 days dried culture storage and decreased significantly (P<0.01 during 30 and 45 days dried culture storage at less than 9 log10 CFU/g. Dried culture L. plantarum could reduce the quantity of S. aureus during 15 days storage, but neither for 30 days nor 45 days storage. Average total coliform increased from 0 days to 15 days storage at less than 0,03 CFU/g to 0.93 x 102 CFU/g, but the number of coliform decreased on 30 days storage at less than 0.03 CFU/g and increased on 45 days storage at 1.2 x 103 CFU/g. Both salami had negative number of Salmonella.

  3. The genomes of the fungal plant pathogens Cladosporium fulvum and Dothistroma septosporum reveal adaptation to different hosts and lifestyles but also signatures of common ancestry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Wit, Pierre J G M; van der Burgt, Ate; Ökmen, Bilal; Stergiopoulos, Ioannis; Abd-Elsalam, Kamel A; Aerts, Andrea L; Bahkali, Ali H; Beenen, Henriek G; Chettri, Pranav; Cox, Murray P; Datema, Erwin; de Vries, Ronald P; Dhillon, Braham; Ganley, Austen R; Griffiths, Scott A; Guo, Yanan; Hamelin, Richard C; Henrissat, Bernard; Kabir, M Shahjahan; Jashni, Mansoor Karimi; Kema, Gert; Klaubauf, Sylvia; Lapidus, Alla; Levasseur, Anthony; Lindquist, Erika; Mehrabi, Rahim; Ohm, Robin A; Owen, Timothy J; Salamov, Asaf; Schwelm, Arne; Schijlen, Elio; Sun, Hui; van den Burg, Harrold A; van Ham, Roeland C H J; Zhang, Shuguang; Goodwin, Stephen B; Grigoriev, Igor V; Collemare, Jérôme; Bradshaw, Rosie E

    2012-01-01

    We sequenced and compared the genomes of the Dothideomycete fungal plant pathogens Cladosporium fulvum (Cfu) (syn. Passalora fulva) and Dothistroma septosporum (Dse) that are closely related phylogenetically, but have different lifestyles and hosts. Although both fungi grow extracellularly in close contact with host mesophyll cells, Cfu is a biotroph infecting tomato, while Dse is a hemibiotroph infecting pine. The genomes of these fungi have a similar set of genes (70% of gene content in both genomes are homologs), but differ significantly in size (Cfu >61.1-Mb; Dse 31.2-Mb), which is mainly due to the difference in repeat content (47.2% in Cfu versus 3.2% in Dse). Recent adaptation to different lifestyles and hosts is suggested by diverged sets of genes. Cfu contains an α-tomatinase gene that we predict might be required for detoxification of tomatine, while this gene is absent in Dse. Many genes encoding secreted proteins are unique to each species and the repeat-rich areas in Cfu are enriched for these species-specific genes. In contrast, conserved genes suggest common host ancestry. Homologs of Cfu effector genes, including Ecp2 and Avr4, are present in Dse and induce a Cf-Ecp2- and Cf-4-mediated hypersensitive response, respectively. Strikingly, genes involved in production of the toxin dothistromin, a likely virulence factor for Dse, are conserved in Cfu, but their expression differs markedly with essentially no expression by Cfu in planta. Likewise, Cfu has a carbohydrate-degrading enzyme catalog that is more similar to that of necrotrophs or hemibiotrophs and a larger pectinolytic gene arsenal than Dse, but many of these genes are not expressed in planta or are pseudogenized. Overall, comparison of their genomes suggests that these closely related plant pathogens had a common ancestral host but since adapted to different hosts and lifestyles by a combination of differentiated gene content, pseudogenization, and gene regulation.

  4. Lineage-related cytotoxicity and clonogenic profile of 1,4-benzoquinone-exposed hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chow, Paik Wah [Biomedical Science Programme, School of Diagnostic & Applied Health Sciences, Faculty of Health Sciences, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Jalan Raja Abdul Muda Aziz, 50300 Kuala Lumpur, Wilayah Persekutuan (Malaysia); Toxicology Laboratory, Faculty of Health Sciences, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Jalan Raja Muda Abdul Aziz, 50300 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); Abdul Hamid, Zariyantey, E-mail: zyantey@ukm.edu.my [Biomedical Science Programme, School of Diagnostic & Applied Health Sciences, Faculty of Health Sciences, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Jalan Raja Abdul Muda Aziz, 50300 Kuala Lumpur, Wilayah Persekutuan (Malaysia); Toxicology Laboratory, Faculty of Health Sciences, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Jalan Raja Muda Abdul Aziz, 50300 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); Chan, Kok Meng [Environmental Health and Industrial Safety Programme, School of Diagnostic & Applied Health Sciences, Faculty of Health Sciences, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Jalan Raja Abdul Muda Aziz, 50300 Kuala Lumpur, Wilayah Persekutuan (Malaysia); Toxicology Laboratory, Faculty of Health Sciences, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Jalan Raja Muda Abdul Aziz, 50300 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); Inayat-Hussain, Salmaan Hussain [Environmental Health and Industrial Safety Programme, School of Diagnostic & Applied Health Sciences, Faculty of Health Sciences, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Jalan Raja Abdul Muda Aziz, 50300 Kuala Lumpur, Wilayah Persekutuan (Malaysia); Rajab, Nor Fadilah [Biomedical Science Programme, School of Diagnostic & Applied Health Sciences, Faculty of Health Sciences, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Jalan Raja Abdul Muda Aziz, 50300 Kuala Lumpur, Wilayah Persekutuan (Malaysia); Toxicology Laboratory, Faculty of Health Sciences, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Jalan Raja Muda Abdul Aziz, 50300 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia)

    2015-04-01

    Hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) and hematopoietic progenitor cells (HPCs) are sensitive targets for benzene-induced hematotoxicity and leukemogenesis. The impact of benzene exposure on the complex microenvironment of HSCs and HPCs remains elusive. This study aims to investigate the mechanism linking benzene exposure to targeting HSCs and HPCs using phenotypic and clonogenic analyses. Mouse bone marrow (BM) cells were exposed ex vivo to the benzene metabolite, 1,4-benzoquinone (1,4-BQ), for 24 h. Expression of cellular surface antigens for HSC (Sca-1), myeloid (Gr-1, CD11b), and lymphoid (CD45, CD3e) populations were confirmed by flow cytometry. The clonogenicity of cells was studied using the colony-forming unit (CFU) assay for multilineage (CFU-GM and CFU-GEMM) and single-lineage (CFU-E, BFU-E, CFU-G, and CFU-M) progenitors. 1,4-BQ demonstrated concentration-dependent cytotoxicity in mouse BM cells. The percentage of apoptotic cells increased (p < 0.05) following 1,4-BQ exposure. Exposure to 1,4-BQ showed no significant effect on CD3e{sup +} cells but reduced the total counts of Sca-1{sup +}, CD11b{sup +}, Gr-1{sup +}, and CD45{sup +} cells at 7 and 12 μM (p < 0.05). Furthermore, the CFU assay showed reduced (p < 0.05) clonogenicity in 1,4-BQ-treated cells. 1,4-BQ induced CFU-dependent cytotoxicity by significantly inhibiting colony growth for CFU-E, BFU-E, CFU-G, and CFU-M starting at a low concentration of exposure (5 μM); whereas for the CFU-GM and CFU-GEMM, the inhibition of colony growth was remarkable only at 7 and 12 μM of 1,4-BQ, respectively. Taken together, 1,4-BQ caused lineage-related cytotoxicity in mouse HPCs, demonstrating greater toxicity in single-lineage progenitors than in those of multi-lineage. - Highlights: • We examine 1,4-BQ toxicity targeting mouse hematopoietic cell lineages. • 1,4-BQ induces concentration-dependent cytotoxicity in bone marrow (BM) cells. • 1,4-BQ shows lineage-related toxicity on hematopoietic stem and

  5. INFLUENCE MATURATION OF VEAL ON THE MICROBIOLOGICAL AND PHYSICAL INDICATORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simona Kunová

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to evaluate microbial and pH changes in veal meat during maturation. Total viable counts, coliform bacteria and pH changes in chilling meat were evaluated after 24 hours, 7 days and 14 days of meat maturation. There were analysed 8 samples of veal meeat. Results of microbiological analysis were compared with Commission regulation (EC No 2073/2005 on microbiological criteria for foodstuffs. Total viable counts (TVC in samples after 24 hours of chilling ranged from 2.02 log CFU.cm-to 4.21 log CFU.cm-2 (1.64 . 104 CFU.cm-2. The average number of TVC after 24 hours of meat maturation was 3.27 log CFU.cm-2, coliform bacteria (CB after 24 hours were lower than than 1 log cfu.cm-2 in five samples, and the highest number of coliform bacteria was 1.65 log cfu.cm-2, average number of CB was 1.13 log cfu.cm-2. pH values in samples after 24 hours of maturation were in range from 6.6 to 7.0, average pH value was 6.8. TVC in samples after 7 days of chilling ranged from 3.09 log CFU.cm-2 to 4.01 log CFU.cm-2, the average number of TVC after 7 days of storage was 3.39 log CFU.cm-2. CB after 7 days of meat maturation were lower than 1 log CFU cm-2 in three samples, the highest value of CB was 2.07 log CFU cm-2, the average value of CB in samples after 7 days of meat chilling was 1.03 log CFU cm-2. pH values of meat after 7 days of maturation ranged from 5.5 to 6.1. The average pH value of samples after 7 days of storage was 5.73 pH values of meat after 14 days of maturation ranged from 6.0 to 6.4. The average pH value of samples after 14 days of storage was 6.16.

  6. 造血干细胞分化过程中HOXB6基因表达及干预研究%Expression of HOXB6 Gene on Differentiation of Hematopoietic Stem Cells and Intervention Research

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈红英; 陈艾; 刘文君

    2010-01-01

    目的 探讨脐血造血干细胞(HSC)向粒-单系(CFU-GM)、红系(CFU-E)和淋巴系祖细胞(CFU-TL)增殖分化过程中HOXB6基因的表达情况及全反式维A酸(ATRA)对其的影响.方法 1.采用造血干/祖细胞体外培养技术,以ATRA持续干扰人类脐血造血干/祖细胞,观察HSC经人粒细胞-单核细胞集落刺激因子(GM-CSF)、促红细胞生成素(EPO)和植物血凝素(PHA)分别诱导后,在培养第3天、第7天和第12天的CFU-GM、CFU-E及CFU-TL集落生成情况.2.采用实时荧光定量RT-PCR技术(FQ-RT-PCR)检测造血干细胞增殖分化过程中HOXB6基因的表达水平.结果 1.人类造血干细胞向CFU-GM、CFU-E和CFU-TL增殖分化过程中,各组细胞HOXB6基因均有表达.2.随时间推移,CFU-GM HOXB6 mRNA在增殖分化的第3天开始表达,第7天表达最强烈,第12天表达明显减弱;CFU-E HOXB6 mRNA表达在第3天、第7天和第12天均持续增强;而在CFU-TL中,HOXB6 mRNA表达在第7天最强烈,第12天表达减弱.3.与对照组比较,ATRA可上调各组HOXB6基因的表达.结论 1.在人脐血CFU-GM、CFU-E和CFU-TL的不同增殖分化阶段,HOXB6基因呈现持续稳定的表达,提示HOXB6基因与人类造血干细胞增殖分化过程密切相关.2.HOXB6基因在人类造血干细胞向CFU-GM、CFU-E和CFU-TL的正常增殖分化过程中呈现时间上的规律性.3.低浓度(60 umol·L-1)的ATRA能显著上调HOXB6基因的表达.

  7. Role of splenic stroma in the action of bacterial lipopolysaccharides on radiation mortality: a study in mice carrying the Slsup(j) allele

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ploemacher, R.E.; Brons, N.H.C.

    1987-01-01

    Slsup(j)/+ mice display a slight macrocytic anemia due to a defect in their hamopoietic organ stroma. They have a deficient endogenous spleen colony (CFU-end) formation following sublethal doses of gamma-radiation compared with their normal +/+ littermates, which is likely to be due to the low pre-irradiation CFU-S content of the Slsup(j)/+ spleen. CFU-S in these congenic mice do not differ in their sensitivity to gamma-irradiation or stem cell-activating factor. While injection of +/+ mice with 10 ..mu..g of lipopolysaccharide-W (LPS) one day prior to irradiation led to a substantial increase in their survival, the survival of Slsup(j)/+ mice was only slightly increased. Irradiation induced a similar dose-related reduction in the numbers of CFU-S in the spleen and femora of LPS-injected Slsup(j)/+ mice compared to similarly treated +/+ mice when measured directly after irradiation. At Day 9 after irradiation injection of LPS led to a significantly higher CFU-end formation and higher numbers of CFU-S and nucleated cells in the Slsup(j)/+ spleens compared to LPS-injected +/+ mice. No such differences in the radioprotective effect of LPS were observed in the +/+ and Slsup(j)/+ mice with respect to the splenic and femoral /sup 59/Fe-incorporation and the femoral CFU-S numbers at Day 9.

  8. Assessment of bioaerosols and inhalable dust exposure in Swiss sawmills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oppliger, Anne; Rusca, Sophie; Charrière, Nicole; Vu Duc, Trinh; Droz, Pierre-Olivier

    2005-07-01

    An assessment of wood workers' exposure to airborne cultivable bacteria, fungi, inhalable endotoxins and inhalable organic dust was performed at 12 sawmills that process mainly coniferous wood species. In each plant, samples were collected at four or five different work sites (debarking, sawing, sorting, planing and sawing cockpit) and the efficiency of sampling devices (impinger or filter) for determining endotoxins levels was evaluated. Results show that fungi are present in very high concentrations (up to 35 000 CFU m(-3)) in all sawmills. We also find that there are more bioaerosols at the sorting work site (mean +/- SD: 7723 +/- 9919 CFU m(-3) for total bacteria, 614 +/- 902 CFU m(-3) for Gram-negative, 19 438 +/- 14 246 CFU m(-3) for fungi, 7.0 +/- 9.0 EU m(-3) for endotoxin and 2.9 +/- 4.8 g m(-3) for dust) than at the sawing station (mean +/- SD: 1938 +/- 2478 CFU m(-3) for total bacteria, 141 +/- 206 CFU m(-3) for Gram-negative, 12 207 +/- 10 008 CFU m(-3) for fungi, 2.1 +/- 1.9 EU m(-3) for endotoxin and 0.75 +/- 0.49 mg m(-3) for dust). At the same time, the species composition and concentration of airborne Gram-negative bacteria were studied. Penicillinium sp. were the predominant fungi, while Bacillus sp. and the Pseudomonadacea family were the predominant Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria encountered, respectively.

  9. A randomised prospective comparison of Rotecno versus new Gore occlusive surgical gowns using bacterial air counts in ultraclean air.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulihar, A; Taub, N A; Taylor, G J S

    2009-09-01

    Ultraclean air (UCA) in operating theatres is defined as air counts of 1 cfu/m(3) with Rotecno gowns and 0.5 cfu/m(3) with body exhaust suits in total knee arthroplasty (TKA). This study compared bacterial air counts using Rotecno gowns with a new type of occlusive gown made from Gore liquid-proof fabric, which were superior to the Rotecno gowns on standard EN13795 laboratory testing. Fifty-six joint replacements were allocated randomly either to Rotecno or to Gore gowns with stratification into TKA, total hip arthroplasty (THA) or revision THA. Airborne bacteria were collected from within 30 cm of the wound for the first 10 min of surgery using a Casella slit sampler. The new gowns were associated with higher air counts (3.7 cfu/m(3)) than the Rotecno gowns (1.2 cfu/m(3)) (Pair standard of 10 cfu/m(3). In TKA patients, the existing Rotecno gowns, now many years old, had higher air counts (2.0 cfu/m(3)) than in the 2003 trial (0.8 cfu/m(3)) (Pimportance of testing new materials in a clinical environment with UCA; in-vitro testing alone is probably not an adequate assessment.

  10. Performances of new isolates of Bifidobacterium on fermentation of soymilk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Havas, Petra; Kun, Szilárd; Perger-Mészáros, Izabell; Rezessy-Szabó, Judit M; Nguyen, Quang D

    2015-12-01

    Growth and metabolic activity of several new, human origin isolates of Bifidobacterium strains were investigated. All tested bifidobacteria strains were grown well on the native soymilk medium without any additional nutrients. The fermentation processes cultured with initial cell concentrations in 10⁵ -10⁷ cfu/ml resulted in 10⁸ cfu/ml after 8-12 h of incubation in soymilk, and were kept viable up to the end of fermentation (48 h). Volumetric productivities of B. bifidum B3.2, B. bifidum B7.1 and B. breve B9.14 were 1.6 × 10¹⁰ cfu/L.h, 4.5 × 10¹⁰ cfu/L.h and 7.6 × 10⁹ cfu/L.h, respectively, whereas these values of B. lactis Bb-12 and B. longum Bb-46 probiotic strains were 2.7 × 10⁹ cfu/L.h and 1.0 x 10¹⁰ cfu/L.h. The α-galactosidase activities were also detected in the intracellular fraction of the disrupted cells. Productions of lactic and acetic acids were in the range of 23-60 mmol/L and 2.4-5.6 mmol/L, respectively. Molar ratios of acetate to lactate in all tested strains varied from 0.05-0.1 that are very promising for further technological development of probiotic fermented soy-based food products.

  11. Stimulation of murine stem cell proliferation by circulating activities produced during the recovery of a radiation-induced hematopoietic injury. Estimulacion proliferativa de celulas madre hematopoyeticas de raton por actividades circulantes producidas durante la recuperacion de un dano hematopoyetico radioinducido

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grande Azanedo, M.T.

    1989-02-01

    The proliferative activity of CFU-S, low in normal steady state, increases after treatment with different aggressors, i.e., radiation. This stimulation has been attributed in part to a local regulation system of stem cell proliferation, and at least in part to a humoral regulatory system. In the present work it has been investigated the role that circulating activities have in the CFU-S stimulation, by means of in vitro and in vivo incubation assays with diffusion chambers. The results show that bone marrow of mice irradiated with 5 Gy produces in vitro diffusible activities capable of stimulating the CFU-S proliferation. As well with this same dose circulating activities are also produced in vivo. In addition we have observed that these activities are only released during the periods of active hematopoietic regeneration that follow irradiation with moderate doses (1.5 and 5 Gy). In another set of experiments we saw that the stimulating activities are also detected in serum of mice irradiated with 5 Gy. These serum activities modify the proliferative state of very primitive precursors (12 d CFU-S). When the serum activities are added to long term bone marrow cultures the CFU-S are also stimulated to proliferate. Finally, we observed that the radiation-induced serum activities stimulate the proliferation of bone marrow CFU-S when injected into normal mice, suggesting that such activities are involved in the regulation of CFU-S proliferation.

  12. Assessment of microbial contamination of chicken products sold in Parbhani city

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rindhe S.N

    Full Text Available Three restaurants were randomly selected in Parbhani city for the purchase of chicken products which were then screened for microbial contamination. For the chicken curry samples the total aerobic counts ranged from 2.06-2.80 x 106 cfu/g; Staphylococcus aureus count :1.1- 1.47 x 106 cfu/g ; Enterobacteriaceae count: 1.57- 2.17 x 106 cfu/g ; lactic acid bacteria count(LAB count :1.70 - 2.33 x 106 cfu/g. With respect to the sample of Tandoori chicken, the total aerobic count ranged from 3.54 x 106 cfu/g; S. aureus count: 1.8 x105- 2 x 107; Enterobacteriaceae count: 5.09 x 108 cfu/g; LAB count :1.3 -4.6 x 108 cfu/g. Probable organisms isolated from chicken curry were E. coli, Streptococcus sp., Clostridium sp., Klebsiella sp., Shigella sp., Pseudomonas sp., Lactobacillus sp., and S. aureus while those organisms isolated from Tandoori chicken include Salmonella, Proteus, Shigella, S. aureus, Klebsiella and Lactobacillus sp. Most of the chicken products sampled were therefore considered to pose health risk to consumers, making it imperative to institute not only sanitary measures during processing, storage and marketing but also to ensure steady source of power supply. [Veterinary World 2008; 1(7.000: 208-210

  13. 医院透析液污染状况调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱笠; 邹梅; 梁玉红; 徐丹

    2008-01-01

    目的 了解医院血液净化室透析液污染状况,找出污染原因,以便改进透析液质量.方法 通过现场采样和微生物检验方法,对透析环节和透析用水进行了监测.结果 透析液入口液平均细菌总数280 cfu/ml,出口液120 cfu/ml;透析液A液平均菌数为1 cfu/ml,B液平均细菌总数为680 cfu/ml.反渗水中平均细菌数为3 cfu/ml,透析液干粉B粉中细菌总数为210 cfu/g,盛装透析液B液的桶内表面细菌总数为14000 cfu/cm2.结论 大连地区部分医院透析液配制过程中,每个环节都存在污染,盛装B液桶内表面污染特别严重,透析液干粉B粉中含菌量高与B液桶内污染为主要原因.

  14. Investigation of influencing factors for bacterial density in air in clean operating room%洁净手术室术间空气细菌密度影响因素的调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沈郁; 钱小毛; 冯惠娟; 陈小娣

    2011-01-01

    目的 了解洁净手术室术间空气细菌密度影响因素,探讨相应的护理对策.方法 对5间千级、万级和十万级手术室的45台手术进行动态条件下空气细菌检测,检测方法采用自然沉降法,结果计算后用CFU/m3表示.结果 所有手术间的术前空气含菌量均为0~23 CFU/m3,随着手术时间的延续空气细菌数逐渐增加,不同手术持续时间的术后检测:<1 h组为202~778 CFU/m3,1~2 h组为582~1332 CFU/m3,2~3 h组为672~1993 CFU/m3,<3 h组为713~2108 CFU/m3;不同手术人员数的术后检测:≤4人组为202~471 CFU/m3,5~8人组为355~901 CFU/m3,9~12人组为614~1443 CFU/m3,≥13人组为878~2108 CFU/m3;不同术中开门次数的术后检测:≤6次组为202~328 CFU/m3,7~11次组为562~889 CFU/m3,12~16次组为673~1870 CFU/m3,≥17次组为882~2108 CFU/m3.结论 影响术间空气细菌含量与手术时间长短,室内人员数,以及术间开门的次数有关,为了减缓手术过程空气细菌密度增大趋势,必须加强术间动态条件下的检测和一系列有效的预防措施.%OBJECTIVE To investigate the influencing factors of bacteria density in clean operating room environment and discuss the corresponding nursing measures. METHODS Air bacteria density of in 5 operating room (thousand level, ten thousand level, hundred thousand level) under dynamical condition in which 45 operations were undertaken was tested by means of natural precipitation method, and the result was named with CFU/m3. RESULTS The bacteria density in operating room before the surgery was between 0 to 23 CFU/m3. The number of bacteria was increased with the operating-time. Postoperative detection to surgery duration showed that, the bacteria density after surgery was 202~778 CFU/m3 ; in less than 1 hour group 1 to 2 hours group 582~ 1332 CFU/m3; 2 to 3 hours group 672~1993 CFU/m3 and more than 3 hours group 713~2108 CFU/m3. The postoperative detection to different

  15. 乌兰察布盟医疗网络医院消毒工作现状调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘彦杰; 刘文斌

    2000-01-01

    @@ 对乌兰察布盟医疗网络中73所医院进行抽样检测.室内空气细菌总数超标(Ⅰ、Ⅱ、Ⅲ类场所分别>10 cfu/m3、>200 cfu/m3、>500 cfu/m3)率为53.8%(28/52).物体表面及医护人员手细菌总数超标(Ⅰ、Ⅱ类场所>5 cfu/cm2,Ⅲ类场所>10 cfu/cm2,Ⅳ类场所>15 cfu/cm2)率为14.5%(8/55).使用中消毒液合格(细菌总数≤100 cfu/ml,不得检出致病性微生物)率为78.6%(55/70).压力蒸汽灭菌合格率为84.4%(103/122),不合格者系因蒸汽压力不够,或消毒物品堆砌密集影响蒸汽穿透所致.

  16. Bacterial hand contamination and transfer after use of contaminated bulk-soap-refillable dispensers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zapka, Carrie A; Campbell, Esther J; Maxwell, Sheri L; Gerba, Charles P; Dolan, Michael J; Arbogast, James W; Macinga, David R

    2011-05-01

    Bulk-soap-refillable dispensers are prone to extrinsic bacterial contamination, and recent studies demonstrated that approximately one in four dispensers in public restrooms are contaminated. The purpose of this study was to quantify bacterial hand contamination and transfer after use of contaminated soap under controlled laboratory and in-use conditions in a community setting. Under laboratory conditions using liquid soap experimentally contaminated with 7.51 log(10) CFU/ml of Serratia marcescens, an average of 5.28 log(10) CFU remained on each hand after washing, and 2.23 log(10) CFU was transferred to an agar surface. In an elementary-school-based field study, Gram-negative bacteria on the hands of students and staff increased by 1.42 log(10) CFU per hand (26-fold) after washing with soap from contaminated bulk-soap-refillable dispensers. In contrast, washing with soap from dispensers with sealed refills significantly reduced bacteria on hands by 0.30 log(10) CFU per hand (2-fold). Additionally, the mean number of Gram-negative bacteria transferred to surfaces after washing with soap from dispensers with sealed-soap refills (0.06 log(10) CFU) was significantly lower than the mean number after washing with contaminated bulk-soap-refillable dispensers (0.74 log(10) CFU; P soap (P soap from bulk-soap-refillable dispensers can increase the number of opportunistic pathogens on the hands and may play a role in the transmission of bacteria in public settings.

  17. Bacterial, fungal and yeast contamination in six brands of irreversible hydrocolloid impression materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casemiro, Luciana Assirati; Martins, Carlos Henrique Gomes; de Souza, Fernanda de Carvalho Panzeri Pires; Panzeri, Heitor; Ito, Isabel Yoko

    2007-01-01

    This study assessed the level of contamination of six commercially available irreversible hydrocolloids (two containing chlorhexidine) and identified the contamination present in the materials. Petri dishes containing selective and enriched culture media were inoculated with alginate powder (0.06 g), in triplicate. After incubation (37 degrees C/7 days), the colony-forming units (CFU) were counted and Gram stained. Biochemical identification of the different morphotypes was also performed. The contamination levels for the materials were: Jeltrate--389 CFU/g; Jeltrate Plus--516 CFU/g; Jeltrate Chromatic--135 CFU/g; Hydrogum--1,455 CFU/g; Kromopan--840 CFU/g; and Greengel--59 CFU/g. Gram staining revealed the presence of Gram-positive bacillus and Gram-positive cocci. The bacteria Staphylococcus epidermidis, Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus sp., Bacillus coagulans, Bacillus licheniformis, Bacillus cereus, Micrococcus luteus, and Nocardia sp.; the filamentous fungi Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus flavus, Rhizopus sp., Neurospora sp.; and the yeast Candida sp. were isolated. The contamination detected in the impression materials points out the need for adopting measures to improve the microbiological quality of these materials. The use of contaminated materials in the oral cavity goes against the basic principles for controlling cross-contamination and may represent a risk for debilitated or immunocompromised patients.

  18. Microbial contamination of fruit and vegetables and their disinfection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oie, Shigeharu; Kiyonaga, Hiroko; Matsuzaka, Yuuki; Maeda, Kumiko; Masuda, Yuki; Tasaka, Katsuko; Aritomi, Sanae; Yamashita, Akiko; Kamiya, Akira

    2008-10-01

    We evaluated the microbial contamination of 17 types of vegetable and 10 types of fruit after 30-s washing with tap water with and without subsequent disinfection by 10-min immersion in 0.01% (100 ppm) sodium hypochlorite. The mean microbial contamination level of 9 types of leafy vegetable was 2.8 x 10(5) colony-forming units (CFU)/g after washing with water and 3.4 x 10(4) CFU/g after washing followed by disinfection. The mean microbial contamination level of 8 types of nonleafy vegetable was 3.4 x 10(4) CFU/g after washing with water and 1.0 x 10(4) CFU/g after washing followed by disinfection. The mean microbial contamination level of 10 types of unpeeled fleshy fruit was 9.3 x 10(3) CFU/g after washing with water and 1.3 x 10(3) CFU/g after washing followed by disinfection. The contaminants in vegetables and unpeeled fruit were similar after washing and after washing followed by disinfection, including Pseudomonas fluorescens and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The contamination did not markedly decrease even after disinfection with sodium hypochlorite. However, the flesh of each type of peeled fruit showed no or only low levels of contamination (CFU/g), probably caused by the transfer of microorganisms from the skin of fruit via fruit knives.

  19. Enhancing and suppressing effects of recombinant murine macrophage inflammatory proteins on colony formation in vitro by bone marrow myeloid progenitor cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broxmeyer, H E; Sherry, B; Lu, L; Cooper, S; Oh, K O; Tekamp-Olson, P; Kwon, B S; Cerami, A

    1990-09-15

    Purified recombinant (r) macrophage inflammatory proteins (MIPs) 1 alpha, 1 beta, and 2 were assessed for effects on murine (mu) and human (hu) marrow colony-forming unit-granulocyte-macrophage (CFU-GM) and burst-forming unit-erythroid (BFU-E) colonies. Recombinant MIP-1 alpha, -1 beta, and -2 enhanced muCFU-GM colonies above that stimulated with 10 to 100 U natural mu macrophage-colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF) or rmuGM-CSF, with enhancement seen on huCFU-GM colony formation stimulated with suboptimal rhuM-CSF or rhuGM-CSF; effects were neutralized by respective MIP-specific antibodies. Macrophage inflammatory proteins had no effects on mu or huBFU-E colonies stimulated with erythropoietin (Epo). However, natural MIP-1 and rMIP-1 alpha, but not rMIP-1 beta or -2, suppressed muCFU-GM stimulated with pokeweed mitogen spleen-conditioned medium (PWMSCM), huCFU-GM stimulated with optimal rhuGM-CSF plus rhu interleukin-3 (IL-3), muBFU-E and multipotential progenitors (CFU-GEMM) stimulated with Epo plus PWMSCM, and huBFU-E and CFU-GEMM stimulated with Epo plus rhuIL-3 or rhuGM-CSF. The suppressive effects of natural MIP-1 and rMIP-1 alpha were also apparent on a population of BFU-E, CFU-GEMM, and CFU-GM present in cell-sorted fractions of human bone marrow (CD34 HLA-DR+) highly enriched for progenitors with cloning efficiencies of 42% to 75%. These results, along with our previous studies, suggest that MIP-1 alpha, -1 beta, and -2 may have direct myelopoietic enhancing activity for mature progenitors, while MIP-1 alpha may have direct suppressing activity for more immature progenitors.

  20. Capabilities of AC133+ Cells, Forming Colony Derived from Human Placenta Tissues%人胎盘AC133+造血干/祖细胞的集落形成能力

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    喻晓丹

    2013-01-01

    探究了人体胎盘组织AC133+造血干/祖细胞(HSPC)的集落形成能力.选用新鲜的人胎盘组织制成单个细胞(有核细胞)悬液,经流式细胞术(FCM)分析其AC133+造血干/祖细胞的纯度,采用免疫磁性分选法(MACS)分选AC133+和AC133HSPC,分别进行粒-单集落形成单位(CFU-GM)、红系集落形成单位(CFU-E)、混合集落形成单位(CFU-Mix)培养,以评价其增殖分化能力.结果显示胎盘组织AC133+细胞百分率为4.11%,其细胞亚群集落培养形成CFU-GM的集落数为(37±3)/1×103;形成CFU-Mix的集落数为(34±5)/1×103;形成CFU-E集落数为(33±4)/1×103.胎盘AC133细胞未见集落形成.结论:人胎盘组织含HSPC,AC133+细胞具有分化为CFU-GM、CFU-Mix、CFU-E的能力;AC133膜抗原可作为胎盘HSPC的分选标志.

  1. 备用地下医院内真菌污染调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张永良; 郑世英; 智强

    2006-01-01

    [目的]了解备用地下医院真菌污染状况,为采取预防措施提供依据.[方法]用撞击法检测不同部位空气真菌数,用棉拭子法检测物体表面真菌数.[结果]不同部位空气污染程度相差悬殊,主通道为¨625±741.1 cfu/m3,内科病区13 525±1 279.0 cfu/m3,外科病区14 975±1 059.5 cfu/m3,综合病区21 600±1 897.4 cfu/m3,综合病区盲端38 400±4 698.9 cfu/m3,院部12 300±1 373.6 cfu/m3,伙房13 900±1 080.1 cfu/m3.木质床架和床垫最高,分别为27 840±4 760cfu/cm2和104960±13 840 cfu/cm2.[结论]木质床架和床垫成为地下医院真菌的主要污染源.大量繁殖的真菌孢子成熟后自行脱落而释放于空气中,通过飘散作用引起真菌污染区域的扩大.

  2. Microbiological and Chemical Quality of Feta Cheeses Consumed in Van

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enise Akel

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This study is aimed to determine the microbiological and chemical quality of Feta cheeses which are consumed in Van city center. In this study, a total of 50 Feta cheese samples were used as material. At the result of microbiological analysis of Feta cheeses, the mean number of total aerobic mesophilic bacteria, lactic acid bacteria, coliform, Escherichia coli, micrococcus/staphylococcus, coagulase positive Staphylococcus aureus, Clostridium perfringens, Enterobacteriaceae, yeast and mold were found as 5.49 log cfu/g, 5.20 log cfu/g, 0.78 log cfu/g, 0.10 log cfu/g, 0.58 log cfu/g, 0.53 log cfu/g, 0.08 log cfu/g, 0.96 log cfu/g, 5.18 log cfu/g, respectively. At the result of chemical analysis, the mean value of pH, titratable acidity, dry matter, fat, fat in dry matter, salt and salt in dry matter were found as 4.38, 1.41% LA, 41.21%, 18.12%, 44.18%, 8.36% and 20.42%, respectively. All of the samples were found conforming to the standards in terms of titratable acidity. On the other hand, 8%, 52% and 100% of samples were found unsuitable in terms of coagulase positive S. aureus, pH and salt in dry matter, respectively. As a result, it was concluded that Feta cheeses examined are inadequate in terms of microbiological and chemical quality and they could pose a risk to producers and consumers. The implementation of the HACCP system based on GMP at all stages of the food chain will play an active role for food safety, public health and the protection of consumer rights.

  3. Enhanced microbial biomass assay using mutant luciferase resistant to benzalkonium chloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hattori, Noriaki; Sakakibara, Tatsuya; Kajiyama, Naoki; Igarashi, Toshinori; Maeda, Masako; Murakami, Seiji

    2003-08-15

    In a biomass assay based on adenosine 5(')-triphosphate (ATP) bioluminescence, extracellular ATP is removed; then intracellular ATP is extracted from the microorganism by an ATP extractant and subsequently reacted with luciferase. To provide a highly sensitive assay, the concentration of benzalkonium chloride (BAC) in the ATP extractant was optimized by using a mutant luciferase resistant to BAC. The use of 0.2% BAC, which was acceptable for the luciferase, simultaneously achieved the maximum extraction of intracellular ATP from microorganisms and the inactivation of the ATP-eliminating enzymes for removal of extracellular ATP. The detection limit (blank+3 SD) for ATP was 1.8x10(-14)M (1.8x10(-18)mol/assay) in the presence of the ATP extractant with coefficients of variation of 0.7 to 6.3%. The reagent system coupled with the ATP-eliminating enzymes allowed for the detection of 93 colony-forming units (CFU)/ml of Escherichia coli ATCC 25922, 170CFU/ml of Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 27853, 170CFU/ml of Proteus mirabilis ATCC 29906, 68CFU/ml of Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923, and 7.7CFU/ml of Bacillus subtilis ATCC 6051. The yeast cell of Saccharomyces cerevisiae IFO 10217 could be detected at 1CFU/ml. With 54 kinds of microorganisms, the average ATP extraction efficiency compared to the trichloroacetic acid extraction method was 81.0% in 24 strains among gram-negative bacteria, 99.4% in 13 strains among gram-positive bacteria, and 97.0% in 17 strains among yeast. The ATP contents of the gram-negative bacteria, gram-positive bacteria, and yeasts ranged from 0.40 to 2.70x10(-18)mol/CFU (mean=1.5x10(-18)mol/CFU), from 0.41 to 16.7x10(-18)mol/CFU (mean=5.5x10(-18)mol/CFU), and from 0.714 to 54.6x10(-16)mol/CFU (mean=8.00x10(-16)mol/CFU), respectively.

  4. RESARCH OF LISTERIA MONOCYTOGENES IN FOODS AND REFRIGERATORS OF PRIVATE HOSPITALS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Murru

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to research Listeria monocytogenes (L.m. in 90 different food and refrigerators samples collected in 13 private hospitals in Naples. L.m. was detected in 25g in 2 samples of chilled chicken and vacuum packed cooked ham. At the quantitative evaluation L.m. was detected in three samples of chilled chicken, vacuum packed cooked ham and minced meat at levels of 46 cfu/g, 0,36 cfu/g and 21cfu/g, respectively.

  5. Phaeobacter inhibens as biocontrol agent against Vibrio vulnificus in oyster models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Porsby, Cisse Hedegaard; Gram, Lone

    2016-01-01

    acid (TDA), inhibited V. vulnificus as did pure TDA (MIC of 1-3.9 μM). P. inhibens DSM 17395 (at 106 cfu/ml) eradicated 105 cfu/ml V. vulnificus CMCP6 (a rifampicin resistant variant) from a co-culture oyster model system (oyster juice) whereas the pathogen grew to 107 cfu/ml when co......, the presence of P. inhibens could not prevent subsequently added V. vulnificus from entering the live animals, likely because of too low levels of the biocontrol strain. Whilst the oyster model studies provided indication that P. inhibens DSM 17395 could be a good candidate as biocontrol agent against V...

  6. Control of Listeria spp. by competitive-exclusion bacteria in floor drains of a poultry processing plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Tong; Podtburg, Teresa C; Zhao, Ping; Schmidt, Bruce E; Baker, David A; Cords, Bruce; Doyle, Michael P

    2006-05-01

    In previous studies workers determined that two lactic acid bacterium isolates, Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis C-1-92 and Enterococcus durans 152 (competitive-exclusion bacteria [CE]), which were originally obtained from biofilms in floor drains, are bactericidal to Listeria monocytogenes or inhibit the growth of L. monocytogenes both in vitro and in biofilms at 4 to 37 degrees C. We evaluated the efficacy of these isolates for reducing Listeria spp. contamination of floor drains of a plant in which fresh poultry is processed. Baseline assays revealed that the mean numbers of Listeria sp. cells in floor drains sampled on six different dates (at approximately biweekly intervals) were 7.5 log(10) CFU/100 cm(2) for drain 8, 4.9 log(10) CFU/100 cm(2) for drain 3, 4.4 log(10) CFU/100 cm(2) for drain 2, 4.1 log(10) CFU/100 cm(2) for drain 4, 3.7 log(10) CFU/100 cm(2) for drain 1, and 3.6 log(10) CFU/100 cm(2) for drain 6. The drains were then treated with 10(7) CE/ml in an enzyme-foam-based cleaning agent four times in 1 week and twice a week for the following 3 weeks. In samples collected 1 week after CE treatments were applied Listeria sp. cells were not detectable (samples were negative as determined by selective enrichment culture) for drains 4 and 6 (reductions of 4.1 and 3.6 log(10) CFU/100 cm(2), respectively), and the mean numbers of Listeria sp. cells were 3.7 log(10) CFU/100 cm(2) for drain 8 (a reduction of 3.8 log(10) CFU/100 cm(2)), culture; a reduction of 3.3 log(10) CFU/100 cm(2)), and 2.6 log(10) CFU/100 cm(2) for drain 3 (a reduction of 2.3 log(10) CFU/100 cm(2)). However, the aerobic plate counts for samples collected from floor drains before, during, and after CE treatment remained approximately the same. The results indicate that application of the two CE can greatly reduce the number of Listeria sp. cells in floor drains at 3 to 26 degrees C in a facility in which fresh poultry is processed.

  7. A porcine model of acute, haematogenous, localized osteomyelitis due to Staphylococcus aureus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Louise Kruse; Frees, Dorte; Aalbæk, Bent;

    2011-01-01

    A porcine model of acute, haematogenous, localized osteomyelitis was established. Serial dilutions of Staphylococcus aureus [5–50–500–5000–50 000 CFU/kg body weight (BW) suspended in saline or saline alone] were inoculated into the right brachial artery of pigs (BW 15 kg) separated into six groups...... of two animals. During the infection, blood was collected for cultivation, and after the animals were killed from day 5 to 15, they were necropsied and tissues were sampled for histopathology. Animals receiving =500 CFU/kg BW were free of lesions. Pigs inoculated with 5000 and 50 000 CFU/kg BW only...

  8. Comparison of virulence of different Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae serotypes and biotypes using an aerosol infection model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Mariann Juul; Nielsen, Jens Peter; Nielsen, Ragnhild

    1996-01-01

    . The pigs were sacrificed 24 h after aerosol exposure and lung lesions were evaluated. In pigs exposed to aerosols of suspensions containing 10(4) CFU/ml of serotypes 2, 5b and 6, a number of 5-10 lesions of haemorrhagic necrotizing pneumonia were induced, For the biotype 2 strain the dose creating similar...... lesions was 10(9) CFU/ml. Repeated experiments confirmed these results showing similar virulence of serotypes 2, 5b and 6 whereas the biotype 2 strain proved less virulent, The aerosol infection model allowed a comparison of the number of A. pleuropneumoniae CFU/liter air which were necessary to induce...

  9. Mechanisms of lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus-induced hemopoietic dysfunction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Allan Randrup; Pisa, P; Bro-Jørgensen, K;

    1986-01-01

    function in the intact mouse) mentioned above, we followed the changes in the number of pluripotential stem cells (CFU-S) circulating in the peripheral blood and in endogenous spleen colonies in irradiated mice, the limbs of which were partially shielded. It was found that following a marked early decline......, both parameters increased to normal or supranormal levels at about day 9 after infection. Because the bone marrow pool of CFU-S is only about 20% of normal at this time after infection, a marked tendency for CFU-S at this stage in the infection to migrate from the bone marrow to the spleen is suggested...

  10. Infection models for Salmonella typhimurium DT110 in day-old and 14-day-old broiler chickens kept in isolators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis-Holm, Lotte Bjerrum; Engberg, R.M.; Pedersen, Karl

    2003-01-01

    A series of experiments was undertaken to investigate the infection dynamics of various doses of S. typhimurium in day-old and 14-day-old broiler chickens kept in isolators. The infections were followed quantitatively in ceca and ileum by enumerating the colony forming units (cfu) of the challenge...... strain. It was found that the inoculation of 10(7) cfu of S. typhimurium to day-old chickens established stable cecal infection in all the animals for 35 days. For 14-day-old chickens, stable and lasting infections were seen with inoculation of 10(9) cfu. Lower doses yielded more variable results...

  11. Microbial evaluation and occurrence of antidrug multi-resistant organisms among the indigenous Clarias species in River Oluwa, Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    T.A. Ayandiran; Dahunsi, S O

    2017-01-01

    Fish may harbor pathogens on or inside its body when in contaminated environment. Clarias gariepinus and Clarias buthopogon were analyzed to evaluate the likely impact of pollution on the antidrug resistance pattern of their microbial isolates. Different bacterial and fungal counts were observed on the fish organs (skin, muscles and gills). The highest bacterial count was 1,040,000 Cfu/mL while the lowest was 101 Cfu/mL. The highest fungal count obtained was 344,000 Cfu/mL while the lowest wa...

  12. To comparatively evaluate the antimicrobial efficacy of chlorhexidine, nisin and linezolid as an intracanal medicament on Enterococcus faecalis: An in vitro study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geethu Somanath

    2015-01-01

    Results: In group Nisin, the mean CFU was 10.6250 at 24 hrs, 6.6250 at 72 hrs and 6.2500 after 1 week respectively (statistically significant. In group Chlorhexidine, mean CFU was found to be the lowest of 10.5000 at 24 hrs, with further gradual increase to 13.7500 at 72 hrs and further increase to 15.8750 by 1 week. Similarly, in group linezolid , the mean CFU was found to decrease from 49.0000 at 24 hrs to 29.8750 at 72hrs and then increase to 34.8750 in 1 week

  13. 海水鱼优势腐败菌腐败能力分析%Analysis on spoilage ability of dominant spoilage bacteria from marine fish

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许振伟; 李学英; 杨宪时; 郭全友; 姜朝军

    2011-01-01

    研究大黄鱼和大菱鲆无菌鱼块接种优势腐败菌后5℃贮藏中的感官、腐败产物和腐败菌的变化,以生长动力学参数和腐败产物的产量因子(YTvBn/CFU和YTMA/CFU)为指标,探讨两种冷藏海水鱼优势腐败菌希瓦氏菌和假单胞菌的腐败能力.结果表明,大菱鲆鱼块接种腐败希瓦氏菌和恶臭假单胞菌的货架期分别为60,72 h,货架期终点时的TVBN含量分别为35.48,37.56 mg/100 g,腐败菌菌数分别为8.14,8.32lg (CFU/g),产量因子YTVBN/CFU分别为1.86×10-7,1.35×10-7 mg TVBN/CFU.大黄鱼鱼块接种腐败希瓦氏菌和荧光假单胞菌的货架期分别为162,174 h,货架期终点时的TVBN含量分别为31.74,39.01 mg/100 g,腐败菌菌数分别为8.71,8.91lg(CFU/g),产量因子YTVBN/CFU分别为4.49×10-8,3.72×10-8 mg TVBN/CFU.大黄鱼鱼块的货架期比大菱鲆的明显长,接种假单胞菌的两种鱼块的货架期比接种希瓦氏菌的稍长.两种海水鱼低温有氧贮剂优势腐败菌希瓦氏菌和假单胞菌都有很强的腐败能力.%Sensory, metabolites, change of spoilage bacteria, grow dynamics parameter and the yield factor of metabolites (Ytvhn/cfu and Wma/cfu) were investigated and compared for sterile Pitudosciaena crocea and Scophthatmus maximus blocks inoculated spoilage bacteria stored at 5 ℃ aerobically. Spoilage ability of two dominant spoilage bacte-ria Sinuanella and Pseudomonas spp. From two marine fish cold storage were analyzed. The results demonstrate that shelf life was 60 h and 72 hfor Scophthalmus maximus blocks inoculated Siewanella putrefitciens and Pseudomonas puiida, respectively. TVBN was 35. 48 mg/100 g and 37. 56 mg/100 mg, counts of spoilage bacteria were 8. 14 lg(CFU/g)and 8. 32 lg (CFU/g), YTVBN/CFU was 1. 86 X 10~7 mg TVBN/CFU and 1. 35× 10-7 mg TVBN/CFU. Shelf life was 162 h and 174 h for Pseudosciaena crocea blocks inoculated Shewanella putrefaciens and Pseudomonas fluorescent , respectively. TVBN were 31. 74 mg/100 g and

  14. Dynamic Transportation of Endophytic Rhizobia in Plants during Growth Development of Alfalfa%苜蓿生育过程中植株体内内生根瘤菌的运移动态

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张淑卿; 李剑峰; 师尚礼

    2009-01-01

    [Objective] The aim of this study was to investigate the dynamic distribution of endophytic rhizobia in different plant parts during seed development of alfalfa and the carrying mechanism of endophytic rhizobia from alfalfa seeds. [Method] Root, stem, leaf, flower, pod and seed from two varieties of alfalfa in different development stages were used for surface disinfection, and then the present site and quantity change of rhizobia in alfalfa were studied by the dilution-plate method. [Result] The number of rhizobia from underground plants in the same stage was as follows: main root<lateral root<hair root. The number of rhizobia from main root and hair root in different stages was as follows: bearing pod stage>branching stage>florescence, while that from lateral root was as follows: branching stage>florescence>bearing pod stage. The distribution of endophytic rhizobia from aerial plants was as follows: few rhizobia was found in stem during branching stage and bearing pod stage, which accounted for 155 cfu/g and 125 cfu/g respectively. Rhizobia mainly distributed in flower bud during branching stage accounting for 9 400 cfu/g, while only in ovary wall during squaring stage accounting for 18 cfu/5 flowers, and few in pollen (26 cfu/5 flowers), fertilized ovules (26 cfu/50 grains), receptacle (15 cfu/5 flowers) and ovary wall (95 cfu/5 flowers) during florescence. Rhizobia existed in pod peel (3 550 cfu/5 pods) and immature seed (1 135 cfu/50 grains) during bearing pod stage, and greatly distributed in seed coat of mature seeds (1 435 cfu/50 grains), but only few in embryo (32 cfu/50 grains) and cotyledon (22 cfu/50 grains). [Conclusion] There is a significant difference in the distribution of endophytic rhizobia from different parts of aerial alfalfa, which only exists in the parts directly related to seed development.%[目的]了解苜蓿种子形成过程中根瘤菌在植株各部位的动态分布,探明苜蓿种子内生根瘤菌的携带机理.[方

  15. Related study on bacteria′s dynamic changing in the air of operating room and infecting of incisional wound%手术室空气细菌动态变化与切口感染的相关研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭艳; 李国荣; 李晓勇; 李德馨

    2014-01-01

    目的:了解手术室空气中细菌密度的变化与患者创口感染情况,以有效控制医院感染的发生。方法调查2012年10月-2013年10月住院50例手术患者,通过自然沉降法对普外科手术室手术开始30、60 min和120 min空气中的细菌密度进行监测,监测得到的数据用SPSS 13.0统计软件进行分析。结果所有不同持续时间的手术,在手术开始前空气中细菌的密度在0~22 CFU/m3;空气中细菌的密度随着手术进行时间的增加而增高,直到手术结束后;空气细菌密度在手术持续1 h以内为213~798 CFU/m3、1~2 h为552~1382 CFU/m3、2~3 h为588~2108 CFU/m3、>3 h的为734~2212 CFU/m3;手术过程中,空气中细菌含量随着医务人员人数增多而增多,手术结束后的密度<4人时为212~441 CFU/m3、5~8人时为335~951 CFU/m3、9~12人时为654~1423 CFU/m3、>13人为858~2212 CFU/m3;细菌密度还随着开门次数的增加而增加,开门次数<6次为215~329 CFU/m3、7~12次时为512~819 CFU/m3、13~18次时为649~1970 CFU/m3、>19次时为896~2212 CFU/m3。结论减少手术时间、手术室人数和开门次数可以有效减少医院感染的发生。%OBJECTIVE To understand the direct relation between dynamic change of bacteria density and wound infections to the patients ,so as to effectively control the nosocomial infections .METHODS A total of 50 cases of inpatients from Oct .2012 to Oct .2013 were under survey .The density of bacteria in the operating room air was monitored by natural sedimentation in 30 min ,60 min and 120 min after the beginning of operation .SPSS13 .0 software was used for statistical analysis about the monitoring data .RESULTS The density of bacteria in all surgery was 0~22 CFU/m3 .The density of bacteria raised while time passed by :when the surgery lasted less than 1h ,the density was 213~798 CFU/m3 ;1~2 h was 552~1 382 CFU/m3 ,2~3h was 588~2 108 CFU/m3 , more

  16. MICROBIOLOGICAL PROPERTIES OF BEEF IN VARIOUS MEAT SHOPS AT SEMARANG, INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Nurwantoro

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to assess microbiological properties of beef sold in various meatshops in Semarang. There are five Indonesian goverment standard requirements to maintain the qualityof beef sold in Indonesia markets, as follows: (1 total plate count (TPC for a maximum of 106 CFU/g,(2 total coliform bacteria for a maximum of 102 CFU/g, (3 total Escherichia coli up to 10 CFU/g, (4total Staphylococcus aureus for a maximum of 102 CFU/g and (5 negative for Salmonella per 25 gsamples (SNI 3932, 2008. Beef samples were randomly taken from several traditional markets, meatshops and supermarkets. The result showed that all samples did not contain Salmonella but still couldnot meet one or some of the Indonesian government standard regulation. In conclusion, beef samplesgathered from some of the markets, generaly could not meet one or some of the five strictlyrequirements of the bacteriological properties.

  17. MICROBIOLOGICAL PROPERTIES OF BEEF IN VARIOUS MEAT SHOPS AT SEMARANG, INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. Legowo

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to assess microbiological properties of beef sold in various meat shops in Semarang. There are five Indonesian goverment standard requirements to maintain the quality of beef sold in Indonesia markets, as follows: (1 total plate count (TPC for a maximum of 106 CFU/g, (2 total coliform bacteria for a maximum of 102 CFU/g, (3 total Escherichia coli up to 10 CFU/g, (4 total Staphylococcus aureus for a maximum of 102 CFU/g and (5 negative for Salmonella per 25 g samples (SNI 3932, 2008. Beef samples were randomly taken from several traditional markets, meat shops and supermarkets. The result showed that all samples did not contain Salmonella but still could not meet one or some of the Indonesian government standard regulation. In conclusion, beef samples gathered from some of the markets, generaly could not meet one or some of the five strictly requirements of the bacteriological properties.

  18. Seasonal Distribution of Bioaerosols in the Coastal Region of Qingdao

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QI Jianhua; SHAO Qian; XU Wenbing; GAO Dongmei; JIN Chuan

    2014-01-01

    Bioaerosols were collected by using a six-stage bioaerosols sampler from September 2007 to August 2008 in the coastal region of Qingdao, China. The terrestrial and marine microbes (including bacteria and fungi) were analyzed in order to understand the distribution features of bioaerosols. The results show that the average monthly concentrations of terrestrial bacteria, marine bacte-ria, terrestrial fungi and marine fungi are in the ranges of 80-615 CFU m-3, 91-468 CFU m-3, 76-647 CFU m-3 and 231-1959 CFU m-3, respectively. The concentrations of terrestrial bacteria, marine bacteria, terrestrial fungi, marine fungi and total microbes are the highest in each microbial category during fall, high in spring, and the lowest in the summer and winter. The bacterial particles are coarse in spring, autumn and winter. The sizes of fungal particle present the log-normal distribution in all the seasons.

  19. Manganese oxidation by bacterial isolates from the Indian Ridge System

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Fernandes, S.O.; Krishnan, K.P.; Khedekar, V.D.; LokaBharathi, P.A.

    The abundance and activity of culturable manganese-oxidizing bacteria were assessed from near-bottom water samples of the tectonically active Carlsberg Ridge. Retrievable counts as colony forming units (CFU) on dilute nutrient agar medium (dilNA = 2...

  20. EFEITO DO LACTOBACILLUS PLANTARUM NO TRATO INTESTINAL DE ALEVINOS DE OREOCHROMIS NILOTICUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Luís Pedreira Mouriño

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate alterations in the intestinal tract microbiota and growth performance of Nile tilapia (Orechromis niloticus fed diets supplemented with Lactobacillus plantarum. One hundred and twenty sexually reversed fingerlings were stocked in six aquaria and divided into two treatments, in triplicate: fingerlings fed diet supplement with L. plantarum and fingerlings fed control diet. After 42 days, tilapia fed the diet supplemented with L. plantarum had higher amount of lactic acid bacteria, 3,5x104 CFU and 1,1x102 CFU per g tract, and lower total bacteria, 5,8x106 CFU and 5,2x107 CFU per g tract, than the fish fed the control diet. Furthermore, probiotics increased 3,9% the weekly weight gain, 15,6% final biomass and 15,5% feed efficiency. The use of probiotics in tilapia hatcheries boosts productivity.

  1. Occurrence of Escherichia coli in Brassica rapa L. chinensis irrigated with low quality water in urban areas of Morogoro, Tanzania

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mhongole, Ofred J.; Mdegela, Robinson H.; Kusiluka, Lughano J. M.

    2016-01-01

    Low quality water has become valuable resource with restricted or unrestricted use in food production depending on its quality. This study has quantified the occurrence of Escherichia coli in Brassica rapa L. chinensis (Chinese cabbage) vegetables and low quality irrigation water. A total of 106...... samples including Chinese cabbage (69) and water (37) were collected. The E. coli were cultured in petri film selective E. coli plates at 44°C. The Chinese cabbage irrigated with river water at Fungafunga area indicated significantly (P... than those irrigated with treated wastewater at Mazimbu 10% (n=48, 0.00-1.36 log cfu/g). The mean counts of E. coli in untreated wastewater ranged from 4.59 to 5.56 log cfu/mL, while in treated wastewater was from 0.54 to 1.05 log cfu/mL and in river water it was 2.40 log cfu/mL. Treated wastewater...

  2. Growth of and valine production by a Bacillus subtilis mutant in the small intestine of pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Canibe, Nuria; Poulsen, Henrik Vestergaard; Nørgaard, Jan Værum;

    2016-01-01

    :Lys of 0.63:1 (Neg), 2) the Neg diet with added Bacillus subtilis-valine (1.28 × 108 cfu/g feed) (+Bac), and 3) the Neg diet with added L-Val to a Val:Lys of 0.69:1 (+Val). Eighteen gilts (6 on each treatment) with initial weights of ∼15 kg were fed the diets for 23 d before the animals were euthanized...... and samples from the small intestine were obtained. The number of B. subtilis cfu in digesta was higher in the +Bac group than in the Neg group (P ... concentrations were measured in the +Bac group. Short-term in vitro incubations of digesta showed a decrease (P ≤ 0.03) in the number of B. subtilis cfu over time for the +Bac group and no difference in the rate of Val production compared to that in the Neg group. In conclusion, more B. subtilis cfu were present...

  3. Fecal indicator bacteria in tropical beach sand: Baseline findings from Port Dickson coastline, Strait of Malacca (Malaysia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Praveena, Sarva Mangala; Shamira, Siti Shafiqa; Ismail, Sharifah Norkhadijah Syed; Aris, Ahmad Zaharin

    2016-09-15

    This pilot study aims to assess Escherichia coli (E. coli) contamination and its perceived health risks among beachgoers in ten tropical beach sands along Port Dickson coastline (Malaysia). This study also aims to determine the relationship between perceived health symptoms and tropical beach sand exposure behavior. The concentration of E. coli in tropical beach sand ranged from 60cfu/100g to 4113cfu/100g. E. coli contamination was the highest at Tanjung Gemuk (4113±30cfu/100g) and the lowest at Tanjung Tuan (60±15cfu/100g); the high level of contamination could be due to the location of the former at the sewage outlet of nearby hotels. Skin symptoms were the most predominant among the health symptoms indicated by beachgoers. Exposure duration was significantly correlated with the perceived health symptoms among beachgoers in the beaches studied.

  4. Evaluation of the effects of ultraviolet light on bacterial contaminants inoculated into whole milk and colostrum, and on colostrum immunoglobulin G.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, R V; Bicalho, M L; Machado, V S; Lima, S; Teixeira, A G; Warnick, L D; Bicalho, R C

    2014-05-01

    Raw milk and colostrum can harbor dangerous microorganisms that can pose serious health risks for animals and humans. According to the USDA, more than 58% of calves in the United States are fed unpasteurized milk. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of UV light on reduction of bacteria in milk and colostrum, and on colostrum IgG. A pilot-scale UV light continuous (UVC) flow-through unit (45 J/cm(2)) was used to treat milk and colostrum. Colostrum and sterile whole milk were inoculated with Listeria innocua, Mycobacterium smegmatis, Salmonella serovar Typhimurium, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus agalactiae, and Acinetobacter baumannii before being treated with UVC. During UVC treatment, samples were collected at 5 time points and bacteria were enumerated using selective media. The effect of UVC on IgG was evaluated using raw colostrum from a nearby dairy farm without the addition of bacteria. For each colostrum batch, samples were collected at several different time points and IgG was measured using ELISA. The UVC treatment of milk resulted in a significant final count (log cfu/mL) reduction of Listeria monocytogenes (3.2 ± 0.3 log cfu/mL reduction), Salmonella spp. (3.7 ± 0.2 log cfu/mL reduction), Escherichia coli (2.8 ± 0.2 log cfu/mL reduction), Staph. aureus (3.4 ± 0.3 log cfu/mL reduction), Streptococcus spp. (3.4 ± 0.4 log cfu/mL reduction), and A. baumannii (2.8 ± 0.2 log cfu/mL reduction). The UVC treatment of milk did not result in a significant final count (log cfu/mL) reduction for M. smegmatis (1.8 ± 0.5 log cfu/mL reduction). The UVC treatment of colostrum was significantly associated with a final reduction of bacterial count (log cfu/mL) of Listeria spp. (1.4 ± 0.3 log cfu/mL reduction), Salmonella spp. (1.0 ± 0.2 log cfu/mL reduction), and Acinetobacter spp. (1.1 ± 0.3 log cfu/mL reduction), but not of E. coli (0.5 ± 0.3 log cfu/mL reduction), Strep. agalactiae (0.8 ± 0.2 log cfu/mL reduction), and

  5. 抗衰片对电离辐射损伤后小鼠骨髓造血作用的影响%The effects of KS tablet on hematopoietic regulation in mice treated with radiation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    康肖梦; 王华伟; 杜利清; 赵洁; 张宇睿; 王华南; 杨福军; 徐文清

    2016-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effects of Kangshuai (KS) tablet on the hematopoietic reconstitution in mice treated with radiation. Methods C57BL/6 mice were randomly divided into four groups:irradiated control group, low-dose group (0.75 g/kg), middle-dose group (1.5 g/kg) and high-dose group (3.0 g/kg). There were ten mice for each group. The mice in three treated groups were given KS tablet suspension orally for three days before the treatment with irradiation, and the control group was given equal quantity of normal saline. All the mice were underwent irradiation of 6.0 Gy 137Cs-γrays, and were continuously given drug suspension or saline for seven days. The mice were sacrificed on the eighth day after irradiation. Colony forming unit of spleen (CSF-S), granulocyte macrophage colony-forming unit (CFU-GM) and fibroblast colony-form-ing unit (CFU-F). The 2D CFU-GM hematopoietic stem cells (HSC) were co-cultured with mesenchymal stem cell (MSC). Re-sults Compared with the irradiated control group, numbers of CFU-GM were significantly increased in three treatment groups. The proliferations of CFU-S, CFU-F and 2D CFU-GM were significantly enhanced in middle and high dose groups (P<0.05). Conclusion KS tablet can promote hematopoietic reconstitution in mice after irradiation damage.%目的 探讨抗衰片对电离辐射损伤后小鼠造血重建的调控影响.方法 9~10周龄雄性C57BL/6小鼠随机分为照射对照组、低剂量组、中剂量组和高剂量组,每组10只.后3个剂量组分别按0.75、1.5、3.0 g/kg体质量灌服抗衰片水溶液,照射对照组给予同体积生理盐水,1次/d,连续给药11 d.第4天对4组小鼠进行6.0 Gy 137Cs-γ射线单次全身照射.照射后第8天,观察小鼠内源性脾结节(即脾集落形成单位,CFU-S)、小鼠骨髓粒-巨噬细胞集落形成单位(CFU-GM)和骨髓成纤维细胞集落形成单位(CFU-F)的生成情况.同时,体外扩增的骨髓间充质干细胞(MSC)与正常供体小鼠的造血

  6. Heterotrophic Bacterial Flora in Aquaculture Area around Xuejiadao

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DU Zongjun; LI Yun; YU Dehua; WANG Xianghong; CHEN Jixiang; Robertson P.A.W.; Austin B.; XU Huaishu

    2002-01-01

    From Oct., 1999 to Oct., 2000, the heterotrophic bacterial flora in the aquaculture area around Xuejiadao wasinvestigated. The result shows that the populations of the heterotrophic bacteria are heavier in summer and autumn thanthose in winter and spring. The average populations in seawater, sediment, the surface of seaweed and the surface of fish are1.4 × 104cfu mL -1, 5.4 × 106cfu g 1, 1.5 × 106cfu g-1 and 1.8 × 103cfu cm 2, respectively. A total of 30l strains were isolated,among them 259 were Gram-negative. All the Gram-negative bacteria belong to 13 genera and some genera of Enterobacteri-aceae. The communities of bacteria are slightly different among the samples. In the body surface of fish, Genus vibrio isdominant. In the remaining samples, dominant genus is Aeromonas.

  7. Investigation of microbial contamination of different regions of department of Stomatology in Zhengzhou City%郑州市口腔科诊疗室不同区域微生物污染调查研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁中良; 王广州; 王志刚; 吕明洁

    2012-01-01

    Objective To understand the medical institutions of Zhengzhou city stomatological clinic room in different region of microbial contamination, aggrandizement management countermeasures. Methods According to the" technical standard for disinfection". 2002 edition of 12 home health agencies for dental clinic were detected. Results Of the monitoring of the air 115, average bacterial count from the patient treatment within 0. 5 meters of 4261 cfu /m3, 3235 CFU/ m3 1 meter, 2 meters and 5 meters of 1163 CFU/m3 (controlled area)was736 CFU/m3. Surface 120, average colony number distance patient treatment within 0. 5 meters of 2360cfu/cm , 1652cfu/cm2, 1 meter, 2 meters and 5 meters of 625 CFU/cm2 ( controlled area) is 268 CFU/cm2. One point 1 meter away from the patients treatment area detection of pathogenic bacteria in 5, hepatitis B surface antigen was detected in 4. The detection rate is respectively 4. 06% and 3. 25%. Conclusions In medical institutions of Zhengzhou city during oral clinic diagnosis and treatment of serious environment pollution, air and surface average bacterial count exceeds bid badly, and detection of pathogenic bacteria and hepatitis B surface antigen, need to strengthen management.%目的 了解郑州市医疗机构口腔科诊疗室不同区域微生物污染状况,强化管理对策.方法 按《消毒技术规范》2002年版对12家医疗机构的口腔科诊疗室进行了检测.结果 本次监测空气115份,平均菌落数距患者治疗点0.5米以内为4261 cfu/m3、1米处3235cfu/m3、2米处1163 cfu/m3及5米(对照区)处736cfu/m3.物体表面120份,平均菌落数距离患者治疗点0.5米以内为2360cfu/cm2、1米处1652cfu/cm2、2米处625cfu/cm2及5米(对照区)处268cfu/cm2.其中距患者治疗点1米以内区域检出致病菌5份,乙肝表面抗原检出4份.检出率分别是4.06%及3.25%.结论 郑州市医疗机构口腔诊疗室诊疗期间环境污染严重,空气及物体表面平均菌落数严重超标,并检

  8. 影楼婚纱细菌污染检测

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李绥晶

    2000-01-01

    @@ 1998年5月10~20日,对沈阳10家大型影楼的婚纱,用无菌棉拭沾无菌蒸馏水涂抹100 cm2采样,检测细菌总数和致病菌.共采样检测100份样本,细菌总数平均为51 cfu/cm2,最高为210 cfu/cm2,最低为8 cfu/cm2,78%样本细菌总数超过51 cfu/cm2.大肠杆菌、金黄色葡萄球菌检出率分别为17%和15%.

  9. Preparation of Bifidobacterium bifidum microcapsules by emulsification%乳化法制备两歧双歧杆菌微胶囊

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈合; 王野; 贾亚丽; 舒国伟

    2013-01-01

    以两歧双歧杆菌BB01和BB28为试验菌株,活菌数及包埋产率为指标,研究了海藻酸钠浓度、CaCl2浓度、乳化时间及固定化时间对乳化法制备两歧双歧杆菌微胶囊的影响.结果表明:当两歧双歧杆菌BB01微胶囊制备的条件分别为海藻酸钠浓度2%、CaCl2浓度1%、乳化时间10 min、固定化时间15 min时,对应的活菌数分别为4.9×109 cfu/mL、3.06×109 cfu/mL、2.47×109 cfu/mL和4.37×109 cfu/mL,包埋产率分别为80%、56.7%、40.9%和54.1%;当两歧双歧杆菌BB28微胶囊制备的条件分别为海藻酸钠浓度2.5%、CaCl2浓度1%、乳化时间15 min、固定化时间15 min时,对应的活菌数分别为4.0×109 cfu/mL、4.1×109 cfu/mL、1.59×109 cfu/mL和5.55×109 cfu/mL,包埋产率分别为80%、92%、87%和76.1%.%Effect of the concentration of sodium alginate and CaCl2, emulsifying time and immobilized time on preparation of Bifidobacterium bifidum microcapsules by emulsification was studied by using B. Bifidum BB01 and BBZ8 as test strains and viable counts and encapsulation yield as index. The results were as follows:when the sodium alginate concentration 2%,CaCl, concentration 1% ,emulsifying time 10 min and immobilized time 15 min, the viable counts and encapsulation yield of B. Bifidum BB01 were 4. 9×109 cfu/mL, 3. 06×109 cfu/mL, 2. 47×10s cfu/mL and 4. 37×109 cfu/mL, 80%, 56. 7%, 40. 9% and 54. 1%; when the sodium alginate concentration 2. 5% ,CaCl2 concentration 1 %,emulsifying time 15 min and immobilized time 15 min, the viable counts and encapsulation yield of B. Bifidum BB28 were 4. 0×109 cfu/mL, 4. 1×109 cfu/mL, 1.59×109 cfu/mL and 5. 55×109 cfu/mL, 80%, 92%, 87% and 76.1%.

  10. The genomes of the fungal plant pathogens Cladosporium fulvum and Dothistroma septosporum reveal adaptation to different hosts and lifestyles but also signatures of common ancestry.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Wit, P.J.G.M.; van der Burgt, A.; Ökmen, B.; Stergiopoulos, I.; Abd-Elsalam, K.A.; Aerts, A.L.; Bahkali, A.H.; Beenen, H.G.; Chettri, P.; Cox, M.P.; Datema, E.; de Vries, R.P.; Dhillon, B.; Ganley, A.R.; Griffiths, S.A.; Guo, Y.; Hamelin, R.C.; Henrissat, B.; Kabir, M.S.; Jashni, M.K.; Kema, G.; Klaubauf, S.; Lapidus, A.; Levasseur, A.; Lindquist, E.; Mehrabi, R.; Ohm, R.A.; Owen, T.J.; Salamov, A.; Schwelm, A.; Schijlen, E.; Sun, H.; van den Burg, H.A.; van Ham, R.C.H.J.; Zhang, S.; Goodwin, S.B.; Grigoriev, I.V.; Collemare, J.; Bradshaw, R.E.

    2012-01-01

    We sequenced and compared the genomes of the Dothideomycete fungal plant pathogens Cladosporium fulvum (Cfu) (syn. Passalora fulva) and Dothistroma septosporum (Dse) that are closely related phylogenetically, but have different lifestyles and hosts. Although both fungi grow extracellularly in close

  11. 杀菌型医用超声耦合剂消毒杀菌效果的观察%Sterilization efficacy of medical ultrasonic couplants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董冬梅; 杨德春; 鲁启英; 毛南芳

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To observe the sterilization of effect medical ultrasonic couplants. METHODS We collected 60 patients from October to November 2010, These patients were divided into control group (non-bactericidal) and experimental group (bacter icidal), 30 patients in each group. The bacterial on the ultrasound probe and the skin were cultured before and after inspection. RESULTS Before the test the colony number on the ultrasound probe between control group(263±50)CFU/cm2 and experimental group (279±42)CFU/cm2, and on the skin between control group(247 ± 75) CFU/cm2 and experimental group (252 ± 85) CFU/cm2 were no significant difference (P>0. 05), after the two groups with tradition medical ultrasound couplants were no significant difference (P>0. 05), the colony number on the ultrasound probe between control group(279 ±42)CFU/cm2 and experimental group (4 ± 3) CFU/cm2 , and on the skin between control group(252± 85) CFU/cm2 and experimental group (3 ±2)CFU/cm2 with sterilization medical ultrasound couplants were significantly different (P<0.01). CONCLUSION Sterilization medical ultrasound couplants can sterilize obviously on the ultrasound probe and the skin.%目的 观察杀菌型医用超声耦合剂的消毒杀菌效果.方法 搜集2010年10-11月行完整皮肤检测的超声检查的60例患者,分成对照组(非杀菌型耦合剂)和试验组(杀菌型耦合荆),各组均为30例;对检查前、后超声探头和受检皮肤进行细菌培养.结果 检查前超声探头对照组(263士50)CFU/cm2与试验组(279±42)CFU/cm2间菌落数差异无统计学意义,受检皮肤的对照组(247±75)CFU/cm2与试验组(252士85)CFU/cm2间菌落数差异无统计学意义;对照组的超声探头与受检皮肤在检查前后间菌落数差异无统计学意义;试验组超声探头检查前的菌落数(279士42)CFU/cm2与检查后的菌落数(4士3)CFU/cm2之间及受检皮肤检查前菌落数(252±85)CFU/cm2与检查后菌落数(3±2)CFU/cm2

  12. The effect of slaughter operations on the contamination of chicken carcasses with thermotolerant Campylobacter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosenquist, Hanne; Sommer, Helle Mølgaard; Nielsen, Niels L.;

    2006-01-01

    concentration of 0.5 log(10) cfu/g in average, whereas no significant changes were observed during this operation in Plant II. Air chilling (Plant 1) and water chilling (Plant 11), both including a carcass wash prior to the chilling operation, caused similar, but significant reductions of 0.83 and 0.97 log(10......) cfu/g, respectively. In packed frozen chickens (Plant II) an additional reduction of 1.38 log(10) cfu/g in average was obtained due to the freezing operation. In packed chilled chickens (Plant 1), however, the number of thermotolerant Campylobacter per gram remained at the same level as after air......) and had intestinal mean counts ranging from 6.65 to 8.20 log(10) cfu/g. A correlation between Campylobacter concentrations in intestinal content and on chicken carcasses after the defeathering operation was documented. This finding indicates that a reduction in the Campylobacter concentration on chicken...

  13. The Small Colony Variant Of Listeria Monocytogenes Is More Tolerant To Antibiotics And Grows Better Within Caco-2 Epithelial Cells Than The Wild Type

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Curtis, Thomas; Gram, Lone; Knudsen, Gitte Maegaard

    2015-01-01

    , the SCV E18 survived significantly better than the wild type N53-1 (one and three log10 higher CFU/ml) when exposed to super-MIC concentrations of most tested antibiotics, indicating a persister-like phenotype of the SCV. While SCV E18 displayed sensitivity towards oxygen, it was significantly more...... tolerant of 20mM H2O2 as compared to the wild type, with 6.3 log10 CFU/ml and 3.7 log10 CFU/ml, respectively. The SCV E18 had lower survival rate in unactivated macrophages, however, it was able to survive and multiply to almost 100-fold higher CFU/ml than the wild type in CaCo-2 epithelial cells...

  14. 白介素-3研究进展%Process in The Studies of Interleukine-3

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张耀洲; 吴祥甫

    2005-01-01

    白细胞介素-3是白细胞介素家族重要成员之一,在机体的造血调节和免疫调节中起非常重要的作用.它的主要功能是能够迅速促进多能干细胞和各系祖细胞(与其他细胞因子协同作用)如CFU-GM、CFU-G、CFU-M、CFU-Meg、CFU-Ba的定向分化和成熟.IL-3与其他细胞因子的联合应用可增加化疗后肿瘤病人的中性粒细胞和血小板.

  15. Colonization of sorghum and wheat by seed inoculation with Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luna, M F; Galar, M L; Aprea, J; Molinari, M L; Boiardi, J L

    2010-08-01

    Colonization of sorghum and wheat after seed inoculation with Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus strains PAL 5 and UAP 5541/pRGS561 (containing the marker gene gusA) was studied by colony counting and microscopic observation of plant tissues. Inoculum levels as low as 10(2) CFU per seed were enough for root colonization and further spreading in aerial tissues. Rhizoplane colonization was around 7 log CFU g(-1) (fresh weight). G. diazotrophicus was found inside sorghum and wheat roots with populations higher than 5 log CFU g(-1) (fresh weight). Stem colonization remained stable for 30 days post inoculation with endophyte concentrations from 4 to 5 log CFU g(-1) (fresh weight) (in both plants). Population in leaves decreased continuously being undetectable after 17 days post inoculation.

  16. Slaughterfloor decontamination of pork carcases with hot water or acidified sodium chlorite - a comparison in two Australian abattoirs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, D; Holds, G; Lorimer, M; Kiermeier, A; Kidd, C; Slade, J; Pointon, A

    2010-11-01

    A decontamination trial on the effectiveness of hot water or acidified sodium chlorite (SANOVA) treatment on Salmonella spp., Escherichia coli and Total Viable Count (TVC) was undertaken on pork carcases prior to primary chilling in two large pork abattoirs in Australia using belly-strip excision sampling. A total of 123 samples from Abattoir A and 400 samples from Abattoir B were cultured and analysed. Test pigs were selected from herds with a known high level of on-farm Salmonella infection. At Abattoir A, Salmonella spp. were not isolated from carcases. The prevalence of E. coli on control carcases was 92.9% compared with 9.8% for hot water and 12.5% for SANOVA treated carcases. The mean log(10) E. coli concentration for control carcases was 0.89 cfu/gram, compared with -0.83 cfu/gram from hot water and -0.75 cfu/gram from SANOVA treated carcases. The mean log(10) TVC for control carcases was 4.06 compared with 1.81 cfu/gram for hot water and 2.76 cfu/gram for SANOVA treated carcases. At Abattoir B, the prevalence of Salmonella on control carcases was 16% compared with 2.7% for hot water and 7.0% for SANOVA treated carcases. The prevalence of E. coli on control carcases was 69.3% compared with 22% for hot water and 30% for SANOVA treated carcases. The mean log(10) E. coli concentration for control carcases was 0.45 cfu/gram, compared with -0.65 cfu/gram from hot water and -0.60 cfu/gram from SANOVA treated carcases. The mean log(10) TVC for control carcases was 3.00 cfu/gram compared with 2.10 cfu/gram for hot water and 2.53 cfu/gram for SANOVA treated carcases. The reductions in prevalence and mean log(10) concentrations in the present trial were all found to be statistically significant and indicate that carcases decontamination with either hot water or SANOVA are effective risk management options immediately available to the pork industry.

  17. Microbiological quality of fresh, minimally-processed fruit and vegetables, and sprouts from retail establishments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abadias, M; Usall, J; Anguera, M; Solsona, C; Viñas, I

    2008-03-31

    A survey of fresh and minimally-processed fruit and vegetables, and sprouts was conducted in several retail establishments in the Lleida area (Catalonia, Spain) during 2005-2006 to determine whether microbial contamination, and in particular potentially pathogenic bacteria, was present under these commodities. A total of 300 samples--including 21 ready-to-eat fruits, 28 whole fresh vegetables, 15 sprout samples and 237 ready-to-eat salads containing from one to six vegetables--were purchased from 4 supermarkets. They were tested for mesophilic and psychrotrophic aerobic counts, yeasts and moulds, lactic acid bacteria, Enterobacteriaceae, presumptive E. coli and Listeria monocytogenes counts as well as for the presence of Salmonella, E. coli O157:H7, Yersinia enterocolitica and thermotolerant Campylobacter. Results for the fresh-cut vegetables that we analyzed showed that, in general, the highest microorganism counts were associated with grated carrot, arugula and spinach (7.8, 7.5 and 7.4 log cfu g(-1) of aerobic mesophilic microorganisms; 6.1, 5.8 and 5.2 log cfu g(-1) of yeast and moulds; 5.9, 4.0 and 5.1 log cfu g(-1) lactic acid bacteria and 6.2, 5.3 and 6.0 log cfu g(-1) of Enterobacteriaceae). The lowest counts were generally associated with fresh-cut endive and lettuce (6.2 and 6.3 log cfu g(-1) of aerobic mesophilic microorganisms; 4.4 and 4.6 log cfu g(-1) of yeast and moulds; 2.7 and 3.8 log cfu g(-1) lactic acid bacteria and 4.8 and 4.4 log cfu g(-1) of Enterobacteriaceae). Counts of psychrotrophic microorganisms were as high as those of mesophilic microorganisms. Microbiological counts for fresh-cut fruit were very low. Sprouts were highly contaminated with mesophilic (7.9 log cfu g(-1)), psychrotrophic microorganisms (7.3 log cfu g(-1)) and Enterobacteriaceae (7.2 log cfu g(-1)) and showed a high incidence of E. coli (40% of samples). Of the samples analyzed, four (1.3%) were Salmonella positive and two (0.7%) harboured L. monocytogenes. None of the

  18. Viability of Listeria monocytogenes on Boneless, Water-Added Hams, Commercially Prepared with and without Food-Grade Chemicals, during Extended Storage at 4 and/or -2.2°C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luchansky, John B; Campano, Stephen G; Shoyer, Bradley A; Porto-Fett, Anna C S

    2016-04-01

    Viability of Listeria monocytogenes was monitored during refrigerated (4°C) and/or frozen (i.e., deep chilling at -2.2°C) storage on casing-cooked hams that were commercially prepared with and without potassium lactate and sodium diacetate (1.6%), buffered vinegar (2.2%), buffered vinegar and potassium lactate (1.7%), or a blend of potassium lactate, potassium acetate, and sodium diacetate (1.7%). A portion of these hams were subsequently surface treated with lauric arginate ester (LAE; 44 ppm). In phase I, hams (ca. 3.5 kg each) were sliced (ca. 0.7 cm thick, ca. 100 g), inoculated (ca. 4.0 log CFU per slice), surface treated with LAE, and stored at either 4°C for 120 days or at -2.2°C for 90 days and then at 4°C for an additional 120 days. In phase I, without antimicrobials, the population of L. monocytogenes increased by ca. 5.9 log CFU per slice within 120 days at 4°C; however, pathogen levels increased only slightly (ca. 0.45 log CFU per slice) for hams formulated with potassium lactate and sodium diacetate and decreased by ca. 1.2 log CFU per slice when formulated with the other antimicrobials. For slices held at -2.2°C and then stored at 4°C, but not treated with LAE, L. monocytogenes increased by ca. 4.5 log CFU per slice for controls, whereas when formulated with antimicrobials, pathogen levels decreased by ca. 1.4 to 1.8 log CFU per slice. For product treated with LAE, L. monocytogenes increased by ca. 4.0 log CFU per slice for controls, whereas when formulated with antimicrobials, pathogen levels decreased by ca. 0.9 to 1.9 log CFU per slice. In phase II, whole hams (ca. 1.0 kg each) containing antimicrobials were inoculated (6.8 log CFU per ham) and then stored at -2.2°C for 6 months. Pathogen levels decreased by ca. 2.0 to 3.5 log CFU per ham (without LAE treatment) and by ca. 4.2 to 5.2 log CFU per ham (with application of LAE via Sprayed Lethality in Container) when product was held at -2.2°C. In general, deep chilling hams was listericidal

  19. RANCANG BANGUN FERMENTOR YOGURT DENGAN SISTEM KONTROL LOGIKA FUZZY MENGGUNAKAN MIKROKONTROLER ATMEGA32 (Yogurt Fermenter Design with Fuzzy Logic Control System Using Microcontroller ATMega32

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimas Firmanda Al Riza

    2015-02-01

    settling time selama 1 jam 20 menit dan rata-rata error sebesar -0,36 oC. Proses fermentasi selama 16 jam menggunakan fermentor dengan kontroler fuzzy menghasilkan yogurt dengan pH sebesar 3,66, jumlah mikroba Lactobacillus sp. sebanyak 4,85 x 108cfu/mL, dan Streptococcus sp. sebanyak 1,34 x 10 6 cfu/mL. Kata kunci: Fermentasi, yogurt, susu sapi, fuzzy, kontrol suhu

  20. Comparison of efficacy of ciprofloxacin and doxycycline against experimental melioidosis and glanders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, P; Eley, S M; Ellis, J; Green, M; Bell, D L; Kenny, D J; Titball, R W

    2000-06-01

    Melioidosis and glanders are caused by the closely related species Burkholderia pseudomallei and Burkholderia mallei, respectively. Whereas melioidosis is a significant cause of morbidity in south-east Asia, glanders is extremely rare. The efficacies of ciprofloxacin and doxycycline were assessed against a strain of B. pseudomallei and a strain of B. mallei which were susceptible to both antimicrobials in vitro. Porton outbred mice and Syrian hamsters were given 40 mg/kg of either doxycycline or ciprofloxacin twice daily by sc injection according to one of three regimens: dosing starting 48 h before challenge and continuing for 5 days postchallenge; 5 days' therapy starting immediately after challenge; 5 days' therapy starting 24 h after challenge. Mice were challenged ip with B. pseudomallei 4845 and hamsters were challenged ip with B. mallei 23344. Antimicrobial efficacy was determined by the shift in the median lethal dose (MLD). Ciprofloxacin prophylaxis and immediate therapy both raised the MLD of B. pseudomallei to 4 x 10(6) cfu from 19 cfu in untreated animals, but therapeutic ciprofloxacin only raised the MLD to 180 cfu. The results for doxycycline were similar. Ciprofloxacin prophylaxis raised the MLD of B. mallei 23344 to 4.6 x 10(5) cfu compared with 4 cfu in untreated controls. Immediate therapy raised the MLD to 7.0 x 10(4) cfu and therapy raised the MLD to 1.6 x 10(3) cfu. All regimens of doxycycline protected hamsters against challenges of up to 2 x 10(7) cfu. Despite using a susceptible strain of B. pseudomallei, neither antimicrobial was effective when used therapeutically. The timely administration of either antimicrobial, however, was effective in preventing symptomatic infection. Doxycycline was the superior of the two antimicrobials against experimental glanders although relapse did occur in treated animals approximately 4-5 weeks after challenge.

  1. Evaluating the Efficiency of Lettuce Disinfection According to the Official Protocol in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B Nomanpour

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of Sanitization of Lettuce according to the protocols set forth by Iranian Ministry of Health and Medical Education for reducing populations of total coliform, fecal coliform, and helminth eggs present on lettuce.Methods: In the present study, we determined the load of total coliform, fecal coliform, and parasites of lettuce. The lettuce was sanitized by protocol of Iranian Ministry of Health and Medical Education. The protocol consists of 3 levels to disinfect the fruits and vegetables. The procedure was as follows: first washing stage. The leaves of leafy vegetables washed with tap water, second stage, separation of helminth eggs by 3 to 5 droplets of detergent per liter for 5 min; third stage, disinfection of vegetables by calcium hypochlorite solution (with 200 mg/l free chlorine for 5 min; and finally the disinfected vegetables were washed with tap water.Results: The average initial levels of total coliform and fecal coliform in the samples were 3.36 log10 cfu/g and 2.31 log10 cfu/g, respectively. Helminth eggs were not detected in any of the samples tested. The efficiency of total coliform and fecal coliform removal were 78.1% (0.75 log10cfu/g and 79.6% (0.67 log10cfu/g, respectively, after washing. This increased up to 94.8(1.44 log10cfu/g and 98.5% (1.90 log10cfu/g after the use of detergent. Chlorine disinfection rose these amounts up to 98.3% (2.18 log10cfu/g and 100% (2.31 log10cfu/g, respectively.Conclusion: By applying the protocol large parts of microorganisms existing on lettuce have indeed been removed.

  2. CHROMagar mSuperCARBA performance in carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae isolates characterized at molecular level and routine surveillance rectal swab specimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Fernández, Sergio; Hernández-García, Marta; Valverde, Aránzazu; Ruiz-Garbajosa, Patricia; Morosini, María Isabel; Cantón, Rafael

    2017-03-01

    Performance of the CHROMagar mSuperCARBA media was assessed in both well-characterized carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (n=52) and routine surveillance rectal swab specimens (n=211). Limit of detection ranged between 10(1) and 10(2)CFU/mL except for OXA-48 producers with low-carbapenem MICs (10(6)CFU/mL). High sensitivity (100%) and specificity (100%) were obtained with rectal swabs.

  3. Survival of Listeria monocytogenes in vanilla-flavored soy and dairy products stored at 8 degrees C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tipparaju, Sireesha; Ravishankar, Sadhana; Slade, Peter J

    2004-02-01

    The survival of Listeria monocytogenes V37 in vanilla-flavored yogurt (low-fat and nonfat) and soy milk (low-fat and Plus) stored at 8 degrees C for 31 days was investigated. Commercial samples of yogurt and soy milk were used. These samples were inoculated with either 10(4) or 10(7) CFU of L. monocytogenes per ml. Sampling was carried out every 3 to 4 days initially and was then carried out weekly, for a total storage time of 31 days. Each time a sample was collected, the pH of the sample was measured. After 31 days, low-fat plain, low-fat vanilla, and nonfat plain yogurt samples inoculated with 10(4) CFU/ml showed 2.5-log reductions in viable cell populations, and nonfat vanilla yogurt showed a 3.5-log reduction. For yogurt inoculated with 10(7) CFU/ml, reductions of 2.5 log CFU/ml were observed for plain low-fat and nonfat yogurts, and reductions of 5 log CFU/ml were observed for vanilla-flavored low-fat and nonfat yogurts. In vanilla-flavored and plain low-fat and Plus soy milk samples, cell counts increased from 10(4) and 10(7) CFU/ml to 10(9) CFU/ml at 7 and 3 days of storage, respectively, at 8 degrees C. Coagulation in soy milk samples was observed when the cell population reached 10(9) CFU/ml. In soy milk, the L. monocytogenes population did not change for up to 31 days. Vanillin had an inhibitory effect on L. monocytogenes in yogurt but not in soy milk.

  4. Carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae: frequency of hospital room contamination and survival on various inoculated surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, David J; Rutala, William A; Kanamori, Hajime; Gergen, Maria F; Sickbert-Bennett, Emily E

    2015-05-01

    Carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE) only contaminated the environmental surfaces of rooms housing CRE colonized/infected patients infrequently (8.4%) and at low levels (average, 5.1 colony-forming units [CFU]/120 cm² per contaminated surface). Three species of CRE (Klebsiella, Enterobacter, and Escherichia) survived poorly (>85% die-off in 24 hours) when ~2 log10 CFU were inoculated onto 5 different environmental surfaces.

  5. Magnetic nano-beads based separation combined with propidium monoazide treatment and multiplex PCR assay for simultaneous detection of viable Salmonella Typhimurium, Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Listeria monocytogenes in food products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Youjun; Xu, Feng; Xu, Hengyi; Aguilar, Zoraida P; Niu, Ruijiang; Yuan, Yong; Sun, Jichang; You, Xingyong; Lai, Weihua; Xiong, Yonghua; Wan, Cuixiang; Wei, Hua

    2013-06-01

    We developed a rapid and reliable technique for simultaneous detection of Salmonella Typhimurium, Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Listeria monocytogenes that can be used in food products. Magnetic nano-beads (MNBs) based immunomagnetic separation (IMS) was used to separate the target bacterial cells while multiplex PCR (mPCR) was used to amplify the target genes. To detect only the viable bacteria, propidium monoazide (PMA) was applied to selectively suppress the DNA detection from dead cells. The results showed the detection limit of IMS-PMA-mPCR assay was about 10(2) CFU/ml (1.2 × 10(2) CFU/ml for S. Typhimurium, 4.0 × 10(2) CFU/ml for E. coli O157:H7 and 5.4 × 10(2) CFU/ml for L. monocytogenes) in pure culture and 10(3) CFU/g (5.1 × 10(3) CFU/g for S. Typhimurium, 7.5 × 10(3) CFU/g for E. coli O157:H7 and 8.4 × 10(3) CFU/g for L. monocytogenes) in spiking food products samples (lettuce, tomato and ground beef). This report has demonstrated for the first time, the effective use of rapid and reliable IMS combined with PMA treatment and mPCR assay for simultaneous detection of viable S. Typhimurium, E. coli O157:H7 and L. monocytogenes in spiked food samples. It is anticipated that the present approach will be applicable to simultaneous detection of the three target microorganisms for practical use.

  6. Reduction of Escherichia coli O157:H7 on produce by use of electrolyzed water under simulated food service operation conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pangloli, Philipus; Hung, Yen-Con; Beuchat, Larry R; King, C Harold; Zhao, Zhi-Hui

    2009-09-01

    Treatment of fresh fruits and vegetables with electrolyzed water (EW) has been shown to kill or reduce foodborne pathogens. We evaluated the efficacy of EW in killing Escherichia coli O157:H7 on iceberg lettuce, cabbage, lemons, and tomatoes by using washing and/or chilling treatments simulating those followed in some food service kitchens. Greatest reduction levels on lettuce were achieved by sequentially washing with 14-A (amperage) acidic EW (AcEW) for 15 or 30 s followed by chilling in 16-A AcEW for 15 min. This procedure reduced the pathogen by 2.8 and 3.0 log CFU per leaf, respectively, whereas washing and chilling with tap water reduced the pathogen by 1.9 and 2.4 log CFU per leaf. Washing cabbage leaves for 15 or 30 s with tap water or 14-A AcEW reduced the pathogen by 2.0 and 3.0 log CFU per leaf and 2.5 to 3.0 log CFU per leaf, respectively. The pathogen was reduced by 4.7 log CFU per lemon by washing with 14-A AcEW and 4.1 and 4.5 log CFU per lemon by washing with tap water for 15 or 30 s. A reduction of 5.3 log CFU per lemon was achieved by washing with 14-A alkaline EW for 15 s prior to washing with 14-A AcEW for 15 s. Washing tomatoes with tap water or 14-A AcEW for 15 s reduced the pathogen by 6.4 and 7.9 log CFU per tomato, respectively. Application of AcEW using procedures mimicking food service operations should help minimize cross-contamination and reduce the risk of E. coli O157:H7 being present on produce at the time of consumption.

  7. Presence and growth of Bacillus cereus in dehydrated potato flakes and hot-held, ready-to-eat potato products purchased in New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Nicola J; Whyte, Rosemary; Hudson, J Andrew; Kaltovei, Susan L

    2006-05-01

    Potato products prepared from dehydrated potato flakes have been implicated in foodborne illness incidents involving Bacillus cereus intoxications. B. cereus can survive as spores in potato flakes and can germinate and multiply in the rehydrated product. This study assessed the frequency and concentration of B. cereus in dehydrated potato flakes and hot-held, ready-to-eat mashed potato products. Of 50 packets of potato flakes tested, eight contained greater than 100 CFU/g B. cereus (maximum 370 CFU/g). The temperature of the potato portion of 44 hot-held food products was measured immediately after purchase, and 86% were below the safe hot-holding temperature of 60 degrees C. The potato portions were subsequently tested for B. cereus. Only two of the potato portions contained B. cereus at greater than 100 CFU/g, a potato-topped pastry (1000 CFU/g) and a container of potato and gravy (120 CFU/g). To assess multiplication of B. cereus in this food, we held rehydrated potato flakes with naturally occurring B. cereus at 37, 42, and 50 degrees C and tested them over 6 h. By 6 h, the number of B. cereus in potato stored at 37 degrees C had exceeded 10(3) CFU/g, was greater than 10(4) CFU/g at 50 degrees C, and was close to 10(6) CFU/g at 42 degrees C. Growth data were compared to predictions from the U.S. Department of Agriculture Pathogen Modeling Program (PMP 7.0). The PMP predictions were found to simulate the measured growth better at 42 degrees C than at 37 degrees C. Hot-held potato products should be safe for consumption if held at 60 degrees C or above or discarded within 2 h.

  8. A Pragmatic Randomized Controlled Trial of 6-Step vs 3-Step Hand Hygiene Technique in Acute Hospital Care in the United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reilly, Jacqui S; Price, Lesley; Lang, Sue; Robertson, Chris; Cheater, Francine; Skinner, Kirsty; Chow, Angela

    2016-06-01

    OBJECTIVE To evaluate the microbiologic effectiveness of the World Health Organization's 6-step and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's 3-step hand hygiene techniques using alcohol-based handrub. DESIGN A parallel group randomized controlled trial. SETTING An acute care inner-city teaching hospital (Glasgow). PARTICIPANTS Doctors (n=42) and nurses (n=78) undertaking direct patient care. INTERVENTION Random 1:1 allocation of the 6-step (n=60) or the 3-step (n=60) technique. RESULTS The 6-step technique was microbiologically more effective at reducing the median log10 bacterial count. The 6-step technique reduced the count from 3.28 CFU/mL (95% CI, 3.11-3.38 CFU/mL) to 2.58 CFU/mL (2.08-2.93 CFU/mL), whereas the 3-step reduced it from 3.08 CFU/mL (2.977-3.27 CFU/mL) to 2.88 CFU/mL (-2.58 to 3.15 CFU/mL) (P=.02). However, the 6-step technique did not increase the total hand coverage area (98.8% vs 99.0%, P=.15) and required 15% (95% CI, 6%-24%) more time (42.50 seconds vs 35.0 seconds, P=.002). Total hand coverage was not related to the reduction in bacterial count. CONCLUSIONS Two techniques for hand hygiene using alcohol-based handrub are promoted in international guidance, the 6-step by the World Health Organization and 3-step by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. The study provides the first evidence in a randomized controlled trial that the 6-step technique is superior, thus these international guidance documents should consider this evidence, as should healthcare organizations using the 3-step technique in practice. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2016;37:661-666.

  9. Biochemical measurements on single erythroid progenitor cells shed light on the combinatorial regulation of red blood cell production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Weijia; Akbarian, Vahe; Audet, Julie

    2013-02-02

    Adult bone marrow (BM) erythrocyte colony-forming units (CFU-Es) are important cellular targets for the treatment of anemia and also for the manufacture of red blood cells (RBCs) ex vivo. We obtained quantitative biochemical measurements from single and small numbers of CFU-Es by isolating and analyzing c-Kit(+)CD71(high)Ter119(-) cells from adult mouse BM and this allowed us to identify two mechanisms that can be manipulated to increase RBC production. As expected, maximum RBC output was obtained when CFU-Es were stimulated with a combination of Stem Cell Factor (SCF) and Erythropoietin (EPO) mainly because SCF supports a transient CFU-E expansion and EPO promotes the survival and terminal differentiation of erythroid progenitors. However, we found that one of the main factors limiting the output in RBCs was that EPO induces a downregulation of c-Kit expression which limits the transient expansion of CFU-Es. In the presence of SCF, the EPO-mediated downregulation of c-Kit on CFU-Es is delayed but still significant. Moreover, treatment of CFU-Es with 1-Naphthyl PP1 could partially inhibit the downregulation of c-Kit induced by EPO, suggesting that this process is dependent on a Src family kinase, v-Src and/or c-Fyn. We also found that CFU-E survival and proliferation was dependent on the level of time-integrated extracellular-regulated kinase (ERK) activation in these cells, all of which could be significantly increased when SCF and EPO were combined with mouse fetal liver-derived factors. Taken together, these results suggest two novel molecular strategies to increase RBC production and regeneration.

  10. Biodegradation of international jet A-1 aviation fuel by microorganisms isolated from aircraft tank and joint hydrant storage systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itah, A Y; Brooks, A A; Ogar, B O; Okure, A B

    2009-09-01

    Microorganisms contaminating international Jet A-1 aircraft fuel and fuel preserved in Joint Hydrant Storage Tank (JHST) were isolated, characterized and identified. The isolates were Bacillus subtillis, Bacillus megaterium, Flavobacterium oderatum, Sarcina flava, Micrococcus varians, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Bacillus licheniformis, Bacillus cereus and Bacillus brevis. Others included Candida tropicalis, Candida albicans, Saccharomyces estuari, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Schizosaccharomyces pombe, Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus fumigatus, Cladosporium resinae, Penicillium citrinum and Penicillium frequentans. The viable plate count of microorganisms in the Aircraft Tank ranged from 1.3 (+/-0.01) x 104 cfu/mL to 2.2 (+/-1.6) x 104 cfu/mL for bacteria and 102 cfu/mL to 1.68 (+/-0.32) x 103 cfu/mL for fungi. Total bacterial counts of 1.79 (+/-0.2) x 104 cfu/mL to 2.58 (+/-0.04) x 104 cfu/mL and total fungal count of 2.1 (+/-0.1) x 103 cfu/mL to 2.28 (+/-0.5) x 103 cfu/mL were obtained for JHST. Selected isolates were re-inoculated into filter sterilized aircraft fuels and biodegradation studies carried out. After 14 days incubation, Cladosporium resinae exhibited the highest degradation rate with a percentage weight loss of 66 followed by Candida albicans (60.6) while Penicillium citrinum was the least degrader with a weight loss of 41.6%. The ability of the isolates to utilize the fuel as their sole source of carbon and energy was examined and found to vary in growth profile between the isolates. The results imply that aviation fuel could be biodegraded by hydrocarbonoclastic microorganisms. To avert a possible deterioration of fuel quality during storage, fuel pipe clogging and failure, engine component damage, wing tank corrosion and aircraft disaster, efficient routine monitoring of aircraft fuel systems is advocated.

  11. 九孔鲍养殖水体及消化道细菌学的研究%Bacteriological Studies in a Digestive Tract of Abalone (Haliotis diversicolor supertexta) and in the Waters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡创华; 周毅频; 蔡俊鹏; 杨洪志

    2005-01-01

    2002年对汕尾健生鲍鱼养殖场养殖水体和鲍消化道中异养细菌及弧菌的数量和类群组成进行了研究.研究结果表明:养殖水体中异养细菌数量的四季变化从2.4×104~1.3×l05 cfu/ml,平均为7.6×104 cfu/ml;消化道中异养细菌数量四季变化则从1.6×107~5.4×107 cfu/g(湿重),平均为3.3×107 cfu/g.水体中弧菌数量四季变化从1.2×104~5.1×104 cfu/ml,平均为2.5×104 cfu/ml;而消化道中弧菌数量四季变化则从2.8×105~3.8×105 cfu/g,平均为3.2×105cfu/g.水体中细菌类群由Sphingomonas, Vibrio, Pasteurella, Moraxella, Pseudomonas, Aeromonas, Flavobacterium, Klebsiella, Weeksella和Alcall组成,消化道中细菌类群由Sphingomonas, Vibrio, Aeromonas, Flavobacterium, Shewanella, Sphingobacterium, Pseudomonas组成,水体和消化道弧菌种类主要为Vibrio fluvialis,Vibrio parahaemolyticus,Vibrio vulnificus,Vibrio cholerae,Vibrio minicus,Vibrio alginolyticus.并对不同养殖场水源弧菌数量也进行了比较.

  12. Physical Covering to control Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Salmonella in Static and Windrow Composting Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study investigated the effect of 30-cm covering of finished compost on survival of E. coli O157:H7 and Salmonella in active static and windrow composting systems. Feedstock inoculated with E. coli O157:H7 (7.41 log CFU/g) and Salmonella (6.46 log CFU/g) were placed in biosentry tubes (7.5 cm di...

  13. Comparative pharmacodynamics of four different carbapenems in combination with polymyxin B against carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenhard, Justin R; Gall, Jonathan S; Bulitta, Jurgen B; Thamlikitkul, Visanu; Landersdorfer, Cornelia B; Forrest, Alan; Nation, Roger L; Li, Jian; Tsuji, Brian T

    2016-12-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the comparative pharmacodynamics of four different carbapenems in combination with polymyxin B (PMB) against carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii isolates using time-kill experiments at two different inocula. Two A. baumannii strains (03-149-1 and N16870) with carbapenem minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) ranging from 8 to 64 mg/L were investigated in 48-h time-kill experiments using starting inocula of 10(6) CFU/mL and 10(8) CFU/mL. Concentration arrays of ertapenem, doripenem, meropenem and imipenem at 0.25×, 0.5×, 1×, 1.5× and 2× published maximum serum concentration (Cmax) values (Cmax concentrations of 12, 21, 48 and 60 mg/L, respectively) were investigated in the presence of 1.5 mg/L PMB. Use of carbapenems without PMB resulted in drastic re-growth. All carbapenem combinations were able to achieve a ≥3 log10 CFU/mL reduction by 4 h against both strains at 10(6) CFU/mL, whereas maximum reductions against strain 03-149-1 at 10(8) CFU/mL were 1.0, 3.2, 2.2 and 3.3 log10 CFU/mL for ertapenem, doripenem, meropenem and imipenem, respectively. None of the combinations were capable of reducing 10(8) CFU/mL of N16870 by ≥2 log10 CFU/mL. Ertapenem combinations consistently displayed the least activity, whereas doripenem, meropenem and imipenem combinations had similar activities that were poorly predicted by carbapenem MICs. As doripenem, meropenem, or imipenem displayed similar pharmacodyanmics in combination, the decision of which carbapenem to use in combination with PMB may be based on toxicodynamic profiles if drastic discordance in MICs is not present.

  14. Professionelle læringsfællesskaber

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Ole

    2016-01-01

    casestudie i Lærernetværket i foråret 2016, hvor det undersøges, hvorledes Lærernetværket kan udvikles til et professionelt læringsfælleskab, hvor lærere, CFU-konsulenter og undervisere fra Læreruddannelsen arbejder med professionsudvikling i relation til det it- og mediepædagogiske område. CFU...

  15. Activity of anidulafungin in a murine model of Candida krusei infection: evaluation of mortality and disease burden by quantitative tissue cultures and measurement of serum (1,3)-beta-D-glucan levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostrosky-Zeichner, Luis; Paetznick, Victor L; Rodriguez, Jose; Chen, Enuo; Sheehan, Daniel J

    2009-04-01

    Experience with anidulafungin against Candida krusei is limited. Immunosuppressed mice were injected with 1.3 x 10(7) to 1.5 x 10(7) CFU of C. krusei. Animals were treated with saline, 40 mg/kg fluconazole, 1 mg/kg amphotericin B, or 10 and 20 mg/kg anidulafungin for 5 days. Anidulafungin improved survival and significantly reduced the number of CFU/g in kidneys and serum beta-glucan levels.

  16. Control of bacterial contamination of washbasin taps and output water using Ecasol: a one-year study.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Boyle, M A

    2012-04-01

    Contaminated washbasin taps and output water are an important source of bacteria that may cause nosocomial infection. A five-week pretreatment study of hot and cold water from 15 washbasin taps at Dublin Dental Hospital showed consistently heavy contamination by aerobic heterotrophic bacteria: mean bacterial counts of 482.5 [standard deviation (SD) 293] colony-forming units (cfu)\\/mL and 5022 (SD 4322) cfu\\/mL, respectively.

  17. Bacteriological safety of plastic-bagged sachet drinking water sold in Amassoma, Nigeria

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yakubu B Ngwai; Adebukola A Sounyo; Siyeofori M Fiabema; Geoffrey A Agadah; Tamunobelema O Ibeakuzie

    2010-01-01

    Objective:To evaluate the bacteriological safety of sachet water sold in Amassoma, a rural community in Bayelsa State, Nigeria. Methods:Six samples of each of the different sachet drinking water brands were bought at random from shop shelves, markets and street vendors and were studies for microbial indicators of safety and quality. Bacterial counts were analyzed by one-way Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) and significance of differences was tested at 5%probability. Results:Minimum and maximum counts with regard to the sachet water samples investigated were (4.3±1.1)í106 CFU mL-1 and (8.2±1.0)í106 CFU mL-1 for heterotrophic plate counts;(0.9±0.3)í106 CFU mL-1 and (1.2±0.4)í106 CFU mL-1 for aerobic spore-former counts;(1.3±0.5)í103 CFU mL-1 and (2.5±0.8)í103 CFU mL-1 for total coliforms;(1.6±0.9)í103 CFU mL-1 and (9.5±11.2)í103 CFU mL-1 for thermotolerant coliforms. Klebsiella spp but not Escherichia coli was present in all samples of the brands;non-coliform bacteria detected in some samples were Staphylococcus, Pseudomonas and Bacillus species. Conclusions:The brands of sachet water sold (at the time of this study) in Amassoma did not meet the minimum acceptable standard for microbiologically safe drinking water as recommended by the World Health Organization.

  18. Pathogens and Heavy Metals Concentration in Green Leafy Vegetables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abida Begum

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Presence of heavy metal and bacterial pathogen in randomly collected samples of green leafy from various stations of Bengaluru city was detected. Heavy metals (cadmium, zinc, copper, iron, chromium, nickel and lead were analyzed by tri-acid digestion method. The presence of heavy metals in general was in the order of Cd>Zn>Cu>Fe>Cr>Pb. Trace metal concentration in all green leafy vegetables of stations 1-5 were within permissible limit and it has been exceeded in station 6-10. This indicated high levels of soil contamination pose potential danger for the vegetables grown in the vicinity of Arakere lake, Bannerghatta road, Gottigere lake, Naganaikanakere, Bommasandra lake, Hulimavu lake, Kelaginakere and Amblipura lake. The total bacteria and coliforms were enumerated on TSA (Tryptone Soya Agar and VRBA (Violet Red Bile Agar media respectively. The total bacterial count in randomly collected samples of coriander ranged from 296 cfu/g to 8 cfu/g, in palak from 16 cfu/g to 0.9 cfu/g, whereas in case of cabbage was 104 cfu/g to 0.9 cfu/g which is an indication of improper pre-harvest and post harvest handling.

  19. Change in drinking water quality from source to point-of-use and storage: a case study from Guwahati, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khadse, Gajanan Kisan; Kalita, Moromi D; Labhsetwar, Pawan K

    2012-09-01

    To ascertain the quality of drinking water being supplied and maintained at Guwahati, the study was conducted on the status of water supply in city through surveillance of drinking water quality for consecutive 7 days at various treatment stages, distribution network and consumer ends. The performance of five water treatment plants (WTPs), viz. Panbazar WTP, Satpukhuri WTP, Kamakhya WTP, PHED WTP and Hegrabari WTP were assessed for summer, piost-post-monsoon and winter seasons. No significant change in raw water quality was observed on day-to-day basis. Residual chlorine was found in the range of nil to 0.2 mg/L in the treated water. During post-monsoon, winter, and summer seasons the thermotolerent TC and FC counts ranged between Nil to 168 CFU/100 ml and Nil to 84 CFU/100 ml; Nil to 3356 CFU/100 ml and Nil to 152 CFU/100 ml; and Nil to 960 CFU/100 ml and Nil to 108 CFU/100 ml respectively. There was variation in bacterial counts among the different service reservoirs and consumer ends, which may be attributed to the general management practices for maintenance of service reservoirs and the possibility of enroute contamination. Evaluation of the raw water quality indicate that the water is suitable for drinking after conventional treatment followed by disinfection. The finished water quality meets the level of standards described as per Bureau of Indian Standard specifications (BIS:10500 1991) for potability in terms of its physico-chemical characteristics.

  20. Dried Fruit Matrices Incorporated with a Probiotic Strain of Lactobacillus plantarum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catarina Ribeiro

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The development of fruits and vegetables containing probiotics is a topic of great interest and popularity for health-conscious consumers. The aim of this study was to evaluate the possibility of using dried fruit matrices as delivery vehicles for probiotics. Different fruits — kiwi, mango, strawberry, pineapple, banana — were used as food matrices to test the viability of a strain of Lactobacillus plantarum, which was determined after drying at 40ºC and at different storage times. Cell survival after drying decreased by ca. 1 log in banana and strawberry, to 3 log, for kiwi. The bacterial numbers in banana and strawberry dried pieces at the time of storage at room temperature and 4ºC were approximately 107 cfu/g. After 37 days storage at room temperature, no viable counts were observed in any of the fruits studied. However, at 4ºC after this period of time, viable cells were detected for all the fruits (1.9x106 cfu/g, 1.5x105 cfu/g 1.5x105 cfu/g, 4.7x104 cfu/g 8.0x103 cfu/g, for strawberry, banana, kiwi, mango and pineapple, respectively.

  1. TOTAL BAKTERI PADA JAMU TRADISIONAL DI PASAR KEDONGANAN KELURAHAN JIMBARAN KABUPATEN BADUNG PROVINSI BALI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Putu Ayu Sukmawati

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui jenis-jenis cendawan, total koloni bakteri, dan mengetahui keberadaan bakteri pencemar Escherichia coli yang terdapat pada jamu tradisional di Pasar Kedonganan. Sampel diambil dari 4 pedagang jamu, setiap pedagang diambil 4 sampel jamu yaitu jamu beras kencur, sirih, kunyit dan sambiloto. Perhitungan Total koloni cendawan dan total koloni bakteri pada jamu dilakukan dengan menggunakan metode pengenceran dan total koloni bakteri secara statistik dianalisa dengan menggunakan Rancangan Acak Lengkap (RAL. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa 6 jenis cendawan yaitu: Aspergillus niger, A. flavus, Penicillium citrinum, P. digitatum, P. brevicompactum, dan Acremonium sp ditemukan pada jamu. Total jumlah koloni cendawan tertinggi ditemukan pada jamu beras kencur (107x105 CFU/ml sedangkan terendah ditemukan pada jamu kunyit (20,5 x 105 CFU/ml. Batas standar kandungan jamur pada makanan yang direkomendasikan oleh Departemen Kesehatan RI adalah sebesar < 104 CFU/ml. Total bakteri tertinggi ditemukan pada jamu beras kencur (267,6x108 CFU/ml, sedangkan terendah ditemukan pada jamu kunyit (39x108CFU/ml. Kandungan bakteri juga melampaui standar dari Departemen Kesehatan RI Keseluruhan jamu telah diuji telah melampaui ambang batas Departemen Kesehatan RI yaitu sebesar < 106 CFU/ml. E.coli di temukan jamu sambiloto, jamu kunyit, jamu beras kencur.  Oleh karena itu kehati-hatian perlu dilakukan jika meminum jamu.

  2. Science Letters: Effects of dietary supplementation with Clostridium butyricum on the growth performance and humoral immune response in Miichthys miiuy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SONG Zeng-fu; WU Tian-xing; CAI Li-sheng; ZHANG Li-jing; ZHENG Xiao-dong

    2006-01-01

    The effects of dietary supplementation with Clostridium butyricum on growth performance and humoral immune response in Miichthys miiuy were evaluated. One hundred and fifty Miichthys miiuy weighing approximately 200~260 g were divided into five groups and reared in 15 tanks with closed circuiting culture system. The animals were fed 5 diets: basal diet only (control) or supplemented of the basal diet with C. butyricum at doses of 103 (CB1), l05 (CB2), 107 (CB3) or 109 (CB4) CFU/g.Compared with the control, the serum phenoloxidase activity was significantly increased by the supplementation (P<0.05), acid phosphatases activity was increased significantly (P<0.05) at the doses of 109 CFU/g. Serum lysozyme activity peaked at dose of 107 CFU/g and in the skin mucus at dose of 109 CFU/g. Immunoglobulin M level in the serum and skin mucus was increased except at dose of 103 CFU/g (P<0.05). The growth at the dose of 109 CFU/g was higher than that of the control (P<0.05). It is concluded that supplementation ofC. butyricum can mediate the humoral immune responses and improve the growth performance in Miichthys miiuy.

  3. [Dose-effect relationship of DMSO and Tween 80 influencing the growth and viability of murine bone marrow-derived cells in vitro].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Da-Liang; Liu, Ke-Qing; Guo, Shao-San; Zhu, Hai-Lin; Huang, Chang; Wang, Bao-He

    2008-04-01

    This study was purpose to examine the effect of dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) and Tween 80 on the growth and viability of stromal cells (BMSC), colony-forming units for granulocytes and macrophages (CFU-GM) and bone marrow endothelial cell line (BMEC) from murine bone marrow in vitro, and to analyze the concentration-effect relationship. The colony yields of colony-forming units fibroblastic (CFU-F) and CFU-GM were assessed in the murine bone marrow cell cultures at various concentrations of DMSO or Tween 80 and in the control groups. The MTT assay and trypan blue exclusion were used to determine the cell viability and percentage of survival in BMSC and BMEC cultures with or without either of these organic solvents. The results showed that the colony yields of both CFU-F and CFU-GM were decreased significantly (pTween 80 respectively, as compared with control. The cell viability and percentage of survival of BMSC and BMEC cultures were significantly reduced (pTween 80, as compared with control. With the increase of volume fractions of these solvents, the decreased percentages of corresponding measurements were increased by degrees. It is concluded that when the concentration of DMSO or Tween 80 goes to a certain level in cell culture medium, either of the organic solvents has an inhibitory action or/and cytotoxicity on the growth and viability of BMSCs, CFU-GM and BMECs. The growth inhibition and cytotoxic response are more significant at higher concentrations of these solvents.

  4. MICROBIOTA OF PINUS POLLEN AS ADJUVANT FACTOR OF ALLERGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tetiana Shevtsova

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Bacteria, their endotoxin and mold found on pollen can be a reason of respiratory symptoms in sensitized individuals. This question concerns an anemophilous pollen more acute. In this work quantitative by dilution plating method and qualitative microbial analysis by MALDI-TOF MS Biotyper of pollen and other plants organs of Pinus sylvestris L., P. nigra Arnold, P. mugo Turra, P. armandii Franch., P. wallichiana A.B. Jacks from Nitra, Slovakia are performed which shows quantitative and species differences in mesophilic aerobic (0.00-6.27 log cfu/g and anaerobic bacteria (0.00-3.70 log cfu/g, enterococci (0.00 log cfu/g, coliform bacteria (0.00-5.29 log cfu/g, lactobacilli (0.00-4.20 log cfu/g, microscopic fungi and yeasts (2.60-5.29 log cfu/g content. Representatives of Pseudomonas (14, Bacillus (2, Acinetobacter (1, Arthrobacter (1, Pantoea (1, Klebsiella (1, Penicillium (6, Aspergillus (4, Cladosporium (1, Debaryomyces (1 genera were revealed on pine trees. The allergenic potential of the identified association of microorganisms on pollen has been evaluated based on published data. The results may be useful for aerobiologists, allergists and microbiologists, at least at the local level.

  5. Microbiological Contamination at Workplaces in a Combined Heat and Power (CHP) Station Processing Plant Biomass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szulc, Justyna; Otlewska, Anna; Okrasa, Małgorzata; Majchrzycka, Katarzyna; Sulyok, Michael; Gutarowska, Beata

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the microbial contamination at a plant biomass processing thermal power station (CHP). We found 2.42 × 103 CFU/m3 of bacteria and 1.37 × 104 CFU/m3 of fungi in the air; 2.30 × 107 CFU/g of bacteria and 4.46 × 105 CFU/g of fungi in the biomass; and 1.61 × 102 CFU/cm2 bacteria and 2.39 × 101 CFU/cm2 fungi in filtering facepiece respirators (FFRs). Using culture methods, we found 8 genera of mesophilic bacteria and 7 of fungi in the air; 10 genera each of bacteria and fungi in the biomass; and 2 and 5, respectively, on the FFRs. Metagenomic analysis (Illumina MiSeq) revealed the presence of 46 bacterial and 5 fungal genera on the FFRs, including potential pathogens Candida tropicalis, Escherichia coli, Prevotella sp., Aspergillus sp., Penicillium sp.). The ability of microorganisms to create a biofilm on the FFRs was confirmed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). We also identified secondary metabolites in the biomass and FFRs, including fumigaclavines, quinocitrinines, sterigmatocistin, and 3-nitropropionic acid, which may be toxic to humans. Due to the presence of potential pathogens and mycotoxins, the level of microbiological contamination at workplaces in CHPs should be monitored. PMID:28117709

  6. Study on Sensitivity of PCR Method for Detection of Microorganisms in Water%水环境中微生物PCR检侧灵敏度的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王占朝; 刘文君

    2011-01-01

    Pure culture of E. coli and microorganisms in lake water and tap water from Tsinghua University were used to investigate the detection limits of microorganisms in different water environments by PCR. The results show that the detection limit of E. coli JM109 is 2.6×103 CFU/mL, and the detection limits of microorganisms in lake water and tap water are 1.2×103 CFU/mL and 2.3×103 CFU/mL respectively. The detection limits of microorganisms in lake water and tap water are less than that of pure culture of E. coli.%以大肠杆菌纯培养物和清华大学湖水以及自来水中的微生物为研究对象,研究了不同水环境中微生物PCR检刚的检出限,结果表明:大肠杆菌JM 109纯培养物的PCR检出限为2.6x10~3CFU/mL,湖水的PCR检出限为1.2x10~3CFU/mL,自来水中微生物的PCR检出限为2.3x10~3CFU/mL.湖水和自来水中的检出限均低于大肠杆菌纯培养物.

  7. Distribution of vibrio species in shellfish and water samples collected from the atlantic coastline of south-east Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eyisi, Onyedikachukwu A L; Nwodo, Uchechukwu U; Iroegbu, Christian U

    2013-09-01

    Crayfish, lobster, and sea-water samples collected from five fishing islands on the Atlantic coast-Bight of Biafra (Bonny)-belonging to Ibaka Local Government Area of Akwa-Ibom State of Nigeria were bacteriologically evaluated on thiosulphate citrate bile-salt sucrose (TCBS) agar for Vibrio load and pathotypes. Mean log10 Vibrio counts of 7.64+/-2.78 cfu/g (in crayfish), 5.07+/-3.21 cfu/g (in lobster), and 3.06+/-2.27 cfu/mL (in sea-water) were obtained in rainy season (June-July) while counts in the dry season (November-December) were 6.25+/-1.93 cfu/g, 5.99+/-1.54 cfu/g, and 3.84+/-1.78 cfu/mL respectively. The physicochemical measurements (temperature, pH, and total dissolved solutes) of the sea-water did not vary significantly in the two seasons across all five islands. Vibrio species isolated were Vibrio cholerae (both O1 and non-O1 serotypes), V parahaemolyticus, V vulnificus, V mimicus, and V fluvialis. Both Ogawa and Inaba subtypes of V cholerae O1 serotype were found. In addition, the Hikojima subtype, which had not been previously reported in the region, was isolated in two samples. The results show that these Vibrio species are endemic in the area.

  8. Microbiological Contamination at Workplaces in a Combined Heat and Power (CHP Station Processing Plant Biomass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justyna Szulc

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to evaluate the microbial contamination at a plant biomass processing thermal power station (CHP. We found 2.42 × 103 CFU/m3 of bacteria and 1.37 × 104 CFU/m3 of fungi in the air; 2.30 × 107 CFU/g of bacteria and 4.46 × 105 CFU/g of fungi in the biomass; and 1.61 × 102 CFU/cm2 bacteria and 2.39 × 101 CFU/cm2 fungi in filtering facepiece respirators (FFRs. Using culture methods, we found 8 genera of mesophilic bacteria and 7 of fungi in the air; 10 genera each of bacteria and fungi in the biomass; and 2 and 5, respectively, on the FFRs. Metagenomic analysis (Illumina MiSeq revealed the presence of 46 bacterial and 5 fungal genera on the FFRs, including potential pathogens Candida tropicalis, Escherichia coli, Prevotella sp., Aspergillus sp., Penicillium sp.. The ability of microorganisms to create a biofilm on the FFRs was confirmed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM. We also identified secondary metabolites in the biomass and FFRs, including fumigaclavines, quinocitrinines, sterigmatocistin, and 3-nitropropionic acid, which may be toxic to humans. Due to the presence of potential pathogens and mycotoxins, the level of microbiological contamination at workplaces in CHPs should be monitored.

  9. Growth of and valine production by a Bacillus subtilis mutant in the small intestine of pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Canibe, Nuria; Poulsen, Henrik Vestergaard; Nørgaard, Jan Værum;

    2016-01-01

    :Lys of 0.63:1 (Neg), 2) the Neg diet with added Bacillus subtilis-valine (1.28 × 108 cfu/g feed) (+Bac), and 3) the Neg diet with added L-Val to a Val:Lys of 0.69:1 (+Val). Eighteen gilts (6 on each treatment) with initial weights of ∼15 kg were fed the diets for 23 d before the animals were euthanized...... and samples from the small intestine were obtained. The number of B. subtilis cfu in digesta was higher in the +Bac group than in the Neg group (P cfu were detected in the Neg group, whereas numbers between 3.4 and 4.4 log cfu/g and numerically higher Val and Lys...... concentrations were measured in the +Bac group. Short-term in vitro incubations of digesta showed a decrease (P ≤ 0.03) in the number of B. subtilis cfu over time for the +Bac group and no difference in the rate of Val production compared to that in the Neg group. In conclusion, more B. subtilis cfu were present...

  10. Effect of Spatholobus suberectus Dunn on proliferation of progenitor cells in mice with bone marrow depression

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chen Donghui; Luo Xia; Yu Mengyao; Zhao Yiqing; Yang Zhirong

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To study the effect of Spatholobus suberectus Dunn on the proliferation and hematonic mechanism of Spatholobus suberectus Dunn. Methods: The techniques of culture of hematopoietic cell and hematopoietic growth factor (HGF) assay were used. The method of semi-solid culture with methylcellulose of CFU-GM, CFU-E, BFU-E,CFU-Meg was adopted in bone marrow depressed mice which treated with Spatholobus suberectus Dunn for a long time. Results: Spatholobus suberectus Dunn could obviously promote the proliferation of bone marrow cells and spleen lymphocytes in healthy and anaemic mice. The culture medium of spleen cell, macrophage, lung and skeletal muscle treated with Spatholobus suberectus Dunn had much stronger stimulating effects on hematopoietic cells. The numbers of CFU-GM, CFU-E,BFU-E,CFU-Meg in bone marrow depressed mice were raised distinctly under the control of Spatholobus suberectus Dunn as compared with those of contrast group. Conclusions: Spatholobus suberectus Dunn may enhance hematopoiesis by stimulating directly and/or indirectly stroma cell in hematopoietic inductive microenvironment and muscle tissue to secrete some HGF (Epo, GM-CSF, IL, and MK-CSF). It can promote the proliferation and differentiation of hematopoietic cells in anaemic mice. This is one of the biological mechanisms for hematonic effect of Spatholobus suberectus Dunn.

  11. Persistence of Lactobacillus plantarum DSM 9843 on human tonsillar surface after oral administration in fermented oatmeal gruel. A pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stjernquist-Desatnik, A; Warfving, H; Johansson, M L

    2000-01-01

    The occurrence of Lactobacillus plantarum DSM 9843 on tonsillar scrapings was studied after single-dose administration. Six healthy volunteers gargled 100 ml of fermented oatmeal gruel containing 2 x 10(11) colony forming units (cfu) of Lb. plantarum DSM 9843 for 2 min and then swallowed it. Two healthy volunteers drank 50 ml fermented oatmeal gruel (containing 1 x 10(11) cfu of Lb. plantarum DSM 9843) mixed with 50 ml fruit juice, and in another experiment, 5 ml fermented oatmeal gruel (containing 1 x 10(10) cfu of Lb. plantarum DSM 9843) mixed with 95 ml fruit juice. Lb. plantarum DSM 9843 were found in tonsillar scrapings 4-8 h after intake of 2 x 10(11) cfu, for 5-8 h after intake of 1 x 10(11) cfu, and finally up to 4 h after intake of 1 x 10(10) cfu. On electron microscopy micrographs, short rod-shaped bacteria were visible 1 h after intake of the fermented oatmeal gruel, but not 2 h after intake. The results suggest that Lb. plantarum DSM 9843 possess an ability to adhere to tonsillar cells.

  12. The effect of indigenous probiotics on egg hatchability and larval viability of Clarias gariepinus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gideon Chijioke Okpokwasill

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The effect of a mixture of four indigenous bacterial genera composed of Bacillus, Pseudomonas, Acinetobacter and Flavobacterium on egg hatchability and larval viability of Clarias gariepinus was investigated. The fertilized eggs were distributed into glass Petri dishes (100 mm diameter containing 50 ml of water at graded level of mixed indigenous probiotics ranging from 0-108 cells/ml. The incubation time increased from 17 hours at 0 cfu/ml to 22 hours at 108 cfu/ml. The mean hatching rate increased from 8.70% at 0 cfu/ml to 53.85% at 108 cfu/ml. The highest larval survival of 71.43% recorded at 108 cfu/ml where the highest hatching rate was observed, was significantly higher than the larval survival rate observed at the other concentrations. All yolk sac larvae at 0 and 101 cfu/ml died before the end of yolk sac period. These results imply that the incubation time, hatching rate and larval survival of Clarias gariepinus increased with increase in bacterial load of water up to 108 cells/ml, the highest dose employed. Further investigations are needed to establish the optimal and threshold doses.

  13. The differences in the microbial numbers of the raw minced meat preparation during the shelf life of the product

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ERMELINDA NEXHIPI

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study we have examined the raw minced meat preparation, during the shelf life, in aim to see the differences in the microbial number during, the declared on the label, shelf life. The APC and Escherichia coli were enumerated in 130 samples of raw minced meat preparation, by the respective Standard ISO methods. The first enumeration was checked on the date of production. The samples were stored in 2-4oC according to the producers recomandation, and reanalyzed on the 7th day, on the 14th day and 2 days before the expired date. At the first examination for E.coli 32 out of 130 samples resulted without the presence; 36 samples resulted with acount from 1.6x102 cfu/g to 3.2x102 cfu/g, 26 samples resulted with 3.5x102 cfu/g to 4.9x103 cfu/g, 36 samples resulted with a count from 1,3x104-2.1x105 cfu/g. At the last examination made two days before the shelf life, 52 samples resulted with a count from 5.4x103-3.3x105 cfu/g for E.Coli. Also it was determinated the APC on both temperatures where we took this results: in the produced day, 25 samples resulted with a count from 1.2x101-1.4x102 cfu/g, 56 samples resulted with 1.8x10 3-5.1x10 5 cfu/g, 49 samples resulted with5.1x105-2.1x106 cfu/g. At the last examination two days before the shelf life, 56 samples was varied from 5.2x10 6-6.1x108 cfu/g for APC where the highest indicators, were belonged to meatballs stored in 4oC. The analyses of the results obtained in last enumeration indicated a very increased number of microbial flora. This means that microbiological quality, and safety of the product isn’t stable, during the shelf life and the processing establishment of Tirana needs to be improve the production technology and determinate the expiry date based on the study and research.

  14. Evaluation of a bivalent (CVD 103-HgR/CVD 111) live oral cholera vaccine in adult volunteers from the United States and Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, D N; Tacket, C O; Losonsky, G; Castro, O; Gutierrez, J; Meza, R; Nataro, J P; Kaper, J B; Wasserman, S S; Edelman, R; Levine, M M; Cryz, S J

    1997-09-01

    To provide optimum protection against classical and El Tor biotypes of Vibrio cholerae O1, a single-dose, oral cholera vaccine was developed by combining two live, attenuated vaccine strains, CVD 103-HgR (classical, Inaba) and CVD 111 (El Tor, Ogawa). The vaccines were formulated in a double-chamber sachet; one chamber contained lyophilized bacteria, and the other contained buffer. In the first study, 23 U.S. adult volunteers received CVD 103-HgR at 10(8) CFU plus CVD 111 at 10(8), 10(7), or 10(6) CFU, CVD 111 alone at 10(7) CFU, or placebo. In the second study, 275 Peruvian adults were randomized to receive CVD 103-HgR at 10(9) CFU plus CVD 111 at 10(9) or 10(8) CFU, CVD 111 alone at 10(9) CFU, CVD 103-HgR alone at 10(9) CFU, or placebo. Three of 15 U.S. volunteers who received CVD 111 at 10(7) or 10(8) CFU developed mild diarrhea, compared to none of 4 who received CVD 111 at 10(6) CFU and 1 of 4 who received placebo. Twelve (63%) of 19 vaccine recipients shed the El Tor vaccine strain. All but one volunteer developed significant Ogawa and Inaba vibriocidal antibody titers. Volunteers who received CVD 111 at 10(7) CFU had geometric mean Ogawa titers four to five times higher than those of volunteers who received the lower dose. In the second study, all dosage regimens were well tolerated in Peruvians. About 20% of volunteers who received CVD 111 at the high dose excreted the El Tor organism, compared to 7% in the low-dose group. CVD 111 was detected in the stools of two placebo recipients, neither of whom had symptoms or seroconverted. In all vaccine groups, 69 to 76% developed fourfold rises in Inaba vibriocidal antibodies. Among those who received the bivalent vaccine, 53 to 75% also developed significant rises in Ogawa vibriocidal antibodies. We conclude that it is feasible to produce a single-dose, oral bivalent vaccine that is safe and immunogenic against both biotypes (El Tor and classical) and both serotypes (Inaba and Ogawa) of cholera for populations in

  15. 多种食源性致病菌检测的多重PCR方法的研究%Study of A Multiplex PCR Method for the Detection of Foodborne Pathogen

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    万志刚; 汤慕瑾; 吕敬章; 罗志军; 洪小柳; 马淑棉

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To develop a multiplex PCR method to detect five food borne pathogenic microorganisms simultaneously. Methods: Primers specific for invA gene of Salmonella spp., ipaH gene of Shigella spp., hlyA gene of Listens monocytogenes, eaeA gene of Escherichia coli O157:H7 and toxR gene of Vibrio parahaemolyticus were designed, and the specificity and sensitivity of the developed method was further verified. Results: A collection of 19 strains was examined, all target strains were detected. In contrast, none of the non-target strains yielded the specific amplification product. The sensitivity of the multiplex PCR system was 5000 CFU/mL for Salmonella cultures, 5500 CFU/mL for Shigella cultures, 5200 CFU/mL for Listeria monocytogenes cultures, 5000 CFU/mL for Escherichia coli O157:H7 cultures and 6300 CFU/mL for Vibrio parahaemolyticus cultures. Conclusions: The multiplex PCR method in present study can be applied in practice.%目的:利用多重PCR技术,建立可以同时检测多种食源性致病菌的多重PCR方法.方法:分别选择沙门氏菌invA基因,志贺氏菌的ipaH基因,单核细胞增生李斯特氏菌的hlyA基因,大肠杆菌O157:H7的eaeA基因,副溶血弧菌的toxR基因,设计多重PCR引物,建立多重PCR检测体系,并对该体系进行特异性和灵敏度实验.结果:通过对I9株菌株进行实验,所有的目标菌株均为阳性,而其余菌株为阴性.对多重PCR体系的灵敏度进行考察,沙门菌的灵敏度为5000 CFU/mL;志贺氏菌的灵敏度为5500CFU/mL;单核细胞增生李斯特氏菌的灵敏度为5200 CFU/mL;O157:H7的灵敏度为5000CFU/mL;副溶血弧菌的灵敏度为6300CFU/mL.结论:建立的多重PCR体系能实现多种致病菌同时检测.

  16. Changes in Aerobic Plate and Escherichia coli-Coliform Counts and in Populations of Inoculated Foodborne Pathogens on Inshell Walnuts during Storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frelka, John C; Davidson, Gordon R; Harris, Linda J

    2016-07-01

    After harvest, inshell walnuts are dried using low-temperature forced air and are then stored in bins or silos for up to 1 year. To better understand the survival of bacteria on inshell walnuts, aerobic plate counts (APCs) and Escherichia coli?coliform counts (ECCs) were evaluated during commercial storage (10 to 12°C and 63 to 65% relative humidity) over 9 months. APCs decreased by 1.4 to 2.0 log CFU per nut during the first 5 months of storage, and ECCs decreased by 1.3 to 2.2 log CFU per nut in the first month of storage. Through the remaining 4 to 8 months of storage, APCs and ECCs remained unchanged (P > 0.05) or decreased by CFU per nut per month. Similar trends were observed on kernels extracted from the inshell walnuts. APCs and ECCs were consistently and often significantly higher on kernels extracted from visibly broken inshell walnuts than on kernels extracted from visibly intact inshell walnuts. Parameters measured in this study were used to determine the survival of five-strain cocktails of E. coli O157:H7, Listeria monocytogenes, and Salmonella inoculated onto freshly hulled inshell walnuts (∼8 log CFU/g) after simulated commercial drying (10 to 12 h; 40°C) and simulated commercial storage (12 months at 10°C and 65% relative humidity). Populations declined by 2.86, 5.01, and 4.40 log CFU per nut for E. coli O157:H7, L. monocytogenes, and Salmonella, respectively, after drying and during the first 8 days of storage. Salmonella populations changed at a rate of -0.33 log CFU per nut per month between days 8 and 360, to final levels of 2.83 ± 0.79 log CFU per nut. E. coli and L. monocytogenes populations changed by -0.17 log CFU per nut per month and -0.26 log CFU per nut per month between days 8 and 360, respectively. For some samples, E. coli or L. monocytogenes populations were below the limit of detection by plating (0.60 log CFU per nut) by day 183 or 148, respectively; at least one of the six samples was positive at each subsequent sampling

  17. Salmonella and Escherichia coli O157:H7 Inactivation, Color, and Bioactive Compounds Enhancement on Raspberries during Frozen Storage after Decontamination Using New Formula Sanitizer Washing or Pulsed Light.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Wenqing; Chen, Haiqiang; Wu, Changqing

    2016-07-01

    Berries are normally washed before they are frozen. Washing with sanitizer and treatment with pulsed light (PL) were studied for their effectiveness to inactivate foodborne pathogens on raspberries during frozen storage, while maintaining or enhancing major quality parameters. Raspberries were inoculated with Salmonella or Escherichia coli O157:H7 and then underwent a washing treatment with citric acid plus sodium dodecyl sulfate (CA+SDS) or citric acid plus thymol (CA+THY) or treatment with PL (dry PL, water-assisted [wet] PL, and PL-SDS). Pathogen survival was determined immediately after treatments and during frozen storage at -20°C for 3 months. Washing with CA+SDS or CA+THY significantly reduced Salmonella (by 3.6 and 3.2 log CFU/g, respectively) and E. coli O157:H7 (by 4.1 and 3.7 log CFU/g, respectively). At the end of storage, washing with CA+SDS reduced Salmonella to 0.6 log CFU/g and E. coli O157:H7 to 0.5 log CFU/g; washing with CA+THY reduced Salmonella to 0.9 log CFU/g and E. coli O157:H7 to 0.5 log CFU/g. PL-SDS showed decontamination efficacy on raspberries, with 0.7 log CFU/g Salmonella and 0.9 log CFU/g E. coli O157:H7 surviving at the end of storage; in comparison, in the control, 1.6 log CFU/g Salmonella and 1.5 log CFU/g E. coli O157:H7 survived. Pathogen survival in raspberries that had been washed or treated with PL-SDS was significantly lower than in untreated raspberries. Major quality parameters, including color, total phenolic content, total anthocyanin content, total bacterial count, and total yeast and mold counts, were evaluated on raspberries immediately after treatments and during frozen storage. Redness increased in PL-treated raspberries. At the end of storage, PL-treated raspberries had significantly higher total phenolic content and total anthocyanin content compared with control samples. Washing with sanitizers and treatment with PL decreased the total bacterial count and total yeast and mold counts on raspberries and maintained

  18. 蝎毒多肽对辐射损伤小鼠骨髓造血干细胞及祖细胞的作用%Effect of scorpion venom peptide on haematopoietic stem and progenitor cells in mice with radiation injury

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贺艳杰; 孔天翰; 董伟华

    2007-01-01

    目的 探讨不同蝎毒多肽(scorpion venom peptide,SVP)组分对辐射后机体造血干细胞及祖细胞恢复的作用.方法 6.0 Gy X射线一次性全身照射,制作辐射损伤小鼠模型.内源性脾结节法观察照射后第10天脾集落形成单位(CFU-S)的变化.用甲基纤维素半固体培养基培养骨髓混合集落生成单位(CFU-Mix),观察体内外给药方法及照射后不同时间对CFU-Mix生成的影响.结果 (1)体内实验:SVPⅣ组分处理后的CFU-S数明显高于照射对照组(P<0.05);SVPV组分CFU-S数量与照射对照组差异无统计学意义.照射后各SVP组CFU-Mix的数量均高于照射对照组,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05).(2)体外实验:与照射对照组相比,体外分别单独加入SVPⅣ、Ⅴ组分以及细胞因子(IL-6和SCF)均能够促进CFU-Mix的增殖;而SVPⅣ、Ⅴ组分分别与细胞因子联合应用对CFU-Mix生成的促进作用更为明显,其中Ⅳ组分效果更强,与照射对照组相比差异均有统计学意义(P<0.05).结论 SVP具有保护辐射损伤小鼠造血干细胞及祖细胞,加速其增殖能力恢复的作用.%Objective To investigate the effect of different components of scorpion venom peptide (SVP)on stem and progenitor cells in irradiated mice. Methods Mice were exposed to 6.0 Gy X-rays. The number of colony-forming unit of spleen (CFU-S) was calculated at the 10th day after irradiation, and the methyleellulose culture method was used to detect the CFU-Mix on the irradiated mice at different time in vivo and in vitro. Results The study of SVP components in vivo showed that the number of CFU-S was significantly elevated by SVPⅣafter the irradiation, and CFU-Mix was also increased by both SVPⅣ and SVPⅤ. In vitro experiment showed that the number of CFU-Mix was much higher in SVPⅣ, SVPⅤ and cytokines groups respectively, as compared with control group. Both SVP Ⅳ and SVP Ⅴ had prominent effects in the formation of CFU-Mix when combined with

  19. Microbiological assessment of indoor air quality at different hospital sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabo Verde, Sandra; Almeida, Susana Marta; Matos, João; Guerreiro, Duarte; Meneses, Marcia; Faria, Tiago; Botelho, Daniel; Santos, Mateus; Viegas, Carla

    2015-09-01

    Poor hospital indoor air quality (IAQ) may lead to hospital-acquired infections, sick hospital syndrome and various occupational hazards. Air-control measures are crucial for reducing dissemination of airborne biological particles in hospitals. The objective of this study was to perform a survey of bioaerosol quality in different sites in a Portuguese Hospital, namely the operating theater (OT), the emergency service (ES) and the surgical ward (SW). Aerobic mesophilic bacterial counts (BCs) and fungal load (FL) were assessed by impaction directly onto tryptic soy agar and malt extract agar supplemented with antibiotic chloramphenicol (0.05%) plates, respectively using a MAS-100 air sampler. The ES revealed the highest airborne microbial concentrations (BC range 240-736 CFU/m(3) CFU/m(3); FL range 27-933 CFU/m(3)), exceeding, at several sampling sites, conformity criteria defined in national legislation [6]. Bacterial concentrations in the SW (BC range 99-495 CFU/m(3)) and the OT (BC range 12-170 CFU/m(3)) were under recommended criteria. While fungal levels were below 1 CFU/m(3) in the OT, in the SW (range 1-32 CFU/m(3)), there existed a site with fungal indoor concentrations higher than those detected outdoors. Airborne Gram-positive cocci were the most frequent phenotype (88%) detected from the measured bacterial population in all indoor environments. Staphylococcus (51%) and Micrococcus (37%) were dominant among the bacterial genera identified in the present study. Concerning indoor fungal characterization, the prevalent genera were Penicillium (41%) and Aspergillus (24%). Regular monitoring is essential for assessing air control efficiency and for detecting irregular introduction of airborne particles via clothing of visitors and medical staff or carriage by personal and medical materials. Furthermore, microbiological survey data should be used to clearly define specific air quality guidelines for controlled environments in hospital settings.

  20. Bacterial contamination of hospital-prepared enteral tube feeding formulas in Isfahan, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Jalali

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available

    • BACKGROUND: Hospital-prepared tube feedings from three intensive care units of two hospitals in Isfahan, Iran were analyzed for microbial contamination.
    • METHODS: A total number of 152 samples (76 samples each at the time of preparation and 18 hours following preparation were collected. Standard plate count, coliform count and Staphylococcus aureus count for all samples were conducted. Samples were analyzed also for the presence of Salmonella spp. and Listeria spp.
    • RESULTS: At the time of food preparation, out of 76 samples, 53 samples (70% had coliform contamination and 87% of these contaminated samples had counts greater than 101 cfu/g. Also, 68  amples (90% had S. aureus contamination greater than 101 cfu/g. In standard plate count, 74 samples (97% had counts greater than 103 cfu/g, while 54 samples (71% had counts greater than 104 cfu/g. In second sampling occasion, out of 76 samples, 68 samples (90% had coliform contamination and 84% of these contaminated samples had counts greater than 101 cfu/g. Also, 72 samples (95% had S. aureus contamination, 98.6% of these contaminated samples had counts greater than 102 cfu/g. In standard plate count, 74 samples (97% had counts greater than 104 cfu/g. No Salmonella or Listeria was detected from samples.
    • CONCLUSION: The results indicated that a majority of the blenderized enteral tube feedings in those hospitals are not safe. In comparison to the standard limits, these enteral tube feedings are highly  ontaminated and posed substantial risk for developing a foodborne disease or nosocomial infection.
    • KEYWORDS: Enteral Feeding, Microbial Contamination, Nosocomial Infection, Standard Plate Count, Coliform.

  1. Label-free electrochemical immunosensor based on cerium oxide nanowires for Vibrio cholerae O1 detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tam, Phuong Dinh, E-mail: phuongdinhtam@gmail.com; Thang, Cao Xuan, E-mail: thang.caoxuan@hust.edu.vn

    2016-01-01

    This paper developed a label-free immunosensor based on cerium oxide nanowire for Vibrio cholerae O1 detection application. The CeO{sub 2} nanowires were synthesized by hydrothermal reaction. The immobilization of Anti-V. cholerae O1 onto CeO{sub 2} nanowire-deposited sensor was performed via an amino ester, which was created by using 1-ethyl-3-(3-dimethylaminopropyl) carbodiimide, and sulfo-N-hydroxysuccinimide. The electrochemical responses of the immunosensor were studied by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy with [Fe (CN) {sub 6}] {sup 3−/4−} as redox probe. A linear response in electron transfer resistance for cell of V. cholerae O1 concentration was found in the range of 1.0 × 10{sup 2} CFU/mL to 1.0 × 10{sup 4} CFU/mL. The detection limit of the immunosensor was 1.0 × 10{sup 2} CFU/mL. The immunosensor sensitivity was 56.82 Ω/CFU·mL{sup −1}. Furthermore, the parameters affecting immunosensor response were also investigated, as follows: pH value, immunoreaction time, incubation temperature, and anti-V. cholerae O1 concentration. - Highlights: • A label-free immunosensor based on cerium oxide nanowire for Vibrio cholerae O1 detection application was developed. • A linear response was found in the range of 1.0 × 10{sup 2} CFU/mL to 1.0 × 10{sup 4} CFU/mL. • The detection limit of the immunosensor was 1.0 × 10{sup 2} CFU/mL. • The immunosensor sensitivity was 56.82 Ω/CFU.mL{sup −1}.

  2. False Negative Rates of a Macrofoam-Swab Sampling Method with Low Surface Concentrations of Two Bacillus anthracis Surrogates via Real-Time PCR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hutchison, Janine R. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Piepel, Gregory F. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Amidan, Brett G. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Sydor, Michael A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Kaiser, Brooke L.D. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-06-01

    Surface sampling for Bacillus anthracis spores has traditionally relied on detection via bacterial cultivation methods. Although effective, this approach does not provide the level of organism specificity that can be gained through molecular techniques. False negative rates (FNR) and limits of detection (LOD) were determined for two B. anthracis surrogates with modified rapid viability-polymerase chain reaction (mRV-PCR) following macrofoam-swab sampling. This study was conducted in parallel with a previously reported study that analyzed spores using a plate-culture method. B. anthracis Sterne (BAS) or B. atrophaeus Nakamura (BG) spores were deposited onto four surface materials (glass, stainless steel, vinyl tile, and plastic) at nine target concentrations (2 to 500 spores/coupon; 0.078 to 19.375 colony-forming units [CFU] per cm2). Mean FNR values for mRV-PCR analysis ranged from 0 to 0.917 for BAS and 0 to 0.875 for BG and increased as spore concentration decreased (over the concentrations investigated) for each surface material. FNRs based on mRV-PCR data were not statistically different for BAS and BG, but were significantly lower for glass than for vinyl tile. FNRs also tended to be lower for the mRV-PCR method compared to the culture method. The mRV-PCR LOD95 was lowest for glass (0.429 CFU/cm2 with BAS and 0.341 CFU/cm2 with BG) and highest for vinyl tile (0.919 CFU/cm2 with BAS and 0.917 CFU/cm2 with BG). These mRV-PCR LOD95 values were lower than the culture values (BAS: 0.678 to 1.023 CFU/cm2 and BG: 0.820 to 1.489 CFU/cm2). The FNR and LOD95 values reported in this work provide guidance for environmental sampling of Bacillus spores at low concentrations.

  3. ENUMERATION OF MICROORGANISMS ASSOCIATED WITH THE DIFFERENT STAGES OF BREAD PRODUCTION IN FUTMIN BAKERY, NIGERIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniyan S. Y.

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Microbiological analysis of different stages of bread which includes dry mixture, non-dry mixture, mixture of ingredient with flour, dough formation, milling, cutting, proofing, baking and cooling stage were obtained from FUTMIN bakery and analyzed using standard microbiological and biochemical methods. Various microbial species identified at different stages of bread production include bacterial species such as Staphylococcus, Bacillus, Pseudomonas, Streptococcus, Escherichia coli. Fungal species include Aspergillus, Mucor, Cephalosporium, Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Torulopsis glabrata were among the yeast isolates. The total aerobic Bacteria count ranged from 2.85 x 104 cfu/g to 6.21 x 106 cfu/g, Coliform count ranged from 1.19 x 104 cfu/g to 2.05 x 106 cfu/g, species of Staphylococcus count ranged from 2.00 x 104 cfu/g to 5.52 x 105 cfu/g, while Fungi count ranged from 4.00 x 103 to 1.40 x 106 cfu/g. The bacterial with the highest frequency of occurrence were Staphylococcus and Escherichia coli (24.24%, followed by Bacillus sp (21.21%, Staphylococcus epidermidis (12.12%, Bacillus subtilis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Streptococcus sp had the least frequency of occurrence (6.06%. Fungal isolates with the highest frequency of occurrence was Aspergillus sp (36.84%, followed by Cephalosporium sp (21.21%, and Aspergillus fumigatus (15.79%. Mucor sp and Saccharomyces cerevisiae had same frequency of occurrence (10.53% while Torulopsis glabrata had the least frequency of occurrence (5.26%. Bacterial counts at stage one, two, and five of the production process which had to do with mixing and milling were high while the baking stage had a reduced microbial load. The results revealed that three stages (stage one, two and five were the critical control points. It therefore means that application of adequate control measures to these points will greatly reduce microbial hazard of bread.

  4. In-vitro activity of taurolidine on single species and a multispecies population associated with periodontitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zollinger, Lilly; Schnyder, Simone; Nietzsche, Sandor; Sculean, Anton; Eick, Sigrun

    2015-04-01

    The antimicrobial activity of taurolidine was compared with minocycline against microbial species associated with periodontitis (four single strains and a 12-species mixture). Minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) and minimal bactericidal concentrations (MBCs), killing as well as activities on established and forming single-species biofilms and a 12-species biofilm were determined. The MICs of taurolidine against single species were always 0.31 mg/ml, the MBCs were 0.64 mg/ml. The used mixed microbiota was less sensitive to taurolidine, MIC and the MBC was 2.5 mg/ml. The strains and the mixture were completely killed by 2.5 mg/ml taurolidine, whereas 256 μg/ml minocycline reduced the bacterial counts of the mixture by 5 log10 colony forming units (cfu). Coating the surface with 10 mg/ml taurolidine or 256 μg/ml minocycline prevented completely biofilm formation of Porphyromonas gingivalis ATCC 33277 but not of Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans Y4 and the mixture. On 4.5 d old biofilms, taurolidine acted concentration dependent with a reduction by 5 log10 cfu (P. gingivalis ATCC 33277) and 7 log10 cfu (A. actinomycetemcomitans Y4) when applying 10 mg/ml. Minocycline decreased the cfu counts by 1-2 log10 cfu independent of the used concentration. The reduction of the cfu counts in the 4.5 d old multi-species biofilms was about 3 log10 cfu after application of any minocycline concentration and after using 10 mg/ml taurolidine. Taurolidine is active against species associated with periodontitis, even within biofilms. Nevertheless a complete elimination of complex biofilms by taurolidine seems to be impossible and underlines the importance of a mechanical removal of biofilms prior to application of taurolidine.

  5. Evaluation of Bacterial Contamination of Water Supply in Dental Unit Water Lines at Zahedan Dental School 2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mollashahi Leila

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Assessment of microbial contamination in dental unit waterlines has been focused on because of high risk of dangerous infections in immunocompromised patients. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the bacterial contamination of water supply in dental unit water lines at Zahedan Dental School.Materials and Methods: In this descriptive analytical study we investigated 400 water samples collected from four parts of each unit including air/water syringe, turbine handpiece (before & after flushing, cup filler and 1 water sample collected from city water reservoir in Zahedan faculty of dentistry during 2008. Water samples were taken on Saturdays (the first working day in a week and Wednesdays (the last working day in a week, before and after treatment on the same unit. Samples were transported in closed sterile containers to microbiology laboratory. All samples were incubated on blood agar and McCankey plates for 72 hours at 37°C. Bacterial contamination were then evaluted. Data were analyzed by ANOVA and t-test.Results: Total mean bacterial count was 6914 cfu/ml. Mean bacterial contamination on Saturdays (8859 cfu/ml were higher than Wednesdays (4969 cfu/ml. Mean bacterial contamination before treatment was (5155 cfu/ml less than the end of treatment (8673 cfu/ml on the same unit. Mean bacterial contaminations of prosthetics clinic (13439cfu/ml was higher than other clinics. The mean of periodentology clinic bacterial contaminations (3012 cfu/ml was the least.Conclusion: The result of this study demonstrated that microbiological level of dental unit water lines is high. The dentists must be aware of the high level of microorganisms in the dental unit's water and thus minimize the risk of infection in both staff and patients.

  6. Inducing effects of macrophage stimulating protein on the expansion of early hematopoietic progenitor cells in liquid culture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MA Li-xia; HUANG Yan-hong; CHENG La-mei; LEI Jun; WANG Qi-ru

    2007-01-01

    Background Macrophage stimulating protein (MSP) is produced by human bone marrow endothelial cells. In this study,we sought to observe its effects on inducing the expansion of early hematopoietic progenitor cells which were cultured in a liquid culture system in the presence of the combination of stem cell factor (SCF), interleukin 3 (IL-3), interleukin 6 (IL-6), granulocyte macrophage-colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF), erythropoietin (EPO) (Cys) and MSP or of Cys and bone marrow endothelial cell conditioned medium (EC-CM).Methods Human bone marrow CD34+ cells were separated and cultured in a liquid culture system for 6 days.Granulocyte-macrophage colony forming unit (CFU-GM) and colony forming unit-granulocyte, erythrocyte, macrophage,megakaryocyte (CFU-GEMM) were employed to assay the effects of different treatment on the proliferation of hematopoeitic stem/progenitor cells. The nitroblue tetrazolium (NBT) reductive test and hoechest 33258 staining were employed to reflect the differentiation and apoptosis of the cells respectively.Results MSP inhibited the proliferation of CFU-GM and CFU-GEMM in semi-solid culture and the inhibitory effect on CFU-GEMM was stronger than on CFU-GM. MSP inhibited the differentiation of early hematopoietic progenitor cells induced by hematopoietic stimulators. Bone marrow (BM) CFU-GEMM was 2.3-fold or 1.7-fold increase or significantly decreased in either Cys+EC-CM, Cys+MSP or Cys compared with 0 hour control in liquid culture system after 6 days.Conclusion MSP, a hematopoietic inhibitor, inhibits the differentiation of early hematopoietic progenitor cells induced by hematopoietic stimulators and makes the early hematopoietic progenitor cells expand in a liquid culture system.

  7. Consumer method to control Salmonella and Listeria species in shrimp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Genevieve; Janes, Marlene; Lampila, Lucina; Supan, John

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether the current consumer method of boiling shrimp until floating and pink in color is adequate for destroying Listeria and Salmonella. Shrimp samples were submerged in bacterial suspensions of Listeria and Salmonella for 30 min and allowed to air dry for 1 h under a biosafety cabinet. Color parameters were then measured with a spectrophotometer programmed with the CIELAB system. Twenty-four shrimp samples were divided into groups (days 0, 1, or 2) and stored at 4°C. The samples were treated by placing them in boiling water (100°C) on days 0, 1, and 2. The shrimp were immediately removed from the boiling water once they floated to the surface, and color parameters were measured. Bacterial counts were determined, and the log CFU per gram was calculated. The effect of sodium tripolyphosphate on the color change of cooked shrimp also was determined. Initial bacterial counts on shrimp after air drying were 5.31 ± 0.14 log CFU/g for Salmonella Enteritidis, 5.24 ± 0.31 log CFU/g for Salmonella Infantis, 5.40 ± 0.16 log CFU/g for Salmonella Typhimurium, 3.91 + 0.11 log CFU/g for Listeria innocua, 4.45 ± 0.11 log CFU/g for Listeria monocytogenes (1/2a), and 3.70 ± 0.22 log CFU/g for Listeria welshimeri. On days 0, 1, and 2, all bacterial counts were reduced to nondetectable levels for shrimp samples that floated. The average time for shrimp to float was 96 ± 8 s. The bacterial counts remained at nondetectable levels (Listeria and Salmonella contamination, but color change is not a good indication of reduction of these pathogens because of the wide natural color variation.

  8. 人巨细胞病毒感染致造血祖细胞增殖抑制与更昔洛韦的影响%Inhibitory effect of ganciclovir on proliferation of cord blood hematopoietic progenitor cells after infection of human cytomegalovirus in vitro

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘文君; 刘斌; 郭渠莲; 付晓冬; 邓正华

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Clinically, in patients undergoing hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT), human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) can be associated with delayed platelet engraftment, phenotypically abnormal peripheral blood leukocytes, and graft rejection, possibly through a direct viral effect on hematopoietic progenitor cells after HCMV infection. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the inhibitory effect of ganciclovir (GCV) on proliferation of colony forming unit (CFU) granulocyte-macrophage (CFU-GM), CFU-erythroid (CFU-E), CFU T-lymphocyte (CFU-TL), CFU-multipotential (CFU-Mix) and CFU-megakaryocyte (CFU-Mk) progenitor cells of cord blood (CB) and the protective effects on them. DESIGN: Contrast observational study.SETTING: Department of Molecular Biology, Affiliated Hospital of Luzhou Medical College.PARTICIPANTS: A total of 20 cord blood (CB) samples (with 10 mL for each sample) from fetal umbilical vein of normal term spontaneous delivery neonates were provided by the Department of Gynaecology and Obstetrics, Affiliated Hospital of Luzhou Medical College. All the patients were informed and agreed with the experiment.METHODS: The experiment was carried out in the Department of Molecular Biology, Affiliated Hospital of Luzhou Medical College from June 2004 to December 2006. Colony forming unit-assay was applied to observe the suppression effect of HCMV-AD169 strain on CFU-GM, CFU-E, CFU-TL, CFU-Mix and CFU-Mk of CB with the presence of GCV. The techniques of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and fluorescence quantification PCR were used to demonstrate the existence of HCMV-AD169 DNA in the colony cells of cultured CFU-GM, CFU-E, CFU-TL, CFU-Mix and CFU-Mk. Normal progenitor cells culture system was regarded as blank control group; normal progenitor cells culture system with inactivated HCMV fluid as inactivated (IV) control group.MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: ① The number and maintaining duration of colonies of cultured progenitor cells were counted by using a light inverted phase

  9. Effect of irradiation and storage post-irradiation of black pepper (Piper nigrum L.) on counts of microorganisms hygienic indicator using methods of conventional analysis and PETRIFILM{sup TM} plates; Efeito da irradiacao e do armazenamento pos-irradiacao da pimenta preta (Piper nigrum L.) na contagem de microorganismos indicadores de higiene usando metodos de analise convencionais e placas PETRIFILM{sup TM}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaimes, Marcial Ibo Silva

    1988-07-01

    Fifteen samples of ground black pepper (Piper nigrum L.) purchased in Sao Paulo local stores, were submitted to irradiation in doses of 3, 6 and 10 kGy. All irradiated samples, including non-irradiated controls, were submitted to counts of yeasts and molds, aerobes (APC), coliforms and mesophilic aerobic spore formers (MASC), using conventional plate count methods and PETRIFILM {sup TM} plates. For yeasts and molds count, acidified potato dextrose agar (PDA) an PETRIFILM {sup TM} PFYM plates were used. For aerobes, plate count agar (PCA) and PETRIFILM {sup TM} PFAC plates were used. Violet red bile agar (VRBA) and PETRIFILM {sup TM} PFEC plates were employed for enumeration of coliforms. Counts of these groups of microorganisms obtained through the traditional plating procedures did not differ significantly from those using the corresponding PETRIFILM {sup TM} plates. In samples submitted to irradiation, a dose of 10 kGy caused a decrease of the yeasts and molds count from 10{sup 4}-10{sup 5} to less than 10 cfu/g. The same dose caused a decrease of the aerobic counts from 10{sup 7}-10{sup 8} to 10{sup 2}-10{sup 3} cfu/g, of coliforms from 10{sup 4}-10{sup 5} to less than 10 cfu/g and MASC from 10{sup 6}-10{sup 7} cfu/g to 10-10{sup 2} cfu/g. The introduction of a injury repair step in the counting procedure resulted in a 32 to 89% increase in the number of coliforms. However, this additional step did not improve significantly the counts of MASC. After 270 days of storage of samples irradiated with 3 kGy, a decrease in the yeasts and molds population from 10{sup 3} to 20 cfu/g was observed. The APC population in these samples was reduced from 5,0x10{sup 6} to 2,4x10{sup 4} cfu/g; in those irradiated with 6 kGy the reduction was from 4,0x10{sup 4} to 5,0x10{sup 3} cfu/g and in those irradiated with 10 kGy the counts were reduced from 30 to less than 10 cfu/g. After the same time of storage, the coliform population in non irradiated samples decreased from 2,8x10{sup

  10. Predicting acute uncomplicated urinary tract infection in women: a systematic review of the diagnostic accuracy of symptoms and signs

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Giesen, Leonie GM

    2010-10-24

    Abstract Background Acute urinary tract infections (UTI) are one of the most common bacterial infections among women presenting to primary care. However, there is a lack of consensus regarding the optimal reference standard threshold for diagnosing UTI. The objective of this systematic review is to determine the diagnostic accuracy of symptoms and signs in women presenting with suspected UTI, across three different reference standards (102 or 103 or 105 CFU\\/ml). We also examine the diagnostic value of individual symptoms and signs combined with dipstick test results in terms of clinical decision making. Methods Searches were performed through PubMed (1966 to April 2010), EMBASE (1973 to April 2010), Cochrane library (1973 to April 2010), Google scholar and reference checking. Studies that assessed the diagnostic accuracy of symptoms and signs of an uncomplicated UTI using a urine culture from a clean-catch or catherised urine specimen as the reference standard, with a reference standard of at least ≥ 102 CFU\\/ml were included. Synthesised data from a high quality systematic review were used regarding dipstick results. Studies were combined using a bivariate random effects model. Results Sixteen studies incorporating 3,711 patients are included. The weighted prior probability of UTI varies across diagnostic threshold, 65.1% at ≥ 102 CFU\\/ml; 55.4% at ≥ 103 CFU\\/ml and 44.8% at ≥ 102 CFU\\/ml ≥ 105 CFU\\/ml. Six symptoms are identified as useful diagnostic symptoms when a threshold of ≥ 102 CFU\\/ml is the reference standard. Presence of dysuria (+LR 1.30 95% CI 1.20-1.41), frequency (+LR 1.10 95% CI 1.04-1.16), hematuria (+LR 1.72 95%CI 1.30-2.27), nocturia (+LR 1.30 95% CI 1.08-1.56) and urgency (+LR 1.22 95% CI 1.11-1.34) all increase the probability of UTI. The presence of vaginal discharge (+LR 0.65 95% CI 0.51-0.83) decreases the probability of UTI. Presence of hematuria has the highest diagnostic utility, raising the post-test probability of

  11. Survival of Salmonella Typhimurium in poultry-based meat preparations during grilling, frying and baking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roccato, Anna; Uyttendaele, Mieke; Cibin, Veronica; Barrucci, Federica; Cappa, Veronica; Zavagnin, Paola; Longo, Alessandra; Ricci, Antonia

    2015-03-16

    The burden of food-borne diseases still represents a threat to public health; in 2012, the domestic setting accounted for 57.6% of strong-evidence EU food-borne Salmonella outbreaks. Next to cross-contamination, inadequate cooking procedure is considered as one of the most important factors contributing to food-borne illness. The few studies which have assessed the effect of domestic cooking on the presence and numbers of pathogens in different types of meat have shown that consumer-style cooking methods can allow bacteria to survive and that the probability of eating home-cooked poultry meat that still contains surviving bacteria after heating is higher than previously assumed. Thus, the main purpose of this study was to reproduce and assess the effect of several types of cooking treatments (according to label instructions and not following label instructions) on the presence and numbers of Salmonella Typhimurium DT 104 artificially inoculated in five types of poultry-based meat preparations (burgers, sausages, ready-to-cook-kebabs, quail roulades and extruded roulades) that are likely to be contaminated by Salmonella. Three contamination levels (10 cfu/g; 100 cfu/g and 1000 cfu/g) and three cooking techniques (grilling, frying and baking) were applied. Cooking treatments performed according to label instructions eliminated Salmonella Typhimurium (absence per 25g) for contamination levels of 10 and 100 cfu/g but not for contamination levels of 1000 cfu/g. After improper cooking, 26 out of 78 samples were Salmonella-positive, and 23 out of these 26 samples were artificially contaminated with bacterial loads between 100 and 1000 cfu/g. Nine out of 26 samples provided quantifiable results with a minimum level of 1.4MPN/g in kebabs (initial inoculum level: 100 cfu/g) after grilling and a maximum level of 170MPN/g recorded in sausages (initial inoculum level: 1000 cfu/g) after grilling. Kebabs were the most common Salmonella-positive meat product after cooking

  12. Growth of Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella spp., Escherichia coli O157:H7, and Staphylococcus aureus on cheese during extended storage at 25°C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leong, Wan Mei; Geier, Renae; Engstrom, Sarah; Ingham, Steve; Ingham, Barbara; Smukowski, Marianne

    2014-08-01

    Potentially hazardous foods require time/temperature control for safety. According to the U.S. Food and Drug Administration Food Code, most cheeses are potentially hazardous foods based on pH and water activity, and a product assessment is required to evaluate safety of storage >6 h at 21°C. We tested the ability of 67 market cheeses to support growth of Listeria monocytogenes (LM), Salmonella spp. (SALM), Escherichia coli O157:H7 (EC), and Staphylococcus aureus (SA) over 15 days at 25°C. Hard (Asiago and Cheddar), semi-hard (Colby and Havarti), and soft cheeses (mozzarella and Mexican-style), and reduced-sodium or reduced-fat types were tested. Single-pathogen cocktails were prepared and individually inoculated onto cheese slices (∼10(5) CFU/g). Cocktails were 10 strains of L. monocytogenes, 6 of Salmonella spp., or 5 of E. coli O157:H7 or S. aureus. Inoculated slices were vacuum packaged and stored at 25°C for ≤ 15 days, with surviving inocula enumerated every 3 days. Percent salt-in-the-moisture phase, percent titratable acidity, pH, water activity, and levels of indigenous/starter bacteria were measured. Pathogens did not grow on 53 cheeses, while 14 cheeses supported growth of SA, 6 of SALM, 4 of LM, and 3 of EC. Of the cheeses supporting pathogen growth, all supported growth of SA, ranging from 0.57 to 3.08 log CFU/g (average 1.70 log CFU/g). Growth of SALM, LM, and EC ranged from 1.01 to 3.02 log CFU/g (average 2.05 log CFU/g), 0.60 to 2.68 log CFU/g (average 1.60 log CFU/g), and 0.41 to 2.90 log CFU/g (average 1.69 log CFU/g), respectively. Pathogen growth varied within cheese types or lots. Pathogen growth was influenced by pH and percent salt-in-the-moisture phase, and these two factors were used to establish growth/no-growth boundary conditions for safe, extended storage (≤25°C) of pasteurized milk cheeses. Pathogen growth/no-growth could not be predicted for Swiss-style cheeses, mold-ripened or bacterial surface-ripened cheeses, and cheeses

  13. Preservation of differentiation and clonogenic potential of human hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells during lyophilization and ambient storage.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandhya S Buchanan

    Full Text Available Progenitor cell therapies show great promise, but their potential for clinical applications requires improved storage and transportation. Desiccated cells stored at ambient temperature would provide economic and practical advantages over approaches employing cell freezing and subzero temperature storage. The objectives of this study were to assess a method for loading the stabilizing sugar, trehalose, into hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HPC and to evaluate the effects of subsequent freeze-drying and storage at ambient temperature on differentiation and clonogenic potential. HPC were isolated from human umbilical cord blood and loaded with trehalose using an endogenous cell surface receptor, termed P2Z. Solution containing trehalose-loaded HPC was placed into vials, which were transferred to a tray freeze-dryer and removed during each step of the freeze-drying process to assess differentiation and clonogenic potential. Control groups for these experiments were freshly isolated HPC. Control cells formed 1450+/-230 CFU-GM, 430+/-140 BFU-E, and 50+/-40 CFU-GEMM per 50 microL. Compared to the values for the control cells, there was no statistical difference observed for cells removed at the end of the freezing step or at the end of primary drying. There was a gradual decrease in the number of CFU-GM and BFU-E for cells removed at different temperatures during secondary drying; however, there were no significant differences in the number of CFU-GEMM. To determine storage stability of lyophilized HPC, cells were stored for 4 weeks at 25 degrees C in the dark. Cells reconstituted immediately after lyophilization produced 580+/-90 CFU-GM ( approximately 40%, relative to unprocessed controls p<0.0001, 170+/-70 BFU-E (approximately 40%, p<0.0001, and 41+/-22 CFU-GEMM (approximately 82%, p = 0.4171, and cells reconstituted after 28 days at room temperature produced 513+/-170 CFU-GM (approximately 35%, relative to unprocessed controls, p<0

  14. Application of an active alginate coating to control the growth of Listeria monocytogenes on poached and deli turkey products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juck, Greg; Neetoo, Hudaa; Chen, Haiqiang

    2010-09-01

    The relatively high prevalence of Listeria monocytogenes in ready-to-eat (RTE) turkey products is of great concern. The overall objective of this study was to develop antimicrobial edible coating formulations to effectively control the growth of this pathogen. The antimicrobials studied were nisin (500IU/g), Novagard CB 1 (0.25%), Guardian NR100 (500ppm), sodium lactate (SL, 2.4%), sodium diacetate (SD, 0.25%), and potassium sorbate (PS, 0.3%). These were incorporated alone or in binary combinations into five edible coatings: alginate, kappa-carrageenan, pectin, xanthan gum, and starch. The coatings were applied onto the surface of home-style poached and processed deli turkey discs inoculated with ~3log CFU/g of L. monocytogenes. The turkey samples were then stored at 22 degrees C for 7days. For poached and processed deli turkey, the coatings were found to be equally effective, with pectin being slightly less effective than the others. The most effective poached turkey treatments seemed to be SL (2.4%)/SD (0.25%) and Nisin (500IU/g)/SL (2.4%), which yielded final populations of 3.0 and 4.9log CFU/g respectively compared to the control which was 7.9log CFU/g. For processed deli turkey, the most effective antimicrobial treatments seemed to be Nisin (500IU/g)/SD (0.25%) and Nisin (500IU/g)/SL (2.4%) with final populations of 1.5 and 1.7log CFU/g respectively compared to the control which was 6.5log CFU/g. In the second phase of the study, home-style poached and store-purchased roasted (deli) turkey inoculated with the pathogen at a level of ~3log CFU/g were coated with alginate incorporating selected antimicrobial combinations and stored for 8weeks at 4 degrees C. Alginate coatings supplemented with SL (2.4%)/PS (0.3%) delayed the growth of L. monocytogenes with final counts reaching 4.3log CFU/g (home-style poached turkey) and 6.5log CFU/g (roasted deli turkey) respectively while the counts in their untreated counterparts were significantly higher (P<0.05) reaching 9

  15. Effect of inoculum size, bacterial species, type of surfaces and contact time to the transfer of foodborne pathogens from inoculated to non-inoculated beef fillets via food processing surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gkana, E; Chorianopoulos, N; Grounta, A; Koutsoumanis, K; Nychas, G-J E

    2017-04-01

    The objective of the present study was to determine the factors affecting the transfer of foodborne pathogens from inoculated beef fillets to non-inoculated ones, through food processing surfaces. Three different levels of inoculation of beef fillets surface were prepared: a high one of approximately 10(7) CFU/cm(2), a medium one of 10(5) CFU/cm(2) and a low one of 10(3) CFU/cm(2), using mixed-strains of Listeria monocytogenes, or Salmonella enterica Typhimurium, or Escherichia coli O157:H7. The inoculated fillets were then placed on 3 different types of surfaces (stainless steel-SS, polyethylene-PE and wood-WD), for 1 or 15 min. Subsequently, these fillets were removed from the cutting boards and six sequential non-inoculated fillets were placed on the same surfaces for the same period of time. All non-inoculated fillets were contaminated with a progressive reduction trend of each pathogen's population level from the inoculated fillets to the sixth non-inoculated ones that got in contact with the surfaces, and regardless the initial inoculum, a reduction of approximately 2 log CFU/g between inoculated and 1st non-inoculated fillet was observed. S. Typhimurium was transferred at lower mean population (2.39 log CFU/g) to contaminated fillets than E. coli O157:H7 (2.93 log CFU/g), followed by L. monocytogenes (3.12 log CFU/g; P CFU/g) enhanced the transfer of bacteria to subsequent fillets compared to other materials (2.66 log CFU/g for SS and PE; P < 0.05). Cross-contamination between meat and surfaces is a multifactorial process strongly depended on the species, initial contamination level, kind of surface, contact time and the number of subsequent fillet, according to analysis of variance. Thus, quantifying the cross-contamination risk associated with various steps of meat processing and food establishments or households can provide a scientific basis for risk management of such products.

  16. Population of Pratylenchus coffeae (Z. and growth of Arabica coffee seedling inoculated by Pseudomonas diminuta L. and Bacillus subtilis (C..

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irfan Fauzi

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available AbstractPratylenchus coffeae is a parasitic nematoda that infected the roots of some plants, one of them is coffee. The Infection of Pratylenchus coffeae cause root tissue damage that led to root lession and make root become rotten, it will interfere the ability of roots to absorb water and nutrients in the soil which resulted in the growth of plants. At the moment, control of Pratylenchus coffeae are following integrated pests management (IPM program, which integrated between the use of coffee resistant clone and application of biological agents. Research on biological control was conducted more intensive, at the moment; due to it is friendlier save against environment and cheaper then using chemical nematicides. The research was conducted to know the effects of Micorrhiza Helper Bacteria (MHB,Pseudomonas diminuta and Bacillus subtilis in suppressing the population of P. coffeaeas well as their effect on growth of coffee seedling.  Coffee arabica (Coffea arabica L. seedling one moth old were used in the experiment. The experiment prepared with eight treatments and five  replications, as follows: A (Pseudomonas diminuta with density of 108 cfu / ml, B (Pseudomonas diminuta with density of 2x108 cfu / ml, C (Bacillus subtilis with density of 108 cfu / ml , D (Bacillus subtilis with density 2x108 cfu / ml, E (Carbofuran nematicide 5 g formulation / pot, F (Pseudomonas diminuta and Bacillus subtilis with each density of 108 cfu / ml, K- (Nematoda inoculation but without bacteria and nematicide, K+ (coffee seedling  without any additional treatment. The experiment was conducted for sixteen weeks or about four months. The results of the experiment showed that application of MHB could suppress population of P. coffeae and increase coffee seedling growth significantly. Inoculation of B. subtilis at 108 cfu per seedling suppressed significantly nematoda population of 71.3% compared with untreated seedling but inoculated with nematoda. It was not

  17. Changes in procyanidins and tannin concentration as affected by cocoa liquor roasting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Misnawi Jati

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available AbstractPratylenchus coffeae is a parasitic nematoda that infected the roots of some plants, one of them is coffee. The Infection of Pratylenchus coffeae cause root tissue damage that led to root lession and make root become rotten, it will interfere the ability of roots to absorb water and nutrients in the soil which resulted in the growth of plants. At the moment, control of Pratylenchus coffeae are following integrated pests management (IPM program, which integrated between the use of coffee resistant clone and application of biological agents. Research on biological control was conducted more intensive, at the moment; due to it is friendlier save against environment and cheaper then using chemical nematicides. The research was conducted to know the effects of Micorrhiza Helper Bacteria (MHB,Pseudomonas diminuta and Bacillus subtilis in suppressing the population of P. coffeaeas well as their effect on growth of coffee seedling.  Coffee arabica (Coffea arabica L. seedling one moth old were used in the experiment. The experiment prepared with eight treatments and five  replications, as follows: A (Pseudomonas diminuta with density of 108 cfu / ml, B (Pseudomonas diminuta with density of 2x108 cfu / ml, C (Bacillus subtilis with density of 108 cfu / ml , D (Bacillus subtilis with density 2x108 cfu / ml, E (Carbofuran nematicide 5 g formulation / pot, F (Pseudomonas diminuta and Bacillus subtilis with each density of 108 cfu / ml, K- (Nematoda inoculation but without bacteria and nematicide, K+ (coffee seedling  without any additional treatment. The experiment was conducted for sixteen weeks or about four months. The results of the experiment showed that application of MHB could suppress population of P. coffeae and increase coffee seedling growth significantly. Inoculation of B. subtilis at 108 cfu per seedling suppressed significantly nematoda population of 71.3% compared with untreated seedling but inoculated with nematoda. It was not

  18. Somatic Embryogenesis Cocoa Plantlets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teguh man santoso

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available AbstractPratylenchus coffeae is a parasitic nematoda that infected the roots of some plants, one of them is coffee. The Infection of Pratylenchus coffeae cause root tissue damage that led to root lession and make root become rotten, it will interfere the ability of roots to absorb water and nutrients in the soil which resulted in the growth of plants. At the moment, control of Pratylenchus coffeae are following integrated pests management (IPM program, which integrated between the use of coffee resistant clone and application of biological agents. Research on biological control was conducted more intensive, at the moment; due to it is friendlier save against environment and cheaper then using chemical nematicides. The research was conducted to know the effects of Micorrhiza Helper Bacteria (MHB,Pseudomonas diminuta and Bacillus subtilis in suppressing the population of P. coffeaeas well as their effect on growth of coffee seedling.  Coffee arabica (Coffea arabica L. seedling one moth old were used in the experiment. The experiment prepared with eight treatments and five  replications, as follows: A (Pseudomonas diminuta with density of 108 cfu / ml, B (Pseudomonas diminuta with density of 2x108 cfu / ml, C (Bacillus subtilis with density of 108 cfu / ml , D (Bacillus subtilis with density 2x108 cfu / ml, E (Carbofuran nematicide 5 g formulation / pot, F (Pseudomonas diminuta and Bacillus subtilis with each density of 108 cfu / ml, K- (Nematoda inoculation but without bacteria and nematicide, K+ (coffee seedling  without any additional treatment. The experiment was conducted for sixteen weeks or about four months. The results of the experiment showed that application of MHB could suppress population of P. coffeae and increase coffee seedling growth significantly. Inoculation of B. subtilis at 108 cfu per seedling suppressed significantly nematoda population of 71.3% compared with untreated seedling but inoculated with nematoda. It was not

  19. Performance of a Batch System Hydrolic Press for Cocoa Butter Extraction Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sri Mulato

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available AbstractPratylenchus coffeae is a parasitic nematoda that infected the roots of some plants, one of them is coffee. The Infection of Pratylenchus coffeae cause root tissue damage that led to root lession and make root become rotten, it will interfere the ability of roots to absorb water and nutrients in the soil which resulted in the growth of plants. At the moment, control of Pratylenchus coffeae are following integrated pests management (IPM program, which integrated between the use of coffee resistant clone and application of biological agents. Research on biological control was conducted more intensive, at the moment; due to it is friendlier save against environment and cheaper then using chemical nematicides. The research was conducted to know the effects of Micorrhiza Helper Bacteria (MHB,Pseudomonas diminuta and Bacillus subtilis in suppressing the population of P. coffeaeas well as their effect on growth of coffee seedling.  Coffee arabica (Coffea arabica L. seedling one moth old were used in the experiment. The experiment prepared with eight treatments and five  replications, as follows: A (Pseudomonas diminuta with density of 108 cfu / ml, B (Pseudomonas diminuta with density of 2x108 cfu / ml, C (Bacillus subtilis with density of 108 cfu / ml , D (Bacillus subtilis with density 2x108 cfu / ml, E (Carbofuran nematicide 5 g formulation / pot, F (Pseudomonas diminuta and Bacillus subtilis with each density of 108 cfu / ml, K- (Nematoda inoculation but without bacteria and nematicide, K+ (coffee seedling  without any additional treatment. The experiment was conducted for sixteen weeks or about four months. The results of the experiment showed that application of MHB could suppress population of P. coffeae and increase coffee seedling growth significantly. Inoculation of B. subtilis at 108 cfu per seedling suppressed significantly nematoda population of 71.3% compared with untreated seedling but inoculated with nematoda. It was not

  20. Streptococcus mutans counts in plaque adjacent to orthodontic brackets bonded with resin-modified glass ionomer cement or resin-based composite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Solange Machado Mota

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the number of Streptococcus mutans CFU (colony forming units in the saliva and plaque adjacent to orthodontic brackets bonded with a glass ionomer cement - GIC (Fuji Ortho or a resin-based composite - RC (Concise. Twenty male and female patients, aged 12 to 20 years, participated in the study. Saliva was collected before and after placement of appliances. Plaque was collected from areas adjacent to brackets and saliva was again collected on the 15th, 30th, and 45th day after placement. On the 30th day, 0.4% stannous fluoride gel was applied for 4 minutes. No significant modification in the number of Streptococcus mutans CFU in saliva was observed after placement of the fixed orthodontic appliances. On the 15th day, the percentage of Streptococcus mutans CFU in plaque was statistically lower in sites adjacent to GIC-bonded brackets (mean = 0.365 than in those adjacent to RC-bonded brackets (mean = 0.935. No evidence was found of a contribution of GIC to the reduction of CFU in plaque after the 15th day. Topical application of stannous fluoride gel on the 30th day reduced the number of CFU in saliva, but not in plaque. This study suggests that the antimicrobial activity of GIC occurs only in the initial phase and is not responsible for a long-term anticariogenic property.

  1. Package systems and storage times serve as postlethality controls for Listeria monocytogenes on whole-muscle beef jerky and pork and beef smoked sausage sticks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobaton-Sulabo, April Shayne S; Axman, Tyler J; Getty, Kelly J K; Boyle, Elizabeth A E; Harper, Nigel M; Uppal, Kamaldeep K; Barry, Bruce; Higgins, James J

    2011-02-01

    To validate how packaging and storage reduces Listeria monocytogenes on whole-muscle beef jerky and smoked pork and beef sausage sticks, four packaging systems (heat sealed [HS] without vacuum, heat sealed with oxygen scavenger, nitrogen flushed with oxygen scavenger [NFOS], and vacuum) and four ambient temperature storage times were evaluated. Commercially available whole-muscle beef jerky and smoked pork and beef sausage sticks were inoculated with a five-strain L. monocytogenes cocktail, packaged, and then stored at 25.5 °C until enumerated for L. monocytogenes at 0, 24, 48, and 72 h and 30 days after packaging. The interaction of packaging and storage time affected L. monocytogenes reduction on jerky, but not on sausage sticks. A >2-log CFU/cm(2) reduction was achieved on sausage sticks after 24 h of storage, regardless of package type, while jerky had 2 log CFU/cm(2), except for NFOS (1.22-log CFU/cm(2) reduction). Processors could package beef jerky in HS packages with oxygen scavenger or vacuum in conjunction with a 24-h holding time as an antimicrobial process to ensure a >1-log CFU/cm(2) L. monocytogenes reduction or use a 48-h holding time for HS- or NFOS-packaged beef jerky. A >3-log CFU/cm(2) mean reduction was observed for all beef jerky and sausage stick packaging systems after 30 days of 25.5 °C storage.

  2. PENUMBUHAN BIOFLOK DALAM MEDIA BUDIDAYA IKAN BANDENG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Usman Usman

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Bioflok merupakan agregat campuran heterogen mikroba yang diinisiasi oleh bakteri heterotrof dan memiliki nutrisi yang cukup baik yang dapat dimanfaatkan sebagai makanan oleh beberapa jenis ikan. Penelitian ini dilakukan untuk mendapatkan informasi metode menumbuhkan bioflok dalam media budidaya ikan bandeng intensif. Penumbuhan bakteri heterotrof dilakukan dengan mempertahankan keseimbangan rasio Karbon/Nitrogen (C/N sebesar 10 dalam media budidaya. Sumber nitrogen berasal dari limbah 40 ekor ikan bandeng (bobot rata-rata 75 g/ekor yang dipelihara dalam bak fibre glass berisi air bersalinitas 25 ppt sebanyak 625 L. Ikan uji diberi pakan komersial dengan kadar protein 26%. Molase digunakan sebagai sumber Corganik. Perlakuan yang dicobakan adalah: (A tanpa inokulasi bakteri heterotrof (0 cfu/mL, (B inokulasi bakteri heterotrof sebanyak 102 cfu/mL, (C inokulasi bakteri heterotrof sebanyak 104 cfu/mL, dan (D inokulasi bakteri heterotrof sebanyak 106 cfu/mL. Hasil percobaan selama masa 30 hari menunjukkan bahwa penambahan inokulasi bakteri heterotrof sebanyak 106 cfu/mL cenderung lebih meningkatkan laju konversi limbah N menjadi bioflok dibandingkan jumlah inokulasi bakteri yang lebih rendah dan kontrol. Indikator utamanya dapat dilihat dari pola penurunan konsentrasi TAN dan peningkatan VSS. Penambahan inokulasi bakteri heterotrof (Bacillus sp. cenderung meningkatkan kandungan asam amino bioflok

  3. HIF1alpha synergizes with glucocorticoids to promote BFU-E progenitor self-renewal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flygare, Johan; Rayon Estrada, Violeta; Shin, Chanseok; Gupta, Sumeet; Lodish, Harvey F

    2011-03-24

    With the aim of finding small molecules that stimulate erythropoiesis earlier than erythropoietin and that enhance erythroid colony-forming unit (CFU-E) production, we studied the mechanism by which glucocorticoids increase CFU-E formation. Using erythroid burst-forming unit (BFU-E) and CFU-E progenitors purified by a new technique, we demonstrate that glucocorticoids stimulate the earliest (BFU-E) progenitors to undergo limited self-renewal, which increases formation of CFU-E cells > 20-fold. Interestingly, glucocorticoids induce expression of genes in BFU-E cells that contain promoter regions highly enriched for hypoxia-induced factor 1α (HIF1α) binding sites. This suggests activation of HIF1α may enhance or replace the effect of glucocorticoids on BFU-E self-renewal. Indeed, HIF1α activation by a prolyl hydroxylase inhibitor (PHI) synergizes with glucocorticoids and enhances production of CFU-Es 170-fold. Because PHIs are able to increase erythroblast production at very low concentrations of glucocorticoids, PHI-induced stimulation of BFU-E progenitors thus represents a conceptually new therapeutic window for treating erythropoietin-resistant anemia.

  4. INFLUENCE OF MILK FAT IN THE RESISTANCE OF Mycobacterium fortuitum TO SLOW PASTEURIZATION

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    Karina Ramirez Starikoff

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available ortuitum. Milk samples were divided into two portions, whole and skimmed, each part was inoculated with M. fortuitum and then distributed in tubes for quantification of the agent during pasteurization, in a water bath. As samples were diluted and plated on Lowenstein-Jensen (37 °C/5 days, the count results were expressed as log10 CFU/mL. The heat treatment reduced 4.4 log10 CFU/mL for goat whole milk (2.8% fat, 4.9 log10 CFU/mL for skim goat milk (0.3%, 3.9 log10 CFU/ml for whole bovine milk (5.9%, and 5.4 log10 CFU/mL for skim bovine milk (0.2%, without significant difference, possibly because of the low number of samples. Values of D65 °C were, respectively, 10.51 minutes, 8.61 minutes, 18.02 minutes, and 7.82 minutes and the low R2 value of the straight line equations indicated that other factors, in addition to the ones studied, influenced the heat death of the agent. The results suggest a trend of influence by fat milk, and by the animal species on the decay rate of M. fortuitum, and that pasteurization was less effective over M. fortuitum in whole bovine milk. Keywords: fat content;

  5. MICROBIOLOGICAL TESTING OF SELECTED CONFECTIONERY PRODUCTS QUALITY

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    Ľubomíra Juhaniaková

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to determine microbiological quality and water activity of confectionery products as corpus of desserts, stuffing cakes and finished cakes. In confectionery products microbiological parameters: total count of bacteria, coliforms bacteria, mesophilic aerobic bacteria, yeasts, microscopic filamentous fungi, counts of Staphylococcus aureus and Salmonella spp. were observed. These confectionery products were evaluated: 5 corpus of Kremeš, 5 stuffing of Kremeš and 5 Venček cake. For microbiological tests 15 samples of confectionery products were used. The numbers of total count of bacteria ranged from 2.9 to 3.65 log CFU.g-1, the number of mesophilic aerobic bacteria ranged from 2.00 to 3.28 log CFU.g-1, coliforms bacteria in confectionery products ranged from 0.00 to 3.15 CFU.g-1, number of yeasts ranged from 0.00 to 3.30 log CFU.g-1and the number of microscopic fungi ranged from 0.00 to 2.90 CFU.g-1. None of the samples showed any growth of coliforms bacteria, Staphylococcus aureus and Salmonella spp. From microscopic fungi were isolated genera Alternaria, Aspergillus and Penicillium. Eight from fifteen investigated samples of confectionary products were in accordance with the Codex Alimentarius of the Slovak Republic. The lowest water activity was found in Kremeš corpus samples (0.953 and higher in Venček samples (0.973.

  6. Biological Control of Bipolaris sorokiniana on Tall Fescue by Stenotrophomonas maltophilia Strain C3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Z; Yuen, G Y

    1999-09-01

    ABSTRACT Stenotrophomonas maltophilia strain C3 was evaluated for control of leaf spot on tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea) caused by Bipolaris sorokiniana. In growth chamber experiments, C3 inhibited conidial germination on leaf surfaces and reduced lesion frequency and percent diseased leaf area compared with nontreated controls. The amount of leaf spot suppression was related to the C3 dose applied. The highest dose tested, 10(9) CFU/ml, prevented nearly all B. sorokiniana conidia from germinating on treated leaf surfaces and provided nearly complete suppression of lesion development. When colloidal chitin was added to C3 cell suspensions of 10(7) or 10(8) CFU/ml, biocontrol efficacy was significantly increased over C3 applied alone, whereas addition of chitin to a C3 cell suspension of 10(9) CFU/ml had no effect. In field experiments, application of C3 to tall fescue turf resulted in significant reductions in infection frequency and disease severity compared with nontreated controls. Strain C3 applied at 10(9) CFU/ml was more effective than C3 applied at 10(7) CFU/ml, and amendment of the lower dose with colloidal chitin enhanced its efficacy. Populations sizes of C3 established on foliage in a growth chamber and in the field were directly related to dose applied. Chitin amendments did not affect C3 population size.

  7. INVESTIGATION OF THE MICROORGANISM CONTAMINATION ON CORPSE SKIN IN FUNERAL PARLOURS%殡仪馆遗体表面微生物污染状况调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨德慧

    2009-01-01

    目的 调查殡仪馆遗体表面微生物的状况,研究适用于遗体清洁与消毒方法,减少殡仪场所交叉感染.方法 采用棉拭采样检验方法对北京、河北等6省、市、区的25个殡仪馆的遗体表面进行了检测.结果遗体口与鼻部位污染细菌总数分别为52 273 cfu/cm2和36 322 cfu/鼻;耳部细菌总数为17 241cfu/只,面部细菌污染总数平均为1333 cfu/cm2;手部携带细菌总数平均为23 cfu/cm2.结论 殡仪场所遗体表面微生物污染严重,殡仪职工在处理遗体的过程中应注意生物安全防护和消毒问题.

  8. Determination of Yeasts Antimicrobial Activity in Milk and Meat Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.B. Roostita

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The research was arranged to isolate yeasts from livestock products and then the yeasts antimicrobial activity was tested towards putrefaction and pathogenic bacteria. Yeasts isolated from livestock products using Malt Extract Agar (MEA, the total yeasts population counted with using total plate count method, antimicrobial activity tested using diffusion methods against Pseudomonas aerugenes, Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli and then the chosen isolate identified with using 18s RNA method. The results have shown that the total yeasts population on pasteurized cow’s milk were 1.2×106 cfu/g, fruit yoghurt 5.4×106 cfu/g, lamb meat 1×105 cfu/g, beef 1×105 cfu/g and beef sausages 1×106 cfu/g total yeasts population. Fruit yoghurt isolate shown the best antimicrobial activity with 35 mm clear zone diameter against Pseudomonas aerugenes, 8 mm clear zone diameter against Staphylococcus aureus and 10 mm clear zone diameter against Escherichia coli. The 18 s RNA test shown that fruit yoghurt isolate was 100% (FR3-F primer and 99% (FR3-R primer identical with Candida parapsilosis.

  9. Evaluation of 3 analyte-specific reagents for detection of Bordetella pertussis and Bordetella parapertussis in clinical specimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, Ferdaus; Hays, Lindsay; Bell, Jeremiah; Selvarangan, Rangaraj

    2014-11-01

    The performance of 3 analyte-specific reagents (ASRs), Elitech Biosciences, EraGen Biosciences, and Focus Diagnostic, was evaluated for detection of Bordetella pertussis (BP) and Bordetella parapertussis (BPP) in nasopharyngeal swab specimens. A total of 104 frozen, leftover clinical specimens obtained from pediatric patients during 2011-2012 were included in this study. Performance was compared to the Bordetella real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) laboratory-developed test (LDT). The positive percent agreement for detection of BP by Elitech was 96% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 85.14-99.30); EraGen and Focus was 98% (95% CI: 87.99-99.89) in comparison to LDT PCR assay. The negative percent agreement of Elitech, EraGen, and Focus in comparison to LDT was 96% (95% CI: 85.14-99.30), 92% (95% CI: 79.89-97.41), and 96% (95% CI: 85.14-99.30), respectively. Limit of detection (LOD) for BP was 0.1 CFU/reaction by both Focus and EraGen and 1.0 CFU/reaction by Elitech. However, LOD for BPP was lower by EraGen (0.1 CFU/reaction) compared to Focus (1.0 CFU/reaction) and Elitech (1.0 CFU/reaction). These results demonstrate that all 3 ASRs tested are comparable and reliable for routine clinical diagnosis of pertussis and parapertussis.

  10. Pasteurella multocida type A as the primary agent of pneumonia and septicaemia in pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João X. de Oliveira Filho

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: In order to understand better the pathological aspects and spread of Pasteurella multocida type A as the primary cause of pneumonia in pigs, was made an experiment with intranasal inoculation of different concentrations of inocula [Group (G1: 108 Colony Forming Units (CFU/ml; G2: 107 CFU/ml; G3: 106 CFU/ml and G4: 105 CFU/ml], using two pigs per group. The pigs were obtained from a high health status herd. Pigs were monitored clinically for 4 days and subsequently necropsied. All pigs had clinical signs and lesions associated with respiratory disease. Dyspnoea and hyperthermia were the main clinical signs observed. Suppurative cranioventral bronchopneumonia, in some cases associated with necrosuppurative pleuropneumonia, fibrinous pericarditis and pleuritic, were the most frequent types of lesion found. The disease evolved with septicaemia, characterized by septic infarctions in the liver and spleen, with the detection of P. multocida type A. In this study, P. multocida type A strain #11246 was the primary agent of fibrinous pleuritis and suppurative cranioventral bronchopneumonia, pericarditis and septicaemia in the pigs. All concentrations of inoculum used (105-108 CFU/ml were able to produce clinical and pathological changes of pneumonia, pleuritis, pericarditis and septicemia in challenged animals.

  11. Ultrasensitive Detection of Shigella Species in Blood and Stool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Jieling; Wang, Jiapeng; Mathew, Anup S; Yau, Siu-Tung

    2016-02-16

    A modified immunosensing system with voltage-controlled signal amplification was used to detect Shigella in stool and blood matrixes at the single-digit CFU level. Inactivated Shigella was spiked in these matrixes and detected directly. The detection was completed in 78 min. Detection limits of 21 CFU/mL and 18 CFU/mL were achieved in stool and blood, respectively, corresponding to 2-7 CFUs immobilized on the detecting electrode. The outcome of the detection of extremely low bacterium concentration, i.e., below 100 CFU/mL, blood samples show a random nature. An analysis of the detection probabilities indicates the correlation between the sample volume and the success of detection and suggests that sample volume is critical for ultrasensitive detection of bacteria. The calculated detection limit is qualitatively in agreement with the empirically determined detection limit. The demonstrated ultrasensitive detection of Shigella on the single-digit CFU level suggests the feasibility of the direct detection of the bacterium in the samples without performing a culture.

  12. Microbiological quality of drinking water from dispensers in roadside restaurants of Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moniruzzaman, M; Akter, S; Islam, M A; Mia, Z

    2011-01-15

    The microbiological status of water from dispensers in different roadside restaurants of Dhaka city and Savar area was analyzed in this study. Seven samples from Dhaka and 8 samples of Savar were checked. The heterotrophic plate count was in a range of 1.0 x 10(3) CFU mL(-1) to 2.0 x 10(4) CFU mL(-1) (from new bottles), 1.0 x 10(3) to 1.5 x 10(4) CFU mL(-1) (after dispensation), and 1.5 x 10(3) CFU mL(-1) to 1.0 x l0(5) CFU mL(-1) (from serving glass). In several of the samples, the heterotrophic plate count was higher than the count in water from new bottle or after dispensation, suggesting added contamination from the serving glass. 80% of the samples were contaminated with total and fecal coliform bacteria, which render these waters unacceptable for human consumption. The samples were found to contain gram negative bacteria like E coli, Shigella sp., Klebsiella sp., Enterobacter sp., Pseudomonas sp., and Salmonella sp., which are potential pathogens and thus pose a serious threat to public health. This study elucidates the importance of monitoring the bottling companies and the restaurants and put them under strict regulations to prevent future outbreak of any water borne diseases caused by consumption of dispensed water.

  13. Effect of radiation on normal hematopoiesis and on viral induced cancers of the hematopoietic system. Technical progress report, August 1, 1974--May 1, 1975. [Mice, x radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okunewick, J.P.

    1975-01-01

    Studies carried out during the above period on viral leukemia have conclusively shown that the pluripotent hematopoietic colony forming stem cell (CFU-S) is a target cell for the leukemia virus. Treatment of this cell population with antiserum prepared in syngeneic mice against the disease resulted in inactivation of up to 50 percent of the CFU-S obtained from the spleens of viral leukemic mice. At the same time, normal serum had no effect on these cells, nor did the antiserum have any effect on normal CFU-S. Data indicated that a considerable time delay, on the order of a week, preceded the expression of the viral antigen in the leukemic CFU-S, but that it could be seen at all times after that up to the terminal point of the disease. We examined the effect of the virus on DNA synthesis (S-phase cells) in the CFU-S immediately after virus injection. The results showed that a doubling of the number of cells in S could be seen as early as four hours after introduction of the virus into the animal. Studies with ethidium bromide, an inhibitor of viral reverse transcriptase, were found to be in agreement with this observation. When given to viral leukemic animals in combination with fractionated exposure to x-ray, the data suggested that ethidium bromide did act to extend survival somewhat, but not much over that seen through the use of x-ray alone.

  14. Effects of recombinant human GM-CSF on proliferation of clonogenic cells in acute myeloblastic leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, J D; Young, D; Herrmann, F; Wiper, D; Wagner, K; Sabbath, K D

    1986-05-01

    Proliferation of acute myeloblastic leukemia (AML) cells in vitro is limited in most cases to a small subset of blasts that have several properties of stem cells. These leukemic colony-forming cells (AML-CFU) generally require addition of exogenous growth factors for proliferation in agar or methylcellulose. These factors can be supplied by media conditioned by phytohemagglutinin-stimulated normal leukocytes or by CSF-secreting tumor cell lines. However, the exact factor or factors required for stimulation of AML-CFU growth have not been defined. We compared the AML-CFU stimulatory activity of a human recombinant GM-CSF with that of GCT-CM, Mo-CM, and the PHA-leukocyte feeder system in 15 cases of AML. In each of the 12 cases that required exogenous growth factors for maximum AML-CFU growth, recombinant GM-CSF could replace either GM-CSF or Mo-CM, and could partially replace the PHA-leukocyte feeder system. These results indicate that this GM-CSF is a growth promoter of AML-CFU in these culture systems.

  15. Phaeobacter inhibens as biocontrol agent against Vibrio vulnificus in oyster models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porsby, Cisse Hedegaard; Gram, Lone

    2016-08-01

    Molluscan shellfish can cause food borne diseases and here we investigated if addition of Vibrio-antagonising bacteria could reduce Vibrio vulnificus in model oyster systems and prevent its establishment in live animals. Phaeobacter inhibens, which produces an antibacterial compound, tropodithietic acid (TDA), inhibited V. vulnificus as did pure TDA (MIC of 1-3.9 μM). P. inhibens DSM 17395 (at 10(6) cfu/ml) eradicated 10(5) cfu/ml V. vulnificus CMCP6 (a rifampicin resistant variant) from a co-culture oyster model system (oyster juice) whereas the pathogen grew to 10(7) cfu/ml when co-cultured with a TDA negative Phaeobacter mutant. P. inhibens grew well in oyster juice to 10(8) CFU/ml and sterile filtered samples from these cultures were inhibitory to Vibrio spp. P. inhibens established itself in live European flat oysters (Ostrea edulis) and remained at 10(5) cfu/g for five days. However, the presence of P. inhibens could not prevent subsequently added V. vulnificus from entering the live animals, likely because of too low levels of the biocontrol strain. Whilst the oyster model studies provided indication that P. inhibens DSM 17395 could be a good candidate as biocontrol agent against V. vulnificus further optimization is need in the actual animal rearing situation.

  16. Microbiota of sausages obtained by spontaneous fermentation produced in the South of Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osmar Roberto Dalla Santa

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The study of the ecology of fermented sausage is fundamental to understand the physical and chemical changes that happen during fermentation and maturation. The aim of the present study was to determine the microbiological characteristics of sausages produced by spontaneous fermentation. Fifty samples of sausages produced in the South of Brazil by different small manufacturers were analyzed for the following microbiota: aerobic mesophilic bacteria; Micrococcaceae; mold and yeast; lactic acid bacteria; total and fecal coliforms; coagulase-positive Staphylococcus, and Salmonella. In most samples (72%, the count of lactic bacteria was higher than 6 log10 cfu.g-1, and the samples with the highest counts were above 8 log10 cfu.g-1. The counts of Micrococcaceae in most samples were between 5 log10 and 7 log10 cfu.g-1. With respect to the presence of molds and yeasts, there was a significant variation among the samples with counts ranging from 2 log10 cfu.g-1 and 6 log10 cfu.g-1. From the data obtained, it was possible to conclude that 24% of the analyzed samples did not comply with the current law in Brazil since the levels of fecal coliforms or coagulase-positive Staphylococcus exceeded the maximum limit allowed.

  17. Proliferation of Escherichia coli O157:H7 in Soil-Substitute and Hydroponic Microgreen Production Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Zhenlei; Bauchan, Gary; Nichols-Russell, Lydia; Luo, Yaguang; Wang, Qin; Nou, Xiangwu

    2015-10-01

    Radish (Raphanus sativus var. longipinnatus) microgreens were produced from seeds inoculated with Escherichia coli O157:H7 by using peat moss-based soil-substitute and hydroponic production systems. E. coli populations on the edible and inedible parts of harvested microgreen plants (7 days postseeding) and in growth medium were examined. E. coli O157:H7 was shown to survive and proliferate significantly during microgreen growth in both production systems, with a higher level in the hydroponic production system. At the initial seed inoculation level of 3.7 log CFU/g, E. coli O157:H7 populations on the edible part of microgreen plants reached 2.3 and 2.1 log CFU/g (overhead irrigation and bottom irrigation, respectively) for microgreens from the soil-substitute production system and reached 5.7 log CFU/g for those hydroponically grown. At a higher initial inoculation of 5.6 log CFU/g seeds, the corresponding E. coli O157:H7 populations on the edible parts of microgreens grown in these production systems were 3.4, 3.6, and 5.3 log CFU/g, respectively. Examination of the spatial distribution of bacterial cells on different parts of microgreen plants showed that contaminated seeds led to systematic contamination of whole plants, including both edible and inedible parts, and seed coats remained the focal point of E. coli O157:H7 survival and growth throughout the period of microgreen production.

  18. PROBIOTIK Bacillus firmus UNTUK PENGENDALIAN PENYAKIT Aeromonas hydrophila PADA BUDIDAYA IKAN LELE DUMBO, Clarias gariepinus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Mariana Lusiastuti

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui efektivitas pemberian bakteri probiotik Bacillus firmus terhadap ketahanan benih ikan lele dumbo (Clarias gariepinus yang diinfeksi Aeromonas hydrophila. Probiotik diberikan melalui media budidaya dengan Rancangan Acak Lengkap (RAL menggunakan lima perlakuan dan tiga ulangan yang diaplikasikan untuk pengendalian penyakit motile aromonas septicemia (MAS. Perlakuan tersebut adalah A (tanpa penambahan bakteri probiotik B. firmus (sebagai control, B (penambahan bakteri probiotik B. firmus 105 cfu/mL, C (penambahan bakteri probiotik B. firmus 107 cfu/mL, D (penambahan bakteri probiotik B. firmus 109 cfu/mL, dan E (penambahan bakteri probiotik B. firmus 1011 cfu/mL. Pengamatan meliputi tingkat sintasan ikan uji setelah diuji tantang dengan A. hydrophila, indeks fagositik, diferensial leukosit dan kualitas air. Analisis data tingkat sintasan dilakukan dengan menggunakan uji F dengan taraf signifikansi 5%. Indeks fagositik, differensial leukosit dan kualitas air dianalisis secara deskriptif. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa sintasan tertinggi setelah diinfeksi A. hydrophila terdapat pada perlakuan D (109 cfu/mL yaitu 53,33% dan adanya peningkatan kadar limfosit sebesar 81% serta aktivitas fagosit sebesar 60% setelah penambahan bakteri probiotik B. firmus. Sementara hasil terendah terdapat pada perlakuan A (kontrol (tanpa penambahan bakteri probiotik sebesar 8,33%, aktivitas fagosit sebesar 60% setelah pemeliharaan ikan uji selama 14 hari.

  19. Experimental Study on Monopole Radio Frequency Low Temperature Plasma Sterilization%单极射频低温等离子体杀菌的实验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢娜; 饶国洲; 朱勇; 李子夏; 唐成芳; 娄鸣; 王丹杨

    2015-01-01

    目的 探讨单极射频低温等离子体在设定最佳参数下,作用不同时间的杀菌效果及机理.方法 将金黄色葡萄球菌(ATCC25923)和大肠埃希菌(ATCC25922)标准菌株接种于营养琼脂平板,37℃进行活化培养24 h,挑取菌落以无菌生理盐水稀释成105 cfu/ml细胞悬液,取10μl均匀涂布在无菌载玻片上,设对照组(照射前)和实验组(照射后),每个作用时间设3个复片,采用单极射频低温等离子体装置(参数设置为10 W,10 KV,10 KHz,He/O2=2%,2 L/min)对其进行照射.照射时间分别为5,10,40,60,300,600,720和900s,通过菌落计数法计算杀灭率,检测不同照射时间的杀灭效果,电镜观察照射前后的细菌形态和超微结构的变化.结果 对照组:金黄色葡萄球菌总数1 798 cfu/10 μl;大肠埃希菌总数2563 cfu/10 μl.实验组:5,10,40,60,300,600,720和900s,其存活菌数和杀灭率分别为金黄色葡萄球菌:945 cfu/10μl(47.4%),823 cfu/10 μl(54.2%),731 cfu/10 μl(59.3%),586 cfu/10 μl(67.4%),324 cfu/10 μl(81.9%),107 cfu/10 μl(94.0%),6 cfu/10 μl(99.7%),0 cfu/10 μl(100%);大肠埃希菌:1 546 cfu/10 μl(39.7%),1 389 cfu/10 μl(45.8%),1 282cfu/10-μl(49.9%),1 085 cfu/10 μl(57.7%),579 cfu/10 μl(77.4%),228 cfu/10 μl(91.7%),11 cfu/10 μl(99.6%)和0cfu/10 μl(100%).结果表明不同照射时间其存活菌数和杀灭效果有所不同,其中照射900s时杀灭率达100%.电镜下观察可见金黄色葡萄球菌细胞壁破裂、模糊、溶解、胞浆内容物外流,失去完整性,胞内染色变浅,核质疏松;大肠埃希菌长度缩短、边缘粗糙、胞壁溶解、胞内出现空泡样改变.结论 单极射频低温等离子体能有效地杀灭革兰氏阳性球菌和革兰氏阴性杆菌,其杀灭率随照射时间的延长而增加,其机理与电离产生的带电粒子破坏细菌胞壁、脂蛋白、脂多糖及DNA的作用有关.

  20. 骨髓细胞不同组份形成成纤维细胞集落形成单位的效率及1,25(OH)2D3和PGE2在其中的调节作用%Efficiency of colony forming unit-fibroblastic formed by the different fraction of bone marrow cells and regulation of 1,25(OH)2D3 and PGE2 in colony formation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王嵘; 苗登顺; 季吉

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To determine whether bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BM-MSCs) are presented in the different fractions of bone marrow cells and whether the efficiency of colony forming unit-fibroblastic (CFU-f) formed by BM-MSCs is regulated by 1,25(OH)2D3 and prostaglandin E2(PGE2). Methods:Total bone marrow cells or non-adherent bone marrow cells derived from total bone marrow cell cultures for 1 day were separated into the mononuclear cell fraction and the granulocyte/erythrocyte fraction or the mononuclear cell fraction, the granulocyte fraction and the erythrecyte fraction by density-gradient centrifugation and were cultured in the absence or presence of 10-8mol/L 1,25 (OH)2D3 or 10-7 mol/L PGE2 for 10 days. The resulting cells were stained with methylene blue and the number of CFU-f was counted. Results: ①The CFU-f formed by mononuclear cell fraction accounted for about 10% of the total CFU-f, and CFU-f formed by granulocyte/erythrocyte fraction, granulocyte fraction and erythrocyte fraction accounted for about 90% ,47% and 35% of the total CFU-f, respectively; ②The fractions derived from the non-adherent bone marrow cells accounted for about 71% of the total CFU-f, which was more than those formed by the fractions derived from total bone marrow cells;③ Treatment of 1 ,25(OH)2D3 and PGE2 enhanced the CFU-f formation of the mononuclear fraction and the granulocyte fraction derived from total bone marrow cells and the mononuclear cell fraction, the granulocyte fraction and the erythrocyte fraction derived from non-adherent bone marrow cells. Conclusion: Our results indicate that BM-MSCs are presented in the different fractions of bone marrow cells,and 1 ,25(OH)2D3 and PGE2 play a rele in stimulating proliferation of BM-MSCs.%目的:研究骨髓间充质干细胞(BM-MSCs)是否存在于骨髓不同组份中,以及其成纤维细胞集落形成单位(CFU-f)形成效率是否受1,25二羟基维生素D3[1,25(OH)2D3]和前列腺素E2(PGE2)的

  1. Cost-effective optimization of real-time PCR based detection of Campylobacter and Salmonella with inhibitor tolerant DNA polymerases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fachmann, Mette Sofie Rousing; Josefsen, Mathilde Hasseldam; Hoorfar, Jeffrey

    2015-01-01

    AIMS: The aim of this study was to cost-effectively improve detection of foodborne pathogens in PCR inhibitory samples through the use of alternative DNA polymerases. METHODS AND RESULTS: Commercially available polymerases (n=16) and PCR master mixes (n=4) were screened on DNA purified from...... bacterial cells in two validated real-time PCR assays for Campylobacter and Salmonella. The five best performing (based on: limit of detection (LOD), maximum fluorescence, shape of amplification curves, and amplification efficiency) were subsequently applied to meat and fecal samples. The VeriQuest qPCR...... master mix performed best for both meat and fecal samples (LODs of 102 and 104 CFU ml-1 in the purest and crudest DNA extractions, respectively) compared with Tth (LOD=102 -103 and 105 -106 CFU ml-1 ). AmpliTaqGold and HotMasterTaq both performed well (LOD=102 -104 CFU ml-1 ) with meat samples and poorly...

  2. Spatial and taxonomical overlap of fungi on phylloplanes and invasive alien ladybirds with fungal infections in tree crowns of urban green spaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Howe, Andrew Gordon; Ravn, Hans Peter; Jensen, Annette Bruun;

    2016-01-01

    ), Lecanicillium spp. (13.6% H. axyridis; 4.8% natives), with fewer Beauveria spp. infections (2.6% H. axyridis). Molecular identification revealed B. bassiana, B. pseudobassiana, I. farinosa and L. muscarium among isolates of both tree and ladybird origin. Tilia x europaea phylloplanes support a diverse...... occurred as infections in ladybirds. Isaria spp. was most abundant on phylloplanes (mean colony forming units (CFU) per leaf ± SE, 0.33 ± 0.03) followed by Beauveria spp. (0.22 ± 0.02 CFU per leaf) and Lecanicillium spp. (0.19 ± 0.02 CFU per leaf). Densities of inoculum were higher in inner crowns...... and decreased with height, although Lecanicillium spp. peaked at 5 – 7m. Upper phylloplane surfaces harboured higher densities of Isaria spp. and Beauveria spp. than lower surfaces, whereas Lecanicillium spp. was equally distributed. Most prevalent on ladybirds were Isaria spp. (20. 6% H. axyridis; 4.8% natives...

  3. 坡地放养成年三黄鸡肠道正常菌群的研究%Study on Normal Flora in the Intestinal Canal of Adult Sanhuang Chicken

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李长秀; 韦明肯

    2013-01-01

      Objective:To study the pH value of different parts of intestine, the law of normal flora’s distribution and how the balance of intestinal micro-flora affects poultry’s growth. Methods:Count the number of objected bacteria from the diluted samples of intestinal contents daubed on the selective culture plates; determine the intestinal pH value by using precise pH test paper;cultivate anaerobic bacteria with candle cylinder carbon dioxide culture method. Results: Bifidobacterium (1010.1cfu/g~1011.51cfu/g) and lactobacillus (109.1cfu/g~109.7cfu/g) are the dominant bacteria in the intestine; the distribution of aerobic bacteria in intestine presents a irregular change law (107.2cfu/g~109.5cfu/g) during the moving process of intestinal contents, while the distribution of anaerobic bacteria and aerobic bacteria in the digestive tract presents a regular change of “fewer in both ends and more in the middle”. Conclusion: There is a certain relationship between the intestinal pH value and the distribution of microorganism; aerobic bacteria, anaerobic bacteria and facultative bacteria interact and grow together in a certain environment, reflecting different distribution laws; further researches are needed on the macro and micro environment, and their relation with chicken organism.%  【目的】研究肠道不同部位的pH值和正常菌群分布数量的规律以及肠道微生态平衡与禽类健康生长的关系.【方法】将肠道内容物样品稀释涂布于选择性培养平板进行目的菌计数;采用精密PH试纸测定肠道pH值和烛缸二氧化碳培养法培养厌氧菌.【结果】肠道中厌氧菌双歧杆菌(1010.1cfu/g~1011.51cfu/g)和乳酸杆菌(109.1cfu/g~109.7cfu/g)为优势菌群,需氧菌(107.2cfu/g~109.5cfu/g)在肠道内容物移动过程中有不同规律的变化,但厌氧菌和需氧菌在消化道中总体呈两头少中间多的分布规律.【结论】肠道pH值与微生物分布数量存在一定的关

  4. 回转式凡纳滨对虾温室集约化养殖池氨化菌与硝化菌数演变状况%Research of the quantity of ammonifying bacteria and nitrifying bacteria in the pond of the rotary warm-indoor intensive Litopenaeus vannamei Boone

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    付乔芳; 戴习林; 王丽萍

    2011-01-01

    The research studied the change of the quantity of ammonifying bacterium, nitrifying bacterium and nitrating bacterium in the pond of the rotary warm-indoor intensive Penaeus vannamei. During the study , the man-made float grass, the complex microorganism preparation , water cycle and water plant were used to control the water quality without water exchange and medicine using, and discharged timely to make both the microorganism index and chemical index in a right range for shrimp growth. During the study , the average values of the main microorganism index of the pond No. 248 are 1080000 2411556 cfu/ml, 898 1124 cfu/ml and 1700 759 cfu/l for ammonifying bacteria. nitriting bacteria and nitrifying bacterium, respectively; the average values of the pond No. 250 are 881000 1793815 cfu/ml, 1306 1550 cfu/ml and 2250 2047 cfu/l for ammonifying bacteria, nitrite bacteria and nitrifying bacterium, respectively. Moreover, there is a significant effect on water purification and the ability on resisting the adverse condition by using man-made water plant. By this culture mode and the relevant administration. the water quality was effectively controlled, and got a good effect.%研究了回转式凡纳滨对虾温室集约化养殖池中氨化菌与硝化菌的演变状况.在回转式凡纳滨对虾温室集约化养殖试验中,养殖全过程不换水、不用药,利用净水网草片、复合微生物制剂、水循环与水生植物净化水质,适时排污,使养殖水体的微生物指标与水化学指标有效控制在虾生长合适范围内.试验期间,248号池水中主要微生物指标平均值如下:氨化细菌为1080000±2411556 cfu/mL,亚硝化细菌898±1124cfu/mL,硝化细菌为1700±759 cfu/L;250号池水中主要微生物指标平均值如下:氨化细菌为881000±1793815 cfu/mL,亚硝化细菌1306±1550 cfu/mL,硝化细菌为2250±2047 cfu/L.同时,实验表明,利用净水草网片能取得良好的净化水质的效果和具有抗不利环境冲击

  5. Bacterial profile of dairy products sold in Chandigarh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaishnavi, C; Singh, S; Singh, K

    2002-01-01

    Gastrointestinal infections are known to occur due to bacterial contamination of dairy products. A total of 141 dairy products viz. kulfi, ice cream and softy samples were investigated bacteriologically. Staphylococcus was the predominant organism isolated followed by Klebsiella pneumoniae, Escherichia coli and Campylobacter. Two of the samples also yielded Yersinia. The total bacterial counts obtained ranged from 2 x 10(1) to 5.2 x 10(11) colony forming units per ml (CFU/ml) for kulfi, 4 x 10(1) to 9 x 10(9) CFU/ml for ice cream and 2 x 10(1) to 2 x 10(10) CFU/ml for softy samples. The high degree of bacterial contamination seen indicates poor hygienic conditions and faults in manufacturing/handling of dairy products during and after processing and production.

  6. Research on separation optimization of endophytic bacteria in tobacco%烟草内生细菌分离方法的优化研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈泽斌; 代方平; 寸林江; 李啟; 陈艳芳; 许石剑; 方飞; 黄杨

    2014-01-01

    用研磨组织稀释分离法与表面消毒有效性评价相结合的方法确定了适宜烟草组织的表面消毒方法以及内生细菌分离培养基。采用1%次氯酸钠浸泡5 min,再用75%酒精浸泡2分钟能够100%去除表面附生菌,并且分离得到更多的内生细菌。研究比较了TSA、NA、PDA、LB四种常用的细菌分离培养基在分离烟草内生细菌中的差异,其中TSA和NA培养基分离得到的内生细菌数量较高,TSA培养基从烟草根、茎、叶中分离出的内生细菌数量分别为5.18 log cfu/g.fw、2.17 log cfu/g.fw、4.69 log cfu/g.fw;NA培养基分别为5.01 log cfu/g.fw、1.81 log cfu/g.fw、4.93 log cfu/g.fw。对分离得到的127株内生细菌进行16S rDNA序列测定表明,TSA和NA培养基分离得到的内生细菌种类最多,其中TSA培养基分别从根、茎、叶中分离到9、7、13种内生细菌;其次是NA培养基,分别从根、茎、叶中分离到8、6、10种内生细菌。结果表明,采用TSA和NA培养基分离烟草内生细菌,可以达到较为理想的分离效果。%The best surface sterilization method and isolation medium of endophytic bacteria in tobacco were determined by grinding separation and surface sterilization efficacy check. Results showed that isolation and disinfection effect of soaking by 1%NaClO (5 min)+75%alcohol (2 min) was better in that surface epiphytic bacteria can be 100%eliminated and more bacteria can be separated. Four isolating media including Nutrient Agar (NA), Tryptic Soy Agar (TSA), Potato Dextrose Agar (PDA), Luria-Bertani medium (LB) were utlized to isolate endophytic bacteria from tobacco, aiming at comparing difference of isolation effect between them. Results showed that the isolation effect of TSA and NA was better than that of other media, while LB and PDA showed the lowest isolation effect. The amount of bacteria isolated from root, stem, leaf by TSA medium were 5.18 log cfu/g.fw, 2.17 log cfu/g.fw, 4.69 log

  7. Enumeration of Escherichia coli O157:H7 in Outbreak-Associated Beef Patties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, Alexander; Huszczynski, George

    2016-07-01

    An outbreak of five cases of Escherichia coli O157 infection that occurred in Canada in 2012 was linked to frozen beef patties seasoned with garlic and peppercorn. Unopened retail packs of beef patties from the implicated production lot were recovered and analyzed to enumerate E. coli O157, other E. coli strains, and total coliforms. E. coli O157 was not recovered by direct enumeration on selective agar media. E. coli O157 in the samples was estimated at 3.1 most probable number per 140 g of beef patty, other E. coli was 11 CFU/g, and coliforms were 120 CFU/g. These results indicate that the presence of E. coli O157 in ground beef at levels below 0.1 CFU/g may cause outbreaks. However, the roles of temperature abuse, undercooking, and crosscontamination in amplifying the risk are unknown.

  8. Distribution Characteristics and Pollution Evaluations of Airborne Fungi in a University%某高校校园空气真菌分布特征及污染评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    熊超; 邹晓; 喻阑清; 李贵阳; 汪国云

    2015-01-01

    目的:校园空气真菌对校园环境以及师生健康具有重要影响,对校园空气真菌的分布特征进行研究具有重要意义。方法于2014年8月—2015年3月采用自然沉降法,对校园内9个不同地点进行空气真菌取样,并根据中国科学院生态中心推荐使用的空气微生物评价标准进行污染评价。结果(1)校园空气真菌总体评价为较清洁水平( II级),全年清洁率(清洁及较清洁)为77.8%。(2)校园空气真菌浓度变化范围为122~1966 CFU/m3,平均浓度为560 CFU/m3,其中室内空气真菌平均浓度为392 CFU/m3,室外为1147 CFU/m3,室内与室外空气真菌浓度差异极显著(P秋季(551 CFU/m3)>冬季(541 CFU/m3)>春季(359 CFU/m3),各季节之间均无显著差异(P>0.05∗)。结论研究区空气真菌浓度评价为较清洁水平。%The airborne fungi in a university campus demonstrated significant effects on the environment and the health of teachers and students. Currently, airborne fungi were sampled by natural sedimentation at nine sites of campus from August 2014 to March 2015 , and the air pollution by fungi was evaluated according to the standards of air microorganism recommended by Research Center for Eco-environmental Sciences, Chi-nese Academy of Sciences. The results showed that the overall evaluation of airborne fungi in campus was considerably clean ( II level) , and the clean ratio ( clean and less clean) accounted for 77. 8%. The fungal concentration in the air of campus ranged from 122 CFU/m3 to 1 966 CFU/m3 , with an average of 560 CFU/m3 , the mean concentration of airborne fungi were 392 CFU/m3 in the indoor and 1 147 CFU/m3 in the out-door , and their difference was significant ( P0 . 05∗) , reflecting the rela-tively clean environment of campus.

  9. Host-derived probiotics Enterococcus casseliflavus improves resistance against Streptococcus iniae infection in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) via immunomodulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Safari, Reza; Adel, Milad; Lazado, Carlo Cabacang;

    2016-01-01

    CFU g-1 of feed [T1], 108 CFU g-1 of feed [T2], 109 CFU g-1 of feed [T3]). The probiotic feeds were administered for 8 weeks, with a group fed with the basal diet serving as control. The effects on growth performance, gut health, innate immunity and disease resistance were evaluated.Results showed...... that growth performance parameters were significantly improved in T2 and T3 groups. Activities of digestive enzymes such as trypsin and lipase were significantly higher in these two groups as well. Gut micro-ecology was influenced by probiotic feeding as shown by the significant increase in intestinal lactic......The present study evaluated the benefits of dietary administration of host-derived candidate probiotics Enterococcus casseliflavus in juvenile rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss. Experimental diets were prepared by incorporating the microorganisms in the basal feed at 3 inclusion levels (i.e. 107...

  10. Effects of decontamination at varying contamination levels of Campylobacter jejuni on broiler meat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boysen, Louise; Wechter, Naja Strandby; Rosenquist, Hanne

    2013-01-01

    When assessing effects of decontamination techniques on counts of Campylobacter spp. on broiler meat, it is essential that the results reflect the variations that may exist. Decontamination studies often use high inoculation levels (107 to 108 cfu) and one or few strains of Campylobacter jejuni...... difference in reductions was found for initial concentrations ranging from 103 to 107 cfu per sample. The mean log reductions obtained by all techniques were strongly dependent on the strain tested. The results reveal that reductions obtained with high inoculation levels of C. jejuni (107 cfu....../sample) or single or few strains of the species (or both) should not be interpreted as a generic result for the species. If inoculation studies cannot be replaced by investigations of naturally contaminated meat, we advise using a mixture of strains found in the production environment at levels as close as possible...

  11. Identification and purification of human erythroid progenitor cells by monoclonal antibody to the transferrin receptor (TU 67).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrmann, F; Griffin, J D; Sabbath, K D; Oster, W; Wernet, P; Mertelsmann, R

    1988-04-01

    Anti-TU 67 is a murine monoclonal antibody that recognizes the transferrin receptor. With respect to hematopoietic cells TU 67 is expressed by human multipotent colony-forming cells (CFU-Mix), erythroid progenitor cells (BFU-E and CFU-E) and a fraction of granulocyte/monocyte colony forming cells, but is not expressed by mature hematopoietic cells including erythrocytes, platelets, lymphocytes, and peripheral blood myeloid cells. The TU 67-positive fraction of normal bone marrow, separated by fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS) or immune rosettes, contained 87% of the erythroid progenitor cells. Erythroid progenitor cells were enriched up to 50-fold by using a combination of monoclonal antibodies to deplete mature hematopoietic cells, followed by positive selection of BFU-E and CFU-E by TU 67 antibody.

  12. Inactivation of microorganisms within collagen gel biomatrices using pulsed electric field treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffiths, Sarah; Maclean, Michelle; Anderson, John G; MacGregor, Scott J; Grant, M Helen

    2012-02-01

    Pulsed electric field (PEF) treatment was examined as a potential decontamination method for tissue engineering biomatrices by determining the susceptibility of a range of microorganisms whilst within a collagen gel. High intensity pulsed electric fields were applied to collagen gel biomatrices containing either Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Candida albicans, Saccharomyces cerevisiae or the spores of Aspergillus niger. The results established varying degrees of microbial PEF susceptibility. When high initial cell densities (10(6)-10(7) CFU ml(-1)) were PEF treated with 100 pulses at 45 kV cm(-1), the greatest log reduction was achieved with S. cerevisiae (~6.5 log(10) CFU ml(-1)) and the lowest reduction achieved with S. epidermidis (~0.5 log(10) CFU ml(-1)). The results demonstrate that inactivation is influenced by the intrinsic properties of the microorganism treated. Further investigations are required to optimise the microbial inactivation kinetics associated with PEF treatment of collagen gel biomatrices.

  13. Phaeobacter inhibens as probiotic bacteria in non-axenic Artemia and algae cultures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grotkjær, Torben; Bentzon-Tilia, Mikkel; D'Alvise, Paul

    2016-01-01

    The growing aquaculture industry is in need for non-antibiotic based disease control strategies to reduce risk of bacteria developing and spreading antibiotic resistance. We have previously, in axenic model systems of live larval feed, demonstrated that bacteria from the Roseobacter clade can...... antagonize fish pathogens such as Vibrio anguillarum and Vibrio harveyi and that they can reduce larval mortality in challenge trials. However, in the aquaculture production, a natural microbiota is present at all stages and may affect the efficacy of the probiotic bacteria. The purpose of the present study......-axenic natural Artemia and algae (Tetraselmis) received from an aquaculture unit, Vibrio anguillarum grew to 107 CFU/ml but only reached 104 CFU/ml when P. inhibens was also added. P. inhibens was added at a concentration 106 CFU/ml in all systems and remained at this concentration at the end of the study...

  14. Burn Patient Acuity Demographics, Scar Contractures, and Rehabilitation Treatment Time Related to Patient Outcomes (ACT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-10-01

    indicates for the < 10% group that for each additional minute of rehabilitation provided to each CFU the odds of developing a BSC/LOM decreases by...29.7 – 61) 0.1034 Rehab time (Min)/TBSA 4.9 (2.7 – 8.3) 6.1 (4.1 – 10.1) 4.5 (2.4 – 7.9) 0.0031 Rehab time (Min)/ CFU 2.2 (1.2 – 4.7) 4.4 (2.0 – 8.9...Group; CG = Contracted Group; # NC vs. CG; TBSA = Total Body Surface Area; CFU = Cutaneous Functional Unit 27 Appendix O ACT Subject Results < 10

  15. 超声下不同根管冲洗剂组合对感染根管内粪肠球菌灭杀效果的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘永芬; 王炳良

    2015-01-01

    目的:探讨超声下不同根管冲洗剂组合对感染根管内粪肠球菌灭杀效果的研究。方法选取使用根管治疗的粪肠球菌感染根管模型样本100例,随机均分为A、B、C、D 4组(n=25),A组采用1%次氯酸钠液+洗必泰液超声冲洗,B组采用1%次氯酸钠液+3%双氧水超声冲洗,C组采用1%次氯酸钠液+17%EDTA超声冲洗,D组单用1%次氯酸钠液超声冲洗,比较4组的细菌清除效果。结果 A组冲洗前菌落数为(7.59±0.18) CFU/mL,冲洗后为(2.56±0.62)CFU/mL,差值(5.02±0.56)CFU/mL;B组冲洗前菌落数为(7.58±0.16)CFU/mL,冲洗后为(3.06±0.67)CFU/mL,差值(4.51±0.59) CFU/mL;C组冲洗前菌落数为(7.60±0.19)CFU/mL,冲洗后为(3.11±0.73)CFU/mL,差值(4.48±0.46)CFU/mL;D组冲洗前菌落数为(7.61±0.21)CFU/mL,冲洗后为(4.96±0.45)CFU/mL,差值(2.74±0.76)CFU/mL。4组清洗后根管内粪肠球菌数均较冲洗前显著减少,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05);A组清洗后较其他3组细菌数更少,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05)。结论采用1%次氯酸钠液+洗必泰液超声冲洗感染根管内粪肠球菌灭菌效果最佳。

  16. 臭氧水浓度对鲜切菠萝品质的影响%Effects of Ozone Water on Microorganism and Quality of Fresh-cut Pineapple

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    覃海元; 胡冰冰; 梁金姐; 韦春平

    2011-01-01

    The fresh-keeping effect of ozone water on fresh-cut pineapple was studied in this paper.Fresh-cut pineapple slices were soaked in 0、0.87、1.1、1.4、1.8 mg/L of ozone water for 2 min respectively,then packed in plastic trays,covered with PE film and stored at 5 ℃ for 0~9 days.The bacterial count,ascorbic acid,weight loss rate,soluble solids and color were measured respectively at 3-day interval during cooling storage.The results showed that the bacterial count of fresh-cut pineapple treated with 0、0.87、1.1、1.4、1.8 mg/L of ozone water were 5.3×105、9.3×104 、2.6×104 、3.6×103 、2.5×103 CFU/g respectively on the first day,and 4.7×108、2.4×107 、4.5×106 、4.1×105 、2.3×105 CFU/g On the 9th day.Ozone water teatment could inhibite browning,reduce weight loss and total soluble solid consumption,and had some effects on ascorbic acid content of fresh-cut pineapple.Ozone water treatment could extend the shelf life of fresh-cut pineapple.%为研究臭氧水浓度对鲜切菠萝的保鲜效果,分别采用0 mg/L、0.87 mg/L、1.1 mg/L、1.4 mg/L、1.8 mg/L的臭氧水浸泡处理鲜切菠萝2 min,装在塑料托盘中并用聚乙烯保鲜膜包裹,在冷藏(5℃)过程中每3 d测定鲜切的菌落总数、抗坏血酸、失重率、可溶性固形物和色泽。结果表明:经0 mg/L、0.87 mg/L、1.1 mg/L、1.4 mg/L、1.8 mg/L臭氧水处理的鲜切菠萝的菌落总数,在处理当天分别为5.3×105 CFU/g、9.3×104 CFU/g、2.6×104 CFU/g、3.6×103 CFU/g、2.5×103 CFU/g;第9 d分别为4.7×108 CFU/g、2.4×107 CFU/g、4.5×106 CFU/g、4.1×105 CFU/g、2.3×105 CFU/g;臭氧水处理可以抑制鲜切菠萝的褐变,减少失重和可溶性固形物消耗,对还原型抗坏血酸含量有一定影响。臭氧水处理可以延长鲜切菠萝的保质期。

  17. Culture-independent qunatification of Salmonella enterica in carcass gauze swabs by flotation prior to real-time PCR

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Löfström, Charlotta; Schelin, Jenny; Norling, Börje;

    2010-01-01

    , for culture-independent quantification of intact Salmonella in pig carcass gauze swabs (100 cm2) prior to quantitative PCR (qPCR). A novel approach was investigated, excluding the homogenization step prior to flotation, to improve the detection limit and speed up the quantification procedure. The buoyant....... The method allowed accurate quantification from 4.4×102 to at least 2.2×107 CFU Salmonella per swab sample using qPCR (without preceding DNA extraction) or selective plating on xylose lysine deoxycholate agar. Samples with 50 CFU could be detected occasionally but fell outside the linear range...... of the standard curve. The swab samples showed a broad biological diversity; for seven samples not inoculated with Salmonella, the microbial background flora (BGF) was determined to 5.0 ± 2.2 log CFU/ml sample withdrawn after flotation. It was determined that the proceeding PCR step was inhibited by BGF...

  18. Detection of Food-borne Salmonella by PCR%食源性沙门氏菌的PCR检测

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张恬恬; 李翠丽; 李清和; 张双凤

    2010-01-01

    该试验根据GenBank数据库沙门氏菌的特有基因invA(AE008832)设计扩增长度为285 bp的引物,研究PCR技术在检测冷冻肉中沙门氏菌的检测限度.在生理盐水中食源性沙门氏菌的检测限度为103 cfu/mL;在人为污染肉汤中,普通FCR的检出限为1.98×103 cfu/mL;人为污染后的样品肉汤中沙门氏菌浓度为100,101,102 cfu/mL时,分别培养7.6.6h即可检测到.

  19. 超高压处理对牛肚杀菌效果影响%Effect of Ultra High Pressure Processing on Inactivation of Microorganisms in Bovine Tripe

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张大力; 蔡丹; 盛悦; 陈婷; 佟维娜; 王旭东; 刘景圣

    2016-01-01

    以牛肚为主要原料,研究不同超高压处理压力、时间和温度对牛肚杀菌效果的影响.结果表明:在压力为400 MPa,处理时间为10 min,初始处理温度为20℃的工艺条件下,牛肚的菌落总数由未经超高压处理前的(5.04±1.53)(lg(CFU/g))下降至(3.11±0.57)(lg(CFU/g)),4℃贮藏15d后,样品的菌落总数为(3.81±0.61) (lg(CFU/g)),大肠菌群数为90 MPN/100 9.

  20. MICROSCOPIC FUNGI ISOLATED FROM POLISH HONEY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soňa Felšöciová

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The characterization of some honey samples from Poland was carried out on the basis of their microbiological (fungi and yeasts analysis. Most of the samples contained less than 20 % water. The amount of fungi found in the honey samples was less than 1 x 102 CFU.g-1 but 19 % of the samples had more yeasts than 1 x 102 CFU.g-1 – up to 5.7 x 102 CFU.g-1. The isolated fungi were Alternaria spp., Aspergillus spp., Cladosporium spp., Fusarium spp., Mycelia sterilia, Rhizopus spp. and Penicillium spp. The last genus was isolated very frequently. A total number of eight fungal Penicillium species were identified namely, Penicillium brevicompactum, P. commune, P. corylophilum, P. crustosum, P. expansum, P. griseofulvum, P. chrysogenum and P. polonicum. They were isolated using dilution plate method. The results showed that honeys produced in this region are of good microbiological quality.

  1. Environmental pollutions impacts on the bacteriological and physicochemical quality of suburban and rural groundwater supplies in Marrakesh area (Morocco).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamrani Alaoui, H; Oufdou, K; Mezrioui, N

    2008-10-01

    This study scrutinized bacteriological and chemical quality of groundwater supplies of Marrakesh (Morocco) within a year. It assessed the influence of some chemical factors on fecal and opportunistic pathogenic bacterial communities. The annual average densities of fecal coliforms, fecal streptococci and Pseudomonas aeruginosa were respectively: 1891 colony forming units (CFU)/100 mL, 1246 CFU/100 mL and 206 CFU/100 mL. The total occurrence of these bacteria during the period of study was 94%. Detectable non-O1 Vibrio cholerae was present in 81% of samples and the mean abundances ranged from 0 to 11100 MPN/100 mL. Significant correlations between fecal coliforms and streptococci and between fecal coliforms and non-O1 V. cholerae (p pollution to acceptable levels.

  2. Marine oil degrading bacteria related to oil inputs and surface currents in the western Caribbean Sea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lizarraga-Partida, M.L.; Vicuna, F.B.I.; Chang, I.W. (Centro de Investigacion Cientifica y de Educacion Superior de Ensenada (CICESE), Ensenada (Mexico))

    1990-01-01

    The distribution of oil degrading bacteria (ODB) and its ratios to viable heterotrophic bacteria (CFU) and direct counts (AODC) were examined in relation to the surface currents of the western Caribbean Sea. High ODB/CFU and ODB/AODC ratios were found, suggesting that chronic sources of hydrocarbons in the region may have a larger impact than those in the southern Gulf of Mexico, where previous studies have been performed. It was concluded that, in western Caribbean waters, the distribution of oil degrading bacteria, or its ratios to CFU or AODC, could be useful indicators of chronic oil inputs originating at the east of the Caribbean Sea, as well as their motions afterwards. (author).

  3. Analysis on monitoring result of bacteria contamination in atmosphere of radiation departments%某院放射科工作室空气细菌污染监测结果分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    范洪

    2009-01-01

    目的 分析医院放射科工作室空气细菌污染情况.方法 在上午工作前进行空气采样,并进行细菌培养.结果 透视室细菌菌落数平均为1360 cfu/m3、照像室细菌菌落数平均为1570 cfu/m3、介入治疗室细菌菌落数平均为86cfu/m3.结论 放射科透视室、照像室空气细菌菌落数明显超标,介入治疗室空气细菌菌落数合格.

  4. Standard plate counts of drinking water: a comparison between incubation temperatures of 20 and 30 degrees C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spinedi, C; Gisin, M

    1990-08-01

    Standard plate counts of 5085 drinking water samples gathered in the Region of Basle were carried out over a period of 9 years (1977 to 1985). Two conditions of incubation were evaluated: 20 degrees C and 30 degrees C for 72 h. In ground water samples (3048 samples) colony forming units (cfu) at 30 degrees C were found to be higher than counts at 20 degrees C incubation, 45% of the samples contained greater than or equal to 2 cfu/ml at 30 degrees versus 35% at 20 degrees C. The median was 1 cfu/ml at both temperatures. In spring water samples (2036 samples) bacterial counts at 20 degrees C were found to be higher than counts at 30 degrees C incubation, 61% of the samples contained greater than 10 cfu/ml at 20 degrees C versus 51% at 30 degrees C. The median was 19 cfu/ml at 20 degrees C incubation versus 11 cfu/ml at 30 degrees C. These differences were statistically significant with p less than 0.001 (Wilcoxon matched-pairs signed-rank test). No correlation was found between bacterial counts at 20 degrees C and bacterial counts at 30 degrees C, nor between bacterial counts and original water temperatures. It appears that incubation temperatures of 20 degrees C and 30 degrees C favor the growth of different populations of bacteria and temperature is not the only factor. However, from a practical point of view the use of only one incubation temperature seems to be justified for the purpose of judging the sanitary quality of drinking water.

  5. The Effect of Bacteria Colony Pseudomonas fluorescens (UB_Pf1 and Bacillus subtilis (UB_Bs1 on the Mortality of Pratylenchus coffeae (Tylenchida: Pratylenchidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Presti Mardiyani Purwaningtyas

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Parasitic Root-Lession nematode of Pratylenchus coffeae can reduce the Indonesian coffee plants productivity. Several studies reported that Pseudomonas fluorescens and Bacillus subtilis endophytic bacteria were antagonistic bacteria to nematode. The objective of this research was to reveal the effectiveness of bacterial colonies density of P. fluorescens (UB_Pf1, B.subtilis (UB BS1, and a combination of both bacteria on nematode mortality using median lethal concentration (LC50 and median lethal time 50 (LT50. The densities of bacteria used in this study were 107, 109, 1011 and 1013 cfu/ml. 35 testing nematodes were used and the mortality was counted at 6, 12, 24, 36, and 48 hours after treatments. The results showed that LC50 values of P. fluorescens was (UB_Pf1 was 4,3x108 cfu/ml, LC50 B. subtilis (UB_Bs1 was 1,9x109cfu/ ml, and LC50 combination of both bacteria was, 8x107 cfu/ml. It implies that the application of the combination of both bacteria are more pathogenic than single bacterial treatment. The results also showed that the highest LT50 value was 13.21  hours combination of bacterial colonies with a density of 1013 cfu/ml and the lowest LT50 value was 52.00 hours on P. fluorescens (UB_Pf1 treatment with colonies density of 107 cfu/ml.How to CitePurwaningtyas, P. M., Rahardjo, B. T., & Tarno, H. (2016. The Effect of Bacteria Colony Pseudomonas fluorescens (UB_Pf1 and Bacillus subtilis (UB_Bs1 on the Mortality of Pratylenchus coffeae (Tylenchida: Pratylenchidae. Biosaintifika: Journal of Biology & Biology Education, 8(3, 286-293. 

  6. Rapid quantification of Escherichia coli in food and media using bacteriophage T7 amplification and liquid chromatography-multiple reaction monitoring tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banu, Mazlina; Ng, Daniel; Zheng, Lu; Goh, Lin-Tang; Bi, Xuezhi; Ow, Dave Siak-Wei

    2014-12-20

    Conventional microbiological assays have been a valuable tool for specific enumeration of indicative bacteria of relevance to food and public health, but these culture-based methods are time-consuming and require tedious biochemical and morphological identification. In this work, we exploit the ability of bacteriophage T7 to specifically infect Escherichia coli and amplify nearly a 100-fold in 1–2 h. Bacteriophage amplification is integrated with liquid chromatography-multiple reaction monitoring tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MRM–MS/MS) for quantitation of phage-specific peptides. Heavy isotopic 15N labeled T7 is introduced as the inoculum phage and internal standard. Quantification is performed by determining the ratio of phage-specific peptides over the internal standard which value is proportional to E. coli numbers. A broad dynamic range of 6-log orders ranging from 3.0 × 10(3) to 3.0 × 10(9) CFU/ml is attained in LB, while between 4.1 × 10(4)–2.7 × 10(9) CFU/ml and 1.9 × 10(3)–3.0 × 10(7) CFU/ml was enumerated respectively in coconut water and apple juice. With this method, viable E. coli are quantified in 4 h with a detection limit of 3.0 × 10(3) CFU/ml, 4.1 × 10(4) CFU/ml and 1.9 × 10(3) CFU/ml in LB, coconut water and apple juice, respectively. This method has potential as a rapid tool for detection of fecal contamination during food bioprocessing and distribution to safeguard public health.

  7. SUPLEMENTASI Lactobacillus acidophilus SNP-2 PADA TAPE DAN PENGARUHNYA PADA RELAWAN [Supplementation of Lactocbacillus acidophilus SNP-2 Into Tape and its Effect to the Volunteer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Endang S Rahayu1

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available Functional food is defined as any potentially healthful food or food ingredient that may provide a health benefit beyond the traditional nutrients it contains. Many researches have been conducted on the health benefit of probiotic (life bacterial cells, one of the ingredient of functional foods. One of the potential bacteria used for probiotic agent and also involved in traditional fermented foods are lactic acid bacteria (LAB. Previous research showed that Lactobacillus acidophilus SNP-2 isolated from faecal material of healthy infant is resistant to acid and bile salt, and has an antagonistic effect against several enteric bacterial pathogens. The objective of this research was to study the effect of L. acidophilus SNP-2 as probiotic agent to the health benefits. These bacteria were supplemented into tape ketan (fermented sticky rice, the indigenous Indonesian fermented food. Tape ketan was chosen as the carrier of probiotic biomass based on the high population of LAB in this product, i.e., 1.3 x 108 CFU/g. Addition of L. acidophilus SNP-2 biomass prior to fermentation of tape ketan resulted in a higher total of LAB cells, i.e. 2.1 x 109 CFU/g compared to the amount of 1.5 x 108 CFU/g when the addition was done after fermentation. Consumption of tape ketan containing probiotic agent by the volunteers increased the population of lactobacilli (from 1.7x107 CFU/g to 9.9x107 CFU/g and decreased the population of enterobacteriacea (from 5.4x109 CFU/g to 4.4x108 in their faecal material. This phenomenon revealed that probiotic agent was able to colonize and inhibit the growth of enterobacteriaceae in the gastrointestinal tract. The result implied that tape ketan can be used as a carrier for probiotic agent and it can be categorized as functional food

  8. Comparative evaluation of yogurt and low-fat cheddar cheese as delivery media for probiotic Lactobacillus casei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharp, M D; McMahon, D J; Broadbent, J R

    2008-09-01

    This study used Lactobacillus casei 334e, an erythromycin-resistant derivative of ATCC 334, as a model to evaluate viability and acid resistance of probiotic L. casei in low-fat Cheddar cheese and yogurt. Cheese and yogurt were made by standard methods and the probiotic L. casei adjunct was added at approximately 10(7) CFU/g with the starter cultures. Low-fat cheese and yogurt samples were stored at 8 and 2 degrees C, respectively, and numbers of the L. casei adjunct were periodically determined by plating on MRS agar that contained 5 microg/mL of erythromycin. L. casei 334e counts in cheese and yogurt remained at 10(7) CFU/g over 3 mo and 3 wk, respectively, indicating good survival in both products. Acid challenge studies in 8.7 mM phosphoric acid (pH 2) at 37 degrees C showed numbers of L. casei 334e in yogurt dropped from 10(7) CFU/g to less than 10(1) CFU/g after 30 min, while counts in cheese samples dropped from 10(7) CFU/g to about 10(5) after 30 min, and remained near 10(4) CFU/g after 120 min. As a whole, these data showed that low-fat Cheddar cheese is a viable delivery food for probiotic L. casei because it allowed for good survival during storage and helped protect cells against the very low pH that will be encountered during stomach transit.

  9. Research on preparation kefir with kefir grains%利用开菲尔粒制作酸牛乳酒的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王蕊; 高翔; 孔令伟

    2009-01-01

    酸牛乳酒(Kefir)不仅具有爽快的酸味和起泡性,而且具有较高的营养价值和食疗保健功能.对发酵剂和酸牛乳酒发酵条件研究结果表明,脱脂乳中添加1%的乳糖、0.004%的蛋氨酸有利于开菲尔粒的增殖.发酵剂最佳发酵条件为:温度23℃、开菲尔粒接种量3%、时间48h、乳浓度12%,按最优组合制备的发酵刺凝乳时间、韧天青还原时间分别较最佳实验组缩短102min和2min,乳酸茵数(5.6 X 108 cfu/mL)和酵母茵数(4.5 X 105 cfu/mL)分别较最佳实验组增加1.4 X108 cfu/mL和6.0×104 cfu/mL,符合酸牛乳酒发酵剂乳酸茵数108-109cfu/mL、酵母菌数105~106 cfu/mL的要求;酸牛乳酒最佳发酵条件为发酵剂接种量5%、温度28℃、时间20h、蔗糖用量10%.组织状态均匀、细腻.1:7感滑润、清爽,风味柔和、醇厚,酸度、酒精度适中.

  10. Feasibility study for epidemic prevention and control in a regional hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yung-Liang; Yeh, Ming-Yang; Huang, Shau-Yen; Liu, Chi-Ming; Sun, Chi-Chen; Lu, Hsu-Feng; Chiu, Tsan-Hung; Hsia, Te-Chun; Chung, Jing-Gung

    2012-03-01

    Epidemic prevention policies in hospitals address issues such as, indoor air quality control, cleanliness of medical staff clothing and employee hand-washing procedures. Our hospital employed Bio-Kil to treat air-conditioning filters and nursing staff uniforms. We also assessed the efficacy of different detergents. Using Bio-Kil technology, the mean bacterial count in the air was reduced from 108.8 CFU/h/plate (n=420) to 68.6 CFU/h/plate (n=630). On the lower hems of the Bio-Kil-treated gowns, the mean bacterial count was 1,201 CFU/100 cm(2), markedly lower than the bacterial count of 7,753 CFU/100 cm(2), found on the parts of the gowns not treated with Bio-Kil (p=0.0401). On the cuffs of sleeves treated with Bio-Kil, the mean count was 1,165 CFU/100 cm(2), markedly lower than that of 2,131 CFU/100 cm(2), found on the cuffs not treated with Bio-Kil (p=0.0073). With regard to the mean bacterial eradication rates of antimicrobial solutions, Steridal Solution, 75% alcohol and Bio-Kil (3rd generation) were shown to be the most effective, with rates exceeding 80%. Hibiscrub with paper towels and Fresh Protect Skin were the second most effective. Bio-Kil (1st generation), tap water with paper towels, liquid hand soap with paper towels and ozone water were the least effective. One important observation was that hand-washing without the use of paper towels increased the bacterial count by as much as 84% . Bio-Kil is effective in reducing bacterial counts in the air, on nursing staff uniforms and is an effective detergent.

  11. Effect of species, breed, and age on bacterial load in bovine and bubaline semen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chandrahas Sannat

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The present study was conducted to investigate the effect of species, breed and age on bacterial load in fresh and frozen semen of Cattle and Buffalo bull. Materials and Methods: Present study covered 56 cow and 10 buffalo bulls stationed at Central Semen Station Anjora, Durg (Chhattisgarh. Impact of breeds on bacterial load in semen was assessed using six breeds of cattle viz. Sahiwal, Gir, Red Sindhi, Tharparkar, Jersey and Holstein Friesian (HF cross. Cow bulls were categorized into four different groups based on their age ( 6 years to study variation among age groups. Bacterial load was measured in fresh and frozen semen samples from these bulls using the standard plate count (SPC method and count was expressed as colony forming unit (CFU per ml of semen. Results: Higher bacterial load was reported in fresh (2.36 × 104 ± 1943 CFU/ml and frozen (1.00 × 10 ± 90 CFU/ml semen of cow bulls as compared to buffalo bulls (1.95 × 104 ± 2882 and 7.75 × 102 ± 160 CFU/ml in fresh and frozen semen, respectively. Jersey bull showed significantly higher bacterial count (p < 0.05 both in fresh (4.07 × 104 ± 13927 CFU/ ml and frozen (1.92 × 103 ± 178 CFU/ml semen followed by HF cross, Sahiwal, Gir, Red Sindhi and Tharparkar bull. Bulls aged < 4 years and more than 6 years yielded increased bacterial load in their semen. Although a minor variation was reported between species and among age groups, no significant differences were measured. Conclusion: Bacterial load in semen did not differ significantly between species and age groups; however significant variation was reported among different breeds. Bulls of Jersey breed showed significantly higher bacterial load in semen as compared to the crossbred and indigenous bull.

  12. The Efficacy of Umbelliferone, Arbutin, and N-Acetylcysteine to Prevent Microbial Colonization and Biofilm Development on Urinary Catheter Surface: Results from a Preliminary Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tommaso Cai

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We evaluated, in a preliminary study, the efficacy of umbelliferone, arbutin, and N-acetylcysteine to inhibit biofilm formation on urinary catheter. We used 20 urinary catheters: 5 catheters were incubated with Enterococcus faecalis (control group; 5 catheters were incubated with E. faecalis in presence of umbelliferone (150 mg, arbutin (60 mg, and N-acetylcysteine (150 mg (group 1; 5 catheters were incubated with E. faecalis in presence of umbelliferone (150 mg, arbutin (60 mg, and N-acetylcysteine (400 mg (group 2; and 5 catheters were incubated with E. faecalis in presence of umbelliferone (300 mg, arbutin (60 mg, and N-acetylcysteine (150 mg (group 3. After 72 hours, planktonic microbial growth and microorganisms on catheter surface were assessed. In the control group, we found a planktonic load of ≥105 CFU/mL in the inoculation medium and retrieved 3.69 × 106 CFU/cm from the sessile cells adherent to the catheter surface. A significantly lower amount in planktonic (p<0.001 and sessile (p=0.004 bacterial load was found in group 3, showing <100 CFU/mL and 0.12 × 106 CFU/cm in the incubation medium and on the catheter surface, respectively. In groups 1 and 2, 1.67 × 106 CFU/cm and 1.77 × 106 CFU/cm were found on catheter surface. Our results document that umbelliferone, arbutin, and N-acetylcysteine are able to reduce E. faecalis biofilm development on the surface of urinary catheters.

  13. The Efficacy of Umbelliferone, Arbutin, and N-Acetylcysteine to Prevent Microbial Colonization and Biofilm Development on Urinary Catheter Surface: Results from a Preliminary Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Tommaso; Gallelli, Luca; Meacci, Francesca; Brugnolli, Anna; Prosperi, Letizia; Roberta, Stefani; Eccher, Cristina; Mazzoli, Sandra; Lanzafame, Paolo; Caciagli, Patrizio; Malossini, Gianni; Bartoletti, Riccardo

    2016-01-01

    We evaluated, in a preliminary study, the efficacy of umbelliferone, arbutin, and N-acetylcysteine to inhibit biofilm formation on urinary catheter. We used 20 urinary catheters: 5 catheters were incubated with Enterococcus faecalis (control group); 5 catheters were incubated with E. faecalis in presence of umbelliferone (150 mg), arbutin (60 mg), and N-acetylcysteine (150 mg) (group 1); 5 catheters were incubated with E. faecalis in presence of umbelliferone (150 mg), arbutin (60 mg), and N-acetylcysteine (400 mg) (group 2); and 5 catheters were incubated with E. faecalis in presence of umbelliferone (300 mg), arbutin (60 mg), and N-acetylcysteine (150 mg) (group 3). After 72 hours, planktonic microbial growth and microorganisms on catheter surface were assessed. In the control group, we found a planktonic load of ≥10(5) CFU/mL in the inoculation medium and retrieved 3.69 × 10(6) CFU/cm from the sessile cells adherent to the catheter surface. A significantly lower amount in planktonic (p < 0.001) and sessile (p = 0.004) bacterial load was found in group 3, showing <100 CFU/mL and 0.12 × 10(6) CFU/cm in the incubation medium and on the catheter surface, respectively. In groups 1 and 2, 1.67 × 10(6) CFU/cm and 1.77 × 10(6) CFU/cm were found on catheter surface. Our results document that umbelliferone, arbutin, and N-acetylcysteine are able to reduce E. faecalis biofilm development on the surface of urinary catheters.

  14. Antimicrobial treatments to control Listeria monocytogenes in queso fresco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lourenço, António; Kamnetz, Mary B; Gadotti, Camila; Diez-Gonzalez, Francisco

    2017-06-01

    Queso fresco, is a Hispanic non-fermented cheese highly susceptible to contamination with L. monocytogenes. This research was aimed to determine the effect of GRAS antimicrobial ingredients to control L. monocytogenes. Antimicrobials included caprylic acid (CA), Nisaplin(®) (N, 2.5% nisin), a mixture of sodium lactate and sodium diacetate (SL/SD), Lactococcus lactis sbp. lactis DPC 3147, monolaurin, and lactic acid (LA). Batches of queso fresco curds were inoculated with 10(4) CFU/g and stored at 4 °C for three weeks. During storage the count of L. monocytogenes reached 7 to 8 Log CFU/g in control samples. Most individual antimicrobial treatments resulted in less than 1 Log CFU/g reductions in final counts, with the exception of N (0.5 g/kg) and CA (2.9 g/kg) that caused more than 3 and 5 Log CFU/g differences with controls, respectively. Mixtures of ingredients were more effective in inhibiting L. monocytogenes growth, and treatments with N and CA consistently delivered 6 Log CFU/g less counts than controls. Supplementation of 12 g/kg LA to treatments with SL/SD (3%/0.22%) caused differences of more than 4 Log CFU/g in final Listeria populations. Samples treated with the binary mixtures of N and CA (0.5 and 0.7 g/kg, respectively) were evaluated in a consumer panel (n = 67). Panelists slightly preferred control and commercial over treated samples, but all samples were in average rated between "slightly liking" and "moderately liking." These experiments indicated that combined use of antimicrobial ingredients may be an effective way to control the population of Listeria monocytogenes in queso fresco.

  15. Development of a one-step PCR assay with nine primer pairs for the detection of five diarrheagenic Escherichia coli types.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Kyung-Hwan; Kim, Soo-Bok; Park, Mi-Sun; Cho, Seung-Hak

    2014-06-28

    Certain Escherichia coli (E. coli) strains have the ability to cause diarrheal disease. Five types of diarrheagenic E. coli have been identified, including EHEC, ETEC, EPEC, EAEC, and EIEC. To detect these five diarrheagenic types rapidly, we developed a one-step multiplex PCR (MPPCR) assay using nine primer pairs to amplify nine virulence genes specific to the different virotypes, with each group being represented (i.e., stx1 and stx2 for EHEC, lt, sth, and stp for ETEC, eaeA and bfpA for EPEC, aggR for EAEC, and ipaH for EIEC). The PCR primers were constructed using MultAlin. The sensitivity and specificity of the constructed multiplex PCR primers were measured using DNA isolated from diarrheagenic E. coli strains representing each group. The limits of detection were as follows: 5 × 10(1) CFU/ml for EHEC, 5 × 10(3) CFU/ml for ETEC expressing lt and sth, 5 × 10(4) CFU/ml for ETEC expressing stp, 5 × 102 CFU/ml for EPEC, 5 × 10(4) CFU/ml for EAEC, and 5 × 10(2) CFU/ml for EIEC. To confirm the specificity, C. jejuni, C. perfringens, S. Typhimurium, V. parahaemolyticus, L. monocytogenes, Y. enterocolitica, B. cereus, and S. aureus were used as negative controls, and no amplification was obtained for these. Moreover, this kit was validated using 100 fecal samples from patients with diarrhea and 150 diarrheagenic E. coli strains isolated in Korea. In conclusion, the multiplex PCR assay developed in this study is very useful for the rapid and specific detection of five diarrheagenic E. coli types. This single-step assay will be useful as a rapid and economical method, as it reduces the cost and time required for the identification of diarrheagenic E. coli.

  16. Roles of individual radicals generated by a submerged dielectric barrier discharge plasma reactor during Escherichia coli O157:H7 inactivation

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    Muhammad Saiful Islam Khan

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available A submerged dielectric barrier discharge plasma reactor (underwater DBD has been used on Escherichia coli O157:H7 (ATCC 35150. Plasma treatment was carried out using clean dry air gas to investigate the individual effects of the radicals produced by underwater DBD on an E. coli O157:H7 suspension (8.0 log CFU/ml. E. coli O157:H7 was reduced by 6.0 log CFU/ml for 2 min of underwater DBD plasma treatment. Optical Emission Spectra (OES shows that OH and NO (α, β radicals, generated by underwater DBD along with ozone gas. E. coli O157:H7 were reduced by 2.3 log CFU/ml for 10 min of underwater DBD plasma treatment with the terephthalic acid (TA OH radical scavenger solution, which is significantly lower (3.7 log CFU/ml than the result obtained without using the OH radical scavenger. A maximum of 1.5 ppm of ozone gas was produced during the discharge of underwater DBD, and the obtained reduction difference in E.coli O157:H7 in presence and in absence of ozone gas was 1.68 log CFU/ml. The remainder of the 0.62 log CFU/ml reduction might be due to the effect of the NO (α, β radicals or due to the combined effect of all the radicals produced by underwater DBD. A small amount of hydrogen peroxide was also generated but does not play any role in E. coli O157:H7 inactivation.

  17. The potentiality of synbiotic minced meat production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoda Khavaninzade

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Consumption of veal and mutton with high protein and the most important iron source at growth age is of great importance. Red meat has high vitamin (B12, mineral (zinc and pigments. To produce function food, various compounds as probiotics, prebiotics and diet fiber and secondary plant metabolites as phenol compound are added to food products. The present study applied the mixture of mutton and veal, 0.5% Inulin and three levels of microbial inoculation of lactobacillus plantarum1.5× 107 cfu/ml, 1.5× 108 cfu/ml and 1.5× 1010cfu/ml. The results of all tests of 6 treatments and one control were performed with three replications by Duncan multi-range test. The samples were chosen after the required period (day 0, 3, 5 at temperature -4 at fridge and day s14, 30, 60 at temperature -18 in freezer to evaluate the change of required factors as 200gr packages of each sample under sterile condition beside flame and hood. PH, ash, humidity, protein and survival of probiotics tests were performed. During 60 days, pH and moisture were reduced. The percent of ash and protein was increased. The survival of probiotics was reduced and in all treatments except treatment A1B with 1.5× 107 cfu/mllactobacillus plantarum and without inulin, after 60 days keeping, good viability of probiotic bacteria was observed. Also, treatment A2B1 with 0.5% Inulin and 1.5 ×108 cfu/mllactobacillus plantarum during 60 days of storage (survival of probiotics reached 7.713 log cfu/ml and was selected as the best treatment. The results of study showed that by adding Inulin and lactobacillus plantarum, synbiotic minced meat was produced and it could be used in meat products including Hamburger.

  18. Assessment of the Overall and Multidrug-Resistant Organism Bioburden on Environmental Surfaces in Healthcare Facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shams, Alicia M; Rose, Laura J; Edwards, Jonathan R; Cali, Salvatore; Harris, Anthony D; Jacob, Jesse T; LaFae, Anna; Pineles, Lisa L; Thom, Kerri A; McDonald, L Clifford; Arduino, Matthew J; Noble-Wang, Judith A

    2016-12-01

    OBJECTIVE To determine the typical microbial bioburden (overall bacterial and multidrug-resistant organisms [MDROs]) on high-touch healthcare environmental surfaces after routine or terminal cleaning. DESIGN Prospective 2.5-year microbiological survey of large surface areas (>1,000 cm2). SETTING MDRO contact-precaution rooms from 9 acute-care hospitals and 2 long-term care facilities in 4 states. PARTICIPANTS Samples from 166 rooms (113 routine cleaned and 53 terminal cleaned rooms). METHODS Using a standard sponge-wipe sampling protocol, 2 composite samples were collected from each room; a third sample was collected from each Clostridium difficile room. Composite 1 included the TV remote, telephone, call button, and bed rails. Composite 2 included the room door handle, IV pole, and overbed table. Composite 3 included toileting surfaces. Total bacteria and MDROs (ie, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, vancomycin-resistant enterococci [VRE], Acinetobacter baumannii, Klebsiella pneumoniae, and C. difficile) were quantified, confirmed, and tested for drug resistance. RESULTS The mean microbial bioburden and range from routine cleaned room composites were higher (2,700 colony-forming units [CFU]/100 cm2; ≤1-130,000 CFU/100 cm2) than from terminal cleaned room composites (353 CFU/100 cm2; ≤1-4,300 CFU/100 cm2). MDROs were recovered from 34% of routine cleaned room composites (range ≤1-13,000 CFU/100 cm2) and 17% of terminal cleaned room composites (≤1-524 CFU/100 cm2). MDROs were recovered from 40% of rooms; VRE was the most common (19%). CONCLUSIONS This multicenter bioburden summary provides a first step to determining microbial bioburden on healthcare surfaces, which may help provide a basis for developing standards to evaluate cleaning and disinfection as well as a framework for studies using an evidentiary hierarchy for environmental infection control. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2016;1426-1432.

  19. The microbiota of Lafun, an African traditional cassava food product.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilfrid Padonou, Sègla; Nielsen, Dennis S; Hounhouigan, Joseph D; Thorsen, Line; Nago, Mathurin C; Jakobsen, Mogens

    2009-07-31

    Lafun is a fermented cassava food product consumed in parts of West Africa. In the present work the microorganisms (aerobic bacteria (AB), lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and yeasts) associated with the fermentation of Lafun under traditional conditions have for the first time been studied using a combination of pheno- and genotypic methods. During Lafun fermentation the AB count ranged from 6-7 log(10) CFU/g at the beginning to 9 log(10) CFU/g at the end. Similarly, the number of LAB increased from 5 log(10) CFU/g to 9 log(10) CFU/g during the process while the yeast load increased from 3 log(10) CFU/g at the onset of the fermentation to 5-6 log(10) CFU/g at the end of the fermentation. A total of 168 isolates (31 AB, 88 LAB, and 49 yeasts) were isolated and identified by means of phenotypic tests, PCR-based methods and 16S rRNA gene sequencing. The aerobic bacteria were mostly identified as belonging to the Bacillus cereus group (71%). The B. cereus isolates lacked the genetic determinant specific for cereulide producers but harboured several genes encoding the heat-labile toxins hemolysin BL and nonhemolytic enterotoxin as detected by PCR. The other aerobic bacteria isolated were Gram negative and identified as Klebsiella pneumoniae and Pantoea agglomerans. The dominant LAB were identified as Lactobacillus fermentum (42% of LAB isolates) followed by Lactobacillus plantarum (30%) and Weissella confusa (18%). Seven isolates remained unidentified and constitute probably a novel LAB species. The predominant yeast species associated with Lafun fermentation were Saccharomyces cerevisiae (22% of yeast isolates), Pichia scutulata (20%), Kluyveromyces marxianus (18%), Hanseniaspora guilliermondii (12%), Pichia rhodanensis (8%) and Candida glabrata (8%) as well as Pichia kudriavzevii, Candida tropicalis and Trichosporon asahii at lower incidence (<5% each).

  20. Variation of microbial load and visual quality of ready-to-eat salads by vegetable type, season, processor and retailer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caponigro, Vittorio; Ventura, Maddalena; Chiancone, Ida; Amato, Letizia; Parente, Eugenio; Piro, Filippo

    2010-12-01

    Microbial components and visual quality were determined on 1158 consumer units of ready-to-eat salads from several processors, two per each of 579 process lots, with residual shelf-life varying around a mode of five days, collected over 19 months in the years 2006-2008 from retail stores of two Italian cities close to a major producing and processing area. The salads were mainly baby leaf of single species (lettuce, arugula, spinach, lamb's lettuce), with approximately 10% of the lots made up by mixes of 2-4 species. One unit per lot was analyzed on the day of collection and the other at the consume-by date. No Salmonella or Listeria monocytogenes was found (detection limit: presence in 25 g). Escherichia coli was detected in 27% of the lots (detection limit: 5 cfu/g), with probability of occurrence and counts highest in Autumn and for lettuce and arugula. Average visual quality was higher and other components of the microbial load were lower in Winter and Spring compared to Summer and Autumn (-0.6 log cfu/g of total aerobic counts, -1.3 log cfu/g of coliforms, -0.6 log cfu/g of yeasts and moulds). Lactic acid bacteria were detected more frequently in Spring and Summer (up to 50% of the lots). The rate of increase of microbial populations during shelf life was not affected by the level of initial contamination. At the consume-by date total aerobic count exceeded 7.2 log cfu/g for 50% of the lots and 7.7 log cfu/g for 25%. Salads from the biggest processor and retailer showed slightly higher visual quality scores, lower odds of E. coli occurrence and lower microbial loads. Visual quality scores showed significant negative relationships with the levels of lactic acid bacteria, coliforms and total viable counts.

  1. Roles of individual radicals generated by a submerged dielectric barrier discharge plasma reactor during Escherichia coli O157:H7 inactivation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khan, Muhammad Saiful Islam [Department of Food Biotechnology, University of Science and Technology, Daejeon, 305-350 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Eun-Jung [Food Safety Research Group, Korea Food Research Institute, Seongnam-si, Gyeonggi-Do (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Yun-Ji, E-mail: yunji@kfri.re.kr [Department of Food Biotechnology, University of Science and Technology, Daejeon, 305-350 (Korea, Republic of); Food Safety Research Group, Korea Food Research Institute, Seongnam-si, Gyeonggi-Do (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    A submerged dielectric barrier discharge plasma reactor (underwater DBD) has been used on Escherichia coli O157:H7 (ATCC 35150). Plasma treatment was carried out using clean dry air gas to investigate the individual effects of the radicals produced by underwater DBD on an E. coli O157:H7 suspension (8.0 log CFU/ml). E. coli O157:H7 was reduced by 6.0 log CFU/ml for 2 min of underwater DBD plasma treatment. Optical Emission Spectra (OES) shows that OH and NO (α, β) radicals, generated by underwater DBD along with ozone gas. E. coli O157:H7 were reduced by 2.3 log CFU/ml for 10 min of underwater DBD plasma treatment with the terephthalic acid (TA) OH radical scavenger solution, which is significantly lower (3.7 log CFU/ml) than the result obtained without using the OH radical scavenger. A maximum of 1.5 ppm of ozone gas was produced during the discharge of underwater DBD, and the obtained reduction difference in E.coli O157:H7 in presence and in absence of ozone gas was 1.68 log CFU/ml. The remainder of the 0.62 log CFU/ml reduction might be due to the effect of the NO (α, β) radicals or due to the combined effect of all the radicals produced by underwater DBD. A small amount of hydrogen peroxide was also generated but does not play any role in E. coli O157:H7 inactivation.

  2. Microbiological evaluation of hot beverages dispensed by vending machines from the Army barracks of Brigata Meccanizzata Aosta located in Messina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiara Beninati

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to evaluate the microbiological quality of hot beverages dispensed by vending machines (VMs. The study was carried out on 203 samples from 15 VMs located in 5 Army barracks in Messina. The samples included: water used for preparation of beverages, swab of water tank, swab of blender machine, chocolate powder, milk powder, cappuccino and chocolate drink (29 samples for each types. All samples were examined for total bacterial count (TBC, coliforms, Escherichia coli, enterococci, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, Clostri - dium perfringens, Aeromonas spp., Salmonella spp. and Listeria monocytogenes. For the water samples the colony count (CC at 22°C and at 37°C was made. The average values of CC at 22°C and at 37°C were of 10.86x10²±8.72x10² CFU/mL and of 21.72x10²±16.44x10² CFU/mL, respectively. P. aeruginosa, coliform bacteria, S. aureus, E. coli and molds were detected from water. The TBC ranged from 176 CFU/g (±275.2 for chocolate powder to 294.8±69.4 CFU/g for milk powder. S. aureus and molds were isolated from milk powder, while coliforms, E. coli and S. aureus were observed in chocolate powder. The average TBC for hot beverages ranged from 34.32x10³±97.77x10³ CFU/mL for cappuccino to 36.59x10³±10.47x104 CFU/mL for chocolate drink. Coliforms, E. coli, enterococci and molds were detected from cappuccino, while enterococci and molds were observed in chocolate drink. The microbiological characteristics of the water and powders, hygiene, and the periodic cleaning of machines, influenced the microbiological quality of the hot beverages dispensed by VMs.

  3. Microbiological diversity associated with the spontaneous wet method of coffee fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evangelista, Suzana Reis; Miguel, Maria Gabriela da Cruz Pedroso; Silva, Cristina Ferreira; Pinheiro, Ana Carla Marques; Schwan, Rosane Freitas

    2015-10-01

    The evaluation of the microbiota present during coffee wet fermentation was done in two distinct regions of Minas Gerais, Brazil: one farm in the South of Minas Gerais (Lavras=L) and another farm in the savannah region (Monte Carmelo=MC). The yeast population ranged from 2.48 to 4.92 log CFU/g and from 2 to 4.81 log CFU/g, the mesophilic bacteria population ranged from 3.83 to 8.47 log CFU/g and from 5.37 to 7.36 log CFU/g, and the LAB population ranged from 2.57 to 5.66 log CFU/g and from 3.40 to 4.49 log CFU/g in the L and MC farms, respectively. Meyerozyma caribbica and Hanseniaspora uvarum were the dominant yeasts in coffee wet fermentation at L farm, and Torulaspora delbrueckii was the dominant yeast at MC farm. The species Staphylococcus warneri and Erwinia persicina were the predominant bacteria at L farm, and Enterobacter asburiae and Leuconostoc mesenteroides were the dominant species at MC farm. Lactic acid was the principal acid detected, reaching 2.33 g/kg at L farm and 1.40 g/kg at MC farm by the end of the process. The volatiles composition was similar for roasted coffee from the two different regions and furans, acids, and alcohol were the main groups detected. Temporal Dominance Sensation (TDS) analyses showed that the coffee beverage from L farm was dominated by citrus and herbaceous sensory characteristics, while the coffee from MC farm was dominated by citrus, herbaceous, and nuts sensory characteristics. Evaluating the microbiota in these two regions was important in improving the knowledge of the microbial species present during coffee wet fermentation in Brazil.

  4. 三种洗手用品洗手效果比较%Comparison of hand-washing effects of three kinds of hand-washing products

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱波; 沈伟; 黄家勤; 彭宇生; 王鹏; 黄忠团; 张淑萍

    2014-01-01

    Objective To compare the hand-washing effects of traditional soap, hand sanitizer, waterless hand sanitizer used by clinical medical workers. Methods The effects of three hand-washing products received bacteriological monitoring and statistical analysis. Results The average bacterial counts of soap, hand sanitizer, waterless hand sanitizer were 10.1cfu/cm2, 8.3cfu/cm2 and 3.6cfu/cm2. Conclusion The hand-washing effect of waterless hand sanitizer is better than that of traditional soap and hand sanitizer, and it's convenient, fast and highly effective, thereby worthy of wide clinical promotion.%目的:比较临床医护人员使用传统的肥皂、洗手液、无水洗手液三种洗手用品洗手的效果。方法分别对三种洗手用品的效果进行细菌学监测并作统计学分析。结果肥皂、洗手液、无水洗手液洗手后平均菌数分别为10.1cfu/cm2、8.3cfu/cm2和3.6cfu/cm2。结论无水洗手液洗手效果优于传统的肥皂和洗手液,且方便、快速、高效,值得临床广泛推广。

  5. Effect of selected generally recognized as safe preservative sprays on growth of Listeria monocytogenes on chicken luncheon meat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, Mahbub; Chen, Jinru; Doyle, Michael P; Chinnan, Manjeet

    2002-05-01

    The ability of selected generally recognized as safe (GRAS) chemical preservatives to reduce populations or inhibit growth of Listeria monocytogenes on chicken luncheon meat was evaluated. Slices of luncheon meat were treated by evenly spraying onto their surfaces 0.2 ml of a solution of one of four preservatives (sodium benzoate, sodium propionate, potassium sorbate, and sodium diacetate) at one of three different concentrations (15, 20, or 25% [wt/vol]). Each slice was then surface inoculated with a five-strain mixture of 10(5) CFU of L. monocytogenes per ml, held at 4, 13, or 22 degrees C, and assayed for L. monocytogenes immediately after inoculation and at 3, 7, 10, and 14 days of storage. Initial reductions of L. monocytogenes populations ranged from 0.78 to 1.32 log10 CFU g(-1) at day 0 for sodium benzoate- or sodium diacetate-treated meat, whereas reductions for the sodium propionate or potassium sorbate treatments were only 0.14 to 0.36 log10 CFU g(-1). After 14 days of storage at 4 degrees C, L. monocytogenes populations on all treated slices were 1.5 to 3 log10 CFU g(-1) less than on the untreated slices. At 13 degrees C and after 14 days of storage, L. monocytogenes populations were 3.5 and 5.2 log10 CFU g(-1) less on luncheon meat slices treated with 25% sodium benzoate or 25% sodium diacetate, respectively, and ca. 2 log10 CFU g(-1) less when treated with 25% sodium propionate or 25% potassium sorbate than on untreated control slices. Only sodium diacetate was highly inhibitory to L. monocytogenes on meat slices held at 22 degrees C for 7 days or longer. Untreated luncheon meat held at 22 degrees C was visibly spoiled within 10 days, whereas there was no evidence of visible spoilage on any treated luncheon meat at 14 days of storage.

  6. Combined chemical and physical transformation method with RbCl and sepiolite for the transformation of various bacterial species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Jun; Lee, Haram; Yoo, Seung Min; Yu, Myeong-Sang; Park, Hansoo; Na, Dokyun

    2017-04-01

    DNA transformation that delivers plasmid DNAs into bacterial cells is fundamental in genetic manipulation to engineer and study bacteria. Developed transformation methods to date are optimized to specific bacterial species for high efficiency. Thus, there is always a demand for simple and species-independent transformation methods. We herein describe the development of a chemico-physical transformation method that combines a rubidium chloride (RbCl)-based chemical method and sepiolite-based physical method, and report its use for the simple and efficient delivery of DNA into various bacterial species. Using this method, the best transformation efficiency for Escherichia coli DH5α was 4.3×10(6)CFU/μg of pUC19 plasmid, which is higher than or comparable to the reported transformation efficiencies to date. This method also allowed the introduction of plasmid DNAs into Bacillus subtilis (5.7×10(3)CFU/μg of pSEVA3b67Rb), Bacillus megaterium (2.5×10(3)CFU/μg of pSPAsp-hp), Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis (1.0×10(2)CFU/μg of pTRKH3-ermGFP), and Lactococcus lactis subsp. cremoris (2.2×10(2)CFU/μg of pMSP3535VA). Remarkably, even when the conventional chemical and physical methods failed to generate transformed cells in Bacillus sp. and Enterococcus faecalis, E. malodoratus and E. mundtii, our combined method showed a significant transformation efficiency (2.4×10(4), 4.5×10(2), 2×10(1), and 0.5×10(1)CFU/μg of plasmid DNA). Based on our results, we anticipate that our simple and efficient transformation method should prove usefulness for introducing DNA into various bacterial species without complicated optimization of parameters affecting DNA entry into the cell.

  7. Inactivation of Escherichia coli O157:H7 on Orange Fruit Surfaces and in Juice Using Photocatalysis and High Hydrostatic Pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Sungyul; Ghafoor, Kashif; Kim, Jeong Un; Kim, Sanghun; Jung, Bora; Lee, Dong-Un; Park, Jiyong

    2015-06-01

    Nonpasteurized orange juice is manufactured by squeezing juice from fruit without peel removal. Fruit surfaces may carry pathogenic microorganisms that can contaminate squeezed juice. Titanium dioxide-UVC photocatalysis (TUVP), a nonthermal technique capable of microbial inactivation via generation of hydroxyl radicals, was used to decontaminate orange surfaces. Levels of spot-inoculated Escherichia coli O157:H7 (initial level of 7.0 log CFU/cm(2)) on oranges (12 cm(2)) were reduced by 4.3 log CFU/ml when treated with TUVP (17.2 mW/cm(2)). Reductions of 1.5, 3.9, and 3.6 log CFU/ml were achieved using tap water, chlorine (200 ppm), and UVC alone (23.7 mW/cm(2)), respectively. E. coli O157:H7 in juice from TUVP (17.2 mW/cm(2))-treated oranges was reduced by 1.7 log CFU/ml. After orange juice was treated with high hydrostatic pressure (HHP) at 400 MPa for 1 min without any prior fruit surface disinfection, the level of E. coli O157:H7 was reduced by 2.4 log CFU/ml. However, the E. coli O157:H7 level in juice was reduced by 4.7 log CFU/ml (to lower than the detection limit) when TUVP treatment of oranges was followed by HHP treatment of juice, indicating a synergistic inactivation effect. The inactivation kinetics of E. coli O157:H7 on orange surfaces followed a biphasic model. HHP treatment did not affect the pH, °Brix, or color of juice. However, the ascorbic acid concentration and pectinmethylesterase activity were reduced by 35.1 and 34.7%, respectively.

  8. Microbial characteristics of Conciato Romano: an artisanal cheese made from raw sheep’s milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amalia Mormile

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to assess the microbial characteristics of a batch of Conciato Romano during manufacturing and ripening. Conciato Romano is a traditional cheese made from raw sheep’s milk without starter cultures in the province of Caserta (Southern Italy using traditional methods. A total of 7 samples (raw milk, curd and cheese wheels taken after 25, 60, 120 and 180 days of ripening were screened for hygiene indicators microorganisms counts (total viable count, Enterobacteriaceae, total coliforms, E. coli, clostridia sulphite reducing, yeasts, coagulasepositive staphylococci, enterococci, for autochthonous lactic acid flora counts (mesophilic and thermophilic lactococci and lattobacilli, and also for Salmonella spp. and Listeria monocytogenes presence. In raw milk, low values were detected for total aerobic flora (3.2 log cfu/mL, Enterobacteriaceae and total coliforms (2 cfu/mL, and the autochthonous starter lactic flora was predominant (3.2 log cfu/mL. During ripening, total aerobic flora was constant (107-108 cfu/g; total coliforms, E. coli, Enterobacteriaceae and yeasts were not detected starting from the 60th day of ripening. Enterococci ranged from 4.2 to 6.2 log cfu/g. The mesophilic lactic flora was dominant with values always >6 log cfu/g during the whole ripening period. Pathogens were never detected. The results of this study highlighted how the raw milk indigenous lactic flora, the traditional production techniques and the cheesemaker’s experience are essential to guarantee the unique nature of Conciato Romano.

  9. Sequential Isolation of Saturated, Aromatic, Resinic and Asphaltic Fractions Degrading Bacteria from Oil Contaminated Soil in South Sumatera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pingkan Aditiawati

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Sequential isolation has been conducted to obtain isolates of saturated, aromatic, resin, and asphaltene fractions degrading bacteria from oil contaminated sites. Five soil samples were collected from South Sumatera. These were analyzed using soil extract medium enriched with oil recovery or Remaining-Oil recovery Degradated (ROD as sole carbon and energy sources according to the isolation stage. ROD at the end of every isolation stage analyzed oil fractions by use of the SARA analysis method. Six isolates of bacteria have been selected, one isolate was fraction saturates degrading bacteria that are Mycobacterium sp. T1H2D4-7 at degradation rate 0.0199 mgs/h with density 8.4x106 cfu/g from stage I. The isolate T2H1D2-4, identified as Pseudomonas sp. was fraction aromatics degrading bacteria at accelerate 0.0141 mgs/h with density 5.1x106 cfu/g are obtained at stage II. Two isolates namely Micrococcus sp. T3H2D4-2 and Pseudomonas sp. T1H1D5-5 were fraction resins degrading bacteria by accelerate 0.0088 mgs/h at density 5.6x106 cfu/g and 0.0089 mgs/h at density 5.7x106 cfu/g are obtained at stage III. Isolation of stage IV has been obtained two isolates Pseudomonas sp. T4H1D3-1and Pseudomonas sp. T4H3D5-4 were fraction asphaltenes degrading bacteria by accelerate 0.0057 mgs/h at density 5.6x106 cfu/g and accelerate 0.0058 mgs/h at density 5.7x106 cfu/g.

  10. Cathodic voltage-controlled electrical stimulation of titanium implants as treatment for methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus periprosthetic infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehrensberger, Mark T; Tobias, Menachem E; Nodzo, Scott R; Hansen, Lisa A; Luke-Marshall, Nicole R; Cole, Ross F; Wild, Linda M; Campagnari, Anthony A

    2015-02-01

    Effective treatment options are often limited for implant-associated orthopedic infections. In this study we evaluated the antimicrobial effects of applying cathodic voltage-controlled electrical stimulation (CVCES) of -1.8 V (vs. Ag/AgCl) to commercially pure titanium (cpTi) substrates with preformed biofilm-like structures of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). The in vitro studies showed that as compared to the open circuit potential (OCP) conditions, CVCES of -1.8 V for 1 h significantly reduced the colony-forming units (CFU) of MRSA enumerated from the cpTi by 97% (1.89 × 106 vs 6.45 × 104 CFU/ml) and from the surrounding solution by 92% (6.63 × 105 vs. 5.15 × 104 CFU/ml). The in vivo studies, utilizing a rodent periprosthetic infection model, showed that as compared to the OCP conditions, CVCES at -1.8 V for 1 h significantly reduced MRSA CFUs in the bone tissue by 87% (1.15 × 105 vs. 1.48 × 104 CFU/ml) and reduced CFU on the cpTi implant by 98% (5.48 × 104 vs 1.16 × 103 CFU/ml). The stimulation was not associated with histological changes in the host tissue surrounding the implant. As compared to the OCP conditions, the -1.8 V stimulation significantly increased the interfacial capacitance (18.93 vs. 98.25 μF/cm(2)) and decreased polarization resistance (868,250 vs. 108 Ω-cm(2)) of the cpTi. The antimicrobial effects are thought to be associated with these voltage-dependent electrochemical surface properties of the cpTi.

  11. Establishment of multiplex real-time PCR assay for detection of Vibrio cholerae, Vibrio parahaemolyticus and Vibrio vulnificus%多重荧光定量PCR同时检测霍乱弧菌、副溶血性弧菌和创伤弧菌的方法研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李宏; 杨大伟; 刘云国; 孙涛; 王建广; 雷质文; 周裔斌; 贾俊涛; 姜英辉

    2011-01-01

    目的:利用多重荧光定量PCR技术检测霍乱弧菌、副溶血性弧菌、创伤弧菌.方法:以溶藻弧菌等17种相关试验菌株做特异性检测;并将标准菌株稀释成不同梯度,做灵敏度检测.结果:与传统的检测方法相比,该方法有很好的特异性且灵敏度高,检测时间短并可节省人力,具有快速方便等优点.结论:适用于样品中霍乱弧菌、副溶血性弧菌和创伤弧菌的快速检测.检测限分别为:霍乱弧菌为280 cfu/ml;副溶血性弧菌为:100 cfu/ml;创伤弧菌为:450 cfu/ml.%Objective:Rapid detection of Vibrio cholerae; Vibrio parahaemolyticus and Vibrio vulnificus were established by multiplex real- time PCR assay. Methods: Seventeen test strains such as Vibrio alginolyticus was tested by specific detection.The different grades of standard strain were obtained by diluting and sensitivity was detected. Results: Compared with conventional method, the multiplex real- time PCR assay was specific and sensitively. Conclusion: The multiplex real -time PCR assay was rapid and accurate, with the detection limit of 280 cfu/ml for Vibrio cholerae, 100 cfu/ml for Vibrio parahaemolyticus and 450 cfu/ml for Vibrio vulnificus.

  12. Probiotic strain Lactobacillus plantarum 299v increases iron absorption from an iron-supplemented fruit drink: a double-isotope cross-over single-blind study in women of reproductive age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoppe, Michael; Önning, Gunilla; Berggren, Anna; Hulthén, Lena

    2015-10-28

    Iron deficiency is common, especially among young women. Adding probiotics to foods could be one way to increase iron absorption. The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that non-haem iron absorption from a fruit drink is improved by adding Lactobacillus plantarum 299v (Lp299v). Iron absorption was studied in healthy women of reproductive age using a single-blind cross-over design in two trials applying the double-isotope (55Fe and 59Fe) technique. In Trial 1, iron absorption from a fruit drink containing 109 colony-forming units (CFU) Lp299v was compared with that from a control drink without Lp299v. Trial 2 had the same design but 1010 CFU were used. The test and control drinks contained approximately 5 mg of iron as ferrous lactate and were labelled with 59Fe (B) and 55Fe (A), respectively, and consumed on 4 consecutive days in the order AABB. Retention of the isotopes was measured with whole-body counting and in blood. Mean iron absorption from the drink containing 109 CFU Lp299v (28·6(sd 12·5) %) was significantly higher than from the control drink (18·5(sd 5·8) %), n 10, P<0·028). The fruit drink with 1010 CFU Lp299v gave a mean iron absorption of 29·1(sd 17·0) %, whereas the control drink gave an absorption of (20·1(sd 6·4) %) (n 11, P<0·080). The difference in iron absorption between the 109 CFU Lp299v and the 1010 CFU Lp299v drinks was not significant (P=0·941). In conclusion, intake of probiotics can increase iron absorption by approximately 50 % from a fruit drink having an already relatively high iron bioavailability.

  13. Antimicrobial activity of oregano oil against antibiotic-resistant Salmonella enterica on organic leafy greens at varying exposure times and storage temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore-Neibel, Katherine; Gerber, Colin; Patel, Jitendra; Friedman, Mendel; Jaroni, Divya; Ravishankar, Sadhana

    2013-05-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of oregano oil on four organic leafy greens (Iceberg and Romaine lettuces and mature and baby spinaches) inoculated with Salmonella Newport as a function of treatment exposure times as well as storage temperatures. Leaf samples were washed, dip inoculated with S. Newport (6-log CFU/ml) and dried. Oregano oil was prepared at 0.1, 0.3, and 0.5% concentrations in sterile phosphate buffered saline (PBS). Inoculated leaves were immersed in the treatment solution for 1 or 2 min, and individually incubated at 4 or 8 °C. Samples were taken at day 0, 1, and 3 for enumeration of survivors. The results showed that oregano oil was effective against S. Newport at all concentrations. S. Newport showed reductions from the PBS control of 0.7-4.8 log CFU/g (Romaine lettuce), 0.8-4.8 log CFU/g (Iceberg lettuce), 0.8-4.9 log CFU/g (mature spinach), and 0.5-4.7 log CFU/g (baby spinach), respectively. The antibacterial activity also increased with exposure time. Leaf samples treated for 2 min generally showed greater reductions (by 1.4-3.2 log CFU/g), than those samples treated for 1 min; however, there was minimal difference in antimicrobial activity among samples stored under refrigeration and abuse temperatures. This study demonstrates the potential of oregano oil to inactivate S. Newport on organic leafy greens.

  14. A DltA mutant of Haemophilus ducreyi Is partially attenuated in its ability to cause pustules in human volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janowicz, Diane; Leduc, Isabelle; Fortney, Kate R; Katz, Barry P; Elkins, Christopher; Spinola, Stanley M

    2006-02-01

    Haemophilus ducreyi produces two outer membrane proteins, called DltA (H. ducreyi lectin A) and DsrA (H. ducreyi serum resistance A), that contribute to the ability of the organism to evade complement-mediated serum killing. In contrast to their isogenic parent strain, 35000HP, the DsrA mutant FX517 exhibits 0% survival in 50% normal human serum and the DltA mutant FX533 exhibits 23% survival. Compared to 35000HP, FX517 does not cause pustule formation in human volunteers. To test whether DltA was required for virulence in humans, seven volunteers were experimentally infected with 35000HP and FX533. Four subjects were inoculated with fixed doses of 35000HP (101 CFU or 130 CFU) at three sites on one arm and escalating doses of FX533 (range, 46 CFU to 915 CFU) at three sites on the other arm. Pustules only developed at mutant-injected sites at doses nearly twofold higher than that of the parent, suggesting that FX533 was partially attenuated. Three subjects were inoculated with similar doses of the parent (67 CFU) and mutant (104 CFU) at three sites. Pustules formed at five of nine parent sites and one of nine mutant sites. Overall, the papule and pustule formation rates for 35000HP and FX533 were similar for the trial. However, for the five subjects who received similar doses of the parent and mutant, pustules developed at 7 of 15 sites (46.7%; 95% confidence interval [CI], 16.9% to 76.5%) inoculated with the parent and at 1 of 15 (6.7%; 95% CI, 0.1% to 18.4%) sites inoculated with the mutant (P = 0.043). We concluded that the DltA mutant was attenuated in its ability to cause disease at doses similar to that of the parent.

  15. IHW2联合细胞体外长期培养净化白血病骨髓的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林曲; 肖若芝; 吴祥元; 董睿敏; 何易; 董敏; 李旭东

    2004-01-01

    目的:观察联合应用细胞体外长期培养和十二烷基吗啉衍生物IHW2对白血病骨髓的净化作用。方法:单用IHW2(IHW2净化组)和联合IHW2+LTBMC(IHW2+LTBMC净化组)分别对初诊白血病患者骨髓白血病细胞进行体外净化,分别计算不同浓度IHW2时两组白血病祖细胞(CFU-L)和正常造血祖细胞(CFU-GM)的回收率并作比较。结果:①当CFU-L回收率为零,IHW2净化组和IHW2+LTBMC净化组其IHW2的剂量分别为85μg、68μg,而CFU-GM的回收率则分别为15.6±13.5%、34.1±32.8%;两组IHW2浓度相同时IHW2净化组CFU-GM回收率低于IHW2+LTBMC净化组。结论:IHW2联合LTBMC体外净化白血病细胞可以减少IHW2剂量,同时CFU-GM的回收率比单用IHW2者高,有望在临床推广应用。

  16. Protection of Penaeus monodon against white spot syndrome by continuous oral administration of a low concentration of Bacillus subtilis spores expressing the VP28 antigen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pham, K-C; Tran, H T T; Van Doan, C; Le, P H; Van Nguyen, A T; Nguyen, H A; Hong, H A; Cutting, S M; Phan, T-N

    2017-03-01

    In this study, Bacillus subtilis spores expressing a chimeric protein, CotB-VP28, were used as a probiotic vaccine to protect black tiger shrimps (Penaeus monodon) against white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) infection. Oral administration of pellets coated with CotB-VP28 spores (at ≥1 × 10(9 ) CFU per g pellet) to shrimps induced immune-relating phenoloxydase activity (PO) in shrimps after 14 days of feeding (prior challenge) and at day 3 post challenge (1·26 and 1·70 fold increase respectively). A 75% protection rate was obtained by continuous feeding of the spore-coated pellets at ≥1 × 10(9 ) CFU per g for 14 days prior to WSSV challenge and during all the postchallenge period. Even when the amount of CotB-VP28 spores in feed pellets was reduced down to ≥5 × 10(7)  CFU per g and ≥1 × 10(6)  CFU per g, relatively high protection rates of 70 and 67·5%, respectively, were still obtained. By contrast, feeding pellets without spores (untreated group) and with naked spores (PY79 group) at ≥1 × 10(9)  CFU per g could not protect shrimps against WSSV. These data suggest that supplementation of CotB-VP28 spores at low dose of ≥1 × 10(6)  CFU per g could be effective as a prophylactic treatment of WSS for black tiger shrimps.

  17. Effect of irradiation gamma to reduction colony counting-units in Jerked Beef; Efeito da irradiacao gama na reducao da carga microbiana em Jerked Beef

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, M.A.; Solidonio, E.G.; Vicalvi, M.C.V.; Colaco, W., E-mail: evelyne_solidonio@yahoo.com.br [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Departamento de Energia Nuclear. Lab. de Microbiologia do Solo; Silva, G.R.; Sena, K.X.R.F. [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Departamento de Antibioticos. Lab. de Farmacos e Estudos Antimicrobianos

    2013-08-15

    The increasing meat production triggered the need to develop preservation techniques, and between them salting is the most common. From the twentieth century another method of conservation was now being applied irradiation, treatment terminal used in the packaged product. The most salted meat consumed in Brazil is the Jerked Beef that differs to Jerky from that having higher moisture content and ripening faster. The objective of this study was to determine by counting colonies, the effectiveness of irradiation in reducing to the colony-forming units per grams (CFU/g). Three batches were obtained with three samples weighing 500g each. Under sterile conditions, the meat was cut and weighed generating sub-samples which were assigned to the control group and the radiation source for irradiating with cobalt-60 (dose rate 6,619 kGy/h). We used doses of 2, 4 and 6 kGy. The sub-samples were added to an Erlenmeyer with sterile distilled water, and were left to stand having forming a water desalting. Aliquots of these waters were plated and incubated. The results were for the control group ranged from 5.0x10{sup 5} to 5.0x10{sup 16} CFU /g, at a dosage of 2kGy was 1.7x10{sup 5} to 1.1x10{sup 12} CFU /g, at a dosage of 4kGy 0 to 9.0x10{sup 10} CFU/g and the dose of from 6kGy was 0 to 1.3x10{sup 5} CFU /g. In the final analysis it was found that all lots were presented contamination upon which would be allowed in the order of 5.0x10{sup 3}.For the reducing CFU/g the doses 4kGy and 6kGy were the most effective. (author)

  18. Microbiological air quality in an urban solid waste selection plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Del Cimmuto

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available

    Background: Exposure to bioaerosols may pose health risks to workers operating in the processing of Urban Solid Waste (USW. The aim of this study is to evaluate microbiological air quality within an USW selection facility.

    Methods: Nine sampling points in an USW selection plant situated in central-southern Italy were selected. One outdoor sampling point provided the background data. Sampling was performed on a yearly basis (2005 – 2009 upon request by the management of the selection plant. Total Mesophilic Counts (TMC, as well as fungal and Gram-negative concentrations were determined.

    Results: The highest viable fungal particles concentrations (medians were found in waste delivery areas (about 20000 CFU/m3, while the lowest were found in the control rooms (485 – 967 CFU/m3. TMC (median was highest (6116 CFU/m3 at the delivery pit, followed by the machine shop (3147 CFU/m3, where no waste processing takes place. Medians of Gram-negative bacteria are below the suggested Occupational Exposure Limit of 1000 CFU/m3, although this limit was exceeded at several single time-points in the waste delivery areas, and also in a personnel resting room. The lowest Gram-negative contamination was found in the control rooms (medians <1 CFU/m3.

    Conclusions: Some areas within a USW selection plant act as internal sources of contamination towards those areas where partially processed waste, or no waste at all, is present. Well-designed air flows, or carefullythought positioning of areas that are not directly involved in waste processing are necessary and effective in obtaining

  19. Contract Support and Facilitation of Epidemic Outbreak Surveillance (EOS) Program Final Operating Capability (FOC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-08-01

    immunofluorescent antibody staining (Appendix D). The screening process allowed for the detection of adenovirus, enterovirus, herpes virus, influenza A...and herpes sim- plex virus. RSV is occassionaly isolated, but it is expected to be detected by rapid tests at the local laboratory. SDE OI 44...Coxiella Burnetii (Q Fever) 1,300,000 CFU/mL Yersinia Pestis (YP) 180 CFU/mL Vaccinia 17,000 PFU/mL Venezuelan Equine Encephalitis (VEE) 93,000 PFU/mL

  20. Effects of notoginosides on proliferation and upregulation of GR nuclear transcription factor in hematopoietic cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rui-lan GAO; Xiao-hong CHEN; Xiao-jie LIN; Xu-dai QIAN; Wei-hong XU; Beng Hock CHONC

    2007-01-01

    Aim: To investigate the effects of panax notoginosides (PNS) on the proliferation of human hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells, and to explore the signaling path-way of the nuclear transcription factor of the glucocorticoid receptor (GR-NTF) initiated by PNS related with the proliferation. Methods: The human CD34+ cells and bone marrow nuclear cells were exposed to PNS at a concentration of 0, 10, 25,50, and 100 mg/L, respectively, in semi-solid culture system to observe colony forming unite of all lineages, granulocyte, erythrocyte, and megakaryocyte (CFU-GEMM, CFU-GM, CFU-E, and CFU-MK). Three lineages of human hematopoietic cell lines, including granulocytic HL-60, erythrocytic K562, megakaryocytic CHRF-288, and Meg-01 cells were incubated with PNS at 20 mg/L for 14 d. Meanwhile,dexamethasone (Dex) was used as a positive control. The nuclear protein of the cells was analyzed by Western blotting with monoclonal antibodies against the amino or carboxyl terminus of GR-NTF. Electrophoretic mobility shift assay per-formed by using the 32p-radiolabeled GR-NTF consensus oligonucleotide. Results:PNS promoted the proliferation of CD34+ cells and significantly raised the colony numbers of CFU-GEMM by 34.7%~±16.0% over the non-PNS control (P<0.01).PNS also enhanced the proliferation of CFU-GM, CFU-E, and CFU-MK by 39.3%±5.7%, 33.3%±7.3%, and 26.2%±3.2%, respectively. GR-NTF protein levels of either the amino or carboxyl terminus in K562, CHRF-288, and Meg-01 treated by PNS increased by 2.4- 2.8 fold and 1.3- 3.9 fold over the untreated cells. GR-NTF binding activity, initiated by either PNS or Dex, was apparently elevated to form the complex of GR-NTF with DNA as higher density bands in K562 and CHRF-288 cells, and some activity appeared as a band in HL-60 cells induced by PNS.Conclusion: PNS displayed the action of hematopoietic growth factor-like or syn-ergistic efficacy to promote proliferation of human progenitor cells, may play a role in the upregulation of gene

  1. Stimulating effect of catechin,an active component of Spatholobus suberectu Dunn,on bioactivity of hematopoietic growth factor suberectus Dunn,on bioactivity of hematopoietic growth factor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Dong-xiao; Liu Ping; CHEN Yi-hong; CHEN Ruo-yun; GUO Dai-hong; REN Hao-yang; CHEN Meng-li

    2008-01-01

    Background Hematopoietic growth factor(HGF)is indispensable to hematopoiesis in the body. The proliferation and differentiation of hematopoietic cells must rely on the existence and stimulation of HGE. This study investigated the effect of catechin, an active component extracted from Spatholobus suberectus Dunn (SSD), on bioactivity of granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating activity(GM-CSA), burst-promoting activity(BPA)and megakaryocyte colony-stimulating activity(MK-CSA)in spleen condition medium(SPCM)of mice to clarify the hematopoietic mechanism of catechin and SSD. Methods Spleen cells of mice were separated and spleen condition medium (SPCM)was prepared from spleen cell culture. Bone marrow cells of mice were separated and cultured in a culture system including 10%(v/v)SPCM(induced by catechin in vivo or ex vivo)for 6 days. Granulocyte-macrophage colony forming units(CFU-GM), erythrocyte burst-colony-forming units(BFU-E)and megakaryocyte colony-forming units(CFU-Meg)formation were employed to assay the effects of different treatment on the bioactivity of GM-CSA, BPA and MK-CSA in SPCM. Results SPCM induced by 1 00 mg/L catechin ex vivo could promote the growth of CFU-GM, BFU-E and CFU-Meg, which indicated that catechin could stimulate the production of GM-CSA, BPA and MK-CSA in SPCM. SPCM prepared at the fourth day of spleen cell culture showed the best stimulating activity. The bioactivity of GM-CSA, BPA and MK-CSA in the SPCM prepared after intraperitoneally injecting catechin into mice was also increased. The number of CFU-GM, BFU-E and CFU-Meg gradually increased as the dose of catechin increased and the time of administration prolonged. CFU-GM, BFU-E and CFU-Meg of the high-dose catechin group were significantly higher than those of the control group (P<0.01)and reached the maximum at the seventh day after administration. Conclusions This study suggests that catechin extracted from the active acetic ether part of Spatholobus suberectus Dunn can

  2. Campylobacter contamination and the relative risk of illness from organic broiler meat in comparison with conventional broiler meat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosenquist, Hanne; Boysen, Louise; Krogh, Anne Louise;

    2013-01-01

    , as also documented for conventional broiler flocks. When contaminated, the mean concentration of Campylobacter on neck skin samples of organic and conventional carcasses was not significantly different (P=0.428); 2.0±0.65log10cfu/g and 2.1±0.93log10cfu/g, respectively. Assessing the relative risk...... of becoming ill following exposure to Campylobacter on conventional or organic broiler meat indicated that the risk per serving from organic carcasses was 1.7 times higher than that of conventional carcasses. The higher risk of illness from organic broiler carcasses compared with conventional broiler...

  3. Exposure of ventilation system cleaning workers to harmful microbiological agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Małgorzata Gołofit-Szymczak

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Regular inspection of the cleanliness of the ventilation systems, as well as their periodic cleaning and disinfection, if necessary, are the main factors of the proper maintenance of each system. Performing maintenance operations on the ventilation system, workers are exposed to risk associated with the exposure to harmful biological agents. The aim of this study was to assess the employees' exposure to bioaerosols during maintenance work on ventilation systems. Material and Methods: Bioaerosol measurements were carried out using a button sampler. The microbial particles were collected on gelatin filters. Settled-dust samples from the inner surface of the air ducts and filter-mat samples were selected for the microbiological analysis. In the collected air, dust and filter samples the concentration of bacteria and fungi were determined. Results: Bacteria and fungi concentrations ranged between 3.6×102-2.2×104 CFU/m3 and 4.7×102-4.5×103 CFU/m3 at workplaces where the operations connected with mechanical ventilation cleaning were performed and 2.2×104-1.2×105 CFU/m3 and 9.8×101-2.5×102 CFU/m3 at workplaces where filter exchange was performed, respectively. The qualitative analysis of microorganisms isolated from the air in all studied workplaces revealed that the most prevalent bacteria belonged to Bacillus genus. The average concentrations of bacteria and fungi in filter-mat samples were 3.3×103 CFU/cm2 and 1.4×104 CFU/cm2, respectively. In settled-dust samples, average concentrations were 591 CFU/100 cm2 and 52 CFU/100 cm2, for bacteria and fungi respectively. Conclusions: Workers cleaning ventilation systems are exposed to harmful biological agents classified into risk groups, 1 and 2, according to their level of the risk of infection. The research conducted in the workplace can be the basis of risk assessment related to exposure to harmful biological agents during maintenance work in ventilation. Med Pr 2013;64(5:613–623

  4. Detection of Listeria monocytogenes by IC-PCR and Direct PCR%免疫捕捉PCR和直接PCR技术检测单核细胞增生性李斯特菌比较研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘雅莉; 刘箐; 刘芳; 韩舜愈; 王婧; 夏俊芳; 汪小波; 樊学军; 田绿波

    2012-01-01

    Immuno-capture PCR(IC-PCR),established by integrating immunological and molecular biological techniques was compared with traditional direct PCR.The sensitivity(104CFU/mL) of IC-PCR for pure Listeria monocytogenes culture suspensions indicated a 10-fold increase compared with direct PCR(104 CFU/mL).The limit of detection of IC-PCR was 5 × 101 bacteria/PCR reaction system(i.e.104 CFU/mL),which was 100 times higher than that of direct PCR(5 × 103 bacteria/PCR reaction system,106CFU/mL).IC-PCR had high specificity and anti-interference capability for detecting Listeria monocytogenes.Moreover,no cross-reactivity with 18 common foodborne pathogens was observed.Therefore,ICPCR is a rapid,economical,sensitive and specific so that it can be suitable for rapid diction of Listeria monocytogenes in food safety supervisory agencies and food enterprises.%将免疫学技术与分子生物学技术相结合,建立了免疫捕捉PCR(IC-PCR),并与传统的直接PCR(Direct-PCR)进行比较。结果显示:纯菌液中IC-PCR检测灵敏度(104CFU/mL)是Direct-PCR灵敏度(105CFU/mL)的10倍;模拟带菌实验结果表明:IC-PCR最低可检测到5×101个细菌/PCR反应体系(即104CFU/mL),检测限比Direct-PCR(5×103个细菌/PCR反应体系即106CFU/mL)高100倍;特异性实验、干扰实验结果表明IC-PCR可特异检测单核细胞增生性李斯特菌(Listeria monaytogenes,LM),而和18株其他常见食源性致病菌无交叉反应。IC-PCR具有快速、经济、灵敏、特异等优点,是一种适合食品安全监管部门、食品企业的LM快速检测方法。

  5. Screening of Bacillus Species with Potentials of Antibiotics Production

    OpenAIRE

    Faruk Adamu KUTA; Lohya NIMZING; Priscilla Yahemba ORKA’A

    2009-01-01

    Sixteen soil samples were collected from different refuse dump sites in Minna, the capital Niger State, and analysed for the presence of Bacillus species. Physical-chemical analysis of the soil samples revealed the followings: PH value 6.89-8.47; moisture content 1.58 – 21.21% and temperature 27-28ºC. Using both pour plate and streak method of inoculation, total bacterial count in the soil samples ranged from 3.8×104 cfu/g 16.0×104 cfu/g. The identified Bacillus species included: Bacillus cer...

  6. Plectasin shows intracellular activity against Staphylococcus aureus in human THP-1 monocytes and in a mouse peritonitis model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brinch, Karoline Sidelmann; Sandberg, Anne; Baudoux, Pierre

    2009-01-01

    was maintained (maximal relative efficacy [E(max)], 1.0- to 1.3-log reduction in CFU) even though efficacy was inferior to that of extracellular killing (E(max), >4.5-log CFU reduction). Animal studies included a novel use of the mouse peritonitis model, exploiting extra- and intracellular differentiation assays...... concentration. These findings stress the importance of performing studies of extra- and intracellular activity since these features cannot be predicted from traditional MIC and killing kinetic studies. Application of both the THP-1 and the mouse peritonitis models showed that the in vitro results were similar...

  7. 温度对嗜酸乳杆菌和干酪乳杆菌发酵羊奶的影响%Effects of temperature on fermentation of goat milk by Lactobacillus acidophilus and Lactobacillus casei

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈合; 张秋红; 王长凤; 舒国伟

    2013-01-01

    Effects of temperature on acidity, pH, viable counts and total viable counts of goat yogurt fermented by Lactobacillus acidophilus or Lactobacillus casei on the basis of Streptococcus thermophilus and Lactobacillus bulgaricus as starter cultures. The result showed as follows: the optimum temperature of goat yogurt containing LA was 37℃ for 4 h, and the acidity, pH, counts of Lactobacillus acidophilus and total viable count were 97. 8°T, 3. 88, 1. 8×107 CFU/mL and 1. 38×109 CFU/mL, respectively. The sensory evaluation score reached 8. 35 points; the optimum temperature of goat yogurt containing LC was 39℃ for 4.5 h, and the acidity, pH, counts of Lactobacillus casei and total viable count were 79. 2 °T, 4.48,1. 56×108 CFU/mL and 1. 81×109 CFU/mL, respectively, with sensory evaluation score reached 7. 00 points.%以鲜羊奶为原料,保加利亚乳杆菌和嗜热乳链球菌为基础发酵剂,在此基础上分别添加嗜酸乳杆菌和干酪乳杆菌,研究温度对两菌株发酵羊奶过程中酸度、pH、活菌数及总活茵数的影响.结果表明:嗜酸乳杆菌酸羊奶的最佳发酵温度为37℃,此时凝乳时间为4h,酸度、pH、嗜酸乳杆菌数和总活菌数分别为97.8 0T、3.88、1.8×107 CFU/mL和1.38×109 CFU/mI,感官评价总分可达到8.35分;干酪乳杆菌羊奶的最佳发酵温度为39℃,此时酸羊奶凝固时间为4.5h,酸度、pH、干酪乳杆菌数和总茵数分别为79.2 °T、4.48、1.56×108 CFU/mL和1.81×109 CFU/mL,感官评价总分可达到7.00分.

  8. Effects of Freeze-dried Mulberry on Antioxidant Activities and Fermented Characteristics of Yogurt during Refrigerated Storage

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of added freeze-dried mulberry fruit juice (FDMJ) (1, 3 and 5%) on the antioxidant activity and fermented characteristic of yogurt during refrigerated storage. A decrease in pH of yogurt and increase in acidity was observed during fermentation. The yogurts with FDMJ exhibited faster rate of pH reduction than control. Initial lactic acid bacteria count of yogurt was 6.49-6.94 Log CFU/g and increased above 9 Log CFU/g in control and 1% in FDMJ yogurt for 24 h....

  9. QUALITE MICROBIOLOGI QUE ET PHYSICOCHIMIQUE DE FROMAGES FRAIS ( JBEN ) PRELEVES A RABAT ET SALE

    OpenAIRE

    A. OULD ABEID; M. BERKANI; M. OUHSSINE & Z. MENNANE

    2013-01-01

    From 7 traditional dairies(mahlabas)cities of Rabat and Salé, 81 samples of industrial and traditional fresh cheese were collected and analyzed for physicochemical and microbiological quality. All samplesanalyzed are of good quality physicochemical,the results converge to say that hygienic sample quality is bad. Indeed, we found a load of 8105 and 5105 cfu/g respectively of total Coliforms and Fecal Coliforms for traditional cheeses and 105 and 6 104 cfu/g for industrial cheeses. Also, Klebsi...

  10. Contamination profile for staphylococci and its enterotoxins and monitorization of the conditions of hygiene in a 'coalho' cheese production line

    OpenAIRE

    Borges, MD; Nassu, RT; PEREIRA, JL; de Andrade, APC; Kuaye, AY

    2008-01-01

    This research aimed to evaluate the contamination by staphylococci and its enterotoxins as well as to monitor the Conditions of hygiene from a coalho cheese production like, using ATP bioluminescence assay. Staphylococcus sp. population varied from < ICFU mL(-1), in pasteurized milk to 1.5 x 10(7)CFU mL(-1) in raw milk, whereas coagulase-positive staphylococci count ranged from < ICFU mL(-1), in pasteurized milk to 5.0 x 10(6)CFU mL(-1) in raw milk. Coagulase-positive staphylococci were detec...

  11. Marine Oils in the Modulation of Colonic Flora and pH: Considerations for Colon Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Treon, S P; Fox, E S; Broitman, S A

    2011-01-01

    BALB/c mice fed high fat diets containing coconut, safflower, or menhaden marine oil were evaluated for faecal flora and faecal pH. Animals fed marine oils showed significantly higher total aerobic Gram-negative rods at 109 CFU/gm, compared with those fed saturated or polyunsaturated fat diets with lo6 CFU/gm. Marine oil fed mice exhibited a significantly lower log10 ratio of anaerobes:aerobes at 1.17, compared to the saturated and polyunsaturated fat fed mice at 3.49 and 2.87 respectively. D...

  12. Evaluation of effect of topical ozone therapy on salivary Candidal carriage in oral candidiasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isha Khatri

    2015-01-01

    Results and Conclusion: There was gradual but significant reduction in Candidal CFU count in both groups. At the end of the treatment, Candidal CFU count reduction in ozone group (60.5% reduction was more than the clotrimazole group (32.3% reduction. 14 patients (70% with candidiasis in ozone group were reduced to 6 (30% whereas only 8 patients (40% out of 13 (65% in clotrimazole group, although intergroup comparison was not statistically significant. Ozone therapy was much more effective in reducing the patients with candidiasis to a state of carriers. These findings suggest that ozonated water might be useful to treat oral candidiasis.

  13. Evaluation of different plating medias and PCR in the detecting of Salmonella Enteritidis from eggs laid by experimentally infected hens

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    Salmonellosis is one of the most important food-borne diseases. Outbreaks of Salmonellosis are mainly related to the consumption of contaminated eggs or egg-products and, less frequently, of poultry meat. In this study fifty 29-week-old broiler breeder hens were randomly divided in two groups of 25 birds. One group of birds inoculated orally with 10log10 CFU and other group inoculated intravenously with 6log10 CFU of S. Enteritidis parent strain bacteria. During 35 days of experimental perio...

  14. Solar light (hv) and H2O2/hv photo-disinfection of natural alkaline water (pH 8.6) in a compound parabolic collector at different day periods in Sahelian region

    OpenAIRE

    Ndounla, J.; Pulgarin, C

    2015-01-01

    The photo-disinfection of natural alkaline surface water (pH 8.6 +/- 0.3) for drinking purposes was carried out under solar radiation treatments. The enteric bacteria studied were the wild total coliforms/Escherichia coli (10(4) CFU/ml) and Salmonella spp. (10(4) CFU/ml) naturally present in the water. The photo-disinfection of a 25-l water sample was carried out in a solar compound parabolic collector (CPC) in the absence and in the presence of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). The addition of H2O2 ...

  15. Survival of Bifidobacterium bifidum in cow- and camel-milk yogurts enriched with Cinnamomum verum and Allium sativum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amal Bakr Shori

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The effects of Allium sativum and Cinnamomum verum water extracts on the survival of Bifidobacterium bifidum during 21 days of refrigerated storage and after simulated gastrointestinal digestion (SGD were investigated. Two types of yogurt (cow- and camel-milk yogurts were prepared in the presence of A. sativum or C. verum. The viable cell counts (VCC of B. bifidum in fresh A. sativum- or C. verum-cow milk yogurt (1 day were higher (8.1 × 109 cfu/ml and 6.6 × 109 cfu/ml, respectively; p < 0.05 than plain-yogurt (1.9 × 109 cfu/ml. In contrast, B. bifidum VCC in fresh plain-camel milk yogurt was 1.99 × 109 cfu/ml whereas the presence of A. sativum or C. verum in yogurt increased (p < 0.05 VCC to 19.61 × 109 cfu/ml and 25.55 × 109 cfu/ml, respectively. The VCC of B. bifidum in both herbal-yogurts decreased (p < 0.05 during refrigerated storage for both types of yogurt. The VCC of B. bifidum was ∼1.3 × 109 cfu/ml in all fresh cow milk yogurts after 1 h gastric digestion. Intestinal digestion (1 h increased VCC of B. bifidum in all fresh yogurts but not in 7 day old yogurts (plain- and A. sativum-yogurts. However, prolonged digestion to another 1 h in intestine reduced (p < 0.05 VCC of B. bifidum in all fresh and storage yogurts. In contrast, all fresh camel milk yogurts showed VCC of B. bifidum ⩽1 × 109 cfu/ml after SGD. Seven day old A. sativum – camel milk yogurt showed the lowest survival of B. bifidum after gastric digestion compared to plain- and C. verum-yogurt. The VCC reduced (p < 0.05 in all camel milk-yogurts after 2 h intestinal digestion.

  16. THE USE OF THE SPECIFIC ANTI-SALMONELLA POLYCLONAL ANTIBODIES ISOLATED FROM HEN EGGS, IN SALMONELLOSIS PROPHYLAXIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ADRIANA CRISTE

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The administration of increased doses of antibodies in groups experimentallyinfected with Salmonella gallinarum, in order to record the efficiency of theiradministration in salmonellosis prophylaxis was the aim of our research. When alow infection dose, 1x107 CFU Salmonella gallinarum, was used theadministration of IgY polyclonal antibodies as immunoglobulin extract, or evenyolk administration had a protective effect against germs invasion. This effect wasnot recorded when a 10 folds higher dose was administered (1x108 CFU. Theprophylactic effect of the administration of polyclonal antibodies is demonstrated.

  17. Extremophilic fungi in arctic ice: a relationship between adaptation to low temperature and water activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gunde-Cimerman, N.; Sonjak, S.; Zalar, P.

    2003-01-01

    Little is known about fungal diversity in extremely cold regions. Low temperatures induce the formation of ice crystals and therefore also the creation of low water activity (a(w)). These are the dominant factors in external chemistry that influence microbial biota in cold regions. Therefore, we...... have used selective low water activity media plus low incubation temperatures for the isolation of fungi from an Arctic environment. In comparison with the highest values of colony forming units (CFU) obtained on mesophilic media, considerably higher fungal CFU per litre of water were detected on low a...

  18. BIOREMEDIATION OF PETROLEUM HYDROCARBON-POLLUTED MANGROVE SWAMPS USING NUTRIENT FORMULA PRODUCED FROM WATER HYACINT (EICCHORNIA CRASSIPES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank Anayo Orji

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Laboratory-scale studies were carried out using a nutrient formula produced from Eicchornia crassipes plant to achieve bioremediation of crude oil impacted mangrove soil. In a 70 day study, the culturable heterotrophic bacterial population of the Eichhornia crassipes recipe increased from 6.26×105 Cfu/g to 2.69×107 Cfu/g. The control set-up had its total culturable bacterial count increased from 5.76×105 Cfu/g to 1.24×106 Cfu/g. Statistical analyses showed significant difference for the two conditions (p ≥ 0.05. The total culturable heterotrophic fungal count in the Eichhornia crassipes recipe treatment increased from 5.36×105 Cfu/g to 2.50×107 Cfu/g respectively. The total culturable hydrocarbon utilising bacteria in Eichhornia crassipes treated polluted mangrove soil increased from 2.52×104 Cfu/g to 3.81×107 Cfu/g. Statistical analyses showed significant difference at p ≥ 0.05 level for the two conditions (Eicchornia crassipes nutrient treated soil and control. The total culturable hydrocarbon utilising fungal counts increased significantly for both the control and Eichhornia crassipes treatment. There was no regular trend in pH changes in all the conditions. The conductivity value of the Eichhornia crassipes recipe treated soil decreased progressively. Phosphate, nitrate, %total organic carbon, Total Hydrocarbon Content (THC. Studies using Gas chromatographic analyses showed that in the Eichhornia crassipes recipe treated polluted mangrove soil, 0, 58.92 and 75.36% were lost at zero hour, 28th day and 70th day respectively. In addition, in the control experimental set-up, 0, 7.14 and 13.42% of TPH were lost at zero hour, 28th day and 70th day respectively. There was no significant difference between the control experiment and Eichhornia crassipes (p = 0.054. The use of organic nutrient sources such Eichhornia crassipes recipe/nutrient powder is of good use as source of limiting nutrient needed for

  19. Detection of Escherichia coli in wastewater based on enzyme immunoassay

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XI Haiyan; CAI Qiang; HE Miao; SHI Hanchang

    2007-01-01

    This research describes a fast detection method on the basis of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA)for Escherichia coli in drainage of wastewater treatment plants.Optimized conditions such as the reaction format(sandwich or direct),the concentrations of diluted horseradish peroxidase (HRP)-E.coli conjugate,and anti-HPR antibody and pretreatment of E.coli were studied.Those results showed that the linear range of detection for E.coli was 10 cfu/mL-6×104 cfu/mL.Compared with conventional methods,it is a convenient and sensitive detection method with low cost.

  20. Host Immune Response to Bacterial Cyclic Diguanylic Acid (c-di-GMP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-07-01

    Materials and Methods c-di-GMP and chemicals used The c-di-GMP (Fig. 1) used in these studies was synthesized and prepared as previously described (19–24...godeoxynucleotide (ODN) 2216 (25). LPS endotoxin (Limulus amebocyte lysate assay) test A dose of 500 M c-di-GMP was tested for the presence of LPS endotoxin using...inoculation, 100 CFU of S. aureus New- bould 305 (ATCC 29740) were injected into each gland and the coloniza- tion was allowed for 10 h. Raw bacterial CFU

  1. In Vitro Effects of Thymol-β-D-Glucopyranoside on Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhimurium and Escherichia coli K88.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levent, G; Harvey, R B; Ciftcioglu, G; Beier, R C; Genovese, K J; He, H L; Anderson, R C; Nisbet, D J

    2016-02-01

    Although thymol is bactericidal against many pathogens in vitro, its in vivo effectiveness against pathogens in the lower gastrointestinal tract is limited because of its rapid absorption in the proximal gut. Thymol-β-D-glucopyranoside (β-thymol), a conjugated form of thymol, can deliver thymol to the lower gastrointestinal tract and has shown antibacterial effects. In the present study, we examined the in vitro effects of β-thymol on Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium (ST) and Escherichia coli K88 (K88). We inoculated one-half strength Mueller-Hinton broth with 5.8 ± 0.09 log CFU/ml novobiocin- and naladixic acid-resistant (NN) ST (NVSL 95-1776) and 5.1 ± 0.09 log CFU ml(-1) NN-resistant K88, with or without porcine feces (0.1% [wt/vol]) (fecal incubations). The resultant bacterial suspensions were distributed under N2 to triplicate sets of tubes to achieve initial concentrations of 0, 3, 6, and 12 mM for ST treatments and 0, 3, 12, and 30 mM for K88 treatments. Samples were incubated at 39°C and then plated onto NN-containing brilliant green agar and NN-containing MacConkey agar; ST and K88 CFU concentrations were determined via 10-fold dilutions, and viable cell counts were performed at 0, 6, and 24 h. No differences in ST CFU counts were observed in β-thymol-treated tubes without the added porcine feces (i.e., pure culture) at 6 or 24 h. However, in tubes that contained fecal incubations, ST CFU counts were reduced (P < 0.05) from controls at 6 h in tubes treated with 6 and 12 mM β-thymol, whereas in tubes treated with 3, 6, and 12 mM β-thymol the CFU counts were reduced (P < 0.05) at 24 h. No differences were observed in K88 CFU counts in pure culture or in fecal incubations at 6 h, but K88 CFU counts were reduced (P < 0.05) in both pure and fecal incubations at 24 h. The results from this study demonstrate that β-thymol, in the presence of fecal suspensions, has anti-Salmonella and anti-E. coli effects, suggesting a role of

  2. Microbial Indicator Profiling of Fresh Produce and Environmental Samples from Farms and Packing Facilities in Northern Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heredia, Norma; Caballero, Cindy; Cárdenas, Carmen; Molina, Karina; García, Rafael; Solís, Luisa; Burrowes, Vanessa; Bartz, Faith E; de Aceituno, Anna Fabiszewski; Jaykus, Lee-Ann; García, Santos; Leon, Juan

    2016-07-01

    To compare microbiological indicator and pathogen contamination among different types of fresh produce and environmental samples along the production chain, 636 samples of produce (rinsates from cantaloupe melons, jalapeño peppers, and tomatoes) and environmental samples (rinsates from hands of workers, soil, and water) were collected at four successive steps in the production process (from the field before harvest through the packing facility) on 11 farms in northern Mexico during 2011 and 2012. Samples were assayed for enteric pathogens (Escherichia coli O157:H7, other Shiga toxigenic E. coli, Salmonella, and Listeria monocytogenes) and microbial indicators (coliforms, other E. coli strains, and Enterococcus spp.). Salmonella was the only pathogen detected; it was found in one preharvest jalapeño sample (detection limits: 0.0033 CFU/ml in produce and hand samples, 0.0013 CFU/ml in water, and 0.04 CFU/g in soil). Microbial indicator profiles for produce, worker hands, and soil from jalapeño and tomato farms were similar, but cantaloupe farm samples had higher indicator levels (P < 0.05 for all comparisons) on fruit (6.5, 2.8, and 7.2 log CFU per fruit) and hands (6.6, 3.1, and 7.1 log CFU per hand) for coliforms, E. coli, and Enterococcus, respectively, and lower E. coli levels in soil (<1 CFU/g). In water from tomato farms, E. coli indicators were significantly more prevalent (70 to 89% of samples were positive; P = 0.01 to 0.02), and geometric mean levels were higher (0.3 to 0.6 log CFU/100 ml) than those in cantaloupe farm water (32 to 38% of samples were positive, geometric mean <1 CFU/100 ml). Microbial indicators were present during all production steps, but prevalence and levels were generally highest at the final on-farm production step (the packing facility) (P < 0.03 for significant comparisons). The finding that microbial contamination on produce farms is influenced by produce type and production step can inform the design of effective approaches to

  3. A novel method for diagnosis of smear-negative tuberculosis patients by combining a random unbiased Phi29 amplification with a specific real-time PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, Yu; Lu, Jie; Yang, Jian; Wang, Yufeng; Cohen, Chad; Ni, Xin; Zhao, Yanlin

    2015-07-01

    In this study, we develop a novel method for diagnosis of smear-negative tuberculosis patients by performing a random unbiased Phi29 amplification prior to the use of a specific real-time PCR. The limit of detection (LOD) of the conventional real-time PCR was 100 colony-forming units (CFU) of MTB genome/reaction, while the REPLI real-time PCR assay could detect 0.4 CFU/reaction. In comparison with the conventional real-time PCR, REPLI real-time PCR shows better sensitivity for the detection of smear-negative tuberculosis (P = 0.015).

  4. Microbial flora of in-use soap products.

    OpenAIRE

    McBride, M E

    1984-01-01

    A comparison has been made of the in-use bacterial load of two bar soaps with and without antibacterials and two liquid soaps in five different locations over a 1-week period. Of the 25 samples taken from each soap, 92 to 96% of samples from bar soaps were culture positive as compared to 8% of those from liquid soaps. Bacterial populations ranged from 0 to 3.8 log CFU per sample for bar soaps and from 0 to 2.0 log CFU per sample for liquid soaps. The mean bacterial populations per sample were...

  5. AIR DISINFECTION EFFECT IN THE OPERATING ROOM OF HOSPITAL BY USING THE LOCAL AIR PURIFICATION DEVICE%局部空气净化装置对手术室空气的消毒效果

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈英

    2012-01-01

    目的 观察空气消毒机对医院手术室空气消毒效果,以评价其实际应用效果.方法 采用平板沉降采样和细菌培养方法,评价该多因子组合空气净化装置对手术室空气中自然菌净化效果,并与紫外线灯照射消毒作平行比较.结果 启动YKX/Y型空气消毒机和紫外线灯作用30 min,5 min后采样,手术室空气中细菌总数<200cfu/m3,随着时间的延长,空气中菌数逐渐增加,15 min后细菌总数逐渐增加到200 cfu/m3以上.在手术室有6人工作的情况下,空气消毒机持续运行,可使空气细菌继续保持在<200 cfu/m3.结论 试验用空气消毒机可以在手术期间持续消毒,可以维持手术室内空气中细菌总数< 200 cfu/m3.%Objective To observe the air disinfection effect in the operating room of hospital by using the local air purification device and evaluate the practical application effect of the device. Methods By using the methods of tablet settlement sampling and bacterial culture, to evaluate and compare the effect of air purification in the operating room by the air purification device and ultraviolet light irradiation. Results 5 mins later after using the air disinfection device of YKX / Y - type and the ultraviolet ray lamp for 30 mins, the total number of bacteria in the air of operating room was less than 200 cfu/m3. As the time prolonged to 15 min, the bacteria number increased to more than 200 cfu/m3. Under the condition of six persons working and the air disinfection device running continuously in the operating room, the bacteria in the air maintained less than 200 cfu/m3. Conclusion The air purification device can continue disinfection during surgical operation and the number of bacteria can maintain less than 200 cfu/m3.

  6. The effect of temperature on carp (Cyprinus Carpio, L., 1758 microbiota, reared in intensive conditions, by using the BioPlus® 2B probiotic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ELENA BOCIOC

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available A 60-days experimental trial was conducted to examine the influence of probiotic BioPlus® 2B, in different concentration, on the gut microbial load and the organic load of technological water used for carp growth, in low water temperature (13.5-16.8 0C conditions. Four variants were tested, as follows: V1-pellets with 30% crude protein, without probiotics; V2-pellets with 30% crude protein, with probiotics of 2.24×109 CFU/kg food; V3-pellets with 30% crude protein, with probiotics of 3.84×109 CFU/kg food; and V4-pellets with 30% crude protein, with probiotics of 7.04×109 CFU/kg food. BioPlus® 2B probiotics (a mixture of Bacillus licheniformis (DSM 5749 and Bacillus subtilis (DSM 5750 were used. In order to determine the total number of germs (NTG, microbiological analyses were made. As a result, it can be stated that during the first experimental stage, gut microbial load had registered a significant increase (p <0.05 compared to the initial values (from the 1×10-5 CFU/g dilution to the1×10-7 CFU/g dilution in case of all fish samples corresponding to the variants where different concentrations of probiotic were administered. The results obtained from the microbial water load evaluation, that corresponds to each experimental variant, shows that the control variant (V1 has a lower average microbial water load (4.1 × 10-3 CFU/ml, compared with other experimental variants V3 (8.6 × 10-3 CFU/ml and V4 (7.6 × 10-3 CFU/ml, where feed with different concentrations of probiotic was administered. In conclusion, the total number of germs (NTG in experimental variants with different concentrations of probiotic, initially showed an upward trend compared to the control variant, with a higher load in case of V4 variant, where the highest concentration of probiotic was administrated. The reduced microbial load that appeared at the end of the experimental period is justified by the inhibitory action of temperature, seen as an interference factor.

  7. Protection against bovine tuberculosis induced by oral vaccination of cattle with Mycobacterium bovis BCG is not enhanced by co-administration of mycobacterial protein vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wedlock, D Neil; Aldwell, Frank E; Vordermeier, H Martin; Hewinson, R Glyn; Buddle, Bryce M

    2011-12-15

    Mycobacterium bovis bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG) delivered to calves by the oral route in a formulated lipid matrix has been previously shown to induce protection against bovine tuberculosis. A study was conducted in cattle to determine if a combination of a low dose of oral BCG and a protein vaccine could induce protective immunity to tuberculosis while not sensitising animals to tuberculin. Groups of calves (10 per group) were vaccinated by administering 2 × 10(7)colony forming units (CFU) of BCG orally or a combination of 2 × 10(7)CFU oral BCG and a protein vaccine comprised of M. bovis culture filtrate proteins (CFP) formulated with the adjuvants Chitin and Gel 01 and delivered by the intranasal route, or CFP formulated with Emulsigen and the TLR2 agonist Pam(3)CSK(4) and administered by the subcutaneous (s.c.) route. Two further groups were vaccinated with the CFP/Chitin/Gel 01 or CFP/Emulsigen/Pam(3)CSK(4) vaccines alone. Positive control groups were given 10(8)CFU oral BCG or 10(6)CFU s.c. BCG while a negative control group was non-vaccinated. All animals were challenged with M. bovis 15 weeks after vaccination and euthanized and necropsied at 16 weeks following challenge. Groups of cattle vaccinated with s.c. BCG, 10(8)CFU or 2 × 10(7)CFU oral BCG showed significant reductions in seven, three and four pathological or microbiological disease parameters, respectively, compared to the results for the non-vaccinated group. There was no evidence of protection in calves vaccinated with the combination of oral BCG and CFP/Emulsigen/Pam(3)CSK(4) or oral BCG and CFP/Chitin/Gel 01 or vaccinated with the protein vaccines alone. Positive responses in the comparative cervical skin test at 12 weeks after vaccination were only observed in animals vaccinated with s.c. BCG, 10(8)CFU oral BCG or a combination of 2 × 10(7)CFU oral BCG and CFP/Chitin/Gel 01. In conclusion, co-administration of a protein vaccine, administered by either systemic or mucosal routes with oral

  8. Survival of escherichia coli o157:h7 co-cultured with different levels of pseudomonas fluorescens and lactobacillus plantarum on fresh beef

    OpenAIRE

    Tshabalala, P. A.; de Kock, H. L.; Buys, E. M.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of different levels of Pseudomonas fluorescens (102 and 106 log10 cfu/ml) and Lactobacillus plantarum (102 and 104 log10 cfu/ml) on the growth of Escherichia coli O157:H7 on beef loins. Beef loins inoculated with E. coli O157:H7 and P. fluorescens were aerobically stored for 7 days at 4 ºC, while those inoculated with E. coli O157:H7 and L. plantarum were vacuum packaged and stored for 8 weeks at 4 ºC. Aerobic Plate Counts (APC), E. coli...

  9. A Study on Microbial Quality of Water Used in the Dentistry Units

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    z Hoseini mehrian

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & aim: With respect to the outbreak probability of dangerous infections among the patients, the water sources of dentistry units were taken into consideration, in view of microbial contamination. The objective of this study was to assess of pathogenic organisms of the water used in the dentistry units of Yasuj city. Methods: In this research 120 samples of water from poir and turbine of units (before and after flushing and two samples of urban water were collected. Sampling was performed on the first weekday (48 hours after the units were switched off and mid week(16 hours after the units were switched off before starting work. The samples were cultured on EMB Agar and Blood Agar and incubated at 37oC for purification for Gram positive or Gram negative bacteria and it was identifying with biochemical diagnostic test .Also the samples were counted by standard plate count . Results: The average count of bacteria before flushing in Poir on the first weekday was 5360CFU/L and turbine was 2800 CFU/L and count of bacteria after flushing in Poir on the first weekday was 1040 CFU/L and turbine was 1020 CFU/L .While this result for midweek day : The average count of bacteria before flushing in Poir was 3220 CFU/L and turbine was 2720CFU/L and count of bacteria after flushing in Poir was 1772 CFU/L and turbine was 980 CFU/L . Several samples of before and after flushing were contaminated with E.coli, Pseudomonas ,Proteus, Kelebsiella ,gram positive bacilli ,Streptococci, Staphylococci , Diplo cocci and Yeast. Conclusion: According to the result of this study the contamination rate of the unit’s water was high and it’s rate reduced after flushing. The patients saliva causes water unit contamination and it constitutes biofilm in pipe of unit . Existence of E.coli shows the contamination of water to sewage and staphylococcus explains contamination due to return of the patient’s saliva into suctions. dental units waterlines showed bacterial

  10. Experience with a Pre-Series Superfluid Helium Test Bench for LHC Magnets

    CERN Document Server

    Benda, V; Schouten, J A

    2000-01-01

    The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) under construction at CERN is based on the use of high-field superconducting magnets operating in superfluid helium. For the validation of the machine dipoles and quadrupoles, a magnet test plant is under construction requiring 12 so-called Cryogenic Feeder Units (CFU). Based on experience done at CERN, two pre-series CFUs were designed and built by industry and are currently in use prior to final series delivery. This presentation describes the features of a CFU, its typical characteristics and the experience acquired with the first units.

  11. Efficacy of topical and systemic antibiotic treatment of meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in a murine superficial skin wound infection model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vingsbo Lundberg, Carina; Frimodt-Møller, Niels

    2013-01-01

    Meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is a rapidly spreading pathogen associated predominantly with skin infections. The lack of clinical evidence indicating the best treatment strategy to combat MRSA skin infections prompted us to investigate the efficacy of available treatment optio...... were determined. Retapamulin, fusidic acid and mupirocin treatment for 3 days reduced the bacterial loads by 2.5, 2.9 and 2.0 log(10) CFU, respectively, and treatment for 6 days by 5.0, 4.2 and 5.1 log(10) CFU, respectively, compared with non-treated controls (P...

  12. Diagnosis, treatment and registration of urinary tract infections in geriatric patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis-Møller, Alice; Lüneborg-Nielsen, Margrethe

    2002-01-01

    Bacteriuria (> or = 10(5) CFU/ml) is a very common phenomenon in elderly people, occurring twice as frequently in women than in men. There are symptomatic and asymptomatic types of bacteriuria. Risk factors include: a decrease in the estrogen level in women after the menopause, catheterisation......, urinary bladder dysfunction, hypertrophy of the prostate gland, diabetes, neurological illnesses. The diagnosis of bacteriuria is based on quantitative urine culture (positive result--> or = 10(5) CFU/ml bacteriae). The most frequent pathogens are: E. coli, enterococci, staphylococci, Pseudomonas...

  13. Low translocation of Bacillus thuringiensis israelensis to inner organs in mice after pulmonary exposure to commercial biopesticide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barfod, Kenneth Klingenberg; Ørum-Smidt, Lasse; Krogfelt, Karen A.;

    2010-01-01

    Translocation of viable cells from a Bacillus thuringiensis israelensis-based biopesticide to inner organs in a mouse model was studied. Mice were exposed to the originally formulated product through the lungs and gastrointestinal tract by intratracheal instillation. Colony forming units (CFU) were...... grown from lungs, caecum, spleen and liver on Bacillus cereus-specific agar (BCSA) after 24 h and finally determined to be biopesticide strain B. t. israelensis by large plasmid profile. No CFU were found in spleen or liver of the control mice or in any aerosol background or material. We have shown...

  14. Tissue responses to low protracted doses of high let radiations or photons: Early and late damage relevant to radio-protective countermeasures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ainsworth, E.J.; Afzal, S.M.J.; Crouse, D.A.; Hanson, W.R.; Fry, R.J.M.

    1988-01-01

    Early and late murine tissue responses to single or fractionated low doses of heavy charged particles, fission-spectrum neutrons or gamma rays are considered. Damage to the hematopoietic system is emphasized, but results on acute lethality, host response to challenge with transplanted leukemia cells and life-shortening are presented. Low dose rates per fraction were used in some neutron experiments. Split-dose lethality studies (LD 50/30) with fission neutrons indicated greater accumulation of injury during a 9 fraction course (over 17 days) than was the case for ..gamma..-radiation. When total doses of 96 or 247 cGy of neutrons or ..gamma.. rays were given as a single dose or in 9 fractions, a significant sparing effect on femur CFU-S depression was observed for both radiation qualities during the first 11 days, but there was not an earlier return to normal with dose fractionation. During the 9 fraction sequence, a significant sparing effect of low dose rate on CFU-S depression was observed in both neutron and ..gamma..-irradiated mice. CFU-S content at the end of the fractionation sequence did not correlate with measured LD 50/30. Sustained depression of femur and spleen CFU-S and a significant thrombocytopenia were observed when a total neutron dose of 240 cGy was given in 72 fractions over 24 weeks at low dose rates. The temporal aspects of CFU-S repopulation were different after a single versus fractionated neutron doses. The sustained reduction in the size of the CFU-S population was accompanied by an increase in the fraction in DNA synthesis. The proliferation characteristics and effects of age were different for radial CFU-S population closely associated with bone, compared with the axial population that can be readily aspirated from the femur. In aged irradiated animals, the CFU-S proliferation/redistribution response to typhoid vaccine showed both an age and radiation effect. 63 refs., 6 figs., 7 tabs.

  15. Surface microbial contamination in hospitals: A pilot study on methods of sampling and the use of proposed microbiologic standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claro, Tânia; O'Reilly, Marese; Daniels, Stephen; Humphreys, Hilary

    2015-09-01

    Contamination of hospital surfaces by bacteria is increasingly recognized. We assessed commonly touched surfaces using contact plates and Petrifilms (3M, St. Paul, MN) and compared the results against proposed microbiology standards. Toilet door handles were the most heavily contaminated (7.97 ± 0.68 colony forming units [CFU]/cm(2)) and exceeded proposed standards on 74% of occasions. Petrifilms detected statistically higher CFU from bedside lockers. Further research is required on the use of standards and methods of sampling.

  16. Reduction of chlortetracycline-resistant Escherichia coli in weaned piglets fed fermented liquid feed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobashi, Yuri; Ohmori, Hideyuki; Tajima, Kiyoshi; Kawashima, Tomoyuki; Uchiyama, Hiroo

    2008-10-01

    We investigated the change in chlortetracycline resistance in 360 Escherichia coli strains separated from the feces of piglets fed fermented liquid feed (FLF) in comparison with those fed dry feed (control). The total amount of lactic acid bacteria in feces was 8.77 x 10(8) CFU/g DM at weaning, which increased to 1.23 x 10(12) CFU/g DM (FLF) at 28 days after weaning (Pfeeding of FLF can possibly reduce antibiotic-resistance bacteria.

  17. Laboratory facility design and microbial indoor air quality in selected hospital laboratories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luksamijarulkul, Pipat; Kiennukul, Nuchanard; Vatthanasomboon, Pisit

    2014-05-01

    Hospital laboratory is one of workplace areas contaminated with a variety of biohazards. A cross sectional study was conducted to assess the microbial air quality and facility design in the laboratories of four selected governmental hospitals (Hospitals A, B, C, and D) in Bangkok, Thailand. One hundred eighty-eight indoor air samples were collected from 40 laboratory rooms to investigate bacterial and fungal counts using the Millipore air tester. Forty air samples were collected from the waiting areas of those laboratories, and 16 outdoor air samples were collected to use for comparison. Additionally, those laboratory facilities were assessed following biosafety facility design (10 items). Results indicated that the facility design of laboratory in the Hospital A met most of items of the biosafety facility criteria. The rest met only seven items of the criteria. Means +/- standard deviation (SD) of bacterial counts of 253.1 +/- 247.7 cfu/m3, 236.8 +/- 200.1 cfu/m3, 304.4 +/- 264.2 cfu/m3, and 146.7 +/- 127.0 cfu/m3, and fungal counts of 500.8 +/- 64.2 cfu/ m3, 425.0 +/- 21.2 cfu/m3, 357.0 +/- 121.2 cfu/m3, and 355.7 +/- 86.8 cfu/m3 were found in hospital laboratories A, B, C and D, respectively. The isolated colonies of bacteria and fungi were identified as group or genus. It was found that the most common bacteria was Staphylococcus spp (84.1%, 76.0%, 72.1% and 80.5%, respectively), whereas, the most common fungi were Aspergillus spp and septate hyphae fungi (42.0%, 37.5%, 39.5%, and 45.7%; vs 38.6%, 56.2%, 52.1%, and 37.2%, respectively). These data may be valuable to develop interventions to improve the microbial indoor air quality among hospital laboratories and for preventing the laboratory-acquired infections.

  18. The effect of indigenous probiotics on egg hatchability and larval viability of Clarias gariepinus

    OpenAIRE

    Gideon Chijioke Okpokwasill; Caroline Nchedo Ariole

    2012-01-01

    The effect of a mixture of four indigenous bacterial genera composed of Bacillus, Pseudomonas, Acinetobacter and Flavobacterium on egg hatchability and larval viability of Clarias gariepinus was investigated. The fertilized eggs were distributed into glass Petri dishes (100 mm diameter) containing 50 ml of water at graded level of mixed indigenous probiotics ranging from 0-10(8) cells/ml. The incubation time increased from 17 hours at 0 cfu/ml to 22 hours at 10(8) cfu/ml. The mean hatching ra...

  19. Shoot Injury Increases the Level of Persistence of Salmonella enterica Serovar Sofia and Listeria innocua on Cos Lettuce and of Salmonella enterica Serovar Sofia on Chive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harapas, Dean; Premier, Robert; Tomkins, Bruce; Hepworth, Graham; Ajlouni, Said

    2015-12-01

    Minor shoot injury significantly (P cos lettuce in the greenhouse. Initial mean counts of the Salmonella on the injured and uninjured cos lettuce were on the order of 6 log CFU/g. After 3 days, the mean count decreased to 4.8 log CFU/g on the injured plants compared with the significantly (P cos lettuce and S. enterica serovar Sofia on chive. The findings reaffirm earlier results with Escherichia coli and increase the impetus to avoid shoot injury during the production of cos lettuce and chive, if bacteria of food safety concern are present.

  20. Antimicrobial effect of poly allyamine coating in the surface of orthopedic implants%骨科植入物表面聚烯丙基胺涂层的抗菌性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董庸皓; 王美; 刘子豪; 陈清汉; 赵文

    2016-01-01

    目的 探讨一种新型骨科植入物表面涂层的抗菌效果.方法 电镜扫描聚烯丙基胺涂层,观察其表面形貌;将细菌种植在植入物表面,观察细菌在植入物表面的增殖情况,将其表面的细菌再培养,显微镜下观察细菌增殖.金黄色葡萄球菌A、B组回收菌数为每片5 963、21 cfu;大肠杆菌A、B组回收菌数为每片5 078、14 cfu.抗菌耐久性实验中金黄色葡萄球菌A、B组回收菌数为每片5 368、337 cfu;大肠杆菌A、B组回收菌数为每片3 869、208 cfu.结果 电镜扫描结果显示涂层材料分布均匀,表面光滑.对金黄色葡萄球菌的抗菌率为99.68%,抗菌耐久性能为93.74%;对大肠杆菌的抗菌率为99.85%,抗菌耐久性能为94.67%.结论 聚烯丙基胺涂层具有良好的抗菌性.%Objective To study the antimicrobial effects of a new coating surface of orthopedic implants.Methods The allyamine coating was scanned with electron microscope,and its surface morphology was observed.Bacteria were inoculated into the surface of the implants and cultured in the adaptive environment.The proliferation was observed.The bacteria was re-cultured in the surface of the implants,and their proliferation was observed.Staphyloccocus aureus recovery of in groups A and B was 5 963 cfu and 21 cfu,and E.coli recovery in groups A and B was 5 078 cfu and 14 cfu,respectively.Inthe antibacterial durability experiment,staphyloccocus aureus recovery in groups A and B was 5 368 cfuand 337 cfu,and E.coli recovery groups A and B was 3 869 cfu and 208 cfu,respectively.Results The electron microscopy showed the distribution of the coating was uniform and its surface was smooth.The antibacterial percent of the coating to staphylococcus aureus and E.coli was 99.68% and 99.85% respectively,and the corresponding antibacterial durability was 93.74% and 94.67% respectively.Conclusion The poly allyamine coating has good antibacterial properties.

  1. Inoculation of weaned pigs with E. coli reduces depots of vitamin E

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauridsen, Charlotte; Vestergaard, Ellen-Margrethe; Højsgaard, Søren

    2011-01-01

    60 mg all-rac-α-tocopheryl acetate) and E. coli 0 149 inoculation (inoculation of 1 × 108 CFU on day 2 and 3 after weaning versus inoculation of vehicle). The pigs were housed individually during the experiment which lasted for 10 days from weaning at 7 weeks of age. Blood was sampled on day 1 (day...

  2. Identification and Practical Application of Silicate-dissolving Bacteria

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIN Qi-mei; RAO Zheng-hua; SUN Yan-xing; YAO Jun; XING Li-jun

    2002-01-01

    Slime-forming bacteria were isolated from soils, rock surface and earthworm intestine, and their effects on dissolving silicate minerals and tomato growth were examined. One of the bacteria, Bacillus mucilaginosus RGBc13, had particularly strong ability to form slime and dissolve silicates. RGBc13 could also colonize and develop in both non-rhizosphere and rhizosphere soil. Total number of slime-forming bacteria increased from 2.9 × 103 cfu·g- 1and 8.4 × 103 cfu·g-1 to 9.6 × 106 cfu·g-1 and 6.0 × 107 cfu·g-1 in the non-rhizosphere and rhizosphere soils respectively. Potassium and phosphorus nutritional conditions in the rhizosphere were markedly improved through inoculation of this bacterium. Available K and P respectively increased from 25.86 and 3.63mg· kg-1 in the non-rhizosphere soil to 91.23 and 5.74mg· kg-1 in the rhizosphere soil. Tomato biomass increased by 125%, K and P uptakes were more than 150%, greater than the non- inoculation. Thus, there is a potential in applying RGBc13 for improving plant K and P nutrition.

  3. Diagnosis, treatment and registration of urinary tract infections in geriatric patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis-Møller, Alice; Lüneborg-Nielsen, Margrethe

    2002-01-01

    Bacteriuria (> or = 10(5) CFU/ml) is a very common phenomenon in elderly people, occurring twice as frequently in women than in men. There are symptomatic and asymptomatic types of bacteriuria. Risk factors include: a decrease in the estrogen level in women after the menopause, catheterisation, u...

  4. Effect of Adrenaline on the Growth of Colony form Unitgranulocyte and Macrophage in Murine%肾上腺素影响小鼠粒巨噬系祖细胞生长的实验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄晓芹; 陶宏凯; 降央泽仁

    2001-01-01

    目的:了解肾上腺素(Adrenaline,Adr)对小鼠粒巨噬系祖细胞的影响.方法:在体外半固体培养的粒-巨噬系集落形成单位(Colony Form Unit-Granulocyte and Macrophage,CFU-GM)中加入不同浓度的Adr后,计数集落数,并与阴性对照组比较.结果:Adr浓度在10-6~10-10mol/ml范围内,CFU-GM集落数与对照组相比,P>0.05;Adr浓度为10-5mol/ml时,P<0.05;Adr浓度为10-4mol/ml时,培养体系中没有CFU-CM形成.结论:高浓度Adr可抑制CFU-GM在体外的生长,儿茶酚胺类物质能参与血发生的调节.

  5. Effects of a dietary yeast extract on hematological parameters, heterophil function, and bacterial clearance in turkey poults challenged with Escherichia coli and subjected to transport stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    There is a need to develop nutritional methods for controlling pathogens in poultry production. A standardized yeast extract supplement, Alphamune™ (YE), was added to turkey poult diets. Male poults were challenged by air sac injection with 60 cfu of E. coli at 1 week of age. At 3 weeks of age chal...

  6. Microbiological response of Japanese quail eggs to disinfection and location in the setter during incubation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowaczewski, Sebastian; Szablewski, Tomasz; Cegielska-Radziejewska, Renata; Kontecka, Helena

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of ethyl alcohol (75%) disinfection of Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica) hatching eggs and analysis of microbial contamination of eggs during incubation, depending on their location in the setter. Disinfected eggshells were found to have lower total bacteria (TBC) and fungi (TFC) count. Concerning the vertical location of eggs (top, middle, bottom), disinfected eggs were characterized by similar values of the TBC (x = 1.54 log CFU/shell surface). For eggs without disinfection, it was found that those from middle and bottom levels of the setter had similar and lower TBC (by about 1.22 log CFU/shell surface) as compared to eggs from the top level. No statistically significant differences between levels were found in the case of TFC. Hatch breakouts (dead-in-shell embryos) from non-disinfected eggs were characterized by higher TBC (on average 0.37 log CFU/g). Disinfected eggs, located at the middle and bottom levels of the incubator, had similar and lower TBC in comparison with eggs from the top level. There were no microscopic fungi inside disinfected eggs of hatch breakouts. On the other hand, the non-disinfected eggs, placed on trays from the middle level of the incubator, had greater TFC (by about 0.9 log CFU/g) than those from top and bottom levels. Regardless of whether the eggs were disinfected or not, the largest group of microscopic fungi included Aspergillus and Penicillium.

  7. Use of propidium monoazide for the enumeration of viable Oenococcus oeni in must and wine by quantitative PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vendrame, Marco; Iacumin, Lucilla; Manzano, Marisa; Comi, Giuseppe

    2013-08-01

    Malolactic fermentation is an important step in winemaking, but it has to be avoided in some cases. It's carried out by lactic acid bacteria belonging mainly to the genus Oenococcus, which is known to be a slow growing bacterium. Classical microbiological methods to enumerate viable cells of Oenococcus oeni in must and wine take 7-9 days to give results. Moreover, RT-qPCR technique gives accurate quantitative results, but it requires time consuming steps of RNA extraction and reverse transcription. In the present work we developed a fast and reliable quantitative PCR (qPCR) method to enumerate cells of Oenococcus oeni, directly, in must and wine. For the first time we used a propidium monoazide treatment of samples to enumerate only Oenococcus oeni viable cells. The detection limit of the developed method is 0.33 log CFU/mL (2.14 CFU/mL) in must, and 0.69 log CFU/mL (4.90 CFU/mL) in wine, lower than that of the previously developed qPCR protocols.

  8. Behavior of pulsed electric field injured Escherichia coli O157:H7 cells in apple juice amended with pyruvate and catalase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pulse Electric Field (PEF) treatment has been used to inactivate bacteria in liquid foods. However, information on the behavior of PEF injured Escherichia coli bacteria in media during storage at 5 and 23C are limited. In this study, we investigated the fate of E. coli O157:H7 cells at 6.8 log CFU/m...

  9. Behavior of Lactobacillus plantarum and Saccharomyces cerevisiae in fresh and thermally processed orange juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alwazeer, Duried; Cachon, Remy; Divies, Charles

    2002-10-01

    Lactobacillus plantarum and Saccharomyces cerevisiae are acid-tolerant microorganisms that are able to spoil citrus juices before and after pasteurization. The growth of these microorganisms in orange juice with and without pasteurization was investigated. Two samples of orange juice were inoculated with ca. 10(5) CFU/ml of each microorganism. Others were inoculated with ca. 10(7) CFU/ml of each microorganism and then thermally treated. L. plantarum populations were reduced by 2.5 and 6 and 2 log10 CFU/ml, respectively. Samples of heated and nonheated juice were incubated at 15 degrees C for 20 days. Injured populations of L. plantarum decreased by ca. 2 log10 CFU/ml during the first 70 h of storage, but those of S. cerevisiae did not decrease. The length of the lag phase after pasteurization increased 6.2-fold for L. plantarum and 1.9-fold for S. cerevisiae, and generation times increased by 41 and 86%, respectively. The results of this study demonstrate the differences in the capabilities of intact and injured cells of spoilage microorganisms to spoil citrus juice and the different thermal resistance levels of cells. While L. plantarum was more resistant to heat treatment than S. cerevisiae was, growth recovery after pasteurization was faster for the latter microorganism.

  10. Probiotics cultures in animal feed: Effects on ruminal fermentation, immune responses, and resistance to infectious diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    We evaluated the effects of probiotics included in dairy cattle and mice feed on ruminal fermentation, immune responses, and resistance to Johne’s disease. To unveil the underlying mechanisms, dairy cattle were either fed Bovamine (1.04 x 10**9 cfu of Lactobacillus acidophilus NP51 plus 2.04 x 10**...

  11. Effects of probiotic fermented milk on symptoms and intestinal flora in patients with irritable bowel syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søndergaard, B.; Olsson, J.; Ohlson, K.

    2011-01-01

    × 10 CFU/ml of Lactobacillus paracasei ssp paracasei F19, Lactobacillus acidophilus La5 and Bifidobacterium lactis Bb12 or an equal volume of acidified milk for 8 weeks. Symptoms were assessed at baseline and weekly using a disease-specific validated symptom rating scale (IBS-SSI). The predefined...

  12. Development of a PCR-compatible enrichment medium for Yersinia enterocolitica: amplification precision and dynamic detection range during cultivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knutsson, Rickard; Fontanesi, Massimo; Grage, Halfdan; Rådström, Peter

    2002-02-05

    A Yersinia PCR-Compatible Enrichment (YPCE) medium was developed, which removes the necessity for sample pretreatment before PCR-based detection of Yersinia enterocolitica. The medium was designed through a sequence of independent screening and factorial design experiments to study the PCR inhibition and growth characteristics of medium components. The compatibility of the YPCE medium was evaluated using real-time PCR. The real-time PCR assay, based on the fluorescent double-stranded DNA binding dye SYBR green, generated approximately a 4-log linear range of amplification and in the range of 10(5)-10(8) (CFU/ml), the coefficient of variation or = 10(6) (CFU/ml), the DNA amplification was influenced and a change in the log-linear slope leading to a lower amplification efficiency was observed. To study the dynamic detection range and relative amplification precision during enrichment. Y. enterocolitica and background flora were inoculated at various concentrations. It was possible to detect inoculation concentrations of 10(1) (CFU/ml) Y. enterocolitica in the presence of at least an inoculation concentration of 10(3) (CFU/ml) of an undefined background flora and the optimal conditions for sample withdrawal was in the range of 9 to 18 h enrichment. The YPCE medium can, especially for swab samples, form part of a simple analysis procedure allowing high throughput PCR.

  13. 南京市生物气溶胶浓度垂直分布和日变化规律%The vertical distribution and diurnal variation law of the bioaerosol concentration in Nanjing City.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈铭夏; 金龙山; 李宗恺; 孙振海; 鹿建春; 孙润桥

    2001-01-01

    利用1998年7月的观测资料,对南京市生物气溶胶浓度垂直分布和日变化规律进行了分析、研究.结果表明,生物气溶胶浓度随高度增加逐渐减少;细菌浓度最大值为700 CFU/m3,真菌浓度最大值为1080 CFU/m3,与国内其他一些城市相比,浓度比较低,但与国外有关观测结果相比其真菌浓度要高出许多;细菌、真菌和花粉浓度在24h内呈现出周期性变化规律.%Using the data observed in July 1998, the vertical distribution and variation law of the bioaerosol concentration in Nanjing is analyzed and studied. The result shows that the bioaerosol concentration decreases as the altitude increases; the maximum bacteria concentration is 700 CFU/m3 and that of fungi is 1080 CFU/m3, which are lower than the data of some other domestic cities, but the fungi concentration is obviously higher than that of some foreign cities. The concentrations of farina, bacteria and fungi vary periodically in 24 hours.

  14. Biofilm growth on polyvinylchloride surface incubated in suboptimal microbial warm water and effect of sanitizers on biofilm removal post biofilm formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    An in vitro experiment was conducted to understand the nature of biofilm growth on polyvinyl chloride (PVC) surface when exposed to sub optimal quality microbial water (> 4 log10 cfu/ml) obtained from poultry drinking water source mimicking water in waterlines during the first week of poultry broodi...

  15. Viability of a multi-strain mixture of Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella typhimurium, or Escherichia coli O157:H7 inoculated into the batter or onto the surface of a soudjouk-style fermented semi-dry sausage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Multi-strain mixtures of Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella typhimurium, or Escherichia coli O157:H7 were separately inoculated either into soudjouk batter or onto the surface of slices of commercial soudjouk to levels of ca. 6.0 log10 CFU per gram or slice, respectively. After fermentation and dryi...

  16. BEHAVIOR OF ESCHERICHIA COLI O157:H7, LISTERIA MONOCYTOGENES, AND SALMONELLA TYPHIMURIUM IN TEEWURST, A RAW SPREADABLE SAUSAGE

    Science.gov (United States)

    The fate of Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella Typhimurium, or Escherichia coli O157:H7 were separately monitored both in and on teewurst, a traditional raw and spreadable sausage of Germanic origin. Multi-strain cocktails of each pathogen (ca. 5.0 log CFU/g) were used to separately inoculate teewur...

  17. Microbial fouling community analysis of the cooling water system of a nuclear test reactor with emphasis on sulphate reducing bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balamurugan, P; Joshi, M Hiren; Rao, T S

    2011-10-01

    Culture and molecular-based techniques were used to characterize bacterial diversity in the cooling water system of a fast breeder test reactor (FBTR). Techniques were selected for special emphasis on sulphate-reducing bacteria (SRB). Water samples from different locations of the FBTR cooling water system, in addition to biofilm scrapings from carbon steel coupons and a control SRB sample were characterized. Whole genome extraction of the water samples and SRB diversity by group specific primers were analysed using nested PCR and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE). The results of the bacterial assay in the cooling water showed that the total culturable bacteria (TCB) ranged from 10(3) to 10(5) cfu ml(-1); iron-reducing bacteria, 10(3) to 10(5) cfu ml(-1); iron oxidizing bacteria, 10(2) to 10(3) cfu ml(-1) and SRB, 2-29 cfu ml(-1). However, the counts of the various bacterial types in the biofilm sample were 2-3 orders of magnitude higher. SRB diversity by the nested PCR-DGGE approach showed the presence of groups 1, 5 and 6 in the FBTR cooling water system; however, groups 2, 3 and 4 were not detected. The study demonstrated that the PCR protocol influenced the results of the diversity analysis. The paper further discusses the microbiota of the cooling water system and its relevance in biofouling.

  18. Prospective survey of indoor fungal contamination in hospital during a period of building construction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sautour, M; Sixt, N; Dalle, F; L'ollivier, C; Calinon, C; Fourquenet, V; Thibaut, C; Jury, H; Lafon, I; Aho, S; Couillault, G; Vagner, O; Cuisenier, B; Besancenot, J-P; Caillot, D; Bonnin, A

    2007-12-01

    An 18-month survey of indoor fungal contamination was conducted in one haematology unit during a period of construction work. Air was sampled with a portable Air System Impactor and surfaces with contact Sabouraud plates. During this survey the mean concentration of viable fungi in air was 4.2 cfu/m(3) and that for surfaces was 1.7 cfu/plate. At the beginning of construction work, there were increases in airborne fungal spores (from 3.0 to 9.8 cfu/m(3)) in the unit, but concentrations did not exceed 10 cfu/m(3) during the 18-month period. The most frequently recovered airborne fungi were Penicillium spp. (27-38%), Aspergillus spp. (25%) and Bjerkandera adusta, a basidiomycete identified with molecular tools (7-12%). Blastomycetes accounted for more than 50% of the fungal flora on surfaces. Investigating the impact of a new air-treatment system (mobile Plasmair units), there were significant reductions in fungal contamination for the Plasmer -treated rooms, and in these rooms we observed the same level of fungal load whether construction work was in progress or not.

  19. Effects of thermal and enzymatic treatments and harvesting time on the microbial quality and chemical composition of fibre hemp (Cannabis sativa L.)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nykter, M.; Kymalainen, H.R.; Thomsen, Anne Belinda

    2008-01-01

    harvested after stand retting in the field before frost, after early frost or in the following spring. The enzymatic treatment of hemp promoted growth of moulds on the fibres (500-fold increase in colony-forming units (cfu)), whereas steam explosion reduced the amount of moulds to a relatively constant...

  20. Tolerance and immobilization of cobalt by some bacteria from ferromanganese crusts of the afanasiy Nikitin Seamounts

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Krishnan, K.P.; Fernandes, C.E.G.; Fernandes, S.O.; LokaBharathi, P.A.

    No.1 Characteristics of gram-negative short rods (~1.3?���� x 0.3?) isolated from cobalt crust Culture No. Media used for Isolation CFU Morph* Motility Catalase Oxidase Oxidation (O)/Fermentation/ No Reaction (NR) Biochemical identity similar...

  1. Effect of Total Inoculum Size Containing Lactobacillus acidophilus or Lactobacillus casei on Fermentation of Goat Milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    He Chen

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available In order to obtain the optimum inoculum size of goat milk fermented by probiotics, the total inoculum size containing L. acidophilus or L. casei on pH, acidity and viable counts and sensory during fermentation were studied on the basis of S. thermophilus and L. bulgaricus as starter cultures. The results showed as follows: the optimum inoculum size of L. acidophilus or L. casei were all 7% and goat milk was fermented at 39°C for 4.5 h. The pH, acidity, the viable counts of L. acidophilus and the total viable counts were respectively 4.48, 91°T, 1.60×107 cfu/mL and 1.69×109 cfu/mL. The pH, acidity, the viable counts of L. casei and the total viable counts were respectively 4.38, 96°T, 2.80×108 cfu/mL and 2.20×109 cfu/mL.

  2. Cleaning and sanitation of Salmonella-contaminated peanut butter processing equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grasso, Elizabeth M; Grove, Stephen F; Halik, Lindsay A; Arritt, Fletcher; Keller, Susanne E

    2015-04-01

    Microbial contamination of peanut butter by Salmonella poses a significant health risk as Salmonella may remain viable throughout the product shelf life. Effective cleaning and sanitation of processing lines are essential for preventing cross-contamination. The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of a cleaning and sanitation procedure involving hot oil and 60% isopropanol, ± quaternary ammonium compounds, to decontaminate pilot-scale processing equipment harboring Salmonella. Peanut butter inoculated with a cocktail of four Salmonella serovars (∼ 7 log CFU/g) was used to contaminate the equipment (∼ 75 L). The system was then emptied of peanut butter and treated with hot oil (90 °C) for 2 h followed by sanitizer for 1 h. Microbial analysis of food-contact surfaces (7 locations), peanut butter, and oil were conducted. Oil contained ∼ 3.2 log CFU/mL on both trypticase soy agar with yeast extract (TSAYE) and xylose lysine deoxycholate (XLD), indicating hot oil alone was not sufficient to inactivate Salmonella. Environmental sampling found 0.25-1.12 log CFU/cm(2) remaining on processing equipment. After the isopropanol sanitation (± quaternary ammonium compounds), no Salmonella was detected in environmental samples on XLD (<0.16 log CFU/cm(2)). These data suggest that a two-step hot oil clean and isopropanol sanitization treatment may eliminate pathogenic Salmonella from contaminated equipment.

  3. Differences in biofilm formation of produce and poultry Salmonella enterica isolates and their persistence on spinach plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Repeat irrigation of spinach plants with water containing Salmonella was used to determine Salmonella persistence on spinach leaves. Spinach plants were irrigated four times (biweekly) with water containing ca. 2.1 log CFU Salmonella per 100 ml water (the maximum generic E. coli MPN recommended by...

  4. Scanning electron microscopy and fluorescent in situ hybridization of experimental Brachyspira (Serpulina) pilosicoli infection in growing pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Tim Kåre; Møller, Kristian; Boye, Mette

    2000-01-01

    Two groups of six 8-week-old pigs were challenged with 1X10(9) cfu Brachyspira (Serpulina) pilosicoli or Serpulina intermedia daily for 3 consecutive days to study the pathology of porcine colonic spirochetosis by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH...

  5. Recovery of Salmonella serovar Enteritidis from inoculated broiler hatching eggs using shell rinse and shell crush sampling methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study compared the recovery of Salmonella from hatching eggs using three sampling methods (eggshell rinsing, eggshell crush following a previous rinse, and eggshell crush without previous rinse). Eggshells were drop-inoculated with approximately 10, 100, or 1,000 cfu/eggshell of S. Enteritidis...

  6. 76 FR 26194 - Metarhizium anisopliae Strain F52; Exemption From the Requirement of a Tolerance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-06

    ... chemical residue, including all anticipated dietary exposures and all other exposures for which there is....3 x 10\\8\\ cfu/eye/animal (Toxicity Category III). 6. Dermal sensitization--guinea pig (Harmonized... Metarhizium anisopliae strain F52 was not a dermal sensitizer to guinea pigs when induced and challenged at...

  7. MICROBIOLOGICAL QUALITY OF CONFECTIONARY PRODUCTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ľubomíra Juhaniaková

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to determine microbiological quality of confectionery products. In confectionery products microbiological parameters: total count of bacteria, coliforms bacteria,mesophilic aerobes bacteria and microscopic filamentous fungi were observed. The confectionery products were evaluated: Kremeš and Venčekcake. For microbiological tests 20 samples of confectionery products were used. The numbers of total count of bacteria ranged from 3.29 log CFU.g-1, the number of mesophilic aerobes bacteria ranged from 1.86 to 2.85 log CFU.g-1, coliforms bacteria in confectionery products ranged from 0to 2.06CFU.g-1and the number of microscopic fungi ranged from 1.13 to 1.96CFU.g-1. The samples of cake prom private production showed better microbiological quality as samples from market production. All investigated samples of confectionary products were inaccordance with the Codex Alimentarius of the Slovak Republic.

  8. Combined effect of γ-irradiation and bacterial-fermented dextrose on microbiological quality of refrigerated pork sausages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dussault, D.; Benoit, C.; Lacroix, M.

    2012-08-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of a concentrated fermented dextrose (FD), a natural antimicrobial product, combined with low dose γ-irradiation (1.5 kGy) on the microbiological quality of fresh pork sausages. Fresh pork sausages containing the FD (0.25%, 0.5% and 0.75%) were prepared in a meat pilot plant and were irradiated using a UC-15A irradiator equipped with a 60Cobalt source. The γ-irradiation treatment alone was able to reduce the initial psychrophilic and mesophilic bacteria by more than 2 log CFU/g and kept the lactobacillus population under the detection limit (100 CFU/g). Results also showed that the FD alone was able to extend the shelf life of the sausages from 5 days up to 13 days. At day 13, the FD or irradiation alone showed 2 log CFU/g less mesophilic bacteria than the control. After combining FD and irradiation another reduction of the microbial count of 1 log CFU/g was observed. When combining the irradiation treatment with the FD results it showed a reduced growth rate of the psychrophilic and mesophilic bacteria compared to both treatments alone. This study demonstrated that FD with low dose gamma irradiation act in synergy to reduce the multiplication of the total bacterial flora in fresh sausages.

  9. CONTRACT FOLLOW UP TRAINING

    CERN Multimedia

    Technical Training; Tel. 74460

    2001-01-01

    SPL is organizing Training Sessions on the Contract Follow Up application. CFU is a Web based tool, developped and supported by the Administrative Information Services. It allows the creation of Divisional Requests and the follow up of their processing, from the Market Survey to the Invitation to Tender or Price Enquiry, approval by the Finance Committee, up to the actual signature of a Contract, acccording to the CERN Purchasing procedures. It includes a document management component. It also provides link with other AIS applications such as BHT and EDH. The course is primarily intended for DPOs, Contract Technical responsibles in the division and their assistants, but is beneficial to anybody involved in the follow up of such Purchasing Procedures. This course is free of charge, but application is necessary. The details of the course may be found at http://training.web.cern.ch/Training/ENSTEC/P2001/Bureautique/cfu4_f.htm General information of CFU may be found at http://ais.cern.ch/apps/cfu/ The dates of t...

  10. Survival of Probiotics in Hypromellose Capsules with Rice or Potato Maltodextrin Excipient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jinru; Bechman, Allison; Klu, Yaa Asantewaa Kafui; Phillips, Robert D

    2016-09-28

    There is currently no authorized or established therapeutic level/dose of probiotics for proposed health benefits; however, a daily probiotic consumption of 10(8) to 10(10) CFU has been recommended. This study determined the survival of 5 individual probiotic strains, Lactobacillus rhamnosus, Lactobacillus paracasei, Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus acidophilus, and Bifidobacterium lactis, along with a mixture of the 5 strains in hypromellose capsules with rice or potato maltodextrin at 4, 25, and 37 °C for 12 mo. Samples were collected monthly and plated on deMan-Rogosa Sharpe agar with 0.05% l-cysteine hydrochloride. Results showed that samples stored at 4 °C had an average count of 10(8) to 10(11) CFU/g of probiotic cells during the 12 mo period, whereas at 25 °C, L. rhamnosus and L. paracasei had an average counts below 10(8) CFU/g during the storage period. L. rhamnosus was the most vulnerable strain used in this study, having the least viable counts at all 3 storage temperatures. Probiotics stored in rice maltodextrin, on average, had higher probiotic counts compared to those stored in potato maltodextrin. Study suggests that to provide consumers with 10(8) to 10(10) CFU/d of probiotic cells, robust bacterial strains, suitable carriers, and a storage temperature of 4 °C are required.

  11. Rhizosphere effect on survival of Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium in manure-amended soil during cabbage (Brassica oleracea) cultivation under tropical field conditions in Sub-Saharan Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ongeng, Duncan; Muyanja, Charles; Ryckeboer, Jaak; Geeraerd, Annemie H; Springael, Dirk

    2011-09-15

    The effect of cabbage (Brassica oleracea) rhizosphere on survival of Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Salmonella Typhimurium in manure-amended soils under tropical field conditions was investigated in the Central Agro-Ecological Zone of Uganda. Three-week old cabbage seedlings were transplanted and cultivated for 120 days on manure-amended soil inoculated with 4 or 7 log CFU/g non-virulent E. coli O157:H7 and S. Typhimurium. Cabbage rhizosphere did not affect survival of the 4log CFU/g inocula in manure-amended soil and the two enteric bacteria were not detected on/in cabbage leaves at harvest. The 7 log CFU/g E. coli O157:H7 and S. Typhimurium survived in bulk soil for a maximum of 80 and 96 days, respectively, but the organisms remained culturable in cabbage rhizosphere up to the time of harvest. At 7 log CFU/g inoculum, E. coli O157:H7 and S. Typhimurium contamination on cabbage leaves occurred throughout the cultivation period. Leaf surface sterilisation with 1% AgNO(3) indicated that the organisms were present superficially and in protected locations on the leaves. These results demonstrate that under tropical field conditions, cabbage rhizosphere enhances the persistence of E. coli O157:H7 and S. Typhimurium in manure-amended soil at high inoculum density and is associated with long-term contamination of the leaves.

  12. MICROORGANISMS IN CONFECTIONERY PRODUCTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ľubomíra Juhaniaková

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to determine microbiological quality of confectionery products. In confectionery products microbiological parameters: coliforms bacteria, microscopic filamentous fungi and yeasts, Salmonella sp. and staphylococci were observed. The confectionery products were evaluated: Kremes - honey cube, roll Arabica, roll Rona, roll stuffed with apricot cream, honey cube, pinwheel caramel, Sachovnica cut, Zora cut and curd cake. For microbiological tests 18 samples of confectionery products were used. Numbers of coliforms bacteria in confectionery products ranged from <1x101 to 4x102 cfu.g-1, the number of microscopic fungi ranged from 0 to <1x101 cfu.g-1, the number of yeasts from <1x101 to 5.5x102 cfu.g-1, cells of Salmonella sp. were not detected and the number of staphylococci was from 0 to <1x101 cfu.g-1. All investigated samples of confectionary products were in accordance with the Codex Alimentarius of the Slovak Republic.

  13. Detection of shigella in lettuce by the use of a rapid molecular assay with increased sensitivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenia Barrantes Jiménez

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available A Multiplex Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR assay to be used as an alternative to the conventional culture method in detecting Shigella and enteroinvasive Escherichia coli (EIEC virulence genes ipaH and ial in lettuce was developed. Efficacy and rapidity of the molecular method were determined as compared to the conventional culture. Lettuce samples were inoculated with different Shigella flexneri concentrations (from 10 CFU/ml to 10(7 CFU/ml. DNA was extracted directly from lettuce after inoculation (direct-PCR and after an enrichment step (enrichment PCR. Multiplex PCR detection limit was 10(4 CFU/ml, diagnostic sensitivity and specificity were 100% accurate. An internal amplification control (IAC of 100 bp was used in order to avoid false negative results. This method produced results in 1 to 2 days while the conventional culture method required 5 to 6 days. Also, the culture method detection limit was 10(6 CFU/ml, diagnostic sensitivity was 53% and diagnostic specificity was 100%. In this study a Multiplex PCR method for detection of virulence genes in Shigella and EIEC was shown to be effective in terms of diagnostic sensitivity, detection limit and amount of time as compared to Shigella conventional culture.

  14. Effect of pipe material and low level disinfectants on biofilm development in a simulated drinking water distribution system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ling-ling ZHOU; Yong-ji ZHANG; Gui-bai LI

    2009-01-01

    The efficiency of chlorine and chloramines disinfection on biofilm development in a simulated drinking water distribution system was investigated by using heterotrophic bacterial spread plate technique.The experiments were carried out with four annular reactors(ARs)with stainless steel(SS)or copper(Cu)material slides.The results showed that there were fewer bacteria attached to Cu slides without a disinfectant compared with those attached to SS slides.When the water was disinfected with chloramines,the heterotrophic plate counts(HPCs)on the biofilm attached to the Cu slides were significantly lower(by 3.46 log CFU/cm2)than those attached to the SS slides.Likewise,the biofilm HPC numbers on the Cu slides were slightly lower(by 1.19log CFU/cm2) than those on the SS slides disinfected with chlorine.In a quasi-steady state.the HPC levels on Cu slides can be reduced to 3.0 log CFU/cm2 with chlorine and to about 0.9 log CFU/cm2 with chloramines.The addition of chloramines resulted in a more efficient reduction of biofilm heterotrophic bacteria than did chlorine.We concluded that the chlorine and chloramines levels usually employed in water distribution system were not SUfficient to prevent the growth and development of microbial biofilm.The combination of copper pipe slides and chlorarnincs as the disinfectant was the most efficient combination to bring about diminished bacterial levels.

  15. Development of PCR protocols for specific identification of Clostridium spiroforme and detection of sas and sbs genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drigo, Ilenia; Bacchin, Cosetta; Cocchi, Monia; Bano, Luca; Agnoletti, Fabrizio

    2008-10-15

    Rabbit diarrhoea caused by toxigenic Clostridium spiroforme is responsible for significant losses in commercial rabbitries but the accurate identification of this micro-organism is difficult due to the absence of both a commercial biochemical panel and biomolecular methods. The aim of this study was therefore to develop PCR protocols for specific detection of C. spiroforme and its binary toxin encoding genes. The C. spiroforme specie-specific primers were designed based on its 16S rDNA published sequences and the specificity of these primers was tested with DNA extracted from closely related Clostridium species. The sa/bs_F and sa/bs _R C. spiroforme binary toxin specific primers were designed to be complementary, respectively, to a sequence of 21 bases on the 3' and of sas gene and on the 5' of the sbs gene. The detection limits of in house developed PCR protocols were 25CFU/ml of bacterial suspension and 1.38x10(4)CFU/g of caecal content for specie-specific primers and 80CFU/ml of bacterial suspension and 2.8x10(4)CFU/g of caecal content in case of sa/bs primers. These results indicated that the described PCR assays enable specific identification of C. spiroforme and its binary toxin genes and can therefore be considered a rapid, reliable tool for the diagnosis of C. spiroforme-related enterotoxaemia.

  16. Immuogenicity and safety of a natural rough mutant of Brucella suis as a vaccine for swine

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of the current study was to evaluate the safety, immunogenicity and clearance of the natural rough mutant of Brucella suis strain 353-1 (353-1) as a vaccine in domestic swine. In three studies encompassing 155 animals, pigs were inoculated with 353-1 by conjunctival (5 x 10**7 CFU), p...

  17. Immune Responses and Protection against Experimental Brucella suis biovar 1 Challenge in Non-vaccinated or RB51-Vaccinated Cattle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twenty Hereford heifers, approximately 9 months of age, were vaccinated with saline (control) or 2 x 10**10 CFU of Brucella abortus strain RB51 (RB51) vaccine. Immunologic responses after inoculation demonstrated significantly greater (P<0.05) antibody and proliferative responses to RB51 antigens i...

  18. Incorporation of nisin Z and lauric arginate into pullulan films to inhibit foodborne pathogens associated with fresh and ready-to-eat muscle foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pattanayaiying, Rinrada; H-Kittikun, Aran; Cutter, Catherine N

    2015-08-17

    A combination of food grade compounds with edible films, used to inhibit foodborne pathogens associated with fresh or further processed muscle foods, is receiving considerable attention. In this study, pullulan films containing lauric arginate (LAE) and nisin Z (produced by Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis I8-7-3 and isolated from catfish gut), alone or in combination, were investigated for controlling foodborne pathogens on fresh and further processed muscle foods after long-term refrigerated storage. Salmonella Typhimurium and Salmonella Enteritidis on raw turkey breast slices wrapped with a film containing LAE or the combination of LAE with nisin Z were reduced throughout the experiment, 2.5 to 4.5 log10 CFU/cm(2) and 3.5 to 5.1 log10 CFU/cm(2), respectively. Film containing a combination of LAE with nisin Z reduced Staphylococcus aureus and Listeria monocytogenes Scott A inoculated onto ham surfaces by approximately 5.53 and 5.62 log10 CFU/cm(2), respectively during refrigerated storage. Escherichia coli O157:H7, O111, and O26 also were reduced by >4 log 10CFU/cm(2) on raw beef slices after treatment with the combination film and refrigerated storage. The results obtained from this study indicate the LAE- and LAE-nisin Z-containing pullulan films displayed excellent inhibition against foodborne pathogens on fresh and further processed muscle foods.

  19. Effects of Three-Month Intake of Synbiotic on Inflammation and Body Composition in the Elderly: A Pilot Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Maria Lima Ribeiro

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available We hypothesize that improvements in the gut microbiota are capable of ameliorating gut permeability and, consequently, reducing systemic inflammation and the risk of frailty. This study aims to evaluate some effects of synbiotic supplementation on inflammatory markers and the body composition of the elderly at risk of frailty. In a double-blind study that lasted three months, 17 elderly individuals fulfilling one frailty criteria (grip strength were randomly distributed into two groups: SYN (n = 9, daily intake of synbiotic (6 g Frutooligossacarides, 108 to 109 CFU Lactobacillus paracasei, 108 to 109 CFU Lactobacillus rhamnosus, 108 to 109 CFU Lactobacillus acidophilus and 108 to 109 CFU Bifidobacterium lactis, or placebo (maltodextrin; PLA; n = 8. Subjects were analyzed for anthropometric measurements, bioelectric impedance with vectorial analysis (BIVA, IL-6 and TNF-α. A comparison between groups did not show any difference for the variables investigated. In turn, individual analysis of electrical impedance (BIVA demonstrated that the majority of SYN individuals maintained or improved their tissue hydration, when compared to the PLA group after supplementation. In conclusion, three months of synbiotic supplementation did not promote any significant changes in inflammatory cytokines or body composition, but demonstrated a trend towards a preservation of hydration status in apparently healthy elderly individuals.

  20. Occurrence of Plasmid Borne Multiple Antibiotic Resistant Genes in Escherichia coli Isolated from Well Water in Eku, Ethiope East Local Government Area, Delta State, Nigeria

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    E. Akponah

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Five wells in Eku were assessed for total heterotrophic bacterial and coliform counts from January to December. Sixty isolates of Escherichia coli were also obtained from the well water samples throughout the study period. It was observed that, values of total heterotrophic bacterial and coliform load obtained varied with seasons although the total heterotrophic bacterial counts were significantly higher than the coliform load at all times. During the dry season, values of the total heterotrophic bacterial count ranged from 2.08 to 5.48 (log cfu/mL while coliform counts ranged from 2.3 to 3.26 (log cfu/mL. On the other hand, total heterotrophic bacterial and coliform counts ranged from 3.34 to 7.14 (log cfu/mL and 3.15 to 3.98 (log cfu/mL respectively during the rainy season. Results obtained revealed that 76.6% of total Escherichia coli isolates evaluated, demonstrated multiple antibiotics resistance while 18.3% showed single antibiotics resistance. On curing, 83.3% of test Escherichia coli population lost their antibiotics resistant gene indicating that these genes resided on plasmid.

  1. Bacterial Species-Specific Activity of a Fluoroquinolone against Two Closely Related Pasteurellaceae with Similar MICs: Differential In Vitro Inoculum Effects and In Vivo Efficacies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lhermie, Guillaume; El Garch, Farid; Toutain, Pierre-Louis; Ferran, Aude A.; Bousquet-Mélou, Alain

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the antimicrobial activity of a fluoroquinolone against two genetically close bacterial species belonging to the Pasteurellaceae family. Time-kill experiments were used to measure the in vitro activity of marbofloxacin against two strains of Mannheimia haemolytica and Pasteurella multocida with similar MICs. We observed that marbofloxacin was equally potent against 105 CFU/mL inocula M. haemolytica and P. multocida. However, an inoculum effect was observed with P. multocida, meaning that marbofloxacin activity was decreased against a 108 CFU/mL inoculum, whereas no inoculum effect was observed with M. haemolytica. Marbofloxacin activity was also tested in a lung infection model with immunocompromised mice intratracheally infected with 109 CFU of each bacteria. At the same dose, the clinical and bacteriological outcomes were much better for mice infected with M. haemolytica than for those infected with P. multocida. Moreover, bacteriological eradication was obtained with a lower marbofloxacin dose for mice infected with M. haemolytica. Our results suggest that the differential in vivo marbofloxacin efficacy observed with the two bacterial species of similar MIC could be explained by a differential inoculum effect. Consequently, MICs determined on 105 CFU inocula were not predictive of the differences in antibiotic efficacies against high bacterial inocula of closely related bacterial strains. These results could stimulate further investigations on bacterial species-specific antibiotic doses in a clinical setting. PMID:26506096

  2. Clinical efficacy of intravenous administration of marbofloxacin in a Staphylococcus aureus infection in tissue cages in ponies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voermans, M; van Soest, J M; van Duijkeren, E; Ensink, J M

    2006-12-01

    Tissue cages (TC), implanted subcutaneously in the neck in eight ponies, were inoculated with Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) to determine the clinical efficacy of marbofloxacin in the treatment of this infection. From 21 h after inoculation, marbofloxacin (6 mg/kg) was administered intravenously (i.v.) once daily for 7 days. Samples of the tissue cage fluid (TCF) were taken to determine marbofloxacin concentrations (days 1, 3 and 7), using high-pressure liquid chromatography, and numbers of viable bacteria [colony forming units (CFU)] (days 1, 3, 7, 14 and 21). Statistical analysis was used to compare CFU before and after treatment. Clinical signs and CFU were used to evaluate the efficacy of treatment. Although, there was a slight decrease in CFU in all TC initially, the infection was not eliminated by marbofloxacin treatment in any of the ponies and abscesses formed. As the MIC (0.25 microg/mL) did not change during treatment and the concentration of marbofloxacin during treatment (mean concentration in TCF was 0.89 microg/mL on day 1, 0.80 microg/mL on day 3 and 2.77 microg/mL on day 7) was above MIC, we consider that the treatment failure might be attributable to the formation of a biofilm by S. aureus. Based on the present results, i.v. administration of marbofloxacin alone is not suitable for the elimination of S. aureus infections from secluded sites.

  3. Bacterial Species-Specific Activity of a Fluoroquinolone against Two Closely Related Pasteurellaceae with Similar MICs: Differential In Vitro Inoculum Effects and In Vivo Efficacies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillaume Lhermie

    Full Text Available We investigated the antimicrobial activity of a fluoroquinolone against two genetically close bacterial species belonging to the Pasteurellaceae family. Time-kill experiments were used to measure the in vitro activity of marbofloxacin against two strains of Mannheimia haemolytica and Pasteurella multocida with similar MICs. We observed that marbofloxacin was equally potent against 105 CFU/mL inocula M. haemolytica and P. multocida. However, an inoculum effect was observed with P. multocida, meaning that marbofloxacin activity was decreased against a 108 CFU/mL inoculum, whereas no inoculum effect was observed with M. haemolytica. Marbofloxacin activity was also tested in a lung infection model with immunocompromised mice intratracheally infected with 109 CFU of each bacteria. At the same dose, the clinical and bacteriological outcomes were much better for mice infected with M. haemolytica than for those infected with P. multocida. Moreover, bacteriological eradication was obtained with a lower marbofloxacin dose for mice infected with M. haemolytica. Our results suggest that the differential in vivo marbofloxacin efficacy observed with the two bacterial species of similar MIC could be explained by a differential inoculum effect. Consequently, MICs determined on 105 CFU inocula were not predictive of the differences in antibiotic efficacies against high bacterial inocula of closely related bacterial strains. These results could stimulate further investigations on bacterial species-specific antibiotic doses in a clinical setting.

  4. A flow cytometric technique for quantification and differentiation of bacteria in bulk tank milk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, C.; Mathiasen, T.; Jespersen, Lene

    2004-01-01

    AIMS: The present study describes a flow cytometric technique for quantification and differentiation of bacteria in bulk tank milk according to the main cause of elevated counts. METHODS AND RESULTS: A total of 75 Danish bulk tank milk samples exceeding the grading level of 3.0 x 10(4) CFU ml(-1)...

  5. Antibiotic selection of Escherichia coli sequence type 131 in a mouse intestinal colonization model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hertz, Frederik Boetius; Løbner-Olesen, Anders; Frimodt-Møller, Niels

    2014-01-01

    , clindamycin, penicillin, ampicillin, meropenem, ciprofloxacin, and amdinocillin) against a CTX-M-15-producing E. coli sequence type 131 (ST131) isolate with a fluoroquinolone resistance phenotype. Mice (8 per group) were orogastrically administered 0.25 ml saline with 10(8) CFU/ml E. coli ST131. On that same...

  6. The antimicrobial effect of Octenidine-dihydrochloride coated polymer tracheotomy tubes on Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa colonisation

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    Leonhard Matthias

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The surface of polymeric tracheotomy tubes is a favourable environment for biofilm formation and therefore represents a potential risk factor for the development of pneumonia after tracheotomy. The aim of this in-vitro study was to develop octenidine-dihydrochloride (OCT coated polymer tracheotomy tubes and investigate any effects on Staphylococcus (S. aureus and Pseudomonas (P. aeruginosa colonization. Additionally the resistance of the OCT coating was tested using reprocessing procedures like brushing, rinsing and disinfection with glutaraldehyde Results Contamination with S. aureus: Before any reprocessing, OCT coated tracheotomy tubes were colonized with 103 cfu/ml and uncoated tracheotomy tubes with 105 cfu/ml (P = 0.045. After reprocessing, no differences in bacterial concentration between modified and conventional tubes were observed. Contamination with P. aeruginosa: Before reprocessing, OCT coated tubes were colonized with 106 cfu/ml and uncoated tubes with 107 cfu/ml (P = 0.006. After reprocessing, no significant differences were observed. Conclusion OCT coating initially inhibits S. aureus and P. aeruginosa colonisation on tracheotomy tubes. This effect, however, vanishes quickly after reprocessing of the tubes due to poor adhesive properties of the antimicrobial compound. Despite the known antimicrobial effect of OCT, its use for antimicrobial coating of tracheotomy tubes is limited unless methods are developed to allow sustained attachment to the tube.

  7. MICROBIOLOGICAL ANALYSIS OF DIFFERENT CONFECTIONERY PRODUCTS

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    Ľubomíra Juhaniaková

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this work was to determine microbiological quality and water activity of confectionery products as coconut balls. In confectionery products microbiological parameters: total count of bacteria, coliforms bacteria, mesophilic aerobic bacteria, yeasts, microscopic filamentous fungi, counts of Staphylococcus aureus and Salmonella spp. were observed. For microbiological tests 10 samples of coconut balls were used. The total count of bacteria in coconut ball samples ranged from 3.00 to 3.74 log CFU.g-1, the number of mesophilic aerobic bacteria ranged from 2.00 to 2.95 log CFU.g-1, the number of coliforms bacteria ranged from 2.00 to 2.70 log CFU.g-1, the number of microscopic filamentous fungi ranged from 2.00 to 2.60 log CFU.g-1. From microscopic fungi was isolated genera Penicillium. Zero numbers of yeasts and staphylococci and the absence of cells Salmonella sp. were found in this samples. Not all samples of coconut ball samples from private production were accordance with Codex Alimentarius of the Slovak Republic. The Codex Alimentarius of Slovak republic just indicates number of coliforms bacteria (103 and microscopic fungi (102. Only three samples were accordance with CA, SR in number of microscopic filamentous fungi. The water activity in samples ranged from 0.821 to 0.885.

  8. Application of tetraplex PCR for detection of Vibrio cholerae, V. parahaemolyticus, V. vulnificus and V. mimicus in cockle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senachai, Pachara; Chomvarin, Chariya; Namwat, Wises; Wongboot, Warawan; Wongwajana, Suwin; Tangkanakul, Waraluk

    2013-03-01

    A tetraplex PCR method was developed for simultaneous detection of Vibrio cholerae, V. parahaemolyticus, V. vulnificus and V. mimicus in cockle samples in comparison with conventional culture method. Specific primers targeting ompW of V. cholerae, tl of V. parahaemolyticus, hsp60 of V. vulnificus and sodB of V. mimicus were employed in the same PCR. Detection limit of the tetraplex PCR assay was 104 cfu/ml (400 cfu/PCR reaction) for pure cultures of all four species of Vibrio. In Vibrio spiked cockle samples, the limit of detection after 6 hours enrichment in alkaline peptone water was 1 cfu/10 g of cockle tissue for three Vibrio spp, except for V. mimicus that was 102 cfu/10 g of cockle tissue. When the tetraplex PCR and culture methods were applied to 100 cockle samples, V. parahaemolyticus, V. vulnificus, V. cholerae and V. mimicus were detected in 100, 98, 80 and 9% of the samples by tetraplex PCR and in 76, 42, 0 and 0% by the culture method, respectively. This developed tetraplex PCR method should be suitable for simultaneous and rapid detection of Vibrio species in food samples and for food safety assessment.

  9. REAL-TIME PCR METHOD TO DETECT ENTEROCOCCUS FAECALIS IN WATER

    Science.gov (United States)

    A 16S rDNA real-time PCR method was developed to detect Enterococcus faecalis in water samples. The dynamic range for cell detection spanned five logs and the detection limit was determined to be 6 cfu/reaction. The assay was capable of detecting E. faecalis cells added to biof...

  10. Transfer of tylosin resistance between Enterococcus spp. during continuous-flow culture of feral or domestic porcine gut microbes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mixed populations of domesticated and feral pig gut microbes (RPCF and FC, respectively) were grown in continuous culture to investigate the effects of tylosin on antimicrobial resistance. Cultures established in steady state were inoculated with 9.7 log10 colony forming units (CFU) of a tylosin-re...

  11. Drinking water quality monitoring and surveillance for safe water supply in Gangtok, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khadse, Gajanan K; Kalita, Morami; Pimpalkar, Sarika N; Labhsetwar, Pawan K

    2011-07-01

    To ascertain the quality of drinking water being supplied, water quality monitoring and surveillance was conducted in Gangtok city at various treatment stages, service reservoirs, distribution network, public standposts, and households. No significant change in raw water quality was observed on day-to-day basis. Residual chlorine was found in the range of nil to 0.2 mg/l in the sump water/finished water. Throughout the year (i.e., during summer, winter, and monsoon seasons), the total coliform and fecal coliform counts were ranged from nil to 7 CFU/100 ml and nil to 3 CFU/100 ml, respectively, in sump water of Selep and VIP complex water treatment plant; however, at consumer end, those were observed as nil to 210 CFU/100 ml and nil to 90 CFU/100 ml, respectively. These variations in bacterial counts among the different service reservoirs and consumer ends may be attributed to the general management practices for maintenance of service reservoirs and the possibility of enroute contamination. Evaluation of the raw water quality indicates that the water is suitable for drinking after conventional treatment followed by disinfection. The finished water quality meets the level of standards described as per Bureau of Indian Standard specifications (BIS:10500 1991) for potability in terms of its physicochemical characteristics.

  12. Antibacterial activity of cinnamaldehyde and Sporan against Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Salmonella

    Science.gov (United States)

    The in vitro antimicrobial effect of cinnamaldehyde and Sporan in combination with acetic acid against E. coli O157:H7 and Salmonella was investigated. A five strain cocktail of E. coli O157:H7 and Salmonella were inoculated in Luria-Bertoni broth (LB broth, 7 log CFU ml-1) containing cinnamaldehyde...

  13. Comparative Analysis of Two Biological Warfare Air Samplers Using Live Surrogate Agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-01

    bacteriophage. First, a 1L sterile Nalgene® bottle was used then 20 mL of MS2 fitrate (3 x 109) was mixed with 500 mL of Luria -Bertani broth media...broth CFU colony-forming units IPA isopropyl alcohol LBA luria -bertani agar LBB luria -bertani broth PBS phosphate buffer saline PFU

  14. Effectiveness of household natural sanitizers in the elimination of Salmonella typhimurium on rocket (Eruca sativa Miller) and spring onion (Allium cepa L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yucel Sengun, Ilkin; Karapinar, Mehmet

    2005-02-15

    Experiments were done with fresh lemon juice, vinegar and their mixture (1:1) to evaluate their efficacy in reducing the numbers of Salmonella typhimurium on fresh salad vegetables. Fresh whole rocket leaves and shredded spring onion samples were inoculated with S. typhimurium suspensions to provide initial populations of approximately 6 and 3 log cfu/g. After inoculation, vegetables were treated with the test solutions for 0, 15, 30 and 60 min, and pathogens were enumerated by using direct plating on Bismuth Sulphite Agar (BSA). Prior to this work, it was shown that BSA was not toxic for acid injured Salmonella cells by statistical analysis applied to enriched and non-enriched samples (P>0.05). Treatment of rocket leaves with fresh lemon juice and vinegar caused a significant reduction ranging between 1.23 and 4.17 log cfu/g and between 1.32 and 3.12 log cfu/g, respectively, while the maximum reduction reached by using lemon juice-vinegar mixture (1:1) for 15 min, which reduced the number of pathogens to an undetectable level. In the spring onion samples, lemon juice, vinegar and their mixture caused 0.87-2.93, 0.66-2.92 and 0.86-3.24 log cfu/g reductions, respectively.

  15. Microbial performance of food safety management systems implemented in the lamb production chain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osés, S M; Luning, P A; Jacxsens, L; Santillana, S; Jaime, I; Rovira, J

    2012-01-01

    The actual microbial status of the lamb production chain at three slaughterhouses, one processing plant, and five butcher shops selling whole or cut lamb carcasses to consumers was assessed with a previously developed microbial assessment scheme. All studied establishments had a food safety management system (FSMS) that was implemented according to legislative requirements. Microbial safety level profiles were constructed for each establishment and provided clear indications of which pathogens, hygiene indicators, or utility parameters required attention to improve the performance of the microbiological control protocols of the implemented FSMS. The highest contamination was found in the slaughterhouses in samples taken from the meat products (aerobic mesophilic plate counts [AMPs] of 3.40 to 6.63 log CFU/cm(2) and Enterobacteriaceae counts of 1.00 to 4.62 log CFU/cm(2)), contact surfaces (AMPs of 2.44 to 8.92 log CFU/cm(2)), and operators' hands and/or gloves (AMPs of 2.84 to 8.09 log CFU/cm(2)), especially after hide removal and evisceration. The microbial assessment scheme is a useful tool for providing insight into the actual microbiological results achieved with an FSMS implemented in establishments at various stages along the lamb production chain.

  16. Influence of lingual bracket position on microbial and periodontal parameters in vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Francesca Sfondrini

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Lingual orthodontics is becoming more popular in dental practice. The purpose of the present investigation was to compare plaque formation on teeth bonded with the same bracket onto buccal or lingual surface, with non-bonded control teeth, via an in vivo growth experiment over a 30-day period. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A randomized controlled trial with split-mouth design was set up enrolling 20 dental students. Within each subject sites with buccal and lingual brackets and control sites were followed. Clinical periodontal parameters (periodontal pocket depth: PPD; bleeding on probing: BOP were recorded at baseline and on days 1, 7 and 30. Microbiological samples were taken from the brackets and the teeth on days 1, 7 and 30 to detect colony-forming units (CFU. Total CFU, streptococci CFU and anaerobe CFU were measured. RESULTS: No significant differences (P>0.05 were found between buccal and lingual brackets in terms of clinical periodontal parameters and microbiological values. Conclusion: Bracket position does not have significant impact on bacterial load and on periodontal parameters.

  17. Inactivation of Salmonella on Sprouting Seeds Using a Spontaneous Carvacrol Nanoemulsion Acidified with Organic Acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landry, Kyle S; Komaiko, Jennifer; Wong, Dana E; Xu, Ting; McClements, David Julian; McLandsborough, Lynne

    2016-07-01

    Over the past decade, demand has increased for natural, minimally processed produce, including sprout-based products. Sanitization with 20,000 ppm of calcium hypochlorite is currently recommended for all sprouting seeds before germination to limit sprout-related foodborne outbreaks. A potentially promising disinfectant as an alternative to calcium hypochlorite is acidified spontaneous essential oil nanoemulsions. In this study, the efficacy of an acidified carvacrol nanoemulsion was tested against mung beans and broccoli seeds artificially contaminated with a Salmonella enterica Enteritidis cocktail (ATCC BAA-709, ATCC BAA-711, and ATCC BAA-1045). Treatments were performed by soaking inoculated seeds in acidified (50 mM acetic or levulinic acid) carvacrol nanoemulsions (4,000 or 8,000 ppm) for 30 or 60 min. After treatment, the number of surviving cells was determined via plate counts and/or the most probable number (MPN) approach. Treatment for 30 min successfully reduced Salmonella Enteritidis by 4 log CFU/g on mung beans (from an initial contamination level of 4.2 to 4.6 log CFU/g) and by 2 log CFU/g on broccoli seeds (from an initial contamination level of 2.4 to 2.6 log CFU/g) to below our detection limit (≤3 MPN/g). Treated seeds were sprouted and tested for the presence of pathogens and sprout yield. The final sprout product had no detectable pathogens, and total sprout yield was not influenced by any treatment.

  18. A real-time loop-mediated isothermal amplification assay for rapid detection of Shigella species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liew, P S; Teh, C S J; Lau, Y L; Thong, K L

    2014-12-01

    Shigellosis is a foodborne illness caused by the genus Shigella and is an important global health issue. The development of effective techniques for rapid detection of this pathogen is essential for breaking the chain of transmission. Therefore, we have developed a novel loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay targeting the invasion plasmid antigen H (ipaH) gene to rapidly detect Shigella species. This assay could be performed in 90 min at an optimal temperature of 64ºC, with endpoint results visualized directly. Notably, the method was found to be more sensitive than conventional PCR. Indeed, the detection limit for the LAMP assay on pure bacterial cultures was 5.9 x 10(5) CFU/ml, while PCR displayed a limit of 5.9 x 10(7) CFU/ml. In spiked lettuce samples, the sensitivity of the LAMP assay was 3.6 x 10(4) CFU/g, whereas PCR was 3.6 x 10(5) CFU/g. Overall, the assay accurately identified 32 Shigella spp. with one enteroinvasive Escherichia coli displaying positive reaction while the remaining 32 non-Shigella strains tested were negative.

  19. Bacteriological Study of the Marine Water in the Coastal of the North Sulawesi Province, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lies Indah Sutiknowati

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this research was to study the marine bacteriology of the coast of North Sulawesi. The study was accomplished by calculating the abundance of coliform, heterotrophic, and pathogenic bacteria, and analyzing the coexistence relationship between bacteria and phytoplanktons. This research, which included the sampling and laboratory works, has been carried out on 25 - 28 October, 2000. The results suggested that the abundance of each bacteria was as follows: coliform bacteria range between 227-5940 cfu/100 ml with averages 1814.1 cfu/100 ml, found in all stations; heterotrophic bacteria range between (1-82 x 103 cfu/ml with averages 12.1 x 103 cfu/ml, it was high density and has association with phytoplankton Trichodesmium thieubautii. It was also found 6 species of pathogen bacteria e.g. Aeromonas, Citrobacter, Proteus, Pseudomonas, Yersinia and Shigella. The presence of coliform and pathogen bacteria was indicator of low quality of the seawater in the sampling area. Based on bacteriological study, the North Sulawesi Coastal is not suitable for aquaculture and need treatment and controlled for further coastal exploitation.

  20. Clinical Observation on Treatment of Chronic Aplastic Anemia by Shengxuening (生血宁) and Cyclosporin A

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Xue-zhong; XU Yan-li; JIN Juan; ZHANG Xiu-qun; ZHANG Lei; SU Ai-ling

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To explore the therapy to further elevate the efficacy of the treatment of chronic aplastic anemia (CAA). Methods: Forty-five patients with CCA were assigned into two groups, the 26 paporin A (CsA), and the 19 patients in the control group were treated with androgen alone, with the therapeutic course lasting for over 3 months. Changes of peripheral blood picture, and the colony productivity of burst forming unit-erythroid (BFU-E), colony forming unit-erythroid (CFU-E) and colony forming unit-granulocyte macrophage (CFU-GM) in bone marrow were observed before and after 3 months treatment. The amount of erythrocyte and platelet infusion, frequency of infection, condition of hemorrhage and relevant death were also observed. The follow-up study was conducted for over half a year. Results: The total effective rate in the treated group was 84.6%, which was significantly higher than that in the control group (52.6%, P<0.05).Levels of hemoglobin, reticulocyte, neutrophil and platelet increased after treatment in the treated group, as compared with those before treatment, with significant difference ( P<0.05), and the colony productivity of BFU-E, CFU-E and CFU-GM in bone marrow also got significantly increased ( P<0.01 ), and showed significant difference from those in the control group (P<0.05). Conclusion: Shengxuening-assisting CsA therapy is an effective measure for treatment of CAA.

  1. Experimental Salmonella Enterica Infection in Market-weight Pigs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Market pigs infected with Salmonella pose a significant food safety risk by carrying the pathogen into abattoirs. A study was conducted to determine the dynamic of Salmonella infection in market-weight pigs (220-240 lbs.). Pigs (n=24) were individually inoculated (intranasally; 108 cfu/mL) with Salm...

  2. Investigations of the capacity and strength of seed germination in Allium victorialis L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krystyna Winiarczyk

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to examine the strength and energy of seed germination in Allium victorialis. Despite the normal structure of seeds containing a viable embryo and compliance with all International Seed Testing Association recommendations, no germination in A. victorialis was observed. Additionally, the scarification and stratification treatments applied did not improve the dynamics of germination of A. victorialis seeds. Microbiological analyses of soil sampled from natural localities of the plant revealed a typical composition of bacteria and fungi. The high number of fungi [4.5 log10CFU (colony forming units of fungi × g−1 dry mass of soil] and various groups of bacteria (about 7.0 log10CFU of bacteria × g−1 dry mass of soil were detected in the root-free-soil around garlic roots. In the interior of A. victorialis roots, the number of microorganisms decreased 1000 to 10 000 times but all the tested microbial groups, especially copiotrophic bacteria and fungi (1.6 and 2.2, respectively, log10CFU × g−1 dry mass of roots were detected. Changes in such parameters as dehydrogenase activity, pH values, and the total organic C (TOC content in the particular parts of the rhizosphere and in comparison to the rhizosphere with root-free-soil were observed. The dehydrogenase activity and TOC content were highly positively correlated with the total number of CFU of the microorganisms.

  3. Processing plant persistent strains of Listeria monocytogenes appear to have a lower virulence potential than clinical strains in selected virulence models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Anne; Thomsen, L.E.; Jørgensen, R.L.

    2008-01-01

    cell line, Caco-2; time to death in a nematode model, Caenorhabditis elegans and in a fruit fly model, Drosophila melanogaster and fecal shedding in a guinea pig model. All strains adhered to and grew in Caco-2 cells in similar levels. When exposed to 10(6) CFU/ml, two strains representing...

  4. Development of hematopoietic stem cell activity in the mouse embryo.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.M. Müller (Albrecht); A. Medvinsky; J. Strouboulis (John); F.G. Grosveld (Frank); E.A. Dzierzak (Elaine)

    1994-01-01

    textabstractThe precise time of appearance of the first hematopoietic stem cell activity in the developing mouse embryo is unknown. Recently the aorta-gonad-mesonephros region of the developing mouse embryo has been shown to possess hematopoietic colony-forming activity (CFU-S) in irradiated recipie

  5. Evaluation of the Relationship between the Adenosine Triphosphate (ATP Bioluminescence Assay and the Presence of Bacillus anthracis Spores and Vegetative Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shawn G. Gibbs

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: The Adenosine triphosphate (ATP bioluminescence assay was utilized in laboratory evaluations to determine the presence and concentration of vegetative and spore forms of Bacillus anthracis Sterne 34F2. Methods: Seventeen surfaces from the healthcare environment were selected for evaluation. Surfaces were inoculated with 50 µL of organism suspensions at three concentrations of 104, 106, 108 colony forming units per surface (CFU/surface of B. anthracis. Culture-based methods and ATP based methods were utilized to determine concentrations. Results: When all concentrations were evaluated together, a positive correlation between log-adjusted CFU and Relative Light Units (RLU for endospores and vegetative cells was established. When concentrations were evaluated separately, a significant correlation was not demonstrated. Conclusions: This study demonstrated a positive correlation for ATP and culture-based methods for the vegetative cells of B. anthracis. When evaluating the endospores and combining both metabolic states, the ATP measurements and CFU recovered did not correspond to the initial concentrations on the evaluated surfaces. The results of our study show that the low ATP signal which does not correlate well to the CFU results would not make the ATP measuring devises effective in confirming contamination residual from a bioterrorist event.

  6. "Paraffin wax-overlay of pour plate", a method for the isolation and enumeration of purple non-sulfur bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archana, A; Sasikala, Ch; Ramana, Ch V; Arunasri, K

    2004-12-01

    A modification of pour plate technique with an overlay of wax was used for isolation and enumeration of purple non-sulfur bacteria (PNSB) with equal efficiency as that of agar shake culture. The total count of PNSB ranged from 10(5)-10(8) CFU g dry soil(-1) and belonged to the genera of Rhodobacter, Rhodopseudomonas, Rhodocista and Rubrivivax.

  7. An improved agar medium for growth of Geobacillus thermoglucosidarius strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javed, M; Baghaei-Yazdi, N; Qin, W; Amartey, S

    2017-01-01

    Geobacillus species have potential applications in many biotechnological processes. They are fastidious in their vitamin and amino acid requirements. A new semi-defined agar medium (SDM) was developed which gave consistently high viable cell counts of various G. thermoglucosidasius strains (5×10(8)-6×10(8)cfu/ml) under aerobic conditions at 70°C.

  8. Microbial food safety: Potential of DNA extraction methods for use in diagnostic metagenomics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Josefsen, Mathilde Hasseldam; Andersen, Sandra Christine; Christensen, Julia

    2015-01-01

    The efficiency of ten widely applied DNA extraction protocols was evaluated for suitability for diagnostic metagenomics. The protocols were selected based on a thorough literature study. Chicken fecal samples inoculated with about 1×103 and 1×106CFU/g Campylobacter jejuni were used as a model. Th...

  9. The origin of Pasteurella multocida impacts pathology and inflammation when assessed in a mouse model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pors, Susanne E.; Chadfield, Mark S.; Sorensen, Dorte B.

    2016-01-01

    Host-pathogen interactions of Pasteurella multocida isolates of different origin were studied in a mouse model, focusing on pathology, bacterial load and expression of the metalloproteinase MMP9 and its inhibitor TIMP1. Intranasal inoculation with one of three doses (10(6), 10(4), 10(2) CFU...

  10. Antibiotic penetration and bacterial killing in a Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilm model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cao, Bao; Christophersen, Lars; Thomsen, Kim;

    2015-01-01

    /L). There were fewer cfu in the tobramycin-treated beads than the non-treated beads (P killing was reduced as the culture period increased from 1 to 7 days. Throughout the study period, increasing size and more superficial positioning of the microcolonies within the beads were demonstrated...

  11. Estimation of the variation that can be attributed to different levels in a clinical trial of a vaccine against Campylobacter in broilers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garcia Clavero, Ana Belén; Bahrndorff, Simon; Hald, Birthe

    chickens per isolator). Treatment was administered at isolator level on day 14 (vaccine or placebo). The broilers were inoculated with Campylobacter jejuni at day 31 and slaughtered at day 42. The numbers of Campylobacter (cfu/g) were obtained in the laboratory using selective cultivation methods and log...

  12. Inactivation of Vibrio anguillarum by attached and planktonic Roseobacter cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    D'Alvise, Paul; Melchiorsen, Jette; Porsby, Cisse Hedegaard

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate inhibition of Vibrio by Roseobacter in a combined liquid-surface system. Exposure of Vibrio anguillarum to surface-attached roseobacters (10e7 cfu/cm2) resulted in significant reduction or complete killing of the pathogen inoculated at 10e2 – 10e4...

  13. Estimation of the variation that can be attributed to different levels in a clinical trial of a vaccine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garcia Clavero, Ana Belén; Bahrndorff, Simon; Hald, Birthe

    2012-01-01

    chickens per isolator). Treatment was administered at isolator level on day 14 (vaccine or placebo). The broilers were inoculated with Campylobacter jejuni at day 31 and slaughtered at day 42. The numbers of Campylobacter (cfu/g) were obtained in the laboratory using selective cultivation methods and log...

  14. Preterm Birth and Necrotizing Enterocolitis Alter Gut Colonization in Pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cilieborg, Malene S.; Boye, Mette; Mølbak, Lars

    2011-01-01

    was observed in preterm pigs with NEC compared with healthy individuals. However, immunization against C. perfringens toxins did not prevent NEC, and C. perfringens inoculation (3.6 X 10(8) cfu/d) failed to induce NEC (n = 16), whereas prophylactic broad-spectrum antibiotics treatment prevented NEC (n = 24...

  15. 76 FR 79176 - Notice of Availability of Draft Recreational Water Quality Criteria and Request for Scientific Views

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-21

    ... (mL) and a statistical threshold value (STV) of 235 cfu per 100 mL measured using EPA Method 1603, or... AGENCY Notice of Availability of Draft Recreational Water Quality Criteria and Request for Scientific.... The draft RWQC document describes the relevant scientific findings, explains how these findings...

  16. Retention of Campylobacter (Campylobacterales: Campylobacteraceae) in the House Fly (Diptera: Muscidae)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skovgard, H.; Kristensen, K.; Hald, Birthe

    2011-01-01

    The house fly (Musca domestica L.) may transmit Campylobacter to broiler flocks. We assessed the retention lime of house flies for Campylobacter jejuni at five temperatures and three doses. Flies were inoculated individually at their proboscis with 1.6 x 10(7) CFU (colony forming units) of C...

  17. Detection of soft rot Erwinia spp. on seed potatoes: conductimetry versus dilution plating, PCR and serological assays

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fraaije, B.A.; Appels, M.; Boer, de S.H.; Vuurde, van J.W.L.; Bulk, van den R.W.

    1997-01-01

    Automated conductance measurements in polypectate medium were used for the detection of pathogenic soft rot Erwinia spp. in potato peel extracts. The detection threshold for Erwinia carotovora subsp. atroseptica (Eca) in inoculated peel extracts was ca. 104 colony forming units (cfu) ml-1 when sampl

  18. Extrinsic allergic alveolitis (hypersensitivity pneumonitis) caused by Sphingobacterium spiritivorum from the water reservoir of a steam iron.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kämpfer, Peter; Engelhart, S; Rolke, M; Sennekamp, J

    2005-09-01

    A case of extrinsic allergic alveolitis (EAA) caused by Sphingobacterium spiritivorum is described. The symptoms were associated with the use of a steam iron. The water reservoir was heavily contaminated with S. spiritivorum (10(6) CFU ml(-1)). This is the first report of S. spiritivorum as a causative agent of EAA.

  19. Prevention of Staphylococcus epidermidis biofilm formation using electrical current.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Pozo, Jose L; Rouse, Mark S; Euba, Gorane; Greenwood-Quaintance, Kerryl E; Mandrekar, Jayawant N; Steckelberg, James M; Patel, Robin

    2014-09-05

    A technique for the prevention of staphylococcal adhesion by electrical current exposure was investigated. Teflon coupons were exposed to a continuous flow of 103 cfu/ml Staphylococcus epidermidis with or without 2000 microA DC electrical current delivered by electrodes on opposite sides of a coupon, touching neither each other nor the coupon. A mean 3.46 (SD, 0.20) and 5.70 (SD, 1.03) log10 cfu/cm2 were adhered to the non-electrical current exposed coupons after 4 h and 24 h, respectively. A mean 2.46 (SD, 0.31) and 1.47 (SD, 0.73) log10 cfu/cm2 were adhered after 4 h and 24 h with exposure to 2000 microA electrical current delivered by graphite electrodes. A mean 2.21 (SD, 0.14) and 0.55 (SD, 0.00) log10 cfu/cm2 were adhered after 4 h and 24 h with exposure to 2000 microA electrical current delivered by stainless steel electrodes. Electrical current may be useful in the prevention of staphylococcal adhesion to biomaterials.

  20. Phaeobacter gallaeciensis Reduces Vibrio anguillarum in Cultures of Microalgae and Rotifers, and Prevents Vibriosis in Cod Larvae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    D'Alvise, Paul; Lillebø, Siril; Prol García, María Jesús

    2012-01-01

    -antagonistic mutant. P. gallaeciensis was readily established in axenic cultures of the two microalgae Tetraselmis suecica and Nannochloropsis oculata, and of the rotifer Brachionus plicatilis. P. gallaeciensis reached densities of 10(7) cfu/ml and did not adversely affect growth of algae or rotifers. Vibrio...

  1. Fibronectin and VLA-4 in haematopoietic stem cell-microenvironment interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, David A.; Rios, Maribel; Stephens, Carmella; Patel, Vikram P.

    1991-08-01

    THE self-renewal and differentiation of haematopoietic stem cells occurs in vivo and in vitro in direct contact with cells making up the haematopoietic microenvironment1-4. In this study we used adhesive ligands and blocking antibodies to identify stromal cell-derived extracellular matrix proteins involved in promoting attachment of murine haematopoietic stem cells. Here we report that day-12 colony-forming-unit spleen (CFU-S12)5 cells and reconstituting haematopoietic stem cells attach to the C-terminal, heparin-binding fragment of fibronectin by recognizing the CS-1 peptide of the alternatively spliced non-type III connecting segment (IIICS) of human plasma fibronectin. Furthermore, CFU-S12 stem cells express the α4 subunit of the VLA-4 integrin receptor, which is known to be a receptor for the CS-1 sequence, and monoclonal antibodies against the integrin α4 subunit of VLA-4 block adhesion of CFU-S12 stem cells to plates coated with the C-terminal fibronectin fragment. Finally, polyclonal antibodies against the integrin β1 subunit of VLA-4 inhibit the formation of CFU-S12-derived spleen colonies and medullary haematopoiesis in vivo following intravenous infusion of antibody-treated bone marrow cells.

  2. Retrospective analysis of a listeria monocytogenes contamination episode in raw milk goat cheese using quantitative microbial risk assessment tools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delhalle, L; Ellouze, M; Yde, M; Clinquart, A; Daube, G; Korsak, N

    2012-12-01

    In 2005, the Belgian authorities reported a Listeria monocytogenes contamination episode in cheese made from raw goat's milk. The presence of an asymptomatic shedder goat in the herd caused this contamination. On the basis of data collected at the time of the episode, a retrospective study was performed using an exposure assessment model covering the production chain from the milking of goats up to delivery of cheese to the market. Predictive microbiology models were used to simulate the growth of L. monocytogenes during the cheese process in relation with temperature, pH, and water activity. The model showed significant growth of L. monocytogenes during chilling and storage of the milk collected the day before the cheese production (median increase of 2.2 log CFU/ml) and during the addition of starter and rennet to milk (median increase of 1.2 log CFU/ml). The L. monocytogenes concentration in the fresh unripened cheese was estimated to be 3.8 log CFU/g (median). This result is consistent with the number of L. monocytogenes in the fresh cheese (3.6 log CFU/g) reported during the cheese contamination episode. A variance-based method sensitivity analysis identified the most important factors impacting the cheese contamination, and a scenario analysis then evaluated several options for risk mitigation. Thus, by using quantitative microbial risk assessment tools, this study provides reliable information to identify and control critical steps in a local production chain of cheese made from raw goat's milk.

  3. Effect of Salmonella infection on cecal tonsil regulatory T cell properties in chickens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Two experiments were conducted to study Regulatory T cell (Treg) properties post-Salmonella infection in broiler birds. Four-day-old broiler chicks were orally infected with 5x106 CFU/ml Salmonella enteritidis or sterile PBS (control). Samples were collected at 4, 7, 10, and 14 d post-infection. ...

  4. Diversity and activity of methanotrophic related bacteria in subsurface sediments of the Krishna-Godavari Basin, India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sujith, P.P.; Sheba, M.; Gonsalves, M.J.B.D.

    The present study assesses the distribution, diversity and activity of aerobic methanotrophic related bacteria (MRB) dwelling in Krishna-Godavari (KG) basin, India. The counts of MRB ranged from non-detectable(ND) to 8.6 Ã- 104 CFU gram...

  5. Microbiological Quality of Various Medicinal Herbal Teas and Coffee Substitutes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.H. Tournas

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Various herbal teas including German chamomile, Chrysanthemum Vascuflow herb tea, hop, jasmine and orange flowers, sweet marjoram, spearmint and thyme leaves, and papaya-mint tea as well as coffee substitutes (Bambu instant Swiss, Teeccino chocolate-mint, and Teeccino Mediterranean Espresso were analyzed for fungal contamination and the presence of aerobic mesophilic bacteria (APC. The results of this investigation showed that fungal counts reached levels as high as 5.8 × 105 colony forming units (cfu per gram. German chamomile harbored the highest fungal contamination. The most common fungi found in herbal teas were Aspergillus niger, Penicillium spp., Eurotium rubrum, E. chevalieri, A. flavus, Fusarium spp., Alternaria alternata, and yeasts. Among the coffee substitutes, only the chocolate-mint coffee was contaminated with low numbers (<1.0 × 103 cfu g−1 of E. rubrum, Ulocladium spp. and Phoma spp., and with yeasts (<100–6.8 × 103 cfu g−1. Aerobic mesophilic bacteria were recovered from 100% of the herbal tea, chocolate-mint and Mediterranean Espresso, and from 50% of the Bambu instant Swiss coffee samples. The highest APC counts of 1.2 × 107 cfu g−1 were observed in spearmint leaves.

  6. Mesenchymal stem cells from different organs are characterized by distinct topographic Hox codes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackema, Karin B; Charité, Jeroen

    2008-10-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) are multipotent cells found as part of the stromal compartment of the bone marrow and in many other organs. They can be identified in vitro as CFU-F (colony forming unit-fibroblast) based on their ability to form adherent colonies of fibroblast-like cells in culture. MSC expanded in vitro retain characteristics appropriate to their tissue of origin. This is reflected in their propensity for differentiating towards specific lineages, and their capacity to generate, upon retransplantation in vivo, a stroma supporting typical lineages of hematopoietic cells. Hox genes encode master regulators of regional specification and organ development in the embryo and are widely expressed in the adult. We investigated whether they could be involved in determining tissue-specific properties of MSC. Hox gene expression profiles of individual CFU-F colonies derived from various organs and anatomical locations were generated, and the relatedness between these profiles was determined using hierarchical cluster analysis. This revealed that CFU-F have characteristic Hox expression signatures that are heterogeneous but highly specific for their anatomical origin. The topographic specificity of these Hox codes is maintained during differentiation, suggesting that they are an intrinsic property of MSC. Analysis of Hox codes of CFU-F from vertebral bone marrow suggests that MSC originate over a large part of the anterioposterior axis, but may not originate from prevertebral mesenchyme. These data are consistent with a role for Hox proteins in specifying cellular identity of MSC.

  7. 40 CFR 432.42 - Effluent limitations attainable by the application of the best practicable control technology...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... where the ratio of avg. wt. of processed meat products/avg. LWK is 0.55. Adjustments can be made for... the following ratio: lbs processed meat products/lbs LWK. 3 Maximum of 400 MPN or CFU per 100 mL...

  8. Vinegar as an antimicrobial agent for control of Candida spp. in complete denture wearers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Telma Maria Silva Pinto

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The use of denture is known to increase the carriage of Candida in healthy patients, and the proliferation of Candida albicans strains can be associated with denture-induced stomatitis. The aim of this study was to evaluate the use of vinegar as an antimicrobial agent for control of Candida spp. in complete upper denture wearers. Fifty-five patients were submitted to a detailed clinical interview and oral clinical examination, and were instructed to keep their dentures immersed in a 10% vinegar solution (pH less than 3 overnight for 45 days. Before and after the experimental period, saliva samples were collected for detection of Candida, counting of cfu/mL and identification of species by phenotypical tests (germ tube formation, chlamidoconidia production, and carbohydrate fermentation and assimilation. The results were analyzed using Spearman's correlation and Student's t-test (p£0.05. Candida yeasts were present in 87.3% of saliva samples before the treatment. A significant reduction was verified in CFU/mL counts of Candida after treatment. A positive correlation between Candida and denture stomatitis was verified, since the decrease of cfu/mL counts was correlated with a reduction in cases of denture stomatitis. Although it was not able to eliminate C. albicans, the immersion of the complete denture in 10% vinegar solution, during the night, reduced the amounts (cfu/mL of Candida spp. in the saliva and the presence of denture stomatitis in the studied patients.

  9. Applications and consequences of bacteriocins to control Campylobacter spp. in poultry production

    Science.gov (United States)

    The unacceptably high frequency of Campylobacter jejuni transmission from poultry to humans encourages scientists to consider and create alternative intervention strategies to control the pathogen in poultry production. Extremely high numbers of Campylobacter (often >108 cfu/g of poultry intestinal...

  10. A Review of Bacteriocins to Control Campylobacter spp. in Poultry

    Science.gov (United States)

    The unacceptably high frequency of Campylobacter jejuni transmission from poultry to humans encourages scientists to consider and create alternative intervention strategies to control the pathogen in poultry production. Extremely high numbers of Campylobacter (often >108 cfu/g of poultry intestinal...

  11. Bacteriocins to Control Campylobacter spp. in Poultry—a Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    The unacceptably high frequency of Campylobacter jejuni transmission from poultry to humans encourages scientists to consider and create alternative intervention strategies to control the pathogen in poultry production. Extremely high numbers of Campylobacter (often >108 cfu/g of poultry intestinal...

  12. Isolation and Characterization of Surface and Subsurface Bacteria in Seawater of Mantanani Island, Kota Belud, Sabah by Direct and Enrichment Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benard, L. D.; Tuah, P. M.; Suadin, E. G.; Jamian, N.

    2015-04-01

    The distribution of hydrocarbon-utilizing bacterial may vary between surface and subsurface of the seawater. One of the identified contributors is the Total Petroleum Hydrocarbon. The isolation and characterization of bacteria using Direct and Enrichment techniques helps in identifying dominant bacterial populations in seawater of Mantanani Island, Kota Belud, Sabah, potential of further investigation as hydrocarbon degrader. Crude oil (5% v/v) was added as the carbon source for bacteria in Enrichment technique. For surface seawater, the highest population of bacteria identified for both Direct and Enrichment technique were 2.60 × 107 CFU/mL and 3.84 × 106 CFU/mL respectively. Meanwhile, for subsurface seawater, the highest population of bacteria identified for both Direct and Enrichment technique were 5.21 × 106 CFU/mL and 8.99 × 107 CFU/mL respectively. Dominant species in surface seawater were characterized as Marinobacter hydrocarbonoclasticus-RMSF-C1 and RMSF-C2 and Alcanivorax borkumensis-RMSF-C3, RMSF-C4 and RMSF-C5. As for subsurface seawater, dominant species were characterized as Pseudomonas luteola-SSBR-W1, Burkholderia cepacia-SSBR-C1, Rhizobium radiobacter- SSBR-C3 and Leuconostoc-cremois -SSBR-C4.

  13. Use of steam condensing at subatmospheric pressures to reduce Escherichia coli O157:H7 numbers on bovine hide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McEvoy, J M; Doherty, A M; Sheridan, J J; Blair, I S; McDowell, D A

    2001-11-01

    This study used a laboratory-scale apparatus to apply subatmospheric steam to bovine hide pieces inoculated with Escherichia coli O157:H7 in maximum recovery diluent (MRD) and in high-liquid content and low-liquid content fecal suspensions (HLC fecal and LLC fecal, respectively). The survival of the organism in fecal clods, which were stored for 24 days in a desiccated state, was assessed. Inoculated fecal clods were also treated with subatmospheric steam. Steam treatment at 80 +/- 2 degrees C for 20 s reduced E. coli O157:H7 concentrations on hide inoculated to initial concentrations of approximately 7 log10 CFU/g by 5.46 (MRD inoculum), 4.17 (HLC fecal inoculum), and 5.99 (LLC fecal inoculum) log10 CFU/g. The reductions achieved in samples inoculated with LLC feces were larger than in samples inoculated with HLC feces (P Steam treatment (20 s) of 3-day-old clods reduced surviving E. coli O157:H7 numbers from 4.20 log10 CFU/g to below the limit of detection of the assay used (1.20 log10 CFU/g). This study shows that steam condensing at or below 80 +/- 2 degrees C can reduce E. coli O157:H7 when present on bovine hide, reducing the risk of cross contamination to the carcass during slaughter and dressing.

  14. Pulmonary exposure of mice to engineered pseudomonads influences intestinal microbiota populations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    George, S.E.; Kohan, M.J.; Creason, J.P.; Claxton, L.D. (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States). Health Effects Research Lab.)

    1993-09-01

    In this study, a mouse model was used to evaluate indirect effects of pulmonary exposure to representative biotechnology agents (Pseudomonas aeruginosa strain AC869 and Pseudomonas cepacia strain AC1100) selected for their ability to degrade hazardous chemicals. CD-1[reg sign] mice were challenged intranasally with approximately 10[sup 3] or 10[sup 7] colony-forming units (cfu) of strain AC869 or 10[sup 8] cfu of strain AC1100. At time intervals, clearance of the microorganisms and effects on resident microbiota were determined. When the low (10[sup 3] cfu) dose was administered, strain AC869 was not recovered from the small intestine but was detectable in the cecum and lungs 3 h after treatment and persisted in the nasal cavity intermittently for 14 d. Treatment of animals with 10[sup 7] cfu of strain AC869 resulted in detection 14 d following treatment. Strain AC869 challenge modified the small intestinal anaerobe count and cecal obligately anaerobic gram-negative rods (OAGNR) and lactobacilli. Following exposure, Pseudomonas cepacia strain AC1100 persisted in the lungs for 7 d and was recovered from the small intestine, cecum, and nasal cavity 2 d following treatment. Strain AC1100 treatment impacted the small intestinal anaerobe count, OAGNR counts, and reduced lactobacilli numbers. Strain AC1100 also altered the cecal OAGNR and lactobacilli. Therefore, pulmonary treatment of mice with Pseudomonas aeruginosa or cepacia affects the balance of the protective intestinal microbiota, which may cause further negative health effects.

  15. Titanium-tethered vancomycin prevents resistance to rifampicin in Staphylococcus aureus in vitro.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Rottman

    Full Text Available Rifampicin is currently recognized as the most potent drug against Gram positive implant related infections. The use of rifampicin is limited by the emergence of bacterial resistance, which is often managed by coadministration of a second antibiotic. The purpose of this study was to determine the effectiveness of soluble rifampicin in combination with vancomycin tethered to titanium metal as a means to control bacterial growth and resistance in vitro. Bacterial growth was inhibited when the vancomycin-tethered titanium discs were treated with Staphylococcus aureus inocula of ≤2×10⁶ CFU, however inocula greater than 2×10⁶ CFU/disc adhered and survived. The combination of surface-tethered vancomycin with soluble rifampicin enhanced the inhibitory effect of rifampicin for an inoculum of 10⁶ CFU/cm² by one dilution (combination MIC of 0.008 mg/L versus 0.015 mg/L for rifampicin alone. Moreover, surface tethered vancomycin prevented the emergence of a rifampicin resistant population in an inoculum of 2×10⁸ CFU.

  16. Protection by Lactobacillus acidophilus UFV-H2B20 against experimental oral infection with Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica Ser. Typhimurium in gnotobiotic and conventional mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moura Lilian Nobre

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The ability of Lactobacillus acidophilus UFV-H2B20 to antagonize Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica ser. Typhimurium and to reduce the pathological consequences for the host was determining using conventional and gnotobiotic animals. Conventional NIH mice received daily by gavage a 0.1 ml suspension containing about 10(8 cfu L. acidophilus UFV-H2B20 and germfree animals received a single 0.1 ml dose. The gnotobiotic and conventional groups were infected orally with 10² and 10(5 cfu of S. Typhimurium, respectively, 7 days after the beginning of treatment. Control groups were treated with sterile saline instead of Lactobacillus. Survival data showed a protective effect against the pathogenic bacteria in both conventional and gnotobiotic Lactobacillus-treated mice. L. acidophilus UFV-H2B20 colonized the digestive tract of gnotobiotic mice and the number of viable cells ranged from 10(9 to 10(10 cfu/g of faeces. In both experimental and control gnotobiotic animals, S. Typhimurium became rapidly established at a level ranging from 10(8 to 10(10 cfu/g of faeces and remained at high levels until the animals died or were sacrificed. In conclusion, the previous treatment of mice with L. acidophilus UFV-H2B20 protects the animals against the experimental infection with S. Typhimurium but this protection was not due to the reduction of the pathogenic populations in the intestines.

  17. Safety and Immunogenicity of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis {Delta}lysA {Delta}panCD Vaccine in Domestic Cats Infected with Feline Immunodeficiency Virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV)+ and FIV- cats (n = 4/group) received 2 x 10**6 cfu Mycobacterium tuberculosis Delta-lysA Delta-panCD intramuscularly. Vaccination elicited antibody responses; albeit, at lower levels in FIV+ cats as compared to FIV- cats. Delayed-type hypersensitivity responses ...

  18. Sodium benzoate, potassium sorbate, and citric acid induce sublethal injury and enhance pulsed electric field inactivation of E. coli O157:H7 and nonpathogenic surrogate E. coli in strawberry juice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Current FDA regulations require that juice processors effect a 5 log CFU/ml reduction of a target pathogen prior to distributing products. Whereas thermal pasteurization reduces the sensory characteristics of juice by altering flavor components, pulsed electric field (PEF) treatment can be conducte...

  19. Inactivation of E. coli O157:H7 and nonpathogenic E. coli in strawberry juice by pulsed electric field, sodium benzoate, potassium sorbate, and citric acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Introduction: Current regulations require that juice processors effect a 5 log CFU/ml reduction of a target pathogen prior to distributing products. Whereas thermal pasteurization reduces the sensory characteristics of juice by altering flavor components, pulsed electric field (PEF) treatment may ...

  20. Rapid detection of human fecal contamination in estuarine environments by PCR targeting of Bifidobacterium adolescentis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    King, Eric L.; Bachoon, Dave S.; Gates, Keith W.

    2007-01-01

    Detection of Bifidobacterium adolescentis was used as an effective genetic marker of human fecal contamination in Georgia estuaries. Enterococci enumerations on mEI media indicated that a tributary to the Little Satilla River with 516 CFU/100 ml was the most polluted of all the rivers tested. Extrac