Schreider, Al. A.; Schreider, A. A.; Boiko, A. N.; Kashintsev, G. L.; Evsenko, E. I.
The geometry of the junction between Ceylon and Antarctica during the Gondwanaland breakup is still under discussion. Analysis of the available geological-geophysical materials has allowed the peculiarities of Ceylon separation from Antarctica to be characterized, the new paleogeodynamical reconstruction to be elaborated, and a prognosis of the tectonic structure and mineral resources in the areas of Antarctic coast that were adjacent to Ceylon to be made.
Sumathipala, K. H. M.
A short review of the development of adult education in Ceylon, from the introduction of Buddhism in the third century B. C. to the present time, with emphasis on twentieth century programs and achievements. (JB)
Australian Dept. of Labour and National Service, Perth.
The island of Ceylon had a 1963 population of 10,625,000 and an agricultural economy based upon tea, rubber, coconuts, and rice. Fishing and industrial expansion are receiving emphasis. Economic problems include a declining rate of growth in gross national product, unemployment, and a limited range of exports. Education, under control of the…
Full Text Available This paper looks at an early nineteenth-century Malay letter from a land of exile,Ceylon (present Sri Lanka. The letter, written in Colombo, was dated 3 January1807 and is in Leiden University Library MS Cod.Or.2241-I 25 [Klt 21/no.526]. Itwas written by Siti Hapipa, the widow of the exiled Sultan Fakhruddin AbdulKhair al-Mansur Baginda Usman Batara Tangkana Gowa, the 26th king of theGowa Sultanate of South Sulawesi who reigned from 1753 until 1767. He wasbanished by the Dutch (Vereenigde Oost-Indische Compagnie, VOC to Ceylonin 1767 on a charge of conspiracy with the British to oppose the VOC tradingmonopoly in eastern Indonesia. Although many studies of Malay letters exist,letters from the lands of exile like such as the one discussed in this article havereceived less scholarly attention. Also remarkable is that this is one of the rareeighteenth- and nineteenth-centuries Malay letters written by a female. Settingthe scene with a historical sketch of the eighteenth and the early nineteenthcentury in colonial Ceylon and the Netherlands East Indies, this paper providesthe transliteration of Siti Hapipa’s letter in Roman script, through which Ithen analyse the socio-economic and political aspects of the family of SultanFakhruddin in their exile in Colombo.
Drixler, F.F.; Kok, J.
Based on Dutch colonial registers (thombos), this paper reconstructs fertility for two districts in Ceylon, 1756–68. It overcomes challenges in data quality by establishing the outer bounds of plausible estimates in a series of scenarios. Among these, total fertility rates (TFRs) averaged 5.5 in one
Dulm, Frits van
This thesis is about the gentleman-lawyer Falck, his period in office as Governor of Ceylon from the age of 28 and his surroundings. The historian Stapel described him as the last great figure in the Company. He differentiated from his contemporaries and predecessors. The research pays extensive att
Bochi, Vivian Caetano; Godoy, Helena Teixeira; Giusti, M Monica
Ceylon gooseberry is a deep-purple exotic berry that is being produced in Brazil with great market potential. This work aimed to determine major phenolic compounds in this specie by HPLC-PDA-ESI/MS. Samples were collected in two different seasons. Pulp and skin were analyzed separately. Non-acylated rutinoside derivatives of delphinidin (∼60-63%) and cyanidin (∼17-21%) were major anthocyanins tentatively identified. All anthocyanins had higher concentration in skin than in pulp (64-82 and 646-534mg of cyaniding-3-glucoside equivalents/100g skin and pulp, respectively). Moreover, anthocyanin profile changed between sampling dates (p<0.05). Mainly for delphinidin-3-rutinoside which could be a result of season variation. In this specie, non-anthocyanin polyphenols represent less than 35% of total extracted polyphenols. The tentative identification proposed a flavonol and three ellagitannins as major compounds of the non-anthocyanin phenolics fraction. Finally, anthocyanin is the major phenolic class in this fruit and its composition and content are significantly affected by season.
黄山红; Ranil De Silva
为研究从锡兰绿茶(Dilmah)中提取纯化的黄酮类有效成分对缺氧人脑上皮细胞的治疗作用,体外培养人脑上皮细胞(HBEC),给与锡兰绿茶黄酮提取物治疗后造缺氧模型,检测锡兰绿茶中的黄酮类化合物的抗氧化活性及脑细胞的生存情况,探究其对缺氧脑细胞氧化应激的影响.生化检测显示锡兰绿茶提取物的自由基的清除抑制率(ABTS)为68%±2.8%,次氯酸漂白邻苯三酚红抑制率为79%±4.5%.缺氧后,空白对照组细胞生存率为29% ±2.3%,而锡兰绿茶黄酮提取物治疗组为41%±4.7%,氯沙坦治疗组为39% ±3.1%.同时,黄铜提取物与氯沙坦治疗组LDH释放分别减少75%±3.7%和79%±3.5%.锡兰绿茶的黄酮提取物治疗使细胞抗氧化酶活力显著增强,SOD:(1.5 ±0.6) μmol/min/mg蛋白,CAT:(0.61 ±0.06)μmol/min/mg蛋白,GPx:(2.6 ±0.41)μmol/min/mg蛋白,GST:(6.0 ±2.4)μmol/min/mg蛋白,显著高于缺氧对照组,其酶活力分别为:(0.5 ±0.52,51 ±0.04,1.2 ±0.35,3.1±1.6)μmol/min/mg蛋白.研究结果表明,锡兰绿茶有很大的临床应用价值.饮用锡兰绿茶可能成为预防中风的有效新方法,并能减少现代疾病对生命的威胁,提高人类生活质量.%We have extracted and purifiied flavonoids as active ingredients from Ceylon green tea (Dilmah).In this project,an in vitro hypoxic model using human brain epithelial cells (HBEC) was studied with treatment of the tea extract before inducing hypoxia.We have tested the hypothesis that flavonoids extracted from Ceylon green tea act as potential therapeutic ingredient (s) to reduce oxidative stress in hypoxic cells through its antioxidant properties and its ability to reduce cerebral cellular death.The biochemical antioxidant tests show that the Ceylon green tea has 68% ± 2.8% inhibition property of scavenging of ABTS.The inhibition of pyrogallol red bleaching by HOC1 from Ceylon tea was 79% ± 4.5%.After exposing to hypoxia,the cell viability was 29% ± 2.3% in
Thanks to the important work done by F. F. Laidlaw and F. C. Fraser on the Odonata of India and adjacent countries, we are now tolerably well informed about the occurrence and ecology of these insects in this part of the world. In his recent paper on the derivation of the Ceylonese Odonata, Laidlaw
Neervoort van de Poll, J.R.H.; Kannegieter, J.Z.
The list of Cetoniidae enumerated hereafter is the result of an entomological trip made during the months April and May 1889. The collections, which are in the possession of Mr. Neervoort van de Poll, are chiefly made in the following localities, viz. Belihul-Oya on the southern slopes of the centra
The retrospective case study presented is part of a research project undertaken to determine ways in which developing nations can best allocate resources to education in light of their social and economic levels. Past socioeconomic trends in Sri Lanka and its economy in the 1970's are considered first. The case study then moves into descriptions…
Babicki, R.; Piotrowski, Z.
This article gives results of studies on the chemical composition and thermal distillation of wood of H. sepiaria. The yield of charcoal was 34.5%, but the material did not meet the standards for generator charcoal.
Wickenberg, Jennie; Lindstedt, Sandra; Berntorp, Kerstin; Nilsson, Jan; Hlebowicz, Joanna
Previous studies on healthy subjects have shown that the intake of 6 g Cinnamomum cassia reduces postprandial glucose and that the intake of 3 g C. cassia reduces insulin response, without affecting postprandial glucose concentrations. Coumarin, which may damage the liver, is present in C. cassia, but not in Cinnamomum zeylanicum. The aim of the present study was to study the effect of C. zeylanicum on postprandial concentrations of plasma glucose, insulin, glycaemic index (GI) and insulinaemic index (GII) in subjects with impaired glucose tolerance (IGT). A total of ten subjects with IGT were assessed in a crossover trial. A standard 75 g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) was administered together with placebo or C. zeylanicum capsules. Finger-prick capillary blood samples were taken for glucose measurements and venous blood for insulin measurements, before and at 15, 30, 45, 60, 90, 120, 150 and 180 min after the start of the OGTT. The ingestion of 6 g C. zeylanicum had no significant effect on glucose level, insulin response, GI or GII. Ingestion of C. zeylanicum does not affect postprandial plasma glucose or insulin levels in human subjects. The Federal Institute for Risk Assessment in Europe has suggested the replacement of C. cassia by C. zeylanicum or the use of aqueous extracts of C. cassia to lower coumarin exposure. However, the positive effects seen with C. cassia in subjects with poor glycaemic control would then be lost.
Full Text Available Objectives: To evaluate short- and long-term effects of Cinnamomum zeylanicum on food consumption, body weight, glycemic control, and lipids in healthy and diabetes-induced rats. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted in two phases (Phase I and Phase II, using Sprague-Dawley rats in four groups. Phase I evaluated acute effects on fasting blood glucose (FBG (Groups 1 and 2 and on post-oral glucose (Groups 3 and 4 blood glucose. Groups 1 and 3 received distilled-water and Groups 2 and 4 received cinnamon-extracts. Phase II evaluated effects on food consumption, body weight, blood glucose, and lipids over 1 month. Group A (n = 8, distilled-water and Group B (n = 8, cinnamon-extracts were healthy rats, while Group C (n = 5, distilled-water and Group D (n = 5, cinnamon-extracts were diabetes-induced rats. Serum lipid profile and HbA1c were measured on D-0 and D-30. FBG, 2-h post-prandial blood glucose, body weight, and food consumption were measured on every fifth day. Results: Phase I: There was no significant difference in serial blood glucose values in cinnamon-treated group from time 0 (P > 0.05. Following oral glucose, the cinnamon group demonstrated a faster decline in blood glucose compared to controls (P < 0.05. Phase II: Between D0 and D30, the difference in food consumption was shown only in diabetes-induced rats (P < 0.001. Similarly, the significant difference following cinnamon-extracts in FBG and 2-h post-prandial blood glucose from D0 to D30 was shown only in diabetes-induced rats. In cinnamon-extracts administered groups, total and LDL cholesterol levels were lower on D30 in both healthy and diabetes-induced animals (P < 0.001. Conclusions: C. zeylanicum lowered blood glucose, reduced food intake, and improved lipid parameters in diabetes-induced rats.
Abeywickrama, B. A.: A provisional check list of the flowering plants of Ceylon (Ceylon J. Sc., Biol. Sec. 2, 1959, 119- 240). Ahti, T.: Taxonomic studies on reindeer lichens (Cladonia, subg. Cladina) (Ann. Bot. Soc. Zool. Bot Fenn. Vanamo 32¹, 1961, 1-160, many fig.). Also map of C. mitis, p. 121.
In April 1973, Dr. B.C. Stone of Kuala Lumpur participated in the Ceylon Flora project under the aegis of the Botanic Gardens, Peradeniya, and the Smithsonian Institution. A month’s stay was devoted primarily to the collecting and preparation of a draft manuscript on the Pandanaceae of Ceylon, and n
sources are noteworthy for the study of maritime history of Kalinga. The ports namely Palur, Pithunda, Kalingapatnam, Khalkatapatna, Tamralipti, Manikapatna had the contacts with Africa, Ceylon, China and Arab and Southeast Asian countries. In this paper...
Full Text Available E00715 Citronella oil (Ceylon) Essential oil Cymbopogon nardus [TAX:549175] Poaceae... Cymbopogon nardus fresh grasses Obtained by steam distillation Major component: Citronellal [CPD:C17384] Essential
Southeast Asian Ministers of Education Organization (Singapore). Regional Center for Education in Science and Mathematics.
A workshop to develop a program for training primary school teachers was convened in 1969 by the Regional Centre for Education in Science and Mathematics (RECSAM) in Penang, Malaysia. Countries participating in the conference were Indonesia, Malaysia, Singapore, South Vietnam, Thailand, Phillipines, and Ceylon; consultants from the United States…
The genus Cophotis was established by Peters for an Agamid from Ceylon and his species, Cophotis ceylanica, must be rare and very locally distributed in that island, according to Günther. The latter author gives a detailed description and an excellent figure of the animal in his Reptiles of British
Ritsema Cz., C.
Of the above mentioned genus of Malacoderm Coleoptera, founded in 1848 by Westwood in his Cabinet of Oriental Entomology, twelve species have hitherto been described, all Natives of the Old World and distributed as follow: Sierra Leone (West Africa): one ¹); Moulmein (East-Indies): two ²); Ceylon: t
Gunaratne, Shelton A.
This issue of "Journalism Monographs" deals specifically with the state of newspaper journalism in Sri Lanka, formerly the Dominion of Ceylon. The country's literacy rate is about 81 percent. The first section of this article is a general discussion of newspaper journalism in Sri Lanka, examining historical background and such press…
Lent, John A., Ed.
This book is composed of 19 articles written by both Asian and American scholars on the history and present conditions of newspapers in 15 Asian nations: China, Hong Kong, Japan, Korea, Taiwan, Australia, Burma, Indonesia, Malaysia and Singapore, the Philippines, Thailand, South Vietnam, Ceylon, India, and Pakistan. Two overviews of the Asian…
This lengthy bibliography in English, French, and German lists documents and journal articles concerning educational finance. Most items were published in Canada and the United States, but listings are also included from France, Germany, Switzerland, and Ceylon. A few items include an ERIC accession number. The bibliography is not annotated and is…
An aqueous extract of Ceylon cinnamon (C. zeylanicum) was found to inhibit tau aggregation and filament formation, hallmarks of Alzheimer’s disease (AD) in vitro using brain cells taken from patients who died with AD. The extract also promoted complete disassembly of recombinant tau filaments, and ...
Parker, Elliott S.
John Thomson was a nineteenth-century British photojournalist who used the wet-plate process to illustrate his explorations of eastern and Southeast Asia. His travels from 1862 to 1872 took him to the following places, among others: Ceylon, Cambodia, Singapore, Thailand, Saigon, Siam, mainland China, and Taiwan. Thomson chose to use the wet-plate…
Full Text Available Traditional system of medicinal consists of large number of plants with various medicinal and pharmacological importances and hence represents a priceless tank of new bioactive molecules. Pedalium murex is a small herb distributed in tropical Africa, Ceylon, India and Mexico. It is commonly found in Deccan and some parts of Ceylon and Gujarat and in its costal areas of Southern India. It is commonly called Gokhru (Yaanai Nerinji a member of family Pedaliaceae. The plant is sweet, cooling, mucilaginous, diuretic and inflammatory and used to treat digestive, carminative, tonic, spasmodic affections, amenorrhoea, and vitiated conditions of pita, inflammation and general debility. This review will be helpful to create interest towards Pedalium murex and may be useful in developing new formulations with more therapeutic and economical value.
Around the 1950s an explosive population growth started in the Third World. Parallel with the population growth a global network grew up advocating population control and limited population growth. Sweden had a unique place in that network through a pioneering role promoting the issue in the UN organization. During the 20th century Sweden was a pioneer country in terms of initiatives for population control. Ceylon family planing pilot project was something new in a time when other donors cons...
Das Manosi; Mandal Suvra; Mallick Budhimanta; Hazra Jayram
Cinnamomum zeylanicum, popularly known as cinnamon or ceylon cinnamon refers to the tropical evergreen tree as well as the bark that is extracted from the plant. Cinnamon are recognized for its sweet flavour and aroma and used as an important spice in India in almost every delicious dishes .The spice has gained more importance due to its well uses as remedy for the treatment of various types of disorders in the Ayurvedic and folklore system of medicine in India from the era of “Charaka samhi...
Raveendran, T.V.; DeSouza, A; Wagh, A
). Geographical distribution: M. savartii is a common species around the world in wanner shallow waters (PilIai, 1981). It has been reported earlier from the Gulf of Mexico, Wcst Atlantic, Red Sea, East Indics, Indian Ocean, Ceylon, Australia, Califor nia, Japan... Rao, K.S. and P.N. Ganapati, 1972a. Some new and interesting bicellariellids (Polyzoan:Cheilostomata) from Visakhapatnam coast. Proceedings of the Indian National Science Academy, 38 : 212-219. Rao, K.S. and P.N. Ganapati, 1972b. On the common anascan...
ASIAN COASTAL MARINE AREAS Areas 1-4 Akyab, Calcutta, Vishakhapatnam, Masulipatam 1 AD 747 638 5-8 Madras, NE-SE-W Ceylon 2 AD 736 449 Set No.(2) 9-12...Gulf of Oman 5 AD 733 693 21-24 S Gulf of Oman, SE-NE-NW Persian Gulf 6 AD 737 909 SOUTHEAST ASIAN COASTAL MARINE AREAS Areas 1-4 Tonkin Gulf, Da...COASTAL MARINE AREAS Areas 1-8 Princess Charlotte Bay, Cairns, Cumberland 1 AD-A044518 Islands, Rockhampton, Brisbane, Coffs Harbour, Sydney, Cape Howe
Eliezer, C J; Maxwell, E A; Sneddon, I N
Concise Vector Analysis is a five-chapter introductory account of the methods and techniques of vector analysis. These methods are indispensable tools in mathematics, physics, and engineering. The book is based on lectures given by the author in the University of Ceylon.The first two chapters deal with vector algebra. These chapters particularly present the addition, representation, and resolution of vectors. The next two chapters examine the various aspects and specificities of vector calculus. The last chapter looks into some standard applications of vector algebra and calculus.This book wil
Behar, R Z; Davis, B; Wang, Y; Bahl, V; Lin, S; Talbot, P
In a prior study on electronic cigarette (EC) refill fluids, Cinnamon Ceylon was the most cytotoxic of 36 products tested. The purpose of the current study was to determine if high cytotoxicity is a general feature of cinnamon-flavored EC refill fluids and to identify the toxicant(s) in Cinnamon Ceylon. Eight cinnamon-flavored refill fluids, which were screened using the MTT assay, varied in their cytotoxicity with most being cytotoxic. Human embryonic stem cells were generally more sensitive than human adult pulmonary fibroblasts. Most products were highly volatile and produced vapors that impaired survival of cells in adjacent wells. Cinnamaldehyde (CAD), 2-methoxycinnamaldehyde (2MOCA), dipropylene glycol, and vanillin were identified in the cinnamon-flavored refill fluids using gas chromatography–mass spectrometry and high-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC). When authentic standards of each chemical were tested using the MTT assay, only CAD and 2MOCA were highly cytotoxic. The amount of each chemical in the refill fluids was quantified using HPLC, and cytotoxicity correlated with the amount of CAD/product. Duplicate bottles of the same product were similar, but varied in their concentrations of 2MOCA. These data show that the cinnamon flavorings in refill fluids are linked to cytotoxicity, which could adversely affect EC users.
Full Text Available Former British colony Ceylon (now Sri Lanka developed the University of Ceylon, Peradeniya as a model for the region. Its academic staff in the Social Sciences had their intellectual roots in the British or US traditions of scholarship due to their postgraduate training and research in these countries. Up to the early 1970s, there was a thriving academic atmosphere along with knowledge production and dissemination activities but this started to deteriorate with the socio-economic and political changes, changes in the language of instruction and the composition of the student body. A brain drain contributed to the creation of a different practitioner community of Anthropologists and Sociologists in the universities whose focus was more inward looking. Its links to Western traditions of scholarship also became weaker. Being a participant in this process from early 1970s up to the mid 1980s, the author uses his reflections and experiences to recount the changing nature of Anthropology and Sociology practice, theoretical emphasis, players involved, and the role of two research centres established outside the university system. The paper looks at the views of three Sri Lankan Anthropologists and Sociologists who have expressed concerns about the changing nature of teaching practices and constructed reality in Sri Lankan universities. The author connects these with the ongoing debate about Northern vs. Southern theory and prospects of alternative knowledge production articulated by Raewyn Connell.
LI Boting Another Woolf, with a Word on ＂Pearls and Swine＂ 3 Leonard Woolf, better known as husband of Virginia Woolf and one of the first propounders of the ＂international theory＂ that led to the formation of the League of Nations after WWI, boasted a rich and long career in writing, editing, publishing, and political theorizing. Being from 1904 to 1911 civil servant in Ceylon＇s colonial government changed his life, providing material for his various literary creations and converting him from an＂unconscious＂ and ＂innocent＂ imperialist to a conscious and conscientious socialist and anti-imperialist. The present article explores the limitations and ambiguities of the changing, and not always enlightening, expressions in his lifelong writing on empire and colony in the light of a short story based on his Ceylon experience, ＂Pearls and Swine＂.
Full Text Available Anopheles culicifacies is the vector of malaria in southeastern part of Iran, India, West Pakistan and Ceylon. In 1959 the LC50 % DDT in the Panchmahal district of Gujarat state (India had increased. DDT resistant population of A. culicifacies has been reported from West Pakistan, Burma and Iran. After application of DDT in 1959, the density of A. culicifacies decreased sharply. The susceptibility test carried out in 1963 showed that the LC50 was 0.5%.After DDT spraying, followed by Dieldrin, for about 10 years the density of A. culicifacies was so negligible that it was not possible to perform susceptibility tests. By April and May of 1973 the density of A.culicifacies in Saidabad, Khairabad and Hit in Baluchesten province, Southeast of Iran, increased to about 500 per shelter. The susceptibility tests carried out showed that A. culicfacies is resistant to DDT and susceptible to Dieldrin and Malathion.
Farewell, Vern; Johnson, Tony; Gear, Rosemary
We have previously described the content of a text by Woods and Russell, An Introduction to Medical Statistics, compared it with Principles of Medical Statistics by Hill and set both volumes against the background of vital statistics up until 1937. The two books mark a watershed in the history of medical statistics. Very little has been recorded about the life and career of the first author of the earlier textbook, who was a Fellow of the Royal Statistical Society for at least 25 years, an omission which we can now rectify with this paper. We describe her education, entry into medical statistics, relationship with Major Greenwood and her subsequent career and life in Ceylon, Kenya, Australia, England and South Africa.
Jagtap Supriya G.
Full Text Available Ficus glomerata Linn. (Moraceae, commonly known as Ficus racemosa. A large deciduous tree distributed all over India and Ceylon, found throughout the year, grows in evergreen forest, moist localities, along the sides of ravines and banks of streams. Gular (Ficus glomerata Linn. is well known, commonly used plant in various disorders. It has been traditionally claimed to be useful in asthmatic condition, as an antitussive and anti-inflammatory. Successive soxhlet extractions of dried powdered bark were carried out using petroleum ether and methanol as a solvent. The antimicrobial activity of the extracts were tested in vitro against two different bacterial species Bacillus substilis and Escherichia coli by cup plate diffusion method were used in this investigation. The results of antimicrobial activity revealed that methanolic extract showed good activity as compared to petroleum ether extract. Methanolic extract is more potent towards gram - positive bacteria. The antimicrobial activities of the extracts were compared with standard antibiotics.
Om Prakash Rout
Full Text Available Coleus aromaticus Benth., (Fam. Lamiaceae, syn. Coleus amboinicus Lour. Spreng or Plectranthus ambonicus Lour, is commonly known as Indian/ country borage and ‘Pathorchur’ in Hindi and Bengali. It is recorded in the Indian system of medicine as one of the sources of Pashanabheda. It is large succulent aromatic perennial herb, shrubby below, hispidly villous or tomentose. It is found throughout India, Ceylon and Moluccas. The leaves of the plant are bitter, acrid and were being widely used traditionally for various purposes. The plant has been worked out very well and isolated several chemical constituents and had shown various biological properties. This review is an effort to compile all the information reported on its macroscopic, microscopic features, nutritional content, phytochemistry, pharmacology and therapeutic uses.
Tiwari, Ashok Kumar
Vegetables have been part of human food since prehistoric times and are considered nutritionally necessary and good for health. Vegetables are rich natural resource of biological antioxidants and possess capabilities of maintaining glucose homeostasis. When taken before starch-rich diet, juice also of vegetables such as ridge gourd, bottle gourd, ash gourd, chayote and juice of leaves of vegetables such as radish, Indian Dill, ajwain, tropical green amaranth, and bladder dock are reported to arrest significantly the rise in postprandial blood glucose level. Juice of vegetables such as ash gourd, squash gourd, and tropical green amaranth leaves are observed to tone-down sweet-beverages such as sucrose, fructose, and glucose-induced postprandial glycemic excursion. On the other hand, juice of egg-plant and juice of leaves of Ceylon spinach, Joyweed, and palak are reported to augment starch-induced postprandial glycemic excursion; and juice of leaves of Ceylon spinach, Joyweed, and radish supplement to the glucose-induced postprandial glycemia. Vegetables possess multifaceted antihyperglycemic activities such as inhibition of pancreatic α-amylase and intestinal α-glucosidase, inhibition of protein-tyrosine phosphatase 1β in liver and skeletal muscles, and insulin mimetic and secretagogue activities. Furthermore, they are also reported to influence polyol pathway in favor of reducing development of oxidative stress, and consequently the development of diabetic complications. In the wake of emergence of modern maladaptive diet-induced hyperglycemic epidemic therefore, vegetables may offer cost-effective dietary regimen to control diet-induced glycemic over load and future development of diabetes mellitus. However, for vegetables have been reported to do both, mitigate as well as supplement to the diet-induced postprandial glycemic load, care is required in selection of vegetables when considered as medicament. PMID:24991093
Tiwari, Ashok Kumar
Vegetables have been part of human food since prehistoric times and are considered nutritionally necessary and good for health. Vegetables are rich natural resource of biological antioxidants and possess capabilities of maintaining glucose homeostasis. When taken before starch-rich diet, juice also of vegetables such as ridge gourd, bottle gourd, ash gourd, chayote and juice of leaves of vegetables such as radish, Indian Dill, ajwain, tropical green amaranth, and bladder dock are reported to arrest significantly the rise in postprandial blood glucose level. Juice of vegetables such as ash gourd, squash gourd, and tropical green amaranth leaves are observed to tone-down sweet-beverages such as sucrose, fructose, and glucose-induced postprandial glycemic excursion. On the other hand, juice of egg-plant and juice of leaves of Ceylon spinach, Joyweed, and palak are reported to augment starch-induced postprandial glycemic excursion; and juice of leaves of Ceylon spinach, Joyweed, and radish supplement to the glucose-induced postprandial glycemia. Vegetables possess multifaceted antihyperglycemic activities such as inhibition of pancreatic α-amylase and intestinal α-glucosidase, inhibition of protein-tyrosine phosphatase 1β in liver and skeletal muscles, and insulin mimetic and secretagogue activities. Furthermore, they are also reported to influence polyol pathway in favor of reducing development of oxidative stress, and consequently the development of diabetic complications. In the wake of emergence of modern maladaptive diet-induced hyperglycemic epidemic therefore, vegetables may offer cost-effective dietary regimen to control diet-induced glycemic over load and future development of diabetes mellitus. However, for vegetables have been reported to do both, mitigate as well as supplement to the diet-induced postprandial glycemic load, care is required in selection of vegetables when considered as medicament.
Ashok Kumar Tiwari
Full Text Available Vegetables have been part of human food since prehistoric times and are considered nutritionally necessary and good for health. Vegetables are rich natural resource of biological antioxidants and possess capabilities of maintaining glucose homeostasis. When taken before starch-rich diet, juice also of vegetables such as ridge gourd, bottle gourd, ash gourd, chayote and juice of leaves of vegetables such as radish, Indian Dill, ajwain, tropical green amaranth, and bladder dock are reported to arrest significantly the rise in postprandial blood glucose level. Juice of vegetables such as ash gourd, squash gourd, and tropical green amaranth leaves are observed to tone-down sweet-beverages such as sucrose, fructose, and glucose-induced postprandial glycemic excursion. On the other hand, juice of egg-plant and juice of leaves of Ceylon spinach, Joyweed, and palak are reported to augment starch-induced postprandial glycemic excursion; and juice of leaves of Ceylon spinach, Joyweed, and radish supplement to the glucose-induced postprandial glycemia. Vegetables possess multifaceted antihyperglycemic activities such as inhibition of pancreatic α-amylase and intestinal α-glucosidase, inhibition of protein-tyrosine phosphatase 1β in liver and skeletal muscles, and insulin mimetic and secretagogue activities. Furthermore, they are also reported to influence polyol pathway in favor of reducing development of oxidative stress, and consequently the development of diabetic complications. In the wake of emergence of modern maladaptive diet-induced hyperglycemic epidemic therefore, vegetables may offer cost-effective dietary regimen to control diet-induced glycemic over load and future development of diabetes mellitus. However, for vegetables have been reported to do both, mitigate as well as supplement to the diet-induced postprandial glycemic load, care is required in selection of vegetables when considered as medicament.
Naldi, Marina; Fiori, Jessica; Gotti, Roberto; Périat, Aurélie; Veuthey, Jean-Luc; Guillarme, Davy; Andrisano, Vincenza
An ultra-high performance liquid chromatography (UHPLC) with UV detection method was developed for the fast quantitation of the most represented and biologically important green tea catechins and caffeine. UHPLC system was equipped with C18 analytical column (50mm×2.1mm, 1.8μm), utilizing a mobile phase composed of pH 2.5 triethanolamine phosphate buffer (0.1M) and acetonitrile in a gradient elution mode; under these conditions six major catechins and caffeine were separated in a 3min run. The method was fully validated in terms of precision, detection and quantification limits, linearity, accuracy, and it was applied to the identification and quantification of catechins and caffeine present in green tea infusions. In particular, commercially available green tea leaves samples of different geographical origin (Sencha, Ceylon Green and Lung Ching) were used for infusion preparations (water at 85°C for 15min). The selectivity of the developed UHPLC method was confirmed by comparison with UHPLC-MS/MS analysis. The recovery of the main six catechins and caffeine on the three analyzed commercial tea samples ranged from 94 to 108% (n=3). Limits of detection (LOD) were comprised in the range 0.1-0.4μgmL(-1). An orthogonal micellar electrokinetic (MEKC) method was applied for comparative purposes on selectivity and quantitative data. The combined use of the results obtained by the two techniques allowed for a fast confirmation on quantitative characterization of commercial samples.
C. de Ruyter
Full Text Available On Austro-Dutch and the origin of Afrikaans A widely accepted view of the origin of Afrikaans holds that the new language developed autochthonously, after 1652 when the language of the early Cape settlers was influenced by imported slaves speaking Malay and Portuguese, and by the pidgin talk of the Cape Khoikhoi. This “autochthonous hypothesis”, however, does not take cognizance of the fact that shortened (deflected Dutch verb forms found in Afrikaans, for instance, are also found in loan words in the Ceylon-Portuguese creole, as well as in Indonesian, and Malay-influenced languages of Indonesia. Moreover, large numbers of Dutch East India Company sojourners, who had acquired an “adapted” form of Dutch during their stay in the East, spent a significant time at the Cape on their return voyage. The argument is put forward that they brought with them a number of language features clearly comparable with “distinctive features” in incipient (and developed Afrikaans, such as the shortened verb and the use of the perfect instead of imperfect verb forms to indicate a simple past tense. The variety of Dutch spoken by them is called Austro-Dutch, which, it is argued, forms the basis of an “oceanic hypothesis” to add a new dimension to theories about the formation of Afrikaans.
Nhu-Trang, Tran-Thi; Casabianca, Hervé; Grenier-Loustalot, Marie-Florence
Enantioselective capillary GC on a Supelco beta-DEX 225 column (heptakis(2,3-di-O-acetyl-6-O-tert-butyldimethylsilyl)-beta-cyclodextrin SPB 20poly--20% diphenyl, 80% dimethylsiloxane) and isotope-ratio mass spectrometry, coupled online with capillary GC on an HP5 column have been used for origin-specific analysis and authenticity control of essential oils, for example lemon (Citrus limon), lemongrass (Cymbopogon citratus and Cymbopogon flexuosus), citronella (Cymbopogon nardus L.--Ceylon type and Cymbopogon winterianus--Java type), Litsea cubeba, Lippia citriodora, lemon myrtle (Backhousia citriodora), lemon gum (Eucalyptus citriodora), and, especially, precious lemon balm oil (Melissa officinalis L.). Isotope data (delta13C(PDB) and delta2H(V-SMOW)) for citral (neral + geranial) and citronellal from on-line GC-C/Py-IRMS and chiral data for citronellal in these essential oils are reported. The possibility of using these data to determine the origin of these essential oils and to detect adulteration is discussed. Principal-components analysis (PCA) of specific compounds in two essential oils of lemongrass and Litsea cubeba was performed as a practical statistical method for distinguishing between these two types of oil.
Full Text Available Abstract Background International guidelines on research have focused on protecting research participants. Ethical Research Committee (ERC approval and informed consent are the cornerstones. Externally sponsored research requires approval through ethical review in both the host and the sponsoring country. This study aimed to determine to what extent ERC approval and informed consent procedures are documented in locally and internationally published human subject research carried out in Sri Lanka. Methods We obtained ERC approval in Sri Lanka and the United Kingdom. Theses from 1985 to 2005 available at the Postgraduate Institute of Medicine (PGIM library affiliated to the University of Colombo were scrutinised using checklists agreed in consultation with senior research collaborators. A Medline search was carried out with MeSH major and minor heading 'Sri Lanka' as the search term for international publications originating in Sri Lanka during 1999 to 2004. All research publications from CMJ during 1999 to 2005 were also scrutinized. Results Of 291 theses, 34% documented ERC approvals and 61% documented obtaining consent. From the international journal survey, 250 publications originated from Sri Lanka of which only 79 full text original research publications could be accessed electronically. Of these 38% documented ERC approval and 39% documented obtaining consent. In the Ceylon Medical Journal 36% documented ERC approval and 37% documented obtaining consent. Conclusion Only one third of the publications scrutinized recorded ERC approval and procurement of informed consent. However, there is a positive trend in documenting these ethical requirements in local postgraduate research and in the local medical journal.
A. J. G. H. KOSTERMANS
Full Text Available The monotypic genus Cullenia was established by Wight (IconesPI. Ind. or. 5 (1 : pi. 1761—62 & text, 1851, who differentiated it fromDurio Adans. mainly by the lack of a corolla and the position and shapeof the anthers. The only species, originally described as Durio ceylanicusby Gardner, was cited by Wight as Cullenia excelsa Wight. K. Schumanncorrected the specific epithet rather casually and atributed it (wronglyto Wight. Bentham (in Benth. & Hook., Gen. pi. 1: 212. 1867; Baillon(Hist. pi. 4: 159. 1872, Masters (in Hook, f., Fl. Br. Ind. 1: 350. 1874and Beccari (Malesia 3: 219. 1889 accepted the genus.Bakhuizen van den Brink (in Bull. Jard. bot. Buitenzorg III, 6: 228.1924 incorporated the genus in Durio.In my opinion Cullenia represents a "good" genus by its lack ofcorolla. Alston, although accepting Bakhuizen's reduction, informed mepersonally, that he, too, is inclined to consider Cullenia different fromDurio.The pollen were described as being naked and pedicellate by Gardner;this wrong statement was corrected by Wight; the anthers are pedicellateand one-celled.In this paper a new Cullenia species is described, which strengthensthe position of the genus; both species are restricted to the rain forestregion of Ceylon and the Southern Indian Peninsula.
Full Text Available Cinnamomum zeylanicum, popularly known as cinnamon or ceylon cinnamon refers to the tropical evergreen tree as well as the bark that is extracted from the plant. Cinnamon are recognized for its sweet flavour and aroma and used as an important spice in India in almost every delicious dishes .The spice has gained more importance due to its well uses as remedy for the treatment of various types of disorders in the Ayurvedic and folklore system of medicine in India from the era of “Charaka samhita”. The herb is used for the treatment of dyspeptic conditions, flatulence, loss of appetite, abdominal pain with diarrhoea, inflammation of the eye, leukorrhoea, vaginitis, rheumatism, neuralgia, wounds, and toothache. The oil isolated from the different parts of the plant containing cinnamaldehyde and eugenol as major constituents are considered as active principle of cinnamon. Over the past two decades many scientific journals are describing its nutritional and medicinal properties. This review has tried to include an up to date phytochemical and biological research on cinnamon. The ethnobotanical uses have also been discussed.
Full Text Available A monograph of Pometia, which extends from Ceylon throughout Malaysia to Samoa, with a few stations in SE. Asia and Formosa. Two species are recognized: P. ridleyi and P. pinnata, the latter having a particular pattern of alternating- nerves. Pometia pinnata is extremely variable and clearly still in process of differentiation. From the wealth of forms, 8 formae have been selected for taxonomic recognition, 1 of them is newly described, 7 are new combinations; characters are found in the leaves and the inflorescence. Besides, a number of unnamed paramorphs have been described. The distribution of the variability has been sketched for each region. Details about ecology etc. are given. Specimens are cited where appropriate and a general Identification List is given at the end.
Garaniya, Narendra; Bapodra, Atul
Medicinal plants are being widely used, either as a single drug or in combination in health care delivery system. Medicinal plants can be important source of previously unknown chemical substances with potential therapeutic effects. Abrus precatorius L. is commonly known as Gunja or Jequirity and abundantly found all throughout the plains of India, from Himalaya down to Southern India and Ceylon. This plant is having medicinal potential to cure various diseases. The roots, leaves and seeds of this plant are used for different medicinal purpose. It principally contains flavonoids, triterpene glycosides, abrin and alkaloids. The plant have been reported for neuromuscular effects, neuro-protective, abortifacient, antiepileptic, anti-viral, anti-malarial, antifertility, nephroprotective, immunomodulator, immunostimulatory properties, anti-inflammatory activity, antidiabetic effect, etc. As this is a potential medicinal plant, present review reveals chemical constituents of leaf, root and seeds of Abrus precatorius. The plant is considered as a valuable source of unique natural products for development of medicines against various diseases and also for the development of industrial products. PMID:25183095
Narendra Garaniya; Atul Bapodra
Medicinal plants are being widely used, either as a single drug or in combination in health care delivery system. Medicinal plants can be important source of previously unknown chemical substances with potential therapeutic effects. Abrus precatorius L. is commonly known as Gunja or Jequirity and abundantly found all throughout the plains of India, from Himalaya down to Southern India and Ceylon. This plant is having medicinal potential to cure various diseases. The roots, leaves and seeds of this plant are used for different medicinal purpose. It principally contains flavonoids, triterpene glycosides, abrin and alkaloids. The plant have been reported for neuromuscular effects, neuro-protective, abortifacient, antiepileptic, anti-viral, anti-malarial, antifertility, nephroprotective, immunomodulator, immunostimulatory properties, anti-inflammatory activity, antidiabetic effect, etc. As this is a potential medicinal plant, present review reveals chemical constituents of leaf, root and seeds of Abrus precatorius. The plant is considered as a valuable source of unique natural products for development of medicines against various diseases and also for the development of industrial products.
Full Text Available Medicinal plants are being widely used, either as a single drug or in combination in health care delivery system. Medicinal plants can be important source of previously unknown chemical substances with potential therapeutic effects. Abrus precatorius L. is commonly known as Gunja or Jequirity and abundantly found all throughout the plains of India, from Himalaya down to Southern India and Ceylon. This plant is having medicinal potential to cure various diseases. The roots, leaves and seeds of this plant are used for different medicinal purpose. It principally contains flavonoids, triterpene glycosides, abrin and alkaloids. The plant have been reported for neuromuscular effects, neuro-protective, abortifacient, antiepileptic, anti-viral, anti-malarial, antifertility, nephroprotective, immunomodulator, immunostimulatory properties, anti-inflammatory activity, antidiabetic effect, etc. As this is a potential medicinal plant, present review reveals chemical constituents of leaf, root and seeds of Abrus precatorius. The plant is considered as a valuable source of unique natural products for development of medicines against various diseases and also for the development of industrial products.
Patel, Dinesh Kumar; Laloo, Damiki; Kumar, Rajesh; Hemalatha, Siva
Pedalium murex Linn (family: Pedaliaceae) (P. murex) commonly known as Large Caltrops and Gokhru (India) is a shrub found in the Southern part, Deccan region of India and in some parts of Ceylon. Different parts of the plant are used to treat various ailments like, cough, cold and as an antiseptic. Interestingly, P. murex is reported traditionally to have an excellent cure in patients with reproductive disorders which are mainly impotency in men, nocturnal emissions, gonorrhoea as well as leucorrhoea in women. The plant has also benifited in complications like urinary track disorder as well as gastro intestinal tract disorders. Phytochemically the plant is popular for the presence of a considerable amount of diosgenin and vanillin which are regarded as an important source and useful starting materials for synthesizing steroidal contraceptive drugs and isatin alkaloids. Other phytochemicals reported in the plant includes quercetin, ursolic acid, caffeic acid, amino acids (glycine, histidine, tyrosine, threonine, aspartic acid and glutamic acid) and various classes of fatty acids (triacontanoic acid, nonacosane, tritriacontane, tetratriacontanyl and heptatriacontan-4-one). Pharmacologically, the plant have been investigated for antiulcerogenic, nephroprotective, hypolipidemic, aphrodisiac, antioxidant, antimicrobial and insecticidal activities. From all these reports it can be concluded that the plant were found to have a better profile with potential natural source for the treatment of various range of either acute or chronic disease. The overall database of our review article was collected from the scientific sources in regards with all the information of the research article for P. murex published so far.
Dinesh Kumar Patel; Damiki Laloo; Rajesh Kumar; Siva Hemalatha
Pedalium murex Linn (family: Pedaliaceae) (P. murex) commonly known as Large Caltrops and Gokhru (India) is a shrub found in the Southern part, Deccan region of India and in some parts of Ceylon. Different parts of the plant are used to treat various ailments like, cough, cold and as an antiseptic. Interestingly,P. murex is reported traditionally to have an excellent cure in patients with reproductive disorders which are mainly impotency in men, nocturnal emissions, gonorrhoea as well as leucorrhoea in women. The plant has also benifited in complications like urinary track disorder as well as gastro intestinal tract disorders. Phytochemically the plant is popular for the presence of a considerable amount of diosgenin and vanillin which are regarded as an important source and useful starting materials for synthesizing steroidal contraceptive drugs and isatin alkaloids. Other phytochemicals reported in the plant includes quercetin, ursolic acid, caffeic acid, amino acids (glycine, histidine, tyrosine, threonine, aspartic acid and glutamic acid) and various classes of fatty acids (triacontanoic acid, nonacosane, tritriacontane, tetratriacontanyl and heptatriacontan-4-one). Pharmacologically, the plant have been investigated for antiulcerogenic, nephroprotective, hypolipidemic, aphrodisiac, antioxidant, antimicrobial and insecticidal activities. From all these reports it can be concluded that the plant were found to have a better profile with potential natural source for the treatment of various range of either acute or chronic disease. The overall database of our review article was collected from the scientific sources in regards with all the information of the research article forP. murex published so far.
Diah Virsa Hastuti
Full Text Available Cytological observations have been carried out by several researchers in South China, Japan, Ceylon, Hongkong, Himalaya and Java. The results from various regions showed that P. multifida had a fairly high genetic variation, namely diploid, triploid and tetraploid types. Therefore cytological and reproductive study on P. multifida from its geographical distribution areas need to be done. The objectives of this research were to observe the somatic chromosome number and reproductive type of P. multifida, and to recognize the relationship between morphological variation and its ploidy level as well as stomatal index. Plants were collected from several localities in Bogor. Ploidy level was determined by observing somatic chromosome number by using squash methods. Reproductive type was determined by counting spore number in each sporangium. Morphological characters examined were the stipe, lamina, pinnae, veins, and indusium. Observations of stomata and epidermis of leaves were done by making an incision paradermal leaf. Pteris multifida has two ploidy level and reproduction type, namely apogamous triploid (2n = 87 and sexual tetraploid (2n = 116. The two ploidy levels could not be distinguished based on morphological characteristics, but they can be differentiated by their epidermal cells number. Apogamous triploid has fewer number of epidermal cells, the sexual tetraploid has a greater number of epidermis.
Mateos-Martín, María Luisa; Fuguet, Elisabet; Quero, Carmen; Pérez-Jiménez, Jara; Torres, Josep Lluís
The inner bark of Ceylon cinnamon (Cinnamomum zeylanicum L.) is commonly used as a spice and has also been widely employed in the treatment and prevention of disease. The positive health effects associated with the consumption of cinnamon could in part be due to its phenolic composition; proanthocyanidins (PA) are the major polyphenolic component in commercial cinnamon. We present a thorough study of the PA profile of cinnamon obtained using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization tandem time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF/TOF) mass spectrometry. In addition to the advantages of MALDI-TOF as a sensitive technique for the analysis of high-molecular-weight compounds, the tandem arrangement allows the identification of the compounds through their fragmentation patterns from MS/MS experiments. This is the first time that this technique has been used to analyze polymeric PA. The results show that cinnamon PA are more complex than was previously thought. We show here for the first time that they contain (epi)gallocatechin and (epi)catechingallate units. As gallates (galloyl moieties) and the pyrogallol group in gallocatechins have been related to the biological activity of grape and tea polyphenols, the presence of these substructures may explain some of the properties of cinnamon extracts. MALDI-TOF/TOF reveals that cinnamon bark PA include combinations of (epi)catechin, (epi)catechingallate, (epi)gallocatechin, and (epi)afzelechin, which results in a highly heterogeneous mixture of procyanidins, prodelphinidins, and propelargonidins.
Full Text Available Coen!: Geroemd en verguisd.Aad van Amstel, Barbaren, rebellen en mandarijnen: De VOC in de slag met China in de Gouden Eeuw.Frits van Dulm, ‘Zonder eigen gewinne en glorie’: Mr. Iman Wilhelm Falck (1736-1785, gouverneur en directeur van Ceylon en Onderhorigheden.Margaret Leidelmeijer, Plantages in Nederlands-Indië, de lange negentiende eeuw: ‘Het verhaal van Indië’ uitgediept.Andréa A. Kroon en Audrey Wagtberg Hansen, Smaragd: Indisch erfgoed in Den Haag.Sophie De Smet, Indië door de lens van koningin Elisabeth: Beeldverslag van een bijzondere reis.Denise Frank, Cultuur onder vuur: Het Tropeninstituut in oorlogstijd.Ad van Liempt, Nederland valt aan: Op weg naar oorlog met Indonesië.Hans E. Aitink, De Indiëlijn van de KLM herboren 1945-1950.Gerard Kramer, Schaakmat in Jakarta: Soeharto’s revanche op de Haagse politiek.Liesbeth Dolk, Vindplaatsen: De Indische jaren van F. Springer.Reimar Schefold, Wees goed voor je ziel: Mijn jaren bij de Sakuddei.Lenny van Gessel, Een gevoelige snaar: Muziekbeoefening van Indo’s en Molukkers in Nederland.
Hagey, L R; Crombie, D L; Espinosa, E; Carey, M C; Igimi, H; Hofmann, A F
The biliary bile acid composition of gallbladder bile obtained from six species of bears (Ursidae), the Giant panda, the Red panda, and 11 related carnivores were determined by reversed phase liquid chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Bile acids were conjugated solely with taurine (in N-acyl linkage) in all species. Ursodeoxycholic acid (3 alpha, 7 beta-dihydroxy-5 beta-cholan-24-oic acid) was present in all Ursidae, averaging 1-39% of biliary bile acids depending on the species; it was not detected or present as a trace constituent (bears, and its proportion averaged 34% (range 0-62%). Ursodeoxycholic acid averaged 17% of biliary bile acids in the Polar bear (n = 4) and 18% in the Brown bear (n = 6). Lower proportions (1-8%) were present in the Sun bear (n = 2), Ceylon Sloth bear (n = 1), and the Spectacled bear (n = 1). Bile of all species contained taurine-conjugated chenodeoxycholic acid and cholic acid. In some related carnivores, deoxycholic acid, the 7-dehydroxylation product of cholic acid, was also present. To determine whether the 7 beta hydroxy group of ursodeoxycholic acid was formed by hepatic or bacterial enzymes, bile acids were determined in hepatic bile obtained from bears with chronic biliary fistulae. Fistula bile samples contained ursodeoxycholic acid, chenodeoxycholic acid, and a trace amount of cholic acid, all as taurine conjugates, indicating that ursodeoxycholic acid is a primary bile acid formed in the liver in Ursidae.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
The rhetoric surrounding the transportation of prisoners to the Straits Settlements and the reformative capacity of the penal labor regime assumed a uniform subject, an impoverished criminal, who could be disciplined and accordingly civilized through labor. Stamford Raffles, as lieutenant governor of Benkulen, believed that upon realizing the advantages of the new colony, criminals would willingly become settlers. These two colonial prerogatives of labor and population categorized transportees into laboring classes where their exploitation supposedly brought mutual benefit. The colonized was collectively homogenized as a class of laborers and evidence to the contrary, of politically challenging and resistant individuals was suppressed. This paper focuses on two prisoners who were incriminated during the anti-colonial rebellions of the mid-nineteenth century and were transported to the Straits Settlements. Nihal Singh, a political prisoner from Lahore, was incarcerated in isolation to prevent his martyrdom and denied the supposed benefits of labor reform. Conversely, Tikiri Banda Dunuwille, a lawyer from Ceylon was sent to labor in Melaka as a form of humiliation. Tikiri’s many schemes to evade labor damned him in the eyes of the authorities. The personal histories of these two individuals expose how colonial penal policy recognized and manipulated individual differences during a time of rising anti-colonial sentiment. The experiences of these prisoners, the response of their communities and the voices of their descendents offer us a very different entry point into colonial penal history.
Gotti, Roberto; Furlanetto, Sandra; Lanteri, Silvia; Olmo, Stefano; Ragaini, Alessandro; Cavrini, Vanni
A chiral CD-MEKC method, enantioselective for catechin and gallocatechin, was developed, validated and applied to the analysis of tea samples. The method was addressed to the fast and simultaneous quantitation of the most represented and biologically important green tea catechins and methylxanthines. The CD-MEKC was based on SDS as surfactant (90 mM) and hydroxypropyl-beta-CD (25 mM) as chiral selector, under acidic conditions (25 mM borate-phosphate buffer, pH 2.5). The method was first applied to study the thermal epimerisation of epi-structured catechins, (-)-epicatechin and (-)-epigallocatechin, to non-epi-structured (-)-catechin and (-)-gallocatechin. The latter compounds, being non-native molecules, were for the first time regarded as useful phytomarkers of tea samples subjected to thermal treatment. The proposed method was applied to the analysis of more than twenty tea samples of different geographical origins (China, Japan, Ceylon), having undergone different storage conditions and manufacturing processes. Finally, factor analysis was used to visualise the useful information contained in the data set, showing that it was possible to distinguish tea samples on the basis of their different contents of native and non-native catechins.
Monbaliu, Sofie; Wu, Aibo; Zhang, Dabing; Van Peteghem, Carlos; De Saeger, Sarah
In recent years the consumption of tea and herbal infusions has increased. These hot drinks are consumed as daily drinks as well as for medicinal purposes. All tea varieties (white, yellow, green, oolong, black and puerh) originate from the leaves of the tea plant, Camellia sinensis. All extracts made of plant or herbal materials which do not contain Camellia sinensis are referred as herbal infusions or tisanes. During processing and manufacturing fungal contamination of the plant materials is possible, enabling contamination of these products with mycotoxins. In this study a multimycotoxin UPLC-MS/MS method was developed and validated for the analysis of the raw tea and herbal infusion materials as well as for their drinkable products. The samples were analyzed by ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS), with a mobile phase consisting of variable mixtures of water and methanol with 0.3% formic acid. The limits of detection for the different mycotoxins varied between 2.1 μg/kg and 121 μg/kg for raw materials and between 0.4 μg/L and 46 μg/L for drinkable products. Afterward 91 different tea and herbal infusion samples were analyzed. Only in one sample, Ceylon melange, 76 μg/kg fumonisin B(1) was detected. No mycotoxins were detected in the drinkable products.
Seneviratne, H R; de Silva, G D; de Silva, M V; Rudra, T
Artificial rupture of the membranes during established labor is believed to augment labor progression, but this practice carries the risk of maternal and neonatal infection. A prospective study conducted at De Soysa Hospital for Women in Colombo, Ceylon, in 1995 compared the obstetric performance, perinatal outcome, and risk of neonatal infection in 151 women with spontaneous rupture of membranes (SROM) and 173 women with artificial rupture of membranes (AROM). The need for oxytocin was higher in both primi- and multigravidae in the AROM group (37.5% and 38.8%, respectively) than the SROM group (24.7% and 18.9%, respectively), but this association reached statistical significance only among multigravidae. Also higher in the AROM group than the SROM group, but not significantly, were the rates of instrumental delivery and emergency cesarean section. Compared with primigravid AROM women, a significantly larger number of primigravid AROM women had abnormal auscultated fetal heart rates and cardiotopographic patterns. The appearance of meconium in liquor and the occurrence of low Apgar scores were similar in both groups. There were no clinical maternal or neonatal infections, but the intrauterine sites showed evidence of inflammation soon after membrane rupture. 36.1% of women in the SROM group and 24.0% of those in the AROM group whose cord and membranes were evaluated had histologic evidence of inflammation. Choreoamnionitis and funisitis were slightly more common in the AROM group. The potential for infection at intrauterine sites had no linear relationship to the mean membrane rupture-delivery interval or the number of vaginal examinations.
Full Text Available Abstract Background The comparative analysis of genome sequences emerging for several avian species with the fully sequenced chicken genome enables the genome-wide investigation of selective processes in functionally important chicken genes. In particular, because of pathogenic challenges it is expected that genes involved in the chicken immune system are subject to particularly strong adaptive pressure. Signatures of selection detected by inter-species comparison may then be investigated at the population level in global chicken populations to highlight potentially relevant functional polymorphisms. Results Comparative evolutionary analysis of chicken (Gallus gallus and zebra finch (Taeniopygia guttata genes identified interleukin 4 receptor alpha-chain (IL-4Rα, a key cytokine receptor as a candidate with a significant excess of substitutions at nonsynonymous sites, suggestive of adaptive evolution. Resequencing and detailed population genetic analysis of this gene in diverse village chickens from Asia and Africa, commercial broilers, and in outgroup species red jungle fowl (JF, grey JF, Ceylon JF, green JF, grey francolin and bamboo partridge, suggested elevated and balanced diversity across all populations at this gene, acting to preserve different high-frequency alleles at two nonsynonymous sites. Conclusion Haplotype networks indicate that red JF is the primary contributor of diversity at chicken IL-4Rα: the signature of variation observed here may be due to the effects of domestication, admixture and introgression, which produce high diversity. However, this gene is a key cytokine-binding receptor in the immune system, so balancing selection related to the host response to pathogens cannot be excluded.
Full Text Available Walaupun penyakit demam berdarah terdapat dimana-mana didaerah Asia Tenggara termasuk Indonesia, namun demikian belum pernah dilaporkan adanya di propinsi Irian Jaya. Vector utama penyakit tersebut adalah A. (Stegomya aegypti meskipun A. (S albopictus juga dapat menjadi vectornya. Penyakit lain yang terpenting dapat ditularkan oleh A. aegypti ialah yellow fever, dimana virusnya hanya terdapat di Afrika dan Amerika. Mengingat letak geografis yang sangat dekat dan kommunikasi yang regular baik melalui laut dan udara dengan negara-negara seperti Philipana, Thailand, Singapura, Vietnam, India, Ceylon dan Indonesia, maka setiap saat kedua penyakit tersebut kemungkinan dapat menginfeksi penduduk Irian Jaya. Untuk membantu mempelajari apakah infeksi dapat terjadi maka dari bulan September sampai dengan Desember 1968 telah dilakukan survey pendahuluan untuk mengetahui species Aedes yang ada dan distribusinya di pelabuhan-pelabuhan laut maupun udara terpenting di Irian Jaya. Survey ini dilakukan dengan cara mengadakan penangkapan serta pemeriksaan nyamuk dan larva yang terdapat pada setiap bangunan didaerah pelabuhan laut maupun udara. Berdasarkan hasil survey yang dilakukan ternyata ditemukan adanya 7 species Aedes yaitu, A. aegypti, A. albopictus, A. (S scutellaris, A. (Finlaya koehi, A. (Ochlerotatus vigilax, A. (S alboleneatus, dan A. (F novalbitarsis. Walaupun Van Den Assem & Bonne Wepster (1964 menyatakan bahwa sebagian besar di wilayah Irian Jaya masih belum ditemukan adanya A. aegypti tetapi pada penelitian ini ternyata dari 11 pelabuhan laut dan udara, 9 diantaranya ditemukan A. aegypti. Timbulnya A. aegypti pada beberapa kota diwilayah Irian Jaya pada tahun 1968 mungkin disebabkan karena pemindahan vector tersebut dari daerah-daerah lain melalui kapal laut maupun udara yang merupakan alat pengangkut dari satu daerah kedaerah lain.
Full Text Available - Umar Junus, Claire Holt, Culture and politics in Indonesia, Cornell Univ. Press, Ithaca and London, 1972. xi, 348 pp., maps, indexes., Benedict R. O’G. Anderson, James Siegel (eds. - S. Avé, Robert Stiller, Antologia Literatury Malajskiej. Biblioteka Narodowa, Zaklad Narodowy im. Ossolinskich, Wroclaw etc. 1971. 528 p. - H.J. Heering, J. van Baal, De boodschap der drie illusies. Van Gorcum & Co. Assen 1972. 135 blz. - The Siauw Giap, Goh Cheng Teik, The Malay Thirteenth incident and democracy in Malaysia. Oxford in Asia Current Affairs. Oxford University Press, Kula Lumpur & Singapore, 1971. 76 p. - W.F. Wertheim, Harry J. Benda, Continuity and change in Southeast Asia: Collected journal articles, Southeast Asia studies, Yale University, New Haven 1972, 307 p. - J.J. Ras, James Danandjaja, An annotated bibliography of Javanese folklore, Occasional paper no.9, Center for South and Southeast Asia studies, University of California, Berkeley, 1972, 162 pp. - I. Schöffer, Rob Nieuwenhuys, Oost Indische spiegel. Wat Nederlandse schrijvers en dichters over Indonesië hebben geschreven, vanaf de eerste jaren der Compagnie tot heden. Em. Querido, Amsterdam 1972. 645 blz. (Inleiding 11-18, Aantekeningen 555-621, Verantwoording 622-25, Namen en adressen 626, Woordenlijst 627-30, Register 631-45. - E. Postel-Coster, James L. Peacock, Indonesia; an anthropological perspective. Goodyear regional anthropological series, Edword Norbeck (ed.. Goodyear publishing company, Inc., Pacific Palisades, California, 1973. 168 pp. - C. Baks, O.H.K. Spate, India, Pakistan and Ceylon, the regions. Methuen and Co. Ltd., University Paperback 420, London 1972. 407-862 p., A.T.A. Learmouth, B.H. Farmer (eds. - ,
Kumar, Abhay; Prasad, M N V; Sytar, Oksana
Talinum species have been used to investigate a variety of environmental problems for e.g. determination of metal pollution index and total petroleum hydrocarbons in roadside soils, stabilization and reclamation of heavy metals (HMs) in dump sites, removal of HMs from storm water-runoff and green roof leachates. Species of Talinum are popular leaf vegetables having nutrient antinutrient properties. In this study, Talinum triangulare (Jacq.) Willd (Ceylon spinach) grown hydroponically were exposed to different concentrations of lead (Pb) (0, 0.25, 0.5, 0.75, 1.0 and 1.25 mM) to investigate the biomarkers of toxicity and tolerance mechanisms. Relative water content, cell death, photosynthetic pigments, sulphoquinovosyldiacylglycerol (SQDG), anthocyanins, α-tocopherol, malondialdehyde (MDA), reactive oxygen species (ROS) glutathione (GSH and GSSG) and elemental analysis have been investigated. The results showed that Pb in roots and shoots gradually increased as the function of Pb exposure; however Pb concentration in leaves was below detectable level. Chlorophylls and SQDG contents increased at 0.25 mM of Pb treatment in comparison to control at all treated durations, thereafter decreased. Levels of carotenoid, anthocyanins, α-tocopherol, and lipid peroxidation increased in Pb treated plants compared to control. Water content, cells death and elemental analysis suggested the damage of transport system interfering with nutrient transport causing cell death. The present study also explained that Pb imposed indirect oxidative stress in leaves is characterized by decreases in GSH/GSSG ratio with increased doses of Pb treatment. Lead-induced oxidative stress was alleviated by carotenoids, anthocyanins, α-tocopherol and glutathione suggesting that these defense responses as potential biomarkers for detecting Pb toxicity.
Apak, Reşat; Güçlü, Kubilay; Ozyürek, Mustafa; Esin Karademir, Saliha; Erçağ, Erol
The total antioxidant capacity of the aqueous extracts of some endemic herbs-prepared as infusions by steeping these herbs in hot water--was assayed with bis(neocuproine)copper(II) chloride, also known as the cupric ion reducing antioxidant capacity (CUPRAC) reagent, which was easily accessible, rapid, stable and responsive to both hydrophilic and lipophilic antioxidants. The highest antioxidant capacities of some herbal teas available in the Turkish market were observed for scarlet pimpernel (Anagallis arvensis), sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum), green tea (Camellia sinensis) and lemon balm (Melissa officinalis), in this order (1.63, 1.18, 1.07, and 0.99 mmol trolox equivalent (TR)/g, respectively). For infusions prepared from ready-to-use tea bags, the CUPRAC values were highest for Ceylon blended ordinary tea (4.41), green tea with lemon (1.61), English breakfast ordinary tea (1.26) and green tea (0.94), all of which were manufactured types of C. sinensis. Following the strongest antioxidant herbs with capacities close to or slightly exceeding 1.0 mmol TR/g, sage, thyme, coriander, coltsfoot, blackberry and immortelle (Helichrysum) exhibited capacities around 0.5 mmol TR/g. The correlation of the Folin total phenolic content of herbal teas with their CUPRAC and ABTS (2,2'-azinobis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) diammonium salt) total antioxidant capacities gave linear curves with correlation coefficients of 0.966 and 0.936, respectively, showing that the CUPRAC assay results better correlated with total phenolic content of herbal teas. Absorbance versus concentration data at different dilutions and upon standard additions of model antioxidant compounds (trolox and quercetin) to herbal tea infusions showed that the absorbances (at 450 nm of the CUPRAC method) due to different antioxidant compounds in herbal tea infusions were additive; that is, the tested antioxidants did not chemically interact to cause apparent deviations from Beer's law.
Full Text Available In a review of their own research the authors summarize incidences and distributions of the most important fungal diseases in Ethiopia and progress in breeding for resistance. Ethiopia, as the centre of origin for Coffea arabica, hosts a large diversity of germplasm. The incidences of diseases are based on observations in the montane rainforests of the southeast (Harenna and southwest (Bonga, Berhane-Kontir, Yayu of Ethiopia. Major diseases are Coffee Leaf Rust (CLR, Hemileia vastatrix; Coffee Berry Disease (CBD, Colletotrichum kahawae and Coffee Wilt Disease (CWD, Gibberella xylarioides (Fusarium xylarioides. CLR incidences in Ethiopia were present in all regions with highs between January and March and lows between June and October. CBD was present mostly in Bonga (40.0% and Yayu (26.3%, but less frequent in Harenna (18.6% and Berhane-Kontir (6.0%. CWD as a recently developed disease in Arabica coffee could be detected ranging from 2.4% in Berhane-Kontir to 16.9% in Yayu. CLR has been a serious constraint in all production countries since it became prominent in Ceylon in the late 19th century after leaf infection defoliation affects plants. CBD was first observed in Kenya in 1922. The disease is currently confined to the African continent in all countries that grow Arabica coffee. In the mid-1990s in the Democratic Republic of Congo, Uganda and Tanzania a resurgence of CWD in Robusta coffee and in Ethiopia in Arabica coffee occurred. Over the last 40 years breeding activities have been carried out to combat CLR, CBD and CWD. Breeding for resistance against CLR in Arabica coffee has successfully utilized single or combinations of major genes designated as SH genes. Major gene resistance has also been deployed in breeding for resistance against CBD, whereas in the case of CWD, selections of tolerant Arabica accessions are being pursued from local landraces in Ethiopia.
Biliński Szczepan M
Full Text Available Abstract Background At the turn of the 19th century the first observations of a female-biased sex ratio in broods and populations of the head louse, Pediculus humanus capitis, had been reported. A study by Buxton in 1940 on the sex ratio of lice on prisoners in Ceylon is still today the subject of reanalyses. This sex ratio distortion had been detected in ten different countries. In the last sixty years no new data have been collected, especially on scalp infestations under economically and socially more developed conditions. Results Here we report a female bias of head lice in a survey of 480 school children in Argentina. This bias is independent of the intensity of the pediculosis, which makes local mate competition highly unlikely as the source of the aberrant sex ratio; however, other possible adaptive mechanisms cannot be discounted. These lice as well as lice from pupils in Britain were carrying several strains of the endosymbiotic bacterium Wolbachia pipientis, one of the most wide spread intracellular sex ratio distorters. Similar Wolbachia strains are also present in the pig louse, Haematopinus suis, suggesting that this endosymbiont might have a marked influence on the biology of the whole order. The presence of a related obligate nutritional bacterium in lice prevents the investigation of a causal link between sex ratio and endosymbionts. Conclusions Regardless of its origin, this sex ratio distortion in head lice that has been reported world wide, is stable over time and is a remarkable deviation from the stability of frequency-dependent selection of Fisher's sex ratio. A female bias first reported in 1898 is still present over a hundred years and a thousand generations later.
Szymanski, J.T.; Owens, D.R. (Department of Energy, Mines and Resources, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada). Canada Centre for Mineral and Energy Technology); Roberts, A.C.; Ansell, H.G. (Geological Survey of Canada, Ottawa, Ontario); Chao, G.Y. (Carleton Univ., Ottawa, Ontario (Canada))
Nonmetamict ekanite, ideally ThCa/sub 2/Si/sub 8/O/sub 20/ chemical composition very similar to the metamict gemstone ekanite originally found in Sri Lanka (Ceylon), has been discovered in the Tombstone Mountains, Yukon Territory. The physical and optical properties are described and the X-ray powder pattern is given. Crystalline ekanite is tetragonal, space group I422 with a 7.483(3), c 14.893(6) A. The structure has been solved and refined to R = 3.57% from 1319 independent reflections obtained from multiple data sets with MoK..cap alpha.. radiation. The structure is closely related to that of the family with general composition ThK(Na,Ca)Si/sub 8/O/sub 20/, which crystallizes in space group P4/mcc and which has been misnamed 'ekanite' for many years. True crystalline ekanite has a body-centred unit cell whose dimensions agree closely with that of the material obtained on heating metamict ekanite to above 650/sup 0/C. The metal co-ordination is remarkably similar in the two types of structures; Th is 8-co-ordinated in a square antiprism of oxygen atoms at 2.405(5) A, and Ca has four nearest oxygen neighbours (21.342(5) A) in a very distorted tetrahedron and four second-nearest neighbours (2.688(5) A) near the midpoints of the faces of the tetrahedron. Sheets of metals at z = 0, 1/2 are separated by a puckered silicate layer that extends infinitely in x, y. The structure is characterized by zeolite-like channels through the silicate layers, where non-structural water can become entrapped.
Sing C. Chew
Full Text Available Globalization has been on everyone’s lips in light of the contemporary conditions. It has been viewed mostly as a stage reached as a result of long-term societal changes over the course of world history. For us, globalization has been an ongoing process for at least the last 5000 years. Little attention has been paid to the socioeconomic and natural processes that led to the current transformation. With the exception of historical sociologists, there is less interest in examining the long-term past as it is often assumed that the past has nothing to teach us, and it is the future that we have to turn our intellectual gaze. This paper will argue the opposite. We believe a long-term tracing of the socioeconomic and political processes of the making of the modern world will allow us to have a more incisive understanding of the current trajectory of world development and transformations. To plead our case, we outline the emergence of the first Eurasian World Economy linking seven regions (Europe, the Arabian Peninsula, East Africa, the Persian Gulf, Central Asia, South Asia, Ceylon, Southeast Asia, and China of the world, with the exception of the Americas, starting as early as 200 BC, and the sequence of structural crises and transformations (trading networks and commodities that has circumscribed the structures and trends of the current global system. Such consideration in our view is limited if we do not also include the relations between social systems and Nature, and the rhythms of the climate. For the latter, an awareness of the natural rhythms of the climate as well as human induced changes or climate forcing have triggered system-wide level collapses during certain early historical periods.
Carvalho, Elisabete; Punyasiri, P A Nimal; Somasiri, H P P Sudarshana; Abeysinghe, I Sarath B; Martens, Stefan
Gamma-Aminobutyric acid (GABA), an important bioactive component of tea, acts as a major inhibitory neurotransmitter and is considered to influence other physiological processes in human as well as in planta. In the hereby presented study, the content of this valuable metabolite was investigated in two novel types of Ceylon Tea, explicitly "Silver Tips" and "White Tea", originating from minimally processed buds of the unique cultivar, "TRI 2043". The samples were subjected to hot water infusion, equivalent to the traditional beverage preparation procedure, and analyzed by means of hydrophilic interaction ultra performance liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (HILIC LC-MS/MS). The registered GABA levels were compared with those obtained for the classic "Black Tea" and "Green Tea" samples from Sri Lanka. A high variation of GABA content was observed among the different tea types, especially in the case of "Silver Tips" and "White Tea", indicating the crucial influence of the manufacturing procedure (processing extent) on the final abundance of the bioactive component of interest. Furthermore, "White Tea" samples boasted the highest GABA concentration reported for this type of tea so far, reaching up to 50% of that characteristic of the high-priced "GABA Tea". Therefore, "White Tea" and "Silver Tips" were proved to be high quality tea with amounts of gamma-aminobutyric acid comparable with those described for similar types before. To our knowledge, this is the first report on HILIC LC-MS/MS application for the quantification of GABA and for in-depth characterization of teas from Sri Lanka.
Full Text Available - Roger Busser, Sudo Sueo, The Fukuda Doctrine and ASEAN; New dimensions in Japanese Foreign policy. Singapore: Institute of Southeast Asian Studies, 1992. - P.J. Drooglever, C. Fasseur, De Indologen; Ambtenaren voor de Oost 1825-1950. Amsterdam: Bert Bakker, 1993, 552 pp. - Raymond Evans, Tony Swain, A place for strangers; Towards a history of Australian Aboroginal being. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1993, xi + 330 pp. - CH.F. van Fraassen, Leonard Andaya, The world of Maluku; Eastern Indonesia in the early modern period. Honolulu: University of Hawai Press, 1993, ix + 306 pp. - J. van Goor, Lodewijk Wagenaar, Galle VOC-vestiging in Ceylon; Beschrijving van een koloniale samenleving aan de vooravond van de Singalese opstand tegen het Nederlandse gezag, 1760. Amsterdam: De Bataafsche Leeuw, 1994. - Geert Kalshoven, A. Schrevel, Access to Water; A socio-economic study into the practice of irrigation development in Indonesia. Ph.D. thesis, The Hague: The Institute of Social Studies, 1993. - Nico Kaptein, Mohamed Ariff, Islam and the economic development of Southeast Asia; The Islamic Voluntary Sector in Southeast Asia. Singapore: Institute of Southeast Asian Studies,1991.''Islam and the economic development of Southeast Asia; The Muslim private sector in Southeast Asia. Singapore: Institute of Southeast Asian Studies, 1991. - Victor T. King, Alistair Morrison, Fair land Sarawak; Some recollections of an expatriate official. Ithaca, New York: Cornell University (Southeast Asia Program, Studies on Southeast Asia 13, 1993, xiv + 182 pp. - H.A.J. Klooster, Klaus H. Schreiner-Brauch, Nationalismus und Personenkult im indonesischen Geschichtsverständnis. Ph.D. Dissertation, Universität Hamburg, 1993, xxi + 293 pp. - Han Knapen, Mark Cleary, Borneo; Change and development. Singapore, Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press, 1992, x + 271 pp., tables, figures, index., Peter Eaton (eds. - Sirtjo Koolhof, Christiaan G.F. de Jong
Full Text Available - C van Dijk, A. Reid, The blood of the people: Revolution and the end of traditional rule in Northern Sumatra. Kuala Lumpur etc., 1979. Oxford University Press. 288 pp. - J. van Goor, Francois Valentijn, Francois Valentijn’s description of Ceylon, translated and edited by Sinnappah Arasaratnam. Hakluyt Society, Second Series, volume 149 (London 1978 XV + 395 blz. - F.G.P. Jaquet, P.B.R. Carey, The archive of Yogyakarta; an edition of Javanese reports, letters and land grants from the Yogyakarta court dated between A.J. 1698 and A.J. 1740 (1772-1813 taken from materials in the British Library and the India Office Library (London; Vol. I; Documents relating to politics and internal court affairs. Oxford, Oxford University Pres, 1980. XXVI, 227 pp. Ills. Oriental documents, III. - P.E. de Josselin de Jong, Barbara Watson Andaya, Perak: The abode of grace. A study of an eighteenth century Malay state. East Asian Historical Monographs Series. Oxford University Press, Kuala Lumpur, 1979. 444 pp., 7 maps, genealogical table. - G.A. Nagelkerke, Marlene van Doorn, Bouwstoffen voor de sociaal-economische geschiedenis van Indonesië van ca. 1800 tot 1940; een beschrijvende bibliografie - deel 2 (Materials for the socio-economic history of Indonesia from c. 1800-1940; a descriptive bibliography - vol. 2. De Indische Gids, 1879-1941. Amsterdam, Koninklijk Instituut voor de Tropen, 1979, 116 pp. - Anke Niehof, Kevin Sherlock, A bibliography of Timor, Australian National University, Canberra, 1980, 309 pp. - S.O. Robson, L. Mardiwarsito, Kamus Jawa Kuna (Kawi - Indonesia, Penerbit Nusa Indah, Ende, Flores, 1978. XIV & 426 pp. - S.O. Robson, Soewojo Wojowasito, A Kawi Lexicon, edited by Roger F. Mills, Michigan Papers on South and Southeast Asia number 17, Center for South and Southeast Asian Studies, The University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, 1980. XV & 629 pp. - R. Roolvink, s. Udin, Spectrum, Essays presented to Sutan Takdir Alisjahbana on his seventieth
E.Ch.L. van der Vliet
Full Text Available - Rita Bolland, Alfred Bühler, The patola of Gujarat. Double ikat in India. Krebs AG Basel, 1979. Vol. 1, 360 p. tekst, ill. Vol. 2, afb. in kleur en zwart/wit, krt. tab. noten, verkl. woorden. litl., Eberhard Fischer (eds. - Raymond Buve, Hugo G. Nutini, Ritual kinship. The structure and historical development of the Compadrazgo system in rural Tlaxcala, Vol. I. Princeton University Press, N.J., 1980, XVI plus 494 pp., maps, tables, glossary and index., Betty Bell (eds. - Benno Galjart, G.A. Banck, Jagen met een kat... Schaarse middelen en sociale relaties in de Braziliaanse staat Espirito Santo, CEDLA Incidentele publicaties no. 8, CEDLA, Amsterdam 1977. - R.A.L.H. Gunawardana, J. van Goor, Jan Kompanie as schoolmaster: Dutch education in Ceylon, 1690-1795, Historische Studies, Instituut voor Geschiedenis der Rijksuniversiteit te Utrecht, XXIV, Wolters-Noordhoff Groningen, 1978, 205 pp., 3 maps. - Ria Kloppenborg, R.A.L.H. Gunawardana, Robe and plough. Monasticism and economic interest in early medieval Sri Lanka. Association for Asian Studies, Monographs and Papers No. XXXV, University of Arixona Press, Tucson, Arizona, 1979; 377 pages, including bibliography and index. - Els Postel-Coster, Jan van Bremen, Romantropologie - Essays over antropologie en literatuur, Antropologisch-Sociologisch Centrum Universiteit van Amsterdam, 1979., Sjaak van der Geest, Jojada Verrips (eds. - Arie de Ruijter, T. Lemaire, Over de waarde van kulturen. Een inleiding in de kultuurfilosofie. Ambo, Baarn 1976, herdruk 1980. 509 blz. - P. van de Velde, W. Arens, The man-eating myth. Oxford University Press, New York, 1979. XIV + 206 pp., 12 illustrations. - E.Ch.L. van der Vliet, Klaus E. Müller, Geschichte der antiken ethnographie und ethnologischen theoriebildung von den anfängen bis auf die byzantinischen historiographen, Teil II (Studien zur Kulturkunde 52, Wiesbaden: Franza Steiner Verlag, 1980. 563 pp. 11 figs. - J.J. de Wolf, P.T.W. Baxter, Age
Ana Lúcia Almeida Gazzola
Full Text Available A partir de reflexões sobre a mulher e a feminilidade no período vitoriano, a explosão do mercado literário no século XIX e o acesso da mulher à educação, à literatura e ao jornalismo, o texto introduz a obra de Marianne North, pintora inglesa que viajava com o objetivo de pintar a flora de outros países, particularmente a exótica flora tropical. Marianne tornou-se uma das mais famosas viajantes globetrotters de sua época, ao percorrer inúmeros países, como Canadá, Estados Unidos, Jamaica, Brasil, Teneriffe, Japão, Bornéu, Java, Ceilão, Singapura, Índia, Gales, Austrália, Nova Zelândia, Tasmânia, África do Sul, as ilhas Seychelles e Chile. No total, ela deixou registrado aproximadamente 727 gêneros (quase 1.000 espécies de plantas, algumas bem pouco conhecidas dos estudiosos. O texto trata, pois, da dupla condição de Marianne North como pintora e como autora de relatos dos países visitados. No Brasil, por exemplo, ela viveu entre 1872 e 1873. Seu profissionalismo e objetividade a distinguem das demais viajantes do século XIX.Starting from reflections about woman and femininity in the Victorian era, the explosion of literary market in the 19th century, and the access of women to education, literature, and journalism, this text introduces the work of Marianne North, English painter who used to travel aiming to paint the flora of other countries, particularly the exotic tropical flora. Marianne became one of the most famous globetrotter travelers of her time, visiting several countries such as Canada, USA, Jamaica, Brazil, Tenerife, Japan, Borneo, Java, Ceylon, Singapore, India, Wales, Australia, New Zealand, Tasmania, South Africa, Seychelles Islands, and Chile. In total, she left registers of about 272 genres (almost 1000 species of plants, some of them little known by the experts. Hence, the text deals with the dual condition of Marianne North as a painter and author of reports about the visited countries. In Brazil
Full Text Available - M.P.H. Roessingh, Cornelis Ch. Goslinga, The Dutch in the Caribbean and on the Wild Coast, 1580-1680. (Assen, van Gorcum en Comp., 1971. Anjerpublicaties nr. 12. 647 pp., X appendices, 15 ills., 12 krtn., bibliografie, index van persoonsnamen, plaatsen en zaken. - H.C. van Renselaar, H. Hoetink, Caribbean race relations, A study of two variants. Oxford University Press voor het Institute of Race Relations, Londen 1971 (paperback, 207 blz. - P. van Emst, Countries and peoples of the Pacific Basin. Summaries of articles by Soviet scholars. U.S.S.R. Academy of Sciences. Oriental Commission, Geographical Society of the U.S.S.R. N.N. Miklukho-Maklai Institute of Ethnography. “Nauka” Publishing House. Central Department of Oriental Literature. Moscow 1971, 152 pp. - Simon Kooijman, Roland W. Force, The Fuller collection of Pacific artifacts. Lund Humphries, London 1971. 360 pp., ills., Maryanne Force (eds. - Simon Kooijman, Waldemar Stöhr, Melanesian. Schwarze Inseln der Südsee. Eine Ausstellung des Rautenstrauch-Joest-Museums der Stadt Köln. Kunsthalle Köln. 12 November 1971 bis 16. Januar 1972. 223 S., 454 Abb., 12 Farbtafeln. - P.E. de Josselin de Jong, Dolores D. Wharton, Contemporary artists of Malaysia: A bibliographic survey. Union Cultural Organization, Kuala Lumpur, for Asia Society, New York 1971. 136 p., 38 plates. - Frank Bovenkerk, Julia G. Crane, Educated to emigrate; the social organization of Saba. Van Gorcum & Comp., Assen 1971. 269 plates, 3 figs. - P.B. Renes, R.J.W. Selleck, Melbourne Studies in Education, 1968-1969. Melbourne University Press, Melbourne 1970, 195 p. - L.F.B. Dubbeldam, Howard W. Beers, An American experience in Indonesia: The University of Kentucky affiliation with the Agricultural University of Bogor. University Press of Kentucky, Lexington, U.S.A., 1971. 267 pp. - W.Ph. Coolhaas, George Davison Winius, The fatal history of Portugese Ceylon, Transition to Dutch rule. Harvard University Press, Cambridge
Full Text Available Hygrophila spinosa T. Anders (Acanthaceae is described in Ayurvedic literature as Ikshura, Ikshugandha and Kokilasha "having eyes like Kokila or Indian cuckoo", common in moist places on the banks of tanks, ditches, paddy fields etc., widely distributed throughout India from Himalayas to Ceylon, Srilanka, Burma, Malaysia and Nepal. Seeds, whole plant, leaves, roots and ash of the plant are predominantly used for the treatment of various ailments. The compounds identified in H. spinosa are mainly phytosterols, fatty acids, minerals, polyphenols, proanthocyanins, mucilage, alkaloids, enzymes, amino acids, carbohydrates, hydrocarbons, flavonoids, terpenoids, vitamins and glycosides. Some of the reported phytoconstituents are lupeol, lupenone, 25-oxo-hentriacontanyl acetate, stigmasterol, betulin, β- carotene, hentriacontane, apigenin-7-O-glucuronide, apigenin-7-O-glucoside, 3-methylnonacosane, 23-ethylcholesta-11(12, 23(24-dien-3β-ol, luteolin, asteracanthine, asteracanthicine, luteolin-7-rutinoside, methyl-8-n-hexyltetracosanoate, β--sitosterol, histidine, phenylalanine, lysine, ascorbic acid, nicotinic acid, n-triacontane, glucose, mannose, rhamnose, arabinose, xylose, maltose, myristic acid, oleic acid, palmitic acid, stearic acid, linoleic acid etc. Ethanolic extract of the fruits, hydroalcoholic extract of whole plant and crude petroleum ether extract of the plant are having anticancer activity. Antibacterial activity was exhibited by the chloroform and methanol extract of the whole plant, and methanolic extract of the leaves. Antifungal activity against Aspergillus tamari, Rhizopus solani, Mucor mucedo and Aspergillus niger is due to the proteins and peptides present in the plant. Potential in treating liver diseases of the aerial parts, roots and whole plant was studied by various models viz. carbon tetrachloride induced hepatotoxicity, paracetamol and thioacetamide intoxication, and galactosamine induced liver dysfunction in rats. Seeds
Šmit, Ž. [Facully of Mathematics and Physics, University of Ljubljana (Slovenia); Fajfar, H. [Jožef Stefan Institute, Ljubljana (Slovenia); Jeršsek, M. [Slovenian Museum of Natural History, Ljubljana (Slovenia); Knific, T. [National Museum of Slovenia, Ljubljana (Slovenia); Kržic, A. [Higher Vocational Centre, Sezana (Slovenia); Lux, J. [Institute for the Protection of Cultural Heritage of Slovenia, Ljubljana (Slovenia)
Full text: Precious stones have been attractive pieces of jewelry since ancient times. However, due to the limited sources of origin, the quality of applied items mainly depended on long-range commercial relations, but also on fashion. In Antiquity and Late Antiquity, stones much used and sought for were emeralds and garnets. In Slovenia, emeralds are typically related to the early Roman period and are incorporated in the finds of gold jewelry from the graves. Emerald is generally beryl colored by admixture of chromium, though green colors can also be due to admixtures of iron or vanadium. Garnets were increasingly used by various nations of the People Migration period, and mounted in gilded silver or gold objects by 'cloisonne' or 'en cabochon' techniques. In Slovenia, numerous jewelry items containing garnets were found in the graves and in post-Roman fortified settlements. Geologically, according to the admixtures of metal ions, the garnets are divided into several species, while the most common among archaeological finds are almandines and pyropes and their intermediate types. It is also common to divide garnets into five groups, the first two originating from India, the third from Ceylon and the fifth from Czech Republic. The measurements involved presumed emeralds from Roman jewelry finds in Slovenia and comparative samples of beryl from Siberia and Habachtal in Austria. The analysis determined the coloring ions and showed relations between particular stones. For garnets, ten samples from brooches, earrings and rings were selected for the analysis on the basis of previous micro Raman examination. The analysis was performed by a combined PIXE-PIGE technique using proton beam in air. The light elements of Na, Mg, AI were determined according to the emitted gamma rays, while X-rays were used for the elements heavier than silicon. Two X-ray spectra were measured in each measuring point, soft and hard X-ray; the latter was obtained using an
Full Text Available Abstract Background Diabetes mellitus is becoming a serious public health problem in Sri Lanka and many other developing countries in the region. It is well known that effective management of diabetes reduces the incidence and progression of many diabetes related complications, thus it is important that General Practitioners (GPs have sound knowledge and positive attitudes towards all aspects of its management. This study aims to assess knowledge, awareness and practices relating to management of Diabetes Mellitus among Sri Lankan GPs. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted among all 246 GPs registered with the Ceylon College of General Practitioners using a pre-validated self-administered questionnaire. Results 205 responded to the questionnaire(response rate 83.3%. Their mean duration of practice was 28.7 ± 11.2 years. On average, each GP had 27 ± 25 diabetic-patient consultations per-week. 96% managed diabetic patients and 24% invariably sought specialist opinion. 99.2% used blood glucose to diagnose diabetes but correct diagnostic cut-off values were known by only 48.8%. Appropriate use of HbA1c and urine microalbumin was known by 15.2% and 39.2% respectively. 84% used HbA1c to monitor glyceamic control, while 90.4% relied on fasting blood glucose to monitor glyceamic control. Knowledge on target control levels was poor. Nearly 90% correctly selected the oral hypoglyceamic treatment for obese as well as thin type 2 diabetic patients. Knowledge on the management of diabetes in pregnancy was poor. Only 23.2% knew the correct threshold for starting lipid-lowering therapy. The concept of strict glycaemic control in preference to symptom control was appreciated only by 68%. The skills for comprehensive care in subjects with multiple risk factors were unsatisfactory. Conclusions The study was done among experienced members of the only professional college dedicated to the specialty. However, we found that there is room for improvement in
陈正琴; 潘钰蔚; 刘倩; 张怀亮
Objective Screen chronic urticaria patients with 27 kinds natural plant essential oil to find the best adapted varieties. Methods We uses the meridian bio-resonance technique screening chronic urticaria patients through meridian points with MED Model to find the adapted essential oil,and control with standard samples. Results The adaptation percentage of 27 kinds natural plant essential oil to 160 chronic urticaria patients was 10.63%~26.25%, average 18.38%.A11 kinds had their corresponding adaptive patients. The top ten were Russia pine needle, Australia tangerine oil, North America neroli, morocco geranium oil, west india ginger oil, ceylon citronella grass, Spain fennel oil, France rosemary oil, India peppermint oil. Conclusion Some of the 27 natural plant essential oil are good to the rehabilitation of chronic urticaria patients.%目的 采用27种植物精油纯品对慢性荨麻疹患者进行适应性筛选检测,找到慢性荨麻疹患者植物精油的最佳适应品种.方法 采用经络生物共振技术,通过人体经络穴位检测筛选植物精油对慢性荨麻疹患者的适应性,并与检验标准品作对照.结果 27种植物精油160例慢性荨麻疹的适应百分率为10.63％～26.25％,平均为18.38％.所有的植物精油均有适应的患者,排列在前10位的植物精油分别是俄罗斯松针、澳洲红桔油、北美橙花油、摩洛哥天竺葵油、西印度姜油、斯里兰卡香茅油、西班牙茴香油、法国迷迭香油、印度薄荷油、澳洲柠檬油.结论 部分植物精油对慢性荨麻疹患者适应性较好,可用于慢性荨麻疹患者康复治疗.
Harry A. Poeze
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F. Nery Guimarães
sintomas apresentados pelos pacientes, foram: febre, convulsões, distúrbios respiratórios, hidrocefalia, cianose, vômitos, labidade de temperatura, etc., sendo sinal diagnóstico de máxima importância, o encontro de focos de calcificação cerebral profunda e corioretinite em recem nascido (Dyke, Wolf, Cowen, Paige & Caffey . Em dois casos de toxoplasmose verificados em pacientes de seis e oito anos respectivamente, foi encontrada uma encefalite clinicamente atípica, sendo que um deles sarou (Sabin. Os três casos restantes foram descritos em adultos; num deles as lesões não eram típicas (havia concomitância de infecção por Bartonella bacilliformis e nos outros dois, a doença assumiu uma "forma exantemática", simulando as febres maculosas (Pinkerton & Henderson, sendo o achado mais importante microscopicamente, uma pneumonia intersticial. Alem da semelhança clínica, tambem os focos de encefalite encontrados nessa "forma exantemática" da toxoplasmose, são semelhantes aos descritos nas...Since Castellani's initial work in 1914, investigators of various countries have pointed out the occurrence of human toxoplasmosis, a fact which, still not long ago, was a matter of controversy. As resulting from the works of Torres, Levanditi & coworkers, Wolf, Cowen & Paige, Pinkerton & Henderson and Sabin, the problem of parasitism in man by Toxoplasma has to be faced taking into consideration that there have been described doubtful and undoubtful cases. Doubtful are the cases reported by Castellani (Ceylon, 1914; Fedorovitch (The Black Sea, 1916; Chalmers & Kamar (Sudan, 1920; and Bland (London, 1930-31. Undoubtful are those reported by Janku (Praga, 1923; Torres (Rio de Janeiro, 1927; Wolf & Cowen (New York, 1937; Richter (Chicago, 1936: diagnosed by Wolf & Cowen in 1938; Wolf, Cowen & Paige (New York, 1939; Hertig (Massachusetts, 1935: diagnosed by Pinkerton & Weinman in 1940; Pinkerton & Weinman (Lima, Peru, 1940; Sabin (2 cases, Cincinnati, 1941; Pinkerton
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