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Sample records for ceylon

  1. Radiation Protection Service in Ceylon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The main application of radiation in Ceylon is in medicine, both diagnostic and therapeutic. About 40 government hospitals have a total of 120 diagnostic X-ray installations. The Cancer Hospital at Maharagama represents the only therapy installation on the island, and possesses three deep X-ray therapy units, one superficial X-ray unit and two cobalt-60 units. It also has facilities for the use of radium and iodine-131 in therapy. In addition, radioisotopes are used for diagnosis at this institute. (author)

  2. Novel antifungal peptides from Ceylon spinach seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, H; Ng, T B

    2001-11-01

    Two novel antifungal peptides, designated alpha- and beta-basrubrins, respectively, were isolated from seeds of the Ceylon spinach Basella rubra. The purification procedure involved saline extraction, (NH(4))(2)SO(4) precipitation, ion exchange chromatography on DEAE-cellulose, affinity chromatography on Affi-gel blue gel, ion exchange chromatography on CM-cellulose and FPLC-gel filtration on Superdex peptide column. alpha- and beta-basrubrins exhibited a molecular weight of 4.3 and 5 kDa, respectively. They inhibited translation in a rabbit reticulocyte system with an IC(50) value of 400 and 100 nM, respectively. alpha- and beta-basrubrin inhibited HIV-1 reverse transcriptase by (79.4 +/- 7.8)% and (54.6 +/- 3.6)%, respectively, at a concentration of 400 microM, and (10.56 +/- 0.92)% and (2.12 +/- 0.81)%, respectively, at a concentration of 40 microM. Both alpha- and beta-basrubrins exerted potent antifungal activity toward Botrytis cinerea, Mycosphaerella arachidicola, and Fusarium oxysporum. PMID:11688973

  3. Sepucuk surat dari seorang bangsawan Gowa di tanah pembuangan (Ceylon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suryadi Suryadi

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper looks at an early nineteenth-century Malay letter from a land of exile,Ceylon (present Sri Lanka. The letter, written in Colombo, was dated 3 January1807 and is in Leiden University Library MS Cod.Or.2241-I 25 [Klt 21/no.526]. Itwas written by Siti Hapipa, the widow of the exiled Sultan Fakhruddin AbdulKhair al-Mansur Baginda Usman Batara Tangkana Gowa, the 26th king of theGowa Sultanate of South Sulawesi who reigned from 1753 until 1767. He wasbanished by the Dutch (Vereenigde Oost-Indische Compagnie, VOC to Ceylonin 1767 on a charge of conspiracy with the British to oppose the VOC tradingmonopoly in eastern Indonesia. Although many studies of Malay letters exist,letters from the lands of exile like such as the one discussed in this article havereceived less scholarly attention. Also remarkable is that this is one of the rareeighteenth- and nineteenth-centuries Malay letters written by a female. Settingthe scene with a historical sketch of the eighteenth and the early nineteenthcentury in colonial Ceylon and the Netherlands East Indies, this paper providesthe transliteration of Siti Hapipa’s letter in Roman script, through which Ithen analyse the socio-economic and political aspects of the family of SultanFakhruddin in their exile in Colombo.

  4. A lost family-planning regime in eighteenth-century Ceylon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Drixler, F.F.; Kok, J.

    2016-01-01

    Based on Dutch colonial registers (thombos), this paper reconstructs fertility for two districts in Ceylon, 1756–68. It overcomes challenges in data quality by establishing the outer bounds of plausible estimates in a series of scenarios. Among these, total fertility rates (TFRs) averaged 5.5 in one

  5. A lost family-planning regime in eighteenth-century Ceylon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drixler, Fabian F; Kok, Jan

    2016-01-01

    Based on Dutch colonial registers (thombos), this paper reconstructs fertility for two districts in Ceylon, 1756-68. It overcomes challenges in data quality by establishing the outer bounds of plausible estimates in a series of scenarios. Among these, total fertility rates (TFRs) averaged 5.5 in one district, but only 2.7 in the other. These figures exclude the victims of infanticide, a custom noted in European travelogues between about 1660 and 1820. Sex ratios among children differed depending on the number of older siblings, and overall, 27 per cent of girls are missing in one district and 57 per cent in the other. There was little significant variation either in the TFR or the sex ratio by socio-economic status, suggesting that poverty was not a key factor in motivating infanticides. Instead, we argue that at least parts of Ceylon had a forward-looking culture of family planning in the eighteenth century, which was lost in subsequent decades. PMID:26988626

  6. 'Zonder eigen gewinne en glorie' : Mr. Iman Wilhelm Falck (1736-1785), gouverneur en directeur van Ceylon en Onderhorigheden

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dulm, Frits van

    2012-01-01

    This thesis is about the gentleman-lawyer Falck, his period in office as Governor of Ceylon from the age of 28 and his surroundings. The historian Stapel described him as the last great figure in the Company. He differentiated from his contemporaries and predecessors. The research pays extensive att

  7. Antifungal peptides, a heat shock protein-like peptide, and a serine-threonine kinase-like protein from Ceylon spinach seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hexiang; Ng, Tzi Bun

    2004-07-01

    Two antifungal peptides (designated alpha- and beta-basrubrins) with molecular masses of 4-5 kDa and distinct N-terminal sequences, and a peptide and a protein with N-terminal sequences resembling heat shock protein (hsp) and serine-threonine kinase, respectively, were isolated from seeds of the Ceylon spinach Basella rubra. The purification procedure entailed saline extraction, (NH4)2SO4 precipitation, ion exchange chromatography on DEAE-cellulose, affinity chromatography on Affi-gel blue gel, ion exchange chromatography on CM-cellulose, and FPLC-gel filtration on a Superdex peptide column. alpha- and beta-basrubrins inhibited mycelial growth in Botrytis cirerea with an IC50 value of 7.5 and 14.7 microM, respectively, Mycosphaerella arachidicola with an IC50 of 12.4 and 6.9 microM, and Fusarium oxysporum with an IC50 of 5.8 and 6.2 microM. Neither alpha-basrubrin nor beta-basrubin exhibited DNase, RNase, lectin or protease activity, indicating that their antifungal action is not due to these activities. HIV-1 reverse transcriptase was inhibited by alpha- and beta-basrubrins with an IC50 of 246 and 370 microM, respectively. Translation in rabbit reticulocyte lysate was inhibited by alpha- and beta-basrubrins with an IC50 of 400 and 100 nM. The heat shock protein-like peptide and serine-threonine kinase-like protein exhibited a molecular mass of 3 and 30 kDa, respectively. They inhibited neither translation in a rabbit reticulocyte system at concentrations up to 50 microM nor HIV-1 reverse transcriptase activity at concentrations up to 400 microM. They did not exert antifungal activity toward B. cinerea, M. arachidicola, and F. oxysporum when tested up to 16 microg. None of the aforementioned proteins demonstrated DNase, RNase, protease or lectin activity. PMID:15245882

  8. Synopsis of the dragonflies (Odonata) of Ceylon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lieftinck, M.A.

    1955-01-01

    Thanks to the important work done by F. F. Laidlaw and F. C. Fraser on the Odonata of India and adjacent countries, we are now tolerably well informed about the occurrence and ecology of these insects in this part of the world. In his recent paper on the derivation of the Ceylonese Odonata, Laidlaw

  9. On the Ceylon Cetoniidae collected by J. Z. Kannegieter

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Neervoort van de Poll, J.R.H.; Kannegieter, J.Z.

    1891-01-01

    The list of Cetoniidae enumerated hereafter is the result of an entomological trip made during the months April and May 1889. The collections, which are in the possession of Mr. Neervoort van de Poll, are chiefly made in the following localities, viz. Belihul-Oya on the southern slopes of the centra

  10. Induced mutation studies with Brachiaria brizantha Stapf. and some indica rice varieties from Ceylon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Non-imbibed seeds of Brachiaria brizantha were irradiated with doses of 60Co gamma rays ranging from 7.5 to 75 kR and fresh stem cuttings containing three nodes were irradiated with doses ranging from 7.5 to 45 kR. Chromosome counts were made using the Carnoy method. There was no germination at 75 kR, and 18% germination at 60 kR with no survival of the seedlings. At the other doses germination and seedling survival decreased from 56% and 100% respectively for the control to 42% and 46% respectively at 45 kR. There were no chlorophyll mutants at 7.5 kR, while a few were observed among seedlings at the higher doses. In the stem cuttings establishment was poor and morphological variations were observed at all doses above 15 kR. A mutant of desirable plant type was obtained from the 45-kR seed treatment with an erect growth habit, reduced pubescence, short internodes, profuse tillering and rapid regrowth compared with the parent. Four indica rice varieties, H-4, H-8, H-7 and Pachchaiperumal 2462/11 (PP 2462/11), were subjected to gamma rays, neutrons and ethyl methane sulphonate (EMS) treatments. The LD50 level for gamma rays was 50 to 60 kR, for neutrons 1600 R and for EMS 0.4%. Germination and final plant stand in the M1 generation were affected only slightly by the neutron treatments, but were greatly reduced by EMS, and gamma irradiation above 35 kR. The final plant stand of the variety PP 2462/11 was most reduced by all the mutagens. In the M2 generation there was segregation for chlorophyll mutants, of the albina, chlorina, xantha, virescens and zebrina types. Other macro-mutations observed were for grain size and shape, plant height, flowering date and sterility. Grass clump types were found occasionally. (author)

  11. Indirect elements off neotectonic in Sri Lanka (Ceylon); Elementi indiretti di neotettonica in Sri Lanka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinis, B.

    1998-12-31

    The hydrography of the eastern side of Sri Lanka appears to be entirely different from the opposite side. Actually in the first case the rivers, before reaching the Ocean flow parallel to the main development of the island thus showing two different ways of recent evolution. Besides these rather classical indirect elements of neotectonic, some remarkable elements may be found pointing out a slow and recent lifting of the region, such as meanders more or less embanked at high altitudes and various orders of terraces. All the considerations contained in this study are strictly personal and are referred to a trip to Sri Lanka in the month of September 1996. [Italiano] L`idrografia presente nel settore orientale dello Sri Lanka appare ben diversa da quella del settore opposto. Nel primo caso, infatti, i corsi d`acqua, prima di defluire verso l`oceano, presentano un decorso parallelo allo sviluppo principale dell`isola denunciando due modalita` diverse di evoluzione recente. Accanto a questi elementi indiretti piuttosto classici di neotettonica, se ne rinvengono altri significatiovi che denunciano un lento e recente sollevamento della regione, come meandri piu` o meno incassati a quote elevate e piu` ordini di terrazzi. Tutte le osservazioni contenute nel presente lavoro sono strettamente personali e si riferiscono ad una escursione effettuata nel settembre del 1996 nello Sri Lanka.

  12. Effects of Cinnamomum zeylanicum (Ceylon cinnamon on blood glucose and lipids in a diabetic and healthy rat model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priyanga Ranasinghe

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To evaluate short- and long-term effects of Cinnamomum zeylanicum on food consumption, body weight, glycemic control, and lipids in healthy and diabetes-induced rats. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted in two phases (Phase I and Phase II, using Sprague-Dawley rats in four groups. Phase I evaluated acute effects on fasting blood glucose (FBG (Groups 1 and 2 and on post-oral glucose (Groups 3 and 4 blood glucose. Groups 1 and 3 received distilled-water and Groups 2 and 4 received cinnamon-extracts. Phase II evaluated effects on food consumption, body weight, blood glucose, and lipids over 1 month. Group A (n = 8, distilled-water and Group B (n = 8, cinnamon-extracts were healthy rats, while Group C (n = 5, distilled-water and Group D (n = 5, cinnamon-extracts were diabetes-induced rats. Serum lipid profile and HbA1c were measured on D-0 and D-30. FBG, 2-h post-prandial blood glucose, body weight, and food consumption were measured on every fifth day. Results: Phase I: There was no significant difference in serial blood glucose values in cinnamon-treated group from time 0 (P > 0.05. Following oral glucose, the cinnamon group demonstrated a faster decline in blood glucose compared to controls (P < 0.05. Phase II: Between D0 and D30, the difference in food consumption was shown only in diabetes-induced rats (P < 0.001. Similarly, the significant difference following cinnamon-extracts in FBG and 2-h post-prandial blood glucose from D0 to D30 was shown only in diabetes-induced rats. In cinnamon-extracts administered groups, total and LDL cholesterol levels were lower on D30 in both healthy and diabetes-induced animals (P < 0.001. Conclusions: C. zeylanicum lowered blood glucose, reduced food intake, and improved lipid parameters in diabetes-induced rats.

  13. Effects of Cinnamomum zeylanicum (Ceylon cinnamon) on blood glucose and lipids in a diabetic and healthy rat model

    OpenAIRE

    Priyanga Ranasinghe; Sanja Perera; Mangala Gunatilake; Eranga Abeywardene; Nuwan Gunapala; Sirimal Premakumara; Kamal Perera; Dilani Lokuhetty; Prasad Katulanda

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: To evaluate short- and long-term effects of Cinnamomum zeylanicum on food consumption, body weight, glycemic control, and lipids in healthy and diabetes-induced rats. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted in two phases (Phase I and Phase II), using Sprague-Dawley rats in four groups. Phase I evaluated acute effects on fasting blood glucose (FBG) (Groups 1 and 2) and on post-oral glucose (Groups 3 and 4) blood glucose. Groups 1 and 3 received distilled-water and Groups 2 a...

  14. Bibliography

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    NN,

    1962-01-01

    Abeywickrama, B. A.: A provisional check list of the flowering plants of Ceylon (Ceylon J. Sc., Biol. Sec. 2, 1959, 119- 240). Ahti, T.: Taxonomic studies on reindeer lichens (Cladonia, subg. Cladina) (Ann. Bot. Soc. Zool. Bot Fenn. Vanamo 32¹, 1961, 1-160, many fig.). Also map of C. mitis, p. 121.

  15. Expeditions and other exploration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    NN,

    1969-01-01

    The Flora of Ceylon Project (continued from p. 1684). This project of the Smithsonian Institution stands in Ceylon under the responsibility of Dr. R. Read, who himself is working on Monocots. Otherwise it is performed by visiting botanists who get transport, drying facilities, and can amply do field

  16. Cinnamon

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... R S T U V W X Y Z Cinnamon Share: On This Page Introduction What the Science ... More Information Key References © Steven Foster Common Names: cinnamon, cinnamon bark, Ceylon cinnamon, cassia cinnamon, Chinese cinnamon ...

  17. Maritime archaeology of Kalinga and the contact with southeast Asian countries

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Tripati, S.

    sources are noteworthy for the study of maritime history of Kalinga. The ports namely Palur, Pithunda, Kalingapatnam, Khalkatapatna, Tamralipti, Manikapatna had the contacts with Africa, Ceylon, China and Arab and Southeast Asian countries. In this paper...

  18. A REVIEW ON THERAPEUTIC USES OF PEDALIUM MUREX LINN

    OpenAIRE

    A. Elumalai; M. Chinna Eswaraiah; Munna Naresh; Vanamala Sudheer; Mandala Naresh

    2011-01-01

    Traditional system of medicinal consists of large number of plants with various medicinal and pharmacological importances and hence represents a priceless tank of new bioactive molecules. Pedalium murex is a small herb distributed in tropical Africa, Ceylon, India and Mexico. It is commonly found in Deccan and some parts of Ceylon and Gujarat and in its costal areas of Southern India. It is commonly called Gokhru (Yaanai Nerinji) a member of family Pedaliaceae. The plant is sweet, cooling, mu...

  19. Preliminary investigation of genetic characterization of native and endemic fowl types of Sri Lanka

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Red Jungle Fowl (Gallus gallus) is generally considered to be main ancestor of the domestic fowl (Callus domesticus). However, it is also believed that other wild Callus species might have contributed to the modern genetic make-up of the domestic fowl, one wild species being the Ceylon Jungle Fowl (Gallus lafayetti), endemic to Sri Lanka, which could have contributed to the domestic stock of Sri Lankan native poultry. The present study was conducted in order to investigate the origin of native fowl in Sri Lanka and to establish genetic relationships among them and the Ceylon Jungle Fowl. Morphological characters of endemic, indigenous and exotic fowl types were recorded. These included Ceylon Jungle fowl; eleven types of native chicken from Sri Lanka; and two exotic chicken breeds (Cornish and Rhode Island Red). Blood samples were collected for DNA extraction. Randomly Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analysis was carried out using sixteen non-specific primers. The results of morphological characterization revealed many variations in plumage and colour pattern. Single and pea comb types were found in both native and exotic types of chicken. A prominent yellow colour marking on a red comb was a unique feature in Ceylon Jungle fowl. The presence of white spots in red earlobes was a distinguishing feature of all native chicken types. Sixteen non-specific primers were used in the study, and produced 22 polymorphic bands ranging from 500 to 1960 bp. Genetic similarity indices ranged from 0.5 to 1.1 in average genetic distance scale, indicating a broad genetic base in the samples studied. Cluster analysis revealed a clear separation of Ceylon Jungle Fowl from all other types studied, indicating that contribution in data analysis, and the Director and staff, National Zoological Gardens, Sri Lanka, for their help in sampling Ceylon Jungle Fowl. (author)

  20. Annexe I. Liste des participants aux sommets du mouvement des pays non alignés

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Sommet de Belgrade, 1961 Membres (25) Afghanistan Indonésie Algérie Irak Arabie Saoudite Liban Birmanie Mali Cambodge Maroc Ceylon Népal Chypre République arabe unie Congo (Léopoldville) Somalie Cuba Soudan Ethiopie Tunisie Ghana Yémen Guinée Yougoslavie Inde Observateurs (3) Bolivie Brésil Equateur Sommet du Caire, 1964 Membres (47) Afghanistan Birmanie Algérie Burundi Angola Cambodge Arabie Saoudite Cameroun Ceylon Maroc Chypre Mauritanie Congo (Brazzaville) Népal Cuba Nigéria Dahomey Ouga...

  1. Dating by fission tracks in archaeology. 3. Tephrochronology and Hominid dating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tephras (or volcanic ashes) are excellent stratigraphic tracers. Its utilization in this domain, or tephrochronology, is shortly presented. The main archaeological utilization of the tephrochronology is related with the dating of fossil hominids, there where exist the volcano-fossil sedimentar series, at Ceylon or at East-African Rift. (L.C.)

  2. Cinnamon extract inhibits tau aggregation associated with Alzheimer’s Disease in vitro

    Science.gov (United States)

    An aqueous extract of Ceylon cinnamon (C. zeylanicum) was found to inhibit tau aggregation and filament formation, hallmarks of Alzheimer’s disease (AD) in vitro using brain cells taken from patients who died with AD. The extract also promoted complete disassembly of recombinant tau filaments, and ...

  3. John Thomson: Photojournalist in Asia, 1862-1872.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Elliott S.

    John Thomson was a nineteenth-century British photojournalist who used the wet-plate process to illustrate his explorations of eastern and Southeast Asia. His travels from 1862 to 1872 took him to the following places, among others: Ceylon, Cambodia, Singapore, Thailand, Saigon, Siam, mainland China, and Taiwan. Thomson chose to use the wet-plate…

  4. 77 FR 51801 - Controlled Carriers Under the Shipping Act of 1984

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-27

    ... on May 10, 2005 (70 FR 24581), the Commission has newly classified one ocean common carrier as a controlled carrier, Hainan P O Shipping Co., Ltd. (``P O Shipping''), and removed four common carriers from... to regulation by the Commission, Ceylon was determined to be inactive as of March 20, 2012. See 76...

  5. Training Rural Youth for Farming in the Asia and Far East Region. Report No. RAFE 6.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bamford, G. N.

    In response to the Tenth Food and Agricultural Regional Conference for Asia and the Far East (August/September 1970), a comparative study of the different approaches already tried in the Region was conducted, and as the product of that study, this report briefly describes projects currently operating in India; Ceylon; Thailand; Malaysia;…

  6. Report of the Primary Mathematics Workshop (Penang, Malaysia, June 30 - July 3, 1969).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Southeast Asian Ministers of Education Organization (Singapore). Regional Center for Education in Science and Mathematics.

    A workshop to develop a program for training primary school teachers was convened in 1969 by the Regional Centre for Education in Science and Mathematics (RECSAM) in Penang, Malaysia. Countries participating in the conference were Indonesia, Malaysia, Singapore, South Vietnam, Thailand, Phillipines, and Ceylon; consultants from the United States…

  7. A REVIEW ON THERAPEUTIC USES OF PEDALIUM MUREX LINN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Elumalai

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Traditional system of medicinal consists of large number of plants with various medicinal and pharmacological importances and hence represents a priceless tank of new bioactive molecules. Pedalium murex is a small herb distributed in tropical Africa, Ceylon, India and Mexico. It is commonly found in Deccan and some parts of Ceylon and Gujarat and in its costal areas of Southern India. It is commonly called Gokhru (Yaanai Nerinji a member of family Pedaliaceae. The plant is sweet, cooling, mucilaginous, diuretic and inflammatory and used to treat digestive, carminative, tonic, spasmodic affections, amenorrhoea, and vitiated conditions of pita, inflammation and general debility. This review will be helpful to create interest towards Pedalium murex and may be useful in developing new formulations with more therapeutic and economical value.

  8. Preliminary investigation on genetic characterization of native and endemic fowl types in Sri Lanka

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Sri Lanka is a tropical island, which shelters a large number and variety of wild as well as domesticated animals. As an oceanic island Sri Lanka has a high percentage of endemic species that have evolved because of the isolation, but they are particularly vulnerable. Its location, astride the sea routes between the east and west throughout the history, has exposed the country to be a recipient of variety of animal species transported throughout the world. This history had made the gene pool of native animals very unique and diverse. In this context native poultry species of Sri Lanka demonstrate an incomparable scenario in evolution of domestic poultry species. According to one of the hypotheses regarding the evolution of poultry, the Red Jungle Fowl (Gallus gallus) is considered as the main ancestor of the domestic fowl (Gallus domesticus). However, it is also believed that the domestic fowl descent from different ancestral groups, one of which is Ceylon Jungle Fowl. Ceylon Jungle Fowl (Gallus laffeyatti) is endemic to Sri Lanka. Nevertheless, different native fowl types found in Sri Lanka resemble varying characteristics of Asiatic fowl. However, except for the few studies on G. laffeyatti there is hardly any information available on the origin of Sri Lankan native fowl. Also there is only one investigation done so far on the relationship of the Ceylon Jungle Fowl and native fowl population in Sri Lanka. Therefore, the present study was conducted, in order to investigate the origin of native fowl in Sri Lanka and to find out the genetic relationship among them. Observations of morphological characters of endemic, indigenous and exotic fowl types were carried out using Ceylon Jungle fowl, eleven types of native chicken and two exotic chicken breeds (Cornish and Rhode Island Red). Blood samples for DNA extraction were collected from the above three categories of chicken. Randomly Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analysis were carried out using sixteen

  9. Coumarin and Cinnamaldehyde in Cinnamon Marketed in Italy: a Natural Chemical Hazard?

    OpenAIRE

    Lungarini, Silvia; Aureli, Federica; Coni, Ettore

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Some plants that are processed into foods often contain natural substances that may be dangerous. One example is coumarin that is known to cause liver and kidney damage in rats, mice and probably in humans. The main source of coumarin in diet is surely cinnamon. The name cinnamon is correctly used to refer to Ceylon Cinnamon, also known as ?true cinnamon?. However, other plant species are sometimes sold with the label of cinnamon. This is the case of Cinnamomun aromaticum ...

  10. Alva Myrdal och svenskt familjeplaneringsbistånd : Affinitet mellan välfärdsideologi och principerna bakom befolkningskontroll

    OpenAIRE

    Lundberg, Simon

    2015-01-01

    Around the 1950s an explosive population growth started in the Third World. Parallel with the population growth a global network grew up advocating population control and limited population growth. Sweden had a unique place in that network through a pioneering role promoting the issue in the UN organization. During the 20th century Sweden was a pioneer country in terms of initiatives for population control. Ceylon family planing pilot project was something new in a time when other donors cons...

  11. PATHORCHUR (COLEUS AROMATICUS): A REVIEW OF THE MEDICINAL EVIDENCE FOR ITS PHYTOCHEMISTRY AND PHARMACOLOGY PROPERTIES

    OpenAIRE

    Om Prakash Rout; Rabinarayan Acharya; Sagar Kumar Mishra; Rashmibala Sahoo

    2012-01-01

    Coleus aromaticus Benth., (Fam. Lamiaceae), syn. Coleus amboinicus Lour. Spreng or Plectranthus ambonicus Lour, is commonly known as Indian/ country borage and ‘Pathorchur’ in Hindi and Bengali. It is recorded in the Indian system of medicine as one of the sources of Pashanabheda. It is large succulent aromatic perennial herb, shrubby below, hispidly villous or tomentose. It is found throughout India, Ceylon and Moluccas. The leaves of the plant are bitter, acrid and were being widely used tr...

  12. Phytochemical and pharmacological potential of Hygrophila spinosa T. anders

    OpenAIRE

    Arjun Patra; Shivesh Jha; P. Narasimha Murthy

    2009-01-01

    Hygrophila spinosa T. Anders (Acanthaceae) is described in Ayurvedic literature as Ikshura, Ikshugandha and Kokilasha "having eyes like Kokila or Indian cuckoo", common in moist places on the banks of tanks, ditches, paddy fields etc., widely distributed throughout India from Himalayas to Ceylon, Srilanka, Burma, Malaysia and Nepal. Seeds, whole plant, leaves, roots and ash of the plant are predominantly used for the treatment of various ailments. The compounds identified in H. spinosa are ma...

  13. D'un remède ancestral à un médicament moderne : sur la piste et les fausses pistes du Rauwolfia

    OpenAIRE

    Prinz, A

    1996-01-01

    The #Rauwolfia$ is a striking example how long a traditionally used drug and its importance for modern therapy was not recognized. As early as 1563 the Portuguese physician Garcia da Orta reported about the use of a snake-like root as a remedy against snake bites in the traditional medicine of Ceylon. This "snakewood" was introduced in European medicine only a few years later. Drugs from the newly discovered continents, like Ipecacuanha or Chinchonabark were accepted very quickly by the Europ...

  14. Antispasmodic and Antidiarrheal Activities of Valeriana hardwickii Wall. Rhizome Are Putatively Mediated through Calcium Channel Blockade

    OpenAIRE

    Anwar H. Gilani; Raafia Memon; Samra Bashir

    2011-01-01

    Valeriana hardwickii is indigenous to Pakistan, Burma and Ceylon, where it is traditionally being used as an antispasmodic and antidiarrheal, besides its culinary use as spice. The aim of this paper was to provide pharmacological validation to these medicinal uses. The crude aqueous-methanolic extract of Valeriana hardwickii rhizome (Vh.Cr) was studied on isolated rabbit jejunum and castor oil-induced diarrhea in mice for spasmolytic and antidiarrheal properties, respectively. Vh.Cr caused co...

  15. A grammar of Upcountry Sri Lanka Malay

    OpenAIRE

    Nordhoff, S. (Stefan)

    2009-01-01

    Sri Lanka Malay is a variety of Malay which has undergone heavy influence from its adstrates Sinhala and Tamil since the first Malay immigrants arrived in Ceylon in the 17th century. While the lexicon is overwhelmingly Malay, the grammar has diverged considerably from its Austronesian origins and become solidly South Asian. Where other Malay varieties are morphologically isolating and have prepositions, postposed modifiers and verb-medial word order, Sri Lanka Malay is agglutinative and has p...

  16. Phytochemical and pharmacological profile of Ipomoea aquatica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manvar, Mital N; Desai, T R

    2013-01-01

    Ipomoea aquatica (I. aquatica) (Convolvulaceae) is commonly grown green leafy vegetable found throughout India, Ceylon, Tropical Asia, Africa, and Australia. Traditionally, I. aquatica used as carminative agent and lessens inflammation, and is useful in fever, jaundice, biliousness, bronchitis, liver complaints, etc., I. aquatica is a rich source of vitamins, minerals, proteins, fibers, carotenes, and flavanoids with many health benefits. The objective of this review is to highlight the pharmacognostical, phytochemical, and pharmacological information of this plant. PMID:24231393

  17. Phytochemical and pharmacological profile of Ipomoea aquatica

    OpenAIRE

    Mital N Manvar; T R Desai

    2013-01-01

    Ipomoea aquatica (I. aquatica) (Convolvulaceae) is commonly grown green leafy vegetable found throughout India, Ceylon, Tropical Asia, Africa, and Australia. Traditionally, I. aquatica used as carminative agent and lessens inflammation, and is useful in fever, jaundice, biliousness, bronchitis, liver complaints, etc., I. aquatica is a rich source of vitamins, minerals, proteins, fibers, carotenes, and flavanoids with many health benefits. The objective of this review is to highlight the pharm...

  18. Phytochemical and pharmacological profile of Ipomoea aquatica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mital N Manvar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Ipomoea aquatica (I. aquatica (Convolvulaceae is commonly grown green leafy vegetable found throughout India, Ceylon, Tropical Asia, Africa, and Australia. Traditionally, I. aquatica used as carminative agent and lessens inflammation, and is useful in fever, jaundice, biliousness, bronchitis, liver complaints, etc., I. aquatica is a rich source of vitamins, minerals, proteins, fibers, carotenes, and flavanoids with many health benefits. The objective of this review is to highlight the pharmacognostical, phytochemical, and pharmacological information of this plant.

  19. Coumarin and cinnamaldehyde in cinnamon marketed in Italy: a natural chemical hazard?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lungarini, S; Aureli, F; Coni, E

    2008-11-01

    Some plants that are processed into foods often contain natural substances that may be hazardous to human health. One example is coumarin, which is known to cause liver and kidney damage in rats, mice and probably humans. The main source of coumarin in the diet is cinnamon. The name 'cinnamon' is correctly used to refer to Ceylon cinnamon, also known as 'true cinnamon'. However, other plant species are sometimes sold with the label of cinnamon. This is the case of Cinnamomun aromaticum (cassia). In recent years, due to its cheaper price, cassia is replacing true cinnamon in the European food market being largely used in the preparation of some kinds of sweets. Several European health agencies have recently warned against consuming high amounts of cassia due to its high content of coumarin. In this study, 34 samples of cinnamon and 50 samples of cinnamon-containing foodstuffs were collected from the Italian market. Quantitative determinations of coumarin and cinnamaldehyde were performed by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with diode array detector (DAD). The analytical method was in-house validated assessing recovery, repeatability, linearity, limit of detection (LOD) and limit of quantitation (LOQ). The results showed that about 51% of cinnamon samples consisted of cassia, 10% were probably a blend of cassia and Ceylon cinnamon, whereas only 39% were actually Ceylon cinnamon. As far as cinnamon-containing foods are concerned, the samples often exceeded the maximum level fixed in the European Flavourings Directive of 2 mg kg(-1). PMID:19680836

  20. Concise vector analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Eliezer, C J; Maxwell, E A; Sneddon, I N

    1963-01-01

    Concise Vector Analysis is a five-chapter introductory account of the methods and techniques of vector analysis. These methods are indispensable tools in mathematics, physics, and engineering. The book is based on lectures given by the author in the University of Ceylon.The first two chapters deal with vector algebra. These chapters particularly present the addition, representation, and resolution of vectors. The next two chapters examine the various aspects and specificities of vector calculus. The last chapter looks into some standard applications of vector algebra and calculus.This book wil

  1. Activation Analysis. Proceedings of an Informal Study Group Meeting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As part of its programme to promote the exchange of information relating to nuclear science and technology, the International Atomic Energy Agency convened in Bangkok, Thailand, from 6-8 July 1970, an informal meeting to discuss the topic of Activation Analysis. The meeting was attended by participants drawn from the following countries: Australia, Burma, Ceylon, Republic of China, India, Indonesia, Prance, Japan, Republic of Korea, New Zealand, Philippines, Singapore, Thailand, United States of America and Vietnam. The proceedings consist of the contributions presented at the meeting with minor editorial changes

  2. The 1962 programme of technical assistance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Experts and equipment are provided by the Agency in response to requests from Member States after the requests have been examined by technical, financial and other relevant criteria. Under the 1962 programme to be financed with the Agency's own resources, assistance in the form of services of experts and equipment will be given to the following countries: Argentina, Brazil, Burma, Ceylon, Chile, Denmark, El Salvador, Ghana, Haiti, Indonesia, Iran, Iraq, Israel, Japan, Korea, Mexico, Pakistan, Paraguay, the Philippines, Portugal, Thailand, Tunisia, Turkey, the United Arab Republic, and Yugoslavia. Some details of the individual projects of assistance to be financed with the Agency's own resources are given

  3. News from IAEA Headquarters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Two more countries have joined the Agency - Panama and Jordan - bringing IAEA membership up to 96. Mr. Ginige Richard Walter de Silva (Ceylon) has been appointed Director of the Division of Conference and General Services of the Agency. Born in 1911 at Nugegeda, Ceylon, Mr. de Silva obtained his B.Sc. in Physics at London University and his M.A. in Physics and Mathematics at Cambridge University. He has had a long career in the Civil Service, mainly in the administrative, commercial and finance branches of government. Mr.de Silva took over from Mr. Arthur E. Barrett, Chief of the Conference and Engineering Services, who had been Acting Director of the Division for a long period of time, and who will be leaving the Agency later this year to take up work elsewhere. From the early days of IAEA in 1957, Mr. Barrett has been closely associated with the establishment of the Agency's temporary headquarters in Vienna. He has been in charge of the planning and design of the technical facilities for the various conference installations and responsible for the servicing of all the General Conference sessions since 1958. In fact, Mr. Barrett has played an essential part in the creation of the Vienna Congress Centre in the former Hofburg Imperial Palace. Educated at Cambridge and London Universities, Mr. Barrett has had some 35 years of public service, first in the BBC in London and subsequently with the United Nations in New York. (author)

  4. The new Board of Governors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The composition of the IAEA Board of Governors for 1961-62 was completed with the election of five new Members at the last session of the General Conference. The Conference elected Colombia, Greece, Hungary, Pakistan and Viet-Nam to serve a two-year term on the Board of Governors. They succeed Bulgaria, Ceylon, Mexico, the Philippines and Spain, which had been elected for a two-year term at the third session of the General Conference in 1959. The Board of Governors at present consists of 23 Member States, of which 13 are designated by the outgoing Board and 10 are elected by General conference. The designation of 13 Members, which is made annually by the Board itself, is based on certain geographical and technical criteria specified in the Agency's Statute. The other 10 Members are elected by the General Conference in such a way as to ensure proper representation of different areas on the Board as a whole

  5. PRELIMINARY NOTES ON THE DEVELOPMENT OF DDT RESISTANCE IN ANOPHELES CULICIFACIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.Zaini

    1973-09-01

    Full Text Available Anopheles culicifacies is the vector of malaria in southeastern part of Iran, India, West Pakistan and Ceylon. In 1959 the LC50 % DDT in the Panchmahal district of Gujarat state (India had increased. DDT resistant population of A. culicifacies has been reported from West Pakistan, Burma and Iran. After application of DDT in 1959, the density of A. culicifacies decreased sharply. The susceptibility test carried out in 1963 showed that the LC50 was 0.5%.After DDT spraying, followed by Dieldrin, for about 10 years the density of A. culicifacies was so negligible that it was not possible to perform susceptibility tests. By April and May of 1973 the density of A.culicifacies in Saidabad, Khairabad and Hit in Baluchesten province, Southeast of Iran, increased to about 500 per shelter. The susceptibility tests carried out showed that A. culicfacies is resistant to DDT and susceptible to Dieldrin and Malathion.

  6. VETIVERIA ZIZANIOIDES (LINN. NASH: A PHARMACOLOGICAL OVERVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bharat Bhushan

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Vetiveria zizanioides is belonging to Poaceae family. It is well known plant from south India and widely distributed in India, Burma, Ceylon, and spread from Southwest Asia to tropical Africa. Vetiveria zizanioides is commonly known as khas - khas, khus, vetiver, Vala in different languages. Root of Vetiveria zizanioides have been suggested in the Indian system of medicine for a number of diseases. These includes as decoction in high fever, inflammation and sexual disorder, as paste in diarrhea, chronic dysentery and in Ayurvedic preparations and as juice in anthelmentic. This plant was screened pharmacologically for antibacterial, antifungal, anticataleptic, analgesic and anti-inflammatory, Rheumatism, anti oxidant and anti arthritic activity. This will be creating helpfulness towards this medicinal plant and for preparation of different Ayurvedic formulation with more therapeutic and economic consideration in treatment of various diseases.

  7. Selected Abstracts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    LI Boting Another Woolf, with a Word on "Pearls and Swine" 3 Leonard Woolf, better known as husband of Virginia Woolf and one of the first propounders of the "international theory" that led to the formation of the League of Nations after WWI, boasted a rich and long career in writing, editing, publishing, and political theorizing. Being from 1904 to 1911 civil servant in Ceylon's colonial government changed his life, providing material for his various literary creations and converting him from an"unconscious" and "innocent" imperialist to a conscious and conscientious socialist and anti-imperialist. The present article explores the limitations and ambiguities of the changing, and not always enlightening, expressions in his lifelong writing on empire and colony in the light of a short story based on his Ceylon experience, "Pearls and Swine".

  8. Provenance study of rubies from a Parthian statuette by PIXE analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calligaro, T.; Mossmann, A.; Poirot, J.-P.; Querré, G.

    1998-03-01

    The aim of this work was the characterization of three red inlays of a Parthian statuette (3rd century B.C.) originating from Babylon, Mesopotamia. The external beam setup of AGLAE was used in order to determine the chemical composition of the inlays. PIXE analysis confirmed the expected nature of the cabochons: ruby, and not colored glass as previously reported. According to these results, this archaeological object contains one of the oldest rubies left today. Moreover, quantitative analysis of trace elements allowed us to infer the geographic origin of these gems. PIXE analyses of a batch of 57 rubies from nine well-known sources were carried out in order to establish a geochemical database. The use of multivariate statistical methods enables us to restrict the possible provenance to either Ceylon (Sri Lanka) or more likely Burma (Myanmar).

  9. Solar photovoltaics in Sri Lanka: a short history

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    With a significant unelectrified rural population, Sri Lanka has followed the evolution of solar photovoltaic (PV) technology in the West very closely since the 1970s as terrestrial applications for photovoltaics were developed. It was not until 1980 that the Sri Lankan government embarked on the promotion of solar photovoltaics for rural domestic use when the Ceylon Electricity Board formed the Energy Unit. In addition, Australian and Sri Lankan government-funded pilot projects have given the local promoters further valuable insight into how and how not to promote solar photovoltaics. The establishment of community-based solar photovoltaic programmes by non-governmental organizations has developed a novel approach to bridge the gap between this state-of-the-art technology and the remotely located end-users. (author)

  10. Solar photovoltaics in Sri Lanka: a short history

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gunaratne, L. (Solar Power and Light Co., Colombo (Sri Lanka))

    1994-10-01

    With a significant unelectrified rural population, Sri Lanka has followed the evolution of solar photovoltaic (PV) technology in the West very closely since the 1970s as terrestrial applications for photovoltaics were developed. It was not until 1980 that the Sri Lankan government embarked on the promotion of solar photovoltaics for rural domestic use when the Ceylon Electricity Board formed the Energy Unit. In addition, Australian and Sri Lankan government-funded pilot projects have given the local promoters further valuable insight into how and how not to promote solar photovoltaics. The establishment of community-based solar photovoltaic programmes by non-governmental organizations has developed a novel approach to bridge the gap between this state-of-the-art technology and the remotely located end-users. (author)

  11. Sri Lanka Wind Farm Analysis and Site Selection Assistance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Young, M.; Vilhauer, R.

    2003-08-01

    The United States Department of Energy (DOE), through the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), has been working in partnership with the U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID) in an on-going process to quantify the Sri Lanka wind energy potential and foster wind energy development. Work to date includes completion of the NREL wind atlas for Sri Lanka. In addition, the Ceylon Electricity Board (CEB) has conducted a wind resource assessment of several areas of the country and has successfully completed and is currently operating a 3-MW pilot wind project. A review of the work completed to date indicates that additional activities are necessary to provide Sri Lanka with the tools necessary to identify the best wind energy development opportunities. In addition, there is a need to identify key policy, regulatory, business and infrastructure issues that affect wind energy development and to recommend steps to encourage and support wind power development and investment.

  12. Oral hypoglycaemic activity of Ipomoea aquatica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malalavidhane, T S; Wickramasinghe, S M; Jansz, E R

    2000-09-01

    Ipomoea aquatica is a commonly consumed green leafy vegetable in Sri Lanka which is supposed to possess an insulin-like activity [Jayaweera, D.M.A., 1982. Medicinal Plants (Indigenous and Exotic) Used in Ceylon. Part 11. National Science Council, Colombo, Sri Lanka, pp. 99]. Only a little attention has been paid to the therapeutic use of this plant. We studied the oral hypoglycaemic activity of single and multiple doses of I. aquatica in healthy, male Wistar rats after a glucose challenge. There was a significant reduction in the serum glucose concentrations with both single (33%, Paquatica exerts an oral hypoglycaemic effect in healthy, male, Wistar rats after a glucose challenge. PMID:10967485

  13. PATHORCHUR (COLEUS AROMATICUS: A REVIEW OF THE MEDICINAL EVIDENCE FOR ITS PHYTOCHEMISTRY AND PHARMACOLOGY PROPERTIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Om Prakash Rout

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Coleus aromaticus Benth., (Fam. Lamiaceae, syn. Coleus amboinicus Lour. Spreng or Plectranthus ambonicus Lour, is commonly known as Indian/ country borage and ‘Pathorchur’ in Hindi and Bengali. It is recorded in the Indian system of medicine as one of the sources of Pashanabheda. It is large succulent aromatic perennial herb, shrubby below, hispidly villous or tomentose. It is found throughout India, Ceylon and Moluccas. The leaves of the plant are bitter, acrid and were being widely used traditionally for various purposes. The plant has been worked out very well and isolated several chemical constituents and had shown various biological properties. This review is an effort to compile all the information reported on its macroscopic, microscopic features, nutritional content, phytochemistry, pharmacology and therapeutic uses.

  14. Revisiting "Vegetables" to combat modern epidemic of imbalanced glucose homeostasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashok Kumar Tiwari

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Vegetables have been part of human food since prehistoric times and are considered nutritionally necessary and good for health. Vegetables are rich natural resource of biological antioxidants and possess capabilities of maintaining glucose homeostasis. When taken before starch-rich diet, juice also of vegetables such as ridge gourd, bottle gourd, ash gourd, chayote and juice of leaves of vegetables such as radish, Indian Dill, ajwain, tropical green amaranth, and bladder dock are reported to arrest significantly the rise in postprandial blood glucose level. Juice of vegetables such as ash gourd, squash gourd, and tropical green amaranth leaves are observed to tone-down sweet-beverages such as sucrose, fructose, and glucose-induced postprandial glycemic excursion. On the other hand, juice of egg-plant and juice of leaves of Ceylon spinach, Joyweed, and palak are reported to augment starch-induced postprandial glycemic excursion; and juice of leaves of Ceylon spinach, Joyweed, and radish supplement to the glucose-induced postprandial glycemia. Vegetables possess multifaceted antihyperglycemic activities such as inhibition of pancreatic α-amylase and intestinal α-glucosidase, inhibition of protein-tyrosine phosphatase 1β in liver and skeletal muscles, and insulin mimetic and secretagogue activities. Furthermore, they are also reported to influence polyol pathway in favor of reducing development of oxidative stress, and consequently the development of diabetic complications. In the wake of emergence of modern maladaptive diet-induced hyperglycemic epidemic therefore, vegetables may offer cost-effective dietary regimen to control diet-induced glycemic over load and future development of diabetes mellitus. However, for vegetables have been reported to do both, mitigate as well as supplement to the diet-induced postprandial glycemic load, care is required in selection of vegetables when considered as medicament.

  15. Revisiting "Vegetables" to combat modern epidemic of imbalanced glucose homeostasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiwari, Ashok Kumar

    2014-04-01

    Vegetables have been part of human food since prehistoric times and are considered nutritionally necessary and good for health. Vegetables are rich natural resource of biological antioxidants and possess capabilities of maintaining glucose homeostasis. When taken before starch-rich diet, juice also of vegetables such as ridge gourd, bottle gourd, ash gourd, chayote and juice of leaves of vegetables such as radish, Indian Dill, ajwain, tropical green amaranth, and bladder dock are reported to arrest significantly the rise in postprandial blood glucose level. Juice of vegetables such as ash gourd, squash gourd, and tropical green amaranth leaves are observed to tone-down sweet-beverages such as sucrose, fructose, and glucose-induced postprandial glycemic excursion. On the other hand, juice of egg-plant and juice of leaves of Ceylon spinach, Joyweed, and palak are reported to augment starch-induced postprandial glycemic excursion; and juice of leaves of Ceylon spinach, Joyweed, and radish supplement to the glucose-induced postprandial glycemia. Vegetables possess multifaceted antihyperglycemic activities such as inhibition of pancreatic α-amylase and intestinal α-glucosidase, inhibition of protein-tyrosine phosphatase 1β in liver and skeletal muscles, and insulin mimetic and secretagogue activities. Furthermore, they are also reported to influence polyol pathway in favor of reducing development of oxidative stress, and consequently the development of diabetic complications. In the wake of emergence of modern maladaptive diet-induced hyperglycemic epidemic therefore, vegetables may offer cost-effective dietary regimen to control diet-induced glycemic over load and future development of diabetes mellitus. However, for vegetables have been reported to do both, mitigate as well as supplement to the diet-induced postprandial glycemic load, care is required in selection of vegetables when considered as medicament. PMID:24991093

  16. Authenticity control of essential oils containing citronellal and citral by chiral and stable-isotope gas-chromatographic analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nhu-Trang, Tran-Thi; Casabianca, Hervé; Grenier-Loustalot, Marie-Florence

    2006-12-01

    Enantioselective capillary GC on a Supelco beta-DEX 225 column (heptakis(2,3-di-O-acetyl-6-O-tert-butyldimethylsilyl)-beta-cyclodextrin SPB 20poly--20% diphenyl, 80% dimethylsiloxane) and isotope-ratio mass spectrometry, coupled online with capillary GC on an HP5 column have been used for origin-specific analysis and authenticity control of essential oils, for example lemon (Citrus limon), lemongrass (Cymbopogon citratus and Cymbopogon flexuosus), citronella (Cymbopogon nardus L.--Ceylon type and Cymbopogon winterianus--Java type), Litsea cubeba, Lippia citriodora, lemon myrtle (Backhousia citriodora), lemon gum (Eucalyptus citriodora), and, especially, precious lemon balm oil (Melissa officinalis L.). Isotope data (delta13C(PDB) and delta2H(V-SMOW)) for citral (neral + geranial) and citronellal from on-line GC-C/Py-IRMS and chiral data for citronellal in these essential oils are reported. The possibility of using these data to determine the origin of these essential oils and to detect adulteration is discussed. Principal-components analysis (PCA) of specific compounds in two essential oils of lemongrass and Litsea cubeba was performed as a practical statistical method for distinguishing between these two types of oil. PMID:17089103

  17. Ethno botanical and Phytophrmacological potential of Abrus precatorius L.:A review

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Narendra Garaniya; Atul Bapodra

    2014-01-01

    Medicinal plants are being widely used, either as a single drug or in combination in health care delivery system. Medicinal plants can be important source of previously unknown chemical substances with potential therapeutic effects. Abrus precatorius L. is commonly known as Gunja or Jequirity and abundantly found all throughout the plains of India, from Himalaya down to Southern India and Ceylon. This plant is having medicinal potential to cure various diseases. The roots, leaves and seeds of this plant are used for different medicinal purpose. It principally contains flavonoids, triterpene glycosides, abrin and alkaloids. The plant have been reported for neuromuscular effects, neuro-protective, abortifacient, antiepileptic, anti-viral, anti-malarial, antifertility, nephroprotective, immunomodulator, immunostimulatory properties, anti-inflammatory activity, antidiabetic effect, etc. As this is a potential medicinal plant, present review reveals chemical constituents of leaf, root and seeds of Abrus precatorius. The plant is considered as a valuable source of unique natural products for development of medicines against various diseases and also for the development of industrial products.

  18. Ethics Review Committee approval and informed consent: an analysis of biomedical publications originating from Sri Lanka

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siriwardhana Chesmal

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background International guidelines on research have focused on protecting research participants. Ethical Research Committee (ERC approval and informed consent are the cornerstones. Externally sponsored research requires approval through ethical review in both the host and the sponsoring country. This study aimed to determine to what extent ERC approval and informed consent procedures are documented in locally and internationally published human subject research carried out in Sri Lanka. Methods We obtained ERC approval in Sri Lanka and the United Kingdom. Theses from 1985 to 2005 available at the Postgraduate Institute of Medicine (PGIM library affiliated to the University of Colombo were scrutinised using checklists agreed in consultation with senior research collaborators. A Medline search was carried out with MeSH major and minor heading 'Sri Lanka' as the search term for international publications originating in Sri Lanka during 1999 to 2004. All research publications from CMJ during 1999 to 2005 were also scrutinized. Results Of 291 theses, 34% documented ERC approvals and 61% documented obtaining consent. From the international journal survey, 250 publications originated from Sri Lanka of which only 79 full text original research publications could be accessed electronically. Of these 38% documented ERC approval and 39% documented obtaining consent. In the Ceylon Medical Journal 36% documented ERC approval and 37% documented obtaining consent. Conclusion Only one third of the publications scrutinized recorded ERC approval and procurement of informed consent. However, there is a positive trend in documenting these ethical requirements in local postgraduate research and in the local medical journal.

  19. SITOLOGI DAN TIPE REPRODUKSI Pteris multifida Poir. (PTERIDACEAE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diah Virsa Hastuti

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Cytological observations have been carried out by several researchers in South China, Japan, Ceylon, Hongkong, Himalaya and Java. The results from various regions showed that P. multifida had a fairly high genetic variation, namely diploid, triploid and tetraploid types. Therefore cytological and reproductive study on P. multifida from its geographical distribution areas need to be done. The objectives of this research were to observe the somatic chromosome number and reproductive type of P. multifida, and to recognize the relationship between morphological variation and its ploidy level as well as stomatal index. Plants were collected from several localities in Bogor. Ploidy level was determined by observing somatic chromosome number by using squash methods. Reproductive type was determined by counting spore number in each sporangium. Morphological characters examined were the stipe, lamina, pinnae, veins, and indusium. Observations of stomata and epidermis of leaves were done by making an incision paradermal leaf. Pteris multifida has two ploidy level and reproduction type, namely apogamous triploid (2n = 87 and sexual tetraploid (2n = 116. The two ploidy levels could not be distinguished based on morphological characteristics, but they can be differentiated by their epidermal cells number. Apogamous triploid has fewer number of epidermal cells, the sexual tetraploid has a greater number of epidermis.

  20. Hypothesis: dynamics of classical malaria epidemics show Plasmodium falciparum's survival strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanks, G Dennis

    2015-03-01

    Areas of marginal transmission can generate enormous lethal falciparum malaria epidemics when factors favoring the parasite shift only slightly. Although usually described in terms of vectorial capacity, medical scientists working in India in the early 20th century came to the conclusion that "an epidemic of relapses" was the key triggering event of malaria epidemics. This explanation has been largely discarded, because the biology of Plasmodium falciparum recrudescence has since been differentiated from P. vivax relapse. Using data from the Punjab in 1908 and Ceylon in 1934-1935, the genesis of malaria epidemics has been re-examined to inform current control efforts. The epidemics were focused geographically depending on recent rainfall or drought. Epidemics arose very suddenly and simultaneously in several places. Malaria spleen surveys indicated very little recent malaria transmission, and blood smears showed very few gametocytes just before the epidemic. Population stress as indicated by high grain prices because of a poor harvest caused by drought the previous year was a risk factor for malaria epidemics. Although increased female Anopheline survival because of increased humidity played an important part in the magnification of the epidemic, it does not explain its genesis. Human population stress triggering a shift toward gametocytogenesis is hypothesized as the key initiation factor for malaria epidemics. Its evolutionary significance may be that it allows the parasite to match the tropical agricultural cycle. PMID:25624407

  1. Public acceptance and trade development of irradiated food in Sri Lanka with special reference to spices and onions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sri Lankan spices, onion, shallots and dried chillies suffer considerable storage losses due to inadequate preservation method. Irradiation to a dose 7 kGy was found to be effective technique to reduce storage losses and improve quality of different spices. Preliminary results showed prospect of using irradiation for large scale preservation of dried chillis. But due to lack of irradiation, facility scaled- up irradiation and storage trials could not be undertaken. Based on study conducted by the Ceylon Institute of Scientific and Industrial Research, a report was submitted to the Atomic Energy Authority of Sri Lanka on the current demand for a multi-purpose irradiation facility. The food items identified for irradiation processing include spices, desiccated coconut, shrimps for export; and onions, chillies and dried fish products, foliage plants and medical products for local trade. The volume of products for commercial processing has also been indicated in the survey report. Steps for approval of the Harmonised Regulations on Food Irradiation as adopted in the RCA Workshop in Seoul, 1998 are at the processing level for submission as a parliamentary bill. A consumer acceptance survey was carried out in 1997; the outcome showed a low acceptance for irradiated spices. About 200 participants comprising private exporters, govt. officials and students were made aware of the irradiation process and benefits of irradiation treatment through the training programmes on post-harvest management at the CISIR. (author)

  2. Inhibitory activity of cinnamon bark species and their combination effect with acarbose against intestinal α-glucosidase and pancreatic α-amylase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adisakwattana, Sirichai; Lerdsuwankij, Orathai; Poputtachai, Ubonwan; Minipun, Aukkrapon; Suparpprom, Chaturong

    2011-06-01

    Inhibition of α-glucosidase and pancreatic α-amylase is one of the therapeutic approaches for delaying carbohydrate digestion, resulting in reduced postprandial glucose. The aim of this study was to evaluate the phytochemical analysis and the inhibitory effect of various cinnamon bark species against intestinal α-glucosidase and pancreatic α-amylase. The results showed that the content of total phenolic, flavonoid, and condensed tannin ranged from 0.17 to 0.21 g gallic acid equivalent/g extract, from 48.85 to 65.52 mg quercetin equivalent/g extract, and from 0.12 to 0.15 g catechin equivalent/g extract, respectively. The HPLC fingerprints of each cinnamon species were established. Among cinnamon species, Thai cinnamon extract was the most potent inhibitor against the intestinal maltase with the IC(50) values of 0.58 ± 0.01 mg/ml. The findings also showed that Ceylon cinnamon was the most effective intestinal sucrase and pancreatic α-amylase inhibitor with the IC(50) values of 0.42 ± 0.02 and 1.23 ± 0.02 mg/ml, respectively. In addition, cinnamon extracts produced additive inhibition against intestinal α-glucosidase and pancreatic α-amylase when combined with acarbose. These results suggest that cinnamon bark extracts may be potentially useful for the control of postprandial glucose in diabetic patients through inhibition of intestinal α-glucosidase and pancreatic α-amylase. PMID:21538147

  3. /sup 226/Ra in the western Indian Ocean

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, Y.

    1987-09-01

    /sup 226/Ra profiles have been measured in the western Indian Ocean as part of the 1977-78 Indian Ocean GEOSECS program. These profiles show a general increase in deep and bottom water Ra concentration from the Circumpolar region to the Arabian Sea. A deep Ra maximum which originates in the Arabian Sea and in the Somali basin at about 3000 m depth spreads southward into the Mascarene basin and remains discernible in the Madagascar and Crozet basins. In the western Indian Ocean, the cold Antarctic Bottom Water spreads northward under the possibly southward-flowing deep water, forming a clear benthic front along the Crozet basin across the Southwest Indian Ridge into the Madagascar and Mascarene basins. The Antarctic Bottom Water continues to spread farther north to the Somali basin through the Amirante Passage at 10/sup 0/S as a western boundary current. The benthic front and other characteristic features in the western Indian Ocean are quite similar to those observed in the western Pacific where the benthic front as a distinctive feature was first described by Craig et al. Across the Mid-Indian Ridge toward the Ceylon abyssal plain near the triple junction, Ra profiles display a layered structure, reflecting the topographic effect of the mid-ocean ridge system on the mixing and circulation of the deep and bottom waters. Both Ra and Si show a deep maximum north of the Madagascar Basin. Linear relationships between these two elements are observed in the deep and bottom water with slopes increasing northward. This suggests a preferential input of Ra over Si from the bottom sediments of the Arabian Sea and also from the flank sediments of the Somali basin.

  4. 226Ra in the western Indian Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Y.

    1987-09-01

    226Ra profiles have been measured in the western Indian Ocean as part of the 1977-1978 Indian Ocean GEOSECS program. These profiles show a general increase in deep and bottom water Ra concentration from the Circumpolar region to the Arabian Sea. A deep Ra maximum which originates in the Arabian Sea and in the Somali basin at about 3000 m depth spreads southward into the Mascarene basin and remains discernible in the Madagascar and Crozet basins. In the western Indian Ocean, the cold Antarctic Bottom Water spreads northward under the possibly southward-flowing deep water, forming a clear benthic front along the Crozet basin across the Southwest Indian Ridge into the Madagascar and Mascarene basins. The Antarctic Bottom Water continues to spread farther north to the Somali basin through the Amirante Passage at 10°S as a western boundary current. The benthic front and other characteristic features in the western Indian Ocean are quite similar to those observed in the western Pacific where the benthic front as a distinctive feature was first described by Craig et al. [15]. Across the Mid-Indian Ridge toward the Ceylon abyssal plain near the triple junction, Ra profiles display a layered structure, reflecting the topographic effect of the mid-ocean ridge system on the mixing and circulation of the deep and bottom waters. Both Ra and Si show a deep maximum north of the Madagascar basin. Linear relationships between these two elements are observed in the deep and bottom water with slopes increasing northward. This suggests a preferential input of Ra over Si from the bottom sediments of the Arabian Sea and also from the flank sediments of the Somali basin.

  5. Book Reviews

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Redactie KITLV

    1974-04-01

    Full Text Available - Umar Junus, Claire Holt, Culture and politics in Indonesia, Cornell Univ. Press, Ithaca and London, 1972. xi, 348 pp., maps, indexes., Benedict R. O’G. Anderson, James Siegel (eds. - S. Avé, Robert Stiller, Antologia Literatury Malajskiej. Biblioteka Narodowa, Zaklad Narodowy im. Ossolinskich, Wroclaw etc. 1971. 528 p. - H.J. Heering, J. van Baal, De boodschap der drie illusies. Van Gorcum & Co. Assen 1972. 135 blz. - The Siauw Giap, Goh Cheng Teik, The Malay Thirteenth incident and democracy in Malaysia. Oxford in Asia Current Affairs. Oxford University Press, Kula Lumpur & Singapore, 1971. 76 p. - W.F. Wertheim, Harry J. Benda, Continuity and change in Southeast Asia: Collected journal articles, Southeast Asia studies, Yale University, New Haven 1972, 307 p. - J.J. Ras, James Danandjaja, An annotated bibliography of Javanese folklore, Occasional paper no.9, Center for South and Southeast Asia studies, University of California, Berkeley, 1972, 162 pp. - I. Schöffer, Rob Nieuwenhuys, Oost Indische spiegel. Wat Nederlandse schrijvers en dichters over Indonesië hebben geschreven, vanaf de eerste jaren der Compagnie tot heden. Em. Querido, Amsterdam 1972. 645 blz. (Inleiding 11-18, Aantekeningen 555-621, Verantwoording 622-25, Namen en adressen 626, Woordenlijst 627-30, Register 631-45. - E. Postel-Coster, James L. Peacock, Indonesia; an anthropological perspective. Goodyear regional anthropological series, Edword Norbeck (ed.. Goodyear publishing company, Inc., Pacific Palisades, California, 1973. 168 pp. - C. Baks, O.H.K. Spate, India, Pakistan and Ceylon, the regions. Methuen and Co. Ltd., University Paperback 420, London 1972. 407-862 p., A.T.A. Learmouth, B.H. Farmer (eds. - ,

  6. Nrf2-dependent suppression of azoxymethane/dextran sulfate sodium-induced colon carcinogenesis by the cinnamon-derived dietary factor cinnamaldehyde.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Min; Tao, Shasha; Rojo de la Vega, Montserrat; Jiang, Tao; Wen, Qing; Park, Sophia L; Zhang, Donna D; Wondrak, Georg T

    2015-05-01

    The progressive nature of colorectal cancer and poor prognosis associated with the metastatic phase of the disease create an urgent need for the development of more efficacious strategies targeting colorectal carcinogenesis. Cumulative evidence suggests that the redox-sensitive transcription factor Nrf2 (nuclear factor-E2-related factor 2), a master regulator of the cellular antioxidant defence, represents a promising molecular target for colorectal cancer chemoprevention. Recently, we have identified cinnamon, the ground bark of Cinnamomum aromaticum (cassia cinnamon) and Cinnamomum verum (Ceylon cinnamon), as a rich dietary source of the Nrf2 inducer cinnamaldehyde (CA) eliciting the Nrf2-regulated antioxidant response in human epithelial colon cells, conferring cytoprotection against electrophilic and genotoxic insult. Here, we have explored the molecular mechanism underlying CA-induced Nrf2 activation in colorectal epithelial cells and have examined the chemopreventive potential of CA in a murine colorectal cancer model comparing Nrf2(+/+) with Nrf2(-/-) mice. In HCT116 cells, CA caused a Keap1-C151-dependent increase in Nrf2 protein half-life via blockage of ubiquitination with upregulation of cytoprotective Nrf2 target genes and elevation of cellular glutathione. After optimizing colorectal Nrf2 activation and target gene expression by dietary CA-supplementation regimens, we demonstrated that CA suppresses AOM/DSS-induced inflammatory colon carcinogenesis with modulation of molecular markers of colorectal carcinogenesis. Dietary suppression of colorectal cancer using CA supplementation was achieved in Nrf2(+/+) but not in Nrf2(-/-) mice confirming the Nrf2 dependence of CA-induced chemopreventive effects. Taken together, our data suggest feasibility of colorectal cancer suppression by dietary CA, an FDA-approved food additive derived from the third most consumed spice in the world. PMID:25712056

  7. Low-angle X-ray scattering properties of irradiated spices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Almeida, A.P.G. [Nuclear Instrumentation Laboratory (LIN/COPPE), P. O. Box 68509, 21945-970, Rio de Janeiro RJ (Brazil)], E-mail: delson@lin.ufrj.br; Braz, D. [Nuclear Instrumentation Laboratory (LIN/COPPE), P. O. Box 68509, 21945-970, Rio de Janeiro RJ (Brazil); Barroso, R.C. [Physics Institute (IF/UERJ), University of Rio de Janeiro State, 20550-900 Rio de Janeiro RJ (Brazil); Lopes, R.T. [Nuclear Instrumentation Laboratory (LIN/COPPE), P. O. Box 68509, 21945-970, Rio de Janeiro RJ (Brazil)

    2007-09-21

    The scattering of X-rays at low angles (LAXS) is a technique dominated by the coherent scattering process. One characteristic observation of low-angle coherent scattering is the so-called molecular interference effect, being characterized by the presence of one or more peaks in the forward direction of scattering. In the present study, LAXS profiles from five different spices are carefully measured in order to establish characteristic scattering signatures. Samples of Ceylon cinnamon, cumin, nutmeg, paprika and black pepper were bought in local market in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The LAXS patterns were obtained using a Shimadzu DRX 6000 diffractometer in reflection geometry. Coherent scattering patterns are measured for the samples for {theta}=5-35{sup o}. The data were collected in 0.05{sup o} increments every 3 s. In order to evaluate the possible molecular structure changes caused to the irradiation procedure, the signatures obtained for control (non-irradiated) spices were compared with spice samples irradiated with different doses varying from 3 to 40 kGy. The LAXS patterns of all samples were obtained after 30, 60, 90, 120 days to evaluate the effect of storage period. Scattering profiles from spices irradiated with different irradiation doses were obtained and the results compared. For each spice, there is no considerable deviation in shape in function of the irradiation dose. It indicates that the molecular structure of each analyzed spices is preserved considering the dose range chosen. The results show that the molecular structure was found to be stable during storage at the ambient temperature for up to 4 months.

  8. A review of three major fungal diseases of Coffea arabica L. in the rainforests of Ethiopia and progress in breeding for resistance in Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Holger Hindorf

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available In a review of their own research the authors summarize incidences and distributions of the most important fungal diseases in Ethiopia and progress in breeding for resistance. Ethiopia, as the centre of origin for Coffea arabica, hosts a large diversity of germplasm. The incidences of diseases are based on observations in the montane rainforests of the southeast (Harenna and southwest (Bonga, Berhane-Kontir, Yayu of Ethiopia. Major diseases are Coffee Leaf Rust (CLR, Hemileia vastatrix; Coffee Berry Disease (CBD, Colletotrichum kahawae and Coffee Wilt Disease (CWD, Gibberella xylarioides (Fusarium xylarioides. CLR incidences in Ethiopia were present in all regions with highs between January and March and lows between June and October. CBD was present mostly in Bonga (40.0% and Yayu (26.3%, but less frequent in Harenna (18.6% and Berhane-Kontir (6.0%. CWD as a recently developed disease in Arabica coffee could be detected ranging from 2.4% in Berhane-Kontir to 16.9% in Yayu. CLR has been a serious constraint in all production countries since it became prominent in Ceylon in the late 19th century after leaf infection defoliation affects plants. CBD was first observed in Kenya in 1922. The disease is currently confined to the African continent in all countries that grow Arabica coffee. In the mid-1990s in the Democratic Republic of Congo, Uganda and Tanzania a resurgence of CWD in Robusta coffee and in Ethiopia in Arabica coffee occurred. Over the last 40 years breeding activities have been carried out to combat CLR, CBD and CWD. Breeding for resistance against CLR in Arabica coffee has successfully utilized single or combinations of major genes designated as SH genes. Major gene resistance has also been deployed in breeding for resistance against CBD, whereas in the case of CWD, selections of tolerant Arabica accessions are being pursued from local landraces in Ethiopia.

  9. Low-angle X-ray scattering properties of irradiated spices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, A. P. G.; Braz, D.; Barroso, R. C.; Lopes, R. T.

    2007-09-01

    The scattering of X-rays at low angles (LAXS) is a technique dominated by the coherent scattering process. One characteristic observation of low-angle coherent scattering is the so-called molecular interference effect, being characterized by the presence of one or more peaks in the forward direction of scattering. In the present study, LAXS profiles from five different spices are carefully measured in order to establish characteristic scattering signatures. Samples of Ceylon cinnamon, cumin, nutmeg, paprika and black pepper were bought in local market in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The LAXS patterns were obtained using a Shimadzu DRX 6000 diffractometer in reflection geometry. Coherent scattering patterns are measured for the samples for θ=5-35°. The data were collected in 0.05° increments every 3 s. In order to evaluate the possible molecular structure changes caused to the irradiation procedure, the signatures obtained for control (non-irradiated) spices were compared with spice samples irradiated with different doses varying from 3 to 40 kGy. The LAXS patterns of all samples were obtained after 30, 60, 90, 120 days to evaluate the effect of storage period. Scattering profiles from spices irradiated with different irradiation doses were obtained and the results compared. For each spice, there is no considerable deviation in shape in function of the irradiation dose. It indicates that the molecular structure of each analyzed spices is preserved considering the dose range chosen. The results show that the molecular structure was found to be stable during storage at the ambient temperature for up to 4 months.

  10. Evidence of balanced diversity at the chicken interleukin 4 receptor alpha chain locus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Podisi Baitsi

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The comparative analysis of genome sequences emerging for several avian species with the fully sequenced chicken genome enables the genome-wide investigation of selective processes in functionally important chicken genes. In particular, because of pathogenic challenges it is expected that genes involved in the chicken immune system are subject to particularly strong adaptive pressure. Signatures of selection detected by inter-species comparison may then be investigated at the population level in global chicken populations to highlight potentially relevant functional polymorphisms. Results Comparative evolutionary analysis of chicken (Gallus gallus and zebra finch (Taeniopygia guttata genes identified interleukin 4 receptor alpha-chain (IL-4Rα, a key cytokine receptor as a candidate with a significant excess of substitutions at nonsynonymous sites, suggestive of adaptive evolution. Resequencing and detailed population genetic analysis of this gene in diverse village chickens from Asia and Africa, commercial broilers, and in outgroup species red jungle fowl (JF, grey JF, Ceylon JF, green JF, grey francolin and bamboo partridge, suggested elevated and balanced diversity across all populations at this gene, acting to preserve different high-frequency alleles at two nonsynonymous sites. Conclusion Haplotype networks indicate that red JF is the primary contributor of diversity at chicken IL-4Rα: the signature of variation observed here may be due to the effects of domestication, admixture and introgression, which produce high diversity. However, this gene is a key cytokine-binding receptor in the immune system, so balancing selection related to the host response to pathogens cannot be excluded.

  11. Sri Lanka.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-12-01

    Sri Lanka has an area of 25,332 square miles and the terrain consists of coastal plains, with hills and mountains in the south central area. Population stands at 16.8 million with a growth rate of 1.6% and ethnic groups include Sinhalese 74%, Tamils 18%, Muslims 7%, and other 1%. The religions are Buddhism, Hinduism, Islam, and Christianity. Languages include Sinhala, Tamil and English, and the literacy rate is 87%. 68.9 years is the average life expectancy and the infant mortality rate is 31/1000. The government is a republic with a president, parliament and a court system. The gross national product is $7.2 billion with a 2.7% growth rate and an inflation rate of 14%. Natural resources include limestone, graphite, mineral sands, gems, and phosphate. Agricultural products include tea, rubber, coconuts, rice, and spices. Industry consists of textiles and garments, chemicals and petroleum products, food processing, wood and wood products, basic metal products, paper and paper products. The British ejected the Dutch in 1796 and set up the crown colony of Ceylon. In 1931 the colony was allowed limited self rule, and in 1948 it became independent. It is a less developed country with a annual average per capita income of $430. In 1977 the government undertook reforms and eliminated price and foreign exchange controls, reduced consumer subsidies and promoted private sector development. The results showed a more than 5% growth rate during the decade and tourism and foreign investment increased. Recently the growth has slowed partly because of a communal conflict, a trade imbalance and serious structural imbalances. PMID:12178023

  12. Nature–Culture Relations: Early Globalization, Climate Changes, and System Crisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sing C. Chew

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Globalization has been on everyone’s lips in light of the contemporary conditions. It has been viewed mostly as a stage reached as a result of long-term societal changes over the course of world history. For us, globalization has been an ongoing process for at least the last 5000 years. Little attention has been paid to the socioeconomic and natural processes that led to the current transformation. With the exception of historical sociologists, there is less interest in examining the long-term past as it is often assumed that the past has nothing to teach us, and it is the future that we have to turn our intellectual gaze. This paper will argue the opposite. We believe a long-term tracing of the socioeconomic and political processes of the making of the modern world will allow us to have a more incisive understanding of the current trajectory of world development and transformations. To plead our case, we outline the emergence of the first Eurasian World Economy linking seven regions (Europe, the Arabian Peninsula, East Africa, the Persian Gulf, Central Asia, South Asia, Ceylon, Southeast Asia, and China of the world, with the exception of the Americas, starting as early as 200 BC, and the sequence of structural crises and transformations (trading networks and commodities that has circumscribed the structures and trends of the current global system. Such consideration in our view is limited if we do not also include the relations between social systems and Nature, and the rhythms of the climate. For the latter, an awareness of the natural rhythms of the climate as well as human induced changes or climate forcing have triggered system-wide level collapses during certain early historical periods.

  13. The sex ratio distortion in the human head louse is conserved over time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biliński Szczepan M

    2004-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background At the turn of the 19th century the first observations of a female-biased sex ratio in broods and populations of the head louse, Pediculus humanus capitis, had been reported. A study by Buxton in 1940 on the sex ratio of lice on prisoners in Ceylon is still today the subject of reanalyses. This sex ratio distortion had been detected in ten different countries. In the last sixty years no new data have been collected, especially on scalp infestations under economically and socially more developed conditions. Results Here we report a female bias of head lice in a survey of 480 school children in Argentina. This bias is independent of the intensity of the pediculosis, which makes local mate competition highly unlikely as the source of the aberrant sex ratio; however, other possible adaptive mechanisms cannot be discounted. These lice as well as lice from pupils in Britain were carrying several strains of the endosymbiotic bacterium Wolbachia pipientis, one of the most wide spread intracellular sex ratio distorters. Similar Wolbachia strains are also present in the pig louse, Haematopinus suis, suggesting that this endosymbiont might have a marked influence on the biology of the whole order. The presence of a related obligate nutritional bacterium in lice prevents the investigation of a causal link between sex ratio and endosymbionts. Conclusions Regardless of its origin, this sex ratio distortion in head lice that has been reported world wide, is stable over time and is a remarkable deviation from the stability of frequency-dependent selection of Fisher's sex ratio. A female bias first reported in 1898 is still present over a hundred years and a thousand generations later.

  14. Lead toxicity, defense strategies and associated indicative biomarkers in Talinum triangulare grown hydroponically.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Abhay; Prasad, M N V; Sytar, Oksana

    2012-11-01

    Talinum species have been used to investigate a variety of environmental problems for e.g. determination of metal pollution index and total petroleum hydrocarbons in roadside soils, stabilization and reclamation of heavy metals (HMs) in dump sites, removal of HMs from storm water-runoff and green roof leachates. Species of Talinum are popular leaf vegetables having nutrient antinutrient properties. In this study, Talinum triangulare (Jacq.) Willd (Ceylon spinach) grown hydroponically were exposed to different concentrations of lead (Pb) (0, 0.25, 0.5, 0.75, 1.0 and 1.25 mM) to investigate the biomarkers of toxicity and tolerance mechanisms. Relative water content, cell death, photosynthetic pigments, sulphoquinovosyldiacylglycerol (SQDG), anthocyanins, α-tocopherol, malondialdehyde (MDA), reactive oxygen species (ROS) glutathione (GSH and GSSG) and elemental analysis have been investigated. The results showed that Pb in roots and shoots gradually increased as the function of Pb exposure; however Pb concentration in leaves was below detectable level. Chlorophylls and SQDG contents increased at 0.25 mM of Pb treatment in comparison to control at all treated durations, thereafter decreased. Levels of carotenoid, anthocyanins, α-tocopherol, and lipid peroxidation increased in Pb treated plants compared to control. Water content, cells death and elemental analysis suggested the damage of transport system interfering with nutrient transport causing cell death. The present study also explained that Pb imposed indirect oxidative stress in leaves is characterized by decreases in GSH/GSSG ratio with increased doses of Pb treatment. Lead-induced oxidative stress was alleviated by carotenoids, anthocyanins, α-tocopherol and glutathione suggesting that these defense responses as potential biomarkers for detecting Pb toxicity. PMID:22722003

  15. Training in radioisotope uses for agricultural investigations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Seventeen students from Cambodia, the Republic of China, India, Israel, Pakistan, the Philippines, Syria, Thailand and the United Arab Republic attended an inter-regional training course on the use of radioisotopes in soil and plant investigations in Manila, Philippines. Held from 3 October to 25 November 1966, the course was organised by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and the Food and Agricultural Organization (FAO) under the UN Expanded Programme of Technical Assistance. During the first three weeks, the students, most of whom had graduate training or experience in agricultural research, were taught the basic characteristics of isotopes and the techniques of measuring radiation. Lectures and practical laboratory exercises in the more specialized studies of soil-plant relations took up the rest of the time. Some of the topics covered were: field and water culture experiments, measurement of nutrient in the soil, autoradiography of plant materials, plant mutation and breeding, use of radioisotopes in the study of photosynthesis and plant growth, nuclear techniques for determining soil moisture and density, the use of labelled fertilizer in studying the efficient utilization of fertilizer, etc. Dr. Getulio B. Viado, Head of the Training Institute, Philippine Atomic Energy Commission, was Director of the course, while Dr. Shaukat Ahmed, Director of the Atomic Research Centre, West Pakistan, served as Technical Adviser and as a principal lecturer. The teaching staff consisted of Philippine scientists and three visiting professors: Dr. Victor Middelboe of the IAEA Seibersdorf Laboratory, Dr. M.S. Chandraratna of Ceylon and Dr. S.C. Chang of the Republic of China. (author)

  16. A mineralogical study and crystal-structure determination of nonmetamict ekanite, ThCa2Si8O20

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nonmetamict ekanite, ideally ThCa2Si8O20 chemical composition very similar to the metamict gemstone ekanite originally found in Sri Lanka (Ceylon), has been discovered in the Tombstone Mountains, Yukon Territory. The physical and optical properties are described and the X-ray powder pattern is given. Crystalline ekanite is tetragonal, space group I422 with a 7.483(3), c 14.893(6) A. The structure has been solved and refined to R = 3.57% from 1319 independent reflections obtained from multiple data sets with MoKα radiation. The structure is closely related to that of the family with general composition ThK(Na,Ca)Si8O20, which crystallizes in space group P4/mcc and which has been misnamed 'ekanite' for many years. True crystalline ekanite has a body-centred unit cell whose dimensions agree closely with that of the material obtained on heating metamict ekanite to above 6500C. The metal co-ordination is remarkably similar in the two types of structures; Th is 8-co-ordinated in a square antiprism of oxygen atoms at 2.405(5) A, and Ca has four nearest oxygen neighbours [21.342(5) A] in a very distorted tetrahedron and four second-nearest neighbours [2.688(5) A] near the midpoints of the faces of the tetrahedron. Sheets of metals at z = 0, 1/2 are separated by a puckered silicate layer that extends infinitely in x, y. The structure is characterized by zeolite-like channels through the silicate layers, where non-structural water can become entrapped

  17. Survey in South-East Asia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In early 1959 an IAEA mission visited Burma, Ceylon, Indonesia and Thailand. In each of the four countries, the mission held detailed discussions with scientists and officials, collected information and exchanged ideas. Besides general discussion, consultations were held in small working groups on specific topics and problems. The members of the mission also visited atomic energy centres, other scientific and technical organizations, educational institutions as well as sites of actual or possible projects. The reports of the mission contain, a general description of the atomic energy programmes of the four countries, covering both current and planned activities, the mission's comments and recommendations and lists of specific requests for Agency assistance made by these countries after discussions with the mission. Atomic energy work in Burma is primarily the responsibility of the Union of Burma Atomic Energy Centre (UBAEC). Set up in 1955, the Centre is a part of the Union of Burma Applied Research Institute (UBARI). The programme of UBAEC includes a broad training scheme, the setting up of a Nuclear Radiation Laboratory by 1960-61, a study of the possibilities of installing a research reactor by 1962-63 and the possible erection of other reactors at a later date. The mission discussed with the Burmese authorities their tentative plans for atomic energy legislation and the advice given might help in the early establishment of an independent atomic energy commission. Ceylon too is embarking on several atomic energy activities and long-range plans are being developed. The emphasis, it is expected, will be mainly on education, raw material prospecting, isotopes and nuclear power development. A Committee on Atomic Energy was created in 1958 by Ceylon's National Planning Council, and the Committee is now working towards the early formation of a central atomic energy authority. The IAEA mission advised the officials of the Committee on the framing of such legislation as

  18. Book Reviews

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.Ch.L. van der Vliet

    1982-01-01

    Full Text Available - Rita Bolland, Alfred Bühler, The patola of Gujarat. Double ikat in India. Krebs AG Basel, 1979. Vol. 1, 360 p. tekst, ill. Vol. 2, afb. in kleur en zwart/wit, krt. tab. noten, verkl. woorden. litl., Eberhard Fischer (eds. - Raymond Buve, Hugo G. Nutini, Ritual kinship. The structure and historical development of the Compadrazgo system in rural Tlaxcala, Vol. I. Princeton University Press, N.J., 1980, XVI plus 494 pp., maps, tables, glossary and index., Betty Bell (eds. - Benno Galjart, G.A. Banck, Jagen met een kat... Schaarse middelen en sociale relaties in de Braziliaanse staat Espirito Santo, CEDLA Incidentele publicaties no. 8, CEDLA, Amsterdam 1977. - R.A.L.H. Gunawardana, J. van Goor, Jan Kompanie as schoolmaster: Dutch education in Ceylon, 1690-1795, Historische Studies, Instituut voor Geschiedenis der Rijksuniversiteit te Utrecht, XXIV, Wolters-Noordhoff Groningen, 1978, 205 pp., 3 maps. - Ria Kloppenborg, R.A.L.H. Gunawardana, Robe and plough. Monasticism and economic interest in early medieval Sri Lanka. Association for Asian Studies, Monographs and Papers No. XXXV, University of Arixona Press, Tucson, Arizona, 1979; 377 pages, including bibliography and index. - Els Postel-Coster, Jan van Bremen, Romantropologie - Essays over antropologie en literatuur, Antropologisch-Sociologisch Centrum Universiteit van Amsterdam, 1979., Sjaak van der Geest, Jojada Verrips (eds. - Arie de Ruijter, T. Lemaire, Over de waarde van kulturen. Een inleiding in de kultuurfilosofie. Ambo, Baarn 1976, herdruk 1980. 509 blz. - P. van de Velde, W. Arens, The man-eating myth. Oxford University Press, New York, 1979. XIV + 206 pp., 12 illustrations. - E.Ch.L. van der Vliet, Klaus E. Müller, Geschichte der antiken ethnographie und ethnologischen theoriebildung von den anfängen bis auf die byzantinischen historiographen, Teil II (Studien zur Kulturkunde 52, Wiesbaden: Franza Steiner Verlag, 1980. 563 pp. 11 figs. - J.J. de Wolf, P.T.W. Baxter, Age

  19. Isotopes and radiation help research to grow more rice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agricultural land being limited, the only effective way of meeting the demand for more rice by the rapidly-growing population of Asia and the Far East is to increase productivity per acre. This can be done by more efficient use of fertilizers, by developing better varieties of rice, and by control of pests and diseases. Internationally coordinated programmes of research carried out by the Joint FAO/IAEA Division of Atomic Energy in Agriculture have these as major objectives. Three years' work on the problem of efficiency of fertilizer utilisation have produced significant results. The Agency first attacked the problem in 1962, mainly through a coordinated programme of research contracts, but partly through a Regional Adviser on Rice Fertilizer Problems under the UN Expanded Programme of Technical Assistance. Eight countries in the region have been involved in various aspects of these programmes ; over the three-year period the Agency has spent some $245 000 from its own resources, and EPTA has provided about $60 000. Initially, the countries taking part in the programme were Burma, Hungary, Pakistan, the Philippines, Thailand, and the United Arab Republic. Later China (Taiwan), Ceylon, Korea, Italy, India and Madagascar took part. Fertilizers containing nitrogen, phosphate, and sometimes potassium are known to raise rice yields considerably. Isotope tracer methods are particularly useful in determining the most efficient methods of applying such fertilizers. These techniques enable determination of the efficiency of the uptake of fertilizer by the plant in relation either to placement, time of application, fertilizer sources or other factors; in addition, they are completely independent of vegetative development or grain yield, so that each experiment gives useful results. In all three years, each experiment has produced conclusive results which could be immediately applied in practice. They showed that the simplest methods of applying phosphate fertilizer were the

  20. Can we bridge the gap? Knowledge and practices related to Diabetes Mellitus among general practitioners in a developing country: A cross sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katulanda Prasad

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Diabetes mellitus is becoming a serious public health problem in Sri Lanka and many other developing countries in the region. It is well known that effective management of diabetes reduces the incidence and progression of many diabetes related complications, thus it is important that General Practitioners (GPs have sound knowledge and positive attitudes towards all aspects of its management. This study aims to assess knowledge, awareness and practices relating to management of Diabetes Mellitus among Sri Lankan GPs. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted among all 246 GPs registered with the Ceylon College of General Practitioners using a pre-validated self-administered questionnaire. Results 205 responded to the questionnaire(response rate 83.3%. Their mean duration of practice was 28.7 ± 11.2 years. On average, each GP had 27 ± 25 diabetic-patient consultations per-week. 96% managed diabetic patients and 24% invariably sought specialist opinion. 99.2% used blood glucose to diagnose diabetes but correct diagnostic cut-off values were known by only 48.8%. Appropriate use of HbA1c and urine microalbumin was known by 15.2% and 39.2% respectively. 84% used HbA1c to monitor glyceamic control, while 90.4% relied on fasting blood glucose to monitor glyceamic control. Knowledge on target control levels was poor. Nearly 90% correctly selected the oral hypoglyceamic treatment for obese as well as thin type 2 diabetic patients. Knowledge on the management of diabetes in pregnancy was poor. Only 23.2% knew the correct threshold for starting lipid-lowering therapy. The concept of strict glycaemic control in preference to symptom control was appreciated only by 68%. The skills for comprehensive care in subjects with multiple risk factors were unsatisfactory. Conclusions The study was done among experienced members of the only professional college dedicated to the specialty. However, we found that there is room for improvement in

  1. Analysis of archaeological precious stones from Slovenia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Šmit, Ž. [Facully of Mathematics and Physics, University of Ljubljana (Slovenia); Fajfar, H. [Jožef Stefan Institute, Ljubljana (Slovenia); Jeršsek, M. [Slovenian Museum of Natural History, Ljubljana (Slovenia); Knific, T. [National Museum of Slovenia, Ljubljana (Slovenia); Kržic, A. [Higher Vocational Centre, Sezana (Slovenia); Lux, J. [Institute for the Protection of Cultural Heritage of Slovenia, Ljubljana (Slovenia)

    2013-07-01

    Full text: Precious stones have been attractive pieces of jewelry since ancient times. However, due to the limited sources of origin, the quality of applied items mainly depended on long-range commercial relations, but also on fashion. In Antiquity and Late Antiquity, stones much used and sought for were emeralds and garnets. In Slovenia, emeralds are typically related to the early Roman period and are incorporated in the finds of gold jewelry from the graves. Emerald is generally beryl colored by admixture of chromium, though green colors can also be due to admixtures of iron or vanadium. Garnets were increasingly used by various nations of the People Migration period, and mounted in gilded silver or gold objects by 'cloisonne' or 'en cabochon' techniques. In Slovenia, numerous jewelry items containing garnets were found in the graves and in post-Roman fortified settlements. Geologically, according to the admixtures of metal ions, the garnets are divided into several species, while the most common among archaeological finds are almandines and pyropes and their intermediate types. It is also common to divide garnets into five groups, the first two originating from India, the third from Ceylon and the fifth from Czech Republic. The measurements involved presumed emeralds from Roman jewelry finds in Slovenia and comparative samples of beryl from Siberia and Habachtal in Austria. The analysis determined the coloring ions and showed relations between particular stones. For garnets, ten samples from brooches, earrings and rings were selected for the analysis on the basis of previous micro Raman examination. The analysis was performed by a combined PIXE-PIGE technique using proton beam in air. The light elements of Na, Mg, AI were determined according to the emitted gamma rays, while X-rays were used for the elements heavier than silicon. Two X-ray spectra were measured in each measuring point, soft and hard X-ray; the latter was obtained using an

  2. Book Reviews

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Redactie KITLV

    1973-04-01

    Full Text Available - M.P.H. Roessingh, Cornelis Ch. Goslinga, The Dutch in the Caribbean and on the Wild Coast, 1580-1680. (Assen, van Gorcum en Comp., 1971. Anjerpublicaties nr. 12. 647 pp., X appendices, 15 ills., 12 krtn., bibliografie, index van persoonsnamen, plaatsen en zaken. - H.C. van Renselaar, H. Hoetink, Caribbean race relations, A study of two variants. Oxford University Press voor het Institute of Race Relations, Londen 1971 (paperback, 207 blz. - P. van Emst, Countries and peoples of the Pacific Basin. Summaries of articles by Soviet scholars. U.S.S.R. Academy of Sciences. Oriental Commission, Geographical Society of the U.S.S.R. N.N. Miklukho-Maklai Institute of Ethnography. “Nauka” Publishing House. Central Department of Oriental Literature. Moscow 1971, 152 pp. - Simon Kooijman, Roland W. Force, The Fuller collection of Pacific artifacts. Lund Humphries, London 1971. 360 pp., ills., Maryanne Force (eds. - Simon Kooijman, Waldemar Stöhr, Melanesian. Schwarze Inseln der Südsee. Eine Ausstellung des Rautenstrauch-Joest-Museums der Stadt Köln. Kunsthalle Köln. 12 November 1971 bis 16. Januar 1972. 223 S., 454 Abb., 12 Farbtafeln. - P.E. de Josselin de Jong, Dolores D. Wharton, Contemporary artists of Malaysia: A bibliographic survey. Union Cultural Organization, Kuala Lumpur, for Asia Society, New York 1971. 136 p., 38 plates. - Frank Bovenkerk, Julia G. Crane, Educated to emigrate; the social organization of Saba. Van Gorcum & Comp., Assen 1971. 269 plates, 3 figs. - P.B. Renes, R.J.W. Selleck, Melbourne Studies in Education, 1968-1969. Melbourne University Press, Melbourne 1970, 195 p. - L.F.B. Dubbeldam, Howard W. Beers, An American experience in Indonesia: The University of Kentucky affiliation with the Agricultural University of Bogor. University Press of Kentucky, Lexington, U.S.A., 1971. 267 pp. - W.Ph. Coolhaas, George Davison Winius, The fatal history of Portugese Ceylon, Transition to Dutch rule. Harvard University Press, Cambridge

  3. Phytochemical and pharmacological potential of Hygrophila spinosa T. anders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arjun Patra

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Hygrophila spinosa T. Anders (Acanthaceae is described in Ayurvedic literature as Ikshura, Ikshugandha and Kokilasha "having eyes like Kokila or Indian cuckoo", common in moist places on the banks of tanks, ditches, paddy fields etc., widely distributed throughout India from Himalayas to Ceylon, Srilanka, Burma, Malaysia and Nepal. Seeds, whole plant, leaves, roots and ash of the plant are predominantly used for the treatment of various ailments. The compounds identified in H. spinosa are mainly phytosterols, fatty acids, minerals, polyphenols, proanthocyanins, mucilage, alkaloids, enzymes, amino acids, carbohydrates, hydrocarbons, flavonoids, terpenoids, vitamins and glycosides. Some of the reported phytoconstituents are lupeol, lupenone, 25-oxo-hentriacontanyl acetate, stigmasterol, betulin, β- carotene, hentriacontane, apigenin-7-O-glucuronide, apigenin-7-O-glucoside, 3-methylnonacosane, 23-ethylcholesta-11(12, 23(24-dien-3β-ol, luteolin, asteracanthine, asteracanthicine, luteolin-7-rutinoside, methyl-8-n-hexyltetracosanoate, β--sitosterol, histidine, phenylalanine, lysine, ascorbic acid, nicotinic acid, n-triacontane, glucose, mannose, rhamnose, arabinose, xylose, maltose, myristic acid, oleic acid, palmitic acid, stearic acid, linoleic acid etc. Ethanolic extract of the fruits, hydroalcoholic extract of whole plant and crude petroleum ether extract of the plant are having anticancer activity. Antibacterial activity was exhibited by the chloroform and methanol extract of the whole plant, and methanolic extract of the leaves. Antifungal activity against Aspergillus tamari, Rhizopus solani, Mucor mucedo and Aspergillus niger is due to the proteins and peptides present in the plant. Potential in treating liver diseases of the aerial parts, roots and whole plant was studied by various models viz. carbon tetrachloride induced hepatotoxicity, paracetamol and thioacetamide intoxication, and galactosamine induced liver dysfunction in rats. Seeds

  4. Book Reviews

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margaret Leidelmeijer

    1994-04-01

    Full Text Available - Roger Busser, Sudo Sueo, The Fukuda Doctrine and ASEAN; New dimensions in Japanese Foreign policy. Singapore: Institute of Southeast Asian Studies, 1992. - P.J. Drooglever, C. Fasseur, De Indologen; Ambtenaren voor de Oost 1825-1950. Amsterdam: Bert Bakker, 1993, 552 pp. - Raymond Evans, Tony Swain, A place for strangers; Towards a history of Australian Aboroginal being. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1993, xi + 330 pp. - CH.F. van Fraassen, Leonard Andaya, The world of Maluku; Eastern Indonesia in the early modern period. Honolulu: University of Hawai Press, 1993, ix + 306 pp. - J. van Goor, Lodewijk Wagenaar, Galle VOC-vestiging in Ceylon; Beschrijving van een koloniale samenleving aan de vooravond van de Singalese opstand tegen het Nederlandse gezag, 1760. Amsterdam: De Bataafsche Leeuw, 1994. - Geert Kalshoven, A. Schrevel, Access to Water; A socio-economic study into the practice of irrigation development in Indonesia. Ph.D. thesis, The Hague: The Institute of Social Studies, 1993. - Nico Kaptein, Mohamed Ariff, Islam and the economic development of Southeast Asia; The Islamic Voluntary Sector in Southeast Asia. Singapore: Institute of Southeast Asian Studies,1991.''Islam and the economic development of Southeast Asia; The Muslim private sector in Southeast Asia. Singapore: Institute of Southeast Asian Studies, 1991. - Victor T. King, Alistair Morrison, Fair land Sarawak; Some recollections of an expatriate official. Ithaca, New York: Cornell University (Southeast Asia Program, Studies on Southeast Asia 13, 1993, xiv + 182 pp. - H.A.J. Klooster, Klaus H. Schreiner-Brauch, Nationalismus und Personenkult im indonesischen Geschichtsverständnis. Ph.D. Dissertation, Universität Hamburg, 1993, xxi + 293 pp. - Han Knapen, Mark Cleary, Borneo; Change and development. Singapore, Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press, 1992, x + 271 pp., tables, figures, index., Peter Eaton (eds. - Sirtjo Koolhof, Christiaan G.F. de Jong

  5. 慢性荨麻疹患者160例对27种植物精油临床适应性的检测%Detection of 27 kinds plant essential oil's adaptability in clinical treatment of 160 chronic urticaria patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈正琴; 潘钰蔚; 刘倩; 张怀亮

    2012-01-01

    Objective Screen chronic urticaria patients with 27 kinds natural plant essential oil to find the best adapted varieties. Methods We uses the meridian bio-resonance technique screening chronic urticaria patients through meridian points with MED Model to find the adapted essential oil,and control with standard samples. Results The adaptation percentage of 27 kinds natural plant essential oil to 160 chronic urticaria patients was 10.63%~26.25%, average 18.38%.A11 kinds had their corresponding adaptive patients. The top ten were Russia pine needle, Australia tangerine oil, North America neroli, morocco geranium oil, west india ginger oil, ceylon citronella grass, Spain fennel oil, France rosemary oil, India peppermint oil. Conclusion Some of the 27 natural plant essential oil are good to the rehabilitation of chronic urticaria patients.%目的 采用27种植物精油纯品对慢性荨麻疹患者进行适应性筛选检测,找到慢性荨麻疹患者植物精油的最佳适应品种.方法 采用经络生物共振技术,通过人体经络穴位检测筛选植物精油对慢性荨麻疹患者的适应性,并与检验标准品作对照.结果 27种植物精油160例慢性荨麻疹的适应百分率为10.63%~26.25%,平均为18.38%.所有的植物精油均有适应的患者,排列在前10位的植物精油分别是俄罗斯松针、澳洲红桔油、北美橙花油、摩洛哥天竺葵油、西印度姜油、斯里兰卡香茅油、西班牙茴香油、法国迷迭香油、印度薄荷油、澳洲柠檬油.结论 部分植物精油对慢性荨麻疹患者适应性较好,可用于慢性荨麻疹患者康复治疗.

  6. ECOSOC conference news

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Economic and Social Council of the UN met in Geneva for its fifty-third summer session from July 3-28. A request for a study regarding the world's multinational corporations, a call on the Governments concerned for action to stop the reported clandestine trafficking in labor from Africa to Europe, far-reaching recommendations on land reform, and measures to eliminate mass poverty and unemployment in the developing countries, were some of the major decisions taken by the Economic and Social Council. Of particular interest to the Agency are the following matters: 1. Science and Technology A standing committee on science and technology, for which the Council at this session approved terms of reference and a programme of work, was established last year to provide guidance and to make recommendations on matters relating to assistance in the application of science and technology to development. Under the mandate as approved, the standing committee was given the power to suggest scientific and technological policies to promote development in the interest of all mankind. It will assist the Council in co-ordinating the activities of United Nations bodies in the field of science and technology and in appraisal of this field during the decade of the 1970s. 2. The Council also decided to return to the question of United Nations sponsorship of the Protein Advisory Group (PAG) in the summer of 1973. It invited the Secretary-General, in the meantime, to work out proposals for the operation and administration of a special protein fund. 3. United Nations Revolving Fund for Natural Resources Exploration The Council further has recommended that at its forthcoming session the General Assembly should consider the establishment of a United Nations Revolving Fund for Natural Resources Exploration with a view to finalizing and approving the Statute. Membership of the Council Members of the council are: Bolivia, Brazil, Burundi, Ceylon, Chile, China, Finland, France, Ghana, Haiti

  7. Book Reviews

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harry A. Poeze

    1988-04-01

    , Beiträge zur Südasien-Forschung, Südasien-Institut, Universität Heidelberg, Band 8S, Wiesbaden: Franz Steiner Verlag, 1984. 236 pp. - Wolfgang Marschall, Pietro Scarduelli, L’isola degli antenati di pietra; Strutture sociali e simboliche dei Nias dell’Indonesia, Laterza, Roma-Bari, 1986. IX + 232 pp., 22 pl., 28 figs. - Nigel Phillips, C. Skinner, The battle for Junk Ceylon; The syair Sultan Maulana, Dordrecht: Foris, 1985. viii + 325 pp. - Harry A. Poeze, Mavis Rose, Indonesia free; A political biography of Mohammad Hatta. Ithaca, New York: Cornell Modern Indonesia Project, viii + 245 pp. - D.J. Prentice, Elisabeth Tooker, Naming systems: The 1980 proceedings of the American Ethnological society, The American Ethnological society, 1984. vii + 107 pp., Harold C. Conklin (eds. - Patricia D. Rueb, Christine Dobbin, Islamic revivalism in a changing peasant economy; Central Sumatra, 1784-1847, London/Malmö; Scandinavian Institute of Asian studies, Monograph series no. 47, 1987, 300 pages, illustrated. - P.C. Verton, Ank Klomp, Politics on Bonaire; An anthropological study. Assen/Maastricht: Van Gorcum, 1986.' [Translated by Dirk H. van der Elst] - Leontine E. Visser, Elisabeth Traube, Cosmology and social life; Ritual exchange among the Mambai of East Timor, Chicago and London: The University of Chicago Press, 1986. xxiii + 298 pp., figs., photos, index.

  8. Landmarks of History of Soil Science in Sri Lanka

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mapa, R.

    2012-04-01

    Sri Lanka is a tropical Island in the Southern tip of Indian subcontinent positioned at 50 55' to 90 50' N latitude and 790 42' to 810 53' E longitude surrounded by the Indian Ocean. It is an island 435 km in length and 224 km width consisting of a land are of 6.56 million ha with a population of 20 million. In area wise it is ranked as 118th in the world, where at present ranked as 47 in population wise and ranked 19th in population density. The country was under colonial rule under Portuguese, Dutch and British from 1505 to 1948. The majority of the people in the past and present earn their living from activities based on land, which indicates the important of the soil resource. The objective of this paper is to describe the landmarks of the history of Soil Science to highlight the achievements and failures, which is useful to enrich our present understanding of Sri Lankan soils. The landmarks of the history of Soil Science in Sri Lanka can be divided to three phases namely, the early period (prior to 1956), the middle period (1956 to 1972) and the present period (from 1972 onwards). During the early period, detailed analytical studies of coffee and tea soils were compiled, and these gave mainly information on up-country soils which led to fertilizer recommendations based on field trials. In addition, rice and forest soils were also studied in less detail. The first classification of Sri Lankan soils and a provisional soil map based on parent material was published by Joachim in 1945 which is a major landmark of history of Soil Science in Sri Lanka. In 1959 Ponnamperuma proposed a soil classification system for wetland rice soils. From 1963 to 1968 valuable information on the land resource was collected and documented by aerial resource surveys funded by Canada-Ceylon Colombo plan aid project. This covered 18 major river basins and about 1/4th of Sri Lanka, which resulted in producing excellent soil maps and information of the areas called the Kelani Aruvi Ara

  9. NTP Carcinogenesis Studies of Food Grade Geranyl Acetate (71% Geranyl Acetate, 29% Citronellyl Acetate) (CAS No. 105-87-3) in F344/N Rats and B6C3F1 Mice (Gavage Study).

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-10-01

    Geranyl acetate (3,7-dimethyl-2,6-octadiene-1-ol acetate) is a colorless liquid prepared by fractional distillation of selected essential oils or by acetylation of geraniol. It is a natural constituent of more than 60 essential oils, including Ceylon citronella, palmarosa, lemon grass, petit grain, neroli bigarade, geranium, coriander, carrot, and sassafras. Geranyl acetate is used primarily as a component of perfumes for creams and soaps and as a flavoring ingredient. On the U.S. Food and Drug Administration's list of substances "generally recognized as safe," the Food Chemicals Codex (1972) specifies that geranyl acetate must contain at least 90% total esters. Carcinogenesis studies of food-grade geranyl acetate (containing approximately 29% citronellyl acetate) were conducted by administering the test chemical in corn oil by gavage to groups of 50 male and 50 female F344/N rats at doses of 1,000 or 2,000 mg/kg body weight and to groups of 50 male and 50 female B6C3F1 mice at doses of 500 or 1,000 mg/kg. Doses were administered five times per week for 103 weeks. Groups of 50 rats and 50 mice of each sex received corn oil by gavage on the same dosing schedule and served as vehicle controls. The cumulative toxicity of geranyl acetate in the 2-year study was indicated by the significantly shorter survival of high dose male rats (control, 34/50; low dose, 29/50; high dose, 18/50) and of high dose male mice (control, 31/50; low dose, 32/50; high dose, 0/50) and of dosed female mice (38/50; 15/50; 0/50) when compared with controls. Throughout most of the 2-year study, mean body weights of high dose rats and mice of each sex were lower than those of the controls. The occurrence of retinopathy or cataracts in the high dose male rats and low dose female rats as compared with the controls does not appear to be related to the administration of geranyl acetate but rather the proximity of the rats to fluorescent light. The incidence of retinopathy or cataracts (combined) was

  10. Toxoplasmose humana: meningoencefalomielite toxoplasmica: ocorrência em adulto e recemnascido

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Nery Guimarães

    1943-06-01

    sintomas apresentados pelos pacientes, foram: febre, convulsões, distúrbios respiratórios, hidrocefalia, cianose, vômitos, labidade de temperatura, etc., sendo sinal diagnóstico de máxima importância, o encontro de focos de calcificação cerebral profunda e corioretinite em recem nascido (Dyke, Wolf, Cowen, Paige & Caffey . Em dois casos de toxoplasmose verificados em pacientes de seis e oito anos respectivamente, foi encontrada uma encefalite clinicamente atípica, sendo que um deles sarou (Sabin. Os três casos restantes foram descritos em adultos; num deles as lesões não eram típicas (havia concomitância de infecção por Bartonella bacilliformis e nos outros dois, a doença assumiu uma "forma exantemática", simulando as febres maculosas (Pinkerton & Henderson, sendo o achado mais importante microscopicamente, uma pneumonia intersticial. Alem da semelhança clínica, tambem os focos de encefalite encontrados nessa "forma exantemática" da toxoplasmose, são semelhantes aos descritos nas...Since Castellani's initial work in 1914, investigators of various countries have pointed out the occurrence of human toxoplasmosis, a fact which, still not long ago, was a matter of controversy. As resulting from the works of Torres, Levanditi & coworkers, Wolf, Cowen & Paige, Pinkerton & Henderson and Sabin, the problem of parasitism in man by Toxoplasma has to be faced taking into consideration that there have been described doubtful and undoubtful cases. Doubtful are the cases reported by Castellani (Ceylon, 1914; Fedorovitch (The Black Sea, 1916; Chalmers & Kamar (Sudan, 1920; and Bland (London, 1930-31. Undoubtful are those reported by Janku (Praga, 1923; Torres (Rio de Janeiro, 1927; Wolf & Cowen (New York, 1937; Richter (Chicago, 1936: diagnosed by Wolf & Cowen in 1938; Wolf, Cowen & Paige (New York, 1939; Hertig (Massachusetts, 1935: diagnosed by Pinkerton & Weinman in 1940; Pinkerton & Weinman (Lima, Peru, 1940; Sabin (2 cases, Cincinnati, 1941; Pinkerton

  11. Book Reviews

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Redactie KITLV

    1992-01-01

    studies. New Haven, 1990. xiii + 369 pp., W.J. O’Malley, A. Weidemann (eds. - Gisele de Meur, F. Tjon Sie Fat, Representing kinship; Simple models of elementary structures. 1990. (Doctoral thesis. Leiden, published by the author. - Toon van Meijl, Maurice Godelier, Big men and great men; Personifications of power in Melanesia, Cambridge/Paris: Cambridge University Press/Editions de la maison des sciences de l’Homme, 1991, xviii, 328 pp., maps, tables, figures, bibliography, index., Marilyn Strathern (eds. - J.A. de Moor, B.A. Hussainmiya, Orang rejimen; The Malays of the Ceylon rifle regiment. Bangi: Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 1990, 185 pp. - Pieter Muysken, J.M.W. Verhaar, Melanesian pidgin and tok pisin; Studies in language companion series 20. Amsterdam: Benjamins, 1990, xiv + 409 pp. - Niels Mulder, Paul Voogt, Thailand. Amsterdam/’s-Gravenhage: Koninklijk Instituut voor de Tropen/NOVIB, 1991. 70 pp. + kaart, slappe kaft., Han ten Brummelhuis, Irene Stengs (eds. - Ton van Naerssen, George Cho, The Malaysian economy; Spatial perspectives. London: Routledge. 1990, 300 pp. - Julianti Parani, J.R. van Diessen, Jakarta/Batavia. Het centrum van het Nederlandse koloniale rijk in Azië en zijn cultuurhistorische nalatenschap. Cantecleer Kunst - Reisgidsen. De Bilt: Cantecleer, 1989. 343 pp. - A. Ploeg, Christopher J. Healey, Pioneers of the mountain forest, University of Sydney, 1985, Oceania Monographs no. 29, v + 64 pp., plates, figures, maps. - Els Postel-Coster, Carla Risseeuw, The fish don’t talk about the water; Gender transformation, power and resistance among women in Sri Lanka, Leiden: E.J.Brill, 1988, 415 pp., also published as Gender transformation, power and resistance among women in Sri Lanka; The fish don’t speak about the water, New Delhi: Manohar Book service, 1991. Ca. 400 pp., - Willem van Schendel, Mya Tan, Myanmar dilemmas and options; The challenge of economic transition in the 1990’s. Singapore: Institute of Southeast Asian studies, 1990