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Sample records for cexzr1-xo2 nanoparticles synthesized

  1. Method of synthesizing tungsten nanoparticles

    Thoma, Steven G; Anderson, Travis M

    2013-02-12

    A method to synthesize tungsten nanoparticles has been developed that enables synthesis of nanometer-scale, monodisperse particles that can be stabilized only by tetrahydrofuran. The method can be used at room temperature, is scalable, and the product concentrated by standard means. Since no additives or stabilizing surfactants are required, this method is particularly well suited for producing tungsten nanoparticles for dispersion in polymers. If complete dispersion is achieved due to the size of the nanoparticles, then the optical properties of the polymer can be largely maintained.

  2. Biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles synthesized by Aspergillus

    In the present study, biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles and its antioxidant, antimicrobial and cytotoxic activities were investigated. Silver nanoparticles were extracellularly synthesized using Aspergillus flavus and the formation of nanoparticles was observed after 72 h of incubation. The results recorded from colour ...

  3. nanoparticles synthesized by citrate precursor m

    user

    (M=Co, Cu) nanoparticles synthesized by citrate precursor method ... The structural characterization was carried out using an X-ray Diffractometer (Rikagu Miniflex, Japan) ..... His current area of interest includes magnetic nanomaterials.

  4. Synthesizing nanoparticles by mimicking nature

    As particulate matter with at least one dimension that is less than 100 nm, nanoparticles are the minuscule building blocks of new commercial products and consumer materials in the emerging field of nanotechnology. Nanoparticles are being discovered and introduced in the marketpl...

  5. Biogenic synthesized nanoparticles and their applications

    Singh, Abhijeet, E-mail: abhijeet.singh@jaipur.manipal.edu; Sharma, Madan Mohan [Manipal University Jaipur (India)

    2016-05-06

    In the present scenario, there are growing concerns over the potential impacts of bioengineered nanoparticles in the health sector. However, our understanding of how bioengineered nanoparticles may affect organisms within natural ecosystems, lags far behind our rapidly increasing ability to engineer novel nanoparticles. To date, research on the biological impacts of bioengineered nanoparticles has primarily consisted of controlled lab studies of model organisms with single species in culture media. Here, we described a cost effective and environment friendly technique for green synthesis of silver nanoparticles. Silver nanoparticles were successfully synthesized from 1 mM AgNO{sub 3} via a green synthesis process using leaf extract as reducing as well as capping agent. Nanoparticles were characterized with the help of UV–vis absorption spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction and TEM analysis which revealed the size of nanoparticles of 30-40 nm size. Further the nanoparticles synthesized by green route are found highly toxic against pathogenic bacteria and plant pathogenic fungi viz. Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas syringae and Sclerotiniasclerotiorum. The most important outcome of this work will be the development of value-added products and protection of human health from pathogens viz., bacteria, virus, fungi etc.

  6. Biogenic synthesized nanoparticles and their applications

    Singh, Abhijeet; Sharma, Madan Mohan

    2016-01-01

    In the present scenario, there are growing concerns over the potential impacts of bioengineered nanoparticles in the health sector. However, our understanding of how bioengineered nanoparticles may affect organisms within natural ecosystems, lags far behind our rapidly increasing ability to engineer novel nanoparticles. To date, research on the biological impacts of bioengineered nanoparticles has primarily consisted of controlled lab studies of model organisms with single species in culture media. Here, we described a cost effective and environment friendly technique for green synthesis of silver nanoparticles. Silver nanoparticles were successfully synthesized from 1 mM AgNO_3 via a green synthesis process using leaf extract as reducing as well as capping agent. Nanoparticles were characterized with the help of UV–vis absorption spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction and TEM analysis which revealed the size of nanoparticles of 30-40 nm size. Further the nanoparticles synthesized by green route are found highly toxic against pathogenic bacteria and plant pathogenic fungi viz. Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas syringae and Sclerotiniasclerotiorum. The most important outcome of this work will be the development of value-added products and protection of human health from pathogens viz., bacteria, virus, fungi etc.

  7. Effect of zinc oxide nanoparticles synthesized by a precipitation

    ZnO nanoparticles were synthesized by a precipitation method in aqueous media from zinc nitrate hexahydrate and sodium hydroxide. The synthesized ZnO nanoparticles exhibited a crystalline structure with hexagonal structure of the wurtzite. The morphology of the synthesized ZnO nanoparticles presented a spherical ...

  8. Study on magnetite nanoparticles synthesized by chemical method

    Pei Wenli; Kumada, H.; Natusme, T.; Saito, H.; Ishio, S.

    2007-01-01

    Magnetite nanoparticles with controlled size were synthesized by chemical method. Higher deposition temperature and a rapid-raising temperature procedure are favorable to particle size distribution and fabrication of monodisperse nanoparticles. The larger nanoparticles can be synthesized by the two-step method. The large nanoparticle (up to 25 nm) without agglomeration was successfully produced. The saturation magnetization of 11 nm magnetite particles was 45 emu/g at room temperature, which is smaller than that of bulk magnetite due to surface effect. Hysteresis of the magnetite nanoparticle was very small, indicating superparamagnetic behavior. The magnetic domains of the 11 nm magnetite nanoparticles were successfully observed by MFM

  9. Biomedical applications of green synthesized Nobel metal nanoparticles.

    Khan, Zia Ul Haq; Khan, Amjad; Chen, Yongmei; Shah, Noor S; Muhammad, Nawshad; Khan, Arif Ullah; Tahir, Kamran; Khan, Faheem Ullah; Murtaza, Behzad; Hassan, Sadaf Ul; Qaisrani, Saeed Ahmad; Wan, Pingyu

    2017-08-01

    Synthesis of Nobel metal nanoparticles, play a key role in the field of medicine. Plants contain a substantial number of organic constituents, like phenolic compounds and various types of glycosides that help in synthesis of metal nanoparticles. Synthesis of metal nanoparticles by green method is one of the best and environment friendly methods. The major significance of the green synthesis is lack of toxic by-products produced during metal nanoparticle synthesis. The nanoparticles, synthesized by green method show various significant biological activities. Most of the research articles report the synthesized nanoparticles to be active against gram positive and gram negative bacteria. Some of these bacteria include Escherichia coli, Bacillus subtilis, Klebsiella pneumonia and Pseudomonas fluorescens. The synthesized nanoparticles also show significant antifungal activity against Trichophyton simii, Trichophyton mentagrophytes and Trichophyton rubrum as well as different types of cancer cells such as breast cancer cell line. They also exhibit significant antioxidant activity. The activities of these Nobel metal nano-particles mainly depend on the size and shape. The particles of small size with large surface area show good activity in the field of medicine. The synthesized nanoparticles are also active against leishmanial diseases. This research article explores in detail the green synthesis of the nanoparticles and their uses thereof. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Antibacterial properties of silver nanoparticles synthesized by marine Ochrobactrum sp.

    Thomas, Roshmi; Janardhanan, Anju; Varghese, Rintu T; Soniya, E V; Mathew, Jyothis; Radhakrishnan, E K

    2014-01-01

    Metal nanoparticle synthesis is an interesting area in nanotechnology due to their remarkable optical, magnetic, electrical, catalytic and biomedical properties, but there needs to develop clean, non-toxic and environmental friendly methods for the synthesis and assembly of nanoparticles. Biological agents in the form of microbes have emerged up as efficient candidates for nanoparticle synthesis due to their extreme versatility to synthesize diverse nanoparticles with varying size and shape. In the present study, an eco favorable method for the biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles using marine bacterial isolate has been attempted. Very interestingly, molecular identification proved it as a strain of Ochrobactrum anhtropi. In addition, the isolate was found to have the potential to form silver nanoparticles intracellularly at room temperature within 24 h. The biosynthesized silver nanoparticles were characterized by UV-Vis spectroscopy, transmission electron microscope (TEM) and scanning electron microscope (SEM). The UV-visible spectrum of the aqueous medium containing silver nanoparticles showed a peak at 450 nm corresponding to the plasmon absorbance of silver nanoparticles. The SEM and TEM micrographs revealed that the synthesized silver nanoparticles were spherical in shape with a size range from 38 nm - 85 nm. The silver nanoparticles synthesized by the isolate were also used to explore its antibacterial potential against pathogens like Salmonella Typhi, Salmonella Paratyphi, Vibrio cholerae and Staphylococcus aureus.

  11. Antibacterial properties of silver nanoparticles synthesized by marine Ochrobactrum sp.

    Roshmi Thomas

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Metal nanoparticle synthesis is an interesting area in nanotechnology due to their remarkable optical, magnetic, electrical, catalytic and biomedical properties, but there needs to develop clean, non-toxic and environmental friendly methods for the synthesis and assembly of nanoparticles. Biological agents in the form of microbes have emerged up as efficient candidates for nanoparticle synthesis due to their extreme versatility to synthesize diverse nanoparticles with varying size and shape. In the present study, an eco favorable method for the biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles using marine bacterial isolate has been attempted. Very interestingly, molecular identification proved it as a strain of Ochrobactrum anhtropi. In addition, the isolate was found to have the potential to form silver nanoparticles intracellularly at room temperature within 24 h. The biosynthesized silver nanoparticles were characterized by UV-Vis spectroscopy, transmission electron microscope (TEM and scanning electron microscope (SEM. The UV-visible spectrum of the aqueous medium containing silver nanoparticles showed a peak at 450 nm corresponding to the plasmon absorbance of silver nanoparticles. The SEM and TEM micrographs revealed that the synthesized silver nanoparticles were spherical in shape with a size range from 38 nm - 85 nm. The silver nanoparticles synthesized by the isolate were also used to explore its antibacterial potential against pathogens like Salmonella Typhi, Salmonella Paratyphi, Vibrio cholerae and Staphylococcus aureus.

  12. Biological activities of synthesized silver nanoparticles from ...

    during the processing or storage of food and in that way help. ∗. Author for ... scale which have been applied in the field of drug delivery, catalysis, optical devices ..... nanoparticles will undergo electrostatic interaction with negatively charged ...

  13. Biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles synthesized by Aspergillus ...

    Biotechnology Division, Applied Science Department, University of ... Abstract. In the present study, biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles and its antioxidant, antimicrobial and cytotoxic ... example of the biosynthesis using fungi was that the cell-.

  14. Synthesizing nanoparticles by mimicking nature | Science ...

    As particulate matter with at least one dimension that is less than 100 nm, nanoparticles are the minuscule building blocks of new commercial products and consumer materials in the emerging field of nanotechnology. Nanoparticles are being discovered and introduced in the marketplace at a very fast pace. Also, commercial interest in nanotechnology has significantly increased, translating into more than a multibillion-dollar investment from public and private sources. Among several unique properties, nanoparticles have an exceptionally large surface area–to-volume ratio, which is the most important of the characteristics that are responsible for their widespread use in an array of industries. Unfortunately, their small size and corresponding high surface area often create a number of problems. For instance, the outer layer of atoms may have a different composition, and therefore a different chemistry, from the rest of the particle. Furthermore, nanoparticle surfaces are sensitive to changes in redox conditions, pH, ionic strength, and the types of microorganisms present. The synthesis of metal nanoparticles has been the subject of intense research, primarily because of their unique properties and their potential applications from a technological point of view. The optical, magnetic, electronic, and catalytic properties of these materials depend on their morphology and size distribution. Noble-metal nanoparticles are of particular interest because of their close-

  15. Biological activities of synthesized silver nanoparticles

    The C. halicacabum leaf extract synthesized AgNPs efficiency were tested against different bacterial pathogens MTCC-426 Proteus vulgaris, MTCC-2453 Pseudomonas aeruginosa, MTCC-96 Staphylococcus aureus, MTCC-441 Bacillus subtilis andMTCC-735 Salmonella paratyphi, and fungal pathogens Alternaria solani ...

  16. Monodisperse Silver Nanoparticles Synthesized by a Microwave-Assisted Method

    Shao-Peng, Zhu; Shao-Chun, Tang; Xiang-Kang, Meng

    2009-01-01

    Silver nanoparticles with an average size of about 20 nm are synthesized in a colloidal solution with the aid of microwave irradiation. Neither additional reductant nor stabilizer is required in this microwave-assisted method. The color of the colloidal solution is found to be dark green, different from the characteristic yellow of silver colloidal solutions. The silver nanoparticles in the colloidal solution have a narrow size distribution and large yield quantity. UV-visible absorption spectroscopy analysis reveals that the as-synthesized monodisperse silver nanoparticles have exceptional optical properties. Raman spectroscopy measurements demonstrate that these silver nanoparticles exhibit a notable surface-enhanced Raman scattering ability. (cross-disciplinary physics and related areas of science and technology)

  17. Chemical phase analysis of seed mediated synthesized anisotropic silver nanoparticles

    Bharti, Amardeep; Goyal, Navdeep; Singh, Suman; Singla, M. L.

    2015-01-01

    Noble-metal nanoparticles are of great interest because of its broad applications almost in every stream (i.e. biology, chemistry and engineering) due to their unique size/shape dependant properties. In this paper, chemical phase of seed mediated synthesized anisotropic silver nanoparticle (AgNPs) has been investigated via fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). These nanaoparticles were synthesized by seed-growth method controlled by urea and dextrose results to highly stable 12-20 nm particle size revealed by zeta potential and transmission electron microscopy (TEM)

  18. Analysis of Ag nanoparticles synthesized by bioreduction.

    Tavera-Davila, L; Liu, H B; Herrera-Becerra, R; Canizal, G; Balcazar, M; Ascencio, J A

    2009-03-01

    Based on a green chemistry mechanism, small silver clusters were obtained by using biosynthesis with alfalfa (medicago sativa), controlling the size of the nanoparticles base don different pH conditions. The analysis of the samples was made with help of transmission electron microscopy methods, mainly with high angle annular dark field and high resolution transmission electron microscopy. The optimal conditions were identified when the sample was obtained at pH10, which allowed obtaining an average size of 4.09 nm and a standard deviation of 1.59, mainly based on cubic like structures.

  19. A facile route to synthesize nanogels doped with silver nanoparticles

    Coll Ferrer, M. Carme; Ferrier, Robert C.; Eckmann, David M.; Composto, Russell J.

    2013-01-01

    In this study, we describe a simple method to prepare hybrid nanogels consisting of a biocompatible core-shell polymer host containing silver nanoparticles. First, the nanogels (NG, 160 nm) containing a lysozyme rich core and a dextran rich shell, are prepared via Maillard and heat-gelation reactions. Second, silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs, 5 nm) are synthesized "in situ" in the NG solution without requiring additional reducing agents. This approach leads to stable Ag NPs located in the NG. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the amount of Ag NPs in the NG can be tuned by varying silver precursor concentration. Hybrid nanogels with silver nanoparticles have potential in antimicrobial, optical, and therapeutic applications.

  20. Antibacterial potential of silver nanoparticle synthesized by marine ...

    Multi resistance to antibiotics is a serious and disseminated clinical problem, common to several new compounds that block the resistance mechanism. The present study aimed at the comparative study of silver nanoparticles synthesized through actinomycetes and their antimicrobial metabolites with standard antibiotic.

  1. ARSENIC REMOVAL USING SOL-GEL SYNTHESIZED TITANIUM DIOXIDE NANOPARTICLES

    In this study, the effectiveness of TiO2 nanoparticles in arsenic adsorption was examined. TiO2 particles (LS) were synthesized via sol-gel techniques and characterized for their crystallinity, surface area and pore volume. Batch adsorption studies were perf...

  2. Characterization of chemically synthesized CdS nanoparticles

    Similar to the effects of charge carriers on optical properties, confinement of optical and acoustic phonons leads to interesting changes in the phonon spectra. In the present work, we have synthesized nanoparticles of CdS using chemical precipitation technique. The crystal structure and grain size of the particles are studied ...

  3. Cytotoxicity and antimicrobial activities of green synthesized silver nanoparticles.

    Lokina, S; Stephen, A; Kaviyarasan, V; Arulvasu, C; Narayanan, V

    2014-04-09

    Bio-inspired silver nanoparticles are synthesized using Malus domestica (apple) extract. Polyphenols present in the apple extract act as a reducing and capping agent to produce the silver nanoparticles. UV-Visible analysis shows the surface plasmon resonance (SPR) absorption at 420 nm. The FTIR analysis was used to identify the functional groups responsible for the bio-reduction of silver ion. The XRD and HRTEM images confirm the formation of silver nanoparticles. The minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) of silver nanoparticles was recorded against most of the bacteria and fungus. Further, MCF-7 human breast adenocarcinoma cancer cell line was employed to observe the efficacy of cancer cell killing. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  4. Rapid decolorization of textile wastewater by green synthesized iron nanoparticles.

    Ozkan, Z Y; Cakirgoz, M; Kaymak, E S; Erdim, E

    2018-01-01

    The effectiveness of green tea (Camellia sinensis) and pomegranate (Punica granatum) extracts for the production of iron nanoparticles and their application for color removal from a textile industry wastewater was investigated. Polyphenols in extracts act as reducing agents for iron ions in aqueous solutions, forming iron nanoparticles. Pomegranate extract was found to have almost a 10-fold higher polyphenolic content than the same amount of green tea extract on a mass basis. However, the size of the synthesized nanoparticles did not show a correlation with the polyphenolic content. 100 ppm and 300 ppm of iron nanoparticles were evaluated in terms of color removal efficiency from a real textile wastewater sample. 300 ppm of pomegranate nanoscale zero-valent iron particles showed more than 95% color removal and almost 80% dissolved organic carbon removal. The degradation mechanisms are is considered to be adsorption and precipitation to a major extent, and mineralization to a minor extent.

  5. Evaluation of cytotoxicity of polypyrrole nanoparticles synthesized by oxidative polymerization

    Vaitkuviene, Aida [Department of Physical Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, Vilnius University, Naugarduko 24, LT-03225 Vilnius (Lithuania); Department of Stem Cell Biology, State Research Institute Center for Innovative Medicine, Zygimantu 9, LT-01102 Vilnius (Lithuania); Kaseta, Vytautas [Department of Stem Cell Biology, State Research Institute Center for Innovative Medicine, Zygimantu 9, LT-01102 Vilnius (Lithuania); Voronovic, Jaroslav [Department of Physical Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, Vilnius University, Naugarduko 24, LT-03225 Vilnius (Lithuania); Ramanauskaite, Giedre; Biziuleviciene, Gene [Department of Stem Cell Biology, State Research Institute Center for Innovative Medicine, Zygimantu 9, LT-01102 Vilnius (Lithuania); Ramanaviciene, Almira [NanoTechnas–Center of Nanotechnology and Material Science at Department of Analytical and Environmental Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, Vilnius University, Naugarduko 24, 03225 Vilnius (Lithuania); Ramanavicius, Arunas, E-mail: Arunas.Ramanavicius@chf.vu.lt [Department of Physical Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, Vilnius University, Naugarduko 24, LT-03225 Vilnius (Lithuania); Laboratory of BioNanoTechnology, Department of Materials Science and Electronics, Institute of Semiconductor Physics, State Scientific Research Institute Centre for Physical Sciences and Technology, A. Gostauto 11, LT-01108 Vilnius (Lithuania)

    2013-04-15

    Highlights: ► Polypyrrole nanoparticles synthesized by environmentally friendly polymerization at high concentrations are cytotoxic. ► Primary mouse embryonic fibroblast, mouse hepatoma and human T lymphocyte Jurkat cell lines were treated by Ppy nanoparticles. ► Polypyrrole nanoparticles at high concentrations inhibit cell proliferation. -- Abstract: Polypyrrole (Ppy) is known as biocompatible material, which is used in some diverse biomedical applications and seeming to be a very promising for advanced biotechnological applications. In order to increase our understanding about biocompatibility of Ppy, in this study pure Ppy nanoparticles (Ppy-NPs) of fixed size and morphology were prepared by one-step oxidative polymerization and their cyto-compatibility was evaluated. The impact of different concentration of Ppy nanoparticles on primary mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEF), mouse hepatoma cell line (MH-22A), and human T lymphocyte Jurkat cell line was investigated. Cell morphology, viability/proliferation after the treatment by Ppy nanoparticles was evaluated. Obtained results showed that Ppy nanoparticles at low concentrations are biocompatible, while at high concentrations they became cytotoxic for Jurkat, MEF and MH-22A cells, and it was found that cytotoxic effect is dose-dependent.

  6. Antibacterial activity of silver nanoparticles synthesized from serine

    Jayaprakash, N. [Catalysis and Nanomaterials Research Laboratory, Department of Chemistry, Loyola College, Chennai 600 034 (India); SRM Valliammai Engineering College, Department of Chemistry, Chennai 603 203 (India); Judith Vijaya, J., E-mail: jjvijayaloyola@yahoo.co.in [Catalysis and Nanomaterials Research Laboratory, Department of Chemistry, Loyola College, Chennai 600 034 (India); John Kennedy, L. [Materials Division, School of Advanced Sciences, VIT University, Chennai Campus, Chennai 600 048 (India); Priadharsini, K.; Palani, P. [Department of Center for Advanced Study in Botany, University of Madras, Guindy Campus, Chennai 600 025 (India)

    2015-04-01

    Silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) were synthesized by a simple microwave irradiation method using polyvinyl pyrrolidone (PVP) as a capping agent and serine as a reducing agent. UV–Visible spectra were used to confirm the formation of Ag NPs by observing the surface plasmon resonance (SPR) band at 443 nm. The emission spectrum of Ag NPs showed an emission band at 484 nm. In the presence of microwave radiation, serine acts as a reducing agent, which was confirmed by Fourier transformed infrared (FT-IR) spectrum. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HR-TEM) and high-resolution scanning electron microscopy (HR-SEM) were used to investigate the morphology of the synthesized sample. These images showed the sphere-like morphology. The elemental composition of the sample was determined by the energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX). Selected area electron diffraction (SAED) was used to find the crystalline nature of the Ag NPs. The electrochemical behavior of the synthesized Ag NPs was analyzed by the cyclic voltammetry (CV). Antibacterial experiments showed that the prepared Ag NPs showed relatively similar antibacterial activities, when compared with AgNO{sub 3} against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. - Highlights: • Microwave irradiation method is used to synthesize silver nanoparticles. • Highly stable silver nanoparticles are produced from serine. • A detailed study of antibacterial activities is discussed. • Formation mechanism of silver microspheres has been proposed.

  7. Evaluation of Biological Activities of Chemically Synthesized Silver Nanoparticles

    Mostafa, A. A.; Solkamy, E.N.; Sayed, Sh. R. M.; Khan, M.; Shaik, M.R.; Al-Warthan, A.; Adil, S.F.

    2015-01-01

    Silver nanoparticles were synthesized by the earlier reported methods. The synthesized nanoparticles were characterized using ultraviolet-visible spectrophotometry (UV/Vis), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), and X-ray powder diffraction (XRD). The synthesized materials were also evaluated for their antibacterial activity against Gram positive and Gram negative bacterial strains. TEM micrograph showed the spherical morphology of AgNPs with size range of 40-60 nm. The synthesized nanoparticles showed a strong antimicrobial activity and their effect depends upon bacterial strain as AgNPs exhibited greater inhibition zone for Pseudomonas aeruginosa (19.1 mm) followed by Staphylococcus aureus (14.8?mm) and S. pyogenes (13.6 mm) while the least activity was observed for Salmonella typhi (12.5 mm) at concentration of 5 μg/disc. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of AgNPs against S. aureus was 2.5 μg/disc and less than 2.5 μg/disc for P. aeruginosa. These results suggested that AgNPs can be used as an effective antiseptic agent for infectious control in medical field.

  8. Copper nanoparticles synthesized in polymers by ion implantation

    Popok, Vladimir; Nuzhdin, Vladimir; Valeev, Valerij

    2015-01-01

    nanoparticles are observed to partly tower above the sample surface due to a side effect of high-fluence irradiation leading to considerable sputtering of polymers. Implantation and particle formation significantly change optical properties of both polymers reducing transmittance in the UV-visible range due...... as optical transmission spectroscopy. It is found that copper nanoparticles nucleation and growth are strongly fluence dependent as well as they are affected by the polymer properties, in particular, by radiation stability yielding different nanostructures for the implanted PI and PMMA. Shallow synthesized...

  9. Syntheses of crosslinked latex nanoparticles using differential microemulsion polymerization

    Hassmoro, N. F.; Rusop, M.; Abdullah, S.

    2013-06-01

    The differential microemulsion polymerization was used to synthesize latex nanoparticles. In this paper, 1, 3-butylene glycol dimethacrylate (1, 3-BGDMA) was used as a crosslinker respectively 1-5 weight% of monomer total. Butyl acrylate (BA), butyl methacrylate (BMA), and methacrylic acid (MAA) was used as the monomer. The thin film of latex nanoparticles were prepared by using spin coating method and have been dried at 100°C for 5 minutes. The amount of the crosslinker added in the polymerization was optimized and we found that the particle sizes fall in the range of 30-60 nm. The structural morphology of the uncrosslinked latex represented the most homogeneous image compared to the crosslinked latex. The effect of the amount of crosslinker on the particle sizes investigated by the Zeta-sizer Nano series while Atomic Force microscopy (AFM) was used to study the structural properties of latex nanoparticles.

  10. Syntheses of crosslinked latex nanoparticles using differential microemulsion polymerization

    Hassmoro, N F; Abdullah, S; Rusop, M

    2013-01-01

    The differential microemulsion polymerization was used to synthesize latex nanoparticles. In this paper, 1, 3-butylene glycol dimethacrylate (1, 3-BGDMA) was used as a crosslinker respectively 1–5 weight% of monomer total. Butyl acrylate (BA), butyl methacrylate (BMA), and methacrylic acid (MAA) was used as the monomer. The thin film of latex nanoparticles were prepared by using spin coating method and have been dried at 100°C for 5 minutes. The amount of the crosslinker added in the polymerization was optimized and we found that the particle sizes fall in the range of 30–60 nm. The structural morphology of the uncrosslinked latex represented the most homogeneous image compared to the crosslinked latex. The effect of the amount of crosslinker on the particle sizes investigated by the Zeta-sizer Nano series while Atomic Force microscopy (AFM) was used to study the structural properties of latex nanoparticles.

  11. A facile route to synthesize nanogels doped with silver nanoparticles

    Coll Ferrer, M. Carme [University of Pennsylvania, Department of Materials Science (United States); Ferrier, Robert C. [University of Pennsylvania, Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering (United States); Eckmann, David M. [University of Pennsylvania, Department of Anesthesiology and Critical Care (United States); Composto, Russell J., E-mail: composto@seas.upenn.edu [University of Pennsylvania, Department of Materials Science (United States)

    2013-01-15

    In this study, we describe a simple method to prepare hybrid nanogels consisting of a biocompatible core-shell polymer host containing silver nanoparticles. First, the nanogels (NG, {approx}160 nm) containing a lysozyme rich core and a dextran rich shell, are prepared via Maillard and heat-gelation reactions. Second, silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs, {approx}5 nm) are synthesized 'in situ' in the NG solution without requiring additional reducing agents. This approach leads to stable Ag NPs located in the NG. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the amount of Ag NPs in the NG can be tuned by varying silver precursor concentration. Hybrid nanogels with silver nanoparticles have potential in antimicrobial, optical, and therapeutic applications.

  12. A facile route to synthesize nanogels doped with silver nanoparticles

    Coll Ferrer, M. Carme; Ferrier, Robert C.; Eckmann, David M.; Composto, Russell J.

    2013-01-01

    In this study, we describe a simple method to prepare hybrid nanogels consisting of a biocompatible core–shell polymer host containing silver nanoparticles. First, the nanogels (NG, ∼160 nm) containing a lysozyme rich core and a dextran rich shell, are prepared via Maillard and heat-gelation reactions. Second, silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs, ∼5 nm) are synthesized “in situ” in the NG solution without requiring additional reducing agents. This approach leads to stable Ag NPs located in the NG. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the amount of Ag NPs in the NG can be tuned by varying silver precursor concentration. Hybrid nanogels with silver nanoparticles have potential in antimicrobial, optical, and therapeutic applications.

  13. Microstructural characterization of gold nanoparticles synthesized by solution plasma processing

    Cho, Sung-Pyo; Bratescu, Maria Antoaneta; Takai, Osamu; Saito, Nagahiro

    2011-01-01

    Microstructural characteristics of gold nanoparticles (Au NPs) fabricated by solution plasma processing (SPP) in reverse micelle solutions have been studied by high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM). The synthesized Au NPs, with an average size of 6.3 ± 1.4 nm, have different crystal characteristics; fcc single-crystalline particles, multiply twinned particles (MTPs), and incomplete MTPs (single-nanotwinned fcc configuration). The crystal structure characteristics of the Au NPs synthesized by the SPP method were analyzed and compared with similar-size Au NPs obtained by the conventional chemical reduction synthesis (CRS) method. The TEM analysis results show that the Au NPs synthesized by the CRS method have shapes and crystal structures similar to those nanoparticles obtained by the SPP method. However, from the detailed HRTEM analysis, the relative number of the Au MTPs and incomplete MTPs to the total number of the Au NPs synthesized by the SPP method was observed to be around 94%, whereas the relative number of these kinds of crystal structures fabricated by the CRS method was about 63%. It is most likely that the enhanced formation of the Au MTPs is due to the fact that the SPP method generates highly reaction-activated species under low environmental temperature conditions.

  14. Characterization of hematite nanoparticles synthesized via two different pathways

    Das, Soumya; Hendry, M. Jim

    2014-08-01

    Hematite is one of the most common and thermodynamically stable iron oxides found in both natural and anthropogenic systems. Owing to its ubiquity, stability, moderate specific surface area, and ability to sequester metals and metalloids from aquatic systems, it has been the subject of a large number of adsorption studies published during the past few decades. Although preparation techniques are known to affect the surface morphology of hematite nanoparticles, the effects of aging under environmentally relevant conditions have yet to be tested with respect to surface morphology, surface area, and adsorptive capacity. We prepared hematite via two different pathways and aged it under highly alkaline conditions encountered in many mill tailings settings. Crystal habits and morphologies of the hematite nanoparticles were analyzed via scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. X-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy, and Brunauer-Emmett-Teller surface area analyses were also conducted on the hematite nanoparticles before and after aging. The hematite synthesized via an Fe(III) salt solution (average particle size 37 nm) was morphologically and structurally different from the hematite synthesized via ferrihydrite aging (average particle size 144 nm). Overall, our data demonstrate that the crystallinity of hematite produced via ferrihydrite transformation is susceptible to morphological alterations/modifications. In contrast, the hematite formed via hydrolysis of an Fe(III) salt solution remains very stable in terms of structure, size, and morphology even under extreme experimental conditions.

  15. A Study On Dispersion Stability Of Nickel Nanoparticles Synthesized By Wire Explosion In Liquid Media

    Kim C.K.; Lee G.-J.; Lee M.K.; Rhee C.K.

    2015-01-01

    In this study, nickel nanoparticles were synthesized in ethanol using portable pulsed wire evaporation, which is a one-step physical method. From transmission electron microscopy images, it was found that the Ni nanoparticles exhibited a spherical shape with an average diameter of 7.3 nm. To prevent aggregation of the nickel nanoparticles, a polymer surfactant was added into the ethanol before the synthesis of nickel nanoparticles, and adsorbed on the freshly synthesized nickel nanoparticles ...

  16. Antibacterial effect of bismuth subsalicylate nanoparticles synthesized by laser ablation

    Flores-Castañeda, Mariela; Vega-Jiménez, Alejandro L.; Almaguer-Flores, Argelia; Camps, Enrique; Pérez, Mario; Silva-Bermudez, Phaedra; Berea, Edgardo; Rodil, Sandra E.

    2015-01-01

    The antimicrobial properties of bismuth subsalicylate (BSS) nanoparticles against four opportunistic pathogens; E. coli, P. aeruginosa, S. aureus, and S. epidermidis were determined. BSS nanoparticles were synthesized by pulse laser ablation of a solid target in distilled water under different conditions. The nanoparticles were characterized using high-resolution transmission electron microscopy and absorption spectra and small angle X-ray scattering. The analysis shows that the colloids maintained the BSS structure and presented average particle size between 20 and 60 nm, while the concentration ranges from 95 to 195 mg/L. The antibacterial effect was reported as the inhibition ratio of the bacterial growth after 24 h and the cell viability was measured using the XTT assay. The results showed that the inhibition ratio of E. coli and S. epidermidis was dependant on the NPs size and/or concentration, meanwhile P. aeruginosa and S. aureus were more sensitive to the BSS nanoparticles independently of both the size and the concentration. In general, the BSS colloids with average particle size of 20 nm were the most effective, attaining inhibition ratios >80 %, similar or larger than those obtained with the antibiotic used as control. The results suggest that the BSS colloids could be used as effective antibacterial agents with potential applications in the medical area

  17. Antibacterial effect of bismuth subsalicylate nanoparticles synthesized by laser ablation

    Flores-Castañeda, Mariela; Vega-Jiménez, Alejandro L.; Almaguer-Flores, Argelia; Camps, Enrique; Pérez, Mario; Silva-Bermudez, Phaedra; Berea, Edgardo; Rodil, Sandra E.

    2015-11-01

    The antimicrobial properties of bismuth subsalicylate (BSS) nanoparticles against four opportunistic pathogens; E. coli, P. aeruginosa, S. aureus, and S. epidermidis were determined. BSS nanoparticles were synthesized by pulse laser ablation of a solid target in distilled water under different conditions. The nanoparticles were characterized using high-resolution transmission electron microscopy and absorption spectra and small angle X-ray scattering. The analysis shows that the colloids maintained the BSS structure and presented average particle size between 20 and 60 nm, while the concentration ranges from 95 to 195 mg/L. The antibacterial effect was reported as the inhibition ratio of the bacterial growth after 24 h and the cell viability was measured using the XTT assay. The results showed that the inhibition ratio of E. coli and S. epidermidis was dependant on the NPs size and/or concentration, meanwhile P. aeruginosa and S. aureus were more sensitive to the BSS nanoparticles independently of both the size and the concentration. In general, the BSS colloids with average particle size of 20 nm were the most effective, attaining inhibition ratios >80 %, similar or larger than those obtained with the antibiotic used as control. The results suggest that the BSS colloids could be used as effective antibacterial agents with potential applications in the medical area.

  18. Antibacterial effect of bismuth subsalicylate nanoparticles synthesized by laser ablation

    Flores-Castañeda, Mariela [Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares (Mexico); Vega-Jiménez, Alejandro L., E-mail: argelia.almaguer@mac.com; Almaguer-Flores, Argelia [Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Facultad de Odontología, DEPeI, I (Mexico); Camps, Enrique; Pérez, Mario [Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares (Mexico); Silva-Bermudez, Phaedra [Instituto Nacional de Rehabilitación, Unidad de Ingeniería de Tejidos, Terapia Celular y Medicina Regenerativa (Mexico); Berea, Edgardo [FarmaQuimia SA de CV. (Mexico); Rodil, Sandra E. [Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Instituto de Investigaciones en Materiales (Mexico)

    2015-11-15

    The antimicrobial properties of bismuth subsalicylate (BSS) nanoparticles against four opportunistic pathogens; E. coli, P. aeruginosa, S. aureus, and S. epidermidis were determined. BSS nanoparticles were synthesized by pulse laser ablation of a solid target in distilled water under different conditions. The nanoparticles were characterized using high-resolution transmission electron microscopy and absorption spectra and small angle X-ray scattering. The analysis shows that the colloids maintained the BSS structure and presented average particle size between 20 and 60 nm, while the concentration ranges from 95 to 195 mg/L. The antibacterial effect was reported as the inhibition ratio of the bacterial growth after 24 h and the cell viability was measured using the XTT assay. The results showed that the inhibition ratio of E. coli and S. epidermidis was dependant on the NPs size and/or concentration, meanwhile P. aeruginosa and S. aureus were more sensitive to the BSS nanoparticles independently of both the size and the concentration. In general, the BSS colloids with average particle size of 20 nm were the most effective, attaining inhibition ratios >80 %, similar or larger than those obtained with the antibiotic used as control. The results suggest that the BSS colloids could be used as effective antibacterial agents with potential applications in the medical area.

  19. Comparison on Bactericidal and Cytotoxic Effect of Silver Nanoparticles Synthesized by Different Methods

    Mala, R.; Celsia, A. S. Ruby; Malathi Devi, S.; Geerthika, S.

    2017-08-01

    Biologically synthesized silver nanoparticle are biocompatible for medical applications. The present work is aimed to synthesize silver nanoparticle using the fruit pulp of Tamarindusindica and to evaluate its antibacterial and anticancer activity against lung cancercell lines. Antibacterial activity was assessed by well diffusion method. Cytotoxicity was evaluated using MTT assay. GC-MS of fruit pulp extract showed the presence of levoglucosenone, n-hexadecanoic acid, 9,12-octadecadienoic acid etc. Antioxidant activity of the fruit pulp was determined by DPPH assay, hydrogen peroxide scavenging assay and lipid peroxidation. The size of biologically synthesized silver nanoparticle varied from 50 nm to 76 nm. It was 59 nm to 98 nm for chemically synthesized silver nanoparticle. Biologically synthesized silver nanoparticle showed 26 mm inhibition zone against E. coli and chemically synthesized silver nanoparticle showed 20 mm. Antioxidant activity of fruit extract by DPPH showed 84 % reduction. The IC 50 of biologically synthesized silver nanoparticle against lung cancer cell lines was 48 µg/ml. It was 95 µg/ml for chemically synthesized silver nanoparticle. The increased activity of biologically synthesized silver nanoparticle was due to its smaller size, stability and the bioactive compounds capping the silver nanoparticle extracted from the fruit extract.

  20. Radiolytic Syntheses of Nanoparticles and Inorganic-Polymer Hybrid Microgels

    Chen, Q.; Shi, J.; Zhao, R.; Shen, X.

    2010-01-01

    In the second year of the project, we have gotten progress mainly in two directions. Firstly, for the first time, Prussian blue (PB) nanoparticles (NPs) were successfully synthesized by the partly radiolytic reduction of Fe3+ and Fe(CN)63 in the presence of poly(N-vinyl pyrrolidine) (PVP) under N2 atmospheres at room temperature. With the increase of the concentration of PVP, the size and the size distribution of the synthesized quasi-spherical PB NPs decreased obviously, leading to a hypsochromic shift on their peak position of the characteristic absorption. In the experiment, we further found that the smaller ones have a larger capacity to Cs+, suggesting that the application of PB NPs in curing thallotoxicosis may decrease the usage of PB for the patient to great extent. Secondly, through a series of preliminary experiments, we got a clear picture about the one-step radiolytic preparation of inorganic-poly(methacrylic acid-co-methyl methacrylate) hybrid microgels by surfactant-free emulsion polymerization. Besides, unpurified N-carbamothioylmethacrylamide was synthesized via the methacrylation of thiourea. These created favorable conditions for the one-step synthesis of metal sulfide-poly(methacrylic acid-co-methyl methacrylate) hybrid microgels by -irradiation and surfactant-free emulsion polymerization. (author)

  1. Radiolytic Syntheses of Nanoparticles and Inorganic-Polymer Hybrid Microgels

    Chen, Q.; Shi, J.; Zhao, R.; Shen, X., E-mail: qdchen@pku.edu.cn [Department of Applied Chemistry, College of Chemistry and Molecular Engineering, Peking University, No. 5, Yiheyuan Load, Haidian District Beijing 100871 (China)

    2010-07-01

    In the second year of the project, we have gotten progress mainly in two directions. Firstly, for the first time, Prussian blue (PB) nanoparticles (NPs) were successfully synthesized by the partly radiolytic reduction of Fe3+ and Fe(CN)63 in the presence of poly(N-vinyl pyrrolidine) (PVP) under N2 atmospheres at room temperature. With the increase of the concentration of PVP, the size and the size distribution of the synthesized quasi-spherical PB NPs decreased obviously, leading to a hypsochromic shift on their peak position of the characteristic absorption. In the experiment, we further found that the smaller ones have a larger capacity to Cs+, suggesting that the application of PB NPs in curing thallotoxicosis may decrease the usage of PB for the patient to great extent. Secondly, through a series of preliminary experiments, we got a clear picture about the one-step radiolytic preparation of inorganic-poly(methacrylic acid-co-methyl methacrylate) hybrid microgels by surfactant-free emulsion polymerization. Besides, unpurified N-carbamothioylmethacrylamide was synthesized via the methacrylation of thiourea. These created favorable conditions for the one-step synthesis of metal sulfide-poly(methacrylic acid-co-methyl methacrylate) hybrid microgels by -irradiation and surfactant-free emulsion polymerization. (author)

  2. Effect of annealing on the structure of chemically synthesized SnO_2 nanoparticles

    Singh, Kulwinder; Kumar, Akshay; Kumar, Virender; Vij, Ankush; Kumari, Sudesh; Thakur, Anup

    2016-01-01

    Tin oxide (SnO_2) nanoparticles have been synthesized by co-precipitation method. The synthesized nanoparticles were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Raman spectroscopy. XRD analysis confirmed the single phase formation of SnO_2 nanoparticles. The Raman shifts showed the typical feature of the tetragonal phase of the as-synthesized SnO_2 nanoparticles. At low annealing temperature, a strong distortion of the crystalline structure and high degree of agglomeration was observed. It is concluded that the crystallinity of SnO_2 nanoparticles improves with the increase in annealing temperature.

  3. A green chemistry approach for synthesizing biocompatible gold nanoparticles

    Gurunathan, Sangiliyandi; Han, JaeWoong; Park, Jung Hyun; Kim, Jin-Hoi

    2014-05-01

    Gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) are a fascinating class of nanomaterial that can be used for a wide range of biomedical applications, including bio-imaging, lateral flow assays, environmental detection and purification, data storage, drug delivery, biomarkers, catalysis, chemical sensors, and DNA detection. Biological synthesis of nanoparticles appears to be simple, cost-effective, non-toxic, and easy to use for controlling size, shape, and stability, which is unlike the chemically synthesized nanoparticles. The aim of this study was to synthesize homogeneous AuNPs using pharmaceutically important Ganoderma spp . We developed a simple, non-toxic, and green method for water-soluble AuNP synthesis by treating gold (III) chloride trihydrate (HAuCl4) with a hot aqueous extract of the Ganoderma spp . mycelia. The formation of biologically synthesized AuNPs (bio-AuNPs) was characterized by ultraviolet (UV)-visible absorption spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), energy dispersive X-ray (EDX), dynamic light scattering (DLS), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Furthermore, the biocompatibility of as-prepared AuNPs was evaluated using a series of assays, such as cell viability, lactate dehydrogenase leakage, and reactive oxygen species generation (ROS) in human breast cancer cells (MDA-MB-231). The color change of the solution from yellow to reddish pink and strong surface plasmon resonance were observed at 520 nm using UV-visible spectroscopy, and that indicated the formation of AuNPs. DLS analysis revealed the size distribution of AuNPs in liquid solution, and the average size of AuNPs was 20 nm. The size and morphology of AuNPs were investigated using TEM. The biocompatibility effect of as-prepared AuNPs was investigated in MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells by using various concentrations of AuNPs (10 to 100 μM) for 24 h. Our findings suggest that AuNPs are non-cytotoxic and biocompatible. To the best of our knowledge

  4. Biogenic silver and gold nanoparticles synthesized using red ginseng root extract, and their applications.

    Singh, Priyanka; Kim, Yeon Ju; Wang, Chao; Mathiyalagan, Ramya; El-Agamy Farh, Mohamed; Yang, Deok Chun

    2016-05-01

    In the present study, we report a green methodology for the synthesis of silver and gold nanoparticles, using the root extract of the herbal medicinal plant Korean red ginseng. The silver and gold nanoparticles were synthesized within 1 h and 10 min respectively. The nanoparticles generated were not aggregated, and remained stable for a long time, which suggests the nature of nanoparticles. The phytochemicals and ginsenosides present in the root extract assist in reducing and stabilizing the synthesized nanoparticles. The red ginseng root extract-generated silver nanoparticles exhibit antimicrobial activity against pathogenic microorganisms including Vibrio parahaemolyticus, Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus cereus, and Candida albicans. In addition, the silver nanoparticles exhibit biofilm degrading activity against S. aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Thus, the present study opens up a new possibility of synthesizing silver and gold nanoparticles in a green and rapid manner using Korean red ginseng root extract, and explores their biomedical applications.

  5. Biogenic ZnO nanoparticles synthesized using L. aculeata leaf ...

    The antifungal activity of ZnO nanoparticles were determined using the well diffusion method. All the ... 1. Introduction. Nanoparticles have gained increasing importance because ... The synthesis of nanoparticles by conventional physical.

  6. Antimicrobial Activities of Silver Nanoparticles Synthesized by Using Water Extract of Arnicae anthodium.

    Dobrucka, Renata; Długaszewska, Jolanta

    2015-06-01

    Green synthesis of nanoparticles has gained significant importance in recent years and has become the one of the most preferred methods. Also, green synthesis of nanoparticles is valuable branch of nanotechnology. Plant extracts are eco-friendly and can be an economic option for synthesis of nanoparticles. This study presents method the synthesis of silver nanoparticles using water extract of Arnicae anthodium. Formation of silver nanoparticles was confirmed by UV-visble spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and total reflection X-ray fluorescence analysis. The morphology of the synthesized silver nanoparticles was verified by SEM-EDS. The obtained silver nanoparticles were used to study their antimicrobial activity.

  7. A study on the effect of chemically synthesized magnetite nanoparticles on earthworm: Eudrilus eugeniae

    Samrot, Antony V.; Justin, C.; Padmanaban, S.; Burman, Ujjala

    2017-02-01

    Most look into the benefits of the nanoparticles, but keeping aside the benefits; this study focuses on the impacts of nanoparticles on living systems. Improper disposal of nanoparticles into the environment is a subject of pollution or nano-pollution which in turn affects the flora and fauna in the ecosystem, particularly soil ecosystem. Thus, this study was done to understand the impacts of chemically synthesized magnetite nanoparticles on earthworm— Eudrilus eugeniae, a soil-dependent organism which acquires food and nutrition from decaying matters. The chemically synthesized magnetite nanoparticles were characterized by UV-visible spectrophotometry, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and field emission scanning electron microscopy. Earthworms were allowed to interact with different concentrations of synthesized nanoparticles and the effect of the nanoparticles was analysed by studying the phenotypic changes followed by histology and inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry analyses.

  8. Recent Progress in Syntheses and Applications of Dumbbell-like Nanoparticles**

    Wang, Chao; Xu, Chenjie; Zeng, Hao; Sun, Shouheng

    2009-01-01

    This paper reviews the recent research progress in syntheses and applications of dumbbell-like nanoparticles. It first describes the general synthesis of dumbbell-like nanoparticles containing noble metal and magnetic NPs/or quantum dots. It then outlines the interesting optical and magnetic properties found in these dumbbell nanoparticles. The review further highlights several exciting application potentials of these nanoparticles in catalysis and biomedicine.

  9. Comparative study of synthesized silver and gold nanoparticles ...

    The present investigation aimed at comparing the synthesis, characterization and in vitro anticancer ... Bauhinia tomentosa Linn; silver nanoparticles; gold nanoparticles; A-549; HEp-2; MCF-7. 1. Introduction ..... Methods 65 55. [33] Singh A K ...

  10. Characterization of hydrothermally synthesized SnS nanoparticles for solar cell application

    Rajwar, Birendra Kumar; Sharma, Shailendra Kumar

    2018-05-01

    In the present study, SnS nanoparticles were synthesized by simple hydrothermal method using stannous chloride and thiourea as tin (Sn) and sulfur (S) precursor respectively. Synthesized nanoparticles were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy and UV-Vis Spectroscopy techniques. XRD pattern reveals that as-prepared nanoparticles exhibit orthorhombic structure. Average particles size was calculated using Scherrer's formula and found to be 23 nm. FESEM image shows that the as-prepared nanoparticles are in plate like structure. Direct optical band gap (Eg) of as-synthesized nanoparticles was calculated through UV-Vis Spectroscopy measurement and found to be 1.34 eV, which is near to optimum need for photovoltaic solar energy conversion (1.5 eV). Thus this SnS, narrowband gap semiconductor material can be applied as an alternative absorber material for solar cell application.

  11. Distinction between SnO2 nanoparticles synthesized using co ...

    Administrator

    pared with that of a co-precipitation-modified SnO2 nanoparticles. Keywords. SnO2 nanoparticle ... Dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs), which convert light to electricity by means of ... nature, additives and aging time. Nanosized particles pre-.

  12. Structure and Plasmonic Properties of Thin PMMA Layers with Ion-Synthesized Ag Nanoparticles

    Popok, Vladimir; Hanif, Muhammad; Mackova, Anna

    2015-01-01

    nanoparticles above the surface. The synthesized nanoparticles can be split into two groups: (i) located at the surface and (ii) fully embedded in the shallow layer. These two groups provide corresponding spectral bands related to localized surface plasmon resonance. The bands demonstrate considerable intensity...

  13. Induction heating studies of combustion synthesized MgFe2O4 nanoparticles for hyperthermia applications

    Khot, V.M.; Salunkhe, A.B.; Thorat, N.D.; Phadatare, M.R.; Pawar, S.H.

    2013-01-01

    The structural, magnetic and ac magnetically induced heating characteristics of combustion synthesized MgFe 2 O 4 nanoparticles have been investigated for application in magnetic particle hyperthermia. As prepared nanoparticles showed ferrimagnetic behavior at room temperature with magnetization of about 33.83 emu/g at ±15 kOe. The solid state MgFe 2 O 4 nanoparticles exhibited specific absorption rate (SAR) of about 297 W/g at physiological safe range of frequency and amplitude. The increase in SAR and heating temperature in ac magnetic field was thought to be due to enhancement in magnetic hysteresis loss caused by dipole–dipole interactions in combustion synthesized MgFe 2 O 4 nanoparticles. - Highlights: ► Highly crystalline pure MgFe 2 O 4 nanoparticles were synthesized by low temperature combustion. ► Effect of ac magnetic field and nanoparticles concentration on heating characteristics of MgFe 2 O 4 nanoparticles was studied. ► Combustion synthesized MgFe 2 O 4 nanoparticles show highest specific absorption rate of 297 Wg −1 . ► The reported high value of specific absorption rate is advantageous for its use in magnetic particle hyperthermia

  14. Cytotoxic Effect on Cancerous Cell Lines by Biologically Synthesized Silver Nanoparticles

    Balaji Kulandaivelu

    Full Text Available The biosynthesis of nanoparticles has been proposed as an environmental friendly and cost effective alternative to chemical and physical methods. Silver nanoparticles are biologically synthesized and characterized were used in the study. The invitro cytotoxic effect of biologically synthesized silver nanoparticles against MCF-7 cancer cell lines were assessed. The cytotoxic effects of the silver nanoparticles could significantly inhibited MCF-7 cancer cell lines proliferation in a time and concentration-dependent manner by MTT assay. Acridine orange, ethidium bromide (AO/EB dual staining, caspase-3 and DNA fragmentation assays were carried out using various concentrations of silver nanoparticles ranging from 1 to 100 μg/mL. At 100 μg/mL concentration, the silver nanoparticles exhibited significant cytotoxic effects and the apoptotic features were confirmed through caspase-3 activation and DNA fragmentation assays. Western blot analysis has revealed that nanoparticle was able to induce cytochrome c release from the mitochondria, which was initiated by the inhibition of Bcl-2 and activation of Bax. Thus, the results of the present study indicate that biologically synthesized silver nanoparticles might be used to treat breast cancer. The present studies suggest that these nanoparticles could be a new potential adjuvant chemotherapeutic and chemo preventive agent against cytotoxic cells. However, it necessitates clinical studies to ascertain their potential as anticancer agents.

  15. Interaction between serum albumins and sonochemically synthesized cadmium sulphide nanoparticles: a spectroscopic study

    Naveenraj, Selvaraj; Asiri, Abdullah M.; Anandan, Sambandam

    2013-01-01

    Cadmium Sulphide nanoparticles approximately 5–10 nm in size range were synthesized by sonochemical technique, which follows acoustic cavitation phenomenon and generates nanoparticles with a smaller size range and higher surface area. The in vitro binding interaction of these sonochemically synthesized CdS nanoparticles with serum albumins (SA) were investigated using UV–Vis absorption, fluorescence and circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopic techniques since CdS nanoparticles has biological applications such as cellular labelling and deep-tissue imaging. UV–Vis absorption and fluorescence studies confirm that CdS nanoparticles bind with SA through ground state complex formation (static quenching mechanism). The results suggest that sonochemically synthesized CdS nanoparticles interact with HSA more than that of BSA and these nanoparticles can be easily transported and rapidly released to the targets by serum albumins. CD studies confirmed the conformational change of serum albumins on the interaction of CdS nanoparticles.Graphical AbstractThis paper investigates the in vitro binding interaction of Cadmium Sulphide (CdS) nanoparticles with serum albumins (HSA and BSA) using the UV-vis, steady-state fluorescence, time-resolved fluorescence, synchronous fluorescence and circular dichroism (CD) spectral techniques.

  16. Evaluation of antioxidant, antibacterial and cytotoxic effects of green synthesized silver nanoparticles by Piper longum fruit

    Reddy, N. Jayachandra; Nagoor Vali, D.; Rani, M.; Rani, S. Sudha, E-mail: sadrassudha@gmail.com

    2014-01-01

    Silver nanoparticles synthesized through bio-green method has been reported to have biomedical applications to control pathogenic microbes as it is cost effective compared to commonly used physical and chemical methods. In present study, silver nanoparticles were synthesized using aqueous Piper longum fruit extract (PLFE) and confirmed by UV–visible spectroscopy. The nanoparticles were spherical in shape with an average particle size of 46 nm as determined by scanning electronic microscopy (SEM) and dynamic light scattering (DLS) particle size analyzer respectively. FT-IR spectrum revealed the capping of the phytoconstituents, probably polyphenols from P. longum fruit extract and stabilizing the nanoparticles. Further the ferric ion reducing test, confirmed that the capping agents were condensed tannins. The aqueous P. longum fruit extract (PLFE) and the green synthesized silver nanoparticles (PLAgNPs) showed powerful antioxidant properties in in vitro antioxidant assays. The results from the antimicrobial assays suggested that green synthesized silver nanoparticles (PLAgNPs) were more potent against pathogenic bacteria than the P. longum fruit extract (PLFE) alone. The nanoparticles also showed potent cytotoxic effect against MCF-7 breast cancer cell lines with an IC 50 value of 67 μg/ml/24 h by the MTT assay. These results support the advantages of using bio-green method for synthesizing silver nanoparticles with antioxidant, antimicrobial and cytotoxic activities those are simple and cost effective as well. - Highlights: • 46 nm spherical shaped P. longum fruit silver nanoparticles was prepared. • Capping and reducing bioactive plant compounds with in nanoparticles were condensed tannins. • Particles are potent antioxidant and anti microbial in biological systems. • They are cytotoxic against MCF-7 cell lines.

  17. Evaluation of antioxidant, antibacterial and cytotoxic effects of green synthesized silver nanoparticles by Piper longum fruit

    Reddy, N. Jayachandra; Nagoor Vali, D.; Rani, M.; Rani, S. Sudha

    2014-01-01

    Silver nanoparticles synthesized through bio-green method has been reported to have biomedical applications to control pathogenic microbes as it is cost effective compared to commonly used physical and chemical methods. In present study, silver nanoparticles were synthesized using aqueous Piper longum fruit extract (PLFE) and confirmed by UV–visible spectroscopy. The nanoparticles were spherical in shape with an average particle size of 46 nm as determined by scanning electronic microscopy (SEM) and dynamic light scattering (DLS) particle size analyzer respectively. FT-IR spectrum revealed the capping of the phytoconstituents, probably polyphenols from P. longum fruit extract and stabilizing the nanoparticles. Further the ferric ion reducing test, confirmed that the capping agents were condensed tannins. The aqueous P. longum fruit extract (PLFE) and the green synthesized silver nanoparticles (PLAgNPs) showed powerful antioxidant properties in in vitro antioxidant assays. The results from the antimicrobial assays suggested that green synthesized silver nanoparticles (PLAgNPs) were more potent against pathogenic bacteria than the P. longum fruit extract (PLFE) alone. The nanoparticles also showed potent cytotoxic effect against MCF-7 breast cancer cell lines with an IC 50 value of 67 μg/ml/24 h by the MTT assay. These results support the advantages of using bio-green method for synthesizing silver nanoparticles with antioxidant, antimicrobial and cytotoxic activities those are simple and cost effective as well. - Highlights: • 46 nm spherical shaped P. longum fruit silver nanoparticles was prepared. • Capping and reducing bioactive plant compounds with in nanoparticles were condensed tannins. • Particles are potent antioxidant and anti microbial in biological systems. • They are cytotoxic against MCF-7 cell lines

  18. Sonochemically synthesized iron-doped zinc oxide nanoparticles: Influence of precursor composition on characteristics

    Roy, Anirban; Maitra, Saikat; Ghosh, Sobhan; Chakrabarti, Sampa

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Sonochemical synthesis of iron-doped zinc oxide nanoparticles. • Green synthesis without alkali at room temperature. • Characterization by UV–vis spectroscopy, FESEM, XRD and EDX. • Influence of precursor composition on characteristics. • Composition and characteristics are correlated. - Abstract: Iron-doped zinc oxide nanoparticles have been synthesized sonochemically from aqueous acetyl acetonate precursors of different proportions. Synthesized nanoparticles were characterized with UV–vis spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction and microscopy. Influences of precursor mixture on the characteristics have been examined and modeled. Linear correlations have been proposed between dopant dosing, extent of doping and band gap energy. Experimental data corroborated with the proposed models.

  19. A comparative study of hydroxyapatite nanoparticles synthesized by different routes

    Paz, Adrian; Guadarrama, Dainelys; López, Mónica; E. González, Jesús; Brizuela, Nayrim; Aragón, Javier

    2012-01-01

    In this study, bioactive hydroxyapatite nanoparticles were prepared by two different methods: wet chemical precipitation and biomimetic precipitation. The aim was to evaluate the morphology, particle-size, crystallinity and phases of the powders obtained by traditional wet chemical precipitation and the novel biomimetic precipitation using a supersaturated calcium solution. The nanoparticles were investigated by transmission electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and X-r...

  20. Antibacterial activity of magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles synthesized by laser ablation in liquid

    Ismail, Raid A.; Sulaiman, Ghassan M.; Abdulrahman, Safa A.; Marzoog, Thorria R.

    2015-01-01

    In this study, (50–110 nm) magnetic iron oxide (α-Fe 2 O 3 ) nanoparticles were synthesized by pulsed laser ablation of iron target in dimethylformamide (DMF) and sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) solutions. The structural properties of the synthesized nanoparticles were investigated by using Fourier Transform Infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, UV–VIS absorption, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM), and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The effect of laser fluence on the characteristics of these nanoparticles was studied. Antibacterial activities of iron oxide nanoparticles were tested against Gram-positive; Staphylococcus aureus and Gram-negative; Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Serratia marcescens. The results showed a noteworthy inhibition on both bacterial strains. The preparation conditions were found to affect significantly the antibacterial activity of these nanoparticles. The synthesized magnetic nanoparticles were used to capture rapidly S. aureus bacteria under the magnetic field effect. - Highlights: • Synthesis magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles by pulsed laser ablation • Antibacterial activity against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria • Captured magnetic nanoparticles by S. aureus bacteria under effect of magnetic field

  1. Antibacterial activity of magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles synthesized by laser ablation in liquid

    Ismail, Raid A., E-mail: raidismail@yahoo.com [Laser Physics Division, Applied Science Department, University of Technology, Baghdad (Iraq); Sulaiman, Ghassan M. [Biotechnology Division, Applied Science Department, University of Technology, Baghdad (Iraq); Abdulrahman, Safa A. [Laser Physics Division, Applied Science Department, University of Technology, Baghdad (Iraq); Marzoog, Thorria R. [Biotechnology Division, Applied Science Department, University of Technology, Baghdad (Iraq)

    2015-08-01

    In this study, (50–110 nm) magnetic iron oxide (α-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}) nanoparticles were synthesized by pulsed laser ablation of iron target in dimethylformamide (DMF) and sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) solutions. The structural properties of the synthesized nanoparticles were investigated by using Fourier Transform Infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, UV–VIS absorption, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM), and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The effect of laser fluence on the characteristics of these nanoparticles was studied. Antibacterial activities of iron oxide nanoparticles were tested against Gram-positive; Staphylococcus aureus and Gram-negative; Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Serratia marcescens. The results showed a noteworthy inhibition on both bacterial strains. The preparation conditions were found to affect significantly the antibacterial activity of these nanoparticles. The synthesized magnetic nanoparticles were used to capture rapidly S. aureus bacteria under the magnetic field effect. - Highlights: • Synthesis magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles by pulsed laser ablation • Antibacterial activity against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria • Captured magnetic nanoparticles by S. aureus bacteria under effect of magnetic field.

  2. A Study On Dispersion Stability Of Nickel Nanoparticles Synthesized By Wire Explosion In Liquid Media

    Kim C.K.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study, nickel nanoparticles were synthesized in ethanol using portable pulsed wire evaporation, which is a one-step physical method. From transmission electron microscopy images, it was found that the Ni nanoparticles exhibited a spherical shape with an average diameter of 7.3 nm. To prevent aggregation of the nickel nanoparticles, a polymer surfactant was added into the ethanol before the synthesis of nickel nanoparticles, and adsorbed on the freshly synthesized nickel nanoparticles during the wire explosion. The dispersion stability of the prepared nickel nanofluids was investigated by zeta-potential analyzer and Turbiscan optical analyzer. As a result, the optimum concentration of polymer surfactant to be added was suggested for the maximized dispersion stability of the nickel nanofluids.

  3. Radiation synthesized protein-based nanoparticles: A technique overview

    Varca, Gustavo H.C.; Perossi, Gabriela G.; Grasselli, Mariano; Lugão, Ademar B.

    2014-01-01

    Seeking for alternative routes for protein engineering a novel technique – radiation induced synthesis of protein nanoparticles – to achieve size controlled particles with preserved bioactivity has been recently reported. This work aimed to evaluate different process conditions to optimize and provide an overview of the technique using γ-irradiation. Papain was used as model protease and the samples were irradiated in a gamma cell irradiator in phosphate buffer (pH=7.0) containing ethanol (0–35%). The dose effect was evaluated by exposure to distinct γ-irradiation doses (2.5, 5, 7.5 and 10 kGy) and scale up experiments involving distinct protein concentrations (12.5–50 mg mL −1 ) were also performed. Characterization involved size monitoring using dynamic light scattering. Bityrosine detection was performed using fluorescence measurements in order to provide experimental evidence of the mechanism involved. Best dose effects were achieved at 10 kGy with regard to size and no relevant changes were observed as a function of papain concentration, highlighting very broad operational concentration range. Bityrosine changes were identified for the samples as a function of the process confirming that such linkages play an important role in the nanoparticle formation. - Highlights: • Synthesis of protein-based nanoparticles by γ-irradiation. • Optimization of the technique. • Overview of mechanism involved in the nanoparticle formation. • Engineered papain nanoparticles for biomedical applications

  4. Effect of hydrogen on the microstructure and electrochemical properties of Si nanoparticles synthesized by microwave plasma

    Koo, Jeongboon; Lee, Jeongeun; Kim, Joonsoo; Jang, Boyun, E-mail: byjang@kier.re.kr

    2016-09-01

    We synthesized silicon (Si) nanoparticles using an atmospheric microwave plasma process, and investigated the effects of hydrogen (H{sub 2}) injection on their microstructure during the synthesis. Two nozzles were applied to inject H{sub 2} (swirling and rectilinear H{sub 2}). Our microstructural analysis indicated that the amount and method of H{sub 2} injection were critical for completion of the reaction from silicon tetrachloride (SiCl{sub 4}) to Si, as well as to obtain highly crystalline Si nanoparticles. The swirling H{sub 2} was especially critical due to its formation of vortex flow, which allowed relatively long residence time of the H-ions in plasma. The Si nanoparticles synthesized by the atmospheric plasma process had core-shell structures that consisted of crystalline Si cores with amorphous SiO{sub x} shells of 5–15 nm thickness. We also investigated the feasibility of the synthesized Si nanoparticles as anode materials in a lithium-ion battery (LIB). For the core-shell structured Si nanoparticles, we obtained the first reversible capacity of 1204 mAhg{sup −1}, and a capacity retention of 82.2% at the 50{sup th} cycle. - Highlights: • We synthesized Si nanoparticles by an atmospheric microwave plasma process. • We investigated the effects of injected H{sub 2} on the microstructures of Si nanoparticles. • Swirling H{sub 2} was critical, due to the formation of vortex flow in plasma. • The synthesized Si nanoparticles had core (crystalline Si)-shell (SiO{sub x}) structures. • The electrochemical properties depend on its core-shell structures as LIB anode.

  5. Cytotoxic effect of nanoparticles synthesized from Salvia officinalis L ...

    The development of safe carriers for the use of plant extracts in industrial and health fields constitute a matter of serious concern. The development of plant derived nanoparticles may help to overcome such barriers. However, the major concern is still the safety of these carriers. The present study describes the synthesis of ...

  6. Nanoparticles of complex metal oxides synthesized using the ...

    ASHOK K GANGULI∗, TOKEER AHMAD, PADAM R ARYA and PIKA JHA ... nanoparticles of several dielectric oxides like BaTiO3, Ba2TiO4, SrTiO3, PbTiO3 .... reasonable stability till 150◦C. All the lead-doped phases (sintered at 900◦C) show.

  7. Study of Ag and Au Nanoparticles Synthesized by Arc Discharge in Deionized Water

    Der-Chi Tien

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a study of Ag and Au nanofluids synthesized by the arc discharge method (ADM in deionized water. The metallic Ag nanoparticle (Ag0 and ionic Ag (Ag+ have played an important role in the battle against germs which are becoming more drug-resistant every year. Our study indicates that Ag nanoparticle suspension (SNPS fabricated by using ADM without added surfactants exclusively contains the metallic Ag nanoparticle and ionic Ag. Besides that, the ADM in deionized water has also been employed for the fabrication process of Au nanoparticles. The experimental results indicate that the prepared Ag nanoparticles can react with the dissolved H2CO3 in deionized water, leading to the formation of Ag2CO3. Significantly different to Ag, the prepared Au nanoparticles with their surfaces bonded by oxygen are suspended in deionized water by the formation of hydrogen bonded with the neighboring water molecules.

  8. Dielectric properties of CdS nanoparticles synthesized by soft ...

    If the field applied to the condenser is time-dependent (as in an alternating current), so ... tematically the dielectric properties of CdS synthesized by a soft chemical method .... The real parts of conductivity spectra can be explained by the power ...

  9. Syntheses and applications of periodic mesoporous organosilica nanoparticles

    Croissant, Jonas G.

    2015-11-06

    Periodic Mesoporous Organosilica (PMO) nanomaterials are envisioned to be one of the most prolific subjects of research in the next decade. Similar to mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSN), PMO nanoparticles (NPs) prepared from organo-bridged alkoxysilanes have tunable mesopores that could be utilized for many applications such as gas and molecule adsorption, catalysis, drug and gene delivery, electronics, and sensing; but unlike MSN, the diversity in chemical nature of the pore walls of such nanomaterials is theoretically unlimited. Thus, we expect that PMO NPs will attract considerable interest over the next decade. In this review, we will present a comprehensive overview of the synthetic strategies for the preparation of nanoscaled PMO materials, and then describe their applications in catalysis and nanomedicine. The remarkable assets of the PMO structure are also detailed, and insights are provided for the preparation of more complex PMO nanoplatforms.

  10. Electrocatalysis of chemically synthesized noble metal nanoparticles on carbon electrodes

    Zhang, Ling; Ulstrup, Jens; Zhang, Jingdong

    Noble metal nanoparticles (NPs), such as platinum (Pt) and palladium (Pd) NPs are promising catalysts for dioxygen reduction and oxidation of molecules such as formic acid and ethanol in fuel cells. Carbon nanomaterials are ideal supporting materials for electrochemical catalysts due to their good...... by electrochemical SPM. This study offers promise for development of new high-efficiency catalyst types with low-cost for fuel cell technology...

  11. Radio-synthesized protein-based nanoparticles for biomedical purposes

    Varca, Gustavo H.C.; Ferraz, Caroline C.; Lopes, Patricia S.; Mathor, Monica beatriz; Grasselli, Mariano; Lugão, Ademar B.

    2014-01-01

    Protein-crosslinking whether done by enzymatic or chemically induced pathways increases the overall stability of proteins. In the continuous search for alternative routes for protein stabilization we report a novel technique – radio-induced synthesis of protein nanoparticles – to achieve size controlled particles with preserved bioactivity. Papain was used as model enzyme and the samples were irradiated at 10 kGy in a gammacell irradiator in phosphate buffer (pH=7.0) and additives such as ethanol (0–40%) and sodium chloride (0–25%). The structural rearrangement caused by irradiation under defined conditions led to an increase in papain particle size as a function of the additive and its concentration. These changes occur due to intermolecular bindings, of covalent nature, possibly involving the aromatic amino acids. Ethanol held major effects over papain particle size and particle size distribution if compared to sodium chloride. The particles presented relative retained bioactivity and the physic-chemical characterization revealed similar fluorescence spectra indicating preserved conformation. Differences in fluorescence units were observed according to the additive and its concentration, as a result of protein content changes. Therefore, under optimized conditions, the developed technique may be applied for enzyme nanoparticles formation of controllable size and preserved bioactivity. Highlights: • Novel technique for the development of protein nanoparticles using γ-irradiation. • Size control of papain particles with preserved conformation and bioactivity. • Alternative method for controlled protein crosslinking. • Bioactive protein nanoparticles of biotechnological and clinical interest. • Protein-based drug carrier potential of biotechnological and clinical interest

  12. Bactericidal Efficiency of Silver Nanoparticles Synthesized from Annona squamosa

    Jayavardhanan, R.; Nanda, Anima

    2016-09-01

    Nanotechnology is described as an emerging technology that not only holds promise for society, but also is capable of providing novel approaches to overcome our common problems. The present study focused on the synthesis of silver nanoparticles using the metabolites of Annona squamosa seeds. The biological reduction procedure proposed in this method was considered as better one compared to chemical mediated reduction methods. The advantages include nontoxic to the environment, less energy consuming and highly suitable for further biological applications. The seeds were separated from the fruit pulp, grinded into powder and dissolved in distilled water. The suspension was used as reducing agent and treated with silver nitrate at the concentration of 1mM. The reduction reaction was continuously monitored by UV-visible photo spectrometer. Further the samples were subjected to AFM, SEM and XRD analysis for the confirmation of their size, structure, agglomerations and the arrangements of crystals. Finally the antibacterial properties of nanoparticles were tested against clinically important pathogenic microorganisms using disc diffusion method and compared with the activities of standard antibiotics. The combinational effects of nanoparticles with commercial antibiotics also were tested by the same method.

  13. The effect of biologically and chemically synthesized silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) on biofilm formation

    Chojniak, Joanna; Biedroń, Izabela; Mendrek, Barbara; Płaza, Grażyna

    2017-11-01

    Bionanotechnology has emerged up as integration between biotechnology and nanotechnology for developing biosynthetic and environmental-friendly technology for synthesis of nanomaterials. Different types of nanomaterials like copper, zinc, titanium, magnesium, gold, and silver have applied in the various industries but silver nanoparticles have proved to be most effective against bacteria, viruses and eukaryotic microorganisms. The antimicrobial property of silver nanoparticles are widely known. Due to strong antibacterial property silver nanoparticles are used, e.g. in clothing, food industry, sunscreens, cosmetics and many household and environmental appliances. The aim of the study was to compare the effect of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) synthesized biologically and chemically on the biofilm formation. The biofilm was formed by the bacteria isolated from the water supply network. The commonly used crystal violet assay (CV) was applied for biofilm analysis. In this study effect of biologically synthesized Ag-NPs on the biofilm formation was evaluated.

  14. Uncapped silver nanoparticles synthesized by DC arc thermal plasma technique for conductor paste formulation

    Shinde, Manish; Pawar, Amol; Karmakar, Soumen; Seth, Tanay; Raut, Varsha; Rane, Sunit; Bhoraskar, Sudha; Amalnerkar, Dinesh

    2009-11-01

    Uncapped silver nanoparticles were synthesized by DC arc thermal plasma technique. The synthesized nanoparticles were structurally cubic and showed wide particle size variation (between 20-150 nm). Thick film paste formulated from such uncapped silver nanoparticles was screen-printed on alumina substrates and the resultant `green' films were fired at different firing temperatures. The films fired at 600 °C revealed better microstructure properties and also yielded the lowest value of sheet resistance in comparison to those corresponding to conventional peak firing temperature of 850 °C. Our findings directly support the role of silver nanoparticles in substantially depressing the operative peak firing temperature involved in traditional conductor thick films technology.

  15. The effect of green synthesized gold nanoparticles on rice germination and roots

    Tsi Ndeh, Nji; Maensiri, Santi; Maensiri, Duangkamol

    2017-09-01

    In this paper, gold nanoparticles were synthesized by means of a green approach with Tiliacora triandra leaf extracts under different conditions. No additional reducing or capping agents were employed. The gold nanoparticles were characterized using UV-visible spectrophotometry, transmission electron microscope, x-ray diffraction and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Gold nanoparticles synthesized at temperature of 80 °C were further used to treat rice (Oryza sativa) grains at different concentrations (0, 10, 100, 500, 1000, 2000 mg l-1) for one week. While germination percentages were high (95-98.38%), a slight decrease in root and shoot lengths relative to the control was observed. Phytotoxicity results indicated that the plant synthesized gold nanoparticles were of minimal toxicity to rice seedlings. Increases in cell death, hydrogen peroxide formation and lipid peroxidation in roots and shoots were noted. However, these increases were not statistically significant. The overall results confirmed that Tiliacora triandra synthesized gold nanoparticles are biocompatible and can be potentially used as nanocarriers in agriculture. Contribution at 5th Thailand International Nanotechnology Conference (Nano Thailand-2016), 27-29 November 2016, Nakhon Ratchasima, Thailand.

  16. Specific features of ZnCdS nanoparticles synthesized in different solvents

    Kyazym-zade, A. G.; Jafarov, M. A., E-mail: maarif.jafarov@mail.ru; Nasirov, E. F.; Jahangirova, C. A.; Jafarli, R. S. [Baku State University (Azerbaijan)

    2017-04-15

    Stable colloidal solutions of ZnCdS nanoparticles (3–6 nm in diameter) in polyvinyl alcohol, polyethylene glycol, and H{sub 2}O are produced. The size of the synthesized nanoparticles is independent of the relation between precursors. It is shown that stabilization of the particles is defined by the charge-stability factor and can be attained without any additional stabilizing additives. The ZnCdS quantum dots synthesized emit in a wide spectral range from 450 to 600 nm.

  17. Uniform silver/polypyrrole core-shell nanoparticles synthesized by hydrothermal reaction

    Wang Shibin [Department of Chemistry, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Shi Gaoquan [Department of Chemistry, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China)]. E-mail: gshi@tsinghua.edu.cn

    2007-04-15

    Uniformly sized silver/polypyrrole (Ag/PPy) core-shell nanoparticles were synthesized by one-step hydrothermal reaction of pyrrole and silver nitrate in the presence of polyvinyl pyrrolidone (PVP) as protection agent. The morphology and structures of the nanoparticles have been studied by scanning and transmission electronic microscopes, X-ray diffractometer and Raman spectroscopy. The experimental results indicated that the particles had 120 nm silver cores with 20 nm polypyrrole (PPy) coatings. The reaction conditions have strong effects on the morphology of the nanoparticles.

  18. Uniform silver/polypyrrole core-shell nanoparticles synthesized by hydrothermal reaction

    Wang Shibin; Shi Gaoquan

    2007-01-01

    Uniformly sized silver/polypyrrole (Ag/PPy) core-shell nanoparticles were synthesized by one-step hydrothermal reaction of pyrrole and silver nitrate in the presence of polyvinyl pyrrolidone (PVP) as protection agent. The morphology and structures of the nanoparticles have been studied by scanning and transmission electronic microscopes, X-ray diffractometer and Raman spectroscopy. The experimental results indicated that the particles had 120 nm silver cores with 20 nm polypyrrole (PPy) coatings. The reaction conditions have strong effects on the morphology of the nanoparticles

  19. Measurement of discrete energy-level spectra in individual chemically synthesized gold nanoparticles

    Kuemmeth, Ferdinand; Bolotin, Kirill I; Shi, Su-Fei

    2008-01-01

    We form single-electron transistors from individual chemically synthesized gold nanoparticles, 5-15 nm in diameter, with monolayers of organic molecules serving as tunnel barriers. These devices allow us to measure the discrete electronic energy levels of individual gold nanoparticles that are......, by virtue of chemical synthesis, well-defined in their composition, size and shape. We show that the nanoparticles are nonmagnetic and have spectra in good accord with random-matrix-theory predictions taking into account strong spin-orbit coupling....

  20. Influence of Irradiation Time on properties of CdS Nanoparticles Synthesized using Microwave Irradiation

    Nayereh Soltani; Elias SSaion; Maryam Erfani; Mohd Zobir Hussein; Robiah Yunus

    2011-01-01

    Different sizes of cadmium sulfide nanoparticles which exhibit obvious quantum confinement effect have been synthesized of cadmium chloride and thioacetamide through the simple and rapid microwave method. The properties of these CdS nanoparticles were examined with varying irradiation time from 10 to 40 min using a pulse regime. The obtained CdS particles were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), transition electron microscopy (TEM) and UV-visible (UV-Vis) spectroscopy. The effects of irradiation time on the size, degree of crystallinity, yield of reaction and optical band gap of CdS nanoparticles are investigated. (author)

  1. Adsorptive removal of bisphenol A using synthesized magnetite nanoparticles

    Orimolade, B. O.; Adekola, F. A.; Adebayo, G. B.

    2018-03-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA) is an organic compound which is often used as plasticizer and has been reported to be hazardous to man. In this research the efficiency of removal of BPA from water by magnetite through adsorption process was studied. The magnetite was synthesized using reverse co-precipitation method and fully characterized. Various physicochemical parameters affecting the adsorption of BPA using magnetite were studied as well. The optimum time for the adsorption process was found to be 60 min at pH of 6, adsorbent dose of 0.2 g and 50 ppm of BPA. The adsorption data were fitted by the Langmuir adsorption isotherm best with a regression value of 0.957. The R L value was 0.179 which revealed that the process is favorable. The Freundlich constant n which was 1.901 also revealed that the adsorption is normal and favorable. The data were in agreement with the pseudo-second-order kinetics with regression value of 0.98. From the thermodynamic studies, the process was found to be exothermic and the Gibb's free energy value which was negative showed that the adsorption was spontaneous. The synthesized magnetite therefore offers great potential for the remediation of bisphenol A-contaminated media.

  2. Gel-combustion-synthesized ZnO nanoparticles for visible light ...

    Zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs) synthesized by the gel combustion technique using a bio-fuel, cassava starch (root tubers of Manihot esculenta), have been characterized by various techniques. The X-ray diffractionpattern reveals hexagonal wurtzite structure. The particle size averaged around 45nm with an excellent ...

  3. Biological application of green silver nanoparticle synthesized from leaf extract of Rauvolfi serpentina Benth

    Sudipta Panja

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To synthesize silver nanoparticles (AgNPs from the leaf extract of Rauvolfia serpentina Benth and examination of their various biological activities. Methods: An ecofriendly, easy, one step, non-toxic and inexpensive approach is used, where aqueous plant extract acts as a reducing as well as stabilizing agent of AgNPs. The nanoparticles were characterized by UV-vis spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy analysis. Results: Surface plasmon resonance of the nanoparticles was observed at 427 nm in UV-vis spectroscopy. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy result confirms that the plant extract acts as the reducing as well as the capping agent of the AgNPs. Transmission electron microscopy indicated that the synthesized nanoparticles are spherical in shape and approximately 7–10 nm in size, whereas the crystalline nature with face-centered cubic structure of the AgNPs was detected by X-ray diffraction analysis. Presence of silver in the AgNPs is 31.43% by weight, as confirmed by energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. The synthesized AgNPs have antimicrobial activities against human pathogenic microorganisms. It also shows larvicidal activity and cytotoxicity against HeLa, MCF-7 cell lines. Conclusions: Synthesized spherical shaped AgNPs from the leaf extract of Rauvolfia serpentina Benth have antimicrobial and larvicidal activities as well as cytotoxicity against HeLa and MCF-7 cell lines.

  4. Synthesizing and Playing with Magnetic Nanoparticles: A Comprehensive Approach to Amazing Magnetic Materials

    Dalverny, Anne-Laure; Leyral, Géraldine; Rouessac, Florence; Bernaud, Laurent; Filhol, Jean-Sébastien

    2018-01-01

    Magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles were synthesized and stabilized using ammonium cations or poly(vinyl alcohol) to produce amazing materials such as safer aqueous ferrofluids, ferrogels, ferromagnetic inks, plastics, and nanopowders illustrating how versatile materials can be produced just by simple modifications. The synthesis is fast, reliable,…

  5. Toxicity Study of Silver Nanoparticles Synthesized from Suaeda monoica on Hep-2 Cell Line.

    Satyavani, Kaliyamurthi; Gurudeeban, Selvaraj; Ramanathan, Thiruganasambandam; Balasubramanian, Thangavel

    2012-01-01

    Recently there has been fabulous excitement in the nano-biotechnological area for the study of nanoparticles synthesis using some natural biological system, which has led the growth advanced nanomaterials. This intention made us to assess the biologically synthesized silver nanoparticles from the leaf of Suaeda monoica (S.monoica) using 1 mM silver nitrate. The leaf extract of S.monoica incubated with 1 mM silver nitrate solution and characterized by UV- spectrometer and AFM. The effect of synthesized silver nanoparticles on Human Epidermoid Larynx Carcinoma cell line was evaluated by the MTT colorimetric technique. As a result we observed gradual change in the colour of extract from greenish to brown. The synthesized silver nanoparticles confirmed by UV at 430 nm and spherical shape identified in the range of 31 nm under AFM. The effect of silver nanoparticles on Human Epidermoid Larynx Carcinoma cell line exhibits a dose-dependent toxicity for the cell tested and the viability of Hep-2 cells decreased to 50 % (IC(50)) at the concentration of 500 nM. Further findings will be determined the exact mechanisms of this cost effective Nano-treatments.

  6. Quorum quenching and antibacterial activity of silver nanoparticles synthesized from Sargassum polyphyllum

    Mani Arunkumar

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Development of efficient methodology for the green synthesis of silver nanoparticles using marine algae is a modern area of research in the field of phyconanotechnology. In this regard, the present study deals with green synthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs by using aqueous extracts of marine brown seaweed Sargassum polyphyllum. UV-visible spectral analysis reveals the formation of AgNPs by showing absorption maximum at 420 nm wavelength and SEM analysis clearly elucidate the polydispersed structure of AgNPs without aggregation and ranged in size from 37-43 nm. X-ray Diffraction pattern confirmed the AgNPs crystalline personality. The synthesized AgNPs showed more enduring antibacterial activity against test bacterial pathogens. Furthermore, the synthesized AgNPs exhibited varying level of inhibition of violacein production and swarming motility. In the near future, silver nanoparticles can be extremely useful in clinical medicine as an alternative method for the treatment of wound infection.

  7. Effect of chemically and biologically synthesized Ag nanoparticles on the algae growth inhibition

    Anna, Mražiková; Oksana, Velgosová; Jana, Kavuličová

    2017-12-01

    Over the past few years green methods for preparation of silver nanoparticles has become necessary due to its friendly influence on ecosystem. In the present work antimicrobial properties of biologically synthesized silver nanoparticles (Bio-AgNPs) using green algae extract and chemically synthesized silver nanoparticles (Chem-AgNPs) using sodium citrate against algae Parachlorella kessleri is investigated. Both used Bio-AgNPs and Chem-AgNPs exhibit long-term stability as demonstrated by UV-vis spectroscopy measurements. The results revealed stronger toxic effects of Bio-AgNPs on agar plates what was confirmed clear inhibition zone around wells impregnated with Bio-AgNPs. On the other hand Bio-AgNPs were confirmed to be less toxic in aquatic environments for the growths of green algae P. kessleri comparing to Chem-AgNPs.

  8. Mn doped GaN nanoparticles synthesized by rapid thermal treatment in ammonia

    Šimek, P.; Sedmidubský, D.; Huber, Š.; Klímová, K.; Maryško, M.; Mikulics, M.; Sofer, Z.

    2015-01-01

    We present a novel route for the synthesis of manganese doped GaN nanoparticles. Nanoparticles in the form of hexagonal discs were synthesized by rapid thermal treatment of manganese doped ammonium hexafluorogallate in ammonium atmosphere. The morphology of GaN:Mn nanoparticles was investigated using scanning electron microscopy. A concentration over 0.7 wt.% of Mn was observed by X-ray fluorescence and electron microprobe. Structural and electronic properties were investigated using X-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy and micro-photoluminescence with excitation wavelength of 325 nm and 532 nm. The magnetic properties between 4.5 K and 300 K were investigated by a superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) magnetometer. GaN:Mn nanoparticles show a purely paramagnetic behavior which can be interpreted in terms of Mn 2+ ions exhibiting an antiferromagnetic interaction. - Highlights: • A new method for the synthesis of Mn doped GaN nanoparticles. • GaN:Mn nanoparticles form hexagonal discs. • None ferromagnetic ordering observed in GaN:Mn nanoparticles. • The concentration of Mn in GaN:Mn nanoparticles reach up to 0.8 wt.%

  9. Photocatalytic activity of biogenic silver nanoparticles synthesized using potato (Solanum tuberosum) infusion.

    Roy, Kaushik; Sarkar, C K; Ghosh, C K

    2015-07-05

    In this study, we have reported a fast and eco-benign procedure to synthesis silver nanoparticle at room temperature using potato (Solanum tuberosum) infusion along with the study of its photocatalytic activity on methyl orange dye. After addition of potato infusion to silver nitrate solution, the color of the mixture changed indicating formation of silver nanoparticles. Time dependent UV-Vis spectra were obtained to study the rate of nanoparticle formation with time. Purity and crystallinity of the biogenic silver nanoparticles were examined by X-ray diffraction (XRD). Average size and morphology of the nanoparticles were characterized by dynamic light scattering (DLS) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Fourier transform infra-red spectroscopy (FTIR) was employed to detect functional bio-molecules responsible that contribute to the reduction and capping of biosynthesized Ag nanoparticles. Further, these synthesized nanoparticles were used to investigate their ability to degrade methyl orange dye under sunlight irradiation and the results showed effective photocatalytic property of these biogenic silver nanoparticles. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Sonochemically synthesized biocompatible zirconium phosphate nanoparticles for pH sensitive drug delivery application

    Kalita, Himani, E-mail: hkalita74@gmail.com [Department of Chemistry, Indian Institute of Technology Kharagpur, West Bengal 721302 (India); Prashanth Kumar, B.N., E-mail: prasanthkumar999@gmail.com [School of Medical Science and Technology, Indian Institute of Technology Kharagpur, West Bengal 721302 (India); Konar, Suraj, E-mail: suraj.konar@gmail.com [Department of Chemistry, Indian Institute of Technology Kharagpur, West Bengal 721302 (India); Tantubay, Sangeeta, E-mail: sang.chem2@gmail.com [Department of Chemistry, Indian Institute of Technology Kharagpur, West Bengal 721302 (India); Mahto, Madhusudan Kr., E-mail: mahtomk0@gmail.com [Department of Chemistry, Indian Institute of Technology Kharagpur, West Bengal 721302 (India); Mandal, Mahitosh, E-mail: mahitosh@smst.iitkgp.ernet.in [School of Medical Science and Technology, Indian Institute of Technology Kharagpur, West Bengal 721302 (India); Pathak, Amita, E-mail: ami@chem.iitkgp.ernet.in [Department of Chemistry, Indian Institute of Technology Kharagpur, West Bengal 721302 (India)

    2016-03-01

    The present work reports the synthesis of biocompatible zirconium phosphate (ZP) nanoparticles as nanocarrier for drug delivery application. The ZP nanoparticles were synthesized via a simple sonochemical method in the presence of cetyltrimethylammonium bromide and their efficacy for the delivery of drugs has been tested through various in-vitro experiments. The particle size and BET surface area of the nanoparticles were found to be ~ 48 nm and 206.51 m{sup 2}/g respectively. The conventional MTT assay and cellular localization studies of the particles, performed on MDA-MB-231 cell lines, demonstrate their excellent biocompatibility and cellular internalization behavior. The loading of curcumin, an antitumor drug, onto the ZP nanoparticles shows the rapid drug uptake ability of the particles, while the drug release study, performed at two different pH values (at 7.4 and 5) depicts pH sensitive release-profile. The MTT assay and cellular localization studies revealed higher cellular inhibition and better bioavailability of the nanoformulated curcumin compared to free curcumin. - Highlights: • Biocompatible zirconium phosphate nanoparticles were synthesized by a simple sonochemical approach. • Curcumin was rapidly loaded onto the particles by the aid by hydrogen bond formation. • The curcumin loaded zirconium phosphate nanoparticles depict pH triggered drug release phenomenon. • The nanoformulated curcumin showed enhanced anti-tumor activity as compared to the native curcumin.

  11. Sonochemically synthesized biocompatible zirconium phosphate nanoparticles for pH sensitive drug delivery application

    Kalita, Himani; Prashanth Kumar, B.N.; Konar, Suraj; Tantubay, Sangeeta; Mahto, Madhusudan Kr.; Mandal, Mahitosh; Pathak, Amita

    2016-01-01

    The present work reports the synthesis of biocompatible zirconium phosphate (ZP) nanoparticles as nanocarrier for drug delivery application. The ZP nanoparticles were synthesized via a simple sonochemical method in the presence of cetyltrimethylammonium bromide and their efficacy for the delivery of drugs has been tested through various in-vitro experiments. The particle size and BET surface area of the nanoparticles were found to be ~ 48 nm and 206.51 m"2/g respectively. The conventional MTT assay and cellular localization studies of the particles, performed on MDA-MB-231 cell lines, demonstrate their excellent biocompatibility and cellular internalization behavior. The loading of curcumin, an antitumor drug, onto the ZP nanoparticles shows the rapid drug uptake ability of the particles, while the drug release study, performed at two different pH values (at 7.4 and 5) depicts pH sensitive release-profile. The MTT assay and cellular localization studies revealed higher cellular inhibition and better bioavailability of the nanoformulated curcumin compared to free curcumin. - Highlights: • Biocompatible zirconium phosphate nanoparticles were synthesized by a simple sonochemical approach. • Curcumin was rapidly loaded onto the particles by the aid by hydrogen bond formation. • The curcumin loaded zirconium phosphate nanoparticles depict pH triggered drug release phenomenon. • The nanoformulated curcumin showed enhanced anti-tumor activity as compared to the native curcumin.

  12. Cerium doped hydroxyapatite nanoparticles synthesized by coprecipitation method

    Ciobanu Carmen Steluta

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The present work reports a simple coprecipitation adapted method for the synthesis of stable Ce substituted to Ca hydroxyapatite (HAp nanoparticles. The structural and morphological properties of Ce doped hydroxyapatite (Ce:HAp were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD, Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM, Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM and Energy Dispersive X-ray analysis (EDAX. The optical properties of Ce doped hydroxyapatite were also investigated using Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR spectroscopy, FT Raman spectroscopy and photoluminescence analysis. The results of the XRD studies revealed the progressive increase in the a- and c-axes with increasing of Ce concentrations. In the FTIR studies of Ce:HAp powders a similar structure to hydroxyapatite was observed. IR and Raman wavenumbers and the peak strength of the bands associated to the P-O and O-H bonds decreases progressively with the increase of Ce concentration. All the emission maxima could be attributed to the 5d-4f transitions of Ce ions. The displacement of maximum emission bands with the increase of Cerium in the samples is in agreement with the results obtained by XRD studies. The Ce:HAp samples with xCe =0.03 and 0.05 exhibited significant antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 6538 and E. coli 714 bacterial strains compared to Ce:HAp samples with xCe =0 (pure HAp and 0.01.

  13. Antimicrobial and cytotoxicity effect of silver nanoparticle synthesized by Croton bonplandianum Baill. leaves

    K. Khanra

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective(s: For the development of reliable, ecofriendly, less expensive process for the synthesis of silver nanoparticles and to evaluate the bactericidal, and cytotoxicity properties of silver nanoparticles synthesized from root extract of Croton bonplandianum, Baill. Materials and Methods: The synthesis of silver nanoparticles by plant part of Croton bonplandianum was carried out.  The formation of nanoparticles was confirmed by Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM, Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM, XRD and UV-Vis spectrophotometric analysis.  The biochemical properties were assayed by antibacterial study, cytotoxicity assay using cancer cell line.  Results: The formation of silver nanoparticles was confirmed by UV-VIS spectroscopic analysis which showed absorbance peak at 425 nm.  X-ray diffraction photograph indicated the face centered cubic structure of the synthesized AgNPs.  TEM has displayed the different dimensional images of biogenic silver nanoparticles with particle size distribution ranging from 15-40 nm with an average size of 32 nm. Silver particles are spherical in shape, clustered.  The EDX analysis was used to identify the elemental composition of synthesized AgNPs. Antibacterial activity of the synthesized AgNPs against three Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria strains like Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa carried out showed significant zones of inhibition. The cytotoxicity study by AgNPS also showed cytotoxicity on ovarian cancer cell line PA-1 and lung epithelial cancer cell line A549.  Conclusion: The present study confirms that the AgNPs have great promise as antibacterial, and anticancer agent.

  14. Antimicrobial activity and physical characterization of silver nanoparticles green synthesized using nitrate reductase from Fusarium oxysporum.

    Gholami-Shabani, Mohammadhassan; Akbarzadeh, Azim; Norouzian, Dariush; Amini, Abdolhossein; Gholami-Shabani, Zeynab; Imani, Afshin; Chiani, Mohsen; Riazi, Gholamhossein; Shams-Ghahfarokhi, Masoomeh; Razzaghi-Abyaneh, Mehdi

    2014-04-01

    Nanostructures from natural sources have received major attention due to wide array of biological activities and less toxicity for humans, animals, and the environment. In the present study, silver nanoparticles were successfully synthesized using a fungal nitrate reductase, and their biological activity was assessed against human pathogenic fungi and bacteria. The enzyme was isolated from Fusarium oxysporum IRAN 31C after culturing on malt extract-glucose-yeast extract-peptone (MGYP) medium. The enzyme was purified by a combination of ultrafiltration and ion exchange chromatography on DEAE Sephadex and its molecular weight was estimated by gel filtration on Sephacryl S-300. The purified enzyme had a maximum yield of 50.84 % with a final purification of 70 folds. With a molecular weight of 214 KDa, it is composed of three subunits of 125, 60, and 25 KDa. The purified enzyme was successfully used for synthesis of silver nanoparticles in a way dependent upon NADPH using gelatin as a capping agent. The synthesized silver nanoparticles were characterized by X-ray diffraction, dynamic light scattering spectroscopy, and transmission and scanning electron microscopy. These stable nonaggregating nanoparticles were spherical in shape with an average size of 50 nm and a zeta potential of -34.3. Evaluation of the antimicrobial effects of synthesized nanoparticles by disk diffusion method showed strong growth inhibitory activity against all tested human pathogenic fungi and bacteria as evident from inhibition zones that ranged from 14 to 25 mm. Successful green synthesis of biologically active silver nanoparticles by a nitrate reductase from F. oxysporum in the present work not only reduces laborious downstream steps such as purification of nanoparticle from interfering cellular components, but also provides a constant source of safe biologically-active nanomaterials with potential application in agriculture and medicine.

  15. Antibacterial effect of silk treated with silver and copper nanoparticles synthesized by pulsed laser ablation in distilled water

    Baruah, Prahlad K.; Raman, Moghe A.; Chakrabartty, Ishani; Rangan, Latha; Sharma, Ashwini K.; Khare, Alika

    2018-05-01

    The antibacterial activity of three kinds of silks viz. Eri, Pat and Muga treated with silver and copper nanoparticles is reported in this paper. The nanoparticles have been synthesized by pulsed laser ablation of the respective metal targets in distilled water. Treatment of the silk pellets with the synthesized nanoparticles exhibited definite antibacterial activity whereas no such activity is observed in the untreated silk pellets.

  16. Characterization of ZnS nanoparticles synthesized by co-precipitation method

    Iranmanesh Parvaneh; Nourzpoor Mohsen; Saeednia Samira

    2015-01-01

    ZnS nanoparticles are prepared by homogeneous chemical co-precipitation method using EDTA as a stabilizer and capping agent. The structural, morphological, and optical properties of as-synthesized nanoparticles are investigated using x-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis) absorption, and photoluminescence spectroscopy. The x-ray diffraction pattern exhibits a zinc-blended crystal structure at room temperature. The average particle size of the nanoparticles from the scanning electron microscopy image is about 50 nm. The ultraviolet absorption spectrum shows the blue shift in the band gap due to the quantum confinement effect. The photoluminescence spectrum of ZnS nanoparticles shows a blue visible spectrum. (paper)

  17. PEG capped CaS nanoparticles synthesized by wet chemical co-precipitation method

    Rekha, S.; Anila, E. I.

    2018-04-01

    Calcium sulfide (CaS) nanoparticles capped with polyethyleneglycol (PEG) were synthesized using wet chemical co-precipitation method. The structural and optical properties of the prepared sample were studied by X-ray diffractogram (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), diffuse reflectance spectrum (DRS) and photoluminescence (PL) spectrum. The structure of CaS nanoparticles is cubic as demonstrated by the X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) and selected area electron diffraction (SAED) analysis. TEMimage revealed the spherical morphology of the particles with diameter in the range 15-20 nm. The optical band gap of the prepared sample was determined from the DRS and its value was found to be 4.1 eV. The PL studies showed that the relative intensity of the PEG capped CaS nanoparticles was higher than that of uncapped CaS nanoparticles. The presence of various functional groups in the capped samples were examined by Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy.

  18. Asymmetric dumbbell-shaped silver nanoparticles and spherical gold nanoparticles green-synthesized by mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana) pericarp waste extracts

    Park, Ji Su; Ahn, Eun-Young; Park, Youmie

    2017-01-01

    Mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana) pericarp waste extract was used to synthesize gold and silver nanoparticles by a green strategy. The extract was both a reducing and stabilizing agent during synthesis. Phytochemical screening of the extract was conducted to obtain information regarding the presence/absence of primary and secondary metabolites in the extract. The in vitro antioxidant activity results demonstrated that the extract had excellent antioxidant activity, which was comparable to a standard (butylated hydroxy toluene). Spherical gold nanoparticles (gold nanoparticles green synthesized by mangosteen pericarp extract [GM-AuNPs]) with an average size of 15.37±3.99 to 44.20±16.99 nm were observed in high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HR-TEM) images. Most interestingly, the silver nanoparticles (silver nanoparticles green synthesized by mangosteen pericarp extract [GM-AgNPs]) had asymmetric nanodumbbell shapes where one tail grew from a spherical head. The average head size was measured to be 13.65±5.07 to 31.08±3.99 nm from HR-TEM images. The hydrodynamic size of both nanoparticles tended to increase with increasing extract concentration. Large negative zeta potentials (−18.92 to −34.77 mV) suggested that each nanoparticle solution possessed excellent colloidal stability. The reaction yields were 99.7% for GM-AuNPs and 82.8% for GM-AgNPs, which were assessed by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy. A high-resolution X-ray diffraction pattern confirmed the face-centered cubic structure of both nanoparticles. Based on phytochemical screening and Fourier transform infrared spectra, the hydroxyl functional groups of carbohydrates, flavonoids, glycosides, and phenolic compounds were most likely involved in a reduction reaction of gold or silver salts to their corresponding nanoparticles. The in vitro cytotoxicity (based on a water-soluble tetrazolium assay) demonstrated that GM-AgNPs were toxic to both A549 (a human lung

  19. A generalized diffusion model for growth of nanoparticles synthesized by colloidal methods.

    Wen, Tianlong; Brush, Lucien N; Krishnan, Kannan M

    2014-04-01

    A nanoparticle growth model is developed to predict and guide the syntheses of monodisperse colloidal nanoparticles in the liquid phase. The model, without any a priori assumptions, is based on the Fick's law of diffusion, conservation of mass and the Gibbs-Thomson equation for crystal growth. In the limiting case, this model reduces to the same expression as the currently accepted model that requires the assumption of a diffusion layer around each nanoparticle. The present growth model bridges the two limiting cases of the previous model i.e. complete diffusion controlled and adsorption controlled growth of nanoparticles. Specifically, the results show that a monodispersion of nanoparticles can be obtained both with fast monomer diffusion and with surface reaction under conditions of small diffusivity to surface reaction constant ratio that results is growth 'focusing'. This comprehensive description of nanoparticle growth provides new insights and establishes the required conditions for fabricating monodisperse nanoparticles critical for a wide range of applications. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Comparative studies on structural properties and antimicrobial potential of spinel ferrite nanoparticles synthesized using various methods

    Baraliya, Jagdish D.; Rakhashiya, Purvi M.; Patel, Pooja P.; Thaker, Vrinda S.; Joshi, Hiren H.

    2017-05-01

    In this study, novel multifunctional magnetic iron-based nanoparticles (CoFe2O4) coated with silica, silica-DEG (diethylene glycol), PEG (polyethylene glycol) were synthesized using Auto Combustion Method (ACM), Co-precipitation Method (COPM), Citrate Precursor Method (CPM), Flash Combustion Method (FCM). These spinel ferrite nanoparticles also contain very high antibacterial properties to fulfill the requirements of a drug delivery system so that the antibiotic concentration could be minimized. A potential delivery system could be based on a ferromagnetic fluid. The effects of various preparation methods on the physical properties of the nanoparticles were examined. The nanoparticles were also tested against four human pathogenic bacteria (Gram negative E.coli, P. aeruginosa, Gram positive S. aureus, S. pyogenus) and two fungi (C. albicans, A.niger). It was revealed that a nanoparticle has strong antibacterial activity as compared to antifungal. Further, Gram positive bacteria are more affected than Gram negative bacteria. It was also clear that different methods of coating have great influence on the antimicrobial properties. It was observed that these nanoparticles have significantly different but potentially very high antimicrobial activities against the tested organisms than found elsewhere by other nanoparticles on the same organisms.

  1. Gas Sensors Based on Tin Oxide Nanoparticles Synthesized from a Mini-Arc Plasma Source

    Ganhua Lu

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Miniaturized gas sensors or electronic noses to rapidly detect and differentiate trace amount of chemical agents are extremely attractive. In this paper, we report on the fabrication and characterization of a functional tin oxide nanoparticle gas sensor. Tin oxide nanoparticles are first synthesized using a convenient and low-cost mini-arc plasma source. The nanoparticle size distribution is measured online using a scanning electrical mobility spectrometer (SEMS. The product nanoparticles are analyzed ex-situ by high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM for morphology and defects, energy dispersive X-ray (EDX spectroscopy for elemental composition, electron diffraction for crystal structure, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS for surface composition. Nonagglomerated rutile tin oxide (SnO2 nanoparticles as small as a few nm have been produced. Larger particles bear a core-shell structure with a metallic core and an oxide shell. The nanoparticles are then assembled onto an e-beam lithographically patterned interdigitated electrode using electrostatic force to fabricate the gas sensor. The nanoparticle sensor exhibits a fast response and a good sensitivity when exposed to 100 ppm ethanol vapor in air.

  2. Antimicrobial, Antioxidant and Cytotoxic Activity of Silver Nanoparticles Synthesized by Leaf Extract of Erythrina suberosa (Roxb.).

    Mohanta, Yugal K; Panda, Sujogya K; Jayabalan, Rasu; Sharma, Nanaocha; Bastia, Akshaya K; Mohanta, Tapan K

    2017-01-01

    In this experiment, biosynthesized silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) were synthesized using aqueous leaf extract of Erythrina suberosa (Roxb.). The biosynthesis of silver nanoparticle was continuously followed by UV-vis spectrophotometric analysis. The response of the phytoconstituents resides in E. suberusa during synthesis of stable AgNPs were analyzed by ATR- fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy. Further, the size, charge, and polydispersity nature of AgNPs were studied using dynamic light scattering spectroscopy. The morphology of the nanoparticles was determined by scanning electron microscopy. Current result shows core involvement of plant extracts containing glycosides, flavonoids, and phenolic compounds played a crucial role in the biosynthesis of AgNPs. The antimicrobial activities of silver nanoparticles were evaluated against different pathogenic bacterium and fungi. The antioxidant property was studied by radical scavenging (DPPH) assay and cytotoxic activity was evaluated against A-431 osteosarcoma cell line by MTT assay. The characteristics of the synthesized silver nanoparticles suggest their application as a potential antimicrobial and anticancer agent.

  3. Magnetic properties of Fe-oxide and (Fe, Co) oxide nanoparticles synthesized in polystyrene resin matrix

    Rodak, D.; Kroll, E.; Tsoi, G. M.; Vaishnava, P. P.; Naik, R.; Wenger, L. E.; Suryanarayanan, R.; Naik, V. M.; Boolchand, P.

    2003-03-01

    Magnetic nanoparticles have potential applications ranging from drug delivery and imaging in the medical field to sensing and memory storage in technology. The preparation, structure, and physical properties of iron oxide-based nanoparticles synthesized by ion exchange in a polystyrene resin matrix have been investigated. Employing a synthesis method developed originally by Ziolo, et. al^1, nanoparticles were prepared in a sulfonated divinyl benzene polystyrene resin matrix using various aqueous solutions of (1) FeCl_2, (2) FeCl_3, (3) FeCl2 : 2FeCl3 , (4) 9FeCl2 : CoCl_2, and (5) 4FeCl2 : CoCl_2. Powder x-ray diffraction measurements were used to identify the phases present while transmission electron microscopy was used for particle size distribution determinations. SQUID magnetization measurements (field-cooled and zero-field-cooled) and Fe^57 Mössbauer effect measurements indicate the presence of ferromagnetic iron oxide phases and a superparamagnetic behavior with blocking temperatures (T_B) varying from 50 K to room temperature. Nanoparticles synthesized using a stoichiometric mixture of FeCl2 and FeCl3 exhibit the lowest TB and smallest particle size distribution. The Mössbauer effect measurements have also been used to identify the iron oxides phases present and their relative amounts in the nanoparticles ^1R.F. Ziolo, et al., Science 207, 219 (1992). *Permanent address: Kettering University, Flint, MI 48504

  4. Antibacterial Activity of Polyaniline Coated Silver Nanoparticles Synthesized from Piper Betle Leaves Extract.

    Mamun Or Rashida, Md; Shafiul Islam, Md; Azizul Haque, Md; Arifur Rahman, Md; Tanvir Hossain, Md; Abdul Hamid, Md

    2016-01-01

    Plants or natural resources have been found to be a good alternative method for nanoparticles synthesis. In this study, polyaniline coated silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) synthesized from Piper betle leaves extract were investigated for their antibacterial activity. Silver nanoparticles were prepared from the reduction of silver nitrate and NaBH4 was used as reducing agent. Silver nanoparticles and extracts were mixed thoroughly and then coated by polyaniline. Prepared nanoparticles were characterized by Visual inspection, Ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy (UV), Fourier transform infrared Spectroscopy (FT-IR), Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) techniques. Antibacterial activities of the synthesized silver nanoparticles were tested against Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923, Salmonella typhi ATCC 14028, Escherichia coli ATCC 25922 and Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 27853. UV-Vis spectrum of reaction mixture showed strong absorption peak with centering at 400 nm. The FT-IR results imply that Ag-NPs were successfully synthesized and capped with bio-compounds present in P. betle. TEM image showed that Ag-NPs formed were well dispersed with a spherical structures and particle size ranging from 10 to 30 nm. The result revealed that Ag-Extract NPs showed 32.78±0.64 mm zone of inhibition against S. aureus, whereas norfloxacin (positive control) showed maximum 32.15±0.40 mm zone of inhibition for S. aureus. Again, maximum zone of inhibition 29.55±0.45 mm was found for S. typhi, 27.12±0.38 mm for E. coli and 21.95±0.45 mm for P. aeruginosa. The results obtained by this study can't be directly extrapolated to human; so further studies should be undertaken to established the strong antimicrobial activity of Ag-Extract NPs for drug development program.

  5. Electrochemical Hydrogen Storage in Facile Synthesized Co@N-Doped Carbon Nanoparticle Composites.

    Zhou, Lina; Qu, Xiaosheng; Zheng, Dong; Tang, Haolin; Liu, Dan; Qu, Deyang; Xie, ZhiZhong; Li, Junsheng; Qu, Deyu

    2017-11-29

    A Co@nitrogen-doped carbon nanoparticle composite was synthesized via a facile molecular self-assembling procedure. The material was used as the host for the electrochemical storage of hydrogen. The hydrogen storage capacity of the material was over 300 mAh g -1 at a rate of 100 mAg -1 . It also exhibited superior stability for storage of hydrogen, high rate capability, and good cyclic life. Hybridizing metallic cobalt nanoparticle with nitrogen-doped mesoporous carbon is found to be a good approach for the electrochemical storage of hydrogen.

  6. SWAXS investigations on diffuse boundary nanostructures of metallic nanoparticles synthesized by electrical discharges

    Guo, Xiaoai, E-mail: xiaoai.guo@kit.edu; Gutsche, Alexander; Nirschl, Hermann [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Institute for Mechanical Process Engineering and Mechanics (Germany)

    2013-11-15

    Metallic nanoparticles have attracted a particular interest in scientific research and industrial applications due to their unique size-dependent physical and chemical properties. An eco-friendly and cost-effective synthesis method called electrical discharge enables large scale production of metallic nanoparticles. Systematic investigations of such synthesized metallic nanoparticles help to optimize the synthesis process and improve the product quality. In this work, for the first time we have investigated the diffuse interfacial boundary nanostructures of the metallic nanoparticles, which were synthesized under different conditions by electrical glow and arc discharges in the carrier gas, by means of a small- and wide-angle X-ray scattering (SWAXS) technique using a laboratory X-ray source. Meanwhile, this unique SWAXS technique allows simultaneous study of the primary particle size, morphology, and crystallinity. The metallic nanoparticles (copper and nickel) under investigation cover a size range of 10–80 nm, and the determined thickness of the diffuse boundary nanostructured layer of metallic nanoparticles is in the range of 1–3 nm. The experimental results obtained by SWAXS were compared to the TEM/EDX observation and the XRD reference patterns from RRUFF database, and a good agreement was found. Our SWAXS investigations indicated that the existence of a diffuse nanostructured solid layer on the synthesized metallic nanoparticle surface causes a negative deviation of the scattering intensity (Ι∝q{sup -α}, α>4) from Porod’s law which corresponds to the case of ideal two-phase particle systems with sharp boundaries (Ι∝q{sup -α}, α=4) . This implies that the electron density profile is not sharp but changes gradually between two phases, and hence the exponent α is greater than four. Two electron density profile models, sigmoidal electron-density gradient model and linear electron-density gradient model, have been taken into account in

  7. Structural investigations on differently sized monodisperse iron oxide nanoparticles synthesized by remineralization of apoferritin molecules

    Ullrich, Aladin; Horn, Siegfried

    2013-01-01

    We have investigated the structure of iron oxide nanoparticles produced by remineralization and thermal treatment of horse spleen apoferritin molecules. The described procedure allows to synthesize particles with diameters ranging from 4 to 7 nm in size. Atomic force microscopy and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) investigations were performed for shape and size determination, whereas energy-dispersive X-ray (TEM-EDX), high-resolution TEM, and electron diffraction measurements revealed the chemical composition and crystal structure of the particles. We found predominantly single crystalline nanoparticles with a hematite-like (α-Fe 2 O 3 ) structure

  8. Biogenic silver nanoparticles synthesized with rhamnogalacturonan gum: Antibacterial activity, cytotoxicity and its mode of action

    Aruna Jyothi Kora

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Silver nanoparticles synthesized from gum kondagogu (5 nm were used to evaluate the antibacterial activity against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. To decipher the mode of antibacterial action of nanoparticles, a comprehensive study was carried out employing a variety of susceptibility assays: micro-broth dilution, antibiofilm activity, growth kinetics, cytoplasmic content leakage, membrane permeabilization, etc. The production of reactive oxygen species (ROS and cell surface damage during bacterial nanoparticle interaction were also demonstrated using dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate, N-acetylcysteine; and scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray spectra. Further, the biocompatibility with HeLa cell line was also evaluated. Compared to earlier reports, the minimum inhibitory concentration values were lower by 3.2- and 16-folds for Gram-positive Staphylococcus aureus and Gram-negative Escherichia coli strains, respectively. The minimum bactericidal concentration values were lower by 4 and 50-folds. Thus, the biogenic silver nanoparticles were found to be more potent bactericidal agents in terms of concentration. The nanoparticles exhibited significant antibiofilm activity against test strains at 2 μg mL−1, which can have implications in the treatment of drug resistant bacterial infections caused by biofilms. Growth curve in nanoparticle supplemented indicated a faster inhibition in Gram-negative bacteria as compared to Gram-positive. Treatment with nanoparticles caused cytoplasmic content leakage and membrane permeabilization in a dose dependent manner, an evidence for membrane damage. The observations noted in our study substantiated the association of ROS and membrane damage in the antibacterial action of silver nanoparticles. The promising antibacterial activity enables these nanoparticles as potential bactericidal material for various environmental and biomedical applications.

  9. Bias Voltage-Dependent Impedance Spectroscopy Analysis of Hydrothermally Synthesized ZnS Nanoparticles

    Dey, Arka; Dhar, Joydeep; Sil, Sayantan; Jana, Rajkumar; Ray, Partha Pratim

    2018-04-01

    In this report, bias voltage-dependent dielectric and electron transport properties of ZnS nanoparticles were discussed. ZnS nanoparticles were synthesized by introducing a modified hydrothermal process. The powder XRD pattern indicates the phase purity, and field emission scanning electron microscope image demonstrates the morphology of the synthesized sample. The optical band gap energy (E g = 4.2 eV) from UV measurement explores semiconductor behavior of the synthesized material. The electrical properties were performed at room temperature using complex impedance spectroscopy (CIS) technique as a function of frequency (40 Hz-10 MHz) under different forward dc bias voltages (0-1 V). The CIS analysis demonstrates the contribution of bulk resistance in conduction mechanism and its dependency on forward dc bias voltages. The imaginary part of the impedance versus frequency curve exhibits the existence of relaxation peak which shifts with increasing dc forward bias voltages. The dc bias voltage-dependent ac and dc conductivity of the synthesized ZnS was studied on thin film structure. A possible hopping mechanism for electrical transport processes in the system was investigated. Finally, it is worth to mention that this analysis of bias voltage-dependent dielectric and transport properties of as-synthesized ZnS showed excellent properties for emerging energy applications.

  10. Optical Properties and Microstructure of Silver-Copper Nanoparticles Synthesized by Pulsed Laser Deposition

    Hirai, Makoto; Kumar, Ashok

    2007-12-01

    Utilizing a pulsed laser deposition (PLD) method, silver-copper (Ag-Cu) nanoparticles have been synthesized by changing the surface area ratio of the target ( S R = S Cu/( S Ag + S Cu)) from 0 to 30%. The peak absorption attributed to surface plasmon resonance (SPR) increased when increasing S R up to 15%, above which it decreased. The peak shifts seem to be induced by the changes in the conductivity and morphology of the Ag-Cu nanoparticles. Additionally, the interplanar spacings of the Ag-Cu nanoparticles prepared at S R = 15% corresponded to the Ag {111}, {200}, {220}, and Cu {111} planes. However, since the interplanar spacings attributed to the Cu {200} and {220} planes were not detected, the Ag-Cu nanoparticles were believed to possess a lattice constant ( a) close not to the Cu phase ( a = 3.615 Å) but to the Ag phase ( a = 4.086 Å). Moreover, confirming the presence of Cu atoms in the nanoparticles using energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) spectra, Ag-Cu nanoparticles may be a solid solution in which Cu atoms partially replace Ag atoms in the fcc structure.

  11. Sonochemically synthesized MnO2 nanoparticles as electrode material for supercapacitors.

    Gnana Sundara Raj, Balasubramaniam; Asiri, Abdullah M; Qusti, Abdullah H; Wu, Jerry J; Anandan, Sambandam

    2014-11-01

    In this study, manganese oxide (MnO2) nanoparticles were synthesized by sonochemical reduction of KMnO4 using polyethylene glycol (PEG) as a reducing agent as well as structure directing agent under room temperature in short duration of time and characterized by powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), Scanning electron microscope (SEM), Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) analysis. A supercapacitor device constructed using the ultrasonically-synthesized MnO2 nanoparticles showed maximum specific capacitance (SC) of 282Fg(-1) in the presence of 1M Ca(NO3)2 as an electrolyte at a current density of 0.5mAcm(-2) in the potential range from 0.0 to 1.0V and about 78% of specific capacitance was retained even after 1000 cycles indicating its high electrochemical stability. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Kinetics of oxygen adsorption on ZnS nanoparticles synthesized by precipitation process

    Ahmadi Reza

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available ZnS nanoparticles were synthesized through a one-step precipitation process. Effect of time and temperature on the formation reaction was investigated. The synthesized samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD, ultraviolet (UV visible absorption and photoluminescence (PL spectrophotometry. Based on XRD and UV-Vis data, the particles produced at 70 °C had a mean particle size of about 5 nm. Increasing time and temperature of the synthesis reaction resulted in photoluminescence intensification. PL spectroscopy helped understanding the adsorption kinetics of oxygen on ZnS nanoparticles during the precipitation synthesis process. Fabrication of ZnS structures with appropriate oxygen adsorption capacity was suggested as a means of PL emission intensity control.

  13. Purification of simulated waste water using green synthesized silver nanoparticles of Piliostigma thonningii aqueous leave extract

    Shittu, K. O.; Ihebunna, O.

    2017-12-01

    Synthesis of nanoparticles from various biological systems has been reported, but among all such systems, biosynthesis of nanoparticles from plants is considered the most suitable method. The use of plant material not only makes the process eco-friendly, but also the abundance makes it more economical. The aim of this study was to biologically synthesize silver nanoparticle using Piliostigma thonningii aqueous leaf extract and applied in the purification of laboratory stimulated waste with optimization using the different conditions of silver nanoparticle production such as time, temperature, pH, concentration of silver nitrate and volume of the aqueous extract. The biosynthesized silver nanoparticles were characterized by UV-visible spectrophotometry, nanosizer, energy dispersive x-ray analysis (EDX), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. The time intervals for the reaction with aqueous silver nitrate solution shows an increase in the absorbance with time and became constant giving a maximum absorbance at 415 nm at 60 min of incubation. The pH of 6.5, temperature 65 °C, 1.25 mM of silver nitrate and 5 ml of plant extract was the best condition with maximum absorbance. The results from nanosizer, UV-vis and TEM suggested the biosynthesis silver nanoparticle to be spherical ranging from 50 nm to 114 nm. The EDX confirmed the elemental synthesis of silver at 2.60 keV and FTIR suggested the capping agent to be hydroxyl (OH) group with -C=C stretching vibrations. The synthesized silver nanoparticle also shows heavy metal removal activity in laboratory simulated waste water. The safety toxicity studies show no significant difference between the orally administered silver nanoparticles treated water group and control group, while the histopathological studies show well preserved hepatic architecture for the orally administered silver nanoparticle treated waste water group when compared with the control

  14. Green synthesis and antimicrobial activity of monodisperse silver nanoparticles synthesized using Ginkgo Biloba leaf extract

    Ren, Yan-yu [School of Food and Biological Engineering, Shaanxi University of Science & Technology, Xi' an 710021 (China); Yang, Hui, E-mail: 549456369@qq.com [School of Food and Biological Engineering, Shaanxi University of Science & Technology, Xi' an 710021 (China); Wang, Tao [School of Food and Biological Engineering, Shaanxi University of Science & Technology, Xi' an 710021 (China); Wang, Chuang [Department of Highway & Bridge, Shaanxi Railway Institute, Weinan 714000 (China)

    2016-11-25

    Various parts of plants can be used as a raw material for the synthesis of nanoparticles, which is eco-friendly way and does not involve any harmful chemicals. In this project, Ginkgo biloba leaf, an abundantly available medicinal plant in China, was for the first time adopted as a reducing and stabilizing agent to synthesize smaller sized and stable silver nanoparticles (AgNPs). To improve the quality of AgNPs, the reduction was accelerated by changing the concentrations of initial Ag{sup +} (0.02, 0.04, 0.06 and 0.08 mol/L) of the reaction mixture consisting of silver nitrate solution (AgNO{sub 3}) and Ginkgo biloba leaf extract. At pH = 8 and lower AgNO{sub 3} concentration (0.02 mol/L), a colloid consisting of well-dispersed spherical nanoparticles was obtained. The synthesized nanocrystals were successfully characterized by UV–vis and XRD. TEM images revealed the size of the spherical AgNPs ranged between 10–16 nm. FTIR analysis revealed that biological macromolecules with groups of −NH{sub 2}, −OH, and others were distributed on the surface of the nanoparticles. The biosynthesized AgNPs exhibited good antibacterial activities against gram-negative bacteria and gram-positive bacteria. Compared to traditional chemical methods, Ginkgo biloba leaf extract provides an easy green synthetical way. It is anticipated that the biosynthesized AgNPs can be used in areas such as cosmetics, foods and medical applications. - Highlights: • Monodisperse silver nanoparticles were first prepared by a green synthetical way through Ginkgo Biloba leaf extract. • The synthesized AgNPs is of high crystallinity, stable and good dispersion with smaller sizes between 10–16 nm. • The achieved AgNPs exhibits good antibacterial activities. • The biosynthesis method is advantageous for its cost effectiveness, availability, portability, nontoxic and environmentally benign.

  15. Green synthesis and antimicrobial activity of monodisperse silver nanoparticles synthesized using Ginkgo Biloba leaf extract

    Ren, Yan-yu; Yang, Hui; Wang, Tao; Wang, Chuang

    2016-01-01

    Various parts of plants can be used as a raw material for the synthesis of nanoparticles, which is eco-friendly way and does not involve any harmful chemicals. In this project, Ginkgo biloba leaf, an abundantly available medicinal plant in China, was for the first time adopted as a reducing and stabilizing agent to synthesize smaller sized and stable silver nanoparticles (AgNPs). To improve the quality of AgNPs, the reduction was accelerated by changing the concentrations of initial Ag + (0.02, 0.04, 0.06 and 0.08 mol/L) of the reaction mixture consisting of silver nitrate solution (AgNO 3 ) and Ginkgo biloba leaf extract. At pH = 8 and lower AgNO 3 concentration (0.02 mol/L), a colloid consisting of well-dispersed spherical nanoparticles was obtained. The synthesized nanocrystals were successfully characterized by UV–vis and XRD. TEM images revealed the size of the spherical AgNPs ranged between 10–16 nm. FTIR analysis revealed that biological macromolecules with groups of −NH 2 , −OH, and others were distributed on the surface of the nanoparticles. The biosynthesized AgNPs exhibited good antibacterial activities against gram-negative bacteria and gram-positive bacteria. Compared to traditional chemical methods, Ginkgo biloba leaf extract provides an easy green synthetical way. It is anticipated that the biosynthesized AgNPs can be used in areas such as cosmetics, foods and medical applications. - Highlights: • Monodisperse silver nanoparticles were first prepared by a green synthetical way through Ginkgo Biloba leaf extract. • The synthesized AgNPs is of high crystallinity, stable and good dispersion with smaller sizes between 10–16 nm. • The achieved AgNPs exhibits good antibacterial activities. • The biosynthesis method is advantageous for its cost effectiveness, availability, portability, nontoxic and environmentally benign.

  16. A sol-gel method to synthesize indium tin oxide nanoparticles

    Xiuhua Li; Xiujuan xu; Xin Yin; Chunzhong Li; Jianrong Zhang

    2011-01-01

    Transparent conductive indium tin oxide (ITO) nanoparticles were synthesized by a novel sol-gel method.Granulated indium and tin were dissolved in HNO3 and partially complexed with citric acid.A sol-gel process was induced when tertiary butyl alcohol was added dropwise to the above solution.ITO nanoparticles with an average crystallite size of 18.5 nm and surface area of 32.6 m2/g were obtained after the gel was heat-treated at 700 C.The ITO nanoparticles showed good sinterability,the starting sintering temperature decreased sharply to 900 C,and the 1400 C sintered pellet had a density of 98.1 % of theoretical density (TD).

  17. Magnetorheology of colloidal dispersion containing Fe nanoparticles synthesized by the arc-plasma method

    Noma, Junichi; Abe, Hiroya; Kikuchi, Takehito; Furusho, Junji; Naito, Makio

    2010-01-01

    Spherical crystalline Fe nanoparticles, ∼100 nm in diameter, were synthesized under Ar-50% H 2 arc-plasma. These nanoparticles were dispersed in silicone oil after silane treatment on as-grown thin oxide layer (∼2 nm) to make their surfaces hydrophobic. The resulting Fe nanoparticles exhibited a high saturation magnetization of ∼190 emu/g at room temperature. The static magnetorheological behavior was measured for the colloidal dispersion (solid concentration: 15 vol%) at room temperature under magnetic flux densities of 0-0.3 T, using a parallel-plate-type commercial rheometer. The yield stress continuously increased with magnetic flux density, demonstrating the Bingham plastic behavior. Moreover, subjecting the sample to a magnetic flux density of 0.3 T increased the yield stress by ∼10 2 . Additionally, the colloidal dispersion exhibited good stability against sedimentation.

  18. Magnetorheology of colloidal dispersion containing Fe nanoparticles synthesized by the arc-plasma method

    Noma, Junichi; Abe, Hiroya; Kikuchi, Takehito; Furusho, Junji; Naito, Makio

    2010-07-01

    Spherical crystalline Fe nanoparticles, ˜100 nm in diameter, were synthesized under Ar-50% H 2 arc-plasma. These nanoparticles were dispersed in silicone oil after silane treatment on as-grown thin oxide layer (˜2 nm) to make their surfaces hydrophobic. The resulting Fe nanoparticles exhibited a high saturation magnetization of ˜190 emu/g at room temperature. The static magnetorheological behavior was measured for the colloidal dispersion (solid concentration: 15 vol%) at room temperature under magnetic flux densities of 0-0.3 T, using a parallel-plate-type commercial rheometer. The yield stress continuously increased with magnetic flux density, demonstrating the Bingham plastic behavior. Moreover, subjecting the sample to a magnetic flux density of 0.3 T increased the yield stress by ˜10 2. Additionally, the colloidal dispersion exhibited good stability against sedimentation.

  19. Synthesizing Zno Nanoparticles by High-Energy Milling and Investigating Their Antimicrobial Effect

    N Mohammadi

    2015-07-01

    Results: The study results demonstrated that size of the synthesized nanoparticles was within the range of 20 -90 nm and their morphology was reported as nanorod and nanoparticles with multifaceted cross-section. An increase in the density of nanoparticles resulted in a rise in the antimicrobial effect. Moreover, Staphylococcus aureus bacteria inhibition zone was 3±0.5 and 7±0.5 mm respectively at the density of 6 and 10 mM. The MIC and MBC of ZnO nanoparticles provided for Staphylococcus aureus were observed 3±3 and 2.5±0 mg/ml, whereas they were reported 7.5±0 and 8±0 mg/ml for Escherichia coli bacteria. Conclusion: The findings of the present study revealed that ZnO nanomaterials could be synthesized by applying high-energy milling on micron-scaled ZnO particles. In addition, they can be utilized in food packaging and preservation process.

  20. Surface functionalization of microwave plasma-synthesized silica nanoparticles for enhancing the stability of dispersions

    Sehlleier, Yee Hwa; Abdali, Ali; Schnurre, Sophie Marie; Wiggers, Hartmut; Schulz, Christof

    2014-08-01

    Gas phase-synthesized silica nanoparticles were functionalized with three different silane coupling agents (SCAs) including amine, amine/phosphonate and octyltriethoxy functional groups and the stability of dispersions in polar and non-polar dispersing media such as water, ethanol, methanol, chloroform, benzene, and toluene was studied. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy showed that all three SCAs are chemically attached to the surface of silica nanoparticles. Amine-functionalized particles using steric dispersion stabilization alone showed limited stability. Thus, an additional SCA with sufficiently long hydrocarbon chains and strong positively charged phosphonate groups was introduced in order to achieve electrosteric stabilization. Steric stabilization was successful with hydrophobic octyltriethoxy-functionalized silica nanoparticles in non-polar solvents. The results from dynamic light scattering measurements showed that in dispersions of amine/phosphonate- and octyltriethoxy-functionalized silica particles are dispersed on a primary particle level. Stable dispersions were successfully prepared from initially agglomerated nanoparticles synthesized in a microwave plasma reactor by designing the surface functionalization.

  1. Luminescent and photocatalytic properties of cadmium sulfide nanoparticles synthesized via microwave irradiation

    Yang Huaming; Huang Chenghuan; Li Xianwei; Shi Rongrong; Zhang Ke

    2005-01-01

    Uniform cadmium sulfide (CdS) nanoparticles of about 6 nm in crystal size have been successfully synthesized via microwave irradiation. The as-prepared sample has a uniform morphology and high purity. The red photoluminescence spectrum of the CdS nanoparticles displays a strong peak at 602 nm by using a 300 nm excitation wavelength. The photocatalytic oxidation of methyl orange (MeO) in CdS suspensions under ultraviolet illumination was investigated. The results indicate that a low pH value (pH 2.0) and low reaction temperatures (20-30 deg. C) will facilitate the decolorization of the MeO solution. The photodegradation degree decreases with increasing the pH value and temperature of solution. The efficiency of the recycled CdS semiconductor becomes lower due to the deposit of elemental Cd on the CdS surface, which weakens the photocatalytic activity. The luminescent and photocatalytic mechanisms of the as-prepared CdS nanoparticles were primarily discussed. Microwave irradiation is proved to be a convenient, efficient and environmental-friendly one-step route to synthesize nanoparticles

  2. Size-tunable silver nanoparticles synthesized by using aminopolycarboxylic acids at ambient-temperature

    Malkar, Vishwabharati V.; Chadha, R.; Biswas, N.; Mukherjee, T.; Kapoor, S.

    2009-01-01

    Full text: Stable aqueous sols of silver nanoparticles are prepared by using various aminopolycarboxylic acids as stabilizing agents at ambient temperature. The precursor silver perchlorate is reduced using γ radiations. Interestingly, it was observed that size of silver nanoparticles obtained could be tuned using various aminopolycarboxylic acids of varying carboxylic acid groups The silver sols synthesized by this method were stable for months and particles obtained were monodisperse in almost all cases. Particle formation was observed at equimolar concentration of silver and aminopolycarboxylic acids. The stabilization of particles even in the absence of any polymer indicates that the adsorption of aminopolycarboxylic acids on silver particle is a spontaneous process. The adsorbed aminopolycarboxylic acids can saturate the residual valence force of the silver atom on the particle surface by coordinating with unoccupied orbital. Adsorption of aminopolycarboxylic acids does not lead to any change in surface plasmon band of silver nanoparticles; this indicates that anions in the double layer on the colloidal particle have different chemical properties from the free anions. Synthesized silver nanoparticles were characterized by UV-visible spectrophotometer, X-ray Diffraction, Dynamic Light Scattering and Transmission Electron Microscope

  3. Fine tuning of size and morphology of magnetite nanoparticles synthesized by microemulsion

    Singh, Pinki; Upadhyay, Chandan

    2018-05-01

    The synthesis parameters crucially affect the physical and chemical parameters of nanoparticles. Magnetite (Fe3O4) nanoparticles were synthesized using microemulsion method. This method does not require high temperature synthesis, nitrogen environment and/or pH regulation during synthesis process. We are presenting here a systematic study on role of different associated parameters of microemulsion synthesis method on the formation of Fe3O4 nanoparticles. From X-ray Diffraction and Transmission Electron Micoscopy data analysis the size of synthesized particles were observed to be <10 nm. The critical concentration of ferrous-ferric solution to obtain particles in single phase has been found to be ≤0.09 M and ≤0.184 M, respectively. The variation of molar concentration (0.01 M ≤x≤ 0.1 M) of CTAB leads to formation of Fe3O4 nano-scale particles of distinct morphologies e.g. nano-cubes, pentagons and spheres. The number of ferrous and ferric ions involved in the formation decides the size of the nanoparticles. The single crystallographic phase is obtained in reaction temperature range of 65° C

  4. Green synthesis and antimicrobial activity of monodisperse silver nanoparticles synthesized using Ginkgo Biloba leaf extract

    Ren, Yan-yu; Yang, Hui; Wang, Tao; Wang, Chuang

    2016-11-01

    Various parts of plants can be used as a raw material for the synthesis of nanoparticles, which is eco-friendly way and does not involve any harmful chemicals. In this project, Ginkgo biloba leaf, an abundantly available medicinal plant in China, was for the first time adopted as a reducing and stabilizing agent to synthesize smaller sized and stable silver nanoparticles (AgNPs). To improve the quality of AgNPs, the reduction was accelerated by changing the concentrations of initial Ag+ (0.02, 0.04, 0.06 and 0.08 mol/L) of the reaction mixture consisting of silver nitrate solution (AgNO3) and Ginkgo biloba leaf extract. At pH = 8 and lower AgNO3 concentration (0.02 mol/L), a colloid consisting of well-dispersed spherical nanoparticles was obtained. The synthesized nanocrystals were successfully characterized by UV-vis and XRD. TEM images revealed the size of the spherical AgNPs ranged between 10-16 nm. FTIR analysis revealed that biological macromolecules with groups of sbnd NH2, sbnd OH, and others were distributed on the surface of the nanoparticles. The biosynthesized AgNPs exhibited good antibacterial activities against gram-negative bacteria and gram-positive bacteria. Compared to traditional chemical methods, Ginkgo biloba leaf extract provides an easy green synthetical way. It is anticipated that the biosynthesized AgNPs can be used in areas such as cosmetics, foods and medical applications.

  5. Asymmetric dumbbell-shaped silver nanoparticles and spherical gold nanoparticles green-synthesized by mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana pericarp waste extracts

    Park JS

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Ji Su Park, Eun-Young Ahn, Youmie Park College of Pharmacy, Inje Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Research, Inje University, Gimhae, Gyeongnam, Republic of Korea Abstract: Mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana pericarp waste extract was used to synthesize gold and silver nanoparticles by a green strategy. The extract was both a reducing and stabilizing agent during synthesis. Phytochemical screening of the extract was conducted to obtain information regarding the presence/absence of primary and secondary metabolites in the extract. The in vitro antioxidant activity results demonstrated that the extract had excellent antioxidant activity, which was comparable to a standard (butylated hydroxy toluene. Spherical gold nanoparticles (gold nanoparticles green synthesized by mangosteen pericarp extract [GM-AuNPs] with an average size of 15.37±3.99 to 44.20±16.99 nm were observed in high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HR-TEM images. Most interestingly, the silver nanoparticles (silver nanoparticles green synthesized by mangosteen pericarp extract [GM-AgNPs] had asymmetric nanodumbbell shapes where one tail grew from a spherical head. The average head size was measured to be 13.65±5.07 to 31.08±3.99 nm from HR-TEM images. The hydrodynamic size of both nanoparticles tended to increase with increasing extract concentration. Large negative zeta potentials (–18.92 to –34.77 mV suggested that each nanoparticle solution possessed excellent colloidal stability. The reaction yields were 99.7% for GM-AuNPs and 82.8% for GM-AgNPs, which were assessed by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy. A high-resolution X-ray diffraction pattern confirmed the face-centered cubic structure of both nanoparticles. Based on phytochemical screening and Fourier transform infrared spectra, the hydroxyl functional groups of carbohydrates, flavonoids, glycosides, and phenolic compounds were most likely involved in a reduction reaction of

  6. Characteristics of ceramic oxide nanoparticles synthesized using radio frequency produced thermal plasma

    Dhamale, Gayatri D.; Mathe, V.L.; Bhoraskar, S.V.; Ghorui, S.

    2015-01-01

    Thermal plasma devices with their unique processing capabilities due to extremely high temperature and steep temperature gradient play an important role in synthesis of ultrafine powders in the range of 100nm or less. High temperature gas phase synthesis in Radio Frequency (RF) thermal plasma reactor is an attractive route for mass production of refractory nanoparticles, especially in the case of rare earth oxides. Here we report synthesis of Yttrium Oxide (Y_2O_3), Neodymium Oxide (Nd_2O_3) and Aluminum Oxide (Al_2O_3) in an inductively coupled radio frequency thermal plasma reactor. Synthesized nanoparticles find wide application in various fields like gate dielectrics, photocatalytic applications, laser devices and photonics. Nano sized Yttrium oxide, Neodymium Oxide and Aluminum oxide powders were separately synthesized in an RF plasma reactor starting with micron sized irregular shaped precursor powders. The system was operated at 3MHz in atmospheric pressure at different power levels. Synthesized powders were scrapped out from different deposition locations inside the reactor and characterized for their phase, morphology, particle size, crystallinity and other characteristic features. Highly crystalline nature of the synthesized particles, narrow size distribution, location dependent phase formation, and distinct variation in the inherent defect states compared to the bulk are some of the important characteristic features observed

  7. Enhanced antibacterial activity of zinc oxide nanoparticles synthesized using Petroselinum crispum extracts

    Stan, Manuela, E-mail: manuela.stan@itim-cj.ro; Popa, Adriana; Toloman, Dana; Silipas, Teofil-Danut [National Institute for Research and Development of Isotopic and Molecular Technologies, 67-103 Donat, 400293 Cluj-Napoca (Romania); Vodnar, Dan Cristian [University of Agricultural Sciences and Veterinary Medicine, Department of Food Science and Technology, 3-5 Manastur Street, 400372 Cluj-Napoca (Romania); Katona, Gabriel [Babes-Bolyai University, Faculty of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, 11 Arany Janos Street, 400028 Cluj-Napoca (Romania)

    2015-12-23

    The present contribution reports the synthesis of zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs) using aqueous leaf and root extracts of Petroselinum crispum (parsley) and characterization of as-prepared samples. ZnO NPs are subjected to X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) studies. The XRD studies reveal a hexagonal wurtzite structure without supplementary diffraction lines for all ZnO samples. TEM analysis shows that the particle size is influenced by the type of plant extract. The EPR spectra indicate the presence of Mn{sup 2+} ions in ZnO sample synthesized using P. crispum leaf extract, while zinc vacancy complexes and oxygen vacancies are evidenced in all analyzed samples. ZnO NPs synthesized using P. crispum extracts exhibit increased (2-16 times) antibacterial activity as compared to chemically synthesized ZnO NPs.

  8. Enhanced antibacterial activity of zinc oxide nanoparticles synthesized using Petroselinum crispum extracts

    Stan, Manuela; Popa, Adriana; Toloman, Dana; Silipas, Teofil-Danut; Vodnar, Dan Cristian; Katona, Gabriel

    2015-01-01

    The present contribution reports the synthesis of zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs) using aqueous leaf and root extracts of Petroselinum crispum (parsley) and characterization of as-prepared samples. ZnO NPs are subjected to X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) studies. The XRD studies reveal a hexagonal wurtzite structure without supplementary diffraction lines for all ZnO samples. TEM analysis shows that the particle size is influenced by the type of plant extract. The EPR spectra indicate the presence of Mn 2+ ions in ZnO sample synthesized using P. crispum leaf extract, while zinc vacancy complexes and oxygen vacancies are evidenced in all analyzed samples. ZnO NPs synthesized using P. crispum extracts exhibit increased (2-16 times) antibacterial activity as compared to chemically synthesized ZnO NPs

  9. Antibacterial Activity of Silver Nanoparticles Synthesized by Using Extracts of Hedera helix

    Ahmadreza Abbasifar

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs are one of the most widely applicable particles whose application is increasing in Nano world daily. Silver nanoparticles have expressed significant advances owing to wide range of applications in the field of bio-medical, sensors, antimicrobials, catalysts, electronics, optical fibers, agricultural, bio-labeling and the other areas. Green synthesis is the safe and easiest method of producing silver nanoparticles. Because of the production of the silver ions, silver nanoparticles are found to have the antibacterial activity. Objectives The aim of this study was to investigate antibacterial activity of silver nanoparticles synthesized by using extracts of Hedera helix against Bacillus subtilis and Klebsiella pneumoniae. Methods In this experimental study AgNPs were prepared by the reaction of 1mM silver nitrate and extracts of Hedera helix. Antibacterial activity of AgNPs was assessed by using disc diffusion method against Bacillus subtilis and Klebsiella pneumoniae. The AgNPs were characterized by UV-visible (vis spectrophotometer, particle size analyzer by dynamic light scattering (DLS method, transmission electron microscopy (TEM. Results AgNPs obtained showed significantly higher antimicrobial activities against B. subtilis and K. pneumonia in comparison to both AgNO3 and raw plant extracts. Conclusions Biological methods are a good competent for the chemical procedures, which are environment friendly and convenient.

  10. Photochemically synthesized heparin-based silver nanoparticles: an antimicrobial activity study

    Rodriguez-Torres, Maria del Pilar; Acosta-Torres, Laura Susana; Díaz-Torres, Luis Armando

    2017-08-01

    The antimicrobial activity of silver nanoparticles has been extensively studied in the last years. Such nanoparticles constitute a potential and promising approach for the development of new antimicrobial systems especially due to the fact that several microorganisms are developing resistance to some already existing antimicrobial agents, therefore making antibacterial and antimicrobial studies on alternative materials necessary to overcome this issue. Silver nanoparticle concentration and size are determining factors on the antimicrobial activity of these nano systems. Heparin is a polysaccharide that belongs to the glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) family, molecules formed by a base disaccharide whose components are joined by a glycosidic linkage that is a repeating unit along their structure. It is highly sulfated making it a negatively charged material that is also widely used as an anticoagulant in Medicine because its biocompatibility besides it is also produced within the human body, specifically in the mast cells. Heparin alone possesses antimicrobial activity although it has not been studied very much in detail, it only has been demonstrated that it inhibits E. coli, P. aeruginosa, S. aureus and S. epidermidis, so taking this into account, this study is dedicated to assess UV photochemically-synthesized (λ=254 nm) heparin-based silver nanoparticles antimicrobial activity using the agar disk diffusion method complemented by the broth microdilution method to estimate de minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC), that is the lowest concentration at which an antimicrobial will inhibit visible growth of a microorganism. The strains used were the ones aforementioned to assess the antimicrobial activity degree these heparinbased nanoparticles exhibit.

  11. Optical and structure characterization of cinnamon nanoparticles synthesized by pulse laser ablation in liquid (PLAL)

    Aqeel Salim, Ali; Bidin, Noriah; Bakhtiar, Hazri; Krishna Ghoshal, Sib; Azawi, Mohammed Al; Krishnan, Ganesan

    2018-05-01

    Organic nanoparticles development is under exploration due to its beneficial applications in nanobiomedical and research interests. PLAL technique of Q-switched 1064-Nd: YAG (10 ns pulse duration, repetition rate 1 Hz and laser energy 20-100 mJ) has inherent advantages and rapid growth of nanoparticles when compared to conventional methods because of the controlled fabricated nanoparticles, stability, and purity. Cinnamon sticks as a target are immersed in 5 ml ethanol medium and irradiated by a laser beam for the growth process. The morphology, optical characteristic, and bonding structure of cinnamon nanoparticles (CNPs) are determined and evaluated by transmission electron microscope (TEM), UV-Visible spectroscopy and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). Spherical, homogenous and high crystallinity CNPs was revealed within the particle size range of 2 - 28 nm. The absorption band was found in the ultraviolent region around 259 nm and 319 nm. The present of FTIR spectra confirmed that the nanoparticles were covered by plant secondary metabolites. The experimental findings revealed that the synthesize CNPs in ethanol has a potential for nanomedicine applications.

  12. Antibacterial, Antiproliferative, and Immunomodulatory Activity of Silver Nanoparticles Synthesized with Fucans from the Alga Dictyota mertensii

    Marília Medeiros Fernandes-Negreiros

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we aimed to synthesize silver nanoparticles containing fucans from Dictyota mertensii (Martius Kützing using an environmentally friendly method and to characterize their structure as well as antiproliferative, immunomodulatory, and antibacterial effects. Fucan-coated silver nanoparticles (FN were characterized by Fourier-transform infrared analysis, dynamic light scattering, zeta potential, atomic force microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, and inductively coupled plasma emission spectrometry. They were evaluated for their effect on cell viability, minimum inhibitory bactericidal concentration, and release of nitric oxide and cytokines. The FN were successfully synthesized using an environmentally friendly method. They were size-stable for 16 months, of a spherical shape, negative charge (−19.1 mV, and an average size of 103.3 ± 43 nm. They were able to inhibit the proliferation of the melanoma tumor cell line B16F10 (60%. In addition, they had immunomodulatory properties: they caused an up to 7000-fold increase in the release of nitric oxide and cytokines (IL-10; IL-6 and TNF-α up to 7000 times. In addition, the FN showed inhibitory effect on Gram-positive and -negative bacteria, with MIC values of 50 µg/mL. Overall, the data showed that FN are nanoparticles with the potential to be used as antitumor, immunomodulatory, and antibacterial agents.

  13. Sonochemically synthesized Ag nanoparticles as a SERS active substrate and effect of surfactant

    Dar, Nitzan, E-mail: n58987012@mail.ncku.edu.tw [Department of Material Science and Engineering, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan 70101 Taiwan (China); Chen, Kuang-Yu [Department of Material Science and Engineering, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan 70101 Taiwan (China); Nien, Yung-Tang, E-mail: ytnien@nfu.edu.tw [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National Formosa University, Huwei, Yunlin 63201, Taiwan (China); Perkas, Nina [Institute of nanotechnology and advanced materials, Department of Chemistry, Bar-Ilan University, Ramat-Gan 5290002 (Israel); Gedanken, Aharon, E-mail: Aharon.Gedanken@biu.ac.il [Institute of nanotechnology and advanced materials, Department of Chemistry, Bar-Ilan University, Ramat-Gan 5290002 (Israel); Chen, In-Gann, E-mail: ingann@mail.ncku.edu.tw [Department of Material Science and Engineering, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan 70101 Taiwan (China)

    2015-03-15

    Highlights: • Solid state Ag SERS active substrates were sonochemically synthesized. • High intensity SERS spectra of both crystal violet and rhodamine 6G were observed. • We discovered that PVP aided synthesized substrates showed higher SERS intensity. - Abstract: Surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) enables the detection of substances at low concentrations using silver or gold nanostructure. The SERS technique has many applications, such as environmental detection and biosensing. Sonochemistry is an excellent and cheap deposition technique for coating substrates in a form of nanostructure at ambient temperature. It can also be utilized to prepare large SERS substrates. Here, we used the advantages of sonochemistry to deposit solid SERS substrates immobilized on GaN nanostructure. Morphology was studied by scanning electron microscopy. The elemental composition and the spatial distribution were examined by energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. The crystal structure and atomic presence was confirmed by X-ray diffraction. SERS substrates were examined with the analytes crystal violet (10{sup −5} M) and rhodamine 6G (10{sup −6} M), they showed prominent characteristic peaks. We discovered that the SERS intensity of poly-vinyl-pyrrolidinone aided sonochemical deposition of Ag nanoparticles was increased. The reason for the effect is morphological changes of the Ag nanoparticles. Smaller nanoparticles were fabricated, which increase their SERS intensity.

  14. Green synthesis, characterization and antibacterial efficacy of palladium nanoparticles synthesized using Filicium decipiens leaf extract

    Sharmila, G.; Farzana Fathima, M.; Haries, S.; Geetha, S.; Manoj Kumar, N.; Muthukumaran, C.

    2017-06-01

    Synthesis of metal nanoparticles through green chemistry route is an emerging eco-friendly approach in the present days. An eco-friendly, biogenic synthesis of palladium nanoparticles (PdNPs) using Filicium decipiens leaf extract was reported in the present study. The synthesized PdNPs were characterized by UV-visible spectroscopy, Transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The PdNPs formation was confirmed by UV-visible spectrophotometer and spherical shaped PdNPs with size range of 2-22 nm was observed in TEM analysis. Energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) analysis confirmed the presence of palladium in the synthesized nanoparticles. The crystalline nature of PdNPs was confirmed by XRD pattern and compared with the standard. The phytochemicals and proteins were identified by their functional groups in FT-IR spectrum and revealed the amide, amine groups present in F. decipiens may have involved in the bio-reduction reaction for PdNPs synthesis. Prepared PdNPs showed potential antibacterial activity against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. F. decipiens leaf extract based PdNPs showed high bactericidal activity against Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa as compared to Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus subtilis Results showed that phytochemicals rich F. decipiens leaf extract may be utilized as an effective non-toxic reducing agent for PdNPs synthesis and prepared PdNPs may useful in biomedical applications.

  15. Studies on magnetic properties of chemically synthesized crystalline calcium ferrite nanoparticles

    Debnath, A., E-mail: debnathanimesh@gmail.com [Department of Civil Engineering, National Institute of Technology Agartala, Jirania, West Tripura, 799046 India (India); Bera, A.; Saha, B. [Department of Physics, National Institute of Technology Agartala, Jirania, West Tripura 799046 (India); Chattopadhyay, K. K. [Department of Physics, Jadavpur University, Kolkata 700 032 (India)

    2016-05-23

    Spinel-type ferrites have taken a very important role for modern electronic industry. Most of these ferrites exhibit low-loss dielectric properties, high resistivity, low eddy current and also high temperature ferromagnetism. Calcium ferrite is one such important metal oxide which is environmentally safe, chemically stable, low cost and greatly abundant. This outstanding material of calcium ferrite is synthesized by a simple chemical precipitation method using NaOH as the precipitating agent. Ferric chloride anhydrous (FeCl{sub 3}) and Calcium chloride dihydrate (CaCl{sub 2}.2H{sub 2}O) were used as iron and calcium sources respectively. The samples were heated at 200°C for 8h to obtain homogeneous powder of Calcium ferrite. The powders were characterized by using X-ray diffraction (XRD), field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM), Transmission electrical microscopy (TEM), and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopic (FTIR) measurements. The polycrystalline nature of the sample was confirmed by X-ray diffraction study. The magnetic properties of the sample were investigated by vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM) measurements. Magnetization curve of the prepared sample depicts that as synthesized calcium ferrite nanoparticles have saturation magnetic moment of 1.74 emu/g and the coercivity of 35.08 Oe with superparamagnetic behavior. The synthesized calcium ferrite nanoparticles with such magnetic properties will be a candidate material for different applications in electronics and exploring its functionality in the field of recently developing semiconductor device physics and spintronics.

  16. Studies on magnetic properties of chemically synthesized crystalline calcium ferrite nanoparticles

    Debnath, A.; Bera, A.; Saha, B.; Chattopadhyay, K. K.

    2016-01-01

    Spinel-type ferrites have taken a very important role for modern electronic industry. Most of these ferrites exhibit low-loss dielectric properties, high resistivity, low eddy current and also high temperature ferromagnetism. Calcium ferrite is one such important metal oxide which is environmentally safe, chemically stable, low cost and greatly abundant. This outstanding material of calcium ferrite is synthesized by a simple chemical precipitation method using NaOH as the precipitating agent. Ferric chloride anhydrous (FeCl_3) and Calcium chloride dihydrate (CaCl_2.2H_2O) were used as iron and calcium sources respectively. The samples were heated at 200°C for 8h to obtain homogeneous powder of Calcium ferrite. The powders were characterized by using X-ray diffraction (XRD), field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM), Transmission electrical microscopy (TEM), and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopic (FTIR) measurements. The polycrystalline nature of the sample was confirmed by X-ray diffraction study. The magnetic properties of the sample were investigated by vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM) measurements. Magnetization curve of the prepared sample depicts that as synthesized calcium ferrite nanoparticles have saturation magnetic moment of 1.74 emu/g and the coercivity of 35.08 Oe with superparamagnetic behavior. The synthesized calcium ferrite nanoparticles with such magnetic properties will be a candidate material for different applications in electronics and exploring its functionality in the field of recently developing semiconductor device physics and spintronics.

  17. Green synthesized zinc oxide nanoparticles as a therapeutic tool to combat candidiasis

    Rathod, Tejas; Padalia, Hemali; Chanda, Sumitra

    2017-05-01

    Advancement of modern medicine, the increasing ratio of immunocompromised and immunosuppressive individuals is increased in hospitalized with serious underlying disease. This has resulted in a rise in the incidence of fungal infections, especially those due to Candida species. For many years the conventional antibiotic therapy has been critical in the fight against Candidiasis. Candidiasis is a fungal infection due to various types of Candida (yeast) species. In this study, zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnONPs) were synthesized using the Cinnamomum verum bark plus Cassia auriculata leaf powder extracts. The characterization of synthesized ZnONPs was done by UV-Vis spectrophotometer and SEM analysis. The average size of nanoparticles was 77 nm. Synergistic anticandidal activity of ZnONPs (ZnONPs plus antibiotics) was determined by disc diffusion method against 16 multidrug resistant clinical pathogens of Candida species. Antibiotic Ketoconazole plus ZnONPs showed best synergistic anticandidal activity against all the 16 isolates. Green synthesized ZnONPs appears to be a new promising approach to fight against Candidiasis.

  18. Gd doping induced weak ferromagnetic ordering in ZnS nanoparticles synthesized by low temperature co-precipitation technique

    Kaur, Palvinder [Department of Physics, Punjabi University, Patiala, Punjab, 147002 (India); Kumar, Sanjeev, E-mail: sanjeev04101977@gmail.com [Applied Science Department, PEC University of Technology, Chandigarh, 160012 (India); Chen, Chi-Liang, E-mail: chen.cl@nsrrc.org.tw [National Synchrotron Radiation Research Center (NSRRC), Hsinchu, 30076, Taiwan (China); Yang, Kai-Siang [National Synchrotron Radiation Research Center (NSRRC), Hsinchu, 30076, Taiwan (China); Department of Mechanical Engineering, National Taipei University of Technology, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Wei, Da-Hua [Department of Mechanical Engineering, National Taipei University of Technology, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Dong, Chung-Li [Department of Physics, Tamkang University, Tamsui, Taiwan (China); Srivastava, C. [Materials Engineering Department, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore, 560012 (India); Rao, S.M. [Department of Physics, Punjabi University, Patiala, Punjab, 147002 (India); Institute of Physics, Academia Sinica, Taipei, 11529, Taiwan (China)

    2017-01-15

    Zn{sub 1−x}Gd{sub x}S nanoparticles with Gd concentration x = 0.00, 0.02 and 0.04 were synthesized by the chemical co-precipitation technique using thioglycerol as capping agent. X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy, X-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) and vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM) were employed to characterize the as synthesized Gd doped ZnS nanoparticles. XRD and TEM studies show the formation of cubic ZnS nanoparticles with an average size in the range 5–10 nm. The doping did not alter the phase of the ZnS. The PL spectra of doped ZnS nanoparticles showed the presence of sulphur vacancies in the lattice. XANES of Gd doped ZnS nanoparticles depicts spectral changes may arise from charge transfer between host Zn and dopant Gd ions. A VSM study shows that the weak ferromagnetic behaviour increases with increase in Gd doping ZnS nanoparticles. - Highlights: • Gd doped ZnS nanoparticles synthesized using co-precipitation technique. • PL studies depict sulphur and zinc vacancies in Gd doped ZnS nanoparticles. • XANES studies depict the charge transfer between host Zn and dopant Gd ions. • Room temperature weak ferromagnetism is observed in Gd doped ZnS nanoparticles.

  19. Study of photocatalytic activities of Bi2WO6 nanoparticles synthesized by fast microwave-assisted method

    Phu, Nguyen Dang; Hoang, Luc Huy; Chen, Xiang-Bai; Kong, Meng-Hong; Wen, Hua-Chiang; Chou, Wu Ching

    2015-01-01

    We present a study of photocatalytic activities of Bi 2 WO 6 nanoparticles synthesized by fast microwave-assisted method. The photocatalytic activities of the nanoparticles were evaluated by the decolorization of methylene-blue under visible-light-irradiation. Our results show that the surface area of Bi 2 WO 6 nanoparticles plays a major role for improving photocatalytic activity, while visible-light absorption has only a weak effect on photocatalytic activity. This suggests efficient transportation of photo-generated electrons and holes to the oxidation active sites on the surface of nanoparticles, indicating Bi 2 WO 6 nanoparticles synthesized by fast microwave-assisted method are promising for achieving high photocatalytic activity under visible-light-irradiation. - Highlights: • The Bi 2 WO 6 nanoparticles were synthesized via fast microwave-assisted method. • The obtained Bi 2 WO 6 nanoparticles exhibited visible-light absorbance. • The surface area of Bi 2 WO 6 nanoparticles plays major role for improving photocatalytic activity. • The Bi 2 WO 6 nanoparticles are promising for achieving high photocatalytic activity under visible-light-irradiation

  20. Gd doping induced weak ferromagnetic ordering in ZnS nanoparticles synthesized by low temperature co-precipitation technique

    Kaur, Palvinder; Kumar, Sanjeev; Chen, Chi-Liang; Yang, Kai-Siang; Wei, Da-Hua; Dong, Chung-Li; Srivastava, C.; Rao, S.M.

    2017-01-01

    Zn_1_−_xGd_xS nanoparticles with Gd concentration x = 0.00, 0.02 and 0.04 were synthesized by the chemical co-precipitation technique using thioglycerol as capping agent. X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy, X-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) and vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM) were employed to characterize the as synthesized Gd doped ZnS nanoparticles. XRD and TEM studies show the formation of cubic ZnS nanoparticles with an average size in the range 5–10 nm. The doping did not alter the phase of the ZnS. The PL spectra of doped ZnS nanoparticles showed the presence of sulphur vacancies in the lattice. XANES of Gd doped ZnS nanoparticles depicts spectral changes may arise from charge transfer between host Zn and dopant Gd ions. A VSM study shows that the weak ferromagnetic behaviour increases with increase in Gd doping ZnS nanoparticles. - Highlights: • Gd doped ZnS nanoparticles synthesized using co-precipitation technique. • PL studies depict sulphur and zinc vacancies in Gd doped ZnS nanoparticles. • XANES studies depict the charge transfer between host Zn and dopant Gd ions. • Room temperature weak ferromagnetism is observed in Gd doped ZnS nanoparticles.

  1. Extensive Characterization of Oxide-Coated Colloidal Gold Nanoparticles Synthesized by Laser Ablation in Liquid

    Romuald Intartaglia

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Colloidal gold nanoparticles are a widespread nanomaterial with many potential applications, but their aggregation in suspension is a critical issue which is usually prevented by organic surfactants. This solution has some drawbacks, such as material contamination and modifications of its functional properties. The gold nanoparticles presented in this work have been synthesized by ultra-fast laser ablation in liquid, which addresses the above issues by overcoating the metal nanoparticles with an oxide layer. The main focus of the work is in the characterization of the oxidized gold nanoparticles, which were made first in solution by means of dynamic light scattering and optical spectroscopy, and then in dried form by transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and finally by surface potential measurements with atomic force microscopy. The light scattering assessed the nanoscale size of the formed particles and provided insight in their stability. The nanoparticles’ size was confirmed by direct imaging in transmission electron microscopy, and their crystalline nature was disclosed by X-ray diffraction. The X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy showed measurements compatible with the presence of surface oxide, which was confirmed by the surface potential measurements, which are the novel point of the present work. In conclusion, the method of laser ablation in liquid for the synthesis of gold nanoparticles has been presented, and the advantage of this physical approach, consisting of coating the nanoparticles in situ with gold oxide which provides the required morphological and chemical stability without organic surfactants, has been confirmed by using scanning Kelvin probe microscopy for the first time.

  2. Photoluminescent characteristics of ion beam synthesized Ge nanoparticles in thermally grown SiO2 films

    Yu, C.F.; Chao, D.S.; Chen, Y.-F.; Liang, J.H.

    2013-01-01

    Prospects of developing into numerous silicon-based optoelectronic applications have prompted many studies on the optical properties of Ge nanoparticles within a silicon oxide (SiO 2 ) matrix. Even with such abundant studies, the fundamental mechanism underlying the Ge nanoparticle-induced photoluminescence (PL) is still an open question. In order to elucidate the mechanism, we dedicate this study to investigating the correlation between the PL properties and microstructure of the Ge nanoparticles synthesized in thermally grown SiO 2 films. Our spectral data show that the peak position, at ∼3.1 eV or 400 nm, of the PL band arising from the Ge nanoparticles was essentially unchanged under different Ge implantation fluences and the temperatures of the following annealing process, whereas the sample preparation parameters modified or even fluctuated (in the case of the annealing temperature) the peak intensity considerably. Given the microscopically observed correlation between the nanoparticle structure and the sample preparation parameters, this phenomenon is consistent with the mechanism in which the oxygen-deficiency-related defects in the Ge/SiO 2 interface act as the major luminescence centers; this mechanism also successfully explains the peak intensity fluctuation with the annealing temperature. Moreover, our FTIR data indicate the formation of GeO x upon ion implantation. Since decreasing of the oxygen-related defects by the GeO x formation is expected to be correlated with the annealing temperature, presence of the GeO x renders further experimental support to the oxygen defect mechanism. This understanding may assist the designing of the manufacturing process to optimize the Ge nanoparticle-based PL materials for different technological applications

  3. Sonochemically synthesized biocompatible zirconium phosphate nanoparticles for pH sensitive drug delivery application.

    Kalita, Himani; Prashanth Kumar, B N; Konar, Suraj; Tantubay, Sangeeta; Kr Mahto, Madhusudan; Mandal, Mahitosh; Pathak, Amita

    2016-03-01

    The present work reports the synthesis of biocompatible zirconium phosphate (ZP) nanoparticles as nanocarrier for drug delivery application. The ZP nanoparticles were synthesized via a simple sonochemical method in the presence of cetyltrimethylammonium bromide and their efficacy for the delivery of drugs has been tested through various in-vitro experiments. The particle size and BET surface area of the nanoparticles were found to be ~48 nm and 206.51 m(2)/g respectively. The conventional MTT assay and cellular localization studies of the particles, performed on MDA-MB-231 cell lines, demonstrate their excellent biocompatibility and cellular internalization behavior. The loading of curcumin, an antitumor drug, onto the ZP nanoparticles shows the rapid drug uptake ability of the particles, while the drug release study, performed at two different pH values (at 7.4 and 5) depicts pH sensitive release-profile. The MTT assay and cellular localization studies revealed higher cellular inhibition and better bioavailability of the nanoformulated curcumin compared to free curcumin. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Curved wall-jet burner for synthesizing titania and silica nanoparticles

    Ismail, Mohamed

    2015-01-01

    A novel curved wall-jet (CWJ) burner was designed for flame synthesis, by injecting precursors through a center tube and by supplying fuel/air mixtures as an annular-inward jet for rapid mixing of the precursors in the reaction zone. Titanium dioxide (TiO2) and silicon dioxide (SiO2) nanoparticles were produced in ethylene (C2H4)/air premixed flames using titanium tetraisopropoxide (TTIP) and hexamethyldisiloxane (HMDSO) as the precursors, respectively. Particle image velocimetry measurements confirmed that the precursors can be injected into the flames without appreciably affecting flow structure. The nanoparticles were characterized using X-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy, the Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) method, and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy. In the case of TiO2, the phase of nanoparticles could be controlled by adjusting the equivalence ratio, while the particle size was dependent on the precursor loading rate and the flame temperature. The synthesized TiO2 nanoparticles exhibited high crystallinity and the anatase phase was dominant at high equivalence ratios (φ > 1.3). In the case of SiO2, the particle size could be controlled from 11 to 18 nm by adjusting the precursor loading rate. © 2014 The Combustion Institute. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Influence of dose on particle size of colloidal silver nanoparticles synthesized by gamma radiation

    Naghavi, Kazem, E-mail: Kazem.naghavi@gmail.co [Universiti Putra Malaysia, Physics Department, 43400 UPM SERDANG, Selangor (Malaysia); Saion, Elias [Universiti Putra Malaysia, Physics Department, 43400 UPM SERDANG, Selangor (Malaysia); Rezaee, Khadijeh [Department of Nuclear Engineering, Faculty of Modern Sciences and Technologies, University of Isfahan, Isfahan 81746-73441 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Yunus, Wan Mahmood Mat [Universiti Putra Malaysia, Physics Department, 43400 UPM SERDANG, Selangor (Malaysia)

    2010-12-15

    Colloidal silver nanoparticles were synthesized by {gamma}-irradiation-induced reduction method of an aqueous solution containing silver nitrate as a precursor in various concentrations between 7.40x10{sup -4} and 1.84x10{sup -3} M, polyvinyl pyrrolidone for capping colloidal nanoparticles, isopropanol as radical scavenger of hydroxyl radicals and deionised water as a solvent. The irradiations were carried out in a {sup 60}Co {gamma} source chamber at doses up to 70 kGy. The optical absorption spectra were measured using UV-vis spectrophotometer and used to study the particle distribution and electronic structure of silver nanoparticles. As the radiation dose increases from 10 to 70 kGy, the absorption intensity increases with increasing dose. The absorption peak {lambda}{sub max} blue shifted from 410 to 403 nm correspond to the increase of absorption conduction electron energy from 3.02 to 3.08 eV, indicating the particle size decreases with increasing dose. The particle size was determined by photon cross correlation spectroscopy and the results showed that the particle diameter decreases exponentially with the increase of dose. The transmission electron microscopy images were taken at doses of 20 and 60 kGy and the results confirmed that as the dose increases the diameter of colloidal silver nanoparticle decreases and the particle distribution increases.

  6. Influence of dose on particle size of colloidal silver nanoparticles synthesized by gamma radiation

    Naghavi, Kazem; Saion, Elias; Rezaee, Khadijeh; Yunus, Wan Mahmood Mat

    2010-01-01

    Colloidal silver nanoparticles were synthesized by γ-irradiation-induced reduction method of an aqueous solution containing silver nitrate as a precursor in various concentrations between 7.40x10 -4 and 1.84x10 -3 M, polyvinyl pyrrolidone for capping colloidal nanoparticles, isopropanol as radical scavenger of hydroxyl radicals and deionised water as a solvent. The irradiations were carried out in a 60 Co γ source chamber at doses up to 70 kGy. The optical absorption spectra were measured using UV-vis spectrophotometer and used to study the particle distribution and electronic structure of silver nanoparticles. As the radiation dose increases from 10 to 70 kGy, the absorption intensity increases with increasing dose. The absorption peak λ max blue shifted from 410 to 403 nm correspond to the increase of absorption conduction electron energy from 3.02 to 3.08 eV, indicating the particle size decreases with increasing dose. The particle size was determined by photon cross correlation spectroscopy and the results showed that the particle diameter decreases exponentially with the increase of dose. The transmission electron microscopy images were taken at doses of 20 and 60 kGy and the results confirmed that as the dose increases the diameter of colloidal silver nanoparticle decreases and the particle distribution increases.

  7. Magnet-induced temporary superhydrophobic coatings from one-pot synthesized hydrophobic magnetic nanoparticles.

    Fang, Jian; Wang, Hongxia; Xue, Yuhua; Wang, Xungai; Lin, Tong

    2010-05-01

    In this paper, we report on the production of superhydrophobic coatings on various substrates (e.g., glass slide, silicon wafer, aluminum foil, plastic film, nanofiber mat, textile fabrics) using hydrophobic magnetic nanoparticles and a magnet-assembly technique. Fe(3)O(4) magnetic nanoparticles functionalized with a thin layer of fluoroalkyl silica on the surface were synthesized by one-step coprecipitation of Fe(2+)/Fe(3+) under an alkaline condition in the presence of a fluorinated alkyl silane. Under a magnetic field, the magnetic nanoparticles can be easily deposited on any solid substrate to form a thin superhydrophobic coating with water contact angle as high as 172 degrees , and the surface superhydrophobicity showed very little dependence on the substrate type. The particulate coating showed reasonable durability because of strong aggregation effect of nanoparticles, but the coating layer can be removed (e.g., by ultrasonication) to restore the original surface feature of the substrates. By comparison, the thin particle layer deposited under no magnetic field showed much lower hydrophobicity. The main reason for magnet-induced superhydrophobic surfaces is the formation of nano- and microstructured surface features. Such a magnet-induced temporary superhydrophobic coating may have wide applications in electronic, biomedical, and defense-related areas.

  8. Optical properties of cerium oxide (CeO2) nanoparticles synthesized by hydroxide mediated method

    Ali, Mawlood Maajal; Mahdi, Hadeel Salih; Parveen, Azra; Azam, Ameer

    2018-05-01

    The nanoparticles of cerium oxide have been successfully synthesized by hydroxide mediated method, using cerium nitrate and sodium hydroxide as precursors. The microstructural properties were analyzed by X-ray diffraction technique (XRD). The X-ray diffraction results show that the cerium oxide nanoparticles were in cubic structure. The optical absorption spectra of cerium oxide were recorded by UV-VIS spectrophotometer in the range of 320 to 600 nm and photoluminescence spectra in the range of 400-540 nm and have been presented. The energy band gap was determined by Tauc relationship. The crystallite size was determined from Debye-Scherer equation and came out to be 6.4 nm.

  9. Au, Ag and Au:Ag colloidal nanoparticles synthesized by pulsed laser ablation as SERS substrates

    M. Vinod

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Chemically pure colloidal suspensions of gold and silver nanoparticles were synthesized using pulsed laser ablation. The dependence of laser fluence on the surface plasmon characteristics of the nanoparticles was investigated. Au:Ag colloidal suspensions were prepared by mixing highly monodisperse Au and Ag nanocolloids. The plasmon band of these mixtures was found to be highly sensitive to Au:Ag concentration ratio and wavelength of the laser beam used in the ablation process. The Au:Ag mixture consists of almost spherical shaped nanostructures with a tendency to join with adjacent ones. The surface enhanced Raman scattering activity of the Au, Ag and Au:Ag colloidal suspensions was tested using crystal violet as probe molecules. Enhancement in Raman signal obtained with Au:Ag substrates was found to be promising and strongly depends on its plasmon characteristics.

  10. Optimization of factors affecting hexavalent chromium removal from simulated electroplating wastewater by synthesized magnetite nanoparticles.

    Ataabadi, Mitra; Hoodaji, Mehran; Tahmourespour, Arezoo; Kalbasi, Mahmoud; Abdouss, Majid

    2015-01-01

    Hexavalent chromium is a mutagen and carcinogen that is of significant concern in water and wastewater. In the present study, magnetite nanoparticles (n-Mag) were investigated as a potential remediation technology for the decontamination of Cr (VI)-contaminated wastewater. Synthesized n-Mag was characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and BET-N2 technology. To screen and optimize the factors affecting Cr (VI) removal efficiency by synthesized nanoparticles, Plackett-Burman (PB) and Taguchi experimental designs were used respectively. The crystalline produced n-Mag was in the size range of 60-70 nm and had a specific surface area (SSA) of 31.55 m(2) g(-1). Results of PB design showed that the most significant factors affecting Cr (VI) removal efficiency were initial Cr (VI) concentration, pH, n-Mag dosage, and temperature. In a pH of 2, 20 mg L(-1) of Cr (VI) concentration, 4 g L(-1)of n-Mag, temperature of 40 °C, 220 rpm of shaking speed, and 60 min of contact time, the complete removal efficiency of Cr (VI) was achieved. Batch experiments revealed that the removal of Cr (VI) by n-Mag was consistent with pseudo-second order reaction kinetics. The competition from common coexisting ions such as NO₃(-), SO₄(2-), and Cl(-) were not considerable, unless in the higher concentration of SO₄(2-). These results indicated that the readily synthesized magnetite nanoparticles have promising applications for the removal of Cr (VI) from aqueous solution.

  11. Antiproliferative effect of silver nanoparticles synthesized using amla on Hep2 cell line

    Fathima Stanley Rosarin; Vadivel Arulmozhi; Samuthira Nagarajan; Sankaran Mirunalini

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To synthesize silver nanoparticles by amla extract, screen the cytotoxic, oxidative stress and apoptotic effect of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) on Hep2 cell line (laryngeal carcinoma cells) in vitro, and to compare the effect of Phyllanthus emblica (P. emblica) (amla) with AgNPs synthesized by amla and 5-FU. Methods: AgNPs was synthesized by P. emblica (aqueous extract) and nanoparticles were characterized UV-Vis spec, the presence of biomoloecules of amla capped in AgNPs was found by FT-IR analysis, shape and size were examined by SEM and DLS. Cytotoxicity of experimental drugs was tested to find IC50 value. ROS generation in cells have been measured by DCFH-DA staining, AO-EtBr, Rhodamine-123 staining and DNA fragmentation were performed to assess apoptotic cell death, mitochondrial membrane potential and apoptotic DNA damage, respectively. Oxidative stress was analyzed by measuring lipid peroxides and antioxidants level to understand the cancer cell death by pro-oxidant mechanism.Results:PE-AgNPs was synthesized and confirmed through kinetic behavior of NPs. The shape of PE-AgNPs was spherical and cubic since it was agglomerated, and the nanoparticle surface was complicated. Average particle size distribution of PE-AgNPs was found to be 188 nm. Potent biomolecules of P. emblica such as polyphenols were capped with AgNPs and reduced its toxicity. In cytotoxicity assay the concentration in which the maximum number of cell death was 60 μg/mL and 50 μg/mL for P. emblica (alone) and AgNPs, respectively and IC50 values were fixed as 30 μg/mL and 20 μg/mL. ROS generation, apoptotic morphological changes, mitochondrial depolarization, DNA damage and oxidative stress was observed as more in AgNPs treated cells than in P. emblica (30 μg/mL) (alone) treated cells and 5-FU treated cells gave similar result.Conclusions:The results suggest that the AgNPs are capped with biomolecules of amla enhanced cytotoxicity in laryngeal cancer cells through oxidative

  12. Investigation on hemolytic effect of poly(lactic co-glycolic) acid nanoparticles synthesized using continuous flow and batch processes

    Libi, Sumit; Calenic, Bogdan; Astete, Carlos E.; Kumar, Challa; Sabliov, Cristina M.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract

    With the increasing interest in polymeric nanoparticles for biomedical applications, there is a need for continuous flow methodologies that allow for the precise control of nanoparticle synthesis. Poly(lactide-co-glycolic) acid (PLGA) nanoparticles with diameters of 220–250 nm were synthesized using a lab-on-a-chip, exploiting the precise flow control offered by a millifluidic platform. The association and the effect of PLGA nanoparticles on red blood cells (RBCs) were compared for fluorescent PLGA nanoparticles made by this novel continuous flow process using a millifluidic chip and smaller PLGA nanoparticles made by a batch method. Results indicated that all PLGA nanoparticles studied, independent of the synthesis method and size, adhered to the surface of RBCs but had no significant hemolytic effect at concentrations lower than 10 mg/ml.

  13. Carbon Nano-particle Synthesized by Pulsed Arc Discharge Method as a Light Emitting Device

    Ahmadi, Ramin; Ahmadi, Mohamad Taghi; Ismail, Razali

    2018-04-01

    Owing to the specific properties such as high mobility, ballistic carrier transport and light emission, carbon nano-particles (CNPs) have been employed in nanotechnology applications. In the presented work, the CNPs are synthesized by using the pulsed arc discharge method between two copper electrodes. The rectifying behaviour of produced CNPs is explored by assuming an Ohmic contact between the CNPs and the electrodes. The synthesized sample is characterized by electrical investigation and modelling. The current-voltage (I-V) relationship is investigated and bright visible light emission from the produced CNPs was measured. The electroluminescence (EL) intensity was explored by changing the distance between two electrodes. An incremental behaviour on EL by a resistance gradient and distance reduction is identified.

  14. Variation in Structural and Optical Properties of Al Doped ZnO Nanoparticles Synthesized by Sol-gel Process

    Vanaja Aravapalli

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This article focuses on analyzing structural and optical properties of Al doped ZnO (AZO synthesized with two different precursors aluminum chloride and aluminum nitrate. The nanoparticles were successfully fabricated and characterized at room temperature by sol-gel process. The objective of improving properties of ZnO nanoparticles by introducing dopants was successful with formation of nanoparticles having different crystalline sizes, optical absorption and luminescence properties. The two different sources influenced properties of ZnO. The particles with less crystalline size obtained from aluminum nitrate. Change in morphology from spherical to bar like morphology proved from SEM spectra. Presence of functional groups predicted from FTIR spectra. PL spectra proved UV emission and visible emission for AZO nanoparticles synthesized using dopant sources aluminum chloride and aluminum nitrate respectively. The obtained properties prove successful utilization of AZO nanoparticles as building materials in fabrication of optoelectronic devices.

  15. Structural, morphological, and optical properties of tin(IV) oxide nanoparticles synthesized using Camellia sinensis extract: a green approach

    Selvakumari, J. Celina; Ahila, M.; Malligavathy, M.; Padiyan, D. Pathinettam

    2017-09-01

    Tin oxide (SnO2) nanoparticles were cost-effectively synthesized using nontoxic chemicals and green tea ( Camellia sinensis) extract via a green synthesis method. The structural properties of the obtained nanoparticles were studied using X-ray diffraction, which indicated that the crystallite size was less than 20 nm. The particle size and morphology of the nanoparticles were analyzed using scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. The morphological analysis revealed agglomerated spherical nanoparticles with sizes varying from 5 to 30 nm. The optical properties of the nanoparticles' band gap were characterized using diffuse reflectance spectroscopy. The band gap was found to decrease with increasing annealing temperature. The O vacancy defects were analyzed using photoluminescence spectroscopy. The increase in the crystallite size, decreasing band gap, and the increasing intensities of the UV and visible emission peaks indicated that the green-synthesized SnO2 may play future important roles in catalysis and optoelectronic devices.

  16. Effect of laser energy on the SPR and size of silver nanoparticles synthesized by pulsed laser ablation in distilled water

    Baruah, Prahlad K.; Sharma, Ashwini K.; Khare, Alika

    2018-04-01

    The effect of incident laser energy on the surface plasmon resonance (SPR) and size of silver nanoparticles synthesized via pulsed laser ablation of silver immersed in distilled water is reported in this paper. The broadening in the plasmonic bandwidth of the synthesized nanoparticles with the increase in the laser energy incident onto the silver target indicates the reduction in size of the nanoparticles. This is confirmed by the transmission electron microscope (TEM) images which show a decrease in the average particle size of the nanoparticles from approximately 15 to 10 nm with the increase in incident laser energy from 30 to 70 mJ, respectively. The structural features as revealed by the selected area electron diffraction and ultra-high resolution TEM studies confirmed the formation of both silver as well as silver oxide nanoparticles.

  17. Photocatalytic studies of electrochemically synthesized polysaccharide-functionalized ZnO nanoparticles

    Kaur, Simranjeet; Kaur, Harpreet

    2018-05-01

    The present work reports the electrochemical synthesis of polysaccharide-functionalized ZnO nanoparticles using sodium hydroxide, starch, and zinc electrodes for the degradation of cationic dye (Rhodamine-B) under sunlight. Physiochemical properties of synthesized sample have been characterized by different techniques such as XRD, TEM, FESEM, EDS, IR, and UV-visible spectroscopic techniques. The influence of various factors such as effect of dye concentration, contact time, amount of photocatalyst, and pH has been studied. The results obtained from the photodegradation study showed that degradation rate of Rhodamine-B dye has been increased with increase of amount of photocatalyst and decreased with increase in initial dye concentration. Furthermore, the kinetics of the degradation has been investigated. It has been found that the photodegradation of Rhodamine-B dye follows pseudo-first-order kinetics and prepared photocatalyst can effectively degrade the cationic dye. Thus, this ecofriendly and efficient photocatalyst can be used for the treatment of dye-contaminated water. This catalyst also showed the antibacterial activity against Bacillus pumilus and Escherichia coli bacterial strains, so the synthesized nanoparticles also have the pharmaceutical properties.

  18. Copper-indium-gallium-diselenide nanoparticles synthesized by a solvothermal method for solar cell application

    Chiou Chuan-Sheng

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Chalcopyrite copper-indium-gallium-diselenide (CIGS nanoparticles are useful for photovoltaic applications. In this study, the synthesis of CIGS powder was examined, and the powder was successfully synthesized using a relatively simple and convenient elemental solvothermal route. From the reactions of elemental Cu, In, Se and Ga(NO33 powders in an autoclave with ethylenediamine as a solvent, spherical CIGS nanoparticles, with diameters ranging from 20-40 nm, were obtained using a temperature of 200°C for 36h. The structure, morphology, chemical composition and optical properties of the as-synthesized CIGS were characterized using X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, selected area electron diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry. In this sample, the mole ratio of Cu:In:Ga:Se was equal to 0.89:0.71:0.29:2.01, and the optical band gap was found to be 1.18 eV. The solar cell obtained a power conversion efficiency of 5.62% under standard air mass 1.5 global illumination.

  19. Microstructural and optical properties of Ca and Cr doped cobalt ferrite nanoparticles synthesized by auto combustion

    Agrawal, Shraddha; Parveen, Azra; Azam, Ameer

    2018-05-01

    The Ca and Cr doped cobalt ferrite nanoparticles (Co0.8Ca0.2) (Fe0.8 Cr0.2)2O4 were synthesized by auto combustion method. Microstructural studies were carried out by X-ray diffraction (XRD). The crystalline size of synthesized nanoparticles as determined by the XRD was found to be 17.6 nm. These structural studies suggest that the crystal system remains spinal even with the doping of calcium and chromium. Optical properties of Ca and Cr doped cobalt ferrite were studied by UV-visible technique in the range of 200-800 nm. The energy band gap was calculated with the help of Tauc relationship. Ca and Cr doped cobalt ferrite annealed at 600°C exhibit significant dispersion in complex permeability. The dielectric constant and dielectric loss of cobalt ferrite were studied as a function of frequency and were explained on the basis of Koop's theory based on Maxwell Wagner two layer models and electron hopping.

  20. Anti-cancer evaluation of quercetin embedded PLA nanoparticles synthesized by emulsified nanoprecipitation.

    Pandey, Sanjeev K; Patel, Dinesh K; Thakur, Ravi; Mishra, Durga P; Maiti, Pralay; Haldar, Chandana

    2015-04-01

    This study was carried out to synthesize quercetin (Qt) embedded poly(lactic acid) (PLA) nanoparticles (PLA-Qt) and to evaluate anti-cancer efficacy of PLA-Qt by using human breast cancer cells. PLA-Qt were synthesized by using novel emulsified nanoprecipitation technique with varying dimension of 32 ± 8 to 152 ± 9 nm of PLA-Qt with 62 ± 3% (w/w) entrapment efficiency by varying the concentration of polymer, emulsifier, drug and preparation temperature. The dimension of PLA-Qt was measured through transmission electron microscopy indicating larger particle size at higher concentration of PLA. The release rate of Qt from PLA-Qt was found to be more sustained for larger particle dimension (152 ± 9 nm) as compared to smaller particle dimension (32 ± 8 nm). Interaction between Qt and PLA was verified through spectroscopic and calorimetric methods. Delayed diffusion and stronger interaction in PLA-Qt caused the sustained delivery of Qt from the polymer matrix. In vitro cytotoxicity study indicate the killing of ∼ 50% breast cancer cells in two days at 100 μg/ml of drug concentration while the ∼ 40% destruction of cells require 5 days for PLA-Qt (46 ± 6 nm; 20mg/ml of PLA). Thus our results propose anticancer efficacy of PLA-Qt nanoparticles in terms of its sustained release kinetics revealing novel vehicle for the treatment of cancer. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Structural and electrical properties of TiO2/ZnO core–shell nanoparticles synthesized by hydrothermal method

    Vlazan, P.; Ursu, D.H.; Irina-Moisescu, C.; Miron, I.; Sfirloaga, P.; Rusu, E.

    2015-01-01

    TiO 2 /ZnO core–shell nanoparticles were successfully synthesized by hydrothermal method in two stages: first stage is the hydrothermal synthesis of ZnO nanoparticles and second stage the obtained ZnO nanoparticles are encapsulated in TiO 2 . The obtained ZnO, TiO 2 and TiO 2 /ZnO core–shell nanoparticles were investigated by means of X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, Brunauer, Emmett, Teller and resistance measurements. X-ray diffraction analysis revealed the presence of both, TiO 2 and ZnO phases in TiO 2 /ZnO core–shell nanoparticles. According to transmission electron microscopy images, ZnO nanoparticles have hexagonal shapes, TiO 2 nanoparticles have a spherical shape, and TiO 2 /ZnO core–shell nanoparticles present agglomerates and the shape of particles is not well defined. The activation energy of TiO 2 /ZnO core–shell nanoparticles was about 101 meV. - Graphical abstract: Display Omitted - Highlights: • TiO 2 /ZnO core–shell nanoparticles were synthesized by hydrothermal method. • TiO 2 /ZnO core–shell nanoparticles were investigated by means of XRD, TEM and BET. • Electrical properties of TiO 2 /ZnO core–shell nanoparticles were investigated. • The activation energy of TiO 2 /ZnO core–shell nanoparticles was about E a = 101 meV

  2. Evaluation of plant-mediated synthesized silver nanoparticles against vector mosquitoes.

    Veerakumar, Kaliyan; Govindarajan, Marimuthu; Hoti, S L

    2014-12-01

    Diseases transmitted by blood-feeding mosquitoes, such as dengue fever, dengue hemorrhagic fever, Japanese encephalitis, malaria, and filariasis, are increasing in prevalence, particularly in tropical and subtropical zones. To control mosquitoes and mosquito-borne diseases, which have worldwide health and economic impacts, synthetic insecticide-based interventions are still necessary, particularly in situations of epidemic outbreak and sudden increases of adult mosquitoes. Green nanoparticle synthesis has been achieved using environmentally acceptable plant extract and eco-friendly reducing and capping agents. In view of the recently increased interest in developing plant origin insecticides as an alternative to chemical insecticide, in the present study, the adulticidal activity of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) synthesized using Heliotropium indicum plant leaf extract against adults of Anopheles stephensi, Aedes aegypti, and Culex quinquefasciatus was determined. Adult mosquitoes were exposed to varying concentrations of aqueous extract of H. indicum and synthesized AgNPs for 24 h. AgNPs were rapidly synthesized using the leaf extract of H. indicum, and the formation of nanoparticles was observed within 6 h. The results recorded from UV-vis spectrum, Fourier transform infrared, X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, and transmission electron microscopy support the biosynthesis and characterization of AgNPs. The maximum efficacy was observed in synthesized AgNPs against the adult of A. stephensi (lethal dose (LD)₅₀ = 26.712 μg/mL; LD₉₀ = 49.061 μg/mL), A. aegypti (LD₅₀ = 29.626 μg/mL; LD₉₀ = 54.269 μg/mL), and C. quinquefasciatus (LD₅₀ = 32.077 μg/mL; LD₉₀ = 58.426 μg/mL), respectively. No mortality was observed in the control. These results suggest that the leaf aqueous extracts of H.indicum and green synthesis of AgNPs have the potential to be used as an ideal eco-friendly approach for the control of

  3. Parametric analysis of the growth of colloidal ZnO nanoparticles synthesized in alcoholic medium

    Fonseca, A. S.; Figueira, P. A.; Pereira, A. S.; Santos, R. J.; Trindade, T.; Nunes, M. I.

    2017-01-01

    The growth kinetics of nanosized ZnO was studied considering the influence of different parameters (mixing degree, temperature, alcohol chain length, reactant concentration and Zn/OH ratios) on the synthesis reaction and modelling the outputs using typical kinetic growth models, which were then evaluated by means of a sensitivity analysis. The Zn/OH ratio, the temperature and the alcohol chain length were found to be essential parameters to control the growth of ZnO nanoparticles, whereas zinc acetate concentration (for Zn/OH = 0.625) and the stirring during the ageing stage were shown to not have significant influence on the particle size growth. This last operational parameter was for the first time investigated for nanoparticles synthesized in 1-pentanol, and it is of outmost importance for the implementation of continuous industrial processes for mass production of nanosized ZnO and energy savings in the process. Concerning the nanoparticle growth modelling, the results show a different pattern from the more commonly accepted diffusion-limited Ostwald ripening process, i.e. the Lifshitz–Slyozov–Wagner (LSW) model. Indeed, this study shows that oriented attachment occurs during the early stages whereas for the later stages the particle growth is well represented by the LSW model. This conclusion contributes to clarify some controversy found in the literature regarding the kinetic model which better represents the ZnO NPs’ growth in alcoholic medium.

  4. Thermal stability and electrochemical properties of PVP-protected Ru nanoparticles synthesized at room temperature

    Kumar, Manish; Devi, Pooja; Shivling, V. D.

    2017-08-01

    Stable ruthenium nanoparticles (RuNPs) have been synthesized by the chemical reduction of ruthenium trichloride trihydrate (RuCl3 · 3H2O) using sodium borohydride (NaBH4) as a reductant and polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) as a protecting agent in the aqueous medium at room temperature. The nanoparticles thus prepared were characterized by their morphology and structural analysis from transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), UV-vis spectroscopy, Fourier transformation infrared and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) techniques. The TEM image suggested a homogeneous distribution of PVP-protected RuNPs having a small average diameter of 2-4 nm with a chain-like network structure. The XRD pattern also confirmed that a crystallite size is around 2 nm of PVP-protected RuNPs having a single broad peak. The thermal stability studied using TGA, indicated good stability and the electrochemical properties of these nanoparticles revealed that saturation current increases for PVP-protected RuNPs/GC.

  5. Antitumour, antimicrobial and catalytic activity of gold nanoparticles synthesized by different pH propolis extracts

    Gatea, Florentina; Teodor, Eugenia Dumitra; Seciu, Ana-Maria; Covaci, Ovidiu Ilie; Mănoiu, Sorin; Lazăr, Veronica; Radu, Gabriel Lucian

    2015-07-01

    The Romanian propolis was extracted in five different media, respectively, in water (pH 6.8), glycine buffer (pH 2.5), acetate buffer (pH 5), phosphate buffer (pH 7.4) and carbonate buffer (pH 9.2). The extracts presented different amounts of flavonoids and phenolic acids, increasing pH leading to higher concentrations of active compounds. Five variants of gold nanoparticles suspensions based on different pH Romanian propolis aqueous extracts were successfully synthesized. The obtained nanoparticles presented dimensions between 20 and 60 nm in dispersion form and around 18 nm in dried form, and different morphologies (spherical, hexagonal, triangular). Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy proved the attachment of organic compounds from propolis extracts to the colloidal gold suspensions and X-ray diffraction certified that the suspensions contain metallic gold. The obtained propolis gold nanoparticles do not exhibit any antibacterial or antifungal activity, but presented different catalytic activities and toxicity on tumour cells.

  6. Characterization and electrocatalytic properties of sonochemical synthesized PdAg nanoparticles

    Godinez-Garcia, Andres, E-mail: agodinez@qro.cinvestav.mx [Depto. Materiales, Centro de Investigacion y de Estudios Avanzados del IPN, Libramiento norponiente 2000, Fracc. Real de Juriquilla, C.P. 76230 Santiago de Queretaro, Qro. (Mexico); Perez-Robles, Juan Francisco [Depto. Materiales, Centro de Investigacion y de Estudios Avanzados del IPN, Libramiento norponiente 2000, Fracc. Real de Juriquilla, C.P. 76230 Santiago de Queretaro, Qro. (Mexico); Martinez-Tejada, Hader Vladimir [Grupo de Energia y Termodinamica, Universidad Pontificia Bolivariana, Medellin, Antioquia C.P. 050031 (Colombia); Solorza-Feria, Omar [Depto. Quimica, CINVESTAV-IPN, Av. IPN 2508, A. P. 14-740, 07360 D.F. Mexico (Mexico)

    2012-06-15

    High intensity ultrasound was used in the synthesis of PdAg nanoparticles. PdAg nanoparticles were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), atomic force microscopy (AFM), energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM). Catalytic properties for oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) were determined by electrochemical techniques of cyclic voltammetry (CV) and thin-film rotating disk electrode (TF-RDE). Finally the electrocatalyst was tested as a cathode in a single polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell (PEMFC). Sonochemical synthesis (SS) decreased the overpotential required for the ORR and increased the double-layer capacitance (DLC) respect to the sodium borohydride reduction method due to a better distribution on vulcan carbon support. The electrocatalytic activity of the nanometric bimetallic electrocatalyst for the ORR in acid media showed a favorable multielectron charge transfer process (n = 4e{sup -}) to water formation. The performance of the membrane electrode assembly (MEA) prepared with dispersed PdAg/C as a cathode catalyst in a single PEMFC is lower in comparison to platinum. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Sonochemical synthesized PdAg nanoparticles supported on carbon were produced. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The material showed catalytic properties for the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR). Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The ORR favored the pathway to water formation.

  7. Kinetic study of group IV nanoparticles ion beam synthesized in SiO{sub 2}

    Bonafos, C. E-mail: bonafos@cemes.fr; Colombeau, B.; Altibelli, A.; Carrada, M.; Ben Assayag, G.; Garrido, B.; Lopez, M.; Perez-Rodriguez, A.; Morante, J.R.; Claverie, A

    2001-05-01

    Most studies concerning group IV (Si, Ge) ion beam synthesized nanocrystals in SiO{sub 2} have shown that a link exists between the observed physical properties and the characteristics of the 'populations' of nanoparticles (size-distribution, density, volume fraction). The aim of this paper is to study the influence of the initial supersaturation and annealing conditions on these characteristics. For this, experimental methods have been developed, that allow accurate statistical studies. Different transmission electron microscopy (TEM) imaging conditions have been tested and the most adequate ones have been identified for each system. An original method for the measurement of the density of precipitates embedded in an amorphous matrix has been developed and tested for Ge precipitates in SiO{sub 2} and has permitted to evidence a conservative Ostwald ripening during annealing. The kinetic behavior of Si nanoparticles has also been studied by coupling TEM measurements and 'atomistic' simulations. During annealing, the growth of these nanoparticles is very slow but their size significantly increases when increasing the initial Si excess. Simulations are in perfect agreement with experiment when taking into account interaction effects between particles.

  8. Antitumour, antimicrobial and catalytic activity of gold nanoparticles synthesized by different pH propolis extracts

    Gatea, Florentina; Teodor, Eugenia Dumitra, E-mail: eu-teodor@yahoo.com [National Institute for Biological Sciences, Centre of Bioanalysis (Romania); Seciu, Ana-Maria [National Institute for Biological Sciences, Cellular and Molecular Biology Department (Romania); Covaci, Ovidiu Ilie [SARA Pharm Solutions (Romania); Mănoiu, Sorin [National Institute for Biological Sciences, Cellular and Molecular Biology Department (Romania); Lazăr, Veronica [University of Bucharest, Faculty of Biology (Romania); Radu, Gabriel Lucian [University “Politehnica” Bucharest, Faculty of Applied Chemistry and Materials Science (Romania)

    2015-07-15

    The Romanian propolis was extracted in five different media, respectively, in water (pH 6.8), glycine buffer (pH 2.5), acetate buffer (pH 5), phosphate buffer (pH 7.4) and carbonate buffer (pH 9.2). The extracts presented different amounts of flavonoids and phenolic acids, increasing pH leading to higher concentrations of active compounds. Five variants of gold nanoparticles suspensions based on different pH Romanian propolis aqueous extracts were successfully synthesized. The obtained nanoparticles presented dimensions between 20 and 60 nm in dispersion form and around 18 nm in dried form, and different morphologies (spherical, hexagonal, triangular). Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy proved the attachment of organic compounds from propolis extracts to the colloidal gold suspensions and X-ray diffraction certified that the suspensions contain metallic gold. The obtained propolis gold nanoparticles do not exhibit any antibacterial or antifungal activity, but presented different catalytic activities and toxicity on tumour cells.

  9. An investigation of in vivo wound healing activity of biologically synthesized silver nanoparticles

    Kaler, Abhishek; Mittal, Amit Kumar; Katariya, Mahesh; Harde, Harshad; Agrawal, Ashish Kumar; Jain, Sanyog; Banerjee, Uttam Chand

    2014-09-01

    Therapeutic use of nano-silver is claimed to have reduced side effects and enhanced curative activity as compared to its ionic counterpart (silver ions). The present work aims to screen microbes for the synthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs), to formulate the nano-silver-based Carbopol gel and evaluating its wound healing efficacy on rat model. The goal was to develop the topical formulation based on bio-nano-silver to control the infection and healing the wounds with higher efficacy. Procedure involved the use of Saccharomyces boulardii for the synthesis of silver nanoparticles in the size range of 3-10 nm and these nanoparticles were used for the preparation of Carbopol-based nano-silver gel. Highly stable Carbopol nanogel was developed with good rheological properties. The burn wound healing potential of this nano-silver gel was evaluated on SD rats via visual observation, transepidermal water loss and histology of skin. Excellent wound healing was observed with AgNPs. Biologically synthesized AgNPs-based nano-silver gel showed superior wound healing efficacy as compared to marketed formulations and silver ions.

  10. Parametric analysis of the growth of colloidal ZnO nanoparticles synthesized in alcoholic medium

    Fonseca, A. S. [National Research Centre for the Working Environment (Denmark); Figueira, P. A.; Pereira, A. S. [Universidade de Aveiro, Departamento de Química—CICECO (Portugal); Santos, R. J. [Universidade do Porto, Laboratory of Separation and Reaction Engineering-Laboratory of Catalysis and Materials (LSRE-LCM), Faculdade de Engenharia (Portugal); Trindade, T. [Universidade de Aveiro, Departamento de Química—CICECO (Portugal); Nunes, M. I., E-mail: isanunes@ua.pt [Universidade de Aveiro, Centre for Environmental and Marine Studies (CESAM), Dep. de Ambiente e Ordenamento (Portugal)

    2017-02-15

    The growth kinetics of nanosized ZnO was studied considering the influence of different parameters (mixing degree, temperature, alcohol chain length, reactant concentration and Zn/OH ratios) on the synthesis reaction and modelling the outputs using typical kinetic growth models, which were then evaluated by means of a sensitivity analysis. The Zn/OH ratio, the temperature and the alcohol chain length were found to be essential parameters to control the growth of ZnO nanoparticles, whereas zinc acetate concentration (for Zn/OH = 0.625) and the stirring during the ageing stage were shown to not have significant influence on the particle size growth. This last operational parameter was for the first time investigated for nanoparticles synthesized in 1-pentanol, and it is of outmost importance for the implementation of continuous industrial processes for mass production of nanosized ZnO and energy savings in the process. Concerning the nanoparticle growth modelling, the results show a different pattern from the more commonly accepted diffusion-limited Ostwald ripening process, i.e. the Lifshitz–Slyozov–Wagner (LSW) model. Indeed, this study shows that oriented attachment occurs during the early stages whereas for the later stages the particle growth is well represented by the LSW model. This conclusion contributes to clarify some controversy found in the literature regarding the kinetic model which better represents the ZnO NPs’ growth in alcoholic medium.

  11. Effects of ultrasound-related variables on sonochemically synthesized SAPO-34 nanoparticles

    Askari, Sima, E-mail: sima.askari@aut.ac.ir [Faculty of Chemical Engineering, Amirkabir University of Technology (Tehran Polytechnic), P.O. Box 15875-4413, Hafez Ave., Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Halladj, Rouein, E-mail: halladj@aut.ac.ir [Faculty of Chemical Engineering, Amirkabir University of Technology (Tehran Polytechnic), P.O. Box 15875-4413, Hafez Ave., Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2013-05-01

    The sonochemical method was developed to synthesize uniform SAPO-34 (silicoaluminophosphate molecular sieve) nanoparticles with high crystallinity using TEAOH as a structure-directing agent (SDA). The physicochemical characteristics of SAPO-34 products, i.e. crystallinity, particle size and shape can be controlled by varying the ultrasonic-related variable such as ultrasound power intensity, ultrasonic irradiation time, sonication temperature and geometrical characteristics of the ultrasonic device (e.g., sonotrode size). The products were characterized by XRD, SEM, TEM and BET. It is found that each of the parameters can play a significant role in acoustic cavitation, number of nuclei and the crystal growth. The experimental data establish that the crystallinity is related to ultrasonic intensity and diameter of the sonotrode, as well as sonication temperature. By increasing the ultrasonic power, duration and the sonication temperature, the mean sizes of particles decrease and the morphology of the products efficiently alters from spherical aggregates of cube type SAPO-34 particles to uniform spherical nanoparticles. - Graphical abstract: Increasing US power by increasing either US power intensity or the sonotrode diameter leads to smaller particle size and the morphology changes from spherical aggregates of cubic particles to uniform nanospheres. Highlights: • Effects of ultrasonic parameters on sonochemical synthesis of SAPO-34 nanoparticles. • The higher crystallinity by increasing ultrasonic power, duration and sonication temperature. • The morphology changes from spherical aggregates of cubic particles to uniform nanospheres. • Decreasing the particle size by increasing ultrasonic power, duration and sonication temperature.

  12. Green Synthesis and Catalytic Activity of Gold Nanoparticles Synthesized by Artemisia capillaris Water Extract

    Lim, Soo Hyeon; Ahn, Eun-Young; Park, Youmie

    2016-10-01

    Gold nanoparticles were synthesized using a water extract of Artemisia capillaris (AC-AuNPs) under different extract concentrations, and their catalytic activity was evaluated in a 4-nitrophenol reduction reaction in the presence of sodium borohydride. The AC-AuNPs showed violet or wine colors with characteristic surface plasmon resonance bands at 534 543 nm that were dependent on the extract concentration. Spherical nanoparticles with an average size of 16.88 ± 5.47 29.93 ± 9.80 nm were observed by transmission electron microscopy. A blue shift in the maximum surface plasmon resonance was observed with increasing extract concentration. The face-centered cubic structure of AC-AuNPs was confirmed by high-resolution X-ray diffraction analysis. Based on phytochemical screening and Fourier transform infrared spectra, flavonoids, phenolic compounds, and amino acids present in the extract contributed to the reduction of Au ions to AC-AuNPs. The average size of the AC-AuNPs decreased as the extract concentration during the synthesis was increased. Higher 4-nitrophenol reduction reaction rate constants were observed for smaller sizes. The extract in the AC-AuNPs was removed by centrifugation to investigate the effect of the extract in the reduction reaction. Interestingly, the removal of extracts greatly enhanced their catalytic activity by up to 50.4 %. The proposed experimental method, which uses simple centrifugation, can be applied to other metallic nanoparticles that are green synthesized with plant extracts to enhance their catalytic activity.

  13. Microstructure, morphology and magnetic properties of Ni nanoparticles synthesized by hydrothermal method

    Bouremana, A. [LPM, Faculty of Sciences, USTHB, BP 32, El-Alia, Bab Ezzouar, Algiers (Algeria); Guittoum, A., E-mail: aguittoum@gmail.com [Nuclear Research Centre of Algiers, 02 Bd Frantz Fanon, BP 399, Alger-Gare, Algiers (Algeria); Hemmous, M. [Nuclear Research Centre of Algiers, 02 Bd Frantz Fanon, BP 399, Alger-Gare, Algiers (Algeria); Martínez-Blanco, D. [SCTs, University of Oviedo, EPM, 33600 Mieres (Spain); Gorria, Pedro [Department of Physics & IUTA, EPI, University of Oviedo, 33203 Gijón (Spain); Blanco, J.A. [Department of Physics, University of Oviedo, Calvo Sotelo St., 33007 Oviedo (Spain); Benrekaa, N. [LPM, Faculty of Sciences, USTHB, BP 32, El-Alia, Bab Ezzouar, Algiers (Algeria)

    2015-06-15

    Powder samples containing high purity nickel nanoparticles (NPs) were prepared by hydrothermal method from Ni(II) chloride hexahydrate (NiCl{sub 2}·6H{sub 2}O) under the presence of sodium hydroxide (NaOH) with different concentrations between 5 and 25 mol/L. The synthesis of the NPs occurs through chemical reduction at relatively low temperature (140 °C). The Ni NPs have a face-centred cubic (fcc) crystal structure with a lattice parameter value close to that of pure Ni (a = 3.52 Å). The average crystallite size determined from x-ray diffraction is around 20 nm, except for the sample synthesized under the highest NaOH concentration (25 mol/L), which has the largest average size (>30 nm). The powder morphology at the sub-micrometre length scale looks like agglomerates of Ni-NPs that drastically changes their shape depending on the NaOH concentration, from flower (5 mol/L) to a dendritic-like (25 mol/L). All the samples are ferromagnetic at room temperature with saturation magnetization values between 50 and 52emu/g, and a coercive field that increases with the NaOH concentration from around 135 (5 mol/L) up to 180Oe (25 mol/L). - Highlights: • Pure Nickel nanoparticles have been synthesized by a chemical reaction process. • Different morphologies were observed with the change of NaOH concentration. • The coercive field increases with increasing the NaOH concentration and depends on the shape of nanoparticles.

  14. In vitro anticancer potential of BaCO3 nanoparticles synthesized via green route.

    Nagajyothi, P C; Pandurangan, Muthuraman; Sreekanth, T V M; Shim, Jaesool

    2016-03-01

    Green synthesis of nanoparticles is a growing research area because of their potential applications in nanomedicine. Barium carbonate nanoparticles (BaCO3 NPs) were synthesized using an aqueous extract of Mangifera indica seed as a reducing agent. These particles were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Transmission electron microscopy (TEM), selected area electron diffraction (SAED), Energy-dispersive-X-ray (EDX) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analysis. HR-TEM images are confirmed that green synthesized BaCO3 NPs have spherical, triangular and uneven shapes. EDX analysis confirmed the presence of Ba, C and O. The peaks at 2θ of 19.45, 23.90, 24.29, 27.72, 33.71, 34.08, 34.60, 41.98, 42.95, 44.18, 44.85, and 46.78 corresponding to (110), (111), (021), (002), (200), (112), (130), (221), (041), (202), (132) and (113) showed that BaCO3 NPs average size was ~18.3 nm. SAED pattern confirmed that BaCO3 NPs are crystalline nature. BaCO3 NPs significantly inhibited cervical carcinoma cells, as evidenced by cytotoxicity assay. Immunofluorescence and fluorescence assays showed that BaCO3 NPs increased the expression and activity of caspase-3, an autocatalytic enzyme that promotes apoptosis. According to the results, green synthesis route has great potential for easy, rapid, inexpensive, eco-friendly and efficient development of novel multifunctional nanoparticles for the treatment of cancer. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. High stable suspension of magnetite nanoparticles in ethanol by using sono-synthesized nanomagnetite in polyol medium

    Bastami, Tahereh Rohani; Entezari, Mohammad H.

    2013-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • The sonochemical synthesis of magnetite nanoparticles was carried out in EG without any surfactant. • The nanoparticles with sizes ∼24 nm were composed of small building blocks with sizes ∼2 nm. • The hydrophilic magnetite nanoparticles were stable in ethanol even after 8 months. • Ultrasonic intensity showed a crucial role on the obtained high stable magnetite nanoparticles in ethanol. - Abstract: The sonochemical synthesis of magnetite nanoparticles was carried out at relatively low temperature (80 °C) in ethylene glycol (EG) as a polyol solvent. The particle size was determined by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The magnetite nanoparticles with an average size of 24 nm were composed of small building blocks with an average size of 2–3 nm and the particles exhibited nearly spherical shape. The surface characterization was investigated by using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). The stability of magnetite nanoparticles was studied in ethanol as a polar solvent. The nanoparticles showed an enhanced stability in ethanol which is due to the hydrophilic surface of the particles. The colloidal stability of magnetite nanoparticles in ethanol was monitored by UV–visible spectrophotometer. According to the results, the nanoparticles synthesized in 30 min of sonication with intensity of 35 W/cm 2 (50%) led to a maximum stability in ethanol as a polar solvent with respect to the other applied intensities. The obtained magnetite nanoparticles were stable for more than12 months

  16. Characterization of silver nanoparticles synthesized using Urtica dioica Linn. leaves and their synergistic effects with antibiotics

    Kumari Jyoti

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available In continuation of the efforts for synthesizing silver nanoparticles (AgNPs by green chemistry route, here we report a facile bottom-up ‘green’ route for the synthesis of AgNPs using aqueous leaves extract of Urtica dioica (Linn.. The synthesized AgNPs were characterized by UV-vis spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD, Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy (FTIR, Zeta-sizer and Zeta-potential, Scanning electron microscopy (SEM, Energy dispersive X-ray (EDX spectroscopy, Transmission electron microscopy (TEM and Selected area electron diffraction (SAED. The results obtained from various characterizations revealed that AgNPs were in the size range of 20–30 nm and crystallized in face-centered-cubic structure. The antibacterial activity against Gram-positive (Bacillus cereus, Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis and Gram-negative (Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Serratia marcescens and Salmonella typhimurium bacterial pathogens was demonstrated by synthesized nanoparticles. Further, synergistic effects of AgNPs with various antibiotics were evaluated against above mentioned bacterial pathogens. The results showed that AgNPs in combination with antibiotics have better antibacterial effect as compared with AgNPs alone and hence can be used in the treatment of infectious diseases caused by bacteria. The maximum effect, with a 17.8 fold increase in inhibition zone, was observed for amoxicillin with AgNPs against S. marcescens proving the synergistic role of AgNPs. Therefore, it may be used to augment the activities of antibiotics.

  17. Spectroscopic investigations, antimicrobial, and cytotoxic activity of green synthesized gold nanoparticles

    Lokina, S.; Suresh, R.; Giribabu, K.; Stephen, A.; Lakshmi Sundaram, R.; Narayanan, V.

    2014-08-01

    The gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) were synthesized by using naturally available Punica Granatum fruit extract as reducing and stabilizing agent. The biosynthesized AuNPs was characterized by using UV-Vis, fluorescence, high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) and thermogravimetric (TGA) analysis. The surface plasmon resonance (SPR) band at 585 nm confirmed the reduction of auric chloride to AuNPs. The crystalline nature of the biosynthesized AuNPs was confirmed from the HRTEM images, XRD and selected area electron diffraction (SAED) pattern. The HRTEM images showed the mixture of triangular and spherical-like AuNPs having size between 5 and 20 nm. The weight loss of the AuNPs was measured by TGA as a function of temperature under a controlled atmosphere. The biomolecules are responsible for the reduction of AuCl4- ions and the formation of stable AuNPs which was confirmed by FTIR measurement. The synthesized AuNPs showed an excellent antibacterial activity against Candida albicans (ATCC 90028), Aspergillus flavus (ATCC 10124), Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 25175), Salmonella typhi (ATCC 14028) and Vibrio cholerae (ATCC 14033). The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of AuNPs was recorded against various microorganisms. Further, the synthesized AuNPs shows an excellent cytotoxic result against HeLa cancer cell lines at different concentrations.

  18. Anodic stripping voltammetry of synthesized CdS nanoparticles at boron-doped diamond electrodes

    Hayat, Mohammad; Ivandini, Tribidasari A., E-mail: ivandini.tri@sci.ui.ac.id; Saepudin, Endang [Department of Chemistry, FMIPA, Universitas Indonesia, Kampus UI Depok (Indonesia); Einaga, Yasuaki [Department of Chemistry, Keio University (Japan)

    2016-04-19

    Cadmium sulphide (CdS) nanoparticles were chemically synthesized using reverse micelles microreactor methods. By using different washing treatments, UV-Vis spectroscopy showed that the absorption peaks appeared at 465 nm, 462 nm, 460 nm, and 459 nm respectively for CdS nanoparticles without and with 1, 2, and 3 times washing treatments using pure water. In comparison with the absorbance peak of bulk CdS at 512 nm, the shifted absorption peaks, indicates that the different sizes of CdS can be prepared. Anodic stripping voltammetry of the CdS nanoparticles was then studied at a boron-doped diamond electrode using 0.1 M KClO{sub 4} and 0.1 M HClO{sub 4} as the electrolytes. A scan rate of 100 mV/s with a deposition potential of -1000 mV (vs. Ag/AgCl) for 60 s at a potential scan from -1600 mV to +800 mV (vs. Ag/AgCl) was applied as the optimum condition of the measurements. Highly-accurate linear calibration curves (R{sup 2} = 0.99) in 0.1 M HClO{sub 4} with the sensitivity of 0.075 mA/mM and the limit of detection of 81 µM in 0.1 M HClO{sub 4} can be achieved, which is promising for an application of CdS nanoparticles as a label for biosensors.

  19. A review on bio-synthesized zinc oxide nanoparticles using plant extracts as reductants and stabilizing agents.

    Basnet, Parita; Inakhunbi Chanu, T; Samanta, Dhrubajyoti; Chatterjee, Somenath

    2018-06-01

    In the age of technology, nanoparticles have proven to be one of the essential needs for development. These nanoparticles have the potential to be used for a wide variety of applications, thereby, development in improving the quality of nanoparticles, to make them more application specific, is still under research. In this regard, an important point to note is that the procedures employed in synthesizing nanoparticles require to be cost-effective and less-steps involved and have an additional advantage, i.e. they should be eco-friendly. This means that the synthesis procedure needs avoiding the use of harmful chemicals, and negligible generation of any noxious by-products. The green synthesis (biosynthesis) method employs simple procedures, easily available raw materials and ambiance for the synthesis process, where the precursors used are safe, with minute possibility for the production of harmful by-products. Considering these advantages, the current review includes a brief description on the various chemical and physical synthesis method of zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles with emphasis on the biosynthesis of ZnO nanoparticles using plant extracts (and briefly microbes), the phytochemicals present in the plant extracts, the plausible mechanisms involved in the formation of ZnO nanoparticles and applications of the as-synthesized ZnO nanoparticles as photocatalysts and microbial inhibitors. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Electrokinetic properties of PMAA functionalized NiFe2O4 nanoparticles synthesized by thermal plasma route

    Bhosale, Shivaji V.; Mhaske, Pravin; Kanhe, N.; Navale, A. B.; Bhoraskar, S. V.; Mathe, V. L.; Bhatt, S. K.

    2014-04-01

    The magnetic nickel ferrite (NiFe2O4) nanoparticles with an average size of 30nm were synthesised by Transferred arc DC Thermal Plasma route. The synthesized nickel ferrite nanoparticles were characterized by TEM and FTIR techniques. The synthesized nickel ferrite nanoparticles were further functionalized with PMAA (polymethacrylic acid) by self emulsion polymerization method and subsequently were characterized by FTIR and Zeta Analyzer. The variation of zeta potential with pH was systematically studied for both PMAA functionalized (PNFO) and uncoated nickel ferrite nanoparticles (NFO). The IEP (isoelectric points) for PNFO and NFO was determined from the graph of zeta potential vs pH. It was observed that the IEP for NFO was at 7.20 and for PNFO it was 2.52. The decrease in IEP of PNFO was attributed to the COOH functional group of PMAA.

  1. Plant Extract Synthesized PLA Nanoparticles for Controlled and Sustained Release of Quercetin: A Green Approach

    Yadav, Sudesh Kumar

    2012-01-01

    Background Green synthesis of metallic nanoparticles (NPs) has been extensively carried out by using plant extracts (PEs) which have property of stabilizers/ emulsifiers. To our knowledge, there is no comprehensive study on applying a green approach using PEs for fabrication of biodegradable PLA NPs. Conventional methods rely on molecules like polyvinyl alcohol, polyethylene glycol, D-alpha-tocopheryl poly(ethylene glycol 1000) succinate as stabilizers/emulsifiers for the synthesis of such biodegradable NPs which are known to be toxic. So, there is urgent need to look for stabilizers which are biogenic and non-toxic. The present study investigated use of PEs as stabilizers/emulsifiers for the fabrication of stable PLA NPs. Synthesized PLA NPs through this green process were explored for controlled release of the well known antioxidant molecule quercetin. Methodology/Principal Findings Stable PLA NPs were synthesized using leaf extracts of medicinally important plants like Syzygium cumini (1), Bauhinia variegata (2), Cedrus deodara (3), Lonicera japonica (4) and Eleaocarpus sphaericus (5). Small and uniformly distributed NPs in the size range 70±30 nm to 143±36 nm were formed with these PEs. To explore such NPs for drugs/ small molecules delivery, we have successfully encapsulated quercetin a lipophilic molecule on a most uniformly distributed PLA-4 NPs synthesized using Lonicera japonica leaf extract. Quercetin loaded PLA-4 NPs were observed for slow and sustained release of quercetin molecule. Conclusions This green approach based on PEs mediated synthesis of stable PLA NPs pave the way for encapsulating drug/small molecules, nutraceuticals and other bioactive ingredients for safer cellular uptake, biodistribution and targeted delivery. Hence, such PEs synthesized PLA NPs would be useful to enhance the therapeutic efficacy of encapsulated small molecules/drugs. Furthermore, different types of plants can be explored for the synthesis of PLA as well as other

  2. Microalgae associated Brevundimonas sp. MSK 4 as the nano particle synthesizing unit to produce antimicrobial silver nanoparticles.

    Rajamanickam, Karthic; Sudha, S S; Francis, Mebin; Sowmya, T; Rengaramanujam, J; Sivalingam, Periyasamy; Prabakar, Kandasamy

    2013-09-01

    The biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles and its antimicrobial property was studied using bacteria isolated from Spirulina products. Isolated bacteria were identified as Bacillus sp. MSK 1 (JX495945), Staphylococcus sp. MSK 2 (JX495946), Bacillus sp. MSK 3 (JX495947) and Brevundimonas sp. MSK 4 (JX495948). Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) were synthesized using bacterial culture filtrate with AgNO3. The initial syntheses of Ag nanoparticles were characterized by UV-vis spectrophotometer (by measuring the color change to intense brown). Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) study showed evidence that proteins are possible reducing agents and Energy-dispersive X-ray (EDX) study showing the metal silver as major signal. The structure of AgNPs was determined by Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). Synthesized Ag nanoparticles with an average size of 40-65 nm have antimicrobial property against human pathogens like Proteus vulgaris, Salmonella typhi, Vibrio cholera, Streptococcus sp., Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus, and Escherichia coli. Among the isolates Brevundimonas sp. MSK 4 alone showed good activity in both synthesis of AgNPs and antimicrobial activity. This work demonstrates the possible use of biological synthesized silver nanoparticles to combat the drug resistant problem. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Characterization and anti-Aspergillus flavus impact of nanoparticles synthesized by Penicillium citrinum

    Mohamed A. Yassin

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This work was conducted to evaluate the ability of grape molding fungus; Penicillium citrinum to synthesize silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs. The potency of biosynthesized Ag NPs was checked against the aflatoxigenic Aspergillus flavus var. columnaris, isolated from sorghum grains. Biosynthesized Ag NPs were characterized and confirmed in different ways. X ray diffraction (XRD, Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (EDS, Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM and optical absorption measurements confirmed the bio-synthesis of Ag NPs. The in vitro antifungal investigation showed that biosynthesized Ag NPs were capable of inhibiting the growth of aflatoxigenic A. flavus var. columnaris. Utilization of plant pathogenic fungi in the Ag NPs biosynthesis as well as the use of bio-Ag NPs to control fungal plant diseases instead of chemicals is promising. Further work is needed to confirm the efficacy of the bio-Ag NPs against different mycotoxigenic fungi and to determine the potent applicable doses.

  4. Structural phase transformations in KYF4:Er3+ nanoparticles synthesized by hydrothermal method for upconversion applications

    Yamini, S.; Priya, P. Sakthi; Gunaseelan, M.; Senthilselvan, J.

    2017-05-01

    KYF4:10%Er3+ upconversion nanoparticles was synthesized by hydrothermal method with potassium hydroxides (KOH) as precursor. Prepared samples were calcined at 600 °C using double crucible method. XRD patterns of as prepared KYF4 and KYF4:Er3+ samples confirm the tetragonal structure, which is well matched with the standard data. Surface morphology is recorded for 600 °C calcined samples using High resolution scanning electron microscopy (HRSEM) shows spheroidal shape with particle sizes of ˜80 nm. From UV-Visible and EDX spectroscopy presence of Er3+ in KYF4:10%Er3+ is confirmed. The prepared KYF4:10%Er3+ can be used to improve efficiency of solar cells, display devices and fiber optical telecommunication applications.

  5. Efficacy of plant-mediated synthesized silver nanoparticles against hematophagous parasites.

    Jayaseelan, Chidambaram; Rahuman, Abdul Abdul; Rajakumar, Govindasamy; Santhoshkumar, Thirunavukkarasu; Kirthi, Arivarasan Vishnu; Marimuthu, Sampath; Bagavan, Asokan; Kamaraj, Chinnaperumal; Zahir, Abdul Abduz; Elango, Gandhi; Velayutham, Kanayairam; Rao, Kokati Venkata Bhaskara; Karthik, Loganathan; Raveendran, Sankariah

    2012-08-01

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate the acaricidal and larvicidal activity against the larvae of Haemaphysalis bispinosa Neumann (Acarina: Ixodidae) and larvae of hematophagous fly Hippobosca maculata Leach (Diptera: Hippoboscidae) and against the fourth-instar larvae of malaria vector, Anopheles stephensi Liston, Japanese encephalitis vector, Culex tritaeniorhynchus Giles (Diptera: Culicidae) of synthesized silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) utilizing aqueous leaf extract from Musa paradisiaca L. (Musaceae). The color of the extract changed to light brown within an hour, and later it changed to dark brown during the 30-min incubation period. AgNPs results were recorded from UV-vis spectrum at 426 nm; Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) analysis confirmed that the bioreduction of Ag(+) ions to silver nanoparticles are due to the reduction by capping material of plant extract, X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns clearly illustrates that the nanoparticles formed in the present synthesis are crystalline in nature and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) support the biosynthesis and characterization of AgNPs with rod in shape and size of 60-150 nm. After reaction, the XRD pattern of AgNPs showed diffraction peaks at 2θ = 34.37°, 38.01°, 44.17°, 66.34° and 77.29° assigned to the (100), (111), (102), (110) and (120) planes, respectively, of a faced centre cubic (fcc) lattice of silver were obtained. For electron microscopic studies, a 25 μl sample was sputter-coated on copper stub, and the images of nanoparticles were studied using scanning electron microscopy. The spot EDX analysis showed the complete chemical composition of the synthesized AgNPs. The parasite larvae were exposed to varying concentrations of aqueous extract of M. paradisiaca and synthesized AgNPs for 24 h. In the present study, the percent mortality of aqueous extract of M. paradisiaca were 82, 71, 46, 29, 11 and 78, 66, 38, 31and 16 observed in the concentrations of 50, 40, 30, 20, 10 mg

  6. Spectroscopic and microscopic characterization of silver nanoparticles synthesized using Justicia adhatoda flower

    Singh, Tej; Shekhawat, Dharmender Singh; Jyoti, Kumari

    2018-05-01

    The synthesis of silver nanoparticles (SNPs) by chemical and physical methods produce harmful products which may cause various environmental problems, thus, there is an increasing demand to use ecofriendly methods. Therefore, biosynthesis of SNPs using Justicia adhatoda flower extract is demonstrated in the present study. The biosynthesized SNPs were characterized by UV-visible spectroscopy, Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), selected area electron diffraction (SAED) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) analysis. The result of UV-visible spectroscopy peaked at 417 nm corresponding to the plasmon absorbance of SNPs. The TEM and SAED result reveals the crystalline nature of SNPs. FTIR spectroscopy used to identify the possible biomolecules responsible for the conversion of silver ions to SNPs. The study concluded that Justicia adhatoda flower extract act as an excellent reducing agent and the green synthesized SNPs are safer to the environment.

  7. Supercapacitors studies on BiPO4 nanoparticles synthesized via a simple microwave approach

    S. Vadivel

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available BiPO4 nanomaterial was synthesized using EDTA (ethylene diamine tetra acetic acid as the surfactant via a simple microwave method. The structure and morphology of BiPO4 were systematically characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR, and scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM studies. The obtained BiPO4 nanoparticles were, on average, 150–300 nm. The electrochemical results showed that the specific capacitance of BiPO4 obtained using the microwave route was up to 104 Fg−1 at a current density of 1 Ag−1 with a large potential window of 1.7 V. The material showed excellent cycling stability (92% capacitance retention after 500 cycles at a current density of 1 Ag−1.

  8. Structural variation study of cobalt nanoparticles synthesized by co-precipitation method using 59Co NMR

    Manjunatha, M.; Kumar, Rajeev; B. M., Siddesh; Sahoo, Balaram; Damle, R.; Ramesh, K. P.

    2018-04-01

    We have synthesized cobalt nanoparticles using co-precipitation method. Further, the two phases of the cobalt is monitored by varying the synthesis parameters. 59Co NMR and XRD are used as characterization tools to study the phase variation in the cobalt samples. XRD and NMR results show a remarkable correlation in the two samples (Co-1 and Co-2). Co-2 has predominant fcc and hcp phases, whereas, Co-1 has fcc phase with lower amount of hcp. Both the samples show same saturation magnetization (Ms) but there is a remarkable difference in the phase composition. Thus, 59Co NMR appears to be a good tool to identify the phase purity of the ferromagnetic cobalt samples.

  9. Raman spectroscopy of carbon nano-particles synthesized by laser ablation of graphite in water

    Cardenas, J. F.; Cadenbach, T.; Costa V, C.; Paz, J. L. [Escuela Politecnica Nacional, Departamento de Fisica, Apdo. 17-12-866, Ladron de Guevara E11-253, EC 170109, Quito (Ecuador); Zhang, Z. B.; Zhang, S. L. [Institutionen for teknikvetenskaper, Fasta tillstandets elektronik, Angstromlaboratoriet, Lagerhyddsvagen, 1 Box 534, 751-21 Uppsala (Sweden); Debut, A.; Vaca, A. V., E-mail: cardenas9291@gmail.com [Centro de Nanociencia y Nanotecnologia, Universidad de las Fuerzas Armadas ESPE, Sangolqui (Ecuador)

    2017-11-01

    Carbon nanoparticles (CNPs) have been synthesized by laser ablation of polycrystalline graphite in water using a pulsed Nd:YAG laser (1064 nm) with a width of 8 ns. Structural and mesoscopic characterization of the CNPs in the supernatant by Raman spectroscopy provide evidence for the presence of mainly two ranges of particle sizes: 1-5 nm and 10-50 nm corresponding to amorphous carbon and graphite Nps, respectively. These results are corroborated by complementary characterization using atomic force microscopy (AFM) and transmission electron microscopy (Tem). In addition, large (10-100 μm) graphite particles removed from the surface are essentially unmodified (in structure and topology) by the laser as confirmed by Raman analysis. (Author)

  10. In Vivo toxicological assessment of biologically synthesized silver nanoparticles in adult Zebrafish (Danio rerio)

    Krishnaraj, Chandran, E-mail: krishnarajbio@gmail.com [Department of Food Science & Technology, College of Agriculture & Life Sciences, Chonbuk National University, Jeonju 561-756 (Korea, Republic of); Harper, Stacey L. [Department of Environmental and Molecular Toxicology, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR 97331 (United States); Yun, Soon-Il, E-mail: siyun@jbnu.ac.kr [Department of Food Science & Technology, College of Agriculture & Life Sciences, Chonbuk National University, Jeonju 561-756 (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-01-15

    Highlights: • Synthesis of AgNPs achieved using Malva crispa Linn., leaves extract. • 96 h LC{sub 50} concentration of AgNPs was observed at 142.2 μg/l in adult zebrafish. • Cytological changes and intrahepatic localization of AgNPs were demonstrated in tissues. • Presence of micronuclei and nuclear abnormalities were observed. • The mRNA expression of stress and immune response related genes were analyzed. - Abstract: The present study examines the deleterious effect of biologically synthesized silver nanoparticles in adult zebrafish. Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) used in the study were synthesized by treating AgNO{sub 3} with aqueous leaves extract of Malva crispa Linn., a medicinal herb as source of reductants. LC{sub 50} concentration of AgNPs at 96 h was observed as 142.2 μg/l. In order to explore the underlying toxicity mechanisms of AgNPs, half of the LC{sub 50} concentration (71.1 μg/l) was exposed to adult zebrafish for 14 days. Cytological changes and intrahepatic localization of AgNPs were observed in gills and liver tissues respectively, and the results concluded a possible sign for oxidative stress. In addition to oxidative stress the genotoxic effect was observed in peripheral blood cells like presence of micronuclei, nuclear abnormalities and also loss in cell contact with irregular shape was observed in liver parenchyma cells. Hence to confirm the oxidative stress and genotoxic effects the mRNA expression of stress related (MTF-1, HSP70) and immune response related (TLR4, NFKB, IL1B, CEBP, TRF, TLR22) genes were analyzed in liver tissues and the results clearly concluded that the plant extract mediated synthesis of AgNPs leads to oxidative stress and immunotoxicity in adult zebrafish.

  11. Innate catalytic and free radical scavenging activities of silver nanoparticles synthesized using Dillenia indica bark extract.

    Mohanty, Alfa S; Jena, Bhabani S

    2017-06-15

    A green approach was envisaged for the rapid synthesis of stable silver nanoparticles in an aqueous medium using phenolic rich ethanolic bark extract from D. indica with marked free radical scavenging and reducing ability. Biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) was confirmed and characterized by using UV-visible spectroscopy, particle size analyzer, X-ray diffractometry (XRD), Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FT-IR). Bio-reduction of Ag+ was confirmed with the appearance of golden yellow coloration within 5-10min at 45°C with maximum absorbance at 421nm. XRD analysis of AgNPs indicated the crystalline nature of metallic Ag. As analyzed by TEM, AgNPs were found to be spherical in shape, well dispersed and size varied from 15 to 35nm and dynamic light scattering (DLS) studies showed the average particle size of 29nm with polydispersity index (PDI) of 0.280. Synthesized AgNPs were showing surface functionalization as revealed through FTIR studies. These AgNPs were observed to be highly stable at room temperature (28±2°C) for more than 3months, thereby indicating the ethanolic extract of D. indica was a reducing as well as a capping agent for stabilization of AgNPs. Moreover, these green synthesized AgNPs showed enhanced free radical scavenging and excellent catalytic activities when used in the reduction of 4-nitrophenol and methylene blue dye, at room temperature. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Determining the effects of green chemistry synthesized Ag-nisin nanoparticle on macrophage cells.

    Moein, Masood; Imani Fooladi, Abbas Ali; Mahmoodzadeh Hosseini, Hamideh

    2018-01-01

    Bacteriocins are low molecular weight substances produced through post transcriptional changes. These molecules are easily degraded in mammalian gut by proteolytic enzymes especially protease. Nisin is a peptide with 34 aa and its structure contains a pentacyclic lanthionine and 4 beta metyllanthionine residues. Different formulations have been designed for nisin. Since "green synthesis" is a progressive method to prepare anti-microbial and anti-cancer compounds, this study aimed at green synthesis of nisin metal compounds to be used lower concentration still exerting nisin effects. For this purpose, a 1 mg/ml nisin solution was added to a 1 mM silver nitrate solution and incubated to synthesis nano Ag-nisin, then the optical density of new solution was detected using UV spectroscopy. To determine biomolecules in the Ag-nisin solution, the FTIR method was employed. The size and morphology of Ag-nisin was measured by TEM. The toxicity, inflammatory cytokines production, and intracellular ROS quantity was evaluated using MTT, ELISA and flow-cytometry. XRD pattern indicated the silver crystals in Ag-nisin solution. In addition, FTRI findings showed that the carbonyl groups of amino acid are potently able to bind to metal nanoparticles, cover, and prevent them from particle agglomeration. Treating macrophage cells with 10, 25, 50 and 100 μg/ml of Ag-nisin had no significant effect on the cell viability and intracellular ROS quantity compared to the control group. In addition, different concentrations of Ag-nisin had no effect on the IL-10 and TNF-α levels but caused an increased level of IL-12 in comparison with the control group. In the current study, for the first time, green synthesize was used to prepare Ag-nisin particles. The synthesized nanoparticle is able to induce inflammatory activity via increasing IL-12 without any change in the TNF-α level in macrophage cells. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  13. Evaluation of antimicrobial activity of silver nanoparticles synthesized from Piper betle leaves against human and plant pathogens

    Jha, Babita; Rao, Mugdha; Prasad, K.; Jha, Anal K.

    2018-05-01

    The present work encompasses the fabrication of biocompatible silver nanoparticles from the leaves of the medicinal plant Piper betle using green chemistry approach. The synthesized nanoparticles were characterized by different standard techniques like: UV-visible spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy. The antimicrobial efficacy of the silver nanoparticles was assessed against human and plant pathogens namely Ralstonia solanacearum, Burkholderia gladioli, Escherichia coli and Sacchromyces cerevisiae by agar well diffusion method. The obtained results clearly indicate its possible use as an alternative to antibiotics and pesticides in near future.

  14. Bactericidal, structural and morphological properties of ZnO2 nanoparticles synthesized under UV or ultrasound irradiation

    Colonia, R; Solís, J L; Gómez, M

    2014-01-01

    Nanoparticles of ZnO 2 were synthesized by a sol–gel method using Zn(CH 3 COO) 2 and H 2 O 2 in an aqueous solution exposed to either ultraviolet (UV) or ultrasound irradiation. X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy showed that the nanostructures consisted of spherical blackberry-like clusters. Nanoparticles fabricated by using UV irradiation had smaller sizes and narrower size distributions than nanoparticles prepared by using ultrasound. Bacillus subtilis (B. subtilis), Escherichia coli (E. coli) and Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) were used as test microorganisms, and the antibacterial activity of the ZnO 2 nanoparticles was studied by use of the well diffusion agar bacteriological test. ZnO 2 nanoparticles synthetized using UV had the best antibacterial properties. The inhibition zone was largest for B. subtilis but was present also for S. aureus and E. coli. (paper)

  15. Cadmium Sulfide Nanoparticles Synthesized by Microwave Heating for Hybrid Solar Cell Applications

    Claudia Martínez-Alonso

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Cadmium sulfide nanoparticles (CdS-n are excellent electron acceptor for hybrid solar cell applications. However, the particle size and properties of the CdS-n products depend largely on the synthesis methodologies. In this work, CdS-n were synthetized by microwave heating using thioacetamide (TA or thiourea (TU as sulfur sources. The obtained CdS-n(TA showed a random distribution of hexagonal particles and contained TA residues. The latter could originate the charge carrier recombination process and cause a low photovoltage (Voc, 0.3 V in the hybrid solar cells formed by the inorganic particles and poly(3-hexylthiophene (P3HT. Under similar synthesis conditions, in contrast, CdS-n synthesized with TU consisted of spherical particles with similar size and contained carbonyl groups at their surface. CdS-n(TU could be well dispersed in the nonpolar P3HT solution, leading to a Voc of about 0.6–0.8 V in the resulting CdS-n(TU : P3HT solar cells. The results of this work suggest that the reactant sources in microwave methods can affect the physicochemical properties of the obtained inorganic semiconductor nanoparticles, which finally influenced the photovoltaic performance of related hybrid solar cells.

  16. Structural and optical properties of chromium doped zinc oxide nanoparticles synthesized by sol-gel method

    Naqvi, Syed Mohd. Adnan, E-mail: adiaks2004@yahoo.co.in [Department of Fundamental and Applied Sciences, Universiti Teknologi Petronas, Bandar Seri Iskandar, Perak (Malaysia); Irshad, Kashif, E-mail: alig.kashif@gmail.com [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Universiti Teknologi Petronas, Bandar Seri Iskandar, Perak (Malaysia); Soleimani, Hassan, E-mail: hassan.soleimani@petronas.com.my, E-mail: noorhana-yahya@petronas.com.my; Yahya, Noorhana, E-mail: hassan.soleimani@petronas.com.my, E-mail: noorhana-yahya@petronas.com.my

    2014-10-24

    Nanosized Cr-doped ZnO nano particles were synthesized by facile sol-gel auto combustion method. The structural and optical properties of Cr-doped ZnO nanoparticles have been investigated by XRD and UV-Vis spectroscopy at room temperature for 0% to 8% concentration. X-ray diffraction analysis reveals that the Cr-doped ZnO crystallizes in a single phase polycrystalline nature with wurtzite lattice. With every % of doping, the peaks are shifting scarcely and doping of Cr is possible up to 7%. After that, the last peak vanishes, that signifies its structure is transmuted from 8% doping. The average crystallite size decreases with increase in Cr concentration (i.e. 28.9 nm for 0% to 25.8 nm for 8%). The UV-Vis spectra of the nanoparticles betoken an incrementation in the band gap energy from 3.401, 3.415, 3.431, 3.437,3.453, 3.514,3.521, 3.530 and 3.538 eV respectively, for 0,1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7 and 8 % doping concentration.

  17. Large Marks-decahedral Pd nanoparticles synthesized by a modified hydrothermal method using a homogeneous reactor

    Zhao, Haiqiang; Qi, Weihong, E-mail: qiwh216@csu.edu.cn; Ji, Wenhai; Wang, Tianran; Peng, Hongcheng; Wang, Qi; Jia, Yanlin; He, Jieting [Central South University, School of Materials Science and Engineering (China)

    2017-05-15

    Fivefold symmetry appears only in small particles and quasicrystals because internal stress in the particles increases with the particle size. However, a typical Marks decahedron with five re-entrant grooves located at the ends of the twin boundaries can further reduce the strain energy. During hydrothermal synthesis, it is difficult to stir the reaction solution contained in a digestion high-pressure tank because of the relatively small size and high-temperature and high-pressure sealed environment. In this work, we optimized a hydrothermal reaction system by replacing the conventional drying oven with a homogeneous reactor to shift the original static reaction solution into a full mixing state. Large Marks-decahedral Pd nanoparticles (~90 nm) have been successfully synthesized in the optimized hydrothermal synthesis system. Additionally, in the products, round Marks-decahedral Pd particles were also found for the first time. While it remains a challenge to understand the growth mechanism of the fivefold twinned structure, we proposed a plausible growth-mediated mechanism for Marks-decahedral Pd nanoparticles based on observations of the synthesis process.

  18. Synthesis and Raman analysis of SnS nanoparticles synthesized by PVP assisted polyol method

    Baby, Benjamin Hudson; Mohan, D. Bharathi, E-mail: d.bharathimohan@gmail.com [Department of Physics, School of Physical, Chemical and Applied Sciences, Pondicherry University, R.V. Nagar, Kalapet, Puducherry-605014 (India)

    2015-06-24

    SnS film was prepared by a simple drop casting method after synthesizing SnS nanoparticles by using PVP assisted polyol method. Confocal Raman study was carried out for the as deposited and annealed (150, 300 and 400 °C) films at two different excitation wavelengths 514 and 785 nm. At the excitation wavelength of 514 nm, the Raman modes showed for a mixed phase of SnS and SnS{sub 2} up to 150 °C and then only a pure SnS phase was observed up to 400 °C due to the dissociation of SnS{sub 2} in to SnS by releasing S. The increase in intensity of Raman (A{sub g} and B{sub 3g}) as well as IR (B{sub 3u}) active modes of SnS are observed with increasing annealing temperature at excitation wavelength 785 nm due to the increased crystallinity and inactiveness of SnS{sub 2} modes. X-ray diffraction confirming the formation of a single phase of SnS while the greater homogeneity in both size and shape of SnS nanoparticles were confirmed through surface morphology from SEM.

  19. Large Marks-decahedral Pd nanoparticles synthesized by a modified hydrothermal method using a homogeneous reactor

    Zhao, Haiqiang; Qi, Weihong; Ji, Wenhai; Wang, Tianran; Peng, Hongcheng; Wang, Qi; Jia, Yanlin; He, Jieting

    2017-01-01

    Fivefold symmetry appears only in small particles and quasicrystals because internal stress in the particles increases with the particle size. However, a typical Marks decahedron with five re-entrant grooves located at the ends of the twin boundaries can further reduce the strain energy. During hydrothermal synthesis, it is difficult to stir the reaction solution contained in a digestion high-pressure tank because of the relatively small size and high-temperature and high-pressure sealed environment. In this work, we optimized a hydrothermal reaction system by replacing the conventional drying oven with a homogeneous reactor to shift the original static reaction solution into a full mixing state. Large Marks-decahedral Pd nanoparticles (~90 nm) have been successfully synthesized in the optimized hydrothermal synthesis system. Additionally, in the products, round Marks-decahedral Pd particles were also found for the first time. While it remains a challenge to understand the growth mechanism of the fivefold twinned structure, we proposed a plausible growth-mediated mechanism for Marks-decahedral Pd nanoparticles based on observations of the synthesis process.

  20. Removal of pathogenic bacteria from wastewater using silver nanoparticles synthesized by two fungal species

    Mohammed Taha Moustafa

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Nanotechnology are fast advancing and currently became more effective than the conventional technologies used in water treatment that offers safe opportunities for using unconventional water supply sources. Fungi are more versatile in growth and metal tolerance in contrast to bacterial population. This work aims to demonstrate the extracellular synthesis of silver nanoparticle by using two filamentous fungi Penciillium Citreonigum Dierck and Scopulaniopsos brumptii Salvanet-Duval isolated from Lake Burullus, examine the biosynthesized nano-silver particles by UV–vis spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy (TEM. The functional group of protein molecules surrounding AgNPs was identified using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR analysis. Check the antibacterial activity of biosynthesized silver nanoparticles at two concentrations (550.7 and 676.9 mg/l and interact it with bacteria for different durations (15, 60 and 120 min. Polyurethane foam was used as silver carrier and nano-silver solution for the removal of pathogenic bacteria in polluted water. The synthesized AgNPs showed an excellent antibacterial property on gram positive and gram negative bacterial strains.

  1. Structural and optical properties of chromium doped zinc oxide nanoparticles synthesized by sol-gel method

    Naqvi, Syed Mohd. Adnan; Irshad, Kashif; Soleimani, Hassan; Yahya, Noorhana

    2014-01-01

    Nanosized Cr-doped ZnO nano particles were synthesized by facile sol-gel auto combustion method. The structural and optical properties of Cr-doped ZnO nanoparticles have been investigated by XRD and UV-Vis spectroscopy at room temperature for 0% to 8% concentration. X-ray diffraction analysis reveals that the Cr-doped ZnO crystallizes in a single phase polycrystalline nature with wurtzite lattice. With every % of doping, the peaks are shifting scarcely and doping of Cr is possible up to 7%. After that, the last peak vanishes, that signifies its structure is transmuted from 8% doping. The average crystallite size decreases with increase in Cr concentration (i.e. 28.9 nm for 0% to 25.8 nm for 8%). The UV-Vis spectra of the nanoparticles betoken an incrementation in the band gap energy from 3.401, 3.415, 3.431, 3.437,3.453, 3.514,3.521, 3.530 and 3.538 eV respectively, for 0,1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7 and 8 % doping concentration

  2. XANES studies of titanium dioxide nanoparticles synthesized by using Peltophorum pterocarpum plant extract

    Saravanan, S. [Centre for Photonics and Nanotechnology, Sona College of Technology, Salem 636005, Tamilnadu (India); Balamurugan, M., E-mail: chem.muruga@gmail.com [Centre for Photonics and Nanotechnology, Sona College of Technology, Salem 636005, Tamilnadu (India); Lippitz, A. [Bundesanstalt für Materialforschung und -prüfung, 6.8 Oberflächenanalytik und Grenzflächenchemie Unter den Eichen 44 – 46, 12203, Berlin (Germany); Fonda, E.; Swaraj, S. [Synchrotron SOLEIL, L’ormes des merisiers, Saint Aubin BP-48, 91192, Gif-Sur-Yvette Cedex (France)

    2016-12-15

    The preparation and characterization of a Titanium dioxide (TiO{sub 2}) by a simple, cost effective, facile and eco-friendly green synthesis method using Peltophorum pterocarpum plant extract is presented. The green synthesized nanoparticles were characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman spectroscopy, High-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HR-TEM) and X-ray absorption near edge spectroscopy (XANES). XRD results show that the prepared TiO{sub 2} NPs were significantly crystalline with various percentages of anatase and rutile phases. The nanoparticles were found to have different diameters ranging from 20 to 80 nm. No evidence of any intermediate or different TiO{sub 2} phases were found in XANES measurements performed at the Ti K- and L-edge. It is shown that the TiO{sub 2} NPs with high uniformity, high surface area and minimum aggregation can be prepared with relative ease and the desired anatase: rutile phase ratio can be obtained by controlling the experimental conditions.

  3. Size- and Shape-Dependent Antibacterial Studies of Silver Nanoparticles Synthesized by Wet Chemical Routes

    Muhammad Akram Raza

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs of different shapes and sizes were prepared by solution-based chemical reduction routes. Silver nitrate was used as a precursor, tri-sodium citrate (TSC and sodium borohydride as reducing agents, while polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP was used as a stabilizing agent. The morphology, size, and structural properties of obtained nanoparticles were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM, UV-visible spectroscopy (UV-VIS, and X-ray diffraction (XRD techniques. Spherical AgNPs, as depicted by SEM, were found to have diameters in the range of 15 to 90 nm while lengths of the edges of the triangular particles were about 150 nm. The characteristic surface plasmon resonance (SPR peaks of different spherical silver colloids occurring in the wavelength range of 397 to 504 nm, whereas triangular particles showed two peaks, first at 392 nm and second at 789 nm as measured by UV-VIS. The XRD spectra of the prepared samples indicated the face-centered cubic crystalline structure of metallic AgNPs. The in vitro antibacterial properties of all synthesized AgNPs against two types of Gram-negative bacteria, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Escherichia coli were examined by Kirby–Bauer disk diffusion susceptibility method. It was noticed that the smallest-sized spherical AgNPs demonstrated a better antibacterial activity against both bacterial strains as compared to the triangular and larger spherical shaped AgNPs.

  4. Optical properties of Germanium nanoparticles synthesized by pulsed laser ablation in acetone

    Saikiran eVadavalli

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Germanium (Ge nanoparticles (NPs are synthesized by means of pulsed laser ablation of bulk germanium target immersed in acetone with ns laser pulses at different pulse energies. The fabricated NPs are characterized by employing different techniques such as UV-visible absorption spectroscopy, photoluminescence, micro-Raman spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy (TEM and field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM. The mean size of the Ge NPs is found to vary from few nm to 40 nm with the increase in laser pulse energy. Shift in the position of the absorption spectra is observed and also the photoluminescence peak shift is observed due to quantum confinement effects. High resolution TEM combined with micro-Raman spectroscopy confirms the crystalline nature of the generated germanium nanoparticles. The formation of various sizes of germanium NPs at different laser pulse energies is evident from the asymmetry in the Raman spectra and the shift in its peak position towards the lower wavenumber side. The FESEM micrographs confirm the formation of germanium micro/nanostructures at the laser ablated position of the bulk germanium. In particular, the measured NP sizes from the micro-Raman phonon quantum confinement model are found in good agreement with TEM measurements of Ge NPs.

  5. Effects of ultrasound-related variables on sonochemically synthesized SAPO-34 nanoparticles

    Askari, Sima; Halladj, Rouein

    2013-01-01

    The sonochemical method was developed to synthesize uniform SAPO-34 (silicoaluminophosphate molecular sieve) nanoparticles with high crystallinity using TEAOH as a structure-directing agent (SDA). The physicochemical characteristics of SAPO-34 products, i.e. crystallinity, particle size and shape can be controlled by varying the ultrasonic-related variable such as ultrasound power intensity, ultrasonic irradiation time, sonication temperature and geometrical characteristics of the ultrasonic device (e.g., sonotrode size). The products were characterized by XRD, SEM, TEM and BET. It is found that each of the parameters can play a significant role in acoustic cavitation, number of nuclei and the crystal growth. The experimental data establish that the crystallinity is related to ultrasonic intensity and diameter of the sonotrode, as well as sonication temperature. By increasing the ultrasonic power, duration and the sonication temperature, the mean sizes of particles decrease and the morphology of the products efficiently alters from spherical aggregates of cube type SAPO-34 particles to uniform spherical nanoparticles. - Graphical abstract: Increasing US power by increasing either US power intensity or the sonotrode diameter leads to smaller particle size and the morphology changes from spherical aggregates of cubic particles to uniform nanospheres. Highlights: ► Effects of ultrasonic parameters on sonochemical synthesis of SAPO-34 nanoparticles. ► The higher crystallinity by increasing ultrasonic power, duration and sonication temperature. ► The morphology changes from spherical aggregates of cubic particles to uniform nanospheres. ► Decreasing the particle size by increasing ultrasonic power, duration and sonication temperature

  6. Physicochemical characterization of silver nanoparticles synthesize using Aloe Vera (Aloe barbadensis)

    Kuponiyi, Abiola; Kassama, Lamin; Kukhtareva, Tatiana

    2014-08-01

    Production of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) using different biological methods is gaining recognition due to their multiple applications. Although, several physical and chemical methods have been used for the synthesis and stabilizing of AgNPs, yet, a green chemistry method is preferable because it is cost effective and environmentally friendly. The synthesis was done using Aloe Vera (AV) extract because it has chemical compounds such as "Antrokinon" that are known for its antibacterial, antivirus and anticancer properties. We hypothesize that AV extract can produce a stable nanoparticles within the 100 nm range and be biologically active. The biological compounds were extracted from AV skin with water and ethanol which was used as the reduction agent for the synthesis of nanoparticles. The biological extract and AgNO3 were blended and heated to synthesize AgNPs. The reaction process was monitored using UV-Visible spectroscopy. Fourier Transfer Infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) was used for the characterization of biological compounds and their substituent groups before and after the reaction process. Dynamic Light scattering (DLS) method was used to characterize particle size of AgNPs and their biomolecular stability. Results showed that biological compounds such as aliphatic amines, alkenes (=C-H), alkanes (C-H), alcohol (O-H) and unsaturated esters(C-O), which has an average particle size of 109 and 215.8 nm and polydispersity index of 0.451 and 0.375 for ethanol and water extract, respectively. According to TEM measurements the size of AgNPs are in the range 5-20 nm The results suggested that ethanol derived AgNPs contained higher yield of organic compounds, thus has better solubility power than water. Ag NPs can be used to control salmonella in poultry industry.

  7. Biogenic selenium and tellurium nanoparticles synthesized by environmental microbial isolates efficaciously inhibit bacterial planktonic cultures and biofilms

    Emanuele eZonaro

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The present study deals with Se0- and Te0-based nanoparticles bio-synthesized by two selenite- and tellurite-reducing bacterial strains, namely Stenotrophomonas maltophilia SeITE02 and Ochrobactrum sp. MPV1, isolated from polluted sites. We discovered that, by regulating culture conditions and exposure time to the selenite and tellurite oxyanions, differently sized zero-valent Se and Te nanoparticles were produced. The results revealed that these Se0 and Te0 nanoparticles possess antimicrobial and biofilm eradication activity against E. coli JM109, P. aeruginosa PAO1, and S. aureus ATCC 25923. In particular, Se0 nanoparticles exhibited antimicrobial activity at quite low concentrations, below that of selenite. Toxic effects of both Se0 and Te0 nanoparticles can be related to the production of reactive oxygen species upon exposure of the bacterial cultures. Evidence so far achieved suggests that the antimicrobial activity seems to be strictly linked to the dimensions of the nanoparticles: indeed, the highest activity was shown by nanoparticles of smaller sizes. In particular, it is worth noting how the bacteria tested in biofilm mode responded to the treatment by Se0 and Te0 nanoparticles with a susceptibility similar to that observed in planktonic cultures. This suggests a possible exploitation of both Se0 and Te0 nanoparticles as efficacious antimicrobial agents with a remarkable biofilm eradication capacity.

  8. Silver Nanoparticles Synthesized Using Wild Mushroom Show Potential Antimicrobial Activities against Food Borne Pathogens

    Yugal Kishore Mohanta

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The present study demonstrates an economical and eco-friendly method for the synthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs using the wild mushroom Ganoderma sessiliforme. The synthesis of AgNPs was confirmed and the products characterized by UV-visible spectroscopy, dynamic light scattering spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction analysis. Furthermore, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR analysis was performed to identify the viable biomolecules involved in the capping and active stabilization of AgNPs. Moreover, the average sizes and morphologies of AgNPs were analyzed by field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM. The potential impacts of AgNPs on food safety and control were evaluated by the antimicrobial activity of the synthesized AgNPs against common food-borne bacteria, namely, Escherichia coli, Bacillus subtilis, Streptococcus faecalis, Listeria innocua and Micrococcus luteus. The results of this study revealed that the synthesized AgNPs can be used to control the growth of food-borne pathogens and have potential application in the food packaging industry. Moreover, the AgNPs were evaluated for antioxidant activity (DPPH, for biocompatibility (L-929, normal fibroblast cells, and for cytotoxic effects on human breast adenosarcoma cells (MCF-7 & MDA-MB231 to highlight their potential for use in a variety of bio-applications.

  9. One pot synthesized Li, Zr doped porous silica nanoparticle for low temperature CO2 adsorption

    Mani Ganesh

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Li, Zr doped porous silica was synthesized in one pot and investigated for low temperature CO2 adsorption. The synthesized nanoparticle was characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD, N2 adsorption–desorption measurement, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA and scanning electron microscopy (SEM. The specific surface area, average pore diameter and pore volume were determined to be 962 m2/g, 2.3 nm and 0.56 cm3/g respectively. ICP-AES analysis revealed a metal content of 4 wt.% (Zr and 3.42 wt.% (Li. Their CO2 adsorption capacity was tested at room temperature and atmospheric pressure. An uptake of about 5 wt.% was observed and regenerable at a low temperature of 200 °C. This adsorption and desorption temperature of the sorbent is lower than the reported lithium silicate. The CO2 adsorption–desorption cyclic performance studies illustrated that Li, Zr doped porous silica is a recyclable, selective and potential sorbent for CO2 adsorption.

  10. Antibacterial Activity of Electrochemically Synthesized Colloidal Silver Nanoparticles Against Hospital-Acquired Infections

    Thuc, Dao Tri; Huy, Tran Quang; Hoang, Luc Huy; Hoang, Tran Huy; Le, Anh-Tuan; Anh, Dang Duc

    2017-06-01

    This study evaluated the antibacterial activity of electrochemically synthesized colloidal silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) against hospital-acquired infections. Colloidal AgNPs were synthesized via a single process using bulk silver bars, bi-distilled water, trisodium citrate, and direct current voltage at room temperature. Colloidal AgNPs were characterized by transmission electron microscopy, field-emission scanning electron microscopy, and energy-dispersive x-ray analyses. The antibacterial activity of colloidal AgNPs against four bacterial strains isolated from clinical samples, including methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli O157:H7, multidrug-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and carbapenem-resistant Klebsiella pneumonia, was evaluated by disc diffusion, minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC), and ultrathin sectioning electron microscopy. The results showed that the prepared AgNPs were 19.7 ± 4.3 nm in size, quasi-spherical, and of high purity. Zones of inhibition approximately 6-10 mm in diameter were found, corresponding to AgNPs concentrations of 50 μg/mL to 100 μg/mL. The MIC results revealed that the antibacterial activity of the prepared AgNPs was strongly dependent on the concentration and strain of the tested bacteria.

  11. Morphology evolution of ZrB2 nanoparticles synthesized by sol-gel method

    Zhang Yun; Li Ruixing; Jiang Yanshan; Zhao Bin; Duan Huiping; Li Junping; Feng Zhihai

    2011-01-01

    Zirconium diboride (ZrB 2 ) nanoparticles were synthesized by sol-gel method using zirconium n-propoxide (Zr(OPr) 4 ), boric acid (H 3 BO 3 ), sucrose (C 12 H 22 O 11 ), and acetic acid (AcOH). Clearly, it was a non-aqueous solution system at the very beginning of the reactions. Here, AcOH was used as both chemical modifier and solvent to control Zr(OPr) 4 hydrolysis. Actually, AcOH could dominate the hydrolysis by self-produced water of the chemical propulsion, rather than the help of outer water. C 12 H 22 O 11 was selected, since it can be completely decomposed to carbon. Thus, carbon might be accounted precisely for the carbothermal reduction reaction. Furthermore, we investigated the influence of the gelation temperature on the morphology of ZrB 2 particles. Increasing the gelation temperature, the particle shapes changed from sphere-like particles at 65 deg. C to a particle chain at 75 deg. C, and then form rod-like particles at 85 deg. C. An in-depth HRTEM observation revealed that the nanoparticles of ZrB 2 were gradually fused together to evolve into a particle chain, finally into a rod-like shape. These crystalline nature of ZrB 2 related to the gelation temperature obeyed the 'oriented attachment mechanism' of crystallography. - Graphical Abstract: Increasing the gelation temperature, the particle shapes changed from sphere-like particles at 65 deg. C to a particle chain at 75 deg. C, and then form rod-like particles at 85 deg. C. Highlights: → ZrB 2 nanoparticles were synthesized by sol-gel method in an non-aqueous solution system. → AcOH was used as both chemical modifier and solvent to control Zr(OPr) 4 hydrolysis. → C 12 H 22 O 11 was selected since it can be completely decomposed to carbon. → Increasing the gelation temperature, the particles changed from sphere-like to rod-like ones. → Crystalline nature of ZrB 2 obeyed the 'oriented attachment mechanism' of crystallography.

  12. Methods to synthesize NiPt bimetallic nanoparticles by a reversed-phase microemulsion, deposition of NiPt bimetallic nanoparticles on a support, and application of the supported catalyst for CO.sub.2 reforming of methane

    Biausque, Gregory; Laveille, Paco; Anjum, Dalaver H.; Caps, Valerie; Basset, Jean-Marie

    2015-01-01

    Methods to synthesize NiPt bimetallic nanoparticles by a reversed-phase microemulsion, deposition of NiPt bimetallic nanoparticles on a support, and application of the supported catalyst for CO.sub.2 reforming of methane

  13. Methods to synthesize NiPt bimetallic nanoparticles by a reversed-phase microemulsion, deposition of NiPt bimetallic nanoparticles on a support, and application of the supported catalyst for CO.sub.2 reforming of methane

    Biausque, Gregory

    2015-04-28

    Methods to synthesize NiPt bimetallic nanoparticles by a reversed-phase microemulsion, deposition of NiPt bimetallic nanoparticles on a support, and application of the supported catalyst for CO.sub.2 reforming of methane

  14. Effect of Particle Size on the Magnetic Properties of Ni Nanoparticles Synthesized with Trioctylphosphine as the Capping Agent

    Toshitaka Ishizaki

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Magnetic cores of passive components are required to have low hysteresis loss, which is dependent on the coercive force. Since it is well known that the coercive force becomes zero at the superparamagnetic regime below a certain critical size, we attempted to synthesize Ni nanoparticles in a size-controlled fashion and investigated the effect of particle size on the magnetic properties. Ni nanoparticles were synthesized by the reduction of Ni acetylacetonate in oleylamine at 220 °C with trioctylphosphine (TOP as the capping agent. An increase in the TOP/Ni ratio resulted in the size decrease. We succeeded in synthesizing superparamagnetic Ni nanoparticles with almost zero coercive force at particle size below 20 nm by the TOP/Ni ratio of 0.8. However, the saturation magnetization values became smaller with decrease in the size. The saturation magnetizations of the Ni nanoparticles without capping layers were calculated based on the assumption that the interior atoms of the nanoparticles were magnetic, whereas the surface-oxidized atoms were non-magnetic. The measured and calculated saturation magnetization values decreased in approximately the same fashion as the TOP/Ni ratio increased, indicating that the decrease could be mainly attributed to increases in the amounts of capping layer and oxidized surface atoms.

  15. Sterilization of African Violet in the in Vitro Culture Using Synthesized Silver Nanoparticles by Two Plant Extracts

    M. Solgi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available One of the major advantages of in vitro culture of African violet (Saintpaulha ionantha is production of new cultivars and propagation of their chimera which might not be propagated by the other methods. In this study, we tested the effects of silver nanoparticles on the sterilization rate (antifungal and antibacterial activity, regeneration and shoot formation of African violet "Pink Amiss" explants. These nanoparticles were synthesized from pomegranate peels and Damask rose petals extracts. We used a completely randomized design test with factorial arrangement to investigate various volumetric ratios of plant extracts to silver nitrate (1:20, 1:10, 1:5 and 1:1 on the culture contaminations. Using silver nanoparticles synthesized by the plant extracts, especially Damask rose petals extract resulted in no fungal and bacterial contamination in the African violet explants after 1 and 3 weeks as compared to the control, and silver nitrate (1mM. All tested concentrations of the silver nanoparticles significantly (P &le 0.05 controlled both bacterial and fungal contaminations. The 1:20 ratio of plant extracts to silver nitrate showed the best control. In addition, the highest regeneration (%52 and shoot regeneration (%38 was observed in this treatment. In conclusion, we suggest using silver nanoparticles synthesized by plant extracts for sterilization of in Vitro Culture for African Violet rather than using other chemicals such as silver nitrate.

  16. Evaluation of tetraethoxysilane (TEOS) sol–gel coatings, modified with green synthesized zinc oxide nanoparticles for combating microfouling

    Krupa, A. Nithya Deva; Vimala, R., E-mail: vimala.r@vit.ac.in

    2016-04-01

    Green synthesis of zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO-NPs) is gaining importance as an eco-friendly alternative to conventional methods due to its enormous applications. The present work reports the synthesis of ZnO-NPs using the endosperm of Cocos nucifera (coconut water) and the bio-molecules responsible for nanoparticle formation have been identified. The synthesized nanoparticles were characterized using UV–Visible spectroscopy (UV–Vis), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) and Zeta potential measurement. The results obtained reveal that the synthesized nanoparticles are moderately stable with the size ranging from 20 to 80 nm. The bactericidal effect of the nanoparticles was proved by well diffusion assay and determination of minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) against marine biofilm forming bacteria. Further the green synthesized ZnO-NPs were doped with TEOS sol–gels (TESGs) in order to assess their antimicrofouling capability. Different volumes of liquid sol–gels were coated on to 96-well microtitre plate and cured under various conditions. The optimum curing conditions were found to be temperature 60 °C, time 72 h and volume 200 μl. Antiadhesion test of the undoped (SG) and ZnO-NP doped TEOS sol–gel (ZNSG) coatings were evaluated using marine biofilm forming bacteria. ZNSG coatings exhibited highest biofilm inhibition (89.2%) represented by lowest OD value against Pseudomonasotitidis strain NV1. - Highlights: • The study reports low cost, and simple procedure for the synthesis of ZnO-NPs using coconut water. • XRD result shows the high crystalline nature of the synthesized ZnO-NPs. • TEM and zeta potential distribution confirms the nanostructure, stability of the synthesized ZnO-NPs. • ZnO-NPs doped with TEOS sol¬-gels (TESGs) exhibited excellent antimicrofouling activity.

  17. High Efficient Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells Based on Synthesized SnO2 Nanoparticles

    W. M. N. M. B. Wanninayake

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, SnO2 semiconductor nanoparticles were synthesized for DSC applications via acid route using tin(ii chloride as a starting material and hydrothermal method through the use of tin(iv chloride. Powder X-ray diffraction studies confirmed the formation of the rutile phase of SnO2 with nanoranged particle sizes. A quasi-solid-state electrolyte was employed instead of a conventional liquid electrolyte in order to overcome the practical limitations such as electrolyte leakage, solvent evaporation, and sealing imperfections associated with liquid electrolytes. The gel electrolytes were prepared incorporating lithium iodide (LiI and tetrapropylammonium iodide (Pr4N+I− salts, separately, into the mixture which contains polyacrylonitrile as a polymer, propylene carbonate and ethylene carbonate as plasticizers, iodide/triiodide as the redox couple, acetonitrile as the solvent, and 4-tertiary butylpyridine as an electrolyte additive. In order to overcome the recombination problem associated with the SnO2 due to its higher electron mobility, ultrathin layer of CaCO3 coating was used to cover the surface recombination sites of SnO2 nanoparticles. Maximum energy conversion efficiency of 5.04% is obtained for the device containing gel electrolyte incorporating LiI as the salt. For the same gel electrolyte, the ionic conductivity and the diffusion coefficient of the triiodide ions are 4.70 × 10−3 S cm−1 and 4.31 × 10−7 cm2 s−1, respectively.

  18. Antibacterial Potential of Jatropha curcas Synthesized Silver Nanoparticles against Food Borne Pathogens

    Chauhan, Nitin; Tyagi, Amit K.; Kumar, Pushpendar; Malik, Anushree

    2016-01-01

    The aqueous leaf extract of Jatropha curcas was used for the synthesis of silver nanoparticles (Jc-AgNps) which were further evaluated for its antibacterial potential against food borne pathogens. J. curcas leaf extract could synthesize stable silver nanoparticles (Zeta potential: -23.4 mV) with absorption band at 430 nm. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy indicated various biological compounds responsible for capping and stabilizing Jc-AgNps in suspension, while the presence of silver was authenticated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) equipped with energy-dispersive X-ray. Jc-AgNps were confirmed to be uniform in shape, size and behavior through dynamic light scattering, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction, SEM, and atomic force microscopy (AFM) analysis. To investigate the antibacterial activity, disk diffusion and microplate dilution assays were performed and zone of inhibition (ZOI) as well as minimum inhibitory/bactericidal concentrations (MIC/MBCs) were evaluated against selected bacterial strains. Overall results showed that Escherichia coli (ZOI: 23 mm, MBC: 0.010 mg/ml) was the most sensitive organism, whereas Staphylococcus aureus (ZOI: 14.66 mm, MBC: 0.041 mg/ml) and Salmonella enterica (ZOI: 16.66 mm, MBC: 0.041 mg/ml) were the least sensitive against Jc-AgNps. The detailed microscopic investigations using SEM, TEM, and AFM were performed to understand the antibacterial impacts of Jc-AgNps against Listeria monocytogenes. SEM and TEM analysis showed the clear deformation and disintegration of treated L. monocytogenes cells, whereas AFM established a decrease in the height and cell surface roughness (root mean square value) in the treated L. monocytogenes. PMID:27877160

  19. Cytotoxicity and antiviral activity of electrochemical - synthesized silver nanoparticles against poliovirus.

    Huy, Tran Quang; Hien Thanh, Nguyen Thi; Thuy, Nguyen Thanh; Chung, Pham Van; Hung, Pham Ngoc; Le, Anh-Tuan; Hong Hanh, Nguyen Thi

    2017-03-01

    Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) have been proven to have noticeable cytotoxicity in vitro and antiviral activity against some types of enveloped viruses. This paper presents the cytotoxicity and antiviral activity of pure AgNPs synthesized by the electrochemical method, towards cell culture and poliovirus (a non-enveloped virus). Prepared AgNPs were characterized by ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy. Before incubation with poliovirus, different concentrations of AgNPs were added to human rhabdomyosarcoma (RD) cell monolayers seeded in 96 well plates for testing their cytotoxicity. The in vitro cytotoxicity and anti-poliovirus activity of AgNPs were daily assessed for cytopathic effect (CPE) through inverted light microscopy. CPE in the tested wells was determined in comparison with those in wells of negative and positive control. Structure analysis showed that AgNPs were formed with a quasi-spherical shape with mean size about 7.1nm and high purity. No CPE of RD cells was seen in wells at the time point of 48h post-incubation with AgNPs at concentration up to 100ppm. The anti-poliovirus activity of AgNPs was determined at 3.13ppm corresponding to the viral concentration of 1TCID 50 (Tissue Culture Infective Dose) after 30min, and 10TCID 50 after 60min, the cell viability was found up to 98% at 48h post-infection, with no CPE found. Whereas, a strong CPE of RD cells was found at 48h post-infection with the mixture of AgNPs and poliovirus at concentration of 100TCID 50 , and in wells of positive controls. With mentioned advantages, electrochemical-synthesized AgNPs are promising candidate for advanced biomedical and disinfection applications. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Highly sensitive and selective detection of dopamine using one-pot synthesized highly photoluminescent silicon nanoparticles.

    Zhang, Xiaodong; Chen, Xiaokai; Kai, Siqi; Wang, Hong-Yin; Yang, Jingjing; Wu, Fu-Gen; Chen, Zhan

    2015-03-17

    A simple and highly efficient method for dopamine (DA) detection using water-soluble silicon nanoparticles (SiNPs) was reported. The SiNPs with a high quantum yield of 23.6% were synthesized by using a one-pot microwave-assisted method. The fluorescence quenching capability of a variety of molecules on the synthesized SiNPs has been tested; only DA molecules were found to be able to quench the fluorescence of these SiNPs effectively. Therefore, such a quenching effect can be used to selectively detect DA. All other molecules tested have little interference with the dopamine detection, including ascorbic acid, which commonly exists in cells and can possibly affect the dopamine detection. The ratio of the fluorescence intensity difference between the quenched and unquenched cases versus the fluorescence intensity without quenching (ΔI/I) was observed to be linearly proportional to the DA analyte concentration in the range from 0.005 to 10.0 μM, with a detection limit of 0.3 nM (S/N = 3). To the best of our knowledge, this is the lowest limit for DA detection reported so far. The mechanism of fluorescence quenching is attributed to the energy transfer from the SiNPs to the oxidized dopamine molecules through Förster resonance energy transfer. The reported method of SiNP synthesis is very simple and cheap, making the above sensitive and selective DA detection approach using SiNPs practical for many applications.

  1. Structural and magnetic properties of cobalt ferrite nanoparticles synthesized by co-precipitation at increasing temperatures

    Stein, C. R.; Bezerra, M. T. S.; Holanda, G. H. A.; André-Filho, J.; Morais, P. C.

    2018-05-01

    This study reports on the synthesis and characterization of cobalt ferrite (CoFe2O4) nanoparticles (NPs) synthesized by chemical co-precipitation in alkaline medium at increasing temperatures in the range of 27 °C to 100 °C. High-quality samples in the size range of 5 to 10 nm were produced using very low stirring speed (250 rpm) and moderate alkaline aqueous solution concentration (4.8 mol/L). Three samples were synthesized and characterized by x-ray diffraction (XRD) and room-temperature (RT) magnetization measurements. All samples present superparamagnetic (SPM) behavior at RT and Rietveld refinements confirm the inverse cubic spinel structure (space group Fd-3m (227)) with minor detectable impurity phase. As the synthesis temperature increases, structural parameters such as lattice constant and grain size change monotonically from 8.385 to 8.383 Å and from 5.8 to 7.4 nm, respectively. Likewise, as the synthesis temperature increases the NPs' magnetic moment and saturation magnetization increases monotonically from 2.6 ×103 to 16×103 μB and from 37 to 66 emu/g, respectively. The RT magnetization (M) versus applied field (H) curves were analyzed by the first-order Langevin function averaged out by a lognormal distribution function of magnetic moments. The excellent curve-fitting of the M versus H data is credited to a reduced particle-particle interaction due to both the SPM behavior and the existence of a surface amorphous shell layer (dead layer), the latter reducing systematically as the synthesis temperature increases.

  2. Hyaluronic acid-modified hydrothermally synthesized iron oxide nanoparticles for targeted tumor MR imaging.

    Li, Jingchao; He, Yao; Sun, Wenjie; Luo, Yu; Cai, Hongdong; Pan, Yunqi; Shen, Mingwu; Xia, Jindong; Shi, Xiangyang

    2014-04-01

    We report a polyethyleneimine (PEI)-mediated approach to synthesizing hyaluronic acid (HA)-targeted magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (Fe3O4 NPs) for in vivo targeted tumor magnetic resonance (MR) imaging applications. In this work, Fe3O4 NPs stabilized by PEI were first synthesized via a one-pot hydrothermal method. The formed PEI-stabilized Fe3O4 NPs were then modified with fluorescein isothiocyanate (FI) and HA with two different molecular weights to obtain two different Fe3O4 NPs (Fe3O4-PEI-FI-HA6K and Fe3O4-PEI-FI-HA31K NPs) with a size of 15-16 nm. The formed HA-modified multifunctional Fe3O4 NPs were characterized via different techniques. We show that the multifunctional Fe3O4 NPs are water-dispersible and colloidal stable in different aqueous media. In vitro cell viability and hemolysis studies reveal that the particles are quite cytocompatible and hemocompatible in the given concentration range. Furthermore, confocal microscopy and flow cytometry data demonstrate that HA-targeted Fe3O4 NPs are able to be uptaken specifically by cancer cells overexpressing CD44 receptors, and be used as efficient probes for targeted MR imaging of cancer cells in vitro and xenografted tumor models in vivo. With the tunable amine-based conjugation chemistry, the PEI-stabilized Fe3O4 NPs may be functionalized with other biological ligands or drugs for diagnosis and therapy of different biological systems. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Antimicrobial Activities of Silver Nanoparticles Synthesized by Using Water Extract of Arnicae anthodium

    Dobrucka, Renata; Długaszewska, Jolanta

    2015-01-01

    Green synthesis of nanoparticles has gained significant importance in recent years and has become the one of the most preferred methods. Also, green synthesis of nanoparticles is valuable branch of nanotechnology. Plant extracts are eco-friendly and can be an economic option for synthesis of nanoparticles. This study presents method the synthesis of silver nanoparticles using water extract of Arnicae anthodium. Formation of silver nanoparticles was confirmed by UV–visble spectroscopy, Fourier...

  4. Bactericidal activity of bio-synthesized silver nanoparticles against human pathogenic bacteria

    Abalkhil, Tarad Abdulaziz; Alharbi, Sulaiman Ali; Salmen, Saleh Hussein; Wainwright, Milton

    2017-01-01

    Green synthesis is an attractive and eco-friendly approach to generate potent antibacterial silver nanoparticles (Ag-NPs). Such particles have long been used to fight bacteria and represent a promising tool to overcome the emergence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria. In this study, green synthesis of Ag-NPs was attempted using plant extracts of Aloe vera, Portulaca oleracea and Cynodon dactylon. The identity and size of Ag-NPs was characterized by ultraviolet–visible spectrophotometer and scanning electron microscopy. Monodispersed Ag-NPs were produced with a range of different sizes based on the plant extract used. The bactericidal activity of Ag-NPs against a number of human pathogenic bacteria was determined using the disc diffusion method. The results showed that Gram positive bacteria were more susceptible than Gram negative ones to these antibacterial agents. The minimum inhibitory concentration was determined using the 96- well plate method. Finally, the mechanism by which Ag-NPs affect bacteria was investigated by SEM analysis. Bacteria treated with Ag-NPs were seen to undergo shrinkage and to lose their viability. This study provides evidence for a cheap and effective method for synthesizing potent bactericidal Ag-NPs and demonstrates their effectiveness against human pathogenic bacteria

  5. Effect of surfactant concentration on the size of one-pot synthesized Si nanoparticles

    Lee, Su Jung; Kim, Tae Woo; Lee, Myong Euy [Dept. of Chemistry and Medical Chemistry, College of Science and Technology, Research and EducationCenter for Advanced Silicon Materials, Yonsei University, Wonju (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Hyeon Mo [University College, Yonsei University, Incheon (Korea, Republic of); Yoon, Sang Woong [Youngchang Chemical Co., LTD, Seongnam (Korea, Republic of); Ryou, Joon Sung [Advanced Technology R and D Center, SKC, Suwon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-07-15

    The effect of surfactant concentration on the synthesis of Si nanoparticles (NPs) was studied. Hexyl Si NPs were synthesized using one-pot synthetic methodology with different ratios of SiCl{sub 4}:HexylSiCl{sub 3} (1:1, 1:2, 1:3, 1:6) to observe the effect of surfactant concentration on the size of Si NPs. In Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy analysis, the Si–H stretching band and the characteristic Si–O–Si bands decreased and eventually disappeared with increasing hexyltrichlorosilane concentration. This suggests that the level of oxidation decreased with excess amounts of hexyltrichlorosilane because the surface area of exposed Si NPs without hexyl capping groups was reduced. Results of transmission electron microscopy and particle size analysis showed that the average diameter of hexyl Si NPs increased slightly from low surfactant concentration (SiCl{sub 4}:HexylSiCl{sub 3} = 1:1) to high concentration (1:6). This might be caused due to the relationship between the surfactant concentration effect and the core material part effect of hexyltrichlorosilane. Agglomerated Si NPs were observed and their luminescence bands were not shifted because the Si NPs were capped by alkyl groups to prevent aggregation.

  6. Positron annihilation spectroscopic studies of solvothermally synthesized ZnO nanobipyramids and nanoparticles

    Ghoshal, Tandra; Biswas, Subhajit; Kar, Soumitra; Chaudhuri, Subhadra; Nambissan, P. M. G.

    2008-02-01

    Zinc oxide (ZnO) samples in the form of hexagonal-based bipyramids and particles of nanometer dimensions were synthesized through solvothermal route and characterized by x-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy. Positron annihilation experiments were performed to study the structural defects such as vacancies and surfaces in these nanosystems. From coincidence Doppler broadening measurements, the positron trapping sites were identified as Zn vacancies or Zn-O-Zn trivacancy clusters. The positron lifetimes, their relative intensities, and the Doppler broadened lineshape parameter S all showed characteristic changes across the nanobipyramid size corresponding to the thermal diffusion length of positrons. In large nanobipyramids, vacancies within the crystallites also trapped positrons and the effects of agglomeration of such vacancies due to increased temperatures of synthesis were reflected in the variation of the annihilation parameters with their base diameters. The sizes of the nanoparticles used were all in the limit of thermal diffusion length of positrons and the annihilation characteristics were in accordance with the decreasing contribution from surfaces with increasing particle size.

  7. Glycation-assisted synthesized gold nanoparticles inhibit growth of bone cancer cells.

    Rahim, Moniba; Iram, Sana; Khan, Mohd Sajid; Khan, M Salman; Shukla, Ankur R; Srivastava, A K; Ahmad, Saheem

    2014-05-01

    This study presents a novel approach to synthesize glycogenic gold nanoparticles (glycogenic GNps) capped with glycated products (Schiff's base, Heyns products, fructosylamine etc.). These glycogenic GNps have been found to be active against human osteosarcoma cell line (Saos-2) with an IC50 of 0.187 mM, while the normal human embryonic lung cell line (L-132) remained unaffected up to 1mM concentration. The size of glycogenic GNps can also be controlled by varying the time of incubation of gold solution. Glycation reactions involving a combination of fructose and HSA (Human Serum Albumin) were found to be effective in the reduction of gold to glycogenic GNps whereas glucose in combination with HSA did not result in the reduction of gold. The progress of the reaction was followed using UV-visible spectroscopy and NBT (Nitroblue tetrazolium) assay. The glycogenic GNps were found to be spherical in shape with an average size of 24.3 nm, in a stable emulsion. These GNps were characterized using UV-visible spectroscopy, zeta potential analysis, transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. STABILITY OF SYNTHESIZED SILVER NANOPARTICLES IN CITRATE AND MIXED GELATIN/CITRATE SOLUTION

    Jana Kavuličová

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The study focuses on an investigation of the influence of both citrate and mixed gelatin/citrate as a reductant and stabilizer on the colloidal stability of silver nanoparticles (AgNPssynthesized by a chemical reduction of Ag+ ions after a short - (7th day - and long - (118th day - term storage. Formed AgNPs were characterized by a UV–vis Spectroscopy, Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM, Dynamic light scattering (DLS and Zeta-potential (ZP. The obtained results revealed that a short-term stability of the synthesized AgNPs was greatly influenced by a citrate stabilizer with the absence of gelatin. Smaller-sized AgNPs (average particle diameter of 3 nm, roughly spherical in a shape, were obtained with a narrow size distribution. The very negative value of the Zeta-potential confirmed a strong stability of the citrate capped AgNPs. However, a surface coating of the AgNPs by a gelatin/citrate stabilizer was found to be a dominant contributor in improving a long-term stability of the AgNPs (average particle diameter of 26 nm. The use of gelatin in mixed stabilizer solution provided the AgNPs with higher monodispersity and a controllable size after both the short and long-term storage.

  9. Antimicrobial potential of green synthesized CeO2 nanoparticles from Olea europaea leaf extract.

    Maqbool, Qaisar; Nazar, Mudassar; Naz, Sania; Hussain, Talib; Jabeen, Nyla; Kausar, Rizwan; Anwaar, Sadaf; Abbas, Fazal; Jan, Tariq

    This article reports the green fabrication of cerium oxide nanoparticles (CeO 2 NPs) using Olea europaea leaf extract and their applications as effective antimicrobial agents. O. europaea leaf extract functions as a chelating agent for reduction of cerium nitrate. The resulting CeO 2 NPs exhibit pure single-face cubic structure, which is examined by X-ray diffraction, with a uniform spherical shape and a mean size 24 nm observed through scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. Ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy confirms the characteristic absorption peak of CeO 2 NPs at 315 nm. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy reflects stretching frequencies at 459 cm -1 , showing utilization of natural components for the production of NPs. Thermal gravimetric analysis predicts the successful capping of CeO 2 NPs by bioactive molecules present in the plant extract. The antimicrobial studies show significant zone of inhibition against bacterial and fungal strains. The higher activities shown by the green synthesized NPs than the plant extract lead to the conclusion that they can be effectively used in biomedical application. Furthermore, reduction of cerium salt by plant extract will reduce environmental impact over chemical synthesis.

  10. Self-assembly of gas-phase synthesized magnesium nanoparticles on room temperature substrates

    Venturi, F; Calizzi, M; Pasquini, L; Bals, S; Perkisas, T

    2015-01-01

    Magnesium nanoparticles (NPs) with initial size in the 10–50 nm range were synthesized by inert gas condensation under helium flow and deposited on room temperature substrates. The morphology and crystal structure of the NPs ensemble were investigated as a function of the deposition time by complementary electron microscopy techniques, including high resolution imaging and chemical mapping. With increasing amount of material, strong coarsening phenomena were observed at room temperature: small NPs disappeared while large faceted NPs developed, leading to a 5-fold increase of the average NPs size within a few minutes. The extent of coarsening and the final morphology depended also on the nature of the substrate. Furthermore, large single-crystal NPs were seen to arise from the self-organization of primary NPs units, providing a mechanism for crystal growth. The dynamics of the self-assembly process involves the basic steps of NPs sticking, diffusion on substrate, coordinated rotation and attachment/coalescence. Key features are the surface energy anisotropy, reflected by the faceted shape of the NPs, and the low melting point of the material. The observed phenomena have strong implications in relation to the synthesis and stability of nanostructures based on Mg or other elements with similar features. (paper)

  11. Binding behaviors of greenly synthesized silver nanoparticles - Lysozyme interaction: Spectroscopic approach

    Roy, Swarup

    2018-02-01

    Interaction of greenly synthesized silver nanoparticles (SNP) and lysozyme (Lys) has been studied using spectroscopy. From UV-Vis study it is observed that a moderate association constant (Kapp) of 5.36 × 104 L/mol giving an indication of interaction. Fluorescence emission and time resolved study, confirm static mode of quenching phenomena and the binding constant (Kb) was 25.12, 3.98 and 1.99 × 103 L/mol at 298, 305 and 312 K respectively and the number of binding sites (n) was found to be ∼1. Using temperature dependent fluorimetric data, thermodynamic parameters calculated (Enthalpy change, ΔH = -143.95 kJ/mol, Entropy change, ΔS = -400.32 J/mol/K, Gibbs free energy change, ΔG = -24.66 kJ/mol at 298 K) and resulting insight indicative of weak force (van der Walls interaction & H-bonding) as key feature for the Lys-SNP interaction. By following Förster's non-radiative energy transfer (FRET) theory, average binding distance (r = 3.05 nm) was calculated and observed that nonradiative type energy transfer between SNP and Lys. What is more, circular dichroism (CD) spectra indicates presence of SNP does not display substantial alteration in the secondary structure of Lys. Hence, this results may be very useful for the well thought of essential aspects of binding between the Lys and SNP.

  12. Si/C composite lithium-ion battery anodes synthesized using silicon nanoparticles from porous silicon

    Park, Jung-Bae; Lee, Kwan-Hee; Jeon, Young-Jun; Lim, Sung-Hwan; Lee, Sung-Man

    2014-01-01

    The synthesis of Si nanoparticles by ultrasonication processing of porous Si powder and a novel method for preparing a high-capacity Si/C composite using this technique is reported. The porous Si powder is prepared by selectively etching the silicide phase of a Ti 24 Si 76 alloy consisting of Si and silicide phases. The particle size of the nanocrystalline Si is determined by the crystallite size of the Si and silicide phases in the alloy powder. Ultrasonication of the porous Si obtained from the mechanically alloyed Ti 24 Si 76 alloy generates nanocrystalline Si particles of size about 5 nm. Growth of the Si and silicide phases in the alloy is induced by annealing of the mechanically alloyed sample, with a consequent increase in the size of the Si particles obtained after ultrasonication. Application of the ultrasonication process to the fabrication of Si/C composite anode materials generates nanometer-scale Si particles in situ that are distributed in the matrix. Analysis of the phases obtained and evaluation of the distribution of the nanometer-scale Si particles in the composites via XRD/TEM measurements show that the nanometer-scale Si particles are effectively synthesized and uniformly distributed in the carbon matrix, leading to enhanced electrochemical performance of the Si/C composites

  13. Films of covalently bonded gold nanoparticles synthesized by a sol–gel process

    Dell’Erba, Ignacio E.; Hoppe, Cristina E.; Williams, Roberto J. J.

    2012-01-01

    Gold nanoparticles (NPs) with a size close to 1.5 nm, coated with organic ligands bearing Si(OEt) 3 groups, were synthesized and used to obtain self-standing films by a sol–gel process catalyzed by formic acid. Using FESEM images, FTIR, and UV–visible spectra, it was observed that very small gold NPs self-assembled by Si–O–Si covalent bonds forming crosslinked clusters with sizes up to about 50 nm in which NPs preserve their individuality. The possibility of fixing very small gold NPs in a crosslinked film opens a variety of potential applications based on the specific properties of small-size particles. As an example, we illustrated the way in which one can take advantage of the low melting temperature of these NPs to generate tiny gold crystals partially embedded at the surface, a process that might be used for the development of catalysts or sensors. Besides, the shift and change in the intensity of the plasmon band produced by heating to 100 °C may be employed to develop an irreversible sensor of undesirable temperature excursions during the life-time of a specific product.

  14. Thermal and optical characterization of biologically synthesized ZnS nanoparticles synthesized from an endophytic fungus Aspergillus flavus: A colorimetric probe in metal detection.

    Uddandarao, Priyanka; Balakrishnan, Raj Mohan

    2017-03-15

    Nanostructured semiconductor materials are of great importance for several technological applications due to their optical and thermal properties. The design and fabrication of metal sulfide nanoparticles with tunable properties for advanced applications have drawn a great deal of attention in the field of nanotechnology. ZnS is a potential II-IV group material which is used in hetero-junction solar cells, light emitting diodes, optoelectronic devices, electro luminescent devices and photovoltaic cells. Due to their multiple applications, there is a need to elucidate their thermal and optical properties. In the present study, thermal and optical properties of biologically synthesized ZnS nanoparticles are determined in detail with Thermal Gravimetric Analysis (TGA), Derivative Thermogravimetric Analysis (DTG), Differential Scanning Calorimeter (DSC), Diffuse Reflectance Spectroscopy (DRS), Photoluminescence (PL) and Raman spectroscopy. The results reveal that ZnS NPs exhibit a very strong quantum confinement with a significant increase in their optical band gap energy. These biologically synthesized ZnS NPs contain protein residues that can selectively bind with metal ions in aqueous solutions and can exhibit an aggregation-induced color change. This phenomenon is utilized to quantitatively measure the metal concentrations of Cu 2+ and Mn 2+ in this study. Further the stability of nanoparticles for the metal sensing process is accessed by UV-Vis spectrometer, zeta potential and cyclic voltammeter. The selectivity and sensitivity of ZnS NPs indicate its potential use as a sensor for metal detection in the ecosystem. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Newly Synthesized Water Soluble Cholinium-Purpurin Photosensitizers and Their Stabilized Gold Nanoparticles as Promising Anticancer Agents

    Young Key Shim

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available For possible future use in Photodynamic Therapy (PDT and/or Photothermal Therapy (PTT of cancer and screening of cancer cells a new type of ionic liquid photosensitizer –Cholinium-Purpurin-18 (Chol-Pu-18 – was synthesized and small gold (Au nanoparticles, stabilized by this photosensitizer were prepared without adding any particular reducing agents and CTAB. UV-Vis spectroscopy and Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM were used for characterization of the nanoparticles and FAB-MS and NMR of the ionic liquid choline hydroxide, purpurin carboxylate and their ionic liquid type of photosensitizer were obtained.

  16. Composition tunable cobalt–nickel and cobalt–iron alloy nanoparticles below 10 nm synthesized using acetonated cobalt carbonyl

    Schooneveld, Matti M. van; Campos-Cuerva, Carlos; Pet, Jeroen; Meeldijk, Johannes D.; Rijssel, Jos van; Meijerink, Andries; Erné, Ben H.; Groot, Frank M. F. de

    2012-01-01

    A general organometallic route has been developed to synthesize Co x Ni 1−x and Co x Fe 1−x alloy nanoparticles with a fully tunable composition and a size of 4–10 nm with high yield. In contrast to previously reported synthesis methods using dicobalt octacarbonyl (Co 2 (CO) 8 ), here the cobalt–cobalt bond in the carbonyl complex is first broken with anhydrous acetone. The acetonated compound, in the presence of iron carbonyl or nickel acetylacetonate, is necessary to obtain small composition tunable alloys. This new route and insights will provide guidelines for the wet-chemical synthesis of yet unmade bimetallic alloy nanoparticles.

  17. Characterization of silver nanoparticles synthesized using an endophytic fungus, Penicillium oxalicum having potential antimicrobial activity

    Bhattacharjee, Sukla; Debnath, Gopal; Das, Aparajita Roy; Krishna Saha, Ajay; Das, Panna

    2017-12-01

    The aim of the present study was to test the efficacy of the extracellular mycelium extract of Penicillium oxalicum isolated from Phlogacanthus thyrsiflorus to biosynthesize silver nanoparticles. It was characterized using ultraviolet-visible absorption spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy, transmission electron microscopy and Fourier transforms infrared spectroscopy. The silver nanoparticles were evaluated for antimicrobial activity. The characterization confirms the synthesis of silver nanoparticles. Both silver nanoparticles and combination of silver nanoparticles with streptomycin showed activity against the four bacteria. The results suggested that P. oxalicum offers eco-friendly production of silver nanoparticles and the antibacterial activity may find application in biomedicine.

  18. The magnetic and colloidal properties of CoFe2O4 nanoparticles synthesized by co-precipitation.

    Gyergyek, Sašo; Drofenik, Miha; Makovec, Darko

    2014-01-01

    Magnetic CoFe(2)O(4) nanoparticles were synthesized by co-precipitation at 80 °C. This co-precipitation was achieved by the rapid addition of a strong base to an aqueous solution of cations. The investigation of the samples that were quenched at different times after the addition of the base, using transmission electron microscopy (TEM) coupled with energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDXS) and X-ray powder diffractometry, revealed the formation of a Co-deficient amorphous phase and Co(OH)(2), which rapidly reacted to form small CoFe(2)O(4) nanoparticles. The nanoparticles grew with the time of aging at elevated temperature. The colloidal suspensions of the nanoparticles were prepared in both an aqueous medium and in a non-polar organic medium, with the adsorption of citric acid and ricinoleic acid on the nanoparticles, respectively. The measurements of the room-temperature magnetization revealed the ferrimagnetic state of the CoFe(2)O(4) nanoparticles, while their suspensions displayed superparamagnetic behaviour.

  19. Antimicrobial properties of uncapped silver nanoparticles synthesized by DC arc thermal plasma technique.

    Shinde, Manish; Patil, Rajendra; Karmakar, Soumen; Bhoraskar, Sudha; Rane, Sunit; Gade, Wasudev; Amalnerkar, Dinesh

    2012-02-01

    We, herein, report the antimicrobial properties of uncapped silver nanoparticles for a Gram positive model organism, Bacillus subtilis. Uncapped silver nanoparticles have been prepared using less-explored DC arc thermal plasma technique by considering its large scale generation capability. It is observed that the resultant nanoparticles show size as well as optical property dependent antimicrobial effect.

  20. Phase transformations of high-purity PbI{sub 2} nanoparticles synthesized from lead-acid accumulator anodes

    Malevu, T.D., E-mail: malevutd@ufs.ac.za; Ocaya, R.O.; Tshabalala, K.G.

    2016-09-01

    High-purity hexagonal lead iodide nanoparticles have been synthesized from a depleted sealed lead acid battery anode. The synthesized product was found to consist of the rare 6R polytype form of PbI{sub 2} that is thought to have good potential in photovoltaic applications. We investigate the effects of annealing time and post-melting temperature on the structure and optical properties using 1.5418 Å CuKα radiation. Photoluminescence measurements were done under 150 W/221 nm wavelength xenon excitation. Phase transformation was observed through XRD peaks when annealing time increased from 0.5–5 h. The nanoparticle grain size and inter-planar distance appeared to be independent of annealing time. PL measurements show three broad peaks in a range of 400 nm to 700 nm that are attributed to excitonic, donor–acceptor pair and luminescence bands from the deep levels.

  1. Controlling the morphology and properties of solvothermal synthesized Cu2ZnSnS4 nanoparticles by solvent type

    Bahramzadeh, Saeid; Abdizadeh, Hossein; Golobostanfard, Mohammad Reza

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • CZTS nanoparticles are fabricated by solvothermal method with different solvents. • Different morphologies are achieved by EDA, TETA, EG, and OA solvents. • Property and chelating ability of the solvents have a key role on nanoparticles formation. • TETA and OA are strongly recommended for solar cell applications. - Abstract: The copper–zinc–tin sulfide Cu 2 ZnSnS 4 (CZTS) semiconductors are recently considered as one of the favorable materials for application as absorber layers in solar cells due to their appropriate direct band gap energy and high optical absorption coefficient. In this study, the effect of solvent type on properties of solvothermal synthesized CZTS nanoparticles has been investigated. Ethylenediamine (EDA), triethylenetetramine (TETA), ethylene glycol (EG), and oleic acid (OA) have been used as the solvent. X-ray diffraction technique and Raman spectroscopy confirmed the formation of crystalline CZTS nanoparticles with kesterite crystal structure in these solvents with the exception of EDA, which forms wurtzite crystal structure. Morphological characterizations show that several distinct morphologies including spherical (70–160 nm), nanoplates (∼45 nm thickness and more than 1 μm length), peculiar flower-like particles (with diameter of ∼0.4–1.5 μm), truncated hexagonal disks, irregular particles, and hexagonal microdisks are obtained by varying the solvent type. Optical studies revealed broad absorption of the CZTS particles in the visible region. Compared with other solvents, OA synthesized CZTS particles show higher absorption in the visible region. However, CZTS nanoparticles synthesized by TETA solvent show the most appropriate properties for application as an absorber materials in solar cells due to high crystallinity, low impurity phases, suitable size, and proper band gap energy

  2. Raman scattering and band-gap variations of Al-doped ZnO nanoparticles synthesized by a chemical colloid process

    Lo, Shih-Shou; Huang, Dison; Tu, Chun Hsiang; Hou, Chia-Hung; Chen, Chii-Chang

    2009-01-01

    This study synthesizes Al-doped ZnO (AZO) nanoparticles using a chemical colloid process. Raman scattering analysis shows that Al doping increases the lattice defects and induces Raman vibration modes of 651 cm -1 . The Raman shift of the active mode E 2 (high) of AZO nanoparticles shows the presence and increase in the stress in nanoparticles when the Al dopant concentration increases. Room-temperature photoluminescence (RT-PL) spectra of synthesized AZO nanoparticles exhibit strong UV emissions near the band edges. The RT-PL peak shifts to a higher photon energy region as the Al concentration increases, indicating a broadening of the band gap.

  3. Properties of Er{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanoparticles synthesized by a modified co-precipitation method

    Castaneda C, J.; Maranon R, V. F.; Perez Ladron de G, H.; Rodriguez R, R. A.; Chiu Z, R. [Universidad de Guadalajara, Centro Universitario de los Lagos, Av. Enrique Diaz de Leon s/n, Lagos de Moreno 47460, Jalisco (Mexico); Meneses N, M. A., E-mail: jcc050769@yahoo.com.mx [Centro de Investigaciones en Optica, A. C., Apdo. Postal 1-948, Leon, Guanajuato (Mexico)

    2015-07-01

    Er{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanoparticles were synthesized by co-precipitation with the addition of ascorbate as stabilizing agent. The nanoparticles had spherical shapes with a mean diameter of 32 nm and were allocated in clusters, as determined by X-ray diffraction, atomic force microscopy and optical microscopy. Characteristic green and red emissions from Er{sup 3+} were recorded by pumping the nanoparticles at 525 nm, 805 nm and 975 nm. However, the luminescence spectra show an enhancement of red emission for Nir pump wavelengths. We proposed this behavior was due to phonon-assisted depopulation mechanisms and energy transfer processes related to the different excitation schemes. (Author)

  4. Moderating effect of ammonia on particle growth and stability of quasi-monodisperse silver nanoparticles synthesized by the Turkevich method.

    Gorup, Luiz F; Longo, Elson; Leite, Edson R; Camargo, Emerson R

    2011-08-15

    A new method to stabilize silver nanoparticles by the addition of ammonia is proposed. Colloidal dispersions of silver nanoparticles were synthesized by the Turkevich method using sodium citrate to reduce silver nitrate at high pH and at 90 °C. After approximately 12 min, a diluted ammonia solution was added to the reaction flask to form soluble diamine silver (I) complexes that played an important growth moderating role, making it possible to stabilize metallic silver nanoparticles with sizes as small as 1.6 nm after 17 min of reaction. Colloidal dispersions were characterized by UV-visible absorption spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, and transmission electronic microscopy. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Amelioration of excision wounds by topical application of green synthesized, formulated silver and gold nanoparticles in albino Wistar rats.

    Naraginti, Saraschandra; Kumari, P Lakshmi; Das, Raunak Kumar; Sivakumar, A; Patil, Sagar Hindurao; Andhalkar, Vaibhav Vilas

    2016-05-01

    Wound healing, a complex biological process, has attained a lot of attention as dermatologists are primarily interested in stimulated wound closure without formation of scar or a faint scar. The recent upsurgence of nanotechnology has provided novel therapeutic materials in the form of silver and gold nanoparticles which accelerate the wound healing process. The effect of formulated nanoparticles using Coleus forskohlii root extract (green synthesized) has been tried out for ameliorating full thickness excision wounds in albino Wistar male rats. The evaluation of in vivo activity of nanoparticles in wound healing was carried out on open wounds made by excision on the dorsal sides of albino Wistar rats under anesthesia, and the healing of the wounds was assessed. Histological aspects of the healing process were studied by a HE (Hematoxylin and Eosin) staining method to assess various degrees of re-epithelialization and the linear alignment of the granulation tissue whereas Van Gieson's histochemical staining was performed to observe collagen fibers. The healing action shown by the formulated nanoparticles was remarkable during the early stages of wound healing, which resulted in the substantial reduction of the whole healing period. Topical application of formulated gold nanoparticles was found to be more effective in suppressing inflammation and stimulating re-epithelialization compared to silver nanoparticles during the healing process. The results throw light on the amelioration of excision wounds using nanoparticles which could be a novel therapeutic way of improving wound healing in clinical practice. The mechanism of advanced healing action of both types of nanoparticles could be due to their antimicrobial, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  6. Antimicrobial and immunomodulatory efficacy of extracellularly synthesized silver and gold nanoparticles by a novel phosphate solubilizing fungus Bipolaris tetramera.

    Fatima, Faria; Bajpai, Preeti; Pathak, Neelam; Singh, Sarika; Priya, Shivam; Verma, Smita Rastogi

    2015-02-27

    Particulates of nanometers size have occupied a significant area in the field of medicinal and agricultural purposes due to their large surface-to-volume ratio and exceptional physicochemical, electronic and mechanical properties. Myconanotechnology, an interface between mycology and nanotechnology is budding nowadays for nanoparticle-fabrication using fungus or its metabolites. In the present study, we have isolated and characterized a novel phosphate solubilizing fungus B. tetramera KF934408 from rhizospheric soil. This phosphatase releasing fungus was subjected to extracellular synthesis of metal nanoparticles by redox reaction. Silver (AgNPs) and gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) were characterized by dynamic light scattering and transmission electron microscopic analysis. The formulated AgNPs were irregular shaped with a size ranging between 54.78 nm to 73.49 nm whereas AuNPs were spherical or hexagonal, with a size of 58.4 and 261.73 nm, respectively. The nanoparticles were assessed for their antibacterial and antifungal efficacy. The results showed effective antimicrobial activity of AgNPs against Bacillus cereus, Staphylococcus aureus, Enterobacter aeroginosa and Trichoderma sp. at higher concentrations, however, AuNPs possessed only moderate antibacterial efficacy while they found no antifungal activity. Cytotoxicity analysis of nanoparticles on J774 and THP1 α cell lines revealed the dose dependence in case of AgNPs, while AuNPs were non-toxic at both low and high doses. Furthermore, significant elevation of intracellular ROS was observed after 4 h of incubation with both the nanoparticles. The capping of fungal proteins on the particulates might be involved in the activities demonstrated by these inert metal nanoparticles. In conclusion, the findings showed that the metal nanoparticles synthesized by fungus B. tetramera could be used as an antimicrobial agents as well as cost effective and nontoxic immunomodulatory delivery vehicle.

  7. In vitro study of the antibacterial and anticancer activities of silver nanoparticles synthesized from Penicillium brevicompactum (MTCC-1999

    Shahnaz Majeed

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Among the most promising nanomaterials, metallic nanoparticles with antibacterial and antitumor properties are expected to open new avenues to fight and prevent various tumours and infectious diseases. The study of bactericidal nanomaterial is particularly timely considering the recent increase in new resistant strains of bacteria to the most potent antibiotics and the potential role of bactericidal nanomaterial as anticancer agents. This has promoted the research of the well-known activity of silver ions and silver-based compounds, including silver nanoparticles. The present work is the study of silver nanoparticles synthesized from Penicillium brevicompactum (MTCC-1999. The colour of the cell filtrate changes to dark brown upon addition of 1 mM AgNO3, suggesting the formation of silver nanoparticles. These silver nanoparticles (AgNPs were characterized and analyzed by UV–vis spectrophotometric analysis, which showed a peak of absorbance at 420 nm. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR analysis showed amines and amides that are responsible for the stabilization of AgNPs. To determine the particle size, atomic force microscopy (AFM analysis was used, which showed that the nanoparticles are spherical and are 30–50 nm in size. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM showed that AgNPs were well dispersed, spherical, and well within the range of 40–50 nm. These nanoparticles displayed good antibacterial activity and also increased the antibiotic activity of gatifloxacin, tetracycline, and vancomycin. These nanoparticles were further studied for their anticancer activity and showed high toxicity towards the MCF-7 breast cancer cell line.

  8. Synergistically enhanced stability of laccase immobilized on synthesized silver nanoparticles with water-soluble polymers.

    Cunha, M N M; Felgueiras, H P; Gouveia, I; Zille, A

    2017-06-01

    Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) were synthesized by citrate reduction method in the presence of polymers, poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG), poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) and chitosan, used as stabilizing agents, and an oxidoreductase enzyme, laccase (Lac), with the goal of expanding the NPs antimicrobial action. AgNPs were characterized by UV-vis spectrometry, dynamic light scattering and transmission electron microscopy. As protecting agents, PEG and PVA promoted the formation of spherical uniformly-shaped, small-sized, monodispersed AgNPs (≈20nm). High Mw polymers were established as most effective in producing small-sized NPs. Chitosan's viscosity led to the formation of aggregates. Despite the decrease in Lac activity registered for the hybrid formulation, AgNPs-polymer-Lac, a significant augment in stability over time (up to 13days, at 50°C) was observed. This novel formulation displays improved synergistic performance over AgNPs-Lac or polymer-Lac conjugates, since in the former the Lac activity becomes residual at the end of 3days. By enabling many ionic interactions, chitosan restricted the mass transfer between Lac and substrate and, thus, inhibited the enzymatic activity. These hybrid nanocomposites made up of inorganic NPs, organic polymers and immobilized antimicrobial oxidoreductive enzymes represent a new class of materials with improved synergistic performance. Moreover, the Lac and the AgNPs different antimicrobial action, both in time and mechanism, may also constitute a new alternative to reduce the probability of developing resistance-associated mutations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Antimicrobial potential of green synthesized CeO2 nanoparticles from Olea europaea leaf extract

    Maqbool Q

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Qaisar Maqbool,1 Mudassar Nazar,1 Sania Naz,2 Talib Hussain,3 Nyla Jabeen,4 Rizwan Kausar,5 Sadaf Anwaar,4 Fazal Abbas,6,7 Tariq Jan6 1Department of Biotechnology, Virtual University of Pakistan, Lahore, Pakistan; 2Department of Biotechnology, Quaid-i-Azam University, Islamabad, Pakistan; 3National Institute of Vacuum Science and Technology (NINVAST, Islamabad, Pakistan; 4Department of Biotechnology and Bioinformatics Lab., International Islamic University, Islamabad, Pakistan; 5Department of Chemistry, University of Sargodha, Sargodha, Pakistan; 6Department of Physics, International Islamic University, Islamabad, Pakistan; 7Interdisciplinary Research Organization, University of Chakwal (UOC, Chakwal, Pakistan Abstract: This article reports the green fabrication of cerium oxide nanoparticles (CeO2 NPs using Olea europaea leaf extract and their applications as effective antimicrobial agents. O. europaea leaf extract functions as a chelating agent for reduction of cerium nitrate. The resulting CeO2 NPs exhibit pure single-face cubic structure, which is examined by X-ray diffraction, with a uniform spherical shape and a mean size 24 nm observed through scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. Ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy confirms the characteristic absorption peak of CeO2 NPs at 315 nm. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy reflects stretching frequencies at 459 cm-1, showing utilization of natural components for the production of NPs. Thermal gravimetric analysis predicts the successful capping of CeO2 NPs by bioactive molecules present in the plant extract. The antimicrobial studies show significant zone of inhibition against bacterial and fungal strains. The higher activities shown by the green synthesized NPs than the plant extract lead to the conclusion that they can be effectively used in biomedical application. Furthermore, reduction of cerium salt by plant extract will reduce environmental impact over

  10. Evaluation of superparamagnetic and biocompatible properties of mesoporous silica coated cobalt ferrite nanoparticles synthesized via microwave modified Pechini method

    Gharibshahian, M. [Faculty of New Sciences and Technologies, Semnan University, Semnan (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Mirzaee, O., E-mail: O_mirzaee@semnan.ac.ir [Faculty of Materials and Metallurgical Engineering, Semnan University, Semnan (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Nourbakhsh, M.S. [Faculty of New Sciences and Technologies, Semnan University, Semnan (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2017-03-01

    Cobalt ferrite nano particles were synthesized by Pechini sol-gel method and calcined at 700 °C in electrical and microwave furnace. The microwave calcined sample was coated with mesoporous silica by hydrothermal method. Characterization was performed by XRD, FESEM, TEM, VSM, BET and FTIR analysis. The cytotoxicity was evaluated by MTT assay with 3T3 fibroblast cells. The XRD and FTIR results confirmed spinal formation in both cases and verified the formation of silica coating on the nanoparticles. For microwave calcination, The XRD and SEM results demonstrated smaller and flat adhesion forms of nanoparticles with the average size of 15 nm. The VSM results demonstrated nearly superparamagnetic nanoparticles with significant saturation magnetization equal to 64 emu/g. By coating, saturation magnetization was decreased to 36 emu/g. Moreover, the BET results confirmed the formation of mesoporous coating with the average pore diameters of 2.8 nm and average pore volume of 0.82 cm{sup 3} g{sup −1}. Microwave calcined nanoparticles had the best structural and magnetic properties. - Highlights: • CoFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} nanoparticles were synthesized using the microwave modified Pechini method. • The Effect of calcination route and silica coating on NPs properties was studied. • The nearly superparamagnetic nanoparticles were achieved by microwave calcination. • MFC NPs had the best magnetic properties and MTT assay showed no toxicity for MFC-MSC NPs. • A useful scheme was designed to achieve biological superparamagnetic core/shell NPs.

  11. Influence of pH on structural morphology and magnetic properties of ordered phase cobalt doped lithium ferrites nanoparticles synthesized by sol-gel method

    Srivastava, Manish; Ojha, Animesh K.; Chaubey, S.; Sharma, Prashant K.; Pandey, Avinash C.

    2010-01-01

    Cobalt doped lithium ferrite nanoparticles were synthesized at different pH by sol-gel method. The effect of pH on the physical properties of cobalt doped lithium ferrite nanoparticles has been investigated. The nanoparticles synthesized at different pH were characterized through X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR), Raman spectroscopy (RS), Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDAX) and vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM). The XRD patterns were analyzed to determine the crystal phase of cobalt doped lithium ferrites nanoparticles synthesized at different pH. The XRD results show the formation of impurity free cobalt doped lithium ferrites having ordered phase spinel structure. A similar kind of conclusion was also drawn through the analysis of Raman spectra of the nanoparticles synthesized at different pH. SEM micrographs show that the structural morphology of the nanoparticles is highly sensitive to the pH during the synthesis process. The magnetic properties such as; saturation magnetization (Ms), remnant magnetization (Mr) and coercivety (Hc) have been also investigated and found to be different for the nanoparticles synthesized at different pH, which may be attributed to the different size and surface morphology of the nanoparticles.

  12. Antibacterial and cytotoxic effect of biologically synthesized silver nanoparticles using aqueous root extract of Erythrina indica lam

    Rathi Sre, P. R.; Reka, M.; Poovazhagi, R.; Arul Kumar, M.; Murugesan, K.

    2015-01-01

    Simple, yet an effective and rapid approach for the green synthesis of silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) using root extract of Erythrina indica and its in vitro antibacterial activity was tried against human pathogenic bacteria and its cytotoxic effect in breast and lung cancer cell lines has been demonstrated in this study. Various instrumental techniques were adopted to characterize the synthesized Ag NPs viz. UV-Vis (Ultra violet), FTIR (Fourier Transform Infrared), XRD (X-ray diffraction), DLS (Dynamic light scattering), HR TEM (High-resolution transmission electron microscopy), EDX (Energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy). Surface plasmon spectra for Ag NPs are centered nearly at 438 nm with dark brown color. FTIR analysis revealed the presence of terpenes, phenol, flavonols and tannin act as effective reducing and capping agents for converting silver nitrate to Ag NPs. The synthesized Ag NPs were found to be spherical in shape with size in the range of 20-118 nm. Moreover, the synthesized Ag NPs showed potent antibacterial activity against Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria and these biologically synthesized nanoparticles were also proved to exhibit excellent cytotoxic effect on breast and lung cancer cell lines.

  13. Green synthesized nanoparticles in the fight against mosquito-borne diseases and cancer-a brief review.

    Benelli, Giovanni

    2016-12-01

    Nanobiomedicine and parasitology are facing a number of key challenges, which mostly deal with the paucity of effective preventive and curative tools against mosquito-borne diseases and cancer. In this scenario, the employ of botanical and invertebrate extracts as reducing, stabilizing and capping agents for the synthesis of nanoparticles is advantageous over chemical and physical methods, since it is one-pot, cheap, and does not require high pressure, energy, temperature, or the use of highly toxic chemicals. Considering the overlooked connection between mosquito vector activity and the spread of cancer in USA, this review focused on the current knowledge available about green synthesized nanoparticles with efficacy against mosquito-borne diseases and cancer. Green fabricated metal nanoparticles showed antiplasmodial activity that often encompasses the efficacy of currently marked drugs for malaria treatment. They have been also reported as growth inhibitors against dengue virus (serotype DEN-2), with moderate cytotoxicity on mammalian cells. However, this feature is strongly dependent to the botanical agents employed during nanosynthesis. In addition, green nanoparticles have been successfully used to reduce mosquito young instar populations in the field. The final section focuses on some issues for future research, with special reference to the chemical standardization of the botanical extracts used for nanosynthesis and the potential effects on green fabricated nanoparticles on non-target organisms. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Enhanced photocatalysis, colloidal stability and cytotoxicity of synchrotron X-ray synthesized Au/TiO2 nanoparticles

    Liu, Chi-Jen; Yang, Tsung-Yeh; Wang, Chang-Hai; Chien, Chia-Chi; Chen, Shin-Tai; Wang, Cheng-Liang; Leng, Wei-Hua; Hwu, Y.; Lin, Hong-Ming; Lee, Yao-Chang; Cheng, Chia-Liang; Je, J.H.; Margaritondo, G.

    2009-01-01

    Au/TiO 2 nanocomposite particles were synthesized by a method based on intense X-ray irradiation without adding any reducing agent or stabilizer. The nanocomposite exhibits promising photocatalytic and biological properties at physiologically relevant concentration ([Au] = 0.028 mM, [TiO 2 ] = 0.5 mM). The structure and photocatalysis were examined by X-ray diffraction, electron microscopy and ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy demonstrating that gold nanoparticles of 2-5 nm size were successfully deposited on TiO 2 nanoparticle surfaces. The nanocomposite exhibited good colloidal stability within a typical cellular environment and was nontoxic to cancer cell according to evaluations under controlled conditions. The Au/TiO 2 nanoparticles were also found to enhance the photocatalytic efficiency of UV radiation and even more that of X-ray radiation. In vitro studies indicated that the cell-killing effect under X-ray irradiation is more pronounced with the addition of Au/TiO 2 nanoparticles than of bare TiO 2 nanoparticles.

  15. Enhanced photocatalysis, colloidal stability and cytotoxicity of synchrotron X-ray synthesized Au/TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles

    Liu, Chi-Jen; Yang, Tsung-Yeh; Wang, Chang-Hai [Institute of Physics, Academia Sinica, Nankang, Taipei 115, Taiwan (China); Chien, Chia-Chi [Institute of Physics, Academia Sinica, Nankang, Taipei 115, Taiwan (China); Department of Engineering Science and System, National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu 300, Taiwan (China); Chen, Shin-Tai; Wang, Cheng-Liang; Leng, Wei-Hua [Institute of Physics, Academia Sinica, Nankang, Taipei 115, Taiwan (China); Hwu, Y., E-mail: phhwu@sinica.edu.tw [Institute of Physics, Academia Sinica, Nankang, Taipei 115, Taiwan (China); Department of Engineering Science and System, National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu 300, Taiwan (China); Institute of Optoelectronic Sciences, National Taiwan Ocean University, Keelung 202, Taiwan (China); National Synchrotron Radiation Research Center, Hsinchu 300, Taiwan (China); Lin, Hong-Ming [Department of Materials Engineering, Tatung University, Taipei 10461, Taiwan (China); Lee, Yao-Chang [National Synchrotron Radiation Research Center, Hsinchu 300, Taiwan (China); Cheng, Chia-Liang [Department of Physics, National Dong Hwa University, Hualien 97401, Taiwan (China); Je, J.H. [X-ray Imaging Center, Pohang University of Science and Technology, Pohang (Korea, Republic of); Margaritondo, G. [Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne (EPFL), CH-1015 Lausanne (Switzerland)

    2009-09-15

    Au/TiO{sub 2} nanocomposite particles were synthesized by a method based on intense X-ray irradiation without adding any reducing agent or stabilizer. The nanocomposite exhibits promising photocatalytic and biological properties at physiologically relevant concentration ([Au] = 0.028 mM, [TiO{sub 2}] = 0.5 mM). The structure and photocatalysis were examined by X-ray diffraction, electron microscopy and ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy demonstrating that gold nanoparticles of 2-5 nm size were successfully deposited on TiO{sub 2} nanoparticle surfaces. The nanocomposite exhibited good colloidal stability within a typical cellular environment and was nontoxic to cancer cell according to evaluations under controlled conditions. The Au/TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles were also found to enhance the photocatalytic efficiency of UV radiation and even more that of X-ray radiation. In vitro studies indicated that the cell-killing effect under X-ray irradiation is more pronounced with the addition of Au/TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles than of bare TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles.

  16. Cathodic corrosion: Part 2. Properties of nanoparticles synthesized by cathodic corrosion

    Yanson, A.I.; Yanson, Yu.I.

    2013-01-01

    We demonstrate how cathodic corrosion in concentrated aqueous solutions enables one to prepare nanoparticles of various metals and metal alloys. Using various characterization methods we show that the composition of nanoparticles remains that of the starting material, and the resulting size distribution remains rather narrow. For the case of platinum we show how the size and possibly even the shape of the nanoparticles can be easily controlled by the parameters of corrosion. Finally, we discuss the advantages of using the nanoparticles prepared by cathodic corrosion for applications in (electro-)catalysis.

  17. Bismuth nanoparticles synthesized by laser ablation in lubricant oils for tribological tests

    Flores-Castañeda, M., E-mail: mar.floc@hotmail.com [Universidad Autónoma del Estado de México, Av. Instituto Literario No. 100, Oriente Col. Centro, Toluca, Estado de México C.P. 50000, México (Mexico); Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, Carretera México-Toluca s/n, La Marquesa, Ocoyoacac, Edo. de México C.P. 52750, México (Mexico); Camps, E. [Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, Carretera México-Toluca s/n, La Marquesa, Ocoyoacac, Edo. de México C.P. 52750, México (Mexico); Camacho-López, M. [Universidad Autónoma del Estado de México, Av. Instituto Literario No. 100, Oriente Col. Centro, Toluca, Estado de México C.P. 50000, México (Mexico); Muhl, S. [Instituto de Investigación en Materiales (UNAM), Circuito Exterior, Ciudad Universitaria, Coyoacán, 04510 México, D.F., México (Mexico); and others

    2015-09-15

    Highlights: • Bismuth nanoparticles have been obtained by laser ablation of solids in liquids. • The technique allows controlling the size and concentration of the samples. • Bi np’s in base oils can improve the tribological characteristics of the lubricant. - Abstract: The improvement of the tribological properties of mineral base oils through the addition of bismuth nanoparticles as an additive, together with the idea of obtaining lubricants free of heavy metals, was evaluated. Bismuth nanoparticles were produced directly in the heavy and light viscosity mineral base oils (BS900 and BS6500) using the technique of laser ablation of solids immersed in liquids. Transmission electron microscopy measurements showed the presence of pure bismuth nanoparticles. Small Angle X-ray Scattering (SAXS) measurements showed that the average size of the nanoparticles was between 7 and 65 nm depending on the experimental conditions used. The tribological properties of the base oil with the bismuth nanoparticles additives were evaluated using a four-ball tester. Tests were performed using the base oil with and without Bi nanoparticles. It was observed that the coefficient of friction of the oil decrease with an increasing concentration of the nanoparticles. The results also showed that the wear rate was reduced when the Bi nanoparticle additives were used.

  18. Bismuth nanoparticles synthesized by laser ablation in lubricant oils for tribological tests

    Flores-Castañeda, M.; Camps, E.; Camacho-López, M.; Muhl, S.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Bismuth nanoparticles have been obtained by laser ablation of solids in liquids. • The technique allows controlling the size and concentration of the samples. • Bi np’s in base oils can improve the tribological characteristics of the lubricant. - Abstract: The improvement of the tribological properties of mineral base oils through the addition of bismuth nanoparticles as an additive, together with the idea of obtaining lubricants free of heavy metals, was evaluated. Bismuth nanoparticles were produced directly in the heavy and light viscosity mineral base oils (BS900 and BS6500) using the technique of laser ablation of solids immersed in liquids. Transmission electron microscopy measurements showed the presence of pure bismuth nanoparticles. Small Angle X-ray Scattering (SAXS) measurements showed that the average size of the nanoparticles was between 7 and 65 nm depending on the experimental conditions used. The tribological properties of the base oil with the bismuth nanoparticles additives were evaluated using a four-ball tester. Tests were performed using the base oil with and without Bi nanoparticles. It was observed that the coefficient of friction of the oil decrease with an increasing concentration of the nanoparticles. The results also showed that the wear rate was reduced when the Bi nanoparticle additives were used

  19. Study of silver nanoparticles synthesized by acidophilic strain of Actinobacteria isolated from the of Picea sitchensis forest soil.

    Railean-Plugaru, V; Pomastowski, P; Wypij, M; Szultka-Mlynska, M; Rafinska, K; Golinska, P; Dahm, H; Buszewski, B

    2016-05-01

    In the present work the acidophilic actinobacteria strain was used as a novel reducing agent for the cheap, green and single-step synthesis of nanostructure silver particles. Structural, morphological and optical properties of the synthesized nanoparticles have been characterized by spectroscopy, dynamic light scattering and electron microscopy approach. The antimicrobial activity of silver nanoparticles against clinical strains such as Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Proteus mirabilis and Salmonella infantis alone and in combination with antibiotics were studied. The crystalline and stable biosynthesized silver nanoparticles ranged in size from 4 to 45 nm and were mostly spherical in shape being characterized evolving several analytical techniques. The bioAgNPs inhibited growth of most bacterial strains. The highest antimicrobial activity was observed against Ps. aeruginosa (10 mm), followed by Staph. aureus, B. subtilis and Pr. mirabilis (all 8 mm). The lower activity was noticed for E. coli and Kl. pneumoniae (6 and 2 mm, respectively). Moreover, the synergistic effect of bio(AgNPs) with various commercially available antibiotics was also evaluated. The most significant results were observed for bio(AgNPs) combined with tetracycline, kanamycin, ampicillin and neomycin, followed by streptomycin and gentamycin against E. coli, Salm. infantis and Kl. pneumoniae. The most resistant bacteria to commercial antibiotics was Pr. mirabilis. The Streptacidiphilus sp. strain CGG11n isolated from acidic soil can be used to efficiently synthesize the bioactive nanoparticles using inexpensive substances in an eco-friendly and nontoxic manner. The present work provides helpful insight into the development of new antimicrobial agents with the synergistic enhancement of the antibacterial mechanism against pathogenic micro-organisms. The synthesized silver bionanoparticles from Streptacidiphilus sp. strain

  20. Characterization, antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of green synthesized silver nanoparticles from Psidium guajava L. leaf aqueous extracts.

    Wang, Lu; Wu, Yanan; Xie, Jia; Wu, Sheng; Wu, Zhenqiang

    2018-05-01

    The green synthesis of nanoparticles has become increasingly promising due to their potential applications in nanomedicine and materials science. In this study, silver nanoparticles (P-AgNPs) were synthesized from aqueous extracts of P. guajava L. leaf. The synthesized silver nanoparticles were confirmed by UV-vis spectrophotometry at 438 nm. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and zetasizer analyses showed that the average sizes of the P-AgNPs were 20-35 nm, 25 nm, and 25-35 nm, respectively. Element mapping analyses of the P-AgNPs were confirmed by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) analyses. Moreover, FTIR spectra of the synthesized P-AgNPs showed the presence of phyto constituents as capping agents. Zeta potential measurements (-20.17 mV) showed that the synthesized P-AgNPs had reasonably good stability. The in vitro antioxidant properties of the P-AgNPs were evaluated using two different methods. A highly efficient radical scavenging activity of P-AgNPs possessing IC 50 values of 52.53 ± 0.31 μg/mL (DPPH) and 55.10 ± 0.29 μg/mL (ABTS + ) were confirmed. At a concentration of 100 μg/mL, antimicrobial activity assays of the P-AgNPs showed significant inhibition against selected bacteria, S. cerevisiae, A. niger and R. oryzae, especially against Alcaligenes faecalis and Escherichia coli. The present study revealed that the low-cost and environmentally friendly synthesis of P-AgNPs can be widely used in biomedicine, water treatment or purification, and nanobiotechnology. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Anti-friction performance of FeS nanoparticle synthesized by biological method

    Zhou, Lu Hai, E-mail: lhzhou@t.shu.edu.cn [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Shanghai University, Shanghai 200444 (China); Wei, Xi Cheng [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Shanghai University, Shanghai 200444 (China); Ma, Zi Jian [Pipe and Bar Division of Baoshan Iron & Steel Co., Ltd., Shanghai 200941 (China); Mei, Bin [Shanghai Medical Instrumentation College, Shanghai 200093 (China)

    2017-06-15

    Highlights: • FeS nanoparticles were successfully prepared by a biological method. • The anti-friction performance of prepared nanoparticle under oil lubricating and dry condition were analyzed. • The anti-friction mechanism of FeS nanoparticle was discussed. - Abstract: FeS nanoparticle is prepared by a biological method. The size, morphology and structure of the FeS nanoparticle are characterized by the means of X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy. The anti-friction behavior of the FeS nanoparticle as a lubricating oil additive is evaluated in the engine oil by using a face-to-face contact mode. The worn surface is characterized by using the scanning electron microscopy and secondary ion mass spectroscopy in order to find the reasons resulting in the reduction of friction coefficient due to the addition of the FeS nanoparticle. The anti-friction mechanism of the FeS nanoparticle is elucidated based on the experimental results.

  2. Gold nanoparticles synthesized by gamma radiation and stabilized by bovine serum albumin

    Leal, Jessica; Silva, Andressa A.; Geraldes, Adriana N.; Lugao, Ademar B.; Grasselli, Mariano

    2015-01-01

    Gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) are a new option for pharmaceutical and cosmetic industries due to their interesting chemical, electrical and catalytic properties. Research for cancer treatments have been developed using this promising radiotherapy agent. The challenge of gold nanoparticles is to keep them stable, due to metallic behavior. It is know that surface plasma resonance promotes agglomeration of metallic nanoparticles, but they are not stable. Stabilizers have been used to reduce agglomeration. The aim of this work is reduction of HAuCl 4 salt to AuNPs performed by gamma radiation 60 Co source and the stabilization of gold nanoparticles using bovine serum albumin (BSA) fraction V as stabilizer agent. AuNPs were characterized by UV-visible to verify the nanoparticles formation. Samples containing BSA and samples obtained by the conventional method (without stabilizer) were monitored for two weeks and analyzed. Results were compared. (author)

  3. Gold nanoparticles synthesized by gamma radiation and stabilized by bovine serum albumin

    Leal, Jessica; Silva, Andressa A.; Geraldes, Adriana N.; Lugao, Ademar B., E-mail: jessicaleal@usp.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Grasselli, Mariano, E-mail: mariano.grasselli@gmail.com [Departamento de Ciencia y Tecnologia, Universidad Nacional de Quilmes, Bernal (Argentina)

    2015-07-01

    Gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) are a new option for pharmaceutical and cosmetic industries due to their interesting chemical, electrical and catalytic properties. Research for cancer treatments have been developed using this promising radiotherapy agent. The challenge of gold nanoparticles is to keep them stable, due to metallic behavior. It is know that surface plasma resonance promotes agglomeration of metallic nanoparticles, but they are not stable. Stabilizers have been used to reduce agglomeration. The aim of this work is reduction of HAuCl{sub 4} salt to AuNPs performed by gamma radiation {sup 60}Co source and the stabilization of gold nanoparticles using bovine serum albumin (BSA) fraction V as stabilizer agent. AuNPs were characterized by UV-visible to verify the nanoparticles formation. Samples containing BSA and samples obtained by the conventional method (without stabilizer) were monitored for two weeks and analyzed. Results were compared. (author)

  4. Synthesis, characterization and evaluation cytotoxic activity of silver nanoparticles synthesized by Chinese herbal Cornus officinalis via environment friendly approach.

    He, Yangqing; Li, Xing; Wang, Ju; Yang, Qian; Yao, Binghua; Zhao, Yingjuan; Zhao, Aiming; Sun, Wenxing; Zhang, Qian

    2017-12-01

    Cornus officinalis has been widely used as a precious herb and as the tonic food to improve kidney function in China. Its fruits have been used in many traditional Chinese medicine prescriptions to treat kidney diseases, diabetes, cancer and shock. In this study, a new eco-friendly approach for green synthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) by using the fruits of Cornus officinalis aqueous extract as a reducing and stabilizing agent. The so-synthesized AgNPs showed quasi-spherical in shape with uniform dispersal and an average mean size of 11.7nm. Water soluble biomolecules such as flavonoids and/or anthocyanins from the extract played important roles in the nanoparticles formation. The AgNPs displayed distinctive cytotoxicity activities against human prostate cancer (PC-3) and human liver cancer (HepG2) cell lines. The results provided a low cost, nontoxic and eco-friendly approach for synthesizing metal nanoparticles to explore alternative anticancer agents on the way fighting against cancer in future. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Inhibition of Phytophthora parasitica and P. capsici by Silver Nanoparticles Synthesized Using Aqueous Extract of Artemisia absinthium.

    Ali, Mohammad; Kim, Bosung; Belfield, Kevin D; Norman, David; Brennan, Mary; Ali, Gul Shad

    2015-09-01

    Application of nanoparticles for controlling plant pathogens is a rapidly emerging area in plant disease management, and nanoparticles synthesis methods that are economical and ecofriendly are extensively investigated. In this project, we investigated the potential of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) synthesized with aqueous extract of Artemisia absinthium against several Phytophthora spp., which cause many economically important crop diseases. In in vitro dose-response tests conducted in microtiter plates, 10 µg ml⁻¹ of AgNPs inhibited mycelial growth of P. parasitica, P. infestans, P. palmivora, P. cinnamomi, P. tropicalis, P. capsici, and P. katsurae. Detailed in vitro dose-response analyses conducted with P. parasitica and P. capsici revealed that AgNPs synthesized with A. absinthium extract were highly potent (IC50: 2.1 to 8.3 µg ml⁻¹) and efficacious (100%) in inhibiting mycelial growth, zoospore germination, germ tube elongation, and zoospore production. Interestingly, AgNP treatment accelerated encystment of zoospores. Consistent with in vitro results, in planta experiments conducted in a greenhouse revealed that AgNP treatments prevented Phytophthora infection and improved plant survival. Moreover, AgNP in in planta experiments did not produce any adverse effects on plant growth. These investigations provide a simple and economical method for controlling Phytophthora with AgNP without affecting normal plant physiology.

  6. Gold nanoparticles synthesized by Brassica oleracea (Broccoli) acting as antimicrobial agents against human pathogenic bacteria and fungi

    Piruthiviraj, Prakash; Margret, Anita; Krishnamurthy, Poornima Priyadharsani

    2016-04-01

    Production of antimicrobial agents through the synthesis of gold nanoparticles using green technology has been extensively made consistent by various researchers; yet, this study uses the flower bud's aqueous extracts of Brassica oleracea (Broccoli) as a reducing agent for chloroauric acid (1 mM). After 30 min of incubation, synthesis of gold nanoparticles (AuNps) was observed by a change in extract color from pale yellow to purple color. Synthesis of AuNps was confirmed in UV-visible spectroscopy at the range of approximately 560 nm. The SEM analysis showed the average nanoparticles size of 12-22 nm. The antimicrobial activity of AuNps was analyzed by subjecting it to human pathogenic bacteria (Gram-positive Staphylococcus aureus and Gram-negative Klebsiella pneumonia) and fungi (Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus niger and Candida albicans) using disc diffusion method. The broccoli-synthesized AuNps showed the efficient antibacterial and antifungal activity of above-mentioned microbes. It was confirmed that AuNps have the best antimicrobial agent compared to the standard antibiotics (Gentamicin and Fluconazole). When the concentrations of AuNps were increased (10, 25, and 50 µg/ml), the sensitivity zone also increased for all the tested microbes. The synthesized AuNps are capable of rendering high antimicrobial efficacy and, hence, have a great potential in the preparation of drugs used against major bacterial and fungal diseases in humans.

  7. Acaricidal, pediculicidal and larvicidal activity of synthesized ZnO nanoparticles using Momordica charantia leaf extract against blood feeding parasites.

    Gandhi, P Rajiv; Jayaseelan, C; Mary, R Regina; Mathivanan, D; Suseem, S R

    2017-10-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the acaricidal, pediculicidal and larvicidal effect of synthesized zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs) using Momordica charantia leaf extract against the larvae of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus, adult of Pediculus humanus capitis, and the larvae of Anopheles stephensi, Culex quinquefasciatus. The ZnO NPs were characterized by using UV, XRD, FTIR and SEM-EDX. The SEM image confirms that the synthesized nanoparticles were spherical in shape with a size of 21.32 nm. The results of GC-MS analysis indicates the presence of the major compound of Nonacosane (C 29 H 60 ) in the M. charantia leaf extract. Cattle tick, head lice and mosquito larvae were exposed to a varying concentrations of the synthesized ZnO NPs and M. charantia leaf extract for 24 h. Compared to the leaf aqueous extract, biosynthesized ZnO NPs showed higher toxicity against R. microplus, P. humanus capitis, An. stephensi, and Cx. Quinquefasciatus with the LC 50 values of 6.87, 14.38, 5.42, and 4.87 mg/L, respectively. The findings revealed that synthesized ZnO NPs possess excellent anti-parasitic activity. These results suggest that the green synthesized ZnO NPs has the potential to be used as an ideal ecofriendly approach for the control of R. microplus, P. humanus capitis and the mosquito larvae of An. Stephensi and Cx. quinquefasciatus. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Removal of pyrene and benzo(a)pyrene micropollutant from water via adsorption by green synthesized iron oxide nanoparticles

    Hassan, Saad S. M.; Abdel-Shafy, Hussein I.; Mansour, Mona S. M.

    2018-03-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in water are classified as organic micropollutants, which are carcinogenic even in very low concentration (ppb). In this study the green synthesized iron oxide nanoparticles (IONPs) were green synthesized at room temperature by using pomegranate peel extract. The green synthesized IONPs were used for adsorbing benzo(a)pyrene and pyrene (PAHs) from water. Factors affecting the adsorption were investigated. These factors are: nanoparticles dose, pH, temperature, and initial concentration of PAHs. The overall results showed that the maximum adsorption capacities of IONPs towards pyrene and benzo(a)pyrene were 2.8 and 0.029 mg g-1, respectively. The thermodynamic study indicated an exothermic adsorption process of pyrene and benzo(a)pyrene. The kinetic and isotherm studies were carried out. The obtained data revealed that the adsorption process follows a pseudo-second order mechanism and obeys Langmuir isotherm model. In addition, the IONPs proved to be a potential candidate for the adsorption of pyrene and benzo(a)pyrene even after five cycles of use and regeneration. The investigation was extended using semi-pilot plant to remove the studied PAHs from artificially contaminated water. The results showed that the IONPs was capable to remove the pyrene and benzo (a) pyrene at the rate of 98.5 and 99%, respectively. It also can be used as disinfectant.

  9. Study of photocatalytic activities of Bi{sub 2}WO{sub 6} nanoparticles synthesized by fast microwave-assisted method

    Phu, Nguyen Dang [Faculty of Physics, Hanoi National University of Education, 136 Xuanthuy, Cau Giay, Hanoi (Viet Nam); Hoang, Luc Huy, E-mail: hoanglhsp@hnue.edu.vn [Faculty of Physics, Hanoi National University of Education, 136 Xuanthuy, Cau Giay, Hanoi (Viet Nam); Chen, Xiang-Bai, E-mail: xchen@wit.edu.cn [School of Science and Laboratory of Optical Information Technology, Wuhan Institute of Technology, Wuhan 430205 (China); Kong, Meng-Hong [School of Science and Laboratory of Optical Information Technology, Wuhan Institute of Technology, Wuhan 430205 (China); Wen, Hua-Chiang; Chou, Wu Ching [Department of Electrophysics, National Chiao Tung University, Hsin-Chu 30010, Taiwan (China)

    2015-10-25

    We present a study of photocatalytic activities of Bi{sub 2}WO{sub 6} nanoparticles synthesized by fast microwave-assisted method. The photocatalytic activities of the nanoparticles were evaluated by the decolorization of methylene-blue under visible-light-irradiation. Our results show that the surface area of Bi{sub 2}WO{sub 6} nanoparticles plays a major role for improving photocatalytic activity, while visible-light absorption has only a weak effect on photocatalytic activity. This suggests efficient transportation of photo-generated electrons and holes to the oxidation active sites on the surface of nanoparticles, indicating Bi{sub 2}WO{sub 6} nanoparticles synthesized by fast microwave-assisted method are promising for achieving high photocatalytic activity under visible-light-irradiation. - Highlights: • The Bi{sub 2}WO{sub 6} nanoparticles were synthesized via fast microwave-assisted method. • The obtained Bi{sub 2}WO{sub 6} nanoparticles exhibited visible-light absorbance. • The surface area of Bi{sub 2}WO{sub 6} nanoparticles plays major role for improving photocatalytic activity. • The Bi{sub 2}WO{sub 6} nanoparticles are promising for achieving high photocatalytic activity under visible-light-irradiation.

  10. A new green chemistry method based on plant extracts to synthesize gold nanoparticles

    Montes Castillo, Milka Odemariz

    Extraordinary chemical and physical properties exhibited by nanomaterials, as compared to their bulk counterparts, have made the area of nanotechnology a growing realm in the past three decades. It is the nanoscale size (from 1 to 100 nm) and the morphologies of nanomaterials that provide several properties and applications not possible for the same material in the bulk. Magnetic and optical properties, as well as surface reactivity are highly dependent on the size and morphology of the nanomaterial. Diverse nanomaterials are being widely used in molecular diagnostics as well as in medicine, electronic and optical devices. Among the most studied nanomaterials, gold nanoparticles are of special interest due to their multifunctional capabilities. For instance, spherical gold nanoparticles measuring 15-20 nm in diameter have been studied due to their insulin binding properties. Also, thiol functionalized gold nanoparticles between 5 and 30 nm are used in the detection of DNA. Thus, harnessing the shape and size of gold nanoparticles plays an important role in science and technology. The synthesis of gold nanoparticles via the reduction of gold salts, using citrate or other reducing agents, has been widely studied. In recent years, algae, fungi, bacteria, and living plants have been used to reduce trivalent gold (Au3+) to its zero oxidation state (Au 0) forming gold nanoparticles of different sizes and shapes. In addition, plant biomasses have also been studied for their gold-reducing power and nanoparticle formation. Although there is information about the synthesis of the gold nanoparticles by biologically based materials; to our knowledge, the study of the use of alfalfa extracts has not been reported. This innovation represents a significant improvement; that is an environmentally friendly method that does not use toxic chemicals. Also, the problem of extracting the formed gold nanoparticles from biomaterials is addressed in this research but still remains to be

  11. Haemocompatibility of iron oxide nanoparticles synthesized for theranostic applications: a high-sensitivity microfluidic tool

    Rodrigues, Raquel O. [Polytechnic Institute of Bragança, Laboratory of Separation and Reaction Engineering-Laboratory of Catalysis and Materials (LSRE-LCM) (Portugal); Bañobre-López, Manuel; Gallo, Juan [INL-International Iberian Nanotechnology Laboratory, Advanced (Magnetic) Theranostic Nanostructures Lab (Portugal); Tavares, Pedro B. [Universidade de Trás-os-Montes e Alto Douro, CQVR-Centro de Química-Vila Real (Portugal); Silva, Adrián M. T. [Universidade do Porto, Laboratory of Separation and Reaction Engineering-Laboratory of Catalysis and Materials (LSRE-LCM), Faculdade de Engenharia (Portugal); Lima, Rui, E-mail: rl@dem.uminho.pt [MEtRiCS, University of Minho, Mechanical Engineering Department (Portugal); Gomes, Helder T. [Polytechnic Institute of Bragança, Laboratory of Separation and Reaction Engineering-Laboratory of Catalysis and Materials (LSRE-LCM) (Portugal)

    2016-07-15

    The poor heating efficiency of the most reported magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs), allied to the lack of comprehensive biocompatibility and haemodynamic studies, hampers the spread of multifunctional nanoparticles as the next generation of therapeutic bio-agents in medicine. The present work reports the synthesis and characterization, with special focus on biological/toxicological compatibility, of superparamagnetic nanoparticles with diameter around 18 nm, suitable for theranostic applications (i.e. simultaneous diagnosis and therapy of cancer). Envisioning more insights into the complex nanoparticle-red blood cells (RBCs) membrane interaction, the deformability of the human RBCs in contact with magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) was assessed for the first time with a microfluidic extensional approach, and used as an indicator of haematological disorders in comparison with a conventional haematological test, i.e. the haemolysis analysis. Microfluidic results highlight the potential of this microfluidic tool over traditional haemolysis analysis, by detecting small increments in the rigidity of the blood cells, when traditional haemotoxicology analysis showed no significant alteration (haemolysis rates lower than 2 %). The detected rigidity has been predicted to be due to the wrapping of small MNPs by the bilayer membrane of the RBCs, which is directly related to MNPs size, shape and composition. The proposed microfluidic tool adds a new dimension into the field of nanomedicine, allowing to be applied as a high-sensitivity technique capable of bringing a better understanding of the biological impact of nanoparticles developed for clinical applications.

  12. Study of optimizing the process of Cadmium adsorption by synthesized silver nanoparticles using Chlorella vulgaris

    Faezeh Sajadi

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Cadmium (Cd is one of the most toxic heavy metals in water that mostly enters the water cycle through industrial waste water. Silver nanoparticles have the capacity to remove heavy metals from the water resources through the mechanism of adsorption. The present study aimed at producing  silver bio-nanoparticles and optimizing . Cd removal from aquatic solutions. Materials and Methods: Silver bio-nanoparticles were extracted via a micro-algae Chlorella vulgaris extract and silver nitrate synthesis. Then, the characteristics of the particles were  determined using FT-IR, XRD, SEM devices. In order to optimize Cadmium adsorption by means of silver nanoparticles, parameters including pH, reaction time, initial concentration of Cd and concentrations of nanoparticles were studied under different conditions. Results: The resulting nanoparticles were spherical, single and crystalline, whose sizes were 10-45 nm.  Under the condition of PH = 8, the initial concentration of cadmium 0.5 mg/L, adsorbent dosage of 0.5 mg, reaction time of 10 min, temperature of 300C and mixing speed of 200 rpm, 99% of cadmium was removed. Isotherm of Cadmium-ion adsorption followed Langmuir (R2> 0/96 (and Freundlich (R2> 0/94 models. Conclusion: Under optimal conditions, silver bio-nanoparticles had the capacity of quick and effective adsorption of cadmium. Thus, with a cheap, non-toxic and environmentally friendly method  can remove heavy metals in a short time.

  13. Effects of citric acid additive on photoluminescence properties of YAG:Ce3+ nanoparticles synthesized by glycothermal reaction

    Asakura, R.; Isobe, T.; Kurokawa, K.; Takagi, T.; Aizawa, H.; Ohkubo, M.

    2007-01-01

    We synthesize Y 3 Al 5 O 12 :Ce 3+ (YAG:Ce 3+ ) nanoparticles in the presence of citric acid by glycothermal method. Fourier transform infrared absorption spectroscopy measurement indicates that the intensity of the peak corresponding to carboxyl groups coordinating to the nanoparticles increases with increasing amount of citric acid. At the same time, the primary particle diameter decreases from 10.2 to 4.0 nm. In addition, the internal quantum efficiency of the photoluminescence (PL) due to the 4f-5d transition of Ce 3+ increases from 22.0% to 40.1% with increasing amount of citric acid. Two kinds of PL decay lifetimes, 16-26 and 72-112 ns, are detected for YAG:Ce 3+ nanoparticles, whereas the micron sized YAG:Ce 3+ bulk shows the lifetime of 57 ns. We discuss these phenomena from the aspects of the coordination of citric acid and the incorporation of Ce 3+ ions into the nanoparticles

  14. Microscopic evolution of dielectric nanoparticles at different calcination temperatures synthesized via sol-gel auto-combustion

    Adil, Muhammad, E-mail: muhammadadil86@hotmail.com; Zaid, Hasnah Mohd, E-mail: hasnamz@petronas.com.my; Chuan, Lee Kean, E-mail: lee.kc@petronas.com.my; Latiff, Noor Rasyada Ahmad, E-mail: syasya.latiff@gmail.com [Fundamental and Applied Sciences Department, Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS Bandar Seri Iskandar, 31750 Tronoh, Perak (Malaysia); Alta’ee, Ali F., E-mail: ali-mangi@petronas.com.my [Geoscience and Petroleum Engineering Department, Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS Bandar Seri Iskandar, 31750 Tronoh, Perak (Malaysia)

    2015-07-22

    Dielectric nano powder synthesis is carried by a simple and fast sol-gel auto-combustion method. The transformation of crystalline phases of as-synthesized nano powders is investigated through the detailed transmission electron microscopy (TEM), revealed the crystallographic alterations and morphological information even at lattice scale. From specific area electron diffraction (SAED) pattern, has specified the d-spacing and corresponding planes supported by the observed lattice fringes. The morphological characterization of nanoparticles is performed through field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), exhibiting the increment in particle size due to agglomeration with the increase in annealing temperature. Furthermore, EDX pattern has been used to verify the formation of nanoparticles by revealing the presence of required elements.

  15. Microscopic evolution of dielectric nanoparticles at different calcination temperatures synthesized via sol-gel auto-combustion

    Adil, Muhammad; Zaid, Hasnah Mohd; Chuan, Lee Kean; Latiff, Noor Rasyada Ahmad; Alta’ee, Ali F.

    2015-01-01

    Dielectric nano powder synthesis is carried by a simple and fast sol-gel auto-combustion method. The transformation of crystalline phases of as-synthesized nano powders is investigated through the detailed transmission electron microscopy (TEM), revealed the crystallographic alterations and morphological information even at lattice scale. From specific area electron diffraction (SAED) pattern, has specified the d-spacing and corresponding planes supported by the observed lattice fringes. The morphological characterization of nanoparticles is performed through field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), exhibiting the increment in particle size due to agglomeration with the increase in annealing temperature. Furthermore, EDX pattern has been used to verify the formation of nanoparticles by revealing the presence of required elements

  16. The removal of 2,4-dichlorophenol under visible light irradiation by silver indium sulfide nanoparticles synthesized by microwave

    Amir Hossein

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Silver indium sulfide (AgInS2 nanoparticles were synthesized by microwave method. These nanopartricles were characterized by FT-IR, XRD, DRS, SEM and TEM techniques. The band gap energy of 1.96 eV was determined by UV-Vis diffuse reflection spectrum (DRS. The photocatalytic activity was studied by photodegradation reaction of 2,4-dichlorophenol (2,4-DCP under visible light irradiation. The influence of initial concentration, initial solution pH on the degradation percentage of 2,4-DCP and also, the kinetics of photodegradation were investigated. The removal efficiency up to 95% proved the superior capability of AgInS2 (AIS nanoparticles for water purification.

  17. The magnetic characterization of Fe doped TiO{sub 2} semiconducting oxide nanoparticles synthesized by sol–gel method

    Yeganeh, M., E-mail: mahboubeh.yeganeh@yahoo.co.uk [Department of Physics, Kosar University of Bojnord, P.O. Box 94104455 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Shahtahmasebi, N.; Kompany, A. [Department of Physics, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Karimipour, M. [Department of Physics, Vali-e-Asr University of Rafsanjan (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Razavi, F. [Department of Physics, Brock University (Canada); Nasralla, N.H.S. [Electron Microscope and Thin Film Department, Physics Division, 33 El Buhouth st., Dokki, 12622 Giza (Egypt); Šiller, L. [School of Chemical Engineering and Advanced Materials, Newcastle University, NE1 7RU (United Kingdom)

    2017-04-15

    In this work Fe doped TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles were synthesized at different Fe/Ti molar ratio from 1% to 5% by sol-gel technique. The post annealing of the samples was carried out at T=400, 600, and 800 °C. HRTEM of the samples revealed that the mean size of the nanoparticles increases from about 8 nm to about 100 nm as the annealing temperature increased. SQUID magnetometry of 1% and 5% Fe doped TiO{sub 2} has shown mixed ferromagnetic and paramagnetic phases within the crystal while ferromagnetic order with T{sub c} about 350 K was only observed in 5% Fe:TiO{sub 2} sample annealed at T=800 °C. The oxygen vacancy mediated ferromagnetic (FM) interaction could be responsible for the observed FM.

  18. Improved Catalysis of Green-Synthesized Pd-Ag Alloy-Nanoparticles for Anodic Oxidation of Methanol in Alkali

    Roy Chowdhury, Sreya; Ghosh, Srabanti; Bhattachrya, Swapan Kumar

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Pd and Pd x Ag y nanoalloys are synthesised by simple green synthetic method without using any capping agent. • Increased electrochemical surface area and roughness factor in case of Pd x Ag y alloy generates enhanced catalytically active sites which help methanol oxidation reaction. • By analysing the products of MOR reaction by CV, FTIR and HPLC plausible mechanism of the reaction is proposed. • Among different compositions Pd 4 Ag and Pd are the best electrodes for oxidation of methanol and formate respectively in alkali. - Abstract: Monometallic Pd, Ag and bimetallic Pd x Ag y alloy nanoparticles were synthesized in a single pot using a green synthetic protocol in absence of any capping agent. X-ray, electron diffraction, microscopic and spectroscopic studies of synthesized material demonstrate the formation of nanoballs with radius of 10–20 nm of face centred cubic metals and alloys. The electrochemical studies of as-synthesized materials loaded on carbon support reveal that the Pd 4 Ag nanoparticles exhibit the best and synergistic electro-catalytic activity in reference to oxidation of methanol in alkali. The most active Pd 4 Ag nanoparticles show higher peak current (201 mA mg −1 ) in comparison to that (133 mA mg −1 ) of Pd in cyclic voltammetric study. The electrode shows the highest exchange current density (1.95 × 10 −2 mA mg −1 of Pd) for methanol oxidation reaction (MOR) and higher catalytic activity for oxidation of possible intermediates like formaldehyde and sodium formate of MOR. Ex-situ infrared spectrometry and chromatographic studies of reaction products reveal that Ag accelerates the formation of formate rather than carbonate elucidating the plausible mechanism of the reaction. These findings have important implications for further fine-tuning of the Pd nano alloys toward highly active and selective catalysts for alcohol fuel cells.

  19. Synthesis of Fe Nanoparticles Functionalized with Oleic Acid Synthesized by Inert Gas Condensation

    L. G. Silva

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work, we study the synthesis of monodispersed Fe nanoparticles (Fe-NPs in situ functionalized with oleic acid. The nanoparticles were self-assembled by inert gas condensation (IGC technique by using magnetron-sputtering process. Structural characterization of Fe-NPs was performed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM. Particle size control was carried out through the following parameters: (i condensation zone length, (ii magnetron power, and (iii gas flow (Ar and He. Typically the nanoparticles generated by IGC showed diameters which ranged from ~0.7 to 20 nm. Mass spectroscopy of Fe-NPs in the deposition system allowed the study of in situ nanoparticle formation, through a quadrupole mass filter (QMF that one can use together with a mass filter. When the deposition system works without quadrupole mass filter, the particle diameter distribution is around +/−20%. When the quadrupole is in line, then the distribution can be reduced to around +/−2%.

  20. Nanoparticles from Cu-Zn-Al shape memory alloys physically synthesized by ion milling deposition

    Pavon, Luis Alberto Lopez [Universidad Autonoma de Nuevo Leon (UANL), Nuevo Leon (Mexico); Cuellara, Enrique Lopez; Castro, Alejandro Torres; Cruza, Azael Martinez de la [Universidad Autonoma de Nuevo Leon (CIIDIT/UANL), Nuevo Leon (Mexico). Centro de Innovacion, Investigacion y Desarrollo en Ingenieria y Tecnologia; Ballesteros, Carmen [Universidad Carlos III de Madrid, Madrid (Spain). Departamento de Fisica; Araujo, Carlos Jose de [Universidade Federal de Campina Grande (UFCG), Campina Grande, PB (Brazil). Departamento de Engenharia Mecanica

    2012-05-15

    In this research, an ion milling equipment was used to elaborate nanoparticles from Cu-Zn-Al alloys with shape memory effect. Two different compositions were used, target A: 75.22Cu-17.12Zn-7.66Al at % with an Ms of -9 deg C and target B: 76.18Cu-15.84Zn-7.98Al with an Ms of 20 degree C. Nanoparticles were characterized by High Resolution Transmission Electron Microscopy, Electron Diffraction and Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy. The obtained nanoparticles showed a small dispersion, with a size range of 3.2-3.5 nm. Their crystal structure is in good agreement with the bulk martensitic structure of the targets. In this sense, results on morphology, composition and crystal structure have indicated that it is possible to produce nanoparticles of CuZnAl shape memory alloys with martensitic structure in a single process using Ion Milling. (author)

  1. Nanoparticles from Cu-Zn-Al shape memory alloys physically synthesized by ion milling deposition

    Pavon, Luis Alberto Lopez; Cuellara, Enrique Lopez; Castro, Alejandro Torres; Cruza, Azael Martinez de la; Ballesteros, Carmen; Araujo, Carlos Jose de

    2012-01-01

    In this research, an ion milling equipment was used to elaborate nanoparticles from Cu-Zn-Al alloys with shape memory effect. Two different compositions were used, target A: 75.22Cu-17.12Zn-7.66Al at % with an Ms of -9 deg C and target B: 76.18Cu-15.84Zn-7.98Al with an Ms of 20 degree C. Nanoparticles were characterized by High Resolution Transmission Electron Microscopy, Electron Diffraction and Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy. The obtained nanoparticles showed a small dispersion, with a size range of 3.2-3.5 nm. Their crystal structure is in good agreement with the bulk martensitic structure of the targets. In this sense, results on morphology, composition and crystal structure have indicated that it is possible to produce nanoparticles of CuZnAl shape memory alloys with martensitic structure in a single process using Ion Milling. (author)

  2. A facile method to synthesize polypyrrole nanoparticles in the presence of natural organic phosphate

    Yang, Chao; Mo, Haodao [State Key Laboratory Breeding Base of Nonferrous Metals and Specific Materials Processing, College of Material Science and Engineering, Guilin University of Technology, Guilin 541004 (China); Zang, Limin, E-mail: D14S004@akita-pu.ac.jp [Department of Machine Intelligence and Systems Engineering, Faculty of Systems Engineering, Akita Prefectural University, Yurihonjo City, Akita 015-0055 (Japan); Qiu, Jianhui; Sakai, Eiichi; Wu, Xueli [Department of Machine Intelligence and Systems Engineering, Faculty of Systems Engineering, Akita Prefectural University, Yurihonjo City, Akita 015-0055 (Japan)

    2014-09-15

    The conductive polymers with unique nanostructures have attracted intense interest due to their potential application. Here the well-defined polypyrrole nanoparticles were facile fabricated via the facile chemical oxidative polymerization of pyrrole with high feeding ratio of phytic acid. Phytic acid is a renewable resource and a natural carbohydrate compound with a vast number of phosphate groups from plant which was used as the template and dopant for the nanostructured conductive polymer for the first time. The samples exhibit the well-defined nanoparticles observed by scanning electron microscope (SEM) and atomic force microscope (AFM). The PPy nanoparticles were achieved and outstanding electrical conductivity as high as 5263 S m{sup −1} was obtained with the feeding mass ratio of phytic acid: pyrrole=3:7. Furthermore, the polypyrrole nanoparticles were characterized with Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), and electrical conductivity techniques.

  3. Modulating fluorescence quantum yield of highly concentrated fluorescein using differently shaped green synthesized gold nanoparticles

    John, Jisha; Thomas, Lincy; Kurian, Achamma; George, Sajan D.

    2016-01-01

    The interaction of dye molecules with differently shaped nanoparticles is of great interest owing to the potential applications in areas of bioimaging, sensing and photodynamic therapy (biology) as well as solar cells (photonics) applications. For such applications, noble metallic nanoparticles are commonly employed to either enhance or quench the luminescence of a nearby fluorophore. However, in most of the studies, the dye concentration is limited to avoid self-quenching. This paper reports the influence of differently shaped gold nanoparticles (spherical, bean and star), prepared via green synthesis, on the emission behavior as well as on the fluorescence quantum yield of fluorescein dye at concentrations for which self-quenching occurs. The emission behavior is probed via laser based steady state fluorescence whereas quantum yield is measured using a dual beam laser based thermal lens technique. The experimentally observed fluorescence quenching with a concomitant increase in thermal lens signal in the vicinity of nanoparticles are explained in terms of nonradiative energy transfer between the donor and the acceptor. Further, the influence of pH of the prepared gold nanofluid on the absorption, emission as well as quantum yield are also accounted. These studies elucidate that even at high concentrations of dye, the gold nanoparticle and its shape clearly influences the optical properties of nearby dye molecules and thus can be exploited for future applications. - Highlights: • Green synthesis of differently shaped gold nanoparticles. • Tailoring emission properties of fluorescein with respect to nanoparticle concentration and shape. • Tailoring the quantum yield of highly concentrated fluorescein with nanoparticles.

  4. Evaluation of antibacterial activities of silver nanoparticles green-synthesized using pineapple leaf (Ananas comosus).

    Emeka, Elemike Elias; Ojiefoh, Oseghale Charles; Aleruchi, Chuku; Hassan, Labulo Ayomide; Christiana, Owoseni Mojisola; Rebecca, Mfon; Dare, Enock Olugbenga; Temitope, Adesuji Elijah

    2014-02-01

    Pineapple leaf was used in this study for the synthesis of silver nanoparticles based on the search for sustainable synthetic means. Indeed, this offered an economical and sustainable synthetic route relative to expensive and toxic chemical methods. The leaf extract was used and the corresponding nanoparticles obtained were subjected to UV-vis analysis at different times. The UV-vis was used to monitor the silver nanoparticle formation through sampling at time intervals. The formation of silver nanoparticles was apparently displayed within 2 min with evidence of surface plasmon bands (SPB) between 440 and 460 nm. The crystals was equally characterized using FTIR, X-ray diffraction methods and TEM. The different results obtained suggested the appearance of silver nanoparticles (SNPs) as determined by the process parameters with a particle size of 12.4 nm. The sample was further screened against Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Proteus mirabilis and Escherichia coli using Gentamicin as control. From the results, there is evidence of inhibition towards bacteria growth. It can now be inferred from the studies that biosynthesis of nanoparticles could be a gateway to our numerous health issues. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Biosynthesis, characterization and antimicrobial studies of green synthesized silver nanoparticles from fruit extract of Syzygium alternifolium (Wt.) Walp. an endemic, endangered medicinal tree taxon

    Yugandhar, P.; Savithramma, N.

    2016-02-01

    In nanotechnology, the plant mediated synthesis of nanoparticles has terrific application in biomedicine due to its novel properties and its eco-friendly nature. The present study deals with the biosynthesis of stable silver nanoparticles (SNPs) from aqueous fruit extract of S. alternifolium an endemic medicinal plant to Eastern Ghats. The synthesized nanoparticles are characterized by UV-VIS spectroscopy, FTIR, XRD, AFM, SEM with EDAX and TEM. Colour change from brown to grey indicates the formation of nanoparticles and UV-VIS surface plasmon resonance spectroscopy observed at 442 nm further confirms the synthesized nanoparticles are SNPs. FTIR studies reveal that the phenols and primary amines of proteins are main responsible for reduction, stabilization and capping agents towards these SNPs. The XRD data show crystalline nature of nanoparticles and EDAX measurements reveal the (12.74 %) percentage presence of Ag metal. AFM, SEM and TEM microscopic analyses revealed that the size of synthesized SNPs ranging from 5 to 68 nm has spherical shape and they are in polydispersed condition. Further, the antimicrobial studies of synthesized SNPs show high toxicity towards different bacterial and fungal isolates. This is the first report on fruit mediated synthesis of silver nanoparticles from S. alternifolium.

  6. A novel sol–gel process to facilely synthesize Ni{sub 3}Fe nanoalloy nanoparticles supported with carbon and silica

    Xu, L.Q. [Institute of Materials Engineering, Nanjing National Laboratory of Microstructures, Jiangsu Provincial Laboratory for Nanotechnology and School of Physics, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); School of Physics and Information Technology, Ningxia Teachers University, Guyuan, Ningxia 756000 (China); Chen, L.Y.; Huang, H.F.; Xie, R.; Xia, W.B.; Wei, J.; Zhong, W. [Institute of Materials Engineering, Nanjing National Laboratory of Microstructures, Jiangsu Provincial Laboratory for Nanotechnology and School of Physics, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); Tang, S.L., E-mail: tangsl@nju.edu.cn [Institute of Materials Engineering, Nanjing National Laboratory of Microstructures, Jiangsu Provincial Laboratory for Nanotechnology and School of Physics, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); Du, Y.W. [Institute of Materials Engineering, Nanjing National Laboratory of Microstructures, Jiangsu Provincial Laboratory for Nanotechnology and School of Physics, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China)

    2014-04-01

    Graphical abstract: The TEM and HRTEM images and the magnetization curves taken in both zero-field-cooled (ZFC) and field-cooled (FC) modes of Ni{sub 3}Fe nanoparticles calcined at 300 °C for 2 h under Ar flowing. Display Omitted - Highlights: • Ultrafine Ni{sub 3}Fe nanoalloy nanoparticles were synthesized via a modified novel sol–gel process. • The prepared Ni{sub 3}Fe nanoalloy nanoparticles have a narrow size distribution. • The Ni{sub 3}Fe nanoparticles exhibit superparamagnetic behaviors at room temperature. - Abstract: In this paper, we present a modified novel silica sol–gel process and explored the possibility, for the first time, to synthesize binary nanoalloy nanoparticles. We successfully prepared ultrafine Ni{sub 3}Fe nanoparticles supported with carbon and silica via this simple one-pot reaction without H{sub 2} reduction. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and selected area electron diffraction (SAED) investigations of the Ni{sub 3}Fe nanoparticles show that the nanoparticles have a face-centered-cubic (fcc) crystal structure. The TEM images show that grain sizes of Ni{sub 3}Fe nanoparticles have a narrow size distribution. Moreover, the grain size of the nanoparticles is not very sensitive to the elevated annealing temperature. The Ni{sub 3}Fe nanoparticles exhibit typical superparamagnetic behavior at room temperature, and the blocking temperatures (T{sub B}) are determined by the temperature-dependent magnetization (M–T curves) measurements. This novel silica sol–gel method is expected to have broad applications in synthesizing nanoalloy nanoparticles.

  7. Effects of precursor on the morphology and size of ZrO2 nanoparticles, synthesized by sol-gel method in non-aqueous medium

    Siddiqui, Mohammed Rafiq Hussain; Al-Wassil, Abdulaziz Ibrahim; Mahfouz, Refaat Mohamad; Al-Otaibi, Abdullah Mohmmed

    2012-01-01

    Pure zirconium oxide (ZrO 2 ) nanoparticles with diameters 10-25 nm were synthesized from ZrOCl 2 .8H 2 O and Zr(SO 4 )2.H 2 O with benzyl alcohol as non-aqueous solvent medium using sol-gel method. Sodium lauryl sulfate was added as surfactants to control the particle size. The synthesized ZrO 2 nanoparticles have a mixture of tetragonal and monoclinic structure. The XRD showed the purity of obtained ZrO 2 nanoparticles with tetragonal and monoclinic phase and the crystallite size for ZrOCl 2 .8H 2 O precursor was estimated to be 18.1 nm and that from Zr(SO 4 )2.H 2 O was 9.7 nm. The transmission electron microscopy and scanning electron microscopic studies also shows different sizes of nanoparticles and different morphology depending on the precursor used for the synthesis of ZrO 2 nanoparticles. (author)

  8. Characterization of intracellular palladium nanoparticles synthesized by Desulfovibrio desulfuricans and Bacillus benzeovorans

    Omajali, Jacob B., E-mail: JBO037@bham.ac.uk, E-mail: jbomajali@gmail.com; Mikheenko, Iryna P. [University of Birmingham, Unit of Functional Bionanomaterials, School of Biosciences, Institute of Microbiology and Infection (United Kingdom); Merroun, Mohamed L. [University of Granada, Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Sciences (Spain); Wood, Joseph [University of Birmingham, School of Chemical Engineering (United Kingdom); Macaskie, Lynne E. [University of Birmingham, Unit of Functional Bionanomaterials, School of Biosciences, Institute of Microbiology and Infection (United Kingdom)

    2015-06-15

    Early studies have focused on the synthesis of palladium nanoparticles within the periplasmic layer or on the outer membrane of Desulfovibrio desulfuricans and on the S-layer protein of Bacillus sphaericus. However, it has remained unclear whether the synthesis of palladium nanoparticles also takes place in the bacterial cell cytoplasm. This study reports the use of high-resolution scanning transmission electron microscopy with a high-angle annular dark field detector and energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry attachment to investigate the intracellular synthesis of palladium nanoparticles (Pd NPs). We show the intracellular synthesis of Pd NPs within cells of two anaerobic strains of D. desulfuricans and an aerobic strain of B. benzeovorans using hydrogen and formate as electron donors. The Pd nanoparticles were small and largely monodispersed, between 0.2 and 8 nm, occasionally from 9 to 12 nm with occasional larger nanoparticles. With D. desulfuricans NCIMB 8307 (but not D. desulfuricans NCIMB 8326) and with B. benzeovorans NCIMB 12555, the NPs were larger when made at the expense of formate, co-localizing with phosphate in the latter, and were crystalline, but were amorphous when made with H{sub 2,} with no phosphorus association. The intracellular Pd nanoparticles were mainly icosahedrons with surfaces comprising {111} facets and about 5 % distortion when compared with that of bulk palladium. The particles were more concentrated in the cell cytoplasm than the cell wall, outer membrane, or periplasm. We provide new evidence for synthesis of palladium nanoparticles within the cytoplasm of bacteria, which were confirmed to maintain cellular integrity during this synthesis.

  9. Field emission studies of silver nanoparticles synthesized by electron cyclotron resonance plasma

    Purohit, Vishwas; Mazumder, Baishakhi; Bhise, A.B.; Poddar, Pankaj; Joag, D.S.; Bhoraskar, S.V.

    2011-01-01

    Field emission has been studied for silver nanoparticles (25-200 nm), deposited within a cylindrical silver target in an electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) plasma. Particle size distribution was controlled by optimum biasing voltages between the chamber and the target. Presence of non-oxidized silver was confirmed from the X-Ray diffraction analysis; however, thin protective layer of oxide was identified from the selective area electron diffraction pattern obtained with transmission electron microscopy. The silver nanoparticles were seen to exhibit hilly pointed like structures when viewed under the atomic force microscopy (AFM). The emissive properties of these particles were investigated by field emission microscopy. It is found that this technique of deposition is ideal for formation of nanoparticles films on different substrate geometries with size controllability as well as its application to emission devices.

  10. Time-resolved analysis of nonlinear optical limiting for laser synthesized carbon nanoparticles

    Chen, G. X.; Hong, M. H.

    2010-11-01

    Nonlinear optical limiting materials have attracted much research interest in recent years. Carbon nanoparticles suspended in liquids show a strong nonlinear optical limiting function. It is important to investigate the nonlinear optical limiting process of carbon nanoparticles for further improving their nonlinear optical limiting performance. In this study, carbon nanoparticles were prepared by laser ablation of a carbon target in tetrahydrofuran (THF). Optical limiting properties of the samples were studied with 532-nm laser light, which is in the most sensitive wavelength band for human eyes. The shape of the laser pulse plays an important role for initializing the nonlinear optical limiting effect. Time-resolved analysis of laser pulses discovered 3 fluence stages of optical limiting. Theoretical simulation indicates that the optical limiting is initialized by a near-field optical enhancement effect.

  11. Supported palladium nanoparticles synthesized by living plants as a catalyst for Suzuki-Miyaura reactions.

    Helen L Parker

    Full Text Available The metal accumulating ability of plants has previously been used to capture metal contaminants from the environment; however, the full potential of this process is yet to be realized. Herein, the first use of living plants to recover palladium and produce catalytically active palladium nanoparticles is reported. This process eliminates the necessity for nanoparticle extraction from the plant and reduces the number of production steps compared to traditional catalyst palladium on carbon. These heterogeneous plant catalysts have demonstrated high catalytic activity in Suzuki coupling reactions between phenylboronic acid and a range of aryl halides containing iodo-, bromo- and chloro- moieties.

  12. Structural analysis of fluorine-containing bioactive glass nanoparticles synthesized by sol-gel route assisted by ultrasound energy.

    Lins, Carolina E C; Oliveira, Agda A R; Gonzalez, Ismael; Macedo, Waldemar A A; Pereira, Marivalda M

    2018-01-01

    In the last decades, studies about the specific effects of bioactive glass on remineralization of dentin were the focus of attention, due to their excellent regenerative properties in mineralized tissues. The incorporation of Fluorine in bioactive glass nanoparticles may result in the formation of fluorapatite (FAP), which is chemically more stable than hydroxyapatite or carbonated hydroxyapatite, and therefore is of interest for dental applications. The aim of this study was to synthesize and characterize a new system of Fluorine-containing bioactive glass nanoparticles (BGNPF). A sol-gel route assisted by ultrasound was used for the synthesis of BGNPF. The particles obtained were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), atomic force microscopy (AFM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), dynamic light scattering (DLS), nitrogen adsorption, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). SEM micrographs showed that the particles are quite uniform spherical nanostructures, occurring agglomeration or partial sinterization of the particulate system after heat treatment. XRD and XPS analysis results suggest the formation of fluorapatite crystals embedded within the matrix of the bioactive glass nanoparticles. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part B: Appl Biomater, 106B: 360-366, 2018. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Gold nanoparticle-polymer nanocomposites synthesized by room temperature atmospheric pressure plasma and their potential for fuel cell electrocatalytic application

    Zhang, Ri-Chao; Sun, Dan; Zhang, Ruirui; Lin, Wen-Feng; Macias-Montero, Manuel; Patel, Jenish; Askari, Sadegh; McDonald, Calum; Mariotti, Davide; Maguire, Paul

    2017-04-01

    Conductive polymers have been increasingly used as fuel cell catalyst support due to their electrical conductivity, large surface areas and stability. The incorporation of metal nanoparticles into a polymer matrix can effectively increase the specific surface area of these materials and hence improve the catalytic efficiency. In this work, a nanoparticle loaded conductive polymer nanocomposite was obtained by a one-step synthesis approach based on room temperature direct current plasma-liquid interaction. Gold nanoparticles were directly synthesized from HAuCl4 precursor in poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) polystyrene sulfonate (PEDOT:PSS). The resulting AuNPs/PEDOT:PSS nanocomposites were subsequently characterized under a practical alkaline direct ethanol fuel cell operation condition for its potential application as an electrocatalyst. Results show that AuNPs sizes within the PEDOT:PSS matrix are dependent on the plasma treatment time and precursor concentration, which in turn affect the nanocomposites electrical conductivity and their catalytic performance. Under certain synthesis conditions, unique nanoscale AuNPs/PEDOT:PSS core-shell structures could also be produced, indicating the interaction at the AuNPs/polymer interface. The enhanced catalytic activity shown by AuNPs/PEDOT:PSS has been attributed to the effective electron transfer and reactive species diffusion through the porous polymer network, as well as the synergistic interfacial interaction at the metal/polymer and metal/metal interfaces.

  14. Nanostructural Features of Silver Nanoparticles Powder Synthesized through Concurrent Formation of the Nanosized Particles of Both Starch and Silver

    A. Hebeish

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Green innovative strategy was developed to accomplish silver nanoparticles formation of starch-silver nanoparticles (St-AgNPs in the powder form. Thus, St-AgNPs were synthesized through concurrent formation of the nanosized particles of both starch and silver. The alkali dissolved starch acts as reducing agent for silver ions and as stabilizing agent for the formed AgNPs. The chemical reduction process occurred in water bath under high-speed homogenizer. After completion of the reaction, the colloidal solution of AgNPs coated with alkali dissolved starch was cooled and precipitated using ethanol. The powder precipitate was collected by centrifugation, then washed, and dried; St-AgNPs powder was characterized using state-of-the-art facilities including UV-vis spectroscopy, Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM, particle size analyzer (PS, Polydispersity index (PdI, Zeta potential (ZP, XRD, FT-IR, EDX, and TGA. TEM and XRD indicate that the average size of pure AgNPs does not exceed 20 nm with spherical shape and high concentration of AgNPs (30000 ppm. The results obtained from TGA indicates that the higher thermal stability of starch coated AgNPS than that of starch nanoparticles alone. In addition to the data obtained from EDX which reveals the presence of AgNPs and the data obtained from particle size analyzer and zeta potential determination indicate that the good uniformity and the highly stability of St-AgNPs.

  15. An eco-friendly method of synthesizing gold nanoparticles using an otherwise worthless weed pistia (Pistia stratiotes L.).

    Anuradha, J; Abbasi, Tasneem; Abbasi, S A

    2015-09-01

    A biomimetic method of gold nanoparticles synthesis utilizing the highly invasive aquatic weed pistia (Pistia stratiotes) is presented. In an attempt to utilize the entire plant, the efficacy of the extracts of all its parts - aerial and submerged - was explored with different proportions of gold (III) solution in generating gold nanoparticles (GNPs). The progress of the synthesis, which occurred at ambient temperature and pressure and commenced soon after mixing the pistia extracts and gold (III) solutions, was tracked using UV-visible spectrophotometry. The electron micrographs of the synthesized GNPs revealed that, depending on the metal-extract concentrations used in the synthesis, GNPs of either monodispersed spherical shape were formed or there was anisotropy resulting in a mixture of triangular, hexagonal, pentagonal, and truncated triangular shaped GNPs. This phenomenon was witnessed with the extracts of aerial parts as well as submerged parts of pistia. The presence of gold atoms in the nanoparticles was confirmed from the EDAX and X-ray diffraction studies. The FT-IR spectral study indicated that the primary and secondary amines associated with the polypeptide biomolecules could have been responsible for the reduction of the gold (III) ions to GNPs and their subsequent stabilization.

  16. Low Temperature Ferromagnetism and Optical Properties of Fe Doped ZnO Nanoparticles Synthesized by Sol-Gel Method

    B. Sathya

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In this present investigation, pure and Fe doped Zinc oxide nanoparticles were successfully synthesized by sol gel method.The structural and optical properties were examined by using X-ray diffraction (XRD, Scanning electron microscope (SEM, Transmission electron microscope (TEM, Ultraviolet spectroscopy and Photoluminescence (PL techniques.The structural characterization of XRD analysis confirmed the phase purity of the samples and crystallite size can be decreased with increasing doping concentrations.SEM image show that nanoparticles in spherical shape. The optical band gap calculated through UV-visible spectroscopy is found to be increasing from 3.48 to 3.57eV. TEM analysis depicted the crystallinity of nanoparticles prepared and chemical composition conformed the EDAX analysis. The PL spectra reveal that, Fe doped ZnO exhibit a decrease in intensity of the band edge emission peak while the intensity of the deep level emission peak increases.The enhancement of low temperature ferromagnetism in ZnO: Fe was achieved.

  17. Oleic-acid-coated CoFe2O4 nanoparticles synthesized by co-precipitation and hydrothermal synthesis

    Gyergyek, Sašo; Drofenik, Miha; Makovec, Darko

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Synthesis of oleic-acid-coated CoFe 2 O 4 nanoparticles from an aqueous solution. ► During the co-precipitation of Co 2+ /Fe 3+ single-phase spinel forms. ► During the co-precipitation of Co 2+ /Fe 2+ , feroxyhyte forms in addition to spinel. ► Oleic acid increases the spinel formation temperature and limits particle growth. ► Colloidal suspensions of ferrimagnetic CoFe 2 O 4 were prepared. - Abstract: Oleic-acid-coated CoFe 2 O 4 nanoparticles were synthesized by co-precipitation and hydrothermal synthesis. The coprecipitation of the nanoparticles was achieved by the rapid addition of a strong base to an aqueous solution of cations in the presence of the oleic acid surfactant, or without this additive. The nanoparticles were also synthesized by a hydrothermal treatment of suspensions of the precipitates, coprecipitated at room temperature in the presence of the oleic acid, or without it. The influence of the synthesis conditions, such as the valence state of the iron cation in the starting aqueous solution, the temperature of the treatment and the presence of oleic acid, on the particles size was systematically studied. X-ray powder diffractometry (XRD) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) coupled with energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) revealed that, although spinel forms at room temperature, a substantial amount of Co was incorporated within the secondary, feroxyhyte-like phase when the iron cation was in the 2+ state. In contrast, when iron was in the 3+ state, the spinel forms at elevated temperatures of approximately 60 °C. The presence of the oleic acid further increased the formation temperature for the stoichiometric spinel. Moreover, the oleic acid impeded the particles’ growth and enabled the preparation of colloidal suspensions of the nanoparticles in non-polar organic solvents. The nanoparticles’ size was successfully controlled by the temperature of the synthesis in the region where superparamagnetism

  18. Synthesize of zinc nanoparticles using Indonesian velvet bean (Mucuna pruriens) extract and evaluate its potency in lowering catalepsy in mice

    Eko Sardjono, Ratnaningsih; Khoerunnisa, Fitri; Musthopa, Iqbal; Khairunisa, Dinar; Astuti Suganda, Putri; Rachmawati, Rahmi

    2018-01-01

    This study aims to synthesize zinc nanoparticles using Indonesian velvet bean (Mucuna pruriens) seed extract and evaluate its potency in lowering catalepsy in mice. The research conducted consist of extraction of M. pruriens seed powder, synthesis of zinc-M. pruriens seed extract nanoparticles (Zn-MPn), characterization of Zn-MPn, and catalepsy test of Zn-MPn. M. pruriens seed powder was extracted by maceration using ethanol-water (1:1) at pH 3 adjusted with citric acid. The Zn-MPn was synthesized by reacting zinc acetate dihydrate (Zn(CH3COO2)2.2H2O) solution with M. pruriens seed extract for 40 min, dispersibility of the reaction was controlled by using sonication and ultrasonic homogenizer. The Zn-MPn obtained was characterized by scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM-EDX), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR). Catalepsy test of Zn-MPn was conducted at doses of 5, 10, 15, 20 and 25 mg/kg body weight. The results of SEM-EDX and TEM analysis showed that the Zn-MPn formed nanoparticles with a particle diameter of 55 nm. Based on FTIR analysis, the absorption band at 464.8 cm-1 was a typical absorption indicated the Zn-O interaction on Zn-MPn. Catalepsy test showed that Zn-MPn on the all five doses were able to lower the catalepsy in mice with the best dose was 10 mg/kg body weight.

  19. Effect of phyto-synthesized silver nanoparticles on developmental stages of malaria vector, Anopheles stephensi and dengue vector, Aedes aegypti

    Madanagopal Nalini

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Rapidly synthesized phyto-mediated silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs using Artemisia nilagirica aqueous leaf filtrate has been confirmed through UV–visible spectrophotometer. The synthesized Ag NPs were further characterized using Fourier transform infra-red (FTIR, X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD to determine the present of functional groups and average particle size (6.723 nm with cubic nature, respectively. Spherical shape (≤30 nm of Ag NPs was confirmed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM. Bio-efficacy of these nanoparticles showed larvicidal and pupicidal properties than the aqueous leaf extract treatment alone against developmental stages (I–IV instars and pupa of malaria vector Anopheles stephensi and dengue vector Aedes aegypti at 0.25% concentration level. The LC50 (LCL:UCL at 95% confidence limit values of I–IV instar and pupa of An. stephensi were recorded at 0.343 (0.261:0.405, 0.169 (0.025:0.263, 0.198 (0.105:0.265, 0.141 (0.045:0.205 and 0.050 (0.606:0.224 % respectively and for Ae. aegypti (I–IV instar and pupa 0.460 (0.364:0.537, 0.352 (0.239:0.432, 0.331 (0.833:0.549, 0.217 (0.228:0.378 and 0.161 (0.630:0.356 % were observed, after 24 h exposure. The first report of present investigation revealed that the rapid biological synthesis of silver nanoparticles using A. nilagirica leaf filtrate would be an effective potential alternative green larvicide for the control of mosquitoes at the developmental stages with eco-friendly approach.

  20. Structure and electrochemical properties of Mg2SnO4 nanoparticles synthesized by a facile co-precipitation method

    Tang, Hao; Cheng, Cuixia; Yu, Gaige; Liu, Haowen; Chen, Weiqing

    2015-01-01

    Nanosized Mg 2 SnO 4 has been synthesized by a facile co-precipitation method. The structure and morphology of the as-prepared samples are characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectrometer (XPS), fourier Transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). It is found that Mg 2 SnO 4 sample is very sensitive to the aging time of the precursor. The single phase Mg 2 SnO 4 nanoparticles with ∼23 nm can be obtained at 900 °C using the aging 35 min percusor as source. The electrochemical properties of the powder obtained at 900 °C are investigated by galvanostatic discharge-charge tests and cyclic voltammograms (CVs). The initial specific discharge capacity reaches as high as 927.7 mAh g −1 at 0.2 mA cm −2 in 0.05–3.0 V, which indicates that Mg 2 SnO 4 nanoparticles could be a promising candidate of anode material for Li-ion batteries. - Highlights: • Nanosized Mg 2 SnO 4 has been synthesized by a facile co-precipitation method. • We find that Mg 2 SnO 4 sample is very sensitive to the ageing time of the precursor. • The single phase Mg 2 SnO 4 nanoparticles with about 23 nm can be obtained by calcining the ageing 35 min percusor at 900 °C. • The obtained powders show a better electrochemical performance

  1. Influence of citric acid on SnO2 nanoparticles synthesized by wet chemical processes

    Sikhwivhilu, LM

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available influences the particle size and the BET specific surface area. The XRD analysis revealed that nanoparticles were phase pure and that all materials exhibited a tetragonal rutile structure of SnO2. Characterisation of the materials was carried out using...

  2. Green Synthesized Silver Nanoparticles Exhibit Reduced Toxicity to Mammalian Cells and Retain Antimicrobial Activity

    The interest in silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) and silver nanomaterial stems from their antimicrobial properties. AgNPs are being added to clothing, paint, refrigerators, washing machines and a variety of other commercially available items. Recent in vitro and in vivo studies, howe...

  3. Characterization of silica and titania nanoparticles synthesized in a spray flame reactor

    Cignoli, F.; Maffi, S.; Bellomunno, C.; De Iuliis, S.; Zizak, G. [CNR-IENI, Milano (Italy)

    2009-07-01

    Nanostructured materials represent nowadays a wide and largely unexplored field of potential applications. This is a research topic in high and rapid development, both at a basic level and under the point of view of potential practical applications, leaving large space for a thorough scientific analysis, which requires a significant amount of time for ultimate conclusions. This paper dealt with the preliminary work performed in the field of frame spray pyrolysis synthesis for nanoparticles, using an external mixing gas assisted nozzle. An experimental apparatus was designed, realized, and characterized for the synthesis of nanoparticles by the flame spray pyrolysis method. The presentation discussed the advantages of the flame spray pyrolysis technique and the experimental set-up including an image of the water spray and discussion of phase doppler anemometry and visualizations to investigate the flow field and the dimensional distribution of the droplets generated by the atomizer. The presentation also discussed the selection of precursor and dispersion fuel for nanoparticles synthesis through flame spray pyrolysis and transmission electron microscopy for dimensional analysis of nanoparticles. It was concluded that the apparatus demonstrated good stability and reproducibility of the reaction flame and, therefore, of the material produced. figs.

  4. Silver Nanoparticles Synthesized Using Mint Extract and their Application in Chitosan/Gelatin Composite Packaging Film

    Bhoir, Shraddha A.; Chawla, S. P.

    The present study reports synthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) using mint extract (ME) in the presence of polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) as capping material. PVA, ME and silver nitrate at concentration of 1%, 0.01% and 0.02%, respectively were found to be optimum for the synthesis of nanoparticles. The formation of AgNPs was confirmed by measuring surface plasmon resonance (SPR) peak. The intensity of SPR peak remained unaltered thus suggesting stability of colloid without aggregation during storage. The nanoparticles inhibited the growth of food borne bacteria namely Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Bacillus cereus. The incorporation of these nanoparticles in chitosan and gelatin blend resulted in homogenous films. Mechanical properties and water vapor transmission rate of chitosan-gelatin films improved due to addition of AgNPs, whereas optical (opacity and UV light transmittance) and oxygen permeability properties remained unchanged. These films had the ability to inhibit growth of 5 log CFU of the above test organisms. These findings suggest that the AgNPs obtained by reduction of silver by ME can be effectively utilized to prepare antibacterial eco-friendly food packaging material.

  5. Structure and composition of iron nanoparticles synthesized using a novel anionic-element complex

    Skoropata, E.; Desautels, R. D.; Lierop, J. van, E-mail: johan@physics.umanitoba.ca [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Manitoba R3T 2N2 (Canada); Rowe, M. [Toyota Research Institute of North America, 1555 Woodridge Ave., Ann Arbor, Michigan 48105 (United States)

    2015-05-07

    We use a novel solution-based disassociation synthesis scheme of the ionic complex Fe(LiBH{sub 4}){sub 2} to form Fe nanoparticles. The complex was formed initially using a gentle mechanochemical process, and the Fe nanoparticles emerged after 4 h of ball milling in an air-free environment. Rietveld refinement of x-ray diffraction measurements in an air-free sample holder identified a Im3{sup ¯}m α-Fe phase. A room temperature Mössbauer spectrum of the sample presented a six-line spectrum unique to Fe{sup 0} metal, and the Fe nanoparticles were extremely well crystallized. Magnetometry results presented a reduced saturation magnetization (e.g., M{sub s}∼ 85 emu/g at 50 K) that had a Bloch-like T{sup 2} temperature dependence, consistent with a gap in the magnon fluctuation spectrum due to finite-size effects. The Fe nanoparticles were magnetically soft, with a coercivity ranging from ∼10 to 20 mT with decreasing temperature from 350 K.

  6. Inhibition of growth and biofilm formation of clinical bacterial isolates by NiO nanoparticles synthesized from Eucalyptus globulus plants.

    Saleem, Samia; Ahmed, Bilal; Khan, Mohammad Saghir; Al-Shaeri, Majed; Musarrat, Javed

    2017-10-01

    Nanotechnology based therapeutics has emerged as a promising approach for augmenting the activity of existing antimicrobials due to the unique physical and chemical properties of nanoparticles (NPs). Nickel oxide nanoparticles (NiO-NPs) have been suggested as prospective antibacterial and antitumor agent. In this study, NiO-NPs have been synthesized by a green approach using Eucalyptus globulus leaf extract and assessed for their bactericidal activity. The morphology and purity of synthesized NiO-NPs determined through various spectroscopic techniques like UV-Visible, FT-IR, XRD, EDX and electron microscopy differed considerably. The synthesized NiO-NPs were pleomorphic varying in size between 10 and 20 nm. The XRD analysis revealed the average size of NiO-NPs as 19 nm. The UV-Vis spectroscopic data showed a strong SPR of NiO-NPs with a characteristic spectral peak at 396 nm. The FTIR data revealed various functional moieties like C=C, C-N, C-H and O-H which elucidate the role of leaf biomolecules in capping and dispersal of NiO-NPs. The bioactivity assay revealed the antibacterial and anti-biofilm activity of NiO-NPs against ESβL (+) E. coli, P. aeruginosa, methicillin sensitive and resistant S. aureus. Growth inhibition assay demonstrated time and NiO-NPs concentration dependent decrease in the viability of treated cells. NiO-NPs induced biofilm inhibition was revealed by a sharp increase in characteristic red fluorescence of PI, while SEM images of NiO-NPs treated cells were irregular shrink and distorted with obvious depressions/indentations. The results suggested significant antibacterial and antibiofilm activity of NiO-NPs which may play an important role in the management of infectious diseases affecting human health. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Larvicidal Activity of Silver Nanoparticles Synthesized Using Extracts of Ambrosia arborescens (Asteraceae to Control Aedes aegypti L. (Diptera: Culicidae

    Bianca Morejón

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The mosquito species Aedes aegypti is the primary vector of dengue, chikungunya, and Zika infections worldwide. Since effective vaccines or drugs are not available for the prevention and/or treatment of these pathologies, vector control has been adopted as the main approach to reduce their transmission. To control Aedes populations, the most commonly used tool is the application of chemical insecticides and, despite their effectiveness, indiscriminate use of these chemicals has led to high operational costs, appearance of resistant populations, and adverse nontarget effects. Plant-derived insecticides may be an eco-friendly, cost-effective, and safe biocontrol alternative. The present study was carried out to evaluate the larvicidal activity of leaf extracts of Ambrosia arborescens and green-synthesized silver nanoparticles (AgNPs using aqueous extracts obtained from this plant against third instar larvae of Ae. aegypti. To test this, larvae were exposed for 24 h to the aqueous plant extract at 1500, 3000, 4500, and 6000 ppm and the plant-synthesized AgNPs at 0.2, 0.3, 0.4, and 0.5 ppm. In laboratory assays, AgNPs were more toxic (LC50 = 0.28 ppm; LC90 = 0.43 ppm than the plant extract (LC50 = 1844.61 ppm; LC90 = 6043.95 ppm. These results suggest that A. arborescens aqueous extract and green-synthesized silver nanoparticles produced from those extracts have the potential to be developed into suitable alternative tools useful for the control of Ae. aegypti populations.

  8. Characterization and antibacterial properties of stable silver substituted hydroxyapatite nanoparticles synthesized through surfactant assisted microwave process

    Iqbal, Nida [Medical Implant Technology Group (MEDITEG), Faculty of Bioscience and Medical Engineering, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310 Skudai, Johor Darul Takzim (Malaysia); Abdul Kadir, Mohammed Rafiq, E-mail: rafiq@biomedical.utm.my [Medical Implant Technology Group (MEDITEG), Faculty of Bioscience and Medical Engineering, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310 Skudai, Johor Darul Takzim (Malaysia); Nik Malek, Nik Ahmad Nazim [Faculty of Bioscience and Medical Engineering (FBME), Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310 Skudai, Johor Darul Takzim (Malaysia); Mahmood, Nasrul Humaimi Bin [Medical Implant Technology Group (MEDITEG), Faculty of Bioscience and Medical Engineering, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310 Skudai, Johor Darul Takzim (Malaysia); Murali, Malliga Raman; Kamarul, T. [Tissue Engineering Group, NOCERAL, Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Faculty of Medicine, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia)

    2013-09-01

    Highlights: • Stable nano sized silver substitute hydroxyapatite is prepared under surfactant assisted microwave process at 600 W power for 7 min. • The nanoparticles are in the size range of 58–72 nm and exert uniform elongated spheroid morphology. • Increase in silver concentration resulted in better dielectric properties. • Good antibacterial activity and silver release. - Abstract: The present study reports a relatively simple method for the synthesis of stable silver substituted hydroxyapatite nanoparticles with controlled morphology and particle size. In order to achieve this, CTAB is included as a surfactant in the microwave refluxing process (600 W for 7 min). The nanoparticles produced with different silver ion concentrations (0.05, 0.1 and 0.2 wt%) were characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM), energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) and Brunauer–Emmett–Teller (BET) analysis. XRD and FTIR analyses reveal that the Ag-HA nanoparticles were phase pure at 1000 °C. FESEM images showed that the produced nanoparticles are in the size range of 58–72 nm and exert uniform elongated spheroid morphology. The dielectric properties suggest that the increase in dielectric constant (ε′) and dissipation factor (D) values with increasing Ag concentrations. Antibacterial performance of the Ag-HA samples elucidated using disk diffusion technique (DDT) and minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) demonstrates anti-bacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Escherichia coli. This effect was dose dependent and was more pronounced against Gram-negative bacteria than Gram-positive organisms.

  9. Characterization and antibacterial properties of stable silver substituted hydroxyapatite nanoparticles synthesized through surfactant assisted microwave process

    Iqbal, Nida; Abdul Kadir, Mohammed Rafiq; Nik Malek, Nik Ahmad Nazim; Mahmood, Nasrul Humaimi Bin; Murali, Malliga Raman; Kamarul, T.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Stable nano sized silver substitute hydroxyapatite is prepared under surfactant assisted microwave process at 600 W power for 7 min. • The nanoparticles are in the size range of 58–72 nm and exert uniform elongated spheroid morphology. • Increase in silver concentration resulted in better dielectric properties. • Good antibacterial activity and silver release. - Abstract: The present study reports a relatively simple method for the synthesis of stable silver substituted hydroxyapatite nanoparticles with controlled morphology and particle size. In order to achieve this, CTAB is included as a surfactant in the microwave refluxing process (600 W for 7 min). The nanoparticles produced with different silver ion concentrations (0.05, 0.1 and 0.2 wt%) were characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM), energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) and Brunauer–Emmett–Teller (BET) analysis. XRD and FTIR analyses reveal that the Ag-HA nanoparticles were phase pure at 1000 °C. FESEM images showed that the produced nanoparticles are in the size range of 58–72 nm and exert uniform elongated spheroid morphology. The dielectric properties suggest that the increase in dielectric constant (ε′) and dissipation factor (D) values with increasing Ag concentrations. Antibacterial performance of the Ag-HA samples elucidated using disk diffusion technique (DDT) and minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) demonstrates anti-bacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Escherichia coli. This effect was dose dependent and was more pronounced against Gram-negative bacteria than Gram-positive organisms

  10. A Novel DNA Nanosensor Based on CdSe/ZnS Quantum Dots and Synthesized Fe3O4 Magnetic Nanoparticles

    Roozbeh Hushiarian

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Although nanoparticle-enhanced biosensors have been extensively researched, few studies have systematically characterized the roles of nanoparticles in enhancing biosensor functionality. This paper describes a successful new method in which DNA binds directly to iron oxide nanoparticles for use in an optical biosensor. A wide variety of nanoparticles with different properties have found broad application in biosensors because their small physical size presents unique chemical, physical, and electronic properties that are different from those of bulk materials. Of all nanoparticles, magnetic nanoparticles are proving to be a versatile tool, an excellent case in point being in DNA bioassays, where magnetic nanoparticles are often used for optimization of the hybridization and separation of target DNA. A critical step in the successful construction of a DNA biosensor is the efficient attachment of biomolecules to the surface of magnetic nanoparticles. To date, most methods of synthesizing these nanoparticles have led to the formation of hydrophobic particles that require additional surface modifications. As a result, the surface to volume ratio decreases and nonspecific bindings may occur so that the sensitivity and efficiency of the device deteriorates. A new method of large-scale synthesis of iron oxide (Fe3O4 nanoparticles which results in the magnetite particles being in aqueous phase, was employed in this study. Small modifications were applied to design an optical DNA nanosensor based on sandwich hybridization. Characterization of the synthesized particles was carried out using a variety of techniques and CdSe/ZnS core-shell quantum dots were used as the reporter markers in a spectrofluorophotometer. We showed conclusively that DNA binds to the surface of ironoxide nanoparticles without further surface modifications and that these magnetic nanoparticles can be efficiently utilized as biomolecule carriers in biosensing devices.

  11. Optical and structural properties of radiolytically in situ synthesized silver nanoparticles stabilized by chitosan/poly(vinyl alcohol) blends

    Krstić, Jelena; Spasojević, Jelena; Radosavljević, Aleksandra; Šiljegovć, Milorad; Kačarević-Popović, Zorica

    2014-01-01

    In this study, the potential of chitosan/poly(vinyl alcohol) (CS/PVA) blends as capping agent for stabilization of Ag-nanoparticles (Ag NPs) during their in situ gamma irradiation induced synthesis was investigated. The UV–vis absorption spectra show the surface plasmon absorption band around 410 nm, which confirms the formation of Ag-nanoparticles. It was found that the composition of CS/PVA blend affected the size of the obtained Ag-nanoparticles, as well as the parameters such as density, molar concentration and effective surface area, calculated from the experimentally obtained UV–vis absorption spectra and spectra obtained by simulation according to the Mie theory. SEM micrograph and XRD measurement indicated a spherical morphology and face centered cubic crystal structure of Ag-nanoparticles, with diameter around 12 nm. The values of optical band gap energy between valence and conduction bands (E g ), calculated from the UV–vis absorption spectra, also show dependence on the blend composition for Ag–CS/PVA colloids as well as for Ag–CS/PVA nanocomposites. - Highlights: • Ag NPs were synthesized by γ-irradiation and stabilized by CS/PVA blends. • Composition of CS/PVA blends has influence on the size of spherical Ag NPs. • simulation based on Mie theory was used to calculate the parameters of Ag NPs. • Ag NPs are stabilized through interactions with -OH and -NH 2 groups of polymers. • Optical band gap energy was calculated from UV–vis spectra by Tauc's expression

  12. Syntheses and characterization of thin films of Te94Se6 nanoparticles for semiconducting and optical devices

    Salah, Numan; Habib, Sami S.; Memic, Adnan; Alharbi, Najlaa D.; Babkair, Saeed S.; Khan, Zishan H.

    2013-01-01

    Thin films of Te 94 Se 6 nanoparticles were synthesized using the physical vapor condensation technique at different argon (Ar) pressures. The samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive spectroscopy, absorption spectrum, photoluminescence (PL) and Raman spectroscopy. XRD results show that the as-grown films have a polycrystalline structure. SEM images display uniform nanoparticles in these films where the size increases from ∼ 12 to about 60 nm by decreasing Ar pressure from 667 to 267 Pa. These as-grown thin films were found to have direct band gaps, whose value decreases with increasing particle size. The absorption and extinction coefficients for these films were also investigated. PL emission spectra exhibit three bands peaking at 666, 718 and 760 nm, while Raman spectra displayed three bands located at 123, 143 and 169 cm −1 . No significant changes are observed in positions or intensities of these bands by decreasing the Ar pressure, except that of the last band of PL; where the intensity increases. The obtained results on this Te 94 Se 6 nanomaterial especially its controlled direct bandgap might be useful for development of optical disks and other semiconducting devices. - Highlights: ► Thin films of Te 94 Se 6 nanoparticles were grown at different argon (Ar) pressures. ► Size of the nanoparticles increased by decreasing Ar pressure. ► They have direct band gap, whose value decreases by increasing the particle size. ► These nanomaterials might be useful for development of semiconducting devices

  13. Biopolymer mediated nanoparticles synthesized from Adenia hondala for enhanced tamoxifen drug delivery in breast cancer cell line

    Varadharajaperumal, Pradeepa; Subramanian, Balakumar; Santhanam, Amutha

    2017-09-01

    Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) are an important class of nanomaterials, which have used as antimicrobial and disinfectant agents due to their detrimental effect on target cells. In the present study it was explored to deliver a novel tamoxifen drug system that can be used in breast cancer treatment, based on chitosan coated silver nanoparticles on MCF-7 human breast cancer cells. AgNPs synthesized from Adenia hondala tuber extract were used to make the chitosan coated AgNPs (Ch-AgNPs), in which the drug tamoxifen was loaded on chitosan coated silver nanoparticles (Tam-Ch-AgNPs) to construct drug loaded nanoparticles as drug delivery system. The morphology and characteristics of the Ch-AgNPs were investigated by UV, FTIR, zeta potential and FESEM. Furthermore, the toxicity of AgNPs, Ch-AgNPs, Tam-Ch-AgNPs was evaluated through cell viability, lactate dehydrogenase leakage, reactive oxygen species generation, caspase-3, DNA laddering, and TUNEL assay in human breast cancer cells (MCF-7) and HBL-100 continuous cell line as a control. Treatment of cancer cells with various concentrations of AgNPs, Ch-AgNPs, Tam-Ch-AgNPs for 24 h revealed that Tam-Ch-AgNPs could inhibit cell viability and induce significant membrane leakage in a dose-dependent manner. Cells exposed to Tam-Ch-AgNPs showed increased reactive oxygen species and hydroxyl radical production when compared to AgNPs, Ch-AgNPs. Furthermore, the apoptotic effects of AgNPs, Ch-AgNPs, Tam-Ch-AgNPs were confirmed by activation of caspase-3 and DNA nuclear fragmentation. The present findings suggest that Tam-Ch-AgNPs could contribute to the development of a suitable anticancer drug delivery.

  14. Surface properties and dye loading behavior of Zn2SnO4 nanoparticles hydrothermally synthesized using different mineralizers

    Annamalai, Alagappan; Eo, Yang Dam; Im, Chan; Lee, Man-Jong

    2011-01-01

    We present for the first time the influence of different mineralizers on the isoelectric point (IEP) of zinc stannate (Zn 2 SnO 4 ) nanoparticles hydrothermally prepared using three different mineralizers, viz., Na 2 CO 3 , KOH and tert-butyl amine, and the effect of the IEPs on the dye loading behavior of Zn 2 SnO 4 based photoelectrodes in dye sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). To produce highly crystalline, uniform sized Zn 2 SnO 4 nanoparticles, hydrothermal processing parameters, such as reaction temperature, time, and the mineralizers used have been critically adjusted. The structural and morphological features of the as-synthesized Zn 2 SnO 4 nanoparticles have been observed using both scanning and transmission electron microscopy. For the surface state characterization of shape- and size-controlled Zn 2 SnO 4 nanoparticles, the IEPs of Zn 2 SnO 4 surfaces were determined through zeta potential measurements. The IEPs were found to be 5.7, 7.4 and 8.1 for Zn 2 SnO 4 nanoparticles formed using Na 2 CO 3 , KOH and tert-butyl amine, respectively, suggesting that the surface properties of Zn 2 SnO 4 nanoparticles can be manipulated through the choice of the mineralizers used during the hydrothermal reaction. The amount of N719 dye loading on the surfaces of Zn 2 SnO 4 electrodes having different IEPs was also evaluated. It was revealed that the higher the IEP, the higher the dye loading amount, which means that the IEP mainly affects the dye loading at the dye-metal oxide interface. - Highlights: → The effect of various mineralizers on the isoelectric point of Zn 2 SnO 4 was discussed. → The IEP of Zn 2 SnO 4 can be modified by the choice of mineralizer. → Change in IEP affects the surface properties and the morphology of Zn 2 SnO 4 particles. → Modified surface affects the N719 dye loading behaviour of the Zn 2 SnO 4 based DSSCs.

  15. Laser-induced incandescence of titania nanoparticles synthesized in a flame

    Cignoli, F.; Bellomunno, C.; Maffi, S.; Zizak, G.

    2009-09-01

    Laser induced incandescence experiments were carried out in a flame reactor during titania nanoparticle synthesis. The structure of the reactor employed allowed for a rather smooth particle growth along the flame axis, with limited mixing of different size particles. Particle incandescence was excited by the 4th harmonic of a Nd:YAG laser. The radiation emitted from the particles was recorded in time and checked by spectral analysis. Results were compared with measurements from transmission electron microscopy of samples taken at the same locations probed by incandescence. This was done covering a portion of the flame length within which a particle size growth of a factor of about four was detected . The incandescence decay time was found to increase monotonically with particle size. The attainment of a process control tool in nanoparticle flame synthesis appears to be realistic.

  16. Study of aerosol jet printing with dry nanoparticles synthesized by spark discharge

    Efimov, A. A.; Arsenov, P. V.; Volkov, I. A.; Urazov, M. N.; Ivanov, V. V.

    2017-11-01

    A new method of aerosol jet printing utilizing dry (solvent-free) airborne nanoparticles generated by spark discharge is proposed. This method was applied to fabricate thin conducting lines (60-160 μm) composed of silver nanoparticles on the surface of glass substrates. It has been demonstrated that the line width is determined by a sheath flow rate, while its thickness and cross-sectional area can be scaled up by a number of printing runs. The resistivity of printed lines after the annealing was found to be five times higher than that of bulk silver that is attributed to the porosity and the interparticle contact resistance. The proposed method holds promise for the application in technologies of printed electronics.

  17. Magnetic Properties of Copper Doped Nickel Ferrite Nanoparticles Synthesized by Co Precipitation Method

    Anjana, V.; John, Sara; Prakash, Pooja; Nair, Amritha M.; Nair, Aravind R.; Sambhudevan, Sreedha; Shankar, Balakrishnan

    2018-02-01

    Nickel ferrite nanoparticles with copper atoms as dopant have been prepared using co-precipitation method with general formula Ni1-xCuxFe2O4 (x=0.2, 0.4, 0.6, 0.8 and 1) and are sintered at quite ambient temperature. Structural and magnetic properties were examined using Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray Diffraction method (XRD) and Vibrating Sample Magnetometer (VSM) to study the influence of copper doping in nickel ferrite magnetic nanoparticles. X-ray studies proves that the particles are possessing single phase spinel structure with an average particle size calculated using Debye Scherer formula. Magnetic measurements reveal that saturation magnetization value (Ms) decreases while magnetic coercivity (Hc) increases upon doping.

  18. Structure and Plasmonic Properties of Thin PMMA Layers with Ion-Synthesized Ag Nanoparticles

    Popok, V. N.; Hanif, M.; Macková, Anna; Mikšová, Romana

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 53, č. 9 (2015), s. 664-672 ISSN 0887-6266 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GBP108/12/G108; GA MŠk LM2011019 Institutional support: RVO:61389005 Keywords : atomic force microscopy (AFM) * carbonization of polymers * ion implantation * localized surface plasmon resonance * nanocomposites * nanoparticles * optics * sputtering of polymers Subject RIV: BG - Nuclear, Atomic and Molecular Physics, Colliders Impact factor: 3.318, year: 2015

  19. Surface-Enhanced Infrared Absorption of o-Nitroaniline on Nickel Nanoparticles Synthesized by Electrochemical Deposition

    Yufang Niu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Nickel nanoparticles were electrochemically deposited on indium-tin oxide (ITO coated glass plate in a modified Watt’s electrolyte. The surface-enhanced infrared absorption (SEIRA effect of the nanoparticles was evaluated by attenuated total reflection spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR using o-nitroaniline as a probe molecule. Electrodeposition parameters such as deposition time, pH value, and the type of surfactants were investigated. The morphology and the microstructure of the deposits were characterized by the field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM and the atomic force microscope (AFM, respectively. The results indicate that the optimum parameters were potential of 1.3 V, time of 30 s, and pH of 8.92 in the solution of 0.3756 mol/L diethanolamine, 0.1 mol/L nickel sulfate, 0.01 mol/L nickel chloride, and 0.05 mol/L boric acid. The FESEM observation shows that the morphology of nickel nanoparticles with best enhancement effect is spherical and narrowly distributed particles with the average size of 50 nm. SEIRA enhancement factor is about 68.

  20. Microstructural and optical properties of CdS nanoparticles synthesized by sol gel method

    Mahdi, Hadeel Salih; Parveen, Azra; Agrawal, Shraddha; Azam, Ameer

    2018-05-01

    Semiconductor nanoparticles of CdS are of great interest for both fundamental research and industrial development due to their unique size-dependent optical and electronic properties and their exciting utilization in the fields of light-emitting diode, electro-chemical cells, laser, hydrogen producing catalyst, biological label. We present a scheme to measure the optical properties of CdS nanoparticles The peaks were indexed by powder-x software. The XRD pattern analysis showed that CdS composition was found to have hexagonal structure with well crystalline nature. the surface morphology and the composition of the samples were investigated by SEM (JEOL, japan). The image shows the presence of large spherical aggregates of smaller individual nanoparticles of various sizes for pure cds. to check the chemical composition of the material, energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) spectroscopic analysis was also performed which further confirmed the presence of cd and s ions in the matrix. The optical absorption spectra of CdS sample was recorded by uv-vis spectrophotometer in the range of 200 to 800 nm.

  1. Mechanistic antimicrobial approach of extracellularly synthesized silver nanoparticles against gram positive and gram negative bacteria

    Tamboli, Dhawal P.; Lee, Dae Sung, E-mail: daesung@knu.ac.kr

    2013-09-15

    Highlights: • Bacterial extracelluar enzymes stabilized the silver nanoparticles (AgNPs). • AgNPs formation was characterized by analytical techniques such as UV–vis, TEM, and FTIR. • AgNPs showed obvious antimicrobial activity against both gram positive and gram negative microorganisms. • A mechanism of AgNPs’ antimicrobial activity was proposed. -- Abstract: The development of eco-friendly and reliable processes for the synthesis of nanoparticles has attracted considerable interest in nanotechnology. In this study, an extracellular enzyme system of a newly isolated microorganism, Exiguobacterium sp. KNU1, was used for the reduction of AgNO{sub 3} solutions to silver nanoparticles (AgNPs). The extracellularly biosynthesized AgNPs were characterized by UV–vis spectroscopy, Fourier transform infra-red spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy. The AgNPs were approximately 30 nm (range 5–50 nm) in size, well-dispersed and spherical. The AgNPs were evaluated for their antimicrobial effects on different gram negative and gram positive bacteria using the minimum inhibitory concentration method. Reasonable antimicrobial activity against Salmonella typhimurium, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus was observed. The morphological changes occurred in all the microorganisms tested. In particular, E. coli exhibited DNA fragmentation after being treated with the AgNPs. Finally, the mechanism for their bactericidal activity was proposed according to the results of scanning electron microscopy and single cell gel electrophoresis.

  2. Mechanistic antimicrobial approach of extracellularly synthesized silver nanoparticles against gram positive and gram negative bacteria

    Tamboli, Dhawal P.; Lee, Dae Sung

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Bacterial extracelluar enzymes stabilized the silver nanoparticles (AgNPs). • AgNPs formation was characterized by analytical techniques such as UV–vis, TEM, and FTIR. • AgNPs showed obvious antimicrobial activity against both gram positive and gram negative microorganisms. • A mechanism of AgNPs’ antimicrobial activity was proposed. -- Abstract: The development of eco-friendly and reliable processes for the synthesis of nanoparticles has attracted considerable interest in nanotechnology. In this study, an extracellular enzyme system of a newly isolated microorganism, Exiguobacterium sp. KNU1, was used for the reduction of AgNO 3 solutions to silver nanoparticles (AgNPs). The extracellularly biosynthesized AgNPs were characterized by UV–vis spectroscopy, Fourier transform infra-red spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy. The AgNPs were approximately 30 nm (range 5–50 nm) in size, well-dispersed and spherical. The AgNPs were evaluated for their antimicrobial effects on different gram negative and gram positive bacteria using the minimum inhibitory concentration method. Reasonable antimicrobial activity against Salmonella typhimurium, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus was observed. The morphological changes occurred in all the microorganisms tested. In particular, E. coli exhibited DNA fragmentation after being treated with the AgNPs. Finally, the mechanism for their bactericidal activity was proposed according to the results of scanning electron microscopy and single cell gel electrophoresis

  3. Electrophoretic deposition of Cu2ZnSn(S0.5Se0.5)4 films using solvothermal synthesized nanoparticles

    Badkoobehhezaveh, Amir Masoud; Abdizadeh, Hossein; Golobostanfard, Mohammad Reza

    2018-01-01

    In this paper, a simple, practical, and fast solvothermal route is presented for synthesizing the Cu2ZnSn(S0.5Se0.5)4 nanoparticles (CZTSSe). In this method, the precursors were dissolved in triethylenetetramine and placed in an autoclave at 240 °C for 1 h under controlled pressure and constant stirring. After washing the samples for several times with absolute ethanol, the obtained CZTSSe nanoparticles were successfully deposited on fluorine doped tin oxide substrates by convenient electrophoretic deposition (EPD) using colloidal nanoparticles. The most appropriate parameters for EPD of pre-synthesized CZTSSe nanoparticles which result in proper surface properties, controlled thickness, and high film quality are investigated by adjusting applied voltage, pH, and deposition time. X-ray diffraction pattern and Raman spectroscopy of the pre-synthesized nanoparticles show kesterite structure formation. The particle size of the CZTSSe nanoparticles is in the range of 100 to 400 nm and for some agglomerates, it is about 2 µm confirmed by scanning electron microscope. The deposited film with optimized parameter has acceptable quality without any crack in it with the thickness of about 4-5 µm. Energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy confirms that the chemical composition of the samples is in near stoichiometric Cu-poor and Zn-rich region, which guarantees the p-type character of the film. The diffuse reflectance spectroscopy also demonstrates that the optical band gap of the sample is about 1.2 eV.

  4. Effect of surface properties of NiFe2O4 nanoparticles synthesized by dc thermal plasma route on antimicrobial activity

    Bhosale, S. V.; Ekambe, P. S.; Bhoraskar, S. V.; Mathe, V. L.

    2018-05-01

    The present work reports the role of surface properties of NiFe2O4 nanoparticles on the antimicrobial activity. The NiFe2O4 nanoparticles were synthesized by gas phase condensation and chemical co-precipitation route. These nanoparticles were extensively investigated using X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and electro-kinetic property measurements. The HRTEM was used to analyze surface morphology of nickel ferrite nanoparticles obtained by two different routes. Electro-kinetic properties of the nanoparticles under investigation were recorded, analyzed and correlated with the antimicrobial properties. It was observed that nickel ferrite nanoparticles synthesized by thermal plasma route (NFOTP) formed highly stable colloidal solution as compared to chemically synthesized (NFOCP), as the later tends to agglomerate due to low surface charge. The antimicrobial activity of NiFe2O4 nanoparticles were investigated on two Gram positive bacteria Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus pyogenes, two Gram negative bacteria Escherichia coli and Salmonella typhimurium and one fungal species Candida albicans. It was noted that the surface properties of NiFe2O4 particles have revealing effect on the antimicrobial activity. The NFOTP nanoparticles showed significant activity for gram negative E. coli bacteria however no activity was observed for other bacteria's and fungi under study. Moreover NFOCP particles did not show any significant activity for both bacteria's and fungi. Further, antimicrobial activity of nickel ferrite nanoparticles were studied even for different concentration to obtain the minimum inhibition concentration (MIC).

  5. Magnetic properties of sol-gel synthesized C-doped ZnO nanoparticles

    Dung, Nguyen Duc, E-mail: dung.nguyenduc@hust.edu.vn [Advanced Institute of Science and Technology (AIST), Hanoi University of Science and Technology, No.1 Dai Co Viet, Hanoi (Viet Nam); Son, Cao Thai; Loc, Pham Vu; Cuong, Nguyen Huu; Kien, Pham The; Huy, Pham Thanh [Advanced Institute of Science and Technology (AIST), Hanoi University of Science and Technology, No.1 Dai Co Viet, Hanoi (Viet Nam); Ha, Ngo Ngoc [International Training Institute for Materials Science (ITIMS), Hanoi University of Science and Technology, No.1 Dai Co Viet, Hanoi (Viet Nam)

    2016-05-25

    ZnO doping with Carbon (C-doped ZnO) materials were prepared by sol-gel technique following with a heat treatment process. Single phase of Wurtzite crystal structure of ZnO was concluded via x-ray diffraction (XRD) with a large amount of excess C tracking by energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) analysis. Two types of ZnO crystals (twinning particles) with different grain sizes and shapes were identified via scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM). The first type has a smaller grain size of about 20 nm and hexagonal shape. And the second type has a larger grain size of about 80–120 nm and round shape. C substitutions of both Zn and O sites to form C–O and C–Zn bonds were conclusively confirmed via x-ray photoelectron spectroscope (XPS). Experimental evidences for the co-existence of different ferromagnetic phases in the materials are reported and discussed. Two Curie points at high temperatures (>500 °C) are presented. A metamagnetic transition was observed at magnetic field H = 19.2 kOe which was related to the co-existence of ferromagnetic phases. These involve in the formation of twinning C-doped ZnO nanoparticles. - Highlights: • Formation of sol-gel prepared single phase wurtzite ZnO nanoparticles. • Two morphological C-doped ZnO nanoparticles of different grain sizes. • The room temperature ferromagnetism. • An abnormal metamagnetic transition at magnetic field H = 19.2 kOe. • Two different Curie points (T{sub C}) at 500–600 °C.

  6. ROS-dependent anticandidal activity of zinc oxide nanoparticles synthesized by using egg albumen as a biotemplate

    Shoeb, M; Singh, Braj R; Khan, Javed A; Khan, Wasi; Naqvi, Alim H; Singh, Brahma N; Singh, Harikesh B

    2013-01-01

    Zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs) have attracted great attention because of their superior optical properties and wide application in biomedical science. However, little is known about the anticandidal activity of ZnO NPs against Candida albicans (C. albicans). This study was designed to develop the green approach to synthesize ZnO NPs using egg white (denoted as EtZnO NPs) and investigated its possible mechanism of antimicrobial activity against C. albicans 077. It was also notable that anticandidal activity of EtZnO NPs is correlated with reactive oxygen species (ROS) production in a dose dependent manner. Protection of histidine against ROS clearly suggests the implication of ROS in anticandidal activity of EtZnO NPs. This green approach based on egg white-mediated synthesis of ZnO NPs paves the way for developing cost effective, eco-friendly and promising antimicrobial nanomaterial for applications in medicine. (paper)

  7. Antioxidant, antibacterial and cytotoxic potential of silver nanoparticles synthesized using terpenes rich extract of Lantana camara L. leaves

    Patil Shriniwas P.

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Several attempts have been made for green synthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs using different plant extracts. Present study revealed that, antioxidant, antibacterial and cytotoxic AgNPs were synthesized using terpenes-rich extract (TRE of environmentally notorious Lantana camara L. leaves. AgNPs were characterized by advanced techniques like UV–Visible and Infra red spectroscopy; XRD, SEM techniques as terpenes coated sphere shaped NPs with average diameter 425 nm. Further, on evaluation, AgNPs were found to exhibit dose – dependent antioxidant potential, good to moderate antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa; and toxicity on Brine shrimp (A. salinanauplii with LD50 value 514.50 µg/ml.

  8. 1-Hexadecylamine as both reducing agent and stabilizer to synthesize Au and Ag nanoparticles and their SERS application

    Hou Xiaomiao; Zhan, Xiaoling; Fang Yan; Chen Shutang; Li Na; Zhou Qi

    2011-01-01

    1-Hexadecylamine (HDA)-capped Au and Ag nanoparticles (NPs) have been successfully prepared by a one-pot solution growth method. The HDA is used as both reducing agent and stabilizer in the synthetic process is favorable for investigating the capping mechanism of Au and Ag NPs’ surface. The growth process and characterization of Au and Ag NPs are determined by Ultraviolet–visible (UV–vis) spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and X-ray diffraction (XRD). Experimental results demonstrate that the HDA-capped Au and Ag NPs are highly crystalline and have good optical properties. Furthermore, surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) spectra of 2-thionaphthol are obtained on the Au and Ag NPs modified glass surface, respectively, indicating that the as-synthesized noble metal NPs have potentially high sensitive optical detection application.

  9. 1-Hexadecylamine as both reducing agent and stabilizer to synthesize Au and Ag nanoparticles and their SERS application

    Hou Xiaomiao; Zhan, Xiaoling, E-mail: zhangxl@bit.edu.cn [Beijing Institute of Technology, Department of Chemistry, School of Science (China); Fang Yan, E-mail: fangyan@mail.cnu.edu.cn [Capital Normal University, Beijing Key Lab for Nano-Photonics and Nano-Structure (NPNS), Department of Physics (China); Chen Shutang; Li Na; Zhou Qi [Beijing Institute of Technology, Department of Chemistry, School of Science (China)

    2011-05-15

    1-Hexadecylamine (HDA)-capped Au and Ag nanoparticles (NPs) have been successfully prepared by a one-pot solution growth method. The HDA is used as both reducing agent and stabilizer in the synthetic process is favorable for investigating the capping mechanism of Au and Ag NPs' surface. The growth process and characterization of Au and Ag NPs are determined by Ultraviolet-visible (UV-vis) spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and X-ray diffraction (XRD). Experimental results demonstrate that the HDA-capped Au and Ag NPs are highly crystalline and have good optical properties. Furthermore, surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) spectra of 2-thionaphthol are obtained on the Au and Ag NPs modified glass surface, respectively, indicating that the as-synthesized noble metal NPs have potentially high sensitive optical detection application.

  10. Development of a hydrothermal method to synthesize spherical ZnSe nanoparticles: Appropriate templates for hollow nanostructures

    S. Gharibe

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Hydrothermal method was used to synthesize pure ZnSe nanosphere materials. The effects of the reducing agent amount, the reaction time and temperature were investigated on the purity of ZnSe. Also, the effects of surfactants such as sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS (anionic and cetyl trimethylammonium bromide (CTAB (cationic were studied on the morphology of ZnSe. The prepared nanospheres were characterized using XRD, SEM, TEM and UV-Vis spectroscopy. Through these techniques, it was found that the pure ZnSe nanoparticles have a zinc blend structure and in a spherical form with average diameter of 30 nm. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/bcse.v28i1.5

  11. Morphological and Rheological Characterization of Gold Nanoparticles Synthesized Using Pluronic P103 as Soft Template

    Nancy Tepale; Victor V. A. Fernández-Escamilla; Carlos Álvarez; Eric Flores-Aquino; Valeria J. González-Coronel; Daniel Cruz; Manuel Sánchez-Cantú

    2016-01-01

    The synthesis of gold nanoparticles (Au-NPs), using Pluronic® P103 as soft template to design tuned hybrid gold/P103 nanomaterials, is reported here. The effect of the concentration of P103 and the synthesis temperature on the growth, size, and morphology of Au-NPs were studied. The rheological properties of these hybrid nanomaterials at different measured temperatures were studied as well. By increasing the concentration of P103, the micelles progressively grew due to an increase in the numb...

  12. Datura metel-synthesized silver nanoparticles magnify predation of dragonfly nymphs against the malaria vector Anopheles stephensi.

    Murugan, Kadarkarai; Dinesh, Devakumar; Kumar, Prabhu Jenil; Panneerselvam, Chellasamy; Subramaniam, Jayapal; Madhiyazhagan, Pari; Suresh, Udaiyan; Nicoletti, Marcello; Alarfaj, Abdullah A; Munusamy, Murugan A; Higuchi, Akon; Mehlhorn, Heinz; Benelli, Giovanni

    2015-12-01

    Malaria is a life-threatening disease caused by parasites transmitted to people and animals through the bites of infected mosquitoes. The employ of synthetic insecticides to control Anopheles populations leads to high operational costs, non-target effects, and induced resistance. Recently, plant-borne compounds have been proposed for efficient and rapid extracellular synthesis of mosquitocidal nanoparticles. However, their impact against predators of mosquito larvae has been poorly studied. In this study, we synthesized silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) using the Datura metel leaf extract as reducing and stabilizing agent. The biosynthesis of AgNPs was confirmed analyzing the excitation of surface plasmon resonance using ultraviolet-visible (UV-vis) spectroscopy. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) showed the clustered and irregular shapes of AgNPs, with a mean size of 40-60 nm. The presence of silver was determined by energy-dispersive X-ray (EDX) spectroscopy. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy analysis investigated the identity of secondary metabolites, which may be acting as AgNP capping agents. In laboratory, LC50 of D. metel extract against Anopheles stephensi ranged from 34.693 ppm (I instar larvae) to 81.500 ppm (pupae). LC50 of AgNP ranged from 2.969 ppm (I instar larvae) to 6.755 ppm (pupae). Under standard laboratory conditions, the predation efficiency of Anax immaculifrons nymphs after 24 h was 75.5 % (II instar larvae) and 53.5 % (III instar larvae). In AgNP-contaminated environment, predation rates were boosted to 95.5 and 78 %, respectively. Our results documented that D. metel-synthesized AgNP might be employed at rather low doses to reduce larval populations of malaria vectors, without detrimental effects on behavioral traits of young instars of the dragonfly Anax immaculifrons.

  13. Cymbopogon citratus-synthesized gold nanoparticles boost the predation efficiency of copepod Mesocyclops aspericornis against malaria and dengue mosquitoes.

    Murugan, Kadarkarai; Benelli, Giovanni; Panneerselvam, Chellasamy; Subramaniam, Jayapal; Jeyalalitha, Tirupathi; Dinesh, Devakumar; Nicoletti, Marcello; Hwang, Jiang-Shiou; Suresh, Udaiyan; Madhiyazhagan, Pari

    2015-06-01

    Plant-borne compounds can be employed to synthesize mosquitocidal nanoparticles that are effective at low doses. However, how they affect the activity of mosquito predators in the aquatic environment is unknown. In this study, we synthesized gold nanoparticles (AuN) using the leaf extract of Cymbopogon citratus, which acted as a reducing and capping agent. AuN were characterized by a variety of biophysical methods and sorted for size in order to confirm structural integrity. C. citratus extract and biosynthesized AuN were tested against larvae and pupae of the malaria vector Anopheles stephensi and the dengue vector Aedes aegypti. LC₅₀ of C. citratus extract ranged from 219.32 ppm to 471.36 ppm. LC₅₀ of AuN ranged from 18.80 ppm to 41.52 ppm. In laboratory, the predatory efficiency of the cyclopoid crustacean Mesocyclops aspericornis against A. stephensi larvae was 26.8% (larva I) and 17% (larva II), while against A. aegypti was 56% (I) and 35.1% (II). Predation against late-instar larvae was minimal. In AuN-contaminated environment,predation efficiency against A. stephensi was 45.6% (I) and 26.7% (II), while against A. aegypti was 77.3% (I) and 51.6% (II). Overall, low doses of AuN may help to boost the control of Anopheles and Aedes larval populations in copepod-based control programs. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Electrical properties of aluminum-doped zinc oxide (AZO) nanoparticles synthesized by chemical vapor synthesis

    Hartner, Sonja; Schulz, Christof; Wiggers, Hartmut; Ali, Moazzam; Winterer, Markus

    2009-01-01

    Aluminum-doped zinc oxide nanoparticles have been prepared by chemical vapor synthesis, which facilitates the incorporation of a higher percentage of dopant atoms, far above the thermodynamic solubility limit of aluminum. The electrical properties of aluminum-doped and undoped zinc oxide nanoparticles were investigated by impedance spectroscopy. The impedance is measured under hydrogen and synthetic air between 323 and 673 K. The measurements under hydrogen as well as under synthetic air show transport properties depending on temperature and doping level. Under hydrogen atmosphere, a decreasing conductivity with increasing dopant content is observed, which can be explained by enhanced scattering processes due to an increasing disorder in the nanocrystalline material. The temperature coefficient for the doped samples switches from positive temperature coefficient behavior to negative temperature coefficient behavior with increasing dopant concentration. In the presence of synthetic air, the conductivity firstly increases with increasing dopant content by six orders of magnitude. The origin of the increasing conductivity is the generation of free charge carriers upon dopant incorporation. It reaches its maximum at a concentration of 7.7% of aluminum, and drops for higher doping levels. In all cases, the conductivity under hydrogen is higher than under synthetic air and can be changed reversibly by changing the atmosphere.

  15. Electrical properties of aluminum-doped zinc oxide (AZO) nanoparticles synthesized by chemical vapor synthesis.

    Hartner, Sonja; Ali, Moazzam; Schulz, Christof; Winterer, Markus; Wiggers, Hartmut

    2009-11-04

    Aluminum-doped zinc oxide nanoparticles have been prepared by chemical vapor synthesis, which facilitates the incorporation of a higher percentage of dopant atoms, far above the thermodynamic solubility limit of aluminum. The electrical properties of aluminum-doped and undoped zinc oxide nanoparticles were investigated by impedance spectroscopy. The impedance is measured under hydrogen and synthetic air between 323 and 673 K. The measurements under hydrogen as well as under synthetic air show transport properties depending on temperature and doping level. Under hydrogen atmosphere, a decreasing conductivity with increasing dopant content is observed, which can be explained by enhanced scattering processes due to an increasing disorder in the nanocrystalline material. The temperature coefficient for the doped samples switches from positive temperature coefficient behavior to negative temperature coefficient behavior with increasing dopant concentration. In the presence of synthetic air, the conductivity firstly increases with increasing dopant content by six orders of magnitude. The origin of the increasing conductivity is the generation of free charge carriers upon dopant incorporation. It reaches its maximum at a concentration of 7.7% of aluminum, and drops for higher doping levels. In all cases, the conductivity under hydrogen is higher than under synthetic air and can be changed reversibly by changing the atmosphere.

  16. Magnetic properties of α-Fe2O3 nanoparticle synthesized by a new hydrothermal method

    Giri, S.; Samanta, S.; Maji, S.; Ganguli, S.; Bhaumik, A.

    2005-01-01

    Nanoparticles of α-Fe 2 O 3 have been prepared using a hydrothermal synthesis method in aqueous-organic microemulsion under mild alkaline condition. The condensation reaction was optimized in the presence of a cationic surfactant cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB). It was found that the size and nature of the α-Fe 2 O 3 nanoparticle strongly depends on the pH, oxalic acid and CTAB as well as tetramethylammonium hydroxide (TMAOH, alkali source) concentrations. The uniformity of the particle size was checked by the transmission electron microscopy while the single phase of the nanocrystalline α-Fe 2 O 3 was characterized using powder X-ray diffraction. The Moessbauer study exhibited a sextet pattern with internal field smaller than that of the bulk counterpart. The temperature variation of magnetization showed a broad maximum at around 125 K while the field-cooled effect of the magnetization showed the branching between the field cooled and zero field cooled magnetization up to 340 K. A large anisotropy has been observed from the analysis of magnetization curve as well as from the large blocking temperature. The estimation of the particle size from the magnetization curve was found to be in close agreement with the TEM results

  17. Luminescence of colloidal ZnO nanoparticles synthesized in alcohols and biological application of ZnO passivated by MgO.

    Sikora, Bożena; Fronc, Krzysztof; Kamińska, Izabela; Koper, Kamil; Stępień, Piotr; Elbaum, Danek

    2013-05-15

    This report presents the results of spectroscopic measurements of colloidal ZnO nanoparticles synthesized in various alcohols. Luminescence of colloidal ZnO was monitored under different reaction conditions to elucidate the mechanism of the visible emission. We performed the process in different alcohols, temperatures and reaction times for two different reactants: water and NaOH. Based on the presented and previously published results it is apparent that the luminescence of the nanoparticles is influenced by several competing phenomena: the formation of new nucleation centers, the growth of the nanoparticles and surface passivation. Superimposed on the above effects is a size dependent luminescence alteration resulting from the quantum confinement. The study contributes to our understanding of the origin of ZnO nanoparticles' green emission which is important in a rational design of fluorescent probes for nontoxic biological applications. The ZnO nanoparticles were coated with a magnesium oxide layer and introduced into a HeLa cancer cell.

  18. Antibacterial Activity Of ternary semiconductor compounds AgInSe2 Nanoparticles Synthesized by Simple Chemical Method

    Shehab, A. A.; Fadaam, S. A.; Abd, A. N.; Mustafa, M. H.

    2018-05-01

    In this objective AgInSe2Nanoparticles (AgInSe2 NPs) were prepared by a simple chemical method (SCM). The optica structural l and morphological properties of the synthesized AgInSe2 NPs swere investigated by using UVVI absorption atomic force microscopy AFMmf, Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy and x-ray diffraction. The resistance of bacteria represents a trouble and the outlook for the use of antibiotics in the future until now uncertain. Measures must be taken to decrease this problem. Antibacterial activity of the AgInSe2 nanoparticles were exposed against several pathogenic bacteriaa including Klebsiella pneumonia KPa, Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtili, Enterobacter Cloacae and Esherichia Coliby. Using a good spread method the results showed that AgInSe2 NPs had inhibitory effect versus some pathogenic bacteria with suppression area 18, 14 and 17 mm for SAgInSe2 NPs had an inhibitory effect against S Bacillus Subtilis 11 mm K EnterobactercCloacae 12 mm.

  19. Field Test Of Capability To Prevent Cabbage Clubroot Disease Caused By Plasmodiophora brassicae Of Silver Nanoparticles Synthesized By Gamma Radiation

    Pham Thi Le Ha; Nguyen Tan Man; Nguyen Duy Hang; Le Hai; Tran Thi Tam; Pham Thi Sam; Le Huu Tu; Tran Thu Hong; Tran Thi Thuy; Nguyen Tuong Ly Lan

    2014-01-01

    The effects of four dose rates 0.27; 0.90; 1.80 and 3.60 kGy/h on the solution of silver (Ag + 10 -2 M, PVP 2%, ethylenglycol 6%) irradiated at 25 kGy were investigated. The results showed that as the dose rates increased, the absorption peak shifted to blue wavelengths and also the particles decreased in size. For field test, nano particles were prepared by irradiation of silver solution at 25 kGy with the dose rate of 3.60 kGy/h. The absorption peaks of the synthesized nanoparticles were obtained at wavelengths of 412 nm and the average diameter of particles were 14 nm. Using two concentrations of 15 and 20 ppm, silver nanoparticles had not affected the growth and development of cabbage but showed antifungal activity against Plasmodiophora brassicae cause club root in cabbage. Using nano particles, the clubroot disease index were 9-10% compared to 5% of nebijin (fungicide), and 12% of control. The yield of cabbage were 55 tons/ha, 63 tons/ha and 70 tons/ha for the control, nanosilver group, and nebijin group, respectively. (author)

  20. Antimicrobial activity of silver nanoparticles synthesized using honey and gamma radiation against silver-resistant bacteria from wounds and burns

    Hosny, A. M. S.; Kashef, M. T.; Rasmy, S. A.; Aboul-Magd, D. S.; El-Bazza, Z. E.

    2017-12-01

    Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) are promising antimicrobial agents for treatment of wounds and burns. We synthesized AgNPs using honey at different pH values or with different gamma irradiation doses. The resulting nanoparticles were characterized by UV-vis spectroscopy, TEM, DLS and FTIR. Their antimicrobial activity, against standard bacterial strains and silver-resistant clinical isolates from infected wounds and burns, was evaluated in vitro through determination of their minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC). AgNPs prepared using 30 g of honey exposed to 5 kGy gamma radiation had the best physical characters regarding stability and uniformity of particle size and shape. They recorded the lowest MIC values against both the standard and silver-resistant isolates. In conclusion, honey and gamma radiation can be used in synthesis of highly stable pure AgNPs, without affecting the physico-chemical and antimicrobial activity of honey. This offered an advantage in terms of inhibition of silver-resistant bacteria isolates.

  1. Antibacterial and Cytotoxicity Studies of Silver Nanoparticles Synthesized by Endophytic Fusarium solani Isolated from Withania somnifera (L.

    Smitha Vijayan

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The present study establish extracellular production of silver nanoparticles (AgNP using Fusarium solani, from medicinal plant Withania somnifera (L. (ashwagandha and it’s antibacterial and cytotoxicity effects. Biological- AgNP (Bio- AgNP were synthesized by using fungal cell free extract and characterized by SEM, TEM, UV spectroscopy, XRD, FTIR and AFM analysis.  Antibacterial properties were assayed by well diffusion and cytotoxicity by RBC lysis test and MTT assay respectively. X- ray diffraction and microscopic analysis revealed the well dispersed and crystalline nature of spherical nanoparticles with a calculated size ranging from 10 - 50 nm. The Bio-AgNP exhibited significant antibacterial properties in a range of 50-100 µgml-1 against the selected clinical pathogens Escherichia coli,Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella typhi, Staphylococcus aureus and Klebsiella pneumoniae. The observed hemolysis of 3.906 % at 50 µg ml-1   suggested the safe therapeutic application of Bio - AgNP. MTT assay revealed that at the suggeseted concentration 69 % of cells are viable. These outcomes are extremely encouraging to utilize Bio-AgNP as a medication. Exploiting the endophytic organisms from therapeutic plants for improvement of nanomaterial is a uninvestigated and relatively novel territory. This may improve the likelihood in future to push the limit ahead in nanomedicine.

  2. Spectroscopy investigation on chemo-catalytic, free radical scavenging and bactericidal properties of biogenic silver nanoparticles synthesized using Salicornia brachiata aqueous extract

    Seralathan, Janani; Stevenson, Priscilla; Subramaniam, Shankar; Raghavan, Rachana; Pemaiah, Brindha; Sivasubramanian, Aravind; Veerappan, Anbazhagan

    2014-01-01

    Nanosized silver have been widely used in many applications, such as catalysis, photonics, sensors, medicine etc. Thus, there is an increasing need to develop high-yield, low cost, non-toxic and eco-friendly procedures for the synthesis of nanoparticles. Herein, we report an efficient, green synthesis of silver nanoparticles utilizing the aqueous extract of Salicornia brachiata, a tropical plant of the Chenopodiaceae family. Silver nanoparticles have been characterized by ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. The morphology of the particles formed consists of highly diversified shapes like spherical, rod-like, prism, triangular, pentagonal and hexagonal pattern. However, addition of sodium hydroxide to the extract produces mostly spherical particles. The stable nanoparticles obtained using this green method show remarkable catalytic activity in the reduction of 4-nitro phenol to 4-amino phenol. The reduction catalyzed by silver nanoparticles followed the first-order kinetics, with a rate constant of, 0.6 × 10-2 s-1. The bactericidal activity of the synthesized silver nanoparticles against the pathogenic bacteria, Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus aureus E, Bacillus subtilis and Escherichia coli, was also explored using REMA. The obtained results showed that the minimum inhibitory concentration required to induce bactericidal effect is lower than the control antibiotic, ciprofloxacin. In addition to these, the biogenic synthesized nanoparticles also exhibited excellent free radical scavenging activity.

  3. Anticancer activity of biologically synthesized silver and gold nanoparticles on mouse myoblast cancer cells and their toxicity against embryonic zebrafish

    Ramachandran, Rajan [Centre for Advanced Studies in Botany, School of Life Sciences, University of Madras, Guindy Campus, Chennai 600 025, Tamil Nadu (India); Krishnaraj, Chandran [Department of Food Science & Technology, College of Agriculture & Life Sciences, Chonbuk National University, Jeonju 561-756 (Korea, Republic of); M/s. Eureka Forbes Ltd, R & D Centre, Kudlu, Bangalore (India); Sivakumar, Allur Subramaniyan [Department of Animal Biotechnology, Chonbuk National University, Jeonju 54896 (Korea, Republic of); Prasannakumar, Palaniappan [Advanced Biomedical Imaging Center, Department of Electronic Engineering, Chonbuk National University, Jeonju 54896 (Korea, Republic of); Abhay Kumar, V.K. [M/s. Eureka Forbes Ltd, R & D Centre, Kudlu, Bangalore (India); Shim, Kwan Seob [Department of Animal Biotechnology, Chonbuk National University, Jeonju 54896 (Korea, Republic of); Song, Chul-Gyu [Advanced Biomedical Imaging Center, Department of Electronic Engineering, Chonbuk National University, Jeonju 54896 (Korea, Republic of); Yun, Soon-Il, E-mail: siyun@jbnu.ac.kr [Department of Food Science & Technology, College of Agriculture & Life Sciences, Chonbuk National University, Jeonju 561-756 (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-04-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the anticancer activity of bioinspired silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) and gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) against mouse myoblast cancer cells (C{sub 2}C{sub 12}). Both AgNPs and AuNPs were biologically synthesized using Spinacia oleracea Linn., aqueous leaves extract. UV–Vis. spectrophotometer, high resolution-transmission electron microscopy (HR-TEM), field emission-scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) studies supported the successful synthesis of AgNPs and AuNPs. Both these NPs have shown cytotoxicity against C{sub 2}C{sub 12} cells even at very low concentration (5 μg/mL). Acridine orange/Ethidium bromide (AO/EB) dual staining confirmed the apoptotic morphological features. The levels of caspase enzymes (caspase-3 and caspase-7) were significantly up-regulated in NPs treated myoblast cells than the plant extract. Furthermore, in zebrafish embryo toxicity study, AgNPs showed 100% mortality at 3 μg/mL concentration while AuNPs exhibited the same at much higher concentration (300 mg/mL). Taken together, these results provide a preliminary guidance for the development of biomaterials based drugs to fight against the fatal diseases for example cancer. - Highlights: • Anticancer activity was done for the first time against mouse myoblast cells. • AgNPs showed 100% growth inhibition against C{sub 2}C{sub 12} cells at 20 μg/mL concentration. • AO/EB dual staining and caspase assays confirmed the apoptotic features. • Nanoparticles treated embryos showed yolk sac edema and tail malformation. • AgNPs were found to be more toxic to embryonic zebrafishes than the AuNPs.

  4. Anticancer activity of biologically synthesized silver and gold nanoparticles on mouse myoblast cancer cells and their toxicity against embryonic zebrafish

    Ramachandran, Rajan; Krishnaraj, Chandran; Sivakumar, Allur Subramaniyan; Prasannakumar, Palaniappan; Abhay Kumar, V.K.; Shim, Kwan Seob; Song, Chul-Gyu; Yun, Soon-Il

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the anticancer activity of bioinspired silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) and gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) against mouse myoblast cancer cells (C 2 C 12 ). Both AgNPs and AuNPs were biologically synthesized using Spinacia oleracea Linn., aqueous leaves extract. UV–Vis. spectrophotometer, high resolution-transmission electron microscopy (HR-TEM), field emission-scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) studies supported the successful synthesis of AgNPs and AuNPs. Both these NPs have shown cytotoxicity against C 2 C 12 cells even at very low concentration (5 μg/mL). Acridine orange/Ethidium bromide (AO/EB) dual staining confirmed the apoptotic morphological features. The levels of caspase enzymes (caspase-3 and caspase-7) were significantly up-regulated in NPs treated myoblast cells than the plant extract. Furthermore, in zebrafish embryo toxicity study, AgNPs showed 100% mortality at 3 μg/mL concentration while AuNPs exhibited the same at much higher concentration (300 mg/mL). Taken together, these results provide a preliminary guidance for the development of biomaterials based drugs to fight against the fatal diseases for example cancer. - Highlights: • Anticancer activity was done for the first time against mouse myoblast cells. • AgNPs showed 100% growth inhibition against C 2 C 12 cells at 20 μg/mL concentration. • AO/EB dual staining and caspase assays confirmed the apoptotic features. • Nanoparticles treated embryos showed yolk sac edema and tail malformation. • AgNPs were found to be more toxic to embryonic zebrafishes than the AuNPs.

  5. Mosquitocidal and antibacterial activity of green-synthesized silver nanoparticles from Aloe vera extracts: towards an effective tool against the malaria vector Anopheles stephensi?

    Dinesh, Devakumar; Murugan, Kadarkarai; Madhiyazhagan, Pari; Panneerselvam, Chellasamy; Kumar, Palanisamy Mahesh; Nicoletti, Marcello; Jiang, Wei; Benelli, Giovanni; Chandramohan, Balamurugan; Suresh, Udaiyan

    2015-04-01

    Mosquitoes represent an important threat for lives of millions of people worldwide, acting as vectors for devastating pathogens, such as malaria, yellow fever, dengue, and West Nile. In addition, pathogens and parasites polluting water also constitute a severe plague for populations of developing countries. Here, we investigated the mosquitocidal and antibacterial properties of Aloe vera leaf extract and silver nanoparticles synthesized using A. vera extract. Mosquitocidal properties were assessed in laboratory against larvae (I-IV instar) and pupae of the malaria vector Anopheles stephensi. Green-synthesized silver nanoparticles were tested against An. stephensi also in field conditions. Antibacterial properties of nanoparticles were evaluated against Bacillus subtilis, Klebsiella pneumoniae, and Salmonella typhi using the agar disk diffusion and minimum inhibitory concentration protocol. The synthesized silver nanoparticles were characterized by UV-vis spectrum, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and X-ray diffraction (XRD). In laboratory conditions, the A. vera extract was toxic against An. stephensi larvae and pupae, even at low dosages. LC50 were 48.79 ppm (I instar), 59.09 ppm (II instar), 70.88 ppm (III instar), 83.58 ppm (IV instar), and 152.55 ppm (pupae). Green-synthesized silver nanoparticles were highly toxic against An. stephensi. LC50 were 3.825 ppm (I instar), 4.119 ppm (II instar), 4.982 ppm (III instar), 5.711 ppm (IV instar), and 6.113 ppm (pupae). In field conditions, the application of A. vera-synthesized silver nanoparticles (10 × LC50) leads to An. stephensi larval reduction of 74.5, 86.6, and 97.7%, after 24, 48, and 72 h, respectively. Nanoparticles also showed antibacterial properties, and the maximum concentration tested (150 mg/L) evoked an inhibition zone wider than 80 mm in all tested bacterium species. This study adds knowledge about the use of green synthesis of nanoparticles in

  6. Electrochemical characteristics of coated steel with poly(N-methyl pyrrole) synthesized in presence of ZnO nanoparticles

    Mahmoudian, M.R., E-mail: M_R_mahmoudian@yahoo.com [Department of Chemistry, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur 50603 (Malaysia); Department of Chemistry, Masjed-Soleiman Branch, Islamic Azad University, Masjed-Soleiman (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Basirun, W.J.; Alias, Y. [Department of Chemistry, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur 50603 (Malaysia); Khorsand Zak, A. [Low Dimensional Materials Research Center, Department of Physics, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia)

    2011-10-31

    Poly(N-methyl pyrrole) (PMPy) coating was electrodeposited on steel substrates in mixed electrolytes of dodecyl benzene sulphonic acid with oxalic acid in the absence and the presence of ZnO nanoparticles (NPs). The morphology and compositions were characterized by Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy (FESEM), Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy and Energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. Electrode/coating/electrolyte system was studied by Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy. The comparison between the pore resistance (R{sub po}) of synthesized PMPy in the absence and presence of ZnO NPs indicated that the existence of ZnO increased the R{sub po} of the coating. The FESEM micrographs indicated that the size of micro-spherical grains in the morphology of PMPy is significantly reduced and the surface area of PMPy is increased with the presence of ZnO NPs. The increase of the ability to interact with the ions liberated during the corrosion reaction of steel and the increase of the rate probability for the occurrence of cathodic reduction of oxygen on the PMPy with the increase of the surface area can be considered as reasons for improvement of protective properties of synthesized PMPy in the presence of ZnO NPs.

  7. Miswak mediated green synthesized palladium nanoparticles as effective catalysts for the Suzuki coupling reactions in aqueous media

    Mujeeb Khan

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Green and eco-friendly synthesis of palladium nanoparticles NPs is carried out under facile and eco-friendly conditions using an aqueous solution of Salvadora persica L. (SP root extract (RE as a bioreductant, which is commonly known as Miswak. The as-synthesized Pd NPs were characterized using various spectroscopic and microscopic techniques, including, UV–Vis spectroscopy, FT-IR spectroscopy, XRD, ICP-MS and TEM. Detailed investigations of the Pd NPs have confirmed that the polyphenolic phytomolecules present in the RE of Miswak not only act as a bioreductant by facilitating the reduction and growth of Pd NPs, but they also functionalize the surface of Pd NPs and stabilized them in various solvents. Furthermore, the catalytic activity of the green synthesized Pd NPs was also tested toward the Suzuki coupling reactions of various aryl halides in aqueous media. The as-prepared Pd NPs exhibited superior catalytic activity and reusability for the Suzuki coupling reaction in aqueous and aerobic conditions. The kinetics of the reaction studied by GC revealed that the conversion of various aryl halides to biphenyl takes place in a short time.

  8. Efficacy of larvicidal activity of green synthesized titanium dioxide nanoparticles using Mangifera indica extract against blood-feeding parasites.

    Rajakumar, Govindasamy; Rahuman, Abdul Abdul; Roopan, Selvaraj Mohana; Chung, Ill-Min; Anbarasan, Karunanithi; Karthikeyan, Viswanathan

    2015-02-01

    Titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO2 NPs) are considered to be among the best photocatalytic materials due to their long-term thermodynamic stability, strong oxidizing power, and relative non-toxicity. Nano-preparations with TiO2 NPs are currently under investigation as novel treatments for acne vulgaris, recurrent condyloma acuminata, atopic dermatitis, hyperpigmented skin lesions, and other non-dermatologic diseases. The present study was to investigate the acaricidal and larvicidal activity of synthesized TiO2 NPs utilizing leaf aqueous extract of Mangifera indica L. (Anacardiaceae) against hematophagous parasites. The anti-parasitic activity of TiO2 NPs against the larvae of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus, Hyalomma anatolicum anatolicum and Haemaphysalis bispinosa (Acari: Ixodidae), fourth instar larvae of Anopheles subpictus, and Culex quinquefasciatus (Diptera: Culicidae) were assessed. The green synthesized TiO2 NPs were analyzed by UV-Vis, FTIR, X-ray diffraction (XRD), AFM, SEM, and TEM. The XRD analysis of synthesized TiO2 NPs revealed the dominant peak at 2θ value of 27.81 which matched the 110 crystallographic plane of the rutile structure indicating the crystal structure. The FTIR spectra exhibited a prominent peak at 3,448 cm(-1) and showed OH stretching due to the alcoholic group, and the OH group may act as a capping agent. The SEM images of TiO2 NPs displayed spherical, oval in shape, individual, and some in aggregates. Characterization of the synthesized TiO2 NPs using AFM offered three-dimensional visualization and uneven surface morphology. The TEM micrograph showed agglomerates, round and slight elongation with an average size of 30 ± 5 nm. The maximum efficacy was observed in synthesized TiO2 NPs against the larvae of R. microplus, Hyalomma anatolicum anatolicum, Haemaphysalis bispinosa, A. subpictus, and Culex quinquefasciatus with LC50 value of 28.56, 33.17, 23.81, 5.84, and 4.34 mg/L, respectively. In the present study, a novel

  9. New procedure to synthesize silver nanoparticles and their interaction with local anesthetics

    Mocanu A

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Aurora Mocanu,1 Roxana Diana Pasca,1 Gheorghe Tomoaia,2 Corina Garbo,1 Petre T Frangopol,1 Ossi Horovitz,1 Maria Tomoaia-Cotisel11Chemical Engineering Department, Babes-Bolyai University, 2Orthopedic Department, Iuliu Hatieganu University of Medicine and Pharmacy, Cluj-Napoca, RomaniaAbstract: Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs were prepared in aqueous colloid dispersions by the reduction of Ag+ with glucose in alkaline medium. Tetraethyl orthosilicate and l-asparagine were added as stabilizers of NPs. The AgNPs were characterized, and their interaction with three local anesthetics (procaine, dibucaine, or tetracaine was investigated. Optical spectra show the characteristic absorption band of AgNPs, due to surface plasmon resonance. Modifications in the position and shape of this band reflect the self-assembly of metal NPs mediated by anesthetic molecules and the progress in time of the aggregation process. Zeta-potential measuring was applied in order to characterize the electrostatic stability of the NPs. The size and shape of the AgNPs, as well as the features of the assemblies formed by their association in the presence of anesthetics, were evidenced by transmission electron microscopy images. Atomic force microscopy images showed the characteristics of the films of AgNPs deposited on glass support. The effect of the anesthetics could be described in terms of electrostatic forces between the negatively charged AgNPs and the anesthetic molecules, existing also in their cationic form at the working pH. But also hydrophobic and hydrogen bonding interactions between the coated nanoparticles and anesthetics molecular species should be considered.Keywords: self-assembled nanostructures, UV-vis spectra, TEM, AFM, zeta potential

  10. Eco-friendly microbial route to synthesize cobalt nanoparticles using Bacillus thuringiensis against malaria and dengue vectors.

    Marimuthu, Sampath; Rahuman, Abdul Abdul; Kirthi, Arivarasan Vishnu; Santhoshkumar, Thirunavukkarasu; Jayaseelan, Chidambaram; Rajakumar, Govindasamy

    2013-12-01

    The developments of resistance and persistence to chemical insecticides and concerns about the non-target effects have prompted the development of eco-friendly mosquito control agents. The aim of this study was to investigate the larvicidal activities of synthesized cobalt nanoparticles (Co NPs) using bio control agent, Bacillus thuringiensis against malaria vector, Anopheles subpictus and dengue vector, Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae). The synthesized Co NPs were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), Field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, and Transmission electron microscopy (TEM). XRD analysis showed three distinct diffraction peaks at 27.03°, 31.00°, and 45.58° indexed to the planes 102, 122, and 024, respectively on the face-centered cubic cobalt acetate with an average size of 85.3 nm. FTIR spectra implicated role of the peak at 3,436 cm(-1) for O-H hydroxyl group, 2924 cm(-1) for methylene C-H stretch in the formation of Co NPs. FESEM analysis showed the topological and morphological appearance of NPs which were found to be spherical and oval in shape. TEM analysis showed polydispersed and clustered NPs with an average size of 84.81 nm. The maximum larvicidal mortality was observed in the cobalt acetate solution, B. thuringiensis formulation, and synthesized Co NPs against fourth instar larvae of A. subpictus and A. aegypti with LC50 values of 29.16, 8.12, 3.59 mg/L; 34.61, 6.94, and 2.87 mg/L; r (2) values of 0.986, 0.933, 0.942; 0.962, 0.957, and 0.922, respectively.

  11. Investigation of laundering and dispersion approaches for silica and calcium phosphosilicate composite nanoparticles synthesized in reverse micelles

    Tabakovic, Amra

    Nanotechnology, the science and engineering of materials at the nanoscale, is a booming research area with numerous applications in electronic, cosmetic, automotive and sporting goods industries, as well as in biomedicine. Composite nanoparticles (NPs) are of special interest since the use of two or more materials in NP design imparts multifunctionality on the final NP constructs. This is especially relevant for applications in areas of human healthcare, where the use of dye or drug doped composite NPs is expected to improve the diagnosis and treatment of cancer and other serious illnesses. Since the physicochemical properties of NP suspensions dictate the success of these systems in biomedical applications, especially drug delivery of chemotherapeutics, synthetic routes which offer precise control of NP properties, especially particle diameter and colloidal stability, are utilized to form a variety of composite NPs. Formation of NPs in reverse, or water-in-oil, micelles is one such synthetic approach. However, while the use of reverse micelles to form composite NPs offers precise control over NP size and shape, the post-synthesis laundering and dispersion of synthesized NP suspensions can still be a challenge. Reverse micelle synthetic approaches require the use of surfactants and low dielectric constant solvents, like hexane and cyclohexane, as the oil phase, which can compromise the biocompatibility and colloidal stability of the final composite NP suspensions. Therefore, appropriate dispersants and solvents must be used during laundering and dispersion to remove surfactant and ensure stability of synthesized NPs. In the work presented in this dissertation, two laundering and dispersion approaches, including packed column high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and centrifugation (sedimentation and redispersion), are investigated for silver core silica (Ag-SiO2) and calcium phosphosilicate (Caw(HxPO4)y(Si(OH)zOa) b · cH2O, CPS) composite NP suspensions

  12. Biologically Synthesized Gold Nanoparticles Ameliorate Cold and Heat Stress-Induced Oxidative Stress in Escherichia coli

    Xi-Feng Zhang

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Due to their unique physical, chemical, and optical properties, gold nanoparticles (AuNPs have recently attracted much interest in the field of nanomedicine, especially in the areas of cancer diagnosis and photothermal therapy. Because of the enormous potential of these nanoparticles, various physical, chemical, and biological methods have been adopted for their synthesis. Synthetic antioxidants are dangerous to human health. Thus, the search for effective, nontoxic natural compounds with effective antioxidative properties is essential. Although AuNPs have been studied for use in various biological applications, exploration of AuNPs as antioxidants capable of inhibiting oxidative stress induced by heat and cold stress is still warranted. Therefore, one goal of our study was to produce biocompatible AuNPs using biological methods that are simple, nontoxic, biocompatible, and environmentally friendly. Next, we aimed to assess the antioxidative effect of AuNPs against oxidative stress induced by cold and heat in Escherichia coli, which is a suitable model for stress responses involving AuNPs. The response of aerobically grown E. coli cells to cold and heat stress was found to be similar to the oxidative stress response. Upon exposure to cold and heat stress, the viability and metabolic activity of E. coli was significantly reduced compared to the control. In addition, levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS and malondialdehyde (MDA and leakage of proteins and sugars were significantly elevated, and the levels of lactate dehydrogenase activity (LDH and adenosine triphosphate (ATP significantly lowered compared to in the control. Concomitantly, AuNPs ameliorated cold and heat-induced oxidative stress responses by increasing the expression of antioxidants, including glutathione (GSH, glutathione S-transferase (GST, super oxide dismutase (SOD, and catalase (CAT. These consistent physiology and biochemical data suggest that AuNPs can ameliorate cold and

  13. Investigation of Ni@CoO core-shell nanoparticle films synthesized by sequential layer deposition

    Spadaro, M.C.; Luches, P.; Benedetti, F.; Valeri, S.; Turchini, S.; Bertoni, G.; Ferretti, A.M.; Capetti, E.; Ponti, A.; D’Addato, S.

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • We studied Ni/CoO core-shell nanoparticles (NP) obtained with a gas aggregation source. • The NP oxide shells were produced bye reactive deposition of Co in Oxygen atmosphere (p_O_2 ≈ 10"−"7 mbar). • XPS, SEM, STEM were used to obtain information on Ni chemical state and NP structure and morphology. • XMCD result showed evidence of remanent magnetization at room temperature. • We interpret XMCD results as due to stabilization induced by exchange bias due to AFM/FM coupling at the core/shell interface. - Abstract: Films of Ni@CoO core-shell nanoparticles (NP Ni core size d ≈ 11 nm) have been grown on Si/SiO_x and lacey carbon supports, by a sequential layer deposition method: a first layer of CoO was evaporated on the substrate, followed by the deposition of a layer of pre-formed, mass-selected Ni NPs, and finally an overlayer of CoO was added. The Ni NPs were formed by a magnetron gas aggregation source, and mass selected with a quadrupole mass filter. The morphology of the films was investigated with Scanning Electron Microscopy and Scanning Transmission Electron Microscopy. The Ni NP cores have a shape compatible with McKay icosahedron, caused by multitwinning occurring during their growth in the source, and the Ni NP layer shows the typical random paving growth mode. After the deposition of the CoO overlayer, CoO islands are observed, gradually extending and tending to merge with each other, with the formation of shells that enclose the Ni NP cores. In situ X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy showed that a few Ni atomic layers localized at the core-shell interface are oxidized, hinting at the possibility of creating an intermediate NiO shell between Ni and CoO, depending on the deposition conditions. Finally, X-ray Magnetic Circular Dichroism at the Ni L_2_,_3 absorption edge showed the presence of magnetization at room temperature even at remanence, revealing the possibility of magnetic stabilization of the NP film.

  14. Investigation of Ni@CoO core-shell nanoparticle films synthesized by sequential layer deposition

    Spadaro, M.C., E-mail: mariachiara.spadaro@unimore.it [CNR-NANO, via G. Campi 213/a, 41125 Modena (Italy); Dipartimento FIM, Università di Modena e Reggio Emilia, via G. Campi 213/a, 41125 Modena (Italy); Luches, P. [Dipartimento FIM, Università di Modena e Reggio Emilia, via G. Campi 213/a, 41125 Modena (Italy); Benedetti, F.; Valeri, S. [CNR-NANO, via G. Campi 213/a, 41125 Modena (Italy); Dipartimento FIM, Università di Modena e Reggio Emilia, via G. Campi 213/a, 41125 Modena (Italy); Turchini, S. [CNR-ISM, Via Fosso del Cavaliere 100, 00133 Roma (Italy); Bertoni, G. [CNR-IMEM, Parco Area delle Scienze 37/a, 43124 Parma (Italy); Ferretti, A.M.; Capetti, E.; Ponti, A. [Laboratorio di Nanotecnologie, Istituto di Scienze e Tecnologie Molecolari, Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, via G. Fantoli 16/15, 20138 Milano (Italy); D’Addato, S. [CNR-NANO, via G. Campi 213/a, 41125 Modena (Italy); Dipartimento FIM, Università di Modena e Reggio Emilia, via G. Campi 213/a, 41125 Modena (Italy)

    2017-02-28

    Highlights: • We studied Ni/CoO core-shell nanoparticles (NP) obtained with a gas aggregation source. • The NP oxide shells were produced bye reactive deposition of Co in Oxygen atmosphere (p{sub O2} ≈ 10{sup −7} mbar). • XPS, SEM, STEM were used to obtain information on Ni chemical state and NP structure and morphology. • XMCD result showed evidence of remanent magnetization at room temperature. • We interpret XMCD results as due to stabilization induced by exchange bias due to AFM/FM coupling at the core/shell interface. - Abstract: Films of Ni@CoO core-shell nanoparticles (NP Ni core size d ≈ 11 nm) have been grown on Si/SiO{sub x} and lacey carbon supports, by a sequential layer deposition method: a first layer of CoO was evaporated on the substrate, followed by the deposition of a layer of pre-formed, mass-selected Ni NPs, and finally an overlayer of CoO was added. The Ni NPs were formed by a magnetron gas aggregation source, and mass selected with a quadrupole mass filter. The morphology of the films was investigated with Scanning Electron Microscopy and Scanning Transmission Electron Microscopy. The Ni NP cores have a shape compatible with McKay icosahedron, caused by multitwinning occurring during their growth in the source, and the Ni NP layer shows the typical random paving growth mode. After the deposition of the CoO overlayer, CoO islands are observed, gradually extending and tending to merge with each other, with the formation of shells that enclose the Ni NP cores. In situ X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy showed that a few Ni atomic layers localized at the core-shell interface are oxidized, hinting at the possibility of creating an intermediate NiO shell between Ni and CoO, depending on the deposition conditions. Finally, X-ray Magnetic Circular Dichroism at the Ni L{sub 2,3} absorption edge showed the presence of magnetization at room temperature even at remanence, revealing the possibility of magnetic stabilization of the NP film.

  15. Oxide or carbide nanoparticles synthesized by laser ablation of a bulk Hf target in liquids and their structural, optical, and dielectric properties

    Semaltianos, N. G., E-mail: nsemaltianos@yahoo.com [Department of Physics, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Thessaloniki 54124 (Greece); Friedt, J.-M.; Blondeau-Patissier, V.; Combe, G. [Dépt. Temps-Fréquence, Femto-st, UMR CNRS 6174, Université de Franche-Comté, Besançon 25030 (France); Chassagnon, R. [Laboratoire Interdisciplinaire Carnot De Bourgogne, ICB UMR CNRS 6303, Université de Bourgogne Franche-Comté, Dijon 21078 (France); Moutarlier, V. [UTINAM, UMR CNRS 6213, Université de Franche-Comté, Besançon 25030 (France); Assoul, M.; Monteil, G. [Dépt. Mécanique Appliquée, Femto-st, UMR CNRS 6174, Université de Franche-Comté, Besançon 25030 (France)

    2016-05-28

    Laser ablation of a bulk Hf target in deionized (DI) water, ethanol, or toluene was carried out for the production of nanoparticles' colloidal solutions. Due to the interaction of the ablation plasma plume species with the species which are produced by the liquid decomposition at the plume-liquid interface, hafnia (HfO{sub 2}) nanoparticles are synthesized in DI water, hafnium carbide (HfC) nanoparticles in toluene, and a mixture of these in ethanol. The hafnia nanoparticles are in the monoclinic low temperature phase and in the tetragonal and fcc high temperature phases. Their size distribution follows log-normal function with a median diameter in the range of 4.3–5.3 nm. Nanoparticles synthesized in DI water have band gaps of 5.6 and 5.4 eV, in ethanol 5.72 and 5.65 eV (using low and high pulse energy), and in toluene 3 eV. The values for the relative permittivity in the range of 7.74–8.90 were measured for hafnia nanoparticles' thin films deposited on substrates by drop-casting (self-assembled layers) in parallel plate capacitor structures.

  16. Violet emission from Fe doped ZnO nanoparticles synthesized by precipitation method

    Kanchana, S., E-mail: skanchana09@gmail.com [PG & Research Department of Physics, Urumu Dhanalaksmi College, Tiruchirapalli 620019 (India); Chithra, M. Jay [Nanomaterials Research Laboratory, Department of Physics, Government Arts College, Karur 639005 (India); Ernest, Suhashini [PG & Research Department of Physics, Urumu Dhanalaksmi College, Tiruchirapalli 620019 (India); Pushpanathan, K. [Nanomaterials Research Laboratory, Department of Physics, Government Arts College, Karur 639005 (India)

    2016-08-15

    In this article we have reported the synthesis of Fe doped zinc oxide nanoparticles by the chemical precipitation method. The structural, compositional and optical properties have been examined by powder X-ray diffractometer, scanning electron microscope, transmission electron microscope, ultraviolet–visible and spectrophotometer. X-ray diffraction analysis confirmed the crystallites are in nanometer size and the sample contains polycrystals with hexagonal wurtzite structure. The average crystallite size has been found to increase from 25 nm to 36 nm with increase in Fe concentration. Scanning electron microscope result also confirmed the nanosize of the particles. Ultraviolet–visible spectrum of Fe doped zinc oxide shows a red shift with respect to undoped zinc oxide. The band gap of the samples was calculated from ultraviolet–visible spectrum and it is narrow from 3.30 eV to 3.23 eV with increasing Fe dopant upto 6%. The stretching bonds in Zn– Fe–O have been observed in FTIR spectra.

  17. Experimental and Theoretical Structural Investigation of AuPt Nanoparticles Synthesized Using a Direct Electrochemical Method.

    Lapp, Aliya S; Duan, Zhiyao; Marcella, Nicholas; Luo, Long; Genc, Arda; Ringnalda, Jan; Frenkel, Anatoly I; Henkelman, Graeme; Crooks, Richard M

    2018-05-11

    In this report, we examine the structure of bimetallic nanomaterials prepared by an electrochemical approach known as hydride-terminated (HT) electrodeposition. It has been shown previously that this method can lead to deposition of a single Pt monolayer on bulk-phase Au surfaces. Specifically, under appropriate electrochemical conditions and using a solution containing PtCl 4 2- , a monolayer of Pt atoms electrodeposits onto bulk-phase Au immediately followed by a monolayer of H atoms. The H atom capping layer prevents deposition of Pt multilayers. We applied this method to ∼1.6 nm Au nanoparticles (AuNPs) immobilized on an inert electrode surface. In contrast to the well-defined, segregated Au/Pt structure of the bulk-phase surface, we observe that HT electrodeposition leads to the formation of AuPt quasi-random alloy NPs rather than the core@shell structure anticipated from earlier reports relating to deposition onto bulk phases. The results provide a good example of how the phase behavior of macro materials does not always translate to the nano world. A key component of this study was the structure determination of the AuPt NPs, which required a combination of electrochemical methods, electron microscopy, X-ray absorption spectroscopy, and theory (DFT and MD).

  18. Morphological and Rheological Characterization of Gold Nanoparticles Synthesized Using Pluronic P103 as Soft Template

    Nancy Tepale

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The synthesis of gold nanoparticles (Au-NPs, using Pluronic® P103 as soft template to design tuned hybrid gold/P103 nanomaterials, is reported here. The effect of the concentration of P103 and the synthesis temperature on the growth, size, and morphology of Au-NPs were studied. The rheological properties of these hybrid nanomaterials at different measured temperatures were studied as well. By increasing the concentration of P103, the micelles progressively grew due to an increase in the number of surface cavities. These cavities came together causing large nucleation centers and developing larger Au-NPs. The synthesis temperature was varied to induce significant dehydration of the P103 micelles. Below the cloud point temperature micelles underwent distinct changes related to spherical-to-polymer-like micelles transitions. Two nanostructures were formed: (1 small Au-NPs arranged on the surface of micelles, which acted as soft templates, and (2 large and independent Au-NPs. Above the cloud point temperature, Au-NPs were related to the shape and size of the P103 micellar aggregates. Rheological measurements showed that viscosity was sensitive to the concentration of P103. Also, it was demonstrated that synthesis temperature had a considerable influence on viscosity of the produced nanomaterials.

  19. Magneto-plasmonic Au-Coated Co nanoparticles synthesized via hot-injection method

    Souza, João B., Jr.; Varanda, Laudemir C.

    2018-02-01

    A synthetic procedure is described for the obtaining of superparamagnetic Co nanoparticles (NPs) via hot-injection method in the presence of sodium borohydride. The Co NPs obtained have an average diameter of 5.3 nm and saturation magnetization of 115 emu g-1. A modified Langevin equation is fitted to the magnetization curves using a log-normal distribution for the particle diameter and an effective field to account for dipolar interactions. The calculated magnetic diameter of the Co NPs is 0.6 nm smaller than TEM-derived values, implying a magnetic dead layer of 0.3 nm. The magnetic core is coated with Au to prevent oxidation, resulting in water-stable magneto-plasmonic Co/Au core/shell NPs with saturation of 71.6 emu g-1. The coating adds a localized surface plasmon resonance property with absorbance in the so-called ‘therapeutic window’ (690-900 nm), suitable for biomedical applications. It is suggested that these multifunctional NPs are distinguished as a potential platform for applied and fundamental research.

  20. Non-linear optical properties of SiO2 with synthesized by implantation copper nanoparticles

    Stepanov, A.L.; Olivares, J.; Requejo-Isidro, J.; Del Coso, R.; De Nalda, R.; Solis, J.; Afonso, C.N.; Hole, D.; Townsend, P.D.; Naudon, A.

    2001-01-01

    In recent years there has been a growing interest in composite dielectrics containing metal nanoparticles for their potential application in wave-guide integrated all-optical non-linear switching devices. In present work, low energy high current ion implantation (50 keV) in silica at a well controlled substrate temperature (20 0 C) at a dose of 8·10 16 ion/cm 2 has been used to produce novel composites containing a large concentration of spherical Cu clusters with an average diameter of 4 nm and a very narrow size distribution. A very large value for the third order optical susceptibility, χ (3) = 10 -7 esu, has been measured in the vicinity of the surface plasmon resonance by degenerate four wave mixing at 585 nm. This value is among the largest values ever reported for Cu nano composites. Additionally, the response time of the non-linearity has been found to be shorter than 2 ps. The superior non-linear optical response of these implants is discussed in terms of the implantation conditions

  1. A novel polyol method to synthesize colloidal silver nanoparticles by ultrasonic irradiation.

    Byeon, Jeong Hoon; Kim, Young-Woo

    2012-01-01

    A polyol synthesis of silver nanoparticles in the presence of ultrasonic irradiation was compared with other configurations (at ambient temperature, 120° C, and 120 °C with injected solutions) in the absence of ultrasonic irradiation in order to obtain systematic results for morphology and size distribution. For applying ultrasonic irradiation, rather fine and uniform spherical silver particles (21±3.7 nm) were obtained in a simple (at ambient temperature without mechanical stirring) and fast (within 4 min, 3.61×10(-3) mol min(-1)) manner than other cases (at ambient temperature (for 8 h, 0.03×10(-3) mol min(-1)): 86±16.8 nm, 120 °C (for 12 min, 1.16×10(-3) mol min(-1)): 64±14.9 nm, and 120 °C with injected solutions (during 12 min): 35±6.8 nm; all other cases contained anisotropic shaped particles). Even though the temperature of polyol reaction reached only at 80 °C (silver particle and surrounding components) by ultrasonic irradiation might induce a better formation kinetics and morphological uniformity. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Room temperature ferromagnetism in liquid-phase pulsed laser ablation synthesized nanoparticles of nonmagnetic oxides

    Singh, S. C.; Gopal, R.; Kotnala, R. K.

    2015-01-01

    Intrinsic Room Temperature Ferromagnetism (RTF) has been observed in undoped/uncapped zinc oxide and titanium dioxide spherical nanoparticles (NPs) obtained by a purely green approach of liquid phase pulsed laser ablation of corresponding metal targets in pure water. Saturation magnetization values observed for zinc oxide (average size, 9 ± 1.2 nm) and titanium dioxide (average size, 4.4 ± 0.3 nm) NPs are 62.37 and 42.17 memu/g, respectively, which are several orders of magnitude larger than those of previous reports. In contrast to the previous works, no postprocessing treatments or surface modification is required to induce ferromagnetism in the case of present communication. The most important result, related to the field of intrinsic ferromagnetism in nonmagnetic materials, is the observation of size dependent ferromagnetism. Degree of ferromagnetism in titanium dioxide increases with the increase in particle size, while it is reverse for zinc oxide. Surface and volume defects play significant roles for the origin of RTF in zinc oxide and titanium dioxide NPs, respectively. Single ionized oxygen and neutral zinc vacancies in zinc oxide and oxygen and neutral/ionized titanium vacancies in titanium dioxide are considered as predominant defect centres responsible for observed ferromagnetism. It is expected that origin of ferromagnetism is a consequence of exchange interactions between localized electron spin moments resulting from point defects

  3. Proximity hybridization-regulated catalytic DNA hairpin assembly for electrochemical immunoassay based on in situ DNA template-synthesized Pd nanoparticles

    Zhou, Fuyi; Yao, Yao; Luo, Jianjun; Zhang, Xing; Zhang, Yu; Yin, Dengyang; Gao, Fenglei; Wang, Po

    2017-01-01

    Novel hybridization proximity-regulated catalytic DNA hairpin assembly strategy has been proposed for electrochemical immunoassay based on in situ DNA template-synthesized Pd nanoparticles as signal label. The DNA template-synthesized Pd nanoparticles were characterized with atomic force microscopic and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The highly efficient electrocatalysis by DNA template synthesized Pd nanoparticles for NaBH 4 oxidation produced an intense detection signal. The label-free electrochemical method achieved the detection of carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) with a linear range from 10 −15 to 10 −11  g mL −1 and a detection limit of 0.43 × 10 −15  g mL −1 . Through introducing a supersandwich reaction to increase the DNA length, the electrochemical signal was further amplified, leading to a detection limit of 0.52 × 10 −16  g mL −1 . And it rendered satisfactory analytical performance for the determination of CEA in serum samples. Furthermore, it exhibited good reproducibility and stability; meanwhile, it also showed excellent specificity due to the specific recognition of antigen by antibody. Therefore, the DNA template synthesized Pd nanoparticles based signal amplification approach has great potential in clinical applications and is also suitable for quantification of biomarkers at ultralow level. - Graphical abstract: A novel label-free and enzyme-free electrochemical immunoassay based on proximity hybridization-regulated catalytic DNA hairpin assemblies for recycling of the CEA. - Highlights: • A novel enzyme-free electrochemical immunosensor was developed for detection of CEA. • The signal amplification was based on catalytic DNA hairpin assembly and DNA-template-synthesized Pd nanoparticles. • The biosensor could detect CEA down to 0.52 × 10 −16  g mL −1 level with a dynamic range spanning 5 orders of magnitude.

  4. An evidence-based environmental perspective of manufactured silver nanoparticle in syntheses and applications: A systematic review and critical appraisal of peer-reviewed scientific papers

    Tolaymat, Thabet M.; El Badawy, Amro M.; Genaidy, Ash; Scheckel, Kirk G.; Luxton, Todd P.; Suidan, Makram

    2010-01-01

    Background: Most recently, renewed interest has arisen in manufactured silver nanomaterials because of their unusually enhanced physicochemical properties and biological activities compared to the bulk parent materials. A wide range of applications has emerged in consumer products ranging from disinfecting medical devices and home appliances to water treatment. Because the hypothesized mechanisms that govern the fate and transport of bulk materials may not directly apply to materials at the nanoscale, there are great concerns in the regulatory and research communities about potential environmental impacts associated with the use of silver nanoparticles. In particular, the unlimited combinations of properties emerging from the syntheses and applications of silver nanoparticles are presenting an urgent need to document the predominant salt precursors, reducing agents and stabilizing agents utilized in the synthesis processes of silver nanoparticles to guide the massive efforts required for environmental risk assessment and management. Objectives: The primary objective of this study is to present an evidence-based environmental perspective of silver nanoparticle properties in syntheses and applications. The following specific aims are designed to achieve the study objective: Aim 1 - to document the salt precursors and agents utilized in synthesizing silver nanoparticles; Aim 2 - to determine the characteristics of silver nanoparticles currently in use in the scientific literature when integrated in polymer matrices to form nanocomposites and combined with other metal nanoparticles to form bimetallic nanoparticles; Aim 3 - to provide a summary of the morphology of silver nanoparticles; and (4) Aim 4 - to provide an environmental perspective of the evidence presented in Aims 1 to 3. Methods: A comprehensive electronic search of scientific databases was conducted in support of the study objectives. Specific inclusion criteria were applied to gather the most pertinent

  5. An evidence-based environmental perspective of manufactured silver nanoparticle in syntheses and applications: A systematic review and critical appraisal of peer-reviewed scientific papers

    Tolaymat, Thabet M., E-mail: tolaymat.thabet@epa.gov [USEPA Office of Research and Development, National Risk Management Laboratory, 26 West Martin Luther King Drive, Cincinnati, OH 45224 (United States); El Badawy, Amro M. [Dept. of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, OH (United States); Genaidy, Ash [WorldTek Inc, Cincinnati, OH (United States); Scheckel, Kirk G.; Luxton, Todd P. [USEPA Office of Research and Development, National Risk Management Laboratory, 26 West Martin Luther King Drive, Cincinnati, OH 45224 (United States); Suidan, Makram [Dept. of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, OH (United States)

    2010-02-01

    Background: Most recently, renewed interest has arisen in manufactured silver nanomaterials because of their unusually enhanced physicochemical properties and biological activities compared to the bulk parent materials. A wide range of applications has emerged in consumer products ranging from disinfecting medical devices and home appliances to water treatment. Because the hypothesized mechanisms that govern the fate and transport of bulk materials may not directly apply to materials at the nanoscale, there are great concerns in the regulatory and research communities about potential environmental impacts associated with the use of silver nanoparticles. In particular, the unlimited combinations of properties emerging from the syntheses and applications of silver nanoparticles are presenting an urgent need to document the predominant salt precursors, reducing agents and stabilizing agents utilized in the synthesis processes of silver nanoparticles to guide the massive efforts required for environmental risk assessment and management. Objectives: The primary objective of this study is to present an evidence-based environmental perspective of silver nanoparticle properties in syntheses and applications. The following specific aims are designed to achieve the study objective: Aim 1 - to document the salt precursors and agents utilized in synthesizing silver nanoparticles; Aim 2 - to determine the characteristics of silver nanoparticles currently in use in the scientific literature when integrated in polymer matrices to form nanocomposites and combined with other metal nanoparticles to form bimetallic nanoparticles; Aim 3 - to provide a summary of the morphology of silver nanoparticles; and (4) Aim 4 - to provide an environmental perspective of the evidence presented in Aims 1 to 3. Methods: A comprehensive electronic search of scientific databases was conducted in support of the study objectives. Specific inclusion criteria were applied to gather the most pertinent

  6. Control of the shape and size of iron oxide (α-Fe2O3 nanoparticles synthesized through the chemical precipitation method

    Abdelmajid Lassoued

    Full Text Available Hematite (α-Fe2O3 nanoparticles were synthesized via a simple chemical precipitation method. The impact of varying the concentration of precursor on the crystalline phase, size and morphology of α-Fe2O3 products was explored. The characteristic of the synthesized hematite nanoparticles were evaluated by X-ray diffraction (XRD, Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM, Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM, Fourier Transform Infra-Red (FT-IR spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, Differential Thermal Analysis (DTA, Thermo Gravimetric Analysis (TGA, Ultraviolet–Visible (UV–Vis analysis and Photoluminescence (PL. XRD data revealed a rhombohedral (hexagonal structure with the space group R-3c in all samples. Uniform spherical like morphology was confirmed by TEM and SEM. The result revealed that the particle sizes were varied between 21 and 82 nm and that the increase in precursor concentration (FeCl3, 6H2O is accompanied by an increase in the particle size of 21 nm for pure α-Fe2O3 synthesized with [Fe3+] = 0.05 M at 82 nm for pure α-Fe2O3 synthesized with [Fe3+] = 0.4 M. FT-IR confirms the phase purity of the nanoparticles synthesized. The Raman spectroscopy was used not only to prove that we have synthesized pure hematite but also to identify their phonon modes. The thermal behavior of compound was studied by using TGA/DTA results: The TGA showed three mass losses, whereas DTA resulted in three endothermic peaks. Besides, the optical investigation revealed that samples have an optical gap of about 2.1 eV and that this value varies as a function of the precursor concentration. Keywords: Nanoparticles, Hematite (α-Fe2O3, Precipitation, Precursor, Size, Band gap

  7. Effect of Polyethylene Glycol on the Formation of Magnetic Nanoparticles Synthesized by Magnetospirillum magnetotacticum MS-1.

    Hirokazu Shimoshige

    Full Text Available Magnetotactic bacteria (MTB synthesize intracellular magnetic nanocrystals called magnetosomes, which are composed of either magnetite (Fe3O4 or greigite (Fe3S4 and covered with lipid membranes. The production of magnetosomes is achieved by the biomineralization process with strict control over the formation of magnetosome membrane vesicles, uptake and transport of iron ions, and synthesis of mature crystals. These magnetosomes have high potential for both biotechnological and nanotechnological applications, but it is still extremely difficult to grow MTB and produce a large amount of magnetosomes under the conventional cultural conditions. Here, we investigate as a first attempt the effect of polyethylene glycol (PEG added to the culture medium on the increase in the yield of magnetosomes formed in Magnetospirillum magnetotacticum MS-1. We find that the yield of the formation of magnetosomes can be increased up to approximately 130 % by adding PEG200 to the culture medium. We also measure the magnetization of the magnetosomes and find that the magnetosomes possess soft ferromagnetic characteristics and the saturation mass magnetization is increased by 7 %.

  8. Genotoxic and cytotoxic activity of green synthesized TiO2 nanoparticles

    Koca, Fatih Doğan; Duman, Fatih

    2018-03-01

    Nowadays, nanomaterials that are smaller than 100 nm in size are very attractive owing to their enhanced physicochemical properties. Although they have been used widely for industrial applications, their toxicity still remains a problem. This article is a new record of the synthesis of titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO2 NPs) by a Mentha aquatica leaf extract and determination of its toxicity to rat marrow mesenchymal stem cells. In this study, we aimed to determine the genotoxic and cytotoxic effects of biologically synthetized TiO2 NPs. The characteristic peak of the nanomaterial was observed at 354 nm. The mean size of the nanomaterial was measured to be 69 nm from SEM images. According to zeta analysis, the surface charge of the nanomaterial was - 37.6 mV. The crystalline structure of the nanomaterial was determined using XRD analysis. It was concluded that the obtained nanomaterial was TiO2 The results of the FT-IR analysis showed that the functional groups that were found in the plant extract could play an important role in the formation and stabilization of TiO2 NPs. The effective size of the TiO2 NPs was found to be 304 nm using DLS analysis. The TGA analysis results showed that the total mass loss was 4% at 900 °C. According to DNA cleavage analysis results, TiO2 NPs cause damage to the plasmid pBR322 DNA in a concentration-dependant matter. It has been noted that TiO2 NPs lead to decreased cell viability during increased time and concentration of applications on rat marrow mesenchymal stem cells. It has also been determined that bulk TiO2 causes a greater reduction in the stem cell viability compared to the biosynthesized NPs. The obtained results could be useful for further application and toxicity studies.

  9. Green synthesized silver nanoparticles destroy multidrug resistant bacteria via reactive oxygen species mediated membrane damage

    Balaram Das

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The growing need of antimicrobial agent for novel therapies against multi-drug resistant bacteria has drawn researchers to green nanotechnology. Especially, eco-friendly biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs has shown its interesting impact against bacterial infection in laboratory research. In this study, a simple method was developed to form Ag NPs at room temperature, bio-reduction of silver ions from silver nitrate salt by leaf extract from Ocimum gratissimum. The Ag NPs appear to be capped with plant proteins, but are otherwise highly crystalline and pure. The Ag NPs have a zeta potential of −15 mV, a hydrodynamic diameter of 31 nm with polydispersity index of 0.65, and dry sizes of 18 ± 3 nm and 16 ± 2 nm, based on scanning and transmission electron microscopy respectively. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC of the Ag NPs against a multi-drug resistant Escherichia coli was 4 μg/mL and the minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC was 8 μg/mL, while the MIC and MBC against a resistant strain of Staphylococcus aureus were slightly higher at 8 μg/mL and 16 μg/mL respectively. Further, the Ag NPs inhibited biofilm formation by both Escherichia coli and S. aureus at concentrations similar to the MIC for each strain. Treatment of E. coli and S. aureus with Ag NPs resulted in damage to the surface of the cells and the production of reactive oxygen species. Both mechanisms likely contribute to bacterial cell death. In summary, this new method appears promising for green biosynthesis of pure Ag NPs with potent antimicrobial activity.

  10. Effect of solvent medium on the structural, morphological and optical properties of ZnS nanoparticles synthesized by solvothermal route

    Mendil, R., E-mail: radia.mendil@yahoo.fr [Laboratoire de Physique des Matériaux et des Nanomatériaux appliquée à l' Environnement, Université de Gabès, Faculté des Sciences de Gabès, Cité Erriadh Manara Zrig, 6072 Gabès (Tunisia); Ben Ayadi, Z. [Laboratoire de Physique des Matériaux et des Nanomatériaux appliquée à l' Environnement, Université de Gabès, Faculté des Sciences de Gabès, Cité Erriadh Manara Zrig, 6072 Gabès (Tunisia); Djessas, K. [Laboratoire Procédés, Matériaux et Energie Solaire (PROMES-CNRS), TECNOSUD, Rambla de la thermodynamique, 66100 Perpignan (France); Université de Perpignan Via Domitia, 52 avenue Paul Alduy, 68860, Perpignan Cedex9 (France)

    2016-09-05

    Different morphologies of ZnS have been synthesized by a facile solvothermal approach in a mixed solvent made of Ethylenediamine (EN) and distilled water. The effect of solvent medium on the structural, morphological and optical properties of ZnS nanoparticles were investigated. The formation mechanism of different morphologies was proposed based on the experiment results. The as-prepared samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), energy dispersive spectrometer (EDS), Raman spectroscopy and UV-Vis-IR spectrophotometer. The results show that phase transformation is easily induced and there is a strong correlation between morphology and structure of the ZnS nanocrystals by changing the solvent. The results also show that we have successfully produced hexagonal phase ZnS nanorods with mixed solvent. The grain sizes in the range of 17–22 nm were obtained according to elaboration conditions. Raman spectra show the intense peak at 346 cm{sup −1}, which is a typical Raman peak of bulk ZnS crystal, no signature of secondary phases. The band gap of ZnS increased from 3.49 to 3.74 eV with an increase in the EN composition in the solvent, implying that the optical properties of these materials are clearly affected by the synthesis medium. - Highlights: • ZnS was prepared at low temperature using solvothermal method. • The phase transformation and shape evolution processes were studied. • The role of solvent (EN/W) has been discussed for formation of ZnS nanostructures with different morphology. • The properties and growth mechanism of ZnS nanoparticles were investigated. • Optical band gap of ZnS powder were investigated using UV vis spectroscopy.

  11. Increased therapeutic efficacy of a newly synthesized tyrosinase inhibitor by solid lipid nanoparticles in the topical treatment of hyperpigmentation

    Al-Amin M

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Md Al-Amin, Jiafu Cao, Muhammad Naeem, Hasanul Banna, Min-Soo Kim, Yunjin Jung, Hae Young Chung, Hyung Ryong Moon, Jin-Wook Yoo College of Pharmacy, Pusan National University, Busan, South Korea Abstract: Hyperpigmentation caused by melanin overproduction is a major skin disorder in humans. Inhibition of tyrosinase, a key regulator of melanin production, has been used as an effective strategy to treat hyperpigmentation. In this study, we investigated the use of solid lipid nanoparticles (SLNs as a highly effective and nontoxic means to deliver a newly synthesized potent tyrosinase inhibitor, MHY498, and to target melanocytes through the skin. MHY498-loaded SLNs (MHY-SLNs were prepared by an oil-in-water emulsion solvent-evaporation method, and their morphological and physicochemical properties were characterized. MHY-SLNs showed a prolonged drug-release profile and higher skin permeation than that of MHY solution. In an in vivo evaluation of antimelanogenic activity, MHY-SLNs showed a prominent inhibitory effect against ultraviolet B-induced melanogenesis, resulting in no change in the skin color of C57BL/6 mouse, compared with that observed in an MHY solution-treated group and an untreated control group. The antimelanogenic effect of MHY-SLNs was further confirmed through Fontana–Masson staining. Importantly, MHY-SLNs did not induce any toxic effects in the L929 cell line. Overall, these data indicate that MHY-SLNs show promise in the topical treatment of hyperpigmentation. Keywords: melanogenesis, hyperpigmentation, MHY498, solid lipid nanoparticles, skin delivery

  12. Application of gamma irradiation method to synthesize silver nanoparticle and fix them on porous ceramics for water treatment

    Nguyen Thuy Ai Trinh; Phan Dinh Tuan; Ngo Manh Thang; Dang Van Phu; Le Anh Quoc; Nguyen Quoc Hien

    2013-01-01

    The colloidal silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) solution with the AgNPs diameter of 10-15 nm was synthesized by gamma irradiation method using polyvinylpyrrolidone as stabilizer. Porous ceramic samples were functionalized by treatment with an aminosilane (AS) agent (3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane) and then impregnated in colloidal silver nanoparticles solution for fixing through coordination bonds between - NH 2 groups of the aminosilane and the silver atoms. The AgNPs content attached in porous ceramic (AgNPs/PC) was of about 200-250 mg/kg. The contents silver release from AgNPs/PC into filtrated water by flowing test with the rate of about 5 litters/h were less than 10 μg/L analyzed by neutron activation analysis method, it is satisfactory to the WHO guideline of 100 μg/L for drinking water. The antimicrobial effect of AgNPs/PC for E. coli was carried out by flowing test with an inoculated initial contamination of E.coli in water of about 10 6 CFU/100 ml. Results showed that the contamination of E. coli in filtrated water through AgNPs/PC (up to 500 litters) was less than 1 CFU/100 ml compared to 2.5x10 4 CFU/100 ml for base porous ceramic (only up to 60 litters). The antimicrobial effect of AgNPs/PC is in accordance with the TCVN 6096-2004 for bottled drinking. Thus, AgNPs/PC with the silver content of 200-250 mg/kg and the specific surface area of 1.51 m 2 /g, average pore size of 48.2 Å and pore volume of 1.8x10 -3 cm 3 /g has highly antimicrobial effect that can be applied for point-of-use drinking water treatment. (author)

  13. Comparison of morphology and phase composition of hydroxyapatite nanoparticles sonochemically synthesized with dual- or single-frequency ultrasonic reactor

    Deng, Shi-ting; Yu, Hong; Liu, Di; Bi, Yong-guang

    2017-10-01

    To investigate how a dual- or single-frequency ultrasonic reactor changes the morphology and phase composition of hydroxyapatite nanoparticles (nHAPs), we designed and constructed the preparation of nHAPs using dual- or single-frequency ultrasonic devices, i.e., the single frequency ultrasonic generator with ultrasonic horn (25 kHz), the ultrasonic bath (40 kHz) and the dual-frequency sonochemical systems combined with the ultrasonic horn and the ultrasonic bath simultaneously (25 + 40 kHz). The results showed that the sonicated samples displayed a more uniform shape with less agglomeration than non-sonicated sample. The rod-shaped particles with 1.66 stoichiometry and without a second phase were synthesized successfully in the ultrasonic bath or horn systems. The nHAPs obtained from the dual-frequency ultrasonic systems exhibited a regular rod-shaped structure with better dispersion and more uniform shapes than those of obtained in either ultrasonic bath or horn systems. Additionally, the size of rod-shaped particles obtained in the dual-frequency ultrasound with a mean width of 35 nm and a mean length of 64 nm was smaller than other samples. A possible mechanism is that the dual-frequency ultrasound significantly enhances the cavitation yield over single frequency ultrasound and thus improves the dispersion of particles and reduces the size of the crystals. In addition, irregular holes can be observed in the nanoparticles obtained in the dual-frequency ultrasound. Therefore, the dual-frequency ultrasonic systems are expected to become a convenient, efficient and environmentally friendly synthetic technology to obtain well-defined nHAPs for specific biomedical applications.

  14. Luminescence of colloidal ZnO nanoparticles synthesized in alcohols and biological application of ZnO passivated by MgO

    Sikora, Bożena; Fronc, Krzysztof; Kamińska, Izabela; Elbaum, Danek; Koper, Kamil; Stępień, Piotr

    2013-01-01

    This report presents the results of spectroscopic measurements of colloidal ZnO nanoparticles synthesized in various alcohols. Luminescence of colloidal ZnO was monitored under different reaction conditions to elucidate the mechanism of the visible emission. We performed the process in different alcohols, temperatures and reaction times for two different reactants: water and NaOH. Based on the presented and previously published results it is apparent that the luminescence of the nanoparticles is influenced by several competing phenomena: the formation of new nucleation centers, the growth of the nanoparticles and surface passivation. Superimposed on the above effects is a size dependent luminescence alteration resulting from the quantum confinement. The study contributes to our understanding of the origin of ZnO nanoparticles’ green emission which is important in a rational design of fluorescent probes for nontoxic biological applications. The ZnO nanoparticles were coated with a magnesium oxide layer and introduced into a HeLa cancer cell. (paper)

  15. S argassum muticum-synthesized silver nanoparticles: an effective control tool against mosquito vectors and bacterial pathogens.

    Madhiyazhagan, Pari; Murugan, Kadarkarai; Kumar, Arjunan Naresh; Nataraj, Thiyagarajan; Dinesh, Devakumar; Panneerselvam, Chellasamy; Subramaniam, Jayapal; Mahesh Kumar, Palanisamy; Suresh, Udaiyan; Roni, Mathath; Nicoletti, Marcello; Alarfaj, Abdullah A; Higuchi, Akon; Munusamy, Murugan A; Benelli, Giovanni

    2015-11-01

    Mosquito-borne diseases represent a deadly threat for millions of people worldwide. Furthermore, pathogens and parasites polluting water also constitute a severe plague for populations of developing countries. In this research, silver nanoparticles (AgNP) were synthesized using the aqueous extract of the seaweed Sargassum muticum. The production of AgNP was confirmed by surface plasmon resonance band illustrated in UV-vis spectrophotometry. AgNP were characterized by FTIR, SEM, EDX, and XRD analyses. AgNP were mostly spherical in shape, crystalline in nature, with face-centered cubic geometry, and mean size was 43-79 nm. Toxicity of AgNP was assessed against Aedes aegypti, Anopheles stephensi, and Culex quinquefasciatus. In laboratory, AgNP were highly toxic against larvae and pupae of the three mosquito species. Maximum efficacy was observed against A. stephensi larvae, with LC50 ranging from 16.156 ppm (larva I) to 28.881 ppm (pupa). In the field, a single treatment with AgNP (10 × LC50) in water storage reservoirs was effective against the three mosquito vectors, allowing complete elimination of larval populations after 72 h. In ovicidal experiments, egg hatchability was reduced by 100% after treatment with 30 ppm of AgNP. Ovideterrence assays highlighted that 10 ppm of AgNP reduced oviposition rates of more than 70% in A. aegypti, A. stephensi, and C. quinquefasciatus (OAI = -0.61, -0.63, and -0.58, respectively). Antibacterial properties of AgNP were evaluated against Bacillus subtilis, Klebsiella pneumoniae, and Salmonella typhi using the agar disk diffusion and minimum inhibitory concentration protocol. AgNP tested at 50 ppm evoked growth inhibition zones larger than 5 mm in all tested bacteria. Overall, the chance to use S. muticum-synthesized AgNP for control of mosquito vectors seems promising since they are effective at low doses and may constitute an advantageous alternative to build newer and safer mosquito control tools. This is the first

  16. Microstructure, electronic structure and optical properties of combustion synthesized Co doped ZnO nanoparticles

    Srinatha, N. [Department of Physics, JB Campus, Bangalore University, Bangalore 560056 (India); Nair, K.G.M. [UGC-DAE-CSR, Kalpakkam Node, Kalpakkam, Kokilamedu 603102 (India); Angadi, Basavaraj, E-mail: brangadi@gmail.com [Department of Physics, JB Campus, Bangalore University, Bangalore 560056 (India)

    2015-10-01

    We report on the microstructure, electronic structure and optical properties of nanocrystalline Zn{sub 1−x}Co{sub x}O (x=0, 0.01, 0.03, 0.05 and 0.07) particles prepared by solution combustion technique using L-Valine as fuel. The detailed structural and micro-structural studies were carried out by XRD, HRTEM and TEM-SAED respectively, which confirms the formation of single phased, nano-sized particles. The electronic structure was determined through NEXAFS and atomic multiplet calculations/simulations performed for various symmetries and valence states of ‘Co’ to determine the valance state, symmetry and crystal field splitting. The correlations between the experimental NEXAFS spectra and atomic multiplet simulations, confirms that, ‘Co’ present is in the 2+ valence state and substituted at the ‘Zn’ site in tetrahedral symmetry with crystal field splitting, 10Dq =−0.6 eV. The optical properties and ‘Co’ induced defect formation of as-synthesized materials were examined by using diffuse reflectance and Photoluminescence spectroscopy, respectively. Red-shift of band gap energy (E{sub g}) was observed in Zn{sub 1−x}Co{sub x}O samples due to Co (0.58 Å) substitution at Zn (0.60 Å) site of the host ZnO. Also, in PL spectra, a prominent pre-edge peak corresponds to ultraviolet (UV) emission around 360–370 nm was observed with Co concentration along with near band edge emission (NBE) of the wide band gap ZnO and all samples show emission in the blue region.

  17. Toxicity of seaweed-synthesized silver nanoparticles against the filariasis vector Culex quinquefasciatus and its impact on predation efficiency of the cyclopoid crustacean Mesocyclops longisetus.

    Murugan, Kadarkarai; Benelli, Giovanni; Ayyappan, Suganya; Dinesh, Devakumar; Panneerselvam, Chellasamy; Nicoletti, Marcello; Hwang, Jiang-Shiou; Kumar, Palanisamy Mahesh; Subramaniam, Jayapal; Suresh, Udaiyan

    2015-06-01

    Nearly 1.4 billion people in 73 countries worldwide are threatened by lymphatic filariasis, a parasitic infection that leads to a disease commonly known as elephantiasis. Filariasis is vectored by mosquitoes, with special reference to the genus Culex. The main control tool against mosquito larvae is represented by treatments with organophosphates and insect growth regulators, with negative effects on human health and the environment. Recently, green-synthesized nanoparticles have been proposed as highly effective larvicidals against mosquito vectors. In this research, we attempted a reply to the following question: do green-synthesized nanoparticles affect predation rates of copepods against mosquito larvae? We proposed a novel method of seaweed-mediated synthesis of silver nanoparticles using the frond extract of Caulerpa scalpelliformis. The toxicity of the seaweed extract and silver nanoparticles was assessed against the filarial vector Culex quinquefasciatus. Then, we evaluated the predatory efficiency of the cyclopoid crustacean Mesocyclops longisetus against larval instars of C. quinquefasciatus in a nanoparticle-contaminated water environment. Green-synthesized silver nanoparticles were characterized by UV-vis spectrum, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and X-ray diffraction (XRD). In mosquitocidal assays, the LC₅₀ values of the C. scalpelliformis extract against C. quinquefasciatus were 31.38 ppm (I), 46.49 ppm (II), 75.79 ppm (III), 102.26 ppm (IV), and 138.89 ppm (pupa), while LC₅₀ of silver nanoparticles were 3.08 ppm, (I), 3.49 ppm (II), 4.64 ppm (III), 5.86 ppm (IV), and 7.33 ppm (pupa). The predatory efficiency of the copepod M. longisetus in the control treatment was 78 and 59% against I and II instar larvae of C. quinquefasciatus. In a nanoparticle-contaminated environment, predation efficiency was 84 and 63%, respectively. Predation was higher against first instar larvae over other instars

  18. Nonstoichiometry and phase stability of Al and Cr substituted Mg ferrite nanoparticles synthesized by citrate method

    Ateia, Ebtesam E.; Mohamed, Amira T., E-mail: atawfik@sci.cu.edu.eg

    2017-03-15

    The spinel ferrite Mg{sub 0.7}Cr{sub 0.3}Fe{sub 2}O{sub 4}, and Mg{sub 0.7}Al{sub 0.3}Fe{sub 2}O{sub 4} were prepared by the citrate technique. All samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy (FESEM), High Resolution Transmission Electron Micrographs (HRTEM), Energy Dispersive X ray Spectroscopy (EDAX) and Atomic Force Microscope (AFM). XRD confirmed the formation of cubic spinel structure of the investigated samples. The average crystallite sizes were found to be between 24.7 and 27.5 nm for Al{sup 3+} and Mg{sup 2+} respectively. The substitution of Cr{sup 3+}/Al{sup 3+} in place of Mg{sup 2+} ion initiates a crystalline anisotropy due to large size mismatch between Cr /Al and Mg{sup 2+}, which creates strain inside the crystal volume. According to VSM results, by adding Al{sup 3+} or Cr{sup 3+} ions at the expense of Mg{sup 2+}, the saturation magnetization increased. The narrow hysteresis loop of the samples indicates that the amount of dissipated energy is small, which is desirable for soft magnetic applications. Magnetic dynamics of the samples were studied by measuring magnetic susceptibility versus temperature at different magnetic fields. The band gap energy, which was calculated from near infrared (NIR) and visible (VIS) reflectance spectra using the Kubelka-Munk function, decreases with increasing the particle size. Furthermore, the band gaps were quite narrow (1.5–1.7 eV), hence the investigated samples could act as visible light driven photo catalysts. To sum up the addition of trivalent Al{sup 3+}, and Cr{sup 3+} ions enhanced the optical, magnetic and structure properties of the samples. Mg{sub 0.7} Cr{sub 0.3}Fe{sub 2}O{sub 4} sample will be a better candidate for the optical applications and will also be a guaranteeing hopeful for technological applications. - Highlights: • Nanoparticles of (Mg{sub 0.7} Al{sub 0.3} Fe{sub 2}O{sub 4}) ferrite are the potential candidates for various

  19. Design and syntheses of MMP inhibitors and photosensitive lipid nanoparticle formulations for drug delivery

    Subramaniam, Rajesh

    Drug administration without any compromise to the quality of life and lifespan is the ideal goal for disease management. The molecular mechanisms of several pathologies have shown that site-specific delivery of target-specific drugs seems to be a promising avenue to achieve this goal. This thesis describes the initial steps that we have taken toward that goal. Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are a family of about 23 isozymes in humans that were actively targeted for treating a multitude of pathologies. Clinical studies carried out on cancer patients have revealed the complexity of the working of this enzyme family and necessitated the development of isozyme-specific MMP inhibitors. Our studies toward the development of isozyme-specific inhibitors have resulted in the development of several inhibitors that seem to be selective toward some MMP isozymes. Our understanding on the molecular mechanism that confers this selectivity is documented in this thesis. Another aspect of discussion in the thesis is the development of photosensitive liposomes for drug delivery that could be triggered to release the drug by irradiation with light of appropriate wavelength. Development of such delivery vehicles, in principle, would confer external spatiotemporal control on drug delivery. This could potentially lead to better disease management by minimizing side effects and enhancing patient compatibility. The thesis discusses our attempts toward the development of photosensitive liposomes. These liposomes incorporated a photosensitive lipid (PSL) that would be cleaved upon irradiation with UV light, causing liposomal destabilization and release of the enclosed drug. The discussion includes: (i) the syntheses of the PSLs, (ii) formulation of the photosensitive liposomes that contained a model drug, (iii) light-mediated release of the drug and (iv) the mechanism of photocleavage of the PSL that leads to content release from liposomes. The thesis concludes with suggestions toward the

  20. Influence of solvents on the changes in structure, purity, and in vitro characteristics of green-synthesized ZnO nanoparticles from Costus igneus

    Nandhini, G.; Suriyaprabha, R.; Maria Sheela Pauline, W.; Rajendran, V.; Aicher, Wilhelm Karl; Awitor, Oscar Komla

    2018-05-01

    The present study is intended to produce high-purity zinc oxide nanoparticles from the leaves of Costus igneus and zinc acetate precursor via sustainable methods by the tribulation with three different solvents (hot water, methanol, and acetone) for the extraction of plant compounds. While examining the physico-chemical characteristics of ZnO nanoparticles incurred by the catalysis of plant bioactive compounds extracted from different solvents, the hot water extract-based green synthesis process yields higher purity (99.89%) and smaller particle size (94 nm) than other solvents. The optimization of the solvents used for the green synthesis of nanoparticles renders key identification in appropriate extraction of bioactive compounds suitable for the nucleation/production of nanoparticles in addition to annealing temperature. The impregnable usage of ZnO nanoparticles in clinical applications is further confirmed based on the treatment of particles (1-10 mg ml-1) against Gram-positive (S. aureus and S. epidermis) and Gram-negative bacteria (E. coli and K. pneumoniae) with respect to their growth inhibition. An in-force growth inhibition against particular S. aureus and S. epidermis imparted by the low concentration of ZnO nanoparticles signifies the utilization and consumption of green-synthesized high-purity nanoparticles for therapeutic and cosmetic applications.

  1. Effects of precursor on the morphology and size of ZrO{sub 2} nanoparticles, synthesized by sol-gel method in non-aqueous medium

    Siddiqui, Mohammed Rafiq Hussain; Al-Wassil, Abdulaziz Ibrahim; Mahfouz, Refaat Mohamad [King Saud University, Riyadh (Saudi Arabia). Department of Chemistry, College of Science; Al-Otaibi, Abdullah Mohmmed [King Abdulaziz City for Science and Technology (Saudi Arabia). The NationalProgram for Advanced Materials and Building Systems

    2012-11-15

    Pure zirconium oxide (ZrO{sub 2}) nanoparticles with diameters 10-25 nm were synthesized from ZrOCl{sub 2}.8H{sub 2}O and Zr(SO{sub 4})2.H{sub 2}O with benzyl alcohol as non-aqueous solvent medium using sol-gel method. Sodium lauryl sulfate was added as surfactants to control the particle size. The synthesized ZrO{sub 2} nanoparticles have a mixture of tetragonal and monoclinic structure. The XRD showed the purity of obtained ZrO{sub 2} nanoparticles with tetragonal and monoclinic phase and the crystallite size for ZrOCl{sub 2}.8H{sub 2}O precursor was estimated to be 18.1 nm and that from Zr(SO{sub 4})2.H{sub 2}O was 9.7 nm. The transmission electron microscopy and scanning electron microscopic studies also shows different sizes of nanoparticles and different morphology depending on the precursor used for the synthesis of ZrO{sub 2} nanoparticles. (author)

  2. Effects of precursor on the morphology and size of ZrO2 nanoparticles, synthesized by sol-gel method in non-aqueous medium

    Mohammed Rafiq Hussain Siddiqui

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Pure zirconium oxide (ZrO2 nanoparticles with diameters 10-25 nm were synthesized from ZrOCl2.8H2O and Zr(SO42.H2O with benzyl alcohol as non-aqueous solvent medium using sol-gel method. Sodium lauryl sulfate was added as surfactants to control the particle size. The synthesized ZrO2 nanoparticles have a mixture of tetragonal and monoclinic structure. The XRD showed the purity of obtained ZrO2 nanoparticles with tetragonal and monoclinic phase and the crystallite size for ZrOCl2.8H2O precursor was estimated to be 18.1 nm and that from Zr(SO42.H2O was 9.7 nm. The transmission electron microscopy and scanning electron microscopic studies also shows different sizes of nanoparticles and different morphology depending on the precursor used for the synthesis of ZrO2 nanoparticles

  3. Characterization and electrocatalytic activity of Pt–M (M=Cu, Ag, and Pd) bimetallic nanoparticles synthesized by pulsed plasma discharge in water

    Kim, Sung-Min; Cho, Ah-Rong; Lee, Sang-Yul, E-mail: sylee@kau.ac.kr [Korea Aerospace University, Department of Materials Engineering, Center for Surface Technology and Applications (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-07-15

    The synthetic approach for electrocatalysts is one of the most important methods of determining electrocatalytic performance. In this work, we synthesized Pt and Pt–M (M=Cu, Ag, and Pd) bimetallic nanoparticles using a pulsed plasma discharge in water. A morphological investigation revealed that the as-synthesized Pt and Pt–M bimetallic nanoparticles constituted a nanochain network structure interconnected with primary nanoparticles of 4–6 nm in size, and the nanochains grew from the primary nanoparticles via the oriented attachment. The Z-contrast, EDX line scanning, and XRD analysis confirmed that the Pt was alloyed with M without elemental segregation or phase segregation. Furthermore, it was found that the composition difference was dependent on the electrode temperature determined by the power density and thermal parameters. The electrochemical results revealed that the electrocatalytic activity, stability, and durability of the Pt–Ag bimetallic nanoparticles were superior with respect to the methanol oxidation reaction, which could be attributed to the downshift of the d-band center via electronic modification.

  4. Zeta potential study of Sb2S3 nanoparticles synthesized by a facile polyol method in various surfactants

    Saxena, Monika; Okram, Gunadhor Singh

    2018-05-01

    In the present work, we report the successful synthesis of stibnite Sb2S3 nanoparticles (NPs) by a facile polyol method using various surfactant. The structural and optical properties were investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman spectroscopy and Zeta potential. Rietveld refinement of XRD data confirms the single phase orthorhombic crystal structure of stibnite Sb2S3. Presence of six obvious Raman modes further confirmed their stoichiometric formation. Effect of different surfactants on the surface charge of Sb2S3 NPs was studied using Zeta potential measurement in deionized water at different pH values. They reveal that these NPs are more stable when it was synthesized in presence of EDTA than that of CTAB or without surfactant samples with high zeta potential. The isoelectronic point was found at pH = 6.4 for pure sample, 3.5 and 7.2 for CTAB and not found for EDTA Sb2S3 samples. This information can be useful for many industrial applications like pharmaceuticals, ceramics, waste water treatment and medicines.

  5. Facile method to synthesize magnetic iron oxides/TiO2 hybrid nanoparticles and their photodegradation application of methylene blue

    Wu Wei

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Many methods have been reported to improving the photocatalytic efficiency of organic pollutant and their reliable applications. In this work, we propose a facile pathway to prepare three different types of magnetic iron oxides/TiO2 hybrid nanoparticles (NPs by seed-mediated method. The hybrid NPs are composed of spindle, hollow, and ultrafine iron oxide NPs as seeds and 3-aminopropyltriethyloxysilane as linker between the magnetic cores and TiO2 layers, respectively. The composite structure and the presence of the iron oxide and titania phase have been confirmed by transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, and X-ray photoelectron spectra. The hybrid NPs show good magnetic response, which can get together under an external applied magnetic field and hence they should become promising magnetic recovery catalysts (MRCs. Photocatalytic ability examination of the magnetic hybrid NPs was carried out in methylene blue (MB solutions illuminated under Hg light in a photochemical reactor. About 50% to 60% of MB was decomposed in 90 min in the presence of magnetic hybrid NPs. The synthesized magnetic hybrid NPs display high photocatalytic efficiency and will find recoverable potential applications in cleaning polluted water with the help of magnetic separation.

  6. Silver nanoparticles reduce brain inflammation and related neurotoxicity through induction of H2S-synthesizing enzymes

    Gonzalez-Carter, Daniel A.; Leo, Bey Fen; Ruenraroengsak, Pakatip; Chen, Shu; Goode, Angela E.; Theodorou, Ioannis G.; Chung, Kian Fan; Carzaniga, Raffaella; Shaffer, Milo S. P.; Dexter, David T.; Ryan, Mary P.; Porter, Alexandra E.

    2017-03-01

    Silver nanoparticles (AgNP) are known to penetrate into the brain and cause neuronal death. However, there is a paucity in studies examining the effect of AgNP on the resident immune cells of the brain, microglia. Given microglia are implicated in neurodegenerative disorders such as Parkinson’s disease (PD), it is important to examine how AgNPs affect microglial inflammation to fully assess AgNP neurotoxicity. In addition, understanding AgNP processing by microglia will allow better prediction of their long term bioreactivity. In the present study, the in vitro uptake and intracellular transformation of citrate-capped AgNPs by microglia, as well as their effects on microglial inflammation and related neurotoxicity were examined. Analytical microscopy demonstrated internalization and dissolution of AgNPs within microglia and formation of non-reactive silver sulphide (Ag2S) on the surface of AgNPs. Furthermore, AgNP-treatment up-regulated microglial expression of the hydrogen sulphide (H2S)-synthesizing enzyme cystathionine-γ-lyase (CSE). In addition, AgNPs showed significant anti-inflammatory effects, reducing lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated ROS, nitric oxide and TNFα production, which translated into reduced microglial toxicity towards dopaminergic neurons. Hence, the present results indicate that intracellular Ag2S formation, resulting from CSE-mediated H2S production in microglia, sequesters Ag+ ions released from AgNPs, significantly limiting their toxicity, concomitantly reducing microglial inflammation and related neurotoxicity.

  7. Green synthesized gold nanoparticles decorated graphene oxide for sensitive determination of chloramphenicol in milk, powdered milk, honey and eye drops.

    Karthik, R; Govindasamy, Mani; Chen, Shen-Ming; Mani, Veerappan; Lou, Bih-Show; Devasenathipathy, Rajkumar; Hou, Yu-Shen; Elangovan, A

    2016-08-01

    A simple and rapid green synthesis using Bischofia javanica Blume leaves as reducing agent was developed for the preparation of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs). AuNPs decorated graphene oxide (AuNPs/GO) was prepared and employed for the sensitive amperometric determination of chloramphenicol. The green biosynthesis requires less than 40s to reduce gold salts to AuNPs. The formations of AuNPs and AuNPs/GO were evaluated by scanning electron and atomic force microscopies, UV-Visible and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopies, X-ray diffraction studies, and electrochemical methods. AuNPs/GO composite film modified electrode was fabricated and shown excellent electrocatalytic ability towards chloramphenicol. Under optimal conditions, the amperometric sensing platform has delivered wide linear range of 1.5-2.95μM, low detection limit of 0.25μM and high sensitivity of 3.81μAμM(-1)cm(-2). The developed sensor exhibited good repeatability and reproducibility, anti-interference ability and long-term storage stability. Practical feasibility of the sensor has been demonstrated in food samples (milk, powdered milk and honey) and pharmaceutical sample (eye drops). The green synthesized AuNPs/GO composite has great potential for analysis of food samples in food safety measures. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Monodispersed spherical shaped selenium nanoparticles (SeNPs) synthesized by Bacillus subtilis and its toxicity evaluation in zebrafish embryos

    Chandramohan, Subburaman; Sundar, Krishnan; Muthukumaran, Azhaguchamy

    2018-02-01

    Selenium is one of the essential elements involved in antioxidative and antiinflammatory effects in human body. By naturally, selenium ions are metabolised and converted into nano selenium. Now a days there is an increasing attention on applications of nanoparticles in therapeutic field. In the present study Bacillus subtilis was used to convert sodium selenite to SeNPs. The synthesized SeNPs were characterized by Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR), X Ray Diffraction (XRD) and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) coupled with Energy Dispersive X ray spectroscopy (EDX). The presence of SeNPs was confirmed by the formation of red colour. The bands were sharp with broad absorption peaks at 3562 cm-1 and 1678-1 cm in FTIR which showed that the bacterial proteins were responsible for the reduction of sodium selenite to SeNPs. The average size of the SeNPs was 334 nm and were spherical in shape with uniform distribution. The XRD data confirmed that SeNPs were of amorphous in nature. The zeta potential of SeNPs was negative in charge which indicated high stability. In the present study zebrafish embryos were used to study the toxicity of SeNPs and the results showed that the concentration beyond 10 μg ml-1 leads to toxic effects in embryos/hatchlings. The lesser concentration of SeNPs can be useful in various biomedical applications.

  9. Antiplasmodial activity of eco-friendly synthesized palladium nanoparticles using Eclipta prostrata extract against Plasmodium berghei in Swiss albino mice.

    Rajakumar, Govindasamy; Rahuman, Abdul Abdul; Chung, Ill-Min; Kirthi, Arivarasan Vishnu; Marimuthu, Sampath; Anbarasan, Karunanithi

    2015-04-01

    Malaria is an infectious disease caused by the Plasmodium parasite that continues to be a health issue for humans. It is one of the most common pathogenic factors of morbidity and mortality. Palladium nanoparticles (Pd NPs) have been used as target antimicrobial compounds, as a catalyst to manufacture pharmaceuticals, degrade harmful environmental pollutants, and as sensors for the detection of various analyses. The aim of this study was to investigate the antiplasmodial activity of synthesized Pd NPs by using leaf aqueous extract of Eclipta prostrata against Plasmodium berghei in Swiss albino mice. The synthesized Pd NPs were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) with Energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), and High-resolution transmission electron microscope (HRTEM) with the Selected area (electron) diffraction (SAED). The XRD peaks appeared at 35.61°, 44.27°, 56.40°, and 74.51°, which correspond to (111), (200), (220), and (311) planes for palladium, respectively. The FTIR spectra that were carried out to identify the potential biomolecule of synthesized Pd NPs showed the peaks at 3361, 1540, 1399, 1257, 1049, and 659 in the region of 4000-500 cm(-1). The SEM images showed aggregation of NPs with an average size of 63 ± 1.4. The HRTEM images of the precipitated solid phase obtained after termination of the reaction of E. prostrata aqueous leaf extract were in the range from 18 to 64 nm with an average size of 27 ± 1.3 nm. The in vivo antiplasmodial assay was carried out as per Peters' 4-day suppressive test, and the synthesized Pd NP-treated mice group showed reduction of parasitemia by 78.13% with an inhibitory concentration (IC)50 value of 16.44 mg/kg/body weight. The growth inhibition of E. prostrata aqueous leaf extract, palladium acetate, and synthesized Pd NPs showed the IC20, IC50, and IC90 values of 1.90, 10.29, and 64.11; 4.49, 9.84, and 23.04; and 4.34, 8

  10. Colloidal gold nanoparticles. Synthesis, characterization and effect in polymer/fullerene solar cells; Kolloidale Goldnanopartikel. Synthese, Charakterisierung und Wirkung in Polymer/Fulleren-Solarzellen

    Topp, Katja

    2011-06-08

    It has been reported in the literature that the efficiency of polymer/fullerene solar cells has been improved by the incorporation of Au nanoparticles. The improvement was attributed to an enhanced electrical conductivity of the active layer and to an enhanced light absorption due to the plasmon resonance of the Au nanoparticles. In this work colloidal Au nanoparticles coated with different stabilizing ligands were synthesized and characterized. Then the impact of their incorporation into P3HT/PCBM solar cells was studied. On the one hand the Au nanoparticles were incorporated into the bulk heterojunction active layer, otherwise they were deposited as an interlayer in the device set-up. No improvement of the solar cell efficiency could be observed neither for the incorporation of Au nanoparticles with isolating ligand shell nor for those with direct contact to the photoactive molecules. The efficiency even dropped, the more the higher the concentration of the Au nanoparticles was. Possible reasons are pointed out on the basis of detailed photophysical and structural investigations.

  11. Superior magnetic properties of Ni ferrite nanoparticles synthesized by capping agent-free one-step coprecipitation route at different pH values

    Iranmanesh, P.; Tabatabai Yazdi, Sh.; Mehran, M.; Saeednia, S.

    2018-03-01

    In this work, well-dispersed nanoparticles of NiFe2O4 with diameters less than 10 nm and good crystallinity and excellent magnetic properties were synthesized via a simple one-step capping agent-free coprecipitation route from metal chlorides. The ammonia was used as the precipitating agent and also the solution basicity controller. The effect of pH value during the coprecipitation process was investigated by details through microstructural, optical and magnetic characterizations of the synthesized particles using X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared and UV-vis spectroscopy, and vibrating sample magnetometer. The results showed that the particle size, departure from the inverse spinel structure, the band gap value and the magnetization of Ni ferrite samples increase with pH value from 9 to 11 indicating the more pronounced surface effects in the smaller nanoparticles.

  12. Magnetic properties and magnetization reversal mechanism of Nd-Fe-B nanoparticles synthesized by a sol-gel method

    Rahimi, Hamed; Ghasemi, Ali; Mozaffarinia, Reza; Tavoosi, Majid

    2017-12-01

    Nd-Fe-B oxide powders with various pH were prepared using chloride and nitrate precursors including NdCl3·6H2O, FeCl3·6H2O, H3BO3, Nd2O3, Fe(NO3)3·9H2O, HNO3, citric acid (CA), ethylene glycol (EG) by Pechini type sol-gel method. The pH of chloride and nitrate base sols were 0 and 2.2, respectively. Mixed oxide powders were obtained by calcination and annealing the gels. These oxides by using a reduction-diffusion process under high vacuum and employing CaH2 as reducing agent at 800 °C were hated to prepare Nd2Fe14B nanoparticles. The role of pH on phase, morphologies, microstructure, and magnetic properties of the powders were investigated. The results show that with a decrease in pH, the average particle size and coercivity of Nd-Fe-B oxide powders were decreased and increased, respectively. Nd2Fe14B nanoparticles were formed successfully after reduction process. The average particle size of reduction treated products were 30 and 65 nm for powders which made of chloride and nitrate base metal salts, respectively. Final powders which made of chloride and nitrate base metal salts had a saturation magnetization of 127.7 emu/g and 122.8 emu/g while the coercivity of samples were 3.32 kOe and 1.82 kOe, respectively. The experimental results in the angular dependence of coercivity indicated that the normalized coercivity of the permanent magnets Hc(θ)/Hc(0) obeys the 1/cosθ law and intermediate between the 1/cosθ law and Stoner-Wohlfarth formula for different Nd2Fe14B magnets which made of nitrate and chloride base metal salts, respectively. Also, the results show that different Nd2Fe14B magnets which made of nitrate and chloride base metal salts had the maximum energy product of 5 and 16 MGOe, respectively. The Henkel plot showed that magnetic phases in synthesized NdFeB magnets which made of chloride and nitrate base metal salts were coupled by exchange and dipolar interactions, respectively. Different average particle size, morphology and microstructure were

  13. Characterization of phytoconstituents and evaluation of antimicrobial activity of silver-extract nanoparticles synthesized from Momordica charantia fruit extract.

    Rashid, Md Mamun Or; Akhter, Kazi Nahid; Chowdhury, Jakir Ahmed; Hossen, Foysal; Hussain, Md Saddam; Hossain, Md Tanvir

    2017-06-26

    Our present study was conducted to characterize the phytoconstituents present in the aqueous extract of Momordica charantia and evaluate the antimicrobial efficacy of silver-extract nanoparticles (Ag-Extract-NPs). Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) were prepared by reducing AgNO 3; and NaBH 4 served as reducing agent. After screening of phytochemicals; AgNPs and aqueous extract were mixed thoroughly and then coated by polyaniline. These NPs were characterized by using Visual inspection, UV spectroscopy, FTIR, SEM and TEM techniques. Antimicrobial activities were assessed against Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella typhi, Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Aqueous extract of M. charantia fruits contain alkaloid, phenol, saponin etc. UV-Vis spectrum showed strong absorption peak around 408 nm. The presence of -CH, -NH, -COOH etc. stretching in FTIR spectrum of Ag-Extract-NPs endorsed that AgNPs were successfully capped by bio-compounds. SEM and TEM result revealed that synthesized NPs had particle size 78.5-220 nm. Ag-Extract-NPs showed 34.6 ± 0.8 mm zone of inhibition against E. coli compared to 25.6 ± 0.5 mm for ciprofloxacin. Maximum zone of inhibition for Ag-Extract-NPs were 24.8 ± 0.7 mm, 26.4 ± 0.4 mm, 7.4 ± 0.4 mm for S. aureus, P. aeruginosa and S. typhi. We found that Ag-Extract-NPs have much better antibacterial efficacy than AgNPs and M. charantia extract has individually. It is also noticed that gram negative bacteria (except S. typhi) are more susceptible to Ag-Extract-NPs than gram positive bacteria. Ag-Extract-NPs showed strong antibacterial activity. In order to make a reliable stand for mankind, further study is needed to consider determining the actual biochemical pathway by which AgNPs-extracts exert their antimicrobial effect.

  14. Study of phase development and thermal stability in as synthesized TiO2 nanoparticles by laser pyrolysis: ethylene uptake and oxygen enrichment

    Ilie, Alina Georgiana; Scarisoreanu, Monica; Dutu, Elena; Dumitrache, Florian; Banici, Ana-Maria; Fleaca, Claudiu Teodor; Vasile, Eugenia; Mihailescu, Ion

    2018-01-01

    Laser pyrolysis has proven a viable and trustworthy method of TiO2 nanoparticles fabrication, ensuring good quality and wide variety of nanoparticle morphologies and sizes. This work is aimed to phase control, experimentally studied, by parameter modulation, during one step laser pyrolysis synthesis or in combination with thermal annealing. High phase purity anatase and rutile TiO2 nanoparticles, oxygen abundant, are synthesized from TiCl4 and C2H4 gas mixtures, in the presence of air as oxygen donor, under CO2 laser radiation. The nano-titania samples are analyzed by X-ray Diffraction, EDAX, TEM and Raman spectroscopy and reveal good phase stability and distinct morphology. This study extends the method applicability onto rutile majoritarian TiO2 synthesis and generation of thermally stable anatase titania, a well-known catalyst.

  15. Effect of pH variation on the stability and structural properties of In(OH){sub 3} nanoparticles synthesized by co-precipitation method

    Goh, Kian Wei; Wong, Yew Hoong [University of Malaya, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); Johan, Mohd Rafie [University of Malaya, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); University of Malaya, Nanotechnology and Catalysis Research Centre, Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia)

    2016-10-15

    Indium hydroxide (In(OH){sub 3}) nanoparticles were synthesized at various pH values (8-11) by co-precipitation method. Its properties were characterized by X-ray diffractometer, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy and transmission electron microscope. The electrostatic stability of nanoparticles is carried out through zeta potential measurement. The crystallite size of nanoparticles calculated by Scherrer equation has similar trend with the values obtained from William-Hall plot. TEM images show that the particles size is within the range of 11.76-20.76 nm. The maximum zeta potential is 3.68 mV associated with the smallest particle size distribution of 92.6 nm occurred at pH 10. Our work clearly confirms the crystallite size, stability and the morphology of In(OH){sub 3} NPs are strongly depending on the pH of precursor solution. (orig.)

  16. Effect of Synthesis Parameters on the Structure and Magnetic Properties of Magnetic Manganese Ferrite/Silver Composite Nanoparticles Synthesized by Wet Chemistry Method

    Huy, L.T.; Tam, L.T.; Phan, V.N.

    2016-01-01

    In the present work, magnetic manganese ferrite/silver (MnFe2O4-Ag) composite nanoparticles were synthesized by wet chemistry method. This synthesis process consists of two steps: first, the seed of manganese ferrite nanoparticles (MnFe2O4 NPs) was prepared by a coprecipitationmethod; second......, growth of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) on the MnFe2O4 seed by modified photochemical reaction. We have conducted systematically the effects of synthesis parameters such as pH value, synthesis time, precursor salts concentration, mass ratio and stabilizing agents on the structure and magnetic properties......-prepared MnFe2O4-Ag magnetic nanocomposites display excellent properties of high crystallinity, long-term aggregation stability in aqueous medium, large saturation magnetization in the range of 15-20 emu/g, and small sizes of Ag-NPs similar to 20 nm. These exhibited properties made the MnFe2O4-Ag...

  17. Effect of zinc concentration on the structural and magnetic properties of mixed Co–Zn ferrites nanoparticles synthesized by sol/gel method

    Ben Ali, M., E-mail: m.benali06@gmail.com [MAScIR Foundation, Institute of Nanomaterials and Nanotechnologies, Materials & Nanomaterials Center, B.P., 10100 Rabat (Morocco); Laboratory of Magnetism and the Physics of the high Energies, URAC 12, Department of Physics, B.P. 1014, Faculty of Science, Mohammed V University, Rabat (Morocco); El Maalam, K. [MAScIR Foundation, Institute of Nanomaterials and Nanotechnologies, Materials & Nanomaterials Center, B.P., 10100 Rabat (Morocco); Laboratory of Magnetism and the Physics of the high Energies, URAC 12, Department of Physics, B.P. 1014, Faculty of Science, Mohammed V University, Rabat (Morocco); El Moussaoui, H.; Mounkachi, O. [MAScIR Foundation, Institute of Nanomaterials and Nanotechnologies, Materials & Nanomaterials Center, B.P., 10100 Rabat (Morocco); Hamedoun, M., E-mail: m.hamedoun@mascir.com [MAScIR Foundation, Institute of Nanomaterials and Nanotechnologies, Materials & Nanomaterials Center, B.P., 10100 Rabat (Morocco); Masrour, R. [Laboratory of Materials, Processes, Environment and Quality, Cady Ayyed University, National School of Applied Sciences, PB 63 46000, Safi (Morocco); Hlil, E.K. [Institut Néel, CNRS-UJF, B.P. 166, 38042 Grenoble Cedex (France); Benyoussef, A. [MAScIR Foundation, Institute of Nanomaterials and Nanotechnologies, Materials & Nanomaterials Center, B.P., 10100 Rabat (Morocco); Laboratory of Magnetism and the Physics of the high Energies, URAC 12, Department of Physics, B.P. 1014, Faculty of Science, Mohammed V University, Rabat (Morocco)

    2016-01-15

    Synthesization of zinc-substituted cobalt ferrites nano-particles Co{sub 1−x}Zn{sub x}Fe{sub 2}O{sub 4} (x=0.0–0.3) has been achieved by the sol/gel method. The characterization of the synthesized nano-particles has been done by X-ray diffractometry (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FITR). The relation between the composition and magnetic properties has been investigated by Magnetic Properties Measurement System (MPMS). The results revealed that the nanoparticles size is in the range of 11–28 nm. It was found that the zinc substitution in cobalt ferrite increases saturation magnetization from 60.92 emu/g (x=0) to 74.67 emu/g (x=0.3). Nevertheless, zinc concentrations cause a significant decrease in coercivity.▪ - Highlights: • The nanocrystals size of synthesized of Co{sub 1−x}Zn{sub x}Fe{sub 2}O{sub 4} is of 11–28 nm. • The zinc substitution in cobalt ferrite increase saturation magnetization. • The increase of zinc concentration causes a significant decrease in coercivity.

  18. Study of de-aggregation of mechanochemically synthesized ZnSe nanoparticles by re-milling in the presence of ZnCl2 solution

    Marcela Achimovičová

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Conventional mechanochemical synthesis of zinc selenide, ZnSe nanoparticles was performed in a planetary ball mill by high-energy milling of zinc (Zn and selenium (Se powders. Mechanochemically synthesized ZnSe was subsequently re-milled in circulation mill in ZnCl2 solution in order to study de-aggregation, physical-chemical and optical properties of ZnSe nanoparticles. The mechanochemically synthesized and re-milled samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD that confirmed the presence of cubic and hexagonal ZnSe phases. Size of crystallites calculated from XRD patterns has decreased from 50 to 19 nm for cubic ZnSe phase and from 145 to 2.5 nm for hexagonal ZnSe phase after re-milling for 110 min in ZnCl2 solution. Size, phase composition, morphology, and crystallinity of ZnSe nanoparticles were studied by transmission electron microscopy (TEM and selected area electron diffraction (SAED. UV-Vis optical spectroscopy has provided an evidence of blue shift of the re-milled nanocrystalline ZnSe particles from the direct band gap of 2.67 eV characteristic of bulk ZnSe crystals. Colloidal stability of ZnSe nanoparticles dispersions was studied by ? �potential measurements.

  19. A novel hydrothermal approach for synthesizing α-Fe2O3, γ-Fe2O3 and Fe3O4 mesoporous magnetic nanoparticles

    Jayanthi, S. Amala; Nathan, D. Muthu Gnana Theresa; Jayashainy, J.; Sagayaraj, P.

    2015-01-01

    A novel method to synthesize the three phases of iron oxide nanoparticles (hematite, maghemite and magnetite) using the same non-toxic inorganic precursors via a water–organic interface under the low temperature hydrothermal conditions is reported. The synthesized particles are characterized by Powder X-ray Diffraction (XRD), Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy (FESEM) and Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM). The Brunauer–Emmett–Teller (BET) results reveal the mesoporous nature of the particles. The magnetic properties of the nanoparticles are studied by Vibrating Sample Magnetometer (VSM) at various low temperatures and also at room temperature. The XRD peaks corresponding to each sample clearly depict the presence of the respective phase of the as-prepared magnetic nanoparticles. The nanoparticles of maghemite and magnetite have saturation magnetization of 58.56 and 40.30 emu/g respectively at room temperature, whereas the particles of hematite possess very low saturation magnetization value of 1.89 emu/g. Further, the magnetization is studied at four different temperatures and the zero field cooled (ZFC) and field cooled (FC) magnetization are reported. - Graphical abstract: Display Omitted - Highlights: • Hematite, maghemite and magnetite are obtained under hydrothermal synthesis. • α-Fe 2 O 3 , γ-Fe 2 O 3 and Fe 3 O 4 prepared are mesoporous and nearly monodisperse. • Near superparamagnetism is observed at room temperature for maghemite and magnetite

  20. Lithium-ions diffusion kinetic in LiFePO4/carbon nanoparticles synthesized by microwave plasma chemical vapor deposition for lithium-ion batteries

    Gao, Chao; Zhou, Jian; Liu, Guizhen; Wang, Lin

    2018-03-01

    Olivine structure LiFePO4/carbon nanoparticles are synthesized successfully using a microwave plasma chemical vapor deposition (MPCVD) method. Microwave is an effective method to synthesize nanomaterials, the LiFePO4/carbon nanoparticles with high crystallinity can shorten diffusion routes for ionic transfer and electron tunneling. Meanwhile, a high quality, complete and homogenous carbon layer with appropriate thickness coating on the surface of LiFePO4 particles during in situ chemical vapor deposition process, which can ensure that electrons are able to transfer fast enough from all sides. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) is carried out to collect information about the kinetic behavior of lithium diffusion in LiFePO4/carbon nanoparticles during the charging and discharging processes. The chemical diffusion coefficients of lithium ions, DLi, are calculated in the range of 10-15-10-9 cm2s-1. Nanoscale LiFePO4/carbon particles show the longer regions of the faster solid-solution diffusion, and corresponding to the narrower region of the slower two-phase diffusion during the insertion/exaction of lithium ions. The CV and galvanostatic charge-discharge measurements show that the LiFePO4/carbon nanoparticles perform an excellent electrochemical performance, especially the high rate capacity and cycle life.

  1. Comparison of biological activities of selenium and silver nanoparticles attached with bioactive phytoconstituents: green synthesized using Spermacoce hispida extract

    Vennila, Krishnan; Chitra, Loganathan; Balagurunathan, Rama; Palvannan, Thayumanavan

    2018-03-01

    Selenium and silver nanoparticles (NPs) were synthesized using Spermacoce hispida aqueous leaf extract (Sh-ALE). The optimum condition required for the synthesis of Sh-SeNPs was found to be 30 mM selenious acid solution to Sh-ALE at the ratio of 4:46, pH 9, incubated at 40 °C for 10 min. On the other hand, for Sh-AgNPs the optimum condition was found to be 1 mM AgNO3 to the Sh-ALE solution at the ratio of 4:46, pH 8, incubated at 40 °C for 10 min. SEM analysis revealed that both the Sh-AgNPs and Sh-SeNPs are predominantly rod-shaped. Sh-SeNPs and Sh-AgNPs were found to possess concentration-dependent antioxidant activity. However, Sh-SeNPs showed potent anti-inflammatory property, antibacterial property and anticancer activity against human cervical cancer cell in comparison to Sh-AgNPs. Phytochemical analysis, FTIR and GC-MS analysis showed that various flavonoids, saponins and phenolic compounds present in Sh-ALE catalysed the formation of NPs. Also, GC-MS analysis revealed that Sh-SeNPs are capped by synaptogenin B and derivatives of apigenin, quinoline and quinazoline. The advantage of attachment of such phytoconstituents on Sh-SeNPs for its potent biological activity in comparison to Sh-AgNPs is evident in in vitro conditions.

  2. Proximity hybridization-regulated catalytic DNA hairpin assembly for electrochemical immunoassay based on in situ DNA template-synthesized Pd nanoparticles

    Zhou, Fuyi [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Jiangsu Normal University, Xuzhou 221116 (China); Jiangsu Key Laboratory of New Drug Research and Clinical Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutical Analysis, School of Pharmacy, Xuzhou Medical College, 221004, Xuzhou (China); Yao, Yao; Luo, Jianjun; Zhang, Xing; Zhang, Yu; Yin, Dengyang [Jiangsu Key Laboratory of New Drug Research and Clinical Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutical Analysis, School of Pharmacy, Xuzhou Medical College, 221004, Xuzhou (China); Gao, Fenglei, E-mail: jsxzgfl@sina.com [Jiangsu Key Laboratory of New Drug Research and Clinical Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutical Analysis, School of Pharmacy, Xuzhou Medical College, 221004, Xuzhou (China); Wang, Po, E-mail: wangpo@jsnu.edu.cn [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Jiangsu Normal University, Xuzhou 221116 (China)

    2017-05-29

    Novel hybridization proximity-regulated catalytic DNA hairpin assembly strategy has been proposed for electrochemical immunoassay based on in situ DNA template-synthesized Pd nanoparticles as signal label. The DNA template-synthesized Pd nanoparticles were characterized with atomic force microscopic and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The highly efficient electrocatalysis by DNA template synthesized Pd nanoparticles for NaBH{sub 4} oxidation produced an intense detection signal. The label-free electrochemical method achieved the detection of carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) with a linear range from 10{sup −15} to 10{sup −11} g mL{sup −1} and a detection limit of 0.43 × 10{sup −15} g mL{sup −1}. Through introducing a supersandwich reaction to increase the DNA length, the electrochemical signal was further amplified, leading to a detection limit of 0.52 × 10{sup −16} g mL{sup −1}. And it rendered satisfactory analytical performance for the determination of CEA in serum samples. Furthermore, it exhibited good reproducibility and stability; meanwhile, it also showed excellent specificity due to the specific recognition of antigen by antibody. Therefore, the DNA template synthesized Pd nanoparticles based signal amplification approach has great potential in clinical applications and is also suitable for quantification of biomarkers at ultralow level. - Graphical abstract: A novel label-free and enzyme-free electrochemical immunoassay based on proximity hybridization-regulated catalytic DNA hairpin assemblies for recycling of the CEA. - Highlights: • A novel enzyme-free electrochemical immunosensor was developed for detection of CEA. • The signal amplification was based on catalytic DNA hairpin assembly and DNA-template-synthesized Pd nanoparticles. • The biosensor could detect CEA down to 0.52 × 10{sup −16} g mL{sup −1} level with a dynamic range spanning 5 orders of magnitude.

  3. Influence of aging time of oleate precursor on the magnetic relaxation of cobalt ferrite nanoparticles synthesized by the thermal decomposition method

    Herrera, Adriana P.; Polo-Corrales, Liliana; Chavez, Ermides; Cabarcas-Bolivar, Jari; Uwakweh, Oswald N.C.; Rinaldi, Carlos

    2013-01-01

    Cobalt ferrite nanoparticles are of interest because of their room temperature coercivity and high magnetic anisotropy constant, which make them attractive in applications such as sensors based on the Brownian relaxation mechanism and probes to determine the mechanical properties of complex fluids at the nanoscale. These nanoparticles can be synthesized with a narrow size distribution by the thermal decomposition of an iron–cobalt oleate precursor in a high boiling point solvent. We studied the influence of aging time of the iron–cobalt oleate precursor on the structure, chemical composition, size, and magnetic relaxation of cobalt ferrite nanoparticles synthesized by the thermal decomposition method. The structure and thermal behavior of the iron–cobalt oleate was studied during the aging process. Infrared spectra indicated a shift in the coordination state of the oleate and iron/cobalt ions from bidentate to bridging coordination. Aging seemed to influence the thermal decomposition of the iron–cobalt oleate as determined from thermogravimmetric analysis and differential scanning calorimetry, where shifts in the temperatures corresponding to decomposition events and a narrowing of the endotherms associated with these events were observed. Aging promoted formation of the spinel crystal structure, as determined from X-ray diffraction, and influenced the nanoparticle magnetic properties, resulting in an increase in blocking temperature and magnetocrystalline anisotropy. Mossbauer spectra also indicated changes in the magnetic properties resulting from aging of the precursor oleate. Although all samples exhibited some degree of Brownian relaxation, as determined from complex susceptibility measurements in a liquid medium, aging of the iron–cobalt oleate precursor resulted in crossing of the in-phase χ′and out-of-phase χ″ components of the complex susceptibility at the frequency of the Brownian magnetic relaxation peak, as expected for nanoparticles

  4. Experimental study on thermal conductivity of solution combustion synthesized MgO nanoparticles dispersed in water and ethylene glycol (50:50) binary mixture

    Suseel Jai Krishnan, S.; P. K., Nagarajan

    2017-05-01

    In this present investigation, experiments were conducted on the magnesia nanoparticles (8-18 nm) synthesized by the solution combustion method, which was dispersed in the binary mixture of water-ethylene glycol (50:50) to prepare stable MgO-water-ethylene glycol (50:50) nanofluids through continuous 26h ultrasonication. The effect of nanoparticle concentration (0 to 0.2 vol%) and temperature (25°C to 60°C) on the thermal conductivity of the nanofluids was investigated. The results clearly indicate that an increase in the nanoparticle concentration increases the thermal conductivity of the nanofluid. Similarly the thermal conductivity of the nanofluid increases with increase in temperature. The enhanced thermal conductivity in the nanofluids may be due to either or both, the Brownian movement and the nano-interfacial layering. The maximum enhancement of 16% was obtained at 0.2 vol% nanoparticle concentration and at 60°C. An accurate correlation, modeling the thermal conductivity as a function of nanoparticle concentration and temperature was also proposed based on the experimental data.

  5. Size effect on L10 ordering and magnetic properties of chemically synthesized FePt and FePtAu nanoparticles

    Jia, Zhiyong; Kang, Shishou; Shi, Shifan; Nikles, David E.; Harrell, J. W.

    2005-05-01

    There is growing evidence that FePt nanoparticles become increasingly difficult to chemically order as the size approaches a few nanometers. We have studied the chemical ordering of FePt and FePtAu nanoparticle arrays as a function of particle size. Monodisperse Fe49Pt51 and Fe48Pt44Au8 nanoparticles with a size about 6nm were synthesized by the simultaneous decomposition of iron pentacarbonyl and reduction of platinum acetylacetonate and gold (III) acetate in a mixture of phenyl ether and hexadecylamine (HDA), with 1-adamantanecarboxylic acid and HDA as stabilizers. The nanoparticles were dispersed in toluene, films of the particles were cast onto silicon wafers from the dispersion, and the films were annealed in a tube furnace with flowing Ar +5%H2. The magnetic anisotropy and switching volumes were determined from time- and temperature-dependent coercivity measurements. By comparing with 3-nm FePt and FePtAu nanoparticles of comparable composition, the phase transformation is easier for the larger particles. Under the same annealing conditions, the larger particles have higher anisotropy and order parameter. Additive Au is very effective in enhancing the chemical ordering in both small and large particles, with x-ray diffraction superlattice peaks appearing after annealing at 350°C. Dynamic remnant coercivity measurements and magnetic switching volumes suggest particle aggregation at the higher annealing temperatures in both small and large particles.

  6. Gold nanoparticles synthesized by Geobacillus sp. strain ID17 a thermophilic bacterium isolated from Deception Island, Antarctica

    2013-01-01

    Background The use of microorganisms in the synthesis of nanoparticles emerges as an eco-friendly and exciting approach, for production of nanoparticles due to its low energy requirement, environmental compatibility, reduced costs of manufacture, scalability, and nanoparticle stabilization compared with the chemical synthesis. Results The production of gold nanoparticles by the thermophilic bacterium Geobacillus sp. strain ID17 is reported in this study. Cells exposed to Au3+ turned from colourless into an intense purple colour. This change of colour indicates the accumulation of intracellular gold nanoparticles. Elemental analysis of particles composition was verified using TEM and EDX analysis. The intracellular localization and particles size were verified by TEM showing two different types of particles of predominant quasi-hexagonal shape with size ranging from 5–50 nm. The mayority of them were between 10‒20 nm in size. FT-IR was utilized to characterize the chemical surface of gold nanoparticles. This assay supports the idea of a protein type of compound on the surface of biosynthesized gold nanoparticles. Reductase activity involved in the synthesis of gold nanoparticles has been previously reported to be present in others microorganisms. This reduction using NADH as substrate was tested in ID17. Crude extracts of the microorganism could catalyze the NADH-dependent Au3+ reduction. Conclusions Our results strongly suggest that the biosynthesis of gold nanoparticles by ID17 is mediated by enzymes and NADH as a cofactor for this biological transformation. PMID:23919572

  7. Study of structural phase transformation and hysteresis behavior of inverse-spinel α-ferrite nanoparticles synthesized by co-precipitation method

    Dabagh, Shadab; Chaudhary, Kashif; Haider, Zuhaib; Ali, Jalil

    2018-03-01

    Substitution of cobalt (Co2+) ions in cobalt ferrite (CoFe2O4) with copper (Cu2+) and aluminum (Al3+) ions allows variations in their electric and magnetic properties which can be optimized for specific applications. In this article, synthesis of inverse-spinel Co1-xCuxFe2-xAlxO4 (0.0 ≤ x ≤ 0.8) nanoparticles by substituting Cu2+ and Al3+ ions in CoFe2O4 via co-precipitation method is reported. By controlling copper and aluminum (Cu-Al) substituent ratio, the magnetic moment and coercivity of synthesized cobalt ferrite nanoparticles is optimized. The role of substituents on the structure, particle size, morphology, and magnetic properties of nano-crystalline ferrite is investigated. The Co1-xCuxFe2-xAlxO4 (0.0 ≤ x≤ 0.8) nanoparticles with crystallite size in the range of 23.1-26.5 nm are observed, 26.5 nm for x = 0.0-23.1 nm for x = 0.8. The inverse-spinel structure of synthesized Co1-xCuxFe2-xAlxO4 (0.0 ≤ x ≤ 0.8) nano-particles is confirmed by characteristic vibrational bands at tetrahedral and octahedral sites using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. A decreases in coercive field and magnetic moment is observed as Cu-Al contents are increased (x = 0.0-0.8). The positive anisotropy of synthesized particles Co1-xCuxFe2-xAlxO4 (0.0 ≤ x ≤ 0.8) is obtained in the range 1.96 × 105 J/m3 for x = 0.0 to 0.29 × 105 J/m3 for x = 0.8.

  8. Characterizations of diverse mole of pure and Ni-doped α-Fe2O3 synthesized nanoparticles through chemical precipitation route.

    Sivakumar, S; Anusuya, D; Khatiwada, Chandra Prasad; Sivasubramanian, J; Venkatesan, A; Soundhirarajan, P

    2014-07-15

    In the present study, an attempt has been made for characterization and synthesis of pure and Ni-doped α-Fe2O3 (hematite) nanoparticles by chemical precipitation method. The synthesized products have been studied by X-ray diffraction (X-RD), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, UV-Vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (UV-Vis DRS), vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) techniques. The estimated average diameter of α-Fe2O3 nanoparticles were calculated by using the Debye-Scherrer equation and established as 31 nm. SEM micrographs showed the surface morphology as well as structures and particles distributions of synthesized samples. The UV-Vis DRS showed the indirect and direct band gap energies of pure and Ni-doped α-Fe2O3, these were reduced from 1.9847 to 1.52 eV and 2.0503 to 1.76 eV respectively. This result suggested the dopant enhanced the semiconducting behavior of iron oxide nanoparticles to an extent proportional to its nickel doped in the α-Fe2O3. Further, the magnetic properties of the pure and doped samples were investigated by vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM) and evaluated the information of pure and doped samples exhibited saturated hysteresis loop at room temperature, which is indicating that the weak ferromagnetism in nature of our synthesized samples. In addition, it has been found from the magnetization hysteresis curves of Ni-doping, resulting from increased the saturation of magnetization and reduced the coercivity of used samples. Therefore, the present study showed the reduction in band gap energies and coercive field for α-Fe2O3 nanoparticles due to nickel doped. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Mosquito larvicidal properties of silver nanoparticles synthesized using Heliotropium indicum (Boraginaceae) against Aedes aegypti, Anopheles stephensi, and Culex quinquefasciatus (Diptera: Culicidae).

    Veerakumar, Kaliyan; Govindarajan, Marimuthu; Rajeswary, Mohan; Muthukumaran, Udaiyan

    2014-06-01

    Mosquitoes transmit dreadful diseases to human beings wherein biological control of these vectors using plant-derived molecules would be an alternative to reduce mosquito population. In the present study activity of aqueous leaf extract and silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) synthesized using Helitropium indicum plant leaves against late third instar larvae of Aedes aegypti, Anopheles stephensi and Culex quinquefasciatus. The range of varying concentrations of synthesized AgNPs (8, 16, 24, 32, and 40 μg/mL) and aqueous leaf extract (30, 60, 90, 120, and 150 μg/mL) were tested against the larvae of Anopheles stephensi, Aedes aegypti, and Culex quinquefasciatus. The synthesized AgNPs from H. indicum were highly toxic than crude leaf aqueous extract in three important vector mosquito species. The results were recorded from UV-Vis spectrum, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy analysis, transmission electron microscopy, and histogram. The synthesized AgNPs showed larvicidal effects after 24 h of exposure. Considerable mortality was evident after the treatment of H. indicum for all three important vector mosquitoes. The LC50 and LC90 values of H. indicum aqueous leaf extract appeared to be effective against A. stephensi (LC50, 68.73 μg/mL; LC90, 121.07 μg/mL) followed by A. aegypti (LC50, 72.72 μg/mL; LC90, 126.86 μg/mL) and C. quinquefasciatus (LC50, 78.74 μg/mL; LC90, 134.39 μg/mL). Synthesized AgNPs against the vector mosquitoes of A. stephensi, A. aegypti, and C. quinquefasciatus had the following LC50 and LC90 values: A. stephensi had LC50 and LC90 values of 18.40 and 32.45 μg/mL, A. aegypti had LC50 and LC90 values of 20.10 and 35.97 μg/mL, and C. quinquefasciatus had LC50 and LC90 values of 21.84 and 38.10 μg/mL. No mortality was observed in the control. These results suggest that the leaf aqueous extracts of H. indicum and green synthesis of silver nanoparticles have the

  10. In-Situ Synchrotron Radiation Study of Formation and Growth of Crystalline CexZr1-xO2 Nanoparticles Synthesized in Supercritical Water

    Tyrsted, Christoffer; Becker-Christensen, Jacob; Hald, Peter

    2010-01-01

    -zirconia system, the growth of ceria and zirconia nanoparticles is fundamentally different under supercritical water conditions. For comparison, ex situ synthesis has also been performed using an in-house supercritical flow reactor. The resulting samples were analyzed using PXRD, small-angle X-ray scattering......In situ synchrotron powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD) measurements have been conducted to follow the nucleation and growth of crystalline CexZr1-xO2 nanoparticles synthesized in supercritical water with a full substitution variation (x = 0, 0.2, 0.5, 0.8, and 1.0). Direction-dependent growth curves...... are determined and described using reaction kinetic models. A distinct change in growth kinetics is observed with increasing cerium content. For x = 0.8 and 1.0 (high cerium content), the growth is initially limited by the surface reaction kinetics; however, at a size of ∼6 nm, the growth changes and becomes...

  11. Microstructural and optical properties of Co doped NiO nanoparticles synthesized by auto combustion using NaOH as fuel

    Parveen, Azra; Agrawal, Shraddha; Azam, Ameer

    2018-05-01

    The nanoparticles of 5% Co doped NiO were synthesized by auto-combustion method in aqueous medium using NaOH as a fuel. The obtained particles were characterized using X-ray diffraction studies XRD. The results of structural characterization shows the formation of Co doped Nickel oxide nanoparticles in single phase without any impurity. The optical absorption spectra of Co doped NiO sample recorded by UV-VIS spectrophotometer in the range of 200 to 800 nm have been presented. The variation of dielectric constant and dielectric loss has been studied as function of frequency. Co doping affects the optical properties and band gap. NiO can potentially be used in optical, electronic, catalytic materials, antimicrobial agent and super-paramagnetic devices.

  12. Investigation of structure and magnetic properties of cobalt-nickel and manganese ferrites nanoparticles synthesized in direct micelles of sodium dodecyl sulphate system

    Fedosyuk, V.M.; Mirgorod, Yu.A.

    2016-01-01

    Results of investigation of the crystal structure and magnetic properties of the nanoparticles of transition metals ferrites (cobalt, nickel, manganese) synthesized by unified methods using direct sodium dodecyl sulfate micelles are presented. Crystal structure of the samples was investigated by X-ray diffraction on DRON-3M (in the CuKa-radiation). Particle size was investigated by transmission electron microscopy on microscope JEOL JEM-1011 (accelerating voltage 100 kV). All powders contain nanoparticles of the same size in the range 2-6 nm. Magnetic properties of the samples were estimated from temperature and field dependences of the magnetization. All samples exhibit properties of superparamagnets with different blocking temperatures below 45 K. (authors).

  13. Structural and optical studies of Mg doped nanoparticles of chromium oxide (Cr2O3) synthesized by co-precipitation method

    Singh, Jarnail; Verma, Vikram; Kumar, Ravi

    2018-04-01

    We present here the synthesization, structural and optical studies of Mg doped nanoparticles of Chromium oxide (Cr2O3) prepared using co-precipitation method. These samples were characterized using powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), Field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), Raman spectroscopy and UV-Vis spectroscopy techniques. We have demonstrated that there is negligible change in optical band gap with the Mg doping. The prepared Cr2O3 nanoparticles are spherical in shape, but they are transformed into platelets when doped with Mg. The XRD studies reveal that the Mg doping in Cr2O3 doesn't affect the structure of Chromium oxide (Cr2O3).

  14. Selenium nanoparticles synthesized in aqueous extract of Allium sativum perturbs the structural integrity of Calf thymus DNA through intercalation and groove binding

    Ezhuthupurakkal, Preedia Babu; Polaki, Lokeswara Rao; Suyavaran, Arumugam; Subastri, Ariraman; Sujatha, Venugopal; Thirunavukkarasu, Chinnasamy

    2017-01-01

    Biomedical application of selenium nanoparticles (SeNPs) demands the eco-friendly composite for synthesis of SeNPs. The present study reports an aqueous extract of Allium sativum (AqEAS) plug-up the current need. Modern spectroscopic, microscopic and gravimetric techniques were employed to characterize the synthesized nanoparticles. Characterization studies revealed the formation of crystalline spherical shaped SeNPs. FTIR spectrum brings out the presence of different functional groups in AqEAS, which influence the SeNPs formation and stabilization. Furthermore the different aspects of the interaction between SeNPs and CT-DNA were scrutinized by various spectroscopic and cyclic voltametric studies. The results reveals the intercalation and groove binding mode of interaction of SeNPs with stacked base pair of CT-DNA. The Stern–Volmer quenching constant (K SV ) were found to be 7.02 × 10 6 Mˉ 1 (ethidium bromide), 4.22 × 10 6 Mˉ 1 (acridine orange) and 7.6 × 10 6 Mˉ 1 (Hoechst) indicating strong binding of SeNPs with CT–DNA. The SeNPs - CT-DNA interactions were directly visualized by atomic force microscopy. The present study unveils the cost effective, innocuous, highly stable SeNPs intricate mechanism of DNA interaction, which will be a milestone in DNA targeted chemotherapy. - Graphical abstract: Highly stable, innocuous, biocompatible SeNPs nanoparticle has been synthesized using Allium sativum (garlic) extract as reductant. The purity and crystallinity were characterized, further divulge the base pare interaction with Calf –Thymus DNA through various spectroscopic methods and atomic force microscopy. Display Omitted - Highlights: • Synthesis of SeNPs in aqueous extract of Allium sativum. • Characterization of synthesized SeNPs using high throughput techniques. • SeNPs directly interact with CT-DNA through intercalation and groove binding.

  15. Potassium-doped copper oxide nanoparticles synthesized by a solvothermal method as an anode material for high-performance lithium ion secondary battery

    Thi, Trang Vu; Rai, Alok Kumar; Gim, Jihyeon; Kim, Jaekook, E-mail: jaekook@chonnam.ac.kr

    2014-06-01

    A simple and efficient approach was developed to synthesize CuO nanoparticles with improved electrochemical performance. Potassium (K{sup +})-doped CuO nanoparticles were synthesized by a simple and cost-effective solvothermal method followed by annealing at 500 °C for 5 h under air atmosphere. For comparison, an undoped CuO sample was also synthesized under the same conditions. X-ray diffraction analysis demonstrates that the K{sup +} ion doping caused no change in the phase structure, and highly crystalline K{sub x}Cu{sub 1−x}O{sub 1−δ} (x = 0.10) powder without any impurity was obtained. As an anode material for a lithium ion battery, the K{sup +}-doped CuO nanoparticle electrode exhibited better capacity retention with a reversible capacity of over 354.6 mA h g{sup −1} for up to 30 cycles at 0.1 C, as well as a high charge capacity of 162.3 mA h g{sup −1} at a high current rate of 3.2 C, in comparison to an undoped CuO electrode (275.9 mA h g{sup −1} at 0.1 C and 68.9 mA h g{sup −1} at 3.2 C). The high rate capability and better cycleability of the doped electrode can be attributed to the influence of the K{sup +} ion nanostructure on the increased electronic conductivity, diffusion efficiency, and kinetic properties of CuO during the lithiation and delithiation process.

  16. Potassium-doped copper oxide nanoparticles synthesized by a solvothermal method as an anode material for high-performance lithium ion secondary battery

    Thi, Trang Vu; Rai, Alok Kumar; Gim, Jihyeon; Kim, Jaekook

    2014-01-01

    A simple and efficient approach was developed to synthesize CuO nanoparticles with improved electrochemical performance. Potassium (K + )-doped CuO nanoparticles were synthesized by a simple and cost-effective solvothermal method followed by annealing at 500 °C for 5 h under air atmosphere. For comparison, an undoped CuO sample was also synthesized under the same conditions. X-ray diffraction analysis demonstrates that the K + ion doping caused no change in the phase structure, and highly crystalline K x Cu 1−x O 1−δ (x = 0.10) powder without any impurity was obtained. As an anode material for a lithium ion battery, the K + -doped CuO nanoparticle electrode exhibited better capacity retention with a reversible capacity of over 354.6 mA h g −1 for up to 30 cycles at 0.1 C, as well as a high charge capacity of 162.3 mA h g −1 at a high current rate of 3.2 C, in comparison to an undoped CuO electrode (275.9 mA h g −1 at 0.1 C and 68.9 mA h g −1 at 3.2 C). The high rate capability and better cycleability of the doped electrode can be attributed to the influence of the K + ion nanostructure on the increased electronic conductivity, diffusion efficiency, and kinetic properties of CuO during the lithiation and delithiation process.

  17. Potassium-doped copper oxide nanoparticles synthesized by a solvothermal method as an anode material for high-performance lithium ion secondary battery

    Thi, Trang Vu; Rai, Alok Kumar; Gim, Jihyeon; Kim, Jaekook

    2014-06-01

    A simple and efficient approach was developed to synthesize CuO nanoparticles with improved electrochemical performance. Potassium (K+)-doped CuO nanoparticles were synthesized by a simple and cost-effective solvothermal method followed by annealing at 500 °C for 5 h under air atmosphere. For comparison, an undoped CuO sample was also synthesized under the same conditions. X-ray diffraction analysis demonstrates that the K+ ion doping caused no change in the phase structure, and highly crystalline KxCu1-xO1-δ (x = 0.10) powder without any impurity was obtained. As an anode material for a lithium ion battery, the K+-doped CuO nanoparticle electrode exhibited better capacity retention with a reversible capacity of over 354.6 mA h g-1 for up to 30 cycles at 0.1 C, as well as a high charge capacity of 162.3 mA h g-1 at a high current rate of 3.2 C, in comparison to an undoped CuO electrode (275.9 mA h g-1 at 0.1 C and 68.9 mA h g-1 at 3.2 C). The high rate capability and better cycleability of the doped electrode can be attributed to the influence of the K+ ion nanostructure on the increased electronic conductivity, diffusion efficiency, and kinetic properties of CuO during the lithiation and delithiation process.

  18. Biosynthesis, mosquitocidal and antibacterial properties of Toddalia asiatica-synthesized silver nanoparticles: do they impact predation of guppy Poecilia reticulata against the filariasis mosquito Culex quinquefasciatus?

    Murugan, Kadarkarai; Venus, Joseph Selvaraj Eugine; Panneerselvam, Chellasamy; Bedini, Stefano; Conti, Barbara; Nicoletti, Marcello; Sarkar, Santosh Kumar; Hwang, Jiang-Shiou; Subramaniam, Jayapal; Madhiyazhagan, Pari; Kumar, Palanisamy Mahesh; Dinesh, Devakumar; Suresh, Udaiyan; Benelli, Giovanni

    2015-11-01

    Mosquito-borne diseases represent a deadly threat for millions of people worldwide. Furthermore, pathogens and parasites polluting water also constitute a severe plague for populations of developing countries. In this study, silver nanoparticles (AgN) were biosynthesized a cheap aqueous extract of T. asiatica leaves as reducing and stabilizing agent. The formation of nanoparticle was confirmed by surface Plasmon resonance band illustrated in UV-vis spectrophotometer. AgN were characterized by FTIR, SEM, EDX, and XRD analyses. AgN were mostly spherical in shape, crystalline in nature, with face-centered cubic geometry, and their mean size was 25-30 nm. T. asiatica aqueous extract and green-synthesized AgN showed excellent larvicidal and pupicidal toxicity against the filariasis vector Culex quinqufasciatus, both in laboratory and field experiments. AgN LC50 ranged from 16.48 (I instar larvae) to 31.83 ppm (pupae). T. asiatica-synthesized were also highly effective in inhibiting growth of Bacillus subtilis, Klebsiella pneumoniae, and Salmonella typhi using the agar disk diffusion and minimum inhibitory concentration protocol. Lastly, we evaluated if sublethal doses of nanoparticles affect predation rates of fishes, Poecilia reticulata, against C. quinquefasciatus. In AgN-contaminated environment, predation of guppies against mosquito larvae was slightly higher over normal laboratory conditions. Overall, this study highlighted that T. asiatica-synthesized AgN are easy to produce, stable over time, and may be employed at low dosages to reduce populations of filariasis vectors, without detrimental effects on predation rates of mosquito natural enemies.

  19. Selenium nanoparticles synthesized in aqueous extract of Allium sativum perturbs the structural integrity of Calf thymus DNA through intercalation and groove binding

    Ezhuthupurakkal, Preedia Babu; Polaki, Lokeswara Rao; Suyavaran, Arumugam; Subastri, Ariraman [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Pondicherry University, Puducherry 605 014 (India); Sujatha, Venugopal [Department of Chemistry, Periyar University, Salem 636011 (India); Thirunavukkarasu, Chinnasamy, E-mail: tchinnasamy@hotmail.com [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Pondicherry University, Puducherry 605 014 (India)

    2017-05-01

    Biomedical application of selenium nanoparticles (SeNPs) demands the eco-friendly composite for synthesis of SeNPs. The present study reports an aqueous extract of Allium sativum (AqEAS) plug-up the current need. Modern spectroscopic, microscopic and gravimetric techniques were employed to characterize the synthesized nanoparticles. Characterization studies revealed the formation of crystalline spherical shaped SeNPs. FTIR spectrum brings out the presence of different functional groups in AqEAS, which influence the SeNPs formation and stabilization. Furthermore the different aspects of the interaction between SeNPs and CT-DNA were scrutinized by various spectroscopic and cyclic voltametric studies. The results reveals the intercalation and groove binding mode of interaction of SeNPs with stacked base pair of CT-DNA. The Stern–Volmer quenching constant (K{sub SV}) were found to be 7.02 × 10{sup 6} Mˉ{sup 1} (ethidium bromide), 4.22 × 10{sup 6} Mˉ{sup 1} (acridine orange) and 7.6 × 10{sup 6} Mˉ{sup 1} (Hoechst) indicating strong binding of SeNPs with CT–DNA. The SeNPs - CT-DNA interactions were directly visualized by atomic force microscopy. The present study unveils the cost effective, innocuous, highly stable SeNPs intricate mechanism of DNA interaction, which will be a milestone in DNA targeted chemotherapy. - Graphical abstract: Highly stable, innocuous, biocompatible SeNPs nanoparticle has been synthesized using Allium sativum (garlic) extract as reductant. The purity and crystallinity were characterized, further divulge the base pare interaction with Calf –Thymus DNA through various spectroscopic methods and atomic force microscopy. Display Omitted - Highlights: • Synthesis of SeNPs in aqueous extract of Allium sativum. • Characterization of synthesized SeNPs using high throughput techniques. • SeNPs directly interact with CT-DNA through intercalation and groove binding.

  20. Multifunctional Eu3+- and Er3+/Yb3+-doped GdVO4 nanoparticles synthesized by reverse micelle method

    Gavrilović, Tamara V.; Jovanović, Dragana J.; Lojpur, Vesna; Dramićanin, Miroslav D.

    2014-01-01

    Synthesis of Eu3+- and Er3+/Yb3+-doped GdVO4 nanoparticles in reverse micelles and their multifunctional luminescence properties are presented. Using cyclohexane, Triton X-100, and n-pentanol as the oil, surfactant, and co-surfactant, respectively, crystalline nanoparticles with ~4 nm diameter are prepared at low temperatures. The particle size assessed using transmission electron microscopy is similar to the crystallite size obtained from X-ray diffraction measurements, suggesting that each ...

  1. A lucrative chemical processing of bamboo leaf biomass to synthesize biocompatible amorphous silica nanoparticles of biomedical importance

    Rangaraj, Suriyaprabha; Venkatachalam, Rajendran

    2017-06-01

    Synthesis of silica nanoparticles from natural resources/waste via cost effective route is presently one of the anticipating strategies for extensive applications. This study reports the low-cost indigenous production of silica nanoparticles from the leftover of bamboo (leaf biomass) through thermal combustion and alkaline extraction, and examination of physico-chemical properties and yield percentage using comprehensive characterization tools. The outcome of primed silica powder exhibits amorphous particles (average size: 25 nm) with high surface area (428 m2 g-1) and spherical morphology. Despite the yield percentage of silica nanoparticles from bamboo leave ash is 50.2%, which is less than rice husk ask resources (62.1%), the bamboo waste is only an inexpensive resource yielding high purity (99%). Synthesis of silica nanoparticles from natural resources/waste with the help of lucrative route is at present times one of the anticipating strategies for extensive applications. In vitro study on animal cell lines (MG-63) shows non-toxic nature of silica nanoparticles up to 125 µg mL-1. Hence, this study highlights the feasibility for the mass production of silica nanoparticles from bamboo leave waste rather using chemical precursor of silica for drug delivery and other medical applications.

  2. Synthesizing A Phase Changing Bistable Electroactive Polymer And Silver Nanoparticles Coated Fabric As A Resistive Heating Element

    Ren, Zhi

    Transducer technologies that convert energy from one form to another (e.g. electrical energy to mechanical energy or thermal energy and vise versa) are considered as the basic building blocks of robots and wearable electronics, two of the rapidly emerging technologies that impact our daily life. With an emphasis on developing the essential smart materials, this dissertation focuses on two specific transducer technologies, bistable large-strain electro-mechanical actuation and resistive Joule heating, in pursuit of refreshable Braille electronic displays and wearable thermal management element, respectively. Dielectric elastomers (DEs) have been intensively studied for their promising ability to mimic human muscles in providing efficient electro-mechanical actuation. They exhibit a unique combination of properties, including large strain, fast response, high energy density, mechanical compliancy, lightweight, and low cost. However, the softness of the DE materials, which is a prerequisite for electrically induced large actuation strain, has been hindering their application in adaptive structures. In these applications such as braille displays, a certain amount of mechanical support is necessary in addition to large strains for the device or system to function. Bistable electroactive polymers (BSEP) that leverage the electrically induced large-strain actuation of DE actuators and the bi-stable rigid-to-rigid deformation of shape memory polymers are innovated to provide large electrical actuation strain in their rubbery state and fix the deformation by cooling down to room temperature to incorporate mechanical rigidity. BSEP materials that can suppress electromechanical instability and exhibit stable mechanical properties in the rubbery state are desired. A bimodal BSEP material with a glass transition temperature right above room temperature has been synthesized employing simple UV curing process. The BSEP has a large storage modulus over 1GPa at room temperature

  3. Coercivity enhancement mechanism in Dy-substituted Nd–Fe–B nanoparticles synthesized by sol–gel base method followed by a reduction-diffusion process

    Rahimi, Hamed; Ghasemi, Ali, E-mail: ali13912001@yahoo.com; Mozaffarinia, Reza; Tavoosi, Majid

    2017-05-01

    In current work, Nd{sub 15−x}Dy{sub x}Fe{sub 77.5}B{sub 7.5} (at%) nanoparticles with different Dy-content (x=0.0, 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0, 2.5, 3.0) were synthesized by sol–gel method followed by a reduction-diffusion process. The effects of Dy on the magnetic properties and the relations between the microstructure and the coercivity of Dy-substituted Nd–Fe–B nanoparticles have been studied. The coercivity of Nd–Fe–B nanoparticles with the addition of Dy first increase, reaches a maximum, and then starts to decrease. The coercivity of Dy-substituted Nd–Fe–B nanoparticle synthesized by sol–gel method increased from 938.9 to 1663.9 kA/m while the remanence decreased slightly from 1.16 to 1.06 T. The results show that with an increase in Dy content the variation of maximum energy product ((BH){sub max}), lowest-order uniaxial magnetocrystalline anisotropy constant (K{sub u1}), and Curie temperature (T{sub c}) had a trend as same as the coercivity. The Henkel plot showed that the existence of exchange coupling interaction between grains, and the exchange coupling interactions increased with increasing x from 0.0 to 2.0 and then decrease with further increasing x≥2.5. The optimum magnetic properties of Nd–Fe–B nanoparticles with (BH){sub max} =40.38 MGOe, H{sub c}=1663.9 kA/m, B{sub r}=1.08 T were obtained by substituted 2.0 at% Dy. The effects of increasing temperature on magnetic properties of Dy-substituted Nd–Fe–B nanoparticle magnets with 2.0 at% Dy was investigated. The reduced spin-reorientation temperature was obtained for Dy-substituted Nd–Fe–B nanoparticles with 2.0 at% Dy. Below 100 K a spin-reorientation transition was takes place. The temperature coefficient of coercivity (β) was −0.36, −0.46, −0.41, −0.34, −0.29, −0.24, −0.25%/°C at different temperature 50, 100, 150, 200, 250, 300, 350 °C, respectively. Mössbauer spectroscopy was applied to study the composition and properties of Dy-substituted Nd

  4. Coercivity enhancement mechanism in Dy-substituted Nd–Fe–B nanoparticles synthesized by sol–gel base method followed by a reduction-diffusion process

    Rahimi, Hamed; Ghasemi, Ali; Mozaffarinia, Reza; Tavoosi, Majid

    2017-01-01

    In current work, Nd 15−x Dy x Fe 77.5 B 7.5 (at%) nanoparticles with different Dy-content (x=0.0, 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0, 2.5, 3.0) were synthesized by sol–gel method followed by a reduction-diffusion process. The effects of Dy on the magnetic properties and the relations between the microstructure and the coercivity of Dy-substituted Nd–Fe–B nanoparticles have been studied. The coercivity of Nd–Fe–B nanoparticles with the addition of Dy first increase, reaches a maximum, and then starts to decrease. The coercivity of Dy-substituted Nd–Fe–B nanoparticle synthesized by sol–gel method increased from 938.9 to 1663.9 kA/m while the remanence decreased slightly from 1.16 to 1.06 T. The results show that with an increase in Dy content the variation of maximum energy product ((BH) max ), lowest-order uniaxial magnetocrystalline anisotropy constant (K u1 ), and Curie temperature (T c ) had a trend as same as the coercivity. The Henkel plot showed that the existence of exchange coupling interaction between grains, and the exchange coupling interactions increased with increasing x from 0.0 to 2.0 and then decrease with further increasing x≥2.5. The optimum magnetic properties of Nd–Fe–B nanoparticles with (BH) max =40.38 MGOe, H c =1663.9 kA/m, B r =1.08 T were obtained by substituted 2.0 at% Dy. The effects of increasing temperature on magnetic properties of Dy-substituted Nd–Fe–B nanoparticle magnets with 2.0 at% Dy was investigated. The reduced spin-reorientation temperature was obtained for Dy-substituted Nd–Fe–B nanoparticles with 2.0 at% Dy. Below 100 K a spin-reorientation transition was takes place. The temperature coefficient of coercivity (β) was −0.36, −0.46, −0.41, −0.34, −0.29, −0.24, −0.25%/°C at different temperature 50, 100, 150, 200, 250, 300, 350 °C, respectively. Mössbauer spectroscopy was applied to study the composition and properties of Dy-substituted Nd–Fe–B magnet. Microstructure analysis showed a

  5. Hydrothermally synthesized PEGylated calcium phosphate nanoparticles incorporating Gd-DTPA for contrast enhanced MRI diagnosis of solid tumors.

    Mi, Peng; Kokuryo, Daisuke; Cabral, Horacio; Kumagai, Michiaki; Nomoto, Takahiro; Aoki, Ichio; Terada, Yasuko; Kishimura, Akihiro; Nishiyama, Nobuhiro; Kataoka, Kazunori

    2014-01-28

    Organic-inorganic hybrid nanoparticles with calcium phosphate (CaP) core and PEGylated shell were developed to incorporate magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) contrast agent diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid gadolinium (III) (Gd-DTPA) for noninvasive diagnosis of solid tumors. A two-step preparation method was applied to elaborate hybrid nanoparticles with a z-average hydrodynamic diameter about 80nm, neutral surface ξ-potential and high colloidal stability in physiological environments by self-assembly of poly(ethylene glycol)-b-poly(aspartic acid) block copolymer, Gd-DTPA, and CaP in aqueous solution, followed with hydrothermal treatment. Incorporation into the hybrid nanoparticles allowed Gd-DTPA to show significant enhanced retention ratio in blood circulation, leading to high accumulation in tumor positions due to enhanced permeability and retention (EPR) effect. Moreover, Gd-DTPA revealed above 6 times increase of relaxivity in the nanoparticle system compared to free form, and eventually, selective and elevated contrast enhancements in the tumor positions were observed. These results indicate the high potential of Gd-DTPA-loaded PEGylated CaP nanoparticles as a novel contrast agent for noninvasive cancer diagnosis. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Photoluminescence and magnetic properties of Fe-doped ZnS nano-particles synthesized by chemical co-precipitation

    Nie Eryong; Liu Donglai; Zhang Yunsen; Bai Xue; Yi Liang; Jin Yong; Jiao Zhifeng [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610064, Sichuan (China); Sun Xiaosong, E-mail: sunxs@scu.edu.cn [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610064, Sichuan (China)

    2011-08-15

    This paper is focusing on the synthesis of Zn{sub 1-x}Fe{sub x}S nano-particles with x = 0, 0.1 and 0.2 by chemical co-precipitation method, the prepared of which are characterized by XRD, EDS, TEM, PL, magnetization versus field behavior and M-T curve. In the XRD patterns, Zn{sub 1-x}Fe{sub x}S nano-particles are shown of cubic zinc blende structure, and the broadening diffraction peaks consistent with the small-size characteristic of nano-materials. The diameter of nano-particles is between 3.3 and 5.5 nm according to the HR-TEM images. The EDS data confirm the existence of Fe ions in Fe-doped ZnS nanoparticles. There we found that Fe-doping did not import new energy bands or defect states, but reduced the intensity of PL peaks. The magnetization versus field behaviors were illustrated by the M-H curves at both 5 K and 300 K, respectively, where no remanence or coercive force was observed. This phenomenon indicates that the Zn{sub 1-x}Fe{sub x}S (x = 0.1) nano-particles are superparamagnetic. The zero-field-cooled (ZFC) and field-cooled (FC) magnetization curves further reveal that the blocking temperature (T{sub B}) of the superparamagnetic behavior might be below 5 K.

  7. Biological activity of green-synthesized silver nanoparticles depends on the applied natural extracts: a comprehensive study.

    Rónavári, Andrea; Kovács, Dávid; Igaz, Nóra; Vágvölgyi, Csaba; Boros, Imre Miklós; Kónya, Zoltán; Pfeiffer, Ilona; Kiricsi, Mónika

    2017-01-01

    Due to obvious disadvantages of the classical chemical methods, green synthesis of metallic nanoparticles has attracted tremendous attention in recent years. Numerous environmentally benign synthesis methods have been developed yielding nanoparticles via low-cost, eco-friendly, and simple approaches. In this study, our aim was to determine the suitability of coffee and green tea extracts in green synthesis of silver nanoparticles as well as to compare the performance of the obtained materials in different biological systems. We successfully produced silver nanoparticles (C-AgNP and GT-AgNP) using coffee and green tea extracts; moreover, based on our comprehensive screening, we delineated major differences in the biological activity of C-AgNPs and GT-AgNPs. Our results indicate that although GT-AgNPs exhibited excellent antimicrobial activity against all the examined microbial pathogens, these particles were also highly toxic to mammalian cells, which limits their potential applications. On the contrary, C-AgNPs manifested substantial inhibitory action on the tested microbes but were nontoxic to human and mouse cells, indicating an outstanding capacity to discriminate between potential pathogens and mammalian cells. These results clearly show that the various green materials used for stabilization and for reduction of metal ions have a defining role in determining and fine-tuning the biological activity of the obtained nanoparticles.

  8. Growth mechanism and magnetism in carbothermal synthesized Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanoparticles from solution combustion precursors

    Wang, Xuanli [School of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing, 100083 China (China); Qin, Mingli, E-mail: qinml@mater.ustb.edu.cn [School of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing, 100083 China (China); Cao, Zhiqin [School of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing, 100083 China (China); School of Materials Science and Engineering, Pan Zhihua University, Pan Zhihua, 617000 China (China); Jia, Baorui; Gu, Yueru; Qu, Xuanhui [School of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing, 100083 China (China); Volinsky, Alex A. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of South Florida, Tampa, 33620 (United States)

    2016-12-15

    Magnetic Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanoparticles were prepared by carbothermal reduction using solution combustion synthesis precursors derived from ferric nitrate (oxidizer), glycine (fuel) and glucose (carbon source) mixed solution. In this paper, the growth mechanism and magnetism in Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanoparticles were investigated by adjusting the glucose content in precursor and the heat temperature in carbothermal process. The products were analyzed by X-ray diffraction, Field emission scanning electron microscopy, Infrared adsorption method and Vibrating sample magnetometry. The results revealed that the more amount of glucose, the earlier Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} phase generated as temperature increasing. Depending on glucose content and thermal temperature, the average grain size of Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanoparticles varied from 19.9 nm to 48 nm and saturation magnetization changed from 21.2 emu/g to 71.77 emu/g, which indicated that the saturation magnetization of Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanoparticles fell off as the average grain size decreasing. These results were crucial not only from the application stand-point, but more importantly leaded to a new platform for further studies of high quality magnetic Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} particles at nanoscale. - Highlights: • Solution combustion. • Carbothermal. • Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanoparticles. • Magnetic properties.

  9. The effect of poly vinyl alcohol (PVA) surfactant on phase formation and magnetic properties of hydrothermally synthesized CoFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} nanoparticles

    Jalalian, M.; Mirkazemi, S.M., E-mail: mirkazemi@iust.ac.ir; Alamolhoda, S.

    2016-12-01

    Nanoparticles of CoFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} were synthesized by hydrothermal process at 190 °C with and without poly vinyl alcohol (PVA) addition using treatment durations of 1.5–6 h. The synthesized powders were characterized with X-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman spectroscopy, scanning electron microscope (SEM), Field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM) and vibration sample magnetometer (VSM) techniques. XRD results show presence of CoFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} as the main phase and Co{sub 3}O{sub 4} as the lateral phase in some samples. The results show that in the samples synthesized without PVA addition considerable amount of lateral phase is present after 3 h of hydrothermal treatment while with PVA addition this phase is undetectable in the XRD patterns of the sample synthesized at the same conditions. Microstructural studies represent increasing of particle size with increasing of hydrothermal duration and formation of coarser particles with PVA addition. The highest maximum magnetization (M{sub max}) values in both of the samples that were synthesized with and without PVA addition are about 59 emu/g that were obtained after 4.5 h of hydrothermal treatment. Intrinsic coercive field ({sub i}H{sub c}) value of the sample without PVA addition increases from 210 to 430 Oe. While with PVA addition the {sub i}H{sub c} value changes from 83 Oe to 493 Oe. The mechanism of changes in M{sub max} and {sub i}H{sub c} values has been explained. - Highlights: • Nanoparticles of CoFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} hydrothermally synthesized with and without PVA addition. • PVA addition facilitates formation of single phase cobalt ferrite. • Coarser particles would be obtained with PVA addition. • The highest M{sub max} values in the samples with and without PVA are equal to 59 emu/g. • The highest {sub i}H{sub c} values are equalt to 320 and 493 Oe without and with PVA respectively.

  10. Synthesized of PEG-6000 coated MgFe2O4 nanoparticles based on natural iron sand by co-precipitation method

    Setiadi, E. A.; Simbolon, S.; Saputra, A. S. P.; Marlianto, E.; Djuhana; Kurniawan, C.; Yunus, M.; Sebayang, P.

    2018-02-01

    The polymer coated Magnesium Ferrite nanoparticles (MgFe2O4) based on natural iron sand, Mg(CH3COO)2.4H2O, and PEG-6000 have been successfully prepared by co-precipitation method. The mass variation of PEG-6000 content was from 0 to 12 gram. It was prepared at synthesize temperature of 70°C. The PEG coating reduced the effect of agglomeration, so the coercivity value can be closed to soft magnets. The nanoparticle of synthesized has MgFe2O4 single phase and cubic spinel structure. The bonding of MgFe2O4 and PEG-6000 as a coating material was confirmed by FTIR curve. The MgFe2O4 density decreased with the increasing of PEG 6000 content. On the other hand, the coercivity value was slightly reduced as the addition of PEG-6000, with the lowest value was obtained on 8 gram PEG content. The optimum condition is obtained at addition of 8 gram PEG 6000 to MgFe2O4, with coercivity, saturation, and remanence are 198.41 Oe, 52.53 emu/g, and 8.51 emu/g, respectively. So that, the sample is widely used as absorbance material of heavy metal.

  11. Investigations on structural and optical properties of starch capped ZnS nanoparticles synthesized by microwave irradiation method

    Lalithadevi, B.; Mohan Rao, K.; Ramananda, D.

    2018-05-01

    Following a green synthesis method, zinc sulfide (ZnS) nanoparticles were prepared by chemical co-precipitation technique using starch as capping agent. Microwave irradiation was used as heating source. X-ray diffraction studies indicated that nanopowders obtained were polycrystalline possessing ZnS simple cubic structure. Transmission electron microscopic studies indicated that starch limits the agglomeration by steric stabilization. Interaction between ZnS and starch was confirmed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy as well as Raman scattering studies. Quantum size effects were observed in optical absorption studies while quenching of defect states on nanoparticles was improved with increase in starch addition as indicated by photoluminescence spectra.

  12. Superparamagnetism and spin-glass like state for the MnFe2O4 nano-particles synthesized by the thermal decomposition method

    Gao Ruorui; Zhang Yue; Yu Wei; Xiong Rui; Shi Jing

    2012-01-01

    MnFe 2 O 4 nano-particles with an average size of about 7 nm were synthesized by the thermal decomposition method. Based on the magnetic hysteresis loops measured at different temperatures the temperature-dependent saturation magnetization (M S ) and coercivity (H C ) are determined. It is shown that above 20 K the temperature-dependence of the M S and H C indicates the magnetic behaviors in the single-domain nano-particles, while below 20 K, the change of the M S and H C indicates the freezing of the spin-glass like state on the surfaces. By measuring the magnetization–temperature (M–T) curves under the zero-field-cooling (ZFC) and field-cooling procedures at different applied fields, superparamagnetism behavior is also studied. Even though in the ZFC M–T curves peaks can be observed below 160 K, superparamagnetism does not appear until the temperature goes above 300 K, which is related with the strong inter-particle interaction. - Highlights: ► MnFe 2 O 4 nano-particles with size of 7 nm were prepared. ► The surface spin-glass like state is frozen below 20 K. ► The peaks in ZFC magnetization–temperature curves are observed below 160 K. ► The inter-particle interaction inhibits the superparamagnetism at room temperature.

  13. Structure and morphologies of ZnO nanoparticles synthesized by pulsed laser ablation in liquid: Effects of temperature and energy fluence

    Guillén, G. García; Palma, M.I. Mendivil [Universidad Autónoma de Nuevo León, Facultad de Ingeniería Mecánica y Eléctrica, San Nicolás de los Garza, Nuevo León 66455 (Mexico); Krishnan, B. [Universidad Autónoma de Nuevo León, Facultad de Ingeniería Mecánica y Eléctrica, San Nicolás de los Garza, Nuevo León 66455 (Mexico); Universidad Autónoma de Nuevo León – Centro de Innovación, Investigación y Desarrollo de Ingeniería y Tecnología, Apodaca, Nuevo León 66600 (Mexico); Avellaneda, D.; Castillo, G.A.; Roy, T.K. Das [Universidad Autónoma de Nuevo León, Facultad de Ingeniería Mecánica y Eléctrica, San Nicolás de los Garza, Nuevo León 66455 (Mexico); and others

    2015-07-15

    Zinc oxide nanoparticles were prepared by pulsed laser ablation of a zinc metal target at different water temperatures (room temperature, 50, 70 and 90 °C). Ablation was carried out using 532 nm output from a pulsed (10 ns, 10 Hz) Nd:YAG laser at three different laser fluence. Analysis of the morphology, crystalline phase, elemental composition, optical and luminescent properties were done using Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM), X-Ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS), UV–visible absorption spectroscopy and photoluminescence spectroscopy. TEM analysis showed that a change in temperature resulted in ZnO and Zn(OH){sub 2} nanoparticles with different sizes and morphologies. XPS results confirmed the compositions and chemical states of these nanoparticles. These zinc nanomaterials showed emission in the ultraviolet (UV) and blue regions. The results of this work demonstrated that by varying the liquid medium temperature, the structure, composition, morphology and optical properties of the nanomaterials could be modified during pulsed laser ablation in liquid. - Graphical abstract: Display Omitted - Highlights: • Zinc nanomaterial colloids were synthesized by PLAL. • Effects of laser fluence and the distilled water temperature were analyzed. • The final structure varied with the distilled water temperature and laser fluence. • The morphology was dependent on the distilled water temperature and laser fluence. • Zinc nanocolloids showed emission in the UV and blue region.

  14. Nano structural Features of Silver Nanoparticles Powder Synthesized through Concurrent Formation of the Nano sized Particles of Both Starch and Silver

    Hebeish, A.; El-Rafie, M.H.; El-Sheikh, M.A.; El-Naggar, M.E.

    2013-01-01

    Green innovative strategy was developed to accomplish silver nanoparticles formation of starch-silver nanoparticles (St-AgNPs) in the powder form. Thus, St-AgNPs were synthesized through concurrent formation of the nano sized particles of both starch and silver. The alkali dissolved starch acts as reducing agent for silver ions and as stabilizing agent for the formed AgNPs. The chemical reduction process occurred in water bath under high-speed homogenizer. After completion of the reaction, the colloidal solution of AgNPs coated with alkali dissolved starch was cooled and precipitated using ethanol. The powder precipitate was collected by centrifugation, then washed, and dried; St-AgNPs powder was characterized using state-of-the-art facilities including UV-vis spectroscopy, Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM), particle size analyzer (PS), Polydispersity index (PdI), Zeta potential (ZP), XRD, FT-IR, EDX, and TGA. TEM and XRD indicate that the average size of pure AgNPs does not exceed 20 nm with spherical shape and high concentration of AgNPs (30000 ppm). The results obtained from TGA indicates that the higher thermal stability of starch coated AgNPS than that of starch nanoparticles alone. In addition to the data obtained from EDX which reveals the presence of AgNPs and the data obtained from particle size analyzer and zeta potential determination indicate that the good uniformity and the highly stability of St-AgNPs).

  15. Structure and morphologies of ZnO nanoparticles synthesized by pulsed laser ablation in liquid: Effects of temperature and energy fluence

    Guillén, G. García; Palma, M.I. Mendivil; Krishnan, B.; Avellaneda, D.; Castillo, G.A.; Roy, T.K. Das

    2015-01-01

    Zinc oxide nanoparticles were prepared by pulsed laser ablation of a zinc metal target at different water temperatures (room temperature, 50, 70 and 90 °C). Ablation was carried out using 532 nm output from a pulsed (10 ns, 10 Hz) Nd:YAG laser at three different laser fluence. Analysis of the morphology, crystalline phase, elemental composition, optical and luminescent properties were done using Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM), X-Ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS), UV–visible absorption spectroscopy and photoluminescence spectroscopy. TEM analysis showed that a change in temperature resulted in ZnO and Zn(OH) 2 nanoparticles with different sizes and morphologies. XPS results confirmed the compositions and chemical states of these nanoparticles. These zinc nanomaterials showed emission in the ultraviolet (UV) and blue regions. The results of this work demonstrated that by varying the liquid medium temperature, the structure, composition, morphology and optical properties of the nanomaterials could be modified during pulsed laser ablation in liquid. - Graphical abstract: Display Omitted - Highlights: • Zinc nanomaterial colloids were synthesized by PLAL. • Effects of laser fluence and the distilled water temperature were analyzed. • The final structure varied with the distilled water temperature and laser fluence. • The morphology was dependent on the distilled water temperature and laser fluence. • Zinc nanocolloids showed emission in the UV and blue region

  16. Crystal structure of superparamagnetic Mg0.2Ca0.8Fe2O4 nanoparticles synthesized by sol–gel method

    Escamilla-Pérez, A.M.; Cortés-Hernández, D.A.; Almanza-Robles, J.M.; Mantovani, D.; Chevallier, P.

    2015-01-01

    Powders of magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (Mg 0.2 Ca 0.8 Fe 2 O 4 ) were prepared by a sol–gel method using ethylene glycol and nitrates of Fe, Ca and Mg as starting materials. Those powders were heat treated at different temperatures (573, 673, 773 and 873 K). In order to evaluate the effect of the heat treatment temperature on the nanoferrites properties, X-ray diffraction (XRD), vibrating sample magnetometry (VSM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) techniques were used. It was found that the reaction products exhibit nanometric sizes and superparamagnetic behavior. It is also demonstrated that, as the heat treatment temperature increases, the particle size and the saturation magnetization of the nanoferrites are increased. - Highlights: • Mg 0.2 Ca 0.8 Fe 2 O 4 superparamagnetic nanoparticles were successfully synthesized. • Particle average sizes of Ca–Mg ferrites were within the range of 8–25 nm. • The nanoferrite treated at 873 K showed a stoichiometry close to Mg 0.2 Ca 0.8 Fe 2 O 4 . • The heat treatment temperature has a strong effect on the crystal structure. • These nanoparticles are potential materials for magnetic hyperthermia

  17. Effect of solvent medium on the structural, morphological and optical properties of ZnO nanoparticles synthesized by the sol–gel method

    Ungula, J., E-mail: ungulaj@qwa.ufs.ac.za; Dejene, B.F.

    2016-01-01

    ZnO nanoparticles were synthesized using a sol–gel method. The effect of solvent medium on the structural, morphological and optical properties of ZnO nanoparticles were investigated using X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), photoluminescence spectroscopy (PL), UV–vis spectroscopy (UV–vis) and Energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy ( EDS). The XRD patterns showed single phase hexagonal structure. The crystallite size of as prepared ZnO nanoparticles was found to decrease from 28.1 nm to 10.8 nm with the increase in volume ratio of ethanol in the solvent as peak intensities and sharpness increase with corresponding increase in volume ratio of water. SEM micrographs showed that samples prepared in water medium are fairly spherical which turned to tiny rods with increasing volume ratios of ethanol. A sharp ultraviolet (UV) emission peak centred about 385 nm and a broad green–yellow emission at about 550 nm are observed with PL measurements. The band gap of ZnO decreased from 3.31 to 3.17 eV with an increase in the ethanol composition in the solvent, implying that the optical properties of these materials are clearly affected by the synthesis medium.

  18. Effect of temperature on structural, optical and photoluminescence studies on ZnO nanoparticles synthesized by the standard co-precipitation method

    Raj, K. Pradeev [Research and Development Centre, Bharathiar University, Coimbatore 641046, Tamil Nadu (India); Department of Physics, CSI College of Engineering, Ooty 643215, Tamil Nadu (India); Sadayandi, K. [Department of Physics, Alagappa Government Arts College, Karaikudi, Sivagangai 630003, Tamil Nadu (India)

    2016-04-15

    This present study brings the synthesis of Zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles (NPs) by the standard aqueous chemical route technique. The impact of calcination temperature on the extent of the ZnO nanoparticles is studied for its lattice constraints. X-ray diffraction (XRD) affirms the hexagonal Wurtzite structure of the synthesized ZnO nanoparticles. From the Williamson–Hall (W–H) plot, positive slope is inferred for pure and calcined ZnO NPs and confirms the presence of tensile strain. From the SEM images it is found that the crystallinity enhances with calcination temperature. From the optical studies, it is found that the band gap energy decreases with improved transmission. The Photoluminescence (PL) spectrum reveals the UV emission is strong near the band-edge. The emission peaks around 400–480 nm result in blue emission and the peaks around 540–560 nm result in green emission. Decrease in band gap energy and enhancement in PL studies reveal the red shift of the calcined ZnO exhibiting solid quantum confinements.

  19. Enhanced electrical conductivity of poly(methyl methacrylate) filled with graphene and in situ synthesized gold nanoparticles

    Feng, Jie; Athanassiou, Athanassia; Bonaccorso, Francesco; Fragouli, Despina

    2018-06-01

    The improvement of the electrical conductivity of polymers by incorporating graphene has been intensively studied in recent years. To further boost the electrical conductivity, blending third-party additives into the polymer/graphene systems has been demonstrated as a viable strategy. Herein, we propose a simple route to increase the electrical conductivity of poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA)/graphene nanoplatelet (GnP) composites, by the in situ synthesis of gold nanoparticles directly into the solid film. In particular, PMMA, GnPs and a gold precursor are solution blended to form the composite films. The subsequent heat-induced formation of gold nanoparticles directly in the solid state film, cause the significant decrease of the percolation threshold of GnPs loading, from 3% to 1% by weight in the composite. This is attributed to the preferential formation of the gold nanoparticles onto the GnPs, with synergistic effects beneficial for the improvement of the electrical conductivity. The formation procedure of the gold nanoparticles, and their arrangement into the composite matrix are studied. We demonstrate that following this straightforward process it is possible to form nanocomposites able to conduct efficiently electric current even at low graphene loadings preserving at the same time the mechanical properties of the polymer matrix.

  20. Multifunctional Eu3+- and Er3+/Yb3+-doped GdVO4 nanoparticles synthesized by reverse micelle method.

    Gavrilović, Tamara V; Jovanović, Dragana J; Lojpur, Vesna; Dramićanin, Miroslav D

    2014-02-27

    Synthesis of Eu(3+)- and Er(3+)/Yb(3+)-doped GdVO4 nanoparticles in reverse micelles and their multifunctional luminescence properties are presented. Using cyclohexane, Triton X-100, and n-pentanol as the oil, surfactant, and co-surfactant, respectively, crystalline nanoparticles with ~4 nm diameter are prepared at low temperatures. The particle size assessed using transmission electron microscopy is similar to the crystallite size obtained from X-ray diffraction measurements, suggesting that each particle comprises a single crystallite. Eu(3+)-doped GdVO4 nanoparticles emit red light through downconversion upon UV excitation. Er(3+)/Yb(3+)-doped GdVO4 nanoparticles exhibit several functions; apart from the downconversion of UV radiation into visible green light, they act as upconvertors, transforming near-infrared excitation (980 nm) into visible green light. The ratio of green emissions from (2)H11/2 → (2)I15/2 and (4)S3/2 → (4)I15/2 transitions is temperature dependent and can be used for nanoscale temperature sensing with near-infrared excitation. The relative sensor sensitivity is 1.11%K(-1), which is among the highest sensitivities recorded for upconversion-luminescence-based thermometers.

  1. Magnetic and optical properties of manganese doped ZnO nanoparticles synthesized by sol-gel technique

    Omri, Karim; El Ghoul, Jaber; Lemine, O. M.; Bououdina, M.; Zhang, Bei; El Mir, Lassaad

    2013-01-01

    Mn doped ZnO nanoparticles with different doping concentration (1, 2, 3, 4, 5 at.%) were prepared by sol-gel method using supercritical drying conditions of ethyl alcohol. The structural, morphological, optical and magnetic properties of the as-prepared nanoparticles were investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), UV measurements and superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID). The structural properties showed that the undoped and Mn doped ZnO nanoparticles exhibit hexagonal wurtzite structure. From the optical studies, the transmittance in UV region was decreased with the increase of Mn concentration. For Mn doped ZnO nanoparticles the optical band gap varies between 3.34 eV and 3.22 eV. It was found that the doping Mn 2+ ions have a significant influence on the optical properties. The magnetic characterization of the samples with 1% and 5% Mn concentrations reveal diamagnetic behavior for the first one and the presence of both paramagnetic and ferromagnetic behavior for the second. The room ferromagnetic component is due to the presence of the secondary phase ZnOMn3 which is confirmed by XRD study. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Magnetic and optical properties of manganese doped ZnO nanoparticles synthesized by sol-gel technique

    Omri, Karim

    2013-08-01

    Mn doped ZnO nanoparticles with different doping concentration (1, 2, 3, 4, 5 at.%) were prepared by sol-gel method using supercritical drying conditions of ethyl alcohol. The structural, morphological, optical and magnetic properties of the as-prepared nanoparticles were investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), UV measurements and superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID). The structural properties showed that the undoped and Mn doped ZnO nanoparticles exhibit hexagonal wurtzite structure. From the optical studies, the transmittance in UV region was decreased with the increase of Mn concentration. For Mn doped ZnO nanoparticles the optical band gap varies between 3.34 eV and 3.22 eV. It was found that the doping Mn 2+ ions have a significant influence on the optical properties. The magnetic characterization of the samples with 1% and 5% Mn concentrations reveal diamagnetic behavior for the first one and the presence of both paramagnetic and ferromagnetic behavior for the second. The room ferromagnetic component is due to the presence of the secondary phase ZnOMn3 which is confirmed by XRD study. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Multifunctional Eu3+- and Er3+/Yb3+-doped GdVO4 nanoparticles synthesized by reverse micelle method

    Gavrilović, Tamara V.; Jovanović, Dragana J.; Lojpur, Vesna; Dramićanin, Miroslav D.

    2014-02-01

    Synthesis of Eu3+- and Er3+/Yb3+-doped GdVO4 nanoparticles in reverse micelles and their multifunctional luminescence properties are presented. Using cyclohexane, Triton X-100, and n-pentanol as the oil, surfactant, and co-surfactant, respectively, crystalline nanoparticles with ~4 nm diameter are prepared at low temperatures. The particle size assessed using transmission electron microscopy is similar to the crystallite size obtained from X-ray diffraction measurements, suggesting that each particle comprises a single crystallite. Eu3+-doped GdVO4 nanoparticles emit red light through downconversion upon UV excitation. Er3+/Yb3+-doped GdVO4 nanoparticles exhibit several functions; apart from the downconversion of UV radiation into visible green light, they act as upconvertors, transforming near-infrared excitation (980 nm) into visible green light. The ratio of green emissions from 2H11/2 --> 2I15/2 and 4S3/2 --> 4I15/2 transitions is temperature dependent and can be used for nanoscale temperature sensing with near-infrared excitation. The relative sensor sensitivity is 1.11%K-1, which is among the highest sensitivities recorded for upconversion-luminescence-based thermometers.

  4. Synergistic antifungal effect of chitosan-stabilized selenium nanoparticles synthesized by pulsed laser ablation in liquids against Candida albicans biofilms.

    Lara, Humberto H; Guisbiers, Gregory; Mendoza, Jonathan; Mimun, Lawrence C; Vincent, Brandy A; Lopez-Ribot, Jose L; Nash, Kelly L

    2018-01-01

    Candida albicans is a major opportunistic fungal pathogen. One of the most important virulence factors that contribute to the pathogenesis of candidiasis is its ability to form biofilms. A key characteristic of Candida biofilms is their resistance to antifungal agents. Due to significant morbidity and mortality rates related to biofilm-associated drug resistance, there is an urgency to develop novel nanotechnology-based approaches preventing biofilm-related infections. In this study, we report, for the first time, the synthesis of selenium nanoparticles by irradiating selenium pellets by nanosecond pulsed laser ablation in liquid chitosan as a capping agent. Synergy of the fungicidal effect of selenium nanoparticles and chitosan was quantified by the combination index theorem of Chou-Talalay. This drug combination resulted in a potent fungicidal effect against a preformed C. albicans biofilm in a dose-response manner. By advanced electron microscopy techniques, we documented the adhesive and permeabilizing properties of chitosan, therefore allowing selenium nanoparticles to enter as the cell wall of the yeast became disrupted and distorted. Most importantly, we demonstrated a potent quantitative synergistic effect when compounds such as selenium and chitosan are combined. These chitosan-stabilized selenium nanoparticles could be used for ex vivo applications such as sterilizers for surfaces and biomedical devices.

  5. Effects of processing parameters on the morphology, structure, and magnetic properties of Cu{sub 1−x}Fe{sub x}Cr{sub 2}Se{sub 4} nanoparticles synthesized with chemical methods

    Ivantsov, R.D. [Kirensky Institute of Physics, Russian Academy of Sciences, Krasnoyarsk, 660036 (Russian Federation); Edelman, I.S., E-mail: ise@iph.krasn.ru [Kirensky Institute of Physics, Russian Academy of Sciences, Krasnoyarsk, 660036 (Russian Federation); Zharkov, S.M.; Velikanov, D.A. [Kirensky Institute of Physics, Russian Academy of Sciences, Krasnoyarsk, 660036 (Russian Federation); Siberian Federal University, Krasnoyarsk, 660041 (Russian Federation); Petrov, D.A. [Kirensky Institute of Physics, Russian Academy of Sciences, Krasnoyarsk, 660036 (Russian Federation); Ovchinnikov, S.G. [Kirensky Institute of Physics, Russian Academy of Sciences, Krasnoyarsk, 660036 (Russian Federation); Siberian Federal University, Krasnoyarsk, 660041 (Russian Federation); Lin, Chun-Rong [National Pingtung University, Pingtung City, Pingtung County, 90003, Taiwan (China); Li, Oksana [Siberian Federal University, Krasnoyarsk, 660041 (Russian Federation); National Pingtung University, Pingtung City, Pingtung County, 90003, Taiwan (China); Tseng, Yaw-Teng [National Pingtung University, Pingtung City, Pingtung County, 90003, Taiwan (China)

    2015-11-25

    Cu{sub 1−x}Fe{sub x}Cr{sub 2}Se{sub 4} nanoparticles with x = 0, 0.2, and 0.4 were synthesized via thermal decomposition of metal nitrate or chloride salts and selenium powder using different precursor compositions and processing details. Single crystalline nano-belts or nano-rods coexist in the synthesized powder samples with hexagon-shaped plates in dependence on the precursor composition. The belts gathered into conglomerates forming “hierarchical” particles. Visible magnetic circular dichroism (MCD) of Cu{sub 1−x}Fe{sub x}Cr{sub 2}Se{sub 4} nanoparticles embedded into a transparent matrix was investigated for the first time. The similarity of the MCD spectra of all samples showed the similarity of the nanoparticles electronic structure independent of their morphology. Basing on the MCD spectral maxima characteristics, electron transitions from the ground to the excited states were identified with the help of the conventional band theory and the multi-electron approach. - Highlights: • Single crystalline Cu{sub 1−x}Fe{sub x}Cr{sub 2}Se{sub 4} nanoparticles with x = 0, 0.2, 0.4 were synthesized. • Correlation between synthesis conditions and nanoparticles morphology were obtained. • The nanoparticles magnetization behavior was studied. • Visible MCD of the Cu{sub 1−x}Fe{sub x}Cr{sub 2}Se{sub 4} nanoparticles were studied for the first time.

  6. Modeling and optimization of effective parameters on the size of synthesized Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} superparamagnetic nanoparticles by coprecipitation technique using response surface methodology

    Ghazanfari, Mohammad Reza, E-mail: Ghazanfari.mr@gmail.com [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, 9177948974 Mashhad (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Kashefi, Mehrdad, E-mail: m-kashefi@um.ac.ir [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, 9177948974 Mashhad (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Jaafari, Mahmoud Reza [Biotechnology Research Center, Nanotechnology Research Center, School of Pharmacy, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2016-05-01

    Generally, the statistical methods are defined as appropriate techniques to study the processes trends. In current research, the Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} superparamagnetic nanoparticles were synthesized by coprecipitation method. In order to investigate the size properties of synthesized particles, the experimental design was done using central composite method (CCD) of response surface methodology (RSM) while the temperature, pH, and cation ratio of reaction were selected as influential factors. After particles synthesis based on designed runs, the different responses such as hydrodynamic size of particles (both freeze dried and air dried), size distribution, crystallite size, magnetic size, and zeta potential were evaluated by different techniques i.e. dynamic light scattering (DLS), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM). Based on these results, the quadratic polynomial model was fitted for each response that could predict the response amounts. In following, the study of factors effects was carried out that showed the temperature, pH, and their interactions had higher effectiveness. Finally, by optimizing, it was clear that the minimum amounts of particle size (10.15 nm) and size distribution (13.01 nm) were reached in the minimum temperature (70 °C) and cation ratio (0.5) amounts and maximum pH amount (10.5). Moreover, the characterizations showed the particles size was about 10 nm while the amounts of M{sub s}, H{sub c}, and M{sub r} were equal to 60 (emu/g), 0.2 (Oe) and 0.22 (emu/g), respectively. - Highlights: • The Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanoparticles were successfully synthesized by coprecipitation method. • By RSM technique, some predicted models were presented for particles size. • Temperature, pH and their interactions had most effectiveness on the particles size. • The drying techniques can effect on the size properties.

  7. Study of structural and optical properties of CaMoO{sub 4} nanoparticles synthesized by the microwave-assisted solvothermal method

    Botelho, G., E-mail: gleice.lorena@gmail.com [INCTMN-UFSCar, Universidade Federal de São Carlos, P.O. Box 676, 13565-905, São Carlos, SP (Brazil); Nogueira, I.C. [Instituto Federal do Maranhão, PPG em Engenharia de Materiais, 65030-005, São Luís, MA (Brazil); Moraes, E. [INCTMN-UFSCar, Universidade Federal de São Carlos, P.O. Box 676, 13565-905, São Carlos, SP (Brazil); Longo, E. [INCTMN-UNESP, Universidade Estadual Paulista, P.O. Box 355, CEP, 14801-907, Araraquara, SP (Brazil)

    2016-11-01

    Calcium molybdate (CaMoO{sub 4}) nanoparticles were synthesized by using a rapid assisted-microwave solvothermal method. X-ray diffraction measurements, Fourier transform Raman and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopies, revealed that the samples all have a scheelite-type tetragonal structure. In addition, the data obtained from the Rietveld refinements revealed distortions of the [Ca−O] and [Mo−O] bonds that led, in turn, to distortions of the [CaO{sub 8}] and [MoO{sub 4}] clusters. The presence of irregular spherical-like CaMoO{sub 4} nanoparticles and the corresponding crystallographic arrangement were confirmed and determined via transmission electron microscopy and high resolution transmission electron microscopy, respectively. First-principles quantum mechanical calculations based on the density functional theory at the B3LYP level were employed in order to understand the band structure and density of states of CaMoO{sub 4} in the excited singlet and triplet states. Furthermore, the optical properties were investigated by performing ultraviolet–visible spectroscopy and photoluminescence (PL) measurements. Maximum PL emission of CaMoO{sub 4} powders was detected in the green-region wavelength of the electromagnetic spectrum; this emission was attributed to the distorted [MoO{sub 4}] clusters. - Highlights: • Effect of propane-1,3-diol in the synthesis of nanoparticles by a rapid method. • Utilization of first-principles quantum mechanical calculations. • Investigation of photoluminescent properties of CaMoO{sub 4} nanoparticles.

  8. Controlling Aedes albopictus and Culex pipiens pallens using silver nanoparticles synthesized from aqueous extract of Cassia fistula fruit pulp and its mode of action.

    Fouad, Hatem; Hongjie, Li; Hosni, Dawood; Wei, Jiqian; Abbas, Ghulam; Ga'al, Hassan; Jianchu, Mo

    2018-05-01

    Mosquitoes act as key vector for transmission of devastating parasites and pathogens which affect millions of people globally. In this research, the green synthesis of silver nanoparticles of Cassia fistula fruit pulp as an innovative and operative tool against vector mosquitoes is presented. Silver nanoparticles were characterized by a series of techniques including Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, Transmission Electron Microscope and confirmed by Scanning Electron Microscope, UV-Vis spectrophotometry and X-ray diffraction. Silver nanoparticles were highly effective against the larvae (I-IV instar) and pupae of Aedes albopictus and Culex pipiens pallens after 24, 48 and 72 h of treatment. Ae. albopictus had LC50 values ranging from 8.3 mg/L (I instar) to 17.3 mg/L (pupae) and LC50 ranging from 1.1 mg/L (I instar) to 19.0 mg/L (pupae) against Cx. pipiens pallens. The systemic effect of AgNPs was further assessed in the fourth instar larvae of Ae. albopictus and Cx. pipiens pallens by measuring the levels of total proteins and activity of two important marker enzymes: Acetylcholinesterase and α- and β-carboxylesterase. Overall, the findings of the study suggest that the use of Cassia fistula-fruit pulp extract mediated synthesis of silver nanoparticles can be used for controlling vector mosquitoes. This is the first report on the mosquito larvicidal and pupicidal activity of AgNPs synthesized by Cassia fistula fruit pulp and its possible mechanism of action.

  9. Syntheses and characterization of thin films of Te{sub 94}Se{sub 6} nanoparticles for semiconducting and optical devices

    Salah, Numan, E-mail: nsalah@kau.edu.sa [Center of Nanotechnology, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah-21589 (Saudi Arabia); Habib, Sami S.; Memic, Adnan [Center of Nanotechnology, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah-21589 (Saudi Arabia); Alharbi, Najlaa D. [Center of Nanotechnology, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah-21589 (Saudi Arabia); Sciences Faculty for Girls, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah-21589 (Saudi Arabia); Babkair, Saeed S. [Center of Nanotechnology, Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah-21589 (Saudi Arabia); Khan, Zishan H. [Department of Applied Sciences and Humanities, Jamia Millia Islamia (Central University), New Delhi-110025 (India)

    2013-03-01

    Thin films of Te{sub 94}Se{sub 6} nanoparticles were synthesized using the physical vapor condensation technique at different argon (Ar) pressures. The samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive spectroscopy, absorption spectrum, photoluminescence (PL) and Raman spectroscopy. XRD results show that the as-grown films have a polycrystalline structure. SEM images display uniform nanoparticles in these films where the size increases from ∼ 12 to about 60 nm by decreasing Ar pressure from 667 to 267 Pa. These as-grown thin films were found to have direct band gaps, whose value decreases with increasing particle size. The absorption and extinction coefficients for these films were also investigated. PL emission spectra exhibit three bands peaking at 666, 718 and 760 nm, while Raman spectra displayed three bands located at 123, 143 and 169 cm{sup −1}. No significant changes are observed in positions or intensities of these bands by decreasing the Ar pressure, except that of the last band of PL; where the intensity increases. The obtained results on this Te{sub 94}Se{sub 6} nanomaterial especially its controlled direct bandgap might be useful for development of optical disks and other semiconducting devices. - Highlights: ► Thin films of Te{sub 94}Se{sub 6} nanoparticles were grown at different argon (Ar) pressures. ► Size of the nanoparticles increased by decreasing Ar pressure. ► They have direct band gap, whose value decreases by increasing the particle size. ► These nanomaterials might be useful for development of semiconducting devices.

  10. Surface properties and dye loading behavior of Zn{sub 2}SnO{sub 4} nanoparticles hydrothermally synthesized using different mineralizers

    Annamalai, Alagappan; Eo, Yang Dam [Department of Advanced Technology Fusion, Konkuk University, 1 Hwayang-dong, Kwangjin-gu, Seoul 143-701 (Korea, Republic of); Im, Chan [Department of Chemistry, Konkuk University, 1 Hwayang-dong, Kwangjin-gu, Seoul 143-701 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Man-Jong, E-mail: leemtx@konkuk.ac.kr [Department of Advanced Technology Fusion, Konkuk University, 1 Hwayang-dong, Kwangjin-gu, Seoul 143-701 (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-10-15

    We present for the first time the influence of different mineralizers on the isoelectric point (IEP) of zinc stannate (Zn{sub 2}SnO{sub 4}) nanoparticles hydrothermally prepared using three different mineralizers, viz., Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3}, KOH and tert-butyl amine, and the effect of the IEPs on the dye loading behavior of Zn{sub 2}SnO{sub 4} based photoelectrodes in dye sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). To produce highly crystalline, uniform sized Zn{sub 2}SnO{sub 4} nanoparticles, hydrothermal processing parameters, such as reaction temperature, time, and the mineralizers used have been critically adjusted. The structural and morphological features of the as-synthesized Zn{sub 2}SnO{sub 4} nanoparticles have been observed using both scanning and transmission electron microscopy. For the surface state characterization of shape- and size-controlled Zn{sub 2}SnO{sub 4} nanoparticles, the IEPs of Zn{sub 2}SnO{sub 4} surfaces were determined through zeta potential measurements. The IEPs were found to be 5.7, 7.4 and 8.1 for Zn{sub 2}SnO{sub 4} nanoparticles formed using Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3}, KOH and tert-butyl amine, respectively, suggesting that the surface properties of Zn{sub 2}SnO{sub 4} nanoparticles can be manipulated through the choice of the mineralizers used during the hydrothermal reaction. The amount of N719 dye loading on the surfaces of Zn{sub 2}SnO{sub 4} electrodes having different IEPs was also evaluated. It was revealed that the higher the IEP, the higher the dye loading amount, which means that the IEP mainly affects the dye loading at the dye-metal oxide interface. - Highlights: {yields} The effect of various mineralizers on the isoelectric point of Zn{sub 2}SnO{sub 4} was discussed. {yields} The IEP of Zn{sub 2}SnO{sub 4} can be modified by the choice of mineralizer. {yields} Change in IEP affects the surface properties and the morphology of Zn{sub 2}SnO{sub 4} particles. {yields} Modified surface affects the N719 dye loading behaviour of the Zn{sub 2

  11. Characterization, Antibacterial and Antioxidant Properties of Silver Nanoparticles Synthesized from Aqueous Extracts of Allium sativum, Zingiber officinale, and Capsicum frutescens

    Otunola, Gloria Aderonke; Afolayan, Anthony Jide; Ajayi, Emmanuel Olusegun; Odeyemi, Samuel Wale

    2017-01-01

    Background: Herbal drug delivery is limited by poor solubility and bioavailability which can be overcome with suitable nanomaterials that will enhance their pharmacokinetics and performance. Objective: This study aimed to analyze the synthesis, characterization, and biological activities of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) from three spices. Materials and Methods: AgNPs were prepared using 0.1 M silver nitrate and aqueous extracts of Allium sativum L. (garlic), Zingiber officinale Rosc. (ginger), and Capsicum frutescens L. (cayenne pepper). The AgNPs were characterized using ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis) spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), energy dispersive X-ray, X-ray diffraction (XRD), and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. Results: The AgNPs were formed within an hour of the reaction and showed maximum UV-Vis absorption in the 375–480 nm range. SEM and TEM revealed well-dispersed spherical particles with little agglomeration, average sizes of 3–6 nm, 3–22 nm, and 3–18 nm for garlic, ginger, and cayenne pepper, respectively. FTIR showed that amine, protein, phenolic, aromatic, and alkynes groups contributed to AgNP synthesis and XRD confirmed their crystalline and face-centered cubic nature. Antibacterial action of the AgNPs was in the following order: ginger (minimum inhibitory concentration [MIC] garlic> cayenne pepper (MIC 125 μg/mL). Antioxidant action showed cayenne pepper > ginger > garlic (inhibitory concentration 50% [IC50]: 40, 240, and 250 μg/mL, respectively) against 2,2-Azino-bis (3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) and garlic > cayenne pepper > ginger (IC50: <31.25, 40, and 120 μg/mL, respectively) against 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl. Conclusion: Optimization of this green synthesis would support the production of AgNPs with great therapeutic potentials. SUMMARY The synthesis, characterization, and biological activities of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) from garlic, ginger

  12. Characterization, Antibacterial and Antioxidant Properties of Silver Nanoparticles Synthesized from Aqueous Extracts of Allium sativum, Zingiber officinale, and Capsicum frutescens.

    Otunola, Gloria Aderonke; Afolayan, Anthony Jide; Ajayi, Emmanuel Olusegun; Odeyemi, Samuel Wale

    2017-07-01

    Herbal drug delivery is limited by poor solubility and bioavailability which can be overcome with suitable nanomaterials that will enhance their pharmacokinetics and performance. This study aimed to analyze the synthesis, characterization, and biological activities of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) from three spices. AgNPs were prepared using 0.1 M silver nitrate and aqueous extracts of Allium sativum L. (garlic), Zingiber officinale Rosc. (ginger), and Capsicum frutescens L. (cayenne pepper). The AgNPs were characterized using ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis) spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), energy dispersive X-ray, X-ray diffraction (XRD), and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. The AgNPs were formed within an hour of the reaction and showed maximum UV-Vis absorption in the 375-480 nm range. SEM and TEM revealed well-dispersed spherical particles with little agglomeration, average sizes of 3-6 nm, 3-22 nm, and 3-18 nm for garlic, ginger, and cayenne pepper, respectively. FTIR showed that amine, protein, phenolic, aromatic, and alkynes groups contributed to AgNP synthesis and XRD confirmed their crystalline and face-centered cubic nature. Antibacterial action of the AgNPs was in the following order: ginger (minimum inhibitory concentration [MIC] garlic> cayenne pepper (MIC 125 μg/mL). Antioxidant action showed cayenne pepper > ginger > garlic (inhibitory concentration 50% [IC50]: 40, 240, and 250 μg/mL, respectively) against 2,2-Azino-bis (3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) and garlic > cayenne pepper > ginger (IC50: <31.25, 40, and 120 μg/mL, respectively) against 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl. Optimization of this green synthesis would support the production of AgNPs with great therapeutic potentials. The synthesis, characterization, and biological activities of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) from garlic, ginger and cayenne pepper were evaluatedThe AgNPs formed were characterized using UV

  13. Investigation on structural and electrical properties of Fe doped ZnO nanoparticles synthesized by solution combustion method

    Ram, Mast; Bala, Kanchan; Sharma, Hakikat; Kumar, Arun; Negi, N. S.

    2016-01-01

    In the present study, nanoparticles of Fe doped zinc oxide (ZnO) [Zn_1_-_xFe_xO where x=0.0, 0.01, 0.02, 0.03 and 0.05] were prepared by cost effective solution combustion method. The powder X-ray diffractometry confirms the formation of single phase wurtzite structure. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) were used to investigate the micrsostructure of Fe-doped ZnO nanoparticles. The DC electrical conductivity was found to increase with temperature and measurement was carried out in the temperature range of 300-473K. DC electrical conductivity increases with temperature and decreases with Fe doping concentration.

  14. Impact of different environmental conditions on the aggregation of biogenic U(IV) nanoparticles synthesized by Desulfovibrio alaskensis G20

    Şengör, S. Sevinç; Singh, Gursharan; Dohnalkova, Alice; Spycher, Nicolas; Ginn, Timothy R.; Peyton, Brent M.; Sani, Rajesh K.

    2016-09-13

    This study investigates the impact of specific environmental conditions on the formation of colloidal U(IV) nanoparticles by the sulfate reducing bacteria (SRB, Desulfovibrio alaskensis G20). The reduction of soluble U(VI) to less soluble U(IV) was quantitatively investigated under growth and non-growth conditions in bicarbonate or 1,4-piperazinediethanesulfonic acid (PIPES) buffered environments. The results showed that under non-growth conditions, the majority of the reduced U nanoparticles aggregated and precipitated out of solution. High resolution transmission electron microscopy revealed that only a very small fraction of cells had reduced U precipitates in the periplasmic spaces in the presence of PIPES buffer, whereas in the presence of bicarbonate buffer, reduced U was also observed in the cytoplasm with greater aggregation of biogenic U(IV) particles at higher initial U(VI) concentrations. The same experiments were repeated under growth conditions using two different electron donors (lactate and pyruvate) and three electron acceptors (sulfate, fumarate, and thiosulfate). In contrast to the results of the non-growth experiments, even after 0.2 m filtration, the majority of biogenic U(IV) remained in the aqueous phase resulting in potentially mobile biogenic U(IV) nanoparticles. Size fractionation results showed that U(IV) aggregates were between 18 and 200 nm in diameter, and thus could be very mobile. The findings of this study are helpful to assess the size and potential mobility of reduced U nanoparticles under different environmental conditions, and would provide insights on their potential impact affecting U(VI) bioremediation efforts at subsurface contaminated sites.

  15. Characterization of dip-coated ITO films derived from nanoparticles synthesized by low-pressure spray pyrolysis

    Ogi, Takashi; Iskandar, Ferry; Itoh, Yoshifumi; Okuyama, Kikuo

    2006-01-01

    In 2 O 3 :Sn (Indium Tin Oxide; ITO) films were prepared from a sol solution with highly crystalline ITO nanoparticles (less than 20 nm in size with 10 at.% Sn) which had been prepared by low-pressure spray pyrolysis (LPSP) in a single step. The ITO sol solution was prepared by dispersing LPSP-prepared ITO nanoparticles into ultra pure water. The nanoparticle ITO film was deposited on a glass substrate using a dip-coating method and then annealed in air at various temperatures. The optical transmittances of the ITO films were measured by UV-Vis spectrometry, and the films were found to have a high transparency to visible light (in the case of a film thickness of 250 nm annealed at 400 deg. C, the transparency was in excess of 95% over the range λ=450-800 nm, with a maximum value near 100% at wavelengths above λ=700 nm). The optical transmittances of the films were influenced by the size of the ITO particle used, the film thickness and the annealing temperature. The ITO films showed a minimum resistivity of 9.5x10 -2 Ω cm, and their resistivity was affected by both the ITO particle size and the annealing temperature used

  16. A novel hydrolysis method to synthesize chromium hydroxide nanoparticles and its catalytic effect in the thermal decomposition of ammonium perchlorate

    Li, Ping; Zhou, Zhen; Xu, Hongbin; Zhang, Yi

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Synthesis of Cr(OH) 3 nanoparticles in Cr 3+ –F − aqueous solution. ► The F − ion tailors coagulated materials, Cr(OH) 3 nanoparticles are obtained. ► Adding nanosized Cr(OH) 3 , AP thermal decomposition temperature decreases to 200 °C. ► The nanosized Cr(OH) 3 catalyzes NH 3 oxidation, accelerating AP thermal decomposition. - Abstract: A procedure for the preparation of spherical Cr(OH) 3 nanoparticles was developed based on the aging of chromium nitrate aqueous solutions in the presence of sodium fluoride, urea, and polyvinylpyrrolidone. Using scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and energy dispersive spectroscopy, the morphological characteristics of Cr(OH) 3 were controlled by altering the molar ratio of fluoride ion to chromium ion, as well as the initial pH and chromium ion concentration. The prepared nanosized Cr(OH) 3 decreased the temperature required to decompose ammonium perchlorate from 450 °C to about 250 °C as the catalyst. The possible catalytic mechanism of the thermal decomposition of ammonium perchlorate was also discussed.

  17. The Effect of Catalyst Type on The Microstructure and Magnetic Properties of Synthesized Hard Cobalt Ferrite Nanoparticles.

    Shaima'a Jaber Kareem

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available A sol-gel process prepared the nanoparticles of hard cobalt ferrite (CoFe2O4. Cobalt nitrate hexahydrate (Co (NO32⋅6H2O, iron nitrate nonahydrate (Fe (NO33⋅9H2O with using two catalysis acid (citric acid and alkaline (hydroxide ammonium were used as precursor materials. Crystallization behavior of the CoFe2O4 nanoparticles were studied by X-ray diffraction (XRD. Nanoparticles phases can change from amorphous to spinel ferrite crystalline depending on the calcinated temperature at 600°C, with using citric acid as a catalysis without finding forgone phase, while using hydroxide ammonium was shown second phase (α-Fe2O3 with CoFe2O4. Crystallite size was measured by Scherrer’s formula about (25.327 nm and (27.119 nm respectively. Structural properties were investigated by FTIR, which was appeared main bond of (Fe-O, (Co-O, (C-O, and (H-O. Scanning electron microscopy (FE- SEM was shown the microstructure observation of cobalt ferrite and the particle size at the range about (28.77-42.97 nm. Magnetization measurements were carried out on a vibrating sample magenometer (VSM that exhibited hard spinel ferrite.

  18. Study of hafnium (IV) oxide nanoparticles synthesized by polymerized complex and polymer precursor derived sol-gel methods

    Ramos-Gonzá lez, R.; Garcí a-Cerda, L. A.; Alshareef, Husam N.; Gnade, Bruce E.; Quevedo-Ló pez, Manuel Angel Quevedo

    2010-01-01

    This work reports the preparation and characterization of hafnium (IV) oxide (HfO2) nanoparticles grown by derived sol-gel routes that involves the formation of an organic polymeric network. A comparison between polymerized complex (PC) and polymer precursor (PP) methods is presented. For the PC method, citric acid (CA) and ethylene glycol (EG) are used as the chelating and polymerizable reagents, respectively. In the case of PP method, poly(acrylic acid) (PAA) is used as the chelating reagent. In both cases, different precursor gels were prepared and the hafnium (IV) chloride (HfCl4) molar ratio was varied from 0.1 to 1.0 for the PC method and from 0.05 to 0.5 for the PP method. In order to obtain the nanoparticles, the precursors were heat treated at 500 and 800 °C. The thermal characterization of the precursor gels was carried out by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and the structural and morphological characterization by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The XRD patterns of the samples obtained by both methods shows the formation of HfO2 at 500 °C with monoclinic crystalline phase. The PC method exhibited also the cubic phase. Finally, the HfO2 nanoparticles size (4 to 11 nm) was determined by TEM and XRD patterns. © (2010) Trans Tech Publications.

  19. Electrical Conduction Mechanism and Dielectric Properties of Spherical Shaped Fe₃O₄ Nanoparticles Synthesized by Co-Precipitation Method.

    Radoń, Adrian; Łukowiec, Dariusz; Kremzer, Marek; Mikuła, Jarosław; Włodarczyk, Patryk

    2018-05-05

    On the basis of dielectric measurements performed in a wide temperature range (173⁻373 K), a comprehensive analysis of the dielectric and electrical properties of magnetite nanoparticles electrical conduction mechanism of compressed spherical shaped Fe₃O₄ nanoparticles was proposed. The electrical conductivity of Fe₃O₄ nanoparticles was related to two different mechanisms (correlated barrier hopping and non-overlapping small polaron tunneling mechanisms); the transition between them was smooth. Additionally, role of grains and grain boundaries with charge carrier mobility and with observed hopping mechanism was described in detail. It has been confirmed that conductivity dispersion (as a function of frequencies) is closely related to both the long-range mobility (conduction mechanism associated with grain boundaries) and to the short-range mobility (conduction mechanism associated with grains). Calculated electron mobility increases with temperature, which is related to the decreasing value of hopping energy for the tunneling of small polarons. The opposite scenario was observed for the value of electron hopping energy.

  20. Study of hafnium (IV) oxide nanoparticles synthesized by polymerized complex and polymer precursor derived sol-gel methods

    Ramos-González, R.

    2010-03-01

    This work reports the preparation and characterization of hafnium (IV) oxide (HfO2) nanoparticles grown by derived sol-gel routes that involves the formation of an organic polymeric network. A comparison between polymerized complex (PC) and polymer precursor (PP) methods is presented. For the PC method, citric acid (CA) and ethylene glycol (EG) are used as the chelating and polymerizable reagents, respectively. In the case of PP method, poly(acrylic acid) (PAA) is used as the chelating reagent. In both cases, different precursor gels were prepared and the hafnium (IV) chloride (HfCl4) molar ratio was varied from 0.1 to 1.0 for the PC method and from 0.05 to 0.5 for the PP method. In order to obtain the nanoparticles, the precursors were heat treated at 500 and 800 °C. The thermal characterization of the precursor gels was carried out by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and the structural and morphological characterization by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The XRD patterns of the samples obtained by both methods shows the formation of HfO2 at 500 °C with monoclinic crystalline phase. The PC method exhibited also the cubic phase. Finally, the HfO2 nanoparticles size (4 to 11 nm) was determined by TEM and XRD patterns. © (2010) Trans Tech Publications.

  1. Inhibition of E. coli and S. aureus with selenium nanoparticles synthesized by pulsed laser ablation in deionized water

    Guisbiers G

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available G Guisbiers,1 Q Wang,2 E Khachatryan,1 LC Mimun,1 R Mendoza-Cruz,1 P Larese-Casanova,3 TJ Webster,2,4,5 KL Nash1 1Department of Physics and Astronomy, The University of Texas at San Antonio, San Antonio, TX, 2Department of Bioengineering, 3Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, 4Department of Chemical Engineering, Northeastern University, Boston, MA, USA; 5Center of Excellence for Advanced Materials Research, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia Abstract: Nosocomial diseases are mainly caused by two common pathogens, Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus, which are becoming more and more resistant to conventional antibiotics. Therefore, it is becoming increasingly necessary to find other alternative treatments than commonly utilized drugs. A promising strategy is to use nanomaterials such as selenium nanoparticles. However, the ability to produce nanoparticles free of any contamination is very challenging, especially for nano-medical applications. This paper reports the successful synthesis of pure selenium nanoparticles by laser ablation in water and determines the minimal concentration required for ~50% inhibition of either E. coli or S. aureus after 24 hours to be at least ~50 ppm. Total inhibition of E. coli and S. aureus is expected to occur at 107±12 and 79±4 ppm, respectively. In this manner, this study reports for the first time an easy synthesis process for creating pure selenium to inhibit bacterial growth. Keywords: nosocomial disease, bacteria, antibiotics resistant, cytotoxicity

  2. Safety evaluation of green synthesized Cola nitida pod, seed and seed shell extract-mediated silver nanoparticles (AgNPs using an Allium cepa assay

    Taofeek A. Yekeen

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The increase in the use of nanoparticles in various fields of human endeavours calls for the need to understand the toxic potential of green synthesized nanoparticles. Cytogenotoxic potentials of green synthesized Cola pod (Cp-AgNPs, seed (Cs-AgNPs and seed shell (Css-AgNPs silver nanoparticles and silver nitrate salts (Ags were evaluated using an A. cepa assay. Twenty onion bulbs were exposed to 0.01, 0.10, 1.0, 10.0, and 100.0 μg/ml AgNPs and Ags solutions. Microscopic evaluation was performed at 24, 48 and 72 h with 5000 cells per concentration scored for chromosomal aberrations, while the effects on the root growth were evaluated at 72 h. The observed dividing cells and mitotic inhibition were dose-dependent for the three AgNPs and Ags at 24, 48 and 72 h. Mitotic index obtained for 1.0, 10 and 100 μg/mL at all times of evaluation were less than half the value of the negative control, while cell arrest was only observed at 72 h at a concentration of 100 μg/mL for the three AgNPs. The chromosomal aberrations observed were c-mitosis, a chromosome bridge, a vagrant chromosome, and a sticky chromosome, which indicate the potential of AgNPs for genotoxicity. The mean root length of A. cepa treated with AgNPs showed a dose-dependent significant decrease compared to the control, indicating their inhibitory potential, but the mean root lengths were found to be lower at all concentrations compared to those treated with Ags, thus showing the attenuation of growth inhibition. The EC50 values revealed the order of growth inhibition as Ags>Cp-AgNPs>Css-AgNPs>Cs-AgNPs. The cytogenotoxic potential of the AgNPs suggests that caution should be exercised in their usage to prevent environmental pollution. Keywords: Green synthesis, Nanoparticles, Silver, Aberration, Allium cepa, Cola nitida

  3. Exploiting antidiabetic activity of silver nanoparticles synthesized using Punica granatum leaves and anticancer potential against human liver cancer cells (HepG2).

    Saratale, Rijuta G; Shin, Han Seung; Kumar, Gopalakrishnan; Benelli, Giovanni; Kim, Dong-Su; Saratale, Ganesh D

    2018-02-01

    This study first time reports the novel synthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) using a Punica granatum leaf extract (PGE). The synthesized AgNPs were characterized by various analytical techniques including UV-Vis, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), field emission scanning electron microscopy and energy-dispersive spectra (FESEM-EDS) and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM). FTIR analysis revealed that the involvement of biological macromolecules of P. granatum leaf extract were distributed and involved in the synthesis and stabilization of AgNPs. A surface-sensitive technique of XPS was used to analyse the composition and oxidation state of synthesized AgNPs. The analytical results confirmed that the AgNPs were crystalline in nature with spherical shape. The zeta potential study revealed that the surface charge of synthesized AgNPs was highly negative (-26.6 mV) and particle size distribution was ranging from ∼35 to 60 nm and the average particle size was about 48 nm determined by dynamic light scattering (DLS). The PGE-AgNPs antidiabetic potential exhibited effective inhibition against α-amylase and α-glucosidase (IC 50 ; 65.2 and 53.8 μg/mL, respectively). The PGE-AgNPs showed a dose-dependent response against human liver cancer cells (HepG2) (IC 50 ; 70 μg/mL) indicating its greater efficacy in killing cancer cells. They also possessed in vitro free radical-scavenging activity in terms of ABTS (IC 50 ; 52.2 μg/mL) and DPPH (IC 50 ; 67.1 μg/mL) antioxidant activity. PGE-AgNPs displayed strong antibacterial activity and potent synergy with standard antibiotics against pathogenic bacteria. Thus, synthesized PGE-AgNPs show potential biomedical and industrial applications.

  4. Characterization, antibacterial, antioxidant, antidiabetic, anti-inflammatory and antityrosinase activity of green synthesized silver nanoparticles using Calophyllum tomentosum leaves extract

    Govindappa, M.; Hemashekhar, B.; Arthikala, Manoj-Kumar; Ravishankar Rai, V.; Ramachandra, Y. L.

    2018-06-01

    The current research study is to develop an easy and eco-friendly method for the synthesis of AgNPs using aqueous leaf extract of Calophyllum tomentosum (CtAgNPs) and evaluated the extract to know the effects of anti-bacterial, antioxidant, anti-diabetic, anti-inflammatory and anti-tyrosinase activity. Using UV-vis spectrophotometer, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) characterized the Calophyllum tomentosum mediated silver nanoparticles. The leaf extract of C. tomentosum yielded flavonoids, saponins, tannins, alkaloids, glycosides, phenols, terpenoids and coumarins. AgNPs formation was confirmed by UV-vis spectra at 438 nm. Crystalline structure with a face centered cubic (fcc) of AgNPs was observed in XRD. FTIR had shown that the phytochemicals were responsible for the reduction and capping material of silver nanoparticles. The size and shape of the AgNPs were determined using SEM. From EDX study analysed the strong absorption property of AgNPs. The CtAgNPs have showed significant antibacterial activity on multi drug resistance bacteria. The CtAgNPs had shown strong antioxidant (DPPH, H2O2 scavenging, nitric oxide scavenging power, reducing power) activities. The CtAgNPs had strongly inhibited the α-glucosidase and DPPIV compared to α-amylase. The CtAgNPs exhibited strong anti-inflammatory activity (albumin denaturation, membrane stabilization, heat haemolytic, protein inhibitory, lipoxygenase, xanthine oxidase) and tyrosinase inhibitory activity. To our best knowledge, this is the first attempt on the synthesis of silver nanoparticles using Calophyllum tomentosum leaves extract. Hence, to validate our results the in vivo studies at molecular level are needed to develop an antioxidant, anti-diabetic and anti-inflammatory agent.

  5. Polymerization-Driven Immobilization of dc-APGD Synthesized Gold Nanoparticles into a Quaternary Ammonium-Based Hydrogel Resulting in a Polymeric Nanocomposite with Heat-Transfer Applications

    Piotr Cyganowski

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available A new method for the production of nanocomposites, composed of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs and (vinylbenzyltrimethylammonium chloride-co-N,N-methylene bisacrylamide (VBTAC-co-MBA hydrogel, is described. Raw-AuNPs of defined optical and granulometric properties were synthesized using direct current atmospheric pressure glow discharge (dc-APGD generated in contact with a solution of HAuCl4. Different approaches to the polymerization-driven synthesis of Au/VBTAC-co-MBA nanocomposites were tested. It was established that homogenous dispersion of AuNPs in this new nanomaterial with was achieved in the presence of NaOH in the reaction mixture. The new nanocomposite was found to have excellent heat-transfer properties.

  6. Optimized Packing Density of Large CZTS Nanoparticles Synthesized by Hot-injection for Thin Film Solar Cells

    Engberg, Sara Lena Josefin; Lam, Yeng Ming; Schou, Jørgen

    will be deposited through wet-chemical means, e.g. doctor-blading, spin-coating and spray-coating. The annealing time required can be minimized when starting with larger nanoparticles, and thus the elemental losses associated with annealing at higher temperature reduced. The films are characterized by TEM......, solution processing allows for comparatively fast and inexpensive fabrication, and also holds the record efficiency in the kesterite family. Unfortunately, the record cell is deposited with a highly toxic solvent, hydrazine. This toxic solvent can be avoided through the nanocrystal ink approach...

  7. Statistical approach of synthesize CoFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} nanoparticles to optimize their characteristics using response surface methodology

    Shams, S. Fatemeh, E-mail: f.shams@fz-juelich.de [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, 9177948974 Mashhad (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Peter Grünberg Institute (PGI-6), Jülich Research Centre, 52425 Jülich (Germany); Kashefi, Mehrdad, E-mail: m-kashefi@um.ac.ir [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, 9177948974 Mashhad (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Schmitz-Antoniak, Carolin [Peter Grünberg Institute (PGI-6), Jülich Research Centre, 52425 Jülich (Germany)

    2017-06-15

    Highlights: • The CoFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} nanoparticles were successfully synthesized by coprecipitation method. • By RSM technique, some predicted models were presented for particles size. • Temperature, pH and their interactions had most effectiveness on the particles size. • The reduction agent type can effect on the size properties. • The mixing order of components can effect on the size properties. - Abstract: The performance of magnetic nanoparticles in different applications is severely depended on their size characteristics, so the study of effective parameters on these properties can play significant roles in qualifications of nanoparticles. In present work, some important factors on size features of CoFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} superparamagnetic nanoparticles include the mixing order of synthesis components, the utilized reduction agents, stabilization process, and chelating mechanisms were investigated. Moreover, in order to optimize several influential factors such as the temperature, pH, and cation ratio of reaction, the experimental design was done by using central composite design method of response surface methodology. The simultaneous effects on the particles size and their size distribution were investigated by different methods i.e. dynamic light scattering, X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform inferred spectroscopy, vibration sample magnetometer, and transmission electron microscopy. Results demonstrated the mixing order of reduction agent to salt solution and also the employing of NH{sub 4}OH as a reduction agent could cause to significant decreasing of particles size and size distribution. Furthermore, the nitric acid could stabilize and chelate nanoparticles more appropriate than citric acid. Based on the optimization results, the quadratic polynomial models were fitted on the responses which could predict their amounts, while temperature, pH, and their interactions had higher effectiveness. In addition, the optimum amounts of particle size (14

  8. Size dependent electrical and magnetic properties of ZnFe2O4 nanoparticles synthesized by the combustion method: Comparison between aspartic acid and glycine as fuels

    Shanmugavani, A.; Kalai Selvan, R.; Layek, Samar; Sanjeeviraja, C.

    2014-01-01

    Using two different fuels such as aspartic acid and glycine, the spinel zinc ferrite nanoparticles were synthesized by the combustion method at different pH values. The thermochemical calculations for both the fuel assisted materials and its adiabatic flame temperature were calculated. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) pattern revealed the formation of single phase ZnFe 2 O 4 with high crystallinity. The characteristic functional groups of Fe3O and Zn3O were identified through FTIR analysis. Uniform size distribution of spherical particle in the average size range of 35–100 nm was inferred from SEM images. The room temperature DC conductivities of ZnFe 2 O 4 particles prepared by using aspartic and glycine are in the order of 10 −7 and 10 −8 respectively. The dielectric spectral analysis inferred that the obtained dielectric constant is high at low frequency and decreases with increase in frequency. This dielectric behavior is in accordance with the Maxwell–Wagner interfacial polarization. VSM and Mössbauer analysis revealed that the prepared material exhibits paramagnetic behavior and Fe 3+ state of iron content in ZnFe 2 O 4 at room temperature. - Highlights: • For the first time aspartic acid is used as a fuel to synthesize ZnFe 2 O 4 nanoparticles. • Theoretical adiabatic flame temperature for the formation of ZnFe 2 O 4 is calculated. • Individual spherical shape particles are achieved by combustion synthesis. • Enhanced room temperature conductivity for aspartic acid assisted particles are revealed. • Size dependent electrical and magnetic properties are demonstrated

  9. Antibacterial effect of novel synthesized sulfated β-cyclodextrin crosslinked cotton fabric and its improved antibacterial activities with ZnO, TiO2 and Ag nanoparticles coating.

    Selvam, S; Rajiv Gandhi, R; Suresh, J; Gowri, S; Ravikumar, S; Sundrarajan, M

    2012-09-15

    Sulfated β-cyclodextrin was synthesized from sulfonation of β-cyclodextrin and sulfated polymer was crosslinked with cotton fabric using ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid as crosslinker. ZnO, TiO(2) and Ag nanoparticles were prepared and characterized by XRD, UV, DLS, SEM and PSA. The prepared nanoparticles were coated on crosslinked