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Sample records for cestode infections

  1. Basic and applied problems in developmental biology and immunobiology of cestode infections: Hymenolepis, Taenia and Echinococcus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, A

    2015-02-01

    Differentiation and development of parasites, including longevity in host animals, are thought to be governed by host-parasite interactions. In this review, several topics on the developmental biology of cestode infections are discussed from immunobiological perspective with a focus on Hymenolepis, Taenia and Echinococcus infections. The basic premise of this review is that 'differentiation and development of cestodes' are somehow affected by host immune responses with an evolutionary history.

  2. Basic and applied immunology in cestode infections: from Hymenolepis to Taenia and Echinococcus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, A

    1997-10-01

    In larval cestode infections, it is well established that the intermediate mammalian host infected with egg-derived metacestodes in the tissue becomes completely immune to reinfection with eggs, whereas autoinfection has been conceived to occur in Hymenolepis nana/mouse (and human) and Taenia solium/human systems when these hosts are initially infected with metacestode-derived adult tapeworms in the lumen. In this review paper, the first topic is immunobiology of H. nana/mouse system on the reinfection immunity in order to get critical information as to how the initially ingested parasite (eggs or metacestodes) can develop into adult worms and how autoinfection does or does not occur in immunocompetent mice, since H. nana can complete its whole life cycle in the mouse intestinal tissue and lumen. When mice are infected with eggs (= oncospheres) of H. nana, they become immune to challenge infections with eggs within a few days (early response) and with cysticercoids within two weeks (late response). The initially established adult worms are expelled later (worm expulsion response). When mice are infected with cysticercoids, either derived from beetles or mice, they become immune to challenge infection with cysticercoids but not with eggs. Therefore, autoinfection occurs in the intestinal tissue for the establishment of cysticercoids in the tissue but never occurs in the intestinal lumen for the establishment of adult worms in immunocompetent mice. The second topic is vaccination trial against challenge infection with eggs of Asian Taenia in pigs. Pigs vaccinated with frozen oncospheres of Asian Taenia from Taiwan or Korea or T. saginata showed very strong resistance, whereas pigs vaccinated with those of T. solium showed partial resistance only. It is suggested that Asian Taenia is much closer to T. saginata than T. solium from the immunobiological viewpoint. The third topic is immunodiagnosis of echinococcosis and cysticercosis. Immunoblot analysis has revealed

  3. Comparing cestode infections and their consequences for host fitness in two sexual branchiopods: alien Artemia franciscana and native A. salina from syntopic-populations.

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    Redón, Stella; Amat, Francisco; Sánchez, Marta I; Green, Andy J

    2015-01-01

    The American brine shrimp Artemia franciscana is invasive in the Mediterranean region where it has displaced native species (the sexual A. salina, and the clonal A. parthenogenetica) from many salt pond complexes. Artemia populations are parasitized by numerous avian cestodes whose effects have been studied in native species. We present a study from the Ebro Delta salterns (NE Spain), in a salt pond where both A. franciscana and native A. salina populations coexist, providing a unique opportunity to compare the parasite loads of the two sexual species in syntopy. The native species had consistently higher infection parameters, largely because the dominant cestode in A. salina adults and juveniles (Flamingolepis liguloides) was much rarer in A. franciscana. The most abundant cestodes in the alien species were Eurycestus avoceti (in adults) and Flamingolepis flamingo (in juveniles). The abundance of E. avoceti and F. liguloides was higher in the A. franciscana population syntopic with A. salina than in a population sampled at the same time in another pond where the native brine shrimp was absent, possibly because the native shrimp provides a better reservoir for parasite circulation. Infection by cestodes caused red colouration in adult and juvenile A. salina, and also led to castration in a high proportion of adult females. Both these effects were significantly stronger in the native host than in A. franciscana with the same parasite loads. However, for the first time, significant castration effects (for E. avoceti and F. liguloides) and colour change (for six cestode species) were observed in infected A. franciscana. Avian cestodes are likely to help A. franciscana outcompete native species. At the same time, they are likely to reduce the production of A. franciscana cysts in areas where they are harvested commercially.

  4. Comparing cestode infections and their consequences for host fitness in two sexual branchiopods: alien Artemia franciscana and native A. salina from syntopic-populations

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    Stella Redón

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The American brine shrimp Artemia franciscana is invasive in the Mediterranean region where it has displaced native species (the sexual A. salina, and the clonal A. parthenogenetica from many salt pond complexes. Artemia populations are parasitized by numerous avian cestodes whose effects have been studied in native species. We present a study from the Ebro Delta salterns (NE Spain, in a salt pond where both A. franciscana and native A. salina populations coexist, providing a unique opportunity to compare the parasite loads of the two sexual species in syntopy. The native species had consistently higher infection parameters, largely because the dominant cestode in A. salina adults and juveniles (Flamingolepis liguloides was much rarer in A. franciscana. The most abundant cestodes in the alien species were Eurycestus avoceti (in adults and Flamingolepis flamingo (in juveniles. The abundance of E. avoceti and F. liguloides was higher in the A. franciscana population syntopic with A. salina than in a population sampled at the same time in another pond where the native brine shrimp was absent, possibly because the native shrimp provides a better reservoir for parasite circulation. Infection by cestodes caused red colouration in adult and juvenile A. salina, and also led to castration in a high proportion of adult females. Both these effects were significantly stronger in the native host than in A. franciscana with the same parasite loads. However, for the first time, significant castration effects (for E. avoceti and F. liguloides and colour change (for six cestode species were observed in infected A. franciscana. Avian cestodes are likely to help A. franciscana outcompete native species. At the same time, they are likely to reduce the production of A. franciscana cysts in areas where they are harvested commercially.

  5. The complete mitochondrial genomes of three cestode species of Taenia infecting animals and humans.

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    Liu, Guo-Hua; Lin, Rui-Qing; Li, Ming-Wei; Liu, Wei; Liu, Yi; Yuan, Zi-Guo; Song, Hui-Qun; Zhao, Guang-Hui; Zhang, Kou-Xing; Zhu, Xing-Quan

    2011-04-01

    Mitochondrial (mt) genome sequences provide useful markers for investigating population genetic structures, systematics and phylogenetics of organisms. Although Taenia multiceps, T. hydatigena, and T. taeniaeformis are common taeniid tapeworms of ruminants, pigs, dogs, or cats, causing significant economic losses, no published study on their mt genomes is available. The complete mt genomes of T. multiceps, T. hydatigena, and T. taeniaeformis were amplified in two overlapping fragments and then sequenced. The sizes of the entire mt genome were 13700 bp for T. multiceps, 13489 bp for T. hydatigena, and 13647 bp for T. taeniaeformis. Each of the three genomes contains 36 genes, consisting of 12 genes for proteins, 2 genes for rRNA, and 22 genes for tRNA, which are the same as the mt genomes of all other cestode species studied to date. All genes are transcribed in the same direction and have a nucleotide composition high in A and T. The contents of A+T of the complete genomes are 71.3% for T. multiceps, 70.8% for T. hydatigena, and 73.0% for T. taeniaeformis. The AT bias had a significant effect on both the codon usage pattern and amino acid composition of proteins. T. multiceps and T. hydatigena had two noncoding regions, but T. taeniaeformis had only one. Phylogenetic analyses based on concatenated amino acid sequences of 12 protein-coding genes revealed that T. multiceps, T. hydatigena, and T. taeniaeformis were more closely related to the other members of the Taenia genus, consistent with results of previous morphological and molecular studies. The present study determined the complete mt genome sequences for three Taenia species of animal and human health significance, providing useful markers for studying the systematics, population genetics, and molecular epidemiology of these cestode parasites of animals and humans.

  6. Evaluation of the efficacy of emodepside+praziquantel topical solution against cestode (Dipylidium caninum, Taenia taeniaeformis, and Echinococcus multilocularis) infections in cats.

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    Charles, S D; Altreuther, G; Reinemeyer, C R; Buch, J; Settje, T; Cruthers, L; Kok, D J; Bowman, D D; Kazacos, K R; Jenkins, D J; Schein, E

    2005-10-01

    Emodepside+praziquantel topical solution was developed to provide broad-spectrum anthelmintic activity against gastrointestinal parasites in cats. Eight controlled studies were conducted to evaluate the efficacy of a topical solution of emodepside (3 mg/kg) and praziquantel (12 mg/kg) (Profender, BayerAG, Leverkusen, Germany) against feline infections with three species of cestodes. Studies featured naturally acquired infections of Dipylidium caninum or Taenia taeniaeformis, or experimental infections with Echinococcus multilocularis that were placebo-controlled, randomized and blinded. Cats were euthanatized and necropsied between 2 and 11 days after treatment, depending on the target parasite. The efficacy of emodepside+praziquantel topical solution was 100% against D. caninum and T. taeniaeformis, and 98.5- 100% against E. multilocularis. No significant systemic or local adverse reactions to treatment were noted in cats that received the combination. Topical treatment of cats with emodepside+praziquantel topical solution was safe and highly effective against cestode infections.

  7. 绦虫幼虫所致疾病的诊断%The diagnosis of diseases due to cestode infection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李丽; 周升

    2006-01-01

    由于绦虫幼虫是高致病性病原,诊断绦虫幼虫感染就显得很重要.本文对目前应用的诊断方法:病原学诊断,影像学诊断,免疫学诊断和分子生物学诊断技术进行详细的阐述.病原学诊断只是在囊性棘球蚴病和部分活动性脑囊尾蚴病的诊断中得到有效的和有限的应用.X线,CT和核磁共振(MRI)用于脑囊尾蚴病诊断.影像学诊断用来确诊囊性棘球蚴病和泡型棘球蚴病.X线是最便宜的诊断肺部囊性棘球蚴病和泡型棘球蚴病的方法.超声波检查作为诊断囊性棘球蚴病腹部包囊的首选诊断方法.MRI是最贵的影像学诊断方法,但仅仅用于诊断颅内囊性棘球蚴病和泡型棘球蚴病.在大多数发展中国家,IgG-ELISA是诊断人类囊性棘球蚴病和泡型棘球蚴病的一种好方法.虽然诊断特异性血清抗体可以获得高敏感度,但仍有部分病人的抗体不能检测出.幼虫囊包的位置、完整性和活性决定了抗体的检测效果.分子生物学技术是敏感度和特异度最高的诊断方法,但是,也是最昂贵的诊断方法.现在首选的诊断绦虫幼虫所致疾病的方法是综合影像学和免疫学方法.%As the larval cestodes is highly pathogenic to human, it is important for diagnosis of larval cestode infections. Thisreview presented diagnosis methods used: parasitological diagnosis, imaging techniques, immunological diagnosis, and molecular biological techniques. Parasitological diagnosis is limitedly used in cystic echinococcosis (CE) and part of active neurocysticercosis patients. X- ray, Computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonace imaging (MRI) are useful in neurocysticercosis. Definitive diagnosis of CE end alveolar echinococcosis (AE) can be achieved by various itaaging technique. X - ray is cheaper than others used for pulmonary of AE and CE, ultrasonography (US) for abdominal cyst in CE as primary diagnosis technique and MRI, the most expensive imaging technique

  8. Enzymatic method (phospholipase B) for studies on cestode infection (Hymenolepis nana) and its suppression by chemotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ottolenghi, A.; Rowland, J.T.

    1975-01-01

    The phospholipase B activity of the small intestine of mice infected with Hymenolepis nana has been studied to determine its value as a laboratory test for the presence of parasites and the chemotherapeutic effects of antitapeworm drugs. Mice infected with 500 H. nana eggs were examined on the 21st day of infection and the phospholipase B content of homogenates of small intestine was determined using lysolecithin (6.6 x 10/sup -3/ M) as the substrate. Some of the infected animals were treated with niclosamide according to schedules and doses known to affect worm development. Presence or absence of parasites was verified by visual inspection of the intestinal content. The enzymatic and visual methods gave equivalent results in both infected-not treated and infected-treated groups. Special features of niclosamide action (relative refractoriness of the early parasitic forms, enhanced effect of multiple doses) have been confirmed. The enzymatic method is proposed as a procedure for laboratory testing in chemotherapeutic investigations.

  9. Immune response to the cestode Hymenolepis nana: cytokine production during infection with eggs or cysts.

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    Conchedda, M; Bortoletti, G; Gabriele, F; Wakelin, D; Palmas, C

    1997-03-01

    Analysis of cytokine production (IFN-gamma, IL-2, IL-3, IL-4, IL-5) by in vitro Con A-stimulated mesenteric lymph node cells measured daily after egg or cyst infection of mice with Hymenolepis nana showed that cytokine production varies during parasite development and between different host strains (BALB/c and C3H/He mice). Egg infection stimulates a rapid increase in IFN-gamma, independent of mouse strain. In addition, in BALB/c mice a Th2-like response (IL-4, IL-5 secretion) was stimulated 4-5 days p.i., when the parasites are thought to begin their lumenal phase. After infection with cysts significant increases in IFN-gamma, IL-2, IL-4 and IL-5 were observed at the time when autoinfection with eggs is thought to occur. The level of IFN-gamma paralleled that seen after a primary egg infection. This suggests that there is a predominantly Th1-type response during the tissue phase of H. nana development and that, in BALB/c mice, a Th2 polarization occurs during the first few days of the lumenal phase. The cytokine patterns observed are discussed in relation to host responses during chronic helminth infection.

  10. Epidemiological studies of parasitic gastrointestinal nematodes, cestodes and coccidia infections in cattle in the highveld and lowveld communal grazing areas of Zimbabwe

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    D.M. Pfukenyi

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Between January 1999 and December 2000 faecal samples from 16 264 cattle at 12 dipping sites in the highveld and nine in the lowveld communal grazing areas of Zimbabwe were examined for gastrointestinal (GI nematode and cestodes eggs, and coccidia oocysts. Strongyle larvae were identified following culture of pooled faecal samples collected at monthly intervals. The effects of region, age, sex and season on the prevalence of GI nematodes, cestodes and coccidia were determined. Faecal egg and oocyst counts showed an overall prevalence of GI nematodes of 43 %, coccidia 19.8 % and cestodes 4.8 %. A significantly higher prevalence of infection with GI nematodes, cestodes and coccidia was recorded in calves (P < 0.01 than in adults. Pregnant and lactating cows had significantly higher prevalences than bulls, oxen and non-lactating (dry cows (P < 0.01. The general trend of eggs per gram (epg of faeces and oocysts per gram (opg of faeces was associated with the rainfall pattern in the two regions, with high epg and opg being recorded during the wet months. The most prevalent genera of GI nematodes were Cooperia, Haemonchus and Trichostrongylus in that order. Strongyloides papillosus was found exclusively in calves. Haemonchus was significantly more prevalent during the wet season than the dry season (P < 0.01. In contrast, Trichostrongylus was present in significantly (P < 0.01 higher numbers during the dry months than the wet months, while Cooperia and Oesophagostomum revealed no significant differences between the wet and dry season. These findings are discussed with reference to their relevance for strategic control of GI parasites in cattle in communal grazing areas of Zimbabwe.

  11. CESTODES IN MAN IN INDONESIA

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    Sri S. Margono

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Cestodes are found endemic in certain areas of Indonesia. The most common cestodes found are Taenia saginata and Taenia solium. Eggs of Taenia are found in stool samples during surveys in Irian Jaya (2-9 %, Nusa Tenggara Timur (7 %, Bali and resettlement areas of people from Bali (0,4 - 3,3%. Interviews, with questions concerning expelled segments, recovered a prevalence of 9,5 % in inhabitants of the island of Samosir (North Sumatra and 2 % in the people of 6 villages in Abiansemal (Bali. Cases are also reported from Jakarta. Hymenolepis nana (0,2 -1% and Hymenolepis diminuta (0,4 % are rarely found in surveys. A case of hyperinfection with H. nana has been reported in Jakarta in 1968. Occasionally there are reports of infections with Dipylidium caninum, Raillietina madagascariensis, Bertiella studeri and sparganum. Report on treatment of taeniasis in Indonesia mentioned the use of atabrine, mebendazole, bithionol and praziquantel with different results.

  12. Invaded Invaders: Infection of Invasive Brown Treesnakes on Guam by an Exotic Larval Cestode with a Life Cycle Comprised of Non-Native Hosts.

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    Elden T Holldorf

    Full Text Available Multiple host introductions to the same non-native environment have the potential to complete life cycles of parasites incidentally transported with them. Our goal was to identify a recently detected parasitic flatworm in the invasive Brown Treesnake (Boiga irregularis on the remote Pacific island of Guam. We considered possible factors influencing parasite transmission, and tested for correlations between infection status and potential indicators of host fitness. We used genetic data from the parasite and information about the native ranges of other possible non-native hosts to hypothesize how it arrived on Guam and how its life cycle may be currently supported.We identified the parasite by comparing larval morphology and mtDNA sequences with other Pseudophyllid tapeworms. We assessed probability of infection in individual snakes using logistic regression and examined different factors influencing presence of parasites in hosts.We identified the parasite as the pseudophyllid cestode Spirometra erinaceieuropaei, with all sampled worms from multiple snakes sharing a single mtDNA haplotype. Infection appears to be limited to the only freshwater watershed on the island, where infection prevalence was high (77.5%. Larger snakes had a higher probability of being infected, consistent with the chronic nature of such infections. While infection status was positively correlated with body condition, infected snakes tended to have lower intra-peritoneal fat body mass, potentially indicating a negative effect on energy stores.We discovered that B. irregularis inhabiting a small area of forested habitat in a freshwater watershed on Guam are often infected by a novel parasite of Asian origin. While further work is needed, this species of Spirometra, itself a non-native species, likely depends on a suite of recently introduced hosts from different parts of the world to complete the life cycle. This baseline study provides little evidence of any effects on host

  13. Intestinal cestodes of poultry Raillietina echinobothrida and Choanotaenia Infundibulum infection in a commercial Japanese quail (coturnix coturnix japonica farm in Apomu, Osun State, Nigeria

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    O.W. Gamra

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Raillietina echinobothrida and Choanotaenia infundibulum are important species of cosmopolitan cestodes of poultry occurring in the small intestine and transmitted by ants, houseflies and beetles. Ten moribund and fifteen carcasses of Japanese quail birds (Coturnix coturnix japonica with heavy intestinal tapeworm infection were brought to the post-mortem section of the department of Veterinary Pathology, University of Ibadan. The farmer reported that there was sporadic mortality (11.2% on his farm as he has lost almost 112 birds of a total flock size of 1000 capacity within the space of two weeks as an average of 8 mortalities were recorded per day prior to the time of presentation. Postmortem examination revealed severe emaciation of the breast muscles and protrusion of the keel bone, as intestinal lumen of all the carcasses was severely filled with whitish worms measuring about 15cm-25cm in length as their anterior ends were firmly attached to the intestinal mucosal and dark red exudates (digested blood was seen. Histopathology reveals transverse section of worms associated with sloughing off, necrosis and degeneration of intestinal villi. The worms were confirmed to be Choanotaenia infundibulum and Raillietina echinobothrida. This is the first recorded case of Choanotaenia infundibulum and Raillietina echinobothrida infection in Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica in Nigeria. This report may be an alert of the possibility of on-going pathogenicity of these poultry cestodes in quails in Nigeria. We strongly encourage quail farmers to frequently change the birds' bedding and always keep it dry which can help to avoid infections because it shortens the survival of the gravid segments and the eggs. Also farmers should put up measures to avoid contamination of feed with ants, houseflies and beetles, and also prevent access of these intermediate hosts to birds as chemical control of flies, ants and termites in poultry houses is essential for the

  14. Cestode regulation of inflammation and inflammatory diseases.

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    Hernandez, Jose-Luis Reyes; Leung, Gabriella; McKay, Derek M

    2013-03-01

    Helminth parasites are masters of immune regulation; a likely prerequisite for long-term survival by circumventing their hosts' attempt to eradicate them. From a translational perspective, knowledge of immune events as a response to infection with a helminth parasite could be used to reduce the intensity of unwanted inflammatory reactions. Substantial data have accumulated showing that inflammatory reactions that promote a variety of auto-inflammatory diseases are dampened as a consequence of infection with helminth parasites, via either the mobilization of an anti-worm spectrum of immune events or by the direct effect of secretory/excretory bioactive immunomodulatory molecules released from the parasite. However, many issues are outstanding in the definition of the mechanism(s) by which infection with helminth parasites can affect the outcome, positively or negatively, of concomitant disease. We focus on a subgroup of this complex group of metazoan parasites, the cestodes, summarizing studies from rodent models that illustrate if, and by what mechanisms, infection with tapeworms ameliorate or exaggerate disease in their host. The ability of infection with cestodes, or other classes of helminth, to worsen a disease course or confer susceptibility to intracellular pathogens should be carefully considered in the context of 'helminth therapy'. In addition, poorly characterised cestode extracts can regulate murine and human immunocyte function, yet the impact of these in the context of autoimmune or allergic diseases is poorly understood. Thus, studies with cestodes, as representative helminths, have helped cement the concept that infection with parasitic helminths can inhibit concomitant disease; however, issues relating to long-term effects, potential side-effects, mixed pathogen infections and purification of immunomodulatory molecules from the parasite remain as challenges that need to be addressed in order to achieve the use of helminths as anti

  15. The Effect of Anthelmintic Treatment on Coccidia Oocyst Shedding in a Wild Mammal Host with Intermittent Cestode Infection

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    Radovan Václav

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available While hosts are routinely exploited by a community of parasite species, the principles governing host responses towards parasites are unclear. Identifying the health outcomes of coinfections involving helminth macroparasites and microparasites is one area of importance for public and domestic animal health. For instance, it is controversial how deworming programmes affect incidence and severity of such important microparasite diseases as malaria. One problem is that most study systems involve domestic and laboratory animals with conditions hardly comparable to those of free-living animals. Here, we study the effect of anthelmintic treatment on coccidia infection intensity in wild Alpine marmots, M. marmota. Our results lend support to the hypothesis that helminth infection has a positive effect on concurrent microparasite infection. However, our work also points to the fact that within-host interactions between helminths and microparasites are context-dependent and can turn to negative ones once helminth burdens increase. Our study suggests that coccidia benefit from intermittent helminth infection in marmots due to the protective effects of helminth infection only during the early phase of the host’s active season. Also, the marmot’s response towards coccidia infection appears optimal only under no helminth infection when the host immune response towards coccidia would not be compromised, thereby pointing to the importance of regular intestinal helminth elimination by marmots just before hibernation.

  16. Efficacy against nematode and cestode infections and safety of a novel topical fipronil, (S)-methoprene, eprinomectin and praziquantel combination product in domestic cats under field conditions in Europe.

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    Rehbein, Steffen; Capári, Balazs; Duscher, Georg; Keidane, Dace; Kirkova, Zvezdelina; Petkevičius, Saulius; Rapti, Dhimiter; Wagner, Annegret; Wagner, Thomas; Chester, S Theodore; Rosentel, Joseph; Tielemans, Eric; Visser, Martin; Winter, Renate; Kley, Katrin; Knaus, Martin

    2014-04-28

    A novel topical combination product (BROADLINE(®), Merial) composed of fipronil, (S)-methoprene, eprinomectin and praziquantel was evaluated for safety and efficacy against nematode and cestode infections in domestic cats. The study comprised a multi-centre, positive control, blinded, field study, using a randomized block design based on order of presentation for allocation. In total 196 client-owned cats, confirmed as positive for naturally acquired infections of nematodes and/or cestodes by pre-treatment faecal examination, were studied in seven countries in Europe. Pre-treatment faecal examination revealed the presence of Toxocara, hookworm, Capillaria and/or spirurid nematode infections in 129, 73, 33 or 1 cat(s), respectively; infections with taeniid and Dipylidium cestodes were demonstrated in 39 and 17 cats, respectively. Cats were allocated randomly to one of two treatments in a ratio of 2, topical fipronil (8.3%, w/v), (S)-methoprene (10%, w/v), eprinomectin (0.4%, w/v) and praziquantel (8.3%, w/v) (BROADLINE(®), Merial; 130 cats); and 1, topical PROFENDER(®) Spot-On (Bayer; 66 cats) and treated once on Day 0. For evaluation of efficacy, two faecal samples were collected, one prior to treatment (Day -4 ± 4 days) and one at the end of the study (Day 14 ± 5 days). These were examined for fecal forms of nematode and cestode parasites. For evaluation of safety, cats were examined by a veterinarian before treatment and at the end of the study, and cat owners recorded the health status of their cats daily until the end of the study. For cats treated with Broadline(®), the efficacy was >99.9%, 100%, and 99.6% for Toxocara, hookworms, and Capillaria, respectively; and the efficacy was >99.9%, >99.9%, and 98.5%, respectively, for the cats treated with Profender(®) (psafety score of 'excellent' for both local and systemic evaluations. The topical combination product of fipronil, (S)-methoprene, eprinomectin and praziquantel was shown to have an excellent

  17. Proteocephalid cestode infection in alien fish, Cichla piquiti Kullander and Ferreira, 2006 (Osteichthyes: Cichlidae, from Volta Grande reservoir, Minas Gerais, Brazil

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    ML. Martins

    Full Text Available This work evaluates the variation of the parasitological indexes in 114 Cichla piquiti Kullander and Ferreira, 2006 (tucunaré infected by two proteocephalid species (Cestoda for the period of August 1999 to June 2001 in the Volta Grande reservoir, MG, Brazil. The relation between the parasitosis with rainfall and water quality (pH, electric conductivity, oxygen, chlorophyll, transparency and temperature is discussed. Prevalence of Proteocephalus macrophallus (Diesing, 1850 and/or P. microscopicus (Woodland, 1935 was 83.3%, mean intensity 110.8 and mean abundance 100.7 during the period. A hundred percent prevalence was reported in August and December 1999, April and December 2000 and June 2001. The largest mean intensities of 122.7 (October 1999, 158.8 (December 1999, 96.4 (February 2000, 400.7 (April 2000, 215.6 (October 2000 and 136.4 (December 2000 were observed. Abiotic factors may favour the development of the species of the food chain that sustain the organisms in the diet of "tucunaré", but in this case, there was no correlation (P > 0.05 between the values of prevalence, mean intensity and mean abundance with the rainfall and water quality. At the same time, these organisms may constitute the intermediate hosts of cestodes. The time-course between the fish species development and the parasitosis manifestation in the definitive host can explain the lack of correlation between the parasitological indexes and abiotic factors. The predation on small fishes and cannibalism described for "tucunaré" might explain the high values of prevalence and intensity of infection. The results are also related to the exotic condition of the host in the reservoir.

  18. A survey of ectoparasites, cestodes and management of free-range indigenous chickens in rural Zimbabwe

    OpenAIRE

    S. Mukaratirwa; T. Hove

    2009-01-01

    A survey of ectoparasites, cestodes and husbandry aspects of indigenous free-range chickens was carried out in selected districts from the highveld and lowveld of rural Zimbabwe. The survey recorded infection with 4 species from the order Phthiraptera (lice), 1 species from the order Siphonaptera (fleas), 6 species from the order Acarina (ticks and mites) and 9 species of cestodes. Among the ectoparasites, the most prevalent was Menacanthus stramineus (87.7 %) followed by Echidinophaga gallin...

  19. Co-infections of the cestode Echinococcus vogeli and the nematode Calodium hepaticum in the hystricomorphic rodent Agouti paca from a forest reserve in Acre, Brazil.

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    Almeida, F; Caldas, R; Corrêa, C; Rodrigues-Silva, R; Siqueira, N; Machado-Silva, J R

    2013-12-01

    The helminth fauna of Agouti paca (Linnaeus, 1766) has seldom been studied. In this paper, we report an unusual mixed infection of Echinococcus vogeli Rausch & Bernstein, 1972 and Calodium hepaticum (syn. Capillaria hepatica Bancroft, 1863) in free-ranging paca from a forested region in Acre (Brazil). Gross morphological examination revealed that paca liver contained multiple spherical to subspherical white or translucent lesions, which were isolated or frequently contiguous and partially covered by Glisson's capsule. Microscopic examination revealed unilocular cystic structures that contained abundant brood capsules in which numerous protoscolices budded from the inner surface. The protoscolices possessed rostellar hooks (33-41 μm in length), a morphological characteristic of the blade and calcareous corpuscles that is consistent with the metacestode E. vogeli. The diagnosis of C. hepaticum infection was based on the morphology and morphometry of the egg-shaped ellipsoids with bipolar plugs (44.8 ± 1.9 μm (length) × 24.4 ± 2.0 μm (width)) and liver histopathology. This finding expands the known range of C. hepaticum hosts in South America and, to the best of our knowledge, it is the first case of a mixed infection of E. vogeli and C. hepaticum. Furthermore, our data provide evidence that wild animal meat may be a source of C. hepaticum infection.

  20. High prevalence of cestodes in Artemia spp. throughout the annual cycle: relationship with abundance of avian final hosts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez, Marta I; Nikolov, Pavel N; Georgieva, Darina D; Georgiev, Boyko B; Vasileva, Gergana P; Pankov, Plamen; Paracuellos, Mariano; Lafferty, Kevin D; Green, Andy J

    2013-05-01

    Brine shrimp, Artemia spp., act as intermediate hosts for a range of cestode species that use waterbirds as their final hosts. These parasites can have marked influences on shrimp behavior and fecundity, generating the potential for cascading effects in hypersaline food webs. We present the first comprehensive study of the temporal dynamics of cestode parasites in natural populations of brine shrimp throughout the annual cycle. Over a 12-month period, clonal Artemia parthenogenetica were sampled in the Odiel marshes in Huelva, and the sexual Artemia salina was sampled in the Salinas de Cerrillos in Almería. Throughout the year, 4-45 % of A. parthenogenetica were infected with cestodes (mean species richness = 0.26), compared to 27-72 % of A. salina (mean species richness = 0.64). Ten cestode species were recorded. Male and female A. salina showed similar levels of parasitism. The most prevalent and abundant cestodes were those infecting the most abundant final hosts, especially the Greater Flamingo Phoenicopterus ruber. In particular, the flamingo parasite Flamingolepis liguloides had a prevalence of up to 43 % in A. parthenogenetica and 63.5 % in A. salina in a given month. Although there was strong seasonal variation in prevalence, abundance, and intensity of cestode infections, seasonal changes in bird counts were weak predictors of the dynamics of cestode infections. However, infection levels of Confluaria podicipina in A. parthenogenetica were positively correlated with the number of their black-necked grebe Podiceps nigricollis hosts. Similarly, infection levels of Anomotaenia tringae and Anomotaenia microphallos in A. salina were correlated with the number of shorebird hosts present the month before. Correlated seasonal transmission structured the cestode community, leading to more multiple infections than expected by chance.

  1. High prevalence of cestodes in Artemia spp. throughout the annual cycle: relationship with abundance of avian final hosts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez, Marta I.; Nikolov, Pavel N.; GEorgieva, Darina D.; Georgiev, Boyko B.; Vasileva, Gergana P.; Pankov, Plamen; Paracuellos, Mariano; Lafferty, Kevin D.; Green, Andy J.

    2013-01-01

    Brine shrimp, Artemia spp., act as intermediate hosts for a range of cestode species that use waterbirds as their final hosts. These parasites can have marked influences on shrimp behavior and fecundity, generating the potential for cascading effects in hypersaline food webs. We present the first comprehensive study of the temporal dynamics of cestode parasites in natural populations of brine shrimp throughout the annual cycle. Over a 12-month period, clonal Artemia parthenogenetica were sampled in the Odiel marshes in Huelva, and the sexual Artemia salina was sampled in the Salinas de Cerrillos in Almería. Throughout the year, 4–45 % of A. parthenogenetica were infected with cestodes (mean species richness = 0.26), compared to 27–72 % of A. salina (mean species richness = 0.64). Ten cestode species were recorded. Male and female A. salina showed similar levels of parasitism. The most prevalent and abundant cestodes were those infecting the most abundant final hosts, especially the Greater Flamingo Phoenicopterus ruber. In particular, the flamingo parasite Flamingolepis liguloides had a prevalence of up to 43 % in A. parthenogenetica and 63.5 % in A. salina in a given month. Although there was strong seasonal variation in prevalence, abundance, and intensity of cestode infections, seasonal changes in bird counts were weak predictors of the dynamics of cestode infections. However, infection levels of Confluaria podicipina in A. parthenogenetica were positively correlated with the number of their black-necked grebe Podiceps nigricollis hosts. Similarly, infection levels of Anomotaenia tringae and Anomotaenia microphallos in A. salina were correlated with the number of shorebird hosts present the month before. Correlated seasonal transmission structured the cestode community, leading to more multiple infections than expected by chance.

  2. Cestodes change the isotopic signature of brine shrimp, Artemia, hosts: implications for aquatic food webs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez, Marta I; Varo, Nico; Matesanz, Cristina; Ramo, Cristina; Amat, Juan A; Green, Andy J

    2013-01-01

    To reach the final host (greater flamingos), the cestode Flamingolepis liguloides alters the behaviour of its intermediate host, the brine shrimp, Artemia parthenogenetica, causing it to spend more time close to the water surface. During summer 2010, we showed that the prevalence of this cestode was consistently higher at the top of the water column in the Odiel salt pans in south-western Spain. We used stable nitrogen (N) and carbon (C) isotopic analysis to test the hypothesis that cestodes also alter resource use by Artemia. In early summer, we compared stable isotopes in infected hosts at the surface with those from uninfected hosts at the bottom of the water column. In late summer, we compared infected and uninfected Artemia from the bottom. δ(15)N was consistently enriched in infected individuals compared with uninfected hosts, especially in Artemia with multiple infections of F. liguloides (family Hymenolepididae) and those with mixed infections of F. liguloides and cestodes of the family Dilepididae. Infected individuals from the surface were enriched in δ(13)C compared with uninfected ones from the bottom, but the opposite was found when comparing uninfected and infected Artemia from the same depth. This may be caused by the increase in lipid concentration in infected Artemia. Isolated cysticercoids of F. liguloides were significantly enriched in δ(13)C compared with cysticercoids in infected hosts, but surprisingly were not enriched in N. Our findings illustrate the way cestodes can alter food webs and highlight the importance of considering the parasitic status of prey in studies of trophic ecology in saline wetlands.

  3. A survey of ectoparasites, cestodes and management of free-range indigenous chickens in rural Zimbabwe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukaratirwa, S; Hove, T

    2009-09-01

    A survey of ectoparasites, cestodes and husbandry aspects of indigenous free-range chickens was carried out in selected districts from the highveld and lowveld of rural Zimbabwe. The survey recorded infection with 4 species from the order Phthiraptera (lice), 1 species from the order Siphonaptera (fleas), 6 species from the order Acarina (ticks and mites) and 9 species of cestodes. Among the ectoparasites, the most prevalent was Menacanthus stramineus (87.7%) followed by Echidinophaga gallinacea (71.9%). Chickens in the Mazowe district had the highest number of ectoparasites species (10 of 11) followed by Goromonzi district (9 of 11) both these districts are situated in the highveld of Zimbabwe. The most prevalent cestode species was Raillietina tetragona (84.4%), followed by Raillietina echinobothrida (32.2%). Chickens in the Goromonzi district had the highest number of cestode species (7 of 9), followed by Mazowe district (one subgenus and 5 of 9). In all the districts sampled the main purpose of keeping free-range chickens was for meat for the household, with few households using the birds as a source of income. The majority of households kept their birds extensively with barely any appropriate housing, and supplementary feeding was only occasionally practised.

  4. A survey of ectoparasites, cestodes and management of free-range indigenous chickens in rural Zimbabwe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Mukaratirwa

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available A survey of ectoparasites, cestodes and husbandry aspects of indigenous free-range chickens was carried out in selected districts from the highveld and lowveld of rural Zimbabwe. The survey recorded infection with 4 species from the order Phthiraptera (lice, 1 species from the order Siphonaptera (fleas, 6 species from the order Acarina (ticks and mites and 9 species of cestodes. Among the ectoparasites, the most prevalent was Menacanthus stramineus (87.7 % followed by Echidinophaga gallinacea (71.9 %. Chickens in the Mazowe district had the highest number of ectoparasites species (10 of 11 followed by Goromonzi district (9 of 11 both these districts are situated in the highveld of Zimbabwe. The most prevalent cestode species was Raillietina tetragona (84.4 %, followed by Raillletina echinobothrida (32.2 %. Chickens in the Goromonzi district had the highest number of cestode species (7 of 9, followed by Mazowe district (one subgenus and 5 of 9. In all the districts sampled the main purpose of keeping free-range chickens was for meat for the household, with few households using the birds as a source of income. The majority of households kept their birds extensively with barely any appropriate housing, and supplementary feeding was only occasionally practised.

  5. The trematodes and cestodes of Sorex araneus L. in Valaam Island (Ladoga Lake, USSR. 1

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    Michael V. Novikov

    1992-01-01

    Full Text Available The trematode and the cestode fauna was examined in 50 specimens of common shrews Sorex araneus L. (Insectivora: Soricidae cillected in Valaam Island, URSS during 1988 and 1989. Two species of Trematoda and seven species of Cestoda were identified; prevalence of infection was as follows: Brachulaemus fulvus (86% , Rubenstrema exasperatum (4% , Hymenolepis scutigera (54% , Neoskrjabinolepis schaldybini (26% , Vigisolepis spinulosa (4% , Choanotaenia crassiscolex (86% , Choanotaenia hepatica (6% , Dilepis undula (2% and Polycercus sp. (2% .

  6. [Lipids of Raillietina tetragona and Raillietina echinobothrida cestodes from the intestines of hens].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vykhrestiuk, N P; Iarygina, G V; Il'iasov, I N

    1981-01-01

    Lipids of the cestodes R. tetragona and R. echinobothrida, parasites of chickens, were studied by thin-layer and gas-liquid chromatography methods. The quantity of neutral lipids amounts to 74.4% in R. tetragona and to 73.1% in R. echinobothrida. Triglycerides amount to 35.6% and 38.4% of the neutral lipids in these species, sterols to 21.6% and 17.2%, sterol esters to 25.1% and 32.0%, diglycerides to 2.8% and 1.4% and free fatty acids to 7.8% and 6.5%, respectively. Fatty acids content of worms is similar but not identical of that of chicken intestine lipids. Cestode infection affects the lipid content of chicken intestine resulting in the decrease of triglycerides and oleic acid quantities and in the increase of the amount of free fatty acids and stearic acid.

  7. A life cycle database for parasitic acanthocephalans, cestodes, and nematodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benesh, Daniel P.; Lafferty, Kevin D.; Kuris, Armand

    2017-01-01

    Parasitologists have worked out many complex life cycles over the last ~150 years, yet there have been few efforts to synthesize this information to facilitate comparisons among taxa. Most existing host-parasite databases focus on particular host taxa, do not distinguish final from intermediate hosts, and lack parasite life-history information. We summarized the known life cycles of trophically transmitted parasitic acanthocephalans, cestodes, and nematodes. For 973 parasite species, we gathered information from the literature on the hosts infected at each stage of the parasite life cycle (8510 host-parasite species associations), what parasite stage is in each host, and whether parasites need to infect certain hosts to complete the life cycle. We also collected life-history data for these parasites at each life cycle stage, including 2313 development time measurements and 7660 body size measurements. The result is the most comprehensive data summary available for these parasite taxa. In addition to identifying gaps in our knowledge of parasite life cycles, these data can be used to test hypotheses about life cycle evolution, host specificity, parasite life-history strategies, and the roles of parasites in food webs.

  8. Cestode parasitism in invasive and native brine shrimps (Artemia spp.) as a possible factor promoting the rapid invasion of A. franciscana in the Mediterranean region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgiev, B B; Sánchez, M I; Vasileva, G P; Nikolov, P N; Green, A J

    2007-11-01

    Artemia franciscana is an invasive crustacean expanding its range in hypersaline wetlands in the Mediterranean region and replacing native Artemia parthenogenetica and Artemia salina. Native brine shrimps are known as intermediate hosts of cestodes; infected individuals exhibit changes in their behaviour and appearance, thus facilitating the parasite transmission to the avian hosts by predation. To assess whether invasive brine shrimps participate in the cestode life cycles to the same extent as the native species, we examined the natural infections in seven populations of Artemia spp. along the southern coast of Spain and Portugal: three populations of each A. franciscana and A. parthenogenetica and one population of A. salina. Ten cestode species were found in A. parthenogenetica, while only six were recorded in each of A. salina and A. franciscana. The overall infection was consistently higher in native than in invasive populations. For a particular cestode species, the prevalence or abundance was significantly higher in a native population for 54 pairwise comparisons and only higher for an invasive population for 4 pairwise comparisons. These results suggest that cestodes may influence competitive interactions between native and invasive brine shrimps, thus partly explaining the invasive success of A. franciscana.

  9. THE APPLICATION OF BIOTECHNOLOGY TO THE STUDY OF CESTODES

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    John H. Cross

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Cestodes or tapeworms are found in vertebrate hosts worldwide. There are a great many species, but few have received much attention in biotechnologic research. Those that have been studied in any detail have been those of importance to veterinary and human medicine. The application of biotechnology to the study of taeniids has been gaining momentum in recent years. Research has been done to improve the diagnosis of larval taeniid infections, especially cysticercosis. There have been improvements in serologic testing using refined and purified antigens readily available from one species to detect antibodies of another. (Taenia hydatigena antigens are used to detect Cysticercus bovis and Cysticercus cellulosae. The use of Western blots of tapeworm antigens (T. solium, T. crassiceps, Echinococcus granulosus has been shown to be effective in neurocysticercosis and hydatid diseases. Studies with monoclonal antibodies have also been found to be of interest. Anti-oncospheral monoclonal antibodies have been developed to distinguish eggs of E. granulosis from other taeniid eggs. In another study, monoclonal antibodies from oncospheres of T.saginata conferred protection against oral infections with T.saginata eggs in calves. Other investigators reported vaccines against Cysticercus fasciolaris by a T. taeniaeformis antigen expressed in Escherichia coli. Studies on DNA have been gaining momentum. DNA-based techniques have been used to detect inter- and intraspecific variations in Echinococcus and to characterize isolates of E.granulosus. DNA probes in Southern blot analysis have been used to discriminate taeniid species. Taenia saginata in the Far East has become an enigma. Although the parasite is morphologically T.saginata, the definitive host for the parasite is not clear. Studies have shown the pig to be a possible intermediate host with larval development similar to T.solium, but in pig liver rather than muscle. In recent comparative studies with T

  10. Cestodes from deep-water squaliform sharks in the Azores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caira, Janine N.; Pickering, Maria

    2013-12-01

    The majority of our knowledge on marine tapeworms (cestodes) is limited to taxa that are relatively easy to obtain (i.e., those that parasitize shallower-water species). The invitation to participate in a deep-water research survey off the Condor seamount in the Azores offered the opportunity to gain information regarding parasites of the less often studied sharks of the mesopelagic and bathypelagic zone. All tapeworms (Platyhelminthes: Cestoda) found parasitizing the spiral intestine of squaliform shark species (Elasmobranchii: Squaliformes) encountered as part of this survey, as well as some additional Azorean sampling from previous years obtained from local fishermen are reported. In total, 112 shark specimens of 12 species of squaliform sharks representing 4 different families from depths ranging between 400 and 1290 m were examined. Cestodes were found in the spiral intestines from 11 of the 12 squaliform species examined: Deania calcea, D. cf. profundorum, D. profundorum, Etmopterus princeps, E. pusillus, E. spinax, Centroscyllium fabricii, Centroscymnus coelolepis, C. cryptacanthus, C. crepidater, and Dalatias licha. No cestodes were found in the spiral intestines of Centrophorus squamosus. Light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy revealed several potentially novel trypanorhynch and biloculated tetraphyllidean species. Aporhynchid and gilquiniid trypanorhynchs dominated the adult cestode fauna of Etmopterus and Deania host species, respectively, while larval phyllobothriids were found across several host genera, including, Deania, Centroscyllium, and Centroscymnus. These results corroborate previous findings that deep-water cestode faunas are relatively depauperate and consist primarily of trypanorhynchs of the families Gilquiniidae and Aporhynchidae and larval tetraphyllideans. A subset of specimens of most cestode species was preserved in ethanol for future molecular analysis to allow more definitive determinations of the identification of the

  11. Use of cestodes as indicator of heavy-metal pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yen Nhi, Tran Thi; Mohd Shazili, Noor Azhar; Shaharom-Harrison, Faizah

    2013-01-01

    Thirty snakehead fish, Channa micropeltes (Cuvier, 1831) were collected at Lake Kenyir, Malaysia. Muscle, liver, intestine and kidney tissues were removed from each fish and the intestine was opened to reveal cestodes. In order to assess the concentration of heavy metal in the environment, samples of water in the surface layer and sediment were also collected. Tissues were digested and the concentrations of manganese (Mn), zinc (Zn), copper (Cu), cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb) were analysed by using inductively-coupled plasma mass-spectrometry (ICP-MS) equipment. The results demonstrated that the cestode Senga parva (Fernando and Furtado, 1964) from fish hosts accumulated some heavy metals to a greater extent than the water and some fish tissues, but less than the sediment. In three (Pb, Zn and Mn) of the five elements measured, cestodes accumulated the highest metal concentrations, and in remaining two (Cu and Cd), the second highest metal accumulation was recorded in the cestodes when compared to host tissues. Therefore, the present study indicated that Senga parva accumulated metals and might have potential as a bioindicator of heavy-metal pollution.

  12. The first workshop towards the control of cestode zoonoses in Asia and Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Akira; Okamoto, Munehiro; Li, Tiaoying; Wandra, Toni; Dharmawan, Nyoman S; Swastika, Kadek I; Dekumyoy, Paron; Kusolsuk, Teera; Davvajav, Abmed; Davaasuren, Anu; Dorjsuren, Temuulen; Mekonnen, Sissay M; Negasi, Zerihun H; Yanagida, Tetsuya; Sako, Yasuhito; Nakao, Minoru; Nakaya, Kazuhiro; Lavikainen, Antti J; Nkouawa, Agathe; Mohammadzadeh, Tahereh

    2011-06-21

    The first workshop towards the control of cestode zoonoses in Asia and Africa was held in Asahikawa Medical University, Japan on 15 and 16 Feb 2011. This meeting was fully supported by the Asian Science and Technology Strategic Cooperation Promotion Programs sponsored by the Special Coordination Funds for Promoting Science and Technology, the Ministry of Education Japan (MEXT) for 3 years from 2010 to Akira Ito. A total of 24 researchers from 9 countries joined together and discussed the present situation and problems towards the control of cestode zoonoses. As the meeting was simultaneously for the establishment of joint international, either bilateral or multilateral collaboration projects, the main purposes were directed to 1) how to detect taeniasis/cysticercosis infected patients, 2) how to differentiate Taenia solium from two other human Taenia species, T. saginata and T. asiatica, 3) how to evaluate T. asiatica based on the evidence of hybrid and hybrid-derived adult tapeworms from Thailand and China, 4) how to evaluate T. solium and T. hyaenae and other Taenia species from the wild animals in Ethiopia, and 5) how to detect echinococcosis patients and 6) how to differentiate Echinococcus species worldwide. Such important topics are summarized in this meeting report.

  13. The first workshop towards the control of cestode zoonoses in Asia and Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mekonnen Sissay M

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The first workshop towards the control of cestode zoonoses in Asia and Africa was held in Asahikawa Medical University, Japan on 15 and 16 Feb 2011. This meeting was fully supported by the Asian Science and Technology Strategic Cooperation Promotion Programs sponsored by the Special Coordination Funds for Promoting Science and Technology, the Ministry of Education Japan (MEXT for 3 years from 2010 to Akira Ito. A total of 24 researchers from 9 countries joined together and discussed the present situation and problems towards the control of cestode zoonoses. As the meeting was simultaneously for the establishment of joint international, either bilateral or multilateral collaboration projects, the main purposes were directed to 1 how to detect taeniasis/cysticercosis infected patients, 2 how to differentiate Taenia solium from two other human Taenia species, T. saginata and T. asiatica, 3 how to evaluate T. asiatica based on the evidence of hybrid and hybrid-derived adult tapeworms from Thailand and China, 4 how to evaluate T. solium and T. hyaenae and other Taenia species from the wild animals in Ethiopia, and 5 how to detect echinococcosis patients and 6 how to differentiate Echinococcus species worldwide. Such important topics are summarized in this meeting report.

  14. Taenia multiceps: a rare human cestode infection in Israel

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    Mony Benifla MD

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Brain infestation caused by the metacestode of Taenia multiceps is a rare phenomenon in humans, but is fairly common among sheep in Mediterranean countries. No more than 150 human cases have been reported. In this present study, we report an unusual case of a huge intra-parenchymal cyst in a four-year-old girl caused by T. multiceps. No cross-reactivity between Echinococcus granulosus and T. multiceps antigens was demonstrated. After surgical removal of the cyst, followed by chemotherapeutic treatment with albendazole combined with praziquantel, the child recovered completely.

  15. The occurrence of the larval cestode Cysticercus fasciolaris in rodent populations from the Cuxtal ecological reserve, Yucatan, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Vivas, R I; Panti-May, J A; Parada-López, J; Hernández-Betancourt, S F; Ruiz-Piña, H A

    2011-12-01

    Cysticercus fasciolaris is the larval stage of the cestode Taenia taeniaeformis, whose definitive hosts are mainly cats. This larval stage uses a wide variety of small rodents, and occasionally birds and humans, as intermediate hosts. In the Yucatan, there are no reports of the presence of this cestode in animal populations. The aim of this study was to evaluate the occurrence of C. fasciolaris in rodent populations from the Cuxtal ecological reserve, Yucatan, Mexico. Trapping of rodents was conducted from October 2009 to April 2010 in 40 households in Molas, in which Sherman traps were placed both inside and outside backyards. Rodents were dissected to inspect the liver for the presence of the worm. To determine risk factors associated with infection, univariate analysis was performed using sex, age, species, trapping site, and season as independent variables. Variables with a P value rodent species were trapped; Mus musculus was the most abundant (78%), followed by Rattus rattus (13%) and the wild species Peromyscus yucatanicus, Ototylomys phyllotis, Heteromys gaumeri and Reithrodontomys gracilis (9%). Only 7.5% (n = 31) of M. musculus and R. rattus were infected with C. fasciolaris (demonstrated by the presence of liver cysts) with a prevalence of 9.0% and 3.5%, respectively. Both adults and male mice were 4.33 and 3.46 (OR values) times more likely to have C. fasciolaris than juveniles and females respectively. We can conclude that in the Cuxtal Reserve, Yucatan, Mexico, the prevalence of C. fasciolaris is higher in M. musculus, and that adult males had a higher probability of infection. Wild species, mainly P. yucatanicus, were not found to be infected with the cestode, but its presence in the backyards of households could result in a potential risk of acquiring this infection.

  16. Annotated checklist of fish cestodes from South America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, Philippe V.; de Chambrier, Alain; Scholz, Tomáš; Luque, José L.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract An exhaustive literature search supplemented by a critical examination of records made it possible to present an annotated checklist of tapeworms (Cestoda) that, as adults or larvae (metacestodes), parasitize freshwater, brackish water and marine fishes, i.e. cartilaginous and bony fishes, in South America. The current knowledge of their species diversity, host associations and geographical distribution is reviewed. Taxonomic problems are discussed based on a critical evaluation of the literature and information on DNA sequences of individual taxa is provided to facilitate future taxonomic and phylogenetic studies. As expected, the current knowledge is quite uneven regarding the number of taxa and host-associations reported from the principal river basins and marine ecoregions. These differences may not only reflect the actual cestode richness but may also be due to the research effort that has been devoted to unravelling the diversity of these endoparasitic helminths in individual countries. A total of 297 valid species, 61 taxa identified to the generic level, in addition to unidentified cestodes, were recorded from 401 species of fish hosts. Among the recognized cestode orders, 13 have been recorded in South America, with the Onchoproteocephalidea displaying the highest species richness, representing c. 50% of all species diversity. The majority of records include teleost fish hosts (79%) that harbour larval and adult stages of cestodes, whereas stingrays (Myliobatiformes) exhibit the highest proportion of records (39%) among the elasmobranch hosts. Fish cestodes are ubiquitous in South America, being mostly recorded from the Warm Temperate Southeastern Pacific (WTSP; 31%) for marine hosts and the Amazon River basin (45%) for freshwater ones. The following problems were detected during the compilation of literary data: (i) unreliability of many records; (ii) poor taxonomic resolution, i.e. identification made only to the genus or even family level; (iii

  17. Field trial of Saussurea lappa roots against nematodes and Nigella sativa seeds against cestodes in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhtar, M S; Riffat, S

    1991-08-01

    Antinematodal efficacy of Saussurea lappa roots (Qust-e-Shereen) and anticestodal effect of Nigella sativa seeds (Kalonji) was studied in children infected naturally with the respective worms. The activities were judged on the basis of percentage reductions in the faecal eggs per gram (EPG) counts. The 50 mg/kg single dose of S. lappa and equivalent amount of its methanolic extract produced on days 7 and 15 percentage EPG reduction similar to 10 mg/kg of pyrantel pamoate. Similarly, single oral administration of 40 mg/kg of N. sativa, equivalent amount of its ethanolic extract and 50 mg/kg of niclosamide reduced the percentage of EPG counts not significantly different from each other on the days 7 and 15. Therefore, it is conceivable that these indigenous medicinal plants contain active principles effective against nematodes and cestodes. The crude drugs did not produce any adverse side effects in the doses tested.

  18. On cestode and digenean parasites of Clarias gariepinus (Burchell, 1822 from the Rietvlei Dam, South Africa

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    M. Barson

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Sharptooth catfish, Clarias gariepinus, from the Rietvlei Dam near Pretoria, South Africa were examined for internal platyhelminth parasites. Two adult cestodes, Polyonchobothrium clarias (stomach (prev alence 71 %, mean intensity = 5, n = 7 and Proteocephalus glanduliger (anterior intestine (prevalence 14 %, mean intensity = 2, n = 7, were found in the gut while metacercariae of one larval digenean, Ornithodiplostomum sp. (prevalence 14 %, mean intensity = 140, n = 7, were found encysted in the muscles. The morphology of these species, based on light and scanning electron microscopy as well as histological analysis, and how they differ from previously described specimens, are discussed. Ornithodiplostomum is a new record in southern Africa. Infection levels of the host fish were mild compared to records from previous surveys.

  19. When Parasites Are Good for Health: Cestode Parasitism Increases Resistance to Arsenic in Brine Shrimps.

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    Marta I Sánchez

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Parasites and pollutants can both affect any living organism, and their interactions can be very important. To date, repeated studies have found that parasites and heavy metals or metalloids both have important negative effects on the health of animals, often in a synergistic manner. Here, we show for the first time that parasites can increase host resistance to metalloid arsenic, focusing on a clonal population of brine shrimp from the contaminated Odiel and Tinto estuary in SW Spain. We studied the effect of cestodes on the response of Artemia to arsenic (acute toxicity tests, 24h LC50 and found that infection consistently reduced mortality across a range of arsenic concentrations. An increase from 25°C to 29°C, simulating the change in mean temperature expected under climate change, increased arsenic toxicity, but the benefits of infection persisted. Infected individuals showed higher levels of catalase and glutathione reductase activity, antioxidant enzymes with a very important role in the protection against oxidative stress. Levels of TBARS were unaffected by parasites, suggesting that infection is not associated with oxidative damage. Moreover, infected Artemia had a higher number of carotenoid-rich lipid droplets which may also protect the host through the "survival of the fattest" principle and the antioxidant potential of carotenoids. This study illustrates the need to consider the multi-stress context (contaminants and temperature increase in which host-parasite interactions occur.

  20. Prevalence and Scanning Electron Microscopic Identification of Anoplocephalid Cestodes among Small Ruminants in Senegal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanagida, Tetsuya; Ba, Cheikh Tidiane; Marchand, Bernard

    2016-01-01

    This study was undertaken to determine the prevalence of anoplocephalid cestodes in sheep and goats in Senegal. Intestines of 462 sheep and 48 goats were examined; 47.4% of sheep and 6.2% of goats were infected. The species identified and their prevalence were, among sheep, Avitellina centripunctata 38.7%, Moniezia expansa 15.4%, Stilesia globipunctata 16.7%, and Thysaniezia ovilla 0.4%. Among goats, they were M. expansa 6.2% and T. ovilla 2.1%. The prevalence of all species was not statistically different between dry and rainy seasons. The infections were single or multiple. Indeed, 56.2% of sheep were infected by a single species, 37.4% by two species, and 6.4% by three species. For goats, 66.7% were infected by M. expansa and 33.3% by both M. expansa and T. ovilla. Scanning electron microscopic (SEM) observations of tapeworms show the general diagnosis characters of these species. PMID:27597893

  1. Prevalence and Scanning Electron Microscopic Identification of Anoplocephalid Cestodes among Small Ruminants in Senegal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mallé Ndom

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was undertaken to determine the prevalence of anoplocephalid cestodes in sheep and goats in Senegal. Intestines of 462 sheep and 48 goats were examined; 47.4% of sheep and 6.2% of goats were infected. The species identified and their prevalence were, among sheep, Avitellina centripunctata 38.7%, Moniezia expansa 15.4%, Stilesia globipunctata 16.7%, and Thysaniezia ovilla 0.4%. Among goats, they were M. expansa 6.2% and T. ovilla 2.1%. The prevalence of all species was not statistically different between dry and rainy seasons. The infections were single or multiple. Indeed, 56.2% of sheep were infected by a single species, 37.4% by two species, and 6.4% by three species. For goats, 66.7% were infected by M. expansa and 33.3% by both M. expansa and T. ovilla. Scanning electron microscopic (SEM observations of tapeworms show the general diagnosis characters of these species.

  2. Specific Identification of a Taeniid Cestode from Snow Leopard, Uncia uncia Schreber, 1776 (Felidae in Mongolia

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    Sumiya Ganzorig

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available An unknown taeniid cestode, resembling Taenia hydatigena, was recovered from a snow leopard, Uncia uncia in Mongolia. Morphology and nucleotide sequence of the mitochondrial cytochromec oxidase subunit 1 gene (mt DNA COI ofthe cestode found was examined. The cestode is differed from T hydatigena both morphologically and genetically. The differences between two species were in the gross length, different number of testes, presence of vaginal sphincter and in egg size. The nucleotide sequence of this cestode differed from that of 7: hydatigena at 34 of the 384 (8.6% nucleotide positions examined. The present cestode is very close to 7: kotlani in morphology and size of rostellar hooks. However, the adult stages of the latter species are unknown, and further comparison was unfeasible.

  3. On cestodes of Passer domesticus I. Choanotaenia, Raillietine and Proparuterina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baugh, S C; Saxena, S K

    1976-09-01

    An investigation on the cestode fauna of the common sparrow, Passer domesticus (Linnaeus) was carried out for about five years. In all 445 birds were examined during this period and only five species of cestodes were found to parasitize this bird: of these, three are known while two are new forms, the latter are the rarities. This part includes critical accounts of Choanotaenia passerina (Fuhrmann, 1907), Raillietine (R.) galeritae (Skrjabin, 1915) and Proparuterina lali sp. nov. - Choanotaenia passerina (Fuhrmann, 1907) has been previously studied by Fuhrmann (1907), Johnston (1909), Stunkard & Milford (1937) and Kintner (1938). The present study provides additional data. The writers find two rows of rostellar hooks in the present material. Fuhrmann and Johnston reported two rows of rostellar hooks, but Kintner apparently found a single row of rostellar hooks. Variations have been found in the number of testes and extent of cirrus sac. Amongst the previous workers, only Johnston (1909) paid attention to study the protective coverings present around the hexacanth and described two envelopes, but the writers find three. - Raillietine (R.) galeritae (Skrjabin, 1915) has been restudied and redescribed from fresh material. Previously Mahon (1958) studied this species from P. domesticus. The present account includes important variations and some additions too. Suckers have been found to be armed in contradiction to what Mahon stated. Gravid proglottides have been found to develop a velum. Egg capsules contain 3-13 eggs each. Two protective envelopes have been found around the hexacanth. This is the first record of the occurrence of this species in P. domesticus in India. Proparuterina lali sp. nov. is a rare parasite of Passer domesticus. Only one more species viz. P. aruensis Fuhrmann, 1911 is known. The present species differs from P. aruensis in the number and distribution of testes, bilobed nature and median position of ovary, position of vitellarium and of genital

  4. Development of PCR/dot blot assay for specific detection and differentiation of taeniid cestode eggs in canids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armua-Fernandez, Maria Teresa; Nonaka, Nariaki; Sakurai, Tatsuya; Nakamura, Seita; Gottstein, Bruno; Deplazes, Peter; Phiri, Isaac G K; Katakura, Ken; Oku, Yuzaburo

    2011-01-01

    We report the development of a colourimetric PCR/dot blot assay targeting the mitochondrial gene NADH dehydrogenase subunit 1 (nad1) for differential diagnosis of taeniid eggs. Partial sequences of the cestode nad1 gene were aligned and new primers were designed based on conserved regions. Species-specific oligonucleotide probes (S-SONP) for canine taeniid cestodes were then designed manually based on the variable region between the conserved primers. Specifically, S-SONP were designed for the Taenia crassiceps, T. hydatigena, T. multiceps, T. ovis, T. taeniaeformis, Echinococcus granulosus (genotype 1), E. multilocularis and E. vogeli. Each probe showed high specificity as no cross-hybridisation with any amplified nad1 fragment was observed. We evaluated the assay using 49 taeniid egg-positive samples collected from dogs in Zambia. DNA from 5 to 10 eggs was extracted in each sample. Using the PCR/dot blot assay, the probes successfully detected PCR products from T. hydatigena in 42 samples, T. multiceps in 3 samples, and both species (mixed infection) in the remaining 4 samples. The results indicate that the PCR/dot blot assay is a reliable alternative for differential diagnosis of taeniid eggs in faecal samples.

  5. BIOCHEMICAL STUDIES OF GASTROINTESTINAL CESTODE PARASITES IN OVIS BHARAL (L. FROM VIDHARBHA REGION

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    M. B. Sonune

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Most of the parasites reside in association of animals, birds, and fishes of economic importance. Parasitic biochemistry has great practical importance through chemotherapy and vaccine production and in understanding of the complex association involved in the host parasite relationship However; information in parasite biochemistry is patchy. It is a field growing in parallel with the new surge of interest in tropical diseases. Whereas previously parasitologists have been required to adopt biochemical methodology in order to stay abreast of development. Gastrointestinal cestodes are the most pathogenic parasites in Ovis bharal in tropic and subtropic areas. Present investigation deals with the biochemistry (Protein, glycogen and lipid of Cestode parasites in Ovis bharal.

  6. The musk rat (Ondatra zibethicus) as intermediate host of cestodes in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Borgsteede, F.H.M.; Tibben, J.H.; Giessen, van der J.W.B.

    2003-01-01

    An investigation on the presence of larval cestodes in musk rats (Ondatra zibethicus) was carried out in two regions of the Netherlands (east Groningen and south Limburg) where in a earlier study foxes with Echinococcus multilocularis were found. A total of 1726 musk rats were dissected (1200 in Gro

  7. [Characteristics of the Effect of Cestodes Parasitizing the Fish Intestine on the Activity of the Host Proteinases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izvekova, G I; Solovyev, M M

    2016-01-01

    The activity and spectrum of proteinases in the intestines of host fishes change upon infestation with cestodes. Serine proteinases are found to make a greater contribution to the total proteolytic activity. The reduction of proteolytic activity is associated with adsorption of the enzymes of the host on the surface of cestodes, and the increase in the activity is caused by the injury of the intestinal mucosa by the attachment apparatuses of cestodes. The inhibition of proteainase activity indicates the possible participation of microbiota enzymes in protein hydrolyses.

  8. The ant, Pachycondyla sennaarensis (Mayr) as an intermediate host for the poultry cestode, Raillietina tetragona (Molin).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammed, O B; Hussein, H S; Elowni, E E

    1988-01-01

    The role of several species of ants as intermediate hosts for poultry cestodes in the Sudan was investigated by a search for cysticercoids in specimens from poultry houses in various localities in the country. Pachycondyla sennaarensis, Messor galla and Acantholepis sp. were the only species collected from the areas surveyed. All these ants were examined for cysticercoids of poultry tapeworms but only P. sennaarensis was found to carry cysticercoids, all of which were identical to those of the poultry cestode, Raillietina tetragona. This tapeworm was recovered from all chicks fed the cysticercoids obtained from P. sennaarensis. R. tetragona cysticercoids were present in 63.3% of the P. sennaarensis sampled with 1-40 cysticercoids per ant, which is the heaviest recorded infestation of an ant species with these cysticeroids.

  9. Echinococcus metacestodes as laboratory models for the screening of drugs against cestodes and trematodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemphill, A; Stadelmann, B; Scholl, S; Müller, J; Spiliotis, M; Müller, N; Gottstein, B; Siles-Lucas, M

    2010-03-01

    Among the cestodes, Echinococcus granulosus, Echinococcus multilocularis and Taenia solium represent the most dangerous parasites. Their larval stages cause the diseases cystic echinococcosis (CE), alveolar echinococcosis (AE) and cysticercosis, respectively, which exhibit considerable medical and veterinary health concerns with a profound economic impact. Others caused by other cestodes, such as species of the genera Mesocestoides and Hymenolepis, are relatively rare in humans. In this review, we will focus on E. granulosus and E. multilocularis metacestode laboratory models and will review the use of these models in the search for novel drugs that could be employed for chemotherapeutic treatment of echinococcosis. Clearly, improved therapeutic drugs are needed for the treatment of AE and CE, and this can only be achieved through the development of medium-to-high throughput screening approaches. The most recent achievements in the in vitro culture and genetic manipulation of E. multilocularis cells and metacestodes, and the accessability of the E. multilocularis genome and EST sequence information, have rendered the E. multilocularis model uniquely suited for studies on drug-efficacy and drug target identification. This could lead to the development of novel compounds for the use in chemotherapy against echinococcosis, and possibly against diseases caused by other cestodes, and potentially also trematodes.

  10. Cestodes from Hector's beaked whale ( Mesoplodon hectori ) and spectacled porpoise ( Phocoena dioptrica ) from Argentinean waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolov, Pavel N; Cappozzo, H Luis; Berón-Vera, Bárbara; Crespo, Enrique A; Raga, J Antonio; Fernández, Mercedes

    2010-08-01

    Single individuals of 2 little-known cetacean species, Mesoplodon hectori and Phocoena dioptrica , stranded and died on the coast of Argentina (Buenos Aires and Chubut provinces, respectively) and were studied for the presence of helminths. The cestodes found were described and illustrated using light microscopy. The following cestode taxa were recovered: Tetrabothrius ( Tetrabothrius ) hobergi n. sp. (several fragmented specimens, at least 1 gravid) and Tetrabothrius ( s.l. ) sp. 1 (several fragmented immature specimens) from M. hectori , and Tetrabothrius ( s.l. ) sp. 2 (single fragmented immature specimen) and 2 morphotypes of tetraphyllidean larvae from P. dioptrica. Tetrabothrius ( T. ) hobergi n. sp. can be distinguished from Tetrabothrius ( T. ) forsteri by the greater number of testes and larger eggs and oncospheres, from Tetrabothrius ( T. ) curilensis by the smaller testes and vitellarium, the shape and size of the ovary, and the larger oncospheres and longer embryonic hooks, and from Tetrabothrius ( T. ) sp. from Ziphius cavirostris by the narrower strobila, smaller scolex, and smaller number of testes. The generic designations of Tetrabothrius ( s.l. ) sp. 1 and Tetrabothrius ( s.l. ) sp. 2 were based on the scolex morphology. Tetrabothrius ( s.l. ) sp. 1 is closest to Tetrabothrius ( T. ) forsteri and Tetrabothrius ( Biamniculus ) innominatus based on the number of testes, while the scolex size of Tetrabothrius ( Tetrabothrius ) sp. 2 is within the variability range reported for Tetrabothrius ( T. ) forsteri . More definite identification of the 2 species was not possible due to the condition of the available material. The present study provides the first descriptions of cestodes from M. hectori and P. dioptrica , thus enriching the knowledge regarding the helminths of insufficiently studied marine mammals.

  11. Biochemical analysis of a recombinant glutathione transferase from the cestode Echinococcus granulosus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harispe, Laura; García, Gabriela; Arbildi, Paula; Pascovich, Leticia; Chalar, Cora; Zaha, Arnaldo; Fernandez, Cecilia; Fernandez, Veronica

    2010-04-01

    Glutathione transferases (GSTs) are believed to be a major detoxification system in helminths. We describe the expression and functional analysis of EgGST, a cytosolic GST from Echinococcus granulosus, related to the Mu-class of mammalian enzymes. EgGST was produced as an enzymatically active dimeric protein (rEgGST), with highest specific activity towards the standard substrate 1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene (CDNB; 2.5 micromol min(-1)mg(-1)), followed by ethacrynic acid. Interestingly, rEgGST displayed glutathione peroxidase activity (towards cumene hydroperoxide), and conjugated reactive carbonyls (trans-2-nonenal and trans,trans-2,4-decadienal), indicating that it may intercept damaging products of lipid peroxidation. In addition, classical GST inhibitors (cybacron blue, triphenylthin chloride and ellagic acid) and a number of anthelmintic drugs (mainly, hexachlorophene and rafoxanide) were found to interfere with glutathione-conjugation to CDNB; suggesting that they may bind to EgGST. Considered globally, the functional properties of rEgGST are similar to those of putative orthologs from Echinococcus multilcularis and Taenia solium, the other medically important cestodes. Interestingly, our results also indicate that differences exist between these closely related cestode GSTs, which probably reflect specific biological functions of the molecules in each parasitic organism.

  12. Characterization of a diversity of tetraphyllidean and rhinebothriidean cestode larval types, with comments on host associations and life-cycles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Kirsten; Bullard, Stephen A

    2010-07-01

    Life-cycles of marine tapeworms of the orders Tetraphyllidea and Rhinebothriidea are poorly known primarily because their larvae typically lack species level, taxonomically distinguishing adult characteristics and using morphology they can be identified to genus, family or order only. This large-scale study conducted in the northern Gulf of Mexico includes adult cestodes (25 species) collected from sharks and rays (Elasmobranchii, eight species) and larval cestodes (27 species) collected from teleosts (Neopterygii, 46 species), bivalves and gastropods (Mollusca, 24 species), and shrimps (Crustacea, five species), comprising a phylogenetically (75 species in three phyla, 14 orders and 46 families) and ecologically (e.g., benthic, epibenthic, pelagic, euryhaline, stenohaline) diverse array of hosts of larval cestode. Molecular biology and morphology informed larval identification and facilitated the circumscription of suites of morphological features representing distinct larval types (i.e., collective groups). A total of 198 specimens comprising adult and larval tetraphyllideans and rhinebothriideans assigned to 12 genera were characterized for the partial (D1-D3) lsrDNA gene and analyzed separately and in combination with data derived from species belonging to an additional 21 genera available from GenBank. Eight larval types were identified and matched to one or several genera of Tetraphyllidea or Rhinebothriidea; morphological variation within these larval types was also documented. In combination with published reports of unique larval morphologies, 15 larval types were established and a key to their larvae presented. Overall, teleosts figured prominently in the life-cycles of tetraphyllideans and rhinebothriideans. Intermediate host specificity at the level of cestode genus was euryxenous, but limited host records suggest that host specificity at the level of cestode species may be more strict. To our knowledge, this is the first published study that approaches

  13. Mucocutaneous manifestations of helminth infections: Nematodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lupi, Omar; Downing, Christopher; Lee, Michael; Pino, Livia; Bravo, Francisco; Giglio, Patricia; Sethi, Aisha; Klaus, Sidney; Sangueza, Omar P; Fuller, Claire; Mendoza, Natalia; Ladizinski, Barry; Woc-Colburn, Laila; Tyring, Stephen K

    2015-12-01

    In the 21st century, despite increased globalization through international travel for business, medical volunteerism, pleasure, and immigration/refugees into the United States, there is little published in the dermatology literature regarding the cutaneous manifestations of helminth infections. Approximately 17% of travelers seek medical care because of cutaneous disorders, many related to infectious etiologies. This review will focus on the cutaneous manifestations of helminth infections and is divided into 2 parts: part I focuses on nematode infections, and part II focuses on trematode and cestode infections. This review highlights the clinical manifestations, transmission, diagnosis, and treatment of helminth infections. Nematodes are roundworms that cause diseases with cutaneous manifestations, such as cutaneous larval migrans, onchocerciasis, filariasis, gnathostomiasis, loiasis, dracunculiasis, strongyloidiasis, ascariasis, streptocerciasis, dirofilariasis, and trichinosis. Tremadotes, also known as flukes, cause schistosomiasis, paragonimiasis, and fascioliasis. Cestodes (tapeworms) are flat, hermaphroditic parasites that cause diseases such as sparganosis, cysticercosis, and echinococcus.

  14. Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Infections Adenovirus Bronchiolitis Campylobacter Infections Cat Scratch Disease Cellulitis Chickenpox Chlamydia Cold Sores Common Cold Coxsackievirus Infections Croup Cytomegalovirus (CMV) Dengue Fever Diphtheria E. Coli ...

  15. Congruent and synchronic patterns in biogeography and speciation among seabirds, pinnipeds, and cestodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoberg, E P

    1992-08-01

    Congruence in biogeographic patterns among diverse assemblages of taxa indicates uniformity in the historical determinants of biotic distributions. Comparisons of host and parasite phylogenies and the elucidation of distributional area relationships are requisite components of analyses in historical biogeography. Host-parasite associations with broad geographic ranges are often archaic and have been structured largely by coevolutionary processes. In contrast, the origins and radiation of the primary cestode faunas of some seabirds (Alcataenia spp./Alcidae) and pinnipeds (Anophryocephalus spp./Phocidae and Otariidae) are associated with colonization. These young colonizing faunas, in the Holarctic Region, were influenced by a common history during the late Pliocene and Pleistocene epochs. Periodic range contraction, with isolation in refugial centers, and subsequent expansion into postglacial habitats for hosts and parasites coincided with the cyclic pattern of stadials and interstadials. During the past 2-3 million years following colonization, these dramatic climatic fluctuations strongly influenced the continuity of ecological associations in marine habitats and appear to have been the determinants of congruent and synchronic patterns of speciation among these disparate taxa of marine homeotherms and eucestodes.

  16. Evaluation of coproantigen diagnosis for natural Echinococcus multilocularis infection in red foxes

    OpenAIRE

    Morishima, Yasuyuki; TSUKADA, Hideharu; NONAKA, Nariaki; OKU, Yuzaburo; KAMIYA, Masao

    1999-01-01

    The validity of a coproantigen ELISA for Echinococcus multilocularis was evaluated by comparison of three diagnostic methods ; autopsy, egg examination and the ELISA. Of 71 foxes, 39 were found to be infected with the cestode at autopsy. The overall mean of worm burdens was 3,451, but the number varied (1-34,522). The ELISA could detect 94.9% (37/39) of the worm positives and there were no false-positives. Two false-negatives were infected with 1 and 4 cestodes, whereas 3 cases with similar w...

  17. Hyperparasitism by helminths: new records of cestodes and nematodes in proteocephalid cestodes from South American siluriform fishes Hiperparasitismo por helmintos: novas ocorrências de cestóides e nematóides em cestóides proteocefalídeos de peixes siluriformes da América do Sul

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amilcar Arandas Rego

    1989-09-01

    Full Text Available Proteocephalid cestode hyperparasite are reported from numerous proteocephalids occurring in pimelodid fishes in different regions of Brazil. In addition, three specimens of a nematode hyperparasite are reported from the proteocephalid cestode Choanoscolex abscissus from the pimelodid fish Pseudoplatystoma corruscans in Brazil. Previous records of cestode and nematode hyperparasite of cestode are listed, and the possible identities of the Brazilian records are discussed.Cestóides hiperparasitos são descritos de espécies de proteocefalídeos, que ocorrem em peixes pimelodídeos de diferentes regiões do Brasil. Referimos ainda, a ocorrência de nematóide hiperparasito em espécimes de Choanoscolex abscissus, do peixe pimelodídeo, Pseudoplatystoma carruscans. São citadas as referências anteriores de cestóides e nematóides hiperparasitos, e discutida a possível identificação dos mesmos.

  18. Stem cell proliferation during in vitro development of the model cestode Mesocestoides corti from larva to adult worm

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    Castillo Estela

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In free-living flatworms somatic differentiated cells do not divide, and a separate population of stem cells (called neoblasts is responsible for cell proliferation and renewal. In cestodes, there is evidence that similar mechanisms of cell renewal exist. Results In this work, we have characterized proliferative cells during the development of the model cestode Mesocestoides corti from larva (tetrathyridium to young segmented worm. This was done by two complementary strategies with congruent results: characterizing cells in S phase and their progeny by incorporation of 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine, and characterizing cells in M phase by arresting mitotic cells with colchicine and studying their morphology and distribution. Proliferative cells are localized only in the inner parenchyma, particularly in close proximity to the inner muscle layer, but not in the cortical parenchyma nor in the sub-tegumental tissue. After proliferation some of these cells migrate to the outer regions were they differentiate. In the larvae, proliferative cells are more abundant in the anterior regions (scolex and neck, and their number diminishes in an antero-posterior way. During the development of adult segments periodic accumulation of proliferative cells are observed, including a central mass of cells that constitutes the genital primordium, which grows at least in part due to in situ proliferation. In later segments, the inner cells of genital primordia cease to proliferate and adopt a compact distribution, and proliferative cells are also found in the testes primordia. Conclusions Proliferative cells have a characteristic localization and morphology throughout development from larva to adult of Mesocestoides corti, which is similar, and probably evolutionary conserved, to that described in other model cestodes. The characteristics of proliferative cells suggest that these consist of undifferentiated stem cells.

  19. Intestinal obstruction caused by Taenia taeniaeformis infection in a cat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilcox, Rebbecca S; Bowman, Dwight D; Barr, Stephen C; Euclid, James M

    2009-01-01

    An adult domestic shorthair (DSH) cat was presented with acute vomiting, anorexia, lethargy, and dyspnea. The cat's clinical status worsened over 24 hours with conservative medical management. An exploratory celiotomy was performed. Acute intestinal obstruction resulting from infection with Taenia (T.) taeniaeformis was diagnosed. Surgical removal of the cestodes via multiple enterotomies resolved the obstruction. This paper reports, for the first time, small intestinal obstruction caused by T. taeniaeformis infection in a cat.

  20. Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Does My Child Need? How to Safely Give Acetaminophen Is It a Cold or the Flu? Is the Flu Vaccine a Good Idea for Your Family? Too Late for the Flu Vaccine? Common Childhood Infections Can Chronic Ear Infections Cause Long-Term Hearing Loss? Chickenpox Cold Sores Common Cold Diarrhea Fever and ...

  1. Innate immune defence mechanisms of tench, Tinca tinca (L.), naturally infected with the tapeworm Monobothrium wageneri.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dezfuli, B S; Lui, A; Giari, L; Castaldelli, G; Shinn, A P; Lorenzoni, M

    2012-11-01

    A histochemical and ultrastructural investigation of the cellular inflammatory response within the intestines of tench Tinca tinca L. naturally infected with the caryophyllidean cestode Monobothrium wageneri was conducted and the data obtained compared to those in uninfected counterparts. Cestode infections within the intestines were evident through the appearance of raised inflammatory swellings induced by the deep penetration of their scolices into the intestinal wall. Cestodes typically attached in tight clusters, inducing a massive hyperplastic granulocyte response of mast cells and neutrophils, which were significantly more numerous (P < 0·01) in the intestines of infected (n = 14) than of uninfected (n = 9) tench. Neutrophils were more abundant than mast cells (P < 0·01) in host tissues in close proximity to the parasite tegument. In transmission electron microscopy sections, mast cells and neutrophils were frequently observed in contact with or inside capillaries, and in close proximity to the cestode. Degranulation of both cell types was seen in the submucosa and lamina muscularis, notably in the immediate tissues surrounding the scolex of M. wageneri. No tegumental secretions were seen at the host-parasite interface. Occasional rodlet cells were encountered in the submucosa of infected fish.

  2. Biochemical and molecular characterization of the Cyclophyllidean cestode, Cotugnia cuneata (Meggit, 1924), an endoparasite of domestic pigeons, Columba livia domestica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biswal, Debraj; Nandi, Anadi Prasad; Chatterjee, Soumendranath

    2014-03-01

    Analysis of the major biochemical constituents of Cotugnia cuneata revealed that the total protein, carbohydrate, glycogen and lipid contents (as percentage of dry weight) were 25.22 ± 0.93, 32.90 ± 0.30, 21.33 ± 0.99 and 9.94 ± 0.42 respectively. The results showed that the carbohydrate content was the highest followed by protein and lipid contents respectively. Glycogen content was relatively high which showed that carbohydrate was mainly present in the form of glycogen in these cestodes. The A + T and G + C contents were obtained as 49.82 and 50.18 % respectively. The phylogenetic tree showed that C. cuneata branched with its closest cluster comprising of Raillietina tunetensis, Raillietina australis, Fuhrmannetta malakartis and Raillietina sonini with 99 % bootstrap support.

  3. Thymus dependency of induced immune responses against Hymenolepis nana (cestode) using congenitally athymic nude mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, A

    1985-04-01

    Anti-parasite antibody responses were compared among several strains of mice experimentally infected with the dwarf tapeworm, Hymenolepis nana. The antibody titres were highly variable among the mouse strains in addition to variation in worm fecundity and longevity. The influence of the thymus on both infection and anti-parasite antibody production (especially of IgE isotype) was studied by the use of congenitally athymic (nu/nu) nude and their phenotypically normal (nu/+) CD-1(ICR) mice infected with H. nana. All nude (nu/nu) mice harboured fully mature 70 day old adult tapeworms of the first generation derived from eggs initially given on day 0. In addition, they contained (a) younger second generation adults derived from autoinfection and present in the intestinal lumen, (b) a number of abnormally large (about 1-2 mm in diameter) balloon like, fluid filled cysticercoids in not only the intestinal tissue but also parenteral tissues such as the mesenteric lymph nodes, liver and lung, and (c) normal cysticercoids derived from challenging eggs in the intestinal tissue. Infected nude mice produced no antibodies detectable by PCA (IgE) and double diffusion (IgG) tests. In contrast, normal (nu/+) mice and nude mice reconstituted with thymocytes expelled almost all luminal adults of the primary infection by day 70 and produced antibodies to extracts of adult H. nana. Neither autoinfection nor reinfection following egg challenge occurred in any of these normal (nu/+) and reconstituted nude mice. Therefore, acquired immune responses against H. nana (as assessed by resistance not only to the tissue phase measured by the failure of tissue cysticercoid recovery from egg challenge, but also to the lumen phase assessed by the failure of autoinfection adult recovery and 'worm expulsion' of the initially established adults) are all thymus-dependent in mice. The antibody responses examined are also thymus-dependent.

  4. Thymus dependency of induced immune responses against Hymenolepis nana (cestode) using congenitally athymic nude mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, A

    1985-01-01

    Anti-parasite antibody responses were compared among several strains of mice experimentally infected with the dwarf tapeworm, Hymenolepis nana. The antibody titres were highly variable among the mouse strains in addition to variation in worm fecundity and longevity. The influence of the thymus on both infection and anti-parasite antibody production (especially of IgE isotype) was studied by the use of congenitally athymic (nu/nu) nude and their phenotypically normal (nu/+) CD-1(ICR) mice infected with H. nana. All nude (nu/nu) mice harboured fully mature 70 day old adult tapeworms of the first generation derived from eggs initially given on day 0. In addition, they contained (a) younger second generation adults derived from autoinfection and present in the intestinal lumen, (b) a number of abnormally large (about 1-2 mm in diameter) balloon like, fluid filled cysticercoids in not only the intestinal tissue but also parenteral tissues such as the mesenteric lymph nodes, liver and lung, and (c) normal cysticercoids derived from challenging eggs in the intestinal tissue. Infected nude mice produced no antibodies detectable by PCA (IgE) and double diffusion (IgG) tests. In contrast, normal (nu/+) mice and nude mice reconstituted with thymocytes expelled almost all luminal adults of the primary infection by day 70 and produced antibodies to extracts of adult H. nana. Neither autoinfection nor reinfection following egg challenge occurred in any of these normal (nu/+) and reconstituted nude mice. Therefore, acquired immune responses against H. nana (as assessed by resistance not only to the tissue phase measured by the failure of tissue cysticercoid recovery from egg challenge, but also to the lumen phase assessed by the failure of autoinfection adult recovery and 'worm expulsion' of the initially established adults) are all thymus-dependent in mice. The antibody responses examined are also thymus-dependent. PMID:4006301

  5. Hybridization between two cestode species and its consequences for intermediate host range

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    Henrich Tina

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many parasites show an extraordinary degree of host specificity, even though a narrow range of host species reduces the likelihood of successful transmission. In this study, we evaluate the genetic basis of host specificity and transmission success of experimental F1 hybrids from two closely related tapeworm species (Schistocephalus solidus and S. pungitii, both highly specific to their respective vertebrate second intermediate hosts (three- and nine-spined sticklebacks, respectively. Methods We used an in vitro breeding system to hybridize Schistocephalus solidus and S. pungitii; hybridization rate was quantified using microsatellite markers. We measured several fitness relevant traits in pure lines of the parental parasite species as well as in their hybrids: hatching rates, infection rates in the copepod first host, and infection rates and growth in the two species of stickleback second hosts. Results We show that the parasites can hybridize in the in vitro system, although the proportion of self-fertilized offspring was higher in the heterospecific breeding pairs than in the control pure parental species. Hybrids have a lower hatching rate, but do not show any disadvantages in infection of copepods. In fish, hybrids were able to infect both stickleback species with equal frequency, whereas the pure lines were only able to infect their normal host species. Conclusions Although not yet documented in nature, our study shows that hybridization in Schistocephalus spp. is in principle possible and that, in respect to their expanded host range, the hybrids are fitter. Further studies are needed to find the reason for the maintenance of the species boundaries in wild populations.

  6. Infections

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    Virginia Vanzzini Zago

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This is a retrospective, and descriptive study about the support that the laboratory of microbiology aids can provide in the diagnosis of ocular infections in patients whom were attended a tertiary-care hospital in México City in a 10-year-time period. We describe the microbiological diagnosis in palpebral mycose; in keratitis caused by Fusarium, Aspergillus, Candida, and melanized fungi; endophthalmitis; one Histoplasma scleritis and one mucormycosis. Nowadays, ocular fungal infections are more often diagnosed, because there is more clinical suspicion and there are easy laboratory confirmations. Correct diagnosis is important because an early medical treatment gives a better prognosis for visual acuity. In some cases, fungal infections are misdiagnosed and the antifungal treatment is delayed.

  7. Description of Paranoplocephala yoccozi n. sp. (Cestoda: Anoplocephalidae from the snow vole Chionomys nivalis in France, with a review of anoplocephalid cestodes of snow voles in Europe

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    Haukisalmi V.

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available We describe Paranoplocephala yoccozi n. sp. (Cestoda: Anoplocephalidae from the snow vole Chionomys nivalis in Bourg-Saint-Maurice, French Alps, compare it with several related species from rodents, and review the anoplocephalid cestodes of snow voles in Europe. Paranoplocephala yoccozi n. sp. is primarily distinguished from the related species by its large scolex of characteristic shape, robust neck region, and the structure of the cirrus sac, vitellarium and vagina. We show that the anoplocephalid cestodes of snow voles in Europe, representing the genera Anoplocephaloides and Paranoplocephala, include at least seven species. This fauna consists primarily of species that snow voles share with other voles inhabiting the high-mountain areas. Some of the species, including P. yoccozi n. sp., appear to have a very localized distribution, which is assumed to be a consequence of the historical fragmentation of snow vole populations.

  8. Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-01

    Interactions between biofilms and the environment. FEMS Microbiol Rev. 1997;20:291–303. 4. Webb LX, Wagner W, Carroll D, et al. Osteomyelitis and...treatment of osteomyelitis . Biomed Mater. 2008;3: 034114. 6. Gristina AG. Biomaterial-centered infection: microbial adhesion versus tissue integration...vertebral osteomyelitis . Spine. 2007;32: 2996–3006. 15. Beckham JD, Tuttle K, Tyler KL. Reovirus activates transforming growth factor ß and bone

  9. Identification of thioredoxin glutathione reductase inhibitors that kill cestode and trematode parasites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Fabiana; Hernández, Paola; Porcal, Williams; López, Gloria V; Cerecetto, Hugo; González, Mercedes; Basika, Tatiana; Carmona, Carlos; Fló, Martín; Maggioli, Gabriela; Bonilla, Mariana; Gladyshev, Vadim N; Boiani, Mariana; Salinas, Gustavo

    2012-01-01

    Parasitic flatworms are responsible for serious infectious diseases that affect humans as well as livestock animals in vast regions of the world. Yet, the drug armamentarium available for treatment of these infections is limited: praziquantel is the single drug currently available for 200 million people infected with Schistosoma spp. and there is justified concern about emergence of drug resistance. Thioredoxin glutathione reductase (TGR) is an essential core enzyme for redox homeostasis in flatworm parasites. In this work, we searched for flatworm TGR inhibitors testing compounds belonging to various families known to inhibit thioredoxin reductase or TGR and also additional electrophilic compounds. Several furoxans and one thiadiazole potently inhibited TGRs from both classes of parasitic flatworms: cestoda (tapeworms) and trematoda (flukes), while several benzofuroxans and a quinoxaline moderately inhibited TGRs. Remarkably, five active compounds from diverse families possessed a phenylsulfonyl group, strongly suggesting that this moiety is a new pharmacophore. The most active inhibitors were further characterized and displayed slow and nearly irreversible binding to TGR. These compounds efficiently killed Echinococcus granulosus larval worms and Fasciola hepatica newly excysted juveniles in vitro at a 20 µM concentration. Our results support the concept that the redox metabolism of flatworm parasites is precarious and particularly susceptible to destabilization, show that furoxans can be used to target both flukes and tapeworms, and identified phenylsulfonyl as a new drug-hit moiety for both classes of flatworm parasites.

  10. Identification of thioredoxin glutathione reductase inhibitors that kill cestode and trematode parasites.

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    Fabiana Ross

    Full Text Available Parasitic flatworms are responsible for serious infectious diseases that affect humans as well as livestock animals in vast regions of the world. Yet, the drug armamentarium available for treatment of these infections is limited: praziquantel is the single drug currently available for 200 million people infected with Schistosoma spp. and there is justified concern about emergence of drug resistance. Thioredoxin glutathione reductase (TGR is an essential core enzyme for redox homeostasis in flatworm parasites. In this work, we searched for flatworm TGR inhibitors testing compounds belonging to various families known to inhibit thioredoxin reductase or TGR and also additional electrophilic compounds. Several furoxans and one thiadiazole potently inhibited TGRs from both classes of parasitic flatworms: cestoda (tapeworms and trematoda (flukes, while several benzofuroxans and a quinoxaline moderately inhibited TGRs. Remarkably, five active compounds from diverse families possessed a phenylsulfonyl group, strongly suggesting that this moiety is a new pharmacophore. The most active inhibitors were further characterized and displayed slow and nearly irreversible binding to TGR. These compounds efficiently killed Echinococcus granulosus larval worms and Fasciola hepatica newly excysted juveniles in vitro at a 20 µM concentration. Our results support the concept that the redox metabolism of flatworm parasites is precarious and particularly susceptible to destabilization, show that furoxans can be used to target both flukes and tapeworms, and identified phenylsulfonyl as a new drug-hit moiety for both classes of flatworm parasites.

  11. Cloning and expression of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase from a cestode parasite and its solubilization from inclusion bodies using l-arginine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutta, Asim K; Ramnath; Dkhar, Barilin; Tandon, Veena; Das, Bidyadhar

    2016-09-01

    Phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase is an essential regulatory enzyme of glycolysis in the cestode parasite, Raillietina echinobothrida, and is considered a potential target for anthelmintic action because of its differential activity from that of its avian host. However, due to the unavailability of its structure, the mechanism of regulation of PEPCK from R. echinobothrida (rePEPCK) and its interaction with possible modulators remain unclear. Hence, in this study, the rePEPCK gene was cloned into pGEX-4T-3 and overexpressed for its characterization. On being induced by IPTG, the recombinant rePEPCK was expressed as inclusion bodies (IBs); hence, various agents, like different inducer concentrations, temperature, time, host cell types, culture media, pH, and additives, were used to bring the protein to soluble form. Finally, a significant amount (∼46%) of rePEPCK was solubilized from IBs by adding 2M l-arginine. Near-UV circular dichroism spectra analysis indicated that l-arginine (2M) had no effect on the conformation of the protein. In this study, we have reported a yield of ∼73mg of purified rePEPCK per 1L of culture. The purified rePEPCK retained its biological activity, and Km of the enzyme for its substrate was determined and discussed. The availability of recombinant rePEPCK may help in biochemical- and biophysical-studies to explore its molecular mechanisms and regulations.

  12. Scolex morphology of the cestode Silurotaenia siluri (Batsch, 1786) (Proteocephalidae: Gangesiinae), a parasite of European wels (Silurus glanis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholz, T; Zd'árská, Z; de Chambrier, A; Drábek, R

    1999-01-01

    The morphology of the scolex of the tapeworm Silurotaenica siluri (Batsch, 1786) (Proteocephalidae: Gangesiinae), a specific parasite of European wels (Silurus glanis L.), was studied using light, scanning (SEM), and transmission electron (TEM) microscopy. The scolex of S. siluri is rather uniform in shape and size; it is globular, and has four prominent, anteriorly directed suckers and a spherical, muscular apical organ corresponding to the rostellum of cyclophyllidean cestodes. The rostellum-like apical organ is armed with five to six irregular rows of small hooklets with a wide, oval basal plate and a short, posteriorly curved blade. The excretory system of the scolex is formed by sinuous secondary canals ending blindly beneath the distal layer of the tegument, not opening outside. The surface of the scolex is covered with filiform microtriches; giant spine-like and blade-like microtriches, incorrectly interpreted as spines or hooklets in previous descriptions of S. siluri, are present on the neck region and posterior margins and internal cavities of the suckers. It is assumed that tegumental spines reported in the scolices of other proteocephalideans (subfamilies Acanthotaeniinae and Gangesiinae, genera Spasskyellina and Nomimoscolex) could indeed be spiniform microtriches.

  13. Cestode Antigens Induce a Tolerogenic-Like Phenotype and Inhibit LPS Inflammatory Responses in Human Dendritic Cells

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    César A. Terrazas, Fausto Sánchez-Muñoz, Ana M. Mejía-Domínguez, Luis M. Amezcua-Guerra, Luis I. Terrazas, Rafael Bojalil, Lorena Gómez-García

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Pathogens have developed strategies to modify Dendritic Cells (DCs phenotypes and impair their functions in order to create a safer environment for their survival. DCs responses to helminths and their derivatives vary among different studies. Here we show that excretory/secretory products of the cestode Taenia crassiceps (TcES do not induce the maturation of human DCs judged by a lack of increment in the expression of CD83, HLA-DR, CD80 and CD86 molecules but enhanced the production of IL-10 and positively modulated the expression of the C-type lectin receptor MGL and negatively modulated the expression of DC-SIGN. Additionally, these antigens were capable of down-modulating the inflammatory response induced by LPS in these cells by reducing the expression of the maturation markers and the production of the inflammatory cytokines IL-1β, TNF, IL-12 and IL-6. The effects of TcES upon the DCs responses to LPS were stronger if cells were exposed during their differentiation to the helminth antigens. All together, these findings suggest the ability of TcES to induce the differentiation of human DCs into a tolerogenic-like phenotype and to inhibit the effects of inflammatory stimuli.

  14. A helminth cestode parasite express an estrogen-binding protein resembling a classic nuclear estrogen receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibarra-Coronado, Elizabeth Guadalupe; Escobedo, Galileo; Nava-Castro, Karen; Jesús Ramses, Chávez-Rios; Hernández-Bello, Romel; García-Varela, Martìn; Ambrosio, Javier R; Reynoso-Ducoing, Olivia; Fonseca-Liñán, Rocío; Ortega-Pierres, Guadalupe; Pavón, Lenin; Hernández, María Eugenia; Morales-Montor, Jorge

    2011-01-01

    The role of an estrogen-binding protein similar to a known mammalian estrogen receptor (ER) is described in the estradiol-dependent reproduction of the helminth parasite Taenia crassiceps. Previous results have shown that 17-β-estradiol induces a concentration-dependent increase in bud number of in vitro cultured cysticerci. This effect is inhibited when parasites are also incubated in the presence of an ER binding-inhibitor (tamoxifen). RT-PCR assays using specific oligonucleotides of the most conserved ER sequences, showed expression by the parasite of a mRNA band of molecular weight and sequence corresponding to an ER. Western blot assays revealed reactivity with a 66 kDa protein corresponding to the parasite ER protein. Tamoxifen treatment strongly reduced the production of the T. crassiceps ER-like protein. Antibody specificity was demonstrated by immunoprecipitating the total parasite protein extract with anti-ER-antibodies. Cross-contamination by host cells was discarded by flow cytometry analysis. ER was specifically detected on cells expressing paramyosin, a specific helminth cell marker. Parasite cells expressing the ER-like protein were located by confocal microscopy in the subtegumental tissue exclusively. Analysis of the ER-like protein by bidimensional electrophoresis and immunoblot identified a specific protein of molecular weight and isoelectric point similar to a vertebrates ER. Sequencing of the spot produced a small fragment of protein similar to the mammalian nuclear ER. Together these results show that T. crassiceps expresses an ER-like protein which activates the budding of T. crassiceps cysticerci in vitro. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of an ER-like protein in parasites. This finding may have strong implications in the fields of host-parasite co-evolution as well as in sex-associated susceptibility to this infection, and could be an important target for the design of new drugs.

  15. Acute cysticercosis favours rapid and more severe lesions caused by Leishmania major and Leishmania mexicana infection, a role for alternatively activated macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Sosa, Miriam; Rivera-Montoya, Irma; Espinoza, Arlett; Romero-Grijalva, Miriam; López-Flores, Roberto; González, Jorge; Terrazas, Luis I

    2006-08-01

    Parasitic helminths have developed complex mechanisms to modulate host immunity. In the present study we found that previous infection of mice with the cestode Taenia crassiceps favours parasitemia and induces larger cutaneous lesions during both Leishmania major and Leishmania mexicana co-infections. Analysis of cytokine responses into draining lymph nodes indicated that co-infection of T. crassiceps-Leishmania did not inhibit IFN-gamma production in response to Leishmania antigens, but significantly increased IL-4 production. Additionally, anti-Leishmania-specific IgG1 antibodies and total IgE increased in co-infected mice, whereas, IgG2a titers remained similar. Macrophages from Taenia-infected mice displayed increased mRNA transcripts of arginase-1, Ym1, and Mannose Receptor, as well as greater production of urea (all markers for an alternate activation state) compared to macrophages from Leishmania-infected mice. In contrast, lower mRNA transcripts for IL-12p35, IL-12p40, IL-23p19, and iNOS were detected in macrophages obtained from cestode-infected mice compared to uninfected and Leishmania-infected mice after LPS stimulation. The presence of cestode also generated impaired macrophage anti-leishmanicidal activity in vitro, as evidenced by the inability of these macrophages to prevent Leishmania growth compared to macrophages from uninfected mice. This was observed despite the fact that both groups of cells were exposed to IFN-gamma. Flow cytometry showed high IFN-gammaR expression on Taenia-induced macrophages. Thus, lack of response to IFN-gamma is not associated with the absence of its receptor. Our data suggest that cestode infection may favour Leishmania installation by inducing alternatively activated macrophages rather than inhibiting Th1-type responses.

  16. Substance P Signaling Contributes to Granuloma Formation in Taenia crassiceps Infection, a Murine Model of Cysticercosis

    OpenAIRE

    Armandina Garza; David J Tweardy; Joel Weinstock; Balaji Viswanathan; Prema Robinson

    2010-01-01

    Cysticercosis is an infection with larval cysts of the cestode Taenia solium. Through pathways that are incompletely understood, dying parasites initiate a granulomatous reaction that, in the brain, causes seizures. Substance P (SP), a neuropeptide involved in pain-transmission, contributes to inflammation and previously was detected in granulomas associated with dead T. crassiceps cysts. To determine if SP contributes to granuloma formation, we measured granuloma-size and levels of IL-1β, TN...

  17. General aspects concerning strictly meat and fish transmitted parasitic infections

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    Daniele Crotti

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available All helminths parasitosis transmitted to humans trough ingestion of infested fleshes, where man is definitive host too, are represented by four groups of helminths: the cestodes Dyphyllobothrium spp and Spirometra spp. (Sparganum proliferum is the name of the immature plerocercoid larva, the trematodes Opisthorchis Clonorchis “group” (many could be the genera and species involved, and the nematode Capillaria philippinensis. So, for fishes humans foods (fresh or salted water the control and prevention in veterinary health must be directed to investigation regarding intermediate stages of these parasites in fishes for human alimentation; if present, they must be eliminated. The helminths parasitosis transmitted to humans trough ingestion of infected mammals meats, are represented by taeniasis (Taenia saginata, T. solium and T. saginata asiatica, where man id definitive host and the infection is caused by ingestion of bovine or swine meat, containing larvae of these cestodes, and by trichinellosis, where humans represent a intermediate stage, and the eventual pathology is caused as by adult (acute infection as by larvae (chronic infection of this nematode: usually the meats responsible are infected pork, wild pork or horse (Trichinella spp. Is inside the meats of these animals. So the veterinary control and prophylaxis are necessary to avoid this disease and preventing the infection that could be severe.

  18. Parasitic Infections Based on 320 Clinical Samples Submitted to Hanyang University, Korea (2004-2011)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Sung-Chul; Lee, Soo-Young; Song, Hyun-Ouk; Ryu, Jae-Sook

    2014-01-01

    We analyzed 320 clinical samples of parasitic infections submitted to the Department of Environmental Biology and Medical Parasitology, Hanyang University from January 2004 to June 2011. They consisted of 211 nematode infections, 64 trematode or cestode infections, 32 protozoan infections, and 13 infections with arthropods. The nematode infections included 67 cases of trichuriasis, 62 of anisakiasis (Anisakis sp. and Pseudoterranova decipiens), 40 of enterobiasis, and 24 of ascariasis, as well as other infections including strongyloidiasis, thelaziasis, loiasis, and hookworm infecions. Among the cestode or trematode infections, we observed 27 cases of diphyllobothriasis, 14 of sparganosis, 9 of clonorchiasis, and 5 of paragonimiasis together with a few cases of taeniasis saginata, cysticercosis cellulosae, hymenolepiasis, and echinostomiasis. The protozoan infections included 14 cases of malaria, 4 of cryptosporidiosis, and 3 of trichomoniasis, in addition to infections with Entamoeba histolytica, Entamoeba dispar, Entamoeba coli, Endolimax nana, Giardia lamblia, and Toxoplasma gondii. Among the arthropods, we detected 6 cases of Ixodes sp., 5 of Phthirus pubis, 1 of Sarcoptes scabiei, and 1 of fly larva. The results revealed that trichuriasis, anisakiasis, enterobiasis, and diphyllobothriasis were the most frequently found parasitosis among the clinical samples. PMID:24850969

  19. Aspects of the ecology of proteocephalid cestodes, parasites of Sorubim lima (Pimelodidae), of the upper Paraná River, Brazil: II. Interspecific associations and distribution of gastrintestinal parasites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavanelli, G C; Takemoto, R M

    2000-11-01

    One hundred and seven specimens of Sorubim lima (Bloch & Schneider, 1801) were collected in the floodplain of the upper Paraná River, Brazil between March 1992 and February 1996. Ninety-five specimens (88.78%) were parasited by at least a species of proteocephalid cestode. 7,573 parasites specimens of four different species were collected (average intensity 79.71 parasites/host): Paramonticellia itaipuensis Pavanelli & Rego, 1991; Nupelia portoriquensis Pavanelli & Rego, 1991; Spatulifer maringaensis Pavanelli & Rego, 1989 and Spasskyellina spinulifera (Woodland, 1935). The two most prevalent species, Spatulifer maringaensis and Paramonticellia itaipuensis, were parasiting the entire gastrointestinal tract. Nupelia portoriquensis parasited only the anterior and posterior intestine of the host.

  20. [Description of Hymenolepis cerberensis n. sp. (Cestoda: Hymenolepididae) and first general considerations on the fauna of cestode parasites of the pygmy shrew Suncus etruscus (Savi, 1822) (Insectivora: Soricidae)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mas-Coma, S; Fons, R; Galan-Puchades, M T; Valero, M A

    1986-01-01

    Description and differentiation of the adult stage of Hymenolepis cerberensis n. sp. (Cestoda: Hymenolepididae), an intestinal parasite of the Pygmy white-toothed shrew, Suncus etruscus (Savi, 1822) (Insectivora: Soricidae: Crocidurinae) in the region of Banyuls-sur-Mer and Cerbère (Oriental Pyrenees, France). The new species is characterized by the size of the gravid specimens and by the presence of 18-21 rostellar hooks of 18.5-20 micron and of filaments around the embryophore. The general composition of the fauna of Cyclophyllidea parasitizing S. etruscus is analysed. There are three less specialised Hymenolepis species with a scolex of the same type and one Pseudhymenolepis species, with the absence of unarmed species lacking a rostrum. The oioxenous character of the Cestodes parasitizing Suncus species sustains the validity of the genus Suncus. The resemblance of the Cestodefaunas suggests a narrow phyletic relationship between the genera Suncus and Crocidura.

  1. Anurans as Intermediate and Paratenic Hosts of Helminth Infections in the Rainforest and Derived Savanna Biotopes of Southern Nigeria

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    Abigail A. Imasuen

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Anurans from the rainforest (Okomu National Park and derived savanna (Agbede locations in Nigeria were investigated for their role either as intermediate or paratenic hosts of helminth infections. A total of 269 anuran specimens (157 from the Okomu National Park and 112 from Agbede were examined. Metacercariae of a strigeoid trematode, two nematode species, a proteocephalid cestode, and an acanthocephalan were recovered from infected hosts. Except for the strigeoid trematode, which was only recorded in the rainforest, there was no ecological dichotomy in the distribution of the larval parasites recorded. Tree frogs from the rainforest only served as second intermediate hosts for the strigeoid trematode. The two nematode larvae (type I and type II found in the body cavity of the infected host are believed to use them as paratenic hosts. Tree frogs were the predominant intermediate hosts of the proteocephalid cestode larvae in the rainforest, while Ptychadena and Phrynobatrachus spp. served this function in the derived savanna. The occurrence of cystacanths in the anurans from both biotopes confirms their known role as paratenic host for acanthocephalans. Afrixalus dorsalis is a new host record for the ascaridoid nematode while the finding of the strigeoid trematode, the proteocephalid cestode larvae and acanthocephalan cystacanths in the anurans investigated represents new geographical records.

  2. Genes encoding homologous antigens in taeniid cestode parasites: Implications for development of recombinant vaccines produced in Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gauci, Charles; Lightowlers, Marshall W

    2013-01-01

    Recombinant vaccine antigens are being evaluated for their ability to protect livestock animals against cysticercosis and related parasitic infections. Practical use of some of these vaccines is expected to reduce parasite transmission, leading to a reduction in the incidence of neurocysticercosis and hydatid disease in humans. We recently showed that an antigen (TSOL16), expressed in Escherichia coli, confers high levels of protection against Taenia solium cysticercosis in pigs, which provides a strategy for control of T. solium parasite transmission. Here, we discuss the characteristics of this antigen that may affect the utility of TSOL16 and related antigens for development as recombinant vaccines. We also report that genes encoding antigens closely related to TSOL16 from T. solium also occur in other related species of parasites. These highly homologous antigens have the potential to be used as vaccines and may provide protection against related species of Taenia that cause infection in other hosts.

  3. [Ecological and Biochemical Aspects of Parasite-Host Interactions in Transformed Aquatic Bodies: A Case Study of the Cestode Triaenophorus nodulosus and Its Host, the Northern Pike Esox lucius].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vysotskaya, R U; Krupnova, M Yu; Ieshko, E P; Anikieva, L V; Lebedeva, D I

    2015-01-01

    The lysosomal enzyme activities of the cestode Triaenophorus nodulosus and its host, the pike, in-aquatic bodies with different degrees of technogenic transformation (Northern Karelia, Russia) have been studied. As has been shown, iron-ore waste causes an increase in the acid phosphatase, nuclease, and beta-galactosidase activities of the host and a decrease in its beta-glucosidase and cathepsin D activities. As a rule, the changes in the same cestode enzyme activities are the opposite. With a decrease in the technogenic load, most of the studied characteristics display the trend of approaching the corresponding values observed in a clean lake. It is assumed that the host plays a leading role in the biochemical adaptation of the parasite and its host to mineral environmental pollution.

  4. Temporal variation of the cestode, Cotugnia cuneata (Meggit, 1924) in their host, domestic pigeons, Columba livia domestica (Gmelin, 1789).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biswal, Debraj; Nandi, Anadi Prasad; Chatterjee, Soumendranath

    2015-06-01

    A study of the temporal variation of Cotugnia cuneata, on a monthly basis, was carried out from January 2008 to December 2010. The study revealed a similarity in the percentage prevalence and mean intensity of infection with higher values in the beginning of the year that gradually declined towards the middle and rose to moderate values towards the end of the year. The periodicity clearly shows a correlation with the seasonal changes throughout the year and provides important insights to the survival strategies of the parasite as well as its life-cycle.

  5. Susceptibility and resistance to Echinococcus granulosus infection: Associations between mouse strains and early peritoneal immune responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mourglia-Ettlin, Gustavo; Merlino, Alicia; Capurro, Rafael; Dematteis, Sylvia

    2016-03-01

    In helminth infections, there are no easy associations between host susceptibility and immune responses. Interestingly, immunity to cestodes - unlike most helminths - seems to require Th1-type effectors. In this sense, we reported recently that Balb/c and C57Bl/6 mice are high and low susceptible strains, respectively, to experimental infection by Echinococcus granulosus. However, the role of the early cellular peritoneal response in such differential susceptibility is unknown. Here, we analyzed the kinetics of cytokines expression and cellular phenotypes in peritoneal cells from infected Balb/c and C57Bl/6 mice. Additionally, Principal Components Analysis (PCA) were conducted to highlight the most relevant differences between strains. Finally, the anti-parasite activities of peritoneal cells were assessed through in vitro systems. PCAs clustered C57Bl/6 mice by their early mixed IL-5/TNF-α responses and less intense expression of Th2-type cytokines. Moreover, they exhibited lower counts of eosinophils and higher numbers of macrophages and B cells. Functional studies showed that peritoneal cells from infected C57Bl/6 mice displayed greater anti-parasite activities, in accordance with higher rates of NO production and more efficient ADCC responses. In conclusion, mild Th2-responses and active cellular mechanisms are key determinants in murine resistance to E. granulosus infection, supporting the cestode immune exception among helminth parasites.

  6. Morphology meets molecules: a new genus and two new species of diphyllidean cestodes from the Yellowspotted skate, Leucoraja wallacei, from South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbott, Lauren McKenna; Caira, Janine N

    2014-06-01

    Two morphologically disparate undescribed species of diphyllidean cestodes from the Yellowspotted skate, Leucoraja wallacei , from South Africa were included in a recent molecular phylogenetic study aimed at revising diphyllidean classification. From a molecular standpoint, these species were determined to be only distantly related to one another. One (originally referred to as Echinobothrium n. sp. 2) showed affinities with species of the batoid-parasitizing Echinobothrium sensu stricto and is described here as Echinobothrium marquesi n. sp. This species most closely resembles Echinobothrium joshuai, an affinity supported by the previous molecular study, but differs in the form of its "B" hooks and degree of overlap between bothria and cephalic peduncle. The other species (originally referred to as New genus n. sp. 1), although exhibiting the full complement of scolex armature, grouped among primarily shark-hosted genera, most of which lack or exhibit reduced scolex armatures. That unexpected result suggested that erection of a novel genus might be warranted, but morphological grounds supporting the action were not apparent at that time. The present study aimed to explore the morphology of this taxon in more detail. Light and scanning electron microscopy revealed this taxon to be exceptional in that its lateral hooklets, which are arranged in 2 clusters like those of Echinobothrium and Coronocestus, are unique in being arranged in anterior and posterior rows, rather than in a single row. Andocadoncum n. gen. is erected, with Andocadoncum meganae n. sp. as its type, to accommodate this taxon. A minor adjustment to the existing hook formula by presenting counts for the anterior hooklets (a) separately from the posterior hooklets (b) readily accommodates this new form. Leucoraja wallacei is distinctive among skates in hosting 2 different genera of diphyllideans. In the context of the previous molecular phylogenetic analyses, it appears that the presence of

  7. Carotenoid-based bill colour is an integrative signal of multiple parasite infection in blackbird

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biard, Clotilde; Saulnier, Nicolas; Gaillard, Maria; Moreau, Jérôme

    2010-11-01

    In the study of parasite-mediated sexual selection, there has been controversial evidence for the prediction that brighter males should have fewer parasites. Most of these studies have focused on one parasite species. Our aim was to investigate the expression of carotenoid-based coloured signals in relation to patterns of multiple parasite infections, to determine whether colour reflects parasite load of all parasite species, or whether different relationships might be found when looking at each parasite species independently. We investigated the relationship between bill colour, body mass and plasma carotenoids and parasite load (feather chewing lice, blood parasite Plasmodium sp., intestinal parasites cestodes and coccidia) in the blackbird ( Turdus merula). Bill colour on its own appeared to be a poor predictor of parasite load when investigating its relationships with individual parasite species. Variation in parasite intensities at the community level was summarised using principal component analysis to derive synthetic indexes of relative parasite species abundance and absolute parasite load. The relative abundance of parasite species was strongly related to bill colour, plasma carotenoid levels and body mass: birds with relatively more cestodes and chewing lice and relatively less Plasmodium and coccidia had a more colourful bill, circulated more carotenoids and were heavier. These results suggest that bill colour more accurately reflects the relative intensities of parasite infection, rather than one-by-one relationships with parasites or absolute parasite burden. Investigating patterns of multiple parasite infection would thus improve our understanding of the information conveyed by coloured signals on parasite load.

  8. Research on molecular identification of mema cestode from 4 ethnic populations in Yunnan Province%云南4个少数民族带绦虫分子鉴定研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张晨昊; 杨毅梅

    2009-01-01

    目的 利用分子遗传标志对采自云南西部彝族(楚雄)、傈僳族(怒江)、普米族(怒江)、白族(大理)等4个少数民族带绦虫标本作生物多态性的研究. 方法取云南彝族分离株、傈僳分离株、普米分离株、白族分离株和贵州从江分离株带绦虫成虫节片,提取线粒体DNA,PCR扩增线粒体DNA细胞色素B(mtDNA-Cytb)序列部分片段测序;结合GenBank中已知猪带绦虫、牛带绦虫和牛带绦虫亚洲亚种 mtDNA-Cytb序列,使用PHYLIP软件包运用最大似然法和最大简约法构建系统发育树.结果系统发育树显示云南傈僳族、普米族和白族带绦虫标本与台湾牛带绦虫业洲业种的遗传距离最接近,距云南彝族、贵州从江牛带绦虫标本较远,与猪带绦虫则更远. 结论云南傈僳族(怒江)、普米族(怒江)和白族(大理)带绦虫标本属于牛带绦虫亚洲弧种,云南彝族(楚雄)带绦虫标本属于牛带绦虫;mtDNA-Cytb 序列分析可以用于带绦虫生物多态性研究.%Objective To study the biologic polymorphism of taenia cestode samples from Yi population (Chuxiong),Lisu population (Nujiang),Pumi population (Nujiang) and Bai population (Dali) in the west of Yunnan by molecular genetic markers.Methods Mitochondrial DNA were extracted from the proglottis of adult taenia cestode strains from Yi population,Lisu population,Pumi population,Bai population and Congjiang District respectively,partial segments of mitochondrial DNA-cytochrome B (mtDNA-Cytb) sequences were amplified by polymcrase chain reaction (PCR),then sequenced.Phylogenetic tree of species and geographical isolates was constructed with other known mtDNA-Cytb sequence of T.solium.T.saginata and T.saginata asiatica in GenBank.Results The phylogenetic tree constructed revealed that the taenia cestode samples from Lisu population,Pumi population and Bai population in Yunnan Province were close to Taiwan strain genetically,but far from Yi population in Yunnan

  9. Simulating transmission and control of Taenia solium infections using a reed-frost stochastic model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kyvsgaard, Niels Chr.; Johansen, Maria Vang; Carabin, Hélène

    2007-01-01

    The transmission dynamics of the human-pig zoonotic cestode Taenia solium are explored with both deterministic and stochastic versions of a modified Reed-Frost model. This model, originally developed for microparasitic infections (i.e. bacteria, viruses and protozoa), assumes that random contacts...... investigated using the model: (i) interventions affecting the transmission parameters such as use of latrines, meat inspection, and cooking habits; (ii) routine interventions including rapid detection and treatment of human carriers or pig vaccination; and (iii) treatment interventions of either humans or pigs...

  10. Levels of helminth infection in the flat lizard Tropidurus semitaeniatus from north-eastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bezerra, C H; Ávila, R W; Passos, D C; Zanchi-Silva, D; Galdino, C A B

    2016-11-01

    Parasites represent a great, unknown component of animal biodiversity. Recent efforts have begun to uncover patterns of infection by helminth parasites in several Neotropical lizards. The present study reports, for the first time, levels of helminth infection in a population of the flat lizard Tropidurus semitaeniatus. One hundred and thirty-nine lizards were examined and evidence of five intestinal helminth species was found, comprising four species of nematodes, one species of cestode and an unidentified encysted larval nematode. The most frequently occurring species was the intestinal nematode Parapharyngodon alvarengai, which did not exhibit differences in prevalence and intensity of infection relative to host sex or age/body size. Furthermore, helminth species richness was not related to host body size.

  11. [The influence of Taenia taeniaeformis larval infection on morphometrical parameters of muskrat (Ondatra zibethicus)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowal, Jerzy; Nosał, Paweł; Adamczyk, Ireneusz; Kornaś, Sławomir; Wajdzik, Marek; Tomek, Andrzej

    2010-01-01

    An investigation aimed to check the influence of Taenia taeniaeformis larvae on morphometrical parameters of muskrat (Ondatra zibethicus) was carried. A total of 30 animals were hunted down in upper Vistula river basin in south Poland, then measured, weighed and dissected. Statistical comparison were done using U Mann-Whitney test. T. taeniaeformis larvae--cysticercus fasciolaris was found in the liver of 24 muskrats (80%). Significant differences between infected and non infected animals are reported, as regards their body mass, total length, abdomen circumference (p < 0.01) and also in body length (total minus tail length), head length, or chest and neck circumference (p < 0.05). The effect of infection on both muskrat condition and the presence of adult cestodes in definitive hosts are discussed.

  12. First record of Calodium hepaticum and Taenia taeniaeformis liver infection in wild Norway rats (Rattus norvegicus in Serbia

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    Kataranovski Milena

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The nematode Calodium hepaticum and the cestode Taenia taeniaeformis are zoonotic helminths primarly found in the liver of common wild rats. Most reports on these helminth species with cosmopolitan distribution are from Asia, and there is paucity of data for Europe. Wild Norway rats (Rattus norvegicus from urban and suburban habitats of the Belgrade area were examined for the presence of Calodium hepaticum and Taenia taeniaeformis larvae liver infections. The presence of visible cysts and a histomorphology of parasite-related inflammatory liver responses were sought as signs of infection. The total prevalence of infection was 10.9% (C. hepaticum and 29.9% (T. taeniaeformis, with no differences between the sexes. No difference in the annual prevalence of both helminth species was noted. Data obtained in this study provide new information relevant to wild Norway rats as sources of C. hepaticum and T. taeniaeformis liver infection in this geographic area, and, in a wider context, in Europe. .

  13. Helminths infecting the parthenogenetic whiptail lizard Cnemidophorus nativo in a restinga habitat of Bahia State, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menezes, V A; Vrcibradic, D; Vicente, J J; Dutra, G F; Rocha, C F D

    2004-12-01

    A sample of 101 specimens of the unisexual whiptail lizard Cnemidophorus nativo (Squamata; Teiidae) from a coastal site in Bahia State, Brazil were examined for the presence of endoparasites. Of these, 35 (34.7%) harboured helminths. Six helminth species were recovered from C. nativo, including five nematodes (Physaloptera retusa, Physalopteroides venancioi, Subulura lacertilia, Skrjabinelazia intermedia and Parapharyngodon sp., and one cestode (Oochoristica ameivae), all representing new host records. Most lizards were infected by a single species of helminth and none by more than three. Infection rates were neither significantly influenced by host body size nor by environmental factors. The results are compared with data from studies on other whiptail species in both South and North America.

  14. Infections with gastrointestinal parasitic helminths indigenous to Japan and their treatment historically studied in an attempt to control the diseases in countries where they are still rampant: (1) the Jomon to Edo periods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maki, Jun; Sakagami, Hiroshi; Kuwada, Masahiro; Caceres, Armando; Sekiya, Hiroshi; Tamai, Eiji

    2009-01-01

    Infections with gastrointestinal parasitic helminthes were historically surveyed from the Jomon period to the end of the Edo period in Japan. The parasitic helminthes whose eggs or symptoms were shown in the remains and bibliographies are the roundworm, whipworm, liver fluke, Yokogawa's fluke and the cestode, Diphyllobothrium sp. The first two are soil-transmitted nematodes and the other three parasitic helminths are those with which people are infected following eating raw fish. The infection routes provide valuable information on the environments, life-style and customs in those days. The eggs of the soil-transmitted parasites have the thick shells resistant to the environments. Humans are infected with the parasites after the eggs are orally ingested with soil, dust, vegetables grown with night soil or manure. When the custom of the night soil was started in the history of Japan was discussed with this infection route. In ancient times, feces are thought to have been discarded. In the Medieval Period, they were started to be used as a fertilizer. No mature types of manure were used until the modern times (already in the Edo period). To our idea, no recoveries of eggs of hookworms causing severe anemia do not necessarily mean that people were not infected with the parasites in those days because the eggs are covered with thin shells liable to rupture. The latter fact of the eggs of the platihelminths, C. sinensis, M. yokogawai and D. latum has something to do with Japanese traditional eating customs, unequivocally demonstrating that they ate raw fish from the Nara Period, at latest, until today. Whether eggs of the cestode (D. latum) are found in Jomon remains, Momijiyama Iseki, Hokkaido should be investigated. If no eggs of the cestode are found in their toilet site or elsewhere, it could be concluded that they did not have the custom of eating raw salmon. Such a conclusion would be itself a new fact. One of the effective treatments for the cestode (D. latum

  15. Echinococcus multilocularis infections of rural, residential and urban foxes (Vulpes vulpes in the canton of Geneva, Switzerland

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    Fischer C.

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available We examined 267 red foxes (Vulpes vulpes from the canton of Geneva, Switzerland, for intestinal infections with Echinococcus multilocularis. This region is situated in the core area of the endemic range of this zoonotic cestode in Central Europe. Several factors were taken into account and urbanisation level appeared to be the most explicative to describe observed differences. The prevalence decreased significantly from rural and residential areas (prevalence of 52 %, CI 43-62 %, and 49 %, CI 38-59 %, respectively to the urban area (prevalence of 31 %, CI 19-42 %. A few juvenile foxes harboured very high burdens up to more than 120,000 worms and were significantly more heavily infected than adults. The intensity of infection decreased from rural and residential areas to the city, suggesting a lower contamination of the urban environment.

  16. Prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections in free-ranging Red Panda Ailurus fulgens Cuvier, 1825 (Mammalia: Carnivora: Ailuridae in Nepal

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    Sonam Tashi Lama

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The Red Panda Ailurus fulgens is a small carnivore that is adapted to a mainly herbivorous diet.  The present study was conducted to investigate the prevalence of parasitic infections in a free-ranging population of Red Pandas in a community forest in Nepal.  A total of 23 faecal samples were collected and examined.  Protozoa infections were the most common and cestode infections occurred the least.  Our findings suggest that parasites might be a significant problem for the health of the Red Pandas in the study area.  Molecular methods should be used to further investigate the taxonomic position of the parasites and their role in threatening the resilience of Red Panda populations in Nepal.  

  17. Hosts and parasites : many ways of interactions ; an approach with two model organisms, the three-spined stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus) and its cestode parasite (Schistocephalus solidus)

    OpenAIRE

    Jäger, I.

    2006-01-01

    Parasites are considered to be one of the major driving forces in the evolution of organisms. Host-parasite interactions have thus evoked great interest in evolutionary biology. However, the outcome of an infection might not only be determined by hostparasite interactions but also by within-host dynamics. Using the three-spined stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus) and the tapeworm Schistocephalus solidus as model organisms, various aspects of such potential interactions were investigated. Mul...

  18. Central line infections - hospitals

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... infection; Central venous catheter - infection; CVC - infection; Central venous device - infection; Infection control - central line infection; Nosocomial infection - central line infection; Hospital acquired ...

  19. Kidney Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... X-ray called a voiding cystourethrogram. Antibiotics for kidney infections Antibiotics are the first line of treatment ... the infection is completely eliminated. Hospitalization for severe kidney infections For a severe kidney infection, your doctor ...

  20. Hookworm infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hookworm disease; Ground itch; Ancylostoma duodenale infection; Necator americanus infection; Parasitic infection - hookworm ... The infection is caused by infestation with any of the following ... Ancylostoma duodenale Ancylostoma ceylanicum Ancylostoma ...

  1. Profound activity of the anti-cancer drug bortezomib against Echinococcus multilocularis metacestodes identifies the proteasome as a novel drug target for cestodes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Britta Stadelmann

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available A library of 426 FDA-approved drugs was screened for in vitro activity against E. multilocularis metacestodes employing the phosphoglucose isomerase (PGI assay. Initial screening at 20 µM revealed that 7 drugs induced considerable metacestode damage, and further dose-response studies revealed that bortezomib (BTZ, a proteasome inhibitor developed for the chemotherapy of myeloma, displayed high anti-metacestodal activity with an EC50 of 0.6 µM. BTZ treatment of E. multilocularis metacestodes led to an accumulation of ubiquinated proteins and unequivocally parasite death. In-gel zymography assays using E. multilocularis extracts demonstrated BTZ-mediated inhibition of protease activity in a band of approximately 23 kDa, the same size at which the proteasome subunit beta 5 of E. multilocularis could be detected by Western blot. Balb/c mice experimentally infected with E. multilocularis metacestodes were used to assess BTZ treatment, starting at 6 weeks post-infection by intraperitoneal injection of BTZ. This treatment led to reduced parasite weight, but to a degree that was not statistically significant, and it induced adverse effects such as diarrhea and neurological symptoms. In conclusion, the proteasome was identified as a drug target in E. multilocularis metacestodes that can be efficiently inhibited by BTZ in vitro. However, translation of these findings into in vivo efficacy requires further adjustments of treatment regimens using BTZ, or possibly other proteasome inhibitors.

  2. Profound activity of the anti-cancer drug bortezomib against Echinococcus multilocularis metacestodes identifies the proteasome as a novel drug target for cestodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stadelmann, Britta; Aeschbacher, Denise; Huber, Cristina; Spiliotis, Markus; Müller, Joachim; Hemphill, Andrew

    2014-12-01

    A library of 426 FDA-approved drugs was screened for in vitro activity against E. multilocularis metacestodes employing the phosphoglucose isomerase (PGI) assay. Initial screening at 20 µM revealed that 7 drugs induced considerable metacestode damage, and further dose-response studies revealed that bortezomib (BTZ), a proteasome inhibitor developed for the chemotherapy of myeloma, displayed high anti-metacestodal activity with an EC50 of 0.6 µM. BTZ treatment of E. multilocularis metacestodes led to an accumulation of ubiquinated proteins and unequivocally parasite death. In-gel zymography assays using E. multilocularis extracts demonstrated BTZ-mediated inhibition of protease activity in a band of approximately 23 kDa, the same size at which the proteasome subunit beta 5 of E. multilocularis could be detected by Western blot. Balb/c mice experimentally infected with E. multilocularis metacestodes were used to assess BTZ treatment, starting at 6 weeks post-infection by intraperitoneal injection of BTZ. This treatment led to reduced parasite weight, but to a degree that was not statistically significant, and it induced adverse effects such as diarrhea and neurological symptoms. In conclusion, the proteasome was identified as a drug target in E. multilocularis metacestodes that can be efficiently inhibited by BTZ in vitro. However, translation of these findings into in vivo efficacy requires further adjustments of treatment regimens using BTZ, or possibly other proteasome inhibitors.

  3. Contribuição ao conhecimento da fauna Helmintológica da região Amazônica - Cestódeos On some Cestodes of the Amazon Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Magalhães Pinto

    1976-01-01

    Full Text Available Do material proveniente da Região Amazônica, os autores iniciam uma série de publicações, que atualizem o conhecimento de sua fauna helmintológica. Apresentando a parte referente aos Cestódeos, eles redescrevem três espécies: Raillietina (R. alouattae baylis, 1947, Paronia variabilis (Fuhrmann, 1904, Fuhrmann, 1921 e Anomotaenia brasiliensis (Fuhrmann, 1908 e fazem referência a duas outras: Oochoristica fuhrmanni Hugues, 1940 e Mathevotaenia bivittata (Janicki, 1904.Concerning to the Amazon Region, everything about it arises the greatest interest when one deals with its natural resources. For this reason, the authors, introducing this work, present its first part, which consists of some cestodes recovered from Vertebrates in 1969. So, three species, are redescribed and two only refered. Raillietina (R. alouattae Baylis, 1947 is marked for the first time in Brazil. The authors ratify the original descriptions of Paronia variabilis (Fuhrmann, 1904 Fuhrmann, 1921 and Anomotaenia brasiliensis Fuhrmann, 1908, presenting original camera lucida drawings in order to accomplish their knowledge. Of Anomotaenia brasiliensis they also rectify the year of its proposition from 1907 to 1908, when the work was printed. Oochoristica fuhrmanni Hugues, 1940 and Mathevotaenia bivittata Janicki, 1904 are only listed for they are well known by now, to justify a revision.

  4. Taenia taeniaeformis in rat favors protracted skin lesions caused by Sporothrix schenckii infection: Dectin-1 and IL-17 are dispensable for clearance of this fungus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaohui Zhang

    Full Text Available We occasionally found that cestode Taenia taeniaeformis in rats favored Sporothrix schenckii infection and survival, causing protracted cutaneous lesions. In this study, we compared the pathology and cytokines profile of rats co-infected with the two pathogens and infected with S. schenckii alone to explore underlying mechanisms. In the co-infection group, there was high expression of β-glucan receptor Dectin-1 in the cutaneous lesions and no multinucleated giant cells, but in the S. schenckii infection group the opposite was observed. Cytokines profiles demonstrated an expected finding that IL-4, commonly expressed in helminth and fungus infection, is undetectable in the two infection groups. In the single fungal infection group, cytokines IFN-γ, IL-10 and IL-17 kept increasing in the first few weeks of infection to a peak which was followed by gradual decrease. This study showed that Dectin-1 and IL-17, which were believed to be the major anti-fungus mechanisms, are Th2 independent and dispensable for clearance of S. schenckii infection, suggesting that S. schenckii has a different molecular recognition pattern and evokes anti-infection mechanisms other than Dectin-1 and IL-17.

  5. Taenia taeniaeformis in rat favors protracted skin lesions caused by Sporothrix schenckii infection: Dectin-1 and IL-17 are dispensable for clearance of this fungus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaohui; Zhang, Jing; Huang, Huaiqiu; Xue, Ruzeng; Hu, Xuchu; Li, Meirong; Zhong, Yi; Yuan, Liyan

    2012-01-01

    We occasionally found that cestode Taenia taeniaeformis in rats favored Sporothrix schenckii infection and survival, causing protracted cutaneous lesions. In this study, we compared the pathology and cytokines profile of rats co-infected with the two pathogens and infected with S. schenckii alone to explore underlying mechanisms. In the co-infection group, there was high expression of β-glucan receptor Dectin-1 in the cutaneous lesions and no multinucleated giant cells, but in the S. schenckii infection group the opposite was observed. Cytokines profiles demonstrated an expected finding that IL-4, commonly expressed in helminth and fungus infection, is undetectable in the two infection groups. In the single fungal infection group, cytokines IFN-γ, IL-10 and IL-17 kept increasing in the first few weeks of infection to a peak which was followed by gradual decrease. This study showed that Dectin-1 and IL-17, which were believed to be the major anti-fungus mechanisms, are Th2 independent and dispensable for clearance of S. schenckii infection, suggesting that S. schenckii has a different molecular recognition pattern and evokes anti-infection mechanisms other than Dectin-1 and IL-17.

  6. Shigella Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Old Feeding Your 1- to 2-Year-Old Shigella Infections KidsHealth > For Parents > Shigella Infections Print A ... the Doctor en español Infecciones por Shigella About Shigella Shigella are bacteria that can infect the digestive ...

  7. Spinal Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... infections may occur following surgery or spontaneously in patients with certain risk factors. Risk factors for spinal infections include poor nutrition, immune suppression, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, cancer, diabetes and obesity. Surgical risk factors ...

  8. Hatching strategies in monogenean (platyhelminth) parasites that facilitate host infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whittington, Ian D; Kearn, Graham C

    2011-07-01

    In parasites, environmental cues may influence hatching of eggs and enhance the success of infections. The two major endoparasitic groups of parasitic platyhelminths, cestodes (tapeworms) and digeneans (flukes), typically have high fecundity, infect more than one host species, and transmit trophically. Monogeneans are parasitic flatworms that are among the most host specific of all parasites. Most are ectoparasites with relatively low fecundity and direct life cycles tied to water. They infect a single host species, usually a fish, although some are endoparasites of amphibians and aquatic chelonian reptiles. Monogenean eggs have strong shells and mostly release ciliated larvae, which, against all odds, must find, identify, and infect a suitable specific host. Some monogeneans increase their chances of finding a host by greatly extending the hatching period (possible bet-hedging). Others respond to cues for hatching such as shadows, chemicals, mechanical disturbance, and osmotic changes, most of which may be generated by the host. Hatching may be rhythmical, larvae emerging at times when the host is more vulnerable to invasion, and this may be combined with responses to other environmental cues. Different monogenean species that infect the same host species may adopt different strategies of hatching, indicating that tactics may be more complex than first thought. Control of egg assembly and egg-laying, possibly by host hormones, has permitted colonization of frogs and toads by polystomatid monogeneans. Some monogeneans further improve the chances of infection by attaching eggs to the host or by retaining eggs on, or in, the body of the parasite. The latter adaptation has led ultimately to viviparity in gyrodactylid monogeneans.

  9. Parasitic infections in the Mediterranean needlefish Tylosurus acus imperialis (Teleostei: Belonidae off Tunisian coast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manel Châari

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To provide a current survey of parasitic infections in the Mediterranean needlefish Tylosurus acus imperialis (T. acus imperialis. The impact of host’s size and sex on some characteristics of the infection was also examined. Methods: Between 2004 and 2009, 126 specimens of T. acus imperialis were necropsied to study their parasites. Results: Fifteen species of metazoan parasites were collected including 3 monogeneans (Aspinatrium gallieni, Nudaciraxine imperium and Axinoides sp., 4 digeneans (Lecithostaphylus tylosuri, Tetrochetus coryphaenae, Oesophagotrema mediterranea and Sclerodistomoides pacificus, 1 cestode (Ptychobothrium sp., 3 copepods (Lernanthropus tylosuri, Caligodes laciniatus and Caligus sp., 1 isopod (Irona nana, 1 acanthocephalan (Rhadinorhynchus sp., 1 nematode (anisakid larvae and 1 annelid (piscicolid. Cestoda Ptychobothrium sp. was the most frequent species (72%. Prevalence and abundance of infection with Ptychobothrium sp. and Rhadinorhynchus sp. were positively correlated with the total length of the host. Host’s sex did not seem to affect the infection parameters of parasites in T. acus imperialis. Conclusions: This study provides first information on parasitic infections in the Mediterranean needlefish T. acus imperialis off Tunisia. Parasites can be used to understand phylogeny, biology and ecology of fish host and also as bioindicators of water quality

  10. Parasitic infections in the Mediterranean needlefish Tylosurus acus imperialis (Teleostei:Belonidae) off Tunisian coast

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Manel Châari; Lassâd Neifar

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To provide a current survey of parasitic infections in the Mediterranean needlefish Tylosurus acus imperialis (T. acus imperialis). The impact of host’s size and sex on some characteristics of the infection was also examined. Methods: Between 2004 and 2009, 126 specimens of T. acus imperialis were necropsied to study their parasites. Results: Fifteen species of metazoan parasites were collected including 3 monogeneans (Aspinatrium gallieni, Nudaciraxine imperium and Axinoides sp.), 4 digeneans (Lecithostaphylus tylosuri, Tetrochetus coryphaenae, Oesophagotrema mediterranea and Sclerodistomoides pacificus), 1 cestode (Ptychobothrium sp.), 3 copepods (Lernanthropus tylosuri, Caligodes laciniatus and Caligus sp.), 1 isopod (Irona nana), 1 acanthocephalan (Rhadinorhynchus sp.), 1 nematode (anisakid larvae) and 1 annelid (piscicolid). Cestoda Ptychobothrium sp. was the most frequent species (72%). Prevalence and abundance of infection with Ptychobothrium sp. and Rhadinorhynchus sp. were positively correlated with the total length of the host. Host’s sex did not seem to affect the infection parameters of parasites in T. acus imperialis. Conclusions: This study provides first information on parasitic infections in the Mediterranean needlefish T. acus imperialis off Tunisia. Parasites can be used to understand phylogeny, biology and ecology of fish host and also as bioindicators of water quality.

  11. Helminth Infections of Stray Dogs from Garmsar, Semnan Province, Central Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Eslami

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aim was to study the gastro-intestinal helminths of stray dogs of Garmsar, Sem­nan Province, Central Iran, and its impacts on human health and animal production.Methods: During 2006, the alimentary tracts of 50 stray dogs at necropsy, selected from villages around Garmsar, were removed, and examined for helminth infections. Subsequently helminths were collected from the contents of each part and scraped sample of small intestines of washed materials in a 100-mesh sieve. To identify the species of helminths, the nematodes were cleared in lactophenol and cestodes were stained using carmine acid.Results: Mixed infection was the rule and 40 dogs (80% harbored more than one species of helminth. Taenia hydatigena was the most prevalent species (80% followed by Echinococcus granulosus (64%, Toxocara canis (22%, Mesocestoides lineatus (12%, Taenia multiceps (10% and Dipylidium caninum (4%. The mean intensity of worm infection was low (1-3 ex­cept for that of E. granulosus (645. No significant difference was noticed between sex, age and most helminth infections except for that of sex and T. hydatigena (P=0.001 as well as age and T. canis (P=0.001.Conclusion: Although human infection with T. hydatigena is unlikely, but other helminths re­ported in this study are of zoonotic importance, and may pose a threat to community health, and reduce the productions of ruminants harboring taeniid metacestodes.

  12. Gene sequencing and analysis of mtDNA-ND1 in Taenia cestodes from Baoshan and Puer of Yunnan province%云南保山、普洱带绦虫mtDNA-ND1基因序列测定及分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘爱波; 杨毅梅

    2011-01-01

    To identify the Taenia cestode specimens collected from Baoshan and Puer regions of Yunnan province, the adult Taenia cestode segments were selected, genomic DNA was extracted, and mtDNA-ND1 gene sequence was amplified by PCR and sequenced. Combined with the known mtDNA-ND1 gene sequences of Taenia asiatica, Taenia saginata and Taenia solium in GenBank, phylogenetic tree and homologous tree were constructed by using DNA MAN software. Taenia cestode phylogenetic tree and homologous tree showed homology of P1, P2, B3, B6, B7 and ND were mostly close to N2. Homology of B1, B2, B4, B5 and YZ were mostly close to Y1. Homology of ZD was mostly close to Z3. Taenia asiatica and Taenia saginata exist in Baoshan of Yunnan, and Taenia saginata exists in Puer. MtDNA-ND1 gene sequence could be used for identification of three types of Taenia cestode.%目的 对云南保山、普洱地区带绦虫标本进行鉴定.方法 选取带绦虫成虫节片,抽提虫体基因组DNA,PCR扩增mtDNA-ND1基因序列,并测序;结合GenBank中已知的亚洲带绦虫、牛带绦虫、猪带绦虫mtDNA-ND1基因序列,经DNA MAN软件处理后构建系统发育树状图与同源树状图.结果 带绦虫系统发育树与同源树状图显示P1、P2、B3、B6、B7、ND与N2的同源性最近.B1、B2、B4、B5、YZ与Y1的同源性最近.ZD与Z3的同源性最近.结论 云南保山存在亚洲带绦虫与牛带绦虫;普洱存在牛带绦虫.mtDNA-ND1基因序列可用于三种带绦虫的分类鉴定.

  13. Ultrastructure of vitellogenesis in cestode (Moniezia expansa) (Cestoda: Cyclophyllidea)%扩张莫尼茨绦虫(绦虫纲:圆叶目)卵黄细胞发育的超微结构

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李海云; GerardP.BRENNAN; DavidW.HALTON

    2003-01-01

    用透射电镜观察了扩张莫尼茨绦虫(Moniezia expansa)卵黄细胞发育的全过程.扩张莫尼茨绦虫卵黄细胞发育的规律为:(1)细胞体积不断增大;(2)质、核比不断增加而核体积几乎不发生改变,核表面从规则变为不规则,再由不规则变为规则,核内出现染色质浓缩成小块再分散的发育变化过程;(3)线粒体逐渐增多,发育不断完善;(4)粗面内质网及高尔基复合体出现由少到多,发育不断完善,再由多到少不断退化的变化;(5)由高尔基复合体组装的电子致密的小卵黄囊不断融合,至卵黄细胞成熟时仅有一卵黄囊,占据细胞大部分体积%Transmission electron microscopic observations have been made on vitellogenesis in the cestode, Moniezia expansa. Four continuous developmental stages were evident: (1) an immature gonial stage prior to differentiation; (2) an early stage of differentiation; (3) an advanced stage of differentiation; and (4) the mature vitellocyte. Mature vitelline follicles consist of cells in various stages of development, distributed irregularly. Maturation of the vitellocyte is completed before the cell leaves the follicle. The process of maturation is characterized by: (1) a gradual increase in cytoplasm/nucleus ratio and cell volume; (2) the presence of large numbers of mitochondria; (3) the appearance of granular endoplasmic reticulum and associated Golgi apparatus; (4) the production at the Golgi of small electron-dense vitelline vesicles that fuse and eventually amalgamate into one large vitelline vesicle, filling most of the cell volume.

  14. Campylobacter Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campylobacter infection is a common foodborne illness. You get it from eating raw or undercooked poultry. You ... whether you need to take antibiotics. To prevent campylobacter infection, cook poultry thoroughly. Use a separate cutting ...

  15. Anaerobic Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... on the face and neck, sometimes after a dental infection or procedure such as a tooth extraction or ... adults of all ages. The most common are dental infections, inflammation of the abdominal lining (peritonitis), and abscesses ...

  16. Spinal infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tay, Bobby K-B; Deckey, Jeffrey; Hu, Serena S

    2002-01-01

    Spinal infections can occur in a variety of clinical situations. Their presentation ranges from the infant with diskitis who is unwilling to crawl or walk to the adult who develops an infection after a spinal procedure. The most common types of spinal infections are hematogenous bacterial or fungal infections, pediatric diskitis, epidural abscess, and postoperative infections. Prompt and accurate diagnosis of spinal infections, the cornerstone of treatment, requires a high index of suspicion in at-risk patients and the appropriate evaluation to identify the organism and determine the extent of infection. Neurologic function and spinal stability also should be carefully evaluated. The goals of therapy should include eradicating the infection, relieving pain, preserving or restoring neurologic function, improving nutrition, and maintaining spinal stability.

  17. Tapeworm Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diseases and Conditions Tapeworm infection By Mayo Clinic Staff Tapeworm infection is caused by ingesting food or water contaminated with tapeworm eggs or larvae. If you ingest certain tapeworm eggs, they can migrate outside ...

  18. Hantavirus Infections

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    ... but deadly viral infection. It is spread by mice and rats. They shed the virus in their ... breathe infected air or come into contact with rodents or their urine or droppings. You cannot catch ...

  19. Staph Infections

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    ... Culture Household Safety: Preventing Cuts Dealing With Cuts Osteomyelitis Tetanus First Aid: Skin Infections Toxic Shock Syndrome ... Abscess Paronychia Dealing With Cuts and Wounds Cellulitis Osteomyelitis Impetigo Staph Infections MRSA Cuts, Scratches, and Scrapes ...

  20. Tinea Infections

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    ... The skin may become itchy and red, with blisters and cracking of the skin. The infection may ... my sheets and towels every day? ResourcesDiagnosis and Management of Common Tinea Infections by SL Noble, Pharm. ...

  1. Infection Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... lives are lost because of the spread of infections in hospitals. Health care workers can take steps ... of infectious diseases. These steps are part of infection control. Proper hand washing is the most effective ...

  2. Streptococcal Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... red rash on the body. Impetigo - a skin infection Toxic shock syndrome Cellulitis and necrotizing fasciitis (flesh-eating disease) Group B strep can cause blood infections, pneumonia and meningitis in newborns. A screening test ...

  3. Rotavirus Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rotavirus is a virus that causes gastroenteritis. Symptoms include severe diarrhea, vomiting, fever, and dehydration. Almost all ... the U.S. are likely to be infected with rotavirus before their 5th birthday. Infections happen most often ...

  4. Helminth and intestinal protozoa infections, multiparasitism and risk factors in Champasack province, Lao People's Democratic Republic.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Somphou Sayasone

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Detailed investigations of multiparasitism are scarce in the Mekong River basin. We assessed helminth (trematode, nematode, and cestode, and intestinal protozoa infections, and multiparasitism in random population samples from three different eco-epidemiological settings in Champasack province, southern Lao People's Democratic Republic (Lao PDR, and determined underlying risk factors. METHODOLOGY: Two stool samples were collected from 669 individuals aged ≥ 6 months over consecutive days and examined for helminth infections using the Kato-Katz method. Additionally, one stool sample per person was subjected to a formalin-ethyl acetate concentration technique for diagnosis of helminth and intestinal protozoa infections. Questionnaires were administered to obtain individual and household-level data pertaining to behavior, demography and socioeconomic status. Risk factors for hepato-biliary and intestinal parasitic infections and multiparasitism were determined using multiple logistic regressions analyses. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: MULTIPLE SPECIES INTESTINAL PARASITE INFECTIONS WERE COMMON: 86.6% of the study participants harbored at least two and up to seven different parasites concurrently. Regarding nematode infections, hookworm was the most prevalent species (76.8%, followed by Ascaris lumbricoides (31.7% and Trichuris trichiura (25.0%. Regarding trematodes, Opisthorchis viverrini and Schistosoma mekongi infections were found in 64.3% and 24.2% of the participants, respectively. Infections with intestinal protozoa were rare. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: There is a pressing need to intensify and sustain helminth control interventions in the southern part of Lao PDR. Given the high prevalence with nematode and trematode infections and the extent of multiparasitism, preventive chemotherapy is warranted. This intervention should be coupled with health education and improved access to clean water and adequate sanitation to consolidate morbidity

  5. Infections with cardiopulmonary and intestinal helminths and sarcoptic mange in red foxes from two different localities in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Al-Sabi, Mohammad Nafi Solaiman; Hisham Beshara Halasa, Tariq; Kapel, Christian M. O.

    2014-01-01

    Monitoring parasitic infections in the red fox is essential for obtaining baseline knowledge on the spread of diseases of veterinary and medical importance. In this study, screening for cardiopulmonary and intestinal helminths and sarcoptic mange (Sarcoptes scabiei) was done on 118 foxes...... originating from two distinct localities in Denmark, (Copenhagen) greater area and southern Jutland. Fifteen parasite species were recorded in 116 foxes (98.3%), nine parasitic species are of zoonotic potential. Parasite diversity was greater in foxes of Copenhagen in terms of overall parasite species...... richness and species richness of all helminth groups individually: trematodes; cestodes; and nematodes. Six parasite species were recovered from foxes of Copenhagen, but not from foxes of Southern Jutland: Echinochasmus perfoliatus; Echinostoma sp.; Pseudamphistomum truncatum; Dipylidium caninum...

  6. INFECTION RATE AND CHEMOTHERAPY OF VARIOUS HELMINTHS IN GOATS IN AND AROUND LAHORE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. IJAZ, M. S. KHAN, M. AVAIS, K. ASHRAF1, M. M. ALI AND SAIMA2

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The current study was carried out to find out the infection rate of gastrointestinal tract (GIT helminths and its association with diarrhoea in goats in Lahore, Pakistan. For this purpose, 300 faecal samples from goats suffering from diarrhoea presented at the Outdoor Hospital, Department of Clinical Medicine and Surgery, UVAS Lahore and various private as well as government hospitals located in Lahore were examined coprologically for the presence of helminths. The result revealed that an overall infection rate of GIT helminths was 63.33% in goats. When compared the class wise infection rate, highest infection rate of nematodes (42.67% was observed, followed by trematodes (16.67% and cestodes (4%. The efficacy of Ricobendazole was observed to be 62, 96 and 98% at day 3, 7 and 14 of treatment, respectively. The efficacy of Ricobendazole was higher than Albendazole (46, 83 and 94% at day 3, 7 and 14, respectively. Lowest efficacy of garlic powder against helminth parasites was observed (13, 28 and 34% at day 3, 7 and 14, respectively. It was concluded that Ricobendazole is the most effective drugs against helminths in goats.

  7. FIRST CASE OF HUMAN INFECTION BY Bertiella studeri (Blanchard, 1891) Stunkard,1940 (Cestoda; Anoplocephalidae) IN BRAZIL

    Science.gov (United States)

    LOPES, Valeriana Valadares; dos SANTOS, Hudson Andrade; da SILVA, Amália Verônica Mendes; FONTES, Gilberto; VIEIRA, Gabriela Lisboa; FERREIRA, Arilton Carlos; da SILVA, Eduardo Sergio

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY Cestodes of the Bertiella genus are parasites of non-human primates found in Africa, Asia, Oceania and the Americas. Species Bertiella studeri and Bertiella mucronata could, accidentally, infect human beings. The infection occurs from ingestion of mites from the Oribatida order containing cysticercoid larvae of the parasite. The objective of this report is to register the first case of human infection by Bertiella studeri in Brazil. Proglottids of the parasite, found in the stool sample of a two-and-a-half-year-old child, were fixed, stained and microscopically observed to evaluate its morphological characteristics. Eggs obtained from the proglottids were also studied. The gravid proglottids examined matched the description of the genus Bertiella. The eggs presented a round shape, with the average diameter of 43.7 µm, clearly showing the typical pyriform apparatus of B. studeri. The authors concluded that the child was infected with Bertiella studeri, based on Stunkard's (1940) description of the species. This is the fifth case of human Bertiellosis described in Brazil through morphometric analysis of the parasite, the third in Minas Gerais State and the first diagnosed case of Bertiella studeri in Brazil. PMID:26603236

  8. Epidemiology of intestinal parasitic infections in school children in Ghazni Province, eastern Afghanistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korzeniewski, Krzysztof; Augustynowicz, Alina; Smoleń, Agata; Lass, Anna

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To estimate the prevalence of intestinal parasites and their species in Afghan school children and to establish appropriate treatment methods for detected pathogens. Methods: Parasitological examination of stool samples collected from 1369 children aged 8-18, students of the Jahan Malika High School in Ghazni Province in eastern Afghanistan, was conducted in the period November 2013-April 2014. Three stool samples were collected from each patient every second day; the samples were fixed in 10% formalin and tested by light microscopy using the methods of direct smear in Lugol’s solution, decantation in distilled water, and Fülleborn’s flotation. Results: Of 535 examined children (39.1% of the study group) were infected with nematodes (n=324), cestodes (n=118), trematodes (n=12), and protozoa (n=228), 132 were diagnosed with co-infections (mainly ascariasis+giardiasis, ascariasis+hymenolepiasis) and received single or combined therapy. Conclusions: The Afghan community is an example of population characterized by a high rate of parasitic infections. Owing to high prevalence of multiple infections among inhabitants of Afghanistan, it seems that a mass deworming campaign with a single-dose chemotherapy may prove ineffective in eradicating intestinal parasites in the local population. PMID:26870108

  9. Granulocytes in helminth infection -- who is calling the shots?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makepeace, B L; Martin, C; Turner, J D; Specht, S

    2012-01-01

    Helminths are parasitic organisms that can be broadly described as "worms" due to their elongated body plan, but which otherwise differ in shape, development, migratory routes and the predilection site of the adults and larvae. They are divided into three major groups: trematodes (flukes), which are leaf-shaped, hermaphroditic (except for blood flukes) flatworms with oral and ventral suckers; cestodes (tapeworms), which are segmented, hermaphroditic flatworms that inhabit the intestinal lumen; and nematodes (roundworms), which are dioecious, cylindrical parasites that inhabit intestinal and peripheral tissue sites. Helminths exhibit a sublime co-evolution with the host's immune system that has enabled them to successfully colonize almost all multicellular species present in every geographical environment, including over two billion humans. In the face of this challenge, the host immune system has evolved to strike a delicate balance between attempts to neutralize the infectious assault versus limitation of damage to host tissues. Among the most important cell types during helminthic invasion are granulocytes: eosinophils, neutrophils and basophils. Depending on the specific context, these leukocytes may have pivotal roles in host protection, immunopathology, or facilitation of helminth establishment. This review provides an overview of the function of granulocytes in helminthic infections.

  10. Repurposing drugs for the treatment and control of helminth infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gordana Panic

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Helminth infections are responsible for a considerable public health burden, yet the current drug armamentarium is small. Given the high cost of drug discovery and development, the high failure rates and the long duration to develop novel treatments, drug repurposing circumvents these obstacles by finding new uses for compounds other than those they were initially intended to treat. In the present review, we summarize in vivo and clinical trial findings testing clinical candidates and marketed drugs against schistosomes, food-borne trematodes, soil-transmitted helminths, Strongyloides stercoralis, the major human filariases lymphatic filariasis and onchocerciasis, taeniasis, neurocysticercosis and echinococcosis. While expanding the applications of broad-spectrum or veterinary anthelmintics continues to fuel alternative treatment options, antimalarials, antibiotics, antiprotozoals and anticancer agents appear to be producing fruitful results as well. The trematodes and nematodes continue to be most investigated, while cestodal drug discovery will need to be accelerated. The most clinically advanced drug candidates include the artemisinins and mefloquine against schistosomiasis, tribendimidine against liver flukes, oxantel pamoate against trichuriasis, and doxycycline against filariasis. Preclinical studies indicate a handful of promising future candidates, and are beginning to elucidate the broad-spectrum activity of some currently used anthelmintics. Challenges and opportunities are further discussed.

  11. Copro-diagnosis of Echinococcus granulosus infection in dogs by amplification of a newly identified repeated DNA sequence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbasi, Ibrahim; Branzburg, Anna; Campos-Ponce, Maiza; Abdel Hafez, Sami K; Raoul, Francis; Craig, Philip S; Hamburger, Joseph

    2003-09-01

    Diagnosis of Echinococcus granulosus infection in dogs by detecting adult worms recovered post mortem or purged from the intestines after treatment with arecoline is not suitable for mass screening. Large-scale diagnosis by detection of copro-antigens is useful but only with relatively high intensity infections, and only by genus. To provide a more sensitive and specific diagnosis, a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay was developed, that amplified a target repeated sequence (EgG1 Hae III) newly identified in the genome of the common sheep strain of E. granulosus. This repeated sequence consists of approximately 6,900 copies, arranged in tandem, in groups of 2-6 repeats. The corresponding primers used in the PCR easily detected a single egg with no cross-amplification of DNA from closely related cestodes, including E. multilocularis and Taenia spp. Fecal samples from naturally infected dogs, with 2-10,000 E. granulosus worms at necropsy, were all PCR positive, while E. multilocularis or Taenia spp. positive controls as well as non-endemic controls were all PCR negative. This copro-PCR assay was demonstrated to be 100% specific and also detected all necropsy-positive E. granulosus-infected dogs. It is suggested that this copro-PCR assay has the potential for pre-mortem diagnosis of E. granulosus infection even in areas where E. granulosus and E. multilocularis are co-endemic.

  12. Protozoan Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-01-01

    cooked meat of infected animals, especially sheep and pigs. Toxoplasma infects one-third to one-half of normal humans by age 40, but causes...Toxoplasma in the first trimester, 30-50 per cent deliver an obviously affected infant. Congenital infection is associated with hydrocephalus...chorioretinitis, hepatosplenomegaly, and rash. In survivors, mental retardation, deaf- ness, and cardiac malformations may be noted. Chorioretinitis may also

  13. Coproantigen detection in dogs experimentally and naturally infected with Echinococcus granulosus by a monoclonal antibody-based enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malgor, R; Nonaka, N; Basmadjian, I; Sakai, H; Carámbula, B; Oku, Y; Carmona, C; Kamiya, M

    1997-12-01

    A sandwich ELISA for the detection of Echinococcus granulosus coproantigen in formalin and heat-treated faecal supernatants of dogs was developed. The assay used affinity-purified polyclonal antibodies obtained from rabbits hyperimmunised with E. granulosus excretory/secretory antigens and biotinylated monoclonal antibody EmA9 produced against adult E. multilocularis somatic extract. The test was sensitive to 7 ng and 2.3 ng of E. granulosus protein and carbohydrate/ml of faecal supernatant, respectively. Thirteen helminth-free dogs were infected with different amounts of E. granulosus protoscoleces and the presence of coproantigen was monitored during the prepatent period until day 35 post-infection, when they were necropsied. Faecal antigen levels started to rise above the normal range between days 10 and 20 post-infection, and typically peaked at the end of the experiment. All the dogs, bearing from 3 to 67,700 worms, showed positive values in the ELISA during the prepatent period. One dog experimentally infected with Taenia hydatigena metacestode and harbouring three worms, tested positive only after the prepatent period at day 52. The test was applied to 98 stray dogs. The ELISA detected all of four dogs naturally infected with E. granulosus, two dogs with patent infections of T. hydatigena and two dogs with no cestode infections, showing a sensitivity of 100% and a specificity of 96%.

  14. [Hand infections].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiele, Philippe; Le Nen, Dominique

    2013-11-01

    Superficial and deep hand infections are frequent in general medical practice. Clinical examination is a crucial step for an adapted provided care. Most of the time, surgery is the only way to heal infections. However, in some cases (like bites), empiric antibiotherapy is first indicated to limit infection. Staphyloccocus aureus as well as Group Beta Streptococcus are the most frequently pathogenes associated with hand infections. Methicillin resistant S. Aureus must always be considered in the diagnoses. Whatever treatment is provided, clinical assessement must be repeated within two days. An early adaquated treatment prevent functional complications and in some cases death of the patients.

  15. Rhinovirus Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Genitals and Urinary Tract Glands & Growth Head Neck & Nervous System Heart Infections Learning Disabilities Obesity Orthopedic Prevention Sexually Transmitted Skin Tobacco Treatments Injuries & ...

  16. Eye Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Genitals and Urinary Tract Glands & Growth Head Neck & Nervous System Heart Infections Learning Disabilities Obesity Orthopedic Prevention Sexually Transmitted Skin Tobacco Treatments Injuries & ...

  17. Campylobacter Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Genitals and Urinary Tract Glands & Growth Head Neck & Nervous System Heart Infections Learning Disabilities Obesity Orthopedic Prevention Sexually Transmitted Skin Tobacco Treatments Injuries & ...

  18. Parasitic intestinal infections in humans between 2006 and 2007

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Letizia D’Annibale

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Between 2006-07 faecal specimens of 2.132 subjects (1.508 adults and 624 children were examined for ova & parasites, using direct and after formalin-ethylacetate concentration microscopy, and permanent specific stains. 380 bubjects (17.8 % were infected: 313 adults (20.8 % and 67 children (10.7 %. 331 cases (15.5 % were infected by pathogens, 275 adults (18.2 % and 56 children (9.0 %. 389 pathogenic or not pathogenic protozoa (18.2 % and 60 helminths (2.8 % were identified, more among adults than children (21.0 % vs 11.5 % and 3.2 % vs 1.8 % respectively.Among protozoa, D. fragilis was in all observed in 145 cases (6.8 %, G. duodenalis in 74 cases (3.5 %, other were very rare.Among helminths nematodes were more frequent than trematodes and cestodes, with S. stercoralis (14 cases and E. vermicularis (13 cases the most frequent ones. 2.302 subjects (1.505 adults and 797 children were examined for microbiological tests because affected by acute or prolonged diarrhoea. 82 cases (3.6 % of protozoal infections were observed, 70 among adults (4.7 % and 12 among children (1.5 %. D. fragilis was in all prevalent (2.0 % in respect of G. duodenalis (1.0 % or other ones (0.6 %. For S. stercoralis specific investigation, modified Baermann method / larvae colture were performed: 20/189 cases (10.6 % od strongyloidiasis was diagnosed in adults. For E. vermicularis investigation, scotch test was performer: 43/179 cases (24.0% of enterobiasis was diagnosed. The Authors underline the application of standard operative procedures for O & P with permanent specific stains in subject affected by enterites too, and the analysis of more specimens for each subjects for good diagnostical performances.

  19. Pathological and ecological host consequences of infection by an introduced fish parasite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Britton, J Robert; Pegg, Josephine; Williams, Chris F

    2011-01-01

    The infection consequences of the introduced cestode fish parasite Bothriocephalus acheilognathi were studied in a cohort of wild, young-of-the-year common carp Cyprinus carpio that lacked co-evolution with the parasite. Within the cohort, parasite prevalence was 42% and parasite burdens were up to 12% body weight. Pathological changes within the intestinal tract of parasitized carp included distension of the gut wall, epithelial compression and degeneration, pressure necrosis and varied inflammatory changes. These were most pronounced in regions containing the largest proportion of mature proglottids. Although the body lengths of parasitized and non-parasitized fish were not significantly different, parasitized fish were of lower body condition and reduced weight compared to non-parasitized conspecifics. Stable isotope analysis (δ(15)N and δ(13)C) revealed trophic impacts associated with infection, particularly for δ(15)N where values for parasitized fish were significantly reduced as their parasite burden increased. In a controlled aquarium environment where the fish were fed ad libitum on an identical food source, there was no significant difference in values of δ(15)N and δ(13)C between parasitized and non-parasitized fish. The growth consequences remained, however, with parasitized fish growing significantly slower than non-parasitized fish, with their feeding rate (items s(-1)) also significantly lower. Thus, infection by an introduced parasite had multiple pathological, ecological and trophic impacts on a host with no experience of the parasite.

  20. Radiologic evaluation of the liver and gastrointestinal tract in rats infected with Taenia taeniaeformis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, R L; Williams, J F; Carrig, C B; Kaneene, J B; Schillhorn van Veen, T W

    1994-08-01

    In rats infected with the cestode Taenia taeniaeformis, hepatomegaly results from development of parasitic cysts in the liver. Diffuse nodular mucosal hyperplasia in the glandular region (corpus and antrum) of the stomach, and gross thickening of the intestinal mucosa also result. Between postinfection days (PID) 21 and 84, radiologic observations were made after oral administration of a barium sulfate suspension in T taeniaeformis-infected rats and in age/sex-matched controls. There was radiographic evidence of hepatic enlargement at PID 21. Enlargement of the gastric folds was first observed along the greater curvature of the stomach at PID 35. Fimbriation of small intestinal mucosal surfaces resulted from thickening of the intestinal villi and was observed in the duodenum at PID 21. Intestinal motility was assessed, and contractions were counted, using image intensification fluoroscopy, then were recorded on videotape. There were no significant differences between control and infected rats for gastric emptying time, intestinal transit time, and number of intestinal contractions per minute. Barium contrast radiography clearly indicated large gastric folds, thickening of the small intestinal villi, and hepatic enlargement, and was useful for assessing gastrointestinal motility.

  1. Reprint of 'Association of helminth infections and food consumption in common eiders Somateria mollissima in Iceland'

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skirnisson, Karl

    2016-07-01

    Common eider Somateria mollissima L. 1758, subsp. borealis, is widely distributed along the coasts of Iceland. In this study association of parasite infections and food composition was studied among 40 females and 38 males (66 adults, 12 subadults), shot under license on four occasions within the same year (February; before egg-laying in May; after the breeding period in late June; and in November) in Skerjafjörður, SW Iceland. Parasitological examinations revealed 31 helminth species (11 digeneans, ten cestodes, seven nematodes, and three acanthocephalans). Distinct digenean species parasitized the gallbladder, kidney and bursa of Fabricius, whereas other helminths parasitized the gastrointestinal tract. Thirty-six invertebrate prey species were identified as food; waste and bread fed by humans, were also consumed by some birds. Amidostomum acutum was the only parasite found with a direct life cycle, whereas other species were food transmitted and ingested with different invertebrate prey. Opposite to females male birds rarely utilized periwinkles and gammarids as a food source. As a result, Microphallus and Microsomacanthus infection intensities were low except in February, when subadult males were responsible for an infection peak. Females caring for young increased their consumption of periwinkles close to the littoral zone in June; during pre-breeding, females also increased their gammarid intake. As a consequence, Microphallus and Microsomacanthus infection intensities temporarily peaked. Increased food intake (including Mytilus edulis) of females before the egg-laying period resulted in twofold higher Gymnophallus bursicola infection intensity than observed for males. Profilicollis botulus infection reflected seasonal changes in decapod consumption in both genders. Different life history strategies of males and females, especially before and during the breeding season and caring of young, and during molting in distinct feeding areas in summer, promote

  2. Associations between fish reproductive cycle and the dynamics of metazoan parasite infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simková, Andrea; Jarkovský, Jirí; Koubková, Bozena; Barus, Vlastimil; Prokes, Miroslav

    2005-01-01

    The parasite fauna of the stone loach (Barbatula barbatula) was investigated monthly from May to December 2001. Four parasite species were recorded: Gyrodactylus spp. (Monogenea), Tylodelphys clavata (Digenea), Proteocephalus sagittus (Cestoda), and Raphidascaris acus (Nematoda). The changes in the seasonal dynamics of parasite infection were investigated throughout the 8 months. The potential effect of the reproductive investment of the host, measured by gonad mass and gonado-somatic index (GSI), on the parasite infection was tested against the prediction that, during periods of high reproductive investment (beginning of the breeding period or forming gonads after breeding), the fish are more susceptible to parasite infection. Differences between parasite loads between genders were also hypothesized. Seasonal differences in infection were observed for all parasite species studied. The values of GSI showed a pattern of energy accumulation in the pre-reproductive period and at the beginning of breeding, a decrease during breeding, and an increase in the post-breeding period. A similar pattern was observed for parasite abundance, a strong or weak increase in spring and/or autumn and a decrease during summer (July and August). Positive correlations between the abundance of Gyrodactylus spp. and R. acus and both gonad mass and GSI were found in females after eliminating the effect of fish weight. Our results suggest that stone loach females are more susceptible to parasite infection in periods of higher reproductive investment. The main factor determining the infection of T. clavata was fish size. The abundance of P. sagittus was positively correlated with GSI in the total fish sample with no detectable effect of sex or fish weight. The increase in cestode infection in spring supports the hypothesis that the parasite life cycle could by synchronized with the beginning of host reproduction, probably induced by increasing fish hormone levels in the spring.

  3. Association of helminth infections and food consumption in common eiders Somateria mollissima in Iceland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skirnisson, Karl

    2015-10-01

    Common eider Somateria mollissima L. 1758, subsp. borealis, is widely distributed along the coasts of Iceland. In this study association of parasite infections and food composition was studied among 40 females and 38 males (66 adults, 12 subadults), shot under license on four occasions within the same year (February; before egg-laying in May; after the breeding period in late June; and in November) in Skerjafjörður, SW Iceland. Parasitological examinations revealed 31 helminth species (11 digeneans, ten cestodes, seven nematodes, and three acanthocephalans). Distinct digenean species parasitized the gallbladder, kidney and bursa of Fabricius, whereas other helminths parasitized the gastrointestinal tract. Thirty-six invertebrate prey species were identified as food; waste and bread fed by humans, were also consumed by some birds. Amidostomum acutum was the only parasite found with a direct life cycle, whereas other species were food transmitted and ingested with different invertebrate prey. Opposite to females male birds rarely utilized periwinkles and gammarids as a food source. As a result, Microphallus and Microsomacanthus infection intensities were low except in February, when subadult males were responsible for an infection peak. Females caring for young increased their consumption of periwinkles close to the littoral zone in June; during pre-breeding, females also increased their gammarid intake. As a consequence, Microphallus and Microsomacanthus infection intensities temporarily peaked. Increased food intake (including Mytilus edulis) of females before the egg-laying period resulted in twofold higher Gymnophallus bursicola infection intensity than observed for males. Profilicollis botulus infection reflected seasonal changes in decapod consumption in both genders. Different life history strategies of males and females, especially before and during the breeding season and caring of young, and during molting in distinct feeding areas in summer, promote

  4. Hymenolepis nana Impact Among Children in the Highlands of Cusco, Peru: An Emerging Neglected Parasite Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabada, Miguel M; Morales, Maria Luisa; Lopez, Martha; Reynolds, Spencer T; Vilchez, Elizabeth C; Lescano, Andres G; Gotuzzo, Eduardo; Garcia, Hector Hugo; White, Clinton A

    2016-11-02

    Hymenolepis nana is the most common cestode infection in the world. However, limited information is available regarding its impact on affected populations. We studied the epidemiology and symptoms associated with hymenolepiasis among children 3-16 years old in 16 rural communities of the highlands of the Cusco region in Peru. Information on demographics, socioeconomic status, symptoms as reported by parents, and parasitological testing was obtained from the database of an ongoing Fasciola hepatica epidemiologic study. A total of 1,230 children were included in the study. Forty-five percent were infected with at least one pathogenic intestinal parasite. Giardia spp. (22.9%) was the most common, followed by Hymenolepis (17.4%), Fasciola (14.1%), Ascaris lumbricoides (6.1%), and Strongyloides stercoralis (2%). The prevalence of Hymenolepis infection varied by community, by other parasitic infections, and by socioeconomic status. However, only years of education of the mother, use of well water, and age less than 10 years were associated with Hymenolepis infection in the multivariate analysis. Hymenolepis nana infection was associated with diarrhea, jaundice, headaches, fever, and fatigue. Children with > 500 eggs/g of stool were more likely to have symptoms of weight loss, jaundice, diarrhea, and fever. Hymenolepis nana infection and age were the only factors retained in the multivariate analysis modeling diarrhea. Hymenolepiasis is a common gastrointestinal helminth in the Cusco region and is associated with significant morbidity in children in rural communities. The impact caused by the emergence of Hymenolepis as a prevalent intestinal parasite deserves closer scrutiny.

  5. Skin Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Old Feeding Your 8- to 12-Month-Old Feeding Your 1- to 2-Year-Old First Aid: Skin ... (bacterial infection of the deeper layers of the skin and tissues beneath) are typical childhood skin infections. The usual bacterial culprits in skin ...

  6. Staphylococcal Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... you should be familiar with include the following: Cellulitis is a bacterial skin infection that first affects the outer layers of the ... skin. Although other types of bacteria can cause cellulitis, Saureus ... may diagnose the infection by examining the area. The doctor may take ...

  7. 云南保山和普洱地区带绦虫线粒体DNA基因编码核糖体RNA小亚基基因序列分析%Analysis of the mitochondrial DNA-gene encoding ribosomal RNA small subunit gene sequence of Taenia cestode from Baoshan and Puer areas in Yunnan Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘爱波; 杨毅梅

    2011-01-01

    Objective To identify Taenia cestodes specimens collected from Baoshan and Puer regions of Yunnan Province by analyzing mitochondrial DNA gene encoding ribosomal RNA small subunit (mtDNA-12S rRNA) gene sequence. Methods The adult Taenia cestode samples were collected from Baoshan and Puer regions of Yunnan Province. The genomic DNA was extracted and mtDNA-12S rRAN gene was amplified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR), then sequenced.Combined with the known mtDNA-12S rRNA gene sequence of Taenia solium, Taenia saginata,Taenia asiatica in GenBank, homology tree and phylogenetic tree were constructed by DNA MAN software. Results Taenia cestode homology tree and phylogenetic tree showed that gene sequences of BS1, BS2, BS4 and BS5 were most close to YZ with identity of 99% and those of BS3, BS6, BST,PE1 and PE2 were most close to ND with identity of 99%. Conclusions Taenia saginata and Taenia asiatica can be found in Baoshan area, while Taenia saginata can be found in Puer area. The gene sequence of mtDNA-12S rRNA can be used for clarifying the three types of Taenia cestode.%目的 利用线粒体DNA基因编码核糖体RNA小亚基(mtDNA-12S rRNA)基因序列分析对采自云南保山、普洱地区的带绦虫标本进行鉴定.方法 选取保山(7条,BS1-BS7)、普洱(2条,PE1~PE2)带绦虫成虫节片,抽提基因组DNA,PCR扩增mtDNA-12S rRNA基因序列,并测序;结合GenBank中已知的猪带绦虫(ZD)、牛带绦虫(ND)、亚洲带绦虫(YZ)mtDNA-12S rRNA基因序列,经DNA MAN软件处理后构建同源树状图与系统发育树状图.结果 带绦虫同源树与系统发育树状图显示,BS1、BS2、BS4、BS5与YZ的同源性最近(99%).BS3、BS6、BS7、PE1、PE2与ND的同源性最近(99%).结论 云南保山存在牛带绦虫与亚洲带绦虫,普洱存在牛带绦虫,mtDNA-12S rRNA基因序列可用于三种带绦虫的分类研究.

  8. Radiobiological aspects of high altitude flight: relative biological effectiveness of fast neutrons in suppressing immune capacity to an infective agent. [Mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Friedberg, W.; Neas, B.R.; Faulkner, D.N.; Hanneman, G.D.; Darden, E.B. Jr.

    1978-02-01

    The authors investigated the relative biological effectiveness (RBE) of fast neutrons compared with x rays in impeding development of immunity to an infective agent, the intestinal cestode Hymenolepis nana. Mice were irradiated with neutrons or x rays and 2 days later given an immunizing dose of H. nana eggs. After another 2 days, the mice received a challenge dose of the eggs. Challenge egg doses were also given to sham-irradiated unimmunized and immunized controls. All mice were killed 90 to 92 hours after challenge, and the H. nana larvae (cysticercoids) that developed in the intestinal tissue were counted. An increased cysticercoid count in the irradiated mice, as compared with the count in unirradiated immunized controls, reflects suppression of immune capacity by the radiation. The results indicate a neutron RBE of 4 at 50 and 101 rad.

  9. Un caso de infeccion humana por cisticerco racemoso cerebral de localizacion parenquimatosa en Valdivia, Chile A case of human cerebral infection by parenchymal racemose cysticercus in Valdivia, Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Ortega

    1991-06-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta un caso clínico de infección por cisticerco racemoso cerebral de localización parenquimatosa en un paciente de la ciudad de Valdivia (Chile cuyo diagnóstico definitivo se efectuó a través del estudio morfológico del parásito. Se discute brevemente la escasa frecuencia de la localización parenquimatosa del cisticerco racemoso, así como su diagnóstico diferencial con otros estados larvarios de cestodos que desarrollan en el sistema nervioso.A clinical case of cerebral infection by parenchymal racemose cysticercus, diagnosed by means of morphological characteristics in a patient of Valdivia city is described. The rare frequency of parenquimal location of racemose cysticercus as well as its differential diagnosis with other larval stages of cestodes that develop in the brain and its treatment are discussed.

  10. PREVALENCE OF PARASITIC INFECTION IN BUFFALO CALVES IN JKHADAGZAI, DISTRICT DIR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M, Azam. M. M, Siddiqui and G. Habib

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available Prevalence of ecto and endo-parasites of buffalo calves was investigated in 50 buffalo farms in Khadagzai area of district Dir. N.W.F.P. Province. Faecal examination of calves (n = 118: age ≤ 1 year revealed that 64.41% of the calves were positive for internal parasites. The worm load significantly varied (P<0.05 among the farms and was the highest (1600-3600 EPG in 2%, moderate (800-1600 EPG in 22%, low (200-800 EPG in 34% and negligible (less than 200 EPG in 42% farms. Among the calves examined 50.84% had the worm load of 200-800 EPG and 13.56% calves showed the worm load of 800-1600 EPG. , The highest worm load (1600-3600 EPG was observed only in 0.85% of the calves. Six species of nematodes and one specie of trematodes were identified. No cestode infection was encountered during the study. The incidence of Trichostrongylus species was 21.19% followed by Trichuris (9.32%. Haemonchus (8.47%, Strongyloides papillosus (5.93%, Ostertagia (5.08%. Toxocara vitulurum (1 .70%. Fasciola (5.93% and mixed infections (6.78%. Intestinal protozoan infection was recorded in 72% of the calves. Majority of the calves (85% had mixed infection of Coccidia and Amoeba and the remaining 15% calves were found infected with Coccidia only. A total of 5.93% of the calves studied were found positive for ecto-parasites. The prevalence of ticks, lice, mites and mixed infection was 5.08, 34.75, 11.86 and 4.24% respectively in the surveyed calves.

  11. Salmonella Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... children, use an oral rehydration solution, such as Pedialyte, unless your doctor advises otherwise. Salmonella infection can ... can use an oral rehydration solution, such as Pedialyte, unless your doctor advises otherwise. The U.S. Department ...

  12. Bacterial Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... body will learn to resist them causing antibiotic resistance. Later, you could get or spread an infection that those antibiotics cannot cure. NIH: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases

  13. Biofilm Infections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjarnsholt, Thomas; Jensen, Peter Østrup; Moser, Claus Ernst

    A still increasing interest and emphasis on the sessile bacterial lifestyle biofilms has been seen since it was realized that the vast majority of the total microbial biomass exists as biofilms. Aggregation of bacteria was first described by Leeuwenhoek in 1677, but only recently recognized...... as being important in chronic infection. In 1993 the American Society for Microbiology (ASM) recognized that the biofilm mode of growth was relevant to microbiology. This book covers both the evidence for biofilms in many chronic bacterial infections as well as the problems facing these infections...... such as diagnostics, pathogenesis, treatment regimes and in vitro and in vivo models for studying biofilms. This is the first scientific book on biofilm infections, chapters written by the world leading scientist and clinicians. The intended audience of this book is scientists, teachers at university level as well...

  14. Chlamydia Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... You can get chlamydia during oral, vaginal, or anal sex with someone who has the infection. A woman ... to prevent chlamydia is to not have vaginal, anal, or oral sex. Correct usage of latex condoms greatly reduces, but ...

  15. Campylobacter infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... in the small intestine from a bacteria called Campylobacter jejuni . It is a type of food poisoning. Causes ... testing for white blood cells Stool culture for Campylobacter jejuni Treatment The infection almost always goes away on ...

  16. Lung infection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    2008050 The establishment of a rat model of chronic pulmonary infection of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. WANG Weifang(王炜芳), et al. Dept Respir, PLA General Hosp, Beijing 100853. Natl Med J China 2008;88(1):46-50. Objective To establish a rat model of chronic pulmonary infection by inoculating two different Pseudomonas aeruginosa embedded in minute seaweed algiante beads made by an ejection set with an acuminate hole to

  17. Ear infection - chronic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Middle ear infection - chronic; Otitis media - chronic; Chronic otitis media; Chronic ear infection ... up. When this happens, infection can occur. A chronic ear infection develops when fluid or an infection ...

  18. Cerebral infections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karampekios, Spyros [University of Crete, Department of Radiology, Heraklion, Crete (Greece); Hesselink, John [UCSD, Department of Radiology, San Diego, CA (United States)

    2005-03-01

    Despite the development of many effective antibiotic therapies and the general improvement in hygiene and health care systems all over the world, the incidence of central nervous system (CNS) infection has increased significantly in the past 15 years. This can be attributed primarily to the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) epidemic and its devastating effect on the immune system and secondarily to various immunosuppressive agents that are being used in aggressive cancer treatment and in organ transplantations. The brain particularly is protected from infection by the calvarium, meninges and blood brain barrier. However, different types of pathogens, including bacteria, viruses, fungi and parasites, can reach the brain hematogenously or, less likely, by direct extension from an adjacent infected focus. The early detection and specific diagnosis of infection are of great importance, since brain infections are potentially treatable diseases. Imaging studies play a crucial role in the diagnostic process, along with the history (exposure to infectious agents), host factors (open head trauma, CSF leak, sinusitis, otitis, immune status), physical examination and laboratory analysis of CSF. (orig.)

  19. Anchoretic Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Gokkulakrishnan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Active and passive mouth opening exercises are a very common practice in oral and maxillofacial surgery especially for various conditions causing limited mouth opening like space infections, trauma, and ankylosis. But most of the practitioners do not follow basic principles while advocating these active mouth opening exercises and also take it for granted that it would benefit the patient in the long run. Because of this, the mouth opening physiotherapy by itself can at times lead to unwanted complications. We report a case wherein due to active physiotherapy, the patient had complications leading to persistent temporal space infection which required surgical intervention and hospitalization. This could have been because of hematoma formation during physiotherapy which got infected due to anchoretic infection of unknown etiology and resulted in temporal space infection. Hence, our conclusion is that whenever mouth opening exercises are initiated, it should be done gradually under good antibiotic coverage to avoid any untoward complications and for optimum results. According to the current English literature, such a complication has not been documented before.

  20. Parasites infecting the cultured oyster Crassostrea gasar (Adanson, 1757) in Northeast Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Queiroga, Fernando Ramos; Vianna, Rogério Tubino; Vieira, Cairé Barreto; Farias, Natanael Dantas; Da Silva, Patricia Mirella

    2015-05-01

    The oyster Crassostrea gasar is a species widely used as food and a source of income for the local population of the estuaries of Northeast Brazil. Perkinsus marinus and Perkinsus olseni are deleterious parasites for oyster farming and were recently detected in Brazil. In this study, a histopathologic survey of the oyster C. gasar cultured in the estuary of the River Mamanguape (Paraíba State) was performed. Adult oysters were collected in December 2011 and March, May, August and October 2012 and processed for histology and Perkinsus sp. identification by molecular analyses. Histopathological analysis revealed the presence of parasitic organisms including viral gametocytic hypertrophy, prokaryote-like colonies, protozoans (Perkinsus sp. and Nematopsis sp.) and metazoans (Tylocephalum sp. and cestodes). Other commensal organisms were also detected (the protozoan Ancistrocoma sp. and the turbellarian Urastoma sp.). The protozoan parasite Perkinsus sp. had the highest overall prevalence among the symbiotic organisms studied (48.9%), followed by Nematopsis sp. (36.3%). The other organisms were only sporadically observed. Only the protozoan Perkinsus sp. caused alterations in the oysters' infected organs. Molecular analyses confirmed the presence of P. marinus, P. olseni and Perkinsus beihaiensis infecting the oyster C. gasar. This is the first report of P. beihaiensis in this oyster species.

  1. Spinal infections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tali, E. Turgut E-mail: turguttali@gazi.edu.tr

    2004-05-01

    Spinal infections can be thought of as a spectrum of disease comprising spondylitis, discitis, spondylodiscitis, pyogenic facet arthropathy, epidural infections, meningitis, polyradiculopathy and myelitis. Radiological evaluations have gained importance in the diagnosis, treatment planning, treatment and treatment monitoring of the spinal infections. Conventional radiographs are usually the initial imaging study. The sensitivity and specificity of the plain radiographs are very low. The sensitivity of CT is higher while it lacks of specificity. Conventional CT has played minor role for the diagnosis of early spondylitis and disc space infection and for follow-up, researches are going on the value of MDCT. MRI is as sensitive, specific and accurate as combined nuclear medicine studies and the method of choice for the spondylitis. Low signal areas of the vertebral body, loss of definition of the end plates and interruption of the cortical continuity, destruction of the cortical margins are typical on T1WI whereas high signal of affected areas of the vertebral body and disc is typical on T2WI. Contrast is mandatory and increases conspicuity, specificity, and observer confidence in the diagnosis and facilitates the treatment planning. Contrast enhancement is the earliest sign and pathognomonic in the acute inflammatory episode and even in the subtle infection then persists to a varying degree for several weeks or months. The outcome of the treatment is influenced by the type of infection and by the degree of neurologic compromise before treatment. There is an increasing move away from surgical intervention towards conservative therapy, percutaneous drainage of abscess or both. It is therefore critical to monitor treatment response, particularly in the immuno-deficient population.

  2. FLOTAC for the diagnosis of Hymenolepis spp. infection: proof-of-concept and comparing diagnostic accuracy with other methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinmann, Peter; Cringoli, Giuseppe; Bruschi, Fabrizio; Matthys, Barbara; Lohourignon, Laurent K; Castagna, Barbara; Maurelli, Maria P; Morgoglione, Maria E; Utzinger, Jürg; Rinaldi, Laura

    2012-08-01

    Hymenolepis nana is the most common cestode parasitizing humans, yet it is under-diagnosed. We determined the optimal flotation solution (FS) for the diagnosis of this intestinal parasite with the FLOTAC method, and compared its diagnostic accuracy with an ether-concentration technique and the Kato-Katz method. Zinc sulphate (specific gravity 1.20) proved to be the best-performing FS. Using this FS, we detected 65 H. nana infections among 234 fixed fecal samples from Tajik and Sahrawi children (prevalence 27.8 %). The ether-concentration technique detected 40 infections (prevalence 17.1 %) in the same samples. Considering the combined results as a reference, the sensitivities of FLOTAC and ether-concentration were 95.6 % and 58.8 %, respectively. The Kato-Katz method resulted in a prevalence of only 8.7 %. In terms of eggs per gram of stool, a significantly (P Hymenolepis diminuta infections in 302 fecal samples, whereas five samples were found positive with the Kato-Katz technique. We conclude that FLOTAC is an accurate coprodiagnostic technique for H. nana and H. diminuta, two species which join a growing list of intestinal parasites that can be reliably diagnosed by this technique.

  3. Infections with cardiopulmonary and intestinal helminths and sarcoptic mange in red foxes from two different localities in Denmark.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Sabi, Mohammad N S; Halasa, Tariq; Kapel, Christian M O

    2014-03-01

    Monitoring parasitic infections in the red fox is essential for obtaining baseline knowledge on the spread of diseases of veterinary and medical importance. In this study, screening for cardiopulmonary and intestinal helminths and sarcoptic mange (Sarcoptes scabiei) was done on 118 foxes originating from two distinct localities in Denmark, (Copenhagen) greater area and southern Jutland. Fifteen parasite species were recorded in 116 foxes (98.3%), nine parasitic species are of zoonotic potential. Parasite diversity was greater in foxes of Copenhagen in terms of overall parasite species richness and species richness of all helminth groups individually: trematodes; cestodes; and nematodes. Six parasite species were recovered from foxes of Copenhagen, but not from foxes of Southern Jutland: Echinochasmus perfoliatus; Echinostoma sp.; Pseudamphistomum truncatum; Dipylidium caninum; Angiostrongylus vasorum; and Sarcoptes scabiei, but Toxascaris leonina was only recorded in foxes of southern Jutland. A high prevalence and abundance of A. vasorum in foxes of Copenhagen was observed. The prevalence of four nematode species; Eucoleus (Capillaria) aerophilus, Uncinaria stenocephala, Toxocara canis, and Crenosoma vulpis, in foxes of both localities were comparable and ranging from 22.9% to 89%. The prevalence of Mesocestoides sp. was significantly higher in foxes of Copenhagen. Taenia spp. were detected using morphological and molecular analysis, which revealed the dominance of T. polyacantha in foxes of both localities. Infections with sarcoptic mange were evident only among foxes of Copenhagen (44.9%), which significantly affected the average weight of the infected animals. Further remarks on the zoonotic and veterinary implications of the parasites recovered are given.

  4. Fatal infection with Taenia martis metacestodes in a ring-tailed lemur (Lemur catta) living in an Italian zoological garden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Liberato, Claudio; Berrilli, Federica; Meoli, Roberta; Friedrich, Klaus G; Di Cerbo, Pilar; Cocumelli, Cristiano; Eleni, Claudia

    2014-10-01

    A case of fatal infection caused by larval forms of Taenia martis in a ring-tailed lemur (Lemur catta) living in the Rome zoological garden is described. The animal, living in a semi-natural pen with other 15 conspecific individuals and being fed with fresh fruit and vegetables, yoghurt and eggs, was transported to the Istituto Zooprofilattico of Rome for post-mortem examination. The anamnesis included, ten days before the death, apathy, lack of appetite, abdominal distension and diarrhoea. A severe exudative fibrinous-purulent peritonitis with numerous adhesions between the abdominal wall and the bowel loops was detected. After intestine removal, two free and viable, 4 cm long, whitish, leaf-like parasitic forms were pinpointed. Macroscopic examination of the two parasites allowed their identification as larval stages of cestodes, identified via molecular analysis as T. martis metacestodes. This report represents the first record of T. martis infection in the host species and in a zoological garden and for the pathological relevance of the infection.

  5. Intestinal helminths infection of rats (Ratus norvegicus in the Belgrade area (Serbia: the effect of sex, age and habitat*

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kataranovski M.

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Gastrointestinal helminths of Norway rat (Rattus norvegicus from the Belgrade area were studied as a part of a wider ecological research of rats in Serbia (data on the distribution, population ecology, economic and epizoothiological-epidemiological importance, and density control. Rats were captured from May 2005 to July 2009 at both urban and suburban-rural sites. Of a total of 302 trapped rats 48% were males and 52% females, with 36.5% and 38.8% of juvenile-subadult individuals, per sex respectively. Intestinal helminth infection was noted in 68.5% of rats, with a higher prevalence in male hosts and in adult individuals. Higher numbers of infected juveniles-subadults were noted in suburban-rural habitats, while an opposite tendency was noted in adult rats. Seven helminth species were recovered, of which five were nematode (Heterakis spumosa, Nippostrongylus brasiliensis, Capillaria sp., Trichuris muris and Syphacia muris and two cestode species (Hymenolepis diminuta and Rodentolepis fraterna. The most prevalent parasites were Heterakis spumosa (36.7% and Hymenolepis diminuta (30.5%. Sex and habitat-related differences were noted in the prevalence of infection with Capillaria sp. and Trichuris muris, while there were no age-related differences in the prevalence of infection with any individual helminth species. Significantly higher prevalence of infection was noted in summer as compared to spring or winter, with a tendency to be higher in autumn as compared to spring. The only significant difference in the prevalence of infection between habitat-related was noted during spring. H. spumosa was most prevalent in summer, while H. diminuta and N. brasiliensis in autumn. The mean intensity of infection with H. spumosa, R. fraterna, S. muris and T. muris was higher in autumn than in the other seasons, while N. brasiliensis and Capillaria sp. occured in winter. No more than four helminth species were found in one host.

  6. Campylobacter Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... fecal matter from an infected person (especially a child in diapers). Household pets can carry and transmit the bacteria to their ... by the person with diarrhea. Also, if a pet dog or cat has diarrhea, wash your hands often and check ... lab tests also might be needed, especially if your child has blood in the stool. If your doctor ...

  7. Baylisascaris Infection

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2012-08-27

    This podcast will educate health care providers on diagnosing baylisascariasis and on providing patients at risk of Baylisascaris infection with prevention messages.  Created: 8/27/2012 by Center for Global Health, Division of Parasitic Diseases and Malaria.   Date Released: 8/28/2012.

  8. Fungal nail infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nails - fungal infection; Onychomycosis; Infection - fungal - nails; Tinea unguium ... hair, nails, and outer skin layers. Common fungal infections include: Athlete's foot Jock itch Ringworm on the ...

  9. Amplification and Sequence Analysis of the ITS and 5.8S rDNA of Cestodes From Panthera tigris amoyensis in China%华南虎绦虫ITS及5.8S rDNA序列扩增与序列分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张新高; 侯杰; 陈武; 程田; 林瑞庆

    2011-01-01

    Utilizing the first and second internal transcribed spacers of ribosomal DNA (ITS rDNA) as the genetic marker, the specific identity of the cestodes from a South China tiger (Panthera tigris amoyensis) in Guangzhou Zoo was performed in the present study. The ITS rDNA was amplified by PCR using the conserved primer pair BD1 and BD2. The PCR products were purified, cloned into pGEM-T Easy vector, and then the positive clones were selected for sequencing. DNA sequences were compared with relevant sequences previously reported in GenBank. The results showed that the ITS and 5. 8S rDNA of the cestodes from Panthera tigris amoyensis was 1 387 bp in length and have no sequence variation existed between two samples. The sequence similarities were 96. 7%, 66. 5%, and 71. 5% respectively for ITS and 5. 8S rDNA compared to those of Spirometra erinaceieuropaei, Diphyllobothrium ligula , and Diphyllobothrium latum. This indicates that the cestodes from Panthera tigris amoyensis in China represents the S. Erinaceieuropaei.%以从广州动物园华南虎体内采集的2条绦虫作为研究对象,利用核糖体DNA( rDNA)内转录间隔区序列(ITS)的遗传标记特点,用保守引物BD1和BD2对提取的DNA进行PCR扩增,经胶回收纯化后,连接到pGEM -T Easy载体上,然后转化并鉴定出阳性菌落,对菌落进行PCR扩增并测序,将测序结果与GenBank公布的相关绦虫ITS序列进行对比分析,结果显示,采自广州动物园华南虎的2条绦虫ITS及5.8S rDNA序列总长均为1 387 bp,序列相似性为100%,与猬迭宫绦虫(Spirometra erinaceieuropaei)、舌形属绦虫(Diphyllobothrium ligula)、宽节双叶槽绦虫(Diphyllobothrium latum)的ITS及5.85 rDNA序列相似性分别为96.7%、66.5%、71.5%,结果显示,此次分离的绦虫属于迭宫属的猬迭宫绦虫,所测得的华南虎猬迭宫绦虫的ITS序列为首次报道.

  10. Taenia solium metacestode viability in infected pork after preparation with salt pickling or cooking methods common in Yucatán, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez-Canul, R; Argaez-Rodriguez, F; de, la Gala D Pacheco; Villegas-Perez, S; Fraser, A; Craig, P S; Cob-Galera, L; Dominguez-Alpizar, J L

    2002-04-01

    The cestode parasite Taenia solium is an important cause of foodborne infection throughout tropical and subtropical regions. Ingestion of pork meat infected with T. solium larvae can lead to taeniasis infection in humans. With tourism and the consumption of native food increasing, it is important to investigate potential risks of transmission associated with food preparation methods. In this study, traditional Mexican salt pickling and two methods of pork preparation (as roast pork [cochinita pibil] and in pork and beans [frijol con puerco]) were evaluated in order to determine their effects on T. solium cyst viability in infected tissue. In the control groups, all metacestodes isolated were 100% viable, and only small changes in pH (from 6.0 to 5.9) and temperature (29 to 30 degrees C) were recorded. No viable cysts were detected after 12 and 24 h of salt pickling. The pH of the meat during salting dropped from 6.0 to 5.3. Osmotic changes and dehydration from the salting, rather than a change in pH, could be considered the main cause of cyst death. Temperatures of >65 degrees C damaged T. solium metacestodes in roast pork and in pork and beans. The results of this study indicate that if traditional pork dishes are prepared properly, T. solium cysts are destroyed. The criteria used in this study to evaluate the viability of tissue cysts are discussed.

  11. Migrant Workers in Malaysia: Current Implications of Sociodemographic and Environmental Characteristics in the Transmission of Intestinal Parasitic Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahimin, Norhidayu; Lim, Yvonne A. L.; Ariffin, Farnaza; Behnke, Jerzy M.; Lewis, John W.

    2016-01-01

    A cross-sectional study of intestinal parasitic infections amongst migrant workers in Malaysia was conducted. A total of 388 workers were recruited from five sectors including manufacturing, construction, plantation, domestic and food services. The majority were recruited from Indonesia (n = 167, 43.3%), followed by Nepal (n = 81, 20.9%), Bangladesh (n = 70, 18%), India (n = 47, 12.1%) and Myanmar (n = 23, 5.9.2%). A total of four nematode species (Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura, Enterobius vermicularis and hookworms), one cestode (Hymenolepis nana) and three protozoan species (Entamoeba histolytica/dispar, Giardia sp. and Cryptosporidium spp.) were identified. High prevalence of infections with A. lumbricoides (43.3%) was recorded followed by hookworms (13.1%), E. histolytica/dispar (11.6%), Giardia sp. (10.8%), T. trichura (9.5%), Cryptosporodium spp. (3.1%), H. nana (1.8%) and E. vermicularis (0.5%). Infections were significantly influenced by socio-demographic (nationality), and environmental characteristics (length of working years in the country, employment sector and educational level). Up to 84.0% of migrant workers from Nepal and 83.0% from India were infected with intestinal parasites, with the ascarid nematode A. lumbricoides occurring in 72.8% of the Nepalese and 68.1% of the Indian population. In addition, workers with an employment history of less than a year or newly arrived in Malaysia were most likely to show high levels of infection as prevalence of workers infected with A. lumbricoides was reduced from 58.2% to 35.4% following a year’s residence. These findings suggest that improvement is warranted in public health and should include mandatory medical screening upon entry into the country. PMID:27806046

  12. Fish tapeworm infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fish tapeworm infection is an intestinal infection with the tapeworm parasite found in fish. ... The fish tapeworm ( Diphyllobothrium latum ) is the largest parasite that infects humans. Humans become infected when they eat raw ...

  13. Prophylactic treatment of flea-infested cats with an imidacloprid/flumethrin collar to forestall infection with Dipylidium caninum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fourie Josephus J

    2012-07-01

    with the metacestodes of D. caninum, thus preventing infection with the cestode in collared cats.

  14. Virus Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroshi Abe

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Of 168 patients with chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV infection-related liver disease, 20 patients who had received 100 mg of lamivudine plus 10 mg/day of adefovir dipivoxil (ADV (ADV group and 124 patients who had received 0.5 mg/day of entecavir or 100 mg/day of lamivudine (non-ADV group for >1 year were enrolled. For comparative analyses, 19 well-matched pairs were obtained from the groups by propensity scores. At the time of enrollment, serum creatinine and phosphate concentrations were similar between the ADV and non-ADV groups; however, urinary phosphate ( and serum bone-specific alkaline phosphatase (BAP ( concentrations were significantly higher in the ADV group than in the non-ADV group. Serum BAP was significantly higher at the time of enrollment than before ADV administration in the ADV group (, although there was no significant change in serum BAP concentration in the non-ADV group. There was a significant positive correlation between the period of ADV therapy and ΔBAP (, . Serum BAP concentration increased before increase in serum creatinine concentration and was useful for early detection of adverse events and for developing adequate measures for continuing ADV for chronic HBV infection-related liver disease.

  15. Toxoplasmosis infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina Clara Delgado Varela

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Toxoplasmosis is the most widespread zoonosis worldwide. Its prevalence can double in rural populations in relation to urban populations, and it is different in persons of different races within the same community. Objective: To determine the characteristics of toxoplasmosis infection in Charavalle community, Bermúdez municipality, Sucre State, Venezuelan Republic. Methods: A descriptive, cross-sectional study was developed between April and September 2006. Through observation and interview the primary data on the 343 patients selected through simple sampling was obtained. The studied population was classified according to socio-demographic variables, the serum presence of IgG antibodies anti-Toxoplasma gondii was determine through indirect hemagglutination and the main risk factors l inked to toxoplasmosis infection were identified. Results: There was a prevalence of the age group between 16 and 30 years, mainly females in the Stratum III of socioeconomic level. Serological prevalence rate of antibodies IgG anti-Toxoplasma gondii was 63, 56/100 inhabitants and the most significant risk factors were: cohabitation with dogs and cats, raw vegetables and fruit intake, and no drinkable water intake. Conclusions: Results largely agree with other researches on the same subject.

  16. Taenia taeniaeformis: fate and proliferation of mucosal cells during gastric hyperplasia in larvae infected rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagapa, J T; Oku, Y; Nonaka, N; Kamiya, M

    2008-04-01

    Fate and proliferation of gastric mucosal cells during hyperplasia of Taenia taeniaeformis eggs inoculated Wistar rats were investigated using PCNA immunohistochemistry, BrdU labeling and other histopathologic staining techniques. Results revealed marked cell proliferation in gastric corpus and antral mucosa of infected rats as evidenced by increased lengths of proliferative zones and indices of BrdU labeling. The gastropathy in corpus was characterized by massive accumulation of precursors, neck and intermediate cells following significant decreases in numbers of parietal and zymogenic cells. Gastropathy in antrum was described with significant increases in precursors and mucous cells. Our results suggested that T. taeniaeformis-induced gastric hyperplasia was initiated by depletion of parietal cells presumably due to the cestode's ES products. As a result, there was inhibition of zymogenic cell differentiation due to the disruption of normal development pathways of gastric mucosal lineages. These sequences of events were considered to cause the increase in cell proliferation and accumulation of intermediate cells resulting to the hyperplastic lesions.

  17. Infection with the strobilocercus of Taenia taeniaeformis in a Malagasy giant jumping rat (Hypogeomys antimena).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widmer, Dimitri; Jurczynski, Kerstin

    2012-12-01

    An adult male Malagasy giant jumping rat (Hypogeomys antimena) kept at Zoo Duisburg was presented for clinical examination because of a distended abdomen and a history of lethargy and weakness. General examination findings consisted of an enlarged soft and fluctuating abdomen, suggestive of ascites. Digital radiography revealed multiple cloud-like radiopaque lesions in the cranial abdominal area, as well as an overall decrease in visibility of detail of the abdominal organs. Ultrasound examination showed circumscribed hypo- to anechogenic areas in the liver, measuring from 1 to 3 cm in diameter, some containing irregular, convoluted structures. Exploratory laparotomy confirmed the presence of a large amount of clear, pale-yellow fluid in the peritoneal cavity, as well as multiple cystic lesions in the liver and in the greater omentum. Extirpated cysts placed in sterile saline solution or fixed in formalin were sent to the Institut für Parasitologie der Tierärztlichen Hochschule, Hannover, Germany, and were identified as larval stages of the cestode Taenia taeniaeformis. Unfortunately, the rat died a few hours after surgery. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first report of infection with strobilocerci of T. taeniaeformis in a Malagasy giant jumping rat.

  18. 2006-2009年勐海县国家级监测点人体土源性线虫感染监测%Surveillance of soil-transmitted nematode infections in Menghai County, Yunnan Province from 2006 to 2009

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汪丽波; 张老三; 张祖翔; 吴方伟; 杜尊伟; 姜进勇; 陈然; 马龙; 陈绍秋; 倪坎; 王学忠; 刀宏祥

    2011-01-01

    In the national monitoring point, Menghai County, Yunnan Province, the total prevalence rate of soil-transmitted nem-atode infections was 88.12%, of which the rates of Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura, hookworm and cestode infections were 69.70%, 59.79%, 36.79%, and 1.30% respectively from 2006 to 2009. The infection intensities were slight. The Ascaris lumbricoides infection rate in soil of vegetable garden was 44.5%. In conclusion, the infection rate of soil-transmitted nematodes is high in the monitoring point.%2006-2009年监测发现,勐海县国家级监测点土源性线虫总感染率平均为88.12%,其中蛔虫、鞭虫、钩虫和绦虫感染率分别为69.70%、59.79%、36.79%、1.30%;感染者均以轻度感染为主.以菜园土样的蛔虫卵阳性率为最高,达44.5%.当地人群土源性线虫感染水平较高.

  19. [A rare case of Hymenolepis diminuta infection in a small child].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kılınçel, Özge; Öztürk, Cihadiye Elif; Gün, Emrah; Öksüz, Şükrü; Uzun, Hakan; Şahin, İdris; Kılıç, Nida

    2015-01-01

    Unlike Hymenolepis nana that transmits directly from person to person, the transmission of Hymenolepis diminuta to human is via accidentally ingesting of arthropods carrying cysticercoid larvae as intermediate host. In places with poor hygienic conditions, this cestod may cause seldom infections especially in children. Studies carried out on various populations have reported the prevalence rate of H.diminuta between 0.001% and 5.5%. Although the reported cases are mostly children, the disease can be seen in every age group. In this report, a pediatric case of H.diminuta infection is presented. A twenty one-month-old male patient with the symptoms of vomiting 3-4 times a day along with mud-like diarrhea continuing for a week was admitted to the pediatric outpatient clinic. According to the history, it was learned that the house where he lived was above a barn and there was a history of insect swallowing. Laboratory findings revealed iron-deficiency anemia. The macroscopic appearance of the stool was in a pale clay-like form, and by direct microscopic examination with lugol solution, 70-75 μm in diameter, thick-shelled and six central hookleted eggs that are characteristic for H.diminuta were identified. A six-day course of oral niclosamide was administered to the patient beginning with 500 mg on the first day and 250 mg on the following five days, together with the treatment for the iron deficiency anemia. After fifteen days, the oral niclosamide treatment was repeated. No H.diminuta eggs were detected in the parasitological examination performed one month after completion of the second round of treatment. This case has been presented to call attention to the importance of patient anamnesis and microscopic examination in the diagnosis of H.diminuta infection which is a rarely seen parasitosis.

  20. Lung infection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1993-01-01

    930120 A clinical study of 50 cases of legion-naires disease.WANG Baofa(王保法),et al.Dept Intern Med,2nd Affili Hosp,Hehei MedColl,Shijiazhuang,050000.Chin J Tuberc &Respir Dis 1992;15(5):266-268.The clinical features and X-ray manifesta-tions of 50 cases of legionnaires disease wereanalysed.8 cases might be due to nosocomial in-fection through breathing in flying particles ofthe saliva or phlegm.According to the mainclinical features,this disease could be dividedinto common pneumonia type,acute gastroen-teritis type,encephalopathy type,shock type,and acute renal insufficiency type.The differen-

  1. Enterobiasis (Pinworm Infection): Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... The CDC Cancel Submit Search The CDC Parasites - Enterobiasis (also known as Pinworm Infection) Note: Javascript is disabled or is not ... message, please visit this page: About CDC.gov . Pinworm Infection General Information Pinworm Infection FAQs Epidemiology & Risk ...

  2. Enterobiasis (Pinworm Infection): Diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... The CDC Cancel Submit Search The CDC Parasites - Enterobiasis (also known as Pinworm Infection) Note: Javascript is disabled or is not ... message, please visit this page: About CDC.gov . Pinworm Infection General Information Pinworm Infection FAQs Epidemiology & Risk ...

  3. Enterococcus faecalis infective endocarditis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl, Anders; Bruun, Niels Eske

    2013-01-01

    Enterococcus faecalis infective endocarditis (IE) is a disease of increasing importance, with more patients infected, increasing frequency of health-care associated infections and increasing incidence of antimicrobial resistances. The typical clinical presentation is a subacute course with fever,...

  4. Urinary tract infection - adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000521.htm Urinary tract infection - adults To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. A urinary tract infection, or UTI, is an infection of the urinary ...

  5. Urinary tract infection - children

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000505.htm Urinary tract infection - children To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. A urinary tract infection is an infection of the urinary tract. This ...

  6. Listeria Infections (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Old Feeding Your 1- to 2-Year-Old Listeria Infections KidsHealth > For Parents > Listeria Infections A A ... to Call the Doctor en español Listeriosis About Listeria Listeria infections (known as listeriosis ) are rare. When ...

  7. The effect of praziquantel and Carica papaya seeds on Hymenolepis nana infection in mice using scanning electron microscope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abou Shady, Omayma M; Basyoni, Maha M A; Mahdy, Olfat A; Bocktor, Nardden Zakka

    2014-08-01

    Hymenolepis nana (H. nana) is the most common tapeworm infection worldwide. It is more prevalent in warm climates where sanitation is poor, particularly among children. The effect and mechanism of action of praziquantel (PZQ), given at a dose of 25-mg/kg BW, and Carica papaya dried seed crude aqueous extract (CAE), given at a dose of 1.2-g/kg BW, were assessed on H. nana worms in experimentally infected mice. Tegumental changes were studied using the scanning electron microscope (SEM) and different parasitological parameters were observed. Each group of infected mice was divided into two subgroups. The first subgroup received either treatment before the 4th day after infection to investigate their effects on the cysticercoid stage. The other subgroup received treatments after the development of the adult stage, confirmed by eggs detection in stool. Both PZQ and C. papaya dried seed CAE resulted in a significant reduction of worm burden, total egg output and viable egg count. Marked tegumental changes were evident in adult worms treated with either treatment including shrinkage of the scolex and neck region with rostellar edema and complete loss of its hooks. However, all previous effects were exerted more rapidly in the case of PZQ treatment. They both significantly reduced cysticercoid stage size. Nevertheless, C. papaya outstand PZQ in having a deforming effect on adults arising from treated cysticercoids. It was concluded that C. papaya has significant anti-cestodal properties that enable its seed extract to be a very effective alternative to PZQ against H. nana.

  8. [Hantavirus infections].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strady, C; Jaussaud, R; Remy, G; Penalba, C

    2005-03-12

    Hantaviruses are cosmopolite anthropozoonosis considered as an emerging disease. Four pathogenic types for humans and part of the Bunyaviridae species are hosted by rodents and have been isolated: the Sin nombre virus responsible for the severe American respiratory form; the Hantaan and Seoul viruses responsible for hemorrhagic fevers with renal syndrome (HFRS) of severe to moderate expression in Asia and also in the Balkans; the Puumala virus responsible for HFRS of moderate expression or the socalled nephropathia epidemica in Europe. The Puumala virus is responsible for a minor form of the disease that is observed in areas of the Occidental sector of the ex-URSS, in Scandinavia and in the rest of Europe, notably in the North-East of France. The epidemic episodes occur every three years. They follow the proliferation of rodents, notably russet voles, the reservoir hosts, and their degree of infection. The concept of an occupation at risk in 20 to 49 year-old men (working in forests, agriculture, living near a forest, contact with wood) in an endemic area has not always been found. Its clinical form can vary greatly in its presentation. Basically it is a severe algic influenza syndrome accompanied by acute myopia in 38% of cases, but is nearly pathognomonic in the context. Respiratory involvement is frequent but benign. The initial syndrome can suggest an abdominal or urological surgical emergency, which is source of diagnostic and therapeutic errors. Early biological examination reveals thrombopenia and proteinuria. Then more or less severe acute kidney failure appears in slightly more than 50% of cases. Although it usually regresses with symptomatic treatment, after effects remain in some patients. The environmental changes, the geographical distribution depending on the biotope, the dynamics and behaviour of rodents and the viral circulation between them and its transmission to human beings and its risk factors must continue to be studied in order to gain

  9. Musculoskeletal infections: ultrasound appearances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chau, C.L.F. [Department of Radiology, North District Hospital, NTEC, Fanling, NT, Hong Kong (China)]. E-mail: c8681@yahoo.com; Griffith, J.F. [Department of Diagnostic Radiology and Organ Imaging, Prince of Wales Hospital, NTEC, Shatin, NT, Hong Kong (China)

    2005-02-01

    Musculoskeletal infections are commonly encountered in clinical practice. This review will discuss the ultrasound appearances of a variety of musculoskeletal infections such as cellulitis, infective tenosynovitis, pyomyositis, soft-tissue abscesses, septic arthritis, acute and chronic osteomyelitis, and post-operative infection. The peculiar sonographic features of less common musculoskeletal infections, such as necrotizing fasciitis, and rice body formation in atypical mycobacterial tenosynovitis, and bursitis will also be presented.

  10. A comparison of the prevalence and burdens of helminth infections in growers and adult free-range chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magwisha, H B; Kassuku, A A; Kyvsgaard, N C; Permin, A

    2002-05-01

    Matched samples of 100 chickens of each of growers and adult rural free-range chickens in Morogoro, Tanzania, were purchased from the beginning to the end of the long rainy season. At necropsy, the trachea, the gastrointestinal tract and the oviduct were examined for helminth infections. The helminth species isolated comprised 18 nematodes and 8 cestodes but no trematodes. Tetrameres fissispina is a new record in Tanzania. All the chickens harboured at least three different helminth species. Growers contained 4-14 and adults 3-12 helminth species. The number of species isolated per chicken increased as the rainy season advanced. The prevalence of the following species were significantly higher in growers than in adults (p Raillietina tetragona (36%, 21%). Allodapa suctoria (3%, 20%) and Capillaria annulata (1%, 10%) had a significantly lower prevalence in growers than in adults (p tetragona, S. trachea, T. americana, T. fissispina and T. tenuis. Conversely, A. suctoria and C. annulata showed significantly higher worm burdens in adults (p < 0.05). The sex of the chickens influenced the burdens of Heterakis brevispiculum (p < 0.05). There was an interaction effect such that growing males and adult females had statistically higher (p < 0.05) burdens of T. tenuis and A. suctoria, respectively.

  11. Bloodstream infections in HIV-infected patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taramasso, Lucia; Tatarelli, Paola; Di Biagio, Antonio

    2016-04-02

    In the combined antiretroviral therapy era, HIV-infected patients remain a vulnerable population for the onset of bloodstream infections (BSI). Worldwide, nontyphoid salmonellae, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and coagulase negative staphylococci are the most important pathogens. Intravenous catheter associated infection, skin-soft tissue infection and endocarditis are associated with Gram-positive bacteremia. Among the Gram-negative, nontyphoidal Salmonella have been previously correlated to sepsis. Other causes of BSI in HIV-infected patients are mycobacteria and fungi. Mycobacteria constitute a major cause of BSI in limited resource countries. Fungal BSI are not frequent and among them Cryptococcus neoformans is the most common life-threatening infection. The degree of immunosuppression remains the key prognostic factor leading to the development of BSI.

  12. MicroRNA profiling of the intestinal tissue of Kazakh sheep after experimental Echinococcus granulosus infection, using a high-throughput approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiang Song

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Cystic echinococcosis (CE, caused by infection with the larval stage of the cestode Echinococcus granulosus, is a chronic zoonosis, to which sheep are highly susceptible. Previously, we found that Kazakh sheep with different MHC haplotypes differed in CE infection. Sheep with haplotype MHCMvaIbc-SacIIab-Hin1Iab were resistant to CE infection, while their counterparts without this haplotype were not. MicroRNAs (miRNAs, a class of small non-coding RNAs, are key regulators of gene expression at the post-transcriptional level and play essential roles in fundamental biological processes such as development and metabolism. To identify microRNA controlling resistance to CE in the early stage of infection, microRNA profiling was conducted in the intestinal tissue of sheep with resistant and non-resistant MHC haplotypes after peroral infection with E. granulosus eggs. A total of 351 known and 186 novel miRNAs were detected in the resistant group, against 353 known and 129 novel miRNAs in the non-resistant group. Among these miRNAs, 83 known miRNAs were significantly differentially expressed, including 75 up-regulated and 8 down-regulated miRNAs. Among these known microRNAs, miR-21-3p, miR-542-5p, miR-671, miR-134-5p, miR-26b, and miR-27a showed a significantly higher expression in CE-resistant sheep compared to the CE-non-resistant library, with the FC > 3. Functional analysis showed that they were NF-kB pathway-responsive miRNAs, which are involved in the inflammation process. The results suggest that these microRNAs may play important roles in the response of intestinal tissue to E. granulosus.

  13. MicroRNA profiling of the intestinal tissue of Kazakh sheep after experimental Echinococcus granulosus infection, using a high-throughput approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Song; Li, Xin; Wang, Xuhai; Ban, Qian; Hui, Wenqiao; Jia, Bin

    2016-01-01

    Cystic echinococcosis (CE), caused by infection with the larval stage of the cestode Echinococcus granulosus, is a chronic zoonosis, to which sheep are highly susceptible. Previously, we found that Kazakh sheep with different MHC haplotypes differed in CE infection. Sheep with haplotype MHCMvaIbc-SacIIab-Hin1Iab were resistant to CE infection, while their counterparts without this haplotype were not. MicroRNAs (miRNAs), a class of small non-coding RNAs, are key regulators of gene expression at the post-transcriptional level and play essential roles in fundamental biological processes such as development and metabolism. To identify microRNA controlling resistance to CE in the early stage of infection, microRNA profiling was conducted in the intestinal tissue of sheep with resistant and non-resistant MHC haplotypes after peroral infection with E. granulosus eggs. A total of 351 known and 186 novel miRNAs were detected in the resistant group, against 353 known and 129 novel miRNAs in the non-resistant group. Among these miRNAs, 83 known miRNAs were significantly differentially expressed, including 75 up-regulated and 8 down-regulated miRNAs. Among these known microRNAs, miR-21-3p, miR-542-5p, miR-671, miR-134-5p, miR-26b, and miR-27a showed a significantly higher expression in CE-resistant sheep compared to the CE-non-resistant library, with the FC > 3. Functional analysis showed that they were NF-kB pathway-responsive miRNAs, which are involved in the inflammation process. The results suggest that these microRNAs may play important roles in the response of intestinal tissue to E. granulosus. PMID:27235195

  14. Schistocephalus solidus infections increase gonadotropins and gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH3) mRNA levels in the three-spined stickleback, Gasterosteus aculeatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Yi Ta; Tseng, Yung Che; Trombley, Susanne; Hwang, Pung Pung; Schmitz, Monika; Borg, Bertil

    2012-09-01

    Parasites often impair the reproduction of their hosts, one well known case being the cestode Schistocephalus solidus which is a common parasite in three-spined sticklebacks, Gasterosteus aculeatus. One of the possible ways that this could be exerted is by suppression on the brain-pituitary-gonadal (BPG) axis. In this study, mRNA levels of FSH-β and LH-β and of GnRH2 (cGnRH II) and GnRH3 (sGnRH) were measured via Q-PCR in infected and uninfected fish sampled from the field a few weeks before the onset of breeding. The pituitary mRNA levels of both FSH-β and LH-β were higher in infected males than in uninfected males. Also in females, FSH-β mRNA levels were higher in infected individuals than in others, whereas there was no significant difference found in LH-β expression. Brain mRNA levels of GnRH3 were higher in infected fish than in uninfected fish in both sexes, but no difference was found in GnRH2 mRNA levels. Thus, infection by S. solidus was able to alter the expressions not only of gonadotropins (GtHs), but also of GnRH which has not been observed previously. However, the effects are opposite to what should be expected if the parasite suppressed reproduction via actions on the brain-pituitary level. The gonads are perhaps more likely to be impaired by the parasites in other ways, and changed feedbacks on the BPG axis could then lead to the increases in GtHs and GnRH.

  15. Co-Infection and Wild Animal Health: Effects of Trypanosomatids and Gastrointestinal Parasites on Coatis of the Brazilian Pantanal.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalie Olifiers

    Full Text Available Wild animals are infected by diverse parasites, but how they influence host health is poorly understood. We examined the relationship of trypanosomatids and gastrointestinal parasites with health of wild brown-nosed coatis (Nasua nasua from the Brazilian Pantanal. We used coati body condition and hematological parameters as response variables in linear models that were compared using an information theoretic approach. Predictors were high/low parasitemias by Trypanosoma cruzi and T. evansi, and indices representing the abundance of distinct groups of gastrointestinal parasites. We also analyzed how host health changed with host sex and reproductive seasonality. Hemoparasites was best related to coati body condition and hematological indices, whereas abundance of gastrointestinal parasites was relatively less associated with coati health. Additionally, some associations were best predicted by models that incorporated reproductive seasonality and host sex. Overall, we observed a lower health condition during the breeding season, when coatis are under reproductive stress and may be less able to handle infection. In addition, females seem to handle infection better than males. Body condition was lower in coatis with high parasitemias of T. evansi, especially during the reproductive season. Total red blood cell counts, packed cell volume, platelets and eosinophils were also lower in animals with high T. evansi parasitemias. Total white blood cell counts and mature neutrophils were lower in animals with high parasitemias for both Trypanosoma species, with neutrophils decreasing mainly during the reproductive season. Overall, decreases in hematological parameters of females with T. evansi high parasitemias were less evident. For T. cruzi, monocytes decreased in individuals with high parasitemias. High abundances of microfilariae in the bloodstream, and cestode eggs and coccidian oocysts in feces were also associated with coati blood parameters. This

  16. Co-Infection and Wild Animal Health: Effects of Trypanosomatids and Gastrointestinal Parasites on Coatis of the Brazilian Pantanal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olifiers, Natalie; Jansen, Ana Maria; Herrera, Heitor Miraglia; Bianchi, Rita de Cassia; D’Andrea, Paulo Sergio; Mourão, Guilherme de Miranda; Gompper, Matthew Edzart

    2015-01-01

    Wild animals are infected by diverse parasites, but how they influence host health is poorly understood. We examined the relationship of trypanosomatids and gastrointestinal parasites with health of wild brown-nosed coatis (Nasua nasua) from the Brazilian Pantanal. We used coati body condition and hematological parameters as response variables in linear models that were compared using an information theoretic approach. Predictors were high/low parasitemias by Trypanosoma cruzi and T. evansi, and indices representing the abundance of distinct groups of gastrointestinal parasites. We also analyzed how host health changed with host sex and reproductive seasonality. Hemoparasites was best related to coati body condition and hematological indices, whereas abundance of gastrointestinal parasites was relatively less associated with coati health. Additionally, some associations were best predicted by models that incorporated reproductive seasonality and host sex. Overall, we observed a lower health condition during the breeding season, when coatis are under reproductive stress and may be less able to handle infection. In addition, females seem to handle infection better than males. Body condition was lower in coatis with high parasitemias of T. evansi, especially during the reproductive season. Total red blood cell counts, packed cell volume, platelets and eosinophils were also lower in animals with high T. evansi parasitemias. Total white blood cell counts and mature neutrophils were lower in animals with high parasitemias for both Trypanosoma species, with neutrophils decreasing mainly during the reproductive season. Overall, decreases in hematological parameters of females with T. evansi high parasitemias were less evident. For T. cruzi, monocytes decreased in individuals with high parasitemias. High abundances of microfilariae in the bloodstream, and cestode eggs and coccidian oocysts in feces were also associated with coati blood parameters. This study shows the

  17. Co-Infection and Wild Animal Health: Effects of Trypanosomatids and Gastrointestinal Parasites on Coatis of the Brazilian Pantanal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olifiers, Natalie; Jansen, Ana Maria; Herrera, Heitor Miraglia; Bianchi, Rita de Cassia; D'Andrea, Paulo Sergio; Mourão, Guilherme de Miranda; Gompper, Matthew Edzart

    2015-01-01

    Wild animals are infected by diverse parasites, but how they influence host health is poorly understood. We examined the relationship of trypanosomatids and gastrointestinal parasites with health of wild brown-nosed coatis (Nasua nasua) from the Brazilian Pantanal. We used coati body condition and hematological parameters as response variables in linear models that were compared using an information theoretic approach. Predictors were high/low parasitemias by Trypanosoma cruzi and T. evansi, and indices representing the abundance of distinct groups of gastrointestinal parasites. We also analyzed how host health changed with host sex and reproductive seasonality. Hemoparasites was best related to coati body condition and hematological indices, whereas abundance of gastrointestinal parasites was relatively less associated with coati health. Additionally, some associations were best predicted by models that incorporated reproductive seasonality and host sex. Overall, we observed a lower health condition during the breeding season, when coatis are under reproductive stress and may be less able to handle infection. In addition, females seem to handle infection better than males. Body condition was lower in coatis with high parasitemias of T. evansi, especially during the reproductive season. Total red blood cell counts, packed cell volume, platelets and eosinophils were also lower in animals with high T. evansi parasitemias. Total white blood cell counts and mature neutrophils were lower in animals with high parasitemias for both Trypanosoma species, with neutrophils decreasing mainly during the reproductive season. Overall, decreases in hematological parameters of females with T. evansi high parasitemias were less evident. For T. cruzi, monocytes decreased in individuals with high parasitemias. High abundances of microfilariae in the bloodstream, and cestode eggs and coccidian oocysts in feces were also associated with coati blood parameters. This study shows the

  18. Parasite infections in central nervous system in humans%中枢神经寄生虫感染

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任翊; 谷俊朝

    2011-01-01

    Parasite infections in central nervous system (CNS) in human beings can result in very serious outcomes.Early diagnosis is important to reduce mortality. Parasitic infections in CNS include nematodes,cestodes,trematodes,and protozoans. This article discusses the clinical presentation,diagnosis,and treatment of some of the most common parasitic infections in CNS,these are Angiostrongylus cantonensis ,Trichinella spiralis ,Gnathostoma spinigerum,Strongyloides stercoralis ,Toxocara spp. ,Echinococcus spp. ,Taenia solium,Spirometra spp. (sparganosis ) ,Paragonimus westermani,Schistosorna spp., Trypanosoma spp. ,and Naegleria fowlerii.%中枢神经感染寄生虫结果十分严重,早期诊断并治疗是降低死亡率重要手段,本综述介绍了中枢神经感染的线虫、绦虫、吸虫和原虫,其中线虫有广州管圆线虫(Angiostrongylus cantonensis),旋毛线虫(Trichinella spiralis),棘鄂口线虫(Gnathostoma spinigerum),粪类圆线虫(Strogyloides stercoralis)和弓首蛔线虫属(Toxocara spp.);绦虫有棘球绦虫属(Echinococcus spp.),猪带绦虫(Taenia solium)和遮宫绦虫属(Spirormetra spp.);吸虫有卫氏并殖吸虫(Paragonimus westermani)和血吸虫属(Schistosoma spp.);原虫有克氏锥虫(Trypanosoma cruzi)、布氏雏虫(Trypanosoma brucei)和福氏耐格阿米巴(Noe gleria fowlerii)

  19. 圆通山动物园绿孔雀肠道寄生虫种类调查%Parasites Species Associated with Intestinal Infection of Pauo Muticus in Yuantongshan Zoo

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄超; 鲁永超; 杨娟; 赵国畯; 吴培福

    2015-01-01

    为了解圆通山动物园绿孔雀肠道寄生虫感染情况,采用饱和食盐水漂浮、离心沉淀等方法对该园绿孔雀的粪便样本进行检查。结果表明,该园绿孔雀的肠道寄生虫感染较为普遍,感染的寄生虫种类主要有球虫、圆线虫、异刺线虫、赖利绦虫等。研究结果为制订绿孔雀肠道寄生虫感染防治措施提供了理论依据。%In order to understand the epidemiology of parasites infection in Pauo muticus intestine rearing in Yuantongshan Zoo, the saturated salt water floating method, centrifugal sedimentation technique and other methods were used to examine the fecal samples of Pauo muticus. The results showed that the intestinal parasites infection of Pauo muticus in Yuantongshan Zoo was commonly observed and the most frequently found species were Coccidia, Strongyle, Heterakis gallinae, Raliiletina cestodes, etc. The finding in this study provides a theory foundation for the establishment of prevention and treatment measures against intestinal parasites infection of Pauo muticus.

  20. C. difficile Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Patients Home / Digestive Health Topic / C. Difficile Infection C. Difficile Infection Basics Overview Diarrhea is a frequent ... that change the normal colon bacteria allowing the C. difficile bacteria to grow and produce its toxins. ...

  1. Ear Infection and Vaccines

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... an ENT Doctor Near You Ear Infection and Vaccines Ear Infection and Vaccines Patient Health Information News ... or may need reinsertion over time. What about vaccines? A vaccine is a preparation administered to stimulate ...

  2. Salmonella Infections (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for most infections in humans is carried by chickens, cows, pigs, and reptiles (such as turtles, lizards, ... groups, most doctors will treat an infection with antibiotics to prevent it from spreading to other parts ...

  3. Enterobiasis (Pinworm Infection) FAQs

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Tropical Diseases Laboratory Diagnostic Assistance [DPDx] Parasites Home Pinworm Infection FAQs Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir ... infection and reinfection be prevented? What is a pinworm? A pinworm ("threadworm") is a small, thin, white ...

  4. Vaginal Yeast Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... infection caused by a type of fungus called candida albicans . Yeast infections usually happen in warm, moist parts of the body, like the mouth, or vagina. We all have candida in our bodies, but usually it's kept in ...

  5. Tapeworm infection - Hymenolepsis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... by 1 of 2 species of tapeworm: Hymenolepis nana or Hymenolepis diminuta . The disease is also called ... bowel, so infection can last for years. Hymenolepis nana infections are much more common than Hymenolepis diminuta ...

  6. Bacterial Nasal Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... vestibule. Nasal furuncles may develop into a spreading infection under the skin (cellulitis) at the tip of the nose. A doctor becomes concerned about infections in this part of the face because veins ...

  7. Enterococcus faecalis infective endocarditis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl, Anders; Rasmussen, Rasmus V; Bundgaard, Henning;

    2013-01-01

    Because of the nephrotoxic effects of aminoglycosides, the Danish guidelines on infective endocarditis were changed in January 2007, reducing gentamicin treatment in enterococcal infective endocarditis from 4 to 6 weeks to only 2 weeks. In this pilot study, we compare outcomes in patients with En...... with Enterococcus faecalis infective endocarditis treated in the years before and after endorsement of these new recommendations....

  8. Salmonella Infections (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Old Feeding Your 1- to 2-Year-Old Salmonella Infections KidsHealth > For Parents > Salmonella Infections A A A What's in this article? Salmonella ... contaminated food (usually meat, poultry, eggs, or milk). Salmonella infections affect the intestines and cause vomiting, fever, and ...

  9. Rapid molecular identification of human taeniid cestodes by pyrosequencing approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thanchomnang, Tongjit; Tantrawatpan, Chairat; Intapan, Pewpan M; Sanpool, Oranuch; Janwan, Penchom; Lulitanond, Viraphong; Tourtip, Somjintana; Yamasaki, Hiroshi; Maleewong, Wanchai

    2014-01-01

    Taenia saginata, T. solium, and T. asiatica are causative agents of taeniasis in humans. The difficulty of morphological identification of human taeniids can lead to misdiagnosis or confusion. To overcome this problem, several molecular methods have been developed, but use of these tends to be time-consuming. Here, a rapid and high-throughput pyrosequencing approach was developed for the identification of three human taeniids originating from various countries. Primers targeting the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (cox1) gene of the three Taenia species were designed. Variations in a 26-nucleotide target region were used for identification. The reproducibility and accuracy of the pyrosequencing technology was confirmed by Sanger sequencing. This technique will be a valuable tool to distinguish between sympatric human taeniids that occur in Thailand, Asia and Pacific countries. This method could potentially be used for the molecular identification of the taeniid species that might be associated with suspicious cysts and lesions, or cyst residues in humans or livestock at the slaughterhouse.

  10. Rapid molecular identification of human taeniid cestodes by pyrosequencing approach.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tongjit Thanchomnang

    Full Text Available Taenia saginata, T. solium, and T. asiatica are causative agents of taeniasis in humans. The difficulty of morphological identification of human taeniids can lead to misdiagnosis or confusion. To overcome this problem, several molecular methods have been developed, but use of these tends to be time-consuming. Here, a rapid and high-throughput pyrosequencing approach was developed for the identification of three human taeniids originating from various countries. Primers targeting the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (cox1 gene of the three Taenia species were designed. Variations in a 26-nucleotide target region were used for identification. The reproducibility and accuracy of the pyrosequencing technology was confirmed by Sanger sequencing. This technique will be a valuable tool to distinguish between sympatric human taeniids that occur in Thailand, Asia and Pacific countries. This method could potentially be used for the molecular identification of the taeniid species that might be associated with suspicious cysts and lesions, or cyst residues in humans or livestock at the slaughterhouse.

  11. Brucella Infection in HIV Infected Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SeyedAhmad SeyedAlinaghi

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to assess the possible correlation between Brucella and HIV infections. Iran is a country where HIV infection is expanding and Brucellosis is prevalent. In the present study, 184 HIV infected patients were assigned and for all of them HIV infection was confirmed by western blot test. In order to identify the prevalence rate of Brucella infection and systemic brucellosis in these subjects, sera samples were obtained and Brucella specific serological tests were performed to reveal antibody titers. Detailed history was taken and physical examination was carried out for all of patients. 11 (6% subjects had high titers but only 3 of them were symptomatic. Most of these subjects were injection drug user (IDU men and one was a rural woman. Considering both prevalence rates of Brucella infection (3% and symptomatic brucellosis (0.1% in Iran, our HIV positive patients show higher rates of Brucella infection and systemic brucellosis. Preserved cellular immunity of participants and retention of granulocytes activity may explain this poor association; whereas other explanations such as immunological state difference and non-overlapping geographical distribution of the 2 pathogens have been mentioned by various authors.

  12. Inflammation, Infection, and Future Cardiovascular Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-15

    Cardiovascular Diseases; Coronary Disease; Cerebrovascular Accident; Myocardial Infarction; Venous Thromboembolism; Heart Diseases; Infection; Chlamydia Infections; Cytomegalovirus Infections; Helicobacter Infections; Herpesviridae Infections; Inflammation

  13. Diabetic foot infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gemechu, Fassil W; Seemant, Fnu; Curley, Catherine A

    2013-08-01

    Diabetic foot infection, defined as soft tissue or bone infection below the malleoli, is the most common complication of diabetes mellitus leading to hospitalization and the most frequent cause of nontraumatic lower extremity amputation. Diabetic foot infections are diagnosed clinically based on the presence of at least two classic findings of inflammation or purulence. Infections are classified as mild, moderate, or severe. Most diabetic foot infections are polymicrobial. The most common pathogens are aerobic gram-positive cocci, mainly Staphylococcus species. Osteomyelitis is a serious complication of diabetic foot infection that increases the likelihood of surgical intervention. Treatment is based on the extent and severity of the infection and comorbid conditions. Mild infections are treated with oral antibiotics, wound care, and pressure off-loading in the outpatient setting. Selected patients with moderate infections and all patients with severe infections should be hospitalized, given intravenous antibiotics, and evaluated for possible surgical intervention. Peripheral arterial disease is present in up to 40% of patients with diabetic foot infections, making evaluation of the vascular supply critical. All patients with diabetes should undergo a systematic foot examination at least once a year, and more frequently if risk factors for diabetic foot ulcers exist. Preventive measures include patient education on proper foot care, glycemic and blood pressure control, smoking cessation, use of prescription footwear, intensive care from a podiatrist, and evaluation for surgical interventions as indicated.

  14. Infections following epidural catheterization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holt, MS; Andersen, SS; Andersen, Ove;

    1995-01-01

    of central nervous system infection of at least 0.7% at Odense University Hospital. This degree of infection is of the same magnitude as that reported for intravascular devices. We found that the patients with generalized symptoms of infection had been catheterized for a longer time, and were older than......Seventy-eight patients with culture-positive epidural catheters, were studied. Fifty-nine had symptoms of exit site infection and 11 patients had clinical meningitis, two of whom also had an epidural abscess. This corresponds to a local infection incidence of at least 4.3% and an incidence...... patients with only local symptoms of infection. The microorganisms isolated from the tips of the epidural catheters were coagulase-negative staphylococci (41%), Staphylococcus aureus (35%), Gram-negative bacilli (14%) and others (10%). The Gram-negative bacilli and S. aureus caused serious infections more...

  15. Helmintic infections in water buffaloes on Italian farms: a spatial analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Rinaldi

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available The present paper reports the results of a cross-sectional survey aimed at obtaining up-to-date information on the spatial distribution of different groups and/or species of helminths in water buffaloes from central Italy. Geographical information systems (GIS and spatial analysis were used to plan the sampling procedures, to display the results as maps and to detect spatial clusters of helminths in the study area. The survey was conducted on 127 water buffalo farms, which were selected in the study area using a grid sampling approach, followed by proportional allocation. Faecal samples (n. = 1,883 collected from the 127 farms were examined using the Flotac dual technique. Gastrointestinal strongyles were the most frequent helminths (33.1% on the tested farms, followed by the liver fluke Fasciola hepatica (7.1%, the rumen fluke Calicophoron daubneyi (7.1%, the nematode Strongyloides spp. (3.1%, the lancet liver fluke Dicrocoelium dendriticum (2.4% and the tapeworm Moniezia spp. (2.4%. In order to display the spatial distribution of the various helminths detected on the water buffalo farms (used as epidemiological unit in our study, point maps were drawn within the GIS. In addition, for each helminth, clustering of test-positive farms were investigated based on location determined by exact coordinates. Using spatial scan statistic, spatial clusters were found for the flukes F. hepatica and C. daubneyi and the cestode Moniezia spp.; these findings are consistent with the life cycle of these parasites, which have strong environmental determinants. In conclusion, the present study demonstrated that, with the appropriate survey-based data at hand, GIS is a useful tool to study epidemiological patterns of infections in veterinary health, in particular in water buffaloes.

  16. Granulocytes in Helminth Infection - Who is Calling the Shots?

    OpenAIRE

    L. Makepeace, B.; Martin, C; D. Turner, J.; Specht, S.

    2012-01-01

    Helminths are parasitic organisms that can be broadly described as “worms” due to their elongated body plan, but which otherwise differ in shape, development, migratory routes and the predilection site of the adults and larvae. They are divided into three major groups: trematodes (flukes), which are leaf-shaped, hermaphroditic (except for blood flukes) flatworms with oral and ventral suckers; cestodes (tapeworms), which are segmented, hermaphroditic flatworms that inhabit the intestinal lumen...

  17. General aspects concerning strictly meat and fish transmitted parasitic infections

    OpenAIRE

    Daniele Crotti; Silvia Crotti; Andrea Gustinelli

    2012-01-01

    All helminths parasitosis transmitted to humans trough ingestion of infested fleshes, where man is definitive host too, are represented by four groups of helminths: the cestodes Dyphyllobothrium spp and Spirometra spp. (Sparganum proliferum is the name of the immature plerocercoid larva), the trematodes Opisthorchis Clonorchis “group” (many could be the genera and species involved), and the nematode Capillaria philippinensis. So, for fishes humans foods (fresh or salted water) the control and...

  18. Improving liveweight gain of lambs infected by multidrug-resistant nematodes using a FECRT-based schedule of treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pivoto, Felipe Lamberti; Machado, Fabricio Amadori; Anezi-Junior, Paulo Afonso; Weber, Augusto; Cezar, Alfredo Skrebsky; Sangioni, Luis Antonio; Vogel, Fernanda Silveira Flores

    2014-06-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the liveweight gain of lambs, infected by multidrug-resistant nematodes, treated by conventional schemes of helminth control or using a schedule based on fecal egg count reduction test (FECRT). The flock was selected after a FECRT (experiment 1) which revealed a parasite population resistant to benzimidazoles, imidazothiazoles, macrocyclic lactones (ivermectin), salicylanilides, nitrophenols, and organophosphates. Despite the parasite resistance to ivermectin (an avermectin), the moxidectin (a milbemycin) was effective against the gastrointestinal nematodes (PR > 90%). In experiment 2, 48 suckling lambs were distributed in four randomized blocks (G1, G2, G3, and G4) by previous body weighings. G1 was kept as untreated control; G2 was treated following a FECRT-based schedule with drugs chosen based on fecal analysis (first drench with moxidectin, second drench with a combination of moxidectin and levamisole, and third drench with praziquantel, an anti-cestode drug); G3 and G4 received three drenches with ivermectin or disophenol, respectively. Body weighings and fecal analysis of these lambs were performed every 2 weeks over a 98-day period. An effective control of gastrointestinal nematodes was obtained with two nematicidal drenches following the FECRT-based schedule of treatments. On the other hand, eggs per gram of feces (EPG) counts were no different among untreated control, G3, and G4. Lambs treated using the FECRT-based schedule had the greatest liveweight gain among the groups tested. Additionally, liveweight gain was no different among the groups G3, G4, and G1. The FECRT-based schedule of anthelmintic treatments was beneficial regarding productivity and sustainability of helminth control in lambs infected by multidrug-resistant nematodes.

  19. Imaging of hepatic infections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doyle, D.J. [Department of Medical Imaging, University Health Network and Mount Sinai Hospital, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ont. (Canada)]. E-mail: doyledj@hotmail.com; Hanbidge, A.E. [Department of Medical Imaging, University Health Network and Mount Sinai Hospital, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ont. (Canada); O' Malley, M.E. [Department of Medical Imaging, University Health Network and Mount Sinai Hospital, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ont. (Canada)

    2006-09-15

    Imaging plays a significant role in the detection, characterization and treatment of hepatic infections. Infectious diseases of the liver include pyogenic and amoebic abscesses and parasitic, fungal, viral and granulomatous infections. With increases in worldwide travel, immunosuppression and changing population demographics, identification of cases of hepatic infection is becoming more common in daily practice. Knowledge of the imaging features seen with hepatic infections can assist in early diagnosis and timely initiation of appropriate therapy. This review presents the imaging appearances of hepatic infections, emphasizing specific features that may contribute to the diagnosis. Examples of the imaging findings seen with pyogenic and amoebic abscesses, infection with Echinococcus granulosus (Hydatid), schistosomiasis, candidiasis and tuberculosis (TB) are presented.

  20. Imaging of Periprosthetic Infection.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Carty, Fiona

    2013-05-22

    Periprosthetic infection is one of the most challenging and difficult complications in orthopaedics. It can result in significant patient distress and disability, with repeated surgeries, increased cost and utilization of medical resources, and in rare cases even mortality. The biggest challenge to date is the correct diagnosis of periprosthetic infection and implementation of effective treatment regimens capable of eradicating the organism. This article reviews the various modalities used in the imaging of periprosthetic and post-arthroplasty infection.

  1. Urinary Tract Infections

    OpenAIRE

    Bjerklund Johansen, Truls E.; Naber, Kurt G.

    2014-01-01

    Urinary tract infections (UTI) are among the most frequently acquired infections in the community, but also in hospitals and other health care institutions, causing a huge amount of antibiotic consumption. During the last decade we have seen significant changes in the field of urinary tract infections regarding causative pathogens and antibiotic treatment calling for an update of current trends. The worldwide increase of uropathogens resistant to former first line antibiotics, such as cotrim...

  2. Clostridium difficile infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen A. Geller

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Clostridium difficile infection (CDI is a significant and increasing medical problem, surpassing methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus as the most common hospital-onset or facility-associated infection, and a key element in the challenging battle against hospital-acquired infections. This Gram-positive, anaerobic, spore-forming colonizes the intestinal tract after antibiotics have altered the normal intestinal flora.

  3. Infections following epidural catheterization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holt, MS; Andersen, SS; Andersen, Ove

    1995-01-01

    Seventy-eight patients with culture-positive epidural catheters, were studied. Fifty-nine had symptoms of exit site infection and 11 patients had clinical meningitis, two of whom also had an epidural abscess. This corresponds to a local infection incidence of at least 4.3% and an incidence of cen...... frequently than the others. We discuss the symptoms and diagnosis of spinal epidural abscess and suggest a proposal for prophylactic and diagnostic guidelines for epidural catheter-related infections. Comment in: J Hosp Infect. 1997 Mar;35(3):245....

  4. [ZIKA--VIRUS INFECTION].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velev, V

    2016-01-01

    This review summarizes the knowledge of the scientific community for Zika-virus infection. It became popular because of severe congenital damage causes of CNS in newborns whose mothers are infected during pregnancy, as well as the risk of pandemic distribution. Discusses the peculiarities of the biology and ecology of vectors--blood-sucking mosquitoes Aedes; stages in the spread of infection and practical problems which caused during pregnancy. Attention is paid to the recommendations that allow leading national and international medical organizations to deal with the threat Zika-virus infection.

  5. Laparoscopic splenectomy and infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyyit Kuş

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Partial laparoscopic splenectomy is performed commonly in hereditary spherocytosis. Vaccination against capsulatedbacteria is essential before undergoing splenectomy. Hand-assisted laparoscopic splenectomy is known to be effectiveand convenient in the removal of a spleen larger than 20 cm in size. Laparoscopic splenectomy provides less hemorrhage,reduced surgical trauma and pain, shorter duration of hospital stay, and early recovery. Laparoscopic approachwas particularly effective in reducing the infectious complication rate compared with the open surgery. Infectious complicationsof splenectomy were observed to be wound infection, subphrenic abscess, and sometimes pulmonary infection.J Microbiol Infect Dis 2013; 3(1: 1-2Key words: Laparoscopy, splenectomy, infection

  6. Corneal ulcers and infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacterial keratitis; Fungal keratitis; Acanthamoeba keratitis; Herpes simplex keratitis ... infection with bacteria, viruses, fungi, or a parasite. Acanthamoeba keratitis occurs in contact lens users. It is ...

  7. Infections in outpatient surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nazarian Mobin, Sheila S; Keyes, Geoffrey R; Singer, Robert; Yates, James; Thompson, Dennis

    2013-07-01

    In the plastic surgery patient population, outpatient surgery is cost effective and will continue to grow as the preferred arena for performing surgery in healthy patients. Although there is a widespread myth that outpatient surgery centers may suffer from increased infection rates due to lax infection control, the data presented from American Association for Accreditation of Ambulatory Surgery Facilities-accredited facilities prove the contrary. There is a lack of data investigating infection prevention in the perioperative period in plastic surgery patients. As data collection becomes more refined, tracking the postoperative care environment should offer additional opportunities to lower the incidence of postoperative infections.

  8. Freshwater Fungal Infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dennis J. Baumgardner

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Fungal infections as a result of freshwater exposure or trauma are fortunately rare. Etiologic agents are varied, but commonly include filamentous fungi and Candida. This narrative review describes various sources of potential freshwater fungal exposure and the diseases that may result, including fungal keratitis, acute otitis externa and tinea pedis, as well as rare deep soft tissue or bone infections and pulmonary or central nervous system infections following traumatic freshwater exposure during natural disasters or near-drowning episodes. Fungal etiology should be suspected in appropriate scenarios when bacterial cultures or molecular tests are normal or when the infection worsens or fails to resolve with appropriate antibacterial therapy.

  9. Mycoplasma pneumoniae Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Genitals and Urinary Tract Glands & Growth Head Neck & Nervous System Heart Infections Learning Disabilities Obesity Orthopedic Prevention Sexually Transmitted Skin Tobacco Treatments Injuries & ...

  10. Middle Ear Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Genitals and Urinary Tract Glands & Growth Head Neck & Nervous System Heart Infections Learning Disabilities Obesity Orthopedic Prevention Sexually Transmitted Skin Tobacco Treatments Injuries & ...

  11. Arcanobacterium Haemolyticum Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Genitals and Urinary Tract Glands & Growth Head Neck & Nervous System Heart Infections Learning Disabilities Obesity Orthopedic Prevention Sexually Transmitted Skin Tobacco Treatments Injuries & ...

  12. Helicobacter Pylori Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Genitals and Urinary Tract Glands & Growth Head Neck & Nervous System Heart Infections Learning Disabilities Obesity Orthopedic Prevention Sexually Transmitted Skin Tobacco Treatments Injuries & ...

  13. Diagnosis of Fusarium Infections

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Diepeningen, van A.D.; Brankovics, Balázs; Iltes, Jearidienne; Lee, van der T.A.J.; Waalwijk, Cees

    2015-01-01

    Infections caused by the genus Fusarium have emerged over the past decades and range from onychomycosis and keratitis in healthy individuals to deep and disseminated infections with high mortality rates in immune-compromised patients. As antifungal susceptibility can differ between the different

  14. [Emergent viral infections

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Galama, J.M.D.

    2001-01-01

    The emergence and re-emergence of viral infections is an ongoing process. Large-scale vaccination programmes led to the eradication or control of some viral infections in the last century, but new viruses are always emerging. Increased travel is leading to a rise in the importation of exotic infecti

  15. [Nosocomial infection: clinical aspects].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frottier, J

    1993-05-01

    Nosocomial infections develop within a hospital or are produced by microorganisms acquired during hospitalization. They may involve not only patients (2 to 10 percent) but also hospital personnel. They arise from complex interactions of multiple causal factors. Patients risk factors are these that reduce the patient's capacity for resisting the injurious effects of the microorganisms and impair natural host defense mechanisms: patients with malignant disorders or immunosuppressive therapy, poor nutritional status, extensive burn wounds ... The young and the elderly are generally more susceptible to infection. Other infections are preventable. Disease causation is often multifactorial. Nosocomial urinary tract infections had the highest rate, followed by lower respiratory tract infections, surgical infections and bacteremias. The emergence of other nosocomial infections, caused by bacteria (tuberculosis), virus (HIV, hepatitis B and C virus, cytomegalovirus...), Aspergillus species or Pneumocystis carinii appears to be recent in origin and is of importance to immunocompromised hosts, other patients and hospital personnel. Nosocomial infections and their social and economic impacts require for their prevention vigorous organized hospital-wide surveillance and control programs.

  16. Pediatric Urinary Tract Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    SBA National Resource Center: 800-621-3141 Pediatric Urinary Tract Infections and Catheterization in Children with Neurogenic Bladder and ... To protect the kidneys from damage – By preventing urinary tract infections (UTI) – By identifying and treating vesicoureteral remux (VUR). ...

  17. [News on Bartonella infections].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melter, Oto

    2013-06-01

    The review specifies 25 Bartonella species known so far and describes epidemiology and pathogenesis of Bartonella infections which are classified using patient symptomatology including culture-negative endocarditis. Microbiological diagnosis and significant principles of antibiotic therapy of Bartonella infections are also stated.

  18. Staphylococcus epidermidis infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vuong, Cuong; Otto, Michael

    2002-04-01

    The opportunistic human pathogen Staphylococcus epidermidis has become the most important cause of nosocomial infections in recent years. Its pathogenicity is mainly due to the ability to form biofilms on indwelling medical devices. In a biofilm, S. epidermidis is protected against attacks from the immune system and against antibiotic treatment, making S. epidermidis infections difficult to eradicate.

  19. Preventing Giardia Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beer, W. Nicholas

    1993-01-01

    Outdoor recreationists are at risk for developing giardia infection from drinking contaminated stream water. Giardia is the most common human parasite found in contaminated water that causes gastrointestinal illness. Describes medical treatment and ways of preventing infection through water treatment, including heat, filtration, and chemical…

  20. Surgical infections with Mycoplasma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Levi-Mazloum, Niels Donald; Prag, Jørgen Brorson; Jensen, J S;

    1997-01-01

    Mycoplasma hominis and Ureaplasma urealyticum are common inhabitants of the human genital tract. Evidence for an aetiological role in pyelonephritis, pelvic inflammatory disease, post-abortion and post-partum fever has been presented. There are sporadic reports of Mycoplasma causing serious extra...... extragenital infection such as septicemia, septic arthritis, neonatal meningitis and encephalitis. We review 38 cases of surgical infections with Mycoplasma....

  1. [Nosocomial urinary infections].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butreau-Lemaire, M; Botto, H

    1997-09-01

    The concept of nosocomial urinary tract infection now corresponds to a precise definition. It is generally related to bladder catheterization, constitutes the most frequent form of nosocomial infection (30 to 50% of infections), and represents the third most frequent portal of entry of bacteraemia. The organism most frequently isolated is Escherichia coli; but the flora is changing and the ecological distribution is continually modified. Despite their usually benign nature, these nosocomial infections can nevertheless influence hospital mortality; they increase the hospital stay by an average of 2.5 days and their treatment represents a large share of the antibiotic budget. Prevention of these infections is therefore essential, with particular emphasis on simple and universally accessible measures: very precise indications for vesical catheterization, use of closed circuit drainage, maximal asepsis when handling catheters, after washing the hands.

  2. Key aspects congenital infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu. V. Lobzin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The key questions to solve the problem of congenital infection in the Russian Federation are: using in national practice over world accepted terminology adapted to the recommendations of the World Health Organization; representation of the modern concepts of an infectious process in the classification of congenital infections; scientific development and introducing in clinical practice the «standard case definitions», applied to different congenital infections; optimization of protocols and clinical guidelines for diagnosis, treatment and prevention of congenital infections; improvement a knowledge in the infectious disease for all  pecialists involved in the risk assessment of congenital infections, manage pregnancy and children. Based on our experience and analysis of publications, the authors suggest possible solutions.

  3. Asymptomatic Borrelia burgdorferi infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wormser, G P; Nadelman, R B; Nowakowski, J; Schwartz, I

    2001-10-01

    Little is known about the natural history of asymptomatic Borrelia burgdorferi infection. Our analysis of the asymptomatic infections diagnosed serologically in a recent OspA vaccine trial conducted in the United States (N Engl J Med 1998;339: 209-215), suggests that the natural history of this event is more benign than that reported for untreated patients with erythema migrans (Ann Intern Med 1987;107: 725-731). We hypothesize that this is due either to incorrect diagnosis since the specificity of the serologic criteria used to diagnose asymptomatic infection in the vaccine study is unknown, or to infection with non-pathogenic strains of B. burgdorferi. Increasing evidence indicates that the invasive potential of strains of B. burgdorferi varies according to the specific subtype. Theoretically, a serologic testing method could be devised which would distinguish infection with invasive versus non-invasive strains of B. burgdorferi, and allow testing of the second hypothesis.

  4. Bacteriophage secondary infection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Stephen; T; Abedon

    2015-01-01

    Phages are credited with having been first described in what we now, officially, are commemorating as the 100 th anniversary of their discovery. Those one-hundred years of phage history have not been lacking in excitement, controversy, and occasional convolution. One such complication is the concept of secondary infection, which can take on multiple forms with myriad consequences. The terms secondary infection and secondary adsorption, for example, can be used almost synonymously to describe virion interaction with already phage-infected bacteria, and which can result in what are described as superinfection exclusion or superinfection immunity. The phrase secondary infection also may be used equivalently to superinfection or coinfection, with each of these terms borrowed from medical microbiology, and can result in genetic exchange between phages, phage-on-phage parasitism, and various partial reductions in phage productivity that have been termed mutual exclusion, partial exclusion, or the depressor effect. Alternatively, and drawing from epidemiology, secondary infection has been used to describe phage population growth as that can occur during active phage therapy as well as upon phage contamination of industrial ferments. Here primary infections represent initial bacterial population exposure to phages while consequent phage replication can lead to additional, that is, secondary infections of what otherwise are not yet phage-infected bacteria. Here I explore the varying meanings and resultant ambiguity that has been associated with the term secondary infection. I suggest in particular that secondary infection, as distinctly different phenomena, can in multiple ways influence the success of phage-mediated biocontrol of bacteria, also known as, phage therapy.

  5. Hospitalized Patients and Fungal Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... These types of infections are called healthcare-associated infections (HAIs). Hospital staff and healthcare providers do everything they can ... IV tube) can increase your risk for fungal infection. During your hospital stay you may need a central venous catheter, ...

  6. HPV Infection in Men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joel M. Palefsky

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available While much is known about the natural history of cervical human papillomavirus (HPV infection and its consequences, including cervical intraepithelial neoplasia and cervical cancer, relatively little is known about the natural history of anogenital HPV infection and diseases in men. In part this reflects difficulties in penile sampling and visual assessment of penile lesions. Anal HPV infection and disease also remain poorly understood. Although HPV is transmitted sexually and infects the genitals of both sexes, the cervix remains biologically more vulnerable to malignant transformation than does the penis or anus in men. An understanding of male HPV infection is therefore important in terms of reducing transmission of HPV to women and improving women's health. However, it is also important due to the burden of disease in men, who may develop both penile and anal cancer, particularly among HIV-positive men who have sex with men. Improved sampling techniques of the male genitalia and cohort studies in progress should provide important information on the natural history of anogenital HPV infection and disease in men, including risk factors for HPV acquisition and transmission. The impact of HPV vaccination in women on male anogenital HPV infection will also need to be assessed.

  7. PREVALENCE OF PARAGONIMUS INFECTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nworie Okoro

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Paragonimiasis (human infections with the lung fluke Paragonimus westermani is an important public health problem in parts of Africa. This study was aimed at assessing the prevalence of Paragonimus infection in Ebonyi State. Deep sputum samples from 3600 individuals and stool samples from 900 individuals in nine Local Government Areas in Ebonyi State, Nigeria were examined for Paragonimus ova using concentration technique. The overall prevalence of pulmonary Paragonimus infection in the area was 16.30%. Six foci of the infection were identified in Ebonyi North and Ebonyi Central but none in Ebonyi South. The intensity of the infection was generally moderate. Of the 720 individuals examined, 16 (12.12% had less than 40 ova of Paragonimus in 5 mL sputum and 114 (86.36% had between 40 and 79 ova of Paragonimus in 5 mL sputum. While 2 individuals (1.52% had over 79 ova of Paragonimus in 5 mL Sputum. Furthermore, there was higher prevalence of paragonimiasis in rainy season than in dry season. The results of this study indicated the growing public health threat posed by paragonimiasis in Ebonyi North and Ebonyi Central. A combination of chemotherapy, to bring relief to persons already infected by the disease and public health education related to paragonimiasis transmission to increase awareness of the infection in the areas is recommended.

  8. Toxocara infection in gardener

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Beuy; Joob; Viroj; Wiwanitkit

    2015-01-01

    <正>To the editor,The report on Toxocara infection in gardener is very interesting[1].Esquivel et al.concluded that"gardeners do not have a higher risk for Toxocara infection than subjects of the general population in Durango City,Mexico"[1].In fact,considering the source of infection of Toxocara,it can be at risk for anyone who contacts it.As an occupation,gardener might have a chance to contact soil.In fact,everyone has to contact soil and the gardener does not live all day but part of

  9. Prevalence and co-infection of intestinal parasites among thai rural residents at high-risk of developing cholangiocarcinoma: a cross-sectional study in a prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Songserm, Nopparat; Promthet, Supannee; Wiangnon, Surapon; Sithithaworn, Paiboon

    2012-01-01

    Intestinal parasitic infections (IPIs) are still important to the health of Thai rural residents. IPIs are the cause of many chronic diseases with, for example, opisthorchiasis resulting in progression to cholangiocarcinoma (CCA). This cross-sectional study in a prospective cohort study aimed to examine the prevalence and co- infection of intestinal parasites among Northeastern Thai rural residents, recruited into the Khon Kaen Cohort Study (KKCS), and who were residing in areas of high-risk for developing CCA. On recruitment, subjects had completed questionnaires and provided fecal samples for IPI testing using the formalin ethyl acetate concentration technique. Data on selected general characteristics and the results of the fecal tests were analysed. IPI test results were available for 18,900 of cohort subjects, and 38.50% were found to be positive for one or more types of intestinal parasite. The prevalence of Opisthorchis viverrini (O. viverrini) infection was the highest (45.7%), followed by intestinal flukes (31.9%), intestinal nematodes (17.7%), intestinal protozoa (3.02%), and intestinal cestodes (1.69%). The pattern of different infections was similar in all age groups. According to a mapping analysis, a higher CCA burden was correlated with a higher prevalence of O. viverrini and intestinal flukes and a greater intensity of O. viverrini. Both prevention and control programs against liver fluke and other intestinal parasites are needed and should be delivered simultaneously. We can anticipate that the design of future control and prevention programmes will accommodate a more community-orientated and participatory approach.

  10. Fungal Eye Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Treatment & Outcomes Statistics More Resources Fungal Nail Infections Histoplasmosis Definition Symptoms People at Risk & Prevention Sources Diagnosis & ... CDC at Work Global Fungal Diseases Cryptococcal Meningitis Histoplasmosis ... Resistance Resources Laboratory Submission Information Reportable Fungal ...

  11. Sexually transmitted infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuchs, Wolfgang; Brockmeyer, Norbert H

    2014-06-01

    In no other medical field former rare infections of the 1980(th) and 1990(th) occur again as this is seen in the field of venerology which is as well based on the mobility of the population. Increasing rates of infections in Europe, and increasing bacteriological resistances face health professionals with new challenges. The WHO estimates more than 340 million cases of illnesses worldwide every year. Diseases caused by sexually transmitted infections (STI) in a strict sense are syphilis, gonorrhea, lymphogranuloma venereum, granuloma inguinale, and chancroid. In a wider sense, all illnesses are included which can mainly be transmitted through sexual contact. The term "sexual contact" has to be seen widely, from close physical contact to all variants of sexual behavior. This CME article is an overview of the most common occurring sexually transmitted infections in clinical practice. Both, basic knowledge as well as recent developments are discussed below.

  12. Neuroinvasive flavivirus infections

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sips, Gregorius J.; Wilschut, Jan; Smit, Jolanda M.

    2012-01-01

    Flaviviruses, including Dengue, West Nile, Japanese encephalitis, and Tick-borne encephalitis virus, are major emerging human pathogens, affecting millions of individuals worldwide. Many clinically important flaviviruses elicit CNS diseases in infected hosts, including traditional "hemorrhagic" viru

  13. Urticaria and infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wedi Bettina

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Urticaria is a group of diseases that share a distinct skin reaction pattern. Triggering of urticaria by infections has been discussed for many years but the exact role and pathogenesis of mast cell activation by infectious processes is unclear. In spontaneous acute urticaria there is no doubt for a causal relationship to infections and all chronic urticaria must have started as acute. Whereas in physical or distinct urticaria subtypes the evidence for infections is sparse, remission of annoying spontaneous chronic urticaria has been reported after successful treatment of persistent infections. Current summarizing available studies that evaluated the course of the chronic urticaria after proven Helicobacter eradication demonstrate a statistically significant benefit compared to untreated patients or Helicobacter-negative controls without urticaria (p

  14. Gastrointestinal Infections and Diarrhea

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of food poisoning, are frequently found in raw chicken or eggs. Shigella bacteria are highly contagious and ... bacterial intestinal illness may need to take prescription antibiotics to prevent the infection from spreading throughout the ...

  15. Pseudomonas aeruginosa Biofilm Infections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rybtke, Morten; Hultqvist, Louise Dahl; Givskov, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Studies of biopsies from infectious sites, explanted tissue and medical devises have provided evidence that biofilms are the underlying cause of a variety of tissue-associated and implant-associated recalcitrant human infections. With a need for novel anti-biofilm treatment strategies, research...... in biofilm infection microbiology, biofilm formation mechanisms and biofilm-associated antimicrobial tolerance has become an important area in microbiology. Substantial knowledge about biofilm formation mechanisms, biofilm-associated antimicrobial tolerance and immune evasion mechanisms has been obtained...... through work with biofilms grown in in vitro experimental setups, and the relevance of this information in the context of chronic infections is being investigated by the use of animal models of infection. Because our current in vitro experimental setups and animal models have limitations, new advanced...

  16. Infection Prevention in Transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pergam, Steven A

    2016-01-01

    The number of patients undergoing hematopoietic cell and solid organ transplantation are increasing every year, as are the number of centers both transplanting and caring for these patients. Improvements in transplant procedures, immunosuppressive regimens, and prevention of transplant-associated complications have led to marked improvements in survival in both populations. Infections remain one of the most important sources of excess morbidity and mortality in transplant, and therefore, infection prevention strategies are a critical element for avoiding these complications in centers caring for high-risk patients. This manuscript aims to provide an update of recent data on prevention of major healthcare-associated infections unique to transplantation, reviews the emergence of antimicrobial resistant infections, and discusses updated strategies to both identify and prevent transmission of these pathogens in transplant recipients.

  17. Vaginal yeast infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... discharge to thick, white, and chunky (like cottage cheese). Itching and burning of the vagina and labia ... a wet mount and KOH test. Sometimes, a culture is taken when the infection does not get ...

  18. Giardia Infection (Giardiasis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... sex. The giardia parasite is a very common intestinal parasite. Although anyone can pick up giardia parasites, some ... Disease Control and Prevention. http://www.cdc.gov/parasites/giardia/. Accessed Sept. ... infections and trichomoniasis. In: Harrison's Principles of Internal ...

  19. [Update on infective endocarditis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parize, P; Mainardi, J-L

    2011-10-01

    Infective endocarditis has continuously evolved since its first clinical description by William Osler in the late 19th century. The epidemiological and microbiological profile of the disease has changed as the result of the progress of the medical care and demographic mutation in industrialized countries. Furthermore, advances in anti-infective therapy and in cardiovascular surgery have contributed to an improvement in the management and the prognosis of this severe infectious disease. During the past decade, the recommendations on antibiotic prophylaxis against infective endocarditis have changed dramatically. Guidelines on management of infective endocarditis and state-of-the-art articles have been published recently and this work aims to outline current recommendations about this evolving disease.

  20. Healthcare Associated Infections - State

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Healthcare-Associated Infections (HAI) measures - state data. These measures are developed by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and collected...

  1. Viruses infecting reptiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marschang, Rachel E

    2011-11-01

    A large number of viruses have been described in many different reptiles. These viruses include arboviruses that primarily infect mammals or birds as well as viruses that are specific for reptiles. Interest in arboviruses infecting reptiles has mainly focused on the role reptiles may play in the epidemiology of these viruses, especially over winter. Interest in reptile specific viruses has concentrated on both their importance for reptile medicine as well as virus taxonomy and evolution. The impact of many viral infections on reptile health is not known. Koch's postulates have only been fulfilled for a limited number of reptilian viruses. As diagnostic testing becomes more sensitive, multiple infections with various viruses and other infectious agents are also being detected. In most cases the interactions between these different agents are not known. This review provides an update on viruses described in reptiles, the animal species in which they have been detected, and what is known about their taxonomic positions.

  2. Latent tuberculosis infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuermberger, Eric; Bishai, William R; Grosset, Jacques H

    2004-06-01

    Latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) is a clinical condition characterized by a positive tuberculin skin test in the absence of clinical or radiological signs of active tuberculosis disease. It has been estimated that one third of the world's population is latently infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis and serves as an enormous reservoir for future cases of active tuberculosis. The detection and treatment of individuals with LTBI and a high risk of progression to active tuberculosis are effective means to control the spread of tuberculosis. Furthermore, a better understanding of the host-pathogen interactions that result in latent infection could provide important insights for future drug or vaccine development. This chapter reviews recent developments in the molecular genetics, natural history, diagnosis, and treatment of LTBI within its historical context, including the impact of human immunodeficiency virus infection. Current treatment recommendations are also summarized.

  3. Necrotizing soft tissue infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Necrotizing fasciitis; Fasciitis - necrotizing; Flesh-eating bacteria; Soft tissue gangrene; Gangrene - soft tissue ... 2014:chap 137. Pasternack MS, Swartz MN. Cellulitis, necrotizing fasciitis, and subcutaneous tissue infections. In: Bennett JE, Dolin ...

  4. Infection and Atherosclerosis Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Lee Ann; Rosenfeld, Michael E.

    2015-01-01

    Atherosclerosis is a chronic disease hallmarked by chronic inflammation, endothelial dysfunction and lipid accumulation in the vasculature. Although lipid modification and deposition are thought to be a major source of the continuous inflammatory stimulus, a large body of evidence suggests that infectious agents may contribute to atherosclerotic processes. This could occur by either direct effects through infection of vascular cells and/or through indirect effects by induction of cytokine and acute phase reactant proteins by infection at other sites. Multiple bacterial and viral pathogens have been associated with atherosclerosis by seroepidemiological studies, identification of the infectious agent in human atherosclerotic tissue, and experimental studies demonstrating an acceleration of atherosclerosis following infection in animal models of atherosclerosis. This review will focus on those infectious agents for which biological plausibility has been demonstrated in animal models and on the challenges of proving a role of infection in human atherosclerotic disease. PMID:26004263

  5. Chlamydia infections in women

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Alternative Names Cervicitis - chlamydia; STI - chlamydia; STD - chlamydia; Sexually transmitted - chlamydia; ... for Disease Control and Prevention. Chlamydial infections in adolescents and adults. Updated June 4, 2015. www.cdc. ...

  6. Group A Streptococcal Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Respond to Pre-Award Requests Manage Your Award Negotiation & Initial Award After Award ... New Trial Launched in West Africa to Evaluate Three Vaccination Strategies , April 6, 2017 Monoclonal Antibody Cures Marburg Infection ...

  7. Infections and arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathew, Ashish Jacob; Ravindran, Vinod

    2014-12-01

    Bacteria, viruses, fungi, and parasites can all cause arthritis of either acute or chronic nature, which can be divided into infective/septic, reactive, or inflammatory. Considerable advances have occurred in diagnostic techniques in the recent decades resulting in better treatment outcomes in patients with infective arthritis. Detection of emerging arthritogenic viruses has changed the epidemiology of infection-related arthritis. The role of viruses in the pathogenesis of chronic inflammatory arthritides such as rheumatoid arthritis is increasingly being recognized. We discuss the various causative agents of infective arthritis and emphasize on the approach to each type of arthritis, highlighting the diagnostic tests, along with their statistical accuracy. Various investigations including newer methods such as nucleic acid amplification using polymerase chain reaction are discussed along with the pitfalls in interpreting the tests.

  8. Healthcare Associated Infections - Hospital

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Healthcare-Associated Infection (HAI) measures - provider data. These measures are developed by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and...

  9. Healthcare Associated Infections - National

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Healthcare-Associated Infections (HAI) measures - national data. These measures are developed by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and...

  10. Mycoplasma infections of plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bove, J M

    1981-07-01

    Plants can be infected by two types of wall-less procaryotes, spiroplasmas and mycoplasma-like organisms (MLO), both located intracellularly in the phloem tissues of affected plants. Spiroplasmas have been cultured, characterized and shown to be true members of the class Mollicutes. MLO have not yet been cultured or characterized; they are thought to be mycoplasma-like on the basis of their ultrastructure as seen in situ, their sensitivity to tetracycline and resistance to penicillin. Mycoplasmas can also be found on the surface of plants. These extracellularly located organisms are members of the following genera: Spiroplasma. Mycoplasma and Acholeplasma. The presence of such surface mycoplasmas must not be overlooked when attempts to culture MLO from affected plants are undertaken. Sensitive serological techniques such as the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) can successfully be used to compare the MLO located in the phloem of affected plants with those eventually cultured from the same plants. In California and Morocco periwinkles naturally infected with both Spiroplasma citri and MLO have been reported. With such doubly infected plants, the symptom expression has been that characteristic of the MLO disease (phyllody or stolbur), not that given by S. citri. Only S. citri can be cultured from such plants, but this does not indicate that S. citri is the causal agent of the disease expressed by the plant. In California many nonrutaceous plants have been found to be infected with S. citri. Stubborn affected citrus trees represent an important reservoir of S. citri, and Circulifer tenellus is an active leafhopper vector of S. citri. Hence, it is not surprising that in California MLO-infected fruit trees could also become infected with S. citri but it would not mean that S. citri is the causal agent of the disease. Criteria are discussed that are helpful in distinguishing between MLO infections and S. citri infections.

  11. An Infected Mediastinal Cyst

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lindsay M Lawson

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available The authors describe a 43-year-old patient who had a mediastinal mass that became infected after a transbronchial needle aspirate biopsy. A paraspinal, extrapleural window with a saline-lidocaine mixture was created that allowed the placement of a percutaneous drainage catheter into the infected lesion. This procedure resulted in an excellent clinical outcome, and obviated the need for a thoracotomy and more invasive surgical management.

  12. Infected cardiac hydatid cyst

    OpenAIRE

    Ceviz, M; Becit, N; Kocak, H.

    2001-01-01

    A 24 year old woman presented with chest pain and palpitation. The presence of a semisolid mass—an echinococcal cyst or tumour—in the left ventricular apex was diagnosed by echocardiography, computed tomography, and magnetic resonance imaging. The infected cyst was seen at surgery. The cyst was removed successfully by using cardiopulmonary bypass with cross clamp.


Keywords: cardiac hydatid cyst; infected cardiac hydatid cyst

  13. Postoperative Spine Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evangelisti, Gisberto; Andreani, Lorenzo; Girardi, Federico; Darren, Lebl; Sama, Andrew; Lisanti, Michele

    2015-01-01

    Postoperative spinal wound infection is a potentially devastating complication after operative spinal procedures. Despite the utilization of perioperative prophylactic antibiotics in recent years and improvements in surgical technique and postoperative care, wound infection continues to compromise patients’ outcome after spinal surgery. In the modern era of pending health care reform with increasing financial constraints, the financial burden of post-operative spinal infections also deserves consideration. The aim of our work is to give to the reader an updated review of the latest achievements in prevention, risk factors, diagnosis, microbiology and treatment of postoperative spinal wound infections. A review of the scientific literature was carried out using electronic medical databases Pubmed, Google Scholar, Web of Science and Scopus for the years 1973-2012 to obtain access to all publications involving the incidence, risk factors, prevention, diagnosis, treatment of postoperative spinal wound infections. We initially identified 119 studies; of these 60 were selected. Despite all the measures intended to reduce the incidence of surgical site infections in spine surgery, these remain a common and potentially dangerous complication. PMID:26605028

  14. Sexually Transmitted Infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LE Nicolle

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Sexually transmitted infections (STIs other than HIV have reappeared as an important public health problem in developed countries (1. In the late 1970s and early 1980s, research and treatment of the 'classic' STIs - gonorrhea, syphilis and chlamydia - were a major focus of infectious diseases practice and research. There were large outbreaks of syphilis in parts of Canada (2, penicillin-resistant Neisseria gonorrhoeae was a concern (3, and high rates of Chlamydia trachomatis infection with complications of pelvic inflammatory disease and ectopic pregnancy were being reported (4,5. Then, HIV infection emerged, with its spectre of a wasting, early death. There was no effective treatment, and safe sexual practices were embraced and adhered to by high-risk populations as the only effective way to avoid infection. These practices effectively prevented other STIs; rates of syphilis, gonorrhea and chlamydia infection plummeted in developed countries (5. For at least a decade, it appeared that HIV might be an end to all STIs, at least for some parts of the world. STIs continued unabated in developing countries, as many epidemiological and therapeutic studies explored the association of STIs with HIV infection.

  15. Helminth Infections of House Mouse (Mus musulus and Wood Mouse (Apodemus sylvaticus from the Suburban Areas of Hamadan City, Western Iran.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Yousefi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available To determine the prevalence and intensity of helminths and their zoonotic importance in small rodents inhabiting in the suburban areas of Hamadan City, Iran.The present survey was conducted on the helminth infections of two species of rodents Apodemus sylvaticus (n=60 and Mus musculus(n=72 in the suburban areas of Hamadan City during 2010-2012. Rodents were collected and examined for helminth in the different organs. The nematodes were collected in 5% formalin solution and cleared in lactophenol, cestodes and trematodes collected from intestine fixed in AFA solution and stained by acetocarmine, cleared in xylol for identification.Helminths found in A. sylvaticus and M. musculus and their prevalence for the first time in suburban areas of Hamadan City were as follows; In A. sylvaticus: Cysticercus fasciolaris(3.33%, Syphacia fredrici(26.67%, S. stroma(8.33%, Anoplocephalidae sp. (1.67%, Skrjabinotaenia lobata(5%, Plagiorchis muris(1.67% and in M. musculus:Hymenolepis nana (16.67%, H.diminuta (5.55%, S. obvelata(30.56%, S. ohtarom (9.72%, Rodentolepis crassa (1.39%, C. fasciolaris (1.39%. Among 11 species in two rodents 4 species including S. obvelata, H. nana, H.diminuta,and P. muris have zoonotic importance. Statistically the relation between gender and their helminth infections was not significant in either M. musculus or A. sylvaticus (P>0.05.This study reports 11 species of helminths and on the other hand 3 species were identified for the first time in Iran and 5 species of them have potential health importance for public health and cat.

  16. Current management of fungal infections.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meis, J.F.G.M.; Verweij, P.E.

    2001-01-01

    The management of superficial fungal infections differs significantly from the management of systemic fungal infections. Most superficial infections are treated with topical antifungal agents, the choice of agent being determined by the site and extent of the infection and by the causative organism,

  17. Diaper Area Infections in Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hayriye Sarıcaoğlu

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Dermatologic signs of infectious diseases may occur as primary infection of skin, accompanying of skin to systemic infections and noninfectious skin eruption of systemic infectious disease. In this review, skin infections of diaper area and diaper area manifestations of infections causing generalized skin lesions will be discussed. (Journal of Current Pediatrics 2008; 6: 31-9

  18. Middle Ear Infections (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Old Feeding Your 8- to 12-Month-Old Feeding Your 1- to 2-Year-Old Middle Ear Infections KidsHealth > For Parents > Middle Ear Infections ... Look at the Ear The Eustachian Tube About Middle Ear Infections Causes Signs ... the common cold , ear infections are the most frequently diagnosed childhood illness in the United States. Most kids will ...

  19. Worm Infections in Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weatherhead, Jill E; Hotez, Peter J

    2015-08-01

    • On the basis of research evidence, worm infections are important global child health conditions causing chronic disability that lasts from childhood into adulthood (Table 1). (2)(3) Evidence Quality: B • On the basis of research evidence, the major worm infections found in developing countries include ascariasis, trichuriasis, hookworm infection, and schistosomiasis; toxocariasis, enterobiasis, and cysticercosis are also found in poor regions of North America and Europe. (4)(9)(13) Evidence Quality: B • On the basis of expert consensus, children and adolescents are often vulnerable to acquiring large numbers of worms, ie, high-intensity infections (Fig 1)(21)(22)(23) Evidence Quality: D • On the basis of expert consensus and research evidence, moderate and heavy worm burdens cause increased morbidity because of growth and intellectual stunting in children and adolescents. Many of these effects may result from helminth-induced malnutrition. (21)(22)(23) Evidence Quality: C • On the basis of expert consensus and research evidence, worm infections are also commonly associated with eosinophilia. (48) (49) Evidence Quality: B • On the basis of research evidence as well as consensus, helminthes can cause inflammation in the lung (asthma), gastrointestinal tract (enteritis and colitis), liver (hepatitis and fibrosis), and urogenital tract. (7)(21)(22)(23)(27)(28)(40)(41)(43) Evidence Quality: B • On the basis of research evidence, microscopy techniques for diagnosis of worm infections in children often exhibit suboptimal sensitivities and specificities, necessitating new or improved diagnostic modalities such as polymerase chain reaction. (54)(55) Evidence Quality: A • On the basis of research evidence and expert consensus, mass drug administration (“preventive chemotherapy”) has becomea standard practice for ministries of health in low- and middle-income countries to control intestinal helminth infections and schistosomiasis. (67)(68) Evidence

  20. HPV Infections in Adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna-Barbara Moscicki

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Adolescents who are sexually active have the highest rates of prevalent and incident HPV infection rates with over 50–80% having infections within 2–3 years of initiating intercourse. These high rates reflect sexual behavior and biologic vulnerability. Most infections are transient in nature and cause no cytologic abnormality. However, a small number of adolescents will not clear the infection. Persistence of HPV is strongly linked to the development of high-grade squamous intra-epithelial lesions (HSIL and invasive cancer. The HSIL detected, however, does not appear to progress rapidly to invasive cancer. Understanding the natural history of HPV in adolescents has shed light into optional treatment strategies which include watchful observation of atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASCUS and low grade (LSIL. The association between age of first intercourse and invasive cancer cannot be ignored. Consequently, initiating screening at appropriate times in this vulnerable group is essential. In addition, with the advent of the HPV vaccine, vaccination prior to the onset of sexual activity is critical since most infections occur within a short time frame post initiation.

  1. Dengue viral infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gurugama Padmalal

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Dengue viral infections are one of the most important mosquito-borne diseases in the world. Presently dengue is endemic in 112 countries in the world. It has been estimated that almost 100 million cases of dengue fever and half a million cases of dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF occur worldwide. An increasing proportion of DHF is in children less than 15 years of age, especially in South East and South Asia. The unique structure of the dengue virus and the pathophysiologic responses of the host, different serotypes, and favorable conditions for vector breeding have led to the virulence and spread of the infections. The manifestations of dengue infections are protean from being asymptomatic to undifferentiated fever, severe dengue infections, and unusual complications. Early recognition and prompt initiation of appropriate supportive treatment are often delayed resulting in unnecessarily high morbidity and mortality. Attempts are underway for the development of a vaccine for preventing the burden of this neglected disease. This review outlines the epidemiology, clinical features, pathophysiologic mechanisms, management, and control of dengue infections.

  2. Surgical infection in art.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meakins, J L

    1996-12-01

    The earliest images of medicine and surgery in Western art are from the late Middle Ages. Although often attractive, at that time they were illustrative and mirrored the text on how to diagnose or treat a specific condition. These drawings in medieval manuscripts represent management of abscesses, perianal infection and fistulas, amputation, and wound dressings. With the Renaissance, art in all its forms flourished, and surgeons were represented at work draining carbuncles, infected bursae, and mastoiditis; managing ulcers, scrofula, and skin infections; and performing amputations. Specific diagnosis can be made, such as streptococcal infection in the discarded leg of the miraculous transplantation performed by Saints Cosmas and Damian and in the works of Rembrandt van Rijn and Frederic Bazille. Evocations of cytokine activity are evident in works by Albrecht Dürer, Edvard Munch, and James Tissot. The iconography of society's view of a surgeon is apparent and often not complimentary. The surgeon's art is a visual art. Astute observation leads to early diagnosis and better results in surgical infection and the septic state. Learning to see what we look at enhances our appreciation of the world around us but, quite specifically, makes us better clinicians.

  3. Chlamydiaceae infections in pig

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schautteet Katelijn

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Chlamydiaceae are Gram-negative obligate intracellular bacteria. They are responsible for a broad range of diseases in animals and humans. In pigs, Chlamydia suis, Chlamydia abortus, Chlamydia pecorum and Chlamydia psittaci have been isolated. Chlamydiaceae infections in pigs are associated with different pathologies such as conjunctivitis, pneumonia, pericarditis, polyarthritis, polyserositis, pseudo-membranous or necrotizing enteritis, periparturient dysgalactiae syndrome, vaginal discharge, return to oestrus, abortion, mummification, delivery of weak piglets, increased perinatal and neonatal mortality and inferior semen quality, orchitis, epididymitis and urethritis in boars. However, Chlamydiaceae are still considered as non-important pathogens because reports of porcine chlamydiosis are rare. Furthermore, Chlamydiaceae infections are often unnoticed because tests for Chlamydiaceae are not routinely performed in all veterinary diagnostic laboratories and Chlamydiaceae are often found in association with other pathogens, which are sometimes more easily to detect. However, recent studies have demonstrated that Chlamydiaceae infections in breeding sows, boars and piglets occur more often than thought and are economically important. This paper presents an overview on: the taxonomy of Chlamydiaceae occurring in pigs, diagnostic considerations, epidemiology and pathology of infections with Chlamydiaceae in pigs, public health significance and finally on prevention and treatment of Chlamydiaceae infections in pigs.

  4. Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilm infections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tolker-Nielsen, Tim

    2014-01-01

    Bacteria in natural, industrial and clinical settings predominantly live in biofilms, i.e., sessile structured microbial communities encased in self-produced extracellular matrix material. One of the most important characteristics of microbial biofilms is that the resident bacteria display...... a remarkable increased tolerance toward antimicrobial attack. Biofilms formed by opportunistic pathogenic bacteria are involved in devastating persistent medical device-associated infections, and chronic infections in individuals who are immune-compromised or otherwise impaired in the host defense. Because...... the use of conventional antimicrobial compounds in many cases cannot eradicate biofilms, there is an urgent need to develop alternative measures to combat biofilm infections. The present review is focussed on the important opportunistic pathogen and biofilm model organism Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Initially...

  5. Pregnancy and HIV infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mete Sucu

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The management of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV infection is progressing rapidly. In developed countries, the perinatal transmission rates have decreased from 20-30% to 1-2% with the use of antiretroviral therapy and cesarean section. Interventions for the prevention of prenatal transmission has made the prenatal care of pregnant patients with HIV infection more complex. Rapid development of standard care and continuing increase in the distribution of HIV infection has required clinicians taking care of pregnants to have current information. Therefore, in our review we aimed to summarize the prenatal course, treatment and preventive methods for perinatal transmission of HIV. [Archives Medical Review Journal 2016; 25(4.000: 522-535

  6. Infection and anorexia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanra, Güler Y; Ozen, Hasan; Kara, Ateş

    2006-01-01

    Whereas anorexia is a common behavioral response to infectious diseases, the reasons for and mechanisms behind this observation are still unknown. When it is considered on an evolutionary basis, the organism must have net benefits from anorexia. The first response to infection is the development of acute phase response (APR). The APR is triggered by microbial products and characterized by production of several cytokines known to induce anorexia. Several microbial products and cytokines reduce food intake after parenteral administration, suggesting a role of these substances in the anorexia during infection. Locally released cytokines may inhibit feeding by activating peripheral sensory fibers directly or indirectly, and without a concomitant increase in circulating cytokines. However, the final center for appetite or eating is the central nervous system (CNS). Thus, these peripheral signals must reach and interact with brain regions that control appetite. In addition, a direct action of cytokines and microbial products on the CNS is presumably involved in the anorexia during infection.

  7. Apoptosis in Pneumovirus Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reinout A. Bem

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Pneumovirus infections cause a wide spectrum of respiratory disease in humans and animals. The airway epithelium is the major site of pneumovirus replication. Apoptosis or regulated cell death, may contribute to the host anti-viral response by limiting viral replication. However, apoptosis of lung epithelial cells may also exacerbate lung injury, depending on the extent, the timing and specific location in the lungs. Differential apoptotic responses of epithelial cells versus innate immune cells (e.g., neutrophils, macrophages during pneumovirus infection can further contribute to the complex and delicate balance between host defense and disease pathogenesis. The purpose of this manuscript is to give an overview of the role of apoptosis in pneumovirus infection. We will examine clinical and experimental data concerning the various pro-apoptotic stimuli and the roles of apoptotic epithelial and innate immune cells during pneumovirus disease. Finally, we will discuss potential therapeutic interventions targeting apoptosis in the lungs.

  8. [Clinically documented fungal infections].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakeya, Hiroshi; Kohno, Shigeru

    2008-12-01

    Proven fungal infections are diagnosed by histological/microbiological evidence of fungi at the site of infection and positive blood culture (fungemia). However, invasive diagnosing examinations are not always applied for all of immunocompromised patients. Clinically documented invasive fungal infections are diagnosed by typical radiological findings such as halo sign on chest CT plus positive serological/molecular evidence of fungi. Serological tests of Aspergillus galactomannan antigen and beta-glucan for aspergillosis and cryptococcal glucuronoxylomannan antigen for cryptococcosis are useful. Hence, none of reliable serological tests for zygomycosis are available so far. In this article, risk factors, sign and symptoms, and diagnostic methods for clinically documented cases of invasive aspergillosis, pulmonary cryptococcosis, and zygomycosis with diabates, are reviewed.

  9. Mycobacterial Infections in AIDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Ross Hill

    1991-01-01

    Full Text Available Tuberculosis (TB remains uniquely important among acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS-associated opportunistic infections: it presents the greatest public health hazard worldwide, is the most readily curable, and is largely preventable with existing means. Given the expanding pool of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV seropositive persons, particularly in developing nations where Mycobacterium tuberculosis remains a leading health problem, one can expect a continued rise in TB cases during the 1990s. Global efforts to eliminate TB are now inextricably entwined with the effectiveness of measures to curtail the HIV epidemic. Mycobacterium avium complex infection, currently an intractable late complication of aids, may increase in clinical importance as success in managing other opportunistic infections and HIV disease itself improves. Understanding of the pathogenesis and management of mycobacterial diseases should increase rapidly given the renewed research spurred on by the advent of HIV.

  10. Immunopathology of Brucella infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldi, Pablo C; Giambartolomei, Guillermo H

    2013-04-01

    In spite of the protean nature of the disease, inflammation is a hallmark of brucellosis and affected tissues usually exhibit inflammatory infiltrates. As Brucella lacks exotoxins, exoproteases or cytolysins, pathological findings in brucellosis probably arise from inflammation-driven processes. The cellular and molecular bases of immunopathological phenomena probably involved in Brucella pathogenesis have been unraveled in the last few years. Brucella-infected osteoblasts, either alone or in synergy with infected macrophages, produce cytokines, chemokines and matrixmetalloproteinases (MMPs), and similar phenomena are mounted by fibroblast-like synoviocytes. The released cytokines promote the secretion of MMPs and induce osteoclastogenesis. Altogether, these phenomena may contribute to the bone loss and cartilage degradation usually observed in brucellar arthritis and osteomyelitis. Proinflammatory cytokines may be also involved in the pathogenesis of neurobrucellosis. B. abortus and its lipoproteins elicit an inflammatory response in the CNS of mice, leading to astrogliosis, a characteristic feature of neurobrucellosis. Heat-killed bacteria (HKBA) and the L-Omp19 lipoprotein elicit astrocyte apoptosis and proliferation (two features of astrogliosis), and apoptosis depends on TNF-α signaling. Brucella also infects and replicates in human endothelial cells, inducing the production of chemokines and IL-6, and an increased expression of adhesion molecules. The sustained inflammatory process derived from the longlasting infection of the endothelium may be important for the development of endocarditis. Therefore, while Brucella induces a low grade inflammation as compared to other pathogens, its prolonged intracellular persistence in infected tissues supports a long-lasting inflammatory response that mediates different pathways of tissue damage. In this context, approaches to avoid the invasion of host cells or limit the intracellular survival of the bacterium may be

  11. Viral infections in pigeons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marlier, D; Vindevogel, H

    2006-07-01

    This review provides a current update on the major viral diseases of the domestic pigeon (Columba livia domestica), based on scientific reports and clinical experience. Paramyxovirus 1, adenovirus, rotavirus, herpesvirus 1, poxvirus and circovirus infections are described according to common clinical signs and target tissues. Since pigeons are sometimes treated as if they were poultry, the review also summarises the common viral infections of poultry for which pigeons are considered resistant. It is hoped that the review will provide a useful reference for veterinarians and others and offer advice on the diagnosis, treatment and prevention of the major infectious diseases of pigeons.

  12. Herpes zoster infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohit Bansal

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Herpes zoster (HZ or ′shingles′ results from reactivation of the varicella-zoster virus (VZV. Developmental anomalies, osteonecrosis of jaw bones, and facial scarring are the other complications associated with it. Primary VZV infections in sero-negative individuals are known as varicella or chicken pox. Secondary or reactivated disease is known as shingles or herpes zoster. Early diagnosis and prompt treatment of the disease in the prodromal phase by the use of antiviral agents should be the mainstay of its management. This paper presents a case report of such an infection and its management.

  13. Imaging spinal infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jay Acharya

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Infection involving the vertebral column, including the bone, intervertebral disk, and paravertebral soft tissues is critical and early diagnosis and directed treatment is paramount. Different infectious organisms present with variable imaging characteristics, which when examined in conjunction with the clinical history, can facilitate early diagnosis and treatment and ultimately prevent patient morbidity and mortality. This article discusses the pathophysiology of infection of the vertebral column, as well as the imaging findings of bacterial, tuberculous, and fungal spondylitis/spondylodiskitis. We review the imaging findings utilizing plain radiography, computed tomography, and magnetic resonance imaging, as well as a discussion regarding advanced imaging techniques.

  14. Neglected Parasitic Infections: Toxocariasis

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2012-01-05

    This podcast is an overview of the Clinician Outreach and Communication Activity (COCA) Call: Neglected Parasitic Infections in the United States. Neglected Parasitic Infections are a group of diseases that afflict vulnerable populations and are often not well studied or diagnosed. A subject matter expert from CDC's Division of Parasitic Diseases and Malaria describes the epidemiology, diagnosis, and treatment of toxocariasis.  Created: 1/5/2012 by Center for Global Health, Division of Parasitic Diseases and Malaria (DPDM); Emergency Risk Communication Branch (ERCB)/Joint Information Center (JIC), Office of Public Health Preparedness and Response (OPHPR).   Date Released: 1/9/2012.

  15. Vaginal infections update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mashburn, Jane

    2012-01-01

    Vaginal symptoms are one of the leading reasons that women visit their health care providers. Women often self-diagnose and may treat themselves inappropriately. This article describes the etiology, risk factors, symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment of the 3 most common vaginal infections: bacterial vaginosis, trichomoniasis, and vulvovaginal candidiasis.

  16. Chlamydial infections - male

    Science.gov (United States)

    If you have symptoms of a chlamydia infection, the health care provider may suggest a lab test called PCR. You provider will take a sample of discharge from the penis. This discharge is sent to a lab to be tested. Results ...

  17. Human Influenza Virus Infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peteranderl, Christin; Herold, Susanne; Schmoldt, Carole

    2016-08-01

    Seasonal and pandemic influenza are the two faces of respiratory infections caused by influenza viruses in humans. As seasonal influenza occurs on an annual basis, the circulating virus strains are closely monitored and a yearly updated vaccination is provided, especially to identified risk populations. Nonetheless, influenza virus infection may result in pneumonia and acute respiratory failure, frequently complicated by bacterial coinfection. Pandemics are, in contrary, unexpected rare events related to the emergence of a reassorted human-pathogenic influenza A virus (IAV) strains that often causes increased morbidity and spreads extremely rapidly in the immunologically naive human population, with huge clinical and economic impact. Accordingly, particular efforts are made to advance our knowledge on the disease biology and pathology and recent studies have brought new insights into IAV adaptation mechanisms to the human host, as well as into the key players in disease pathogenesis on the host side. Current antiviral strategies are only efficient at the early stages of the disease and are challenged by the genomic instability of the virus, highlighting the need for novel antiviral therapies targeting the pulmonary host response to improve viral clearance, reduce the risk of bacterial coinfection, and prevent or attenuate acute lung injury. This review article summarizes our current knowledge on the molecular basis of influenza infection and disease progression, the key players in pathogenesis driving severe disease and progression to lung failure, as well as available and envisioned prevention and treatment strategies against influenza virus infection.

  18. Odontogenic Orofacial Infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertossi, Dario; Barone, Antonio; Iurlaro, Antonio; Marconcini, Simone; De Santis, Daniele; Finotti, Marco; Procacci, Pasquale

    2017-01-01

    Acute dental abscess is a frequent and sometimes underestimated disease of the oral cavity. The acute dental abscess usually occurs secondary to caries, trauma, or failed endodontic treatment. After the intact pulp chamber is opened, colonization of the root canals takes place with a variable set of anaerobic bacteria, which colonize the walls of the necrotic root canals forming a specialized mixed anaerobic biofilm. Asymptomatic necrosis is common. However, abscess formation occurs when these bacteria and their toxic products breach into the periapical tissues through the apical foramen and induce acute inflammation and pus formation. The main signs and symptoms of the acute dental abscess (often referred to as a periapical abscess or infection) are pain, swelling, erythema, and suppuration usually localized to the affected tooth, even if the abscess can eventually spread causing a severe odontogenic infection which is characterized by local and systemic involvement culminating in sepsis syndrome. The vast majority of dental abscesses respond to antibiotic treatment, however, in some patients surgical management of the infection may be indicated. In the present work, a retrospective analysis of the patients with dental orofacial infections referred to the Unit of Dentistry and Maxillofacial Surgery of the University of Verona from 1991 to 2011 has been performed.

  19. Testing for TB Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the Facts Tuberculosis - The Connection between TB and HIV 12-Dose Regimen for Latent TB Infection-Patient Education Brochure Posters Mantoux Tuberculin Skin Test Wall Chart World TB Day Think TB Stop TB Reports & Articles Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Reports (MMWRs) DTBE Authored ...

  20. Helicobacter Pylori Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) is a type of bacteria that causes infection in the stomach. It is found in about two-thirds of ... or stool to see if it contains H. pylori. The best treatment is a combination of antibiotics ...

  1. Imaging of Orbital Infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Hassan Mostafavi

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Preseptal and orbital cellulitis occur more commonly in children than adults. The history and physical examination are crucial in distinguishing between preseptal and orbital cellulitis. The orbital septum delineates the anterior eyelid soft tissues from the orbital soft tissue. Infections anterior to the orbital septum are classified as preseptal cellulitis and those posterior to the orbital septum are termed orbital cellulitis. "nRecognition of orbital involvement is important not only because of the threatened vision loss associated with orbital cellulitis but also because of the potential for central nervous system complications including cavernous sinus thrombosis, meningitis, and death. "nOrbital imaging should be obtained in all patients suspected of having orbital cellulitis. CT is preferred to MR imaging, as the orbital tissues have high con-trast and the bone can be well visualized. Orbital CT scanning allows localization of the disease process to the preseptal area, the extraconal or intraconal fat, or the subperiosteal space. Axial CT views allow evaluation of the medial orbit and ethmoid sinuses, whereas coronal scans image the orbital roof and floor and the frontal and maxillary sinuses. If direct coronal imaging is not possible, reconstruction of thin axial cuts may help the assessment of the orbital roof and floor. Potential sources of orbital cellulitis such as sinusitis, dental infection, and facial cellulitis are often detectable on CT imaging. "nIn this presentation, the imaging considerations of the orbital infections; including imaging differentiation criteria of all types of orbital infections are reviewed.

  2. Investigating Shigella sonnei Infections

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2011-11-17

    Dr. Nancy Strockbine, Chief of the Escherichia and Shigella Reference Unit at CDC, discusses Shigella sonnei infections.  Created: 11/17/2011 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 11/21/2011.

  3. Mycobacterium ulcerans infection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Werf, TS; van der Graaf, WTA; Tappero, JW; Asiedu, K

    1999-01-01

    After tuberculosis and leprosy, Buruli-ulcer disease (caused by infection with Mycobacterium ulcerans) is the third most common mycobacterial disease in immunocompetent people. Countries in which the disease is endemic have been identified, predominantly in areas of tropical rain forest; the emergen

  4. Necrotizing Skin Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Japanese Espaniol Find information on medical topics, symptoms, drugs, procedures, news and more, written in everyday language. * This is ... officials say 13 cases of a potentially deadly, drug-resistant fungal infection... More News Tweets by Merck and the Merck Manuals Merck & ...

  5. Bacterial Skin Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Japanese Espaniol Find information on medical topics, symptoms, drugs, procedures, news and more, written in everyday language. * This is ... officials say 13 cases of a potentially deadly, drug-resistant fungal infection... More News Tweets by Merck and the Merck Manuals Merck & ...

  6. Urinary Tract Infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plummer, Nancy; Michael, Nancy, Ed.

    This module on urinary tract infections is intended for use in inservice or continuing education programs for persons who administer medications in long-term care facilities. Instructor information, including teaching suggestions, and a listing of recommended audiovisual materials and their sources appear first. The module goal and objectives are…

  7. Indoor airborne infection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riley, R.L.

    1982-01-01

    Airborne infection from person to person is an indoor phenomenon. The infectious organisms are atomized by coughing, sneezing, singing, and even talking. The smallest droplets evaporate to droplet nuclei and disperse rapidly and randomly throughout the air of enclosed spaces. Droplet nuclei have negligible settling velocity and travel wherever the air goes. Outdoors, dilution is so rapid that the chance of inhaling an infectious droplet nucleus is minimal. Measles and other childhood contagions, the common respiratory virus infections, pulmonary tuberculosis, and Legionnaires' Disease are typically airborne indoors. In analyzing a measles outbreak, the probability that a susceptible person would breathe a randomly distributed quantum of airborne infection during one generation of an outbreak was expressed mathematically. Estimates of the rate of production of infectious droplet nuclei ranged between 93 and 8 per min, and the concentration in the air produced by the index case was about 1 quantum per 5 m/sup 3/ of air. Infectious aiborne particles are thus few and far between. Control of indoor airborne infection can be approached through immunization, therapeutic medication, and air disinfection with ultraviolet radiation.

  8. Vitamin C and Infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harri Hemilä

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available In the early literature, vitamin C deficiency was associated with pneumonia. After its identification, a number of studies investigated the effects of vitamin C on diverse infections. A total of 148 animal studies indicated that vitamin C may alleviate or prevent infections caused by bacteria, viruses, and protozoa. The most extensively studied human infection is the common cold. Vitamin C administration does not decrease the average incidence of colds in the general population, yet it halved the number of colds in physically active people. Regularly administered vitamin C has shortened the duration of colds, indicating a biological effect. However, the role of vitamin C in common cold treatment is unclear. Two controlled trials found a statistically significant dose–response, for the duration of common cold symptoms, with up to 6–8 g/day of vitamin C. Thus, the negative findings of some therapeutic common cold studies might be explained by the low doses of 3–4 g/day of vitamin C. Three controlled trials found that vitamin C prevented pneumonia. Two controlled trials found a treatment benefit of vitamin C for pneumonia patients. One controlled trial reported treatment benefits for tetanus patients. The effects of vitamin C against infections should be investigated further.

  9. Parasite infections revisited

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wiegertjes, G.F.; Forlenza, M.; Joerink, M.; Scharsack, J.P.

    2005-01-01

    Studying parasites helps reveal basic mechanisms in immunology. For long this has been recognized for studies on the immune system of mice and man. But it is not true for immunological studies on fish. To support this argument we discuss selected examples of parasite infections not only in warm-bloo

  10. Fungal Wound Infection

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2016-01-28

    Dr. David Tribble, acting director of the infectious disease clinical research program at Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences, discusses fungal wound infections after combat trauma.  Created: 1/28/2016 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 1/28/2016.

  11. Pathogenesis of gastrointestinal infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Alan

    2008-06-01

    The last 30 years has seen the recognition of many intestinal pathogens, through a combination of microscopy, tissue availability and open minds. In the developing world the challenge to eradicate such infections continues, especially in infancy and early childhood. In developed communities, however, the challenge is shifting to pathogens ('super bugs') arising from our own interventions and lifestyles which will occupy many future careers.

  12. CIED infection with either pocket or systemic infection presentation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ihlemann, Nikolaj; Møller-Hansen, Michael; Salado-Rasmussen, Kirsten;

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Cardiovascular implantable electronic device (CIED) infections are increasing in numbers. The objective was to review the clinical presentation and outcome in patients affected with CIED infections with either local pocket or systemic presentation. DESIGN: All device removals due to CIED...... infection during the period from 2005 to 2012 were retrospectively reviewed. CIED infections were categorized as systemic or pocket infections. Treatment included complete removal of the device, followed by antibiotic treatment of six weeks. RESULTS: Seventy-one device removals due to infection (32 systemic...... and 39 pocket infections) were recorded during the study period. Median follow-up time was 26 (IQR 9-41) months, 30 day and 12 month mortality were 4% and 14%, respectively. There was no long-term difference in mortality between patients with pocket vs. systemic infection (p = 0.48). During follow...

  13. [Urinary calculi and infection].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trinchieri, Alberto

    2014-01-01

    Infection urinary stones resulting from urease-producing bacteria are composed by struvite and/or carbonate apatite. Bacterial urease splits urea and promotes the formation of ammonia and carbon dioxide leading to urine alkalinization and formation of phosphate salts. Proteus species are urease-producers, whereas a limited number of strains of other Gram negative and positive species may produce urease. Ureaplasma urealyticum and Corynebacterium urealyticum are urease-producers that are not isolated by conventional urine cultures, but require specific tests for identification. Primary treatment requires surgical removal of stones as complete as possible. Extracorporeal and endoscopic treatments are usually preferred, while open surgery is actually limited to few selected cases. Residual stones or fragments should be treated by chemolysis via ureteral catheter or nephrostomy or administration of citrate salts in order to achieve a stone-free renal unit. Postoperatively, recurrent urinary tract infection should be treated with appropriate antibiotic treatment although long-term antibiotic prophylaxis can cause resistance. Urinary acidification has been proposed for the prophylaxis of infection stones, but long-term acidification is difficult to achieve in urine infected by urease-producing bacteria. Urease inhibitors lead to prevention and/or dissolution of stones and encrustations in patients with infection by urea-splitting bacteria, but their use is limited by their toxicity. The administration of citrate salts involves an increase of the value of nucleation pH (pHn), that is the pH value at which calcium and magnesium phosphate crystallization occurs, in a greater way than the corresponding increase in the urinary pH due to its alkalinizing effect and resulting in a reduction of the risk of struvite crystallization. In conclusion prevention of the recurrence of infection stones can be achieved by an integrated approach tailored on the single patient. Complete

  14. Nosocomial infections in patients with acute central nervous system infections

    OpenAIRE

    2007-01-01

    Due to current increase in the rate of nosocomial infections, our objective was to examine the frequency, risk factors, clinical presentation and etiology of nosocomial infections in patients with central nervous system infections. 2246 patients with central nervous system infections, treated in the intensive care units of the Institute of Infectious and Tropical Diseases, Clinical Center of Serbia in Belgrade and at the Department of Infectious Diseases of the Clinical Hospital Center Kraguj...

  15. Candida infection of the skin

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... hosts a variety of germs, including bacteria and fungi. Some of these are useful to the body, ... harmful infections. Some fungal infections are caused by fungi that live on the hair, nails, and outer ...

  16. Fungal infection following renal transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallis, H A; Berman, R A; Cate, T R; Hamilton, J D; Gunnells, J C; Stickel, D L

    1975-09-01

    Twenty-seven deep fungal infections developed in 22 of 171 patients following renal transplantation. These infections included cryptococcosis (ten), nocardiosis (seven), candidiasis (four), aspergillosis (two), phycomycosis (two), chromomycosis (one), and subcutaneous infection with Phialophora gougeroti (one). Twelve infections occurred in living-related and ten in cadaveric recipients. Nineteen of the 22 patients were male. Infections occurred from 0 to 61 months after transplantation. Complicating non-fungal infections were present concomitantly in 15 patients. Thirteen patients died, eight probably as a result of fungal infection. Appropriate diagnostic procedures yielded a diagnosis in 20 of 27 infections, and therapy was begun in 18 patients. Serologic, culture, and biopsy procedures useful in making rapid diagnoses are advocated in the hope of increasing survival.

  17. Salmonella typhi sternal wound infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sfeir, Maroun; Youssef, Pierre; Mokhbat, Jacques E

    2013-12-01

    Samonella typhi usually causes gastrointestinal infections. Few reports in the literature described skin and soft tissue infections related to Salmonella species, especially in immunocompetent patients. Our case exhibited sternal abscess growing Salmonella typhi.

  18. Helicobacter pylori infection in pediatrics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wewer, Anne Vibeke; Kalach, Nicolas

    2003-01-01

    A high prevalence and early colonization of Helicobacter pylori infection in childhood was described again this year in developing countries in contrast to developed ones. Upper gastrointestinal endoscopy including gastric biopsies remains the diagnostic gold standard method for this infection...

  19. Zika Virus Infection and Microcephaly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millichap, J Gordon

    2016-01-01

    A Task Force established by the Brazil Ministry of Health investigated the possible association of microcephaly with Zika virus infection during pregnancy and a registry for microcephaly cases among women suspected to have had Zika virus infection during pregnancy.

  20. Zika Virus Infection and Microcephaly

    OpenAIRE

    J Gordon Millichap

    2016-01-01

    A Task Force established by the Brazil Ministry of Health investigated the possible association of microcephaly with Zika virus infection during pregnancy and a registry for microcephaly cases among women suspected to have had Zika virus infection during pregnancy.

  1. Urinary Tract Infections (For Kids)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Tract Infections (UTIs) Print A A A What's in this article? What Exactly Is a Urinary Tract? ... happen because bacteria have caused an infection somewhere in your urinary tract. Let's find out more. What ...

  2. Preventing Infections in the Hospital

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Share | With attention increasing on the incidence of infection in hospitals, patients everywhere need sensible principles to manage their ... will reduce the chance of developing a lung infection while in the hospital and may also improve your healing abilities following ...

  3. EBV CHRONIC INFECTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eligio Pizzigallo

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The infection from Epstein-Barr virus (EBV or virus of infectious mononucleosis, together with other herpesviruses’ infections, represents a prototype of persistent viral infections characterized by the property of the latency. Although the reactivations of the latent infection are associated with the resumption of the viral replication and eventually with the “shedding”, it is still not clear if this virus can determine chronic infectious diseases, more or less evolutive. These diseases could include some pathological conditions actually defined as “idiopathic”and characterized by the “viral persistence” as the more credible pathogenetic factor. Among the so-called idiopathic syndromes, the “chronic fatigue syndrome” (CFS aroused a great interest around the eighties of the last century when, just for its relationship with EBV, it was called “chronic mononucleosis” or “chronic EBV infection”. Today CFS, as defined in 1994 by the CDC of Atlanta (USA, really represents a multifactorial syndrome characterized by a chronic course, where reactivation and remission phases alternate, and by a good prognosis. The etiopathogenetic role of EBV is demonstrated only in a well-examined subgroup of patients, while in most of the remaining cases this role should be played by other infectious agents - able to remain in a latent or persistent way in the host – or even by not infectious agents (toxic, neuroendocrine, methabolic, etc.. However, the pathogenetic substrate of the different etiologic forms seems to be the same, much probably represented by the oxidative damage due to the release of pro-inflammatory cytokines as a response to the triggering event (infectious or not infectious. Anyway, recently the scientists turned their’s attention to the genetic predisposition of the subjects affected by the syndrome, so that in the last years the genetic studies, together with those of molecular biology, received a great impulse

  4. SIV Infection Facilitates Mycobacterium tuberculosis Infection of Rhesus Macaques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Ming; Xian, Qiao-Yang; Rao, Yan; Zhang, Jing; Wang, Yong; Huang, Zhi-Xiang; Wang, Xin; Bao, Rong; Zhou, Li; Liu, Jin-Biao; Tang, Zhi-Jiao; Guo, De-yin; Qin, Chuan; Li, Jie-Liang; Ho, Wen-Zhe

    2017-01-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) is a common opportunistic infection and the leading cause of death for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients. Thus, it is necessary to understand the pathogenetic interactions between M.tb and HIV infection. In this study, we examined M.tb and/or simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) infection of Chinese rhesus macaques. While there was little evidence that M.tb enhanced SIV infection of macaques, SIV could facilitate M.tb infection as demonstrated by X-rays, pathological and microbiological findings. Chest X-rays showed that co-infected animals had disseminated lesions in both left and right lungs, while M.tb mono-infected animals displayed the lesions only in right lungs. Necropsy of co-infected animals revealed a disseminated M.tb infection not only in the lungs but also in the extrapulmonary organs including spleen, pancreas, liver, kidney, and heart. The bacterial counts in the lungs, the bronchial lymph nodes, and the extrapulmonary organs of co-infected animals were significantly higher than those of M.tb mono-infected animals. The mechanistic studies demonstrated that two of three co-infected animals had lower levels of M.tb specific IFN-γ and IL-22 in PBMCs than M.tb mono-infected animals. These findings suggest that Chinese rhesus macaque is a suitable and alternative non-human primate model for SIV/M.tb coinfection studies. The impairment of the specific anti-TB immunity is likely to be a contributor of SIV-mediated enhancement M.tb infection. PMID:28133458

  5. Mucosal Immunology of HIV Infection

    OpenAIRE

    Xu, Huanbin; Wang, Xiaolei; Veazey, Ronald S.

    2013-01-01

    Recent advances in the immunology, pathogenesis, and prevention of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection continue to reveal clues to the mechanisms involved in the progressive immunodeficiency attributed to infection but more importantly have shed light on the correlates of immunity to infection and disease progression. HIV selectively infects, eliminates, and/or dysregulates several key cells of the human immune system, thwarting multiple arms of the host immune response, and inflicti...

  6. Hand infections: a retrospective analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tolga Türker

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Hand infections are common, usually resulting from an untreated injury. In this retrospective study, we report on hand infection cases needing surgical drainage in order to assess patient demographics, causation of infection, clinical course, and clinical management.Methods. Medical records of patients presenting with hand infections, excluding post-surgical infections, treated with incision and debridement over a one-year period were reviewed. Patient demographics; past medical history; infection site(s and causation; intervals between onset of infection, hospital admission, surgical intervention and days of hospitalization; gram stains and cultures; choice of antibiotics; complications; and outcomes were reviewed.Results. Most infections were caused by laceration and the most common site of infection was the palm or dorsum of the hand. Mean length of hospitalization was 6 days. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, beta-hemolytic Streptococcus and methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus were the most commonly cultured microorganisms. Cephalosporins, clindamycin, amoxicillin/clavulanate, penicillin, vancomycin, and trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole were major antibiotic choices. Amputations and contracture were the primary complications.Conclusions. Surgery along with medical management were key to treatment and most soft tissue infections resolved without further complications. With prompt and appropriate care, most hand infection patients can achieve full resolution of their infection.

  7. Chronic helminth infection does not exacerbate Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc P Hübner

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Chronic helminth infections induce a Th2 immune shift and establish an immunoregulatory milieu. As both of these responses can suppress Th1 immunity, which is necessary for control of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB infection, we hypothesized that chronic helminth infections may exacerbate the course of MTB. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Co-infection studies were conducted in cotton rats as they are the natural host for the filarial nematode Litomosoides sigmodontis and are an excellent model for human MTB. Immunogical responses, histological studies, and quantitative mycobacterial cultures were assessed two months after MTB challenge in cotton rats with and without chronic L. sigmodontis infection. Spleen cell proliferation and interferon gamma production in response to purified protein derivative were similar between co-infected and MTB-only infected animals. In contrast to our hypothesis, MTB loads and occurrence and size of lung granulomas were not increased in co-infected animals. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These findings suggest that chronic filaria infections do not exacerbate MTB infection in the cotton rat model. While these results suggest that filaria eradication programs may not facilitate MTB control, they indicate that it may be possible to develop worm-derived therapies for autoimmune diseases that do not substantially increase the risk for infections.

  8. Fusobacterium infections in children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arane, Karen; Goldman, Ran D.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Question A 2-year-old patient in my practice with acute otitis media that has progressed to mastoiditis with a high fever returns with positive culture results for Fusobacterium. What should I do next? Answer Fusobacterium is a genus of anaerobic bacteria. Although Fusobacterium infections are rare, they can become severe if not treated promptly. Appropriate treatment is combination antibiotic therapy consisting of a β-lactam (penicillin, cephalosporin) and an anaerobic antimicrobial agent (metronidazole, clindamycin). At times surgical involvement is required for mastoiditis such as drainage of abscesses or insertion of a ventilation tube. Delayed treatment of an infection caused by Fusobacterium can lead to serious complications, including Lemierre syndrome. Children should be seen in a hospital for close monitoring. PMID:27737977

  9. Vimentin in Bacterial Infections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mak, Tim N; Brüggemann, Holger

    2016-01-01

    Despite well-studied bacterial strategies to target actin to subvert the host cell cytoskeleton, thus promoting bacterial survival, replication, and dissemination, relatively little is known about the bacterial interaction with other components of the host cell cytoskeleton, including intermediate...... filaments (IFs). IFs have not only roles in maintaining the structural integrity of the cell, but they are also involved in many cellular processes including cell adhesion, immune signaling, and autophagy, processes that are important in the context of bacterial infections. Here, we summarize the knowledge...... about the role of IFs in bacterial infections, focusing on the type III IF protein vimentin. Recent studies have revealed the involvement of vimentin in host cell defenses, acting as ligand for several pattern recognition receptors of the innate immune system. Two main aspects of bacteria...

  10. Varicella infection modeling.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, Katherine A.; Finley, Patrick D.; Moore, Thomas W.; Nozick, Linda Karen; Martin, Nathaniel; Bandlow, Alisa; Detry, Richard Joseph; Evans, Leland B.; Berger, Taylor Eugen

    2013-09-01

    Infectious diseases can spread rapidly through healthcare facilities, resulting in widespread illness among vulnerable patients. Computational models of disease spread are useful for evaluating mitigation strategies under different scenarios. This report describes two infectious disease models built for the US Department of Veteran Affairs (VA) motivated by a Varicella outbreak in a VA facility. The first model simulates disease spread within a notional contact network representing staff and patients. Several interventions, along with initial infection counts and intervention delay, were evaluated for effectiveness at preventing disease spread. The second model adds staff categories, location, scheduling, and variable contact rates to improve resolution. This model achieved more accurate infection counts and enabled a more rigorous evaluation of comparative effectiveness of interventions.

  11. Third molar infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutiérrez-Pérez, José Luis

    2004-01-01

    Pericoronitis is an infectious disease often associated with the eruption of a third molar. It can be either acute (serous and suppurative) or chronic. Pain is usually the predominant symptom in acute stages, whereas chronic forms of the disease may display very few symptoms. Both present exudate. The infection is multimicrobial, predominantly caused strictly by betalactamase-producing anaerobeic microorganisms. Treatment measures are symptomatic, antimicrobial and surgical. Antimicrobial treatment is indicated for preoperative prophylaxis when there is a high risk of postoperative infection and, during the acute stages of suppurative pericoronitis when surgery must be postponed. First-line treatment in this case consists of amoxicillin with associated clavulanic acid. Although surgical treatment of pericoronitis presenting at the third molar is indicated as a Grade C recommendation for extraction, it is the most common indication for extraction of a retained third molar, owing to the improved quality of life it can offer the patient.

  12. Postcircumcision urinary tract infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, H A; Drucker, M M; Vainer, S; Ashkenasi, A; Amir, J; Frydman, M; Varsano, I

    1992-06-01

    The possible association of urinary tract infection (UTI) with ritual circumcision on the eighth day of life was studied by analyzing the epidemiology of urinary tract infections during the first year of life in 169 children with UTI (56 males and 113 females) born in Israel from 1979 to 1984. Forty-eight percent of the episodes of UTI occurring in males appeared during the 12 days following circumcision, and the increased incidence during that period was highly significant. The median age of the males at the time of the UTI was 16 days, compared with seven months in females. Ritual Jewish circumcision as practiced in Israel may be a predisposing factor for UTI during the 12-day period following that procedure.

  13. LES INFECTIONS NOSOCOMIALES NEONATALEj

    OpenAIRE

    BELHOCINE, Meryem; BELGAID, Hanane

    2013-01-01

    introduction: Les infections nosocomiales représentent un réel problème dans les unités de néonatologie. Elles ont vu leur incidence croitre en raison de l'extension des procédures invasives de diagnostics et thérapeutiques. Objectif: déterminer l'épidémiologie des infections nosocomiales dans le sente de néonatologie a i'EHS Mère-Enfant de Tlemcen. Matériel et méthodes: Il s'agissait d'une étude rétrospective de type cas —témoin incluant tous les nouveau-nés admis en 2011 e...

  14. [Sexually transmitted infections].

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Toni, T; Fontana, I

    2002-12-01

    Sexually transmitted diseases (STD) are quite common and observed more frequently in teens. The adolescents represent a group at particular risk for STD due to biological, sociocultural and psychological factors. Undectected infections may lead to unwanted sequelae, including pelvic inflammatory disease, chronic abdominal pain, tubal scarring and increased risk of ectopic pregnancy. This paper deals with infections by Candida albicans, Chlamidia tracomatis, Neisseria gonorrheae, Gardnerella vaginalis, Treponema pallidum, Tricomonas vaginalis, Herpes simplex, Papilloma virus. In regard to gonorrhea, chlamydia, syphilis and papilloma virus, the expectation is that improved detection will decrease sequelae by early diagnosis and treatment. Prevention programs (information, use of hormonal contraception associated with condom use) and improved access to STD diagnosis and treatment services are useful to reduce the incidence of STD among young people.

  15. Zika virus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pougnet, Laurence; Thill, Chloé; Pougnet, Richard; Auvinet, Henri; Giacardi, Christophe; Drouillard, Isabelle

    2016-12-01

    A 21-year old woman from New-Caledonia had 40 ̊C fever with vomiting, arthralgia, myalgia, and measles-like rash. Etiological analyses showed primary infection with Zika virus. Because of severe clinical presentation, she was hospitalized in the intensive care unit of the Brest military Hospital. Zika virus is mainly transmitted by Aedes mosquitoes. If they settle in Metropolitan France, Zika virus might also spread there.

  16. Prevent Infections During Chemotherapy

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2011-10-24

    This podcast discusses the importance of preventing infections in cancer patients who are undergoing chemotherapy. Dr. Lisa Richardson, CDC oncologist, talks about a new Web site for cancer patients and their caregivers.  Created: 10/24/2011 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP), Division of Cancer Prevention and Control (DCPC).   Date Released: 10/24/2011.

  17. Managing urinary tract infections

    OpenAIRE

    Saadeh, Sermin A.; Mattoo, Tej K.

    2011-01-01

    Urinary tract infections (UTI) are common in childhood. Presence of pyuria and bacteriuria in an appropriately collected urine sample are diagnostic of UTI. The risk of UTI is increased with an underlying urological abnormality such as vesicoureteral reflux, constipation, and voiding dysfunction. Patients with acute pyelonephritis are at risk of renal scarring and subsequent complications such as hypertension, proteinuria with and without FSGS, pregnancy-related complications and even end-sta...

  18. Infection Prophylaxis Update

    OpenAIRE

    Hsu, Patrick; Bullocks, Jamal; Matthews, Martha

    2006-01-01

    The use of prophylactic antibiotics in surgery has been debated for numerous years. Although their indications have been elucidated in the general surgery literature, their role in plastic surgery has yet to be clearly defined. Although the incidence of surgical site infections in clean, elective plastic surgery procedures has been reported to be as low as 1.1%, the use of antibiotics has surged over the past 20 years. Much of the increased use has been attributed to common surgical practice ...

  19. Stop C. difficile Infections

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2012-03-06

    This podcast is based on the March 2012 CDC Vital Signs report. C. difficile is a germ that causes diarrhea linked to 14,000 deaths in the US each year. This podcast helps health care professionals learn how to prevent C. difficile infections.  Created: 3/6/2012 by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).   Date Released: 3/6/2012.

  20. Imaging of Orbital Infections

    OpenAIRE

    Seyed Hassan Mostafavi

    2010-01-01

    Preseptal and orbital cellulitis occur more commonly in children than adults. The history and physical examination are crucial in distinguishing between preseptal and orbital cellulitis. The orbital septum delineates the anterior eyelid soft tissues from the orbital soft tissue. Infections anterior to the orbital septum are classified as preseptal cellulitis and those posterior to the orbital septum are termed orbital cellulitis. "nRecognition of orbital involvement is important not only...

  1. Chikungunya infection in infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria do Carmo Menezes Bezerra Duarte

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction: the infection of chikungunya virus presents clinical manifestations variables, particularly in infants in which may present multiple cutaneous manifestations. Description: a case series study was carried out in an analytical character of 14 infants (>28 days to < 2 years old admitted in a hospital between November 2015 and January 2016 with suspected case of chikungunya, by a specific IgM reactive serology. Patients positive for dengue fever, Zika virus, bacterial infections and other exanthematic diseases were excluded. Fever and cutaneous alterations were the most frequent clinical manifestations in 100% of the cases, followed by irritability (64.3%, vomits and arthralgia/arthritis in 35.7% each. Three children presented alterations in the cerebrospinal fluid compatible to meningitis. Anemia frequency was 85.7%. The median white blood cells count was 7.700/mm3 (2.600 to 20.300/mm3. High levels of aminotransferases were observed in three cases (230 to 450 U/L. Antibiotic therapy was indicated in 64.3% of the cases. Two infants needed opioid derivatives for analgesia while others took acetaminophen and/or dipyrone. Discussion: the study shows evident multi-systemic involvement of chikungunya infection in infants. The treatment is supportive, giving special attention to hydration, analgesia, skin care, and rational use of antibiotic therapy.

  2. [West Nile virus infection].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez Ruiz, Mercedes; Gámez, Sara Sanbonmatsu; Clavero, Miguel Angel Jiménez

    2011-12-01

    West Nile virus (WNV) is an arbovirus usually transmitted by mosquitoes. The main reservoirs are birds, although the virus may infect several vertebrate species, such as horses and humans. Up to 80% of human infections are asymptomatic. The most frequent clinical presentation is febrile illness, and neuroinvasive disease can occur in less than 1% of cases. Spain is considered a high-risk area for the emergence of WNV due to its climate and the passage of migratory birds from Africa (where the virus is endemic). These birds nest surrounding wetlands where populations of possible vectors for the virus are abundant. Diagnosis of human neurological infections can be made by detection of IgM in serum and/or cerebrospinal fluid samples, demonstration of a four-fold increase in IgG antibodies between acute-phase and convalescent-phase serum samples, or by detection of viral genome by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (especially useful in transplant recipients). Since WNV is a biosafety level 3 agent, techniques that involve cell culture are restricted to laboratories with this level of biosafety, such as reference laboratories. The National Program for the Surveillance of WNV Encephalitis allows the detection of virus circulation among birds and vectors in areas especially favorable for the virus, such as wetlands, and provides information for evaluation of the risk of disease in horses and humans.

  3. Tetracyclines and prion infectivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forloni, Gianluigi; Salmona, Mario; Marcon, Gabriella; Tagliavini, Fabrizio

    2009-02-01

    In the last decade information has accumulated on the potential anti-prion activity of polycyclic compounds. Initially we showed that the antitumoral idodoxorubicin reduced the infectivity in experimental scrapie. On the basis of the chemical homology with anthracyclines, we rapidly moved to tetracyclines, compounds that are safer and widely used as antibiotics in clinical practice. The tetracyclines, essentially doxycycline and minocycline, were characterized as a therapeutical tool in transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSE) through the cell-free condition, in cellular and animal models and they are now being investigated clinically with this indication. Tetracyclines interact with aggregates obtained by synthetic PrP peptides or pathological PrP (PrPsc) extracted from TSE brains, and they destabilize the structure of amyloid fibrils, reducing their resistance to digestion by proteinase K. Tetracyclines also interact with peptide oligomeric structures and inhibit the protein misfolding associated with PrPsc formation. These activities have been accompanied by a reduction of infectivity, verified by doxycycline treatment in experimental scrapie, and some curative effects after either peripheral or intracerebral infection. The anti-amyloidogenic activity of tetracyclines was tested in other forms of peripheral and central amyloidosis, with interesting results. This article analyzes the development of tetracyclines as a therapeutic tool in TSE in the light of recent results obtained in our laboratories.

  4. Dimorphic fungal osteoarticular infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rammaert, B; Gamaletsou, M N; Zeller, V; Elie, C; Prinapori, R; Taj-Aldeen, S J; Roilides, E; Kontoyiannis, D P; Brause, B; Sipsas, N V; Walsh, T J; Lortholary, O

    2014-12-01

    The objective of this investigation was to review the clinical manifestations, management, and outcome of osteoarticular infections caused by dimorphic fungi. We exhaustively reviewed reports of bone and joint infections caused by dimorphic fungi published between 1970 and 2012. Underlying conditions, microbiological features, histological characteristics, clinical manifestations, antifungal therapy, and outcome were analyzed in 222 evaluable cases. Among 222 proven cases (median age 41 years [interquartile range (IQR) 26-57]), 73 % had no predisposing condition. Histopathology performed in 128 (57 %) cases and culture in 170 confirmed diagnosis in 63 % and 98 % of the cases, respectively. Diagnosis was obtained from an extra-osteoarticular site in 16 cases. The median diagnostic time was 175 days (IQR 60-365). Sporothrix schenckii was the most frequent pathogen (n = 84), followed by Coccidioides immitis (n = 47), Blastomyces dermatitidis (n = 44), Histoplasma capsulatum (n = 18), Paracoccidioides brasiliensis (n = 16), and Penicillium marneffei (n = 13). Arthritis occurred in 87 (58 %) cases and osteomyelitis in 64 (42 %), including 19 vertebral osteomyelitis. Dissemination was reported in 123 (55 %) cases. Systemic antifungal agents were used in 216 (97 %) patients and in combination with surgery in 129 (60 %). Following the Infectious Diseases Society of America (IDSA) guidelines, a successful initial medical strategy was observed in 97/116 (84 %) evaluable cases. The overall mortality was 6 %, and was highest for P. marneffei (38.5 %). This study demonstrates that dimorphic osteoarticular infections have distinctive clinical presentations, occur predominantly in apparently immunocompetent patients, develop often during disseminated disease, and may require surgical intervention.

  5. Infection and Pulp Regeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sahng G. Kim

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The regeneration of the pulp-dentin complex has been a great challenge to both scientists and clinicians. Previous work has shown that the presence of prior infection may influence the characteristics of tissues formed in the root canal space after regenerative endodontic treatment. The formation of ectopic tissues such as periodontal ligament, bone, and cementum has been observed in the root canal space of immature necrotic teeth with apical periodontitis, while the regeneration of dentin and pulp has been identified in previously non-infected teeth. The current regenerative endodontic therapy utilizes disinfection protocols, which heavily rely on chemical irrigation using conventional disinfectants. From a microbiological point of view, the current protocols may not allow a sufficiently clean root canal microenvironment, which is critical for dentin and pulp regeneration. In this article, the significance of root canal disinfection in regenerating the pulp-dentin complex, the limitations of the current regenerative endodontic disinfection protocols, and advanced disinfection techniques designed to reduce the microorganisms and biofilms in chronic infection are discussed.

  6. Infections in open heart surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baddour, L M; Kluge, R M

    1989-01-01

    More than 250,000 open heart surgical procedures are performed annually in the United States. The majority of these procedures are coronary artery bypass grafts (CABG) and valve replacements. In this forum our authors discuss the kinds of infections that occur in patients following open heart surgery, as well as the documented risk factors and microbiology of these infections. We also asked each author to outline the criteria used to diagnose post open heart surgery infections, and to address associated consequences and complications. Finally, we were interested in each author's definition of the infection control practitioner's role in the prevention of this particular subset of nosocomial infections.

  7. Infections That Pets Carry (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Your 1- to 2-Year-Old Infections That Pets Carry KidsHealth > For Parents > Infections That Pets Carry ... how to protect your family from infections. How Pets Spread Infections Like people, all animals carry germs . ...

  8. Catheter-Associated Urinary Tract Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Submit Button Frequently Asked Questions about Catheter-associated Urinary Tract Infections Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir What is ... an incision above the pubis. What is a urinary tract infection? A urinary tract infection (UTI) is an infection ...

  9. Direct and indirect causes of sex differences in mercury concentrations and parasitic infections in a marine bird

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Provencher, J.F., E-mail: jennifpro@gmail.com [Department of Biology, Carleton University, 1125 Colonel By Drive, Raven Road, Ottawa, ON K1A 0H3 (Canada); Gilchrist, H.G. [Wildlife Research Division, National Wildlife Research Centre, Environment and Climate Change Canada, 1125 Colonel By Drive, Raven Road, Ottawa, ON K1A 0H3 (Canada); Mallory, M.L. [Department of Biology, Acadia University, 33 Westwood Ave, Wolfville, NS B4P 2R6 (Canada); Mitchell, G.W. [Wildlife Research Division, National Wildlife Research Centre, Environment and Climate Change Canada, 1125 Colonel By Drive, Raven Road, Ottawa, ON K1A 0H3 (Canada); Forbes, M.R. [Department of Biology, Carleton University, 1125 Colonel By Drive, Raven Road, Ottawa, ON K1A 0H3 (Canada)

    2016-05-01

    In many animal species, males and females differ in their levels of contaminants and/or parasitic infections. Most contaminants and gastro-intestinal parasites are obtained through prey ingestion, and thus the causes of sex differences in the distribution of these factors might follow similar pathways. We studied the northern common eider duck (Somateria molissima borealis) as an avian model, and used directed separation path analysis to explore the causes of sex differences in mercury (Hg) and gastro-intestinal helminths. Two trophically transmitted helminths were examined: a cestode (Lateriporus sp.) and an acanthocephalan (Polymorphus sp). We found that the number of Lateriporus sp. varied positively with stable isotope signature (as indicated by δ{sup 15}N in eider breast muscle tissue), and negatively with crustaceans being present in the short term diet. We also found that Polymorphus sp. varied positively with eider tissue stable isotope signature. However, Polymorphus sp. varied negatively with sex indirectly through condition and liver mass. Similarly, Hg concentrations also varied negatively with sex indirectly through condition and liver mass, with both Polymorphus sp. intensity and Hg concentrations significantly higher in males. We found that model fit increased when a negative relationship between the two helminth species was included, suggesting a yet unknown causal mechanism linking these parasites. Our findings suggest that although Hg and gastro-intestinal parasites are both trophically transmitted through the eider's prey items, the factors that contribute towards bioaccumulation of these two burdens differ in source, likely caused by several different factors and may potentially influence each other. - Highlights: • Contaminants and parasitic infections often co-occur in wildlife and have similar effects • Understanding the distribution of multiple burdens allows for better interpretation of effects • Path analysis was used to

  10. EBV CHRONIC INFECTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delia Racciatti

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available

    The infection from Epstein-Barr virus (EBV or virus of infectious mononucleosis, together with other herpesviruses’ infections, represents a prototype of persistent viral infections characterized by the property of the latency. Although the reactivations of the latent infection are associated with the resumption of the viral replication and eventually with the “shedding”, it is still not clear if this virus can determine chronic infectious diseases, more or less evolutive. These diseases could include some pathological conditions actually defined as “idiopathic”and characterized by the “viral persistence” as the more credible pathogenetic factor. Among the so-called idiopathic syndromes, the “chronic fatigue syndrome” (CFS aroused a great interest around the eighties of the last century when, just for its relationship with EBV, it was called “chronic mononucleosis” or “chronic EBV infection”.

    Today CFS, as defined in 1994 by the CDC of Atlanta (USA, really represents a multifactorial syndrome characterized by a chronic course, where reactivation and remission phases alternate, and by a good prognosis

  11. Cryptic Leishmania infantum infection in Italian HIV infected patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rubino Raffaella

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Visceral leishmaniasis (VL is a protozoan diseases caused in Europe by Leishmania (L. infantum. Asymptomatic Leishmania infection is more frequent than clinically apparent disease. Among HIV infected patients the risk of clinical VL is increased due to immunosuppression, which can reactivate a latent infection. The aims of our study were to assess the prevalence of asymptomatic L. infantum infection in HIV infected patients and to study a possible correlation between Leishmania parasitemia and HIV infection markers. Methods One hundred and forty-five HIV infected patients were screened for the presence of anti-Leishmania antibodies and L. infantum DNA in peripheral blood. Statistical analysis was carried out by using a univariate regression analysis. Results Antibodies to L. infantum were detected in 1.4% of patients. L. infantum DNA was detected in 16.5% of patients. Significant association for PCR-Leishmania levels with plasma viral load was documented (p = 0.0001. Conclusion In our area a considerable proportion of HIV infected patients are asymptomatic carriers of L. infantum infection. A relationship between high HIV viral load and high parasitemic burden, possibly related to a higher risk of developing symptomatic disease, is suggested. PCR could be used for periodic screening of HIV patients to individuate those with higher risk of reactivation of L. infantum infection.

  12. Nematode Infections Are Risk Factors for Staphylococcal Infection in Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra F Moreira-Silva

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available Nematode infection may be a risk factor for pyogenic liver abscess in children and we hypothesized that the immunomodulation induced by those parasites would be a risk factor for any staphylococcal infection in children. The present study was designed to compare, within the same hospital, the frequency of intestinal nematodes and Toxocara infection in children with and without staphylococcal infections. From October 1997 to February 1998, 80 children with staphylococcal infection and 110 children with other diseases were submitted to fecal examination, serology for Toxocara sp., evaluation of plasma immunoglobulin levels, and eosinophil counts. Mean age, gender distribution, birthplace, and socioeconomic conditions did not differ significantly between the two groups. Frequency of intestinal nematodes and positive serology for Toxocara, were remarkably higher in children with staphylococcal infections than in the non-staphylococcal group. There was a significant correlation between intestinal nematodes or Toxocara infection and staphylococcal infection in children, reinforced by higher eosinophil counts and higher IgE levels in these children than in the control group. One possible explanation for this association would be the enhancement of bacterial infection by the immunomodulation induced by helminth infections, due to strong activation of the Th2 subset of lymphocytes by antigens from larvae and adult worms.

  13. Haemolymph Components of Infected & None Infected Lymnaea Snails with Xiphidiocercariae

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    AA Saboor Yaraghi

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: In this study the haemolymph components of infected and none infected Lymnaea gedrosiana with xiphidiocercaria larvae was compared.Methods: Five hundred Fifty Lymnaea snails were collected from Ilam and Mazandaran prov­inces, Iran, during 2008-2009. The snails were transported to the lab at Tehran University of Medi­cal Sciences and their cercarial sheddings were studied. Haemolmyphs of snails were ex­tracted and cells were counted using haemocytometer and cell-surface carbohydrate were recog­nized by conjugated lectin (Lentil. Haemolymph protein concentrations were measured by Brad­ford protein assay method and soluble protein compositions were determined on sodium dodecyl sulphate polyacrilamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE.Result: From the 550 examined Lymnaea snails for cercariae, 27 snails were infected with xiphidiocer­cariae. Mean of haemolymph cells (haemocyte number were obtained 93480±2.43 (cells/ml for none infected snails (25 snail and 124560±2800 (cells/ml for infected snails (25 snail. Mannose carbohydrate was recognized on haemocyte of none infected and infected snails. Mean of protein concentration of haemolymph plasma was obtained as 1354 ± 160 μg/ml (1.4 mg/ml for none infected snails (25 snails and 1802±138 μg/ml (1.8 mg/ml for infected snail (25 snails. Comparing to none infected snails, the SDS-PAGE results of haemolymph plasma of infected snails, showed an extra protein band (70 kDa. The results showed a significant differ­ence between the amounts and the kinds of proteins in haemolymph of infected and none infected snails.Conclusion: This information might be useful to understand of parasite detection, adhesion, engulf­ment and antigen agglutination by snail.

  14. Cardiac Implantable Electronic Device Infection: From an Infection Prevention Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sastry, Sangeeta; Rahman, Riaz; Yassin, Mohamed H.

    2015-01-01

    A cardiac implantable electronic device (CIED) is indicated for patients with severely reduced ejection fraction or with life-threatening cardiac arrhythmias. Infection related to a CIED is one of the most feared complications of this life-saving device. The rate of CIED infection has been estimated to be between 2 and 25; though evidence shows that this rate continues to rise with increasing expenditure to the patient as well as healthcare systems. Multiple risk factors have been attributed to the increased rates of CIED infection and host comorbidities as well as procedure related risks. Infection prevention efforts are being developed as defined bundles in numerous hospitals around the country given the increased morbidity and mortality from CIED related infections. This paper aims at reviewing the various infection prevention measures employed at hospitals and also highlights the areas that have relatively less established evidence for efficacy. PMID:26550494

  15. Nosocomial fungal infections: candidemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verduyn Lunel, F M; Meis, J F; Voss, A

    1999-07-01

    Candida species are frequently encountered as part of the human commensal flora. Colonization mostly precedes candidemia and is an independent risk factor for the development of candidemia. Genotyping methods showed the similarity between colonizing and infecting strains, thus making endogenous origin likely, though exogenous sources like total parenteral nutrition also have been described. Health care workers (HCWs) play an important role in the transmission of yeasts. Candida species are frequently isolated from the hands of HCWs and can be transmitted from hands to patients. Granulocytopenia and damage of the mucosal lining resulting from intensive chemotherapy due to cancer, the increasing use of broad spectrum antibiotics, and the use of intravenous catheters are other important risk factors for the development of candidemia. Candidemia is associated with a high mortality and prolonged hospitalization. Therefore, and because of the high frequency of dissemination, all candidemias should be treated. Amphotericin B was considered the standard drug for the systemic treatment of candidemia. Fluconazole has been shown to be an effective and safe alternative in non-neutropenic patients. 5-Fluorocytosine has been used in combination with amphotericin B in the treatment of deep-seated infections. Liposomal formulations of amphotericin B and other new antifungal drugs currently are under investigation. C. albicans is the most frequently isolated Candida species, although the proportion of infections caused by non-C. albicans species is increasing. Also, there are reports of development of resistance to amphotericin B. C. lusitaniae is known for primary resistance and the development of resistance to amphotericin B. Development of resistance to fluconazole is mainly seen in AIDS patients with recurrent oropharyngeal candidiasis who receive longer courses of therapy.

  16. Congenital and perinatal cytomegalovirus infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chun Soo Kim

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Cytomegalovirus (CMV is currently the most common agent of congenital infection and the leading infectious cause of brain damage and hearing loss in children. Symptomatic congenital CMV infections usually result from maternal primary infection during early pregnancy. One half of symptomatic infants have cytomegalic inclusion disease (CID, which is characterized by involvement of multiple organs, in particular, the reticuloendothelial and central nervous system (CNS. Moreover, such involvement may or may not include ocular and auditory damage. Approximately 90% of infants with congenital infection are asymptomatic at birth. Preterm infants with perinatal CMV infection can have symptomatic diseases such as pneumonia, hepatitis, and thrombocytopenia. Microcephaly and abnormal neuroradiologic imaging are associated with a poor prognosis. Hearing loss may occur in both symptomatic and asymptomatic infants with congenital infection and may progress through childhood. Congenital infection is defined by the isolation of CMV from infants within the first 3 weeks of life. Ganciclovir therapy can be considered for infants with symptomatic congenital CMV infection involving the CNS. Pregnant women of seronegative state should be counseled on the importance of good hand washing and other control measures to prevent CMV infection. Heat treatment of infected breast milk at 72?#608;for 5 seconds can eliminate CMV completely.

  17. Characterizing Internet Worm Infection Structure

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Qian; Chen, Chao

    2010-01-01

    Internet worm infection continues to be one of top security threats. Moreover, worm infection has been widely used by botnets to recruit new bots and construct P2P-based botnets. In this work, we attempt to characterize the network structure of Internet worm infection and shed light on the micro-level information of "who infects whom." Our work quantifies the infection ability of individual hosts and reveals the key characteristics of the underlying topologies formed by worm infection, i.e., the number of children and the generation of the Internet worm infection family tree. Specifically, we first analyze the infection tree of a wide class of worms, for which a new victim is compromised by each existing infected host with equal probability. We find that the number of children has asymptotically a geometric distribution with parameter 0.5. We also discover that the generation follows closely a Poisson distribution and the average path length of the worm infection family tree increases approximately logarithmi...

  18. Giardia infection in cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janeczko, Stephanie; Griffin, Brenda

    2010-08-01

    The protozoon Giardia duodenalis is a common gastrointestinal parasite of cats. While most Giardia-infected cats are asymptomatic, acute small bowel diarrhea, occasionally with concomitant weight loss, may occur. Giardia poses a diagnostic challenge, but newer tests, including a commercially available ELISA kit, have improved clinicians' ability to obtain an accurate diagnosis. Several treatment options have been reported, and although none has been shown to be universally effective, most cases can be successfully managed with drug therapy, supportive measures, and environmental control. Current recommendations suggest that combination therapy with fenbendazole and metronidazole may be the safest, most effective treatment option for symptomatic cats.

  19. Tropheryma whipplei infection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hugh James Freeman

    2009-01-01

    Whipple's disease was initially described in 1907. Over the next century, the clinical and pathological features of this disorder have been better appreciated. Most often, weight loss, diarrhea, abdominal and joint pain occur. Occasionally, other sites of involvement have been documented, including isolated neurological disease, changes in the eyes and culture-negative endocarditis. In the past decade, the responsible organism Tropheryma whipplei has been cultivated, its genome sequenced and its antibiotic susceptibility defined. Although rare, it is a systemic infection that may mimic a wide spectrum of clinical disorders and may have a fatal outcome. If recognized, prolonged antibiotic therapy may be a very successful form of treatment.

  20. Leishmania / HIV co-infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desjeux, P

    1995-11-01

    Visceral leishmaniasis (VL), which is transmitted by sandflies, is always present in at least 62 countries and is spreading to areas where it had not existed in the past. VL/HIV co-infections are becoming more and more common. In southern Europe, 25-70% of adult VL cases also have HIV infection. 1.5-9% of AIDS cases have newly acquired or reactivated VL. In the Mediterranean area, VL is the most common opportunistic parasitic infection among AIDS cases (i.e., 100 CD4/mcl). AIDS patients with VL have a much shorter survival period than other AIDS patients. VL can lie dormant for years but emerge clinically if an infected person has immunosuppression. Most VL/HIV co-infections in the western hemisphere are in Brazil. East African countries reporting VL/HIV co-infections include Ethiopia, Kenya, Malawi, and Sudan. Only one VL/HIV co-infected case has been found in Cameroon and in Guinea Bissau. VL/HIV co-infection cases tend to not have the usual VL clinical signs and symptoms (fever, weight loss, hepatosplenomegaly, polyadenopathies), making clinical diagnosis difficult. Since VL test sensitivity in HIV positive patients is reduced 20-40%, it is also difficult to make a serological diagnosis. In the first VL episode of HIV-infected patients, clinicians should use BMA, the safest and most sensitive test. Drug options for VL treatment include pentavalent antimonials, pentamidine, amphotericin B, and amphotericin B encapsulated in liposomes. Treatment failure is rather common in VL/HIV co-infected patients. Researchers from different centers need to conduct trials of various multi-therapy schedules. 70% of VL/HIV co-infected cases in southern Europe use intravenous drugs, suggesting that sharing of needles may account for the co-infection. The World Health Organization has mobilized against VL/HIV co-infections, including setting up a minimal surveillance system.

  1. [Associated infections in acute bronchopulmonary infections in children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lykova, E A; Vorob'ev, A A; Bokovoĭ, A G; Karazhas, N V; Evseeva, L F

    2003-01-01

    A total of 189 children with bacterial complications of the acute respiratory viral infection (ARVI)--primarily with pneumonia and bronchitis--were dynamically examined for typical and atypical pneumotropic causative agents of the infection process (Mycoplasma pneumoniae, Chlamydia spp., Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae, Pneumocystis carini, and Citomegalovirus). A high frequency rate of the associative infection involving mycoplasmas and pneumocysts was registered (45-50%); it was lower in the cases involving Chlamydias, hemophilic bacteria, pneumococcus, and cytomegalovirus--up to 25-30%. No sharp difference was found between the indices of an infection degree and those of an active clinical infectious process involving the same pneumotropic agent: the biggest difference was observed in Chlamydia infections (9.4%) and the lowest one--in mycoplasma infections (3%). A dynamic comparison of different classes of immunoglobulins revealed that, in acute bronchitis and pneumonias, the Chlamydia and cytomegalovirus infections are, primarily, of the persistent nature; the hemophilic and pneumocystic infections are of a mixed nature; and the pneumococcus one is of the acute nature. The Mycoplasma infection, which is more often encountered in pre-school children, is of the primary type with a trend towards a prolonged clinical course. All pneumonias had a typical clinical course; the clinical picture was compared in 128 patients with the etiological factor (including a description of characteristic symptoms).

  2. Submasseteric Infection: A Rare, Deep Space Cheek Infection Causing Trismus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Richard H; Bahadori, Robert S; Willis, Andrea

    2015-11-01

    Submasseteric space infections are rare at any age but particularly so in primary school children. The origin of the infection is usually odontogenic, from pericoronitis in a third molar. Submasseteric inflammation is a deep facial space inflammation, often progressing to mature abscess, and usually misdiagnosed as staphylococcal or streptococcal lymphadenitis or pyogenic parotitis. The hallmark of a masticatory space infection is trismus. The cardinal signs of this infection include a firm mass in the body of the masseter muscle with overlying cellulitis with trismus.

  3. Enterovirus D68 Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susanna Esposito

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available First described in 1962 in children hospitalized for pneumonia and bronchiolitis, the Enterovirus D68 (EV-D68 is an emergent viral pathogen. Since its discovery, during the long period of surveillance up to 2005, EV-D68 was reported only as a cause of sporadic outbreaks. In recent years, many reports from different countries have described an increasing number of patients with respiratory diseases due to EV-D68 associated with relevant clinical severity. In particular, an unexpectedly high number of children have been hospitalized for severe respiratory disease due to EV-D68, requiring intensive care such as intubation and mechanical ventilation. Moreover, EV-D68 has been associated with acute flaccid paralysis and cranial nerve dysfunction in children, which has caused concerns in the community. As no specific antiviral therapy is available, treatment is mainly supportive. Moreover, because no vaccines are available, conventional infection control measures (i.e., standard, for contacts and droplets in both community and healthcare settings are recommended. However, further studies are required to fully understand the real importance of this virus. Prompt diagnosis and continued surveillance of EV-D68 infections are essential to managing and preventing new outbreaks. Moreover, if the association between EV-D68 and severe diseases will be confirmed, the development of adequate preventive and therapeutic approaches are a priority.

  4. Infection and the IUD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Defoort, P; Thiery, M

    1981-04-01

    While certain complications of IUD use, such as perforation and pregnancy, are no doubt related to the infectious morbidity, IUD use accounts for only a moderate or even no increase of the PID rate. One problem hampering assessment and comparison of the magnitude of the risk involved is that little is known about the PID rate in the standard population. Furthermore, many findings related to the bacteriology of the IUD-containing uterine cavity and to the bacterial conductivity of tailless and tailed IUDs are contradictory, and claims of a very high PID risk in IUD-bearing nulliparas have not been unequivocally substantiated. Weaknesses inherent in case-control studies include difficult statistical interpretability coupled with an almost total disre.gard of technical aspects (e.g, patient selection, insertion technic, and IUD design) that may be of major prophylactic importance. It is imperative that the problem of IUD-related genital infection be further elucidated by prospective studies paying the necessary attention to these aspects. There is a body of literature and experience which suggests that, provided these risk factors are properly taken into account, the risk of IUD-related infection need not be significantly enhanced

  5. [Pathogenesis of invasive fungal infections].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Vidal, Carolina; Carratalà, Jordi

    2012-03-01

    Invasive fungal infections remain a life-threatening disease. The development of invasive fungal disease is dependent on multiple factors, such us colonization and efficient host immune response. We aimed to review the pathogenesis of invasive fungal infections, in particular, those caused by Candida and Aspergillus. For this we propose, to describe the fungal characteristics, to detail the host defence mechanisms against fungus and to analyse the host risk factors for invasive fungal infection.

  6. Opportunistic infections following renal transplantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rao K

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Opportunistic infection is common following renal transplantation. Prompt diagnosis and management can be life saving. Four different types of opportunistic respiratory infections diagnosed at our center during the period of January 1998 to December 2000 are discussed. Of the four cases one had Aspergillus, second had Sporothrix, third had Nocardia and fourth case Actinomyces species. Microbiologist has an important role to play by being aware of such opportunistic infections and helping the clinician to make early aetiological diagnosis.

  7. Hyperammonemia in Urinary Tract Infections

    OpenAIRE

    Tsuneaki Kenzaka; Ken Kato; Akihito Kitao; Koki Kosami; Kensuke Minami; Shinsuke Yahata; Miho Fukui; Masanobu Okayama

    2015-01-01

    Objectives The present study investigated the incidence of hyperammonemia in urinary tract infections and explored the utility of urinary obstruction relief and antimicrobial administration to improve hyperammonemia. Methods This was an observational study. Subjects were patients who were diagnosed with urinary tract infection and hospitalized between June 2008 and June 2009. We measured plasma ammonia levels on admission in patients who were clinically diagnosed with urinary tract infection ...

  8. [Zika virus infection during pregnancy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picone, O; Vauloup-Fellous, C; D'Ortenzio, E; Huissoud, C; Carles, G; Benachi, A; Faye, A; Luton, D; Paty, M-C; Ayoubi, J-M; Yazdanpanah, Y; Mandelbrot, L; Matheron, S

    2016-05-01

    A Zika virus epidemic is currently ongoing in the Americas. This virus is linked to congenital infections with potential severe neurodevelopmental dysfunction. However, incidence of fetal infection and whether this virus is responsible of other fetal complications are still unknown. National and international public health authorities recommend caution and several prevention measures. Declaration of Zika virus infection is now mandatory in France. Given the available knowledge on Zika virus, we suggest here a review of the current recommendations for management of pregnancy in case of suspicious or infection by Zika virus in a pregnant woman.

  9. Dermatologic manifestations of infective endocarditis*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, Rafael Tomaz; Tiberto, Larissa Rezende; Bello, Viviane Nardin Monte; Lima, Margarete Aparecida Jacometo; Nai, Gisele Alborghetti; de Abreu, Marilda Aparecida Milanez Morgado

    2016-01-01

    Despite advances in diagnosis and treatment, infective endocarditis still shows considerable morbidity and mortality rates. The dermatological examination in patients with suspected infective endocarditis may prove very useful, as it might reveal suggestive abnormalities of this disease, such as Osler’s nodes and Janeway lesions. Osler’s nodes are painful, purple nodular lesions, usually found on the tips of fingers and toes. Janeway lesions, in turn, are painless erythematous macules that usually affect palms and soles. We report a case of infective endocarditis and highlight the importance of skin examination as a very important element in the presumptive diagnosis of infective endocarditis.

  10. Toxoplasma gondii infection in pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiana Maria Ruiz Lopes

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Toxoplasmosis is caused by an intracellular protozoan, Toxoplasma gondii, which has a wide geographical distribution. The main infection routes are ingestion of cysts from raw or badly-cooked meat, ingestion of oocysts from substrates contaminated with the feces of infected felines and congenital transmission by tachyzoites. The congenital form results in a severe systemic disease, because if the mother is infected for the first time during gestation, she can present a temporary parasitemia that will infect the fetus. Many of the clinical symptoms are seen in congenitally-infected children, from a mild disease to serious signs, such as mental retardation. Early diagnosis during the pregnancy is highly desirable, allowing prompt intervention in cases of infection, through treatment of pregnant women, reducing the probability of fetal infection and consequent substantial damage to the fetus. Conventional tests for establishment of a fetal diagnosis of toxoplasmosis include options from serology to PCR. Prevention of human toxoplasmosis is based on care to avoid infection, understanding the disease and serological exams during gestation. Pregnant women should be tested serologically from three months gestation, until one month after childbirth. Inclusion of serology for congenital toxoplasmosis along with the basic Guthrie test for PKU is of fundamental importance for early diagnosis of infection and so that treatment is initiated, in order to avoid possible sequels in the infant.

  11. Tapeworm infection - beef or pork

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teniasis; Pork tapeworm; Beef tapeworm; Tapeworm; Taenia saginata ; Taenia solium ; Taeniasis ... undercooked meat of infected animals. Cattle usually carry Taenia saginata ( T. saginata ). Pigs carry Taenia solium (T. ...

  12. Medications for Sexually Transmitted Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Genitals and Urinary Tract Glands & Growth Head Neck & Nervous System Heart Infections Learning Disabilities Obesity Orthopedic Prevention Sexually Transmitted Skin Tobacco Treatments Injuries & ...

  13. Thrush and Other Candida Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Genitals and Urinary Tract Glands & Growth Head Neck & Nervous System Heart Infections Learning Disabilities Obesity Orthopedic Prevention Sexually Transmitted Skin Tobacco Treatments Injuries & ...

  14. Odontogenic infections. Complications. Systemic manifestations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez, Yolanda; Bagán, José Vicente; Murillo, Judith; Poveda, Rafael

    2004-01-01

    The term, odontogenic infection refers to an infection that originates in the tooth proper or in the tissues that closely surround it; said infection then progresses along the periodontia down to the apex, involving periapical bone and from this area, it then spreads through the bone and periosteum towards near-by or more distant structures. The relevance of this type of infection lies in that it can cause infections that compromise more distant structures (via direct spread and distant spread), for example, intracraneal, retropharyngeal and pulmonary pleural infections. Dissemination by means of the bloodstream can lead to rheumatic problems and deposits on the valves of the heart (endocarditis), etc. The conditions or factors that influence the spread of infection are dependent on the balance between patient-related conditions and microorganism-related conditions. The virulence of the affecting germs is dependent upon their quality and quantity and is one of the microbiological conditions that influences the infection. It is this virulence that promotes infectious invasion and the deleterious effects the microbe will have on the host. Patient-related conditions include certain systemic factors that determine host resistance, which may be impaired in situations such as immunodeficiency syndrome or in brittle diabetes, as well as local factors that will also exert their impact on the spread of the infection.

  15. Rhinovirus Infection Induces Degradation of Antimicrobial Peptides and Secondary Bacterial Infection in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Patrick Mallia; Joseph Footitt; Rosa Sotero; Annette Jepson; Marco Contoli; Maria-Belen Trujillo-Torralbo; Tatiana Kebadze; Julia Aniscenko; Gregory Oleszkiewicz; Katrina Gray; Message, Simon D.; Kazuhiro Ito; Peter J Barnes; Ian M Adcock; Alberto Papi

    2012-01-01

    Rationale: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) exacerbations are associated with virus (mostly rhinovirus) and bacterial infections, but it is not known whether rhinovirus infections precipitate secondary bacterial infections.

  16. Bacteriophages infecting Propionibacterium acnes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brüggemann, Holger; Lood, Rolf

    2013-01-01

    Viruses specifically infecting bacteria, or bacteriophages, are the most common biological entity in the biosphere. As such, they greatly influence bacteria, both in terms of enhancing their virulence and in terms of killing them. Since the first identification of bacteriophages in the beginning of the 20th century, researchers have been fascinated by these microorganisms and their ability to eradicate bacteria. In this review, we will cover the history of the Propionibacterium acnes bacteriophage research and point out how bacteriophage research has been an important part of the research on P. acnes itself. We will further discuss recent findings from phage genome sequencing and the identification of phage sequence signatures in clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPRs). Finally, the potential to use P. acnes bacteriophages as a therapeutic strategy to combat P. acnes-associated diseases will be discussed.

  17. Bacteriophages Infecting Propionibacterium acnes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Holger Brüggemann

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Viruses specifically infecting bacteria, or bacteriophages, are the most common biological entity in the biosphere. As such, they greatly influence bacteria, both in terms of enhancing their virulence and in terms of killing them. Since the first identification of bacteriophages in the beginning of the 20th century, researchers have been fascinated by these microorganisms and their ability to eradicate bacteria. In this review, we will cover the history of the Propionibacterium acnes bacteriophage research and point out how bacteriophage research has been an important part of the research on P. acnes itself. We will further discuss recent findings from phage genome sequencing and the identification of phage sequence signatures in clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPRs. Finally, the potential to use P. acnes bacteriophages as a therapeutic strategy to combat P. acnes-associated diseases will be discussed.

  18. Epigenetics and bacterial infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bierne, Hélène; Hamon, Mélanie; Cossart, Pascale

    2012-12-01

    Epigenetic mechanisms regulate expression of the genome to generate various cell types during development or orchestrate cellular responses to external stimuli. Recent studies highlight that bacteria can affect the chromatin structure and transcriptional program of host cells by influencing diverse epigenetic factors (i.e., histone modifications, DNA methylation, chromatin-associated complexes, noncoding RNAs, and RNA splicing factors). In this article, we first review the molecular bases of the epigenetic language and then describe the current state of research regarding how bacteria can alter epigenetic marks and machineries. Bacterial-induced epigenetic deregulations may affect host cell function either to promote host defense or to allow pathogen persistence. Thus, pathogenic bacteria can be considered as potential epimutagens able to reshape the epigenome. Their effects might generate specific, long-lasting imprints on host cells, leading to a memory of infection that influences immunity and might be at the origin of unexplained diseases.

  19. Managing urinary tract infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saadeh, Sermin A; Mattoo, Tej K

    2011-11-01

    Urinary tract infections (UTI) are common in childhood. Presence of pyuria and bacteriuria in an appropriately collected urine sample are diagnostic of UTI. The risk of UTI is increased with an underlying urological abnormality such as vesicoureteral reflux, constipation, and voiding dysfunction. Patients with acute pyelonephritis are at risk of renal scarring and subsequent complications such as hypertension, proteinuria with and without FSGS, pregnancy-related complications and even end-stage renal failure. The relevance and the sequence of the renal imaging following initial UTI, and the role of antimicrobial prophylaxis and surgical intervention are currently undergoing an intense debate. Prompt treatment of UTI and appropriate follow-up of those at increased risk of recurrence and/or renal scarring are important.

  20. Gastrointestinal infections in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mönkemüller, K E; Wilcox, C M

    2001-01-01

    Gastrointestinal infections in children are a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Children living in developing countries are particularly susceptible to infectious diarrhea because of poor standards of hygiene and sanitation. Although the magnitude of diarrheal illnesses in developed countries is less, costly hospital admissions are still frequent. The causal agent of infectious diarrhea is most frequently related to age, geographical location, lifestyle habits, use of antibiotics, associated medical conditions, social circumstances, and degree of immune competence. In this article we present some of the most important articles published in the field during the last year. The role of Helicobacter pylori in the pathogenesis of gastritis and peptic ulcer disease has been shown in adults and children. Information about the natural history of H. pylori, symptomatology, and diagnostic therapeutic approaches for children are being generated constantly; we discuss some of the most relevant information in this review.

  1. Morbillivirus Infections: An Introduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rory D. de Vries

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Research on morbillivirus infections has led to exciting developments in recent years. Global measles vaccination coverage has increased, resulting in a significant reduction in measles mortality. In 2011 rinderpest virus was declared globally eradicated – only the second virus to be eradicated by targeted vaccination. Identification of new cellular receptors and implementation of recombinant viruses expressing fluorescent proteins in a range of model systems have provided fundamental new insights into the pathogenesis of morbilliviruses, and their interactions with the host immune system. Nevertheless, both new and well-studied morbilliviruses are associated with significant disease in wildlife and domestic animals. This illustrates the need for robust surveillance and a strategic focus on barriers that restrict cross-species transmission. Recent and ongoing measles outbreaks also demonstrate that maintenance of high vaccination coverage for these highly infectious agents is critical. This introduction briefly summarizes the most important current research topics in this field.

  2. Les infections nosocomiale

    OpenAIRE

    AMMOLR, Naima; ZEKRI, DjaIeI; Lazreg, Mohammed

    2006-01-01

    L'infection hospitalière est un phénomène grave et coûteux pour la société et pour le malade; • elle prolonge la durée de séjours; • augmente la consommation thérapeutique ( antibiotique, antalgique...); • entraîne une mobilisation excessive du personnel; • nuit la réputation du personnel soignant et de l'établissement; • multiplie l'évaluation du coût de prise en charge; • induit des séquelles neurologiques irréversibles. Mieux vaut investir dans les mesures de préven...

  3. "SAPHO syndrome and infections".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Govoni, Marcello; Colina, Matteo; Massara, Alfonso; Trotta, Francesco

    2009-01-01

    The syndrome of synovitis, acne, pustulosis, hyperostosis, osteitis (SAPHO) encompasses a broad spectrum of cutaneous manifestations associated with osteitic and hyperostotic lesions, which typically may involve the anterior chest wall (ACW). The aetiopathogenetic mechanisms as well as the nosographic framing of the disease are still not fully defined although an important role has been suggested for Propionibacterium acnes (P. acnes). This germ might be able to stimulate both the innate and the T-cell-mediated immune system. The elicited immunological response could be an attempt to eliminate the germ thus inducing the perpetuation of the inflammation. Whether the osteo-articular changes seen in SAPHO could be attributable directly to the infection or to an inflammatory reaction induced by pathogenic material remains a debated issue. The current concept of SAPHO syndrome as a reactive infectious osteitis in genetic predisposed subjects seems appealing, but it has not been yet demonstrated.

  4. Candida infective endocarditis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baddley, J W; Benjamin, D K; Patel, M; Miró, J; Athan, E; Barsic, B; Bouza, E; Clara, L; Elliott, T; Kanafani, Z; Klein, J; Lerakis, S; Levine, D; Spelman, D; Rubinstein, E; Tornos, P; Morris, A J; Pappas, P; Fowler, V G; Chu, V H; Cabell, C

    2008-07-01

    Candida infective endocarditis (IE) is uncommon but often fatal. Most epidemiologic data are derived from small case series or case reports. This study was conducted to explore the epidemiology, treatment patterns, and outcomes of patients with Candida IE. We compared 33 Candida IE cases to 2,716 patients with non-fungal IE in the International Collaboration on Endocarditis-Prospective Cohort Study (ICE-PCS). Patients were enrolled and the data collected from June 2000 until August 2005. We noted that patients with Candida IE were more likely to have prosthetic valves (p < 0.001), short-term indwelling catheters (p < 0.0001), and have healthcare-associated infections (p < 0.001). The reasons for surgery differed between the two groups: myocardial abscess (46.7% vs. 22.2%, p = 0.026) and persistent positive blood cultures (33.3% vs. 9.9%, p = 0.003) were more common among those with Candida IE. Mortality at discharge was higher in patients with Candida IE (30.3%) when compared to non-fungal cases (17%, p = 0.046). Among Candida patients, mortality was similar in patients who received combination surgical and antifungal therapy versus antifungal therapy alone (33.3% vs. 27.8%, p = 0.26). New antifungal drugs, particularly echinocandins, were used frequently. These multi-center data suggest distinct epidemiologic features of Candida IE when compared to non-fungal cases. Indications for surgical intervention are different and mortality is increased. Newer antifungal treatment options are increasingly used. Large, multi-center studies are needed to help better define Candida IE.

  5. The Eosinophil in Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravin, Karen A; Loy, Michael

    2016-04-01

    First described by Paul Ehrlich in 1879, who noted its characteristic staining by acidophilic dyes, for many years, the eosinophil was considered to be an end-effector cell associated with helminth infections and a cause of tissue damage. Over the past 30 years, research has helped to elucidate the complexity of the eosinophil's function and establish its role in host defense and immunity. Eosinophils express an array of ligand receptors which play a role in cell growth, adhesion, chemotaxis, degranulation, and cell-to-cell interactions. They play a role in activation of complement via both classical and alternative pathways. Eosinophils synthesize, store and secrete cytokines, chemokines, and growth factors. They can process antigen, stimulate T cells, and promote humoral responses by interacting with B cells. Eosinophils can function as antigen presenting cells and can regulate processes associated with both T1 and T2 immunity. Although long known to play a role in defense against helminth organisms, the interactions of eosinophils with these parasites are now recognized to be much more complex. In addition, their interaction with other pathogens continues to be investigated. In this paper, we review the eosinophil's unique biology and structure, including its characteristic granules and the effects of its proteins, our developing understanding of its role in innate and adaptive immunity and importance in immunomodulation, and the part it plays in defense against parasitic, viral, fungal and bacterial infections. Rather than our worst enemy, the eosinophil may, in fact, be one of the most essential components in host defense and immunity.

  6. [Urinary tract infections in adults].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Adel Ben; Bagnis, Corinne Isnard

    2014-09-01

    Urinary tract infections in adults are frequent and can induce several septic situations. Their economic cost (drugs, microbiologic samples, consultations and/or hospitalizations and stop working) and ecologic cost (second reasons of antibiotic prescription in winter and first in the rest of the year) are important. A better respect of recommendations can improve the outcome of this different infections and decrease their cost.

  7. Infection strategies of Botrytis cinerea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kan, van J.A.L.

    2005-01-01

    Botrytis cinerea is a ubiquitous filamentous fungal pathogen of a wide range of plant species. The fungus is able to infect all aerial parts of its host plants to a certain extent. Infection may cause enormous damage both during plant growth and in the post-harvest phase (during cold storage or tran

  8. Asymptomatic infection with Borrelia burgdorferi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steere, Allen C; Sikand, Vijay K; Schoen, Robert T; Nowakowski, John

    2003-08-15

    The natural history of asymptomatic seroconversion to Borrelia burgdorferi has been unclear. We report here, on the basis of a post hoc assessment, the frequency and outcome of asymptomatic seroconversion to B. burgdorferi in participants of a large Lyme disease vaccine trial. We show that infection with B. burgdorferi may be asymptomatic but that asymptomatic infection is unusual in the United States.

  9. Urinary tract infections and pyelonephritis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1997-01-01

    970374 The relationship between chronic pyelitis andcytomegalovirus infection: a primary study. LI Na(李娜), et al. 81021st Milit Hosp, Changchun,130021. Chin J Med Lab Sci 1997; 20(1): 26-27. Objective: To research the relationship betweenchronic pyelitis and cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection.

  10. Extraintestinal Vibrio infections in Mauritius.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Issack, Mohammad I; Appiah, Deoraz; Rassoul, Ameen; Unuth, Mahesswaree N; Unuth-Lutchun, Nehma

    2008-10-01

    Few extraintestinal Vibrio infections have been reported in the African region. We report 3 cases from Mauritius: one case of Vibrio alginolyticus otitis externa; one case of soft tissue infection caused by non-O1 Vibrio cholerae and Vibrio parahaemolyticus; and one fatal case of non-O1 V. cholerae cellulitis and septicaemia.

  11. Zika Virus Infection and Microcephaly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Gordon Millichap

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available A Task Force established by the Brazil Ministry of Health investigated the possible association of microcephaly with Zika virus infection during pregnancy and a registry for microcephaly cases among women suspected to have had Zika virus infection during pregnancy.

  12. SIV Infection of Lung Macrophages.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yue Li

    Full Text Available HIV-1 depletes CD4+ T cells in the blood, lymphatic tissues, gut and lungs. Here we investigated the relationship between depletion and infection of CD4+ T cells in the lung parenchyma. The lungs of 38 Indian rhesus macaques in early to later stages of SIVmac251 infection were examined, and the numbers of CD4+ T cells and macrophages plus the frequency of SIV RNA+ cells were quantified. We showed that SIV infected macrophages in the lung parenchyma, but only in small numbers except in the setting of interstitial inflammation where large numbers of SIV RNA+ macrophages were detected. However, even in this setting, the number of macrophages was not decreased. By contrast, there were few infected CD4+ T cells in lung parenchyma, but CD4+ T cells were nonetheless depleted by unknown mechanisms. The CD4+ T cells in lung parenchyma were depleted even though they were not productively infected, whereas SIV can infect large numbers of macrophages in the setting of interstitial inflammation without depleting them. These observations point to the need for future investigations into mechanisms of CD4+ T cell depletion at this mucosal site, and into mechanisms by which macrophage populations are maintained despite high levels of infection. The large numbers of SIV RNA+ macrophages in lungs in the setting of interstitial inflammation indicates that lung macrophages can be an important source for SIV persistent infection.

  13. Imaging fungal infections in children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ankrah, Alfred O.; Sathekge, Mike M; Dierckx, Rudi A.J.O.; Glaudemans, Andor W.J.M.

    2016-01-01

    Fungal infections in children rarely occur, but continue to have a high morbidity and mortality despite the development of newer antifungal agents. It is essential for these infections to be diagnosed at the earliest possible stage so appropriate treatment can be initiated promptly. The addition of

  14. Helicobacter pylori infection in pediatrics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wewer, Anne Vibeke; Kalach, Nicolas

    2003-01-01

    in gastric manifestations is the subject of conflicting reports. Extra-digestive manifestations are also reported in the course of this infection. The treatment of H. pylori infection is influenced by resistance of the bacteria to the antibiotics used. We suggest that eradication of H. pylori should take...

  15. Epidemiology of infections in women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Risser, Jan M H; Risser, William L; Risser, Amanda L

    2008-12-01

    This article describes the epidemiologic profiles of sexually transmitted infections seen in US women. We present a brief description of the infectious agent, describe the epidemiology of the infection among women in terms of race/ethnicity and age (if those data are available), and present what is known about the behavioral risk factors associated with acquisition.

  16. Raccoon Roundworm Infection PSA (:60)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2012-08-27

    This 60 second PSA describes the signs and symptoms of and ways to prevent Baylisascaris infection, a parasitic roundworm infection that is spread through raccoon feces.  Created: 8/27/2012 by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).   Date Released: 8/28/2012.

  17. Serious complications after infective endocarditis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gill, Sabine

    2010-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to review all cases of infective endocarditis at our hospital between 2002 and 2006 concerning the bacteriological aetiology and outcomes.......The objective of the present study was to review all cases of infective endocarditis at our hospital between 2002 and 2006 concerning the bacteriological aetiology and outcomes....

  18. Transmission of Helicobacter pylori Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppina Oderda

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Helicobacter pylori infection is one of the most common bacterial infections worldwide. It is accepted as the major cause of chronic gastritis, peptic ulcer, carcinoma of the distal part of the stomach and gastric lymphoma. However, how and when the infection is acquired remain largely unknown. Identification of mode of transmission is vital for developing preventive measures to interrupt its spread, but studies focused on this issue are difficult to implement. From epidemiological studies, it is known that there are great differences in the prevalence of infection in different populations and in ethnic groups originating from high prevalence regions. This is likely related to inferior hygienic conditions and sanitation. In developing countries, infection occurs at a much earlier age. In developed countries, the prevalence of infection is related to poor socioeconomic conditions, particularly density of living. Humans seem to be the only reservoir of H pylori, which spread from person to person by oral-oral, fecal-oral or gastro-oral routes. Most infections are acquired in childhood, possibly from parents or other children living as close contacts. Infection from the environment or from animals cannot be entirely excluded.

  19. Hemodialysis Tunneled Catheter-Related Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Lisa M.; Clark, Edward; Dipchand, Christine; Hiremath, Swapnil; Kappel, Joanne; Kiaii, Mercedeh; Lok, Charmaine; Luscombe, Rick; Moist, Louise; Oliver, Matthew; MacRae, Jennifer

    2016-01-01

    Catheter-related bloodstream infections, exit-site infections, and tunnel infections are common complications related to hemodialysis central venous catheter use. The various definitions of catheter-related infections are reviewed, and various preventive strategies are discussed. Treatment options, for both empiric and definitive infections, including antibiotic locks and systemic antibiotics, are reviewed.

  20. Identifying HIV-1 dual infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cornelissen Marion

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Transmission of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV is no exception to the phenomenon that a second, productive infection with another strain of the same virus is feasible. Experiments with RNA viruses have suggested that both coinfections (simultaneous infection with two strains of a virus and superinfections (second infection after a specific immune response to the first infecting strain has developed can result in increased fitness of the viral population. Concerns about dual infections with HIV are increasing. First, the frequent detection of superinfections seems to indicate that it will be difficult to develop a prophylactic vaccine. Second, HIV-1 superinfections have been associated with accelerated disease progression, although this is not true for all persons. In fact, superinfections have even been detected in persons controlling their HIV infections without antiretroviral therapy. Third, dual infections can give rise to recombinant viruses, which are increasingly found in the HIV-1 epidemic. Recombinants could have increased fitness over the parental strains, as in vitro models suggest, and could exhibit increased pathogenicity. Multiple drug resistant (MDR strains could recombine to produce a pan-resistant, transmittable virus. We will describe in this review what is presently known about super- and re-infection among ambient viral infections, as well as the first cases of HIV-1 superinfection, including HIV-1 triple infections. The clinical implications, the impact of the immune system, and the effect of anti-retroviral therapy will be covered, as will as the timing of HIV superinfection. The methods used to detect HIV-1 dual infections will be discussed in detail. To increase the likelihood of detecting a dual HIV-1 infection, pre-selection of patients can be done by serotyping, heteroduplex mobility assays (HMA, counting the degenerate base codes in the HIV-1 genotyping sequence, or surveying unexpected increases in the

  1. Fosfomycin i.v. for Treatment of Severely Infected Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-02-28

    Bacterial Infections; Bone Diseases, Infectious; Osteomyelitis; Central Nervous System Bacterial Infections; Meningitis, Bacterial; Encephalitis; Brain Abscess; Urinary Tract Infections; Respiratory Tract Infections; Pneumonia, Bacterial; Skin Diseases, Bacterial; Soft Tissue Infections; Intraabdominal Infections; Sepsis; Bacteremia; Endocarditis, Bacterial

  2. Prevention of Periprosthetic Joint Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahi, Alisina; Parvizi, Javad

    2015-01-01

    Prosthetic joint infection (PJI) is a calamitous complication with high morbidity and substantial cost. The reported incidence is low but it is probably underestimated due to the difficulty in diagnosis. PJI has challenged the orthopaedic community for several years and despite all the advances in this field, it is still a real concern with immense impact on patients, and the healthcare system. Eradication of infection can be very difficult. Therefore, prevention remains the ultimate goal. The medical community has executed many practices with the intention to prevent infection and treat it effectively when it encounters. Numerous factors can predispose patients to PJI. Identifying the host risk factors, patients’ health modification, proper wound care, and optimizing operative room environment remain some of the core fundamental steps that can help minimizing the overall incidence of infection. In this review we have summarized the effective prevention strategies along with the recommendations of a recent International Consensus Meeting on Surgical Site and Periprosthetic Joint Infection. PMID:26110171

  3. Testing for Occult Heartworm Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stogdale, L.

    1984-01-01

    Heartworm infection in dogs is endemic in southern Ontario but occurs only sporadically throughout the remainder of Canada. The disease may either be associated with microfilariae in the patient's blood, a patent infection, or it may be occult. This paper describes a case of occult dirofilariasis in a dog, with emphasis on the diagnosis. A patent infection could be missed if the clinician tests an insufficient amount of blood. He should perform multiple concentration tests using either the modified Knott's technique or a filtration method. Occult infections occur in prepatent or unisexual infections, when the worms become sterile following therapy, or when the host produces antibodies that result in the destruction of the microfilariae. The recent release of a kit which detects the presence of antibodies to the adult heartworms now enables veterinarians to make an accurate diagnosis in the vast majority of dogs. PMID:17422386

  4. Diagnosis of Helicobacter pylori Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tongtawee, Taweesak; Kaewpitoon, Soraya; Kaewpitoon, Natthawut; Dechsukhum, Chavaboon; Leeanansaksiri, Wilairat; Loyd, Ryan A; Matrakool, Likit; Panpimanmas, Sukij

    2016-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori infection plays an important role in the pathogenesis of chronic gastritis, peptic ulcer disease and gastric malignancy. A diagnosis of infection is thus an important part of a treatment strategy of many gastrointestinal tract diseases. Many diagnostic tests are available but all have some limitations in different clinical situations and laboratory settings. A single gold standard cannot available, but be used for diagnosis of Helicobacter pylori infection in daily clinical practice in all areas, so several techniques have been developed to give reliable results, especially focusing on real time endoscopic features. The narrow band imaging system (NBI) and high resolution endoscopy are imaging techniques for enhanced visualization of infected mucosa and premalignant gastric lesions. The aim of this article is to review the current diagnostic options and possible future developments detection of Helicobacter pylori infection.

  5. Vascular graft infections with Mycoplasma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Levi-Mazloum, Niels Donald; Skov Jensen, J; Prag, J;

    1995-01-01

    Vascular graft infection is one of the most serious complications in vascular surgery. It is associated with mortality rates ranging from 25% to 75% and with morbidity in the form of amputation in approximately 30% of patients. Staphylococcus aureus is the leading pathogen. With conventional...... laboratory techniques, the percentage of culture-negative yet grossly infected vascular grafts seems to be increasing and is not adequately explained by the prior use of antibiotics. We have recently reported the first case of aortic graft infection with Mycoplasma. We therefore suggest the hypothesis...... that the large number of culture-negative yet grossly infected vascular grafts may be due to Mycoplasma infection not detected with conventional laboratory technique....

  6. Dengue Virus Infection Perturbs Lipid Homeostasis in Infected Mosquito Cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perera, Rushika M.; Riley, Catherine; Isaac, Georgis; Hopf- Jannasch, Amber; Moore, Ronald J.; Weitz, Karl K.; Pasa-Tolic, Ljiljana; Metz, Thomas O.; Adamec, Jiri; Kuhn, Richard J.

    2012-03-22

    Dengue virus causes {approx}50-100 million infections per year and thus is considered one of the most aggressive arthropod-borne human pathogen worldwide. During its replication, dengue virus induces dramatic alterations in the intracellular membranes of infected cells. This phenomenon is observed both in human and vector-derived cells. Using high-resolution mass spectrometry of mosquito cells, we show that this membrane remodeling is directly linked to a unique lipid repertoire induced by dengue virus infection. Specifically, 15% of the metabolites detected were significantly different between DENV infected and uninfected cells while 85% of the metabolites detected were significantly different in isolated replication complex membranes. Furthermore, we demonstrate that intracellular lipid redistribution induced by the inhibition of fatty acid synthase, the rate-limiting enzyme in lipid biosynthesis, is sufficient for cell survival but is inhibitory to dengue virus replication. Lipids that have the capacity to destabilize and change the curvature of membranes as well as lipids that change the permeability of membranes are enriched in dengue virus infected cells. Several sphingolipids and other bioactive signaling molecules that are involved in controlling membrane fusion, fission, and trafficking as well as molecules that influence cytoskeletal reorganization are also up regulated during dengue infection. These observations shed light on the emerging role of lipids in shaping the membrane and protein environments during viral infections and suggest membrane-organizing principles that may influence virus-induced intracellular membrane architecture.

  7. Concurrent infection of Japanese encephalitis and mixed plasmodium infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Girish Chandra Bhatt

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Japanese encephalitis (JE and malaria would coexist in the areas where both illnesses are endemic with overlapping clinical pictures, especially in a case of febrile encephalopathy with hepatosplenomegaly. However, there are no published data till date showing concurrent infection of these two agents despite both diseases being coendemic in many areas. We report a case of concurrent infection of JE and mixed plasmodium infection, where the case, initially diagnosed as cerebral malaria did not improve on antimalarials and alternative diagnosis of JEV encephalitis was thought which was confirmed by a serological test. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case report of concurrent Japanese encephalitis with mixed plasmodium infection. We report a case of 3-year-old male child, who presented with febrile encephalopathy with hepatosplenomegaly. Based on a rapid diagnostic test and peripheral smear examination, a diagnosis of mixed P.Vivax and P.falciparum infection was made and the patient was treated with quinine and doxycycline. However, besides giving antimalarials the patient did not improve and an alternative diagnosis of JE was considered as the patient was from the endemic zone of Japanese encephalitis. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF of the patient was sent for a virological study which came out to be positive for JE IgM in CSF, which is confirmatory of JE infection. In a patient with febrile encephalopathy with hepatosplenomegaly especially in areas coendemic for JE and malaria, the possibility of mixed infection should be kept in mind.

  8. Pharmacotherapy of ectoparasitic infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roos, T C; Alam, M; Roos, S; Merk, H F; Bickers, D R

    2001-01-01

    Epizoonoses such as scabies, lice and cimicosis are common, vexing disorders that occur worldwide. Historically, many treatment modalities have been employed in the management of these disorders, and most of the drugs described in this review are of historical interest and no longer recommended or in widespread use because of their wide spectrum of adverse effects. More recently, reports documenting resistance against various antiectoparasite drugs, complicated and severe courses of the diseases, and adverse effects of drug therapy have prompted the development of new treatment strategies and drugs for optimal disease management. Because the strategies currently recommended for the treatment of ectoparasites differ worldwide, this review proposes a rational approach to selecting the best therapeutic agent by comparing the pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, drug efficacy and adverse effects. A literature search of the currently Internet accessible libraries PubMed, Medline and Ideal library, of citations of articles found there, and from communications with the Federal Institute for Drugs and Medical Devices, Germany, was conducted based on this approach. One major observation of this literature search is that permethrin is the treatment of choice for lice and scabies in the US and in Great Britain, whereas lindane is still recommended for scabies in most other European countries because of its longer-standing record of effectiveness. Although permethrin has not yet been proven to be more effective than lindane in treating infections with these ectoparasites, it currently appears to have the best efficacy versus safety profile of topical treatments for scabies and lice. Ivermectin is a newer oral drug for the treatment of ectoparasites, which has been used with great success in the treatment of onchocercosis and other endoparasites. Although ivermectin appears to be a promising drug, its role in the treatment of ectoparasitic infections will be clarified as more

  9. Susceptible-infected-recovered model with recurrent infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruziska, Flávia M.; Tomé, Tânia; de Oliveira, Mário J.

    2017-02-01

    We analyze a stochastic lattice model describing the spreading of a disease among a community composed by susceptible, infected and removed individuals. A susceptible individual becomes infected catalytically. An infected individual may, spontaneously, either become recovered, that is, acquire a permanent immunization, or become again susceptible. The critical properties including the phase diagram is obtained by means of mean-field theories as well as numerical simulations. The model is found to belong to the universality class of dynamic percolation except when the recovering rate vanishes in which case the model belongs to the directed percolation universality class.

  10. Systematic Search for Primary Immunodeficiency in Adults With Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-11-23

    Complement Deficiency; Antibody Deficiency; Chronic Sinus Infection; Meningitis, Bacterial; Pneumonia, Bacterial; Otitis Media; Streptococcal Infection; Neisseria Infections; Haemophilus Influenza; Pneumococcal Infections

  11. Enterobiasis (Pinworm Infection): Prevention and Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... The CDC Cancel Submit Search The CDC Parasites - Enterobiasis (also known as Pinworm Infection) Note: Javascript is disabled or is not ... message, please visit this page: About CDC.gov . Pinworm Infection General Information Pinworm Infection FAQs Epidemiology & Risk ...

  12. Sphingolipids in viral infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider-Schaulies, Jürgen; Schneider-Schaulies, Sibylle

    2015-06-01

    Viruses exploit membranes and their components such as sphingolipids in all steps of their life cycle including attachment and membrane fusion, intracellular transport, replication, protein sorting and budding. Examples for sphingolipid-dependent virus entry are found for: human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), which besides its protein receptors also interacts with glycosphingolipids (GSLs); rhinovirus, which promotes the formation of ceramide-enriched platforms and endocytosis; or measles virus (MV), which induces the surface expression of its own receptor CD150 via activation of sphingomyelinases (SMases). While SMase activation was implicated in Ebola virus (EBOV) attachment, the virus utilizes the cholesterol transporter Niemann-Pick C protein 1 (NPC1) as 'intracellular' entry receptor after uptake into endosomes. Differential activities of SMases also affect the intracellular milieu required for virus replication. Sindbis virus (SINV), for example, replicates better in cells lacking acid SMase (ASMase). Defined lipid compositions of viral assembly and budding sites influence virus release and infectivity, as found for hepatitis C virus (HCV) or HIV. And finally, viruses manipulate cellular signaling and the sphingolipid metabolism to their advantage, as for example influenza A virus (IAV), which activates sphingosine kinase 1 and the transcription factor NF-κB.

  13. Helicobacter pylori Infection in Pediatrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roma, Eleftheria; Miele, Erasmo

    2015-09-01

    This review includes the main pediatric studies published from April 2014 to March 2015. The host response of Treg cells with increases in FOXP3 and TGF-β1 combined with a reduction in IFN-γ by Teff cells may contribute to Helicobacter pylori susceptibility in children. Genotypic variability in H. pylori strains influences the clinical manifestation of the infection. Helicobacter pylori infection is associated with variables indicative of a crowded environment and poor living conditions, while breast-feeding has a protective effect. Intrafamilial infection, especially from mother to children and from sibling to sibling, is the dominant transmission route. Studies showed conflicting results regarding the association between H. pylori infection and iron deficiency anemia. One study suggests that H. pylori eradication plays a role in the management of chronic immune thrombocytopenic purpura in H. pylori-infected children and adolescents. The prevalence of H. pylori was higher in chronic urticaria patients than in controls and, following H. pylori eradication, urticarial symptoms disappeared. An inverse relationship between H. pylori infection and allergic disease was reported. Antibiotic resistance and insufficient compliance to treatment limit the efficacy of eradication therapy. Sequential therapy had no advantage over standard triple therapy. In countries where H. pylori infection is prevalent, studies focusing on virulence factors and antibiotic susceptibility may provide anticipation of the prognosis and may be helpful to reduce morbidity and mortality.

  14. Microbiology of systemic fungal infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chakrabarti A

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The increased incidence of systemic fungal infections in the past two decades has been overwhelming. Earlier, it was pathogenic dimorphic fungi, which were known to cause systemic infections. However, starting from the 1960s, opportunistic fungi started causing more number of infections, especially in the immunocompromised host. More recently, newer and less common fungal agents are being increasingly associated with infection in immunosuppressed hosts. Amongst dimorphic fungi, infections due to Histoplasma capsulatum and Penicillium marneffei are increasingly reported in patients with AIDS in India. H. capsulatum is found country wide, but P. marneffei remains restricted to Manipur state. Although both varieties of C. neoformans , C. neoformans var. neoformans (serotypes A & D, and C. neoformans var. gattii (serotypes B & C are reported in India, most of the cases reported are of serotype A. Increased incidence of cryptococcosis is reported from all centers with the emergence of AIDS. Systemic infection due to species under Candida , Aspergillus and zygomycetes is widely prevalent in nosocomial setting, and outbreaks due to unusual fungi are reported occasionally from tertiary care centers. This global change in systemic fungal infections has emphasized the need to develop good diagnostic mycology laboratories in this country and to recognize this increasingly large group of potential fungal pathogens.

  15. Autoimmune diseases and HIV infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virot, Emilie; Duclos, Antoine; Adelaide, Leopold; Miailhes, Patrick; Hot, Arnaud; Ferry, Tristan; Seve, Pascal

    2017-01-01

    Abstract To describe the clinical manifestations, treatments, prognosis, and prevalence of autoimmune diseases (ADs) in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients. All HIV-infected patients managed in the Infectious Diseases Department of the Lyon University Hospitals, France, between January 2003 and December 2013 and presenting an AD were retrospectively included. Thirty-six ADs were found among 5186 HIV-infected patients which represents a prevalence of 0.69% including immune thrombocytopenic purpura (n = 15), inflammatory myositis (IM) (n = 4), sarcoidosis (n = 4), Guillain–Barré syndrome (GBS) (n = 4), myasthenia gravis (n = 2), Graves’ disease (n = 2), and 1 case of each following conditions: systemic lupus erythematosus, rheumatoid arthritis, autoimmune hepatitis, Hashimoto thyroiditis and autoimmune hemolytic anemia. One patient presented 2 ADs. Thirty patients were known to be HIV-infected when they developed an AD. The AD preceded HIV infection in 2 patients. GBS and HIV infection were diagnosed simultaneously in 3 cases. At AD diagnosis, CD4 T lymphocytes count were higher than 350/mm3 in 63% of patients, between 200 and 350/mm3 in 19% and less than 200/mm3 in 19%. Twenty patients benefited from immunosuppressant treatments, with a good tolerance. ADs during HIV infection are uncommon in this large French cohort. Immune thrombocytopenic purpura, sarcoidosis, IM, and GBS appear to be more frequent than in the general population. Immunosuppressant treatments seem to be effective and well tolerated. PMID:28121924

  16. Prediction of eyespot infection risks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Váòová

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the study was to design a prediction model for eyespot (Tapesia yallundae infection based on climatic factors (temperature, precipitation, air humidity. Data from experiment years 1994-2002 were used to study correlations between the eyespot infection index and individual weather characteristics. The model of prediction was constructed using multiple regression when a separate parameter is assigned to each factor, i.e. the frequency of days with optimum temperatures, humidity, and precipitation. The correlation between relative air humidity and precipitation and the infection index is significant.

  17. Pancreatic infection with Candida parapsilosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibáñez, R; Serrano-Heranz, R

    1999-01-01

    Candida species other than C. albicans have been implicated as pathogens in intravascular (bloodstream, intravascular devices, endocarditis) and extravascular (arthritis, osteomielitis, endophtalmitis) infections. C. parapsilosis, however, is rarely implicated in intra-abdominal infections (peritonitis during peritoneal dialysis, complicating surgery or solid-organ transplantation). We describe a case of a 48-y-old male with acute pancreatitis who had a pancreatic abscess produced by primary C. parapsilosis infection. Although he received adequate treatment with antifungal medication and surgical drainage, the outcome was fatal. Because the clinical findings are indistinguishable from bacterial abscesses, Candida species should be considered in cases of complicated pancreatitis, in order to establish a prompt adequate treatment.

  18. Riemerella Anatipestifer Infection in Chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. X. Li*, Y. Tang, J. Y. Gao, C. H. Huang1 and M. J. Ding

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Riemerella anatipestifer (RA is the causative agent of septicemic and exudative disease for a variety of bird species. Although RA had been isolated from chickens, whether can bring damages to them is not unrevealed yet. In this study, we report a flock of SanHuang chickens infected by RA with 15% morbidity and less than 8% mortality. The infection is further substantiated by case duplicate. The tested chickens demonstrate typical signs of pericarditis, air sacculitis and perihepatitis that are completely consistent with the field outbreak. The results suggest that RA is pathogenic to SanHuang chickens, which can then be theoretically and practicably incorporated into its infection spectrum.

  19. Diagnostic testing for Giardia infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heyworth, Martin F

    2014-03-01

    The traditional method for diagnosing Giardia infections involves microscopic examination of faecal specimens for Giardia cysts. This method is subjective and relies on observer experience. From the 1980s onwards, objective techniques have been developed for diagnosing Giardia infections, and are superseding diagnostic techniques reliant on microscopy. Detection of Giardia antigen(s) by immunoassay is the basis of commercially available diagnostic kits. Various nucleic acid amplification techniques (NAATs) can demonstrate DNA of Giardia intestinalis, and have the potential to become standard approaches for diagnosing Giardia infections. Of such techniques, methods involving either fluorescent microspheres (Luminex) or isothermal amplification of DNA (loop-mediated isothermal amplification; LAMP) are especially promising.

  20. Trichinella infection and clinical disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, M R; Meyer, C N; Krantz, T;

    1996-01-01

    Trichinellosis is caused by ingestion of insufficiently cooked meat contaminated with infective larvae of Trichinella species. The clinical course is highly variable, ranging from no apparent infection to severe and even fatal disease. We report two illustrative cases of trichinellosis. Returning....... Life-threatening cardiopulmonary, renal and central nervous system complications developed. The patient recovered after several months. Her husband, who also ate the pork, did not have clinical symptoms, but an increased eosinophil count and a single larva in a muscle biopsy confirmed infection...

  1. Urinary tract infections in adults

    OpenAIRE

    Wei Tan, Chee; Chlebicki, Maciej Piotr

    2016-01-01

    A urinary tract infection (UTI) is a collective term for infections that involve any part of the urinary tract. It is one of the most common infections in local primary care. The incidence of UTIs in adult males aged under 50 years is low, with adult women being 30 times more likely than men to develop a UTI. Appropriate classification of UTI into simple or complicated forms guides its management and the ORENUC classification can be used. Diagnosis of a UTI is based on a focused history, with...

  2. Treatment of severe orthopedic infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dernell, W S

    1999-09-01

    Severe infections are uncommon following orthopedic surgery, yet they can be frustrating for the veterinarian and owner to treat and can result in devastating consequences for the patient. This article reviews the common causes for postoperative infection, reviews established treatment, and introduces newer methods for treatment and control. A thorough understanding of the pathogenesis, application of appropriate diagnostic procedures, the institution of aggressive treatment regimens, with adherence to established principles, will often result in satisfactory outcomes even with severe orthopedic infections. For those more refractory to treatment, the use of newer treatment methods, specifically locally implantable materials for sustained release of antimicrobials can improve success in the treatment of these more difficult cases.

  3. Parasitic infections in HIV infected individuals: Diagnostic & therapeutic challenges

    OpenAIRE

    Nissapatorn, Veeranoot; Sawangjaroen, Nongyao

    2011-01-01

    After 30 years of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) epidemic, parasites have been one of the most common opportunistic infections (OIs) and one of the most frequent causes of morbidity and mortality associated with HIV-infected patients. Due to severe immunosuppression, enteric parasitic pathogens in general are emerging and are OIs capable of causing diarrhoeal disease associated with HIV. Of these, Cryptosporidium parvum and Isospora belli are the two most common intestinal protozoan p...

  4. Haemolymph Components of Infected & None Infected Lymnaea Snails with Xiphidiocercariae

    OpenAIRE

    AA Saboor Yaraghi; A. Farahnak; MR Eshraghian

    2011-01-01

    Background: In this study the haemolymph components of infected and none infected Lymnaea gedrosiana with xiphidiocercaria larvae was compared.Methods: Five hundred Fifty Lymnaea snails were collected from Ilam and Mazandaran prov­inces, Iran, during 2008-2009. The snails were transported to the lab at Tehran University of Medi­cal Sciences and their cercarial sheddings were studied. Haemolmyphs of snails were ex­tracted and cells were counted using haemocytometer and cell-surface carbohydrat...

  5. Rare Infections: Yersinia Enterocolitica and Yersinia Pseudotuberculosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Listen Text Size Email Print Share Rare Infections: Yersinia Enterocolitica and Yersinia Pseudotuberculosis Page Content Article Body Yersinia enterocolitica and Yersinia pseudotuberculosis are bacterial infections that are ...

  6. Parasitic infections in HIV infected individuals: Diagnostic & therapeutic challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nissapatorn, Veeranoot; Sawangjaroen, Nongyao

    2011-01-01

    After 30 years of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) epidemic, parasites have been one of the most common opportunistic infections (OIs) and one of the most frequent causes of morbidity and mortality associated with HIV-infected patients. Due to severe immunosuppression, enteric parasitic pathogens in general are emerging and are OIs capable of causing diarrhoeal disease associated with HIV. Of these, Cryptosporidium parvum and Isospora belli are the two most common intestinal protozoan parasites and pose a public health problem in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) patients. These are the only two enteric protozoan parasites that remain in the case definition of AIDS till today. Leismaniasis, strongyloidiasis and toxoplasmosis are the three main opportunistic causes of systemic involvements reported in HIV-infected patients. Of these, toxoplasmosis is the most important parasitic infection associated with the central nervous system. Due to its complexity in nature, toxoplasmosis is the only parasitic disease capable of not only causing focal but also disseminated forms and it has been included in AIDS-defining illnesses (ADI) ever since. With the introduction of highly active anti-retroviral therapy (HAART), cryptosporidiosis, leishmaniasis, schistosomiasis, strongyloidiasis, and toxoplasmosis are among parasitic diseases reported in association with immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (IRIS). This review addresses various aspects of parasitic infections in term of clinical, diagnostic and therapeutic challenges associated with HIV-infection. PMID:22310820

  7. BK virus infection in human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ledesma, J; Muñoz, P; Garcia de Viedma, D; Cabrero, I; Loeches, B; Montilla, P; Gijon, P; Rodriguez-Sanchez, B; Bouza, E

    2012-07-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate the prevalence of BK virus (BKV) infection in HIV-positive patients receiving highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) in our hospital. The presence of BKV was analysed in urine and plasma samples from 78 non-selected HIV-infected patients. Clinical data were recorded using a pre-established protocol. We used a nested PCR to amplify a specific region of the BKV T-large antigen. Positive samples were quantified using real-time PCR. Mean CD4 count in HIV-infected patients was 472 cells/mm3 and median HIV viral load was 500 cells/mm3 (74.3% vs 25.7%; p=0.007). Viruria was present in 21.7% of healthy controls (5 out of 23 samples, p=0.02). All viral loads were low (<100 copies/mL), and we could not find any association between BKV infection and renal or neurological manifestations. We provide an update on the prevalence of BKV in HIV-infected patients treated with HAART. BKV viruria was more common in HIV-infected patients; however, no role for BKV has been demonstrated in this population.

  8. Cutaneous mixed infections in AIDS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piérard, G E; Piérard-Franchimont, C; Estrada, J A; Rurangirwa, A; Dosal, F L

    1990-02-01

    We report a new case of mixed infection occurring at the same site of the skin in a human immune deficiency virus-positive patient. Hyperkeratotic and crusted erosions contained fusospirochetal organisms, Cryptococcus neoformans, and another unidentified fungus.

  9. Immunodiagnostic Techniques for Bacterial Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-01-01

    capsulatuni Serum Actinomvcesr israeli Serum Aspergillus fumiqatus Serum Protozoan: Trvnanosoma cruzi Serum Entameaba histolvtica Serum Trichinella sviralis...serological study of human Trypanosoma rhodesiense infections using a microscale enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Tropenmed. Parasitol. 26:247-251, 1975

  10. Urinary Tract Infections in Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Palermo JJ, Schilling JD, et al. Intracellular bacterial biofilm-like pods in urinary tract infections. Science. 2003; ... for questions about any medications, contact the U.S. Food and Drug Administration toll-free at 1-888- ...

  11. Management of Helicobacter pylori infections

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abadi, Amin Talebi Bezmin; Kusters, Johannes G

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Infection with Helicobacter pylori is associated with severe digestive diseases including chronic gastritis, peptic ulcer disease, and gastric cancer. Successful eradication of this common gastric pathogen in individual patients is known to prevent the occurrence of peptic ulcer disease

  12. Urinary Tract Infections (For Kids)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Your pee smells bad. These things happen because bacteria have caused an infection somewhere in your urinary ... shorter than boys' urethras. The shorter urethra means bacteria can get up into the bladder more easily ...

  13. Immunological aspects of Giardia infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heyworth, Martin F

    2014-01-01

    Immunodeficiency, particularly antibody deficiency, predisposes to increased intensity and persistence of Giardia infections. Giardia-infected immunocompetent hosts produce serum and intestinal antibodies against Giardia trophozoites. The number of Giardia muris trophozoites, in mice with G. muris infection, is reduced by intra-duodenal administration of anti-G. muris antibody. Giardia intestinalis antigens that are recognised by human anti-trophozoite antibodies include variable (variant-specific) and invariant proteins. Nitric oxide (NO) appears to contribute to host clearance of Giardia trophozoites. Arginine is a precursor of NO and is metabolised by Giardia trophozoites, possibly reducing its availability for generation of NO by the host. Work with mice suggests that T lymphocytes and interleukin-6 (IL-6) contribute to clearance of Giardia infection via mechanisms independent of antibodies.

  14. Obesity and risk of infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaspersen, Kathrine Agergård; Pedersen, Ole Birger; Petersen, Mikkel Steen

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: It is well known that obesity complicates the course of several diseases. However, it is unknown whether obesity affects the risk of infection among healthy individuals. METHODS: We included 37,808 healthy participants from the Danish Blood Donor Study, who completed a questionnaire...... on health-related items. Obesity was defined as a body mass index ≥ 30 kg/m(2). Infections among participants were identified by relevant ICD-10 codes in the Danish National Patient Register and Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical (ATC) codes in the Danish Prescription Register. Multivariable Cox proportional...... prescription of antimicrobials. Obesity was associated with risk of hospital-based treatment for infection (women: hazard ratio [HR] = 1.5, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.1, 1.9; men: HR = 1.5, 95% CI = 1.2, 1.9). For specific infections, obesity was associated with increased risk of abscesses (both sexes...

  15. Urinary Tract Infections in Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa Taskesen

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Urinary tract infections (UTI are frequent conditions in children. Untreated urinary tract infections can lead to serious kidney problems that could threaten the life of the child. Therefore, early detection and treatment of urinary tract infection is important. In older children, urinary tract infections may cause obvious symptoms such as stomach ache and disuria. In infants and young children, UTIs may be harder to detect because of less specific symptoms. Recurrences are common in children with urinary abnormalities such as neurogenic bladder, vesicourethral reflux or those with very poor toilet and hygiene habits. This article reviews the diagnostic approach and presents the current data related to the roles of radiologic imaging, surgical correction and antibiotic prophylaxis of UTIs in children. [Archives Medical Review Journal 2009; 18(2.000: 57-69

  16. HIV Infection and Adult Vaccination

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Resources for Healthcare Professionals HIV Infection and Adult Vaccination Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Vaccines are ... percentage is less than 15%. Learn about adult vaccination and other health conditions Asplenia Diabetes Type 1 ...

  17. Osteoarticular manifestations of Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zychowicz, Michael E

    2010-01-01

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis has affected humans for much of our existence. The incidence of global tuberculosis infection continues to rise, especially in concert with HIV coinfection. Many disease processes, such as diabetes, increase the likelihood of tuberculosis infection. Tuberculosis bacteria can infect any bone, joint, tendon, or bursa; however, the most common musculoskeletal site for infection includes the spine and weight-bearing joints of the hip and knee. Many patients who present with osteoarticular tuberculosis infection will have a gradual onset of pain at the site of infection. Many patients who develop a musculoskeletal tuberculosis infection will have no evidence of a pulmonary tuberculosis infection on x-ray film and many will have very mild symptoms with the initial infection. Healthcare providers must remember that many patients who develop tuberculosis infection do not progress to active tuberculosis disease; however, the latent infection may become active with immune compromise.

  18. Cytomegalovirus infection in transplant recipients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Sergio Azevedo

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Cytomegalovirus infection is a frequent complication after transplantation. This infection occurs due to transmission from the transplanted organ, due to reactivation of latent infection, or after a primary infection in seronegative patients and can be defined as follows: latent infection, active infection, viral syndrome or invasive disease. This condition occurs mainly between 30 and 90 days after transplantation. In hematopoietic stem cell transplantation in particular, infection usually occurs within the first 30 days after transplantation and in the presence of graft-versus-host disease. The major risk factors are when the recipient is cytomegalovirus seronegative and the donor is seropositive as well as when lymphocyte-depleting antibodies are used. There are two methods for the diagnosis of cytomegalovirus infection: the pp65 antigenemia assay and polymerase chain reaction. Serology has no value for the diagnosis of active disease, whereas histology of the affected tissue and bronchoalveolar lavage analysis are useful in the diagnosis of invasive disease. Cytomegalovirus disease can be prevented by prophylaxis (the administration of antiviral drugs to all or to a subgroup of patients who are at higher risk of viral replication or by preemptive therapy (the early diagnosis of viral replication before development of the disease and prescription of antiviral treatment to prevent the appearance of clinical disease. The drug used is intravenous or oral ganciclovir; oral valganciclovir; or, less frequently, valacyclovir. Prophylaxis should continue for 90 to 180 days. Treatment is always indicated in cytomegalovirus disease, and the gold-standard drug is intravenous ganciclovir. Treatment should be given for 2 to 3 weeks and should be continued for an additional 7 days after the first negative result for viremia.

  19. Pulmonary Mucormycosis: An Emerging Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Muqeetadnan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Mucormycosis is a rare, but emerging, life-threatening, rapidly progressive, angioinvasive fungal infection that usually occurs in immunocompromised patients. We present a case of pulmonary mucormycosis in a diabetic patient who was on chronic steroid therapy for ulcerative colitis. Early recognition of this diagnosis, along with aggressive management, is critical to effective therapy and patient survival. The delay in diagnosis of this rapidly progressive infection can result in mortality.

  20. Prevention of Infection in Pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William J. Ledger

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available We believe the prevention of infection-related adverse pregnancy outcome is the most important focus for obstetricians today. An emphasis upon immunization of susceptible women, prevention of transmissible disease by modification of patient behavior, and identification and treatment of silent infections should become standards of practice. This will require educational initiatives for physicians and their patients as well as continued clinical trials to determine costs and effectiveness.

  1. Intrauterine Infections and Birth Defects

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIAO-YING ZHENG; XIN-MING SONG; LI-HUA PANG; YING JI; HONG-MEI SUN; LEI ZHANG; JU-FEN LIU; YAN-LING GUO; YAN ZHANG; TING ZHANG; YI-FEI WANG; CHEN XU; GONG CHEN; RUOLEI XIN; JIA-PENG CHEN; XU-MEI HU; QING YANG

    2004-01-01

    Intrauterine infection is an important cause of some birth defects worldwide. The most common pathogens include rubella virus, cytomegaloviurs, ureaplasma urealyticum, toxoplasma, etc. General information about these pathogens in epidemiology, consequence of birth defects, and the possible mechanisms in the progress of birth defects, and the interventions to prevent or treat these pathogens' infections are described. The infections caused by rubella virus, cytomegaloviurs, ureaplasma urealyticum, toxoplasma, etc. are common, yet they are proved to be fatal during the pregnant period, especially during the first trimester. These infections may cause sterility, abortion, stillbirth, low birth weight, and affect multiple organs that may induce loss of hearing and vision, even fetal deformity and the long-term effects. These pathogens' infections may influence the microenvironment of placenta, including levels of enzymes and cytokines, and affect chondriosome that may induce the progress of birth defect. Early diagnosis of infections during pregnancy should be strengthened. There are still many things to be settled, such as the molecular mechanisms of birth defects, the effective vaccines to certain pathogens. Birth defect researches in terms of etiology and the development of applicable and sensitive pathogen detection technology and methods are imperative.

  2. Opportunistic ocular infections in AIDS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shikha Baisakhiya DOMS; FGO

    2008-01-01

    As the number of HIV infected patients is multiplying exponentially day by day so are the associated ocular complications.The increasing longevity of individuals with HIV disease has resulted in greater numbers of pa-tients with ocular opportunistic infection.By the means of this article we describe various opportunistic ocular infections in AIDS and their clinical manifestations,discussed under four headings;1 )adnexal manifestation;2)anterior segment manifestation;3)posterior segment manifestation;4)neuro ophthalmic manifestation . Herpes zoster ophthalmicus,molluscum contagiosum and Kaposi sarcoma are common adnexal manifestations. Molluscum contagiosum being the commonest.Varicella Zoster Virus (VZV)and herpes simplex virus (HSV) most commonly cause infectious keratitis in HIV-positive patients .As compared to the immunocompetent indi-viduals the frequency of bacterial and fungal keratitis is not more in HIV patients,but it tends to be more se-vere.Posterior segment structures involved in HIV-positive patients include the retina,choroid,and optic nerve head.The herpesvirus family is implicated most commonly in infections of the retina and choroid in HIV positive patients.CMV is the most common cause of retinitis and the commonest intraocular infection in AIDS. Atypical presentations resistance to conventional treatment and higher rate of recurrence make the diagnosis and therapeutic intervention more difficult and challenging.In addition,in one eye,several infections may occur at the same time,rendering the situation more difficult.

  3. Odontogenic infections: Microbiology and management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rashi Bahl

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this retrospective study was to evaluate the involvement of fascial spaces, their bacteriology, sensitivity to antibiotics and management of odontogenic infection in 100 patients of age less than 60 years. Results: The mandibular 3 rd molar was found to be the most commonly offending tooth, followed by the mandibular 2 nd molar. The submandibular space was the most frequently involved fascial space both in single fascial space infections and multiple fascial space infections. Mixed growth (aerobic and anaerobic was seen in culture smears of 60 patients, only aerobic bacterial growth was seen in 25 patients and anaerobic bacterial growth was seen in culture smears of 15 patients. Streptococcus viridans was the most frequently isolated bacteria among the aerobes, whereas Bacteroides and Prevotella were the most common bacterial species among anaerobes. Empirical antibiotic therapy in the form of Co amoxiclav and Metronidazole was given. Incision and drainage followed by extraction of the offending tooth/teeth was carried out. Conclusion: It was concluded that odontogenic infections were mixed aerobic-anaerobic infections. Anaerobic as well as aerobic cultures were necessary to isolate all pathogens. Successful management of these infections depends on changing the environment through decompression, removal of the etiologic factor and by choosing the proper antibiotic.

  4. HIV infection in the elderly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nancy Nguyen

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Nancy Nguyen1, Mark Holodniy21University of the Pacific School of Pharmacy and Health Sciences, Stockton, CA, USA; 2VA Palo Alto Health Care System, Palo Alto, CA, USAAbstract: In the US, an estimated 1 million people are infected with HIV, although one-third of this population are unaware of their diagnosis. While HIV infection is commonly thought to affect younger adults, there are an increasing number of patients over 50 years of age living with the condition. UNAIDS and WHO estimate that of the 40 million people living with HIV/AIDS in the world, approximately 2.8 million are 50 years and older. With the introduction of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART in the mid-1990s, survival following HIV diagnosis has risen dramatically and HIV infection has evolved from an acute disease process to being managed as a chronic medical condition. As treated HIV-infected patients live longer and the number of new HIV diagnoses in older patients rise, clinicians need to be aware of these trends and become familiar with the management of HIV infection in the older patient. This article is intended for the general clinician, including geriatricians, and will review epidemiologic data and HIV treatment as well as provide a discussion on medical management issues affecting the older HIV-infected patient.Keywords: HIV, epidemiology, treatment, aging, review

  5. Tropical infections in the ICU.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kothari, Vatsal M; Karnad, Dilip R; Bichile, Lata S

    2006-04-01

    Certain arthropod-borne infections are common in tropical regions because of favorable climatic conditions. Water-borne infections like leptospirosis are common due to contamination of water especially during the monsoon floods. Infections like malaria, leptospirosis, dengue fever and typhus sometimes cause life threatening organ dysfunction and have several overlapping features. Most patients present with classicial clinical syndromes: fever and thrombocytopenia are common in dengue, malaria and leptospirosis; coagulopathy is frequent in leptospirosis and viral hepatitis. Hepatorenal syndrome is seen in leptospirosis, falciparum malaria and scrub typhus. The pulmonary renal syndrome is caused by falciparium malaria, leptospirosis, Hantavirus infection and scrub typhus. Fever with altered mental status is produced by bacterial meningitis, Japanese B encephalitis, cerebral malarial, typhoid encephalopathy and fulminant hepatic failure due to viral hepatitis. Subtle differences in features of the organ failure exist among these infections. The diagnosis in some of these diseases is made by demonstration of antibodies in serum, and these may be negative in the first week of the illness. Hence empiric therapy for more than one disorder may be justified in a small proportion of cases. In addition to specific anti-infective therapy, management of organ dysfunction includes use of mechanical ventilation, vasopressor drugs, continuous renal replacement therapy and blood products. Timely transfer of these patients to well-equipped ICUs with experience in managing these cases can considerably decrease mortality and morbidity.

  6. Cladosporium scalp infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sosa, Erwin Eduardo Argueta; Cohen, Philip R; Tschen, Jaime A

    2012-01-01

    An 11-year-old healthy red-haired girl presented with a 3-year history of hair loss and mild pruritus of her scalp. She had previously been diagnosed with trichotillomania. Cutaneous examination showed scant hair loss with neither crusting nor scaly lesions. The scalp hair was diffusely thin, dry, and brittle on the frontal, mid-parietal, and anterior occipital scalp (Figure 1A). A pull test was negative, and a significant number of hair shafts were not detached on repeated traction. Closer examination using a dermatoscope showed follicles with broken hair shafts. The dermatoscopic evaluation also showed frequent pinpoint black dots scattered among the terminal hair shafts at their bases. No scale, scar, or inflammatory changes were seen in the involved areas (Figure 1B). A 20% potassium hydroxide (KOH) preparation of material obtained after gentle scrapping of the black dots on the scalp provided fragments of hair fibers containing aggregates of pigmented yeast forms (Figure 2A) and brown septate hyphae (Figure 2B). Two samples were sent for fungal culture and both showed dark brown colonies on the surface and black coloration when viewed from the reverse side (Figure 3A). Lactophenol cotton blue preparation of the fungal colonies revealed long and septate hyphae with laterally branching conidiophores ending in round-shaped conidia (Figure 3B). The microorganism was identified by the reference laboratory as Cladosporium species. The conidia were usually noted to be single-celled with a distinct dark hilum. They also exhibited prominent attachment scars that caused the cells to appear "shield-shaped." These features were considered to be diagnostic for Cladosporium; however, the reference laboratory could not identify the organism to the species level. The girl's Cladosporium scalp infection was treated with itraconazole at an oral daily dose of 200 mg for 2 months. Upon re-evaluation, she showed significant improvement with not only discontinuation of her alopecia

  7. Immune response to fungal infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanco, Jose L; Garcia, Marta E

    2008-09-15

    The immune mechanisms of defence against fungal infections are numerous, and range from protective mechanisms that were present early in evolution (innate immunity) to sophisticated adaptive mechanisms that are induced specifically during infection and disease (adaptive immunity). The first-line innate mechanism is the presence of physical barriers in the form of skin and mucous membranes, which is complemented by cell membranes, cellular receptors and humoral factors. There has been a debate about the relative contribution of humoral and cellular immunity to host defence against fungal infections. For a long time it was considered that cell-mediated immunity (CMI) was important, but humoral immunity had little or no role. However, it is accepted now that CMI is the main mechanism of defence, but that certain types of antibody response are protective. In general, Th1-type CMI is required for clearance of a fungal infection, while Th2 immunity usually results in susceptibility to infection. Aspergillosis, which is a disease caused by the fungus Aspergillus, has been the subject of many studies, including details of the immune response. Attempts to relate aspergillosis to some form of immunosuppression in animals, as is the case with humans, have not been successful to date. The defence against Aspergillus is based on recognition of the pathogen, a rapidly deployed and highly effective innate effector phase, and a delayed but robust adaptive effector phase. Candida albicans, part of the normal microbial flora associated with mucous surfaces, can be present as congenital candidiasis or as acquired defects of cell-mediated immunity. Resistance to this yeast is associated with Th1 CMI, whereas Th2 immunity is associated with susceptibility to systemic infection. Dermatophytes produce skin alterations in humans and other animals, and the essential role of the CMI response is to destroy the fungi and produce an immunoprotective status against re-infection. The resolution

  8. Neonatal Staphylococcus lugdunensis urinary tract infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayakawa, Itaru; Hataya, Hiroshi; Yamanouchi, Hanako; Sakakibara, Hiroshi; Terakawa, Toshiro

    2015-08-01

    Staphylococcus lugdunensis is a known pathogen of infective endocarditis, but not of urinary tract infection. We report a previously healthy neonate without congenital anomalies of the kidney and urinary tract who developed urinary tract infection due to Staphylococcus lugdunensis, illustrating that Staphylococcus lugdunensis can cause urinary tract infection even in those with no urinary tract complications.

  9. Acute focal infections of dental origin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Olsen, Ingar; van Winkelhoff, Arie J.

    2014-01-01

    This article describes the most important pus-producing acute oral infections (dental infections) that can spread extra-orally. Most of these infections are spread by bacteria entering the bloodstream. However, dental infections have a number of other pathways for dissemination. By forming abscesses

  10. Early infection and prognosis after acute stroke

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kammersgaard, L P; Jørgensen, H S; Reith, J;

    2001-01-01

    Infection is a frequent complication in the early course of acute stroke and may adversely affect stroke outcome. In the present study, we investigate early infection developing in patients within 3 days of admission to the hospital and its independent relation to recovery and stroke outcome....... In addition, we identify predictors for early infections, infection subtypes, and their relation to initial stroke severity....

  11. INFECTIONS IN THALASSEMIA AND HEMOGLOBINOPATHIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deborah Rund

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available

     

    The clinical approach to thalassemia and hemoglobinopathies, specifically Sickle Cell Disease (SCD, based on transfusions, iron chelation and bone marrow transplantation has ameliorated their prognosis. Nevertheless, infections still may cause serious complications in these patients. The susceptibility to infections in thalassemia and SCD arises both from a large spectrum of immunological abnormalities and from exposure to specific infectious agents. Four fundamental issues will be focused upon as central causes of immune dysfunction: the diseases themselves; iron overload, transfusion therapy and the role of the spleen. Thalassemia and SCD differ in their pathogenesis and clinical course. It will be outlined how these differences affect immune dysfunction, the risk of infections and the types of most frequent infections in each disease. Moreover, since transfusions are a fundamental tool for treating these patients, their safety is paramount in reducing the risks of infections. In recent years, careful surveillance worldwide and improvements in laboratory tests reduced greatly transfusion transmitted infections, but the problem is not completely resolved. Finally, selected topics will be discussed regarding Parvovirus B19 and transfusion transmitted infections as well as the prevention of infectious risk postsplenectomy or in presence of functional asplenia.

  12. Autistic disorder and viral infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Libbey, Jane E; Sweeten, Thayne L; McMahon, William M; Fujinami, Robert S

    2005-02-01

    Autistic disorder (autism) is a behaviorally defined developmental disorder with a wide range of behaviors. Although the etiology of autism is unknown, data suggest that autism results from multiple etiologies with both genetic and environmental contributions, which may explain the spectrum of behaviors seen in this disorder. One proposed etiology for autism is viral infection very early in development. The mechanism, by which viral infection may lead to autism, be it through direct infection of the central nervous system (CNS), through infection elsewhere in the body acting as a trigger for disease in the CNS, through alteration of the immune response of the mother or offspring, or through a combination of these, is not yet known. Animal models in which early viral infection results in behavioral changes later in life include the influenza virus model in pregnant mice and the Borna disease virus model in newborn Lewis rats. Many studies over the years have presented evidence both for and against the association of autism with various viral infections. The best association to date has been made between congenital rubella and autism; however, members of the herpes virus family may also have a role in autism. Recently, controversy has arisen as to the involvement of measles virus and/or the measles, mumps, rubella (MMR) vaccine in the development of autism. Biological assays lend support to the association between measles virus or MMR and autism whereas epidemiologic studies show no association between MMR and autism. Further research is needed to clarify both the mechanisms whereby viral infection early in development may lead to autism and the possible involvement of the MMR vaccine in the development of autism.

  13. Protective immune responses in lawsonia intracellularis infections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cordes, Henriette; Riber, Ulla; Boutrup, Torsten;

    , that a primary L. intracellularis experimental infection in pigs protects against re-colonisation (re-infection) with a virulent L. intracellularis isolate. After re-infection the animals had reduced L. intracellularis colonisation of the intestinal mucosa compared to controls, no bacterial shedding......, but exhibited a high, but short-lasting peak after re-infection. Specific IFN responses were also measured using a whole blood IFN-γ assay. These were very high in challenge infected and re-infected animals as compared to controls. These specific immune responses may contribute to the explanation of mechanisms...... behind the observed protection against re-infection with L. intracellularis....

  14. Year in review 2010: Critical Care - infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pagani, Leonardo; Afshari, Arash; Harbarth, Stephan

    2011-01-01

    ABSTRACT: Infections remain among the most important concerns in critically ill patients. Early and reliable diagnosis of infection still poses difficulties in this setting but also represents a crucial step toward appropriate antimicrobial therapy. Increasing antimicrobial resistance challenges...... established approaches to the optimal management of infections in the intensive care unit. Rapid infection diagnosis, antibiotic dosing and optimization through pharmacologic indices, progress in the implementation of effective antimicrobial stewardship and infection control programs, and management of fungal...

  15. Urinary tract infections: epidemiology, mechanisms of infection and treatment options.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores-Mireles, Ana L; Walker, Jennifer N; Caparon, Michael; Hultgren, Scott J

    2015-05-01

    Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are a severe public health problem and are caused by a range of pathogens, but most commonly by Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Proteus mirabilis, Enterococcus faecalis and Staphylococcus saprophyticus. High recurrence rates and increasing antimicrobial resistance among uropathogens threaten to greatly increase the economic burden of these infections. In this Review, we discuss how basic science studies are elucidating the molecular details of the crosstalk that occurs at the host-pathogen interface, as well as the consequences of these interactions for the pathophysiology of UTIs. We also describe current efforts to translate this knowledge into new clinical treatments for UTIs.

  16. Ecopathology of ranaviruses infecting amphibians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Debra; Gray, Matthew; Storfer, Andrew

    2011-11-01

    Ranaviruses are capable of infecting amphibians from at least 14 families and over 70 individual species. Ranaviruses infect multiple cell types, often culminating in organ necrosis and massive hemorrhaging. Subclinical infections have been documented, although their role in ranavirus persistence and emergence remains unclear. Water is an effective transmission medium for ranaviruses, and survival outside the host may be for significant duration. In aquatic communities, amphibians, reptiles and fish may serve as reservoirs. Controlled studies have shown that susceptibility to ranavirus infection and disease varies among amphibian species and developmental stages, and likely is impacted by host-pathogen coevolution, as well as, exogenous environmental factors. Field studies have demonstrated that the likelihood of epizootics is increased in areas of cattle grazing, where aquatic vegetation is sparse and water quality is poor. Translocation of infected amphibians through commercial trade (e.g., food, fish bait, pet industry) contributes to the spread of ranaviruses. Such introductions may be of particular concern, as several studies report that ranaviruses isolated from ranaculture, aquaculture, and bait facilities have greater virulence (i.e., ability to cause disease) than wild-type isolates. Future investigations should focus on the genetic basis for pathogen virulence and host susceptibility, ecological and anthropogenic mechanisms contributing to emergence, and vaccine development for use in captive populations and species reintroduction programs.

  17. Ecopathology of Ranaviruses Infecting Amphibians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Storfer

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Ranaviruses are capable of infecting amphibians from at least 14 families and over 70 individual species. Ranaviruses infect multiple cell types, often culminating in organ necrosis and massive hemorrhaging. Subclinical infections have been documented, although their role in ranavirus persistence and emergence remains unclear. Water is an effective transmission medium for ranaviruses, and survival outside the host may be for significant duration. In aquatic communities, amphibians, reptiles and fish may serve as reservoirs. Controlled studies have shown that susceptibility to ranavirus infection and disease varies among amphibian species and developmental stages, and likely is impacted by host-pathogen coevolution, as well as, exogenous environmental factors. Field studies have demonstrated that the likelihood of epizootics is increased in areas of cattle grazing, where aquatic vegetation is sparse and water quality is poor. Translocation of infected amphibians through commercial trade (e.g., food, fish bait, pet industry contributes to the spread of ranaviruses. Such introductions may be of particular concern, as several studies report that ranaviruses isolated from ranaculture, aquaculture, and bait facilities have greater virulence (i.e., ability to cause disease than wild-type isolates. Future investigations should focus on the genetic basis for pathogen virulence and host susceptibility, ecological and anthropogenic mechanisms contributing to emergence, and vaccine development for use in captive populations and species reintroduction programs.

  18. Suramin inhibits EV71 infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yaxin; Qing, Jie; Sun, Yuna; Rao, Zihe

    2014-03-01

    Enterovirus-71 (EV71) is one of the major causative reagents for hand-foot-and-mouth disease. In particular, EV71 causes severe central nervous system infections and leads to numerous dead cases. Although several inactivated whole-virus vaccines have entered in clinical trials, no antiviral agent has been provided for clinical therapy. In the present work, we screened our compound library and identified that suramin, which has been clinically used to treat variable diseases, could inhibit EV71 proliferation with an IC50 value of 40 μM. We further revealed that suramin could block the attachment of EV71 to host cells to regulate the early stage of EV71 infection, as well as affected other steps of EV71 life cycle. Our results are helpful to understand the mechanism for EV71 life cycle and provide a potential for the usage of an approved drug, suramin, as the antiviral against EV71 infection.

  19. [Microbiological diagnosis of HIV infection].

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Bernaldo de Quirós, Juan Carlos; Delgado, Rafael; García, Federico; Eiros, José M; Ortiz de Lejarazu, Raúl

    2007-12-01

    Currently, there are around 150,000 HIV-infected patients in Spain. This number, together with the fact that this disease is now a chronic condition since the introduction of antiretroviral therapy, has generated an increasing demand on the clinical microbiology laboratories in our hospitals. This increase has occurred not only in the diagnosis and treatment of opportunistic diseases, but also in tests related to the diagnosis and therapeutic management of HIV infection. To meet this demand, the Sociedad de Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clinica (Spanish Society of Infectious Diseases and Clinical Microbiology) has updated its standard Procedure for the microbiological diagnosis of HIV infection. The main advances related to serological diagnosis, plasma viral load, and detection of resistance to antiretroviral drugs are reviewed in this version of the Procedure.

  20. Adenovirus infection in immunocompromised patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylwia Rynans

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Human adenoviruses belong to the Adenoviridae family and they are divided into seven species, including 56 types. Adenoviruses are common opportunistic pathogens that are rarely associated with clinical symptoms in immunocompetent patients. However, they are emerging pathogens causing morbidity and mortality in recipients of hematopoietic stem cell and solid organ transplants, HIV infected patients and patients with primary immune deficiencies. Clinical presentation ranges from asymptomatic viraemia to respiratory and gastrointestinal disease, haemorrhagic cystitis and severe disseminated illness. There is currently no formally approved therapy for the treatment of adenovirus infections.This article presents current knowledge about adenoviruses, their pathogenicity and information about available methods to diagnose and treat adenoviral infections.

  1. Liver involvement in systemic infection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Masami; Minemura; Kazuto; Tajiri; Yukihiro; Shimizu

    2014-01-01

    The liver is often involved in systemic infections,resulting in various types of abnormal liver function test results.In particular,hyperbilirubinemia in the range of 2-10 mg/dL is often seen in patients with sepsis,and several mechanisms for this phenomenon have been proposed.In this review,we summarize how the liver is involved in various systemic infections that are not considered to be primarily hepatotropic.In most patients with systemic infections,treatment for the invading microbes is enough to normalize the liver function tests.However,some patients may show severe liver injury or fulminant hepatic failure,requiring intensive treatment of the liver.

  2. [Urinary tract infections in children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lellig, E; Apfelbeck, M; Straub, J; Karl, A; Tritschler, S; Stief, C G; Riccabona, M

    2017-02-01

    Urinary tract infections (UTI) are the most common bacterial infections in children. The symptoms are not very specific and range from abdominal pain, poor feeding to nocturnal urinary incontinence. The technique of collecting urine plays an important role for securing the diagnosis. The best way to obtain urine in non-toilet-trained children is catheterization or suprapubic bladder aspiration. In toilet-trained children midstream urine is an acceptable alternative after cleaning the foreskin or labia. In the case of an infection a prompt empirical antibiotic therapy is necessary to reduce the risk of parenchymal scarring of the kidneys. There are different approaches to diagnose vesicoureteral reflux in different countries. The commonly used standard approach in Germany is voiding cystourethrography. In the case of reflux dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA) scintigraphy should be performed additionally to exclude renal scarring (bottom-up approach).

  3. Prions, proteinase K and infectivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sajnani, Gustavo; Requena, Jesús R

    2012-01-01

    It has been described that the breakdown of β-sheets in PrP (Sc) by denaturation results in loss of infectivity and PK-sensitivity, suggesting a relationship between the structure and PK-resistance. It is also known that an important fraction of total PrP (Sc) is PK-sensitive and can be isolated by the method we already described. Consequently, we decided to employ the PK-sensitive fraction of PrP (Sc) as a potential and useful tool for structural studies. Thus, two essential questions were addressed in our recent article. First, the difference in the infectivity between the sensitive and resistant fractions and second, whether sensitive and resistant PrP (Sc) shared the same conformation or were only different size multimers with the same basic conformation. Here we discuss our latest data in light of recent infectivity studies and their possible implications on the conformation of the prion.

  4. Biomarkers of latent TB infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ruhwald, Morten; Ravn, Pernille

    2009-01-01

    For the last 100 years, the tuberculin skin test (TST) has been the only diagnostic tool available for latent TB infection (LTBI) and no biomarker per se is available to diagnose the presence of LTBI. With the introduction of M. tuberculosis-specific IFN-gamma release assays (IGRAs), a new area...... of in vitro immunodiagnostic tests for LTBI based on biomarker readout has become a reality. In this review, we discuss existing evidence on the clinical usefulness of IGRAs and the indefinite number of potential new biomarkers that can be used to improve diagnosis of latent TB infection. We also present...... early data suggesting that the monocyte-derived chemokine inducible protein-10 may be useful as a novel biomarker for the immunodiagnosis of latent TB infection....

  5. Bone disease and HIV infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amorosa, Valerianna; Tebas, Pablo

    2006-01-01

    The high prevalence of bone demineralization among human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients in the current therapeutic era has been described in multiple studies, sounding the alarm that we may expect an epidemic of fragility fractures in the future. However, despite noting high overall prevalences of osteopenia and osteoporosis, recent longitudinal studies that we review here have generally not observed accelerated bone loss during antiretroviral therapy beyond the initial period after treatment initiation. We discuss the continued progress toward understanding the mechanisms of HIV-associated bone loss, particularly the effects of HIV infection, antiretroviral therapy, and host immune factors on bone turnover. We summarize results of clinical trials published in the past year that studied the safety and efficacy of treatment of bone loss in HIV-infected patients and provide provisional opinions about who should be considered for bone disease screening and treatment.

  6. Pseudotyped retroviruses for infecting axolotl.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Tzu-Hsing; Whited, Jessica L

    2015-01-01

    The ability to introduce DNA elements into host cells and analyze the effects has revolutionized modern biology. Here we describe a protocol to generate Moloney murine leukemia virus (MMLV)-based, replication-incompetent pseudotyped retrovirus capable of infecting axolotls and incorporating genetic information into their genome. When pseudotyped with vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV)-G glycoprotein, the retroviruses can infect a broad range of proliferative axolotl cell types. However, if the retrovirus is pseudotyped with an avian sarcoma leukosis virus (ASLV)-A envelope protein, only axolotl cells experimentally manipulated to express the cognate tumor virus A (TVA) receptor can be targeted by infections. These strategies enable robust transgene expression over many cell divisions, cell lineage tracing, and cell subtype targeting for gene expression.

  7. Transfusion-transmitted parasitic infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singh Gagandeep

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The transmission of parasitic organisms through transfusion is relatively rare. Of the major transfusion-transmitted diseases, malaria is a major cause of TTIP in tropical countries whereas babesiosis and Chagas′ disease pose the greatest threat to donors in the USA In both cases, this is due to the increased number of potentially infected donors. There are no reliable serologic tests available to screen donors for any of these organisms and the focus for prevention remains on adherence to donor screening guidelines that address travel history and previous infection with the etiologic agent. One goal is the development of tests that are able to screen for and identify donors potentially infectious for parasitic infections without causing the deferral of a large number of non-infectious donors or significantly increasing costs. Ideally, methods to inactivate the infectious organism will provide an element of added safety to the blood supply.

  8. Urinary Tract Infections in Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evan B. Cohn

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Urinary tract infection (UTI is an exceedingly common problem prompting seven million office visits and one million hospitalizations in the United States each year (1. Advances in the understanding of both host and bacterial factors involved in UTI have led to many improvements in therapy. While there have also been advances in the realm of antimicrobials, there have been numerous problems with multiple drug resistant organisms. Providing economical care while minimizing drug resistance requires appropriate diagnosis, evaluation, and treatment of urinary tract infections.

  9. Diagnosis of invasive fungal infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Maria Barbui

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A proper diagnostic strategy of invasive fungal infections (IFI is a very important component in the management of infectious complications in hematological patients. A good diagnostic approach should be adapted to the patient in relation to the underlying disease, stage of disease, localization of infection and immune status. None of the diagnostic markers can be entirely adopted for medical decision making, and sometimes it’s useful to use the combination of several microbiological tests.The diagnosis of IFI must therefore have a multidisciplinary approach that includes clinical suspicion, microbiological results and radiological evidence.

  10. Oral infections and systemic diseases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holmstrup, Palle; Poulsen, Anne Havemose; Andersen, Lone

    2003-01-01

    An association between periodontal infection and CVD has been revealed in some epidemiologic studies, whereas other studies were unable to demonstrate such an association. A link between the two diseases may be explained by shared established or nonestablished risk factors. Future studies...... with extended control of confounding factors and intervention studies may add to the understanding of a possible relationship between the diseases. In some cases, IE is caused by dental plaque bacteria. Several studies are suggestive of oral bacteria causing respiratory infection. The pathogenesis and course...... of a number of other diseases including DM and rheumatoid arthritis have been associated wish periodontitis, but more research is necessary to elucidate possible pathogenic interactions....

  11. Deep space infections of neck.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaluskar, S; Bajaj, P; Bane, P

    2007-03-01

    A retrospective study was performed on fourteen cases of deep cervical space infections in the neck admitted for diagnosis and treatment to the ENT Department, during a period of seven years from 1989-1997. Of the fourteen, four patients had Ludwig's angina and of the fourteen, one had a very serious complication resulting in death. Early diagnosis and adequate treatment were of paramount importance. The role of tracheostomy and management of airway in deep cervical space infections of the neck is discussed to gether with bacteriology, antibiotic treatment and surgical management.

  12. Association of malnutrition with nosocomial infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorse, G J; Messner, R L; Stephens, N D

    1989-05-01

    To study the association of malnutrition with nosocomial infection in a general medical and surgical inpatient population, we retrospectively compared 45 patients with nosocomial infection to 45 uninfected control patients, matched using several nonnutritional variables known to predispose to nosocomial infection. Univariate and multivariate analyses were done. Poor nutritional score (derived from serum albumin, total lymphocyte count, and unintentional body weight loss), unintentional body weight loss, low serum albumin level at both time of admission and the first nosocomial infection, and worsening in the nutritional score and serum albumin from admission to the first nosocomial infection were associated with the development of nosocomial infection. Nutritional factors were more abnormal in subgroups of patients with nosocomial pneumonia, urinary tract infection, wound infection, and bacteremia than in controls. The findings suggest that further study of correlations between nutritional factors and nosocomial infections is needed.

  13. Optimum management of Citrobacter koseri infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deveci, Aydin; Coban, Ahmet Yilmaz

    2014-09-01

    Low virulent Citrobacter koseri can cause life threatening infections. Neonates and other immunocompromised patients are particularly susceptible to infection from C. koseri. Any infection due to C. koseri mandates antimicrobial therapy based on the sensitivity of the pathogen microorganism. Various types of antibiotics, including aminoglycosides carbapenems, cephalosporins, chloramphenicol and quinolones, are used for the treatment of C. koseri infections. The rational choice of antimicrobial therapy for Citrobacter infections is a challenge for clinicians because there is a sustained increase in antibacterial resistance. We reviewed antimicrobial agents used for C. koseri infections in this review.

  14. Prosthesis infections after orthopedic joint replacement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Song, Zhijun; Borgwardt, Lotte; Høiby, Niels;

    2013-01-01

    Prosthesis-related infection is a serious complication for patients after orthopedic joint replacement, which is currently difficult to treat with antibiotic therapy. Consequently, in most cases, removal of the infected prosthesis is the only solution to cure the infection. It is, therefore...... and the host immune responses. The authors reviewed the related literature in the context of their clinical experience, and discussed the possible etiology and mechanism leading to the infections, especially problems related to bacterial biofilm, and prophylaxis and treatment of infection, including both...... microbiological and surgical measures. Recent progress in research into bacterial biofilm and possible future treatment options of prosthesis-related infections are discussed....

  15. Infection control in healthcare settings in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morikane, Keita

    2012-01-01

    In Japan, the practice of infection control in healthcare settings has a short history of less than 3 decades. Before that, infection control practices were far from perfect and even ignored. This review summarizes changes in infection control in Japan since the 1980s and offers some comparisons with practices in foreign countries, especially the United States. Infection control is far better now than 25 years ago, but there remain fundamental issues that limit the development of better infection control practices. These problems include insufficient funding and human resources due to the socialized healthcare insurance system in Japan and the lack of interest in infection control research.

  16. Black Aspergilli in tropical infections

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kredics, L.; Varga, J.; Antal, Z.; Samson, R.A.; Vagvolgyi, C.; Manikandan, P.

    2009-01-01

    Members of the genus Aspergillus are among the filamentous fungal agents frequently causing infections in humans. A. fumigatus is the most commonly isolated fungal pathogen within the genus; however, other species, including A. terreus, A. flavus and A. niger are also of increasing importance. Infec

  17. Host response to Eimeria infections

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Swinkels, W.J.C.

    2008-01-01

    The protozoan parasite Eimeria is responsible for the disease coccidiosis and has a worldwide distribution. Intestinal Eimeria infections are the dominating class of diseases in poultry causing great economical damage and considerably affecting animal welfare. In the Netherlands in chickens raised f

  18. Toenail infection by Cladophialophora boppii

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Brasch; S. Dressel; K. Müller-Wening; R. Hügel; D. von Bremen; G.S. de Hoog

    2011-01-01

    Cladophialophora boppii is a black yeast-like fungus that up to now has been only rarely described as a cause of human infection and whose role as a pathogen was not established despite its repeated isolation and genetic identification in these reports. Here we report the first case of a verified to

  19. Clostridium difficile Infection in Outpatients

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2011-11-07

    Dr. Jon Mark Hirshon, Associate Professor of Emergency Medicine at the University of Maryland School of Medicine, discusses Clostridium difficile infection in outpatients.  Created: 11/7/2011 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 11/21/2011.

  20. Cellular immunity in Pneumovirus infections

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Claassen, E.A.W.

    2006-01-01

    Human Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV) is the leading cause of viral respiratory tract infection in infants worldwide. In the developed world viral bronchiolitis is the most common cause of hospitalization among infants, 70% of these are associated with RSV. In recent years the realization is growi

  1. Genetic Determinants of Enterovirus Infections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Witsø, Elisabet; Cinek, Ondrej; Tapia, German

    2015-01-01

    Enteroviruses have been suggested as triggers of type 1 diabetes (T1D). We aimed to assess whether established T1D susceptibility single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and candidate SNPs in innate immune genes were associated with the frequency of enterovirus infection in otherwise healthy child...

  2. Invasive Group A Streptococcal Infection

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2011-06-13

    In this podcast, CDC's Dr. Chris Van Beneden discusses the dangers of group A strep infections.  Created: 6/13/2011 by National Center for Emerging Zoonotic and Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 6/13/2011.

  3. Candida infections : detection and epidemiology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Borst, A. (Annemarie)

    2002-01-01

    Despite the fact that the yeast Candida is the number 4 cause of bloodstream infections in the United States and ranks number 8 in Europe, adequate detection methods are lacking. Furthermore, relatively little is known about the epidemiology of Candida. Our aim was to improve the detection and ident

  4. Halitosis and Helicobacter pylori infection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tangerman, A.; Winkel, E. G.; de Laat, L.; van Oijen, A. H.; de Boer, W. A.

    2012-01-01

    There is disagreement about a possible relationship between Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection and objective halitosis, as established by volatile sulfur compounds (VSCs) in the breath. Many studies related to H. pylori used self-reported halitosis, a subjective and unreliable method to detec

  5. [Occult hepatitis C virus infection].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carreño García, Vicente; Nebreda, Javier Bartolomé; Aguilar, Inmaculada Castillo; Quiroga Estévez, Juan Antonio

    2011-03-01

    Occult hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is characterized by the detection of HCV-RNA in liver in the absence of anti-HCV and serum HCV-RNA determined by conventional techniques. The development of a new enzyme immunoassay for the detection of antibodies against a conserved epitope in the HCV core protein, together with the detection of HCV-RNA in peripheral blood mononuclear cells and in serum after concentrating the viral particles by ultracentrifugation, allow diagnosis of more than 90% of patients with occult HCV without the need to perform a liver biopsy. Histological damage in occult HCV infection ranges from minimal changes to liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma, although in general this disease is less severe than classical chronic hepatitis C. A significant prevalence of occult HCV infection has been identified in risk groups such as hemodialysis patients and the family members of patients with occult hepatitis C. This occult HCV infection can also be found in subjects without clinical or biochemical evidence of liver disease.

  6. Pediatric Asthma and Viral Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Garcia, M Luz; Calvo Rey, Cristina; Del Rosal Rabes, Teresa

    2016-05-01

    Respiratory viral infections, particularly respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) and rhinovirus, are the most importance risk factors for the onset of wheezing in infants and small children. Bronchiolitis is the most common acute respiratory infection in children under 1year of age, and the most common cause of hospitalization in this age group. RSV accounts for approximately 70% of all these cases, followed by rhinovirus, adenovirus, metapneumovirus and bocavirus. The association between bronchiolitis caused by RSV and the development of recurrent wheezing and/or asthma was first described more than 40years ago, but it is still unclear whether bronchiolitis causes chronic respiratory symptoms, or if it is a marker for children with a genetic predisposition for developing asthma in the medium or long term. In any case, sufficient evidence is available to corroborate the existence of this association, which is particularly strong when the causative agent of bronchiolitis is rhinovirus. The pathogenic role of respiratory viruses as triggers for exacerbations in asthmatic patients has not been fully characterized. However, it is clear that respiratory viruses, and in particular rhinovirus, are the most common causes of exacerbation in children, and some type of respiratory virus has been identified in over 90% of children hospitalized for an episode of wheezing. Changes in the immune response to viral infections in genetically predisposed individuals are very likely to be the main factors involved in the association between viral infection and asthma.

  7. Treatment of primary HIV infection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grijsen, M.L.

    2013-01-01

    In this thesis we studied the treatment of PHI. Early cART transiently lowered the viral setpoint and deferred the need for restart of cART during chronic HIV infection, which was most likely caused by the effects of the CD4 gain during treatment and the transient lowering of the viral setpoint. Eve

  8. Epidemiology of Helicobacter pylori infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leja, Mārcis; Axon, Anthony; Brenner, Hermann

    2016-09-01

    This review of recent publications related to the epidemiology of Helicobacter pylori highlights the origin of the infection, its changing prevalence, transmission, and outcome. A number of studies have addressed the ancestor roots of the bacteria, and the first genomewide analysis of bacterial strains suggests that its coexistence with humans is more ancient than previously thought. As opposed to the generally declining prevalence of H. pylori (including China and Japan), in Sweden, the prevalence of atrophic gastritis in the young population has risen. The prevalence of the infection remains high in the indigenous populations of the Arctic regions, and reinfection rates are high. A high prevalence is permanently found in the Siberian regions of Russia as well. Several studies, some of which used multiplex serology, addressed prevalence of and risks associated with various H. pylori serotypes, thereby enabling more precise risk assessment. Transmission of H. pylori was discussed, specifically fecal-oral transmission and the use of well-water and other unpurified water. Finally, the long-term course of H. pylori infection was considered, with an estimated 89% of noncardia gastric cancer cases being attributable to the infection.

  9. Enterovirus 71 infection and vaccines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    Hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD) is a highly contagious viral infection affecting young children during the spring to fall seasons. Recently, serious outbreaks of HFMD were reported frequently in the Asia-Pacific region, including China and Korea. The symptoms of HFMD are usually mild, comprising fever, loss of appetite, and a rash with blisters, which do not need specific treatment. However, there are uncommon neurological or cardiac complications such as meningitis and acute flaccid paralysis that can be fatal. HFMD is most commonly caused by infection with coxsackievirus A16, and secondly by enterovirus 71 (EV71). Many other strains of coxsackievirus and enterovirus can also cause HFMD. Importantly, HFMD caused by EV71 tends to be associated with fatal complications. Therefore, there is an urgent need to protect against EV71 infection. Development of vaccines against EV71 would be the most effective approach to prevent EV71 outbreaks. Here, we summarize EV71 infection and development of vaccines, focusing on current scientific and clinical progress. PMID:28168168

  10. Infection risk and intrauterine devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez, Francisca; López-Arregui, Eduardo

    2009-01-01

    For most women, intrauterine contraceptive devices (IUCD) are a safe option. Upper genital tract infections (pelvic inflammatory disease, PID) occur when pathogenic microorganisms ascend from the cervix and invade the endometrium and the fallopian tubes, causing an inflammatory reaction. Evidence-based recommendations regarding intrauterine contraception and risk of infection were presented at the Congress of the European Society of Contraception, in Prague, 2008: A clinical history (including sexual history) should be taken as part of the routine assessment for intrauterine contraception to identify women at high risk of sexually transmitted infections (STI); if appropriate a test should be offered; if symptoms or signs are present, appropriate diagnostic tests should be done, results awaited, necessary treatment completed, and IUCD insertion postponed until resolution. Prophylactic antibiotics are not recommended (evidence level II-3). STI screening is not routinely recommended. PID among IUCD users is most strongly related to the insertion process and to the background risk of STI (evidence level II-2). Conditions which represent an unacceptable health risk if an IUCD is inserted (WHO Medical Eligibility Criteria, MEC, Categories 3-4) are current PID, current purulent cervicitis, chlamydial or gonorrheal infection. For continuation as well as initiation, WHO MEC categories 3-4 are allotted to women with known pelvic tuberculosis, puerperal sepsis and septic abortion.

  11. Clinical Pearls in pediatric infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singhi, Sunit; Mathew, Joseph; Jindal, Atul; Verma, Sanjay

    2011-12-01

    This series of Clinical Pearls presents four cases presenting with infection. Each of these cases had clinical clues to the correct diagnosis, which could be picked up on meticulous history, clinical examination, or basic laboratory investigations. The authors highlight the important lessons to be learnt from each case. The first is a 7 year old boy with recurrent respiratory tract infections since early life. Clinical examination revealed the presence of dextrocardia and situs inversus and bronchiectasis leading to a diagnosis of Primary Ciliary Dyskinesia. The second case is a 1.5-month-old infant who presented with meningitis and increasing head size since birth. CSF examination and CT scanning led to the correct diagnosis of congenital Toxoplasmosis. The next case is an infant with high grade fever and neck swelling. He had the rare Lemierre's syndrome comprising of oro-pharyngeal infection, suppurative thrompbophlebitis of the internal jugular vein and systemic dissemination of septic emboli. The fourth case is a 2-year-old infant with recurrent respiratory tract infections and discharging neck swellings from early life. Repeated testing for tuberculosis was negative. The diagnosis was Chronic granulomatous disease. The authors describe the clinical approach and investigations in these cases; along with an outline of the management.

  12. Vaccination against feline retrovirus infections

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Horzinek, M.C.

    1996-01-01

    Feline leukemia virus (FeLV) and feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV), both of veterinary importance, their antigenic and genetic variability as well as their pathogenicity are described. Disease following FeLV infection is interpreted as a consequence of genetic recombination, as a result of viral e

  13. Fungal infections of the orbit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bipasha Mukherjee

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Fungal infections of the orbit can lead to grave complications. Although the primary site of inoculation of the infective organism is frequently the sinuses, the patients can initially present to the ophthalmologist with ocular signs and symptoms. Due to its varied and nonspecific clinical features, especially in the early stages, patients are frequently misdiagnosed and even treated with steroids which worsen the situation leading to dire consequences. Ophthalmologists should be familiar with the clinical spectrum of disease and the variable presentation of this infection, as early diagnosis and rapid institution of appropriate therapy are crucial elements in the management of this invasive sino-orbital infection. In this review, relevant clinical, microbiological, and imaging findings are discussed along with the current consensus on local and systemic management. We review the recent literature and provide a comprehensive analysis. In the immunocompromised, as well as in healthy patients, a high index of suspicion must be maintained as delay in diagnosis of fungal pathology may lead to disfiguring morbidity or even mortality. Obtaining adequate diagnostic material for pathological and microbiological examination is critical. Newer methods of therapy, particularly oral voriconazole and topical amphotericin B, may be beneficial in selected patients.

  14. Morbillivirus infections in aquatic mammals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    I.K.G. Visser (Ilona); M.F. van Bressem; T. Barrett (Thomas); A.D.M.E. Osterhaus (Albert)

    1993-01-01

    textabstractInfections with morbilliviruses have caused heavy losses among different populations of aquatic mammals during the last 5 years. Two different morbilliviruses were isolated from disease outbreaks among seals in Europe and Siberia: phocid distemper virus-1 (PDV-1) and phocid distemper vir

  15. Zoonotic aspects of arenavirus infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charrel, R N; de Lamballerie, X

    2010-01-27

    To date, the International Committee for Taxonomy of Viruses recognizes that the family Arenaviridae contains a unique genus Arenavirus that includes 22 viral species. There are nine additional arenaviruses that either have been discovered recently, or which taxonomic status remains pending. Arenaviruses have been classified according to their antigenic properties into two groups, the Lassa-Lymphocytic choriomeningitis (LCM) serocomplex and the Tacaribe serocomplex which has been further divided into four evolutionary lineages. Each arenavirus is more or less tightly associated with a mammal host. The distribution of the host dictates the distribution of the virus. Humans may become infected by arenaviruses through direct contact with infected rodents, including bites, or through inhalation of infectious rodent excreta and secreta. Lassa, Junin, Machupo, Guanarito, and Sabia viruses are known to cause a severe hemorrhagic fever, in western Africa, Argentina, Bolivia, Venezuela, and Brazil, respectively. Infection by LCM virus can result in acute central nervous system disease, congenital malformations, and infection in organ transplantation recipients. Detection of arenaviruses in their animal host can be achieved by virus isolation, and has recently taken advantage of PCR-based techniques. The approach based on consensus degenerate primers has shown efficient for both detection of known arenaviruses, and discovery of new arenaviruses.

  16. [Ulcerative colitis and cytomegalovirus infection].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tárraga Rodríguez, I; Ferreras Fernández, P; Vicente Gutiérrez, M; de Arriba, J J; García Mouriño, M L

    2003-02-01

    Colitis ulcerous and citomegalovirus infection association have been reported in medical literature in sometimes, althougth this prevalence have lately increased. We report a case record of this association and do a review of this subject. It is not clear what factors are involved in this association, being necessary hore studies to know them.

  17. Epidemiology of Helicobacter pylori infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eusebi, Leonardo H; Zagari, Rocco M; Bazzoli, Franco

    2014-09-01

    Medline and PubMed databases were searched on epidemiology of Helicobacter pylori for the period of April 2013-March 2014. Several studies have shown that the prevalence of H. pylori is still high in most countries. In north European and North American populations, about one-third of adults are still infected, whereas in south and east Europe, South America, and Asia, the prevalence of H. pylori is often higher than 50%. H. pylori remains highly prevalent in immigrants coming from countries with high prevalence of H. pylori. However, the lower prevalence of infection in the younger generations suggests a further decline of H. pylori prevalence in the coming decades. Low socioeconomic conditions in childhood are confirmed to be the most important risk factors for H. pylori infection. Although the way the infection is transmitted is still unclear, interpersonal transmission appears to be the main route. Finally, H. pylori recurrence after successful eradication can still occur, but seems to be an infrequent event.

  18. Pathogenesis of Helicobacter pylori infection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.G. Kusters (Johannes); A.H.M. van Vliet (Arnoud); E.J. Kuipers (Ernst)

    2006-01-01

    textabstractHelicobacter pylori is the first formally recognized bacterial carcinogen and is one of the most successful human pathogens, as over half of the world's population is colonized with this gram-negative bacterium. Unless treated, colonization usually persists lifelong. H. pylori infection

  19. Radionuclide imaging of spinal infections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gemmel, Filip [Ghent Maria-Middelares, General Hospital, Division of Nuclear Medicine, Ghent (Belgium); Medical Center Leeuwarden (MCL), Division of Nuclear Medicine, Henri Dunantweg 2, Postbus 888, Leeuwarden (Netherlands); Dumarey, Nicolas [Universite Libre de Bruxelles, Hopital Erasme, Division of Nuclear Medicine, Brussels (Belgium); Palestro, Christopher J. [Long Island Jewish Medical Center, Division of Nuclear Medicine, Long Island, NY (United States)

    2006-10-15

    The diagnosis of spinal infection, with or without implants, has been a challenge for physicians for many years. Spinal infections are now being recognised more frequently, owing to aging of the population and the increasing use of spinal-fusion surgery. The diagnosis in many cases is delayed, and this may result in permanent neurological damage or even death. Laboratory evidence of infection is variable. Conventional radiography and radionuclide bone imaging lack both sensitivity and specificity. Neither in vitro labelled leucocyte scintigraphy nor {sup 99m}Tc-anti-granulocyte antibody scintigraphy is especially useful, because of the frequency with which spinal infection presents as a non-specific photopenic area on these tests. Sequential bone/gallium imaging and {sup 67}Ga-SPECT are currently the radionuclide procedures of choice for spinal osteomyelitis, but these tests lack specificity, suffer from poor spatial resolution and require several days to complete. [{sup 18}F]Fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose (FDG) PET is a promising technique for diagnosing spinal infection, and has several potential advantages over conventional radionuclide tests. The study is sensitive and is completed in a single session, and image quality is superior to that obtained with single-photon emitting tracers. The specificity of FDG-PET may also be superior to that of conventional tracers because degenerative bone disease and fractures usually do not produce intense FDG uptake; moreover, spinal implants do not affect FDG imaging. However, FDG-PET images have to be read with caution in patients with instrumented spinal-fusion surgery since non-specific accumulation of FDG around the fusion material is not uncommon. In the future, PET-CT will likely provide more precise localisation of abnormalities. FDG-PET may prove to be useful for monitoring response to treatment in patients with spinal osteomyelitis. Other tracers for diagnosing spinal osteomyelitis are also under investigation, including

  20. Probiotics in respiratory virus infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehtoranta, L; Pitkäranta, A; Korpela, R

    2014-08-01

    Viral respiratory infections are the most common diseases in humans. A large range of etiologic agents challenge the development of efficient therapies. Research suggests that probiotics are able to decrease the risk or duration of respiratory infection symptoms. However, the antiviral mechanisms of probiotics are unclear. The purpose of this paper is to review the current knowledge on the effects of probiotics on respiratory virus infections and to provide insights on the possible antiviral mechanisms of probiotics. A PubMed and Scopus database search was performed up to January 2014 using appropriate search terms on probiotic and respiratory virus infections in cell models, in animal models, and in humans, and reviewed for their relevance. Altogether, thirty-three clinical trials were reviewed. The studies varied highly in study design, outcome measures, probiotics, dose, and matrices used. Twenty-eight trials reported that probiotics had beneficial effects in the outcome of respiratory tract infections (RTIs) and five showed no clear benefit. Only eight studies reported investigating viral etiology from the respiratory tract, and one of these reported a significant decrease in viral load. Based on experimental studies, probiotics may exert antiviral effects directly in probiotic-virus interaction or via stimulation of the immune system. Although probiotics seem to be beneficial in respiratory illnesses, the role of probiotics on specific viruses has not been investigated sufficiently. Due to the lack of confirmatory studies and varied data available, more randomized, double-blind, and placebo-controlled trials in different age populations investigating probiotic dose response, comparing probiotic strains/genera, and elucidating the antiviral effect mechanisms are necessary.