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Sample records for cervical extensor musculature

  1. Magnetic resonance imaging analysis of the upper cervical spine extensor musculature in an asymptomatic cohort: an index of fat within muscle

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    Elliott, J.M. [Division of Physiotherapy, University of Queensland, Brisbane, QLD (Australia)]. E-mail: jimelliott@plbb.net; Galloway, G.J. [Center for Magnetic Resonance, University of Queensland, Brisbane, QLD (Australia); Jull, G.A. [Division of Physiotherapy, University of Queensland, Brisbane, QLD (Australia); Noteboom, J.T. [Department of Physical Therapy, Regis University, Denver, CO, USA (United States); Centeno, C.J. [Centeno Clinic, Westminster, CO, USA (United States); Gibbon, W.W. [Department of Radiology, School of Medicine, University of Queensland, Brisbane, QLD (Australia)

    2005-03-01

    AIM: To establish a simple method to quantify muscle/fat constituents in cervical muscles of asymptomatic women using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and to determine whether there is an age effect within a defined age range. MATERIALS AND METHODS: MRI of the upper cervical spine was performed for 42 asymptomatic women aged 18-45 years. The muscle and fat signal intensities on axial spin echo T1-weighted images were quantitatively classified by taking a ratio of the pixel intensity profiles of muscle against those of intermuscular fat for the rectus capitis posterior major and minor and inferior obliquus capitis muscles bilaterally. Inter- and intra-examiner agreement was scrutinized. RESULTS: The average relative values of fat within the upper cervical musculature compared with intermuscular fat indicated that there were only slight variations in indices between the three sets of muscles. There was no significant correlation between age and fat indices. There were significant differences for the relative fat within the muscle compared with intermuscular fat and body mass index for the right rectus capitis posterior major and right and left inferior obliquus capitis muscles (p=0.032). Intraclass correlation coefficients for intraobserver agreement ranged from 0.94 to 0.98. Inter-rater agreement of the measurements ranged from 0.75 to 0.97. CONCLUSION: A quantitative measure of muscle/fat constituents has been developed, and results of this study indicate that relative fatty infiltration is not a feature of age in the upper cervical extensor muscles of women aged 18-45 years.

  2. Magnetic resonance imaging analysis of the upper cervical spine extensor musculature in an asymptomatic cohort: an index of fat within muscle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elliott, J.M.; Galloway, G.J.; Jull, G.A.; Noteboom, J.T.; Centeno, C.J.; Gibbon, W.W.

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To establish a simple method to quantify muscle/fat constituents in cervical muscles of asymptomatic women using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and to determine whether there is an age effect within a defined age range. MATERIALS AND METHODS: MRI of the upper cervical spine was performed for 42 asymptomatic women aged 18-45 years. The muscle and fat signal intensities on axial spin echo T1-weighted images were quantitatively classified by taking a ratio of the pixel intensity profiles of muscle against those of intermuscular fat for the rectus capitis posterior major and minor and inferior obliquus capitis muscles bilaterally. Inter- and intra-examiner agreement was scrutinized. RESULTS: The average relative values of fat within the upper cervical musculature compared with intermuscular fat indicated that there were only slight variations in indices between the three sets of muscles. There was no significant correlation between age and fat indices. There were significant differences for the relative fat within the muscle compared with intermuscular fat and body mass index for the right rectus capitis posterior major and right and left inferior obliquus capitis muscles (p=0.032). Intraclass correlation coefficients for intraobserver agreement ranged from 0.94 to 0.98. Inter-rater agreement of the measurements ranged from 0.75 to 0.97. CONCLUSION: A quantitative measure of muscle/fat constituents has been developed, and results of this study indicate that relative fatty infiltration is not a feature of age in the upper cervical extensor muscles of women aged 18-45 years

  3. Fatty infiltrate in the cervical extensor muscles is not a feature of chronic, insidious-onset neck pain

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    Elliott, J. [Division of Physiotherapy, School of Health and Rehabilitation Sciences, University of Queensland, Brisbane (Australia); Department of Physical Therapy, Rueckert-Hartman School for Health Professions, Regis University, Denver, Colorado (United States); Centre for Magnetic Resonance, University of Queensland, Brisbane (Australia)], E-mail: jelltt@regis.edu; Sterling, M. [Division of Physiotherapy, School of Health and Rehabilitation Sciences, University of Queensland, Brisbane (Australia); Noteboom, J.T. [Department of Physical Therapy, Rueckert-Hartman School for Health Professions, Regis University, Denver, Colorado (United States); Darnell, R. [Division of Physiotherapy, School of Health and Rehabilitation Sciences, University of Queensland, Brisbane (Australia); Galloway, G. [Centre for Magnetic Resonance, University of Queensland, Brisbane (Australia); Jull, G. [Division of Physiotherapy, School of Health and Rehabilitation Sciences, University of Queensland, Brisbane (Australia)

    2008-06-15

    Aim: To investigate the presence of fatty infiltrate in the cervical extensor musculature in patients with insidious-onset neck pain to better understand the possible pathophysiology underlying such changes in chronic whiplash-associated disorders (WAD). Materials and methods: A sample of convenience of 23 women with persistent insidious-onset neck pain (mean age 29.2 {+-} 6.9 years) was recruited for the study. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was used to quantify fatty infiltration in the cervical extensor musculature. Quantitative Sensory Testing (QST; pressure and thermal pain thresholds) was performed as sensory features are present in chronic whiplash. Self-reported pain and disability, as well as psychological distress, were measured using the Neck Disability Index (NDI) and the General Health Questionnaire-28 (GHQ-28), respectively. Results: Measures were compared with those of a previous dataset of chronic whiplash patients (n = 79, mean age 29.7 {+-} 7.8 years). Using a classification tree, insidious-onset neck pain was clearly identified from whiplash (p < 0.001), based on the presence of MRI fatty infiltrate in the cervical extensor musculature (0/102 individuals) and altered temperature thresholds (cold; 3/102 individuals). Conclusion: Fatty infiltrates in the cervical extensor musculature and widespread hyperalgesia were not features of the insidious-onset neck pain group in this study; whereas these features have been identified in patients with chronic WAD. This novel finding may enable a better understanding of the underlying pathophysiological processes in patients with chronic whiplash.

  4. Fatty infiltrate in the cervical extensor muscles is not a feature of chronic, insidious-onset neck pain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elliott, J.; Sterling, M.; Noteboom, J.T.; Darnell, R.; Galloway, G.; Jull, G.

    2008-01-01

    Aim: To investigate the presence of fatty infiltrate in the cervical extensor musculature in patients with insidious-onset neck pain to better understand the possible pathophysiology underlying such changes in chronic whiplash-associated disorders (WAD). Materials and methods: A sample of convenience of 23 women with persistent insidious-onset neck pain (mean age 29.2 ± 6.9 years) was recruited for the study. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was used to quantify fatty infiltration in the cervical extensor musculature. Quantitative Sensory Testing (QST; pressure and thermal pain thresholds) was performed as sensory features are present in chronic whiplash. Self-reported pain and disability, as well as psychological distress, were measured using the Neck Disability Index (NDI) and the General Health Questionnaire-28 (GHQ-28), respectively. Results: Measures were compared with those of a previous dataset of chronic whiplash patients (n = 79, mean age 29.7 ± 7.8 years). Using a classification tree, insidious-onset neck pain was clearly identified from whiplash (p < 0.001), based on the presence of MRI fatty infiltrate in the cervical extensor musculature (0/102 individuals) and altered temperature thresholds (cold; 3/102 individuals). Conclusion: Fatty infiltrates in the cervical extensor musculature and widespread hyperalgesia were not features of the insidious-onset neck pain group in this study; whereas these features have been identified in patients with chronic WAD. This novel finding may enable a better understanding of the underlying pathophysiological processes in patients with chronic whiplash

  5. MRI study of the morphometry of the cervical musculature in F-16 pilots

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Loose, Veerle; van den Oord, Marieke; Keser, Ilke; Burnotte, Frédéric; van Tiggelen, Damien; Dumarey, Alexandre; Cagnie, Barbara; Witvrouw, Erik; Danneels, Lieven

    2009-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: In fighter pilots neck muscle strengthening exercises are often recommended to protect the neck against pathologies. The aim of the current study was to compare the relative cross-sectional area (rCSA) and muscle:fat ratio of the cervical musculature of F-16 pilots experiencing neck

  6. Work-related pain in extrinsic finger extensor musculature of instrumentalists is associated with intracellular pH compartmentation during exercise.

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    Angel Moreno-Torres

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Although non-specific pain in the upper limb muscles of workers engaged in mild repetitive tasks is a common occupational health problem, much is unknown about the associated structural and biochemical changes. In this study, we compared the muscle energy metabolism of the extrinsic finger extensor musculature in instrumentalists suffering from work-related pain with that of healthy control instrumentalists using non-invasive phosphorus magnetic resonance spectroscopy ((31P-MRS. We hypothesize that the affected muscles will show alterations related with an impaired energy metabolism. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We studied 19 volunteer instrumentalists (11 subjects with work-related pain affecting the extrinsic finger extensor musculature and 8 healthy controls. We used (31P-MRS to find deviations from the expected metabolic response to exercise in phosphocreatine (PCr, inorganic phosphate (Pi, Pi/PCr ratio and intracellular pH kinetics. We observed a reduced finger extensor exercise tolerance in instrumentalists with myalgia, an intracellular pH compartmentation in the form of neutral and acid compartments, as detected by Pi peak splitting in (31P-MRS spectra, predominantly in myalgic muscles, and a strong association of this pattern with the condition. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Work-related pain in the finger extrinsic extensor muscles is associated with intracellular pH compartmentation during exercise, non-invasively detectable by (31P-MRS and consistent with the simultaneous energy production by oxidative metabolism and glycolysis. We speculate that a deficit in energy production by oxidative pathways may exist in the affected muscles. Two possible explanations for this would be the partial and/or local reduction of blood supply and the reduction of the muscle oxidative capacity itself.

  7. Weakness of the neck extensors, possible causes and relation to adolescent idiopathic cervical kyphosis.

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    Xiaolong, Shen; Xuhui, Zhou; Jian, Chen; Ye, Tian; Wen, Yuan

    2011-09-01

    Cervical kyphosis may be congenital, or occur as a result of laminectomy, post-traumatic deformity, infection, neuromuscular disorders such as muscular dystrophies, motor neuron disorders such as amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, tumor, and inflammation such as ankylosing spondylitis. Furthermore, adolescent idiopathic cervical kyphosis was defined as cervical kyphotic deformity of adolescent patient without any cause such as those previously described. As no standard values for "cervical kyphosis" could be found in the literature, many reported studies only report a subjective classification, "kyphotic, straight or lordotic". But this method had proven to be unreliable. Grob et al. defined "straight" for the global curvature as +4° to -4°, and lordotic and kyphotic as +4°, respectively. The etiology and pathogenesis of adolescent idiopathic cervical kyphosis remain little understood. Weakness of the neck extensors can result in "dropped head syndrome", a rare disorder characterized by weakness of neck extensor muscles causing an inability to extend the neck and resulting in a chin-on-chest deformity. The purpose of this paper is to propose a possible mechanical cause leading to the kyphotic deformity. We hypothesize that weakness of the neck extensors could be the initiating factor for adolescent idiopathic cervical kyphosis. Crown Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Myoarchitectonic spinolaminoplasty: efficacy in reconstituting the cervical musculature and preserving biomechanical function.

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    Kim, Phyo; Murata, Hidetoshi; Kurokawa, Ryu; Takaishi, Yoshiyuki; Asakuno, Keizo; Kawamoto, Toshiki

    2007-09-01

    Laminoplasty has been used to expand the cervical spinal canal, based on the belief that reconstruction of the laminae preserves musculoskeletal function. The true efficacy of laminoplasty for maintaining spinal alignment, stability, and flexibility, however, remains to be proven. The authors have developed a new method, myoarchitectonic spinolaminoplasty (MSLP), which preserves all of the nuchal muscles and reconstitutes all of the musculoskeletal couplings to the posterior elements of the vertebrae. The details of this technique are described, and the efficacy of the technique in conserving muscle volume, alignment, and motion, as well as in preventing postoperative musculoskeletal discomfort, is assessed. The authors' previous midline-splitting laminoplasty procedure, which utilized a hydroxyapatite (HA) implant as a substitute for the spinous process, was improved. Detachment of the muscles is avoided with this new technique by cutting inside the spinous process. The bone-muscle flaps are affixed to the HA spinous process. Radiographs, computed tomography scans, and neurological evaluations obtained at the 1-year follow-up in the groups of consecutive patients assessed immediately prior to and after the modification of the previous technique (the control and the MSLP groups, respectively) were analyzed and compared. The HA bone constructs became integrated due to osteoconduction. The cross-sectional area of the semispinalis capitis, semispinalis cervicis, and multifidus muscles remained significantly larger in the MSLP group. Slight attenuation in lordosis was observed in the control group, but was prevented in the MSLP group. Range of motion was somewhat restricted in the MSLP group, but the incidence of neck pain and shoulder strain was significantly reduced. The new MSLP method was effective in preserving the volume and functions of the nuchal musculature and helping to minimize postoperative musculoskeletal complaints.

  9. Comparison of Cervical Extensor Muscles Thickness in Females with Chronic Nonspecific Neck Pain and Healthy Individuals by Ultrasonography

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    Raziyeh Baghi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Neck pain is one of the most common musculoskeletal disorders. Structural and functional alteration of cervical muscles is a commonly-reported complication of chronic neck pain (CNP. Measurement of muscle thickness is an acceptable way to evaluate muscle morphological structure. Therefore, this study aimed to measure cervical extensor muscles thickness in individuals with chronic nonspecific neck pain and healthy controls using ultrasonography so as to evaluate structural differences between the 2 groups. Materials & Methods:  A total of 30 female volunteers (15 individuals with nonspecific CNP and 15 controls participated in this casual comparative  study. Thickness of cervical extensor muscles, including multifidus, semispinalis cervicis, semispinalis capitis, splenius capitis, and upper trapezius at the level of the forth cervical vertebrae were measured using ultrasonography in resting position. Independent t test was performed to analyze the data by using the spss 20 software. Results: The thicknesses of cervical multifidus and semispinalis cervicis muscles in patients with CNP were smaller than those of controls with P=0.03 and P=0.01, respectively. There were no significant differences between two groups regarding the thicknesses of semispinalis capitis, splenius capitis, and upper trapezius muscles (P>0.05. Conclusion: Reduced multifidus and semispinalis cervicis thickness seen in the present study indicates deep neck extensor muscles atrophy and weakness in patients with neck pain. However, there were no differences between two groups with regard to superficial muscles thicknesses. Accordingly, exercise therapy for deep muscles should be considered in the management of patients with nonspecific CNP.

  10. Isometric Exercise for the Cervical Extensors Can Help Restore Physiological Lordosis and Reduce Neck Pain: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

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    Alpayci, Mahmut; İlter, Server

    2017-09-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether isometric neck extension exercise restores physiological cervical lordosis and reduces pain. Sixty-five patients with loss of cervical lordosis were randomly assigned to exercise (27 women, 7 men; mean age, 32.82 ± 8.83 yrs) and control (26 women, 5 men; mean age, 33.48 ± 9.67 yrs) groups. Both groups received nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs for 10 days. The exercise group received additional therapy as a home exercise program, which consisted of isometric neck extension for 3 mos. Neck pain severity and cervical lordosis were measured at baseline and at 3 mos after baseline. Compared with baseline levels, cervical lordosis angle was significantly improved in the exercise group (P pain intensity was significantly reduced in both groups compared with baseline levels (for all, P pain was about twice in the exercise group compared with the control group (P neck extension exercise improves cervical lordosis and pain.

  11. Does the mesodermal derangement in Chiari Type I malformation extend to the cervical spine? Evidence from an analytical morphometric study on cervical paraspinal muscles.

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    Thakar, Sumit; Kurudi Siddappa, Avinash; Aryan, Saritha; Mohan, Dilip; Sai Kiran, Narayanam Anantha; Hegde, Alangar S

    2017-10-01

    OBJECTIVE The mesodermal derangement in Chiari Type I malformation (CMI) has been postulated to encompass the cervical spine. The objectives of this study were to assess the cross-sectional areas (CSAs) of cervical paraspinal muscles (PSMs) in patients with CMI without syringomyelia, compare them with those in non-CMI subjects, and evaluate their correlations with various factors. METHODS In this retrospective study, the CSAs of cervical PSMs in 25 patients were calculated on T2-weighted axial MR images and computed as ratios with respect to the corresponding vertebral body areas. These values and the cervical taper ratios were then compared with those of age- and sex-matched non-CMI subjects and analyzed with respect to demographic data and clinicoradiological factors. RESULTS Compared with the non-CMI group, the mean CSA values for the rectus capitis minor and all of the subaxial PSMs were lower in the study group, and those of the deep extensors were significantly lower (p = 0.004). The cervical taper ratio was found to be significantly higher in the study cohort (p = 0.0003). A longer duration of symptoms and a steeper cervical taper ratio were independently associated with lower CSA values for the deep extensors (p = 0.04 and p = 0.03, respectively). The presence of neck pain was associated with a lower CSA value for the deep flexors (p = 0.03). CONCLUSIONS Patients with CMI demonstrate alterations in their cervical paraspinal musculature even in the absence of coexistent syringomyelia. Their deep extensor muscles undergo significant atrophic changes that worsen with the duration of their symptoms. This could be related to a significantly steeper cervical taper ratio that their cervical cords are exposed to. Neck pain in these patients is related to atrophy of their deep flexor muscles. A steeper cervical taper ratio and alterations in the PSMs could be additional indicators for surgery in patients with CMI without syringomyelia.

  12. Extensor Tendon Injuries

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    ... Media Find a Hand Surgeon Home Anatomy Extensor Tendon Injuries Email to a friend * required fields From * ... to straighten one or more joints. Common Extensor Tendon Injuries Mallet Finger refers to a drooping end- ...

  13. Cervicitis

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    ... intercourse or during a cervical exam, and abnormal vaginal discharge. However, it's also possible to have cervicitis and ... symptoms, they may include: Large amounts of unusual vaginal discharge Frequent, painful urination Pain during intercourse Bleeding between ...

  14. Cervicitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a sexually transmitted infection, such as chlamydia or gonorrhea. Cervicitis can develop from noninfectious causes, too. Successful ... result from common sexually transmitted infections (STIs), including gonorrhea, chlamydia, trichomoniasis and genital herpes. Allergic reactions. An ...

  15. A reappraisal of the deconditioning hypothesis in low back pain: review of evidence from a triumvirate of research methods on specific lumbar extensor deconditioning.

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    Steele, James; Bruce-Low, Stewart; Smith, Dave

    2014-05-01

    'Disuse' and 'Deconditioning' in relation to low back pain (LBP) are terms often used interchangeably. Discussions of 'disuse' refer to general physical inactivity, which evidence suggests does not differ between symptomatic and asymptomatic persons. 'Deconditioning' refers to a decrease in function, commonly both cardiovascular/aerobic fitness and muscular strength/endurance, again noting little difference. However, examination of decreased function relating specifically to lumbar extensor musculature deconditioning has yet to be examined, corroborating all possible methods. Thus, this review attempts to reappraise the deconditioning hypothesis in LBP, specifically considering lumbar extensor deconditioning. A literature review was conducted examining both cross-sectional and prospective data on specific lumbar extensor deconditioning and LBP. A narrative approach and 'snowballing' style literature search was used involving initial use of PubMed and Google Scholar databases searching up to December 2012. Included were studies utilizing the following three research methods, allowing specific induction of the role of such deconditioning; (1) strength/endurance testing of the isolated lumbar extensor musculature, (2) imaging and histochemical examination of the lumbar extensor musculature, and (3) fatigue testing of the lumbar extensor musculature using electromyography. Despite issues interpreting individual studies due to methods, the majority of evidence suggests LBP is associated with decreased strength/endurance, atrophy, and excessive fatigability of the lumbar extensors. Prospective studies also suggest lumbar extensor deconditioning may be a common risk factor predicting acute low back injury and LBP. The hypothesis of specific lumbar extensor deconditioning as being a causal factor in LBP is presently well supported. It is by no means the only causative factor and further research should more rigorously test this hypothesis addressing the methodological

  16. Changes in mechanical load and extensor muscle activity in the cervico-thoracic spine induced by sitting posture modification.

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    Edmondston, Stephen J; Sharp, Michael; Symes, Andew; Alhabib, Nawaf; Allison, Garry T

    2011-02-01

    The influence of whole body sitting posture on cervico-thoracic posture, mechanical load and extensor muscle activity was examined in 23 asymptomatic adults. Cervical and upper thoracic extensor muscle activity measured in guided slouched and lumbo-pelvic neutral postures was normalised to that measured in a self-selected habitual posture. Head and neck posture and gravitational load moment measurements were obtained in each posture. Sagittal head translation, upper cervical extension and load moment were significantly greater in the slouched posture (p sitting postures reduce the demand on the cervical extensor muscles and modify the relative contribution of cervical and thoracic extensors to the control of head and neck posture. Postures that promote these patterns of muscular activity may reduce cervical spine loading and the development of posture-related neck pain.

  17. Metric Tensor Vs. Metric Extensor

    OpenAIRE

    Fernández, V. V.; Moya, A. M.; Rodrigues Jr, Waldyr A.

    2002-01-01

    In this paper we give a comparison between the formulation of the concept of metric for a real vector space of finite dimension in terms of \\emph{tensors} and \\emph{extensors}. A nice property of metric extensors is that they have inverses which are also themselves metric extensors. This property is not shared by metric tensors because tensors do \\emph{not} have inverses. We relate the definition of determinant of a metric extensor with the classical determinant of the corresponding matrix as...

  18. Magnetic resonance imaging of the skeletal musculature

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    Weber, Marc-Andre (ed.) [Univ. Hospital Heidelberg (Germany). Diagnostic and Intverventional Radiology

    2014-07-01

    Comprehensive overview of the value of cutting-edge MRI for the assessment of normal and diseased skeletal muscle. Presents research findings in respect of the role of modern morphological and functional MRI techniques. Provides examples of the added value provided by these techniques when evaluating muscular diseases. Although muscular diseases are a huge and heterogeneous group, in most cases of progressive disease the result is focal or general muscular weakness that presents as an unspecific symptom. Imaging techniques that offer differential diagnostic clues are therefore urgently needed. Despite this, MRI has to date often been assigned a subsidiary role in the diagnostic work-up of these diseases owing to the frequent inability of routine MRI protocols to detect pathognomonic findings. This situation is changing with the advent of modern MRI techniques that offer deeper insights into surrogate pathophysiologic parameters, such as muscular microcirculation, sodium homeostasis, energy and lipid metabolism, and muscle fiber architecture. Much higher levels of acceptance and demand by clinicians can be anticipated for these new techniques in the near future, and radiologists will have to face up to the increasing value of MRI of the skeletal musculature. In this book, recognized experts from around the world provide a comprehensive overview of the value of cutting-edge MRI for the assessment of normal and diseased skeletal muscle. A range of aspects are covered, from the general role of MRI in imaging the skeletal musculature, including in comparison with ultrasonography, through to the current value of MRI in the diagnostic work-up of different diseases. In addition, several chapters present research findings in respect of modern morphological and functional MRI techniques for assessment of the skeletal musculature and provide examples of the added value provided by these techniques when evaluating muscular diseases.

  19. Variant lumbrical musculature of the left hand: Clinico-anatomic elucidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, S; Loh, H K; Mehta, V

    2016-12-01

    Human hand is haughtily described in literature as 'revolution in evolution'. Lumbricals form an intricate part of its musculature playing a vital role in complex digital movements. By virtue of their origin from the volar aspect of palm and their insertion onto the dorsal aspect to the extensor digital expansion of the digits, lumbricals display complex actions flexing the metacarpophalangeal joint and extending the interphalangeal joints. Such manoeuvres of the digits are vital for skilful and precision movements. During routine dissection of the teaching program of undergraduate medical students, unusual origin and morphology of all the four lumbrical muscles in the left hand of a male cadaver was observed. Clinicians and hand surgeons should be aware of its variations while designing and dealing with hand surgeries. An attempt has been made to comprehend its clinical, embryological and phylogenetic aspects. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  20. Short-duration fatigue alters neuromuscular coordination of trunk musculature: implications for injury.

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    Gorelick, M; Brown, J M M; Groeller, H

    2003-07-01

    The aim of this investigation was to determine the effect of muscle fatigue, produced by two different fatigue protocols, on the coordination of trunk and thigh muscles during the performance of a manual-handling task (e.g. a weighted stoop lift). The two fatigue protocols were designed to produce either (a) a non-specific widespread fatigue of trunk and limb muscles (e.g. rowing fatigue protocol), or (b) a specific fatigue of the trunk extensor musculature (e.g. back extension fatigue protocol). Specifically, we wished to determine whether the coordination of trunk muscles during a stoop lift was compromised more, or less, by either of these two fatigue protocols. Ten male subjects (20-24 years) were tested utilising an electromyographic technique which collected electromyograms from trunk flexor and extensor muscles, as well as the Hamstring muscle group, during a pre- and a post-fatigue performance of a weighted stoop lift. The results showed that the back extension fatigue protocol, but not the rowing fatigue protocol, produced significant (pstoop lift. The longer periods of muscle activation seen only after the back extension fatigue protocol, suggested that fatigue of these muscles had required the CNS to alter their periods of activation to a pattern similar to that previously seen in elderly populations. The results also suggested that intense short-duration motor tasks, which may differentially target the back and its musculature, could leave the spine susceptible to increased risk of injury even though worker perceptions of general fatigue are low. Risk assessment guidelines for manual handling should consider not only the weight and frequency of the lift, but lift duration as well to maintain worker safety.

  1. Analysis of the Response Speed of Musculature of the Knee in Professional Male and Female Volleyball Players

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    Rodríguez-Ruiz, D.; Diez-Vega, I.; Rodríguez-Matoso, D.; Fernandez-del-Valle, M.; Sagastume, R.; Molina, J. J.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the normalized response speed (Vrn) of the knee musculature (flexor and extensor) in high competitive level volleyball players using tensiomyography (TMG) and to analyze the muscular response of the vastus medialis (VM), rectus femoris (RF), vastus lateralis (VL), and biceps femoris (BF) in accordance with the specific position they play in their teams. One hundred and sixty-six players (83 women and 83 men) were evaluated. They belonged to eight teams in the Spanish women's superleague and eight in the Spanish men's superleague. The use of Vrn allows avoiding possible sample imbalances due to anatomical and functional differences and demands. We found differences between Vrn in each of the muscles responsible for extension (VM, RF, and VL) and flexion (BF) regardless of the sex. Normalized response speed differences seem to be larger in setters, liberos and outside players compared to middle blockers and larger in males when compared to females. These results of Vrn might respond to the differences in the physical and technical demands of each specific position, showing an improved balance response of the knee extensor and flexor musculature in male professional volleyball players. PMID:25003109

  2. Flexor hallucis longus and extensor digitorum longus tendon transfers for balancing the foot following transmetatarsal amputation.

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    Roukis, Thomas S

    2009-01-01

    Transmetatarsal amputation is a useful surgical procedure that is applicable to the treatment of the dysvascular, neuropathic, and/or traumatized forefoot. Because of the loss of the insertions of some of the extrinsic pedal musculature, transmetatarsal amputation is known to be associated with imbalance of the residual foot, and this can lead to complications related to cutaneous compromise, as well as difficulties with bracing and shoe fit. In this techniques report, we describe a combination of tendon transfers that use flexor hallucis longus and extensor digitorum longus, which can be useful in preventing pedal imbalance following transmetatarsal amputation.

  3. Musculature in sipunculan worms: ontogeny and ancestral states.

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    Schulze, Anja; Rice, Mary E

    2009-01-01

    Molecular phylogenetics suggests that the Sipuncula fall into the Annelida, although they are morphologically very distinct and lack segmentation. To understand the evolutionary transformations from the annelid to the sipunculan body plan, it is important to reconstruct the ancestral states within the respective clades at all life history stages. Here we reconstruct the ancestral states for the head/introvert retractor muscles and the body wall musculature in the Sipuncula using Bayesian statistics. In addition, we describe the ontogenetic transformations of the two muscle systems in four sipunculan species with different developmental modes, using F-actin staining with fluorescent-labeled phalloidin in conjunction with confocal laser scanning microscopy. All four species, which have smooth body wall musculature and less than the full set of four introvert retractor muscles as adults, go through developmental stages with four retractor muscles that are eventually reduced to a lower number in the adult. The circular and sometimes the longitudinal body wall musculature are split into bands that later transform into a smooth sheath. Our ancestral state reconstructions suggest with nearly 100% probability that the ancestral sipunculan had four introvert retractor muscles, longitudinal body wall musculature in bands and circular body wall musculature arranged as a smooth sheath. Species with crawling larvae have more strongly developed body wall musculature than those with swimming larvae. To interpret our findings in the context of annelid evolution, a more solid phylogenetic framework is needed for the entire group and more data on ontogenetic transformations of annelid musculature are desirable.

  4. Specification of the somatic musculature in Drosophila†

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    Dobi, Krista C.; Schulman, Victoria K.; Baylies, Mary K.

    2015-01-01

    The somatic muscle system formed during Drosophila embryogenesis is required for larvae to hatch, feed, and crawl. This system is replaced in the pupa by a new adult muscle set, responsible for activities such as feeding, walking, and flight. Both the larval and adult muscle systems are comprised of distinct muscle fibers to serve these specific motor functions. In this way, the Drosophila musculature is a valuable model for patterning within a single tissue: while all muscle cells share properties such as the contractile apparatus, properties such as size, position, and number of nuclei are unique for a particular muscle. In the embryo, diversification of muscle fibers relies first on signaling cascades that pattern the mesoderm. Subsequently, the combinatorial expression of specific transcription factors leads muscle fibers to adopt particular sizes, shapes, and orientations. Adult muscle precursors (AMPs), set aside during embryonic development, proliferate during the larval phases and seed the formation of the abdominal, leg, and flight muscles in the adult fly. Adult muscle fibers may either be formed de novo from the fusion of the AMPs, or are created by the binding of AMPs to an existing larval muscle. While less is known about adult muscle specification compared to the larva, expression of specific transcription factors is also important for its diversification. Increasingly, the mechanisms required for the diversification of fly muscle have found parallels in vertebrate systems and mark Drosophila as a robust model system to examine questions about how diverse cell types are generated within an organism. PMID:25728002

  5. Vascularization and anatomical model of the mesotendons of the extensor digitorum and extensor indicis muscles.

    OpenAIRE

    Zbrodowski, A; Gajisin, S; Grodecki, J

    1980-01-01

    In ten human hands the mesotendons of m. extensor digitorum longus and m. extensor indicis have been examined and described in detail. The various sources of their blood supplies have also been demonstrated and described.

  6. Repair and rehabilitation of extensor hallucis longus and brevis tendon lacerations in a professional dancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bronner, Shaw; Ojofeitimi, Sheyi; Rose, Donald

    2008-06-01

    Case report. Tendon lacerations of the hallux are potentially devastating to a dancer. Strength of the hallux musculature is necessary to attain and maintain balance, push-off in multiple turns, and decelerate in jumps and hops. The purpose of this paper is to report on the repair and rehabilitation of extensor hallucis longus and extensor hallucis brevis tendon lacerations in a professional dancer. A 30-year-old dancer sustained complete laceration of her extensor hallucis longus and extensor hallucis brevis tendons, and partial laceration of the dorsal aspect of the hallux metatarsophalangeal (MTP) joint capsule. Following primary repair, at 9 weeks postsurgery, hallux MTP joint active dorsiflexion was limited to 5 degrees and passive dorsiflexion to 70 degrees . First toe dorsiflexion and plantar flexion strength was 4/5 at the MTP and 3+/5 at the interphalangeal joint. Rehabilitation included functional electrical stimulation to address considerable calf atrophy, strengthening exercises, functional retraining, and progressive return to dance. The dancer returned to her previous level of dancing in 18 weeks, with 73 degrees and 85 degrees of hallux MTP joint active and passive dorsiflexion, and 30 degrees and 35 degrees of active and passive plantar flexion, respectively. Hallux MTP and interphalangeal joint muscle strength were 5/5 and 4+/5, respectively. Improvement, manifested in her SF-36 and Dance Functional Outcome System scores, accompanied her full functional recovery. Hallux stability provided by coactivation of the great toe extensors and flexors is crucial to accomplish the demands of bipedal and unipedal balances and activities in dance. This report demonstrates the success of primary surgical repair and rehabilitation in a dancer/athlete experiencing this injury.

  7. Selective hypertrophy of the quadriceps musculature after 14 weeks of isokinetic and conventional resistance training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matta, Thiago Torres; Nascimento, Francisco Xavier; Trajano, Gabriel S; Simão, Roberto; Willardson, Jeffrey Michael; Oliveira, Liliam Fernandes

    2017-03-01

    One of the fundamental adaptations observed with resistance training (RT) is muscle hypertrophy. Conventional and isokinetic machines provide different forms of mechanical stress, and it is possible that these two training modes could promote differing degrees of hypertrophic adaptations. There is a lack of data comparing the selective hypertrophy of the quadriceps musculature after training with a conventional knee extension machine versus an isokinetic machine. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the selective hypertrophy of the quadriceps musculature and knee extension maximal isometric torque after 14 weeks of conventional versus isokinetic RT. Thirty-five men were assigned to three groups: control group and training groups (conventional and isokinetic) performed three sets of unilateral knee extensions per session with a progressive loading scheme twice a week. Prior to and following the intervention, maximal isometric knee extensor torque was measured using an isokinetic dynamometer, and muscle thickness (MT) of quadriceps femoris muscles was assessed via ultrasound. The results indicated non-uniform changes in MT between the muscles that comprise the quadriceps femoris group. For the conventional group, significantly greater increases in rectus femoris thickness were evident versus all other quadriceps muscles (14%). For the isokinetic group, increases in RF thickness (11%) were significantly greater in comparison with the vastus intermedius only. Although the muscle thickness did not increase for all the quadriceps femoris muscles, the relative rectus femoris adaptation suggested a selective hypertrophy favouring this portion. © 2015 Scandinavian Society of Clinical Physiology and Nuclear Medicine. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. New insights on the musculature of filospermoid Gnathostomulida

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gąsiorowski, Ludwik; Bekkouche, Nicolas Tarik; Sørensen, Martin Vinther

    2017-01-01

    variation: H. simplex possesses a simple grid of thick longitudinal and thin circular muscles, whereas H. filum shows a very sparse body wall musculature devoid of circular fibers, a pattern similar to another interstitial worm, the enigmatic annelid Lobatocerebrum. The flexibility gained hereby may....... In addition to known pharyngeal muscles we found new apophyseal abductors not uncovered in bursovaginoid gnathostomulids, but which resemble certain muscles of the sister group (Micrognathozoa + Rotifera) and may present an autapomorphy of Gnathifera. The body wall musculature exhibits greater interspecific...

  9. The jaw musculature of Dendroaspis angusticeps and Dendroaspis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The m. neuro-costo-mandibularis continues down- wards on the outer surface of the m. pterygoideus and terminates in the throat region. Innervation of the trigeminal musculature. In both species of Dendroaspis, the main branches of the trigeminal nerve emerge from the cranium through two. n.M.ADD. POST. 105 separate ...

  10. Cervical Musculoskeletal Impairments and Temporomandibular Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan Armijo-Olivo

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The study of cervical muscles and their significance in the development and perpetuation of Temporomandibular Disorders has not been elucidated. Thus this project was designed to investigate the association between cervical musculoskeletal impairments and Temporomandibular Disorders. Material and Methods: A sample of 154 subjects participated in this study. All subjects underwent a series of physical tests and electromyographic assessment (i.e. head and neck posture, maximal cervical muscle strength, cervical flexor and extensor muscles endurance, and cervical flexor muscle performance to determine cervical musculoskeletal impairments. Results: A strong relationship between neck disability and jaw disability was found (r = 0.82. Craniocervical posture was statistically different between patients with myogenous Temporomandibular Disorders (TMD and healthy subjects. However, the difference was too small (3.3º to be considered clinically relevant. Maximal cervical flexor muscle strength was not statistically or clinically different between patients with TMD and healthy subjects. No statistically significant differences were found in electromyographic activity of the sternocleidomastoid or the anterior scalene muscles in patients with TMD when compared to healthy subjects while executing the craniocervical flexion test (P = 0.07. However, clinically important effect sizes (0.42 - 0.82 were found. Subjects with TMD presented with reduced cervical flexor as well as extensor muscle endurance while performing the flexor and extensor muscle endurance tests when compared to healthy individuals. Conclusions: Subjects with Temporomandibular Disorders presented with impairments of the cervical flexors and extensors muscles. These results could help guide clinicians in the assessment and prescription of more effective interventions for individuals with Temporomandibular Disorders.

  11. Jaw Musculature of the Picini (Aves: Piciformes: Picidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reginaldo José Donatelli

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The Picini tribe comprises 25 Old World woodpecker species grouped into seven genera that are widely distributed in Asia and include several representatives from the Eurasian region. Given the absence of detailed anatomical studies of Picini in the literature, the purposes of this study were to describe the jaw musculature of 14 species of Picini in detail and to compare the musculature patterns of these species. The results of this analysis indicate the following: (1 there is a clear association between the ventralis lateralis and dorsalis lateralis muscles through fleshy fibers that are connected in all species, (2 the jaw musculature of the genus Picus differs from that of other Picini genera in terms of the poor development of the protractor muscle system of the quadrate (M. protractor quadrati and M. protractor pterygoidei, (3 generally, the M. pseudotemporalis superficialis originates in the ventrocaudal region of the laterosphenoid (the lower part of the orbit, with the only noteworthy exception being an origin in the upper part of the orbit in Dinopium javanense, and (4 the protractor pterygoidei muscle is more developed in Blythipicus rubiginosus, Dinopium rafflesii, and D. javanense than in the other species.

  12. Cervical Spondylosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Request an Appointment at Mayo Clinic Causes Cervical spondylosis Cervical spondylosis Cervical spondylosis is degeneration of the bones and ... Related Symptom Checker Numbness in hands Numbness Cervical spondylosis Symptoms & causes Diagnosis & treatment Doctors & departments Advertisement Mayo ...

  13. Interstitial cells in the musculature of the gastrointestinal tract

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rumessen, Jüri J; Vanderwinden, Jean-Marie

    2003-01-01

    "non-Cajal" (including the FLC and possibly also other cell types) cell types in the interstitium of the smooth musculature of the gastrointestinal tract, is proposed. Furthermore, evidence is accumulating to suggest that, as postulated by Santiago Ramon y Cajal, the concept of interstitial cells......Expression of the receptor tyrosine kinase KIT on cells referred to as interstitial cells of Cajal (ICC) has been instrumental during the past decade in the tremendous interest in cells in the interstitium of the smooth muscle layers of the digestive tract. ICC generate the pacemaker component...

  14. Interstitial cells in the musculature of the gastrointestinal tract

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rumessen, Jüri J; Vanderwinden, Jean-Marie

    2003-01-01

    , the ultrastructure and light microscopic morphology, as well as the functions and the development of ICC and of neighboring fibroblast-like cells (FLC), are critically reviewed. Directions for future research are considered and a unifying concept of mesenchymal cells, either KIT positive (the "ICC") or KIT negative...... "non-Cajal" (including the FLC and possibly also other cell types) cell types in the interstitium of the smooth musculature of the gastrointestinal tract, is proposed. Furthermore, evidence is accumulating to suggest that, as postulated by Santiago Ramon y Cajal, the concept of interstitial cells...

  15. REHABILITATATION FOR EXTENSOR HALLUCIS LONGUS AND EXTENSOR DIGITORUM LONGUS TENDINOPATHY – AN EXERCISE PACKAGE

    OpenAIRE

    Oskar, Sten

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this thesis was to create an exercise package containing research proven evidence based exercises for Extensor Hallucis Longus and Extensor Digitorum Longus muscles for strengthening purposes. The exercise package consists of eccen-tric exercises that have been proven to be beneficial in treating tendon problems. The exercise package will be provided to be implemented by the players and coaches of the co-operating bandy team. The thesis was done in collaboration with Pori N...

  16. Interstitial cells in the musculature of the gastrointestinal tract

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rumessen, Jüri J; Vanderwinden, Jean-Marie

    2003-01-01

    , the ultrastructure and light microscopic morphology, as well as the functions and the development of ICC and of neighboring fibroblast-like cells (FLC), are critically reviewed. Directions for future research are considered and a unifying concept of mesenchymal cells, either KIT positive (the "ICC") or KIT negative......Expression of the receptor tyrosine kinase KIT on cells referred to as interstitial cells of Cajal (ICC) has been instrumental during the past decade in the tremendous interest in cells in the interstitium of the smooth muscle layers of the digestive tract. ICC generate the pacemaker component...... "non-Cajal" (including the FLC and possibly also other cell types) cell types in the interstitium of the smooth musculature of the gastrointestinal tract, is proposed. Furthermore, evidence is accumulating to suggest that, as postulated by Santiago Ramon y Cajal, the concept of interstitial cells...

  17. Lymphomas and metastases of the extra-ocular musculature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Surov, Alexey; Behrmann, Curd; Koesling, Sabrina [Martin Luther University of Halle-Wittenberg, Department of Radiology, Halle (Germany); Holzhausen, Hans-Juergen [Martin Luther University of Halle-Wittenberg, Department of Pathology, Halle (Germany)

    2011-11-15

    The involvement of extra-ocular muscles in malignant diseases has been described only sporadically. The purpose of this study was to estimate the prevalence of orbital muscle lymphoma and metastases and to analyse their radiological findings. In the time period from January 2000 to January 2010, 11 patients with extra-ocular muscle malignancies (EOMM) were retrospectively identified in the radiological database of our institution. There were four women and seven men with a median age of 58 years (range, 47 to 72 years). In three patients non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL), in seven cases intramuscular metastases of solid tumours and in one patient plasmacytoma of orbital muscles were diagnosed. In all, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was performed on 11 patients using a 1.5-T MRI scanner (Magnetom Vision Sonata Upgrade, Siemens, Germany). The diagnosis of EOMM was confirmed histopathologically by muscle biopsy in all cases. The prevalence of orbital muscle involvement in plasmacytoma was 0.3%, in NHL 0.4% and in carcinomas 0.1%. Clinically, EOMM presented as painless proptosis and motility disturbance. Medial and lateral rectus muscles were involved in most patients. On T2-weighted images, the lesions were isointense or mixed iso-to-hyperintense in comparison to the unaffected musculature. On T1-weighted images, all tumours were homogeneously isointense. After intravenous administration of contrast medium, most lesions showed moderate heterogeneous enhancement. Lymphomas and metastases are rare lesions of the extra-ocular musculature with a prevalence below 0.5%. Their radiological and clinical signs are non-specific and include painless muscle enlargement or masses. They should be considered in the differential diagnosis of diseases of extra-ocular muscles. (orig.)

  18. Rerouting extensor pollicis longus tendon transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colantoni Woodside, Julie; Bindra, Randip R

    2015-04-01

    Following radial nerve palsy, loss of the extensor pollicis longus (EPL), abductor pollicis longus and extensor pollicis brevis tendons results in loss of thumb extension and radial abduction. Multiple tendon transfers are described to address the loss of thumb extension following radial palsy utilizing the palmaris longus or flexor digitorum sublimis transferred to the EPL tendon. Owing to its ulnar vector of pull, the EPL tendon is a secondary adductor of the thumb, and in order to mitigate the tendency for thumb adduction, the EPL tendon is divided at the wrist and brought subcutaneously to the radial side of the wrist for repair to the donor tendon to improve the line of pull for the donor tendon. We describe the use of a technique to reroute the EPL tendon through the first compartment in a retrograde fashion prior to repair with the donor tendon on the radial side of the wrist. The use of the first dorsal compartment provides a pulley to maintain the position of the transfer and to prevent potential bowstringing of the tendon as wrist flexion and thumb extension are attempted. because the repair is performed proximal to the extensor retinaculum, the donor tendon length is not compromised. Because the tendon is redirected through the first dorsal compartment and inserts into the distal phalanx, a single transfer attempts to restores both thumb extension and radial abduction. Copyright © 2015 American Society for Surgery of the Hand. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Humeral external rotation handling by using the Bobath concept approach affects trunk extensor muscles electromyography in children with cerebral palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grazziotin Dos Santos, C; Pagnussat, Aline S; Simon, A S; Py, Rodrigo; Pinho, Alexandre Severo do; Wagner, Mário B

    2014-10-20

    This study aimed to investigate the electromyographic activity of cervical and trunk extensors muscles in children with cerebral palsy during two handlings according to the Bobath concept. A crossover trial involving 40 spastic diplegic children was conducted. Electromyography (EMG) was used to measure muscular activity at sitting position (SP), during shoulder internal rotation (IR) and shoulder external rotation (ER) handlings, which were performed using the elbow joint as key point of control. Muscle recordings were performed at the fourth cervical (C4) and at the tenth thoracic (T10) vertebral levels. The Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS) was used to assess whether muscle activity would vary according to different levels of severity. Humeral ER handling induced an increase on EMG signal of trunk extensor muscles at the C4 (P=0.007) and T10 (P<0.001) vertebral levels. No significant effects were observed between SP and humeral IR handling at C4 level; However at T10 region, humeral IR handling induced an increase of EMG signal (P=0.019). Humeral ER resulted in an increase of EMG signal at both levels, suggesting increase of extensor muscle activation. Furthermore, the humeral ER handling caused different responses on EMG signal at T10 vertebra level, according to the GMFCS classification (P=0.017). In summary, an increase of EMG signal was observed during ER handling in both evaluated levels, suggesting an increase of muscle activation. These results indicate that humeral ER handling can be used for diplegic CP children rehabilitation to facilitate cervical and trunk extensor muscles activity in a GMFCS level-dependent manner. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. A variation of the extensor hallucis longus muscle (accessory extensor digiti secundus muscle).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tezer, Murat; Cicekcibasi, Aynur Emine

    2012-06-01

    An accessory muscle adjacent to the extensor hallucis longus muscle (EHL) was observed between the EHL and the extensor digitorum longus muscle (EDL) in the anterior side of both legs of the cadaver of a 72-year-old male, during educational dissection, and it was observed that the tendon of this muscle extended to the second toe. The tendon of this muscle united with the second toe tendon of the EDL. These common tendons appeared before reaching the toe media phalanxes and extended to the related media phalanxes of toe. However, an additional tendon separating from this accessory muscle tendon united with the EHL tendon at the left foot. This accessory muscle, unlike the variations identified to date, is considered to extend to the second toe, and the name "accessory extensor digiti secundus muscle" is offered.

  1. Pelvic and hindlimb musculature of Tyrannosaurus rex (Dinosauria: Theropoda).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrano, Matthew T; Hutchinson, John R

    2002-09-01

    In this article, we develop a new reconstruction of the pelvic and hindlimb muscles of the large theropod dinosaur Tyrannosaurus rex. Our new reconstruction relies primarily on direct examination of both extant and fossil turtles, lepidosaurs, and archosaurs. These observations are placed into a phylogenetic context and data from extant taxa are used to constrain inferences concerning the soft-tissue structures in T. rex. Using this extant phylogenetic bracket, we are able to offer well-supported inferences concerning most of the hindlimb musculature in this taxon. We also refrain from making any inferences for certain muscles where the resulting optimizations are ambiguous. This reconstruction differs from several previous attempts and we evaluate these discrepancies. In addition to providing a new and more detailed understanding of the hindlimb morphology of T. rex--the largest known terrestrial biped--this reconstruction also helps to clarify the sequence of character-state change along the line to extant birds. Copyright 2002 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  2. Organic preservation of fossil musculature with ultracellular detail.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNamara, Maria; Orr, Patrick J; Kearns, Stuart L; Alcalá, Luis; Anadón, Pere; Peñalver-Mollá, Enrique

    2010-02-07

    The very labile (decay-prone), non-biomineralized, tissues of organisms are rarely fossilized. Occurrences thereof are invaluable supplements to a body fossil record dominated by biomineralized tissues, which alone are extremely unrepresentative of diversity in modern and ancient ecosystems. Fossil examples of extremely labile tissues (e.g. muscle) that exhibit a high degree of morphological fidelity are almost invariably replicated by inorganic compounds such as calcium phosphate. There is no consensus as to whether such tissues can be preserved with similar morphological fidelity as organic remains, except when enclosed inside amber. Here, we report fossilized musculature from an approximately 18 Myr old salamander from lacustrine sediments of Ribesalbes, Spain. The muscle is preserved organically, in three dimensions, and with the highest fidelity of morphological preservation yet documented from the fossil record. Preserved ultrastructural details include myofilaments, endomysium, layering within the sarcolemma, and endomysial circulatory vessels infilled with blood. Slight differences between the fossil tissues and their counterparts in extant amphibians reflect limited degradation during fossilization. Our results provide unequivocal evidence that high-fidelity organic preservation of extremely labile tissues is not only feasible, but likely to be common. This is supported by the discovery of similarly preserved tissues in the Eocene Grube Messel biota.

  3. Tendon variations of extensor digitorum and abductor pollicis longus muscles

    OpenAIRE

    Kocabiyik N; Tatar I; Yalcin B; Yazar F; Ozan H

    2009-01-01

    Tendon variations of extensor digitorum and abductor pollicis longus muscles were observed in a 65-year-old male formalin fixed cadaver, during the dissections for second year medical students at the Gulhane Military Medical Academy Anatomy Dissection Laboratory. In the right forearm, the extensor digitorum muscle had a tripled tendon for the 3rd finger and a doubled tendon for the ring finger. The extensor digiti minimi muscle also had a doubled tendon. There was also a communicating tendon ...

  4. A Simulation Model for Extensor Tendon Repair

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Aronstam

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Audience: This simulation model is designed for use by emergency medicine residents. Although we have instituted this at the PGY-2 level of our residency curriculum, it is appropriate for any level of emergency medicine residency training. It might also be adapted for use for a variety of other learners, such as practicing emergency physicians, orthopedic surgery residents, or hand surgery trainees. Introduction: Tendon injuries commonly present to the emergency department, so it is essential that emergency physicians be competent in evaluating such injuries. Indeed, extensor tendon repair is included as an ACGME Emergency Medicine Milestone (Milestone 13, Wound Management, Level 5 – “Performs advanced wound repairs, such as tendon repairs…”.1 However, emergency medicine residents may have limited opportunity to develop these skills due to a lack of patients, competition from other trainees, or preexisting referral patterns. Simulation may provide an alternative means to effectively teach these skills in such settings. Previously described tendon repair simulation models that were designed for surgical trainees have used rubber worms4, licorice5, feeding tubes, catheters6,7, drinking straws8, microfoam tape9, sheep forelimbs10 and cadavers.11 These models all suffer a variety of limitations, including high cost, lack of ready availability, or lack of realism. Objectives: We sought to develop an extensor tendon repair simulation model for emergency medicine residents, designed to meet ACGME Emergency Medicine Milestone 13, Level 5. We wished this model to be simple, inexpensive, and realistic. Methods: The learner responsible content/educational handout component of our innovation teaches residents about emergency department extensor tendon repair, and includes: 1 relevant anatomy 2 indications and contraindications for emergency department extensor tendon repair 3 physical exam findings 4 tendon suture techniques and 5 aftercare. During

  5. Measurement of gliding resistance of the extensor pollicis longus and extensor digitorum communis II tendons within the extensor retinaculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kutsumi, Keiji; Amadio, Peter C; Zhao, Chunfeng; Zobitz, Mark E; An, Kai-Nan

    2004-03-01

    The etiology of spontaneous extensor pollicis longus (EPL) tendon rupture is still largely unknown. It is possible that friction within the sheath may play a role. The purposes of this study were to compare gliding resistance of the EPL tendon with that of the extensor digitorum communis tendon of the index finger (EDC II) and to find the wrist position that gives the EPL tendon the lowest gliding resistance. Fifteen fresh-frozen cadavers were used. Gliding resistance was measured directly in 7 different wrist positions. The mean gliding resistance of the EPL tendon was 0.16 +/- 0.08 N and that of the EDC II tendon was 0.11 +/- 0.06 N. This difference was significant. There was also a significant effect on gliding resistance due to wrist position. For the EPL tendon, the gliding resistance was significantly greater in 60 degrees wrist flexion compared with all other wrist positions tested. Additionally the gliding resistance of the EPL in 30 degrees flexion, 60 degrees extension, and 15 degrees radial deviation was significantly higher than wrist positions of 30 degrees extension, neutral, and 30 degrees ulnar deviation. Positioning the wrist close to neutral flexion/extension and in some ulnar deviation minimizes the friction within the EPL sheath. Such positions may be advantageous for splinting patients at risk for EPL rupture.

  6. Electrical Impedance Myography (EIM) in the Evaluation of the Tongue Musculature in Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shellikeri, Sanjana; Yunusova, Yana; Green, Jordan R.; Pattee, Gary L.; Berry, James D.; Rutkove, Seward B.; Zinman, Lorne

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Electrical impedance myography (EIM) quantifies muscle health and is used as a biomarker of muscle abnormalities in neurogenic and myopathic diseases. EIM has yet to be evaluated in the tongue musculature in people with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), who often show clinical bulbar signs. Methods The lingual musculature of 19 subjects with motor neuron disease and 21 of normal participants were assessed using EIM, strength and endurance testing, and clinical observation. Results Tongue musculature in the ALS group was characterized by significantly smaller phase (Ph) and larger resistance (R) when compared to the healthy cohort. Ph and tongue endurance were correlated in the ALS group. Discussion EIM of tongue musculature could distinguish people with ALS from healthy controls. The demonstrated relationship between tongue function and Ph supports further testing of EIM of the tongue as a potential biomarker in ALS. PMID:25580728

  7. Electrical impedance myography in the evaluation of the tongue musculature in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shellikeri, Sanjana; Yunusova, Yana; Green, Jordan R; Pattee, Gary L; Berry, James D; Rutkove, Seward B; Zinman, Lorne

    2015-10-01

    Electrical impedance myography (EIM) quantifies muscle health and is used as a biomarker of muscle abnormalities in neurogenic and myopathic diseases. EIM has yet to be evaluated in the tongue musculature in patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), who often show clinical bulbar signs. The lingual musculature of 19 subjects with motor neuron disease and 21 normal participants was assessed using EIM, strength and endurance testing, and clinical assessment. Tongue musculature in the ALS group was characterized by significantly smaller phase (Ph) and greater resistance (R) when compared with the healthy cohort. Ph and tongue endurance were correlated in the ALS group. EIM of tongue musculature could distinguish those with ALS from healthy controls. The demonstrated relationship between tongue function and Ph supports further testing of EIM of the tongue as a potential biomarker in ALS. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Osteology and cranial musculature of Caiman latirostris (crocodylia: Alligatoridae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bona, Paula; Desojo, Julia Brenda

    2011-07-01

    Caiman latirostris Daudin is one of the extant species of Caimaninae alligatorids characterized taxonomically only by external morphological features. In the present contribution, we describe the cranial osteology and myology of this species and its morphological variation. Several skull dissections and comparisons with other caimans were made. Although jaw muscles of living crocodiles show the same general "Bauplan" and alligatorids seem to have a similar cranial musculature pattern, we describe some morphological variations (e.g., in C. latirostris the superficial portion of the M. adductor mandibulae externus did not reach the postorbital; the M. adductor mandibulae internus pars pterygoideus dorsalis did not reach the pterygoid and lacrimal and contrary to the case of C. crocodilus the M. adductor mandibulae internus pars pterygoideus ventralis attaches to the posterodorsal surface of the pterygoid and the pterygoid aponeurosis, without contacting the dorsal and ventral surface of the pterygoid margin; the M. intermandibularis is attached to the anterior half of the splenial and posteriorly inserts medially by a medial raphe that serves as attachment zone for M. constrictor colli, and the M. constrictor colli profundus presents a medial notch in its anterior margin). In addition, the skull of C. latirostris differs from that of other caimans and possesses several characters that are potential diagnostic features of this species (e.g., outline of glenoid cavity in dorsal view, extension of the rostral ridges, and occlusion of the first dentary tooth). Nevertheless, these characters should be analyzed within the phylogenetic context of the Caimaninae to evaluate its evolutionary implications for the history of the group. Copyright © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  9. Tuberculosis tenosynovitis of the extensor tendons of the wrist

    OpenAIRE

    Mrabet, Dalila; Ouenniche, Kmar; Mizouni, Habiba; Ounaies, Mouna; Khémiri, Chékib; Sahli, Héla; Sellami, Slaheddine

    2011-01-01

    Mycobacterial tuberculous tenosynovitis of the extensor tendon sheath is an extremely rare manifestation of extrapulmonary tuberculosis. The diagnosis may be easily delayed because of its non-specific clinical signs. We report a new case of tuberculous tenosynovitis of the extensor without concomitant pulmonary tuberculosis or documented immunodeficiency.

  10. Intrinsic properties of the knee extensor muscles after subacute stroke

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Horstman, A.M.H.; Gerrits, K.H.L.; Beltman, M.J.; Koppe, P.A.; Janssen, T.W.J.; de Haan, A.

    2010-01-01

    Horstman AM, Gerrits KH, Beltman MJ, Koppe PA, Janssen, TW, de Haan A. Intrinsic properties of the knee extensor muscles after subacute stroke. Objective: To characterize muscle properties of paretic lower-limb (PL) and nonparetic lower-limb (NL) knee extensors in patients with subacute stroke.

  11. Cervical Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the place where a baby grows during pregnancy. Cervical cancer is caused by a virus called HPV. The ... for a long time, or have HIV infection. Cervical cancer may not cause any symptoms at first. Later, ...

  12. Cervical Dysplasia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... pass through. Cervical dysplasia is detected in a pap test (pap smear), and diagnosed in a biopsy. Abnormal ... American Academy of Family Physicians (AAFP) recommends routine pap tests to diagnose cervical cancer early. You can check ...

  13. Cervical cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... bleeding between periods, after intercourse, or after menopause Vaginal discharge that does not stop, and may be pale, ... Instructions Hysterectomy - abdominal - discharge Hysterectomy - laparoscopic - ... Images Cervical cancer Cervical neoplasia ...

  14. Checkrein deformity due to extensor hallucis longus hypotrophy treated with extensor digitorum longus tendon transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurashige, Toshinori; Kawabata, Kensuke; Suzuki, Seiichi

    2014-06-01

    Checkrein deformity is a relatively rare condition caused by hypotrophy or adhesion of a tendon after a lower leg injury. The occurrence of this condition due to the dysfunction of the extensor hallucis longus (EHL) is extremely rare. Only a few related case reports have been published, and Z-lengthening of the EHL tendon was performed for almost all patients. We report a case of checkrein deformity due to EHL hypotrophy. The patient was involved in a traffic accident 7 years ago. He sustained left tibial and fibular closed diaphyseal fractures and underwent minimally invasive plate osteosynthesis. He continued to have left great toe symptoms characterized by dorsiflexion of the great toe during ankle plantarflexion. The EHL had become an insufficient power source because of considerable hypotrophy. Therefore, a tendon transfer using the extensor digitorum longus to the second toe was performed as a primary treatment. Copyright © 2014 European Foot and Ankle Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Pelvic and hind limb musculature of Staurikosaurus pricei (Dinosauria: Saurischia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orlando N. Grillo

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The study of pelvic and hind limb bones and muscles in basal dinosaurs is important for understanding the early evolution of bipedal locomotion in the group. The use of data from both extant and extinct taxa placed into a phylogenetic context allowed to make well-supported inferences concerning most of the hind limb musculature of the basal saurischian Staurikosaurus pricei Colbert, 1970 (Santa Maria Formation, Late Triassic of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Two large concavities in the lateral surface of the ilium represent the origin of the muscles iliotrochantericus caudalis plus iliofemoralis externus (in the anterior concavity and iliofibularis (in the posterior concavity. Muscle ambiens has only one head and originates from the pubic tubercle. The origin of puboischiofemoralis internus 1 possibly corresponds to a fossa in the ventral margin of the pré-acetabular iliac process. This could represent an intermediate stage prior to the origin of a true pré-acetabular fossa. Muscles caudofemorales longus et brevis were likely well developed, and Staurikosaurus is unique in bearing a posteriorly projected surface for the origin of caudofemoralis brevis.O estudo da musculatura pelvica e do membro posterior em dinossauros basais e importante para entender a evolução inicial do bipedalismo em dinossauros Saurischia. Empregando uma metodologia que tem como base dados obtidos a partir de taxons viventes e extintos posicionados em um contexto filogenetico, foi possivel fazer inferencias bem suportadas relativas a maior parte dos musculos do membro posterior do dinossauro Saurischia basal Staurikosaurus pricei Colbert, 1970 (Formação Santa Maria, Triassico Superior do Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil. Duas grandes concavidades na superficie lateral do ilio correspondem a origem dos musculos iliotrochantericus caudalis e iliofeoralis externus (compartilhando a concavidade anterior e para o musculo iliofibularis (na concavidade posterior. O musculo ambiens

  16. Cervical Cancer

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2007-03-06

    Did you know that cervical cancer rates differ by race/ethnicity and region? Or that cervical cancer can usually be prevented if precancerous cervical lesions are found by a Pap test and treated? Find out how getting regular Pap tests can save a woman's life.  Created: 3/6/2007 by National Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection Program.   Date Released: 4/25/2007.

  17. Unilateral Variation in Extensor digitorum longus muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerje, A; Singh, S; Raza, K; Rani, N; Kaler, S

    2016-01-01

    During a routine dissection of an adult embalmed male cadaver for educational purpose in the department of anatomy at AIIMS, New Delhi, India, a rare unilateral variation of extensor digitorum longus (EDL) was found which is a muscle of anterior compartment of the leg. There was a split tendon of EDL muscle in the anterior compartment of left leg which became a common tendon in front of the ankle joint. This common tendon of EDL muscle again divided into four slips and were inserted in to the lateral four toes. In the upper part of the leg, the anterior tibial vessel and deep fibular nerve lie between the EDL and tibialis anterior. Knowledge of this type of anomaly is useful in diagnosis and treatment of compartmental syndrome. One of the tendon from the split tendon of EDL muscle can be used as a graft in tendon replacement surgeries. The split tendon may also be capable for some precise movements of the toes.

  18. A rare anomaly of the extensor digitorum longus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakuma, Eisuke; Kato, Hiroyuki; Honda, Nobuhiko; Mabuchi, Yoshio; Soji, Tsuyoshi

    2004-12-01

    We encountered the absence of the tendon to the fourth toe of the extensor digitorum longus muscle of the right leg in the body of a 73-year-old Japanese woman during the course of educational dissection at Nagoya City University Medical School. The tendon to the fourth toe of the extensor digitorum longus muscle was solely absent. To our knowledge, this anatomical variation has never been cited in the medical literature. We document the precise gross anatomical findings with some morphometric measurements. Moreover, we discuss the morphology of this anomaly in relation to previously described variations and anomalies of the extensor digitorum longus muscle.

  19. Characteristics of Skeletal Musculature of Pheasants Hatched from Eggs of Different Eggshell Colour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragan Zikic

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper was to examine morphodinamics of development of skeletal musculature of pheasants hatched from eggs of different eggshell colour. Four groups of pheasant eggs (dark brown, light brown, brown/green and blue/green were incubated. Samples of skeletal musculature of leg and breast were taken during the embryonic and neonatal period of development. From taken samples histological preparations were made. In pheasants hatched from blue/green eggs the smaller diameter of leg and breast muscle cells and the higher volume density of connective tissue in leg and breast muscles were recorded. It was concluded that pheasants hatched from blue/green eggs had the weakest development of skeletal musculature, which can be related to structural differences of eggshell of various colour.

  20. About the presence of interstitial cells of Cajal outside the musculature of the gastrointestinal tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huizinga, Jan D; Faussone-Pellegrini, Maria-Simonetta

    2005-01-01

    Santiago Ramon y Cajal observed a special cell type that appeared to function as endstructures of the intrinsic nervous system in several organs. These cells were structurally and functionally further characterized in the gut musculature and named interstitial cells of Cajal (ICC). In recent years, interstitial cells have been identified in the vasculature, urinary tract, glands and other organs. Their morphologies and functions are just beginning to be clarified. It is likely that amongst them, subtypes will be discovered that warrant the classification of interstitial cells of Cajal. This "point of view" continues the discussion on the criteria that should be used to identify ICC outside the musculature of the gut.

  1. Transfer of either index finger extensor tendon to the extensor pollicis longus tendon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meads, Bryce M; Bogoch, Earl R

    2004-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Extensor pollicis longus (EPL) tendon ruptures have been treated succesfully with the transfer of the extensor indicis proprius (EIP) tendon. Situations exist in which, due to intraoperative observations, another tendon transfer may be considered preferable to the standard EIP transfer method. OBJECTIVES: To determine whether transfer of the extensor digitorum communis II (EDC II) tendon from the index finger to the EPL tendon, leaving the EIP tendon to the index finger intact, would serve as an equally efficient transfer and not adversely affect the function of the hand. METHODS: Two patients who had the EDC II tendon transferred to the ruptured EPL tendon, and two patients who had the EIP tendon transferred, were retrospectively reviewed. In each transfer type, one patient had suffered an EPL tendon rupture after a Colles’ fracture, and the other had rheumatoid arthritis. The rupture occurred on the non-dominant side in one patient in each transfer type. Each patient was examined and subjected to range of motion and power testing at least one year following surgery. RESULTS: All four patients showed a minimal extension lag with the lift off test, but there was no noticeable difference in range of motion, pinch grip and hand grip strength between the transfer types. Both EDC II transfer patients demonstrated an 8° to 15° loss of thumb interphalangeal joint flexion compared with the unoperated side; EIP transfer patients demonstrated less than a 5° loss. Three patients demonstrated a minor extension lag in the index finger and middle finger. Extension power of the thumb and index finger in all patients varied with wrist flexion and extension and ranged from 50% to 150% of the unoperated side. CONCLUSIONS: These case reports suggest that either index finger tendon may be successfully transferred in EPL tendon ruptures. PMID:24115870

  2. Drill Penetration Injury to Extensor Tendons: A Biomechanical Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahylis, Jared M; Burwell, Anora K; Bonneau, Laura; Marshall, Lynn M; Mirarchi, Adam J

    2017-05-01

    Little is known about extensor tendon failure following drill injury at the time of volar plate fixation. Our goals were to analyze extensor tendon injury following simulated drill penetration, and change in tendon displacement during cyclic loading following simulated drill penetration injury. Extensor pollicis longus (EPL) and extensor carpi radialis brevis (ECRB) tendons were harvested from 9 fresh frozen cadaveric arms. Eighteen EPL and 18 ECRB samples were created from harvested tendons. Drill penetration injury was performed in either a continuous or an oscillating mode. Injured tendons were subjected to 1200 cycles at 1- to 15-kg cyclic load at a frequency of 1 Hz, and analyzed for failure at drill sites and change in displacement throughout the testing cycle. Ten EPL samples and 16 ECRB samples completed testing without failure. Tendon type (ECRB, EPL), mode of injury (continuous, oscillating), and location (proximal, distal) did not affect tendon displacement during loading. A single EPL tendon failed following continuous drill penetration injury. Extensor carpi radialis brevis samples had a mean change in displacement of 2.8 (standard deviation [SD]: 1.5 mm) and 5.9 mm (SD: 4.7 mm) for oscillating and continuous modes, respectively. Six EPL samples had a mean change in displacement of 4.7 (SD: 2.7 mm) and 4.3 mm (SD: 1.8 mm) for oscillating and continuous modes, respectively. Complete extensor tendon failure due to drill penetration was rare. Drill mode did not affect the degree of elongation. Increasing cyclic loading of extensor tendons after drill injury caused modest extensor tendon elongation.

  3. Intermuscular interaction via myofascial force transmission: Effects of tibialis anterior and extensor digitorum longus length on force transmission from rat extensor digitorum longus muscle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maas, Huub; Baan, Guus C.; Huijing, P.A.J.B.M.

    2001-01-01

    Force transmission in rat anterior crural compartment, containing tibialis anterior (TA), extensor hallucis longus (EHL) and extensor digitorum longus (EDL) muscles, was investigated. These muscles together with the muscles of the peroneal compartment were excited maximally. Force was measured at

  4. Intermuscular interaction via myofascial force transmission: Effects of tibialis anterior and extensor digitrum longus length on force transmission from rat extensor digitorum longus muscle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maas, H.; Baan, G.C.; Huijing, P.A.J.B.M.

    2001-01-01

    Force transmission in rat anterior crural compartment, containing tibialis anterior (TA), extensor hallucis longus (EHL) and extensor digitorum longus (EDL) muscles, was investigated. These muscles together with the muscles of the peroneal compartment were excited maximally. Force was measured at

  5. Customizing Extensor Reconstruction in Vascularized Toe Joint Transfers to Finger Proximal Interphalangeal Joints: A Strategic Approach for Correcting Extensor Lag.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loh, Charles Yuen Yung; Hsu, Chung-Chen; Lin, Cheng-Hung; Chen, Shih-Heng; Lien, Shwu-Huei; Lin, Chih-Hung; Wei, Fu-Chan; Lin, Yu-Te

    2017-04-01

    Vascularized toe proximal interphalangeal joint transfer allows the restoration of damaged joints. However, extensor lag and poor arc of motion have been reported. The authors present their outcomes of treatment according to a novel reconstructive algorithm that addresses extensor lag and allows for consistent results postoperatively. Vascularized toe joint transfers were performed in a consecutive series of 26 digits in 25 patients. The average age was 30.5 years, with 14 right and 12 left hands. Reconstructed digits included eight index, 10 middle, and eight ring fingers. Simultaneous extensor reconstructions were performed and eight were centralization of lateral bands, five were direct extensor digitorum longus-to-extensor digitorum communis repairs, and 13 were central slip reconstructions. The average length of follow-up was 16.7 months. The average extension lag was 17.9 degrees. The arc of motion was 57.7 degrees (81.7 percent functional use of pretransfer toe proximal interphalangeal joint arc of motion). There was no significant difference in the reconstructed proximal interphalangeal joint arc of motion for the handedness (p = 0.23), recipient digits (p = 0.37), or surgical experience in vascularized toe joint transfer (p = 0.25). The outcomes of different techniques of extensor mechanism reconstruction were similar in terms of extensor lag, arc of motion, and reconstructed finger arc of motion compared with the pretransfer toe proximal interphalangeal joint arc of motion. With this treatment algorithm, consistent outcomes can be produced with minimal extensor lag and maximum use of potential toe proximal interphalangeal joint arc of motion. Therapeutic, IV.

  6. Morphology of the antebrachial musculature of the American kestrel, Falco sparverius (aves).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyers, R A

    1996-01-01

    The antebrachial musculature of the American kestrel (Falco sparverius) is described. This fills a gap in the avian morphology literature, and provides a reference for future comparative, functional and systematic studies. A table of synonyms-homologs is provided for each muscle as a reference frame for over 100 years of avian anatomical literature.

  7. A PET study on cortical and subcortical control of pelvic floor musculature in women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blok, Bertil F.M.; Sturms, Leontien M.; Holstege, Gert

    1997-01-01

    The pelvic floor musculature plays an important role in behaviors such as defecation, micturition, mating behavior, and vomiting. A recent positron emission tomography (PET) study revealed that structures belonging to the emotional motor system are involved in the control of the pelvic floor during

  8. Interstitial cells of Cajal in the striated musculature of the mouse esophagus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rumessen, J J; de Kerchove d'Exaerde, A; Mignon, S

    2001-01-01

    Interstitial cells of Cajal (ICC) are important regulatory cells in the smooth muscle coats of the digestive tract. Expression of the Kit receptor tyrosine kinase was used in this study as a marker to study their distribution and development in the striated musculature of the mouse esophagus. Sec...

  9. Strength training for plantar fasciitis and the intrinsic foot musculature: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huffer, Dean; Hing, Wayne; Newton, Richard; Clair, Mike

    2017-03-01

    The aim was to critically evaluate the literature investigating strength training interventions in the treatment of plantar fasciitis and improving intrinsic foot musculature strength. A search of PubMed, CINHAL, Web of Science, SPORTSDiscus, EBSCO Academic Search Complete and PEDRO using the search terms plantar fasciitis, strength, strengthening, resistance training, intrinsic flexor foot, resistance training. Seven articles met the eligibility criteria. Methodological quality was assessed using the modified Downs and Black checklist. All articles showed moderate to high quality, however external validity was low. A comparison of the interventions highlights significant differences in strength training approaches to treating plantar fasciitis and improving intrinsic strength. It was not possible to identify the extent to which strengthening interventions for intrinsic musculature may benefit symptomatic or at risk populations to plantar fasciitis. There is limited external validity that foot exercises, toe flexion against resistance and minimalist running shoes may contribute to improved intrinsic foot musculature function. Despite no plantar fascia thickness changes being observed through high-load plantar fascia resistance training there are indications that it may aid in a reduction of pain and improvements in function. Further research should use standardised outcome measures to assess intrinsic foot musculature strength and plantar fasciitis symptoms. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Extensor deficiency: first cause of childhood flexible flat foot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vittore, Donato; Patella, Vittorio; Petrera, Massimo; Caizzi, Gianni; Ranieri, Maurizio; Putignano, Piero; Spinarelli, Antonio

    2009-01-01

    Childhood flexible flat foot is the most common paramorphism of the lower limb. The cause is not a bony malformation of the foot but a functional deficiency of the anatomic structures supporting the plantar arch. These structures, working as active tie rods (the tibialis anterior and posterior muscles) or passive factors of support (flexor hallucis longus and flexor digitorum longus muscles) act together to maintain the plantar arch. Their deficiency is responsible for childhood flexible flat foot, characterized by a flattening of the plantar arch and calcaneus pronation (heel valgus) and manifested in the characteristic "duck walking" in children. Hypothesizing poor extensor activity of the tibialis anterior, extensor digitorum longus, and extensor hallucis longus muscles during the heel contact phase of the gait cycle, we began a preliminary study to evaluate, through superficial electromyography (sEMG), the activation of muscle groups involved in the pathogenesis of childhood flexible flat foot, in particular the tibialis anterior and extensor hallucis longus muscles, to plan a rehabilitative program addressing the strengthening of insufficient muscles. The therapeutic program should also include the use of a medial elastic push orthosis. Data obtained by sEMG highlight a reduced activation of muscles related to the grade of flat foot, emphasizing the concept that a reduced activation of extensor muscles may be involved in determining flexible flat foot.

  11. Closed traumatic rupture of the extensor hallucis longus muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tadros, Ayman M A; Al-Shaeel, Rashed A

    2013-01-01

    A 23-year-old healthy laborer involved in a work-related injury, sustained excessive left ankle plantarflexion, which resulted in closed rupture of the extensor hallucis longus muscle without any predisposing factors. He had an associated fracture of the second metatarsal shaft. The muscle proximal to the musculotendinous junction was excised, and the tendon was looped through a longitudinal slit in the main extensor digitorum communis tendon and sutured to it. The second metatarsal fracture was fixed with Kirschner wires. The patient regained full function and was symptom free 6 months after surgery. Copyright © 2013 American College of Foot and Ankle Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Cervical Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 800-762-2264 Foundation for Women's Cancer Phone Number: 800-444-4441 Previous Page Next Page Cervical cancer fact sheet (PDF, 162 KB) Female reproductive system Related information Human papillomavirus (HPV) and genital ...

  13. Cervical Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... I find more information about cervical and other gynecologic cancers? Centers for Disease Control and Prevention: 800-CDC-INFO or www. cdc. gov/ cancer/ gynecologic National Cancer Institute: 800-4-CANCER or www. ...

  14. Cervical Cerclage

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and Gynecology. 2014;123:372. Cervical cerclage About Advertisement Mayo Clinic does not endorse companies or products. ... a Job Site Map About This Site Twitter Facebook Google YouTube Pinterest Mayo Clinic is a not- ...

  15. Cervical Cap

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... p020041. Accessed Nov. 11, 2014. Cervical cap About Advertisement Mayo Clinic does not endorse companies or products. ... a Job Site Map About This Site Twitter Facebook Google YouTube Pinterest Mayo Clinic is a not- ...

  16. Cervical Laminoplasty

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Nerve Tests: EMG, NCV and SEEP Alternative Medicine Acupuncture Herbal Supplements Surgical Options Anterior Cervical Fusion Artifical ... tasks. A NASS physician can perform a thorough history to evaluate your symptoms and any recent changes. ...

  17. Cervical Cap

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... weeks after delivery Can be inserted hours before sex and remain in place for up to 48 hours Doesn't require a partner's cooperation Poses few if any side effects The cervical cap isn't appropriate for everyone, ...

  18. Cervical Stenosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Drug Interactions Pill Identifier Commonly searched drugs Aspirin Metformin Warfarin Tramadol Lactulose Ranitidine News & Commentary Recent News ... D May Affect Breast Cancer Survival (Video) Ectopic Pregnancy (Video) Assisted Delivery Additional Content Medical News Cervical ...

  19. Cervical Myomas

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Drug Interactions Pill Identifier Commonly searched drugs Aspirin Metformin Warfarin Tramadol Lactulose Ranitidine News & Commentary Recent News ... D May Affect Breast Cancer Survival (Video) Ectopic Pregnancy (Video) Assisted Delivery Additional Content Medical News Cervical ...

  20. Mystacial Whisker Layout and Musculature in the Guinea Pig (Cavia porcellus): A Social, Diurnal Mammal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, Robyn A; Delaunay, Mariane G; Haidarliu, Sebastian

    2017-03-01

    All mammals (apart from apes and humans) have whiskers that make use of a similar muscle arrangement. Whisker specialists, such as rats and mice, tend to be nocturnal and arboreal, relying on their whisker sense of touch to guide exploration around tree canopies at night. As such, nocturnal arboreal rodents have many whiskers that are organised into a grid-like pattern, and moved using a complex array of muscles. Indeed, most arboreal, nocturnal mammals tend to have specialised whiskers that are longer and arranged in a dense, regular grid, compared with terrestrial, diurnal mammals. The guinea pig diverged early from murid rodents (around 75 million years ago), and are ground-dwelling, diurnal animals. It would be predicted that, as a terrestrial mammal, they may have less whiskers and a reduced muscle architecture compared to arboreal, nocturnal rodents. We examined the mystacial whisker layout, musculature and movement capacity of Guinea pig (Cavia porcellus) whiskers and found that they did indeed have a disorganized whisker layout, with a fortification around the eye area. In addition, there was a reduction in musculature, especially in the intrinsic muscles. Despite guinea pigs not cyclically moving their whiskers, the mystacial musculature was still very similar to that of murid rodents. We suggest that the conserved presence of whisker layout and musculature, even in visual mammals such as primates and guinea pigs, may indicate that whiskers still play an important role in these animals, including protecting the eyes and being involved in tactile social behaviors. Anat Rec, 300:527-536, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Social variables exert selective pressures in the evolution and form of primate mimetic musculature

    OpenAIRE

    Burrows, Anne M.; Li, Ly; Waller, Bridget M.; Micheletta, Jerome

    2016-01-01

    Mammals use their faces in social interactions more so than any other vertebrates. Primates are an extreme among most mammals in their complex, direct, lifelong social interactions and their frequent use of facial displays is a means of proximate visual communication with conspecifics. The available repertoire of facial displays is primarily controlled by mimetic musculature, the muscles that move the face. The form of these muscles is, in turn, limited by and influenced by phylogenetic inert...

  2. The infrabranchial musculature and its bearing on the phylogeny of percomorph fishes (Osteichthyes: Teleostei).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Datovo, Aléssio; de Pinna, Mário C C; Johnson, G David

    2014-01-01

    The muscles serving the ventral portion of the gill arches ( = infrabranchial musculature) are poorly known in bony fishes. A comparative analysis of the infrabranchial muscles in the major percomorph lineages reveals a large amount of phylogenetically-relevant information. Characters derived from this anatomical system are identified and discussed in light of current hypotheses of phylogenetic relationships among percomorphs. New evidence supports a sister-group relationship between the Batrachoidiformes and Lophiiformes and between the Callionymoidei and Gobiesocoidei. Investigated data also corroborate the existence of two monophyletic groups, one including the Pristolepididae, Badidae, and Nandidae, and a second clade consisting of all non-amarsipid stromateiforms. New synapomorphies are proposed for the Atherinomorphae, Blenniiformes, Lophiiformes, Scombroidei (including Sphyraenidae), and Gobiiformes. Within the latter order, the Rhyacichthyidae and Odontobutidae are supported as the successive sister families of all remaining gobiiforms. The present analysis further confirms the validity of infrabranchial musculature characters previously proposed to support the grouping of the Mugiliformes with the Atherinomorphae and the monophyly of the Labriformes with the possible inclusion of the Pholidichthyiformes. Interestingly, most hypotheses of relationships supported by the infrabranchial musculature have been advanced by preceding anatomists on the basis of distinct data sources, but were never recovered in recent molecular phylogenies. These conflicts clearly indicate the current unsatisfactory resolution of the higher-level phylogeny of percomorphs.

  3. Trunk extensor muscle fatigue influences trunk muscle activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoseinpoor, Tahere Seyed; Kahrizi, Sedighe; Mobini, Bahram

    2015-01-01

    Trunk muscles fatigue is one of the risk factors in workplaces and daily activities. Loads would be redistributed among active and passive tissues in a non-optimal manner in fatigue conditions. Therefore, a single tissue might be overloaded with minimal loads and as a result the risk of injury would increase. The goal of this paper was to assess the electromyographic response of trunk extensor and abdominal muscles after trunk extensor muscles fatigue induced by cyclic lifting task. This was an experimental study that twenty healthy women participated. For assessing automatic response of trunk extensor and abdominal muscles before and after the fatigue task, electromyographic activities of 6 muscles: thorasic erector spine (TES), lumbar erector spine (LES), lumbar multifidus (LMF), transverse abdominis/ internal oblique (TrA/IO), rectus abdominis (RA) and external oblique (EO) were recorded in standing position with no load and symmetric axial loads equal to 25% of their body weights. Statistical analysis showed that all the abdominal muscles activity decreased with axial loads after performing fatigue task but trunk extensor activity remained constant. Results of the current study indicated that muscle recruitment strategies changed with muscle fatigue and load bearing, therefore risks of tissue injury may increase in fatigue conditions.

  4. Ultrasound-guided trigger point injections in the cervicothoracic musculature: a new and unreported technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botwin, Kenneth P; Sharma, Kavita; Saliba, Romeo; Patel, Bharat C

    2008-01-01

    Myofascial pain is defined as pain that originates from myofascial trigger points in skeletal muscle. It is prevalent in regional musculoskeletal pain syndromes, either alone or in combination with other pain generators. The myofascial pain syndrome is one of the largest groups of under diagnosed and under treated medical problems encountered in clinical practice. Trigger points are commonly seen in patients with myofascial pain which is responsible for localized pain in the affected muscles as well as referred pain patterns. Correct needle placement in a myofascial trigger point is vital to prevent complications and improve efficacy of the trigger point injection to help reduce or relieve myofascial pain. In obese patients, these injections may not reach the target tissue. In the cervicothoracic spine, a misguided or misplaced injection can result in a pneumothorax. Here, we describe an ultrasound-guided trigger point injection technique to avoid this potential pitfall. Office based ultrasound-guided injection techniques for musculoskeletal disorders have been described in the literature with regard to tendon, bursa, cystic, and joint pathologies. For the interventionalist, utilizing ultrasound yields multiple advantages technically and practically, including observation of needle placement in real-time, ability to perform dynamic studies, the possibility of diagnosing musculoskeletal pathologies, avoidance of radiation exposure, reduced overall cost, and portability of equipment within the office setting. To our knowledge, the use of ultrasound guidance in performing trigger point injection in the cervicothoracic area, particularly in obese patients, has not been previously reported. A palpable trigger point in the cervicothoracic musculature was localized and marked by indenting the skin with the tip of a plastic needle cover. The skin was then sterile prepped. Then, using an ultrasound machine with sterile coupling gel and a sterile latex free transducer cover

  5. Cervical thymoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abrão Rapoport

    1999-05-01

    Full Text Available CONTEXT: Cervical thymoma is a primitive thymic neoplasia. It is very rare. This disease presents higher incidence in female patients in their 4th to 6th decade of life. We present a case report of a cervical thymoma CASE REPORT: 54-year-old female patient, caucasian, with no history of morbidity, presenting a left cervical nodule close to the thyroid gland. During the 30 months of investigation a left cervical nodule grew progressively next to the thyroid while the patient showed no symptoms, making accurate diagnosis difficult. Tests on her thyroid function did not show changes, nor were there changes in any subsidiary tests. The diagnosis of the disease was made intra-operatively through total thyroid individualization. The results were confirmed by the histological findings from the ressected material. Cervical thymoma is a very rare disease, with difficult preoperatory diagnosis. Some additional study methods which are employed today are thallium 201, technetium 99 and iodine 131 scintigraphy, magnetic nuclear resonance and especially histopathological findings and classification.

  6. Cervical Spondylosis and Hypertension

    OpenAIRE

    Peng, Baogan; Pang, Xiaodong; Li, Duanming; Yang, Hong

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Cervical spondylosis and hypertension are all common diseases, but the relationship between them has never been studied. Patients with cervical spondylosis are often accompanied with vertigo. Anterior cervical discectomy and fusion is an effective method of treatment for cervical spondylosis with cervical vertigo that is unresponsive to conservative therapy. We report 2 patients of cervical spondylosis with concomitant cervical vertigo and hypertension who were treated successfully w...

  7. Social variables exert selective pressures in the evolution and form of primate mimetic musculature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burrows, Anne M; Li, Ly; Waller, Bridget M; Micheletta, Jerome

    2016-04-01

    Mammals use their faces in social interactions more so than any other vertebrates. Primates are an extreme among most mammals in their complex, direct, lifelong social interactions and their frequent use of facial displays is a means of proximate visual communication with conspecifics. The available repertoire of facial displays is primarily controlled by mimetic musculature, the muscles that move the face. The form of these muscles is, in turn, limited by and influenced by phylogenetic inertia but here we use examples, both morphological and physiological, to illustrate the influence that social variables may exert on the evolution and form of mimetic musculature among primates. Ecomorphology is concerned with the adaptive responses of morphology to various ecological variables such as diet, foliage density, predation pressures, and time of day activity. We present evidence that social variables also exert selective pressures on morphology, specifically using mimetic muscles among primates as an example. Social variables include group size, dominance 'style', and mating systems. We present two case studies to illustrate the potential influence of social behavior on adaptive morphology of mimetic musculature in primates: (1) gross morphology of the mimetic muscles around the external ear in closely related species of macaque (Macaca mulatta and Macaca nigra) characterized by varying dominance styles and (2) comparative physiology of the orbicularis oris muscle among select ape species. This muscle is used in both facial displays/expressions and in vocalizations/human speech. We present qualitative observations of myosin fiber-type distribution in this muscle of siamang (Symphalangus syndactylus), chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes), and human to demonstrate the potential influence of visual and auditory communication on muscle physiology. In sum, ecomorphologists should be aware of social selective pressures as well as ecological ones, and that observed morphology might

  8. Interstitial cells in the musculature of the gastrointestinal tract: Cajal and beyond

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rumessen, Jüri J; Vanderwinden, Jean-Marie

    2003-01-01

    , the ultrastructure and light microscopic morphology, as well as the functions and the development of ICC and of neighboring fibroblast-like cells (FLC), are critically reviewed. Directions for future research are considered and a unifying concept of mesenchymal cells, either KIT positive (the "ICC") or KIT negative...... "non-Cajal" (including the FLC and possibly also other cell types) cell types in the interstitium of the smooth musculature of the gastrointestinal tract, is proposed. Furthermore, evidence is accumulating to suggest that, as postulated by Santiago Ramon y Cajal, the concept of interstitial cells...

  9. Clinical analysis of pharyngeal musculature and genioglossus exercising to treat obstructive sleep apnea and hypopnea syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Shi-xiong; Qing, Jing; Wang, Yao-wen; Chai, Liang; Zhang, Wei-min; Ye, Xian-wang; Zhang, Jie; Huang, Yi-qin; Cheng, Peng

    2015-11-01

    To evaluate the effect of pharyngeal musculature and genioglossus exercising on obstructive sleep apnea and hypopnea syndrome (OSAHS). We conducted a non-randomized retrospective clinical trial of 75 patients with OSAHS. Fifty-four patients were managed by exercising of the pharyngeal musculature and genioglossus (exercising group). Twenty-one patients, who refused to undertake any treatment, were defined as the control group. We took the Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS), checked patients' polysomnography, and took 320-detector computed tomography (CT) before treatment. Six and twelve months later, we made records of apnea hypopnea index (AHI), lowest arterial oxygen saturation (LSaO2), body mass index (BMI), the shortest sagittal diameter, and transverse diameter, and the effective rates of exercising were calculated and compared with the 21 patients without any treatment (control group) at the same time. SPSS 10.0 was used to analyze the data. Before treatment, the ESS value was 7.67; 6 and 12 months later, the values were 3.54 and 3.25, respectively in the exercising group. AHI was decreased to 15.36 after 6 months and 13.79 after 12 months from 22.84 at the beginning. LSaO2 values were up to 81.18% after 6 months and 81.93% after 12 months from 74.05% at the beginning. There were significant differences in ESS scores, AHI, and LSaO2 between pre-treatment and post-treatment in the exercising group (P0.05). At 12 months of exercising, the compliance of the anteroposterior pharyngeal wall of the retropalatal area was lower (P<0.01) than that before treatment. There was no significant change of BMI in either group. Exercising pharyngeal musculature and genioglossus is a kind of non-invasive and cost-effective method to treat some OSAHS patients, especially those who are old, without surgical complications, and especially mild and moderate OSAHS patients who do not want to take surgery and continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) treatment. In addition, exercising

  10. Knee extensor mechanism allograft reconstruction following chronic disruption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murgier, J; Boisrenoult, P; Pujol, N; Beranger, J S; Tardy, N; Steltzlen, C; Beaufils, P

    2015-11-01

    The management of chronic extensor mechanism disruption can be complex. One of the options is allograft reconstruction. The goal of this study was to present the surgical procedure and provide preliminary results with this technique. The allograft uses the whole extensor mechanism (anterior tibial tubercle, patellar ligament, patella, quadriceps tendon). The native patella can be completely removed if the quality of the bone is poor, otherwise a bone groovecan be created to receive the allograft. The allograft is tightly tensioned with the knee in full extension. This surgical technique was performed 5 times with a minimum follow-up of 1 year. Active extension was recovered in all cases. The mean postoperative KOOS was 55.5 the IKS function score was 68.5 and the IKS knee score was 83. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  11. [Isolated traumatic dislocation of the extensor carpi ulnaris tendon].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loty, B; Meunier, B; Mazas, F

    1986-01-01

    The authors describe one case of post-traumatic dislocation of the extensor carpi ulnaris tendon. They found eleven other cases reported in the literature. The type of lesion should be looked for in cases of trauma to the wrist without a bony lesion. The treatment should be surgical when function is impaired, either shortly after the initial trauma or if the dislocation becomes habitual. The aim is to reconstruct a tendon sheath. The results were generally satisfactory.

  12. An anomalous accessory extensor proprius indicis muscle: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa Kurklu

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Variations related to tendon insertion and musculotendinous junction of the extensor proprius indicis muscle are commonly encountered. An anomalous extensor indicis proprius muscle (EIP tendon was detected in a fifty-year-old female cadaver during routine dissection of the right upper extremity. The body of tendon was initiated from the posterior ulna as a one muscle body, then continued as two separate muscle bodies and tendons and finally they were separated into two slips after passing the fourth dorsal compartment. As a radial part, it was divided into two slips at the level of the first metacarpophalangeal joint, and conjugated with the extensor pollicis longus (EPL muscle. Then, as an ulnar part, it was terminated at the radial side of the lateral band of the second metacarpophalangeal joint. Familiarity with the normal anatomy and variations of the tendons may help to prevent confusion and mistakes during tendon repairs, and tendon transfers. [Hand Microsurg 2013; 2(3.000: 122-124

  13. Knee extensors kinetic chain training in anterior cruciate ligament deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Mark C; Morrissey, Matthew C; Morrissey, Dylan; Knight, Philippa R; McAuliffe, Thomas B; King, John B

    2005-11-01

    Open kinetic chain (OKC) knee extensor resistance training has lost favour in rehabilitation of patients with knee ACLD due to concerns that this exercise is harmful to the remaining portion of the ACL and its secondary stabilizers, and will be less effective in improving function. In this randomized, single-blind clinical trial, closed and OKC knee extensor training were compared for their effects on knee laxity and function in patients with ACLD knees. Sixty-four patients with a diagnosis of knee ACLD (49 M, 15 F; mean age=30 years) were measured for knee laxity, using a ligament arthrometer, and function with the Hughston Clinic knee self-assessment questionnaire and maximal effort single leg jump testing. Between the above tests and identical tests carried out 6 weeks later, subjects trained using either open or closed kinetic chain resistance of their knee and hip extensors as part of formal physical therapy sessions three times per week for 6 weeks. The groups exhibited no statistically significant differences (pACL deficiency, and shows no superiority to CKC training.

  14. Tenosynovial (Extra-articular) Chondromatosis of the Extensor Digitorum Longus Tendon and Synovial Chondromatosis of the Ankle: Treated by Extensor Digitorum Longus Tendoscopy and Ankle Arthroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lui, Tun Hing

    2015-10-01

    Synovial chondromatosis is a rare pathology in the foot and ankle region. We present a case of concomitant tenosynovial chondromatosis of the extensor digitorum longus tendon and synovial chondromatosis of the ankle, which was successfully treated by extensor digitorum tendon tendoscopy and ankle arthroscopy. Therapeutic, Level IV: Case study. © 2014 The Author(s).

  15. Subluxation of the Extensor Carpi Ulnaris Tendon Associated with the Extensor Digitorum Tendon Subluxation of the Long Finger

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Byung-Sung; Yoon, Hong-Gi; Kim, Hyung-Tae; Park, Kang-Hee; Kim, Chang-Geun

    2013-01-01

    A twenty-year-old male visited our clinic with wrist and long finger metacarpophalangeal (MP) joint pain. Dynamic ultrasonography revealed sagittal band (SB) ulnar subluxation and extensor carpi ulnaris (ECU) volar subluxation. Magnetic resonance imaging showed longitudinal splitting and dislocation of the volar half slip of the ECU tendon. The redundant radial SB was augmented and ECU sheath was advanced to the periosteum using suture anchors. He was able to perform his previous activities at the last follow-up. We encountered a case of "simulateous" ECU dislocation with extensor tendon subluxation of the long finger at the MP joint. Therefore, we report this case with a review of the relevant literature. PMID:23467477

  16. Segmental absence of intestinal musculature with metachronous bowel perforations in an infant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noboru Oyachi

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Segmental absence of intestinal musculature is a rare condition. A female patient was born at 39 weeks gestational age with birth weight of 2,900 g. The patient was prenatally diagnosed as having segmental bowel distension in the fetal stage. She manifested bilious emesis with abdominal distension at day 1. Although excretion of viscous meconium was observed by gastrografin enema, gastrointestinal perforation developed. Emergency laparotomy and peritoneal drainage was required at that time and further laparotomy was performed on day 15. Multiple perforations were recognized discontinuously from the jejunum to the transverse colon, and jejunostomy was constructed. Additional bowel perforations occurred and re-exploration was required at day 43. We found newly formed small perforations in the proximal jejunum, ileum and the transverse colon and a tube jejunostomy and a colostomy were established. The patient required prolonged TPN management, which induced correlated cholestasis and liver failure, and died at day 143. Pathologic findings showed partial hypoplasia of the intrinsic muscle layer in the small intestine and diagnosed as segmental absence of intestinal musculature. Her disorder was unusual in its presentation, which included prenatal bowel dilatation, metachronous superimposed bowel perforation, and extensive discrete lesions from the jejunum to the transverse colon.

  17. Delayed rupture of the extensor hallucis longus and extensor digitorum communis tendons after breaching the anterior capsule with a radiofrequency probe during ankle arthroscopy: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuncer, Serdar; Aksu, Neslihan; Isiklar, Ugur

    2010-01-01

    A 40-year-old man with early arthritis, loose bodies, and anterolateral joint impingement symptoms in his left ankle, which was refractory to noninvasive therapeutic modalities for 1 year, underwent ankle arthroscopy and radiofrequency thermal ablation. The anterior capsule of the ankle joint was breached by the radiofrequency probe while the loose bodies were removed from the anterior recess, exposing the extensor tendons and resulting in a delayed spontaneous rupture of the extensor hallucis longus tendon and extensor tendons to the second and third toes. The extensor hallucis longus tendon was repaired with a semitendinosus tendon graft, and extensor digitorum tendons underwent primary repair. The patient regained full function and was symptom free 1 year after surgery. Copyright 2010 American College of Foot and Ankle Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Cervical Spondylosis and Hypertension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Baogan; Pang, Xiaodong; Li, Duanming; Yang, Hong

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Cervical spondylosis and hypertension are all common diseases, but the relationship between them has never been studied. Patients with cervical spondylosis are often accompanied with vertigo. Anterior cervical discectomy and fusion is an effective method of treatment for cervical spondylosis with cervical vertigo that is unresponsive to conservative therapy. We report 2 patients of cervical spondylosis with concomitant cervical vertigo and hypertension who were treated successfully with anterior cervical discectomy and fusion. Stimulation of sympathetic nerve fibers in pathologically degenerative disc could produce sympathetic excitation, and induce a sympathetic reflex to cause cervical vertigo and hypertension. In addition, chronic neck pain could contribute to hypertension development through sympathetic arousal and failure of normal homeostatic pain regulatory mechanisms. Cervical spondylosis may be one of the causes of secondary hypertension. Early treatment for resolution of symptoms of cervical spondylosis may have a beneficial impact on cardiovascular disease risk in patients with cervical spondylosis. PMID:25761188

  19. Cervical Cancer Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... cervical cytology (also called the Pap test or Pap smear) and, for some women, testing for human papillomavirus (HPV) . How does cervical cancer occur? Cancer occurs when cervical cells become abnormal ...

  20. Cervical Cancer Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Cancer Treatment Screening for cervical cancer using the Pap test has decreased the number of new cases of ... their chance of dying from cervical cancer . A Pap test is commonly used to screen for cervical cancer. ...

  1. Cervical radiculopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corey, Deanna Lynn; Comeau, Douglas

    2014-07-01

    Cervical radiculopathy is the result of irritation and/or compression of nerve root as it exits the cervical spine. Pain is a common presenting symptom and may be accompanied by motor or sensory deficits in areas innervated by the affected nerve root. Diagnosis is suggested by history and corresponding physical examination findings. Confirmation is achieved with MRI. A multimodal approach to treatment helps patients improve. Medications may be used to alleviate symptoms and manage pain. Physical therapy and manipulation may improve neck discomfort. Guided corticosteroid injections and selected nerve blocks may help control nerve root pain. Most patients improve with a conservative, nonoperative treatment course. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Lateral cervical puncture for cervical myelography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seol, Hae Young; Cha, Sang Hoon; Kim, Yoon Hwan; Suh, Won Hyuck

    1985-01-01

    Eleven cervical myelograms were performed by lateral cervical puncture using Metrizamide. So, following results were obtained: 1. Site of lateral cervical puncture; Posterior one third of bony cervical canal at C 1-2 level. 2. Advantages as compared with lumbar puncture for cervical myelograms; 1) Small amount of contrast media 2) Excellent image 3) Less position charge 4) Short time 5) Well visualization of superior margin of obstructive lesion in spinal canal 3. Cessation of lateral cervical puncture, when; 1) Pain during injection of contrast media 2) Localized collection of contrast media

  3. Ulnar-sided pain due to extensor carpi ulnaris tendon subluxation: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cift Hakan

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction We present the case of a patient with extensor carpi ulnaris tendon subluxation who was first treated for distal radioulnar joint sprain. Case presentation A 25-year-old Caucasian man was seen at our policlinic one month after he had fallen on his outstretched hand. A diagnosis of extensor carpi ulnaris subluxation was made clinically but we also had the magnetic resonance imaging scan of the patient’s wrist which displayed an increased signal on T2-weighted images consistent with inflammation around the extensor carpi ulnaris tendon. The extensor carpi ulnaris tendon was found to be dislocating during supination and relocating during pronation. The sheath was reconstructed using extensor retinaculum due to attenuation of subsheath. Conclusion There was no recurrent dislocation of the extensor carpi ulnaris tendon of the patient at his last follow up 12 months after the operation.

  4. Evolution of the axial system in craniates: morphology and function of the perivertebral musculature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schilling Nadja

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The axial musculoskeletal system represents the plesiomorphic locomotor engine of the vertebrate body, playing a central role in locomotion. In craniates, the evolution of the postcranial skeleton is characterized by two major transformations. First, the axial skeleton became increasingly functionally and morphologically regionalized. Second, the axial-based locomotion plesiomorphic for craniates became progressively appendage-based with the evolution of extremities in tetrapods. These changes, together with the transition to land, caused increased complexity in the planes in which axial movements occur and moments act on the body and were accompanied by profound changes in axial muscle function. To increase our understanding of the evolutionary transformations of the structure and function of the perivertebral musculature, this review integrates recent anatomical and physiological data (e.g., muscle fiber types, activation patterns with gross-anatomical and kinematic findings for pivotal craniate taxa. This information is mapped onto a phylogenetic hypothesis to infer the putative character set of the last common ancestor of the respective taxa and to conjecture patterns of locomotor and muscular evolution. The increasing anatomical and functional complexity in the muscular arrangement during craniate evolution is associated with changes in fiber angulation and fiber-type distribution, i.e., increasing obliqueness in fiber orientation and segregation of fatigue-resistant fibers in deeper muscle regions. The loss of superficial fatigue-resistant fibers may be related to the profound gross anatomical reorganization of the axial musculature during the tetrapod evolution. The plesiomorphic function of the axial musculature -mobilization- is retained in all craniates. Along with the evolution of limbs and the subsequent transition to land, axial muscles additionally function to globally stabilize the trunk against inertial and extrinsic

  5. Cervical Laminoplasty for Multilevel Cervical Myelopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murali Krishna Sayana

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Cervical spondylotic myelopathy can result from degenerative cervical spondylosis, herniated disk material, osteophytes, redundant ligamentum flavum, or ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament. Surgical intervention for multi-level myelopathy aims to decompress the spinal cord and maintain stability of the cervical spine. Laminoplasty was major surgical advancement as laminectomy resulted in kyphosis and unsatisfactory outcomes. Hirabayashi popularised the expansive open door laminoplasty which was later modified several surgeons. Laminoplasty has changed the way surgeons approach multilevel cervical spondylotic myelopathy.

  6. [Extensor digitorum longus transfer in flexible overlapping fifth toe deformity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuhrmann, R A; Pillukat, T

    2014-02-01

    Pain relief through realignment of the fifth toe by dorsomedial capsular release at the fifth metatarsophalaneal joint and transfer of the extensor digitorum longus tendon to the aponeurosis of the abductor digiti quinti muscle. Flexible overlapping fifth toe deformity. Fixed deformity. Angular toe deformity distal to the metatarsophalangeal joint (e.g. delta phalanx). Lateral drift of all lesser toes. Dorsolateral approach to the fifth metatarsophalangeal joint. Release of the dorsomedial capsule. Tenotomy of the fifth extensor digitorum longus tendon at the dorsum of the foot. Transfer of the distally based tendon around the proximal phalanx to the aponeurosis of the abductor digiti quinti muscle. Correction of the deformity by tensioning the tendon graft appropriately. Ambulation with full weightbearing in a postoperative shoe. Toe alignment dressing for 6 weeks. A total of 48 patients (56 feet; average age 37 years) with a flexible overlapping fifth toe deformity were followed up after soft tissue release and transfer of the extensor digitorum longus tendon; 40 patients (48 feet) were re-evaluated clinically after 11.4 months (range 9-26 months). Postoperative complications were sensory disturbance at the lateral side of the fifth toe (n = 5), superficial wound slough (n = 3). Follow-up results included broad and hypertrophic scars at the fifth metatarsophalangeal joint (n = 16), physiological alignment of the fifth toe in 37 feet (77.1%), overcorrection (interdigital space 4/5 > 3 mm) in 4 feet (8.3%), undercorrection in 7 feet (14.6%). In 4 feet the undercorrection could be attributed to a Tailor's bunion deformity, which was not treated appropriately.

  7. Hyperparathyroidism-related extensor tenosynovitis at the wrist: a general review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ichihara, Satoshi; Hidalgo-Diaz, Juan Jose; Prunières, Guillaume; Facca, Sybille; Bodin, Frédéric; Boucher, Stéphanie; Liverneaux, Philippe

    2015-07-01

    Extensor tenosynovitis often occurs accompanying with rheumatoid arthritis, gout, trauma, mycobacterium and dialysis-related amyloidosis. However, there is no recognition of extensor tenosynovitis accompanying with hyperparathyroidism. The purpose of this general review was to describe the clinical condition and to report the results of surgical intervention in the extensor tenosynovitis at the wrist related to hyperparathyroidism. Hyperparathyroidism is thought to be a rare disease in adult. Although renal symptoms are the commonest symptom, musculoskeletal complaints also occur in hyperparathyroidism. From our general review, hyperparathyroidism deserves consideration in the differential diagnosis of extensor tenosynovitis at the wrist.

  8. Neck extensor muscle weakness (Dropped head syndrome) following radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhatia, S.; Miller, R.C.; Lachance, D.L.

    2006-01-01

    Background. Dropped head syndrome is an unusual condition in which the head cannot be held upright in its normal anatomic position secondary to pronounced, isolated, neck extensor muscle weakness. Case report. A case of dropped head syndrome in a female with a history of radiotherapy for Hodgkin's lymphoma and a clinical history consistent with multiple sclerosis is presented, and potential etiologies are discussed. Conclusions. Muscular atrophy and lower motor neuron injury secondary to isolated anterior horn cell injury from radiotherapy emerge as the most likely etiology. (author)

  9. Macroscopic description of thoracic member musculature in Cuniculus paca (Linnaeus, 1766 (Rodentia, Cuniculidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Gomes de Souza

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Cuniculus paca (Mammalia: Cuniculidae, or ‘paca’ is a rodent species in great demand for its meat, which has led to domestication and development of paca farms in the Brazilian Amazon region, as well as in other states. Despite the growing consumption of paca meat, knowledge on muscle anatomy is still scarce. An anatomical description of paca forelimbs will form the basis for future zootechnical and veterinary studies, enabling the development of sustainable production in the Amazon region, as well as the preservation of the species. We studied forelimb anatomy in four (04 adult pacas from the Caboclinho Project of Catuaba Experimental Farm (UFAC under IBAMA authorization n°509309. Specimens were fixed in 10% formalin and thoracic limbs were dissected, after which anatomical descriptions and photographic records were generated. We found that paca forelimb musculature is similar to that of other groups of domestic animals with regard to the origin and muscle insertion.

  10. Interstitial cells of Cajal in the striated musculature of the mouse esophagus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rumessen, J J; de Kerchove d'Exaerde, A; Mignon, S

    2001-01-01

    Interstitial cells of Cajal (ICC) are important regulatory cells in the smooth muscle coats of the digestive tract. Expression of the Kit receptor tyrosine kinase was used in this study as a marker to study their distribution and development in the striated musculature of the mouse esophagus...... scarce in both muscle layers of the thoracic esophagus, while their number increased steeply toward the cardia in the striated portion of the intraabdominal esophagus. They did not form networks and had no relationship with intrinsic myenteric ganglia and motor end-plates. They were often close to nerve...... but absent in adult ICC-deficient KitW-lacZ/KitWv mice. Interstitial cells of Cajal were identified by electron microscopy by their ultrastructure in the striated muscle of the esophagus and exhibited Xgal labeling, while fibroblasts and muscle cells were unlabeled. Interstitial cells of Cajal are scattered...

  11. The occupant response to autonomous braking: a modeling approach that accounts for active musculature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Östh, Jonas; Brolin, Karin; Carlsson, Stina; Wismans, Jac; Davidsson, Johan

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study is to model occupant kinematics in an autonomous braking event by using a finite element (FE) human body model (HBM) with active muscles as a step toward HBMs that can be used for injury prediction in integrated precrash and crash simulations. Trunk and neck musculature was added to an existing FE HBM. Active muscle responses were achieved using a simplified implementation of 3 feedback controllers for head angle, neck angle, and angle of the lumbar spine. The HBM was compared with volunteer responses in sled tests with 10 ms(-2) deceleration over 0.2 s and in 1.4-s autonomous braking interventions with a peak deceleration of 6.7 ms(-2). The HBM captures the characteristics of the kinematics of volunteers in sled tests. Peak forward displacements have the same timing as for the volunteers, and lumbar muscle activation timing matches data from one of the volunteers. The responses of volunteers in autonomous braking interventions are mainly small head rotations and translational motions. This is captured by the HBM controller objective, which is to maintain the initial angular positions. The HBM response with active muscles is within ±1 standard deviation of the average volunteer response with respect to head displacements and angular rotation. With the implementation of feedback control of active musculature in an FE HBM it is possible to model the occupant response to autonomous braking interventions. The lumbar controller is important for the simulations of lap belt-restrained occupants; it is less important for the kinematics of occupants with a modern 3-point seat belt. Increasing head and neck controller gains provides a better correlation for head rotation, whereas it reduces the vertical head displacement and introduces oscillations.

  12. Protein catabolism in pregnant snakes (Epicrates cenchria maurus Boidae) compromises musculature and performance after reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lourdais, O; Brischoux, F; DeNardo, D; Shine, R

    2004-07-01

    In many species the high energetic demands of reproduction induce a negative energy balance, and thus females must rely on tissue catabolism to complete the reproductive process. Previous works have shown that both fat and protein are energy resources during prolonged fasting in vertebrates. While many ecological studies on energy costs of reproduction have focused on variations in fat stores, the impact of protein investment on the female has not been thoroughly investigated. Notably, as there is no specialized storage form for proteins, intense catabolism is likely to entail structural (musculature) loss that may compromise maternal physical performance after reproduction. Measurements on captive rainbow boas ( Epicrates cenchria maurus) confirm that reproducing females undergo significant protein catabolism (as indicated by elevated plasma uric acid levels) and show considerable musculature loss during gestation (as detected by reduced width of the epaxial muscles). Protein mobilization entailed a significant functional loss that was illustrated by decrements in tests of strength and constriction after parturition. In wild situations, such effects are likely to decrease the snakes' ability to forage and apprehend prey. Hence, the time period needed to recover from reproduction can be extended not only because the female must compensate losses of both fat stores and functional muscle, but also because the ability to do so may be compromised. Performance alteration is likely to be of equal or greater importance than reduced energy stores in the physiological mediation of elevated post-reproduction mortality rates and infrequent reproductive bouts (e.g. biannual or triannual), two common ecological traits of female snakes.

  13. Electroejaculation functions primarily by direct activation of pelvic musculature: Perspectives from a porcine model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam M.R. Groh

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Ejaculatory dysfunction is a significant cause of infertility in men that have incurred spinal cord injury or iatrogenic lesions to the sympathetic nerves in the retroperitoneum. For such patients, electroejaculation – whereby a voltage is applied transrectally under general anesthesia – is a highly-effective procedure to obtain ejaculate. At present, however, there remains uncertainty as to the physiological mechanism by which electroejaculation prompts seminal emission in males with neurogenic anejaculation. Thus, in the present study, we aimed to determine, for the first time, whether electroejaculation functions by mimicking a neurophysiological response, or by directly activating local pelvic musculature. Using electroejaculation in a novel porcine model, we monitored the strength of contraction of the internal urethral sphincter (a smooth muscle involved in ejaculation before and after lesioning its sympathetic innervation with a combination of progressively-worsening surgical and pharmacological insults in three anesthetized boars (46.1 ± 7.4 kg. Importantly, prior to this investigation, we confirmed the comparative structural anatomy of the porcine model to humans through gross dissection and histological analysis of the infrarenal retroperitoneal sympathetic nerves and ganglia in 18 unembalmed boars. Prior to sacrifice, three of these boars underwent functional testing to confirm control of the internal urethral sphincter by the hypogastric nerves. Our results demonstrate that electroejaculation-induced contraction of the internal urethral sphincter was preserved following each progressive neural insult compared to the control state (p > 0.05. In contrast, these same insults resulted in paralysis/paresis of the internal urethral sphincter when its sympathetic innervation was directly stimulated with bipolar electrodes (p < 0.05. Taken together, our results provide the first empirical evidence to suggest that

  14. Headache of cervical origin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burguet, J.L.; Wackenheim, A.

    1984-01-01

    The authors recall cervical etiologies of headache. They distinguish on the one hand the cervico-occipital region with minor and major malformations and acquired lesions, and on the other hand the middle and inferior cervical segment. They also recall the original structuralist analysis of the cervical spine and give the example of the ''cervical triplet''. (orig.) [de

  15. Topographical characteristics of motor units of the lower facial musculature revealed by means of high-density surface EMG.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lapatki, B.G.; Oostenveld, R.; Dijk, J.P. van; Jonas, I.E.; Zwarts, M.J.; Stegeman, D.F.

    2006-01-01

    The objective of this study was to systematically characterize motor units (MUs) of the musculature of the lower face. MU endplate positions and principal muscle fiber orientations relative to facial landmarks were identified. This was done by the analysis of motor unit action potentials (MUAPs) in

  16. Computed tomography of the skeletal musculature in Becker-type muscular dystrophy and benign infantile spinal muscular atrophy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Visser, M.; Verbeeten, B.

    1985-01-01

    Results of computed tomographic (CT) examination of the skeletal musculature in 26 patients with Becker-type muscular dystrophy (BMD) and 12 patients with benign infantile spinal muscular atrophy (BISMA) are presented. Both disorders revealed strikingly different changes that may have important

  17. Back extensor and psoas muscle cross-sectional area, prior physical training, and trunk muscle strength--a longitudinal study in adolescent girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peltonen, J E; Taimela, S; Erkintalo, M; Salminen, J J; Oksanen, A; Kujala, U M

    1998-01-01

    The association between physical training, low back extensor (erector spinae plus multifidus muscles) and psoas muscle cross-sectional areas (CSA) and strength characteristics of trunk extension and flexion were studied in adolescent girls. A group of athletes (n = 49) (age range 13.7-16.3 years) consisting of gymnasts, figure skaters and ballet dancers was age-matched with non-athletes (n = 17) who acted as a sedentary control group. The CSA of psoas muscles and multifidus plus erector spinae muscles were measured from lumbar axial images by magnetic resonance imaging. Maximal trunk extension and flexion forces were measured in a standing position using a dynamometer and trunk musculature endurance was evaluated using static holding tests. When CSA were adjusted with body mass, the athletes showed significantly greater CSA in both muscles studied (psoas P psoas muscle CSA (P strength parameters, but the force per muscle CSA did not differ significantly between the athletes and the non-athletes. In addition, the athletes showed a better body mass adjusted muscle endurance in trunk flexion (P strength parameters.

  18. Cervical Adjacent Segment Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Özbek, Zühtü; Özkara, Emre; Yağmur, İpek; Arslantaş, Ali

    2017-01-01

    Cervical adjacent segment disease; is the general name ofdisc pathologies that develop in adjacent levels after cervical surgery. If thecervical adjacent segment disease that do not require reoperation and it doesnot cause clinical signs is called radiological cervical adjacent segmentpathology, but those causing radiculopathy, myelopathy or instability is calledclinic cervical adjacent segment pathology. The incidence of cervical adjacentsegment disease in 10-year follow-up is 2.4% -2.9%. Wh...

  19. Atividade eletromiográfica dos extensores de tronco durante manuseio pelo Método Neuroevolutivo Bobath

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline de Souza Pagnussat

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: Paralisia cerebral é um distúrbio caracterizado por alterações no desenvolvimento da atividade, do movimento e da postura. O Conceito Neuroevolutivo Bobath é um método utilizado na reabilitação neuropediátrica, fundamentando-se na facilitação da aquisição de habilidades sensório-motoras de acordo com a sequência de desenvolvimento neuropsicomotor normal. OBJETIVO: Verificar atividade eletromiográfica de músculos envolvidos no controle cervical nos planos frontal, sagital e transverso, mediante manuseio em pontos-chave de controle, objetivando transferência de peso e estabilização corporal. MATERIAIS E MÉTODOS: Trata-se de uma avaliação quantitativa em um estudo de caso, no qual uma paciente de sete anos de idade, com diagnóstico clínico de paralisia cerebral e síndrome de West, foi submetida à análise eletromiográfica da musculatura envolvida no controle cervical, mediante manuseio em pontos-chave de controle. O registo ocorreu durante o manuseio utilizando postura de decúbito ventral sobre cunha e postura de decúbito lateral sobre o solo. RESULTADOS: O sinal eletromiográfico dos extensores e flexores na região cervical intensificou-se mediante manuseio para transferência de peso em ponto-chave de quadril em ambas as posturas. Embora o sinal de base tenha sido ampliado durante a transferência de peso para o quadril, o registro eletromiográfico nos segmentos musculares avaliados foi superior no decúbito lateral. CONCLUSÕES: Verificou-se que a transferência de peso para o quadril induziu facilitação do controle cervical e que o decúbito lateral de forma repetida e sustentada, mediante correto manuseio, alinhamento e transferência de peso, facilitou de forma mais pronunciada a atividade muscular na região cervical e de tronco superior do que o manuseio em decúbito ventral sobre a cunha.

  20. ''Dropped-head'' syndrome due to isolated myositis of neck extensor muscles: MRI findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaeta, Michele; Mazziotti, Silvio; Blandino, Alfredo; Toscano, Antonio; Rodolico, Carmelo; Mazzeo, Anna

    2006-01-01

    MRI findings of a patient with dropped-head syndrome due to focal myositis of the neck extensor muscles are presented. MRI showed oedematous changes and marked enhancement of the neck extensor muscles. After therapy MRI demonstrated disappearance of the abnormal findings. (orig.)

  1. An anatomic and biomechanic study of the wrist extensor retinaculum septa and tendon compartments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwamoto, Akira; Morris, Randal P; Andersen, Clark; Patterson, Rita M; Viegas, Steven F

    2006-01-01

    The anatomy of the extensor retinaculum of the wrist has been described previously; the purpose of this study was to describe the specific anatomy of the septal attachments on the radius and to investigate the mechanical strength of each septal attachment on the radius and each of the 6 compartments of the extensor retinaculum. Thirty-four wrists from 24 fresh-frozen and 10 embalmed cadavers were used. First, anatomic measurements of the individual extensor retinaculum septums were performed with calipers and a 3-dimensional digitizer. Next each extensor retinaculum septum was excised as a bone-retinaculum-bone autograft and was tested in tension to failure with a materials testing machine. Finally the 6 extensor retinaculum compartments were tested to failure. Septum 1/2 had the largest radial surface area and septum 3/4 had the smallest. Septum 1/2 also was found to have the highest failure strength at 51.3 +/- 15.3 N. In compartment testing, compartments 1 and 2 had the highest overall resistance to failure and compartment 5 had the lowest. Compartment 6, which was thought to be the weakest because of clinically observed subluxation of the extensor carpi ulnaris tendon, had stronger failure data than expected. This study offers detailed analysis of the extensor retinaculum compartments and 3-dimensional anatomy of the septal attachments. Clinically this study lends insight to the strength of bone-retinaculum-bone autografts and the etiology of extensor carpi ulnaris subluxation.

  2. Isometric muscle function of knee extensors and the relation with functional performance in patients with stroke

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerrits, K.H.L.; Beltman, M.J.; Koppe, P.A.; Konijnenbelt, H.; Elich, P.D.; de Haan, A.; Janssen, T.W.J.

    2009-01-01

    Gerrits KH, Beltman MJ, Koppe PA, Konijnenbelt H, Elich PD, de Haan A, Janssen TW. Isometric muscle function of knee extensors and the relation with functional performance in patients with stroke. Objective: (1) To examine the isometric strength, speed, and fatigue resistance of the knee extensors

  3. The Effect of Visual Impairment on the Strength of Children's Hip and Knee Extensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyatt, L.; Ng, G. Y.

    1997-01-01

    A test of 32 children's hip and knee extensors found that children born blind or with low vision are at risk of developing weak lower-limb extensors, with congenitally blind children at greatest risk. After correcting for lean body weight, the differences between sighted children and those with low vision were insignificant. Results support the…

  4. Reliability of contractile properties of the knee extensor muscles in individuals with post-polio syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voorn, Eric L.; Brehm, Merel A.; Beelen, Anita; de Haan, Arnold; Nollet, Frans; Gerrits, Karin H. L.

    2014-01-01

    To assess the reliability of contractile properties of the knee extensor muscles in 23 individuals with post-polio syndrome (PPS) and 18 age-matched healthy individuals. Contractile properties of the knee extensors were assessed from repeated electrically evoked contractions on 2 separate days, with

  5. Extensor Tendon Instability Due to Sagittal Band Injury in a Martial Arts Athlete: A Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kochevar, Andrew; Rayan, Ghazi

    2017-03-01

    A Taekwondo participant sustained a hand injury from punching an opponent that resulted in painful instability of the ring finger extensor digitorum communis tendon due to sagittal band damage. His symptoms resolved after reconstructive surgery on the sagittal band (SB) with stabilization of the extensor tendon over the metacarpophalangeal joint.

  6. Extensor Mechanism Disruption after Total Knee Arthroplasty: A Case Series and Review of Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaishya, Raju; Agarwal, Amit Kumar; Vijay, Vipul

    2016-02-04

    Extensor mechanism disruption following total knee arthroplasty (TKA) is a rare but devastating complication. These patients may require revision of the implants, but even then, it may not be possible to restore the normal function of the knee after the disruption. The patterns of extensor mechanism disruption can broadly be classified into three types: suprapatellar (quadriceps tendon rupture), transpatellar (patellar fracture), or infrapatellar (patellar tendon rupture). Infrapatellar tendon ruptures are the worst injuries, as they carry maximum morbidity and are challenging to manage. The disruption of the extensor mechanism may occur either intra-operatively or in the immediate postoperative period due to an injury. The treatment of extensor mechanism complications after TKA may include either nonsurgical management or surgical intervention in the form of primary repair or reconstruction with autogenous, allogeneic, or synthetic substitutes. We have provided an algorithm for the management of extensor mechanism disruption after TKA.

  7. Cervicitis of unknown etiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Stephanie N

    2014-07-01

    Cervicitis has been described by some as the female counterpart of urethritis in men. Over the years a number of clinical and microscopy-based definitions have been suggested in the literature. Clinical manifestations include mucopurulent discharge from the cervix, cervical friability (easy bleeding from the cervix with passage of a swab) and cervical ectopy. Microscopic definitions involving the use of Gram stain of cervical secretions have included either more than 10 white blood cells (WBCs) or more than 30 WBCs per high-power field. Combinations of these clinical and microscopic findings have been used in attempts to increase the accuracy of cervicitis diagnosis. When cervicitis was initially recognized as a clinical entity, several investigators reported the primary pathogens causing cervicitis as Neisseria gonorrhoeae and Chlamydia trachomatis. It is now well established that most cases of cervicitis are not caused by these two organisms. Most cases of cervicitis are of unknown etiology.

  8. Cervical cancer - screening and prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cancer cervix - screening; HPV - cervical cancer screening; Dysplasia - cervical cancer screening; Cervical cancer - HPV vaccine ... Almost all cervical cancers are caused by HPV (human papilloma virus). HPV is a common virus that spreads through sexual contact. Certain ...

  9. Spontaneous Extensor Tendon Rupture in the Rheumatoid Wrist: Risk Factors and Preventive Role of Extended Tenosynovectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsueh, Jung-Hua; Liu, Wen-Chung; Yang, Kuo-Chung; Hsu, Kuei-Chang; Lin, Cheng-Ta; Chen, Lee-Wei

    2016-03-01

    Spontaneous extensor tendon rupture is often seen in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients, but the risk factors are not clearly defined. We therefore collected the data of RA patients with previous extensor tendon rupture and those with tenosynovitis and analyzed the relationship between extended tenosynovectomy and spontaneous extensor tendon rupture. We retrospectively reviewed 17 spontaneous extensor tendon rupture episodes in 15 RA patients and 14 tenosynovitis episodes that required tenosynovectomy in 12 RA patients from 1997 to 2013. Correlations between the incidence of tendon rupture, X-ray findings, and clinical findings in the affected wrists before tendon rupture were analyzed statistically using the test for proportion. The following parameters were significantly correlated with spontaneous extensor tendon rupture: disease duration longer than 8 years, persistent tenosynovitis longer than 1 year duration, and Larsen grade greater than 4 (P = 0.02, 0.03, and 0.01, respectively). Dislocation of the distal end of the ulna, carpal collapse, and the scallop sign on X-ray contributed to a higher spontaneous extensor tendon rupture rate among RA patients (P = 0.01, 0.05, and 0.03, respectively). Extended tenosynovectomy was performed on 14 wrists in 12 RA patients with persistent tenosynovitis longer than 6 months, and Larsen grade did not deteriorate in this group compared with those who did not undergo the surgery. No spontaneous extensor tendon rupture occurred following the surgery. Risk factors of spontaneous extensor tendon rupture included disease duration longer than 8 years, persistent tenosynovitis longer than 1 year, and wrist Larsen grade greater than 4. Dislocation of the distal end of the ulna, carpal collapse, and the scallop sign on X-ray indicated a higher probability of extensor tendon rupture. Rheumatologists should consult with hand surgeons promptly to preserve hand function before tendon rupture. Prophylactic extended tenosynovectomy

  10. Accuracy of High-Resolution Ultrasonography in the Detection of Extensor Tendon Lacerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dezfuli, Bobby; Taljanovic, Mihra S; Melville, David M; Krupinski, Elizabeth A; Sheppard, Joseph E

    2016-02-01

    Lacerations to the extensor mechanism are usually diagnosed clinically. Ultrasound (US) has been a growing diagnostic tool for tendon injuries since the 1990s. To date, there has been no publication establishing the accuracy and reliability of US in the evaluation of extensor mechanism lacerations in the hand. The purpose of this study is to determine the accuracy of US to detect extensor tendon injuries in the hand. Sixteen fingers and 4 thumbs in 4 fresh-frozen and thawed cadaveric hands were used. Sixty-eight 0.5-cm transverse skin lacerations were created. Twenty-seven extensor tendons were sharply transected. The remaining skin lacerations were used as sham dissection controls. One US technologist and one fellowship-trained musculoskeletal radiologist performed real-time dynamic US studies in and out of water bath. A second fellowship trained musculoskeletal radiologist subsequently reviewed the static US images. Dynamic and static US interpretation accuracy was assessed using dissection as "truth." All 27 extensor tendon lacerations and controls were identified correctly with dynamic imaging as either injury models that had a transected extensor tendon or sham controls with intact extensor tendons (sensitivity = 100%, specificity = 100%, positive predictive value = 1.0; all significantly greater than chance). Static imaging had a sensitivity of 85%, specificity of 89%, and accuracy of 88% (all significantly greater than chance). The results of the dynamic real time versus static US imaging were clearly different but did not reach statistical significance. Diagnostic US is a very accurate noninvasive study that can identify extensor mechanism injuries. Clinically suspected cases of acute extensor tendon injury scanned by high-frequency US can aid and/or confirm the diagnosis, with dynamic imaging providing added value compared to static. Ultrasonography, to aid in the diagnosis of extensor mechanism lacerations, can be successfully used in a reliable and

  11. Twisting and bending: the functional role of salamander lateral hypaxial musculature during locomotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, W O; Simons, R S; Brainerd, E L

    2001-06-01

    The function of the lateral hypaxial muscles during locomotion in tetrapods is controversial. Currently, there are two hypotheses of lateral hypaxial muscle function. The first, supported by electromyographic (EMG) data from a lizard (Iguana iguana) and a salamander (Dicamptodon ensatus), suggests that hypaxial muscles function to bend the body during swimming and to resist long-axis torsion during walking. The second, supported by EMG data from lizards during relatively high-speed locomotion, suggests that these muscles function primarily to bend the body during locomotion, not to resist torsional forces. To determine whether the results from D. ensatus hold for another salamander, we recorded lateral hypaxial muscle EMGs synchronized with body and limb kinematics in the tiger salamander Ambystoma tigrinum. In agreement with results from aquatic locomotion in D. ensatus, all four layers of lateral hypaxial musculature were found to show synchronous EMG activity during swimming in A. tigrinum. Our findings for terrestrial locomotion also agree with previous results from D. ensatus and support the torsion resistance hypothesis for terrestrial locomotion. We observed asynchronous EMG bursts of relatively high intensity in the lateral and medial pairs of hypaxial muscles during walking in tiger salamanders (we call these 'alpha-bursts'). We infer from this pattern that the more lateral two layers of oblique hypaxial musculature, Mm. obliquus externus superficialis (OES) and obliquus externus profundus (OEP), are active on the side towards which the trunk is bending, while the more medial two layers, Mm. obliquus internus (OI) and transversus abdominis (TA), are active on the opposite side. This result is consistent with the hypothesis proposed for D. ensatus that the OES and OEP generate torsional moments to counteract ground reaction forces generated by forelimb support, while the OI and TA generate torsional moments to counteract ground reaction forces from hindlimb

  12. Three dimensional digital reconstruction of the jaw adductor musculature of the extinct marsupial giant Diprotodon optatum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alana C. Sharp

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The morphology and arrangement of the jaw adductor muscles in vertebrates reflects masticatory style and feeding processes, diet and ecology. However, gross muscle anatomy is rarely preserved in fossils and is, therefore, heavily dependent on reconstructions. An undeformed skull of the extinct marsupial, Diprotodon optatum, recovered from Pleistocene sediments at Bacchus Marsh in Victoria, represents the most complete and best preserved specimen of the species offering a unique opportunity to investigate functional anatomy. Computed tomography (CT scans and digital reconstructions make it possible to visualise internal cranial anatomy and predict location and morphology of soft tissues, including muscles. This study resulted in a 3D digital reconstruction of the jaw adductor musculature of Diprotodon, revealing that the arrangement of muscles is similar to that of kangaroos and that the muscle actions were predominantly vertical. 3D digital muscle reconstructions provide considerable advantages over 2D reconstructions for the visualisation of the spatial arrangement of the individual muscles and the measurement of muscle properties (length, force vectors and volume. Such digital models can further be used to estimate muscle loads and attachment sites for biomechanical analyses.

  13. Biometry by ultrasonography of the epaxial and pelvic musculature in equines trained with Pessoa's rein

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kátia de Oliveira

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the use of Pessoa's rein in training equine, as a support in exercise training, on biometry by ultrasonography of the epaxial (Longíssimus Dorsi, Gluteus Medius e Musculus Multifidus and pelvic musculature (Biceps Femoris e Semitendinosus. Thereby, eight Quarter Horse mares was used, with eight years on average age, 400kg of body weight, trained with the Pessoa's rein twice a week, for two months. Variables were measured before and after training, consisting of assessment thickness (cm of the Longíssimus Dorsi and cross-sectional area (cm2 of muscles, Gluteus Medius, Biceps Femoris, Semitendinosus and Musculus Multifidus. It observed a significant effect of training with Pessoa's rein, on the Biceps Femoris (P<0.01 and Musculus Multifidus (P<0.01, which the average cross-sectional area at the final evaluation were of 28.66cm2 and 14.29cm2, respectively. Thus it can be conclude that training with Pessoa's rein modifies muscular function, promoting hypertrophy Musculus Multifidus and Biceps Femoris of horses

  14. Macroscopic description of thoracic member musculature in Cuniculus paca (Linnaeus, 1766 (Rodentia, Cuniculidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Gomes de Souza

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/2175-7925.2017v30n2p43 Cuniculus paca (Mammalia: Cuniculidae, or ‘paca’ is a rodent species in great demand for its meat, which has led to domestication and development of paca farms in the Brazilian Amazon region, as well as in other states. Despite the growing consumption of paca meat, knowledge on muscle anatomy is still scarce. An anatomical description of paca forelimbs will form the basis for future zootechnical and veterinary studies, enabling the development of sustainable production in the Amazon region, as well as the preservation of the species. We studied forelimb anatomy in four (04 adult pacas from the Caboclinho Project of Catuaba Experimental Farm (UFAC under IBAMA authorization n°509309. Specimens were fixed in 10% formalin and thoracic limbs were dissected, after which anatomical descriptions and photographic records were generated. We found that paca forelimb musculature is similar to that of other groups of domestic animals with regard to the origin and muscle insertion.

  15. Cervical Cancer Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Cancer found early may be easier to treat. Cervical cancer screening is usually part of a woman's health ... may do more tests, such as a biopsy. Cervical cancer screening has risks. The results can sometimes be ...

  16. Cervical spondylosis (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cervical spondylosis is a disorder that results from abnormal growth of the bones of the neck and degeneration and ... neck pain is a key indication of cervical spondylosis. It may be the only symptom in many ...

  17. Biomechanical analysis of the human finger extensor mechanism during isometric pressing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan Hu

    Full Text Available This study investigated the effects of the finger extensor mechanism on the bone-to-bone contact forces at the interphalangeal and metacarpal joints and also on the forces in the intrinsic and extrinsic muscles during finger pressing. This was done with finger postures ranging from very flexed to fully extended. The role of the finger extensor mechanism was investigated by using two alternative finger models, one which omitted the extensor mechanism and another which included it. A six-camera three-dimensional motion analysis system was used to capture the finger posture during maximum voluntary isometric pressing. The fingertip loads were recorded simultaneously using a force plate system. Two three-dimensional biomechanical finger models, a minimal model without extensor mechanism and a full model with extensor mechanism (tendon network, were used to calculate the joint bone-to-bone contact forces and the extrinsic and intrinsic muscle forces. If the full model is assumed to be realistic, then the results suggest some useful biomechanical advantages provided by the tendon network of the extensor mechanism. It was found that the forces in the intrinsic muscles (interosseus group and lumbrical are significantly reduced by 22% to 61% due to the action of the extensor mechanism, with the greatest reductions in more flexed postures. The bone-to-bone contact force at the MCP joint is reduced by 10% to 41%. This suggests that the extensor mechanism may help to reduce the risk of injury at the finger joints and also to moderate the forces in intrinsic muscles. These apparent biomechanical advantages may be a result of the extensor mechanism's distinctive interconnected fibrous structure, through which the contraction of the intrinsic muscles as flexors of the MCP joint can generate extensions at the DIP and PIP joints.

  18. Direct repair of the sagittal band for extensor tendon subluxation caused by finger flicking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, In Tae; Oh, Chi Hoon; Sim, Young Suk; Han, Soo Hong

    2017-09-01

    For patients with metacarpophalangeal (MCP) extensor tendon subluxation caused by finger flicking injury, we performed an extensor tendon realignment and direct repair technique. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the clinical outcome after direct repair of the sagittal band in patients with MCP extensor tendon subluxation caused by finger flicking injury and to introduce the repair technique. A total of 26 patients with a mean age of 39.9 years were included in the study. The mean time from injury to surgery was 51.3 days. The ruptured sagittal band was reattached to the lateral side of the extensor tendon using a continuous interlocking suture. Patients were evaluated for pain using a visual analog scale (VAS), range of motion, long fingertip pinch strength, disabilities of the arm, shoulder, and hand (DASH) score, and the recurrence of extensor tendon subluxation or dislocation. All patients had full range of motion compared to the uninjured contralateral digit. Long fingertip pinch strength was also comparable to that of the contralateral digit in all patients. The DASH score was also improved from a preoperative average of 28.8 to a postoperative average of 1.0. Realignment of the extensor tendon and direct repair of the superficial layer of the sagittal band to the extensor digitorum communis (EDC) tendon is recommended as a treatment option in patients with chronic MCP extensor tendon subluxation, as well as for acute MCP extensor tendon subluxation in patients that have failed or could not maintain conservative treatment approaches.

  19. Neck muscle fatigue alters the cervical flexion relaxation ratio in sub-clinical neck pain patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zabihhosseinian, Mahboobeh; Holmes, Michael W R; Ferguson, Brad; Murphy, Bernadette

    2015-06-01

    The cervical flexion relaxation ratio is lower in neck pain patients compared to healthy controls. Fatigue modulates the onset and offset angles of the silent period in both the lumbar and cervical spine in healthy individuals; however, this response has not been studied with neck pain patients. The purpose of this study was to determine if cervical extensor fatigue would alter the parameters of the cervical flexion relaxation more in a neck pain group than a healthy control group. Thirteen healthy and twelve neck pain patients participated. Cervical extensor activity was examined bilaterally and kinematics of the neck and head were collected. An isometric, repetitive neck extension task at 70% of maximum elicited fatigue. Participants performed 3 trials of maximal cervical flexion both pre and post fatigue. The healthy controls and neck pain groups fatigued after 56 (41) and 39 (31) repetitions, respectively. There was a significant interaction effect for the flexion relaxation ratio between the control and neck pain groups from pre to post fatigue trials (F1,96=22.67, P=0.0001), but not for onset and offset angles (F1, 96=0.017, P=0.897), although the onset and offset angles did decrease significantly for both groups following fatigue (F1,96=9.26, P=0.002). Individuals with mild to moderate neck pain have significant differences in their neuromuscular control relative to controls, experienced myoelectric fatigue with fewer repetitions in a shorter time, had a lower cervical flexion relaxation ratio at baseline and had an inability to decrease this ratio further in response to fatigue. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Cervical-scapular muscles strength and severity of temporomandibular disorder in women with mechanical neck pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Pasinato

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction: Changes in cervical muscle function have been observed in patients with neck pain (NP and TMD. However, the relationship between TMD severity and neck muscle strength in the presence/absence of NP is unknown. Objective: To determine the prevalence of TMD in women with and without mechanical NP and assess the cervical-scapular muscle strength and its association with TMD severity. Methods: Fifteen volunteers without neck pain (CG and 14 women with mechanical neck pain (NPG took part and were selected by the Neck Disability Index. The diagnosis and severity of TMD were determined by the Research Diagnostic Criteria for TMD and Temporomandibular Index (TI, respectively. The strength of the upper trapezius muscle, and cervical flexor and extensor muscles was measured by digital hand dynamometer. Results: 64.5% of women with NP and 33.3% without NP were diagnosed with TMD (p = 0.095. The NPG showed lower strength of the cervical flexor (p = 0.044 and extensor (p=0.006 muscles, and higher TI (p = 0.038 than in the CG. It was also verified moderate negative correlation between TI and the strength of dominant (p = 0.046, r = -0.547 and non-dominant (p = 0.007, r = -0.695 upper trapezius, and cervical flexors (p = 0.023, r = -0.606 in the NPG. Conclusion: There was no difference in the prevalence of TMD in women with and without NP. However, women with NP have lower cervical muscle strength - compared to those without NP - which was associated with greater severity of TMD. Thus, in women with NP associated with TMD, it is advisable to assess and address the severity of this dysfunction and identify the cervical-scapular muscles compromise.

  1. Cervical Cancer Stage IIIA

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    ... hyphen, e.g. -historical Searches are case-insensitive Cervical Cancer Stage IIIA Add to My Pictures View /Download : ... 1275x1275 View Download Large: 2550x2550 View Download Title: Cervical Cancer Stage IIIA Description: Stage IIIA cervical cancer; drawing ...

  2. Cervical Cancer Stage IVA

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    ... hyphen, e.g. -historical Searches are case-insensitive Cervical Cancer Stage IVA Add to My Pictures View /Download : ... 1575x1200 View Download Large: 3150x2400 View Download Title: Cervical Cancer Stage IVA Description: Stage IVA cervical cancer; drawing ...

  3. Cervical Cancer Stage IVB

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    ... hyphen, e.g. -historical Searches are case-insensitive Cervical Cancer Stage IVB Add to My Pictures View /Download : ... 1200x1305 View Download Large: 2400x2610 View Download Title: Cervical Cancer Stage IVB Description: Stage IVB cervical cancer; drawing ...

  4. Cervical Cancer Stage IIIB

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    ... hyphen, e.g. -historical Searches are case-insensitive Cervical Cancer Stage IIIB Add to My Pictures View /Download : ... 1425x1326 View Download Large: 2850x2651 View Download Title: Cervical Cancer Stage IIIB Description: Stage IIIB cervical cancer; drawing ...

  5. Cervical Cancer Stage IB

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    ... hyphen, e.g. -historical Searches are case-insensitive Cervical Cancer Stage IB Add to My Pictures View /Download : ... 1613x1200 View Download Large: 3225x2400 View Download Title: Cervical Cancer Stage IB Description: Stage IB1 and IB2 cervical ...

  6. Cervical Cancer Stage IA

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    ... historical Searches are case-insensitive Cervical Cancer Stage IA Add to My Pictures View /Download : Small: 720x576 ... Large: 3000x2400 View Download Title: Cervical Cancer Stage IA Description: Stage IA1 and IA2 cervical cancer; drawing ...

  7. Spontaneous Rupture of the Extensor Pollicis Longus Tendon due to Unusual Etiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Süleyman Taş

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: The etiology of spontaneous rupture of the extensor pollicis longus tendon includes systemic or local steroid injections, wrist fracture, tenosynovitis, synovitis, rheumatoid arthritis, and repetitive wrist motions. Case Report: We encountered a case of extensor pollicis longus tendon rupture with an unusual etiology, cow milking. In this case, transfer of the extensor indicis proprius tendon was performed successfully. At 1 year after surgery, extension of the thumb was sufficient. Conclusion: It appears that patients with occupations involving repetitive motions are at a high risk of closed tendon ruptures.

  8. Rupture of the extensor hood of the fifth toe: a rare injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venturini, Sara; Gaba, Suchi; Mangwani, Jitendra

    2017-02-27

    Closed injuries of the extensor hood of the lesser toes are rare and seldom reported in the literature. We present the case of a woman aged 25 years who presented to the orthopaedic fracture clinic with a 2-week history of pain in the left fifth toe and inability to extend following a ballet dancing session. Investigations showed no fracture on plain radiographs, but an ultrasound scan demonstrated rupture to the extensor hood of the little toe. Successful surgical repair of the extensor hood was performed, and the patient made a good recovery with return to dancing activities. 2017 BMJ Publishing Group Ltd.

  9. Extensor digitorum longus tenosynovitis caused by talar head impingement in an ultramarathon runner: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, H; Sakurai, M; Kobayashi, T

    2007-08-01

    Stenosing tenosynovitis of the extensor digitorum longus tendon is an injury related to ultramarathon running. A 32-year-old male ultramarathon runner developed chronic tenosynovitis of the ankle dorsiflexors. He was diagnosed with extensor digitorum longus tenosynovitis caused by talar head impingement associated with exostosis. He failed to respond to non-operative management and decided to undergo tenosynovectomy of the extensor digitorum longus tendon. The pain was relieved without functional disturbance of the foot and ankle, and the patient returned to running 3 weeks postoperatively. At the 2-year follow-up, he was participating fully in ultramarathons.

  10. Cervical subluxation associated with posterior cervical hemivertebra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otero-López, R; Rivero-Garvía, M; Márquez-Rivas, J; Valencia, J

    2016-02-01

    Hemivertebrae, associated with a failure in the formation and fusion of vertebral body ossification nuclei, are a common cause of thoracic or lumbar scoliosis. A cervical location is rare and even rarer as a cause of cervical subluxation in flexion and extension (for which only one previous case has been found). We report on the case of a 7-year-old female patient, who was examined for a cervical fusion defect, consisting of a posterior C4 hemivertebra and a left hemiblock from C5 to C7. After performing surgery consisting of a C4 corpectomy and anterior fixation with intersomatic graft and plate, adequate cervical stabilization with only a self-limiting left C6 brachialgia and ipsilateral Horner syndrome occurs in the postoperative period. Posterior cervical hemivertebra associated with instability is a very rare finding. The anterior approach with corpectomy and anterior plate enables suitable stabilization.

  11. Cervical intervertebral disc degeneration induced by unbalanced dynamic and static forces: a novel in vivo rat model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yong-Jun; Shi, Qi; Lu, W W; Cheung, K C M; Darowish, Michael; Li, Tian-Fang; Dong, Yu-Feng; Zhou, Chong-Jian; Zhou, Quan; Hu, Zhi-Jun; Liu, Mei; Bian, Qin; Li, Chen-Guang; Luk, K D K; Leong, J C Y

    2006-06-15

    Establishment of a novel in vivo animal model of cervical spondylosis. To investigate apoptotic, degenerative, and inflammatory changes occurring in the cervical intervertebral discs of rats. Cervical degeneration occurs as the result of imbalance of both static and dynamic spinal stabilizers. The disc degeneration that occurs is characterized by increased local inflammation and increased apoptosis of intervertebral disc cells. By excising the paraspinal musculature and posterior cervical spinal ligaments of rats, both static and dynamic cervical stabilizers were disrupted. The resultant biomechanical imbalance resulted in biochemical and histologic changes, which were characterized by light microscopy, electron microscopy, immunostaining, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, polymerase chain reaction, and in situ hybridization. Histologic analysis showed characteristic degenerative changes of the intervertebral discs and vertebral endplates following surgery. Ultrastructural examination revealed apoptotic changes, which were verified by immunostaining. Instability also resulted in significant up-regulation of inflammatory factors, as shown by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, polymerase chain reaction, and in situ hybridization. By creating static and dynamic posterior instability of the cervical spine, this novel model of cervical spondylosis results in rapid intervertebral disc degeneration characterized by increased apoptosis and local inflammation, such as that seen clinically.

  12. Development and embryonic pattern of body wall musculature in the crassiclitellate Eisenia andrei (Annelida, Clitellata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunnekuhl, Vera S; Bergter, Annette; Purschke, Günter; Paululat, Achim

    2009-09-01

    During early development of Eisenia andrei (Crassiclitellata), a loose arrangement of primary circular and longitudinal muscles encloses the whole embryo. Circular muscles differentiate in an anterior-posterior progression creating a segmental pattern. Primary circular muscles emerge at the segmental borders while later in development the central part of each segment is filled with circular strands. Longitudinal muscles develop in an anterio-posterior manner as well, but by continuous lengthening. Muscle growth is not restricted by segmental boundaries. The development begins with one pair of prominent longitudinal muscles differentiating ventrally along the right and the left germ band. These first muscles provide a guiding structure for the parallel organization of the afterwards differentiating longitudinal musculature. Additional primary longitudinal muscles emerge and form, together with the initial circular muscles, the primary muscle grid of the embryo. During the following development, secondary longitudinal muscle strands develop and integrate themselves into the primary grid. Meanwhile the primary circular muscles split into thin strands in a ventral to dorsal progression. Thus, a fine structured mesh of circular and longitudinal muscles is generated. Compared to other "Oligochaeta", embryonic muscle patterns in E. andrei are adapted to the development of a lecithotrophic embryo. Nevertheless, two general characteristics of annelid muscle development become evident. The first is the segmental development of the circular muscles from a set of initial muscles situated at the segment borders. Second, there is a continuous development of primary longitudinal muscles starting at the anterior pole. At least one pair of main primary longitudinal strands is characteristic in Annelida. The space between all primary strands is filled with secondary longitudinal strands during further development. Copyright 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  13. Multi-parametric MR imaging of quadriceps musculature in the setting of clinical frailty syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melville, David M.; Sharma, Puneet; Taljanovic, Mihra S. [University of Arizona College of Medicine, Department of Medical Imaging, 1501 N. Campbell Ave., P.O. Box 245067, Tucson, AZ (United States); Mohler, Jane; Fain, Mindy; Muchna, Amy E. [University of Arizona College of Medicine, Arizona Center on Aging, Tucson, AZ (United States); Krupinski, Elizabeth [University of Arizona College of Medicine, Department of Medical Imaging, 1501 N. Campbell Ave., P.O. Box 245067, Tucson, AZ (United States); Emory University, Department of Radiology and Imaging Services, Atlanta, GA (United States)

    2016-05-15

    Frailty is a common geriatric syndrome associated with loss of skeletal muscle mass (sarcopenia) conferring an increased risk of rapid decline in health and function with increased vulnerability to adverse outcomes. The purpose of this study was to investigate the correlation between diffusion tensor, T2 and intramuscular fat content values of the quadriceps muscle group and clinical frailty status using diffusion tensor MR imaging. Subjects were recruited from the Arizona Frailty cohort composed of all females with frailty status based on the Fried criteria, including 6 non-frail and 10 pre-frail/frail adults, as well as a community sample of 11 young, healthy controls. Axial images of both thighs were obtained on a 3-T magnet with T1, T2 and diffusion tensor imaging as well as intramuscular fat analysis. Diffusion tensor and T2 values were determined by region-of-interest measurements at the proximal, mid and distal thirds of both thighs. Data were evaluated to determine differences between measured values and frailty status. The mean fractional anisotropy (FA) values in the bilateral quadriceps muscles demonstrated significant differences (F = 7.558, p = 0.0030) between the control and pre-frail/frail and non-frail and pre-frail/frail groups. There was a significant difference in mean T2 (F = 21.675, p < 0.0001) and lipid content (F = 19.266, p < 0.0001) among all three groups in the total quadriceps muscle group. The quadriceps musculature of pre-frail/frail adults demonstrated increased FA compared to young controls and non-frail adults with increasing T2 and intramuscular fat among the control, non-frail and pre-frail/frail categories. (orig.)

  14. The effects of imagery on fast isometric knee extensor torque development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Ruiter, C.J.; Hutter, R.I.; Icke, C; Groen, B; Gemmink, A; Smilde, H; de Haan, A.

    2012-01-01

    We hypothesized that imagery training would improve fast onset of neuromuscular activation and thereby fast knee extensor isometric torque development. Forty young healthy participants not involved in strength training, were assigned to one of four groups: physical training, imagery training,

  15. Is the Sørensen test valid to assess muscle fatigue of the trunk extensor muscles?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demoulin, Christophe; Boyer, Mathieu; Duchateau, Jacques; Grosdent, Stéphanie; Jidovtseff, Boris; Crielaard, Jean-Michel; Vanderthommen, Marc

    2016-01-01

    Very few studies have quantified the degree of fatigue characterized by the decline in the maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) force of the trunk extensors induced by the widely used Sørensen test. Measure the degree of fatigue of the trunk extensor muscles induced by the Sørensen test. Eighty young healthy subjects were randomly divided into a control group (CG) and an experimental group (EG), each including 50% of the two genders. The EG performed an isometric MVC of the trunk extensors (pre-fatigue test) followed by the Sørensen test, the latter being immediately followed by another MVC (post-fatigue test). The CG performed only the pre- and post-fatigue tests without any exertion in between. The comparison of the pre- and post-fatigue tests revealed a significant (Pmuscles to generate maximal force, and indicates that this test is valid for the assessment of fatigue in trunk extensor muscles.

  16. Wearing an active spinal orthosis improves back extensor strength in women with osteoporotic vertebral fractures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Valentin, Gitte Hoff; Pedersen, Louise Nymann; Maribo, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    extensor strength can result in decreased kyphosis and thus a decreased risk of falls and fractures.Objectives:The aim was to examine the effects of an active spinal orthosis - Spinomed III - on back extensor strength, back pain and physical functioning in women with osteoporotic vertebral fractures.......Study design:Experimental follow-up.Methods:The women used the active spinal orthosis for 3 months. Outcomes were changes in isometric back extensor strength, changes in back pain and changes in physical functioning.Results:A total of 13 women were included in the trial. Wearing the orthosis during a 3-month...... period was associated with an increase in back extensor strength of 50% (p = 0.01). The study demonstrated a 33% reduction in back pain and a 6.5-point improvement in physical functioning. The differences in pain and physical functioning were borderline significant.Conclusion:The women demonstrated...

  17. Identified ankle extensor and flexor motoneurons display different firing profiles in the neonatal rat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cotel, Florence; Antri, Myriam; Barthe, Jean-Yves

    2009-01-01

    population of flexor motoneurons solely exhibited the type II profile, characterized by a frequency-current (F-I) relationship with a clockwise hysteresis. In contrast, in addition to this type II profile, the other three profiles of repetitive firing (type I, III and IV) were observed in extensor...... postnatal development, a significant part of the population of extensor motoneurons, but not flexors, are able to produce self-sustained discharges known to involve the activation of persistent inward currents....

  18. Soreness-related changes in three-dimensional running biomechanics following eccentric knee extensor exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paquette, Max R; Peel, Shelby A; Schilling, Brian K; Melcher, Dan A; Bloomer, Richard J

    2017-06-01

    Runners often experience delayed onset muscle soreness (DOMS), especially of the knee extensors, following prolonged running. Sagittal knee joint biomechanics are altered in the presence of knee extensor DOMS but it is unclear how muscle soreness affects lower limb biomechanics in other planes of motion. The purpose of this study was to assess the effects of knee extensor DOMS on three-dimensional (3D) lower limb biomechanics during running. Thirty-three healthy men (25.8 ± 6.8 years; 84.1 ± 9.2 kg; 1.77 ± 0.07 m) completed an isolated eccentric knee extensor damaging protocol to elicit DOMS. Biomechanics of over-ground running at a set speed of 3.35 m s -1 ±5% were measured before eccentric exercise (baseline) and, 24 h and 48 h following exercise in the presence of knee extensor DOMS. Knee flexion ROM was reduced at 48 h (P = 0.01; d = 0.26), and peak knee extensor moment was reduced at 24 h (P = 0.001; d = 0.49) and 48 h (P  0.05). Peak positive ankle and knee joint powers and, peak negative knee joint power were all reduced from baseline to 24 h and 48 h (P < 0.05). These findings suggest that knee extensor DOMS greatly influences sagittal knee joint angular kinetics and, reduces sagittal power production at the ankle joint. However, knee extensor DOMS does not affect frontal and transverse plane lower limb joint biomechanics during running.

  19. Clinical Significance of Presence of Extensor Indicis Brevis Manus – A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N Esakkiammal

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Anatomical variations of additional muscles and tendons are commonly encountered in extensor aspect of forearm and hand during surgeries and dissections. There are reports on different kinds of variations like, extra tendons, additional bellies, and abnormal attachments of the muscle. Surgeons should have the knowledge about these variations for muscle or tendon grafting and also to plan surgeries. While dissecting the extensor compartment forearm and dorsum of hand of an elderly female cadaver, an anomalous muscle belly was noticed on dorsum of hand bilaterally alongwith the main tendon of extensor indicis muscle. This additional belly of extensor indicis muscle was called Extensor Indicis Brevis Manus (EIBM. This muscle originated from the dorsal carpal ligament and joined the main tendon of extensor indicis muscle in both the hands. Awareness of existence of this kind of variation is important for clinicians and surgeons for a correct diagnosis and eventual surgery in patients presenting with a cyst on the dorsum of hand, to avoid accidental mishaps.

  20. Nonparetic knee extensor strength is the determinant of exercise capacity of community-dwelling stroke survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wei-Te; Huang, Ling-Tzu; Chou, Ya-Hui; Wei, Ta-Sen; Lin, Chung-Che

    2014-01-01

    To investigate the relationship among walking speed, exercise capacity, and leg strength in community dwelling stroke subjects and to evaluate which one was the leading determinant factor of them. This is a descriptive, cross-sectional study. Thirty-five chronic stroke patients who were able to walk independently in their community were enrolled. Walking speed was evaluated by using the 12-meter walking test. A maximal exercise test was used to determine the stroke subjects' exercise capacity. Knee extensor strength, measured as isokinetic torque, was assessed by isokinetic dynamometer. The main walking speed of our subjects was 0.52 m/s. Peak oxygen uptake (VO₂ peak) was 1.21 ± 0.43 L/min. Knee extensor strength, no matter whether paretic or nonparetic side, was significantly correlated to 12-meter walking speed and exercise capacity. Linear regression also showed the strength of the affected knee extensor was the determinant of walking speed and that of the nonparetic knee extensor was the determinant of exercise capacity in community dwelling stroke subjects. Walking speed and peak oxygen uptake were markedly decreased after stroke. Knee extensor strength of nonparetic leg was the most important determinant of exercise capacity of the community-dwelling stroke subjects. Knee extensor strengthening should be emphasized to help stroke patient to achieve optimal community living.

  1. Cervical epidural hematoma: Following interlaminar cervical epidural steroid injection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dwarkadas Kanhayalal Baheti

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Cervical epidural steroid injection is a common procedure performed for patients with cervical radiculopathy. Cervical epidural hematoma is a rare but known complication of Intervention Pain Treatment Procedure (IPTP in healthy patients without coagulopathy. We report a case of cervical epidural hematoma as a complication of cervical epidural steroid injection in an elderly patient with cervical radiculopathy; resulting in right upper limb motor sensory deficit. Patient responded to conservative management and surgery was not performed since symptoms progressively improved.

  2. Co-contraction patterns of trans-tibial amputee ankle and knee musculature during gait

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Myoelectric control of upper extremity powered prostheses has been used clinically for many years, however this approach has not been fully developed for lower extremity prosthetic devices. With the advent of powered lower extremity prosthetic components, the potential role of myoelectric control systems is of increasing importance. An understanding of muscle activation patterns and their relationship to functional ambulation is a vital step in the future development of myoelectric control. Unusual knee muscle co-contractions have been reported in both limbs of trans-tibial amputees. It is currently unknown what differences exist in co-contraction between trans-tibial amputees and controls. This study compares the activation and co-contraction patterns of the ankle and knee musculature of trans-tibial amputees (intact and residual limbs), and able-bodied control subjects during three speeds of gait. It was hypothesized that residual limbs would have greater ankle muscle co-contraction than intact and able-bodied control limbs and that knee muscle co-contraction would be different among all limbs. Lastly it was hypothesized that the extent of muscle co-contraction would increase with walking speed. Methods Nine unilateral traumatic trans-tibial amputees and five matched controls participated. Surface electromyography recorded activation from the Tibialis Anterior, Medial Gastrocnemius, Vastus Lateralis and Biceps Femoris of the residual, intact and control limbs. A series of filters were applied to the signal to obtain a linear envelope of the activation patterns. A co-contraction area (ratio of the integrated agonist and antagonist activity) was calculated during specific phases of gait. Results Co-contraction of the ankle muscles was greater in the residual limb than in the intact and control limbs during all phases of gait. Knee muscle co-contraction was greater in the residual limb than in the control limb during all phases of gait. Conclusion Co

  3. Co-contraction patterns of trans-tibial amputee ankle and knee musculature during gait

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyedali Mahyo

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Myoelectric control of upper extremity powered prostheses has been used clinically for many years, however this approach has not been fully developed for lower extremity prosthetic devices. With the advent of powered lower extremity prosthetic components, the potential role of myoelectric control systems is of increasing importance. An understanding of muscle activation patterns and their relationship to functional ambulation is a vital step in the future development of myoelectric control. Unusual knee muscle co-contractions have been reported in both limbs of trans-tibial amputees. It is currently unknown what differences exist in co-contraction between trans-tibial amputees and controls. This study compares the activation and co-contraction patterns of the ankle and knee musculature of trans-tibial amputees (intact and residual limbs, and able-bodied control subjects during three speeds of gait. It was hypothesized that residual limbs would have greater ankle muscle co-contraction than intact and able-bodied control limbs and that knee muscle co-contraction would be different among all limbs. Lastly it was hypothesized that the extent of muscle co-contraction would increase with walking speed. Methods Nine unilateral traumatic trans-tibial amputees and five matched controls participated. Surface electromyography recorded activation from the Tibialis Anterior, Medial Gastrocnemius, Vastus Lateralis and Biceps Femoris of the residual, intact and control limbs. A series of filters were applied to the signal to obtain a linear envelope of the activation patterns. A co-contraction area (ratio of the integrated agonist and antagonist activity was calculated during specific phases of gait. Results Co-contraction of the ankle muscles was greater in the residual limb than in the intact and control limbs during all phases of gait. Knee muscle co-contraction was greater in the residual limb than in the control limb during all phases

  4. Risks of Cervical Cancer Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Cancer Treatment Screening for cervical cancer using the Pap test has decreased the number of new cases of ... their chance of dying from cervical cancer . A Pap test is commonly used to screen for cervical cancer. ...

  5. Etiology of cervical inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paavonen, J; Critchlow, C W; DeRouen, T; Stevens, C E; Kiviat, N; Brunham, R C; Stamm, W E; Kuo, C C; Hyde, K E; Corey, L

    1986-03-01

    We studied the relationships of selected microbial, clinical, demographic, and behavioral variables to mucopurulent cervicitis in two clinical settings, a sexually transmitted disease clinic and a student health clinic. From each clinic, we studied a group of women referred for suspected mucopurulent cervicitis and a representative sample of other women attending the clinic. After the women were stratified by patient group and summary odds ratios for all groups were obtained, mucopurulent cervicitis was most strongly associated with the isolation of Chlamydia trachomatis; other variables associated with mucopurulent cervicitis included the isolation of Ureaplasma urealyticum, Gardnerella vaginalis, and Trichomonas vaginalis, the presence of serum antibody to C. trachomatis, the clinical diagnosis of bacterial vaginosis, and oral contraceptive use (positive associations) or isolation of yeast (negative association). After adjustment for cervical culture results for C. trachomatis, mucopurulent cervicitis was positively associated with oral contraceptive use (p = 0.02) and isolation of U. urealyticum (p = 0.02) and negatively associated with isolation of yeast (p = 0.03). Among women with a positive cervical culture for C. trachomatis, isolation of U. urealyticum was significantly associated with mucopurulent cervicitis, while among the subgroup of women with a negative cervical culture for C. trachomatis and positive serum antibody to C. trachomatis, oral contraceptive use was strongly associated with mucopurulent cervicitis. These results confirm that in both clinical settings C. trachomatis is the major cause of mucopurulent cervicitis. The roles of U. urealyticum, T. vaginalis, G. vaginalis, bacterial vaginosis, and oral contraceptive use in the etiology of mucopurulent cervicitis deserve further study.

  6. Cervical Total Disc Arthroplasty

    OpenAIRE

    Basho, Rahul; Hood, Kenneth A.

    2012-01-01

    Symptomatic adjacent segment degeneration of the cervical spine remains problematic for patients and surgeons alike. Despite advances in surgical techniques and instrumentation, the solution remains elusive. Spurred by the success of total joint arthroplasty in hips and knees, surgeons and industry have turned to motion preservation devices in the cervical spine. By preserving motion at the diseased level, the hope is that adjacent segment degeneration can be prevented. Multiple cervical disc...

  7. Cervical spine intradural-extramedullary hematoma presenting as ipsilateral hemiparesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chih Ming Lin

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available A 75-year-old Taiwanese man suffered from acute onset of right-sided extremity weakness while talking to his neighbors. He was transferred to the hospital within three-hour time after symptom onset. Initial acute ischemic cerebral infarct was diagnosed based on his symptom and cerebral computed tomography. Thrombolytic therapy was held after his symptom improved promptly and could not excluded other etiology. Thorough history taking unraveled previous Chinese medicine clinic visit because of neck sore. However, he received limited improvement after several times of massage treatment. Magnetic resnance imaging (MRI of the cervical spine demonstrated hematoma compressing right side intradural-extramedullary space at the C2/C3 level. Through his clinical course, muscle weakness was the sole neurological finding with sparing of sensory defects. Given the close anatomy relationship between sensory and motor lamina distribution in the cervical spinal cord, our patient presented a rare manifestation. Cases of cervical spine intradural-extramedullary hematoma are not often seen and only sporadic in the documented literature. We wish, through the report of this article, to inform the first- line physicians with the following information. Among the elderly, neck sore is a common symptom. Over- stretching or overt local massage is not suggested due to relatively fragile musculature. In the clinical diagnosis and localization of lesion, cerebral or cervical spine lesion could mimic with each other and manifest hemiparesis as their first symptom. Meticulous history taking, neurological/ physical examination and pertinent laboratory work-up should be done before initiation of intravenous thrombolytic therapy as it could cause catastrophic consequences if not used properly.

  8. Anatomical variation of radial wrist extensor muscles: a study in cadavers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soubhagya Ranjan Nayak

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The tendons of the extensor carpi radialis longus and brevis muscles are quite useful in tendon transfer, such as in correction of finger clawing and restoration of thumb opposition. Knowledge of additional radial wrist extensor muscle bellies with independent tendons is useful in the above-mentioned surgical procedures. METHODS: The skin, subcutaneous tissue, and antebrachial fascia of 48 (24 on the right side and 24 on left side male upper limb forearms were dissected. The following aspects were then analyzed: (a the presence of additional muscle bellies of radial wrist extensors, (b the origin and insertion of the additional muscle, and (c measurements of the muscle bellies and their tendons. RESULTS: Five out of 48 upper limbs (10.41% had additional radial wrist extensors; this occurred in 3 out of 24 left upper limbs (12.5% and 2 out of 24 right upper limbs (8.3%. In one of the right upper limbs, two additional muscles were found. The length and width of each additional muscle belly and its tendon ranged between 2 - 15cm by 0.35 - 6.4cm and 2.8 - 20.8cm by 0.2 0.5cm, respectively. The additional radial wrist extensor tendons in our study basically originated either from the extensor carpi radialis longus or brevis muscles and were inserted at the base of the 2nd or 3rd metacarpal bone. CONCLUSION: The present study will inform surgeons about the different varieties of additional radial wrist extensors and the frequency of their occurrence.

  9. Artificial Cervical Disc Arthroplasty (ACDA): tips and tricks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khadivi, Masoud; Rahimi Movaghar, Vafa; Abdollahzade, Sina

    2012-01-01

    presented with cervical discopathy who had myelopathy or radiculopathy and failed conservative management, undergoing cervical disc arthroplasty by ACDA were included, consecutively. Patients were followed for at least 2 years. Exclusion criteria was age greater than 60 years, non compliance with the study protocol, osteoporosis, infection, congenital or post traumatic deformity, malignancy metabolic bone disease, and narrow cervical canal (less than 12 mm). Heterotopic ossification and adjacent segment degenerative changes were assessed at 2 years follow up by means of neutral and dynamic xrays and CT/MRI if clinically indicated. Neck and upper extremity pain were assessed before the procedure and in the first post-operative visit and 3 months later by means of visual analogue scale. A standard approach was performed to the anterior cervical spine. Patients were positioned supine while holding neck in neutral position. A combination of sharp and blunt dissection was performed to expose longus coli musculature and anterior cervical vertebrae. Trachea and esophagus were retracted medially and carotid artery and jugular vein laterally. After a thorough discectomy, the intersomatic space is distracted in a parallel way by a vertebral distracter. Followed by Caspar distractor is applied to provide a working channel into posterior disc space. In this stage, any remnant disc materials as well as osteophytes are removed and foraminal decompression is done. Posterior longitudinal ligament (PLL) opening and removal, although discouraged by some, is done next. In order to define the size of the prosthesis, multiple trials are tested. It is important not to exceed the height of the healthy adjacent disc to avoid facet joint overdistraction. An specific insertor is applied to plant the prosthesis in disc space. Control X-rays are advised to check the precise positioning of the implant. Results: one hundred-fifty three patients including 87 females and 66 males were included. The mean

  10. Evaluation of the histologic reactions to commonly used suture materials in the skin and musculature of ball pythons (Python regius).

    Science.gov (United States)

    McFadden, Michael S; Bennett, R Avery; Kinsel, Michael J; Mitchell, Mark A

    2011-10-01

    To evaluate histologic reactions to 8 suture materials and cyanoacrylate tissue adhesive (CTA) in the musculature and skin of ball pythons. 30 hatchling ball pythons. In each snake, ten 1-cm skin incisions were made (day 0). At 8 sites, a suture of 1 of 8 materials was placed in the epaxial musculature, and the incision was closed with the same material. One incision was closed by use of CTA. No suture material was placed in the tenth incision, which was allowed to heal by second intention (negative control). Snakes (n = 5/group) were euthanized for harvest of treatment-site tissues at days 3, 7, 14, 30, 60, and 90. Skin and muscle sections were examined microscopically and assigned a subjective score (0 to 4) for each of the following: overall severity of inflammation, fibrosis, number of macrophages, number of granulocytes, number of perivascular lymphocytes, and degree of suture fragmentation. Subjective score analysis revealed that CTA did not cause a significant inflammatory response, compared with the negative control. All suture materials caused significantly more inflammation over all time points; for all suture materials, inflammatory response scores were significantly higher than values for the negative control 90 days after implantation. No sutures were completely absorbed by the end of the study period, and several sutures appeared to be in the process of extrusion. In snakes, CTA can be used to close small superficial incisions or lacerations with minimal inflammatory response, and sutures may undergo extrusion from tissues prior to complete absorption.

  11. The effects of age and skill level on knee musculature co-contraction during functional activities: a systematic review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, K R; van den Bogert, J; Myer, G D; Shapiro, R; Hewett, T E

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To systematically review the current literature that relates the effects of age and skill level to motor control patterns of knee musculature co-contraction during functional movements. Methods A search of electronic databases was performed with the search terms specifying co-contraction (cocontract*, co-contract*, coactive* or co-activ*). The search was focused on the effects age and/or skill level and were limited by the keywords of age or skill level (skill*) or experience (experi*). Results The search yielded a total of six peer-reviewed manuscripts that met the search criteria and were included in the review. Conclusions The relationship between adequate dynamic joint stability and efficient movement patterns are complex. Co-contraction related to age and skill development varies among studies due to technical and practical considerations. Adequate antagonistic co-contraction of hamstring musculature seems to be a component of all functional movements, possibly maintain dynamic knee stability and protect against excessive joint loads. Future investigations that further delineate the appropriate lower extremity agonist and antagonist relationships during dynamic tasks may help elucidate injury risk mechanisms in specific populations. PMID:18308891

  12. Isolation of canine coronary sinus musculature from the atria by radiofrequency catheter ablation prevents induction of atrial fibrillation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morita, Hiroshi; Zipes, Douglas P; Morita, Shiho T; Wu, Jiashin

    2014-12-01

    The junction between the coronary sinus (CS) musculature and both atria contributes to initiation of atrial tachyarrhythmias. The current study investigated the effects of CS isolation from the atria by radiofrequency catheter ablation on the induction and maintenance of atrial fibrillation (AF). Using an optical mapping system, we mapped action potentials at 256 surface sites in 17 isolated and arterially perfused canine atrial tissues containing the entire musculature of the CS, right atrial septum, posterior left atrium, left inferior pulmonary vein, and vein of Marshal. Rapid pacing from each site before and after addition of acetylcholine (0.5 μmol/L) was applied to induce AF. Epicardial radiofrequency catheter ablation at CS-atrial junctions isolated the CS from the atria. Rapid pacing induced sustained AF in all tissues after acetylcholine. Microreentry within the CS drove AF in 88% of preparations. Reentries associated with the vein of Marshall (29%), CS-atrial junctions (53%), right atrium (65%), and pulmonary vein (76%) (frequently with 2-4 simultaneous circuits) were additional drivers of AF. Radiofrequency catheter ablation eliminated AF in 13 tissues before acetylcholine (Patrial tissue. The results suggest that CS can be a substrate of recurrent AF in patients after pulmonary vein isolation and that CS isolation might help prevent recurrent AF. © 2014 American Heart Association, Inc.

  13. Dinosaur speed demon: the caudal musculature of Carnotaurus sastrei and implications for the evolution of South American abelisaurids.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W Scott Persons

    Full Text Available In the South American abelisaurids Carnotaurus sastrei, Aucasaurus garridoi, and, to a lesser extent Skorpiovenator bustingorryi, the anterior caudal ribs project at a high dorsolateral inclination and have interlocking lateral tips. This unique morphology facilitated the expansion of the caudal hypaxial musculature at the expense of the epaxial musculature. Distinct ridges on the ventrolateral surfaces of the caudal ribs of Aucasaurus garridoi are interpreted as attachment scars from the intra caudofemoralis/ilio-ischiocaudalis septa, and confirm that the M. caudofemoralis of advanced South American abelisaurids originated from a portion of the caudal ribs. Digital muscle models indicate that, relative to its overall body size, Carnotaurus sastrei had a substantially larger M. caudofemoralis than any other theropod yet studied. In most non-avian theropods, as in many extant sauropsids, the M. caudofemoralis served as the primary femoral retractor muscle during the locomotive power stroke. This large investment in the M. caudofemoralis suggests that Carnotaurus sastrei had the potential for great cursorial abilities, particularly short-burst sprinting. However, the tightly interlocking morphology of the anterior caudal vertebrae implies a reduced ability to make tight turns. Examination of these vertebral traits in evolutionary context reveals a progressive sequence of increasing caudofemoral mass and tail rigidity among the Abelisauridae of South America.

  14. Role of Meconium in the Reaction of Airways Smooth Musculature in the Newborn with Meconium Aspiration Syndrome (Mas.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hilmi Islami

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available The role of meconium in the respiratory system was studied in newborns, who died from various causes (250 up to 3000 g of weight. We monitored tracheal rings response to dopamine, serotonin and ethanol in different concentrations (dopamine: 0,05 mg/ml, 0,5 mg/ml, 5 mg/ml; serotonin (5-HT: 10-4, 10-3, 10-2, 10-1 mol/dm3; ethanol: 0,02 ml, 0,5 ml, 1,0 ml; 96%. Tracheal smooth musculature tonus (TSM was examined in 48 tracheal preparations taken after the newborn exitus due to different reasons. Based on functional researche of isolated preparations of tracheas, it may be concluded that: aspiration of me-conium has not changed the response of TSM to dopamine, serotonin and ethanol (p>0,1 in comparison with the control group, which have died due to different lung inflammatory processes (e.g. pneumonia, bronchopneumonia, atelectasis, cerebral hemorrhage. The results suggest that meconium does not potentiate the constricting action of dopamine, serotonin and ethanol in tracheobronchial system. Meconium causes mild relaxation of the TSM through a mechanism that is not intermediated by the products of cyclooxygenases (prostaglandins, prostacyclins from the tracheal epithelium or proteins. Also, as it seems, the direct activity of many tested acids in the smooth musculature has no significant impact on increase of the airways tonus in MAS syndrome.

  15. Role of meconium in the reaction of airways smooth musculature in the newborn with meconium aspiration syndrome (MAS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islami, Hilmi; Bexheti, Sadi; Shabani, Ragip; Nuraj, Bajram; Zeqiri, Fehmi; Sukalo, Aziz; Kurtishi, Ilir; Kutllovci, Skender; Qorraj, Hasime; Disha, Mentor

    2009-11-01

    The role of meconium in the respiratory system was studied in newborns, who died from various causes (250 up to 3000 g of weight). We monitored tracheal rings response to dopamine, serotonin and ethanol in different concentrations (dopamine: 0,05 mg/ml, 0,5 mg/ml, 5 mg/ml; serotonin (5-HT): 10-4, 10-3, 10-2, 10-1 mol/dm3; ethanol: 0,02 ml, 0,5 ml, 1,0 ml; 96%). Tracheal smooth musculature tonus (TSM) was examined in 48 tracheal preparations taken after the newborn exitus due to different reasons. Based on functional researche of isolated preparations of tracheas, it may be concluded that: aspiration of meconium has not changed the response of TSM to dopamine, serotonin and ethanol (p>0,1) in comparison with the control group, which have died due to different lung inflammatory processes (e.g. pneumonia, bronchopneumonia, atelectasis, cerebral hemorrhage). The results suggest that meconium does not potentiate the constricting action of dopamine, serotonin and ethanol in tracheobronchial system. Meconium causes mild relaxation of the TSM through a mechanism that is not intermediated by the products of cyclooxygenases (prostaglandins, prostacyclins) from the tracheal epithelium or proteins. Also, as it seems, the direct activity of many tested acids in the smooth musculature has no significant impact on increase of the airways tonus in MAS syndrome.

  16. Digital dissection and three-dimensional interactive models of limb musculature in the Australian estuarine crocodile (Crocodylus porosus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ada J Klinkhamer

    Full Text Available Digital dissection is a relatively new technique that has enabled scientists to gain a better understanding of vertebrate anatomy. It can be used to rapidly disseminate detailed, three-dimensional information in an easily accessible manner that reduces the need for destructive, traditional dissections. Here we present the results of a digital dissection on the appendicular musculature of the Australian estuarine crocodile (Crocodylus porosus. A better understanding of this until now poorly known system in C. porosus is important, not only because it will expand research into crocodilian locomotion, but because of its potential to inform muscle reconstructions in dinosaur taxa. Muscles of the forelimb and hindlimb are described and three-dimensional interactive models are included based on CT and MRI scans as well as fresh-tissue dissections. Differences in the arrangement of musculature between C. porosus and other groups within the Crocodylia were found. In the forelimb, differences are restricted to a single tendon of origin for triceps longus medialis. For the hindlimb, a reduction in the number of heads of ambiens was noted as well as changes to the location of origin and insertion for iliofibularis and gastrocnemius externus.

  17. Multiple extensor tendons reconstruction with hamstring tendon grafts and flap coverage for severe dorsal hand injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozbaydar, M; Orman, O; Ozel, O; Altan, E

    2017-12-01

    Treatment of patients with traumatic loss of skin and multiple extensor tendons on the dorsum of the hand is a challenge. The aim of this study was to assess the outcome after reconstruction of soft tissues and multiple extensor tendons in patients who suffered traumatic loss of skin and multiple extensor tendons. Ten patients were enrolled in the study. These patients underwent single-stage reconstruction with autogenous hamstring tendon grafts for multiple extensor tendon defects and fasciocutaneous flaps for coverage of dorsal hand defects. In total, 25 tendons (2 tendons in 5 patients and 3 tendons in 5 patients) were reconstructed. The semitendinosus tendon was used in all patients and the gracilis tendon was added in five patients for tendon reconstruction. Total tendon length requiring reconstruction was between 9cm and 31cm. Free anterolateral thigh flaps were used in six patients and reverse pedicled forearm flaps were used in four patients. According to Miller's scoring system, 8 fingers had excellent results, 12 fingers had good results and 5 fingers had fair results at the final follow-up. Hamstring tendons can be used satisfactorily for primary reconstruction of multiple digital extensor tendons due to their availability and compatibility, with a fasciocutaneous flap. IV. Copyright © 2017 SFCM. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  18. The influence of lumbar extensor muscle fatigue on lumbar-pelvic coordination during weightlifting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Boyi; Ning, Xiaopeng

    2015-01-01

    Lumbar muscle fatigue is a potential risk factor for the development of low back pain. In this study, we investigated the influence of lumbar extensor muscle fatigue on lumbar-pelvic coordination patterns during weightlifting. Each of the 15 male subjects performed five repetitions of weightlifting tasks both before and after a lumbar extensor muscle fatiguing protocol. Lumbar muscle electromyography was collected to assess fatigue. Trunk kinematics was recorded to calculate lumbar-pelvic continuous relative phase (CRP) and CRP variability. Results showed that fatigue significantly reduced the average lumbar-pelvic CRP value (from 0.33 to 0.29 rad) during weightlifting. The average CRP variability reduced from 0.17 to 0.15 rad, yet this change ws statistically not significant. Further analyses also discovered elevated spinal loading during weightlifting after the development of lumbar extensor muscle fatigue. Our results suggest that frequently experienced lumbar extensor muscle fatigue should be avoided in an occupational environment. Lumbar extensor muscle fatigue generates more in-phase lumbar-pelvic coordination patterns and elevated spinal loading during lifting. Such increase in spinal loading may indicate higher risk of back injury. Our results suggest that frequently experienced lumbar muscle fatigue should be avoided to reduce the risk of LBP.

  19. Structural Diversity of the Extensor Digitorum Profundus Muscle Complex in Platyrrhini.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novikova, Mellin A; Panyutina, Aleksandra A

    2017-01-01

    Separate extension of fingers in the hand of primates is performed by 3 muscles: m. extensor pollicis longus, m. extensor digiti secundi, and m. extensor digitorum lateralis. Here it is proposed to consider them as parts of the extensor digitorum profundus muscular complex. The diversity in structure of these muscles in primates is examined based both on original anatomical study of New World monkeys and analysis of extensive published data on primates from different taxonomic groups. It is shown that in these muscles there are 2 main types of structure variations - the division of the muscle belly into several heads which give rise to separate tendons, and the split of the single terminal tendon into several branches. The first type of modification ensures the possibility of a separate management of the fingers, and the second, on the contrary, ensures the coupled control of extension of fingers. A scheme of evolutionary transformations of muscles belonging to the complex of the deep extensors of fingers is proposed. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  20. The Effects of Forward Head Posture on Neck Extensor Muscle Thickness: An Ultrasonographic Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodarzi, Fereshte; Rahnama, Leila; Karimi, Noureddin; Baghi, Raziyeh; Jaberzadeh, Shapour

    2018-01-01

    This study aimed to compare neck extensor muscle thickness, thickness changes, and strength between participants with forward head posture (FHP) and controls with normal head posture (NHP). Twenty college students with FHP (mean age 21.30 ± 2.36 years) and 20 students with NHP (mean age 21.85 ± 2.78 years) participated in this case-control study. The thickness of neck extensor muscles was measured at rest and at maximal voluntary isometric contraction (MVIC). In addition, the craniovertebral angle (CVA) was calculated. To compare thickness changes between the 2 groups and among 5 muscles, a 2-way repeated measures analysis of variance was applied. In addition, Pearson's correlation test was performed to investigate the relationship between neck extensor MVIC and CVA. The FHP group demonstrated lower MVIC compared with the NHP group (P = .03). Semispinalis capitis showed the smallest thickness changes during neck extensor MVIC in FHP compared with the controls (P < .001). However, no significant difference in terms of muscle thickness was observed between the 2 groups at the state of rest (P = .16-.99). A positive association was also found between the MVIC and CVA (P = .02). Semispinalis capitis had less thickness changes during MVIC of neck extensors in individuals with FHP compared with those with NHP. This indirectly implies lower activity of this muscle in FHP condition. This study finding may help researchers develop therapeutic exercise protocols to manage FHP. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  1. Ultrasound findings in injuries of dorsal extensor hood: Correlation with MR and follow-up findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kichouh, Mimoun; De Maeseneer, Michel; Jager, Tjeerd; Marcelis, Stefaan; Van Hedent, Eddy; Van Roy, Peter; De Mey, Johan

    2011-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to use ultrasound to examine the dorsal hood in nine patients with a clinical suspicion of dorsal hood injuries. Material and methods: Clinical and imaging files from interesting case logbooks of nine patients were reviewed. Ultrasound was performed by one of the three radiologists experienced in musculoskeletal ultrasound. The examinations were also performed in flexion and in flexion with resistance. MR correlation was obtained in six patients. One patient underwent surgery. To obtain anatomical correlation of the normal dorsal hood 2 embalmed hand specimens were dissected. Results: The sagittal bands were easily depicted in the transverse plane on ultrasound images and presented as hypoechoic bands on both sides of the extensor communis tendons. Injuries of the sagittal bands were seen on ultrasound as hypoechoic thickening of the sagittal bands at the side of the extensor tendons. The normal shape of the sagittal bands was also no longer recognizable. Subluxations or dislocations of the extensor tendons were also seen. When the injuries were located in the fibrous slips between the extensor indicis and the extensor communis of the second finger, subluxations with an increased distance between these 2 tendons were seen, especially in flexion, or in flexion with resistance. Conclusion: Ultrasound is a valuable tool for the assessment of the injuries of the dorsal hood and is an easily available method for the diagnosis of the fine soft tissue components of the dorsal hood region.

  2. Rheumatoid wrist deformity and risk of extensor tendon rupture evaluated by 3DCT imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishikawa, Hajime; Abe, Asami; Murasawa, Akira; Nakazono, Kiyoshi; Horizono, Hidehiro; Ishii, Katsushi; Seki, Eiko [Niigata Rheumatic Center, Department of Rheumatology, Shibata city, Niigata (Japan)

    2010-05-15

    Extensor tendon rupture on the dorsum of the wrist is commonly seen in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). It causes immediate dysfunction of the hand and surgical reconstruction is usually required. The purpose of this study was to clarify the risk of extensor tendon rupture by quantifying wrist deformity on three-dimensional computed tomography (3DCT) images. Three-dimensional CT images of 108 wrists in 102 patients with RA and 38 wrists in 38 healthy volunteers were analyzed retrospectively. All of the rheumatoid wrists had caused persistent pain for more than 6 months despite ongoing medical treatment. Extensor tendon rupture was noted in 49 wrists in 47 patients, and no rupture was noted in 59 wrists in 56 patients. The dorsal subluxation ratio (DSR) of the ulnar head and the carpal supination angle (CSA) were measured utilizing a new technique. The average DSR and CSA in the rupture group (n = 49), the non-rupture group (n = 59), and the normal wrist group (n = 38) were 37%, 19%, and 26%, and 15 , 11 , and 6 respectively. The cut-off values for extensor tendon rupture in the wrists of patients with RA were 32% (sensitivity; 70%, specificity; 75%) in the DSR, and 14 (71%, 68%) in the CSA. By utilizing 3DCT imaging of the rheumatoid wrist, these parameters can help improve our ability to predict extensor tendon rupture. (orig.)

  3. Cervical spondylotic myelopathy

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Although spondylotic changes of the cervical spine occur in more than half of patients over 50, less than a ... acquired narrowing of the cervical spinal canal, with subsequent mechanical and ischaemic insults to the ... event, such as a hyperextension injury after a fall. Neck pain or stiffness and gait abnormalities are common ...

  4. Cervical Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... term pregnancies have an increased risk of cervical cancer. Using oral contraceptives for a long time Among women who are ... a 10 year period, the risk of cervical cancer returns to that of women who never used oral contraceptives. Smoking cigarettes Among women who are infected with ...

  5. SCREENING FOR CERVICAL CANCER

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Enrique

    CANCER SCREENING. February 2004 Vol.22 No.2 CME 63. Cervical cancer remains a major health concern worldwide, especially in devel- oping countries. It is the commonest malignancy among black women in South. Africa. The quoted incidence of cervical cancer is approximately 30/100 000 women.1 Mortality is ...

  6. SCREENING FOR CERVICAL CANCER

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Enrique

    Cervical cancer remains a major health concern worldwide, especially in devel- oping countries. It is the commonest malignancy ... Based on data from Cali, Colombia, the impact of starting cervical screening at different ages shows that starting .... vated blue-white light is attached to the inner aspect of the upper speculum.

  7. Case Report: Cervical Ectopic Pregnancy presenting as Cervical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cervical pregnancy is a rare but serious type of ectopic pregnancy in which the implantation site is within the cervical mucosa that lines the endocervical canal. This is a rare cervical ectopic pregnancy wrongly diagnosed as a cervical fi broid by clinicoradiological examination. The actual diagnosis was revealed by ...

  8. Infiltrative intramuscular myxoma of the cervical spine: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manoharan, Sakthivel Rajan Rajaram; Shaw, Andrew B; Arnold, Christina A; Farhadi, H Francis

    2015-01-01

    Myxomas are benign tumors of mesenchymal cell origin that usually present as solitary lesions. They are infrequently associated with fibrous dysplasia, as in McCune-Albright or Mazabraud syndrome. Myxomas can develop in a variety of locations, although the most frequent sites are the thigh, buttocks, shoulder, and upper arm. Intramuscular myxomas (IMs) refer to lesions that occur within muscle compartments. They have been infrequently reported in the neck musculature. To date, only five cases have been reported within the posterior neck muscles without associated intraspinal extension. To our knowledge, this is the first case of an IM presenting with extension into the spinal canal. We report a case of posterior cervical IM with intraspinal extension presenting in a 63-year-old woman as a palpable mass. Complete intralesional resection of the tumor was achieved by standard midline posterior approach. Meticulous resection of the entire capsule was achieved and all margins were confirmed to be free of neoplasm. A diagnosis of myxoma was provided on pathologic evaluation. Follow-up at 1.5 years confirmed maintained complete resolution of the preoperative symptoms, with no evidence of local recurrence on imaging. Intramuscular myxomas should be included in the differential diagnosis of cervical paraspinal tumors. Furthermore, we suggest that masses involving the axial muscles should be closely monitored and the patient counseled regarding potential neurologic sequelae. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Knee extensor strength and risk of structural, symptomatic and functional decline in knee osteoarthritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Culvenor, Adam G; Ruhdorfer, Anja; Juhl, Carsten

    2017-01-01

    -analysis revealed that lower knee extensor strength was associated with an increased risk of symptomatic (WOMAC-Pain: odds ratio [OR] 1.35, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.10, 1.67) and functional decline (WOMAC-Function: OR 1.38, 95%CI 1.00, 1.89; chair-stand task: OR 1.03, 95%CI 1.03, 1.04), but not increased risk......OBJECTIVE: To perform a systematic review and meta-analysis on the association between knee extensor strength and the risk of structural, symptomatic, or functional deterioration in individuals with or at risk of knee osteoarthritis (KOA). METHODS: We systematically identified and methodologically...... appraised all longitudinal studies (≥1-year follow-up) reporting an association between knee extensor strength and structural (tibiofemoral, patellofemoral), symptomatic (self-reported, knee replacement), or functional (subjective, objective) decline in individuals with or at risk of radiographic...

  10. UTILIZAÇÃO DE EXTENSORES ALTERNATIVOS NA PRODUÇÃO DE COMPENSADOS MULTILAMINADOS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Setsuo Iwakiri

    2000-05-01

    Full Text Available Esta pesquisa foi desenvolvida com o objetivo de avaliar a potencialidade de uso de farinhas de soja, arroz, milho, aveia e mandioca, como extensores alternativos a farinha de trigo (testemunha para produção de compensados. Foram produzidas 21 chapas com lâminas de madeira de Eucalyptus cloeziana, sendo três chapas por tratamento, utilizando a seguinte formulação em partes por peso: resina uréia-formaldeído - 100, extensor - 75, água - 80 e catalisador - 7. Os resultados médios de resistência da linha de cola aos esforços de cizalhamento, pelo teste seco e úmido, demostraram que as farinhas de arroz e de aveia podem ser utilizados como extensor alternativo à farinha de trigo.

  11. Does change in isolated lumbar extensor muscle function correlate with good clinical outcome? A secondary analysis of data on change in isolated lumbar extension strength, pain, and disability in chronic low back pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steele, James; Fisher, James; Perrin, Craig; Conway, Rebecca; Bruce-Low, Stewart; Smith, Dave

    2018-01-12

    Secondary analysis of data from studies utilising isolated lumbar extension exercise interventions for correlations among changes in isolated lumbar extension strength, pain, and disability. Studies reporting isolated lumbar extension strength changes were examined for inclusion criteria including: (1) participants with chronic low back pain, (2) intervention ≥ four weeks including isolated lumbar extension exercise, (3) outcome measures including isolated lumbar extension strength, pain (Visual Analogue Scale), and disability (Oswestry Disability Index). Six studies encompassing 281 participants were included. Correlations among change in isolated lumbar extension strength, pain, and disability. Participants were grouped as "met" or "not met" based on minimal clinically important changes and between groups comparisons conducted. Isolated lumbar extension strength and Visual Analogue Scale pooled analysis showed significant weak to moderate correlations (r = -0.391 to -0.539, all p Disability Index pooled analysis showed significant weak correlations (r = -0.349 to -0.470, all p disability, isolated lumbar extension strength changes were greater for those "met" compared with those "not met" (p disability. This study shows significant correlations between increases in isolated lumbar extension strength and reductions in pain and disability. Strengthening of the lumbar extensor musculature could be considered an important target for exercise interventions.

  12. Degree of thoracic kyphosis and peak torque of trunk flexors and extensors among healthy women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granito, Renata Neves; Aveiro, Mariana Chaves; Rennó, Ana Claudia Muniz; Oishi, Jorge; Driusso, Patricia

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the effects of aging on the degree of thoracic kyphosis and peak torque of the trunk flexor and extensor muscles among women without a densitometric diagnosis of osteoporosis. Thirty women were selected to make up three groups: young women (n = 10; 24.60 ± 2.27 years of age); adults (n = 10; 43.50 ± 2.88); and elderly women (n = 10; 62.40 ± 2.67). Bone mineral density (BMD), degree of thoracic kyphosis and peak torque of the trunk flexors and extensors were evaluated. Differences between the groups were evaluated using the Kruskal-Wallis ANOVA and Mann-Whitney U tests. Pearson's correlation coefficient was used to assess correlations between the variables. The significance level was taken to be 5% (p ≤ 0.05). The elderly group presented a greater degree of thoracic kyphosis (p = 0.009) and lower peak torque of the trunk flexors and extensors than the young group. The adult group presented lower peak torque of the trunk than the young group. A negative correlation was observed between age and peak torque of the trunk flexors and extensors (p ≤ 0.001), and a positive correlation between age and the degree of thoracic kyphosis (r = 0.58; p ≤ 0.001). The elderly group presented higher values for the eccentric/concentric ratio of the peak torque for flexors (p = 0.03) and extensors (p = 0.02). This study suggests that physiological aging may be associated with a greater degree of thoracic kyphosis and lower muscle strength of the trunk flexors and extensors. Moreover, the elderly women showed a relative capacity for preservation of eccentric strength.

  13. Degree of thoracic kyphosis and peak torque of trunk flexors and extensors among healthy women,

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Neves Granito

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to analyze the effects of aging on the degree of thoracic kyphosis and peak torque of the trunk flexor and extensor muscles among women without a densitometric diagnosis of osteoporosis.METHODS: Thirty women were selected to make up three groups: young women (n = 10; 24.60 ± 2.27 years of age; adults (n = 10; 43.50 ± 2.88; and elderly women (n= 10; 62.40 ± 2.67. Bone mineral density (BMD, degree of thoracic kyphosis and peak torque of the trunk flexors and extensors were evaluated. Differences between the groups were evaluated using the Kruskal-Wallis ANOVA and Mann-Whitney U tests. Pearson's correlation coefficient was used to assess correlations between the variables. The significance level was taken to be 5% (p < 0.05.RESULTS: The elderly group presented a greater degree of thoracic kyphosis (p = 0.009 and lower peak torque of the trunk flexors and extensors than the young group. The adult group presented lower peak torque of the trunk than the young group. A negative correlation was observed between age and peak torque of the trunk flexors and extensors (p < 0.001, and a positive correlation between age and the degree of thoracic kyphosis (r = 0.58; p < 0.001. The elderly group presented higher values for the eccentric/concentric ratio of the peak torque for flexors (p = 0.03 and extensors (p = 0.02.CONCLUSION: This study suggests that physiological aging may be associated with a greater degree of thoracic kyphosis and lower muscle strength of the trunk flexors and extensors. Moreover, the elderly women showed a relative capacity for preservation of eccentric strength.

  14. Validity and test-retest reliability of a novel simple back extensor muscle strength test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harding, Amy T; Weeks, Benjamin Kurt; Horan, Sean A; Little, Andrew; Watson, Steven L; Beck, Belinda Ruth

    2017-01-01

    To develop and determine convergent validity and reliability of a simple and inexpensive clinical test to quantify back extensor muscle strength. Two testing sessions were conducted, 7 days apart. Each session involved three trials of standing maximal isometric back extensor muscle strength using both the novel test and isokinetic dynamometry. Lumbar spine bone mineral density was examined by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Validation was examined with Pearson correlations ( r ). Test-retest reliability was examined with intraclass correlation coefficients and limits of agreement. Pearson correlations and intraclass correlation coefficients are presented with corresponding 95% confidence intervals. Linear regression was used to examine the ability of peak back extensor muscle strength to predict indices of lumbar spine bone mineral density and strength. A total of 52 healthy adults (26 men, 26 women) aged 46.4 ± 20.4 years were recruited from the community. A strong positive relationship was observed between peak back extensor strength from hand-held and isokinetic dynamometry ( r  = 0.824, p  strength test, short- and long-term reliability was excellent (intraclass correlation coefficient = 0.983 (95% confidence interval, 0.971-0.990), p  strength measures with the novel back extensor strength protocol were -6.63 to 7.70 kg, with a mean bias of +0.71 kg. Back extensor strength predicted 11% of variance in lumbar spine bone mineral density ( p  strength ( p  strength is quick, relatively inexpensive, and reliable; demonstrates initial convergent validity in a healthy population; and is associated with bone mass at a clinically important site.

  15. Knee extensor strength is associated with pressure pain thresholds in adults with fibromyalgia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W Michael Hooten

    Full Text Available Individuals with fibromyalgia (FM have lower muscle strength and lower pressure pain thresholds (PPT. The primary aim of this study was to determine the associations between muscle strength and PPT in adults with FM to test the hypothesis that greater measures of muscle strength would be associated with greater values of PPT. Secondary aims included determining the effects of pain severity and the peak uptake of oxygen (VO2 on the associations between muscle strength and PPT.Knee extensor and flexor strength (N = 69 was measured in the dominant leg using a dynamometer, and PPT was assessed using an electronic algometer. Pain severity was determined using the Multidimensional Pain Inventory, and peak VO2 uptake was quantified using an electronically braked cycle ergometer.Univariable linear regression analysis demonstrated a significant association between PPT (dependent variable and isometric knee extensor (P<.001, isokinetic (60°/s knee extensor (P = .002, and isokinetic (60°/s knee flexor strength (P = .043. In a multiple variable linear regression analysis adjusted for age, sex, pain severity, body mass index and peak VO2 uptake, a significant association was found between PPT and isometric knee extensor strength (P = .008. In a similar multiple variable analysis, a significant association was found between PPT and isokinetic knee extensor strength (P = .044.Greater measures of isometric and isokinetic knee extensor strength were significantly associated with greater values of PPT in both univariable and multiple variable linear regression models.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01253395.

  16. Late extensor pollicis longus rupture following plate fixation in Galeazzi fracture dislocation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabat, Dhananjaya; Dabas, Vineet; Dhal, Anil

    2014-07-01

    Late rupture of extensor pollicis longus (EPL) tendon after Galeazzi fracture dislocation fixation is an unknown entity though it is a well-established complication following distal radius fractures. We report the case of a 55-year old male who presented with late EPL tendon rupture 4 months following internal fixation of Galeazzi fracture dislocation with a Locking Compression Plate (LCP). He was managed with extensor indicis proprius (EIP) transfer to restore thumb extension. At 4 years followup, functional result of the transfer was good. We identify possible pitfalls with this particular patient and discuss how to avoid them in future.

  17. Late extensor pollicis longus rupture following plate fixation in Galeazzi fracture dislocation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dhananjaya Sabat

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Late rupture of extensor pollicis longus (EPL tendon after Galeazzi fracture dislocation fixation is an unknown entity though it is a well-established complication following distal radius fractures. We report the case of a 55-year old male who presented with late EPL tendon rupture 4 months following internal fixation of Galeazzi fracture dislocation with a Locking Compression Plate (LCP. He was managed with extensor indicis proprius (EIP transfer to restore thumb extension. At 4 years followup, functional result of the transfer was good. We identify possible pitfalls with this particular patient and discuss how to avoid them in future.

  18. Enhanced spinal excitation from ankle flexors to knee extensors during walking in stroke patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Achache, V.; Mazevet, D.; Iglesias, C.

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: It is still unclear to what an extent altered reflex activity contributes to gait deficit following stroke. Spinal group I and group II excitations from ankle dorsiflexors to knee extensors were investigated during post-stroke walking. METHODS: Electrical stimulation was applied......: The spinal, presumed group II, excitation from ankle dorsiflexors to knee extensors is particularly enhanced during post-stroke walking probably due to plastic adaptations in the descending control. SIGNIFICANCE: This adaptation may help to stabilize the knee in early stance when the patients have recover...... ankle dorsiflexor functions....

  19. A Reconstructive Stabilization Technique for Nontraumatic or Chronic Traumatic Extensor Tendon Subluxation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jae Hoon; Baek, Jong Hun; Lee, Jung Seok

    2017-01-01

    Subluxation of the extensor tendon results from a disruption to the sagittal band at the metacarpophalangeal joint. When conservative treatment fails to correct the subluxation, surgical treatment may be necessary. Surgical techniques for chronic cases vary in graft source and graft pathway. We present a surgical technique to recentralize and stabilize the extensor tendon using a residual ruptured sagittal band. This technique is simple and effective without donor site morbidity and seems to provide potential biomechanical advantages by restoring nearly normal anatomy. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Surgery of the Hand. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Two novel MYH7 proline substitutions cause Laing Distal Myopathy-like phenotypes with variable expressivity and neck extensor contracture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feinstein-Linial, Miora; Buvoli, Massimo; Buvoli, Ada; Sadeh, Menachem; Dabby, Ron; Straussberg, Rachel; Shelef, Ilan; Dayan, Daniel; Leinwand, Leslie Anne; Birk, Ohad S

    2016-08-12

    Human skeletal muscles express three major myosin heavy chain (MyHC) isoforms: MyHCIIx (MYH1) in fast type 2B muscle fibers, MyHCIIa (MYH2) in fast type 2A fibers and MyHCI/β-cardiac MyHC (MYH7) in slow type I skeletal fibers and cardiac ventricles. In line with its expression pattern, MYH7 mutations have been reported in association with hypertrophic or dilated cardiomyopathy, skeletal myopathies or a combination of both. We analyzed the clinical and molecular phenotype of two unrelated families of Jewish Moroccan ancestry that presented with apparently autosomal dominant inheritance of progressive Laing-like distal myopathy with non-specific myopathic changes, but uncommon marked contractures and wasting of the neck extensors. Clinical phenotyping, whole exome sequencing and restriction analysis, generation of mutants followed by cell culture transfection and imaging. Using whole exome sequencing we identified in both families two novel heterozygous proline substitutions located in exon 31 of MYH7 within its rod domain: c.4309G>C (p.Ala1437Pro) and c.4301G>C (p.Arg1434Pro). Here we show that the phenotype caused by these mutations includes marked cervical muscle contracture, and report that the severity of the phenotype varies significantly, to the extent of non-penetrance in one of the families. Finally, we provide evidence that both proline substitutions impair myosin self-assembly in non-muscle cells transfected with β-myosin constructs carrying the mutations, but do not prevent incorporation of the mutant molecules into the sarcomere. This study expands our clinical and molecular knowledge of MYH7 rod mutations causing skeletal myopathies, and underscores the importance of discussing disease penetrance during genetic counseling.

  1. Low-level activity of the trunk extensor muscles causes electromyographic manifestations of fatigue in absence of decreased oxygenation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dieën, J.H. van; Westebring van der; Putten, E.P.; Kingma, I.; Looze, M.P. de

    2009-01-01

    This study was designed to determine whether trunk extensor fatigue occurs during low-level activity and whether this is associated with a drop in muscle tissue oxygenation. Electromyography (EMG) feedback was used to impose constant activity in a part of the trunk extensor muscles. We hypothesized

  2. Mobile input device type, texting style and screen size influence upper extremity and trapezius muscle activity, and cervical posture while texting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kietrys, David M; Gerg, Michael J; Dropkin, Jonathan; Gold, Judith E

    2015-09-01

    This study aimed to determine the effects of input device type, texting style, and screen size on upper extremity and trapezius muscle activity and cervical posture during a short texting task in college students. Users of a physical keypad produced greater thumb, finger flexor, and wrist extensor muscle activity than when texting with a touch screen device of similar dimensions. Texting on either device produced greater wrist extensor muscle activity when texting with 1 hand/thumb compared with both hands/thumbs. As touch screen size increased, more participants held the device on their lap, and chose to use both thumbs less. There was also a trend for greater finger flexor, wrist extensor, and trapezius muscle activity as touch screen size increased, and for greater cervical flexion, although mean differences for cervical flexion were small. Future research can help inform whether the ergonomic stressors observed during texting are associated with musculoskeletal disorder risk. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd and The Ergonomics Society. All rights reserved.

  3. Cervical intervertebral disc replacement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cason, Garrick W; Herkowitz, Harry N

    2013-02-06

    Symptomatic adjacent-level disease after cervical fusion has led to the development and testing of several disc-replacement prostheses. Randomized controlled trials of cervical disc replacement (CDR) compared with anterior cervical discectomy and fusion (ACDF) have demonstrated at least equivalent clinical results for CDR with similar or lower complication rates. Biomechanical, kinematic, and radiographic studies of CDR reveal that the surgical level and adjacent vertebral level motion and center of rotation more closely mimic the native state. Lower intradiscal pressures adjacent to CDR may help decrease the incidence of adjacent spinal-level disease, but long-term follow-up is necessary to evaluate this theory.

  4. Early-onset dropped head syndrome after radiotherapy for head and neck cancer: dose constraints for neck extensor muscles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inaba, Koji; Nakamura, Satoshi; Okamoto, Hiroyuki; Kashihara, Tairo; Kobayashi, Kazuma; Harada, Ken; Kitaguchi, Mayuka; Sekii, Shuhei; Takahashi, Kana; Murakami, Naoya; Ito, Yoshinori; Igaki, Hiroshi; Uno, Takashi; Itami, Jun

    2016-01-01

    Dropped head syndrome (DHS) is a famous but unusual late complication of multimodality treatment for head and neck carcinoma. We reported this early-onset complication and analyzed the dose to the neck extensor muscles. We examined the records of three patients with DHS after radiotherapy. The doses to the neck extensor muscles were compared between three patients with DHS and nine patients without DHS. The mean dose to the neck extensor muscles of the three patients with DHS were 58.5 Gy, 42.3 Gy and 60.9 Gy, while the dose was <50 Gy in all nine patients in the control group. The onset of this syndrome was 5 months, 6 months and 15 months. The early-onset DHS may have something to do with dose to the neck extensor muscles. The proposed dose to the neck extensor muscles might be <46 Gy (or at least <50 Gy)

  5. Segmenting the thoracic, abdominal and pelvic musculature on CT scans combining atlas-based model and active contour model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Weidong; Liu, Jiamin; Yao, Jianhua; Summers, Ronald M.

    2013-03-01

    Segmentation of the musculature is very important for accurate organ segmentation, analysis of body composition, and localization of tumors in the muscle. In research fields of computer assisted surgery and computer-aided diagnosis (CAD), muscle segmentation in CT images is a necessary pre-processing step. This task is particularly challenging due to the large variability in muscle structure and the overlap in intensity between muscle and internal organs. This problem has not been solved completely, especially for all of thoracic, abdominal and pelvic regions. We propose an automated system to segment the musculature on CT scans. The method combines an atlas-based model, an active contour model and prior segmentation of fat and bones. First, body contour, fat and bones are segmented using existing methods. Second, atlas-based models are pre-defined using anatomic knowledge at multiple key positions in the body to handle the large variability in muscle shape. Third, the atlas model is refined using active contour models (ACM) that are constrained using the pre-segmented bone and fat. Before refining using ACM, the initialized atlas model of next slice is updated using previous atlas. The muscle is segmented using threshold and smoothed in 3D volume space. Thoracic, abdominal and pelvic CT scans were used to evaluate our method, and five key position slices for each case were selected and manually labeled as the reference. Compared with the reference ground truth, the overlap ratio of true positives is 91.1%+/-3.5%, and that of false positives is 5.5%+/-4.2%.

  6. Distal intersection tenosynovitis of the wrist: a lesser-known extensor tendinopathy with characteristic MR imaging features

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parellada, Antoni J.; Gopez, Angela G.; Morrison, William B.; Sweet, Stephanie; Leinberry, Charles F.; Reiter, Sean B.; Kohn, Mark

    2007-01-01

    To present the MRI imaging findings of extensor tenosynovitis at the distal intersection or crossover between the second (extensor carpi radialis longus (ECRL) and brevis (ECRB)) and third (extensor pollicis longus (EPL)) extensor compartment tendons, and the anatomical details that may play a role in the pathogenesis of this condition. The imaging studies and clinical records of five patients (three females and two males, with ages ranging between 22 and 78 years; mean age, 49 years) presenting with pain on the dorsal and radial aspect of the wrist were reviewed by two musculoskeletal radiologists in consensus. Three cases were identified serendipitously during routine clinical reading sessions; a follow-up computerized database search for additional cases reported in the prior two years yielded two additional cases. The overall number of cases screened was 1,031. The diagnosis of tendinopathy affecting the second and third compartment extensor tendons was made on the basis of MRI findings and clinical follow-up, or synovectomy. All patients showed signs of tenosynovitis: in four patients both the tendons of the second and third extensor compartments were affected; the fifth patient showed signs of tenosynovitis of the EPL tendon, and tendinosis of the extensor carpi radialis tendons. Three patients showed tenosynovitis proximal and distal to the point of intersection; and in two of them, a discrete point of constriction was appreciated at the crossover site in relation to the extensor retinaculum. Two patients showed tenosynovitis limited to the segment distal to the point of decussation. Tendinosis tended to follow the presence of tenosynovitis. In one of the patients, subtendinous reactive marrow edema in Lister's tubercle was noted. Distal intersection tenosynovitis may be related to the biomechanical pulley effect exerted by Lister's tubercle on the EPL tendon as it leaves the third compartment and crosses over the extensor carpi radialis tendons, as well as

  7. Distal intersection tenosynovitis of the wrist: a lesser-known extensor tendinopathy with characteristic MR imaging features

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parellada, Antoni J. [DII - Diagnostic Imaging, Inc., Philadelphia, PA (United States); Frankford Hospitals - Torresdale Campus, Department of Radiology, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Gopez, Angela G.; Morrison, William B. [Thomas Jefferson University, Department of Radiology, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Sweet, Stephanie [Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia Hand Center, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Leinberry, Charles F. [Thomas Jefferson University, Department of Orthopedic Surgery - Hand Surgery, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Reiter, Sean B.; Kohn, Mark [DII - Diagnostic Imaging, Inc., Philadelphia, PA (United States)

    2007-03-15

    To present the MRI imaging findings of extensor tenosynovitis at the distal intersection or crossover between the second (extensor carpi radialis longus (ECRL) and brevis (ECRB)) and third (extensor pollicis longus (EPL)) extensor compartment tendons, and the anatomical details that may play a role in the pathogenesis of this condition. The imaging studies and clinical records of five patients (three females and two males, with ages ranging between 22 and 78 years; mean age, 49 years) presenting with pain on the dorsal and radial aspect of the wrist were reviewed by two musculoskeletal radiologists in consensus. Three cases were identified serendipitously during routine clinical reading sessions; a follow-up computerized database search for additional cases reported in the prior two years yielded two additional cases. The overall number of cases screened was 1,031. The diagnosis of tendinopathy affecting the second and third compartment extensor tendons was made on the basis of MRI findings and clinical follow-up, or synovectomy. All patients showed signs of tenosynovitis: in four patients both the tendons of the second and third extensor compartments were affected; the fifth patient showed signs of tenosynovitis of the EPL tendon, and tendinosis of the extensor carpi radialis tendons. Three patients showed tenosynovitis proximal and distal to the point of intersection; and in two of them, a discrete point of constriction was appreciated at the crossover site in relation to the extensor retinaculum. Two patients showed tenosynovitis limited to the segment distal to the point of decussation. Tendinosis tended to follow the presence of tenosynovitis. In one of the patients, subtendinous reactive marrow edema in Lister's tubercle was noted. Distal intersection tenosynovitis may be related to the biomechanical pulley effect exerted by Lister's tubercle on the EPL tendon as it leaves the third compartment and crosses over the extensor carpi radialis tendons

  8. Influence of prolonged bed-rest on spectral and temporal electromyographic motor control characteristics of the superficial lumbo-pelvic musculature.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Belavy, D.L.; Ng, J.K.; Wilson, S.J.; Armbrecht, G.; Stegeman, D.F.; Rittweger, J.; Felsenberg, D.; Richardson, C.A.

    2010-01-01

    Little is known about the motor control of the lumbo-pelvic musculature in microgravity and its simulation (bed-rest). Analysis of spectral and temporal electromyographic variables can provide information on motor control relevant for normal function. This study examined the effect of 56-days of

  9. Nongonococcal and Nonchlamydial Cervicitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyirjesy, Paul

    2001-12-01

    Cervicitis encompasses a variety of gynecologic conditions. Although inflammation on a Papanicolaou smear may be indicative of true cervical inflammation, establishing a diagnosis of mucopurulent cervicitis (MCP) is more clinically useful. MCP seems to be analogous to nongonococcal urethritis in men. Many cases of MCP are related to Chlamydia trachomatis infection, but the majority of cases have other potential causes. Other possible pathogens include Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Trichomonas vaginalis, Ureaplasma urealyticum, Mycoplasma genitalium, herpes simplex virus, and cytomegalovirus. Many cases may be related to cervical ectopy. MCP is a marker for endometritis, salpingitis, and adverse pregnancy outcomes. Given the current shortcomings in our understanding of this disease, an empiric approach to evaluation and treatment is suggested.

  10. Immunotherapy for Cervical Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    In an early phase NCI clinical trial, two patients with metastatic cervical cancer had a complete disappearance of their tumors after receiving treatment with a form of immunotherapy called adoptive cell transfer.

  11. Screening for Cervical Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... cervical cancer: • Cytology: This test, also called a Pap test or Pap smear, looks for abnormal changes in ... women ages 21 to 65, screening with a Pap test every 3 years has the highest benefits with ...

  12. Surgical and anatomical studies on De Quervain's tenosynovitis syndrome: Variations in the first extensor compartment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Randal Pires J and uacute;nior

    2016-08-01

    Clinical relevance: As septation of the first extensor compartment and multiple APL tendons appears to represent risk factors for the development of DQT, prior knowledge of the frequency of such anomalies may assist surgeons in pre-operative evaluation and perioperative procedures. [Hand Microsurg 2016; 5(2.000: 50-55

  13. The effects of imagery training on fast isometric knee extensor torque development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Ruiter, Cornelis J.; Hutter, Vana; Icke, Chris; Groen, Bart; Gemmink, Anne; Smilde, Hiltsje; de Haan, Arnold

    2012-01-01

    We hypothesized that imagery training would improve the fast onset of neuromuscular activation and thereby fast knee extensor isometric torque development. Forty young healthy participants, not involved in strength training, were assigned to one of four groups: physical training, imagery training,

  14. Tendon properties and muscle architecture for knee extensors and plantar flexors in boys and men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubo, Keitaro; Teshima, Takanori; Ikebukuro, Toshihiro; Hirose, Norikazu; Tsunoda, Naoya

    2014-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the elastic properties and size of tendinous structures and muscle architecture for knee extensors and plantar flexors in boys and men. Twenty-two early pubescent boys (9.6-12.7yrs) and 23 young adult men (19.8-26.2yrs) participated in this study. The maximal strain and thickness of tendinous structures for knee extensors and plantar flexors were measured using ultrasonography. In addition, the fascicle lengths of vastus lateralis and medial gastrocnemius muscles were measured. The maximal strain of tendinous structures for plantar flexors was significantly greater in boys than in men, while there was no difference in the maximal strain for knee extensors between the two groups. The relative thickness (to body mass(1/3)) of Achilles tendon was significantly greater in boys than in men, although there was no difference in that of patellar tendon between the two groups. The relative fascicle length (to limb length) of vastus lateralis muscle was significantly lower in boys than in men, although there was no difference in that of medial gastrocnemius muscle between the two groups. These results suggest that the amount of changes in the elastic properties and sizes of tendinous structures and in the fascicle lengths from early pubescence to maturity is different for different muscle groups (in particular, the knee extensors and the plantar flexors). Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. A Short Submaximal test to determine the fatigue threshold of knee extensors in young men

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Ruiter, C.J.; Hamacher, P.; Wolfs, B.G.A.

    Purpose Recently, a fatigue threshold obtained during submaximal repetitive isometric knee extensor contractions was related to VO 2max measured during cycling and to exercise endurance. However, test duration is quite long (20-30 min in young people) to be of practical and possibly clinical use.

  16. Interval training by normobaric hypoxia accelerates the reinnervation of musculus extensor digitorum longus in mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vardya, Irina; (Vard'ya); Mospanova, Svetlana V.

    2000-01-01

    Dokl Biol Sci. 2000 Mar-Apr;371:112-4. Interval training by normobaric hypoxia accelerates the reinnervation of musculus extensor digitorum longus in mice. Vard'ya IV , Mospanova SV , Portnov VV , Balezina OP , Koshelev VB . Department of Human and Animal Physiology, Faculty of Biology, Moscow...

  17. Isokinetic dynamometry of the knee extensors and flexors in Iranian healthy males and females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezaei, Mandana; Ebrahimi, Ismael; Vassaghi-Gharamaleki, Behnoush; Pirali, Milad; Mortaza, Niyousha; Malmir, Kazem; Ghasemi, Kobra; A Jamshidi, Ali

    2014-01-01

    This paper explores the gender-related bilateral differences of extensor and flexor torques of the knee joint at low and high angular velocities in Iranian healthy males and females. 70 healthy subjects (29 males (26.61±4.34 yrs and 41 females with average age of 23.07±3.70 yrs)) were participated in this study. Isokinetic peak torque values for knee extensors and flexors in concentric and eccentric contraction modes were measured and flexors and extensors strength ratios (HQR) computed among both dominant and non-dominant legs in lying position at 60 and 180°.s-1angular velocities. There was significant gender-velocity interactions detected for knee flexor to extensor strength ratios presenting that increasing velocity escaled this, ratios in females more than males (p0.05). Bilateral differences were found for eccentric flexor peak torques (p<0.05). By increasing velocity, peak torque values decreased and HQR was increased (p<0.05). Measurement procedures including test position is an important factor when interpreting genderrelated and bilateral differences of isokinetic knee strength ratios in healthy individuals.

  18. Effect of trunk inclination on isometric extensor and flexor torque of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A Cybex 6000, dynamometer Trunk extension / flexion unit was used to measure maximal voluntary isometric strength of the lumbar flexor and extensor muscles at 0, 23, 46, 69 and 92 degrees of trunk flexion. ANOVA with post-hoc testing was applied to the flexion and extension data. Alpha was set at p < 0.05. Significant ...

  19. The isometric torque at which knee-extensor muscle reoxygenation stops.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Ruiter, C.J.; Goudsmit, J.F.; Tricht, J.A.; de Haan, A.

    2007-01-01

    PURPOSE: We investigated the knee-extensor torque at which reoxygenation (inflow of arterial blood) during an isometric contraction stopped, whether this torque depended on maximal torque capacity (MTC), and whether there were differences among the synergists. METHODS: Isometric knee-extension

  20. Isometric knee-extensor torque development and jump height in volleyball players

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Ruiter, C.J.; Vermeulen, G.; Toussaint, H.M.; de Haan, A.

    2007-01-01

    PURPOSE: The goal of the present study was to determine the contribution of the intrinsic muscle properties and muscle activation of the knee extensors to the maximal rate of unilateral isometric torque development and to relate both factors to maximal bilateral jumping performance in experienced

  1. Knee extensor muscle strength in middle-aged and older individuals undergoing arthroscopic partial meniscectomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hall, Michelle; Juhl, Carsten B; Lund, Hans

    2015-01-01

    a moderate reduction was again apparent at 4 years post-APM (SMD: -0.56, (-1.20-0.08) compared to controls. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest that middle-aged and older individuals undergoing APM have reduced knee extensor muscle strength in the operated leg compared to control data. As meniscus pathology...

  2. Recovery Kinetics of Knee Flexor and Extensor Strength after a Football Match

    Science.gov (United States)

    Draganidis, Dimitrios; Chatzinikolaou, Athanasios; Avloniti, Alexandra; Barbero-Álvarez, José C.; Mohr, Magni; Malliou, Paraskevi; Gourgoulis, Vassilios; Deli, Chariklia K.; Douroudos, Ioannis I.; Margonis, Konstantinos; Gioftsidou, Asimenia; Fouris, Andreas D.; Jamurtas, Athanasios Z.; Koutedakis, Yiannis; Fatouros, Ioannis G.

    2015-01-01

    We examined the temporal changes of isokinetic strength performance of knee flexor (KF) and extensor (KE) strength after a football match. Players were randomly assigned to a control (N = 14, participated only in measurements and practices) or an experimental group (N = 20, participated also in a football match). Participants trained daily during the two days after the match. Match and training overload was monitored with GPS devices. Venous blood was sampled and muscle damage was assessed pre-match, post-match and at 12h, 36h and 60h post-match. Isometric strength as well as eccentric and concentric peak torque of knee flexors and extensors in both limbs (dominant and non-dominant) were measured on an isokinetic dynamometer at baseline and at 12h, 36h and 60h after the match. Functional (KFecc/KEcon) and conventional (KFcon/KEcon) ratios were then calculated. Only eccentric peak torque of knee flexors declined at 60h after the match in the control group. In the experimental group: a) isometric strength of knee extensors and knee flexors declined (Pfootball-specific conditioning. Our data suggest that recovery kinetics of knee flexor and extensor strength after a football match demonstrate strength, limb and velocity specificity and may depend on match physical overload and players' physical conditioning level. PMID:26043222

  3. Muscle activity influence on the kinematics of the cervical spine in rear-end sled tests in female volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dehner, Christoph; Schick, Sylvia; Kraus, Michael; Hell, Wolfram; Kramer, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Although much research has been performed to investigate the cervical spine kinematics during rear-end collisions, our understanding about the exact role of the musculature is limited. The question of the influence of muscle activity on cervical spine kinematics has been discussed. A rear-end collision with a speed change (ΔV) of 6.3 km/h was simulated in a sled test with 8 female subjects to investigate the influence of the ventral and dorsal cervical spine musculature on cervical spine kinematics. A high-speed camera and accelerometers recorded the motion and acceleration data. The activity of the sternocleidomastoid muscles was recorded with surface electrodes. To avoid cross talk, an intramuscular recording of the semispinalis capitis muscles was performed with fine-wire electrodes. The analysis of the motion and acceleration parameters allowed the definition of 4 phases. The headrest contact began after a median of 84 ms and the sternocleidomastoid muscle force could be detected after a median of 81 ms, with 0 defining the time of the trigger signal. The maximal force of the sternocleidomastoid muscle and the maximal headrest effect began prior to the maximal ventral angular head acceleration and prior to the maximal ventral horizontal head acceleration relative to T1. The start of the semispinalis capitis muscle force was observed after a median of 159 ms and increased until a flexion of 20 to 25° was reached. The headrest effect and the sternocleidomastoid muscle force firstly supported the deceleration of the head relative to T1 toward dorsal, which was followed by an accelerating effect toward ventral. The semispinalis capitis muscle force exerted a late decelerating effect on head flexion and ventral translation movement.

  4. Dolor cervical incoercible

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrián F Narváez-Muñoz

    2014-03-01

    Astrocytomas are relatively common glial neoplasm of the central nervous system, but only a small percentage of them are located in the spinal cord, with a predilection for the cervical and dorsal regions. In most cases, extend longitudinally, affecting several cord segments. Pain is a frequent symptom of local character bone segments involving the tumor, associated with sensory deficit and / or motor. The following is the case of a 60 year old woman with cervical cord astrocytoma extended to the brainstem.

  5. [Cervical discopathy, cervical migraine and vertebrobasilar arterial insufficiency: Clinical correlations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domzał, T; Zaleska, B; Kwasucki, J

    1978-01-01

    The pathogenesis of cervical migraine may suggest that a connection exists between it and cervical discopathy and also vertebrobasilar arterial insufficiency. This correlation was studied in a group of 103 patients subjected to clinical observations. In 83 of them cervical discopathy was found, in 69 cervical migraine and in 40 vertebrobasilar insufficiency were present. Among those with discopathy migraine was present in 63.6% of cases, and vertebrobasilar insufficiency in 31%. In patients with cervical migraine degenerative changes of the type of cervical discopathy were present in 90% of cases, although in only 56.5% of cases clinical signs were present connected with these changes. Vertebrobasilar insufficiency was present in 45% of patients with cervical migraine, that is more frequently than in discopathy. In the group with vertebrobasilar insufficiency radiological changes in the cervical spine were present in 77.5% of cases and the same proportion of patients in this group had cervical migraine. These numbers confirm the connection between cervical migraine and radiological changes and clinical manifestations of discopathy, and they indicate also that cervical migraine may be a successive stage of vascular changes leading to circulatory failure in the area supplied by vertebral arteries. This failure may have a different course and pathological mechanism. In 12.5% of patients in this group no cervical migraine or radiological changes were demonstrated. The term "cervical migraine" seems inappropriate since this type of headache has another substrate and mechanism than true migraine.

  6. Extracting Extensor Digitorum Communis Activation Patterns using High-Density Surface Electromyography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaogang eHu

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The extensor digitorum communis muscle plays an important role in hand dexterity during object manipulations. This multi-tendinous muscle is believed to be controlled through separate motoneuron pools, thereby forming different compartments that control individual digits. However, due to the complex anatomical variations across individuals and the flexibility of neural control strategies, the spatial activation patterns of the extensor digitorum communis compartments during individual finger extension have not been fully tracked under different task conditions.The objective of this study was to quantify the global spatial activation patterns of the extensor digitorum communis using high-density (7×9 surface electromyogram (EMG recordings. The muscle activation map (based on the root mean square of the EMG was constructed when subjects performed individual four finger extensions at the metacarpophalangeal joint, at different effort levels and under different finger constraints (static and dynamic. Our results revealed distinct activation patterns during individual finger extensions, especially between index and middle finger extensions, although the activation between ring and little finger extensions showed strong covariance. The activation map was relatively consistent at different muscle contraction levels and for different finger constraint conditions. We also found that distinct activation patterns were more discernible in the proximal-distal direction than in the radial-ulnar direction. The global spatial activation map utilizing surface grid EMG of the extensor digitorum communis muscle provides information for localizing individual compartments of the extensor muscle during finger extensions. This is of potential value for identifying more selective control input for assistive devices. Such information can also provide a basis for understanding hand impairment in individuals with neural disorders.

  7. The extensor tibiae muscle of the stick insect: biomechanical properties of an insect walking leg muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guschlbauer, Christoph; Scharstein, Hans; Büschges, Ansgar

    2007-03-01

    We investigated the properties of the extensor tibiae muscle of the stick insect (Carausius morosus) middle leg. Muscle geometry of the middle leg was compared to that of the front and hind legs and to the flexor tibiae, respectively. The mean length of the extensor tibiae fibres is 1.41+/-0.23 mm and flexor fibres are 2.11+/-0.30 mm long. The change of fibre length with joint angle was measured and closely follows a cosine function. Its amplitude gives effective moment arm lengths of 0.28+/-0.02 mm for the extensor and 0.56+/-0.04 mm for the flexor. Resting extensor tibiae muscle passive tonic force increased from 2 to 5 mN in the maximum femur-tibia (FT)-joint working range when stretched by ramps. Active muscle properties were measured with simultaneous activation (up to 200 pulses s(-1)) of all three motoneurons innervating the extensor tibiae, because this reflects most closely physiological muscle activation during leg swing. The force-length relationship corresponds closely to the typical characteristic according to the sliding filament hypothesis: it has a plateau at medium fibre lengths, declines nearly linearly in force at both longer and shorter fibre lengths, and the muscle's working range lies in the short to medium fibre length range. Maximum contraction velocity showed a similar relationship. The force-velocity relationship was the traditional Hill curve hyperbola, but deviated from the hyperbolic shape in the region of maximum contraction force close to the isometric contraction. Step-like changes in muscle length induced by loaded release experiments characterised the non-linear series elasticity as a quadratic spring.

  8. Evaluation of cranial tibial and extensor carpi radialis reflexes before and after anesthetic block in cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tudury, Eduardo Alberto; de Figueiredo, Marcella Luiz; Fernandes, Thaiza Helena Tavares; Araújo, Bruno Martins; Bonelli, Marília de Albuquerque; Diogo, Camila Cardoso; Silva, Amanda Camilo; Santos, Cássia Regina Oliveira; Rocha, Nadyne Lorrayne Farias Cardoso

    2017-02-01

    Objectives This study aimed to test the extensor carpi radialis and cranial tibial reflexes in cats before and after anesthetic block of the brachial and lumbosacral plexus, respectively, to determine whether they depend on a myotatic reflex arc. Methods Fifty-five cats with a normal neurologic examination that were referred for elective gonadectomy were divided into group 1 (29 cats) for testing the extensor carpi radialis reflex, and group 2 (26 cats) for testing the cranial tibial reflex. In group 1, the extensor carpi radialis reflex was tested after anesthetic induction and 15 mins after brachial plexus block with lidocaine. In group 2, the cranial tibial, withdrawal and patellar reflexes were elicited in 52 hindlimbs and retested 15 mins after epidural anesthesia. Results In group 1, before the anesthetic block, 55.17% of the cats had a decreased and 44.83% had a normal extensor carpi radialis reflex. After the block, 68.96% showed a decreased and 27.59% a normal reflex. No cat had an increased or absent reflex before anesthetic block. In group 2, prior to the anesthetic block, 15.38% of the cats had a decreased cranial tibial reflex and 84.62% had a normal response, whereas after the block it was decreased in 26.92% and normal in 73.08% of the cats. None of the cats had an increased or absent reflex. Regarding the presence of both reflexes before and after anesthetic block, there was no significant difference at 1% ( P = 0.013). Conclusions and relevance The extensor carpi radialis and cranial tibial reflexes in cats are not strictly myotatic reflexes, as they are independent of the reflex arc, and may be idiomuscular responses. Therefore, they are not reliable for neurologic examination in this species.

  9. Radiation Therapy Plus Cisplatin and Gemcitabine in Treating Patients With Cervical Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-23

    Cervical Adenocarcinoma; Cervical Adenosquamous Carcinoma; Cervical Small Cell Carcinoma; Cervical Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IB Cervical Cancer; Stage IIA Cervical Cancer; Stage IIB Cervical Cancer; Stage III Cervical Cancer; Stage IVA Cervical Cancer

  10. Cervical syphilitic lesions mimicking cervical cancer: a rare case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoqing Zhu

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available A woman presented to the hospital due to postcoital vaginal bleeding. The patient was initially diagnosed with cervical carcinoma by clinicians at a local hospital. However, a biopsy of the cervical lesions revealed chronic inflammation and erosion of the cervical mucosa, and the rapid plasma reagin ratio titer was 1:256. The patient was eventually diagnosed with syphilitic cervicitis and treated with minocycline 0.1 g twice a day. The patient was cured with this treatment.

  11. January Monthly Spotlight: Cervical Health and Cervical Cancer Disparities

    Science.gov (United States)

    In January, CRCHD joins the nation in raising awareness for Cervical Health and Cervical Cancer Disparities. This month we share a special focus on NCI/CRCHD research programs that are trying to reduce cervical cancer disparities in underserved communities and the people who are spreading the word about the importance of early detection.

  12. Cervical Stenosis, Myelopathy and Radiculopathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... FIND A SPECIALIST Conditions Cervical Stenosis, Myelopathy and Radiculopathy Raj Rao MD Raj Rao MD Updated 5/ ... of the spinal cord within the neck. Cervical radiculopathy refers to a loss of function in a ...

  13. Study of the relationship between extensor tendon rupture and dorsal subluxation of rheumatoid wrists with using CT images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuroda, Yusuke; Henmi, Shunichi; Yoshida, Kiyoshi; Saito, Masanobu; Yonenobu, Kazuo

    2005-01-01

    In rheumatoid wrists, subluxation of the distal end of the ulna has been associated with extensor tendon rupture. However, no method has been established to quantitatively evaluate subluxation of the distal end of the ulna. We assessed this subluxation by using CT images and analyzed the correlation between this subluxation and extensor tendon rupture. The subluxation rate was 0.440±0.181 in the rupture group and 0.333±0.222 in the nonrupture group. The subluxation rate and extensor tendon rupture were closely correlated. Therefore, this method is useful for assessing subluxation of the distal end of the ulna of rheumatoid wrists. (author)

  14. Seasonal variation in isokinetic strength of knee flexors and extensors in soccer players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michal Lehnert

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Muscle strength is an important factor in soccer from the performance and health perspective. There is a lack of knowledge about changes in muscle strength of the knee flexors and extensors and their ratios during annual training cycle. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to evaluate the seasonal variability of the observed parameters of isokinetic strength of the knee flexors and extensors in soccer players, U19, from the performance and health perspective. METHODS: The strength of the knee flexors and extensors was measured in players U19 category (n = 9; the average age 18.5 ±0.4 years on the isokinetic dynamometer IsoMed 2000 in angular velocity 60° × s-1. Measurement was performed in concentric/concentric and excentric/excentric mode of muscle action at the beginning of the winter preparatory period, at the end of the preparatory period and at the end of the spring competitive period. Monitored parameters were absolute peak torque (PT, conventional H/Q ratio (H/QCON, functional H/Q ratio (H/QFUN and functional H/Q ratio in range 10-30° of knee flexion (H/QFUN_10-30. RESULTS: Significant change in PT (p < .05 was noted only in cases of the knee extensors of the nondominant leg in the concentric mode. The evaluation of imbalance of the knee flexors and extensors by H/QCON and H/QFUN ratios did not show any significant changes, but there was found a significant decrease of the H/QFUN_10-30 ratio in the dominant leg between measurements at the beginning and at the end of the winter preparatory period. CONCLUSIONS: The results of the current study indicate that throughout the monitored periods of the annual training cycle desirable changes in knee flexors and extensors strength did not occur. The values suggest the disruption of the dynamic stabilization of the knee joint and increase in injury risk. Different dynamics of the three observed ratios confirmed that they provide different information about the physical fitness of

  15. Enthesopathy of the Extensor Carpi Radialis Brevis Origin: Effective Communication Strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drake, Matthew L; Ring, David C

    2016-06-01

    Enthesopathy of the extensor carpi radialis brevis origin, generally known as tennis elbow, is a common condition arising in middle-aged persons. The diagnosis is typically clear based on the patient interview and physical examination alone; therefore, imaging and other diagnostic tests are usually unnecessary. The natural history of the disorder is spontaneous resolution, but it can last for >1 year. The patient's attitude and circumstances, including stress, distress, and ineffective coping strategies, determine the intensity of the pain and the magnitude of the disability. Despite the best efforts of medical science, no treatments, invasive or noninvasive, have been proven to alter the natural history of the condition. Given the lack of disease-modifying treatments for enthesopathy of the extensor carpi radialis brevis origin, orthopaedic surgeons can benefit from learning effective communication strategies to help convey accurate information that is hopeful and enabling.

  16. The relationship between spasticity and muscle volume of the knee extensors in children with cerebral palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierce, Samuel R; Prosser, Laura A; Lee, Samuel C K; Lauer, Richard T

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between spasticity and muscle volume in children with cerebral palsy (CP), using isokinetic dynamometry and magnetic resonance imaging. A retrospective sample of 8 children with diplegic CP was analyzed. One set of 10 passive knee flexion movements was completed at a velocity of 180° per second with concurrent surface electromyography of the medial hamstrings (MH) and vastus lateralis (VL) to assess knee extensor spasticity. Magnetic resonance imaging was used to measure maximum cross-sectional area and muscle volume of the quadriceps femoris. The quadriceps femoris muscle volume was positively correlated with MH reflex activity, VL reflex activity, MH/VL co-contraction, and peak knee extensor passive torque (P spasticity are associated with greater quadriceps muscle volume in children with spastic diplegic CP.

  17. Muscle protein degradation and amino acid metabolism during prolonged knee-extensor exercise in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Van Hall, Gerrit; Saltin, B; Wagenmakers, A J

    1999-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether prolonged one-leg knee-extensor exercise enhances net protein degradation in muscle with a normal or low glycogen content. Net amino acid production, as a measure of net protein degradation, was estimated from leg exchange and from changes...... acid production was also 10-fold higher during exercise compared with that at rest (difference not significant). The net production rates of threonine, glycine and tyrosine and of the sum of the non-metabolized amino acids were about 1.5-2.5-fold higher during exercise with the leg with a low glycogen...... in the concentrations of amino acids that are not metabolized in skeletal muscle. Experiments were performed at rest and during one-leg knee-extensor exercise in six subjects having one leg with a normal glycogen content and the other with a low glycogen content. Exercise was performed for 90 min at a workload of 60...

  18. Short cervical length dilemma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suhag, Anju; Berghella, Vincenzo

    2015-06-01

    Preterm birth (PTB) is a leading cause of neonatal morbidity and mortality. With research efforts, the rate of PTB decreased to 11.4% in 2013. Transvaginal ultrasound (TVU) cervical length (CL) screening predicts PTB. In asymptomatic singletons without prior spontaneous PTB (sPTB), TVU CL screening should be done. If the cervix is 20 mm or less, vaginal progesterone is indicated. In asymptomatic singletons with prior sPTB, serial CL screening is indicated. In multiple gestations, routine cervical screening is not indicated. In symptomatic women with preterm labor, TVU CL screening and fetal fibronectin testing is recommended. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Extensor digitorum brevis manus muscle in association with a metacarpal boss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capo, John T; Shamian, Ben; Li, Yinan

    2014-04-01

    Awareness of the existence of accessory muscles in the hand, such as the extensor digitorum brevis manus (EDBM) muscle, is important when making a differential diagnosis and considering the treatment of mass lesions with similar appearances. Cases of EDBM with associated dorsal wrist ganglion have been reported in earlier published reports. This report describes an unusual case of the EDBM muscle in association with carpometacarpal (CMC) boss. To the best of the authors' knowledge this has not been previously reported.

  20. Volume estimation of extensor muscles of the lower leg based on MR imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lund, Hans; Christensen, Line; Savnik, Anette; Danneskiold-Samsoee, Bente; Bliddal, Henning; Boesen, Jens

    2002-01-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging can be used to measure the muscle volume of a given muscle or muscle group. The purpose of this study was to determine both the intra- and inter-observer variation of the manually outlined volume of the extensor muscles (tibialis anterior, extensor digitorum longus and extensor hallucis longus), to estimate the minimum number of slices needed for these calculations and to compare estimates of volume based on an assumed conic shape of the muscles with that of an assumed cylindrical shape, the calculation in both cases based on the Cavalieri principle. Eleven young and healthy subjects (4 women and 7 men, age range 24-40 years) participated. Magnetic resonance imaging of the left leg was obtained on a 1.5-T MR system using a knee coil (receive only). A total of 50 consecutive slices were obtained beginning 10 cm below the caput fibula sin. and proceeding distally with a slice thickness of 1.5 mm without gap. The intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC) was used to calculate the relative reliability (interval from 0 to 1.0). A high reliability for both intra- and inter-reliability was observed (ICC 0.98 and 1.0). The difference was only 0.004% between calculations based on measurement of all 50 slices with respect to 8 slices equally distributed along the muscle group. No difference was found between the two different volumetric assumptions in the Cavalieri principle. The manually outlining of extensor muscles volumes was reliable and only 8 slices of the calf were needed. No difference was seen between the two used mathematical calculations. (orig.)

  1. Volume estimation of extensor muscles of the lower leg based on MR imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lund, Hans; Christensen, Line; Savnik, Anette; Danneskiold-Samsoee, Bente; Bliddal, Henning [The Parker Institute, Frederiksberg Hospital, 2000 Frederiksberg (Denmark); Boesen, Jens [Department of Radiology, Frederiksberg Hospital, 2000 Frederiksberg (Denmark)

    2002-12-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging can be used to measure the muscle volume of a given muscle or muscle group. The purpose of this study was to determine both the intra- and inter-observer variation of the manually outlined volume of the extensor muscles (tibialis anterior, extensor digitorum longus and extensor hallucis longus), to estimate the minimum number of slices needed for these calculations and to compare estimates of volume based on an assumed conic shape of the muscles with that of an assumed cylindrical shape, the calculation in both cases based on the Cavalieri principle. Eleven young and healthy subjects (4 women and 7 men, age range 24-40 years) participated. Magnetic resonance imaging of the left leg was obtained on a 1.5-T MR system using a knee coil (receive only). A total of 50 consecutive slices were obtained beginning 10 cm below the caput fibula sin. and proceeding distally with a slice thickness of 1.5 mm without gap. The intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC) was used to calculate the relative reliability (interval from 0 to 1.0). A high reliability for both intra- and inter-reliability was observed (ICC 0.98 and 1.0). The difference was only 0.004% between calculations based on measurement of all 50 slices with respect to 8 slices equally distributed along the muscle group. No difference was found between the two different volumetric assumptions in the Cavalieri principle. The manually outlining of extensor muscles volumes was reliable and only 8 slices of the calf were needed. No difference was seen between the two used mathematical calculations. (orig.)

  2. Prophylactic Effects of Sauna on Delayed-Onset Muscle Soreness of the Wrist Extensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khamwong, Peanchai; Paungmali, Aatit; Pirunsan, Ubon; Joseph, Leonard

    2015-06-01

    High-intensity of exercise or unaccustomed eccentric exercise can cause the phenomenon of Exercise-Induced Muscle Damage (EIMD) which usually results in cramps, muscle strain, impaired muscle function and delayed-onset muscle soreness. This study investigated the prophylactic effects of sauna towards the symptoms associated with muscle damage from eccentric exercises of wrist extensor muscle group. A total of twenty-eight subjects (mean age 20.9 years old, SD = 1.6) were randomly divided into the sauna group (n = 14) and the control group (n = 14). In the sauna group, subjects received sauna before eccentric exercise of the wrist extensor. The eccentric exercises were conducted on the non-dominant arm by using an isokinetic dynamometer. Pain Intensity (PI), Pressure Pain Threshold (PPT) and passive range of motion of wrist flexion (PF-ROM) and extension (PE-ROM) were measured as pain variables. Grip Strength (GS) and Wrist Extension Strength (WES) were measured as variables of wrist extensor muscle function. All the measurements were performed at baseline, immediately after and from 1st to 8th days after the exercise-induced muscle damage. The sauna group significantly demonstrated a lower deficit in ROM (passive flexion and passive extension), GS and WES following exercise than that of the control group (P < 0.05). Sauna application prior to the exercise-induced muscle damage demonstrated effectiveness in reduction of sensory impairment (PF-ROM and PE-ROM) and improvement of muscle functions (GS, and WES) in wrist extensor muscle group.

  3. A study of hyperelastic models for predicting the mechanical behavior of extensor apparatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elyasi, Nahid; Taheri, Kimia Karimi; Narooei, Keivan; Taheri, Ali Karimi

    2017-06-01

    In this research, the nonlinear elastic behavior of human extensor apparatus was investigated. To this goal, firstly the best material parameters of hyperelastic strain energy density functions consisting of the Mooney-Rivlin, Ogden, invariants, and general exponential models were derived for the simple tension experimental data. Due to the significance of stress response in other deformation modes of nonlinear models, the calculated parameters were used to study the pure shear and balance biaxial tension behavior of the extensor apparatus. The results indicated that the Mooney-Rivlin model predicts an unstable behavior in the balance biaxial deformation of the extensor apparatus, while the Ogden order 1 represents a stable behavior, although the fitting of experimental data and theoretical model was not satisfactory. However, the Ogden order 6 model was unstable in the simple tension mode and the Ogden order 5 and general exponential models presented accurate and stable results. In order to reduce the material parameters, the invariants model with four material parameters was investigated and this model presented the minimum error and stable behavior in all deformation modes. The ABAQUS Explicit solver was coupled with the VUMAT subroutine code of the invariants model to simulate the mechanical behavior of the central and terminal slips of the extensor apparatus during the passive finger flexion, which is important in the prediction of boutonniere deformity and chronic mallet finger injuries, respectively. Also, to evaluate the adequacy of constitutive models in simulations, the results of the Ogden order 5 were presented. The difference between the predictions was attributed to the better fittings of the invariants model compared with the Ogden model.

  4. From fish to modern humans--comparative anatomy, homologies and evolution of the pectoral and forelimb musculature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diogo, R; Abdala, V; Aziz, M A; Lonergan, N; Wood, B A

    2009-05-01

    In a recent study Diogo & Abdala [(2007) J Morphol 268, 504-517] reported the results of the first part of a research project on the comparative anatomy, homologies and evolution of the pectoral muscles of osteichthyans (bony fish and tetrapods). That report mainly focused on actinopterygian fish but also compared these fish with certain non-mammalian sarcopterygians. This study, which reports the second part of the research project, focuses mainly on sarcopterygians and particularly on how the pectoral and forelimb muscles have evolved during the transitions from sarcopterygian fish and non-mammalian tetrapods to monotreme and therian mammals and humans. The data obtained by our own dissections of all the pectoral and forelimb muscles of representative members of groups as diverse as sarcopterygian fish, amphibians, reptiles, monotremes and therian mammals such as rodents, tree-shrews, colugos and primates, including humans, are compared with the information available in the literature. Our observations and comparisons clearly stress that, with regard to the number of pectoral and forelimb muscles, the most striking transition within sarcopterygian evolutionary history was that leading to the origin of tetrapods. Whereas extant sarcopterygian fish have an abductor and adductor of the fin and a largely undifferentiated hypaxial and epaxial musculature, extant salamanders such as Ambystoma have more than 40 pectoral and forelimb muscles. There is no clear increase in the number of pectoral and forelimb muscles within the evolutionary transition that led to the origin of mammals and surely not to that leading to the origin of primates and humans.

  5. Response of smooth bronchial musculature in bronchoconstrictor substances in newborn with lung atelectasis at the respiratory distress syndrome (RDS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mustafa, Lirim; Islami, Pëllumb; Shabani, Nora; Jashanica, Adelina; Islami, Hilmi

    2014-01-01

    Role of the atelectasis (hypoxia) in the respiratory system of the live and exited newborn (250 up to 3000 g. of body weight), which has died due to different causes was studied in this work. Response of tracheal rings to dopamine, serotonine and ethanol in the different molar concentrations (dopamine: 0.05 mg/ml, 0.5 mg/ml, 5 mg/ml; serotonine (5-HT): 10(-4), 10(-3), 10(-2), 10(-1) mol/dm3; ethanol: 0.2 ml, 0.5 ml, 1.0 ml; 96%) was followed up. Study of the smooth tracheal musculature tone (STM) was elaborated in 16 tracheal preparations taken following the newborn death due to different causes. Based on functional researches of tracheal isolated preparations, it was ascertained as follows: atelectasis (cases born with lung hypoxia) has changed the response of STM to dopamine, serotonine and ethanol in a significant manner (p < 0.01) in comparison to cases of controlling group, which has died due to lung inflammatory processes (e.g. pneumonia, bronchopneumonia, cerebral hemorrhage), which have also caused significant response (p < 0.05). Results suggest that exited cases from lung atelectasis and cases of controlling group reacts to above mentioned substances by causing significant constrictor action of tracheobronchial system.

  6. An interactive three dimensional approach to anatomical description—the jaw musculature of the Australian laughing kookaburra (Dacelo novaeguineae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle R. Quayle

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The investigation of form-function relationships requires a detailed understanding of anatomical systems. Here we document the 3-dimensional morphology of the cranial musculoskeletal anatomy in the Australian Laughing Kookaburra Dacelo novaeguineae, with a focus upon the geometry and attachments of the jaw muscles in this species. The head of a deceased specimen was CT scanned, and an accurate 3D representation of the skull and jaw muscles was generated through manual segmentation of the CT scan images, and augmented by dissection of the specimen. We identified 14 major jaw muscles: 6 in the temporal group (M. adductor mandibulae and M. pseudotemporalis, 7 in the pterygoid group (M. pterygoideus dorsalis and M. pterygoideus ventralis, and the single jaw abductor M. depressor mandibulae. Previous descriptions of avian jaw musculature are hindered by limited visual representation and inconsistency in the nomenclature. To address these issues, we: (1 present the 3D model produced from the segmentation process as a digital, fully interactive model in the form of an embedded 3D image, which can be viewed from any angle, and within which major components can be set as opaque, transparent, or hidden, allowing the anatomy to be visualised as required to provide a detailed understanding of the jaw anatomy; (2 provide a summary of the nomenclature used throughout the avian jaw muscle literature. The approach presented here provides considerable advantages for the documentation and communication of detailed anatomical structures in a wide range of taxa.

  7. The effect of accounting for biarticularity in hip flexor and hip extensor joint torque representations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, M G C; Yeadon, M R; King, M A

    2018-02-01

    Subject-specific torque-driven models have ignored biarticular effects at the hip. The aim of this study was to establish the contribution of monoarticular hip flexors and hip extensors to total hip flexor and total hip extensor joint torques for an individual and to investigate whether torque-driven simulation models should consider incorporating biarticular effects at the hip joint. Maximum voluntary isometric and isovelocity hip flexion and hip extension joint torques were measured for a single participant together with surface electromyography. Single-joint and two-joint representations were fitted to the collected torque data and used to determine the maximum voluntary joint torque capacity. When comparing two-joint and single-joint representations, the single-joint representation had the capacity to produce larger maximum voluntary hip flexion torque (larger by around 9% of maximum torque) and smaller maximum voluntary hip extension torque (smaller by around 33% of maximum torque) with the knee extended. Considering the range of kinematics found for jumping movements, the single-joint hip flexors had the capacity to produce around 10% additional torque, while the single joint hip extensors had about 70% of the capacity of the two-joint representation. Two-joint representations may overcome an over-simplification of single-joint representations by accounting for biarticular effects, while building on the strength of determining subject-specific parameters from measurements on the participant. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Pilates increases the isokinetic muscular strength of the knee extensors and flexors in elderly women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Laís Campos; Oliveira, Raphael Gonçalves; Pires-Oliveira, Deise Aparecida de Almeida

    2017-10-01

    Pilates has been shown to be effective for increasing muscle strength in older adults, however, some variables have not yet been explored. Investigate the effects of Pilates on the isokinetic muscular strength of the knee extensors and flexors at 60°/s, in elderly women. Thirty-two women were randomized into two groups: control group (CG, n = 16, age = 64.2 ± 0.8 years; BMI = 25.0 ± 1.2 kg/m 2 ), and experimental group (EG, n = 16, age = 63.6 ± 1.0 years, BMI = 24.7 ± 1.3 kg/m 2 ). Isokinetic evaluation of the knee extensor and flexor muscles was performed at 60°/s, pre- and post-intervention, considering the peak torque (N.m) and total work (J) for the right and left lower limbs. The CG participated in static stretching and the EG in Pilates sessions, twice a week for 12 weeks. The results demonstrated that the EG presented a significant improvement (p muscular strength of the knee extensors and flexors in elderly women and can be considered for this purpose when prescribing physical exercise programs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Technique tip: EDL-to-EHL double loop transfer for extensor hallucis longus reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastías, Gonzalo F; Cuchacovich, Natalio; Schiff, Adam; Carcuro, Giovanni; Pellegrini, Manuel J

    2017-12-06

    Extensor hallucis longus (EHL) tendon injuries often occur in the setting of lacerations to the dorsum of the foot. End-to-end repair is advocated in acute lacerations, or in chronic cases when the tendon edges are suitable for tension free repair. Reconstruction with allograft or autograft is advocated for cases not amenable to a primary direct repair. This is often seen in cases with tendon retraction and more commonly in the chronic setting. In many countries the use of allograft is very limited or unavailable making reconstruction with autograft and tendon transfers the primary choice of treatment. Tendon diameter mismatch and diminished resistance are common issues in other previously described tendon transfers. We present the results of a new technique for reconstruction of non-reparable EHL lacerations in three patients using a dynamic double loop transfer of the extensor digitorum longus (EDL) of the second toe that addresses these issues. At one-year follow up, all patients recovered active/passive hallux extension with good functional (AOFAS Score) and satisfaction results. No reruptures or other complications were reported in this group of patients. No second toe deformities or dysfunction were reported. Second EDL-to-EHL Double Loop Transfer for Extensor Hallucis Longus reconstruction is a safe, reproducible and low-cost technique to address EHL ruptures when primary repair is not possible. IV (Case Series). Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  10. Isokinetic Evaluation of Knee Extensor/Flexor Muscle Strength in Behcet’s Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bekir Durmus

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Behçet’s disease (BD is an idiopathic, multisystemic, progressive disease. The purpose of this study is to compare the knee flexor and extensor isokinetic muscle strengths of Behcet’s patients with that of healthy subjects. Methods: Twenty-five (13 male and 12 female patients with BD and 25 (15 male and 10 female healthy individuals were included in the study. Velocities of 90°/sec, 120°/sec, and 150°/sec were used for the isokinetic muscle strength testing. Patients with active inflammatory knee arthritis were excluded. Peak torque (Nm and peak torque adjusted to body weight (% were taken into consideration for comparison between study groups. Results: Compared to healthy controls, there was a statistically significant decrease in both the bilateral knee extensor and flexor muscle isokinetic peak torques(Nm as well as the peak torques adjusted to body weight (% at velocities of 90°/sec, 120°/sec and 150°/sec in patients with BD (p < 0.05. However, there was no significant difference in the agonist-antagonist ratio of the isokinetic peak torques of knee muscles between the two groups. Conclusion: In light of these findings, we have concluded that both knee flexor and extensor isokinetic muscle strengths are lower in BD. We therefore recommend careful monitoring of patients with BD in terms of muscle strength.

  11. The Femoral Neck Mechanoresponse to Hip Extensors Exercise: A Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saulo Martelli

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Physical activity is recommended to prevent age-related bone loss. However, the proximal femur mechanoresponse is variable, possibly because of a muscle-dependant mechanoresponse. We compared the proximal femur response with the femoral strain pattern generated by the hip extensor muscles. A healthy participant underwent a six-month unilateral training of the hip extensor muscles using a resistance weight regularly adjusted to the 80% of the one-repetition maximum weight. DXA-based measurements of the areal Bone Mineral Density (aBMD in the exercise leg were adjusted for changes in the control leg. The biomechanical stimulus for bone adaptation (BS was calculated using published models of the musculoskeletal system and the average hip extension moment in elderly participants. Volumetric (ΔvBMD and areal (ΔaBMD BMD changes were calculated. The measured and calculated BMD changes consistently showed a positive and negative effect of exercise in the femoral neck (ΔaBMD = +0.7%; ΔvBMD = +0.8% and the trochanter region (ΔaBMD = −4.1%; ΔvBMD = −0.5%, respectively. The 17% of the femoral neck exceeded the 75th percentile of the spatially heterogeneous BS distribution. Hip extensor exercises may be beneficial in the proximal femoral neck but not in the trochanteric region. DXA-based measurements may not capture significant aBMD local changes.

  12. Demonstration of the therapeutic effect of /sup 35/S labelled L-cystine in articular and intervertebral cartilage as well as in skeletal musculature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmiegelow, P.; Puschmann, M.; Giese, U.

    1984-01-16

    Clinical experience has obviously shown a positive effect of application of sulfated amino acids on degenerative cartilage diseases. L-Cystin, presumed to be of therapeutic effect, was autoradiographically localized in articular, columnar and intervertebral cartilage as well as in skeletal musculature. In 10 days old NMRI-mice, we had shown a dose-dependent incorporation of the radioactively labelled /sup 35/S-Cystin in hair follicle. These statistically significant differences had been measured by quantitative autoradiographical microscope photometry. The sulfated amino acids are also proven in nail matrix, nail hyponychium as well as in cartilage and skeletal musculature. Besides a localization of radioactively labelled L-Cystin in tissues, presumed as target organs of a therapeutic effect, there is still lacking an experimental proof of efficacy on cell proliferation and functional metabolism e.g. in arthrosis by suitable animal models.

  13. Are fatigue-related EMG-parameters correlated to trunk extensor muscles fatigue induced by the Sörensen test?

    OpenAIRE

    Demoulin Christophe; George, Florian; Matheve, Thomas; Jidovtseff, Boris; Vanderthommen, Marc

    2016-01-01

    The Sorensen test has been extensively studied and is a rapid, simple, and reproducible evaluation of the trunk extensor muscles [1]. It is often considered as a fatigue test because fatigue-related electromyographic (EMG) parameters change throughout the test [2]; however, only recently it has been confirmed that this test induces a decrease of trunk extensor force during a maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) [3], which best characterises muscle fatigue. The main aim of this stud...

  14. Evolution of anthozoan polyp retraction mechanisms: convergent functional morphology and evolutionary allometry of the marginal musculature in order Zoanthidea (Cnidaria: Anthozoa: Hexacorallia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swain, Timothy D; Schellinger, Jennifer L; Strimaitis, Anna M; Reuter, Kim E

    2015-06-30

    Retraction is among the most important basic behaviors of anthozoan Cnidaria polyps and is achieved through the coordinated contraction of at least six different muscle groups. Across the Anthozoa, these muscles range from unrecognizable atrophies to massive hypertrophies, producing a wide diversity of retraction abilities and functional morphologies. The marginal musculature is often the single largest component of the retraction mechanism and is composed of a diversity of muscular, attachment, and structural features. Although the arrangements of these features have defined the higher taxonomy of Zoanthidea for more than 100 years, a decade of inferring phylogenies from nucleotide sequences has demonstrated fundamental misconceptions of their evolution. Here we expand the diversity of known marginal muscle forms from two to at least ten basic states and reconstruct the evolution of its functional morphology across the most comprehensive molecular phylogeny available. We demonstrate that the evolution of these forms follows a series of transitions that are much more complex than previously hypothesized and converge on similar forms multiple times. Evolution of the marginal musculature and its attachment and support structures are partially scaled according to variation in polyp and muscle size, but also vary through evolutionary allometry. Although the retraction mechanisms are diverse and their evolutionary histories complex, their morphologies are largely reflective of the evolutionary relationships among Zoanthidea higher taxa and may offer a key feature for integrative systematics. The convergence on similar forms across multiple linages of Zoanthidea mirrors the evolution of the marginal musculature in another anthozoan order (Actiniaria). The marginal musculature varies through evolutionary allometry of functional morphologies in response to requirements for additional force and resistance, and the specific ecological and symbiotic functions of individual

  15. [Cervical lift: An update].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labbé, D; Guerreschi, P

    2017-10-01

    The neck is an aesthetic unit for which a rejuvenation request is sometimes very targeted or ore often encompassed in a global surgical project of face-lift. To obtain a long lasting outcome, the plastic surgeon has to make a full, detailed, and exhaustive analysis of the neck in order to choose the best indication within the multiple surgical tools. A full clinical examination is the key point, every aspects are outlined. The numerous surgical choices are described, illustrated, and sometimes revisited in the light of targeted anatomical studies. A didactic and graduated way is used to explain the recent evolutions of the surgical tools of the cervical lifting. Complications and insufficiencies in outcomes must be identified and explained. Finally, we illustrate this development by clinical cases. The surgical improvement of the cervical region is, for us, centered on the reconstruction of a cervical retaining structure: the Cervico-Mandibular Angle Suspensor (CMAS) ligament. This element makes it possible to understand and integrate the large number of technical proposals for cervical lifting. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  16. Prevent Cervical Cancer!

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2015-01-08

    Cervical cancer can be prevented. Listen as two friends—one a doctor—talk about screening tests and early detection. Learn what test you might need.  Created: 1/8/2015 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 1/8/2015.

  17. Preventing cervical cancer

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cervical cancer remains the most common cancer diagnosed in women in southern Africa, with an estimated lifetime risk of 1 in. 26.1. Unfortunately most of these cancers are also diagnosed at a late stage, with subsequent poor prognosis for long-term survival. This very high incidence is particularly sad in an era where.

  18. Cervical Spondylotic Myelopathy (CSM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to normal aging. Arthritis of the spine and spinal cord trauma can be other causes of CSM. How is cervical spondylotic myelopathy diagnosed? Your doctor will do a ... can confirm if you have spinal cord compression in your neck. It also can ...

  19. Recovery kinetics of knee flexor and extensor strength after a football match.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimitrios Draganidis

    Full Text Available We examined the temporal changes of isokinetic strength performance of knee flexor (KF and extensor (KE strength after a football match. Players were randomly assigned to a control (N = 14, participated only in measurements and practices or an experimental group (N = 20, participated also in a football match. Participants trained daily during the two days after the match. Match and training overload was monitored with GPS devices. Venous blood was sampled and muscle damage was assessed pre-match, post-match and at 12 h, 36 h and 60 h post-match. Isometric strength as well as eccentric and concentric peak torque of knee flexors and extensors in both limbs (dominant and non-dominant were measured on an isokinetic dynamometer at baseline and at 12 h, 36 h and 60 h after the match. Functional (KFecc/KEcon and conventional (KFcon/KEcon ratios were then calculated. Only eccentric peak torque of knee flexors declined at 60 h after the match in the control group. In the experimental group: a isometric strength of knee extensors and knee flexors declined (P<0.05 at 12 h (both limbs and 36 h (dominant limb only, b eccentric and concentric peak torque of knee extensors and flexors declined (P<0.05 in both limbs for 36 h at 60°/s and for 60 h at 180°/s with eccentric peak torque of knee flexors demonstrating a greater (P<0.05 reduction than concentric peak torque, c strength deterioration was greater (P<0.05 at 180°/s and in dominant limb, d the functional ratio was more sensitive to match-induced fatigue demonstrating a more prolonged decline. Discriminant and regression analysis revealed that strength deterioration and recovery may be related to the amount of eccentric actions performed during the match and athletes' football-specific conditioning. Our data suggest that recovery kinetics of knee flexor and extensor strength after a football match demonstrate strength, limb and velocity specificity and may depend on match physical overload and players

  20. Myostatin dysfunction impairs force generation in extensor digitorum longus muscle and increases exercise-induced protein efflux from extensor digitorum longus and soleus muscles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baltusnikas, Juozas; Kilikevicius, Audrius; Venckunas, Tomas; Fokin, Andrej; Bünger, Lutz; Lionikas, Arimantas; Ratkevicius, Aivaras

    2015-08-01

    Myostatin dysfunction promotes muscle hypertrophy, which can complicate assessment of muscle properties. We examined force generating capacity and creatine kinase (CK) efflux from skeletal muscles of young mice before they reach adult body and muscle size. Isolated soleus (SOL) and extensor digitorum longus (EDL) muscles of Berlin high (BEH) mice with dysfunctional myostatin, i.e., homozygous for inactivating myostatin mutation, and with a wild-type myostatin (BEH+/+) were studied. The muscles of BEH mice showed faster (P < 0.01) twitch and tetanus contraction times compared with BEH+/+ mice, but only EDL displayed lower (P < 0.05) specific force. SOL and EDL of age-matched but not younger BEH mice showed greater exercise-induced CK efflux compared with BEH+/+ mice. In summary, myostatin dysfunction leads to impairment in muscle force generating capacity in EDL and increases susceptibility of SOL and EDL to protein loss after exercise.

  1. Transfer of extensor digiti minimi and extensor carpi ulnaris nerve branches to the intrinsic motor nerve branches: A histological study on cadaver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Namazi, H; Haji Vandi, S

    2017-06-01

    In cases of high ulnar and median nerve palsy, result of nerve repair in term of intrinsic muscle recovery is unsatisfactory. Distal nerve transfer can alleviate the regeneration time and improve the results. Transfer of the extensor digiti minimi (EDM) and extensor carpi ulnaris (ECU) nerve branches to the deep branch of ulnar nerve (DBUN)/recurrent branch of median nerve (RMN) at wrist had been used to restore intrinsic hand function but, incomplete recovery occurred. The axon count at the donor nerve has a strong influence on the final results. This cadaveric study aims to analyses the histology of this nerve transfer to evaluate whether these donor nerves are suitable for this transfer or another donor nerve may be considered. Ten cadaveric upper limbs dissected to identify the location of the EDM, ECU, RMN and DBUN. Surface area, fascicle count, and axon number was determined by histological methods. The mean of axon number in the EDM, ECU, RMN and DBUN branches was 5931, 7355, 30960 and 35426, respectively. In this study, the number of axons in the EDM and ECU branches was 37% (13281/35426) of that in the DBUN. Also, the number of axons in the EDM and ECU branches was 42% (13281/30960) of that in the RMN. The axon count data showed an unfavorable match between the EDM, ECU and DBUN/RMN. Therefore, it is suggested that another donor nerve with higher axon number to be considered. Cadaver study (histological study). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  2. Morphometric characteristics of the pelvic limb musculature of Labrador Retrievers with and without cranial cruciate ligament deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mostafa, Ayman A; Griffon, Dominique J; Thomas, Michael W; Constable, Peter D

    2010-04-01

    To identify morphometric characteristics of the pelvic limb musculature associated with the development of cranial cruciate ligament (CCL) deficiency in Labrador Retrievers. Cross-sectional clinical study. Pure-bred female (n=18) and male (n=12) Labrador Retrievers with (n=16) and without (n=14) CCL deficiency. Muscle conformation of pelvic limbs was evaluated by physical examination, radiography (widths of quadriceps, hamstring, and gastrocnemius were expressed relative to tibial length and to each other), and dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA, lean contents of quadriceps, hamstring, and gastrocnemius were expressed relative to tibial length and to each other). Pelvic limbs of dogs without CCL deficiency were classified as normal (n=28 limbs), whereas those with CCL deficiency were considered diseased (n=18 limbs) or sound contralateral to CCL deficiency (n=10 limbs). Variables were compared between groups using mixed models analysis of variance, with Pratios of quadriceps width to tibial length (P=.008), hamstring width (P=.013), and gastrocnemius width (P=.005) on lateral radiographs were lower in diseased limbs than controls. The mass of hamstring muscles in CCL deficient limbs was similar to that of normal limbs. The ratio of the lean content of gastrocnemius to hamstring muscles was greater in diseased (P=.007) and sound contralateral (P=.013) limbs than in normal limbs. Atrophy associated with CCL deficiency may predominantly affect the quadriceps muscle. Dominance of the gastrocnemius muscle over active restraints to the cranial tibial thrust may be associated with predisposition to CCL deficiency in Labrador Retrievers. If confirmed, this dynamic imbalance between muscle groups of the rear limbs could serve as a basis for screening programs and preventive rehabilitation.

  3. Reconstruction of the cranial musculature of the paraceratheriid rhinocerotoid Pappaceras meiomenus and inferences of its feeding and chewing habits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hai-Bing Wang

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The paraceratheriid Pappaceras is the earliest unequivocal rhinocerotoid genus to date, for which the osteological morphology is relatively unique compared to other perissodactyls. Due to the poor preservation condition, paleobiological aspects of Pappaceras (or forstercooperiines, such as chewing and feeding behavior, still remain unknown. Under the Extant Phylogenetic Bracket, the cranial musculature of the newly erected Pappaceras meiomenus has been reconstructed using two-dimensional illustrations, drawings and interpretations of the position and general morphology of cranial muscles for which origins and insertions on the skull are visible. In this study, eight muscles are reconstructed, described and compared to the corresponding muscles known or inferred in other perissodactyls, including the m. levator nasolabialis, the m. levator labii superior, the m. caninus, the m. zygomaticus, the m. masseter, the m. temporalis, the m. buccinator and the m. pterygoid. The reconstruction of the masticatory muscles suggests that Pappaceras meiomenus is strictly herbivorous, probably folivorous, with a primary component of vertical biting. The relatively well-developed m. pterygoid (particularly the m. pterygoideus medialis indicates that Pappaceras meiomenus is similar to hyracodontids, having more advantages in rotary chewing than other non-hyracodontid rhinocerotoids. The configuration of basicranial features shows differentiation between non-hyracodontids and hyracodontids, demonstrating that the well-developed, specialized postglenoid process and the wide glenoid fossa, along with the postcotyloid process of the mandible, serve as a strong fulcrum during the power stroke in non-hyracodontids. Based on its rostral morphology, we suggest that Pappaceras meiomenus was a general browser. The morphology of its incisors and canines further indicate the ability to feed on hard plants, using the postulated puncture-crushing and grinding function.

  4. From fish to modern humans – comparative anatomy, homologies and evolution of the pectoral and forelimb musculature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diogo, R; Abdala, V; Aziz, M A; Lonergan, N; Wood, B A

    2009-01-01

    In a recent study Diogo & Abdala [(2007) JMorphol268, 504–517] reported the results of the first part of a research project on the comparative anatomy, homologies and evolution of the pectoral muscles of osteichthyans (bony fish and tetrapods). That report mainly focused on actinopterygian fish but also compared these fish with certain non-mammalian sarcopterygians. This study, which reports the second part of the research project, focuses mainly on sarcopterygians and particularly on how the pectoral and forelimb muscles have evolved during the transitions from sarcopterygian fish and non-mammalian tetrapods to monotreme and therian mammals and humans. The data obtained by our own dissections of all the pectoral and forelimb muscles of representative members of groups as diverse as sarcopterygian fish, amphibians, reptiles, monotremes and therian mammals such as rodents, tree-shrews, colugos and primates, including humans, are compared with the information available in the literature. Our observations and comparisons clearly stress that, with regard to the number of pectoral and forelimb muscles, the most striking transition within sarcopterygian evolutionary history was that leading to the origin of tetrapods. Whereas extant sarcopterygian fish have an abductor and adductor of the fin and a largely undifferentiated hypaxial and epaxial musculature, extant salamanders such as Ambystoma have more than 40 pectoral and forelimb muscles. There is no clear increase in the number of pectoral and forelimb muscles within the evolutionary transition that led to the origin of mammals and surely not to that leading to the origin of primates and humans. PMID:19438764

  5. The role of the abdominal musculature in the elevation of the intra-abdominal pressure during specified tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cresswell, A G; Thorstensson, A

    1989-10-01

    A series of standardized tasks, isometric trunk flexion and extension and maximal Valsalva manoeuvres, were used to evaluate the role of the abdominal musculature in developing an increased intra-abdominal pressure (IAP). Seven male subjects were measured for IAP, myoelectric activity of rectus abdominis (RA), obliquus externus and internus (OE and OI respectively), erector spinae (ES) and isometric trunk torque. IAPs in all experimental conditions were markedly greater than those that occurred while relaxed. In isometric trunk flexion, IAPs were increased with accompanying high levels of activity from the abdominal muscles. In contrast, little activity from the abdominal muscles occurred during isometric trunk extension, although levels of IAP were similar to those found in the isometric flexion condition. With maximal voluntary pressurization (Valsalva manoeuvre) slightly higher levels of IAP than those found in torque conditions were recorded, this pressure being produced with abdominal activities (OE and OI) less than one fourth their recorded maximum. When isometric torque tasks were added to the Valsalva manoeuvre, patterns of muscle activity (RA, OE, OI and ES) were significantly altered. For Valsalva with isometric trunk extension, activity from OE and OI was reduced while IAPs remained fairly constant. These findings indicate that in tasks where an IAP extension moment is warranted, abdominal pressure can be increased without the development of a large counter-moment produced by the dual action of the trunk flexors. Activation of other muscles such as the diaphragm and transversus abdominis is suggested as helping provide control over the level of IAP during controlled trunk tasks.

  6. The development of the larval nervous system, musculature and ciliary bands of Pomatoceros lamarckii (Annelida: heterochrony in polychaetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shimeld Sebastian M

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To understand the evolution of animals it is essential to have taxon sampling across a representative spread of the animal kingdom. With the recent rearrangement of most of the Bilateria into three major clades (Ecdysozoa, Lophotrochozoa and Deuterostomia it has become clear that the Lophotrochozoa are relatively poorly represented in our knowledge of animal development, compared to the Ecdysozoa and Deuterostomia. We aim to contribute towards redressing this balance with data on the development of the muscular, nervous and ciliary systems of the annelid Pomatoceros lamarckii (Serpulidae. We compare our data with other lophotrochozoans. Results P. lamarckii develops locomotory and feeding structures that enable it to become a swimming, planktotrophic larva within 24 hours. Formation of the trochophore includes development of a prototroch, metatroch and neurotroch, development of apical and posterior nervous elements at similar times, and development of musculature around the ciliary bands and digestive tract prior to development of any body wall muscles. The adult nervous and muscular systems are essentially preformed in the late larva. Interestingly, the muscular systems of the larvae and juvenile worms do not include the circular muscles of the body wall, which are considered to be plesiomorphic for annelids, although the possibility that circular muscles develop after these stages cannot be ruled out at this point. Conclusion A comparison between polychaetes shows variability in the timing (heterochrony of development of body wall muscles and elements of the nervous system. These heterochronies are one route for evolution of different life history strategies, such as adaptations to feeding requirements.

  7. Hand-held dynamometry fixated with a tripod is reliable for assessment of back extensor strength in women with osteoporosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valentin, G; Maribo, T

    2014-08-01

    An appropriate method to assess back extensor strength in clinical practice has not yet been described. Our results showed that a hand-held dynamometry fixated with a tripod is reliable for assessing back extensor strength in women with osteoporosis. Back strengthening exercises play an important role in the rehabilitation of patients with osteoporotic vertebral fractures. Evaluation of the effect of back strengthening exercises requires a method suitable for use in clinical practice to measure back extensor strength. A hand-held dynamometer (HHD) is quick and easy to handle in clinical practice. Currently, there is a lack of evidence whether a HHD is reliable for assessment of back extensor strength in people with osteoporosis. When using a HHD, it may be difficult for the tester to provide a counter pressure corresponding to the effort of the patient. In order to accommodate this, we have developed a tripod and a belt system, which was used to fixate the HHD. This study examined the intra-tester reliability of back extensor strength assessment in women with osteoporosis using a HHD. Back extensor strength of the participants was measured on two events with 7-day intervals. Test procedures were standardized, and all tests were performed by the same tester. Forty-eight women with osteoporosis and vertebral fractures were included in the analysis. The coefficient of variation was 22% using a HHD fixated by the tester and 17% using a HHD fixated with the tripod. ICC was 0.75 (95% confidence interval (CI), 0.63 and 0.88) when using a HHD with fixated by the tester and 0.90 (95% CI, 0.84 and 0.95) when using a HHD fixated with the tripod. A HHD fixated with a tripod is reliable for the assessment of back extensor strength in women with osteoporosis and vertebral fractures.

  8. Cetuximab, Cisplatin, and Radiation Therapy in Treating Patients With Stage IB, Stage II, Stage III, or Stage IVA Cervical Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-29

    Cervical Adenocarcinoma; Cervical Adenosquamous Carcinoma; Cervical Small Cell Carcinoma; Cervical Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IB Cervical Cancer; Stage IIA Cervical Cancer; Stage IIB Cervical Cancer; Stage III Cervical Cancer; Stage IVA Cervical Cancer

  9. Cisplatin and Radiation Therapy Followed by Paclitaxel and Carboplatin in Treating Patients With Stage IB-IVA Cervical Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-05-03

    Cervical Adenocarcinoma; Cervical Adenosquamous Carcinoma; Cervical Squamous Cell Carcinoma, Not Otherwise Specified; Stage IB Cervical Cancer; Stage IIA Cervical Cancer; Stage IIB Cervical Cancer; Stage IIIA Cervical Cancer; Stage IIIB Cervical Cancer; Stage IVA Cervical Cancer

  10. Cervical cancer: what's new?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Carlos Sadalla

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available SUMMARY Cervical cancer is the most common gynecological cancer in Brazil. Among women, it is the second most frequent, second only to breast cancer. It is the fourth leading cause of cancer death in the country, with estimated 15,590 new cases (2014 and 5,430 deaths (2013. In order to update information to improve outcomes, reduce morbidity and optimize the treatment of this cancer, this article will address the advancement of knowledge on cervical cancer. The topics covered include the role of surgery in different stages, treatment of locally advanced carcinomas, fertility preservation, the role of the sentinel lymph node technique, indications and techniques of radiotherapy and chemotherapy, and some special situations.

  11. Chronic Pseudomonas aeruginosa cervical osteomyelitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sujeet Kumar Meher

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a rare cause of osteomyelitis of the cervical spine and is usually seen in the background of intravenous drug use and immunocompromised state. Very few cases of osteomyelitis of the cervical spine caused by pseudomonas aeruginosa have been reported in otherwise healthy patients. This is a case presentation of a young female, who in the absence of known risk factors for cervical osteomyelitis presented with progressively worsening neurological signs and symptoms.

  12. Mucopurulent cervicitis: a clinical entity?

    OpenAIRE

    Willmott, F E

    1988-01-01

    Of 297 women attending a sexually transmitted disease clinic who were examined for the presence of mucopurulent cervicitis, 96 (32%) satisfied the diagnostic criteria. Mucopurulent cervicitis was strongly associated with the isolation of Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae. It was also associated with bacterial vaginosis, the use of oral contraceptives, and sexual contact with men who had non-gonococcal urethritis. Conversely, the presence of opaque cervical secretions did not sho...

  13. SUPERFICIAL CERVICAL PLEXUS BLOCK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Komang Mega Puspadisari

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Superficial cervical plexus block is one of the regional anesthesia in  neck were limited to thesuperficial fascia. Anesthesia is used to relieve pain caused either during or after the surgery iscompleted. This technique can be done by landmark or with ultrasound guiding. The midpointof posterior border of the Sternocleidomastoid was identified and the prosedure done on thatplace or on the level of cartilage cricoid.

  14. Case Studies - Cervical Cancer

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2010-10-15

    Dr. Alan Waxman, a professor of obstetrics and gynecology at the University of New Mexico and chair of the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists (ACOG) committee for the underserved, talks about several case studies for cervical cancer screening and management.  Created: 10/15/2010 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP), Division of Cancer Prevention and Control (DCPC).   Date Released: 6/9/2010.

  15. Future Directions - Cervical Cancer

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2009-10-15

    Dr. Alan Waxman, a professor of obstetrics and gynecology at the University of New Mexico and chair of the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists (ACOG) committee for the underserved, talks about possible changes in cervical cancer screening and management.  Created: 10/15/2009 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP), Division of Cancer Prevention and Control (DCPC).   Date Released: 6/9/2010.

  16. Traumatic cervical artery dissection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nedeltchev, Krassen; Baumgartner, Ralf W

    2005-01-01

    Traumatic cervical artery dissection (TCAD) is a complication of severe blunt head or neck trauma, the main cause being motor vehicle accidents. TCAD are increasingly recognized, and incidences of up to 0.86% for internal carotid and 0.53% for traumatic vertebral artery dissections (TVAD) among blunt trauma victims are reported. Diagnostic evaluation for TCAD is mandatory in the presence of (1) hemorrhage of potential arterial origin originating from the nose, ears, mouth, or a wound; (2) expanding cervical hematoma; (3) cervical bruit in a patient >50 years of age; (4) evidence of acute infarct at brain imaging; (5) unexplained central or lateralizing neurological deficit or transient ischemic attack, or (6) Horner syndrome, neck or head pain. In addition, a number of centers screen asymptomatic patients with blunt trauma for TCAD. Catheter angiography is the standard of reference for diagnosis of TCAD. Color duplex ultrasound, computed tomographic, and magnetic resonance angiography are noninvasive screening alternatives, but each method has its diagnostic limitations compared to catheter angiography. Anticoagulants and antiplatelet drugs may prevent ischemic stroke, but bleeding from traumatized tissues may offset the benefits of antithrombotic treatment. Endovascular therapy of dissected vessels, thrombarterectomy, direct suture of intimal tears, and extracranial-intracranial bypass should be considered in exceptional cases. Neurological outcome is probably worse in TCAD compared to spontaneous CAD, although it is unclear whether this is due to dissection-induced ischemic stroke or associated traumatic lesions.

  17. [Cervical spine trauma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yilmaz, U; Hellen, P

    2016-08-01

    In the emergency department 65 % of spinal injuries and 2-5 % of blunt force injuries involve the cervical spine. Of these injuries approximately 50 % involve C5 and/or C6 and 30 % involve C2. Older patients tend to have higher spinal injuries and younger patients tend to have lower injuries. The anatomical and development-related characteristics of the pediatric spine as well as degenerative and comorbid pathological changes of the spine in the elderly can make the radiological evaluation of spinal injuries difficult with respect to possible trauma sequelae in young and old patients. Two different North American studies have investigated clinical criteria to rule out cervical spine injuries with sufficient certainty and without using imaging. Imaging of cervical trauma should be performed when injuries cannot be clinically excluded according to evidence-based criteria. Degenerative changes and anatomical differences have to be taken into account in the evaluation of imaging of elderly and pediatric patients.

  18. Lower-limb extensor power and lifting characteristics in disabled elders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dancewicz, Teresa M; Krebs, David E; McGibbon, Chris A

    2003-01-01

    Few reports address lifting in disabled elders. Resistance training may facilitate function by improving coordination and muscular recruitment in common lifting tasks. Subjects were considered "functionally limited" if they reported a limitation in at least 1 of 9 possible functional areas listed on the Short-Form Health Survey physical function scale (SF-36), excluding the vigorous activity item. Eighty-nine functionally limited elders (60.3 to 89.8 years old) consented to participate in an intervention trial consisting of a 6-month in-home video-facilitated resistance exercise program using elastic bands. Biomechanical variables (leg extensor power, work, squared jerk), temporal outcomes (lift time and time to peak leg powers), and leg extensor strength were analyzed with the use of analysis of variance (ANOVA) between the (1) experimental group versus control group and the (2) subgroup of the weakest third of subjects (pretest leg extensor strength as percent of body weight [BW]). The experimental group had significant improvements in strength in knee extension (16.7%) and hip extension (20.5%). Resistance-trained weak subjects significantly increased hip extension strength compared to controls. A trend toward improved performance in lifting--decreased total lift time--was noted in the resistance-trained subjects. Significant correlations were found between total leg extension power, total leg extension strength, total work, and lift time. Resistance-trained disabled elders demonstrated strength benefits and several trends consistent with improved coordination and more efficient lifting. Leg-muscle power was related to better functional performance in lifting.

  19. Effect of Preactivation on Torque Enhancement by the Stretch-Shortening Cycle in Knee Extensors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atsuki Fukutani

    Full Text Available The stretch-shortening cycle is one of the most interesting topics in the field of sport sciences, because the performance of human movement is enhanced by the stretch-shortening cycle (eccentric contraction. The purpose of the present study was to examine whether the influence of preactivation on the torque enhancement by stretch-shortening cycle in knee extensors. Twelve men participated in this study. The following three conditions were conducted for knee extensors: (1 concentric contraction without preactivation (CON, (2 concentric contraction with eccentric preactivation (ECC, and (3 concentric contraction with isometric preactivation (ISO. Muscle contractions were evoked by electrical stimulation to discard the influence of neural activity. The range of motion of the knee joint was set from 80 to 140 degrees (full extension = 180 degrees. Angular velocities of the concentric and eccentric contractions were set at 180 and 90 degrees/s, respectively. In the concentric contraction phase, joint torques were recorded at 85, 95, and 105 degrees, and they were compared among the three conditions. In the early phase (85 degrees of concentric contraction, the joint torque was larger in the ECC and ISO conditions than in the CON condition. However, these clear differences disappeared in the later phase (105 degrees of concentric contraction. The results showed that joint torque was clearly different among the three conditions in the early phase whereas this difference disappeared in the later phase. Thus, preactivation, which is prominent in the early phase of contractions, plays an important role in torque enhancement by the stretch-shortening cycle in knee extensors.

  20. Acute Effects of Kinesio Taping on Knee Extensor Peak Torque and Stretch Reflex in Healthy Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeung, Simon S.; Yeung, Ella W.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Kinesio Tex tape (KT) is used to prevent and treat sports-related injuries and to enhance muscle performance. It has been proposed that the direction of taping may either facilitate or inhibit the muscle by having different effects on cutaneous receptors that modulate excitability of the motor neurons. This study had 2 goals. First, we wished to determine if KT application affects muscle performance and if the method of application facilitates or inhibits muscle performance. This was assessed by measuring isokinetic knee extension peak torque in the knee extensor. Second, we assessed neurological effects of taping on the excitability of the motor neurons by measuring the reflex latency and action potential by electromyography (EMG) in the patellar reflex. The study was a single-blind, placebo-controlled crossover trial with 28 healthy volunteers with no history of knee injuries. Participants received facilitative KT treatment, inhibitory KT treatment, or Hypafix taping of the knee extensor. There were significant differences in the peak torque between 3 treatments (F(2,54) = 4.873, P < 0.01). Post hoc analysis revealed that facilitative KT treatment resulted in higher knee extensor peak torque performance than inhibitory KT treatment (P = 0.036, effect size 0.26). There were, however, no significant differences in the reflex latency (F(2,54) = 2.84, P = 0.067) nor in the EMG values (F(2,54) = 0.18, P = 0.837) in the patellar reflex between the 3 taping applications. The findings suggest that the direction of KT application over the muscle has specific effects on muscle performance. Given the magnitude of effect is small, interpretation of clinical significance should be considered with caution. The underlying mechanism warrants further investigation. PMID:26825916

  1. Repair of acute extensor hallucis longus tendon injuries: a retrospective review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Justin C; Daniel, Joseph N; Raikin, Steven M

    2014-02-01

    Extensor hallucis longus (EHL) tendon injuries may occur with lacerations sustained over the dorsum of the foot and lead to hallux dysfunction. Primary repair is performed when tendon edges are opposable; however, if a gap exists between tendon edges, then reconstruction with tendon graft or tendon transfer may be necessary to restore hallux alignment and dorsiflexion. We describe the surgical technique and report the results on a large series of patients having undergone primary repair or reconstruction of EHL tendon lacerations. We retrospectively reviewed all patients undergoing EHL tendon repair or reconstruction between January 2005 and May 2012. Information on patient demographics, mechanism of injury, time to surgery, intraoperative findings, surgical repair or reconstruction technique, and postoperative function were collected. Patients were contacted by telephone for administration of the Foot and Ankle Ability Measure (FAAM) and American Orthopaedic Foot and Ankle Society Hallux questionnaires. Twenty of 23 patients undergoing EHL tendon repair or reconstruction were available for review at an average clinical follow-up of 12 months (range 3-89 months) and an average telephone follow-up of 5.1 years (range 1-10.4 years). Primary EHL repair was performed in 80% of cases, with the remaining patients undergoing reconstruction with deep tendon transfer of the extensor digitorum longus tendon from the second toe. At final follow-up, 19 of 20 patients had active hallux dorsiflexion. The average FAAM Activities of Daily Living score was 94.2% (range 58.3% to 100%) and the average FAAM Sports score was 94.2% (range 65.6% to 100%). Primary repair or reconstruction of EHL tendon lacerations is a reliable procedure that restores hallux alignment and function in most patients as measured by the validated FAAM questionnaire. Deep tendon transfer from the extensor digitorum longus may be performed if EHL tendon edges are not opposable thus eliminating the need for

  2. The effect of knee extensor open kinetic chain resistance training in the ACL-injured knee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barcellona, Massimo G; Morrissey, Matthew C; Milligan, Peter; Clinton, Melissa; Amis, Andrew A

    2015-11-01

    To investigate the effect of different loads of knee extensor open kinetic chain resistance training on anterior knee laxity and function in the ACL-injured (ACLI) knee. Fifty-eight ACLI subjects were randomised to one of three (12-week duration) training groups. The STAND group trained according to a standardised rehabilitation protocol. Subjects in the LOW and HIGH group trained as did the STAND group but with the addition of seated knee extensor open kinetic chain resistance training at loads of 2 sets of 20 repetition maximum (RM) and 20 sets of 2RM, respectively. Anterior knee laxity and measurements of physical and subjective function were performed at baseline, 6 and 12 weeks. Thirty-six subjects were tested at both baseline and 12 weeks (STAND n = 13, LOW n = 11, HIGH n = 12). The LOW group demonstrated a reduction in 133 N anterior knee laxity between baseline and 12 weeks testing when compared to the HIGH and the STAND groups (p = 0.009). Specifically, the trained-untrained knee laxity decreased an average of approximately 5 mm in the LOW group while remaining the same in the other two groups. Twelve weeks of knee extensor open kinetic chain resistance training at loads of 2 sets of 20RM led to a reduction in anterior knee laxity in the ACLI knee. This reduction in laxity does not appear to offer any significant short-term functional advantages when compared to a standard rehabilitation protocol. These results indicate that knee laxity can be decreased with resistance training of the thigh muscles. Randomised controlled trial, Level II.

  3. Extensor motoneurone properties are altered immediately before and during fictive locomotion in the adult decerebrate rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDonell, C W; Power, K E; Chopek, J W; Gardiner, K R; Gardiner, P F

    2015-05-15

    This study examined motoneurone properties during fictive locomotion in the adult rat for the first time. Fictive locomotion was induced via electrical stimulation of the mesencephalic locomotor region in decerebrate adult rats under neuromuscular blockade to compare basic and rhythmic motoneurone properties in antidromically identified extensor motoneurones during: (1) quiescence, before and after fictive locomotion; (2) the 'tonic' period immediately preceding locomotor-like activity, whereby the amplitude of peripheral flexor (peroneal) and extensor (tibial) nerves are increased but alternation has not yet occurred; and (3) locomotor-like episodes. Locomotion was identified by alternating flexor-extensor nerve activity, where the motoneurone either produced membrane oscillations consistent with a locomotor drive potential (LDP) or did not display membrane oscillation during alternating nerve activity. Cells producing LDPs were referred to as such, while those that did not were referred to as 'idle' motoneurones. LDP and idle motoneurones during locomotion had hyperpolarized spike threshold (Vth ; LDP: 3.8 mV; idle: 5.8 mV), decreased rheobase and an increased discharge rate (LDP: 64%; idle: 41%) during triangular ramp current injection even though the frequency-current slope was reduced by 70% and 55%, respectively. Modulation began in the tonic period immediately preceding locomotion, with a hyperpolarized Vth and reduced rheobase. Spike frequency adaptation did not occur in spiking LDPs or firing generated from sinusoidal current injection, but occurred during a sustained current pulse during locomotion. Input conductance showed no change. Results suggest motoneurone modulation occurs across the pool and is not restricted to motoneurones engaged in locomotion. © 2015 The Authors. The Journal of Physiology © 2015 The Physiological Society.

  4. A Novel Two-Velocity Method for Elaborate Isokinetic Testing of Knee Extensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grbic, Vladimir; Djuric, Sasa; Knezevic, Olivera M; Mirkov, Dragan M; Nedeljkovic, Aleksandar; Jaric, Slobodan

    2017-09-01

    Single outcomes of standard isokinetic dynamometry tests do not discern between various muscle mechanical capacities. In this study, we aimed to (1) evaluate the shape and strength of the force-velocity relationship of knee extensors, as observed in isokinetic tests conducted at a wide range of angular velocities, and (2) explore the concurrent validity of a simple 2-velocity method. Thirteen physically active females were tested for both the peak and averaged knee extensor concentric force exerted at the angular velocities of 30°-240°/s recorded in the 90°-170° range of knee extension. The results revealed strong (0.960extensors and, if supported by further research, other muscles. This brief and fatigue-free testing procedure could discern between muscle force, velocity, and power-producing capacities. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  5. Cervical spinal canal narrowing and cervical neurologi-cal injuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZHANG Ling

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available 【Abstract】Cervical spinal canal narrowing can lead to injury of the spinal cord and neurological symptoms in-cluding neck pain, headache, weakness and parasthesisas. According to previous and recent clinical researches, we investigated the geometric parameters of normal cervical spinal canal including the sagittal and transverse diameters as well as Torg ratio. The mean sagittal diameter of cervical spinal canal at C 1 to C 7 ranges from 15.33 mm to 20.46 mm, the mean transverse diameter at the same levels ranges from 24.45 mm to 27.00 mm and the mean value of Torg ratio is 0.96. With respect to narrow cervical spinal canal, the following charaterstics are found: firstly, extension of the cervical spine results in statistically significant stenosis as compared with the flexed or neutral positions; secondly, females sustain cervical spinal canal narrowing more easily than males; finally, the consistent narrowest cervical canal level is at C 4 for all ethnicity, but there is a slight variation in the sagittal diameter of cervical spinal stenosis (≤14 mm in Whites, ≤ 12 mm in Japanese, ≤13.7 mm in Chinese. Narrow sagittal cervical canal diameter brings about an increased risk of neurological injuries in traumatic, degenerative and inflam-matory conditions and is related with extension of cervical spine, gender, as well as ethnicity. It is hoped that this re-view will be helpful in diagnosing spinal cord and neuro-logical injuries with the geometric parameters of cervical spine in the future. Key words: Spinal cord injuries; Spinal stenosis; Trauma, nervous system

  6. Effectiveness of Kinesio Taping for Hand on Grip Strength and Upper Limb Function in Subjects with Cervical Radiculopathy: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shruti Prabhu

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Cervical radiculopathy is common condition seen today. It is found to associate with upper limb dysfunction which in turn hinders daily activity due to muscular weakness. Grip strength is found to be reduced in cervical radiculopathy and is taken to be a good measure of upper limb function. Treatment of cervical radiculopathy is mainly concentrated over neck region and very less has been done to improve upper limb function. Kinesio taping is found to improve muscle activity and can be used to improve grip strength and function in cervical radiculopathy. Method: 32 subjects with unilateral cervical radiculopathy were randomly divided into 2 groups, experimental and conventional group (n=16. The conventional group was given intermittent cervical traction, hot moist pack, TENS and exercises and experimental group was given conventional treatment along with kinesio taping to extensor aspect of forearm. Preand post-values for grip and pinch strength and NDI and DASH were assessed and analysed. Result: There was marked improvement seen both groups, but there was significant improvement in grip and pinch strength seen in experimental group while there was improvement seen functional outcomes namely NDI and DASH. This suggests that kinesio taping does not play a role in improving grip strength but can improve upper limb function.

  7. Circadian variation of flexor withdrawal and crossed extensor reflexes in patients with restless legs syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dafkin, Chloe; Green, Andrew; Olivier, Benita; Mckinon, Warrick; Kerr, Samantha

    2017-11-22

    An evening state of spinal hyperexcitability has been proposed to be a possible cause of evening increases in restless legs syndrome symptoms. Thus, the objective of the current study was to assess the circadian variation in spinal excitability in patients with restless legs syndrome based on flexor withdrawal reflex and crossed extensor reflex responses. The reflexes were elicited on 12 participants with restless legs syndrome and 12 healthy control participants in the evening (PM) and the morning (AM). Reflex response magnitudes were measured electromyographically and kinematically. Both the reflexes showed a circadian rhythm in participants with restless legs syndrome but not in control participants. Changes in ankle (median flexor withdrawal reflex PM: 16.0 ° versus AM: 2.8 °, P = 0.042; crossed extensor reflex PM: 0.8 ° versus AM: 0.2 °, P = 0.001) angle were significantly larger, and ankle angular velocity (median flexor withdrawal reflex PM: 38.8 ° s -1 versus AM: 13.9 ° s -1 , P = 0.049; crossed extensor reflex PM: 2.4 ° s -1 versus AM: 0.5 ° s -1 , P = 0.002) was significantly faster in the evening compared with the morning in participants with restless legs syndrome, for both reflexes. For participants with restless legs syndrome, evening change in hallux angle was significantly larger than morning responses (median PM: 5.0 ° versus AM: 1.3 °, P = 0.012). No significant differences for any of the electromyographic or kinematic variables were observed between participants with restless legs syndrome and controls. The flexor withdrawal reflex and the crossed extensor reflex show a circadian rhythm in participants with restless legs syndrome suggesting an evening increase in spinal excitability. We hypothesize the circadian variation in spinal excitability may be due to a possible nocturnal form of afferent circuitry central sensitization in the dorsal horn of the spinal cord in patients with restless legs syndrome. © 2017

  8. A further observation of muscle spindles in the extensor digitorum longus muscle of the aged rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desaki, Junzo; Nishida, Naoya

    2010-01-01

    We observed three novel muscle spindles in the extensor digitorum longus muscle of the aged (20 months) rat. Two muscle spindles of the three contained thin muscle fibers lacking sensory innervation between the layers of the spindle capsule and within the periaxial space, respectively. The other one contained sensory-innervated thin muscle fibers with an indistinct equatorial nucleation between the layers of the spindle capsule. These findings suggest that the occurrence of thin muscle fibers may be intimately related to the degeneration and regeneration of extrafusal muscle fibers during aging and that these newly formed thin muscle fibers may often fail to receive sensory innervation.

  9. Anomalous bilateral contribution of extensor pollicis longus and muscle fusion of the first compartment of the wrist

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo César Rosa

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge of the anatomical variations of the muscles of the first dorsal compartments of the wrist is clinically relevant to De Quervain's tenosynovitis and to reconstructive surgeries. In the literature, there are many reports of the presence of multiple insertion tendons in the first dorsal compartment of the wrist, but few reports describe occurrences of fusion and muscle contributions. This case report describes an anomalous bilateral contribution of the extensor pollicis longus. This anomalous contribution was found through a slender auxiliary tendon that crossed laterally under the extensor retinaculum, entered the first dorsal compartment of the wrist and merged with the tendon of the extensor pollicis brevis muscle. In the same cadaver in which this contribution was present, there was atypical muscle fusion of the abductor pollicis longus muscle and extensor pollicis brevis muscle. In conclusion, anomalous bilateral contribution of the extensor pollicis longus muscle and atypical muscle fusion, concomitant with a variant insertion pattern, are the highlight of this case report. Furthermore, it is concluded that additional tendons may be effectively used in reconstructive surgeries, but that there is a need for knowledge of the possible numerical and positional variations of these tendons, with a view to making more effective surgical plans.

  10. The effects of trunk extensor and abdominal muscle fatigue on postural control and trunk proprioception in young, healthy individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, Dennis J; Brown, Stephen H M

    2018-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to induce both trunk extensor and abdominal muscle fatigue, on separate occasions, and compare their effects on standing postural control and trunk proprioception, as well as look at the effects of a recovery period on these outcome measures. A total of 20 individuals participated, with 10 (5 males and 5 females) completing either a standing postural control or lumbar axial repositioning protocol. Participants completed their randomly assigned protocol on two occasions, separated by at least 4  days, with either their trunk extensor or abdominal muscles being fatigued on either day. Postural control centre of pressure variables and trunk proprioception errors were compared pre- and post-fatigue. Results showed that both trunk extensor and abdominal muscle fatigue significantly degraded standing postural control immediately post-fatigue, with recovery occurring within 2 min post-fatigue. In general, these degradative effects on postural control appeared to be greater when the trunk extensor muscles were fatigued compared to the abdominal muscles. No statistically significant changes in trunk proprioception were found after either fatigue protocol. The present findings demonstrate our body's ability to quickly adapt and reweight somatosensory information to maintain postural control and trunk proprioception, as well as illustrate the importance of considering the abdominal muscles, along with the trunk extensor muscles, when considering the impact of fatigue on trunk movement and postural control. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Spondilitis Tuberkulosa Cervical

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roni Eka Saputra

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstrak Spondilitis tuberkulosa servikalis adalah penyakit yang cukup jarang dijumpai, hanya berkisar 2-3% dariseluruh kasus spondilitis tuberkulosa. Gambaran klinis sangat bervariasi, mulai dari gejala ringan dan tidak spesifikhingga komplikasi neurologis yang berat. Seorang wanita berusia 29 tahun datang dengan keluhan lemah keempatanggota gerak yang semakin memberat dalam 10 hari terakhir yang didahului oleh nyeri leher yang menjalar ke bahudan lengan sejak 6 bulan sebelumnya. Nyeri awalnya dirasakan sebagai keterbatasan gerakan leher saat menolehkesamping kiri dan kanan serta menundukkan kepala. Nyeri dirasakan semakin berat dengan pergerakan danberkurang jika istirahat. Pasien mengalami penurunan berat badan sejak 2 bulan terakhir. Tidak dijumpai riwayat batukatau nyeri dada. Pemeriksaan neurologis menunjukkan kelemahan  pada keempat ekstremitas. Hasil laboratoriumditemukan peningkatan Laju Endap Darah (LED. Rontgen foto toraks dalam batas normal. Roentgen foto cervicalmenunjukkan destruksi setinggi C5. MRI cervical menunjukkan destruksi pada korpus C5-6 dengan penyempitan padadiscus intervertebrae C5-6 disertai dengan  massa/abses paravertebral dengan penekanan ke posterior. MRI Thorakaltampak destruksi corpus verebre T4,5 dengan diskus intervertebralis yang menyempit. Sugestif suatu spondilitistuberkulosa. Pasien dilakukan tindakan pembedahan anterior corpectomi melalui microscopic surgery dengan graftdari iliac sinistra, serta insersi anterior plate 1 level. Hasil pemeriksaan patologi anatomi menunjukkan spodilitis TBCkaseosa. Pada spondilitis vertebre T4,5 dilakukan laminectomi, debridement costotrasversektomi, dan stabilisasidengan pedicle screw T2, T3, dan T5. Pasien diterapi dengan obat antituberkulosis. Keadaan pasien saat ini, pasiensudah bisa beraktifitas normal dengan motorik dan sensorik baik. Spondilitis tuberkulosa merupakan bentuktuberkulosa tulang yang paling sering dijumpai. Spondilitis tuberkulosa cervical berkisar 2

  12. Evaluation Of Cervical Punch Biopsy In The Diagnosis Of Cervical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Cancer of the cervix uteri is the second leading cause of death in reproductive age women in developing countries. Its early detection and management can reduce the attendant mortality. Aim: To determine the adequacy of cervical punch biopsy technique in the diagnosis of cervical cancer. Methods: A ...

  13. Cervical intra-epithelial neoplasia and invasive cervical cancer in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The relative incidences of cervical intra-epithelial neoplasia (CIN) and invasive cervical cancer were studied in black and white patients at the academic hospitals of the University of the Orange Free State. A statistically highly significant difference was found between black and white patients, with a higher incidence of ...

  14. Radiation Therapy and Cisplatin With or Without Epoetin Alfa in Treating Patients With Cervical Cancer and Anemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-08-08

    Anemia; Cervical Adenocarcinoma; Cervical Adenosquamous Carcinoma; Cervical Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Drug Toxicity; Radiation Toxicity; Stage IIB Cervical Cancer; Stage III Cervical Cancer; Stage IVA Cervical Cancer

  15. From fish to modern humans--comparative anatomy, homologies and evolution of the head and neck musculature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diogo, R; Abdala, V; Lonergan, N; Wood, B A

    2008-10-01

    In a recent paper Diogo (2008) reported the results of the first part of an investigation of the comparative anatomy, homologies and evolution of the head and neck muscles of osteichthyans (bony fish + tetrapods). That report mainly focused on actinopterygian fish, but also compared these fish with certain non-mammalian sarcopterygians. The present paper focuses mainly on sarcopterygians, and particularly on how the head and neck muscles have evolved during the transitions from sarcopterygian fish and non-mammalian tetrapods to monotreme and therian mammals, including modern humans. The data obtained from our dissections of the head and neck muscles of representative members of sarcopterygian fish, amphibians, reptiles, monotremes and therian mammals, such as rodents, tree-shrews, colugos and primates, including modern humans, are compared with the information available in the literature. Our observations and comparisons indicate that the number of mandibular and true branchial muscles (sensu this work) present in modern humans is smaller than that found in mammals such as tree-shrews, rats and monotremes, as well as in reptiles such as lizards. Regarding the pharyngeal musculature, there is an increase in the number of muscles at the time of the evolutionary transition leading to therian mammals, but there was no significant increase during the transition leading to the emergence of higher primates and modern humans. The number of hypobranchial muscles is relatively constant within the therian mammals we examined, although in this case modern humans have more muscles than other mammals. The number of laryngeal and facial muscles in modern humans is greater than that found in most other therian taxa. Interestingly, modern humans possess peculiar laryngeal and facial muscles that are not present in the majority of the other mammalian taxa; this seems to corroborate the crucial role played by vocal communication and by facial expressions in primate and especially in

  16. Flexion/extension cervical spine views in blunt cervical

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasir Sadaf

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available 【Abstract】Objective: To examine the contribution of flexion and extension radiographs in the evaluation of ligamentous injury in awake adults with acute blunt cervical spine trauma, who show loss of cervical lordosis and neck pain. Methods: All patients who presented to our emer-gency department following blunt trauma were enrolled in this study, except those with schiwora, neurological defi-cits or fracture demonstrated on cross-table cervical spine X-rays, and those who were either obtunded or presented after cervical spine surgery. Adequacy of flexion and exten-sion views was checked by the neurosurgery and radiology team members. All these patients underwent cross-table cervical spine view followed by flexion/extension views based on the loss of lordosis on cross-table imaging and the presence of neck pain. Results: A total of 200 cases were reviewed, of whom 90 (45% underwent repeat X-rays because of either inadequate exposure or limited motion. None of the patients with loss of lordosis on cross-table view had positive flexion and extension views of cervical spine for instability. Conclusions: Our results show that in patients who underwent acute radiographic evaluation of blunt cervical spine trauma, flexion and extension views of the cervical spine are unlikely to yield positive results in the presence of axial neck pain and/or loss of cervical lordosis. We can also hypothesize that performing flexion and extension views will be more useful once the acute neck pain has settled. Key words: X-rays; Cervical vertebrae; Lordosis

  17. Utilização de extensores alternativos na produção de compensados multilaminados.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Setsuo Iwakiri

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 21 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 Esta pesquisa foi desenvolvida  com o objetivo de avaliar a potencialidade de uso de farinhas de soja, arroz, milho, aveia e mandioca, como extensores alternativos a  farinha de trigo (testemunha para produção de compensados. Foram produzidas 21 chapas com lâminas de madeira de Eucalyptus cloeziana, sendo três chapas por tratamento, utilizando a seguinte formulação em partes por peso: resina uréia-formaldeído - 100, extensor - 75, água - 80 e catalisador - 7. Os resultados médios de resistência da linha de cola aos esforços de cizalhamento, pelo teste seco e úmido, demostraram que as farinhas de arroz e de aveia podem ser utilizados como extensor alternativo à farinha de trigo.

  18. The frondiform ligament and pseudotenosynovitis of the extensor digitorum longus tendon: MRI evaluation with cadaveric correlation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zember, Jonathan; Rosenberg, Zehava; Mba-Jones, Chimere; Bencardino, Jenny; Rossi, Ignacio

    2016-01-01

    Fluid along the frondiform ligament, the sinus tarsi stem of the inferior extensor retinaculum (IER), can approximate the extensor digitorum longus (EDL), at times simulating tenosynovitis. Our purpose, based on MRI and cadaveric studies, was to further evaluate this scantly described phenomenon, to identify associated findings and to alert the radiologists to the potential pitfall of over diagnosing EDL tenosynovitis. Two musculoskeletal radiologists retrospectively reviewed the radiology reports and MRI studies of 258 ankle MRI exams, performed at our institution, for fluid along the frondiform ligament extending toward the EDL. No patient had EDL pathology clinically. MRI was performed in two cadaveric ankles following injection of the sinus tarsi and EDL tendon sheath, under ultrasound guidance. Altogether, 31 MRIs demonstrated fluid extending from the sinus tarsi along the frondiform ligament toward the EDL. In 30 cases (97 %), the fluid partially surrounded the tendon, without tendon sheath distension. Based on the radiology reports, in 11 of the 31 cases (35 %), the fluid was misinterpreted as abnormal. Most common associated findings included ligamentous injury, posterior tibial tendon (PTT) tear, flat-foot, and osteoarthrosis. In the cadavers, fluid extended along the frondiform ligament toward the EDL after sinus tarsi injection; there was no communication between EDL tendon sheath and the sinus tarsi. Fluid within the sinus tarsi can extend along the frondiform ligament and partially surround the EDL, manifesting as pseudotenosynovitis. This phenomenon, often seen with ligamentous tears or PTT dysfunction, should not be misdiagnosed as true pathology of the EDL. (orig.)

  19. [Obtaining a fermented chickpea extract (Cicer arietinum L.) and its use as a milk extensor].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales de León, J; Cassís Nosthas, M L; Cecin Salomón, P

    2000-06-01

    Chickpea (Cicer arietinum L) is cultivated in the North part of México and it is considered a good source of vegetal protein of low cost (20% average), nevertheless, the 80% used for the exportation and only the 20% less was used for animal feeding. The main objective in this study is to obtain a fermented chickpea extract for using in dairy extensor. Chickpea water absorbtion kinetics were carried out in e temperature conditions:while the conditions were established, chickpea was grounded and fermented in different amounts with its natural flora, L. casei, L. plantarum and a mixture culture of both microorganism in logarithmic phase. The results showed that the presence of microorganism of chickpea natural flora interferes during the fermentation, so before the inoculation it was necessary treat the chickpea extract (CE) terminally in a dilution 1:4 during 20 min at 7.7 kg/cm2 of pressure. The use of a mixture culture of 5% of L. casei and 5% L. plantarum inoculated in MRS broth was used to decrease fermentation time. Its addition in logarithmic phase to the sterile chickpea extract increased the lactic acid production and decreased the pH value in 6 h which was less time that one obtained with each of lactobacillus. The fermented extract obtained finally, presented similar sensory characteristics to the ones of dairy products. Therefore, chickpea is a good alternative as a extensor for this kind of products.

  20. Comparison of hip extensor muscle activity including the adductor magnus during three prone hip extension exercises.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Han-I; Jeon, Seung-Yeon; Kim, Si-Hyun; Park, Kyue-Nam

    2018-03-30

    This study compared the role of the adductor magnus muscle (Amag) as a hip extensor while performing active prone hip extension (PHE), PHE with hip adduction (PHE-ADD), and PHE with hip abduction (PHE-ABD) with the gluteus maximus (Gmax) and hamstrings. The study recruited 22 healthy participants. Electromyography data were recorded from the Amag, Gmax, and medial and lateral hamstrings during PHE, PHE-ADD, and PHE-ABD. Normalized electromyographic data were examined using one-way, repeated-measures analyses of variance. The magnitude of the Amag, Gmax, and hamstring activations did not differ significantly while performing PHE (p = 0.41). Furthermore, the Amag and hamstring activations were significantly greater than the Gmax activation when performing PHE-ADD (p < 0.05). The Gmax showed significantly greater activation during PHE-ABD than the Amag and medial and lateral hamstrings (p < 0.05). Based on these results, we advocate including the Amag as a hip extensor during the PHE test or exercise. Our preliminary results have the potential to be applied directly to the PHE test, for investigating the muscle-activation pattern of the Amag with the Gmax and hamstrings in patients with hip or lower back pain.

  1. The effects of implant composition on extensor tenosynovitis in a canine distal radius fracture model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinicropi, Stefano M; Su, Brian W; Raia, Frank J; Parisien, May; Strauch, Robert J; Rosenwasser, Melvin P

    2005-03-01

    Dorsal plating of distal radius fractures with titanium plates has resulted in clinically observed tenosynovitis and tendon rupture. The goal of this study was to investigate whether titanium-based implants result in more extensor tendon inflammation than matched stainless-steel implants in a canine fracture model. An osteotomy was created in the distal radius of 18 beagles and fixed with 2.7-mm 4-hole plates composed of commercially pure titanium, titanium alloy (Ti-Al6-V4), or 316L stainless steel. Animals were killed at an average of 4 months. Tendon gliding was assessed by applying a force at the extensor musculotendinous junction and noting gliding. Histologic grading (mild, moderate, severe) was based on cellular hypertrophy, hyperplasia, and leukocytic infiltration. Tendons glided freely in 100% stainless-steel specimens, 75% of titanium alloy, and 43% of commercially pure titanium groups. A severe inflammatory reaction was identified in 60% of the titanium alloy (Ti-A16-V4) group, 57% of the pure titanium group, and 0% of the stainless-steel group. Dorsal plating of the canine radius with commercially pure titanium or titanium alloy implants produced a greater inflammatory peritendinous response than matched stainless-steel implants.

  2. Reliability of contractile properties of the knee extensor muscles in individuals with post-polio syndrome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric L Voorn

    Full Text Available To assess the reliability of contractile properties of the knee extensor muscles in 23 individuals with post-polio syndrome (PPS and 18 age-matched healthy individuals.Contractile properties of the knee extensors were assessed from repeated electrically evoked contractions on 2 separate days, with the use of a fixed dynamometer. Reliability was determined for fatigue resistance, rate of torque development (MRTD, and early and late relaxation time (RT50 and RT25, using the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC and standard error of measurement (SEM, expressed as % of the mean.In both groups, reliability for fatigue resistance was good, with high ICCs (>0.90 and small SEM values (PPS: 7.1%, healthy individuals: 7.0%. Reliability for contractile speed indices varied, with the best values found for RT50 (ICCs>0.82, SEM values <2.8%. We found no systematic differences between test and retest occasions, except for RT50 in healthy subjects (p = 0.016.In PPS and healthy individuals, the reliability of fatigue resistance, as obtained from electrically evoked contractions is high. The reliability of contractile speed is only moderate, except for RT50 in PPS, demonstrating high reliability.This was the first study to examine the reliability of electrically evoked contractile properties in individuals with PPS. Our results demonstrate its potential to study mechanisms underlying muscle fatigue in PPS and to evaluate changes in contractile properties over time in response to interventions or from natural course.

  3. Reliability of contractile properties of the knee extensor muscles in individuals with post-polio syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voorn, Eric L; Brehm, Merel A; Beelen, Anita; de Haan, Arnold; Nollet, Frans; Gerrits, Karin H L

    2014-01-01

    To assess the reliability of contractile properties of the knee extensor muscles in 23 individuals with post-polio syndrome (PPS) and 18 age-matched healthy individuals. Contractile properties of the knee extensors were assessed from repeated electrically evoked contractions on 2 separate days, with the use of a fixed dynamometer. Reliability was determined for fatigue resistance, rate of torque development (MRTD), and early and late relaxation time (RT50 and RT25), using the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) and standard error of measurement (SEM, expressed as % of the mean). In both groups, reliability for fatigue resistance was good, with high ICCs (>0.90) and small SEM values (PPS: 7.1%, healthy individuals: 7.0%). Reliability for contractile speed indices varied, with the best values found for RT50 (ICCs>0.82, SEM values <2.8%). We found no systematic differences between test and retest occasions, except for RT50 in healthy subjects (p = 0.016). In PPS and healthy individuals, the reliability of fatigue resistance, as obtained from electrically evoked contractions is high. The reliability of contractile speed is only moderate, except for RT50 in PPS, demonstrating high reliability. This was the first study to examine the reliability of electrically evoked contractile properties in individuals with PPS. Our results demonstrate its potential to study mechanisms underlying muscle fatigue in PPS and to evaluate changes in contractile properties over time in response to interventions or from natural course.

  4. The frondiform ligament and pseudotenosynovitis of the extensor digitorum longus tendon: MRI evaluation with cadaveric correlation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zember, Jonathan; Rosenberg, Zehava; Rossi, Ignacio; Mba-Jones, Chimere; Bencardino, Jenny

    2016-08-01

    Fluid along the frondiform ligament, the sinus tarsi stem of the inferior extensor retinaculum (IER), can approximate the extensor digitorum longus (EDL), at times simulating tenosynovitis. Our purpose, based on MRI and cadaveric studies, was to further evaluate this scantly described phenomenon, to identify associated findings and to alert the radiologists to the potential pitfall of over diagnosing EDL tenosynovitis. Two musculoskeletal radiologists retrospectively reviewed the radiology reports and MRI studies of 258 ankle MRI exams, performed at our institution, for fluid along the frondiform ligament extending toward the EDL. No patient had EDL pathology clinically. MRI was performed in two cadaveric ankles following injection of the sinus tarsi and EDL tendon sheath, under ultrasound guidance. Altogether, 31 MRIs demonstrated fluid extending from the sinus tarsi along the frondiform ligament toward the EDL. In 30 cases (97 %), the fluid partially surrounded the tendon, without tendon sheath distension. Based on the radiology reports, in 11 of the 31 cases (35 %), the fluid was misinterpreted as abnormal. Most common associated findings included ligamentous injury, posterior tibial tendon (PTT) tear, flat-foot, and osteoarthrosis. In the cadavers, fluid extended along the frondiform ligament toward the EDL after sinus tarsi injection; there was no communication between EDL tendon sheath and the sinus tarsi. Fluid within the sinus tarsi can extend along the frondiform ligament and partially surround the EDL, manifesting as pseudotenosynovitis. This phenomenon, often seen with ligamentous tears or PTT dysfunction, should not be misdiagnosed as true pathology of the EDL.

  5. Acute A4 Pulley Reconstruction with a First Extensor Compartment Onlay Graft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakubietz, Michael G; Meffert, Rainer H; Schmidt, Karsten; Gruenert, Joerg G; Jakubietz, Rafael G

    2017-06-01

    The integrity of the flexor tendon pulley apparatus is crucial for unimpaired function of the digits. Although secondary reconstruction is an established procedure in multi-pulley injuries, acute reconstruction of isolated, closed pulley ruptures is a rare occurrence. There are 3 factors influencing the functional outcome of a reconstruction: gapping distance between tendon and bone (E-space), bulkiness of the reconstruction, and stability. As direct repair is rarely done, grafts are used to reinforce the pulley. An advantage of the first extensor retinaculum graft is the synovial coating providing the possibility to be used both as a direct graft with synovial coating or as an onlay graft after removal of the synovia when the native synovial layer is present. A graft from the first dorsal extensor compartment is used as an onlay graft to reinforce the sutured A4 pulley. This technique allows reconstruction of the original dimensions of the pulley system while stability is ensured by anchoring the onlay graft to the bony insertions of the pulley. Anatomical reconstruction can be achieved with this method. The measured E-space remained 0 mm throughout the recovery, while the graft incorporated as a slim reinforcement of the pulley, displaying no bulkiness. The ideal reconstruction should provide synovial coating and sufficient strength with minimal bulk. Early reconstruction using an onlay graft offers these options. The native synovial lining is preserved and the graft is used to reinforce the pulley.

  6. Snapping wrist due to multiple accessory tendon of first extensor compartment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subramaniyam, S Dhiyaneswaran; Purushothaman, Rajesh; Zacharia, Balaji

    2018-01-01

    Snapping phenomena result from the sudden impingement between anatomical and/or heterotopical structures with subsequent abrupt movement and noise. Snaps are variously perceived by patients, from mild discomfort to significant pain requiring surgical management. snapping syndrome occurs at various site like hip, knee, shoulder and wrist. There are many cadaveric studies shows accessory tendon in first extensor compartment of wrist. We present a 19 year old male presents catching sensation and occasional radial side wrist pain for 6 months. Finkelstein test was negative. Radiograph showed small bony projection over the radial styloid. MRI wrist was reported as normal but retrospective analysis of image shows multiple tendons. Intraopertively we found multiple accessory tendon of extensor pollicis brevis which is causing snapping. Fibrous tunnel release with tenotomy of few accessory tendons done. On table patients catching sensation was assessed and found to be relieved. Patient is not having snapping on his follow up visit and able to carry out his daily activity without difficulties. There are various causes for snapping wrist syndrome. Multiple accessory tendon can also cause snapping as shown in this case report. Moreover am presenting this case to highlight the diagnostic failure with non dynamic radiological investigation and to consider multiple accessory tendon as differential diagnosis for snapping wrist syndrome. Also suggest dynamic study could be a better choice of investigation to diagnosis snapping syndrome. First compartment tunnel release with few accessory tendon slip tenotomy gives good result. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  7. Proximal forearm extensor muscle strain is reduced when driving nails using a shock-controlled hammer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchanan, Kimberly A; Maza, Maria; Pérez-Vázquez, Carlos E; Yen, Thomas Y; Kijowski, Richard; Liu, Fang; Radwin, Robert G

    2016-10-01

    Repetitive hammer use has been associated with strain and musculoskeletal injuries. This study investigated if using a shock-control hammer reduces forearm muscle strain by observing adverse physiological responses (i.e. inflammation and localized edema) after use. Three matched framing hammers were studied, including a wood-handle, steel-handle, and shock-control hammer. Fifty volunteers were randomly assigned to use one of these hammers at a fatiguing pace of one strike every second, to seat 20 nails in a wood beam. Magnetic resonance imaging was used to scan the forearm muscles for inflammation before the task, immediately after hammering, and one to two days after. Electromyogram signals were measured to estimate grip exertions and localized muscle fatigue. High-speed video was used to calculate the energy of nail strikes. While estimated grip force was similar across the three hammers, the shock-control hammer had 40% greater kinetic energy upon impact and markedly less proximal extensor muscle edema than the wood-handle and steel-handle hammers, immediately after use (phammer suggests that isolating handle shock can mitigate strain in proximal forearm extensor muscles. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Validity of trunk extensor and flexor torque measurements using isokinetic dynamometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guilhem, Gaël; Giroux, Caroline; Couturier, Antoine; Maffiuletti, Nicola A

    2014-12-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the validity and test-retest reliability of trunk muscle strength testing performed with a latest-generation isokinetic dynamometer. Eccentric, isometric, and concentric peak torque of the trunk flexor and extensor muscles was measured in 15 healthy subjects. Muscle cross sectional area (CSA) and surface electromyographic (EMG) activity were respectively correlated to peak torque and submaximal isometric torque for erector spinae and rectus abdominis muscles. Reliability of peak torque measurements was determined during test and retest sessions. Significant correlations were consistently observed between muscle CSA and peak torque for all contraction types (r=0.74-0.85; P<0.001) and between EMG activity and submaximal isometric torque (r ⩾ 0.99; P<0.05), for both extensor and flexor muscles. Intraclass correlation coefficients were comprised between 0.87 and 0.95, and standard errors of measurement were lower than 9% for all contraction modes. The mean difference in peak torque between test and retest ranged from -3.7% to 3.7% with no significant mean directional bias. Overall, our findings establish the validity of torque measurements using the tested trunk module. Also considering the excellent test-retest reliability of peak torque measurements, we conclude that this latest-generation isokinetic dynamometer could be used with confidence to evaluate trunk muscle function for clinical or athletic purposes. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Extensor Pollicis Brevis tendon damage presenting as de Quervain's disease following kettlebell training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karthik, Karuppaiah; Carter-Esdale, Charles William; Vijayanathan, Sanjay; Kochhar, Tony

    2013-06-03

    Kettlebell exercises are more efficient for an athlete to increase his or her muscle strength. However it carries the risk of injury especially in the beginners. A 39 year old gentleman came to our clinic with radial sided wrist pain following kettlebell exercises. Clinically patient had swelling and tenderness over the tendons in the first dorsal wrist compartment, besides Finklesten test was positive. Patient had a decreased excursion of the thumb when compared to the opposite side. Ultrasound/MRI scan revealed asymmetric thickening of the 1st compartment extensors extending from the base of the thumb to the wrist joint. Besides injury to the Extensor Pollicis Brevis (EPB) tendon by repetitive impact from kettlebell, leading to its split was identified. Detailed history showed that the injury might be due to off-centre handle holding during triceps strengthening exercises. Our report stresses the fact that kettlebell users should be taught about problems of off-center handle holding to avoid wrist injuries. Also, in Kettlebell users with De Quervains disease clinical and radiological evaluation should be done before steroid injection as this might lead to complete tendon rupture.

  10. Extensor Pollicis Brevis tendon damage presenting as de Quervain’s disease following kettlebell training

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Kettlebell exercises are more efficient for an athlete to increase his or her muscle strength. However it carries the risk of injury especially in the beginners. A 39 year old gentleman came to our clinic with radial sided wrist pain following kettlebell exercises. Clinically patient had swelling and tenderness over the tendons in the first dorsal wrist compartment, besides Finklesten test was positive. Patient had a decreased excursion of the thumb when compared to the opposite side. Ultrasound/MRI scan revealed asymmetric thickening of the 1st compartment extensors extending from the base of the thumb to the wrist joint. Besides injury to the Extensor Pollicis Brevis (EPB) tendon by repetitive impact from kettlebell, leading to its split was identified. Detailed history showed that the injury might be due to off-centre handle holding during triceps strengthening exercises. Our report stresses the fact that kettlebell users should be taught about problems of off-center handle holding to avoid wrist injuries. Also, in Kettlebell users with De Quervains disease clinical and radiological evaluation should be done before steroid injection as this might lead to complete tendon rupture. PMID:23731737

  11. Practical aspects of cervical cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tillaart, Sabrina Ada Hendrika Maria van den

    2013-01-01

    The thesis describes studies on practical aspects of cervical cancer, concering surgical considerations, and aspects of tumour behaviour and tumour spread. The thesis comprises studies on: the comparison of nerve-sparing and non-nerve-sparing radical hysterectomy for cervical cancer; a new surgical

  12. Radiology of the cervical spine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wackenheim, A.

    1989-01-01

    The author describes some particularities seen in the abnormal or pathological image of the cervical spine: The osteolysis of the cortical bone in the spinous processes, the 'Y' shaped course of the corporeal veins, the notch in interspinous bursitis, and the main forms of constitutional stenosis of the cervical canal. (orig.) [de

  13. CERVICAL LYMPHADENOPATHY IN IBADAN, NIGERIA

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    of life. Conclusion: This study shows that metastatic tumours, Hodgkins lymphoma and Non Hodgkins lymphoma constituting 52.4% of all cases of cervical lymphadenopathy are common in this environment therefore highlighting the need for early and proper evaluation of patients. Keywords: Lymph node, Cervical region, ...

  14. Back and hip extensor muscles fatigue in healthy subjects: task-dependency effect of two variants of the Sorensen test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Champagne, Annick; Descarreaux, Martin

    2008-01-01

    Paraspinal muscle fatigability during various trunk extension tests has been widely investigated by electromyography (EMG), and its task-dependency is established recently. Hip extensor muscle fatigability during the Sorensen test has been reported. The aim of the present experiments was to evaluate the task-dependency of back and hip extensor muscle fatigue during two variants of the Sorensen test. We hypothesized that the rate of muscular fatigue of the hip and back extensor muscles varies according to the test position. Twenty healthy young males with no history of low back pain volunteered to participate in this cross-sectional study. They were asked to perform two body weight-dependent isometric back extension tests (S1 = Sorensen test; S2 = modified Sorensen on a 45° Roman chair). Surface EMG activity of the paraspinal muscles (T10 and L5 levels) and hip extensor muscles (gluteus maximus; biceps femoris) was recorded, and muscular fatigue was assessed through power spectral analysis of the EMG data by calculating the rate of median power frequency change. We observed hip extensor muscle fatigue simultaneously with paraspinal muscle fatigue during both Sorensen variants. However, only L5 level EMG fatigue indices showed a task-dependency effect between S1 and S2. Hip extensor muscles appear to contribute to load sharing of the upper body mass during both Sorensen variants, but to a different extent because L5 level fatigue differs between the Sorensen variants. Our findings suggest that task-dependency has to be considered when EMG variables are compared between two types of lumbar muscle-fatiguing tasks. PMID:18813961

  15. Denervated muscle fibers explain the deficit in specific force following reinnervation of the rat extensor digitorum longus muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Meulen, Jack H; Urbanchek, Melanie G; Cederna, Paul S; Eguchi, Tomoaki; Kuzon, William M

    2003-10-01

    The authors tested the hypothesis that, after denervation and reinnervation of skeletal muscle, observed deficits in specific force can be completely attributed to the presence of denervated muscle fibers. The peroneal nerve innervating the extensor digitorum longus muscle in rats was sectioned and the distal stump was coapted to the proximal stump, allowing either a large number of motor axons (nonreduced, n = 12) or a drastically reduced number of axons access to the distal nerve stump (drastically reduced, n = 18). A control group of rats underwent exposure of the peroneal nerve, without transection, followed by wound closure (control, n = 9). Four months after the operation, the maximum tetanic isometric force (Fo) of the extensor digitorum longus muscle was measured in situ and the specific force (sFo) was calculated. Cross-sections of the muscles were labeled for neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM) protein to distinguish between innervated and denervated muscle fibers. Compared with extensor digitorum longus muscles from rats in the control (295 +/- 11 kN/m2) and nonreduced (276 +/- 12 kN/m2) groups, sFo of the extensor digitorum longus muscles from animals in the drastically reduced group was decreased (227 +/- 15 kN/m2, p extensor digitorum longus muscles from animals in the drastically reduced group (18 +/- 3 percent) was significantly higher than in the control (3 +/- 1 percent) group, but not compared with the nonreduced (9 +/- 2 percent) group. After exclusion of the denervated fibers, sFo did not differ between extensor digitorum longus muscles from animals in the drastically reduced (270 +/- 20 kN/m2), nonreduced (301 +/- 13 kN/m2), or control (303 +/- 10 kN/m2) groups. The authors conclude that, under circumstances of denervation and rapid reinnervation, the decrease in sFo of muscle can be attributed to the presence of denervated muscle fibers.

  16. Association of spinal curve deformity and back extensor strength in elderly women with osteoporosis in Japan and the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hongo, M; Miyakoshi, N; Shimada, Y; Sinaki, M

    2012-03-01

    The difference in the shape of sagittal spinal curvature and distribution of vertebral fractures in women of comparable age with osteoporosis from Japan and the United States with different cultures and lifestyles was identified. Back extensor strength was significantly associated with lumbar lordosis in Akita group, indicating the potential importance of strengthening the back extensor. The purpose of the study was to assess the association of osteoporotic spinal deformities with back strength in elderly women in Japan and the United States. Subjects diagnosed with osteoporosis were selected to participate prospectively. In both groups, we measured the angles of thoracic kyphosis and lumbar lordosis with plain lateral radiographs and back extensor strength. The number of vertebral fractures and the ratio of lumbar fractures to thoracic fractures are also evaluated. The level of participants' daily activities was assessed with use of comparable tests in Akita (quality-of-life score) and Minnesota (physical activity score). A total of 102 Japanese women residing in Akita, Japan (Akita group), and 104 white women evaluated in Rochester, MN, USA (Minnesota group), participated in this study. The angle of thoracic kyphosis and lumbar lordosis was higher in the Minnesota group than in the Akita group. The ratio of lumbar fractures to thoracic fractures was higher in the Akita group than in the Minnesota group. In the Akita group, multiple regression analysis revealed that the angle of lumbar lordosis correlated significantly with back extensor strength. We identified the difference in the shape of sagittal spinal curvature and distribution of vertebral fractures in women of comparable age with osteoporosis from two geographic areas of the world with different cultures and lifestyles. Back extensor strength was significantly associated with lumbar lordosis in Akita group, indicating the potential importance of strengthening the back extensor for improving or maintaining

  17. The Biomechanics of Cervical Spondylosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa A. Ferrara

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Aging is the major risk factor that contributes to the onset of cervical spondylosis. Several acute and chronic symptoms can occur that start with neck pain and may progress into cervical radiculopathy. Eventually, the degenerative cascade causes desiccation of the intervertebral disc resulting in height loss along the ventral margin of the cervical spine. This causes ventral angulation and eventual loss of lordosis, with compression of the neural and vascular structures. The altered posture of the cervical spine will progress into kyphosis and continue if the load balance and lordosis is not restored. The content of this paper will address the physiological and biomechanical pathways leading to cervical spondylosis and the biomechanical principles related to the surgical correction and treatment of kyphotic progression.

  18. Mucopurulent cervicitis: a clinical entity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willmott, F E

    1988-06-01

    Of 297 women attending a sexually transmitted disease clinic who were examined for the presence of mucopurulent cervicitis, 96 (32%) satisfied the diagnostic criteria. Mucopurulent cervicitis was strongly associated with the isolation of Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae. It was also associated with bacterial vaginosis, the use of oral contraceptives, and sexual contact with men who had non-gonococcal urethritis. Conversely, the presence of opaque cervical secretions did not show these associations, and the results indicated no difference in genital infections in women with clear cervical secretions whether or not more than 10 polymorphonuclear leucocytes per field (at a magnification of x 1000) were present. The findings support the suggestion that mucopurulent cervicitis is a definite clinical entity that requires investigation and treatment.

  19. Therapy of cervical chlamydial infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunham, R C; Kuo, C C; Stevens, C E; Holmes, K K

    1982-08-01

    The treatment of cervical Chlamydia trachomatis infection in nonpregnant women was evaluated in a double-blind randomized study. Objective criteria were used to assess the response of cervicitis to therapy. Fifty patients were treated with tetracycline hydrochloride, 500 mg orally four times daily, and 50 patients were treated with rosaramicin, 250 mg orally four times daily, both for 7 days. Both agents were highly effective in eradicating C trachomatis. Both produced significant improvement in objective signs of cervicitis: eliminating mucopurulent endocervical discharge and edema of ectopy, and decreasing the clinical severity score of cervicitis. This trial shows that the 1-week course of tetracycline hydrochloride currently recommended for treatment of chlamydial urethritis in men is also highly effective for the treatment of chlamydial cervical infection in women. Rosaramicin, a macrolide antibiotic, was equally effective but produced a higher rate of gastrointestinal side effects.

  20. The Biomechanics of Cervical Spondylosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrara, Lisa A.

    2012-01-01

    Aging is the major risk factor that contributes to the onset of cervical spondylosis. Several acute and chronic symptoms can occur that start with neck pain and may progress into cervical radiculopathy. Eventually, the degenerative cascade causes desiccation of the intervertebral disc resulting in height loss along the ventral margin of the cervical spine. This causes ventral angulation and eventual loss of lordosis, with compression of the neural and vascular structures. The altered posture of the cervical spine will progress into kyphosis and continue if the load balance and lordosis is not restored. The content of this paper will address the physiological and biomechanical pathways leading to cervical spondylosis and the biomechanical principles related to the surgical correction and treatment of kyphotic progression. PMID:22400120

  1. Evaluation of intersegmental vertebral motion during performance of dynamic mobilization exercises in cervical lateral bending in horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clayton, Hilary M; Kaiser, Leeann J; Lavagnino, Michael; Stubbs, Narelle C

    2012-08-01

    To identify differences in intersegmental bending angles in the cervical, thoracic, and lumbar portions of the vertebral column between the end positions during performance of 3 dynamic mobilization exercises in cervical lateral bending in horses. 8 nonlame horses. Skin-fixed markers on the head, cervical transverse processes (C1-C6) and spinous processes (T6, T8, T10, T16, L2, L6, S2, and S4) were tracked with a motion analysis system with the horses standing in a neutral position and in 3 lateral bending positions to the left and right sides during chin-to-girth, chin-to-hip, and chin-to-tarsus mobilization exercises. Intersegmental angles for the end positions in the various exercises performed to the left and right sides were compared. The largest changes in intersegmental angles were at C6, especially for the chin-to-hip and chin-to-tarsus mobilization exercises. These exercises were also associated with greater lateral bending from T6 to S2, compared with the chin-to-girth mobilization or neutral standing position. The angle at C1 revealed considerable bending in the chin-to-girth position but not in the 2 more caudal positions. The amount of bending in different parts of the cervical vertebral column differed among the dynamic mobilization exercises. As the horse's chin moved further caudally, bending in the caudal cervical and thoracolumbar regions increased, suggesting that the more caudal positions may be particularly effective for activating and strengthening the core musculature that is used to bend and stabilize the horse's back.

  2. The effects of knee extensor eccentric training on functional tests in healthy subjects Os efeitos do treino isocinético excêntrico dos extensores do joelho nos testes funcionais em sujeitos saudáveis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heleodório H. Santos

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: It is well known that eccentric training increases muscle strength and promotes greater neural activation, and therefore has been used in the recovery of knee extensors. The hypothesis of this study was that there would be a strong correlation between knee extensor torque and functional tests. OBJECTIVES: To investigate the relationship between knee extensor peak torque and functional tests of agility (runs and propulsion (hop for distance after short-term isokinetic eccentric training. METHODS: Twenty healthy and active male undergraduate students (age 22.5±2.1 years; height 1.72±0.10 m; weight 67.8±9.5 kg; body mass index: 22.5±2.0 kg/m², with no abnormalities or history of injury of the limbs, performed an isokinetic assessment of the knee extensors and flexors and also functional tests before and after isokinetic training, which consisted of 3 sets of 10 MVECs at 30º/s, with 3 minutes of rest between sets, twice a week for 6 weeks. RESULTS: The eccentric training increased the extensor peak torque (16, 27 and 17%; PCONTEXTUALIZAÇÃO: Sabe-se que o treino excêntrico aumenta a força muscular, promovendo uma maior ativação neural e, portanto, tem sido usado na recuperação do torque extensor. A hipótese deste estudo foi a de que possa existir uma forte correlação entre o torque extensor do joelho e os testes funcionais. OBJETIVOS: Correlacionar o torque extensor do joelho com os testes funcionais de agilidade (corridas e impulsão (saltos em distância após o treino isocinético excêntrico de curta duração. MÉTODOS: Vinte homens universitários, ativos e saudáveis (22,5±2,1 anos; 1,72±0,10 m; 67,8±9,5 kg; IMC 22,5±2,0 kg/m², sem reportar anormalidades ou história de lesão no membro inferior, realizaram avaliação isocinética do torque extensor e flexor do joelho e testes funcionais antes e depois do treino isocinético que consistiu em três séries de 10 CEVM a 30º/s, com 3 minutos de repouso entre as

  3. Cervical radiculopathy combined with cervical myelopathy: prevalence and characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Byung-Wan; Kim, Sung-Soo; Lee, Dong-Hyun; Kim, Ji-Wan

    2017-10-01

    Patients with cervical myelopathy may experience symptoms of radiculopathy, and it is not easy to determine whether these symptoms are caused by the myelopathy itself or by a radiculopathy accompanied by root compression. Therefore, we aimed to investigate the prevalence of radiculopathy combined with cervical myelopathy and to evaluate the characteristics of cervical myelopathy with or without radiculopathy. We enrolled 127 patients with cervical myelopathy in this retrospective study and reviewed their medical records and magnetic resonance imaging findings. They were divided into two groups according to the presence of cervical radiculopathy, and their age, sex, involved spinal segment, cord signal change, surgical method, clinical status were compared, and postsurgical recovery was compared using four clinical questionnaires. The incidence and level of radiculopathy combined with myelopathy were investigated. Combined cervical radiculopathy and myelopathy was diagnosed in 66 patients (51.9%, group 1), whereas 61 patients did not have radiculopathy (group 2). There was no difference in sex, age, cord signal change, preoperative Japanese Orthopedic Association score, neck disability index, and neck visual analogue scale (VAS) between the two groups, but group 1 showed higher preoperative arm VAS score (p = 0.001). Postoperative arm and neck VAS scores were significantly improved in group 1 (p = 0.001 and 0.009). Half of the patients had combined cervical myelopathy and radiculopathy. A high preoperative arm VAS score was a characteristic of radiculopathy combined with myelopathy.

  4. The influence of cranio-cervical posture on maximal mouth opening and pressure pain threshold in patients with myofascial temporomandibular pain disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Touche, Roy; París-Alemany, Alba; von Piekartz, Harry; Mannheimer, Jeffrey S; Fernández-Carnero, Josue; Rocabado, Mariano

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the influence of cranio-cervical posture on the maximal mouth opening (MMO) and pressure pain threshold (PPT) in patients with myofascial temporomandibular pain disorders. A total of 29 patients (19 females and 10 males) with myofascial temporomandibular pain disorders, aged 19 to 59 years participated in the study (mean years±SD; 34.69±10.83 y). MMO and the PPT (on the right side) of patients in neutral, retracted, and forward head postures were measured. A 1-way repeated measures analysis of variance followed by 3 pair-wise comparisons were used to determine differences. Comparisons indicated significant differences in PPT at 3 points within the trigeminal innervated musculature [masseter (M1 and M2) and anterior temporalis (T1)] among the 3 head postures [M1 (F=117.78; Pinduction of different cranio-cervical postures influences the MMO and PPT values of the temporomandibular joint and muscles of mastication that receive motor and sensory innervation by the trigeminal nerve. Our results provide data that supports the biomechanical relationship between the cranio-cervical region and the dynamics of the temporomandibular joint, as well as trigeminal nociceptive processing in different cranio-cervical postures.

  5. Myofascial force transmission causes interaction between adjacent muscles and connective tissue: Effects of blunt dissection and compartmental fasciotomy on length force characteristics of rat extensor digitorum longus muscle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huijing, P.A.J.B.M.; Baan, G.C.

    2001-01-01

    Muscles within the anterior tibial compartment (extensor digitorum longus: EDL. tibialis anterior: TA, and extensor hallucis longus muscles: EHL) and within the peroneal compartment were excited simultaneously and maximally. The ankle joint was fixed kept at 90°. For EDL length force characteristics

  6. A variant extensor indicis muscle and the branching pattern of the deep radial nerve could explain hand functionality and clinical symptoms in the living patient

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumka, Myroslava

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to document the topographic anatomy of an extensor indicis (EI) muscle with a double tendon and the associated distribution of the deep branch of the radial nerve (DBRN). Both EI tendons were positioned deep to the tendons of the extensor digitorum as they traversed the dorsal osseofibrous tunnel. They then joined the medial slips of the extensor expansion of the second and third digits. In all other dissected forearms, a tendon of the EI muscle joined the medial slip of the extensor expansion to the index finger. The DBRN provided short branches to the superficial extensor muscles, long branches to the abductor pollicis longus and extensor pollicis brevis muscles, and terminated as the posterior interosseous nerve. Descending deep to the extensor pollicis longus muscle, the posterior interosseous nerve sent branches to the extensor pollicis brevis and EI muscles. Understanding of the topographic anatomy of an EI with a double tendon, and the associated distribution of the DBRN, may contribute to accurate diagnosis and treatment of hand lesions. PMID:25729087

  7. [Primary cervical cancer screening].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas-Hernández, Víctor Manuel; Vargas-Aguilar, Víctor Manuel; Tovar-Rodríguez, José María

    2015-01-01

    Cervico-uterine cancer screening with cytology decrease incidence by more than 50%. The cause of this cancer is the human papilloma virus high risk, and requires a sensitive test to provide sufficient sensitivity and specificity for early detection and greater interval period when the results are negative. The test of the human papilloma virus high risk, is effective and safe because of its excellent sensitivity, negative predictive value and optimal reproducibility, especially when combined with liquid-based cytology or biomarkers with viral load, with higher sensitivity and specificity, by reducing false positives for the detection of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 2 or greater injury, with excellent clinical benefits to cervical cancer screening and related infection of human papilloma virus diseases, is currently the best test for early detection infection of human papillomavirus and the risk of carcinogenesis. Copyright © 2015 Academia Mexicana de Cirugía A.C. Published by Masson Doyma México S.A. All rights reserved.

  8. Evaluating respiratory musculature, quality of life, anxiety, and depression among patients with indeterminate chronic Chagas disease and symptoms of pulmonary hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alícia Cristina Suman

    Full Text Available Abstract INTRODUCTION: Chagas disease (CD is progressive and incapacitating, especially when cardiopulmonary function is affected. For example, respiratory muscle weakness can cause dyspnea upon exertion and fatigue, which may be exacerbated when it is associated with pulmonary hypertension (PH. The present study aimed to evaluate respiratory musculature, quality of life, anxiety, and depression among patients with indeterminate chronic CD and symptoms of PH. METHODS: All individuals completed a clinical evaluation, spirometry, a 6-min walking test, respiratory musculature testing using maximum inspiratory pressure (PImax and maximum expiratory pressure (PEmax, the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, and the SF-36 questionnaire. RESULTS: We evaluated 107 patients who were assigned to a control group with only CD (G1, 8 patients, a group with CD and possible PH (G2, 93 patients, and a group with CD and echocardiography evidence of PH (G3, 6 patients. The three groups had similar values for PImax and PEmax. Compared to the G1 and G2 groups, the G3 group covered significantly less distance during the 6-min walking test and had a significantly shorter predicted distance (p < 0.05 vs. the G1 group. All three groups had similar values for their spirometry results, Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale scores, and SF-36 questionnaire results. CONCLUSIONS: Patients with indeterminate chronic CD and symptoms of PH did not experience significant impairment in the studied variables, with the exception of the 6-min walking test, which suggests a low exercise tolerance.

  9. A new microsporidium, Potaspora macrobrachium n.sp. infecting the musculature of pond-reared oriental river prawn Macrobrachium nipponense (Decapoda: Palaemonidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Zhengfeng; Sun, Mengling; Liu, Hongyan; Zhao, Yanhua; Pan, Jianlin; Xue, Hui

    2016-05-01

    This paper described a novel microsporidian infection in the pond-reared oriental river prawn Macrobrachium nipponense. A conspicuous symptom of the infection was progressive white opacity associated with the musculature. Although neither bacteria nor viruses were detected in routine diagnostic tests, apparently degenerated microsporidian cells or spores were frequently observed in wet smears of the musculature from diseased prawns. Histological observations also revealed characteristics typical of microsporidian infection throughout the host. Transmission electron microscopy revealed multiple life stages of a microsporidian parasite within the cytoplasm of host muscle cells. In addition, partial small subunit ribosomal RNA (SSU rRNA) gene was obtained by a nested PCR using microsporidian specific primers. A consensus sequence was then deposited in GenBank (accession no. KU307278) and subjected to a general BLASTn search that yielded hits only for microsporidian sequence records. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the isolate was most similar to the fish microsporidian clade containing the genera Kabatana, Microgemma, Potaspora, Spraguea, and Teramicra. The highest sequence identity, 87%, was with Potaspora spp. Based on histological, ultrastructure and molecular phylogenetic data, we erected a new species, Potaspora macrobrachium for the novel microsporidium. The description of microsporidium in this important commercial host was fundamental for future consideration of factors affecting stock health and sustainability. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Intra-rater reliability of ultrasound imaging of wrist extensor muscles in patients with tetraplegia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorgey, Ashraf S; Timmons, Mark K; Michener, Lori A; Ericksen, Jeffery J; Gater, David R

    2014-02-01

    (i) To determine the intra-rater reliability and precision of the ultrasound cross-sectional area (CSA) measurements of the wrist extensors in individuals with spinal cord injury (SCI), and (ii) to determine whether tetraplegia has a negative influence on the reliability and precision for these measurements. A repeated-measures cross-sectional study. Clinical hospital and academic settings. The study was conducted with 20 men with SCI (9 paraplegia and 11 tetraplegia) and 10 able-bodied controls. Ultrasound images were captured of the right side extensor carpi radialis-longus (ECRL) and the extensor digitorum communis (EDC) were captured in 2 sessions separated by 48-72 hours. The intraclass correlation coefficients for the CSA measurements of the ECRL and EDC muscles were greater than 0.87 for all 3 groups. The standard error of the measure (SEM) ranged from 0.11-0.22 cm(2) for the ECRL and 0.13-0.27 cm(2) for the EDC. The minimal detectable change of ECL ranged from 0.16 to 0.31 cm(2) and of EDC from 0.19 to 0.38 cm(2). The group differences in muscle CSA of both muscles were found; these differences were greater than the calculated minimal detectable changes. The intraclass correlation coefficients were lower and the SEMs and minimal detectable changes were higher for the group with tetraplegia compared with the able-bodied controls and the group with paraplegia. This study documented substantial intra-rater reliability of measurements of the ECRL and ECD CSA by using ultrasound images, which support the use of this technique to effectively evaluate the musculoskeletal changes after SCI and during rehabilitation. Skeletal muscle atrophy in persons with tetraplegia might have a negative influence on the reliability and precision of these CSA measurements; however, these differences in reliability and precision are not of clinical significance. Copyright © 2014 American Academy of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights

  11. Strength asymmetry of the knee extensors and physical activity in middle-aged women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michal Lehnert

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Differences between muscle strength and power of lower limbs is one of the factors associated with falls in the elderly population. Muscle strength asymmetry of lower limbs increases with age. Objective: The aim of the study is to assess differences in the volume and intensity of physical activity (PA in the subgroups of women being at higher and lower risk of falls (with and without strength asymmetry of the knee extensors of dominant and non-dominant lower limb. Methods: Data from 42 women (age 56.3 ± 4.4 years; weight 76.5 ± 16.1 kg; body height 164.3 ± 5.2 cm; body mass index 28.1 ± 5.3 kg . m-2 were used for the purpose of the presented analysis. Furthermore the sample was divided into subgroups with lower and higher strength asymmetry of quadriceps muscle (as a criterion the asymmetry greater than 15% was chosen. Absolute concentric peak torque of the knee extensors was evaluated by an isokinetic dynamometer IsoMed 2000 in a sitting position at angular velocity of 180° . s-1. PA was monitored using Yamax SW-700 pedometers throughout 7 consecutive days and using the Czech version of standardized International Physical Activity Questionnaire. Results: Statistically significant differences between groups with lower and higher strength asymmetry were found in the amount of self-reported vigorous PA (p = .04; d = 0.6 only. Differences between the observed groups were not significant in self-reported moderate PA and walking. There were also no significant differences in the daily numbers of steps measured objectively. Conclusions: The results of the study indicate that from the point of view of strength asymmetry of knee extensors as a factor associated with falls in middle-aged women, intensity of PA could be an important characteristic of PA. This suggestion should be taken into account in habitual PA and training programs in middle-aged population.

  12. Tuina treatment in cervical spondylosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florin Mihai Hinoveanu

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Cervical spondylosis is a common, chronic degenerative condition of the cervical spine that affects the vertebral bodies and intervertebral disks of the neck as well as the contents of the spinal canal. Common clinical syndromes associated with cervical spondylosis include cervical pain, cervical radiculopathy and/or mielopathy. This study show the main principles, indication and side effects of tuina in cervical spondylosis´ treatment; tuina is one of the external methods based on the principles of Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM, especially suitable for use on the elderly population and on infants. While performing Tuina, the therapist concentrates his mind, regulates his breathing, and actuates the Qi and power of his entire body towards his hands. For a better result is recommended to try to combine acupuncture with tuina treatment. Tuina can help relieve the pain associated with spondylosis. After this kind of treatment, the symptomes produced by irritated nerves and sore muscles can find some relief. Tuina helps patients with cervical spondylosis regain muscle control, nerve function and flexibility, all through the restoration of the life force flow.

  13. Comparison of sonography and magnetic resonance imaging for the diagnosis of partial tears of finger extensor tendons in rheumatoid arthritis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Swen, W. A.; Jacobs, J. W.; Hubach, P. C.; Klasens, J. H.; Algra, P. R.; Bijlsma, J. W.

    2000-01-01

    Finger extensor tenosynovitis in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) may lead to partial and eventually to complete tendon tears. The aim of this study was to investigate the diagnostic value of sonography (SG) and/or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to visualize partial tendon tears. Twenty-one RA patients

  14. Sit-to-Stand Movement in Children with Hemiplegic Cerebral Palsy: Relationship with Knee Extensor Torque and Social Participation

    Science.gov (United States)

    dos Santos, Adriana Neves; Pavao, Silvia Leticia; Santiago, Paulo Roberto Pereira; Salvini, Tania de Fatima; Rocha, Nelci Adriana Cicuto Ferreira

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the relationship between sit-to-stand (STS) movement, knee extensor torque and social participation in children with cerebral palsy (CP). Seven spastic hemiplegic CP patients (8.0 plus or minus 2.2 years), classified by the Gross Motor Function Classification System as I and II, and 18 typical children (8.4 plus or…

  15. Knee extensor strength and body weight in adolescent men and the risk of knee osteoarthritis by middle age

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Turkiewicz, Aleksandra; Timpka, Simon; Thorlund, Jonas Bloch

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To assess the extent to which knee extensor strength and weight in adolescence are associated with knee osteoarthritis (OA) by middle age. METHODS: We studied a cohort of 40 121 men who at age 18 years in 1969/1970 underwent mandatory conscription in Sweden. We retrieved data on isome......OBJECTIVES: To assess the extent to which knee extensor strength and weight in adolescence are associated with knee osteoarthritis (OA) by middle age. METHODS: We studied a cohort of 40 121 men who at age 18 years in 1969/1970 underwent mandatory conscription in Sweden. We retrieved data...... on isometric knee extensor strength, weight, height, smoking, alcohol consumption, parental education and adult occupation from Swedish registries. We identified participants diagnosed with knee OA or knee injury from 1987 to 2010 through the National Patient Register. We estimated the HR of knee OA using...... multivariable-adjusted Cox proportional regression model. To assess the influence of adult knee injury and occupation, we performed a formal mediation analysis. RESULTS: The mean (SD) knee extensor strength was 234 (47) Nm, the mean (SD) weight was 66 (9.3) kg. During 24 years (median) of follow-up starting...

  16. Anatomy of the inferior extensor retinaculum and its role in lateral ankle ligament reconstruction: a pictorial essay

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dalmau-Pastor, M.; Yasui, Y.; Calder, J. D.; Karlsson, J.; Kerkhoffs, G. M. M. J.; Kennedy, J. G.

    2016-01-01

    The inferior extensor retinaculum (IER) is an aponeurotic structure, which is in continuation with the anterior part of the sural fascia. The IER has often been used to augment the reconstruction of the lateral ankle ligaments, for instance in the Broström-Gould procedure, with good outcomes

  17. Efficacy of pre-operative quadriceps strength training on knee-extensor strength before and shortly following total knee arthroplasty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Husted, Rasmus Skov; Troelsen, Anders; Thorborg, Kristian

    2018-01-01

    with an elastic exercise band following an initial exercise instruction. Adherence is objectively quantified using a sensor attached to the exercise band. The primary outcome will be the change in knee-extensor strength. Following the 12-week exercise period, the need for TKA surgery is re...

  18. Effects of β2-agonists on force during and following anoxia in rat extensor digitorum longus muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fredsted, Anne; Gissel, Hanne; Ortenblad, Niels

    2012-01-01

    )-agonists affect force and ion homeostasis in anoxic muscles. In the present study isolated rat extensor digitorum longus (EDL) muscles exposed to anoxia showed a considerable loss of force, which was markedly reduced by the β(2)-agonists salbutamol (10(-6) M) and terbutaline (10(-6) M). Intermittent...

  19. Association between distal ulnar morphology and extensor carpi ulnaris tendon pathology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Connie Y.; Huang, Ambrose J.; Bredella, Miriam A.; Kattapuram, Susan V.; Torriani, Martin

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the association between distal ulnar morphology and extensor carpi ulnaris (ECU) tendon pathology. We retrospectively reviewed 71 adult wrist MRI studies with ECU tendon pathology (tenosynovitis, tendinopathy, or tear), and/or ECU subluxation. Subjects did not have a history of trauma, surgery, infection, or inflammatory arthritis. MRI studies from 46 subjects without ECU tendon pathology or subluxation were used as controls. The following morphological parameters of the distal ulna were measured independently by two readers: ulnar variance relative to radius, ulnar styloid process length, ECU groove depth and length. Subjects and controls were compared using Student's t test. Inter-observer agreement (ICC) was calculated. There was a significant correlation between negative ulnar variance and ECU tendon pathology (reader 1 [R1], P = 0.01; reader 2 [R2], P 0.64 for all parameters. Distal ulnar morphology may be associated with ECU tendon abnormalities. (orig.)

  20. Isolated Tuberculous Tenosynovitis of the Anterior Tibial and Extensor Digitorum Longus Tendons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berhan Genç

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Musculoskeletal system is involved in 1-5% of extrapulmonary cases of tuberculosis. Tuberculous tenosynovitis is a rare form of musculoskeletal tuberculosis. Tuberculosis of the tendon sheath in the hand has been seen in a few cases. Involvement of the tendons of the leg is less common. Diagnosis is not easy as there are no specific clinical symptoms or signs. A 33-year-old male presented with painful swelling in the distal right lower limb that caused restriction of movement. Imaging studies showed inflammation and infection of the extensor digitorium longus and tibialis anterior tendons. Histopathological studies showed a necrotizing granulomatous inflammation in the synovial tissue. A diagnosis of tuberculosis was made and medical treatment was initiated that proved successful. Patient remained infection-free at 26-month follow-up examination.

  1. Placebo effects of caffeine on maximal voluntary concentric force of the knee flexors and extensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tallis, Jason; Muhammad, Bilal; Islam, Mohammed; Duncan, Michael J

    2016-09-01

    We examined the placebo effect of caffeine and the combined effect of caffeine and caffeine expectancy on maximal voluntary strength. Fourteen men completed 4 randomized, single-blind experimental trials: (1) told caffeine, given caffeine (5 mg/kg) (CC); (2) told caffeine, given placebo (CP); (3) told placebo, given placebo (PP); and (4) told placebo, given caffeine (PC). Maximal voluntary concentric force and fatigue resistance of the knee flexors and extensors were measured using isokinetic dynamometry. A significant and equal improvement in peak concentric force was found in the CC and PC trials. Despite participants believing caffeine would evoke a performance benefit, there was no effect of CP. Caffeine caused an improvement in some aspects of muscle strength, but there was no additional effect of expectancy. Performance was poorer in participants who believed caffeine would have the greatest benefit, which highlights a link between expected ergogenicity, motivation, and personality characteristics. Muscle Nerve 54: 479-486, 2016. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Ultrasonographic Characteristics of the Common Extensor Tendon of the Elbow in Asymptomatic Individuals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krogh, Thøger Persson; Fredberg, Ulrich; Ammitzbøl, Christian

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Ultrasonography (US) of the common extensor tendon (CET) of the elbow is often part of the assessment of patients with lateral epicondylitis. This US assessment is currently based on general tendinopathy references and not well-defined US entities. PURPOSE: To describe CET thickness......, color Doppler activity, and bony spurs on US in asymptomatic volunteers and to investigate the influence of sex, age, height, body mass index (BMI), weight, and elbow dominance on the measurements. STUDY DESIGN: Cross-sectional study; Level of evidence, 3. METHODS: Tendon thickness, color Doppler...... activity, and bony spurs of the CET were measured sonographically in 264 adults (50% women) aged 20 to 96 years. Two different tendon-thickness measuring techniques were applied, labeled the "plateau measure" and the "1-cm measure." Color Doppler activity was based on a 0 to 4 rating scale (negative...

  3. Electromyographic analysis of the vertebral extensor muscles during the Biering-Sorensen Test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ligia Moreira de Santana

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the study was to analyze the electromyographic signal of the multifidus, longissimus thoracis and the lumbar iliocostalis muscles during the Biering-Sorensen test in subjects without lower back pain. Twenty volunteers performed the test on three separate occasions. An analysis of variance detected a difference between the three test times (p = 0.0026. For the frequency domain, it was observed that there were differences between the multifidus and the lumbar erectors muscles; longissimus and iliocostalis muscles. However, in the time domain analysis, no difference was observed. As the values of the slope coefficients of median frequencies were higher for the multifidus muscle, compared to the longissimus and lumbar iliocostalis muscles, this may indicate a higher tendency toward muscle fatigue. Therefore, considering the applied methodology, the study of electromyographic signals in the frequency domain should be considered as an instrument to assess fatigue of the spinal extensor muscles in clinical situations.

  4. Catalase-positive microperoxisomes in rat soleus and extensor digitorum longus muscle fiber types

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riley, Danny A.; Bain, James L. W.; Ellis, Stanley

    1988-01-01

    The size, distribution, and content of catalase-reactive microperoxisomes were investigated cytochemically in three types of muscle fibers from the soleus and the extensor digitorum longus (EDL) of male rats. Muscle fibers were classified on the basis of the mitochondrial content and distribution, the Z-band widths, and the size and shape of myofibrils as the slow-twitch oxidative (SO), the fast-twitch oxidative glycolytic (FOG), and the fast-twitch glycolytic (FG) fibers. It was found that both the EDL and soleus SO fibers possessed the largest microperoxisomes. A comparison of microperoxisome number per muscle fiber area or the microperoxisome area per fiber area revealed following ranking, starting from the largest number and the area-ratio values: soleus SO, EDL SO, EDL FOG, and EDL FG.

  5. Modulation of recurrent inhibition from knee extensors to ankle motoneurones during human walking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lamy, Jean-Charles; Iglesias, Caroline; Lackmy, Alexandra

    2008-01-01

    The neural control for muscle coordination during human locomotion involves spinal and supraspinal networks, but little is known about the exact mechanisms implicated. The present study focused on modulation of heteronymous recurrent inhibition from knee extensors to ankle motoneurones at different...... times in the gait cycle, when quadriceps (Quad) muscle activity overlaps that in tibialis anterior (TA) and soleus (Sol). The effects of femoral nerve stimulation on ankle motoneurones were investigated during treadmill walking and during tonic co-contraction of Quad and TA/Sol while standing. Recurrent...... inhibition of TA motoneurones depended on the level of background EMG, and was similar during walking and standing for matched background EMG levels. On the other hand, recurrent inhibition in Sol was reduced in early stance, with respect to standing, and enhanced in late stance. Reduced inhibition in Sol...

  6. Stretch-induced force deficits in murine extensor digitorum longus muscles after cardiotoxin injection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markert, Chad; Petroski, Gregory F; Childers, Charles K; McDonald, Kerry S; Childers, Martin K

    2006-10-01

    A leftward shift in a muscle's length-tension relationship is thought to impair myofilament overlap. We hypothesized that left-shifted muscles would incur greater eccentric contraction-induced damage compared to controls. We evaluated contractile properties and force deficits in regenerating murine extensor digitorum longus (EDL) muscles 7, 14, and 21 days after cardiotoxin (CTX) injection. Specific tension recovered to control values by 21 days. CTX-injected muscles demonstrated left-shifted length-tension curves and incurred greater contraction-induced force deficits than controls (P < 0.001) on day 7. We speculate that increased contraction-induced damage in 7-day CTX-injected muscles results from changes in myofilament overlap that occurs during early regeneration.

  7. Gender differences in contractile and passive properties of mdx extensor digitorum longus muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hakim, Chady H; Duan, Dongsheng

    2012-02-01

    Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is a severe, muscle-wasting disease caused by mutations in the dystrophin gene. The mdx mouse is the first and perhaps the most commonly used animal model for study of DMD. Both male and female mdx mice are used. However, it is not completely clear whether gender influences contraction and the passive mechanical properties of mdx skeletal muscle. We compared isometric tetanic forces and passive forces of the extensor digitorum longus muscle between male and female mdx mice. At age 6 months, female mdx mice showed better-preserved specific tetanic force. Interestingly, at 20 months of age, female mdx muscle appeared stiffer. Our results suggest that gender may profoundly influence physiological measurement outcomes in mdx mice. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Isolated tuberculous tenosynovitis of the anterior tibial and extensor digitorum longus tendons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genç, Berhan; Solak, Aynur; Mayda, Aslan; Sen, Nazime

    2013-01-01

    Musculoskeletal system is involved in 1-5% of extrapulmonary cases of tuberculosis. Tuberculous tenosynovitis is a rare form of musculoskeletal tuberculosis. Tuberculosis of the tendon sheath in the hand has been seen in a few cases. Involvement of the tendons of the leg is less common. Diagnosis is not easy as there are no specific clinical symptoms or signs. A 33-year-old male presented with painful swelling in the distal right lower limb that caused restriction of movement. Imaging studies showed inflammation and infection of the extensor digitorium longus and tibialis anterior tendons. Histopathological studies showed a necrotizing granulomatous inflammation in the synovial tissue. A diagnosis of tuberculosis was made and medical treatment was initiated that proved successful. Patient remained infection-free at 26-month follow-up examination.

  9. Lipoma arborescens of the suprapatellar bursa and extensor digitorum longus tendon sheath: report of 2 cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senocak, Efsun; Gurel, Kamil; Gurel, Safiye; Ozturan, Kutay Engin; Cakici, Husamettin; Yilmaz, Fahri; Boran, Cetin

    2007-10-01

    Lipoma arborescens (diffuse articular lipomatosis) is a rare intra-articular lesion consisting of subsynovial villous proliferation of mature fat cells. The usual clinical presentation is painless swelling. The aim of this series was to emphasize the importance of gray scale and color Doppler sonography through the investigation of chronic joint swelling. Lipoma arborescens of the knee and extensor digitorum longus tendon sheath at the ankle region are described. The latter is extremely rare. We examined 2 patients with sonography before using cross-sectional modalities. Gray scale sonography revealed hyperechoic irregular villous and frondlike projections within prominent joint effusion. A wavelike motion of the projections was shown by dynamic compression and manipulation of the effusion. We observed moderate vascularity on color Doppler sonography. Spectral analysis revealed a low-resistance arterial waveform. Gray scale sonography is a useful diagnostic modality that can be performed to evaluate chronic joint swelling before the use of cross-sectional and more expensive modalities.

  10. Hypogravity-induced atrophy of rat soleus and extensor digitorum longus muscles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riley, D. A.; Ellis, S.; Slocum, G. R.; Satyanarayana, T.; Bain, J. L.; Sedlak, F. R.

    1987-01-01

    Prolonged exposure of humans to hypogravity causes weakening of their skeletal muscles. This problem was studied in rats exposed to hypogravity for 7 days aboard Spacelab 3. Hindlimb muscles were harvested 12-16 hours postflight for histochemical, biochemical, and ultrastructural analyses. The majority of the soleus and extensor digitorum longus fibers exhibited simple cell shrinkage. However, approximately 1% of the fibers in flight soleus muscles appeared necrotic. Flight muscle fibers showed increased glycogen, lower subsarcolemmal staining for mitochondrial enzymes, and fewer subsarcolemmal mitochondria. During atrophy, myofibrils were eroded by multiple focal losses of myofilaments; lysosomal autophagy was not evident. Tripeptidylaminopeptidase and calcium-activated protease activities of flight soleus fibers were significantly increased, implying a role in myofibril breakdown. Simple fiber atrophy appears to account for muscle weakening during spaceflight, but fiber necrosis is also a contributing factor.

  11. Catalase overexpression does not impair extensor digitorum longus muscle function in normal mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Mingju; Yue, Yongping; Li, Dejia; Duan, Dongsheng

    2007-12-01

    Catalase is a major antioxidant enzyme. Increasing catalase expression represents a promising avenue to improve muscle function in certain physiological conditions and in some muscle diseases. We hypothesized that catalase overexpression should not impair normal muscle contraction. We delivered a hemagglutinin (HA)-tagged human catalase gene to normal mouse muscle by an adeno-associated viral vector (AAV). Western blot and immunostaining revealed efficient expression of HA-tagged catalase. Enzymatic assay demonstrated an approximately threefold increase in catalase activity in AAV-infected muscles. Catalase overexpression impaired neither twitch nor tetanic tension in the extensor digitorum longus (EDL) muscle. Furthermore, EDL fatigue response was not altered. Taken together, we have developed a novel AAV vector to enhance catalase expression. Lack of apparent toxicity in normal muscle strongly supports further exploration of this vector to reduce oxidative stress-induced muscle damage.

  12. Variant Branching Pattern of Dorsalis Pedis Artery Accompanied with Anomalous Presence of Extensor Hallucis Brevis Muscle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashwini Aithal Padur

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available During routine dissection, we came across multiple variations in the dorsum of the right foot. Dorsalis pedis artery (DPA presented with an unusual branching pattern. The arcuate artery was completely absent, and hence three tarsal branches arose from lateral side of DPA. The first branch continued as first dorsal metatarsal artery, the second branch continued as the second dorsal metatarsal artery, and the third branch continued as third dorsal metatarsal artery which also provided a small twig to the fourth intermetatarsal space as the fourth dorsal metatarsal artery. We also observed the unique presence of extensor hallucis brevis muscle with the origin from the medial part of superior surface of the calcaneus and inserted to proximal phalanx of great toe. Since the DPA was just beneath this muscle, anomalous presence of the muscle may lead to compression of DPA. Awareness regarding such variations is critical for angiographers, vascular surgeons, reconstructive and plastic surgeons.

  13. Splintage in the treatment of sagittal band incompetence and extensor tendon subluxation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peelman, J; Markiewitz, A; Kiefhaber, T; Stern, P

    2015-03-01

    This study assessed the success of splintage for traumatic and atraumatic sagittal band incompetence and its relationship to the duration of symptoms before treatment. A retrospective review of all patients with sagittal band incompetence treated with splintage was performed. All patients had extensor tendon subluxation on physical examination. Ninety-two patients were included: 68 traumatic and 24 atraumatic. Subluxation resolved with splintage in 77 patients. Traumatic tendon subluxation resolved in 95% of acute injuries, 100% of subacute injuries, and 67% of chronic injures. Atraumatic tendon subluxation resolved in 100% of patients with acute presentation, 67% of patients with subacute presentation, and 57% of patients with chronic presentation. Surgery was rarely required. Splintage proved very effective for acute sagittal band incompetence, regardless of causation, but decreased in efficiency with chronicity. Level 4. © The Author(s) 2014.

  14. The extensor carpi ulnaris pseudolesion: evaluation with microCT, histology, and MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali, Sayed; Cunningham, Ryan; Mohamed, Feroze; Amin, Mamta; Popoff, Steven N.; Barbe, Mary F.

    2015-01-01

    To determine if magic angle plays a role in apparent central increased signal intensity of the distal extensor carpi ulnaris tendon (ECU) on MRI, to see if histologic findings of tendon degeneration are associated with increased T1 or T2 tendon signal on MR imaging, and to determine the prevalence of the ECU ''pseudolesion''. A standard 3 Tesla protocol was utilized to scan ten cadaveric wrists. A 40 mm length of 10 ECU and four extensor carpi radialis brevis (ECRB) tendons were immersion fixed before microCT scanning. Staining with Alcian blue, Masson's trichrome and Safranin O was performed before light microscopy. Fifty clinical wrist MRIs were also reviewed for the presence of increased T1 and/or T2 signal. Central increased T1 and/or T2 signal was observed in 9 of 10 cadaveric ECU tendons, but not in ECRB tendons. MicroCT and histology showed inter-tendinous matrix between the two distal heads of the ECU. Increased mucoid degeneration correlated with increased MRI signal intensity. The tendon fibers were at a maximum of 8.39 to the longitudinal axis on microCT. Clinical MRIs showed increased T1 signal in 6 %, increased T2 signal in 8 %, increased T1 and T2 signal in 80 %, and 6 % showing no increased signal. Central increased T1 and/or T2 signal in the ECU tendon indicates the presence of normal inter-tendinous ground substance, with increased proteoglycan content (mucoid degeneration) responsible for increased signal intensity. None of the fibers were shown on microCT to approach the magic angle. (orig.)

  15. The extensor carpi ulnaris pseudolesion: evaluation with microCT, histology, and MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ali, Sayed; Cunningham, Ryan; Mohamed, Feroze [Temple University Hospital, Department of Radiology, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Amin, Mamta; Popoff, Steven N.; Barbe, Mary F. [Temple University School of Medicine, Department of Anatomy, Philadelphia, PA (United States)

    2015-12-15

    To determine if magic angle plays a role in apparent central increased signal intensity of the distal extensor carpi ulnaris tendon (ECU) on MRI, to see if histologic findings of tendon degeneration are associated with increased T1 or T2 tendon signal on MR imaging, and to determine the prevalence of the ECU ''pseudolesion''. A standard 3 Tesla protocol was utilized to scan ten cadaveric wrists. A 40 mm length of 10 ECU and four extensor carpi radialis brevis (ECRB) tendons were immersion fixed before microCT scanning. Staining with Alcian blue, Masson's trichrome and Safranin O was performed before light microscopy. Fifty clinical wrist MRIs were also reviewed for the presence of increased T1 and/or T2 signal. Central increased T1 and/or T2 signal was observed in 9 of 10 cadaveric ECU tendons, but not in ECRB tendons. MicroCT and histology showed inter-tendinous matrix between the two distal heads of the ECU. Increased mucoid degeneration correlated with increased MRI signal intensity. The tendon fibers were at a maximum of 8.39 to the longitudinal axis on microCT. Clinical MRIs showed increased T1 signal in 6 %, increased T2 signal in 8 %, increased T1 and T2 signal in 80 %, and 6 % showing no increased signal. Central increased T1 and/or T2 signal in the ECU tendon indicates the presence of normal inter-tendinous ground substance, with increased proteoglycan content (mucoid degeneration) responsible for increased signal intensity. None of the fibers were shown on microCT to approach the magic angle. (orig.)

  16. Alterations in Leg Extensor Muscle-Tendon Unit Biomechanical Properties With Ageing and Mechanical Loading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher McCrum

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Tendons transfer forces produced by muscle to the skeletal system and can therefore have a large influence on movement effectiveness and safety. Tendons are mechanosensitive, meaning that they adapt their material, morphological and hence their mechanical properties in response to mechanical loading. Therefore, unloading due to immobilization or inactivity could lead to changes in tendon mechanical properties. Additionally, ageing may influence tendon biomechanical properties directly, as a result of biological changes in the tendon, and indirectly, due to reduced muscle strength and physical activity. This review aimed to examine age-related differences in human leg extensor (triceps surae and quadriceps femoris muscle-tendon unit biomechanical properties. Additionally, this review aimed to assess if, and to what extent mechanical loading interventions could counteract these changes in older adults. There appear to be consistent reductions in human triceps surae and quadriceps femoris muscle strength, accompanied by similar reductions in tendon stiffness and elastic modulus with ageing, whereas the effect on tendon cross sectional area is unclear. Therefore, the observed age-related changes in tendon stiffness are predominantly due to changes in tendon material rather than size with age. However, human tendons appear to retain their mechanosensitivity with age, as intervention studies report alterations in tendon biomechanical properties in older adults of similar magnitudes to younger adults over 12–14 weeks of training. Interventions should implement tendon strains corresponding to high mechanical loads (i.e., 80–90% MVC with repetitive loading for up to 3–4 months to successfully counteract age-related changes in leg extensor muscle-tendon unit biomechanical properties.

  17. Isokinetic testing of flexor and extensor muscles in athletes suffering from low back pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganzit, G P; Chisotti, L; Albertini, G; Martore, M; Gribaudo, C G

    1998-12-01

    The aim of the study was to verify the usefulness of isokinetic testing in athletes with chronic low back pain (LBP) to obtain quantitative information for rehabilitation purposes. a comparative study. Physiotherapy Department--Institute of Sports Medicine in Italy. 50 men, aged 25-65, practising running, cycling, triathlon, tennis, soccer, basketball, volleyball, skiing and golf. The patients were divided into two groups. Group A was treated for 3 months with postural exercises 2 or 3 times a week. Group B was treated for the same period of time with resistive exercises performed by resorting to specific machines. Before and after treatment, trunk muscle strength was evaluated by means of an isokinetic test carried out in a seated position. The isokinetic measurements used were peak torque (PT), work, power-in the best repetition and total work (TW) in four repetitions. Both the pain and the functional impairment during physical activity was evaluated by subjective visual analogic scale. The PT showed a parallel increase in flexor and extensor muscles in Group A. In Group B it increased by 32.2% at 60 degrees/s and 44.1% at 120 degrees/s as for the extensor muscles while the flexion-to-extension ratio decreased significantly. The TW registered a bigger percentage increase in both groups (+21% at 60 degrees/s and +20.4% at 120 degrees/s in Group A; +36.5% at 60 degrees/s and +50.3% at 120 degrees/s in Group B). The two rehabilitation programmes had the same effect on the course of LBP, but in Group B we observed a bigger increase in strength which could be potentially useful during a sports activity.

  18. β-alanine supplementation improves isometric endurance of the knee extensor muscles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sale Craig

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We examined the effect of four weeks of β-alanine supplementation on isometric endurance of the knee extensors at 45% maximal voluntary isometric contraction (MVIC. Methods Thirteen males (age 23 ± 6 y; height 1.80 ± 0.05 m; body mass 81.0 ± 10.5 kg, matched for pre-supplementation isometric endurance, were allocated to either a placebo (n = 6 or β-alanine (n = 7; 6.4 g·d-1 over 4 weeks supplementation group. Participants completed an isometric knee extension test (IKET to fatigue, at an intensity of 45% MVIC, before and after supplementation. In addition, two habituation tests were completed in the week prior to the pre-supplementation test and a further practice test was completed in the week prior to the post-supplementation test. MVIC force, IKET hold-time, and impulse generated were recorded. Results IKET hold-time increased by 9.7 ± 9.4 s (13.2% and impulse by 3.7 ± 1.3 kN·s-1 (13.9% following β-alanine supplementation. These changes were significantly greater than those in the placebo group (IKET: t(11 = 2.9, p ≤0.05; impulse: t(11 = 3.1, p ≤ 0.05. There were no significant changes in MVIC force in either group. Conclusion Four weeks of β-alanine supplementation at 6.4 g·d-1 improved endurance capacity of the knee extensors at 45% MVIC, which most likely results from improved pH regulation within the muscle cell as a result of elevated muscle carnosine levels.

  19. Cervical tissue engineering using silk scaffolds and human cervical cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    House, Michael; Sanchez, Cristina C; Rice, William L; Socrate, Simona; Kaplan, David L

    2010-06-01

    Spontaneous preterm birth is a frequent complication of pregnancy and a common cause of morbidity in childhood. Obstetricians suspect abnormalities of the cervix are implicated in a significant number of preterm births. The cervix is composed of fibrous connective tissue and undergoes significant remodeling in preparation for birth. We hypothesized that a tissue engineering strategy could be used to develop three-dimensional cervical-like tissue constructs that would be suitable for investigating cervical remodeling. Cervical cells were isolated from two premenopausal women undergoing hysterectomy for a benign gynecological condition, and the cells were seeded on porous silk scaffolds in the presence or absence of dynamic culture and with 10% or 20% serum. Morphological, biochemical, and mechanical properties were measured during the 8-week culture period. Cervical cells proliferated in three-dimensions and synthesized an extracellular matrix with biochemical constituents and morphology similar to native tissue. Compared to static culture, dynamic culture was associated with significantly increased collagen deposition (p < 0.05), sulfated glycosaminoglycan synthesis (p < 0.05), and mechanical stiffness (p < 0.05). Serum concentration did not affect measured variables. Relevant human tissue-engineered cervical-like constructs constitute a novel model system for a range of fundamental and applied studies related to cervical remodeling.

  20. Tuberculosis ganglionar cervical

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osmany Leonel Mendoza Cruz

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available La tuberculosis es una enfermedad reemergente en la actual sociedad globalizada y puede presentarse prácticamente ante cualquier especialista. Las formas extrapulmonares pueden representar hasta la cuarta parte de los casos, y entre ellos la afectación ganglionar se ubica entre las más frecuentes. Se reportan dos pacientes estudiados y tratados en el Servicio de Otorrinolaringología del Hospital General de Bata, Litoral de Guinea Ecuatorial, África Central, afectados por tumoraciones laterocervicales subagudas, con escasos síntomas y excelente evolución, tras su diagnóstico de tuberculosis ganglionar cervical y terapéutica antibiótica. Aunque la punción y aspiración con aguja fina no fue concluyente, ambos casos resultaron positivos por medio de la tinción de Ziehl-Neelsen

  1. Variations of anatomy on MRI of the first extensor compartment of the wrist and association with DeQuervain tenosynovitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, Connie Y.; Kheterpal, Arvin B.; Terneria Vicentini, Joao Rafael; Huang, Ambrose J. [Massachusetts General Hospital, Division of Musculoskeletal Imaging and Intervention, Department of Radiology, Boston, MA (United States)

    2017-08-15

    To study anatomical variations on MRI of the first extensor compartment of the wrist in DeQuervain tenosynovitis (DQT). A retrospective search for DQT patients yielded 47 subjects (51 ± 15 years, 36 female, 11 male). The age-matched control group (normal first extensor compartment) was 49 ± 15 years (29 female, 18 male). Two independent readers reviewed: the number of abductor pollicis longus (APL) tendon slips, tendon sheath septations (compartmentalization), and APL and EPB cross-sectional area (CSA) at the radial styloid. A tendon slip was defined as a discrete structure for ≥5 contiguous slices with its own insertion. The distribution of APL tendon slips was different for the DQT and control groups (Reader 1/Reader 2: P = 0.0001 and 0.001). The most common arrangement for both groups was two APL tendon slips. One tendon slip was less common (P = 0.03 and 0.1) and compartmentalization was more common (P = 0.003; < 0.0001) for the DQT group than the control group. There was no difference in tendon slip insertions on one or multiple bones (P = 0.1; 0.7). APL and EPB compartment CSAs were also higher for the DQT group (combined first extensor compartment area: 21.3 ± 7.6 mm{sup 2}; 21.0 ± 7.1) than the control group (17.2 ± 3.8; 17.1 ± 3.9) (P = 0.002; 0.002). We found a statistically significantly increased proportion of supernumerary tendon slips and compartmentalization of the first extensor compartment in patients with DQT and greater CSA of the first extensor compartment at the radial styloid, consistent with previous anatomical, surgical, and ultrasound studies. (orig.)

  2. Hemangiopericytoma of the cervical spine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raghvendra V Ramdasi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A 28-year-old male presented with neck pain and dysesthesias in the right upper limb. On examination, he had a firm, well-defined midline posterior cervical mass discernible on palpation at the mid-cervical level. He had no neurological deficit. Neuroradiology revealed a variegated enhancing cervical mass is arising from C3 lamina. The mass extended into the right extradural space eroding the C3 lamina and posteriorly into the intermuscular plane. The tumor was excised totally. Histopathology of the tumor showed features of hemangiopericytoma (HPC. The patient underwent postoperative radiotherapy. Primary osseous spinal HPC are rare malignant extra-axial tumors that tend to recur and metastasize. Only two cases of primary osseous HPC have been reported earlier to involve the cervical spine. The clinical presentation and management of the present case with a review of the literature is presented.

  3. Hemangiopericytoma of the cervical spine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramdasi, Raghvendra V.; Nadkarni, Trimurti D.; Goel, Naina A.

    2014-01-01

    A 28-year-old male presented with neck pain and dysesthesias in the right upper limb. On examination, he had a firm, well-defined midline posterior cervical mass discernible on palpation at the mid-cervical level. He had no neurological deficit. Neuroradiology revealed a variegated enhancing cervical mass is arising from C3 lamina. The mass extended into the right extradural space eroding the C3 lamina and posteriorly into the intermuscular plane. The tumor was excised totally. Histopathology of the tumor showed features of hemangiopericytoma (HPC). The patient underwent postoperative radiotherapy. Primary osseous spinal HPC are rare malignant extra-axial tumors that tend to recur and metastasize. Only two cases of primary osseous HPC have been reported earlier to involve the cervical spine. The clinical presentation and management of the present case with a review of the literature is presented. PMID:25210342

  4. Cervical cancer screening at crossroads

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lynge, Elsebeth; Rygaard, Carsten; Baillet, Miguel Vazquez-Prada

    2014-01-01

    Cervical screening has been one of the most successful public health prevention programmes. For 50 years, cytology formed the basis for screening, and detected cervical intraepithelial lesions (CIN) were treated surgically to prevent progression to cancer. In a high-risk country as Denmark......, screening decreased the incidence of cervical cancer from 34 to 11 per 100,000, age-standardized rate (World Standard Population). Screening is, however, also expensive; Denmark (population: 5.6 million) undertakes close to half a million tests per year, and has 6-8 CIN-treated women for each prevented...... cancer case. The discovery of human papillomavirus (HPV) as the cause of cervical cancer dramatically changed perspectives for disease control. Screening with HPV testing was launched around 1990, and preventive HPV vaccination was licensed in 2006. Long-term randomized controlled trials (RCT...

  5. Get Tested for Cervical Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Basics: Cervical Screening Tests What happens during a Pap test? A Pap test takes about 2 to 5 minutes. It may ... uterus, ovaries, and other organs. Learn more about Pap tests. What happens if I’m also having an ...

  6. Cervical Dysplasia: Is It Cancer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cervical dysplasia: Is it cancer? I had a Pap test recently, and my doctor said the results showed ... the appearance of the abnormal cells. On the Pap test report, this will be reported as a low- ...

  7. Current Cervical Carcinoma Screening Guidelines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Megan J. Schlichte

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available A formidable threat to the health of women, cervical carcinoma can be prevented in many cases with adequate screening. The current guidelines for cervical carcinoma screening were created as joint recommendations of the American Cancer Society (ACS, the American Society for Colposcopy and Cervical Pathology (ASCCP and the American Society for Clinical Pathology (ASCP in 2012, and later accepted and promoted by the American Congress of Obstetricians and Gynecologists (ACOG. The 2012 recommendations underscore the utility of molecular testing as an adjunct to cytology screening for certain women and provide guidance to clinicians based on different risk-benefit considerations for different ages. This manuscript will review screening techniques and current recommendations for cervical cancer screening and human papilloma virus (HPV testing, as well as possible future screening strategies.

  8. Strength deficits identified with concentric action of the hip extensors and eccentric action of the hamstrings predispose to hamstring injury in elite sprinters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugiura, Yusaku; Saito, Tomoyuki; Sakuraba, Keishoku; Sakuma, Kazuhiko; Suzuki, Eiichi

    2008-08-01

    Prospective cohort study. In this prospective cohort study of elite sprinters, muscle strength of the hip extensors, as well as of the knee extensors and flexors, was measured to determine a possible relationship between strength deficits and subsequent hamstring injury within 12 months of testing. The method used for testing muscle strength simulated the specific muscle action during late swing and early contact phases when sprinting. There have been no prospective studies in elite sprinters that examine the concentric and eccentric isokinetic strength of the hip extensors and the quadriceps and hamstring muscles in a manner that reflects their actions in late swing or early contact phases of sprinting. Consequently, the causal relationship between hip and thigh muscle strength and hamstring injury in elite sprinters may not be fully understood. Isokinetic testing was performed on 30 male elite sprinters to assess hip extensors, quadriceps, and hamstring muscle strength. The occurrence of hamstring injury among the subjects was determined during the year following the muscle strength measurements. The strength of the hip extensors, quadriceps, and hamstring muscles, as well as the hamstrings-quadriceps and hip extensors- quadriceps ratios were compared. Hamstring injury occurred in 6 subjects during the 1-year period. Isokinetic testing at a speed of 60 degrees /s revealed weakness of the injured limb with eccentric action of the hamstring muscles and during concentric action of the hip extensors. When performing a side-to-side comparison for the injured sprinters, the hamstring injury always occurred on the weaker side. Differences in the hamstrings-quadriceps and hip extensors-quadriceps strength ratios were also evident between uninjured and injured limbs, and this was attributable to deficits in hamstring strength. Hamstring injury in elite sprinters was associated with weakness during eccentric action of the hamstrings and weakness during concentric action of

  9. Paraspinal muscle morphometry in cervical spondylotic myelopathy and its implications in clinicoradiological outcomes following central corpectomy: clinical article.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thakar, Sumit; Mohan, Dilip; Furtado, Sunil V; Sai Kiran, Narayanam Anantha; Dadlani, Ravi; Aryan, Saritha; Rao, Arun S; Hegde, Alangar S

    2014-08-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the cross-sectional areas (CSAs) of the superficial, deep flexor (DF), and deep extensor (DE) paraspinal muscles in patients with cervical spondylotic myelopathy (CSM), and to evaluate their correlations with functional status and sagittal spinal alignment changes following central corpectomy with fusion and plating. In this retrospective study of 67 patients who underwent central corpectomy with fusion and plating for CSM, the CSAs of the paraspinal muscles were calculated on the preoperative T2-weighted axial MR images and computed as ratios with respect to the corresponding vertebral body areas (VBAs) and as flexor/extensor CSA ratios. These ratios were then compared with those in the normative population and analyzed with respect to various clinicoradiological factors, including pain status, Nurick grade, and segmental angle change at follow-up (SACF). The mean CSA values for all muscle groups and the DF/DE ratio were significantly lower in the study cohort compared with an age- and sex-matched normative study group (p < 0.001). Among various independent variables tested in a multivariate regression analysis, increasing age and female sex significantly predicted a lower total extensor CSA/VBA ratio (p < 0.001), while a longer duration of symptoms significantly predicted a greater total flexor/total extensor CSA ratio (p = 0.02). In patients undergoing single-level corpectomy, graft subsidence had a positive correlation with SACF in all patients (p < 0.05), irrespective of the preoperative segmental angle and curvature, while in patients undergoing 2-level corpectomy, graft subsidence demonstrated such a correlation only in the subgroup with lordotic curvatures (p = 0.02). Among the muscle area ratios, the DF/DE ratio demonstrated a negative correlation with SACF in the subgroup with preoperative straight or kyphotic segmental angles (p = 0.04 in the single corpectomy group, p = 0.01 in the 2-level corpectomy group

  10. Comparative anatomy, homologies and evolution of the pectoral and forelimb musculature of tetrapods with special attention to extant limbed amphibians and reptiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdala, Virginia; Diogo, Rui

    2010-11-01

    The main aim of the present work is to synthesize the information obtained from our dissections of the pectoral and forelimb muscles of representative members of the major extant taxa of limbed amphibians and reptiles and from our review of the literature, in order to provide an account of the comparative anatomy, homologies and evolution of these muscles in the Tetrapoda. The pectoral and forelimb musculature of all these major taxa conform to a general pattern that seems to have been acquired very early in the evolutionary history of tetrapods. Although some muscles are missing in certain taxa, and a clear departure from this general pattern is obviously present in derived groups such as birds, the same overall configuration is easily distinguishable in these taxa. Among the most notable anatomical differences between the groups, one that seems to have relevant evolutionary and functional implications, concerns the distal insertion points of the forearm musculature. In tetrapods, the muscles of the radial and ulnar complexes of the forearm are pleisomorphically mainly inserted onto the radius/ulna or onto the more proximal carpal bones, but in mammals some of these muscles insert more distally onto bones such as the metacarpals. Interestingly, a similar trend towards a more distal insertion of these muscles is also found in some non-mammalian tetrapod taxa, such as some anurans (e.g. Phyllomedusa). This may be correlated with the acquisition of more subtle digital movement abilities in these latter taxa. © 2010 The Authors. Journal of Anatomy © 2010 Anatomical Society of Great Britain and Ireland.

  11. Degree of thoracic kyphosis and peak torque of trunk flexors and extensors among healthy women☆☆☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granito, Renata Neves; Aveiro, Mariana Chaves; Rennó, Ana Claudia Muniz; Oishi, Jorge; Driusso, Patricia

    2014-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to analyze the effects of aging on the degree of thoracic kyphosis and peak torque of the trunk flexor and extensor muscles among women without a densitometric diagnosis of osteoporosis. Methods Thirty women were selected to make up three groups: young women (n = 10; 24.60 ± 2.27 years of age); adults (n = 10; 43.50 ± 2.88); and elderly women (n = 10; 62.40 ± 2.67). Bone mineral density (BMD), degree of thoracic kyphosis and peak torque of the trunk flexors and extensors were evaluated. Differences between the groups were evaluated using the Kruskal–Wallis ANOVA and Mann–Whitney U tests. Pearson's correlation coefficient was used to assess correlations between the variables. The significance level was taken to be 5% (p ≤ 0.05). Results The elderly group presented a greater degree of thoracic kyphosis (p = 0.009) and lower peak torque of the trunk flexors and extensors than the young group. The adult group presented lower peak torque of the trunk than the young group. A negative correlation was observed between age and peak torque of the trunk flexors and extensors (p ≤ 0.001), and a positive correlation between age and the degree of thoracic kyphosis (r = 0.58; p ≤ 0.001). The elderly group presented higher values for the eccentric/concentric ratio of the peak torque for flexors (p = 0.03) and extensors (p = 0.02). Conclusion This study suggests that physiological aging may be associated with a greater degree of thoracic kyphosis and lower muscle strength of the trunk flexors and extensors. Moreover, the elderly women showed a relative capacity for preservation of eccentric strength. PMID:26229814

  12. Retest reliability of measuring hip extensor muscle strength in different testing positions in young people with cerebral palsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background In young people with spastic diplegic cerebral palsy weakness of the hip extensor muscles are associated with limitations in activity. It is important that clinicians can reliably measure hip extensor muscle strength to monitor changes over time and the effects of any interventions. Previous research has demonstrated high reliability for measuring strength of all muscles of the lower limb, with the exception of the hip extensors. Therefore the aim of this study was to examine the retest reliability of measuring hip extensor strength in young people with cerebral palsy. Methods Using a test-retest reliability research design, 19 participants with spastic diplegic cerebral palsy (Gross Motor Function Classification System Levels II and III) (mean 19 y 2 mo [S D 2 y 5 mo]) attended two testing sessions held 12 weeks apart. Three trials with a hand-held dynamometer were taken at each testing session in supine, prone and standing. Retest reliability was calculated with Intraclass Correlation Coefficients (ICC(2,1)) and with units of measurement (kilograms) converted to a percentage strength change. Results ICC values ranged from .74 to .78 in supine, .75 to .80 in prone, and .73 to .75 in standing. To be 95% confident that real change had occurred, an individual's strength would need to increase 55 to 60% in supine, 86 to 102% in prone, and 102 to 105% in standing. To be 95% confident that real change had occurred across groups, strength would need to increase 4 to 8% in supine, 22 to 31% in prone, and 32% to 34% in standing. Higher ICC values were observed when three trials were used for testing. Conclusions The supine testing position was more reliable than the prone or standing testing positions. It is possible to measure hip extensor strength with sufficient reliability to be able monitor change within groups using the supine position provided three trials are used during testing. However, there is insufficient reliability to monitor changes in hip

  13. Quiste dermoide cervical

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yurian Gbenou Morgan

    Full Text Available Los quistes dermoides presentan una incidencia de 1,6 hasta 6,9 % en la región de cabeza y cuello. Se realiza el siguiente reporte de caso clínico con el objetivo de enfatizar en la importancia de un adecuado manejo diagnóstico preoperatorio, para establecer una acertada planificación quirúrgica en la exéresis de este tipo de lesiones de la región cervicofacial. Se presenta el caso clínico de un paciente masculino, de 13 años de edad, quien hacía 3 años se notaba un crecimiento redondeado en región submentoniana, lo cual le ocasionaba molestias al hablar y ligera afectación de su estética facial. Una vez realizados los estudios complementarios preoperatorios, se decide tratamiento quirúrgico, empleando una cervicotomía medial para la extirpación de la lesión quística, dada la ubicación anatómica por debajo del músculo milohiodeo y su gran dimensión. El diagnóstico histopatológico se corresponde con un quiste epidérmico. Se concluye que resulta imprescindible realizar un exhaustivo examen físico e imagenológico, para lograr resultados satisfactorios en el tratamiento quirúrgico del quiste dermoide cervical.

  14. Primary pulley enlargement in zone 2 by incision and repair with an extensor retinaculum graft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunata, Robert E

    2010-05-01

    This retrospective study documents the results of primary enlargement of tendon sheath pulleys by incision and extensor retinaculum graft repair during flexor tendon repairs in zone 2 in 9 fingers. The entire A2 or A4 pulley was enlarged by complete incision and repaired with an interposed extensor retinaculum graft at the time of primary flexor tendon repair in a total of 9 fingers in 7 patients, ages 15 to 54 years. The indication for primary pulley enlargement was failure of the tendon repair to glide smoothly and without snagging through the normally tight-fitting pulley system. In no case was more than one major pulley enlarged, and the entire A1 pulley was never enlarged. The zone 2 tendon repairs were done using a 2-strand modified Kessler 3-0 core suture and a 6-0 nylon running circumferential suture. The follow-up averaged 3.6 years. Interphalangeal total active motion and Strickland-Glogovac grade in patients with adequate follow-up of more than 6 months or obtaining full range of motion were obtained from a retrospective chart review. Interphalangeal total active motion averaged 127 degrees and the scores according to the Strickland-Glogovac system were excellent for 3, good for 2, fair for 2, and poor for 2. There were no tendon ruptures. Two fingers in one patient required a tenolysis and a third finger had secondary skin scar lengthening. Two fingers had visible and palpable bowstringing when seen at long-term follow-up and there was an average flexion contracture of 21 degrees. Primary pulley enlargement using a free graft in zone 2 tendon injuries may achieve the 3 goals of providing a good gliding environment, avoiding triggering, and minimizing bowstringing. These initial clinical outcomes are average for zone 2 tendon repair, but encouraging. Further research and refinement in surgical technique and rehabilitation method are needed to minimize flexion contractures. Copyright 2010 American Society for Surgery of the Hand. Published by Elsevier Inc

  15. CDC Vital Signs: Cervical Cancer is Preventable

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Digital Press Kit Read the MMWR Science Clips Cervical Cancer is Preventable Language: English (US) Español (Spanish) Recommend ... 000 More than 4,000 women die of cervical cancer each year. 93% As many as 93% of ...

  16. Three-level cervical disc herniation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    St. Iencean Andrei

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Multilevel cervical degenerative disc disease is well known in the cervical spine pathology, with radicular syndromes or cervical myelopathy. One or two level cervical herniated disc is common in adult and multilevel cervical degenerative disc herniation is common in the elderly, with spinal stenosis, and have the same cause: the gradual degeneration of the disc. We report the case of a patient with two level cervical disc herniation (C4 – C5 and C5 – C6 treated by anterior cervical microdiscectomy both levels and fusion at C5 – C6; after five years the patient returned with left C7 radiculopathy and MRI provided the image of a left C6 – C7 disc herniation, he underwent an anterior microsurgical discectomy with rapid relief of symptoms. Three-level cervical herniated disc are rare in adults, and the anterior microdiscectomy with or without fusion solve this pathology.

  17. Preventing Cervical Cancer with HPV Vaccines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cervical cancer can be prevented with HPV vaccines. NCI-supported researchers helped establish HPV as a cause of cervical cancer. They also helped create the first HPV vaccines, were involved in the vaccine trials, and contribute to ongoing studies.

  18. Serial transvaginal sonographic measurement of cervical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    length and width were measured. The gestational age at delivery was recorded. Cervical changes were analysed using student – t test with three classifying factors; gestational age (23). Percentile charts were established for cervical length and ...

  19. Post laminoplasty cervical kyphosis—Case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.E. Dugoni

    2014-01-01

    CONCLUSION: The anterior approach is a good surgical option in flexible cervical kyphosis. It is of primary importance the sagittal alignment of the cervical spine in order to decompress the nervous structures and to guarantee a long-term stability.

  20. Cervical spondylosis in Nepalese porters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bista, P; Roka, Y B

    2008-01-01

    Neck pain with or without radiculopathy and myelopathy is a very common problem in clinical practice. The incidence is believed to be higher in subgroups carrying load on their head. It has been reported in literature that radiographic spondylosis is appreciable in 25% to 50% of population by the age of 50 years and 75% to 85% by the age of 65 years. One hundred and nineteen lateral X-rays of cervical spine were analyzed as case-control study in patients between 40 and 50 years age with the objective of finding out proportion of cervical spondylosis in this age group and difference in the prevalence between porters and non-porters. Out of the 119 cases 54 (45.4.2%) were porters and 65 (54.6%) were non-porters. There were 98 (82.4%) males and 21 (17.6%) females. The overall prevalence of radiological cervical spondylosis was 69 (58%). The prevalence of cervical spondylosis was significantly lower (x2=14.795, p=0.0001) in porters in comparison to non-porters. The odds ratio was found to be 0.23 (0.10, 0.53) at 95% confidence interval indicating that portering significantly prohibited development of spondylosis. This study concludes that the overall prevalence of cervical spondylosis in the Nepalese population is slightly higher than in the Caucasian and contrary to other studies there is significantly lower prevalence of such degeneration among the Nepalese porters.

  1. Course prognosis of cervical osteochondrosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kolesov V.N.

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available

    Today we can state that in spite of a considerable number of cervical osteochondrosis studies, there is a lack of research devoted to analysis of its course. There is no correlation between initial expert evaluations of cervical osteo-chondrosis cases and further course of pathological process. Goal of the research is to develop system of course prognosis of cervical osteochondrosis taking into account environmental infuence, heredity, living conditions, psychological profle of patient’s personality. Materials and methods. Dynamics of degenerative-dystrophic changes progressing of cervical vertebrae in 236 patients was analyzed. Results. Received data demonstrated that probability of stage I changing to stage II, III and IV depended on patients’ sex, age and type of labour activity, frequent supercooling and stress. Probability of fast progression of cervical osteochondrosis (5-year cycle of stage I changing to stage III and IV was to a great extent associated with heredity, urban living, presence of endocrine system diseases, syndrome of nonspecifc dysplasia of connective tissue and low indices of quality of life. Conclusion. Proposed system allows making prognosis of morphologic changes in spinal cord, and is based on radiation methods of verifcation without taking into consideration dynamics of neurological symptomatology.

  2. Effect of training on contractile and metabolic properties of wrist extensors in spinal cord-injured individuals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hartkopp, Andreas; Harridge, Stephen D R; Mizuno, Masao

    2003-01-01

    Paretic human muscle rapidly loses strength and oxidative endurance, and electrical stimulation training may partly reverse this. We evaluated the effects of two training protocols on the contractile and metabolic properties of the wrist extensor in 12 C-5/6 tetraplegic individuals. The wrist...... by (31)P nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy ((31)P-NMRS) during and following a continuous 40-s 10-HZ contraction. In the Hr group the cost of contraction decreased by 38% (P ... induced stimulation of the wrist extensor muscles in spinal cord injury (SCI) increases fatigue resistance independent of training pattern. However, only the Hr protocol increased muscle strength and was shown to improve muscle aerobic metabolism after training. Muscle Nerve 27: 72-80, 2003...

  3. Kinaesthetic ipsilateral and crossed extensor plantar response: A new way to elicit upgoing toe sign (Babinski response?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abraham Kuruvilla

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We describe a phenomenon of "kinaesthetic extensor plantar response" in advanced pyramidal dysfunction, an interesting observation noted in a patient with dorsal myelopathy. A 44-year-old woman presented with one-year history of gradually progressive weakness and stiffness of both lower limbs along with urge incontinence of urine. Examination showed spontaneous elicitation of extensor plantar response while assessing the tone by rolling method as well as on noxious stimulation of the thigh. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI of the dorsal spine and digital subtraction angiography showed the presence of spinal dural arteriovenous fistula causing myelopathy. This case exemplifies the fact that in advanced pyramidal dysfunction, not only the receptive field of Babinski reflex may extend to the leg or thigh, but may also integrate with other modalities of stimulation, such as the rolling movement. The possible underlying pathophysiology of such a phenomenon is discussed.

  4. Foot varus in stroke patients: muscular activity of extensor digitorum longus during the swing phase of gait.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynard, F; Dériaz, O; Bergeau, J

    2009-06-01

    Hemiparetic patients often present an abnormal leg muscles balance that can lead to foot deformities like equinovarus or varus. To assess whether a muscle imbalance between tibialis anterior and extensor digitorum longus was associated with a varus deformity of the foot during the swing phase of gait in stroke patients. Twenty hemiparetic patients presenting a foot varus during the swing phase of gait were compared to 16 healthy subjects. Gait was analyzed by video recording and by surface electromyography. Duration and magnitude of electromyographic signal were collected for tibialis anterior and extensor digitorum longus. Presence of an activity of the calf muscles during the swing phase was also evaluated. Hemiparetic patients exhibited more often premature activity of the calf muscles (pextensor digitorum longus (pextensor digitorum longus activity (pextensor digitorum longus muscle during the swing phase of gait is important to balance the foot in the frontal plane. The activation of that muscle should be included in rehabilitation programs.

  5. Influence of acetaminophen and ibuprofen on in vivo patellar tendon adaptations to knee extensor resistance exercise in older adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carroll, C C; Dickinson, J M; LeMoine, J K

    2011-01-01

    . These responses were generally uninfluenced by ibuprofen consumption. In the acetaminophen group, tendon deformation and strain increased 20% (P knee extensor resistance training in older...... training. Thirty-six individuals were randomly assigned to a placebo (67 ± 2 yr old), acetaminophen (64 ± 1 yr old; 4,000 mg/day), or ibuprofen (64 ± 1 yr old; 1,200 mg/day) group in a double-blind manner and completed 12 wk of knee extensor resistance training. Before and after training in vivo patellar...... tendon properties were assessed with MRI [cross-sectional area (CSA) and signal intensity] and ultrasonography of patellar tendon deformation coupled with force measurements to obtain stiffness, modulus, stress, and strain. Mean patellar tendon CSA was unchanged (P > 0.05) with training in the placebo...

  6. Comparison of polyetheretherketone (PEEK) cage and cervical disc prostheses used in anterior cervical microscopic discectomy operations

    OpenAIRE

    Bahadir Alkan; Murat Cosar; Mustafa Guven; Adem Bozkurt Aras; Tarik Akman

    2017-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to radiologically and clinically compare the polyetheretherketone (PEEK) cage and cervical disc prostheses used in anterior cervical microdiscectomy operations during the postoperative period. Methods: The study evaluated 25 cervical disc hernia patients. The cervical disc prosthesis group (Group A) comprised 10 patients while the PEEK cage group (Group B) comprised 15 patients. Before and after the operation, the cervical graphics from radiological mon...

  7. Pregnancy complications and outcome following cervical cerclage ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To determine the Pregnancy Complications and Outcome following Cervical Cerclage Operations. Subject: The case records of 76 patients who underwent Cervical Cerclage Operation for Cervical incompetent at the University of Maiduguri Teaching Hospital between January, 1983 and December 1999 inclusive ...

  8. Fusion around cervical disc prosthesis: case report.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bartels, R.H.M.A.; Donk, R.

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVE AND IMPORTANCE: Cervical arthroplasty is a relatively new method to maintain motion after cervical anterior discectomy. Two cases are presented in which bony fusion occurred around a cervical disc prosthesis. CLINICAL PRESENTATION: A 30-year-old man and a 49-year-old woman underwent a

  9. Cervical disc hernia operations through posterior laminoforaminotomy

    OpenAIRE

    Yolas, Coskun; Ozdemir, Nuriye Guzin; Okay, Hilmi Onder; Kanat, Ayhan; Senol, Mehmet; Atci, Ibrahim Burak; Yilmaz, Hakan; Coban, Mustafa Kemal; Yuksel, Mehmet Onur; Kahraman, Umit

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The most common used technique for posterolateral cervical disc herniations is anterior approach. However, posterior cervical laminotoforaminomy can provide excellent results in appropriately selected patients with foraminal stenosis in either soft disc prolapse or cervical spondylosis. The purpose of this study was to present the clinical outcomes following posterior laminoforaminotomy in patients with radiculopathy. Materials and Methods: We retrospectively evaluated 35 patients ...

  10. Cervical Cancer Vaccination | Ajiboye | Tropical Journal of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: This article provides an overview of cervical cancer vaccine including safety, efficacy and cost in the primary prevention of cervical cancer. Discussion: The quadrivalent human papilloma virus (HPV) vaccine protects against HPV types 6, 11, 16 and 18. These HPV types are responsible for 70% of cervical cancers ...

  11. The influence of passive stretch on the growth and protein turnover of the denervated extensor digitorum longus muscle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldspink, David F.

    1978-01-01

    At 7 days after cutting the sciatic nerve, the extensor digitorum longus muscle was smaller and contained less protein than its innervated control. Correlating with these changes was the finding of elevated rates of protein degradation (measured in vitro) in the denervated tissue. However, at this time, rates of protein synthesis (measured in vitro) and nucleic acid concentrations were also higher in the denervated tissue, changes more usually associated with an active muscle rather than a disused one. These anabolic trends have, at least in part, been explained by the possible greater exposure of the denervated extensor digitorum longus to passive stretch. When immobilized under a maintained influence of stretch the denervated muscle grew to a greater extent. Although this stretch-induced growth appeared to occur predominantly through a stimulation of protein synthesis, it was opposed by smaller increases in degradative rates. Nucleic acids increased at a similar rate to the increase in muscle mass when a continuous influence of stretch was imposed on the denervated tissue. In contrast, immobilization of the denervated extensor digitorum longus in a shortened unstretched state reversed most of the stretch-induced changes; that is, the muscle became even smaller, with protein synthesis decreasing to a greater extent than breakdown after the removal of passive stretch. The present investigation suggests that stretch will promote protein synthesis and hence growth of the extensor digitorum longus even in the absence of an intact nerve supply. However, some factor(s), in addition to passive stretch, must contribute to the anabolic trends in this denervated muscle. PMID:708412

  12. Electrophysiological assessment of piano players’ back extensor muscles on a regular piano bench and chair with back rest

    OpenAIRE

    Honarmand, Kavan; Minaskanian, Rafael; Maboudi, Seyed Ebrahim; Oskouei, Ali E.

    2018-01-01

    [Purpose] Sitting position is the dominant position for a professional pianist. There are many static and dynamic forces which affect musculoskeletal system during sitting. In prolonged sitting, these forces are harmful. The aim of this study was to compare pianists’ back extensor muscles activity during playing piano while sitting on a regular piano bench and a chair with back rest. [Subjects and Methods] Ten professional piano players (mean age 25.4 ± 5.28, 60% male, 40% female) performed s...

  13. Bilateral knee extensor fatigue modulates force and responsiveness of the corticospinal pathway in thenon-fatigued, dominant elbow flexors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nemanja eŠambaher

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Exercise-induced fatigue affects muscle performance and modulates corticospinal excitability in non-exercised muscles. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of bilateral knee extensor fatigue on dominant elbow flexor (EF maximal voluntary force production and corticospinal excitability. Transcranial magnetic, transmastoid electrical and brachial plexus electrical stimulation were used to investigate corticospinal, spinal, and muscle excitability of the dominant EF before and after a bilateral knee extensor fatiguing protocol or time matched rest period (control. For both sessions three stimuli were delivered every 1.5s during the three pre-test time points and during the 1st, 3rd, 6th, 9th and 12th post-test 5s EF isometric maximal voluntary contractions (MVC. In both conditions, Overall, EF MVC force (p< 0.001 decreased progressively from repetition #1 to #12 during the post-test MVC protocol. EF MVC force (p < 0.001, ES = 0.9, ∆ 10.3% decrements were more pronounced in the knee extensor fatigue intervention condition. In addition, there were no significant differences between conditions for biceps brachii electromyographic (EMG activity (p = 0.43, motor evoked potentials (MEP amplitude (p=0.908 or MEP silent period (p=0.776. However, the fatigue condition exhibited a lower MEP/ cervico-medullary MEP (CMEP ratio (p=0.042, ES=2.5, ∆25% and a trend toward higher CMEP values (p=0.08, ES=0.5, ∆20.4%. These findings suggest that bilateral knee extensor fatigue can impair performance and modulate corticospinal excitability of the EF.

  14. Attritional rupture of extensor pollicis longus: a rare complication following elastic stable intramedullary nailing of a paediatric radial fracture.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Sproule, James A

    2011-01-01

    Elastic stable intramedullary nail fixation has become established as an acceptable method of treatment for diaphyseal fractures of both forearm bones in the paediatric population. It is considered safe, minimally invasive and does not compromise physeal growth. We report a case of delayed rupture of extensor pollicis longus due to attrition over the sharp edges of a protruding nail end after elastic stable intramedullary nailing of a paediatric radial diaphyseal fracture.

  15. Functional and morphological adaptations to aging in knee extensor muscles of physically active men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baroni, Bruno Manfredini; Geremia, Jeam Marcel; Rodrigues, Rodrigo; Borges, Marcelo Krás; Jinha, Azim; Herzog, Walter; Vaz, Marco Aurélio

    2013-10-01

    It is not known if a physically active lifestyle, without systematic training, is sufficient to combat age-related muscle and strength loss. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to evaluate if the maintenance of a physically active lifestyle prevents muscle impairments due to aging. To address this issue, we evaluated 33 healthy men with similar physical activity levels (IPAQ = 2) across a large range of ages. Functional (torque-angle and torque-velocity relations) and morphological (vastus lateralis muscle architecture) properties of the knee extensor muscles were assessed and compared between three age groups: young adults (30 ± 6 y), middle-aged subjects (50 ± 7 y) and elderly subjects (69 ± 5 y). Isometric peak torques were significantly lower (30% to 36%) in elderly group subjects compared with the young adults. Concentric peak torques were significantly lower in the middle aged (18% to 32%) and elderly group (40% to 53%) compared with the young adults. Vastus lateralis thickness and fascicles lengths were significantly smaller in the elderly group subjects (15.8 ± 3.9 mm; 99.1 ± 25.8 mm) compared with the young adults (19.8 ± 3.6 mm; 152.1 ± 42.0 mm). These findings suggest that a physically active lifestyle, without systematic training, is not sufficient to avoid loss of strength and muscle mass with aging.

  16. Functional Strength Training Effects on Knee Flexors and Extensors Power Output in Football Players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Izet Radjo

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Study aim was to compare and reevaluate effects of additional strength training program in football players after eight week application. Program was design to increase power and strength of knee extensors and flexors using neuromuscular adaptation. In overall, 18 senior level football players completed intervention in preparation period executing program as part of warm up 2-3 times per week. Using t-test for dependent samples statistical significance of the possible change was evaluated in peak torque, total and average work changes measured using Biodex isokinetic dynamometer. All measuring procedures were done for both limbs. Results are suggesting that statistically significant change observed in both limbs for the peak power output and average work load in flexion and extension, respectively. Other research papers are suggesting that increase of power and strength of knee muscles can help in preventing of injurie occurrence. LCA injurie can be prevention when femoral biceps strength is increase. This training modality based on neuromuscular adaptation is noninvasive with good effects in performance increase. Using training loads with body weight intensity is a good way to establish prevention to possible knee injurie with simultaneous power increase, with minimum of chance to reach unwanted overtraining.

  17. Sex Differences in Neuromuscular Fatigability of the Knee Extensors Post-Stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meghan Kirking

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Purpose: Despite the implications of optimizing strength training post-stroke, little is known about the differences in fatigability between men and women with chronic stroke. The purpose of this study was to determine the sex differences in knee extensor muscle fatigability and potential mechanisms in individuals with stroke. Methods: Eighteen participants (10 men, eight women with chronic stroke (≥6 months and 23 (12 men, 11 women nonstroke controls participated in the study. Participants performed an intermittent isometric contraction task (6 s contraction, 3 s rest at 30% of maximal voluntary contraction (MVC torque until failure to maintain the target torque. Electromyography was used to determine muscle activation and contractile properties were assessed with electrical stimulation of the quadriceps muscles. Results: Individuals with stroke had a briefer task duration (greater fatigability than nonstroke individuals (24.1 ± 17 min vs. 34.9 ± 16 min. Men were more fatigable than women for both nonstroke controls and individuals with stroke (17.9 ± 9 min vs. 41.6 ± 15 min. Individuals with stroke had less fatigue-related changes in muscle contractile properties and women with stroke differed in their muscle activation strategy during the fatiguing contractions. Conclusions: Men and women fatigue differently post-stroke and this may be due to the way they neurally activate muscle groups.

  18. Effect of mental fatigue on induced tremor in human knee extensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budini, Francesco; Lowery, Madeleine; Durbaba, Rade; De Vito, Giuseppe

    2014-06-01

    In this study, the effects of mental fatigue on mechanically induced tremor at both a low (3-6Hz) and high (8-12Hz) frequency were investigated. The two distinct tremor frequencies were evoked using two springs of different stiffness, during 20s sustained contractions of the knee extensor muscles at 30% maximum voluntary contraction (MVC) before and after 100min of a mental fatigue task, in 12 healthy (29±3.7years) participants. Mental fatigue resulted in a 6.9% decrease in MVC and in a 9.4% decrease in the amplitude of the agonist muscle EMG during sustained 30% MVC contractions in the induced high frequency only. Following the mental fatigue task, the coefficient of variation and standard deviation of the force signal decreased at 8-12Hz induced tremor by 31.7% and 35.2% respectively, but not at 3-6Hz induced tremor. Similarly, the maximum value and area underneath the peak in the power spectrum of the force signal decreased by 55.5% and 53.1% respectively in the 8-12Hz range only. In conclusion, mental fatigue decreased mechanically induced 8-12Hz tremor and had no effect on induced 3-6Hz tremor. We suggest that the reduction could be attributed to the decreased activation of the agonist muscles. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Isometric knee extensor fatigue following a Wingate test: peripheral and central mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez-del-Olmo, M; Rodriguez, F A; Marquez, G; Iglesias, X; Marina, M; Benitez, A; Vallejo, L; Acero, R M

    2013-02-01

    Central and peripheral fatigue have been explored during and after running or cycling exercises. However, the fatigue mechanisms associated with a short maximal cycling exercise (30 s Wingate test) have not been investigated. In this study, 10 volunteer subjects performed several isometric voluntary contractions using the leg muscle extensors before and after two bouts of cycling at 25% of maximal power output and two bouts of Wingate tests. Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) and electrical motor nerve stimulation (NM) were applied at rest and during the voluntary contractions. Maximal voluntary contraction (MVC), voluntary activation (VA), twitch amplitude evoked by electrical nerve stimulation, M wave and motor potential evoked by TMS (MEP) were recorded. MVC, VA and twitch amplitude evoked at rest by NM decreased significantly after the first and second Wingate tests, indicating central and peripheral fatigue. MVC and VA, but not the twitch amplitude evoked by NM, recovered before the second Wingate test. These results suggest that the Wingate test results in a decrease in MVC associated with peripheral and central fatigue. While the peripheral fatigue is associated with an intramuscular impairment, the central fatigue seems to be the main reason for the Wingate test-induced impairment of MVC. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  20. Electrical stimulation of human forearm extensor muscles as an indicator of handgrip fatigue and recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byström, S; Kilbom, A

    1991-01-01

    A set-up for percutaneous electrical stimulation of the forearm extensor muscles and measurement of wrist extension force is described. The frequency-force relationship and pulse duration-force relationship are described together with an experimental protocol showing that brief electrical test stimulations do not produce fatigue. In another set of experiments carried out a few weeks later, the subjects performed handgrip contractions: protocol A at 25% of maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) continuously until exhaustion, protocol B at 25% MVC intermittent (contraction + relaxation = 10 + 2 s) until exhaustion, and protocol C at 25% MVC intermittent until half the time to exhaustion. In all experiments, brief electrical stimulations were used to test the degree of fatigue during and up to 24 h after the experiments. There were marked changes in the force during stimulation at 20 and 100 Hz and these changes did not correlate with the increase in intramuscular temperature. Low frequency fatigue persisted for at least 24 h after protocol A and 1 h after protocols B and C. The significance of this is discussed and it is suggested that low frequency fatigue could be used as a sensitive indicator of muscle dysfunction after low and medium intensity exercise.

  1. Fatigue resistance of the knee extensor muscles is not reduced in post-polio syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voorn, Eric L; Beelen, Anita; Gerrits, Karin H L; Nollet, Frans; de Haan, Arnold

    2013-11-01

    The present study investigated whether intrinsic fatigability of the muscle fibers is reduced in patients with post-polio syndrome (PPS). This may contribute to the muscle fatigue complaints reported by patients with PPS. For this purpose, we assessed contractile properties and fatigue resistance of the knee extensor muscles using repeated isometric electrically evoked contractions in 38 patients with PPS and 19 age-matched healthy subjects. To determine whether any difference in fatigue resistance between both groups could be attributed to differences in aerobic capacity of the muscle fibers, 9 patients with PPS and 11 healthy subjects performed the same protocol under arterial occlusion. Results showed that fatigue resistance of patients with PPS was comparable to that in controls, both in the situation with intact circulation and with occluded blood flow. Together, our findings suggest that there are no differences in contractile properties and aerobic muscle capacity that may account for the increased muscle fatigue perceived in PPS. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Origins of Common Neural Inputs to Different Compartments of the Extensor Digitorum Communis Muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Chenyun; Shin, Henry; Davis, Bradley; Hu, Xiaogang

    2017-10-24

    The extensor digitorum communis (EDC) is a multi-compartment muscle that allows dexterous extension of the four digits. However, the level of common input shared across different compartments of this muscle is not well understood. We seek to systematically characterize the common and independent neural input, originated from different levels of the central nervous system, to the different compartments. A motor unit (MU) coherence analysis was used to capture the different sources of common and independent input, by quantifying the coherence of MU discharge between different compartments. The MU activities were obtained from decomposition of surface electromyogram recordings. Our results showed that the MU coherence across different muscle compartments accounted for only a small proportion (60%) in the delta (1-4 Hz) band. Additionally, cross-compartment coherence between the middle and ring-little fingers tended to be higher as compared with other finger combinations. Overall, the common input shared across different fingers are found to be at low to moderate levels, in comparison with the total input, which allows dexterous control of individual digits with some degree of coordinated control of multiple digits.

  3. Effects of methylmercury on the motor and sensory innervation of the rat extensor digitorum longus muscle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yip, R.K.; Riley, D.A.

    1987-06-01

    The histochemical study examined the effects of chronic methylmercury (MeHg) intoxication on the motor and sensory innervation of extensor digitorum longus muscles. Light microscopic examination of silver-stained axons in the intramuscular nerve bundles of MeHg-treated rats showed Wallerian-like degeneration and a reduction in the number of nerve fibers. Disrupted axons were predominantly sensory because 22.2% of spindle afferents (I/sub a/) and 90.0% of Golgi tendon organ (I/sub b/) sensory fibers were completely degenerated whereas less than 1% of motor ending were totally destroyed. Partial disruption occurred in the cholinesterase and motor terminals of 13.7% of endplates. Their results demonstrated greater vulnerability of sensory nerves than of motor nerves to MeHg-induced degeneration. Thus, the abnormal reflexes, ataxia, and muscle weakness following MeHg poisoning appear related to reduction of proprioceptive feedback from muscles and tendons irradiation to the documented lesions in the central nervous system.

  4. Heat stress attenuates skeletal muscle atrophy of extensor digitorum longus in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nonaka, K; Une, S; Akiyama, J

    2015-09-01

    To investigate whether heat stress attenuates skeletal muscle atrophy of the extensor digitorum longus (EDL) muscle in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats, 12-week-old male Wistar rats were randomly assigned to four groups (n = 6 per group): control (Con), heat stress (HS), diabetes mellitus (DM), and diabetes mellitus/heat stress (DM + HS). Diabetes was induced by intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin (50 mg/kg). Heat stress was induced in the HS and DM + HS groups by immersion of the lower half of the body in hot water at 42 °C for 30 min; it was initiated 7 days after injection of streptozotocin, and was performed once a day, five times a week for 3 weeks. The muscle fiber cross-sectional area of EDL muscles from diabetic and non-diabetic rats was determined; heat stress protein (HSP) 72 and HSP25 expression levels were also analyzed by western blotting. Diabetes-induced muscle fiber atrophy was attenuated upon heat stress treatment in diabetic rats. HSP72 and HSP25 expression was upregulated in the DM + HS group compared with the DM group. Our findings suggest that heat stress attenuates atrophy of the EDL muscle by upregulating HSP72 and HSP25 expression.

  5. Truncated dystrophins reduce muscle stiffness in the extensor digitorum longus muscle of mdx mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hakim, Chady H; Duan, Dongsheng

    2013-02-15

    Muscle stiffness is a major clinical feature in Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD). DMD is the most common lethal inherited muscle-wasting disease in boys, and it is caused by the lack of the dystrophin protein. We recently showed that the extensor digitorum longus (EDL) muscle of mdx mice (a DMD mouse model) exhibits disease-associated muscle stiffness. Truncated micro- and mini-dystrophins are the leading candidates for DMD gene therapy. Unfortunately, it has never been clear whether these truncated genes can mitigate muscle stiffness. To address this question, we examined the passive properties of the EDL muscle in transgenic mdx mice that expressed a representative mini- or micro-gene (ΔH2-R15, ΔR2-15/ΔR18-23/ΔC, or ΔR4-23/ΔC). The passive properties were measured at the ages of 6 and 20 mo and compared with those of age-matched wild-type and mdx mice. Despite significant truncation of the gene, surprisingly, the elastic and viscous properties were completely restored to the wild-type level in every transgenic strain we examined. Our results demonstrated for the first time that truncated dystrophin genes may effectively treat muscle stiffness in DMD.

  6. Properties of regenerated mouse extensor digitorum longus muscle following notexin injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Head, S I; Houweling, P J; Chan, S; Chen, G; Hardeman, E C

    2014-04-01

    Muscles of mdx mice are known to be more susceptible to contraction-induced damage than wild-type muscle. However, it is not clear whether this is because of dystrophin deficiency or because of the abnormal branching morphology of dystrophic muscle fibres. This distinction has an important bearing on our traditional understanding of the function of dystrophin as a mechanical stabilizer of the sarcolemma. In this study, we address the question: 'Does dystrophin-positive, regenerated muscle containing branched fibres also show an increased susceptibility to contraction-induced damage?' We produced a model of fibre branching by injecting dystrophin-positive extensor digitorum longus muscles with notexin. The regenerated muscle was examined at 21 days postinjection. Notexin-injected muscle contained 29% branched fibres and was not more susceptible to damage from mild eccentric contractions than contralateral saline-injected control muscle. Regenerated muscles also had greater mass, greater cross-sectional area and lower specific force than control muscles. We conclude that the number of branched fibres in this regenerated muscle is below the threshold needed to increase susceptibility to damage. However, it would serve as an ideal control for muscles of young mdx mice, allowing for clearer differentiation of the effects of dystrophin deficiency from the effects of fibre regeneration and morphology.

  7. Regeneration of muscle fibers in the extensor digitorum longus muscle of the aged rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desaki, Junzo

    2008-04-01

    Regeneration of muscle fibers was observed in the extensor digitorum longus (EDL) muscle of aged (24 and 27 months) Wistar rats. The aged muscles consisted almost exclusively of medium-sized muscle fibers. In addition to degenerating and/or atrophied muscle fibers, very small muscle fibers <10 mum in diameter were observed in some muscle bundles which sporadically distributed in the muscle. In the degenerating muscle fibers, satellite cells mostly appeared to be normal, possibly surviving within the scaffold of basal lamina to form new (regenerating) muscle fibers. However, some of the satellite cells were degenerated and destroyed, suggesting the decrease in number of muscle fibers. On the other hand, very small muscle fibers existed between small and/or medium-sized muscle fibers or in the wide interstitial spaces between them solitarily or in small groups. In addition, immature muscle cells having a centrally located nucleus and sporadically distributed myofilaments were observed among the small and/or medium-sized muscle fibers and partially lacked a layer of basal lamina. These immature muscle cells were often closely apposed to fibroblasts with some slender cytoplasmic processes and/or to each other without an interposing basal lamina. These findings suggest that in addition to satellite cells within the basal lamina tubes, some of the regenerating muscle fibers in the aged EDL muscle may be originated from mesenchymal cells such as fibroblasts in the interstitial spaces.

  8. Intratendinous ganglion cyst of the extensor digitorum longus tendon: A case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Cal; Kocialkowski, Cezary; Bhosale, Abhijit; Pillai, Anand

    2016-06-01

    Ganglion cysts are benign lesions, common in the hand and wrist. Intratendinous ganglion, however, are rare. We present the first reported case of an intratendinous ganglion cyst in an extensor digitorum longus (EDL) tendon of the foot. A 35-year old presented with a left-sided painful dorsolateral foot swelling. Ultrasound suggested a ganglion cyst in proximity to the EDL tendon of the 5th toe. Two distinct swellings were identified on surgical exploration, including a 6×1cm ganglion lying within the EDL tendon substance that had resulted in tendon splitting. The lesions were excised and EDL tendon repaired. Histological analysis confirmed that both lesions were ganglion cysts. Post-operative recovery was uneventful. Intratendinous ganglion cysts are rare lesions that pose a unique set of diagnostic and treatment challenges. Unlike conventional ganglion, their diagnosis may not be possible until surgical exploration. They have been reported to increase the risk of spontaneous tendon rupture. As such, a lower operative threshold should be applied to prevent their progression. A high index of suspicion should be applied to any ganglion reported radiologically to be in close contact with tendons. If diagnosed upon surgical exploration, it is essential that the operating surgeon is prepared to appropriately modify the procedure to involve primary tendon repair, tendon transfer or tenodesis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Structural changes of microvessels in the extensor digitorum longus muscle of the aged rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desaki, Junzo; Nishida, Naoya

    2007-08-01

    We examined the structural changes of microvessels (arterioles, capillaries, and venules) in the extensor digitorum longus muscle of the aged (27 months) rat. Muscle bundles in the aged muscle almost consisted of medium-sized muscle fibers which were peculiar in the aged EDL muscle. However, microvessels in and around these muscle bundles varied in shape. Degenerating capillaries and scaffolds of basal laminae remaining after necrosis of preexisting capillaries were frequently observed around these medium-sized muscle fibers. In addition, the vascular lumen was often very narrow or irregular slit-like. In terminal and precapillary arterioles, the endothelium and smooth muscle cells showed a constricted appearance and their vascular lumen was often irregular slit-like, probably playing an important role in intercepting the blood flow into the disrupted capillaries. Moreover, some venules had the slit-like vascular lumen, sawtooth-like endothelium and thick or multilayered basal laminae, and occasional erythrocytes were found outside the endothelium, probably indicating that these venules are in the course of regeneration. These findings suggest that in addition to the frequent destruction of capillaries, the structural changes of arterioles and venules may be involved in remodeling the microvasculature of the muscle bundles after maturation of regenerating muscle fibers.

  10. Different pattern of aquaporin-4 expression in extensor digitorum longus and soleus during early development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicchia, Grazia P; Mola, Maria G; Pisoni, Michela; Frigeri, Antonio; Svelto, Maria

    2007-05-01

    Aquaporin-4 (AQP4) is the neuromuscular water channel expressed at the sarcolemma of mammalian fast-twitch fibers that mediates a high water transport rate, which is important during muscle activity. Clinical interest in the neuromuscular expression of AQP4 has increased as it is associated with the protein complex formed by dystrophin, the product of the gene affected in Duchenne muscular dystrophy. The expression of AQP4 during development has not been characterized. In this study, we analyzed the expression of AQP4 in extensor digitorum longus (EDL) and soleus, a fast- and slow-twitch muscle, respectively, during the first weeks after birth. The results show that AQP4 expression in both types of skeletal muscle occurs postnatally. The time course of expression of AQP4 in the two types of muscles was also different. Whereas the expression of AQP4 protein levels in the EDL showed a progressive increase during the first month after birth, reaching levels found in adults by day 24, the levels of the protein in the soleus showed a transient peak between day 12 and day 24 and declined thereafter, an effect that may be related to the transient high number of fast motor units innervating the soleus muscle during this time. The results suggest that AQP4 expression in skeletal muscle is under neuronal influence and contribute to the understanding of the molecular events of fiber differentiation during development.

  11. Passive mechanical properties of maturing extensor digitorum longus are not affected by lack of dystrophin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolff, Andrew V; Niday, Ashley K; Voelker, Kevin A; Call, Jarrod A; Evans, Nicholas P; Granata, Kevin P; Grange, Robert W

    2006-09-01

    Mechanical weakness of skeletal muscle is thought to contribute to onset and early progression of Duchenne muscular dystrophy, but this has not been systematically assessed. The purpose of this study was to determine in mice: (1) whether the passive mechanical properties of maturing dystrophic (mdx) muscles were different from control; and (2) if different, the time during maturation when these properties change. Prior to and following the overt onset of the dystrophic process (14-35 days), control and dystrophic extensor digitorum longus (EDL) muscles were subjected to two passive stretch protocols in vitro (5% strain at instantaneous and 1.5 L(0)/s strain rates). Force profiles were fit to a viscoelastic muscle model to determine stiffness and damping. The mdx and control EDL muscles exhibited similar passive mechanical properties at each age, suggesting a functional threshold for dystrophic muscle below which damage may be minimized. Determining this threshold may have important clinical implications for treatments of muscular dystrophy involving physical activity.

  12. Aging impairs regulation of ryanodine receptors from extensor digitorum longus but not soleus muscles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaboardi, Angela J; Kressler, Jochen; Snow, Teresa K; Balog, Edward M

    2018-01-09

    Because impaired excitation-contraction coupling and reduced sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) Ca 2+ release may contribute to the age-associated decline in skeletal muscle strength, we investigated the effect of aging on regulation of the skeletal muscle isoform of the ryanodine receptor (RyR1) by physiological channel ligands. [ 3 H]Ryanodine binding to membranes from 8- and 26-month-old Fischer 344 extensor digitorum longus (EDL) and soleus muscles was used to investigate the effects of age on RyR1 modulation by Ca 2+ and calmodulin (CaM). Aging reduced maximal Ca 2+ -stimulated binding to EDL membranes. In 0.3 μM Ca 2+ , age reduced binding and CaM increased binding to EDL membranes. In 300 μM Ca 2+ , CaM reduced binding, but the age effect was not significant. Aging did not affect Ca 2+ or CaM regulation of soleus RyR1. In aged fast-twitch muscle, impaired RyR1 Ca 2+ regulation may contribute to lower SR Ca 2+ release and reduced muscle function. Muscle Nerve, 2018. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. The innervation of extensor hallucis longus muscle: an anatomical study for selective neurotomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vittoria, Nazzi; Giuseppe, Messina; Ivano, Dones; Giovanni, Broggi

    2009-10-01

    This study is aimed to describe the observable anatomical variants of the innervation of extensor hallucis longus muscle (EHLM) in order to have the surgical coordinates to perform neurotomy on the targeted branches of its innervation and to give a valuable alternative to the commonly used technique of fascicular subepineurial neurotomy in patients affected by toe hyperextension dystonia. In 15 fresh cadavers of adults, 29 lower limbs (14 right and 15 left) were studied. Anatomical dissections to isolate the innervating branches of EHLM were performed. Each branch from EHLM was analyzed by microscopical opening of the epineurium to observe the number of nerve fascicles. Various measurements were made to obtain anatomical coordinates for surgery. The distance between the most prominent point of the head of the fibula and the origin of the nervous branches innervating the EHLM is not proportional to the length of the leg. In 72.4% of the studied legs, the distance between the origin of the first branch innervating the EHLM and the origin of the deep peroneal nerve is 7 +/- 2 cm. In 80% of legs, the distance between the origin of the second branch and the origin of the deep peroneal nerve is 10 +/- 1.1 cm. In only one limb with double innervation, two fascicles were found, while in six limbs (25%) only one fascicle was found. This anatomical study traced some valuable surgical coordinates useful for the execution of a selective peripheral neurotomy on the nerve branch innervating the EHLM.

  14. In vivo moment arm lengths for hip extensor muscles at different angles of hip flexion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Németh, G; Ohlsén, H

    1985-01-01

    Moment arm lengths of three hip extensor muscles, the gluteus maximus, the hamstrings and the adductor magnus, were determined at hip flexion angles from 0 degrees to 90 degrees by combining data from ten autopsy specimens and from twenty patients, the latter examined by computed tomography. A straight-line muscle model for muscle force was used for the hamstrings and adductor magnus, and for the gluteus maximus a two-segment straight-line muscle force model was used. With the joint in its anatomical position the moment arm of the gluteus maximus to the bilateral motion axis averaged 79 mm, for the hamstrings 61 mm and for the adductor magnus 15 mm. The moment arm of gluteus maximus decreased with increasing hip flexion angle. The hamstrings showed an increase in moment arm length up to an average of 35 degrees hip flexion and then a decrease with increasing hip flexion angle. The corresponding figures for the adductor magnus moment arm showed an increase up to 75 degrees and then a decrease. Statistical analysis revealed significant differences in moment arm length between men and women.

  15. Effects of endurance training on the maximal voluntary activation level of the knee extensor muscles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zghal, F; Martin, V; Thorkani, A; Arnal, P J; Tabka, Z; Cottin, F

    2014-04-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the neural adaptations to endurance training, and more specifically the adaptation of the cortical voluntary activation of the knee extensor (KE) muscles. Sixteen sedentary men were randomly allocated into an endurance training (n = 8) or a control group (n = 8). All subjects performed a maximal aerobic speed test (MAS) before and immediately after the training period. Training lasted 8 weeks and was based on endurance running. During Pre- and Post-training testing sessions, maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) was measured and voluntary activation (VA) was calculated via peripheral nerve (PNS) and transcranial magnetic stimulations (TMS) superimposed to MVC. Electromyographic activity (EMG) of the KE muscles was also measured during MVC, PNS (M-wave) and TMS (motor evoked potentials-MEP). The cortical silent period following TMS was also assessed. Despite a significant improvement in endurance running performance, as suggested by the increase of MAS in the training group (Pre 15.4 ± 1.6 vs. Post 16.4 ± 1.6 km·h(-1)), endurance training did not affect MVC or VA as measured with PNS and TMS. Similarly, the EMG of KE muscles during MVC did not show any significant changes. Furthermore, the MEP amplitude and the duration of the silent period also remained unchanged after endurance training. The present study suggests an 8-week endurance-training program does not generate adaptations of neural factors in sedentary subjects.

  16. Back extensor muscle endurance test scores in coal miners in Australia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stewart, M.; Latimer, J.; Jamieson, M. [University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW (Australia). Faculty of Health and Science, School of Physiotherapy

    2003-06-01

    Low back pain is a common complaint among those working in the Australian coal mining industry. One test that may be predictive of first-time episodes of low back pain is the Biering-Sorensen test of back extensor endurance strength. While this test has been evaluated in overseas sedentary populations, normative data and the discriminative ability of the test have not been evaluated with coal miners. Eighty-eight coal miners completed a questionnaire for known risk factors for low back pain, performed the Biering-Sorensen test, and undertook a test of aerobic fitness. Data analysis was performed to describe the groups and to determine whether any significant difference existed between those with a past history of low back pain and those without. Significantly lower than expected holding times were found in this group of coal miners (mean 113 s). This result was significantly lower than demonstrated in previous studies. When holding times for those with a past history of low back pain were compared with times for those with no history of low back pain, the difference was not statistically significant, nor was there a significant difference in fitness between those with a past history of low back pain and those without. It is concluded that coal miners in Australia have lower than normal Biering-Sorensen holding times. This lower back holding time does not differ between coal miners with a past history of low back pain and those without.

  17. The predictive value of extensor grip test for the effectiveness of treatment for tennis elbow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zehtab, Mohammad J.; Mirghasemi, A.; Majlesara, A.; Siavashi, B.; Tajik, P.

    2008-01-01

    Objective was to compare the effectiveness of 5 different modalities and determine the usefulness of recently proposed extensor grip test (EGT) in predicting the response to treatment. In a randomized controlled clinical trial, 92 of 98 tennis elbow patients in Sina Hospital Tehran, Iran between 2006 and 2007 fulfilled the trial entry criteria. Among these patients 56 (60.9%) had positive EGT results, were randomly allocated to 5 treatment groups: brace, physiotherapy, brace plus physiotherapy, injection and injection plus physiotherapy. Patients with a positive EGT result had better response to treatments. Among them, injection plus physiotherapy was the most successful, then brace plus physiotherapy was the worst treatment modality. Response to treatment was comparable in all groups between EGT positive and negative patients except bracing, in which positive EGT was correlated with dramatic response to treatment. In all patients, injection plus physiotherapy and the brace plus physiotherapy is recommended, but in EGT negatives, bracing seems to be of no use. Injection alone is not recommended in either group. (author)

  18. Multilevel noncontiguous cervical spine injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adetunji Mapaderun Toluse

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This case report highlights the successful combination of operative and nonoperative management of a patient with noncontiguous cervical spine fractures and incomplete spinal cord injury. A case report of a 40-year-old male victim of a motor vehicular accident who presented with noncontiguous cervical spine fractures (Anderson and D'Alonzo Type III odontoid fracture and traumatic spondylolisthesis of C4/C5 and incomplete spinal cord injury. The odontoid fracture was managed nonoperatively, whereas anterior cervical discectomy and fusion were done at the C4/C5 vertebral level. The patient made full neurologic recovery with radiologic evidence of successful fusion and fracture healing at 12 weeks postoperation in both levels of injuries. Operative and nonoperative modalities can be utilized to manage selected patients.

  19. Short- and long-term reliability of leg extensor power measurement in middle-aged and older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurst, Christopher; Batterham, Alan M; Weston, Kathryn L; Weston, Matthew

    2018-05-01

    Muscular power is important for maintaining physical functioning with aging. Proper quantification of the reliability of muscular power tests is crucial to inform monitoring of individuals and sample size planning for interventional studies. This study evaluated short- and long-term reliability of leg extensor power measurement in 72 adults (age 62.7 ± 8.6 years). Participants completed four repeat trials on the Nottingham leg extensor power rig, with a further trial twelve weeks later. Mean change, typical error, and intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC) were calculated. For short-term reliability, mean change in power output was trivial after two trials (1.2-4.8%). Typical errors were small following four trials in the dominant leg of males (10.9-5.8%), three in the non-dominant leg of males (9.9-6.2%) and the dominant leg of females (10.0-9.6%) and two in the non-dominant leg in females (8.3%). Intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs) were very high (0.88-0.96). For long-term reliability, mean change remained trivial (1.0-2.5%), typical errors remained small (5.8-8.6%), and ICCs very high (0.94-0.96). The leg extensor power rig is a reliable method for assessing lower body muscular power, both short- and long-term, with only minimal habituation effects.

  20. Activity patterns of extrinsic finger flexors and extensors during movements of instructed and non-instructed fingers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Beek, Nathalie; Stegeman, Dick F; van den Noort, Josien C; H E J Veeger, DirkJan; Maas, Huub

    2018-02-01

    The fingers of the human hand cannot be controlled fully independently. This phenomenon may have a neurological as well as a mechanical basis. Despite previous studies, the neuromechanics of finger movements are not fully understood. The aims of this study were (1) to assess the activation and coactivation patterns of finger specific flexor and extensor muscle regions during instructed single finger flexion and (2) to determine the relationship between enslaved finger movements and respective finger muscle activation. In 9 healthy subjects (age 22-29), muscle activation was assessed during single finger flexion using a 90 surface electromyography electrode grid placed over the flexor digitorum superficialis (FDS) and the extensor digitorum (ED). We found (1) no significant differences in muscle activation timing between fingers, (2) considerable muscle activity in flexor and extensor regions associated with the non-instructed fingers and (3) no correlation between the muscle activations and corresponding movement of non-instructed fingers. A clear disparity was found between the movement pattern of the non-instructed fingers and the activity pattern of the corresponding muscle regions. This suggests that mechanical factors, such as intertendinous and myofascial connections, may also affect finger movement independency and need to be taken into consideration when studying finger movement. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Effects of strength training and detraining on knee extensor strength, muscle volume and muscle quality in elderly women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correa, Cleiton Silva; Baroni, Bruno Manfredini; Radaelli, Régis; Lanferdini, Fábio Juner; Cunha, Giovani dos Santos; Reischak-Oliveira, Álvaro; Vaz, Marco Aurélio; Pinto, Ronei Silveira

    2013-10-01

    Strength training seems to be an interesting approach to counteract decreases that affect knee extensor strength, muscle mass and muscle quality (force per unit of muscle mass) associated with ageing. However, there is no consensus regarding the changes in muscle mass and their contribution to strength during periods of training and detraining in the elderly. Therefore, this study aimed at verifying the behaviour of knee extensor muscle strength, muscle volume and muscle quality in elderly women in response to a 12-week strength training programme followed by a similar period of detraining. Statistical analysis showed no effect of time on muscle quality. However, strength and muscle volume increased from baseline to post-training (33 and 26 %, respectively). After detraining, the knee extensor strength remained 12 % superior to the baseline values, while the gains in muscle mass were almost completely lost. In conclusion, strength gains and losses due to strength training and detraining, respectively, could not be exclusively associated with muscle mass increases. Training-induced strength gains were partially maintained after 3 months of detraining in elderly subjects.

  2. Re-weighting of somatosensory inputs from the foot and the ankle for controlling posture during quiet standing following trunk extensor muscles fatigue.

    OpenAIRE

    Vuillerme, Nicolas; Pinsault, Nicolas

    2007-01-01

    The present study focused on the effects of trunk extensor muscles fatigue on postural control during quiet standing under different somatosensory conditions from the foot and the ankle. With this aim, 20 young healthy adults were asked to stand as immobile as possible in two conditions of No fatigue and Fatigue of trunk extensor muscles. In Experiment 1 (n = 10), somatosensation from the foot and the ankle was degraded by standing on a foam surface. In Experiment 2 (n = 10), somatosensation ...

  3. Superior Effects of Eccentric to Concentric Knee Extensor Resistance Training on Physical Fitness, Insulin Sensitivity and Lipid Profiles of Elderly Men

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Trevor Chung-Ching; Tseng, Wei-Chin; Huang, Guan-Ling; Chen, Hsin-Lian; Tseng, Kuo-Wei; Nosaka, Kazunori

    2017-01-01

    It has been reported that eccentric training of knee extensors is effective for improving blood insulin sensitivity and lipid profiles to a greater extent than concentric training in young women. However, it is not known whether this is also the case for elderly individuals. Thus, the present study tested the hypothesis that eccentric training of the knee extensors would improve physical function and health parameters (e.g., blood lipid profiles) of older adults better than concentric trainin...

  4. Cervical Cancer Screening with AMIGAS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lairson, David R.; Chang, Yu-Chia; Byrd, Theresa L.; Smith, Judith Lee; Fernandez, Maria E.; Wilson, Katherine M.

    2015-01-01

    Background Hispanic women have a higher incidence of cervical cancer than all other races and ethnicities. In Hispanic subgroups, Mexican American women were among the least likely to have received cervical cancer screening. In a recent RCT, Ayudando a las Mujeres con Información, Guia, y Amor para su Salud (AMIGAS) was shown to increase cervical cancer screening rates among women of Mexican descent at 6 months in all intervention arms compared to the control arm. Limited information exists about the economics of interventions to increase cervical cancer screening rates among women of Mexican descent. Purpose This study aims to estimate the cost-effectiveness of the alternative AMIGAS intervention methods for increasing cervical cancer screening among low-income women of Mexican descent in three U.S. communities. Methods Cost data were collected from 2008 to 2011 alongside the AMIGAS study of 613 women. Receipt of Pap test within 6 months of intervention was the primary outcome measure in the cost-effectiveness analysis, conducted during 2012–2013. Results The cost per additional woman screened comparing the video-only intervention to usual care was $980. The cost increased to $1,309 with participant time cost included. With an additional cost per participant of $3.90 compared to flipchart only, the full AMIGAS program (video plus flipchart) yielded 6.8% additional women screened. Conclusions Results on the average and incremental cost-effectiveness of the AMIGAS program elements may assist health policymakers and program managers to select and appropriately budget for interventions shown to increase cervical cancer screening among low-income women of Mexican descent. PMID:24842738

  5. Imaging cervical myelo- and radiculopathy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roth, C.; Papanagiotou, P.; Krick, C.; Reith, W.; Grunwald, I.Q.

    2006-01-01

    This article gives an overview of the diagnostic possibilities available in the diagnosis of cervical myelo- and radiculopathy. We compared conventional myelography, CTM, and MRI. Twenty-five patients with clinical evidence of cervical myelo- or radiculopathy were included. Sagittal and transverse T1-weighted (T1w) TSE and T2-weighted (T2w) TSE sequences were compared with myelography and CTM. Statistical analysis was performed using Wilcoxon's -test. Disc herniation could be depicted in CTM as well as in MRI. The extent of herniation did not differ between CTM and T1w. The extent of herniation seemed higher on T2w than on T1w (p [de

  6. Genetic factor in cervical spondylosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palmer, P.E.S.; Stadalnick, R.; Arnon, S.

    1984-03-01

    Lateral cervical spine radiographs of 23 pairs of twins were matched. There is a close similarity in the shape of the vertebrae of twins, particularly if monozygotic. It can also be shown that the degenerative changes in the cervical spines of twins follow a very similar pattern. The suggestion is made that the shape of individual vertebrae is of considerable significance in the development of the changes which are found with ageing, and that this similarity in shape explains the familial pattern of spondylosis.

  7. Efeitos do Tai Chi Chuan na força dos músculos extensores dos joelhos e no equilíbrio em idosas Effects of Tai Chi Chuan on knee extensor muscle strength and balance in elderly women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MM Pereira

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available CONTEXTUALIZAÇÃO: Alguns estudos têm indicado que o Tai Chi Chuan (TCC é capaz de melhorar o condicionamento físico, a força muscular e o equilíbrio entre os praticantes idosos, prevenindo quedas, fraturas e dependência física. OBJETIVO: Verificar os efeitos do TCC no equilíbrio (EQ e na força dos músculos extensores dos joelhos (F em mulheres idosas. MATERIAIS E MÉTODOS: Participaram do estudo 77 mulheres saudáveis, não praticantes de atividade física orientada. No Grupo Experimental (G1 foram incluídas 38 voluntárias (68 ± 5 anos e no Grupo Controle (G2, 39 voluntárias (69 ± 7 anos. O G1 praticou o TCC estilo Yang de 24 movimentos durante 12 semanas, três vezes por semana, com duração de 50 minutos. O G2 não realizou atividades físicas orientadas. A força foi mensurada pelo teste de 1-RM na cadeira extensora e o equilíbrio foi avaliado utilizando o teste de apoio unipodal com os olhos fechados. Na análise estatística, utilizou-se teste de normalidade, split-plot análise de variância (ANOVA e correlação de Pearson. RESULTADOS: O Grupo Experimental apresentou incrementos de 17,83% na F e 26,10% no EQ. O Grupo Controle não apresentou alteração significativa em nenhuma variável. Não foi observada correlação significativa entre estas duas variáveis no G1 (r= 0,09; p= 0,554 e no G2 (r= 0,07; p= 0,660. CONCLUSÕES: Estes resultados sugerem que o TCC melhora F e EQ em mulheres idosas. Entretanto, a força dos músculos extensores dos joelhos não está necessariamente ligada ao equilíbrio nesta modalidade.BACKGROUND: Some studies have indicated that Tai Chi Chuan (TCC is capable of improving physical fitness, muscle strength and balance in elderly people. This improvement could prevent falls, fractures and physical dependence. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effects of TCC on balance and knee extensor muscle strength among elderly women. METHODS: Seventy-seven healthy women who were not engaged in any guided

  8. Number of ruptured tendons and surgical delay as prognostic factors for the surgical repair of extensor tendon ruptures in the rheumatoid wrist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakuma, Yu; Ochi, Kensuke; Iwamoto, Takuji; Saito, Asami; Yano, Koichiro; Naito, Yurino; Yoshida, Shinji; Ikari, Katsunori; Momohara, Shigeki

    2014-02-01

    Extensor tendon ruptures in the rheumatoid wrist are usually restored by extensor tendon reconstruction surgery. However, the factors significantly correlated with the outcomes of extensor tendon reconstruction have not been defined. We examined factors showing a statistically significant correlation with postoperative active motion after tendon reconstruction. Spontaneous extensor tendon ruptures of 66 wrists in patients (mean age, 52.6 yrs) with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) were evaluated. All patients underwent tendon reconstruction surgery with wrist arthroplasty or arthrodesis. Active ranges of motion of the affected fingers were evaluated at 12 weeks postsurgery. Statistical significance was determined using multiple and single regression analyses. Forty-six (69.6%) wrists had "good" results, while 13 (19.7%) and 7 (10.6%) wrists had "fair" and "poor" results, respectively. In multiple regression analysis, an increased number of ruptured tendons and the age at operation were independent variables significantly correlated with the postoperative active motion of reconstructed tendons (p = 0.009). Single regression analysis also showed a significant association between the number of ruptured tendons and surgical delay (p = 0.02). The number of ruptured extensor tendons was significantly correlated with the results of tendon reconstruction, and the number of ruptured tendons was significantly correlated with preoperative surgical delay. Our results indicate that, in patients presenting with possible finger extensor tendon rupture, rheumatologists should consult with hand surgeons promptly to preserve hand function.

  9. Knee extension range of motion and self-report physical function in total knee arthroplasty: mediating effects of knee extensor strength

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pua Yong-Hao

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Knee extensor strength and knee extension range of motion (ROM are important predictors of physical function in patients with a total knee arthroplasty (TKA. However, the relationship between the two knee measures remains unclear. The purpose of this study was to examine whether changes in knee extensor strength mediate the association between changes in knee extension ROM and self-report physical function. Methods Data from 441 patients with a TKA were collected preoperatively and 6 months postoperatively. Self-report measure of physical function was assessed by the Short Form 36 (SF-36 questionnaire. Knee extensor strength was measured by handheld dynamometry and knee extension ROM by goniometry. A bootstrapped cross product of coefficients approach was used to evaluate mediation effects. Results Mediation analyses, adjusted for clinicodemographic measures, revealed that the association between changes in knee extension ROM and SF-36 physical function was mediated by changes in knee extensor strength. Conclusions In patients with TKA, knee extensor strength mediated the influence of knee extension ROM on physical function. These results suggest that interventions to improve the range of knee extension may be useful in improving knee extensor performance.

  10. Use of Leeds-Keio connective tissue prosthesis (L-K CTP) for reconstruction of deficient extensor mechanism with total knee replacement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherief, Tamer I; Naguib, Ashraf M; Sefton, Graham K

    2005-08-01

    This study was carried out in order to assess the results of reconstruction of a deficient extensor mechanism in the presence of a total knee replacement (TKR) using the Leeds-Keio Connective Tissue Prosthesis (L-K CTP). The L-K CTP is available as flat tapes constructed from polyester in an open weave structure. It was used to reinforce and reconstruct the extensor mechanism, which was deficient in three patients who had undergone total knee replacement or were about to undergo total knee replacement. Two cases had extensor mechanism deficiency as a complication following total knee replacement while the third case had extensor mechanism deficiency at the time of the primary knee replacement. The average follow-up was 2 years (range of follow up was 12 to 48 months). All three cases showed good results with no extension lag and good range of movement at follow up. The use of L-K CTP for reconstruction of the knee extensor mechanism offers a good option for the management of the uncommon but difficult problem of extensor mechanism deficiency in patients with a total knee replacement.

  11. Cervical intra-epithelial neoplasia and invasive cervical cancer in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    cancer in black and white patients. J. T. NEL, L. DE LANGE, P. J. MEIRING ... cervical cancer. This serious yet preventable disease is still very prevalent in South Africa, especially among black women. S AIr Med J 1994; 84: 18-19. Aanalysis of rime trends in .... therapy in users of oral contraceptives. Am J Clill Nucr 1982; 35:.

  12. Imaging of cervical spine injuries of childhood

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khanna, Geetika; El-Khoury, Georges Y. [University of Iowa Hospitals and Clinics, Department of Radiology, 3951 JPP, Iowa, IA (United States)

    2007-06-15

    Cervical spine injuries of children, though rare, have a high morbidity and mortality. The pediatric cervical spine is anatomically and biomechanically different from that of adults. Hence, the type, level and outcome of cervical spine injuries in children are different from those seen in adults. Normal developmental variants seen in children can make evaluation of the pediatric cervical spine challenging. This article reviews the epidemiology of pediatric cervical spine trauma, normal variants seen in children and specific injuries that are more common in the pediatric population. We also propose an evidence-based imaging protocol to avoid unnecessary imaging studies and minimize radiation exposure in children. (orig.)

  13. The interaction between the vastus medialis and vastus intermedius and its influence on the extensor apparatus of the knee joint.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grob, Karl; Manestar, Mirjana; Filgueira, Luis; Kuster, Markus S; Gilbey, Helen; Ackland, Timothy

    2018-03-01

    Although the vastus medialis (VM) is closely associated with the vastus intermedius (VI), there is a lack of data regarding their functional relationship. The purpose of this study was to investigate the anatomical interaction between the VM and VI with regard to their origins, insertions, innervation and function within the extensor apparatus of the knee joint. Eighteen human cadaveric lower limbs were investigated using macro-dissection techniques. Six limbs were cut transversely in the middle third of the thigh. The mode of origin, insertion and nerve supply of the extensor apparatus of the knee joint were studied. The architecture of the VM and VI was examined in detail, as was their anatomical interaction and connective tissue linkage to the adjacent anatomical structures. The VM originated medially from a broad hammock-like structure. The attachment site of the VM always spanned over a long distance between: (1) patella, (2) rectus femoris tendon and (3) aponeurosis of the VI, with the insertion into the VI being the largest. VM units were inserted twice-once on the anterior and once on the posterior side of the VI. The VI consists of a complex multi-layered structure. The layers of the medial VI aponeurosis fused with the aponeuroses of the tensor vastus intermedius and vastus lateralis. Together, they form the two-layered intermediate layer of the quadriceps tendon. The VM and medial parts of the VI were innervated by the same medial division of the femoral nerve. The VM consists of multiple muscle units inserting into the entire VI. Together, they build a potential functional muscular complex. Therefore, the VM acts as an indirect extensor of the knee joint regulating and adjusting the length of the extensor apparatus throughout the entire range of motion. It is of clinical importance that, besides the VM, substantial parts of the VI directly contribute to the medial pull on the patella and help to maintain medial tracking of the patella during knee

  14. Cervical cancer: A global health crisis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Small, William; Bacon, Monica A; Bajaj, Amishi; Chuang, Linus T; Fisher, Brandon J; Harkenrider, Matthew M; Jhingran, Anuja; Kitchener, Henry C; Mileshkin, Linda R; Viswanathan, Akila N; Gaffney, David K

    2017-07-01

    Cervical cancer is the fourth most common malignancy diagnosed in women worldwide. Nearly all cases of cervical cancer result from infection with the human papillomavirus, and the prevention of cervical cancer includes screening and vaccination. Primary treatment options for patients with cervical cancer may include surgery or a concurrent chemoradiotherapy regimen consisting of cisplatin-based chemotherapy with external beam radiotherapy and brachytherapy. Cervical cancer causes more than one quarter of a million deaths per year as a result of grossly deficient treatments in many developing countries. This warrants a concerted global effort to counter the shocking loss of life and suffering that largely goes unreported. This article provides a review of the biology, prevention, and treatment of cervical cancer, and discusses the global cervical cancer crisis and efforts to improve the prevention and treatment of the disease in underdeveloped countries. Cancer 2017;123:2404-12. © 2017 American Cancer Society. © 2017 American Cancer Society.

  15. Cervical Cancer Risk Prediction Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Developing statistical models that estimate the probability of developing cervical cancer over a defined period of time will help clinicians identify individuals at higher risk of specific cancers, allowing for earlier or more frequent screening and counseling of behavioral changes to decrease risk.

  16. Tuberculosis of the cervical spine

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tuberculosis of the cervical spine is rare, comprising 3 -. 5% of cases of tuberculosis of the spine. Eight patients with tuberculosis of the cervicaJ spine seen during 1989 -. 1992 were reviewed. They all presented with neck pain. The 4 children presented with a kyphotic deformity. In all the children the disease was extensive, ...

  17. Cervical screening: default and compliance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, J; Main, P J

    1992-04-01

    Health visitors could play a key role in educating at risk women about the benefits of cervical screening. Jane Martin and Peter J Main examine some of the models which outline barriers to screening uptake and consider which will help the health visitor to increase the knowledge and understanding of at risk clients.

  18. Myelopathy hand in cervical radiculopathy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hosono, Noboru; Mukai, Yoshihiro; Takenaka, Shota; Fuji, Takeshi; Sakaura, Hironobu; Miwa, Toshitada; Makino, Takahiro

    2010-01-01

    The so-called 'myelopathy hand', or characteristic finger paralysis, often recognized in cervical compression myelopathy, has been considered a unique manifestation of cervical myelopathy. We used our original grip and release test, a 15-second test in which finger motion is captured with a digital camera, to investigate whether cervical radiculopathy has the same characteristics as myelopathy hand. Thirty patients with pure radiculopathy, id est (i.e.), who had radiating arm pain and evidence of corresponding nerve root impingement on X-ray images or MRI scans, but did not have spinal cord compression, served as the subjects. In contrast to other radiculopathies, C7 radiculopathy was manifested by a significant reduction in the number of finger motion cycles on the affected side in comparison with the unaffected side, the same as in myelopathy hand. Uncoordinated finger motion was significantly more frequent on the affected side in C6 radiculopathy than on the unaffected side. These findings contradict the conventional notion that myelopathy hand is a unique manifestation of cervical myelopathy, but some radiculopathies manifested the same kinds of finger paralysis observed in myelopathy hand. (author)

  19. Nonoperative Management of Cervical Radiculopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Childress, Marc A; Becker, Blair A

    2016-05-01

    Cervical radiculopathy describes pain in one or both of the upper extremities, often in the setting of neck pain, secondary to compression or irritation of nerve roots in the cervical spine. It can be accompanied by motor, sensory, or reflex deficits and is most prevalent in persons 50 to 54 years of age. Cervical radiculopathy most often stems from degenerative disease in the cervical spine. The most common examination findings are painful neck movements and muscle spasm. Diminished deep tendon reflexes, particularly of the triceps, are the most common neurologic finding. The Spurling test, shoulder abduction test, and upper limb tension test can be used to confirm the diagnosis. Imaging is not required unless there is a history of trauma, persistent symptoms, or red flags for malignancy, myelopathy, or abscess. Electrodiagnostic testing is not needed if the diagnosis is clear, but has clinical utility when peripheral neuropathy of the upper extremity is a likely alternate diagnosis. Patients should be reassured that most cases will resolve regardless of the type of treatment. Nonoperative treatment includes physical therapy involving strengthening, stretching, and potentially traction, as well as nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, muscle relaxants, and massage. Epidural steroid injections may be helpful but have higher risks of serious complications. In patients with red flag symptoms or persistent symptoms after four to six weeks of treatment, magnetic resonance imaging can identify pathology amenable to epidural steroid injections or surgery.

  20. Mucopurulent cervicitis and Mycoplasma genitalium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manhart, Lisa E; Critchlow, Cathy W; Holmes, King K; Dutro, Susan M; Eschenbach, David A; Stevens, Claire E; Totten, Patricia A

    2003-02-15

    Many cases of mucopurulent cervicitis (MPC) are idiopathic and cannot be attributed to the known cervical pathogens Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Chlamydia trachomatis, or herpes simplex virus. Because Mycoplasma genitalium is associated with nongonoccocal urethritis in men, its role in MPC, the corresponding syndrome in women, was investigated. Archived cervical specimens from women recruited in the Harborview Sexually Transmitted Disease Clinic in Seattle from 1984 to 1986 were tested, using polymerase chain reaction, in a study that identified other causes of and risk factors for MPC. M. genitalium was detected in 50 (7.0%) of 719 women. Young age, multiple recent partners, prior miscarriage, smoking, menstrual cycle, and douching were positively associated with M. genitalium, whereas bacterial vaginosis and cunnilingus were negatively associated. After adjustment for age, phase of menstrual cycle, and presence of known cervical pathogens, women with M. genitalium had a 3.3-fold greater risk (95% confidence interval, 1.7-6.4) of MPC, which suggests that this organism may be a cause of MPC.

  1. Cervical Cancer Screening - Multiple Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Cancer Screening - English PDF It's a Simple Test - Cervical Cancer Screening - español (Spanish) PDF American Cancer Society Ukrainian (українська ) Expand Section Female Exam and Pap Smear - українська (Ukrainian) Bilingual PDF Health Information Translations Urdu ( ...

  2. Thiazolidinediones abrogate cervical cancer growth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wuertz, Beverly R., E-mail: knier003@umn.edu; Darrah, Lindsay, E-mail: ldarrah@obgynmn.com; Wudel, Justin, E-mail: drwudel@drwudel.com; Ondrey, Frank G., E-mail: ondre002@umn.edu

    2017-04-15

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPAR γ) is activated by thiazolidinedione drugs (TZDs) and can promote anti-cancer properties. We used three TZDs (pioglitazone, rosiglitazone, and ciglitazone) to target cervical cancer cell lines and a nude mouse animal model. Each agent increased activation of PPAR γ, as judged by a luciferase reporter gene assay in three HPV-associated cell lines (CaSki, SiHa, and HeLa cells) while decreasing cellular proliferation in a dose-dependent manner. They also promoted Oil Red O accumulation in treated cell lines and upregulated the lipid differentiation marker adipsin. Interestingly, xenograft HeLa tumors in nude mice treated with 100 mg/kg/day pioglitazone exhibited decreased growth compared to control mice or mice treated with standard cervical chemotherapy. In conclusion, TZDs slow tumor cell growth in vitro and in vivo with decreases in cell proliferation and increases in PPAR γ and adipsin. These agents may be interesting treatments or treatment adjuncts for HPV-associated cancers or perhaps even precancerous conditions. - Highlights: • Thiazolidinediones decreases cervical cancer proliferation. • Pioglitazone increases cervical cancer differentiation. • Pioglitazone decreases tumor growth in mice. • Pioglitazone may be a useful treatment adjunct.

  3. Drugs Approved for Cervical Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page lists cancer drugs approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for cervical cancer. The list includes generic names, brand names, and common drug combinations, which are shown in capital letters. The drug names link to NCI's Cancer Drug Information summaries.

  4. [Disphagia secondary to cervical osteophytes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres Muros, B; Serrano, J A; Meschian Coretti, S

    2006-01-01

    Disphagia is a common cause of medical query in the ENT field, in which could be involved a variety of medical reason. One of those is the extrinsic compression of the digestive tract due to a tumoral process, or as the case we report, secundary to a large osteophyte at the anterior side of the cervical spine, after a surgical intervention in this area.

  5. Association between distal ulnar morphology and extensor carpi ulnaris tendon pathology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, Connie Y.; Huang, Ambrose J.; Bredella, Miriam A.; Kattapuram, Susan V.; Torriani, Martin [General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Division of Musculoskeletal Imaging and Intervention, Department of Radiology, Massachusetts, Boston, MA (United States)

    2014-06-15

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the association between distal ulnar morphology and extensor carpi ulnaris (ECU) tendon pathology. We retrospectively reviewed 71 adult wrist MRI studies with ECU tendon pathology (tenosynovitis, tendinopathy, or tear), and/or ECU subluxation. Subjects did not have a history of trauma, surgery, infection, or inflammatory arthritis. MRI studies from 46 subjects without ECU tendon pathology or subluxation were used as controls. The following morphological parameters of the distal ulna were measured independently by two readers: ulnar variance relative to radius, ulnar styloid process length, ECU groove depth and length. Subjects and controls were compared using Student's t test. Inter-observer agreement (ICC) was calculated. There was a significant correlation between negative ulnar variance and ECU tendon pathology (reader 1 [R1], P = 0.01; reader 2 [R2], P < 0.0001; R1 and R2 averaged data, P < 0.0001) and ECU tendon subluxation (P = 0.001; P = 0.0001; P < 0.0001). In subjects with ECU tendon subluxation there was also a trend toward a shorter length (P = 0.3; P <0.0001; P = 0.001) and a shallower ECU groove (P = 0.01; P = 0.03; P = 0.01; R1 and R2 averaged data with Bonferroni correction, P = 0.08). ECU groove depth (P = 0.6; P = 0.8; P = 0.9) and groove length (P = 0.1; P = 0.4; P = 0.7) showed no significant correlation with ECU tendon pathology, and length of the ulnar styloid process showed no significant correlation with ECU tendon pathology (P = 0.2; P = 0.3; P = 0.2) or subluxation (P = 0.4; P = 0.5; P = 0.5). Inter-observer agreement (ICC) was >0.64 for all parameters. Distal ulnar morphology may be associated with ECU tendon abnormalities. (orig.)

  6. Isokinetic performance of knee flexor and extensor muscles in community-dwelling elderly women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diogo C. Felício

    Full Text Available AbstractIntroduction The isokinetic dynamometer enables accurate assessment of muscle function. In Brazil, few studies have assessed the isokinetic muscle performance in older adults making interpretation and comparison of results with other studies.Objectives To conduct a descriptive analysis of the performance of the muscle flexor and extensor muscles of the knee joint in elderly community and compare the performance between the age groups 65-74 years and 75 years or more.Methods This is a cross sectional observational study with a convenience sample of 229 elderly community. For the analysis of muscle performance was used isokinetic dynamometer (Biodex System 3 Pro™ in the angular velocities of 60 °/s and 180 °/s. The variables evaluated were peak torque, peak torque normalized by body weight, total work normalized by body mass, total work, average power and agonist/antagonist ratio. Descriptive analysis was used to characterize the sample. For comparison between age groups was used Student's t-test with α = 0.05.Results The elderly women with older age showed a statistically significant decrease in most of the variables (p < 0.05 except for the agonist and antagonist knee (p = 0.398.Conclusions The isokinetic was a sensitive tool to characterize the modifications caused by aging on muscle function. Elderly with results below the lower limits of the confidence intervals for all variables certainly has a decreased strength for the age group evaluated and must be addressed therapeutically. The results can be used as a benchmark in clinical practice and future research.

  7. Isokinetic Performance of Knee Flexor and Extensor Muscles in American Football Players from Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucas Severo-Silveira

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/1980-0037.2017v19n4p426   The isokinetic performance of thigh muscles has been related to athletic performance and risk for non-contact injuries, such as anterior cruciate ligament ruptures and hamstring strains. Although isokinetic profile of American football players from United States (USA is widely described, there is a lack of studies comprising players acting outside the USA. The primary objective of this study was to describe the isokinetic performance of thigh muscles in elite American football players in Brazil. Secondarily, we aimed to compare the playing positions and compare the Brazilian players with high-level athletes from USA. Knee extensor (KE and flexor (KF muscles of 72 Brazilian players were assessed through isokinetic tests at 60°·s-1. KE concentric peak torque was 276±56 N·m, while KF had concentric and eccentric peak torques of 151±37 N·m and 220±40 N·m, respectively. Offensive linemen players presented greater peak torque values than defensive lineman, halfbacks, and wide receivers (all comparisons are provided in the article. Brazilian players had lower scores than USA athletes for KE and KF peak torque values. In addition, a conventional torque ratio (concentric/concentric lower than 0.6 was found in 76-83% of athletes, and a functional ratio (eccentric/eccentric below to 1.0 in 94%. Bilateral asymmetry greater than 10% was verified in 26% and 43% of athletes for KE and KF muscles, respectively. Elite players in Brazil present high incidence of strength imbalance in thigh muscles, and they are below USA players in relation to torque production capacity of KE and KF muscles.

  8. The effects of isometric resistance training on stretch reflex induced tremor in the knee extensor muscles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durbaba, Rade; Cassidy, Angela; Budini, Francesco; Macaluso, Andrea

    2013-06-15

    This study examines the effect of 4 wk of high-intensity isometric resistance training on induced tremor in knee extensor muscles. Fourteen healthy volunteers were assigned to either the training group (n = 7) or the nontraining control group (n = 7). Induced tremor was assessed by measuring force fluctuations during anisometric contractions against spring loading, whose compliance was varied to allow for preferential activation of the short or long latency stretch reflex components. Effects of high-intensity isometric resistance training on induced tremor was assessed under two contraction conditions: relative force matching, where the relative level of activity was equal for both pre- and post-training sessions, set at 30% maximum voluntary contraction (MVC), and absolute force matching, where the level of activity was set to 30% pretrained MVC. The training group experienced a 26.5% increase in MVC in contrast to the 0.8% for the control group. For relative force-matching contractions, induced tremor amplitude and frequency did not change in either the training or control group. During absolute force-matching contractions, induced tremor amplitude was decreased by 37.5% and 31.6% for the short and long components, respectively, with no accompanying change in frequency, for the training group. No change in either measure was observed in the control group for absolute force-matching contractions. The results are consistent with high-intensity isometric resistance training induced neural changes leading to increased strength, coupled with realignment of stretch reflex automatic gain compensation to the new maximal force output. Also, previous reported reductions in anisometric tremor following strength training may partly be due to changed stretch reflex behavior.

  9. Sex differences in muscle morphology of the knee flexors and knee extensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behan, Fearghal P; Maden-Wilkinson, Thomas M; Pain, Matt T G; Folland, Jonathan P

    2018-01-01

    Females experience higher risk of anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injuries; males experience higher risk of hamstring strain injuries. Differences in injury may be partially due to sex differences in knee flexor (KF) to knee extensor (KE) muscle size ratio and the proportional size of constituent muscles. To compare the absolute and proportional size, and mass distribution, of individual KE and KF muscles, as well as overall size and balance (size ratio) of these muscle groups between the sexes. T1-weighted axial plane MR images (1.5T) of healthy untrained young males and females (32 vs 34) were acquired to determine thigh muscle anatomical cross-sectional area (ACSA). Maximal ACSA (ACSAmax) of constituent muscles, summated for KF and KE muscle groups, and the KF:KE ratio were calculated. Females had 25.3% smaller KE ACSAmax (70.9±12.1 vs 93.6±10.3 cm2; PKF ACSAmax than males (38.8±7.3cm2 vs 55.1±7.3cm2; PKF:KE ACSA ratio (P = 0.031). There were sex differences in the proportional size of 2/4 KE and 5/6 KF. In females, vastus lateralis (VL), biceps femoris long-head (BFlh) and semimembranosus (SM) were a greater proportion and sartorius (SA), gracilis (GR) and biceps femoris short-head (BFsh) a smaller proportion of their respective muscle groups compared to males (All PKF:KE ACSAmax ratio may contribute to increased risk of ACL injury in females. Sex discrepancies in absolute and proportional size of SA, GR, VL and BFlh may contribute further anatomical explanations for sex differences in injury incidence.

  10. RNA-seq transcriptome analysis of extensor digitorum longus and soleus muscles in large white pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Jiayu; Shi, Xin'e; Lu, Hongzhao; Xia, Bo; Li, Yuefeng; Li, Xiao; Zhang, Qiangling; Yang, Gongshe

    2016-04-01

    Skeletal muscle fibers are mainly categorized into red and white fiber types, and the ratio of red/white fibers within muscle mass plays a crucial role in meat quality such as tenderness and flavor. To better understand the molecular difference between the two muscle fibers, this study takes advantage of RNA-seq to compare differences in the transcriptome between extensor digitorum longus (EDL; white fiber) and soleus (Sol; red fiber) muscles of large white pigs. In total, 89,658,562 and 46,723,568 raw reads from EDL and Sol were generated, respectively. Comparison between the two transcriptomes revealed 561 differentially expressed genes, with 408 displaying higher and 153 lower levels of expression in Sol. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction validated the differential expression of nine genes. Gene ontology and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes pathway analysis discovered several differentially enriched biological functions and processes of the two muscles. Moreover, transcriptome comparison between EDL and Sol identified many muscle-related genes (CSRP3, ACTN2, MYL1, and MYH6) and pathways related to myofiber formation, such as focal adhesion, tight junction formation, extracellular matrix (ECM)-receptor pathway, calcium signaling, and Wnt signaling. In addition, 58,362 and 58,359 single nucleotide polymorphisms were identified in EDL and Sol, respectively, and the sequence of 9069 genes was refined at the 5', 3' or both ends. Numerous novel transcripts and alternatively spliced RNAs were also identified. Our transcriptome analysis constitutes valuable sequence resource for uncovering important genes and pathways involved in muscle fiber type determination, and might help further our understanding of the molecular mechanisms in different types of muscle.

  11. Treadmill but not wheel running improves fatigue resistance of isolated extensor digitorum longus muscle in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeneson, J A L; de Snoo, M W; Verlinden, N A T; Joosten, B J L J; Doornenbal, A; Schot, A; Everts, M E

    2007-06-01

    The present study is the first to compare the physiological impact of either forced treadmill or voluntary wheel running exercise on hindlimb muscle in mice. Male C57BL/6 mice were subjected to either 6 weeks of forced treadmill or voluntary wheel running exercise. Mice in the treadmill running exercise group (TRE; n = 8) ran 1.9 km day(-1) at a speed of 16 m min(-1) against an uphill incline of 11 degrees. In the running wheel exercise group (RWE; n = 8) animals ran 8.8 +/- 0.2 km per day (average speed 42 +/- 2 m min(-1)). After the experimental period, animals were killed and mechanical performance and oxygen consumption of isolated extensor digitorum longus (EDL) muscle were determined during serial electrical stimulation at 0.5, 1 and 2 Hz. Steady-state half-width time (HWT) of twitch contraction at 0.5 Hz was significantly shorter in TRE and RWE than controls (CON) (41.3 +/- 0.2, 41.3 +/- 0.1 and 44.3 +/- 0.1 s respectively; P < 0.05). The rate of fatigue development and HWT lengthening at 2 Hz was the same in RWE and CON but lower in TRE (1.2-fold and twofold respectively; P < 0.05). EDL oxygen consumption, mitochondrial content and myosin heavy chain (MyHC) composition were not different between the groups. These results indicate that both exercise modalities have an effect on a hindlimb fast-twitch muscle in mice, with the greatest impact seen with forced treadmill running.

  12. Capsaicin delays regeneration of the neuromuscular junction of rat extensor digitorum longus muscle after ischemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turchányi, Béla; Hamar, János; Tömböl, Teréz; Siklós, László

    2006-04-01

    Trauma or the tourniquet used in orthopedic surgery is often associated with ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury with a consequent decrease of muscle power. To explore whether components of the neuromuscular junction (NMJ) are involved in this muscle dysfunction, NMJs were ultrastructurally characterized in the extensor digitorum longus muscle of rats at reperfusion times of 1, 24, 72, and 168 h after a 120-min arterial occlusion. Disorganization of the presynaptic membrane and mitochondrial injury was noted at 1 h, followed by fragmentation and partial engulfment of nerve terminals by Schwann cells at 24 and 72 h. The magnitude of degenerative changes declined at 168 h, suggesting the commencement of regeneration. The postsynaptic membrane remained intact throughout the whole period. In our previous study, deafferentation with pretreatment of the sciatic nerve with capsaicin, which reduces neurogenic inflammation and has a selective effect on nociceptive fibers, improved functional recovery of the muscle after I/R. The present results document a significantly delayed structural regeneration of the motor nerve terminals after combined capsaicin and I/R treatment. Since capsaicin treatment alone had no discernible effect on the structure of NMJs, the findings point to a possibly indirect effect of capsaicin on the motor nerves, which may predispose them to increased susceptibility unmasked only by a subsequent injury. The mismatch between the enhanced functional improvement of the muscle and delayed regeneration of the nerve after capsaicin pretreatment questions the efficient use of such deafferentation to protect the integrity of neuromuscular junctions in I/R injury.

  13. A hind limb disuse model inducing extensor digitorum longus atrophy in rats: tail suspension-immobilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Fangying; Wang, Jun; Gao, Yunfang; Wang, Huiping; Wang, Qi; Jiang, Shanfeng; Goswami, Nandu

    2011-07-01

    This study aimed to examine the effects of a new hind limb disuse model on the morphology and fiber type distribution of the extensor digitorum longus (EDL) of rats. Quicker onset of disuse atrophy would reduce the amount of time the animals have to be subjected to tail suspension. The new hind limb disuse mode was achieved by tail suspension (TS) and one hind limb fixed by plaster-casting (tail suspension-immobilization, TS+Im). There were 42 female Sprague-Dawley rats randomly divided into 7 groups (6 rats in each group) and exposed to the conditions for 0-6 wk, respectively. The cross-sectional area (CSA) and the types of muscle fiber of the rats' EDL were measured and classified by histochemical staining. The decrease of EDL's CSA caused by TS+Im was more obvious (significant change was observed after 4 wk and Type I fiber's CSA decreased 27.3% after 6 wk) than that caused by TS only (significant change occurred after 6 wk and Type I fiber's CSA diminished 18.01% at that time). TS lead to the transition of Type IIB fibers to Type I and IIA fibers while TS+Im led to Type I and IIA fibers getting converted to Type IIB fibers. When compared to TS only, TS+Im caused faster and greater reduction of the EDL's CSA in rats. TS+Im can also lead to a shift from oxidative to glycolytic metabolism of the EDL muscle fiber. Tail suspension-immobilization is a new hind limb disuse model for the EDL and may be more effective.

  14. Sphingosine 1-phosphate protects mouse extensor digitorum longus skeletal muscle during fatigue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danieli-Betto, Daniela; Germinario, Elena; Esposito, Alessandra; Megighian, Aram; Midrio, Menotti; Ravara, Barbara; Damiani, Ernesto; Libera, Luciano Dalla; Sabbadini, Roger A; Betto, Romeo

    2005-06-01

    Sphingomyelin derivatives exert various second messenger actions in numerous tissues. Sphingosine (SPH) and sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P) are two major sphingomyelin derivatives present at high levels in blood. The aim of the present work was to investigate whether S1P and SPH exert relevant actions in mouse skeletal muscle contractility and fatigue. Exogenous S1P and SPH administration caused a significant reduction of tension decline during fatigue of extensor digitorum longus muscle. Final tension after the fatiguing protocol was 40% higher than in untreated muscle. Interestingly, N,N-dimethylsphingosine, an inhibitor of SPH kinase (SK), abolished the effect of supplemented SPH but not that of S1P, suggesting that SPH acts through its conversion to S1P. Moreover, SPH was not effective in Ca(2+)-free solutions, in agreement with the hypothesis that SPH action is dependent on its conversion to S1P by the Ca(2+)-requiring enzyme SK. In contrast to SPH, S1P produced its positive effects on fatigue in Ca(2+)-free conditions, indicating that S1P action does not require Ca(2+) entry and most likely is receptor mediated. The effects of S1P could be ascribed in part to its ability to prevent the reduction (-20 mV) of action potential amplitude caused by fatigue. In conclusion, these results indicate that extracellular S1P has protective effects during the development of muscle fatigue and that the extracellular conversion of SPH to S1P may represent a rheostat mechanism to protect skeletal muscle from possible cytotoxic actions of SPH.

  15. Sex differences in muscle morphology of the knee flexors and knee extensors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fearghal P Behan

    Full Text Available Females experience higher risk of anterior cruciate ligament (ACL injuries; males experience higher risk of hamstring strain injuries. Differences in injury may be partially due to sex differences in knee flexor (KF to knee extensor (KE muscle size ratio and the proportional size of constituent muscles.To compare the absolute and proportional size, and mass distribution, of individual KE and KF muscles, as well as overall size and balance (size ratio of these muscle groups between the sexes.T1-weighted axial plane MR images (1.5T of healthy untrained young males and females (32 vs 34 were acquired to determine thigh muscle anatomical cross-sectional area (ACSA. Maximal ACSA (ACSAmax of constituent muscles, summated for KF and KE muscle groups, and the KF:KE ratio were calculated.Females had 25.3% smaller KE ACSAmax (70.9±12.1 vs 93.6±10.3 cm2; P<0.001 and 29.6% smaller KF ACSAmax than males (38.8±7.3cm2 vs 55.1±7.3cm2; P<0.001. Consequently, females had lower KF:KE ACSA ratio (P = 0.031. There were sex differences in the proportional size of 2/4 KE and 5/6 KF. In females, vastus lateralis (VL, biceps femoris long-head (BFlh and semimembranosus (SM were a greater proportion and sartorius (SA, gracilis (GR and biceps femoris short-head (BFsh a smaller proportion of their respective muscle groups compared to males (All P<0.05.Sex differences in KF:KE ACSAmax ratio may contribute to increased risk of ACL injury in females. Sex discrepancies in absolute and proportional size of SA, GR, VL and BFlh may contribute further anatomical explanations for sex differences in injury incidence.

  16. Does rehabilitation of cervical lordosis influence sagittal cervical spine flexion extension kinematics in cervical spondylotic radiculopathy subjects?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moustafa, Ibrahim Moustafa; Diab, Aliaa Attiah Mohamed; Hegazy, Fatma A; Harrison, Deed E

    2017-01-01

    To test the hypothesis that improvement of cervical lordosis in cervical spondylotic radiculopathy (CSR) will improve cervical spine flexion and extension end range of motion kinematics in a population suffering from CSR. Thirty chronic lower CSR patients with cervical lordosis cervical extension traction. Treatments were applied 3 × per week for 10 weeks, care was terminated and subjects were evaluated at 3 intervals: baseline, 30 visits, and 3-month follow-up. Radiographic neutral lateral cervical absolute rotation angle (ARA C2-C7) and cervical segmental (C2-C7 segments) rotational and translational flexion-extension kinematics analysis were measured for all patients at the three intervals. The outcome were analyzed using repeated measures one-way ANOVA. Tukey's post-hoc multiple comparisons was implemented when necessary. Pearson correlation between ARA and segmental translational and rotational displacements was determined. Both groups demonstrated statistically significant increases in segmental motion at the 10-week follow up; but only the SG group showed a statistically significant increase in cervical lordosis (p cervical spine. This finding provides objective evidence that cervical flexion/extension is partially dependent on the posture and sagittal curve orientation. These findings are in agreement with several other reports in the literature; whereas ours is the first post treatment analysis identifying this relationship.

  17. Nanomechanical clues from morphologically normal cervical squamous cells could improve cervical cancer screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geng, Li; Feng, Jiantao; Sun, Quanmei; Liu, Jing; Hua, Wenda; Li, Jing; Ao, Zhuo; You, Ke; Guo, Yanli; Liao, Fulong; Zhang, Youyi; Guo, Hongyan; Han, Jinsong; Xiong, Guangwu; Zhang, Lufang; Han, Dong

    2015-09-01

    Applying an atomic force microscope, we performed a nanomechanical analysis of morphologically normal cervical squamous cells (MNSCs) which are commonly used in cervical screening. Results showed that nanomechanical parameters of MNSCs correlate well with cervical malignancy, and may have potential in cancer screening to provide early diagnosis.Applying an atomic force microscope, we performed a nanomechanical analysis of morphologically normal cervical squamous cells (MNSCs) which are commonly used in cervical screening. Results showed that nanomechanical parameters of MNSCs correlate well with cervical malignancy, and may have potential in cancer screening to provide early diagnosis. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c5nr03662c

  18. Anatomía arterial de los colgajos musculares de extensor carpi radialis longus y extensor carpi radialis brevis para su uso en transferencia muscular funcional libre Arterial anatomy of the extensor carpi radialis longus and extensor carpi radialis brevis muscle flaps related to its use in free functioning muscle transfer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Rodríguez Lorenzo

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este trabajo es documentar el aporte arterial y el patrón vascular intramuscular de los músculos Extensor Carpi Radialis Longus (ECRL y Extensor Carpi Radialis Brevis (ECRB para analizar su utilización como colgajos libres en transferencia muscular funcional para reanimación facial. Realizamos un estudio anatómico en 29 brazos humanos en fresco. Las técnicas de inyección utilizadas fueron la modificada de oxido de plomo y gelatina en 11 cadáveres y la de inyección pulsátil de látex color en 18. Disecamos los músculos ECRL y ECRB y sus pedículos, los fotodocumentamos y radiografiamos valorando los resultados en función del patrón vascular intramuscular, relaciones anatómicas, calibres y longitud de pedículos. Encontramos dos patrones vasculares diferentes en las 29 disecciones siguiendo la clasificación de Mathes y Nahai de la anatomía vascular de los músculos (en función del número de pedículos vasculares y su dominancia: Tipo I( 37,9% ECRL y 20,7% ECRB y Tipo II(62,1% del ECRL y 79,3% del ECRB. El pedículo principal del ECRL (de diámetro medio 1,73 mm y longitud de pedículo media de 32,32 mm es en el 100% de los casos rama de la arteria recurrente radial y el pedículo principal del ECRB (de diámetro medio 1,11 mm y longitud de pedículo media de 27,77 mm es rama de la arteria radial en el 68,9% de los casos y de la arteria recurrente radial en el 31,1% de los casos. Concluimos que El ECRL y ECRB presentan dos tipos de patrones vasculares: tipo I y tipo II, siendo más frecuente en nuestro trabajo el tipo II, que hacen que ambos puedan ser transferidos como colgajos libres por su pedículo principal. Ambos músculos presentan un tamaño, contorno, contenido fascial importante para el anclaje de suturas y una longitud de pedículo y calibre vascular adecuados para su transferencia microvascular libre en reanimación facial. De los dos, el más realizable como colgajo libre es el ECRB ya que la relaci

  19. Value of preoperative cervical discography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwon, Jong Won; Kim, Sung Hyun; Lee, Joon Woo [Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, Seongnam (Korea, Republic of)] (and others)

    2006-07-15

    The aim of this study was to describe the method and the value of cervical discography as correlated with the MR findings. Twenty-one discs in 11 consecutive patients who underwent cervical discography were analyzed. MR and CT discography (CTD) were performed in all patients. Discography was performed after swallowing barium for visualizing the pharynx and the esophagus to prevent penetration. We also analyzed the preceding causes of the subjects' cervical pain. The results of the pain provocation test were classified into concordant pain, discordant pain and a negative test. MRI was analyzed according to the T2-signal intensity (SI) of the disc, disc height, annular bulging and disc herniation. The CTD was analyzed for degeneration or radial tear of the disc, epidural leakage of the contrast agent and pooling of the contrast agent at the periphery of the disc. The pain provocation tests were correlated with the MR and CTD findings. We used the chi-square test to analyze the results. Concordant pain was observed in 14 cases, discordant pain in 3 cases and there were negative tests in 4 cases. There were no complications related to the procedure. Four patients had undergone anterior cervical fusion and four patients that developed after traffic injuries. The decreased T2-SI and annular bulging on MRI, disc degeneration and peripheral pooling of the contrast agent on CT were significantly correlated with pain provocation. When the diagnosis of disc disease is difficult with performing MRI, cervical discography with using swallowed barium solution to reduce the penetration of the esophagus or hypopharynx may play be helpful. The decreased T2-SI and annular bulging on MRI correlated significantly with a positive result on the pain provocation test.

  20. Cervical porcupine quill foreign body involving the spinal cord of a dog: A description of various imaging modality findings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christelle le Roux

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Although porcupine quill injuries are common in dogs, the detailed appearance of the quill on diagnostic ultrasound, computed tomography, and magnetic resonance imaging has not been sufficiently described. A 4-year-old, intact, female Jack Russel terrier presented with severe neck pain and ataxia after an altercation with a porcupine 2 weeks earlier. Radiology, diagnostic ultrasound, computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging were all utilised to identify a quill imbedded in the cervical vertebral canal and cervical musculature and were compared to each other. Surgical removal of the quill, guided by imaging findings, led to the resolution of the clinical signs in the patient. Previous ultrasound imaging reports have just stated that the quill consists of paralell hyperechoic lines, and do not mention the finer hyperechoic lines inbetween and do not try to provide a reason for the appearance. Previous computed tomography (CT reports just mention identifying the quill on CT images (whether or not CT could identify the fragments, but do not go into detail about the attenuating appearance of the quill nor try to relate this to the composition of the quill. This is to the authors’ knowledge the first report with detailed imaging descriptions of a case of cranial cervical vertebral canal porcupine quill foreign body in a dog. This is also the first report to allude to a possible difference in imaging findings related to quill structure because of keratin orientation and melanin content. The ideal imaging modality to use remains elusive, but ultrasound, computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging could all identify the quill.

  1. Cervical porcupine quill foreign body involving the spinal cord of a dog: A description of various imaging modality findings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christelle le Roux

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Although porcupine quill injuries are common in dogs, the detailed appearance of the quill on diagnostic ultrasound, computed tomography, and magnetic resonance imaging has not been sufficiently described. A 4-year-old, intact, female Jack Russel terrier presented with severe neck pain and ataxia after an altercation with a porcupine 2 weeks earlier. Radiology, diagnostic ultrasound, computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging were all utilised to identify a quill imbedded in the cervical vertebral canal and cervical musculature and were compared to each other. Surgical removal of the quill, guided by imaging findings, led to the resolution of the clinical signs in the patient. Previous ultrasound imaging reports have just stated that the quill consists of paralell hyperechoic lines, and do not mention the finer hyperechoic lines inbetween and do not try to provide a reason for the appearance. Previous computed tomography (CT reports just mention identifying the quill on CT images (whether or not CT could identify the fragments, but do not go into detail about the attenuating appearance of the quill nor try to relate this to the composition of the quill. This is to the authors’ knowledge the first report with detailed imaging descriptions of a case of cranial cervical vertebral canal porcupine quill foreign body in a dog. This is also the first report to allude to a possible difference in imaging findings related to quill structure because of keratin orientation and melanin content. The ideal imaging modality to use remains elusive, but ultrasound, computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging could all identify the quill.

  2. Cervical porcupine quill foreign body involving the spinal cord of a dog: A description of various imaging modality findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Roux, Christelle; Venter, Frans J; Kirberger, Robert M

    2017-12-08

    Although porcupine quill injuries are common in dogs, the detailed appearance of the quill on diagnostic ultrasound, computed tomography, and magnetic resonance imaging has not been sufficiently described. A 4-year-old, intact, female Jack Russel terrier presented with severe neck pain and ataxia after an altercation with a porcupine 2 weeks earlier. Radiology, diagnostic ultrasound, computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging were all utilised to identify a quill imbedded in the cervical vertebral canal and cervical musculature and were compared to each other. Surgical removal of the quill, guided by imaging findings, led to the resolution of the clinical signs in the patient. Previous ultrasound imaging reports have just stated that the quill consists of paralell hyperechoic lines, and do not mention the finer hyperechoic lines inbetween and do not try to provide a reason for the appearance. Previous computed tomography (CT) reports just mention identifying the quill on CT images (whether or not CT could identify the fragments), but do not go into detail about the attenuating appearance of the quill nor try to relate this to the composition of the quill. This is to the authors' knowledge the first report with detailed imaging descriptions of a case of cranial cervical vertebral canal porcupine quill foreign body in a dog. This is also the first report to allude to a possible difference in imaging findings related to quill structure because of keratin orientation and melanin content. The ideal imaging modality to use remains elusive, but ultrasound, computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging could all identify the quill.

  3. Maxillofacial trauma - Underestimation of cervical spine injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reich, Waldemar; Surov, Alexey; Eckert, Alexander Walter

    2016-09-01

    Undiagnosed cervical spine injury can have devastating results. The aim of this study was to analyse patients with primary maxillofacial trauma and a concomitant cervical spine injury. It is hypothetised that cervical spine injury is predictable in maxillofacial surgery. A monocentric clinical study was conducted over a 10-year period to analyse patients with primary maxillofacial and associated cervical spine injuries. Demographic data, mechanism of injury, specific trauma and treatments provided were reviewed. Additionally a search of relevant international literature was conducted in PubMed by terms "maxillofacial" AND "cervical spine" AND "injury". Of 3956 patients, n = 3732 (94.3%) suffered from craniomaxillofacial injuries only, n = 174 (4.4%) from cervical spine injuries only, and n = 50 (1.3%) from both craniomaxillofacial and cervical spine injuries. In this study cohort the most prevalent craniofacial injuries were: n = 41 (44%) midfacial and n = 21 (22.6%) skull base fractures. Cervical spine injuries primarily affected the upper cervical spine column: n = 39 (58.2%) vs. n = 28 (41.8%). Only in 3 of 50 cases (6%), the cervical spine injury was diagnosed coincidentally, and the cervical spine column was under immobilised. The operative treatment rate for maxillofacial injuries was 36% (n = 18), and for cervical spine injuries 20% (n = 10). The overall mortality rate was 8% (n = 4). The literature search yielded only 12 papers (11 retrospective and monocentric cohort studies) and is discussed before our own results. In cases of apparently isolated maxillofacial trauma, maxillofacial surgeons should be aware of a low but serious risk of underestimating an unstable cervical spine injury. Copyright © 2016 European Association for Cranio-Maxillo-Facial Surgery. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Expression of relaxin receptor LRG7, canine relaxin, and relaxin-like factor in the pelvic diaphragm musculature of dogs with and without perineal hernia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merchav, Ronit; Feuermann, Yonatan; Shamay, Avi; Ranen, Eyal; Stein, Uri; Johnston, Dudley E; Shahar, Ron

    2005-01-01

    To compare the expression of canine relaxin, relaxin-like factor (RLF), and relaxin receptors within the muscles of the pelvic diaphragm of dogs with perineal hernia (PH) and clinically normal dogs. In vivo comparative study. Fifteen client-owned intact male dogs with PH were studied. Four mature intact male dogs with no evidence of perineal pathology served as controls. Biopsy samples from the levator ani, coccygeus, and internal obturator muscles were obtained. RNA samples were reverse transcribed and analyzed by real-time PCR for the expression of canine relaxin receptor LRG7, relaxin, and RLF. Significantly higher expression levels of canine relaxin receptors occurred in the musculature of the pelvic diaphragm and internal obturator muscle in dogs with PH compared with normal dogs. Expression of canine RLF revealed no significant difference between dogs with PH and controls. The difference in the expression of canine relaxin between groups was not statistically significant. Relaxin receptor up-regulation occurs in the coccygeus, levator ani, and internal obturator muscles of dogs with PH. The higher expression of relaxin receptors within the muscles of the pelvic diaphragm in dogs with PH suggests that relaxin might play a role in the pathogenesis of PH. Atrophy of these muscles, which predisposes to PH, may be attributable to increased relaxin activity.

  5. Influence of prolonged bed-rest on spectral and temporal electromyographic motor control characteristics of the superficial lumbo-pelvic musculature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belavý, Daniel L; Ng, Joseph K-F; Wilson, Stephen J; Armbrecht, Gabriele; Stegeman, Dick F; Rittweger, Jörn; Felsenberg, Dieter; Richardson, Carolyn A

    2010-02-01

    Little is known about the motor control of the lumbo-pelvic musculature in microgravity and its simulation (bed-rest). Analysis of spectral and temporal electromyographic variables can provide information on motor control relevant for normal function. This study examined the effect of 56-days of bed-rest with 1-year follow-up in 10 male subjects on the median frequency and the activation timing in surface electromyographic recordings from five superficial lumbo-pelvic muscles during a repetitive knee movement task. Trunk fat mass (from whole body-composition measurements) and movement accuracy as possible explanatory factors were included. Increased median frequency was observed in the lumbar erector spinae starting late in bed-rest, but this was not seen in its synergist, the thoracic erector spinae (pabdominal and gluteal muscles to result from increased (pactivation timing were seen. The results suggest that bed-rest particularly affects the shorter lumbar erector spinae and that the temporal sequencing of superficial lumbo-pelvic muscle activation is relatively robust.

  6. The Effects of Local Heating and Cooling of Arm on Maximal Isometric Force Generated by the Elbow Flexor Musculature in Male Subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afsun Nodehi Moghadami

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: It is well known that neuromuscular function is temperature sensitive. Changing of muscle temperature can effect voluntary muscle contraction. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of cooling and heating on maximal isometric force generated by the elbow flexor musculature in male subjects. Methods: Forty five healthy males encompassing 3 groups participated in the current study. The maximal isometric forces of elbow flexion were measured before and after placing ice and hot packs over the arm for 15 minutes. Paired t tests were used to compare differences between pre and post maximal forces between groups. Results: The results showed no significant difference between pre and post maximal isometric force scores in control and heat groups (P>0.05 and significant difference between pre and post cooling maximal isometric force scores (P=0.02. Discussion: The results suggest that the use of 15 minutes cold pack over the arm can significantly increase muscle force, however, the use of hot pack had no change in force output.

  7. Does dystonic muscle activity affect sense of effort in cervical dystonia?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loïc Carment

    Full Text Available Focal dystonia has been associated with deficient processing of sense of effort cues. However, corresponding studies are lacking in cervical dystonia (CD. We hypothesized that dystonic muscle activity would perturb neck force control based on sense of effort cues.Neck extension force control was investigated in 18 CD patients with different clinical features (7 with and 11 without retrocollis and in 19 control subjects. Subjects performed force-matching and force-maintaining tasks at 5% and 20% of maximum voluntary contraction (MVC. Three task conditions were tested: i with visual force feedback, ii without visual feedback (requiring use of sense of effort, iii without visual feedback, but with neck extensor muscle vibration (modifying muscle afferent cues. Trapezius muscle activity was recorded using electromyography (EMG.CD patients did not differ in task performance from healthy subjects when using visual feedback (ANOVA, p>0.7. In contrast, when relying on sense of effort cues (without visual feedback, 5% MVC, force control was impaired in patients without retrocollis (p = 0.006, but not in patients with retrocollis (p>0.2. Compared to controls, muscle vibration without visual feedback significantly affected performance in patients with retrocollis (p<0.001, but not in patients without retrocollis. Extensor EMG during rest, included as covariate in ANOVA, explained these group differences.This study shows that muscle afferent feedback biases sense of effort cues when controlling neck forces in patients with CD. The bias acts on peripheral or central sense of effort cues depending on whether the task involves dystonic muscles. This may explain why patients with retrocollis more accurately matched isometric neck extension forces. This highlights the need to consider clinical features (pattern of dystonic muscles when evaluating sensorimotor integration in CD.

  8. Anterior cervical discectomy and fusion for noncontiguous cervical spondylotic myelopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sun Qizhi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Noncontiguous cervical spondylotic myelopathy (CSM is a special degenerative disease because of the intermediate normal level or levels between supra and infraabnormal levels. Some controversy exists over the optimal procedure for two noncontiguous levels of CSM. The study was to evaluate the outcomes of the anterior cervical discectomy and fusion (ACDF with zero-profile devices for two noncontiguous levels of CSM. Materials and Methods: 17 consecutive patients with two noncontiguous levels of CSM operated between December 2009 and August 2012 were included in the study. There were 12 men and 5 women with a mean age of 60.7 years (range 45-75 years. Involved disc levels were C3/4 and C5/6 in 11 patients and C4/5 and C6/7 in six patients. Preoperative plain radiographs, computed tomography (CT with 3-D reconstruction and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI of the cervical spine were taken in all patients. All radiographs were independently evaluated by 2 spine surgeons and 1 radiologist. The outcomes were assessed by the average operative time, blood loss, Japanese Orthopedic Association (JOA score, improvement rate, neck dysfunction index (NDI, swallowing quality of life (SWAL-QOL score, the cervical lordosis and complications. Results: The mean followup was 48.59 months (range 24-56 months. The average operative time and blood loss was 105.29 min and 136.47 ml, respectively. The preoperative JOA score was 8.35, which significantly increased to 13.7 at the final followup ( P 0.05. Cerebrospinal fluid leak, dysphagia and radiological adjacent segment degeneration occurred in one patient, respectively. Conclusion: The ACDF with zero-profile devices is generally effective and safe in treating two noncontiguous levels of CSM.

  9. Thyroid storm following anterior cervical spine surgery for tuberculosis of cervical spine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjiv Huzurbazar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The primary objective was to report this rare case and discuss the probable mechanism of thyroid storm following anterior cervical spine surgery for Kochs cervical spine.

  10. Hemivertebra of the cervical spine: an uncommon background for neck pain, cervical scoliosis, and torticollis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapetanakis, Stylianos; Gkasdaris, Grigorios; Nastoulis, Evangelos; Stavrev, Vladimir

    2017-10-01

    A 15-year-old female patient presented with neck pain accompanied by cervical scoliosis, on the existence of torticollis. Although rare, hemivertebra of the cervical spine is a congenital deformation associated with these three clinical features.

  11. The Association Between Knee Extensor Force Steadiness, Force Accuracy, and Mobility in Older Adults Who Have Fallen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung-Hoon, Kaiwi; Tracy, Brian L; Dibble, Leland E; Marcus, Robin L; Burgess, Paul; LaStayo, Paul C

    2016-01-01

    Older adults often experience limited mobility, lower extremity muscle weakness, and increased fall risk. Furthermore, when older adults perform tasks that require control of submaximal force, impairments in their ability to maintain steady and accurate force output have been reported. Such problems may be related to deteriorating levels of mobility, particularly in older adults who have fallen. The purpose of this study was to determine whether an association exists between muscle force steadiness (MFS) or muscle force accuracy (MFA) of the knee extensors and mobility in older adults who have fallen. Twenty older adults ((Equation is included in full-text article.)= 77.5 ± 7 years, 5 males and 15 females) with 2 or more comorbid conditions and who experienced a fall in the past year underwent assessment of maximal voluntary isometric contraction of the knee extensors. A submaximal target force of 50% of their maximal voluntary isometric contraction was used to determine concentric and eccentric (ECC) steadiness (the fluctuations in force production) and accuracy (the average distance of the mean force from the target force) measures. Mobility was indicated by the 6-minute walk test, the Timed Up and Go, stair ascent, and stair descent tests. Correlation analysis was used to assess the relationship between measures of muscle force control and mobility. The correlations between muscle force steadiness and mobility were not significant (P > .05) for either contraction type. However, MFA during ECC contractions only was correlated significantly with all measures of mobility-6 minute walk test (r = -0.48; P = .03), Timed Up and Go (r = 0.68; P = .01), stair ascent (r = 0.60; P = .01), and stair descent (r = 0.75; P fallen is novel. Although the correlations are not causal, these relationships suggest that inaccurate force output during ECC contractions of the knee extensors is linked to impaired mobility.

  12. Anatomic cadaveric study of the extensile extensor digitorum communis splitting approach for exposing the ulnar coronoid process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukegawa, Koji; Suzuki, Takane; Ogawa, Yasufumi; Ueno, Keisuke; Kiuchi, Hitoshi; Kanazuka, Aya; Matsuura, Yusuke; Kuniyoshi, Kazuki

    2016-08-01

    The extensile extensor digitorum communis (EDC) splitting approach can access the ulnar coronoid process (UCP), which can be used to treat terrible triad injuries. The present study anatomically examined the extensile EDC splitting approach for exposing the UCP. Twenty fresh frozen cadaveric upper limbs were dissected. The splitting length of the EDC and detachment length of the extensor carpi radialis brevis (ECRB)-extensor carpi radialis longus (ECRL)-brachioradialis (BR) origin were measured to expose the UCP. The distance between the most distal site of the EDC splitting and the point at which the posterior interosseous nerve (PIN) crosses the anterior aspect of the radial shaft, and the distance between the most proximal site of the ECRB-ECRL-BR origin detachment and the point at which the radial nerve crosses the anterior aspect of the humeral shaft were measured. The splitting length of the EDC was 45.4 ± 4.8 mm, the detachment length of the ECRB-ECRL-BR origin was 30.2 ± 4.7 mm, the distance between the distal site of the EDC splitting and PIN was 10.6 ± 6.1 mm (minimum distance, 1.1 mm), and the distance between the proximal site of the ECRB-ECRL-BR origin detachment and the radial nerve was 49.5 ± 9.7 mm (minimum distance, 31.7 mm). The extensile EDC splitting approach can sufficiently expose the UCP. However, splitting must be performed carefully because the most distal site of the EDC splitting is close to the point at which the PIN crosses the anterior aspect of the radial shaft (average distance, 10 mm; minimum distance, 1 mm). Copyright © 2016 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Effect of acute dietary nitrate intake on maximal knee extensor speed and power in healthy men and women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coggan, Andrew R; Leibowitz, Joshua L; Kadkhodayan, Ana; Thomas, Deepak P; Ramamurthy, Sujata; Spearie, Catherine Anderson; Waller, Suzanne; Farmer, Marsha; Peterson, Linda R

    2015-08-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) has been demonstrated to enhance the maximal shortening velocity and maximal power of rodent muscle. Dietary nitrate (NO3(-)) intake has been demonstrated to increase NO bioavailability in humans. We therefore hypothesized that acute dietary NO3(-) intake (in the form of a concentrated beetroot juice (BRJ) supplement) would improve muscle speed and power in humans. To test this hypothesis, healthy men and women (n = 12; age = 22-50 y) were studied using a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover design. After an overnight fast, subjects ingested 140 mL of BRJ either containing or devoid of 11.2 mmol of NO3(-). After 2 h, knee extensor contractile function was assessed using a Biodex 4 isokinetic dynamometer. Breath NO levels were also measured periodically using a Niox Mino analyzer as a biomarker of whole-body NO production. No significant changes in breath NO were observed in the placebo trial, whereas breath NO rose by 61% (P effect size = 1.19) after dietary NO3(-) intake. This was accompanied by a 4% (P effect size = 0.74) increase in peak knee extensor power at the highest angular velocity tested (i.e., 6.28 rad/s). Calculated maximal knee extensor power was therefore greater (i.e., 7.90 ± 0.59 vs. 7.44 ± 0.53 W/kg; P effect size = 0.63) after dietary NO3(-) intake, as was the calculated maximal velocity (i.e., 14.5 ± 0.9 vs. 13.1 ± 0.8 rad/s; P effect size = 0.67). No differences in muscle function were observed during 50 consecutive knee extensions performed at 3.14 rad/s. We conclude that acute dietary NO3(-) intake increases whole-body NO production and muscle speed and power in healthy men and women. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Cervical disc arthroplasty: Pros and cons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moatz, Bradley; Tortolani, P Justin

    2012-01-01

    Cervical disc arthroplasty has emerged as a promising potential alternative to anterior cervical discectomy and fusion (ACDF) in appropriately selected patients. Despite a history of excellent outcomes after ACDF, the question as to whether a fusion leads to adjacent segment degeneration remains unanswered. Numerous US investigational device exemption trials comparing cervical arthroplasty to fusion have been conducted to answer this question. This study reviews the current research regarding cervical athroplasty, and emphasizes both the pros and cons of arthroplasty as compared with ACDF. Early clinical outcomes show that cervical arthroplasty is as effective as the standard ACDF. However, this new technology is also associated with an expanding list of novel complications. Although there is no definitive evidence that cervical disc replacement reduces the incidence of adjacent segment degeneration, it does show other advantages; for example, faster return to work, and reduced need for postoperative bracing.

  15. Raman spectroscopy in cervical cancers: An update

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Rubina

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Cervical cancer is the third most common cancer among women worldwide. Developing countries contribute more than 80% towards global burden. Over the last 2 decades, Raman spectroscopy (RS has been actively pursued for cervical cancer detection. In view of latest development in Raman spectroscopic applications in cervical cancers, especially in vivo studies, an update of the same is presented in this article. This articles opens with a brief note on Anatomy of cervix followed by Etiology, and conventional Screening and Diagnosis of Cervical cancers. In subsequent sections, brief description of Theory and Instrumentation of RS is followed by a review of recent developments in cervical cancer detection; with emphasis on cell lines, exfoliated cells, ex vivo and in vivo, and therapeutic response monitoring applications in cervical cancer.

  16. Cervical spondylosis and hypertension: a clinical study of 2 cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Baogan; Pang, Xiaodong; Li, Duanming; Yang, Hong

    2015-03-01

    Cervical spondylosis and hypertension are all common diseases, but the relationship between them has never been studied. Patients with cervical spondylosis are often accompanied with vertigo. Anterior cervical discectomy and fusion is an effective method of treatment for cervical spondylosis with cervical vertigo that is unresponsive to conservative therapy. We report 2 patients of cervical spondylosis with concomitant cervical vertigo and hypertension who were treated successfully with anterior cervical discectomy and fusion. Stimulation of sympathetic nerve fibers in pathologically degenerative disc could produce sympathetic excitation, and induce a sympathetic reflex to cause cervical vertigo and hypertension. In addition, chronic neck pain could contribute to hypertension development through sympathetic arousal and failure of normal homeostatic pain regulatory mechanisms. Cervical spondylosis may be one of the causes of secondary hypertension. Early treatment for resolution of symptoms of cervical spondylosis may have a beneficial impact on cardiovascular disease risk in patients with cervical spondylosis.

  17. Cervical cytology in serous and endometrioid endometrial cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roelofsen, T.; Geels, Y.P.; Pijnenborg, J.M.A.; Ham, M.A.P.C. van; Zomer, S.F.; Tilburg, J.M. van; Snijders, M.P.; Siebers, A.G.; Bulten, J.; Massuger, L.F.A.G.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the frequency of abnormal cervical cytology in preoperative cervical cytology of patients diagnosed with uterine papillary serous carcinoma (UPSC) and endometrioid endometrial carcinoma (EEC). In addition, associations between abnormal cervical cytology and

  18. Priority Setting for Improvement of Cervical Cancer Prevention in Iran

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Majidi, A.; Ghiasvand, R.; Hadji, M.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Cervical cancer is the fourth most common cancer among women worldwide. Organized cervical screening and vaccination against human papilloma virus (HPV) have been successful interventions for prevention of invasive cervical cancer (ICC). Because of cultural and religious considerations...

  19. A Case Report of Traumatic Partial Extensor Carpi Ulnaris Subluxation in an Elite Hockey Player With Review of the Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aoude, Ahmed; Van Lancker, Hans; Chari, Basavaraj; Boily, Mathieu; Martineau, Paul A

    2017-07-01

    In this article, we present a unique case of traumatic partial recurrent extensor carpi ulnaris (ECU) subluxation in an elite hockey player. To the best of our knowledge, this is the only report of partial ECU subluxation due to a split in the ECU tendon presented in the literature. This case illustrates the importance of proper diagnosis and treatment of such a lesion. We also emphasize that dynamic ultrasound is an excellent and cost-effective imaging modality that can help with the diagnosis of partial ECU subluxation. Finally, surgical treatment for failed conservative management showed excellent results in an elite athlete.

  20. [Oxidative stress in soleus and extensor digitorum longus (EDL) muscles of spontaneously hypertensive rats].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández, Noelina; De Sanctis, Juan B; Losada, Mercedes; Torres, Sonia H; Sosa, Amparo; Rivas, Miriam

    2011-09-01

    Systemic diseases affect skeletal muscle, and inflammation and oxidative stress are some of the involved mechanisms. There is scarce information about the effects of essential hypertension on skeletal muscle. The soleus and extensor digitorum longus (EDL) muscles of spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) were studied compared to control Wistar Kyoto (WKY) rats. The levels of nitrite and nitrate in micromol/mg-protein; endothelial (eNOS), neuronal (nNOS), and inducible (iNOS) nitric oxide synthases, nitrotyrosine and tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) in ng/mg-protein were determined. Compared with controls, the SHR showed increased levels of nitrotyrosine (soleus 24.4 +/- 5.0 vs. 3.3 +/- 0.3, p<0.001; EDL 20.2 +/- 4.3 vs. 4.5 +/- 0.4, p<0.0037), iNOS (soleus 26.6 +/- 3.7 vs. 8.3 +/- 0.9; EDL 21.3 +/- 3.7 vs. 11.0 +/- 0.8, both p<0.0001) and TNF-alpha (soleus 2.2 +/- 0.5 vs. 0.6 +/- 0.1, p<0.05; EDL 1.9 +/- 0.2 vs. 0.6 +/- 0.1, p<0.02). A decrease of eNOS was found in soleus muscle (20.6 +/- 1.4 vs. 30.3 +/- 1.2, p<0.00001); of nNOS (soleus 16.8 +/- 1.4 vs. 20.7 +/- 1.8, p< 0.05; EDL 13.6 +/- 1.3 vs. 21.9 +/- 1.8, p<.005) and nitrite in EDL (5.8 +/- 0.3 vs. 7.1 +/- 0.5, p<0.026).There was a positive correlation between TNF-alpha vs. nitrotyrosine in soleus (r=0.798; p<0.031) and a tendency in EDL (r=0.739; p=0.059); iNOS vs. nitrotyrosine (soleus: r=0.908; p<0.0001; EDL: r=0.707; p<0.01), a tendency between TNF-alpha and iNOS (EDL: r=0.736; p<0.059); and a negative correlation between eNOS vs. nitrotyrosine in soleus muscle (r=-0.816; p<0.0012). In conclusion, in skeletal muscles of SHR an inflammatory process was found evidenced by the increase in TNF-alpha, nitrotyrosine and iNOS. The decreased levels of constitutive synthases, together with the higher level of iNOS, are indicative of endothelial dysfunction.

  1. Proximal phalanx and flexor digitorum longus tendon biomechanics in flexor to extensor tendon transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiPaolo, Zachary J; Ross, Matthew S; Laughlin, Richard T; Gould, Greg; Flower, Katie; Kiger, Lorrie; Markert, Ronald J

    2015-05-01

    The flexor to extensor transfer of the flexor digitorum longus (FDL) tendon has been a relatively common operative procedure for the treatment of a flexible hammer toe deformity and chronic metatarsophalangeal (MTP) joint dislocation. A possible complication of using the tunnel technique rather than the tendon splitting technique is iatrogenic fracture through the drilled tunnel site. The purpose of this investigation was to study the FDL tendon and proximal phalanx dimensions in the area of the transfer procedure in order to improve preoperative planning and minimize postoperative complications. Additionally, this study investigated the force necessary to create a fracture in a predrilled proximal phalanx and attempted to elucidate a relationship between that force and the percentage of bone remaining after the drilling process. The proximal phalanx and FDL tendon of the second, third, and fourth toes from both the right and the left foot of 14 fresh frozen cadavers were dissected, and the digit was amputated at the MTP joint. A total of 84 toes (42 right, 42 left) were obtained from 14 cadavers. The diameter of the FDL tendon was measured, and the circumference and volume were calculated. Fourteen proximal phalanges of either the right or the left foot were then drilled with a 3.5-mm drill, as is often done in a tendon transfer procedure. The 14 nondrilled bones from the contralateral foot were used as matched controls. Radiographs were then taken of the proximal phalanges, and the dimensions of the drill tunnel and remaining bone were calculated. These measurements were used to calculate the volume of the bone, the volume of the drill tunnel, and the percentage of bone remaining after the drilling process. The bones were then tested for load-to-failure using a biomechanical loading apparatus. The average bone and tendon diameter measurements showed a gradual decrease in size from the second to the fourth digits. The bone removed by drilling the tunnel accounted

  2. Ipilimumab in Treating Patients With Metastatic or Recurrent Human Papilloma Virus-Related Cervical Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-03-23

    Cervical Adenocarcinoma; Cervical Squamous Cell Carcinoma, Not Otherwise Specified; Human Papillomavirus Infection; Recurrent Cervical Carcinoma; Stage IVA Cervical Cancer AJCC v6 and v7; Stage IVB Cervical Cancer AJCC v6 and v7

  3. Isolated Echinococcosis of cervical region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pratima Khare

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Echinococcosis, commonly called as hydatid disease, is a parasitic infestation caused by the larva of the genus Echinococcus in human. Isolated occurrence of Echinococcosis without any evidence of visceral disease is very rare. A thorough search of the literature revealed only 11 cases of isolated cervical Echinococcosis. We report here a very rare case of isolated hydatid cyst in a 45-year-old female patient, who presented with swelling in right cervical region about 5 cm below the angle of mandible with no evidence of the disease elsewhere in the body. The case was diagnosed on fine needle aspiration cytology. The diagnosis was further supported by histopathology. We propose that the treating physician should also consider the differential diagnosis of Echinococcosis in the presence of an asymptomatic soft tissue mass, especially when the patient lives in an endemic area.

  4. Preventive vaccines for cervical cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WHEELER COSETTE M

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available The potential use of vaccines for the human papillomavirus (HPV in the prevention and treatment of cervical cancer is a possibility in the near future. Close to 20 genotypes of HPV, of the 75 that have been identified, infect the femine genital tract, but four subtypes (16, 18, 31 and 45 have been associated in close to 80% of cervical cancers. this article proposes that in order to design an effective prophylactic vaccine against HPV infection, an adequate immune response should be guaranteed through four goals; a activation of antigens present in the cell; b overcoming the host response and viral genetic variability in the T cell response; c generation of high levels of T and B memory cells; and d persistence of antigens.

  5. Cervical Spine Axial Rotation Goniometer Design

    OpenAIRE

    Emin Ulaş Erdem; Filiz Can

    2012-01-01

    To evaluate the cervical spine rotation movement is quiet harder than other joints. Configuration and arrangement of current goniometers and devices is not always practic in clinics and some methods are quiet expensive. The cervical axial rotation goniometer designed by the authors is consists of five pieces (head apparatus, chair, goniometric platform, eye pads and camera). With this goniometer design a detailed evaluation of cervical spine range of motion can be obtained. Besides, measureme...

  6. Detecting cervical cancer by quantitative promoter hypermethylation assay on cervical scrapings : A feasibility study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reesink-Peters, N; Wisman, G.B.A.; Jeronimo, C; Tokumaru, CY; Cohen, Y; Dong, SM; Klip, HG; Buikema, HJ; Suurmeijer, AJH; Hollema, H; Boezen, HM; Sidransky, D; van der Zee, AGJ

    Current morphology-based cervical cancer screening is associated with significant false-positive and false-negative results. Tumor suppressor gene hypermethylation is frequently present in cervical cancer. It is unknown whether a cervical scraping reflects the methylation status of the underlying

  7. [Therapeutic effect and mechanism of the surgical treatment for cervical vertigo with cervical spondylosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Zhuolin; Hu, Jianhua; Zhai, Jiliang; Tian, Ye; Qiu, Guixing; Weng, Xisheng; Wu, Gui; Zhu, Qiankun; Zhao, Lijuan

    2015-07-07

    To investigate the therapeutic effect and mechanism of the surgical treatment for cervical vertigo with cervical spondylosis. Thirty-five patients in Department of Orthopaedics, Peking Union Medical College Hospital, Peking Union Medical College, who received surgical treatment for cervical spondylosis concomitant with cervical vertigo from 2004 to 2013 were reviewed retrospectively. The preoperative cervical curvature index (CCI), slip distance and intervertebral angle, as well as the pre-and-postoperative Cobb angle were measured. The pre-and-postoperative degree of vertigo was reported according to the American Academy of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery Committee on Hearing and Equilibrium standard. The therapeutic effect and mechanism for patients with different imaging features and thus underwent various surgical approaches were analyzed. The mean follow-up was 40.6 months. Cervical instability was found in 33 patients. 29 of 35 (82.9%) patients had a satisfied recovery from cervical vertigo. The difference in Cobb angle in pre- and postoperative neutral cervical X-ray images was positively associated with the improvement for the vertigo (Pearson's test, P spondylosis. Cervical sympathetic nerves may have played an important role in the cervical vertigo. Surgery may relieve the cervical vertigo accompanying the cervical spondylosis.

  8. Survival from Cervical Necrotizing Fasciitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gausepohl, Jeniffer S.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Cervical necrotizing fasciitis (CNF is an uncommon, yet clinically significant infection that rapidly progresses to involve the deep neck spaces. Early recognition and aggressive surgical intervention and debridement are important, as this disease is associated with a high morbidity and mortality. In this report, we present a case of CNF and descending mediastinitis from a non-odontogenic source in a patient presenting with neck swelling and odynophagia. [West J Emerg Med. 2015;16(1:172–174.

  9. Os Odontoideum: Rare Cervical Lesion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristie A Robson

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available We report the case of a 22-year-old Marine who presented to the emergency department, after a martial arts exercise, with transient weakness and numbness in all extremities. Computed tomography cervical spine radiographs revealed os odontoideum. Lateral flexion–extension radiographs identified atlanto-axillary instability. This abnormality is rare and can be career ending for military members who do not undergo surgical fusion. [West J Emerg Med. 2011;12(4:520–522.

  10. Misplaced Cervical Screws Requiring Reoperation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Jeremy C; Arnold, Paul M; Smith, Zachary A; Hsu, Wellington K; Fehlings, Michael G; Hart, Robert A; Hilibrand, Alan S; Nassr, Ahmad; Rahman, Ra'Kerry K; Tannoury, Chadi A; Tannoury, Tony; Mroz, Thomas E; Currier, Bradford L; De Giacomo, Anthony F; Fogelson, Jeremy L; Jobse, Bruce C; Massicotte, Eric M; Riew, K Daniel

    2017-04-01

    A multicenter, retrospective case series. In the past several years, screw fixation of the cervical spine has become commonplace. For the most part, this is a safe, low-risk procedure. While rare, screw backout or misplaced screws can lead to morbidity and increased costs. We report our experiences with this uncommon complication. A multicenter, retrospective case series was undertaken at 23 institutions in the United States. Patients were included who underwent cervical spine surgery from January 1, 2005, to December 31, 2011, and had misplacement of screws requiring reoperation. Institutional review board approval was obtained at all participating institutions, and detailed records were sent to a central data center. A total of 12 903 patients met the inclusion criteria and were analyzed. There were 11 instances of screw backout requiring reoperation, for an incidence of 0.085%. There were 7 posterior procedures. Importantly, there were no changes in the health-related quality-of-life metrics due to this complication. There were no new neurologic deficits; a patient most often presented with pain, and misplacement was diagnosed on plain X-ray or computed tomography scan. The most common location for screw backout was C6 (36%). This study represents the largest series to tabulate the incidence of misplacement of screws following cervical spine surgery, which led to revision procedures. The data suggest this is a rare event, despite the widespread use of cervical fixation. Patients suffering this complication can require revision, but do not usually suffer neurologic sequelae. These patients have increased cost of care. Meticulous technique and thorough knowledge of the relevant anatomy are the best means of preventing this complication.

  11. Lynch Syndrome and Cervical Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antill, Yoland C; Dowty, James G; Win, Aung Ko; Thompson, Tina; Walsh, Michael D; Cummings, Margaret C; Gallinger, Steven; Lindor, Noralane M; Le Marchand, Loïc; Hopper, John L; Newcomb, Polly A; Haile, Robert W; Church, James; Tucker, Katherine M; Buchanan, Daniel D; Young, Joanne P; Winship, Ingrid M; Jenkins, Mark A

    2015-01-01

    Carriers of germline mutations in DNA mismatch repair (MMR) genes are at increased risk of several cancers including colorectal and gynecologic cancers (Lynch syndrome). There is no substantial evidence that these mutations are associated with an increased risk of cervical cancer. A total of 369 families with at least one carrier of a mutation in a MMR gene (133 MLH1, 174 MSH2, 35 MSH6, and 27 PMS2) were ascertained via population cancer registries or via family cancer clinics in Australia, New Zealand, Canada, and USA. Personal and family histories of cancer were obtained from participant interviews. Modified segregation analysis was used to estimate the hazard ratio (incidence rates for carriers relative to those for the general population), and age-specific cumulative risks of cervical cancer for carriers. A total of 65 cases of cervical cancer were reported (including 10 verified by pathology reports). The estimated incidence was 5.6–fold (95% CI: 2.3–13.8; p=0.001) higher for carriers than for the general population with a corresponding cumulative risk to 80 years of 4.5% (95% CI: 1.9–10.7%) compared with 0.8% for the general population. The mean age at diagnosis was 43.1 years (95% CI: 40.0–46.2), 3.9 years younger than the reported USA population mean of 47.0 years (p=0.02). Women with MMR gene mutations were found to have an increased risk of cervical cancer. Due to limited pathology verification we cannot be certain that a proportion of these cases were not lower uterine segment endometrial cancers involving the endocervix, a recognized cancer of Lynch syndrome. PMID:26077226

  12. Methods for Cervical Cancer Screening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Vargas-Revilla

    2014-12-01

    This article is divided in three sections: the first one focuses on the general impact of cervical cancer has hadin CostaRica, these condsection gathers information about different methodologies used around the world to detect this cancer and the third one makes reference to the current development of the screening devise in Mexico that works as a monitoring system and can used by women without external assistance.

  13. Ruptura bilateral e simultânea do mecanismo extensor do joelho em um pré-adolescente: relato de caso Simultaneous bilateral tear of the knee extensor mechanism in a pre-adolescent: case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Pires e Albuquerque

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available A ruptura do tendão patelar de um lado e um sleeve fracture contralateral em um pré-adolescente são uma lesão rara. Nós relatamos um caso em um pré-adolescente que caiu enquanto saltava durante uma partida de futebol. Não foram diagnosticados fatores predisponentes. As lesões foram tratadas com os reparos cirúrgicos e suturas transósseas. O objetivo desta pesquisa foi apresentar um caso de ruptura concorrente e espontânea do mecanismo extensor do joelho em um pré-adolescente.Unilateral tearing of a patellar tendon and a contralateral sleeve fracture in a pre-adolescent are rare lesions. We report a case in which a pre-adolescent sustained a fall while jumping during a soccer match. No predisposing risk factors were identified. The injuries were treated with surgical repairs and transosseous suturing. The aim of this study was to present a case of spontaneous concurrent tearing of the extensor mechanism of the knee in a pre-adolescent.

  14. THE CERVICAL CANCER SCREENING - UNSOLVED PROBLEMS

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    A. D. Kaprin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The problem of cervical cancer (CC for many decades continues to be the center of attention leading foreign and domestic oncologists. Malignant cervical tumors occupy the leading position among malignant neoplasms of reproductive system in women, second only to breast cancer, despite having far more effective screening compared with this disease. On predictive expert estimates (taking into account population growth and the expected increase in life expectancy by 2020 in developing countries, the rising incidence and prevalence of cervical cancer is 40%, while in developed countries - 11%. If we do not perform timely interventions for prevention and treatment of cervical cancer, after 2050 cervical cancer every year in the world will become sick 1 million women. In the last decade inRussiathere has been a gradual increase in the incidence of cervical cancer: average annual growth rate of 2.21%, General 25,18%. Cervical cancer is one of nosological forms that meet all the requirements of population-based screening. The current Russian normative documents do not give clear answers to questions concerning the age of onset of cervical cancer screening and the time interval between tests, no clear program organized cytological screening of cervical cancer.

  15. Internet-Based Cervical Cytology Screening System

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wilbur, David C; Crothers, Barbara A; Eichhorn, John H; Ro, Min S; Gelfand, Jeffrey A

    2007-01-01

    This project explores the combination of computerized automated primary screening of cervical cytology specimens in remote sites with interpretation of device-selected images transmitted via the Internet...

  16. Internet-Based Cervical Cancer Screening Program

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wilbur, David C; Crothers, Barbara A; Eichhorn, John H; Ro, Min S; Gelfand, Jeffrey A

    2008-01-01

    This project explores the combination of computerized automated primary screening of cervical cytology specimens in remote sites with interpretation of device-selected images transmitted via the Internet...

  17. Internet-Based Cervical Cytology Screening Program

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wilbur, David C; Crothers, Barbara A; Eichhorn, John H; Ro, Min S; Gelfand, Jeffrey A

    2006-01-01

    This project explores the combination of computerized automated primary screening of cervical cytology specimens in remote sites with interpretation of device-selected images transmitted via the Internet...

  18. Magnetic resonance imaging of cervical myelopathy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chosa, Hirofumi; Yamano, Kouichirou; Ihara, Fumitoshi; Ueda, Yoshiaki; Maekawa, Masayuki; Tokuhisa, Ginichirou; Kuwano, Tadashi; Kamo, Yoshi; Nomura, Shigeharu (Kyushu Rosai Hospital, Fukuoka (Japan))

    1990-03-01

    Forty-three patients operated for cervical myelopathy were examined with a 1.5 T magnetic resonance imaging. Cord compression was demonstrated directly on the sagittal image in cases of cervical disc herniation, cervical spondylosis and O.P. L.L. Herniated disc material was seen positive on axial image. But factors of cord compression in cases of cervical spondylosis and O.P. L.L. were not clearly confirmed, so additional examinations such as myelogram, tomogram and CT was needed. (author).

  19. EXAMINATION RESULTS OF CHILDREN WITH CERVICAL SYNDROME

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. H. Bakhteeva

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available By the example of examination of 80 children aged from 4 to 18 with cervical syndrome it is indicated, that the diagnosed abnormalities of hemodynamics in vertebrobasilar basin in patients of all age groups are connected both with bone and vascular pathology of the cervical part of the spine. The pathology has functional or congenital character. Early detection of discicirculatory vascular injuries in the cervical part of the spine in children with cervical syndrome will allow to define the therapeutic management of patients and to prolong juvenile osteochondrosis clinical behaviour.

  20. Nanotechnology in the management of cervical cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jiezhong; Gu, Wenyi; Yang, Lei; Chen, Chen; Shao, Renfu; Xu, Kewei; Xu, Zhi Ping

    2015-03-01

    Cervical cancer is a major disease with high mortality. All cervical cancers are caused by infection with human papillomaviruses (HPV). Although preventive vaccines for cervical cancer are successful, treatment of cervical cancer is far less satisfactory because of multidrug resistance and side effects. In this review, we summarize the recent application of nanotechnology to the diagnosis and treatment of cervical cancer as well as the development of HPV vaccines. Early detection of cervical cancer enables tumours to be efficiently removed by surgical procedures, leading to increased survival rate. The current method of detecting cervical cancer by Pap smear can only achieve 50% sensitivity, whereas nanotechnology has been used to detect HPVs with greatly improved sensitivity. In cervical cancer treatment, nanotechnology has been used for the delivery of anticancer drugs to increase treatment efficacy and decrease side effects. Nanodelivery of HPV preventive and therapeutic vaccines has also been investigated to increase vaccine efficacy. Overall, these developments suggest that nanoparticle-based vaccine may become the most effective way to prevent and treat cervical cancer, assisted or combined with some other nanotechnology-based therapy. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.