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Sample records for cervical esophageal cancer

  1. Overexpression of p53 Gene in Esophageal and Cervical Cancer and the Relationship with Radiotherapy Effects

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张晓智; 王晓丽; 李旭

    2003-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the relationship between p53 protein overexpression in esophageal and cervical squamous cell cancer and their clinical radiosensitivity. Methods: The immuno-histochemical assays were done for 52 cases with esophageal and cervical squamous cell cancer. The relationship between the assay results and short-term radiotherapy was investigated. Results: p53 overer-pression was 52.38% and 35. 48% respectively, in esophageal cancer and cervical cancer;p53 over-expression in high differentiated squamous cell cancer was knver than these in moderate and poor differentiated cases(P0. 05). In the cases of cervical cancer, p53 overexpression had the less short-term effect(P0. 05).Conclusion:This study suggests that p53 gene has the certain relationship with tumor radiosensitivity.

  2. Clinicopathological Features of Cervical Esophageal Cancer: Retrospective Analysis of 63 Consecutive Patients Who Underwent Surgical Resection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saeki, Hiroshi; Tsutsumi, Satoshi; Yukaya, Takafumi; Tajiri, Hirotada; Tsutsumi, Ryosuke; Nishimura, Sho; Nakaji, Yu; Kudou, Kensuke; Akiyama, Shingo; Kasagi, Yuta; Nakashima, Yuichiro; Sugiyama, Masahiko; Sonoda, Hideto; Ohgaki, Kippei; Oki, Eiji; Yasumatsu, Ryuji; Nakashima, Torahiko; Morita, Masaru; Maehara, Yoshihiko

    2017-01-01

    The objectives of this retrospective study were to elucidate the clinicopathological features and recent surgical results of cervical esophageal cancer. Cervical esophageal cancer has been reported to have a dismal prognosis. Accurate knowledge of the clinical characteristics of cervical esophageal cancer is warranted to establish appropriate therapeutic strategies. The clinicopathological features and treatment results of 63 consecutive patients with cervical esophageal cancer (Ce group) who underwent surgical resection from 1980 to 2013 were analyzed and compared with 977 patients with thoracic or abdominal esophageal cancer (T/A group) who underwent surgical resection during that time. Among the patients who received curative resection, the 5-year overall and disease-specific survival rates of the Ce patients were significantly better than those of the T/A patients (overall: 77.3% vs 46.5%, respectively, P = 0.0067; disease-specific: 81.9% vs 55.8%, respectively, P = 0.0135). Although total pharyngo-laryngo-esophagectomy procedures were less frequently performed in the recent period, the rate of curative surgical procedures was markedly higher in the recent period (2000-1013) than that in the early period (1980-1999) (44.4% vs 88.9%, P = 0.0001). The 5-year overall survival rate in the recent period (71.5%) was significantly better than that in the early period (40.7%, P = 0.0342). Curative resection for cervical esophageal cancer contributes to favorable outcomes compared with other esophageal cancers. Recent surgical results for cervical esophageal cancer have improved, and include an increased rate of curative resection and decreased rate of extensive surgery.

  3. Esophageal Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... from your throat to your stomach. Early esophageal cancer usually does not cause symptoms. Later, you may ... You're at greater risk for getting esophageal cancer if you smoke, drink heavily, or have acid ...

  4. [Treatment outcomes of patients with cervical lymph node recurrence after esophagectomy for esophageal cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takemura, Masashi; Kaibe, Nobuaki; Takii, Mamiko; Yoshida, Kayo; Niwa, Hirotaka; Oshima, Tsutomu; Kikuchi, Shoujiro; Sasako, Mitsuru

    2014-11-01

    Herein, we report the treatment outcomes of patients with limited cervical lymph node recurrence after esophagectomy for esophageal cancer. Between April 2010 and December 2013, 8 patients with cervical lymph nodes recurrence were diagnosed and treated in our department. All patients were detected with recurrent disease by using positron emission tomography computed tomography(PET-CT), and among these, 5 patients had solitary node recurrence. Initial treatments were irradiation therapy in 5 patients and lymphadenectomy in 3 patients. Four of 5 patients underwent irradiation therapy and lymphadenectomy. Four of 5 patients with solitary node recurrence are still alive without relapse of disease. In conclusion, PET-CT can be useful for early detection of recurrent disease after esophagectomy. Appropriate therapy for patients with solitary cervical lymph node recurrence is associated with long-term survival after recurrence.

  5. Esophageal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vakil, Nimish; Affi, Aboud

    2002-07-01

    Despite advances in our knowledge of esophageal cancer, 50% of patients present with incurable disease, and the overall survival after diagnosis is poor. The incidence of esophageal adenocarcinoma of the distal esophagus is rising at a rapid rate in developed countries. Recent advances in the epidemiology of esophageal cancer offer insights into preventive strategies in patients who are at risk. New developments in diagnosis may help detect the disease at an early stage. New diagnostic modalities permit more accurate staging procedures and allow appropriate selection of therapy. New studies provide more information on multimodality therapy for esophageal cancer, and new endoscopic techniques allow resection of small lesions without surgery. New stent designs provide better palliation by providing tumor ingrowth. These developments in the treatment of esophageal cancer are the focus of this review.

  6. Esophageal Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the lower part of the esophagus, near the stomach. See the following PDQ summaries for more information about esophageal cancer: Esophageal Cancer Screening Esophageal Cancer Treatment Esophageal cancer is found more ...

  7. Esophageal Cancer Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Esophageal Cancer Prevention Esophageal Cancer Screening Research Esophageal Cancer Screening (PDQ®)–Patient Version What is screening? Go to ... the esophagus and the stomach). Being overweight . Esophageal Cancer Screening Key Points Tests are used to screen for ...

  8. Esophageal cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, M. B.

    2007-01-01

    The distribution of adenocarcinomas and squamous cell carcinomas in esophageal cancer (EC) has changed, and focus directed towards tumors of the distal esophagus and the esophagogastric junction. The genetic events leading to EC are not fully clarified, but important risk factors have been...

  9. [Multi-disciplinary treatment increases the survival rate of late stage pharyngeal, laryngeal or cervical esophageal cancers treated by free jejunal flap reconstruction after cancer resection].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Y M; Zhang, H; Ni, S; Wang, J; Li, D Z; Liu, S Y

    2016-05-23

    To investigate the survival status of patients with pharyngeal, laryngeal or cervical esophageal cancers, who received free jejunal flap (FJF) to repair the defects following tumor resection, and to analyze the effect of multi-disciplinary treatment on their survival. Fifty-eight patients with pharyngeal, laryngeal or cervical esophageal cancer underwent free jejunal flap (FJF) reconstruction after cancer resection between 2010 and 2013. All their clinical records were reviewed and analyzed. The success rate of flap transplantation was 91.4% (53/58). The 2-year overall survival rates (OSR) of cervical esophageal cancer and hypopharyngeal cancer patients were 67.5% and 49.3%, respectively, both were significantly better than that of laryngeal cancer. The main causes of death were local recurrence and distant metastases. The group with no short-term complications had a better two-year OSR (59.0%) than the group with short-term complications (46.6%), however, the difference between them was not significant (P=0.103). The 2-year survival rate of the initial treatment group was 65.0%, better than that of the salvage treatment group (49.4%), but the difference was not significant (P=0.051). For the stage III and IV patients, the multi-disciplinary treatment group had a significantly better 2-year OSR (64.7%) than the single or sequential treatment group (37.0%, P=0.016). Free jejunal flap reconstruction is an ideal option for repairing the cervical digestive tract circumferential defects caused by tumor resection with a high success rate and a low mortality. Compared with the single or sequential treatment, multi-disciplinary treatment can significantly improve the survival rate of late-stage hypopharyngeal and cervical esophageal cancer patients.

  10. Risks of Esophageal Cancer Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Esophageal Cancer Prevention Esophageal Cancer Screening Research Esophageal Cancer Screening (PDQ®)–Patient Version What is screening? Go to ... the esophagus and the stomach). Being overweight . Esophageal Cancer Screening Key Points Tests are used to screen for ...

  11. Intensity-modulated radiation therapy with concurrent chemotherapy for locally advanced cervical and upper thoracic esophageal cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shu-Lian Wang; Zhongxing Liao; Helen Liu; Jaffer Ajani; Stephen Swisher; James D Cox; Ritsuko Komaki

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the dosimetry, efficacy and toxicity of intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) and concurrent chemotherapy for patients with locally advanced cervical and upper thoracic esophageal cancer.METHODS: A retrospective study was performed on 7 patients who were definitively treated with IMRT and concurrent chemotherapy. Patients who did not receive IMRT radiation and concurrent chemotherapy were not included in this analysis. IMRT plans were evaluated to assess the tumor coverage and normal tissue avoidance. Treatment response was evaluated and toxicities were assessed.RESULTS: Five- to nine-beam IMRT were used to deliver a total dose of 59.4-66 Gy (median: 64.8 Gy) to the primary tumor with 6-MV photons. The minimum dose received by the planning tumor volume (PTV) of the gross tumor volume boost was 91.2%-98.2% of the prescription dose (standard deviation [SD]: 3.7%-5.7%).tumor volume was 93.8%-104.8% (SD: 4.3%-11.1%)of the prescribed dose. With a median follow-up of 15 mo (range: 3-21 mo), all 6 evaluable patients achieved complete response. Of them, 2 developed local recurrences and 2 had distant metastases, 3 survived with no evidence of disease. After treatment, 2 patients developed esophageal stricture requiring frequent dilation and 1 patient developed tracheal-esophageal fistula.CONCLUSION: Concurrent IMRT and chemotherapy resulted in an excellent early response in patients with locally advanced cervical and upper thoracic esophageal cancer. However, local and distant recurrence and toxicity remain to be a problem. Innovative approaches are needed to improve the outcome.

  12. Surgery for Cervical Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Stage Cervical Cancer Treating Cervical Cancer Surgery for Cervical Cancer Many women with cervical cancer will have some ... Options for Cervical Cancer, by Stage More In Cervical Cancer About Cervical Cancer Causes, Risk Factors, and Prevention ...

  13. Cervical Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the place where a baby grows during pregnancy. Cervical cancer is caused by a virus called HPV. The ... for a long time, or have HIV infection. Cervical cancer may not cause any symptoms at first. Later, ...

  14. Cervical Cancer

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2007-03-06

    Did you know that cervical cancer rates differ by race/ethnicity and region? Or that cervical cancer can usually be prevented if precancerous cervical lesions are found by a Pap test and treated? Find out how getting regular Pap tests can save a woman's life.  Created: 3/6/2007 by National Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection Program.   Date Released: 4/25/2007.

  15. Cervical Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Treatment Cervical Cancer Prevention Cervical Cancer Screening Research Cervical Cancer Prevention (PDQ®)–Patient Version What is prevention? Go ... to keep cancer from starting. General Information About Cervical Cancer Cervical cancer is a disease in which malignant ( ...

  16. Radiological image-guided placement of covered Niti-S stent for palliation of dysphagia in patients with cervical esophageal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujita, Takeshi; Tanabe, Masahiro; Shimizu, Kensaku; Iida, Etsushi; Matsunaga, Naofumi

    2013-06-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical effectiveness of covered Niti-S stent placement under multidetector CT and fluoroscopy guidance for the palliation of dysphagia in patients with cervical esophageal cancer. Under radiological imaging guidance using axial and sagittal CT scans, and fluoroscopy, Niti-S esophageal stents were placed in ten consecutive patients with complete obstruction caused by cervical esophageal cancer (9 men and 1 woman; age range = 54-79 years; mean age = 68.1 years) between February 2010 and December 2011. The procedure time and technical success rate were evaluated. Swallowing improvement was assessed by the following items: ability to eat and/or swallow (graded as follows: 3 = ability to eat normal diet, 2 = ability to eat semisolids, 1 = ability to swallow liquids, 0 = complete obstruction). Procedural and post-procedural complications were also evaluated. Survival (mean ± SD) was examined. The mean (±SD) procedure time was 40 ± 19 min (range = 21-69 min). Stent placement was technically successful in all patients; inadequate stent deployment did not occur in any case. Ability to eat and/or swallow was improved and scored 2.4 (score 3 in 5 cases, score 2 in 4 cases, score 1 in 1 case, and score 0 in no case) after stent placement. No major or post-procedural complications were encountered. The mean survival time was 131 ± 77 days (range = 31-259 days). Niti-S stents appeared to be a safe and effective device for the palliation of dysphagia caused by advanced cervical esophageal cancer. Multidetector CT and fluoroscopy image guidance helped the operators accurately place the stents in the cervical esophagus.

  17. Esophageal Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Resources Conducting Clinical Trials Statistical Tools and Data Terminology Resources NCI Data Catalog Cryo-EM NCI's Role ... Contacts Other Funding Find NCI funding for small business innovation, technology transfer, and contracts Training Cancer Training ...

  18. Cervical cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to cervical cancer. Other strains can cause genital warts . Others do not cause any problems at all. ... or radiation. Support Groups You can ease the stress of illness by joining a cancer support group . ...

  19. Determination of radiotherapeutic target zones for thoracic esophageal squamous cell cancer with lower cervical lymph node metastasis according to CT-images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xingde; Zhao, Jin; Liu, Ming; Zhai, Fushan; Zhu, Zhengfei; Yu, Feng; Zhang, Mingyun; Han, Lijie; Zhao, Yue; Wang, Haiyan

    2016-01-01

    Esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) is a leading cause of cancer-related deaths worldwide. And radical synchronized chemoradiotherapy has become an important treatment measures for this disease. It is necessary to define the therapeutic target zone based on computer tomography(CT)-images for precise radiotherapy. Therefore, we retrospectively analyzed the regularity of lymph node metastasis in lower cervical section of thoracic esophageal cancer based on CT-images and discussed the range of radiotherapy in supraclavicular zone. The lower cervical lymphatic drainage area was divided into cervical tracheoesophageal groove (CTG), medial supraclavicular zone (MSC zone) and lateral supraclavicular zone (LSC zone) based on CT-images. We found that the rate of lymph node metastasis to medial CTG and MSC zone was relatively high. And rate of lymph node metastasis to the above two zones from middle thoracic section was on an increasing trend with the progress of T stage. Patients at stage T3 and T4 with lymph node metastasis in tracheoesophageal groove in middle thoracic section showed a higher rate of lymph node metastasis in MSC zone. These results demonstrated that the CTG and MSC zone should be clinically included in the supraclavicular target zone for radical radiotherapy, and the T-stage and tumor location should be considered simultaneously. PMID:27147581

  20. Get Tested for Cervical Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Print This Topic En español Get Tested for Cervical Cancer Browse Sections The Basics Overview Cervical Cancer Pap ... Cervical Cancer 1 of 5 sections The Basics: Cervical Cancer What is cervical cancer? Cervical cancer is cancer ...

  1. Radiation Therapy, Paclitaxel, and Carboplatin With or Without Trastuzumab in Treating Patients With Esophageal Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-10-14

    Adenocarcinoma of the Gastroesophageal Junction; Esophageal Adenocarcinoma; Stage IB Esophageal Cancer; Stage IIA Esophageal Cancer; Stage IIB Esophageal Cancer; Stage IIIA Esophageal Cancer; Stage IIIB Esophageal Cancer

  2. Treatment Options by Stage (Esophageal Cancer)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Cancer Prevention Esophageal Cancer Screening Research Esophageal Cancer Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information About Esophageal Cancer ... Certain factors affect prognosis (chance of recovery) and treatment options. The prognosis (chance of recovery ) and treatment ...

  3. Management and outcome of cervical versus intrathoracic manifestation of cervical anastomotic leakage after transthoracic esophagectomy for cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Rossum, Peter S. N.; Haverkamp, Leonie; Carvello, Michele; Ruurda, Jelle P.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/257561021; van Hillegersberg, Richard|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/110706242

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate management strategies and related outcomes for cervical versus intrathoracic manifestation of cervical anastomotic leakage after transthoracic esophagectomy for cancer with gastric conduit reconstruction. Patients with esophageal cancer undergoing transthoracic

  4. Cervical Cancer Stage IVA

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... historical Searches are case-insensitive Cervical Cancer Stage IVA Add to My Pictures View /Download : Small: 756x576 ... Large: 3150x2400 View Download Title: Cervical Cancer Stage IVA Description: Stage IVA cervical cancer; drawing and inset ...

  5. Drugs Approved for Esophageal Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page lists cancer drugs approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for esophageal cancer. The list includes generic names and brand names. The drug names link to NCI's Cancer Drug Information summaries.

  6. esophageal cancer: preliminary results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afsaneh Maddah Safaei

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Dysphagia is a common initial presentation in locally advanced esophageal cancer and negatively impacts patient quality of life and treatment compliance. To induce fast relief of dysphagia in patients with potentially operable esophageal cancer high-dose-rate (HDR brachytherapy was applied prior to definitive radiochemotherapy. Material and methods : In this single arm phase II clinical trial between 2013 to 2014 twenty patients with locally advanced esophageal cancer (17 squamous cell and 3 adenocarcinoma were treated with upfront 10 Gy HDR brachytherapy, followed by 50.4 Gy external beam radiotherapy (EBRT and concurrent chemotherapy with cisplatin/5-fluorouracil. Results : Tumor response, as measured by endoscopy and/or computed tomography scan, revealed complete remission in 16 and partial response in 4 patients (overall response rate 100%. Improvement of dysphagia was induced by brachytherapy within a few days and maintained up to the end of treatment in 80% of patients. No differences in either response rate or dysphagia resolution were found between squamous cell and adenocarcinoma histology. The grade 2 and 3 acute pancytopenia or bicytopenia reported in 4 patients, while sub-acute adverse effects with painful ulceration was seen in five patients, occurring after a median of 2 months. A perforation developed in one patient during the procedure of brachytherapy that resolved successfully with immediate surgery. Conclusions : Brachytherapy before EBRT was a safe and effective procedure to induce rapid and durable relief from dysphagia, especially when combined with EBRT.

  7. Dietary habits and esophageal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palladino-Davis, A G; Mendez, B M; Fisichella, P M; Davis, C S

    2015-01-01

    Cancer of the esophagus is an underestimated, poorly understood, and changing disease. Its overall 5-year survival is less than 20%, even in the United States, which is largely a function of a delay in diagnosis until its more advanced stages. Additionally, the epidemiologic complexities of esophageal cancer are vast, rendering screening and prevention limited at best. First, the prevalence of esophageal cancer is unevenly distributed throughout the world. Second, the two histological forms (squamous cell and adenocarcinoma) vary in terms of their geographic prevalence and associated risk factors. Third, some populations appear at particular risk for esophageal cancer. And fourth, the incidence of esophageal cancer is in continuous flux among groups. Despite the varied prevalence and risks among populations, some factors have emerged as consistent associations while others are only now becoming more fully recognized. The most prominent, scientifically supported, and long-regarded risk factors for esophageal cancer are tobacco, alcohol, and reflux esophagitis. Inasmuch as the above are regarded as important risk factors for esophageal cancer, they are not the sole contributors. Dietary habits, nutrition, local customs, and the environment may be contributory. Along these lines, vitamins, minerals, fruits, vegetables, meats, fats, salted foods, nitrogen compounds, carcinogens, mycotoxins, and even the temperature of what we consume are increasingly regarded as potential etiologies for this deadly although potentially preventable disease. The goal of this review is to shed light on the less known role of nutrition and dietary habits in esophageal cancer.

  8. Cervical cancer - screening and prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cancer cervix - screening; HPV - cervical cancer screening; Dysplasia - cervical cancer screening; Cervical cancer - HPV vaccine ... Almost all cervical cancers are caused by HPV (human papilloma virus). HPV is a common virus that spreads through sexual contact. Certain ...

  9. Cervical Cancer Stage IVB

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of the body, such as the lymph nodes, lung, liver, intestine, or bone. Stage IVB cervical cancer. Topics/Categories: Anatomy -- Gynecologic Cancer Types -- Cervical Cancer Staging Type: Color, ...

  10. Cervical Cancer Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Cancer found early may be easier to treat. Cervical cancer screening is usually part of a woman's health ... may do more tests, such as a biopsy. Cervical cancer screening has risks. The results can sometimes be ...

  11. [Microvascular anastomoses in cervical esophageal reconstruction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takushima, A; Harii, K; Asato, H

    2001-09-01

    Ischemia or hemostasis in the gastric, jejunal, and colonic pedicle after esophagectomy is believed to contribute significantly to postoperative complications. With the advent of microvascular anastomoses, many surgeons have adopted vascular augmentation (supercharge) as a means of avoiding these difficulties. Microsurgical free tissue transfer represented by the free jejunum and forearm flap also plays an important role in esophageal reconstruction. In this paper, the authors introduce the technical points important for successful revascularization including the choice of recipient vessels, setting up of the reconstructive materials, and postoperative monitoring. In cases of gastric pull-up elevated via posterior mediastinum, the left gastroduodenal vessels are anastomosed to the cervical transverse or superior thyroidal vessels. In cases of duodenal or colonic pull-up elevated via the anterosternal route, the vascular pedicles are anastomosed to the internal mammary vessels which are dissected by resecting the costal cartilage. When the free jejunum flap is used, the cervical transverse or superior thyroidal vessels are most frequently used as recipients. Postoperative monitoring of free flaps is performed using Doppler ultrasound or through a small skin incision made above the transferred tissue. Although gastric or colonic pull-up is difficult to monitor, color Doppler sonography permits quantitative analysis of blood flow and may be a useful option.

  12. Prevent Cervical Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... professional printing [PDF-1.5MB] Cancer Home “Prevent Cervical Cancer” Infographic Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Prevent Cervical Cancer with the Right Test at the Right Time ...

  13. Screening for Cervical Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Understanding Task Force Recommendations Screening for Cervical Cancer The U.S. Preventive Services Task Force (Task Force) has issued final recommendations on Screening for Cervical Cancer . These recommendations are for women ...

  14. Stages of Cervical Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is found early. Signs and symptoms of cervical cancer include vaginal bleeding and pelvic pain. These and other signs and symptoms may be caused by cervical cancer or by other conditions . Check with your doctor ...

  15. Cervical Cancer Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... are at increased risk for HPV infections. Other risk factors for cervical cancer include: Giving birth to many children. Smoking cigarettes. Using oral contraceptives ("the Pill"). Having a weakened immune system . Cervical Cancer Screening ...

  16. Cervical Cancer Stage IIIB

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... hyphen, e.g. -historical Searches are case-insensitive Cervical Cancer Stage IIIB Add to My Pictures View /Download : ... 1425x1326 View Download Large: 2850x2651 View Download Title: Cervical Cancer Stage IIIB Description: Stage IIIB cervical cancer; drawing ...

  17. Cervical Cancer Stage IIIA

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... hyphen, e.g. -historical Searches are case-insensitive Cervical Cancer Stage IIIA Add to My Pictures View /Download : ... 1275x1275 View Download Large: 2550x2550 View Download Title: Cervical Cancer Stage IIIA Description: Stage IIIA cervical cancer; drawing ...

  18. Minimal Invasive Surgery for Esophageal Cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    A.H.Hoelscher; Ch.Gutschow

    2004-01-01

    Thoracoscopic esophagectomy is only established in some centers and affords a cervical anastomosis because intrathoracic anastomosis as a routine is technically too difficult. Laparoscopic mobilisation of the stomach (gastrolysis) is an important contribution for minimal invasive surgery of esophageal cancer.This procedure reduces the stress of the two cavity operation for the patient and allows the construction of a comparable gastric conduit like by open surgery. The technique of laparoscopic gastrolysis as preparation for transthoracic en bloc esophagectomy is described in detail and preliminary results are briefly mentioned.

  19. Esophageal Cancer Risk Prediction Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Developing statistical models that estimate the probability of developing esophageal cancer over a defined period of time will help clinicians identify individuals at higher risk of specific cancers, allowing for earlier or more frequent screening and counseling of behavioral changes to decrease risk.

  20. Cervical Cancer Stage IB

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... hyphen, e.g. -historical Searches are case-insensitive Cervical Cancer Stage IB Add to My Pictures View /Download : ... 1613x1200 View Download Large: 3225x2400 View Download Title: Cervical Cancer Stage IB Description: Stage IB1 and IB2 cervical ...

  1. Cervical Cancer Stage IA

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... hyphen, e.g. -historical Searches are case-insensitive Cervical Cancer Stage IA Add to My Pictures View /Download : ... 1500x1200 View Download Large: 3000x2400 View Download Title: Cervical Cancer Stage IA Description: Stage IA1 and IA2 cervical ...

  2. Treatment Option Overview (Cervical Cancer)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Cancer Prevention Cervical Cancer Screening Research Cervical Cancer Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information About Cervical Cancer ... Certain factors affect prognosis (chance of recovery) and treatment options. The prognosis (chance of recovery) depends on ...

  3. Signs and Symptoms of Cervical Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Detection, Diagnosis, and Staging Signs and Symptoms of Cervical Cancer Women with early cervical cancers and pre-cancers ... Ask Your Doctor About Cervical Cancer? More In Cervical Cancer About Cervical Cancer Causes, Risk Factors, and Prevention ...

  4. 游离空肠移植重建下咽及颈段食管的临床分析%Reconstruction with free jejunal interposition for defect after tumor resection of hypopharyngeal and cervical esophageal cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵德安; 高兴强

    2009-01-01

    目的 探讨游离空肠修复下咽及颈段食管肿瘤切除术后组织缺损的方法 和疗效.方法 回顾性分析采用游离空肠重建下咽颈段食管7例,为下咽癌侵及颈段食管,均行全喉、下咽及颈段食管切除.术前均行X线食管造影及胃镜检查,了解病变范围,术后复查X线食管造影.术后均补充放疗.随访7个月~24个月.结果 本组7例患者移植游离空肠全部成活.1例于术后13 d发现咽瘘,经换药、抗炎等处理后18 d痊愈.1例患者于术后95 d无明确诱因出现上消化道大出血死亡.1例患者术后5个月出现进食困难,发现胸段食管癌,放弃治疗于术后11个月死亡.5例患者随访至今游离空肠均成活良好,无吻合口狭窄及进食困难.结论 以游离空肠修复下咽及颈段食管部位肿瘤切除术所致缺损,并发症较少,成功率高,恢复消化道的连续性安全可靠.%Objective To discuss the use of free jejunal flap reconstruction for circumferential defect after tumor resection of hypopharyngeal and cervical esophageal cancer. Methods Retrospective review of 7 pa-tients who underwent hypopharyngeal and cervical esophageal reconstruction with free jejunal interposition from 2005 to 2007. All 7 cases who suffered from hypopharyngeal and cervical esophageal cancer were given resection of the larynx, hypopharynx and cervical esophagus. Neck dissection and postoperative radiotherapy were carried out for all patients. Results All the 7 free jejunal flaps survived completely and the flap success rate was 100%. For successful cases,one case occurred pharyngeal fistula on postoperative thirteenth day and healed on postoperative eighteenth day, One patient was died of the gastrointestinal bleeding on postoperative ninety-five day. one patient couldn' t swallow after five months because of recurrence of pectoral esophageal cancer and died after eleven months. Follow-up 7 to 24 months, five survived cases were no recurrence and dysphagia

  5. Preventing cervical cancer globally.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmeler, Kathleen M

    2012-11-01

    Cervical cancer is one of the leading causes of cancer and cancer-related deaths among women worldwide. More than 85% of cases and deaths occur in the developing world where the availability of effective screening is limited. In this issue of the journal, Pierce and colleagues (beginning on page 1273) describe a novel technique using a high-resolution microendoscope (HRME) to diagnose cervical dysplasia. This perspective reviews the limitations of existing cervical cancer screening methods currently in use in low-resource settings and the potential for HRME imaging to contribute to cervical cancer prevention in the developing world.

  6. Cervical Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... vaginal, and vulvar cancers. It is recommended for preteens (both boys and girls) aged 11 to 12 ... index. • D on’t smoke. • Use condoms during sex. * • Limit your number of sexual partners. * HPV infection ...

  7. Cervical Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Other things may increase the risk of developing cancer following a high-risk HPV infection. These other things include: Smoking Having HIV or reduced immunity Taking birth control pills for a long time ( ...

  8. 颈上段食管癌VMAT计划设计参数的研究%A study of parameters of a volumetric modulated arc therapy plan for cervical and upper esophageal cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘丹; 张若辉; 景仲昊; 苗明昌; 迟子锋

    2016-01-01

    目的:评估不同计划设计参数条件下颈、上段食管癌VMAT计划质量,得出最优计划设计参数值,以期为临床VMAT治疗计划设计提供参考。方法选择颈、上段食管癌患者各10例,使用核通 Oncentra 4.3 TPS,医科达Synergy VMAT直线加速器。采用机架步进角度2°、3°、4°,最大出束时间80、110、150 s,准直器角度0°、45°制定6套VMAT计划。统计PTV和OAR受量,配对t检验差异。结果颈段食管癌准直器角度45°的VMAT计划质量优于0°(P=0.003~0.007)。颈段食管癌最大出束时间110、150 s的VMAT计划质量与80 s相近( P>0.05),80 s VMAT计划PTV的D90、V105优于110 s计划组( P=0.011、0.010),PTV D100优于150 s组( P=0.004);110 s组的D98优于80 s组( P=0.034);靶区的其他参数及OAR比较均无统计学差异( P>0.05);上段食管癌3个最大出束时间的VMAT计划质量均相近( P>0.05)。颈段食管癌机架步进角度3°的VMAT计划质量优于2°、4°( P=0.010~0.048);上段食管癌机架步进角度3°的 VMAT 计划 PTVmean、CORD D2优于4°计划( P=0.014、0.005),与2°比较靶区剂量分布PTV D100略好(P=0.046),但肺组织V25、V30受量略高(P=0.007、0.026)。结论对于颈、上段食管癌VMAT计划,45°准直器角度、80 s最大出束时间、3°机架步进角度为VMAT计划最优的设计参数初始值。%Objective To figure out the optimal parameters of a volumetric modulated arc therapy ( VMAT) plan for cervical and upper esophageal cancer by quality evaluation of VMAT plans with different parameters, and to provide a reference for the design of clinical VMAT treatment plan. Methods Ten patients with cervical esophageal cancer and ten patients with upper esophageal cancer were enrolled as subjects. The Nucletron Oncentra 4. 3 treatment planning system was used to generate plans for Elekta Synergy VMAT accelerator. Six

  9. 颈段食管癌施行保留咽和喉手术为主的综合治疗远期疗效%Outcome after surgery preserving pharynx and larynx for cervical esophageal cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马少华; 秦斌; 申潞艳; 梁震; 康晓征; 戴亮; 陈克能

    2012-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the long-term survival of multidisciplinary treatment based on thoracic surgery for cervical esophageal squamous cell carcinoma.Methods The clinical characters and follow-up data of forty-one cervical esophageal cancer patients who accepted muhidisciplinary treatment based on surgery with preservation of pharynx and larynx were retrospectively reviewed,and the long-term survival was compared with 480 non-cervical esophageal cancers who accepted surgery in the same period done by the same surgical team.Results There were 28 males and 13 females with a mean age of 62 years old.In the cervical esophageal cancer group,30 patients accepted neoadjuvant chemotherapy, 25 patients accepted adjuvant chemotherapy, and 21 patients accepted both. Six patients received postoperative radiation.Four patients underwent exploratory surgery alone,and 37 cases underwent radical surgery and cervical anastomosis.One case died during the perioperative period.The 1-,3-,5- and 8-year survival rates were 96.8%,52.6%,35.1%,and 35.1% in the 36 patients with cervical esophageal cancer who underwent radical surgery,and were 85.0%,54.3%,45.0%,and 36.7% respectively in the 457 non-cervical esophageal cancer patients.There was no significant difference between the cervical group and non-cervical group (P=0.91). Conclusion Cervical esophageal cancer should be treated in a multidisciplinary approach to obtain satisfactory longterm outcomes.%目的 探讨以胸外科为主的多学科综合治疗对颈段食管癌的远期疗效.方法 回顾性分析北京大学肿瘤医院胸外科单一手术组2000年3月至2011年3月间施行以胸外科保留咽、喉手术为主的多学科综合治疗的41例颈段食管癌患者的临床及随访资料,并与同期同一手术组治疗的480例非颈段食管癌进行比较.结果 41例颈段食管癌患者中男28例,女13例,平均年龄62岁.接受术前化疗30例,术后化疗25例,手术前后均予以化疗21

  10. Cervical cellulitis and mediastinitis following esophageal perforation: A case report

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Christian A Righini; Basilide Z Tea; Emile Reyt; Karim A Chahine

    2008-01-01

    Chicken bone is one of the most frequent foreign bodies (FB) associated with upper esophageal perforation.Upper digestive tract penetrating FB may lead to life threatening complications and requires prompt management.We present the case of a 52-year-old man who sustained an upper esophageal perforation associated with cervical cellulitis and mediastinitis.Following CT-scan evidence of FB penetrating the esophagus,the impacted FB was successfully extracted under rigid esophagoscopy.Direct suture was required to close the esophageal perforation.Cervical and mediastinal drainage were made immediately.Nasogastric tube decompression,broad-spectrum intravenous antibiotics,and parenteral hyperalimentation were administered for 10 d postoperatively.An esophagogram at d 10 revealed no leak at the repair site,and oral alimentation was successfully reinstituted.Conclusion:Rigid endoscope management of FB esophageal penetration is a simple,safe and effective procedure.Primary esophageal repair with drainage of all affected compartments are necessary to avoid life-threatening complications.

  11. Laboratory animal models for esophageal cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dhanya Venugopalan Nair

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The incidence of esophageal cancer is rapidly increasing especially in developing countries. The major risk factors include unhealthy lifestyle practices such as alcohol consumption, smoking, and chewing tobacco to name a few. Diagnosis at an advanced stage and poor prognosis make esophageal cancer one of the most lethal diseases. These factors have urged further research in understanding the pathophysiology of the disease. Animal models not only aid in understanding the molecular pathogenesis of esophageal cancer but also help in developing therapeutic interventions for the disease. This review throws light on the various recent laboratory animal models for esophageal cancer.

  12. Comparative genomic analysis of esophageal cancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caygill, Christine P J; Gatenby, Piers A C; Herceg, Zdenko; Lima, Sheila C S; Pinto, Luis F R; Watson, Anthony; Wu, Ming-Shiang

    2014-09-01

    The following, from the 12th OESO World Conference: Cancers of the Esophagus, includes commentaries on comparative genomic analysis of esophageal cancers: genomic polymorphisms, the genetic and epigenetic drivers in esophageal cancers, and the collection of data in the UK Barrett's Oesophagus Registry.

  13. Molecular Biology of Esophageal Cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HuanXi; JanBrabender; RalfMetzger; PaulM.Schneider

    2004-01-01

    There have been many new developments in our understanding of esophageal carcinoma biology over the past several years. Information regarding both of the major forms of this disease, adenocarcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma, has accumulated in conjunction with data on precursor conditions such as Barrett's esophagus. Interesting and promising findings have included overexpression of proto-oncogenes,loss of heterozygosity at multiple chromosomal loci, tumor suppressor gene inactivation, epigenetic silencing by DNA methylation, and mutations and deletions involving the tumor suppressor gene p53. Important cancer pathways, the cyclin kinase inhibitor cascade and the DNA mismatch repair process, implicated in the genesis of multiple tumor types have also been inculpated in esophageal carcinogenesis. Alterations in the p16 and p15 cyclin kinase inhibitors including point mutations and homozygous deletions have been reported in primary esophageal tumors. Further developments in the field of molecular carcinogenesis of esophageal malignancies promise to yield improvements in prevention, early detection, prognostic categorization, and perhaps gene-based therapy of this deadly disease.

  14. Radiation-induced esophagitis in lung cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baker S

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Sarah Baker, Alysa Fairchild Department of Radiation Oncology, Cross Cancer Institute, University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB, Canada Abstract: Radiation-induced esophagitis is the most common local acute toxicity of radiotherapy (RT delivered for the curative or palliative intent treatment of lung cancer. Although concurrent chemotherapy and higher RT dose are associated with increased esophagitis risk, advancements in RT techniques as well as adherence to esophageal dosimetric constraints may reduce the incidence and severity. Mild acute esophagitis symptoms are generally self-limited, and supportive management options include analgesics, acid suppression, diet modification, treatment for candidiasis, and maintenance of adequate nutrition. Esophageal stricture is the most common late sequela from esophageal irradiation and can be addressed with endoscopic dilatation. Approaches to prevent or mitigate these toxicities are also discussed. Keywords: non–small cell lung cancer, acute, late, toxicity, stricture

  15. Palliation of Dysphagia from Esophageal Cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.Y.V. Homs (Marjolein)

    2004-01-01

    textabstractThe prognosis of esophageal cancer is poor with a 5-year survival of 10-15%. In addition, over 50% of patients with esophageal cancer already have an inoperable disease at presentation. The majority of these patients require palliative treatment to relieve progressive dysphagia. Metal

  16. Palliative Endoscopic Therapy of Esophageal Cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    H.Schaefer; A.H.Hoelscher

    2004-01-01

    Patients with locally unresectable esophageal cancer or distant metastasis are usually treated with definite radiotherapy or radiochemotherapy. Dysphagia of these patients should further be treated by endoscopic therapy in order to maintain swallowing and oral food intake as long as possible. The same situation is present in patients with local recurrence of esophageal cancer after surgery or radiochemotherapy.

  17. [Esophageal cancer: surgical strategies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Paulo; Esteves, Rui; Lages, Patrícia; Ferreira, Filipa

    2014-01-01

    Introdução: A ressecção transmediastínica e a ressecção transtorácica têm mortalidade hospitalar (1,4% -14%) e sobrevivência (± 25% aos cinco anos) semelhantes. A terapêutica neo-adjuvante é opção em estádios avançados. A intenção deste trabalho é apresentar uma série consecutiva de 52 doentes - opção operatória baseada na localização anatómica: tumores infra-carinais e cervicais submetidos a ressecção transmediastínica e restantes ressecções transtorácicas.Material e Métodos: O estudo incluiu 52 doentes consecutivos, sete mulheres e 45 homens, mediana de idade: 64 anos [46- 85]. Localização: cervical – um; montante da carina - 22; jusante da carina -19; cárdia tipo I –10. Histologia: 19 adenocarcinomas, 32 carcinomas pavimento-celulares, um linfoma. Vinte doentes (40%) - terapêutica neoadjuvante. Abordagem tóraco-abdominal – três, tóraco-abdómino-cervical – 20, transhiatal – 27, toracotomia exploradora – dois. Transposição gástrica 49 (anastomose cervical – 46; torácica - três); esofagocoloplastia cervical - um.Resultados: Estadiamento patológico: regressão completa - 8; Ib – 3; IIa – 9; IIb - 4; IIa – 11; IIIb -2; IIIc – 10; IV – 1; linfoma - um; não classificáveis – três. Complicações major: 37%. Ressecabilidade: 96% (50/52). Mortalidade: quatro semanas - 6%; hospitalar - 14%. Sobrevida mediana 18 meses [3-80]. Curvas de sobrevida (Kaplan-Meier): dois anos - 47%; cinco anos - 19%.Discussão: Não tendo sido demonstrada vantagem oncológica para a ressecção transtorácica ou a ressecção transmediastínica,basear a opção operatória na localização do tumor permitiu-nos com segurança e eficácia, planear e executar as ressecções esofágicas desta série.Conclusão: As curvas de sobrevida foram sobreponíveis para ressecção transtorácica e ressecção transmediastínica e bastantefavoráveis numa população com 52 % de estádios p

  18. Immunotherapy for Cervical Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    In an early phase NCI clinical trial, two patients with metastatic cervical cancer had a complete disappearance of their tumors after receiving treatment with a form of immunotherapy called adoptive cell transfer.

  19. Stages of Esophageal Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... stage 0 , abnormal cells are found in the mucosa or submucosa layer of the esophagus wall. These ... found. Stage IA : Cancer has formed in the mucosa or submucosa layer of the esophagus wall. The ...

  20. What Are the Key Statistics about Cervical Cancer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Cervical Cancer What Are the Key Statistics About Cervical Cancer? The American Cancer Society's estimates for cervical cancer ... in Cervical Cancer Research and Treatment? More In Cervical Cancer About Cervical Cancer Causes, Risk Factors, and Prevention ...

  1. Surgical thcrapy for advanced stage hypopharyngeal cancer and cervical esophageal carcinoma%晚期下咽癌和颈段食管癌的外科治疗体会

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林秀安; 刘辉; 郑雄; 林曦; 黄加兴; 陆伟

    2009-01-01

    Objective To review the reconstruction surgery of the defect after en bloc removal of advanced stage hypopharyngeal cancer and esophageal carcinoma of cervical segment by gastric-pharyngeal anastomosis or colon-pharyngeal anastomosis. Methods The clinical data of 35 cases accepted gastric-pharyngeal anastomosis(18 cases) or colon-pharyngeal anastomosis(17 cases) were analysed, retrospectively, in which vagus nerves of 14 cases were remained. Results Thirty four cases had good function of deglutition after operation. There was no severe complication such as necrosis of stomach or intestine. Cervical metastasis rate was 62.9%(22/35).Three-year and five-year survival rate were 54.3%(19/35) and 39.3%(11/28), respectively. One of the 35 cases have survived for ten years. Conclusion Gastric-pharyngeal anastomosis or colon-pharyngeal anastomosis can result in good outcome in treatment of the defect after en bloc removal of advanced stage hypopharyngeal cancer and esophageal carcinoma of cervical segment. Cervical dissection is an important portion of surgical therapy. Paying attention to the local anatomic structures and careful operation during surgical procedure can decrease the occurrence of complication and increase the quality of life.%目的 对晚期下咽癌和颈段食管癌大面积切除后的组织缺损,应用胃(肠)咽吻合术重建恢复功能经验及疗效总结.方法 对35例胃(肠)咽吻合术的临床资料进行了回顾性分析,胃上提18例,带蒂结肠17例,其中保留迷走神经干14例.结果 34例获得良好的吞咽功能.无胃肠坏死等严重并发症.颈淋巴结转移率62.9%(22/35),3年生存率54.3%(19/35),5年生存率39.3%(11/28),最长1例已存活10年.结论 胃(肠)咽吻合术对晚期下咽癌和颈段食管癌切除后大范围下咽-食管缺损具有较好的I期效果.颈淋巴结清扫术是外科治疗重要的一部分.术中注意局部解剖结构,精细操作,可减少并发症,提高生活质量.

  2. The Changing Face of Esophageal Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel E. Melhado

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The two main histological esophageal cancer types, adenocarcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma, differ in incidence, geographic distribution, ethnic pattern and etiology. This article focuses on epidemiology with particular reference to geographic and temporal variations in incidence, along with a review of the evidence supporting environmental and genetic factors involved in esophageal carcinogenesis. Squamous cell carcinoma of the esophagus remains predominantly a disease of the developing world. In contrast, esophageal adenocarcinoma is mainly a disease of western developed societies, associated with obesity and gastro-esophageal reflux disease. There has been a dramatic increase in the incidence of adenocarcinoma in developed countries in parallel with migration of both esophageal and gastric adenocarcinomas towards the gastro-esophageal junction.

  3. The Changing Face of Esophageal Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melhado, Rachel E., E-mail: raye732001@yahoo.co.uk; Alderson, Derek; Tucker, Olga [Academic Department of Surgery, Queen Elizabeth Hospital, University Hospitals Birmingham, Birmingham (United Kingdom)

    2010-06-28

    The two main histological esophageal cancer types, adenocarcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma, differ in incidence, geographic distribution, ethnic pattern and etiology. This article focuses on epidemiology with particular reference to geographic and temporal variations in incidence, along with a review of the evidence supporting environmental and genetic factors involved in esophageal carcinogenesis. Squamous cell carcinoma of the esophagus remains predominantly a disease of the developing world. In contrast, esophageal adenocarcinoma is mainly a disease of western developed societies, associated with obesity and gastro-esophageal reflux disease. There has been a dramatic increase in the incidence of adenocarcinoma in developed countries in parallel with migration of both esophageal and gastric adenocarcinomas towards the gastro-esophageal junction.

  4. What`s New in Cervical Cancer Research and Treatment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Cervical Cancer About Cervical Cancer What's New in Cervical Cancer Research and Treatment? New ways to prevent and ... in Cervical Cancer Research and Treatment? More In Cervical Cancer About Cervical Cancer Causes, Risk Factors, and Prevention ...

  5. Doxycycline-induced ulceration mimicking esophageal cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tahan, Veysel; Sayrak, Hakan; Bayar, Nevzat; Erer, Burak; Tahan, Gulgun; Dane, Faysal

    2008-01-01

    Introduction Doxycycline-induced esophageal ulcer patients are mostly young persons with no history of esophageal dysfunction. Heartburn, midsternal pain and dysphagia are the most common symptoms. It has generally a benign course. The present case is the first report of doxycycline-induced extensive ulcerations, mimicking esophageal cancer in two esophageal segments alongside, in the literature. Case presentation This report describes a 16-year-old Caucasian girl who, while taking doxycycline capsules100 mg twice a day for acne vulgaris for 3 months, developed these symptoms. An upper endoscopy revealed multiple circumferential deep ulcerations surrounding fragile, irregular, hyperemic and hypertrophic mucosa at the level of the mid-esophagus and concomitantly in the lower esophageal sphincter. The lesions were biopsied to exclude esophageal carcinoma because of the suspicious appearance in the endoscopic examination. The histopathological examination, haematoxylin and eosin stained sections showed ulceration with a mixed inflammatory infiltrate. Doxycycline was discontinued and she was given sucralfate 1 g qid and omeprazole 20 mg bid orally. All symptoms of the patient were resolved on the third day of the treatment. After 4 weeks of the therapy, an upper endoscopic control examination demonstrated normal findings. Conclusion The present case has been an uncommon presentation of doxycycline-induced extensive ulcerations, mimicking esophageal cancer in two esophageal segments, concomitantly. Even the lesions were biopsied to exclude esophageal carcinoma. A modification on the behavior of taking drugs can prevent these unpleasant complications. PMID:18778470

  6. Updates on esophageal and gastric cancers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Amy Gallo; Charles Cha

    2006-01-01

    Esophageal and gastric cancers are both common and deadly. Patients present most often after disease progression and survival is therefore poor. Due to demographic variability and recent changes in disease incidence, much emphasis has been placed on studying risk factors for both esophageal and gastric cancers.However, with increasing understanding of these diseases, low survival rates persist and continued intensive studies are necessary to optimize treatment plans. This review article discusses updates in the evolving epidemiology, clinical presentation, risk factors,and diagnostic and treatment modalities of esophageal and gastric cancers.

  7. Risks of Cervical Cancer Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... are at increased risk for HPV infections. Other risk factors for cervical cancer include: Giving birth to many children. Smoking cigarettes. Using oral contraceptives ("the Pill"). Having a weakened immune system . Cervical Cancer Screening ...

  8. Prognostic factors in cervical cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Biewenga, P.

    2015-01-01

    Surgery is the standard of care for women with early stage cervical cancer; radiotherapy is the cornerstone in patients with advanced stages of disease. Recent changes in the treatment of cervical cancer involve less radical surgery in early stage cervical cancer, concomitant chemo- and radiotherapy

  9. Prognostic factors in cervical cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Biewenga, P.

    2015-01-01

    Surgery is the standard of care for women with early stage cervical cancer; radiotherapy is the cornerstone in patients with advanced stages of disease. Recent changes in the treatment of cervical cancer involve less radical surgery in early stage cervical cancer, concomitant chemo- and radiotherapy

  10. PET for Staging of Esophageal Cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    A.H.Hoelscher

    2004-01-01

    FDG-PET is of clinical value especially for detection of distant metastases or recurrent esophageal cancer. For the staging of primary tumor or locoregional lymph node metastasis PET is currently not suitable.

  11. [Current status and perspectives of radiotherapy for esophageal cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, S X; Wang, L H

    2016-09-23

    Esophageal cancer is one of the most common cancers in China. More than 80% of esophageal cancer patients are diagnosed at a late stage and are not eligible for surgery. Radiotherapy is one of the most important modalities in esophageal cancer treatment. Here we reviewed the advances in esophageal cancer radiotherapy and radiotherapy-based combined-modality therapy, such as optimization of radiation dose and target volume, application of precise radiotherapy technique and the integration of radiotherapy with chemotherapy and targeted therapy.

  12. Prevent Cervical Cancer!

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2015-01-08

    Cervical cancer can be prevented. Listen as two friends—one a doctor—talk about screening tests and early detection. Learn what test you might need.  Created: 1/8/2015 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 1/8/2015.

  13. Future Directions - Cervical Cancer

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2009-10-15

    Dr. Alan Waxman, a professor of obstetrics and gynecology at the University of New Mexico and chair of the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists (ACOG) committee for the underserved, talks about possible changes in cervical cancer screening and management.  Created: 10/15/2009 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP), Division of Cancer Prevention and Control (DCPC).   Date Released: 6/9/2010.

  14. Case Studies - Cervical Cancer

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2010-10-15

    Dr. Alan Waxman, a professor of obstetrics and gynecology at the University of New Mexico and chair of the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists (ACOG) committee for the underserved, talks about several case studies for cervical cancer screening and management.  Created: 10/15/2010 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP), Division of Cancer Prevention and Control (DCPC).   Date Released: 6/9/2010.

  15. Nutrition in peri-operative esophageal cancer management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steenhagen, E.; Vulpen, J.K. van; Hillegersberg, R. van; May, A.M.; Siersema, P.D.

    2017-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Nutritional status and dietary intake are increasingly recognized as essential areas in esophageal cancer management. Nutritional management of esophageal cancer is a continuously evolving field and comprises an interesting area for scientific research. Areas covered: This review

  16. Neoadjuvant Treatment for Esophageal Cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PaulM.Schneider; HuanXi; StephanE.Baldus; JanBrabender; RalfMetzger

    2004-01-01

    Because the conflicting data currently available from the performed randomized trials it is very difficult to provide strict guidelines for the treatment of patients with locoregional advanced esophageal cancers. Surgery however, remains the standard of care for potentially resectable disease. Preoperative chemotherapy is still controversial with two large randomized trials resulting in two different conclusions regarding the survival benefit. Preoperative chemoradiation is also controversial since only one randomized trial showed a clear survival benefit however, the patients treated with surgery alone in this trial had an unusually poor outcome. And the study by Urba et al was not powered enough to show a clear survival benefit for patients treated with neoadjuvant chemoradiation. The results of three metaanalysis of these randomized studies show lower rate of resection, higher rate of R0-resection, more often postoperative mortality and better prognosis for patients with neoadjuvant radiochemotherapy. As a consequence one may consider offering neoadjuvant chemotherapy or neoadjuvant radiochemotherapy to patients with locallyadvanced disease under the premise that patients have a good performance status and understand the controversies about this therapeutic option. Larger trials with sufficient power to clearly detect survival benefits for patients treated with neoadjuvant chemotherapy or radiochemotherapy are necessary before this therapeutic option will be the standard of care.

  17. Esophageal, pharyngeal and hemorrhagic complications occurring in anterior cervical surgery: Three illustrative cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Víctor Rodrigo Paradells

    2014-01-01

    Conclusions: Anterior cervical spine surgery is a safe approach and is associated with few major esophageal/pharyngeal complications, which most commonly include transient dysphagia and dysphonia. If symptoms persist, patients should be assessed for esophageal/pharyngeal defects utilizing appropriate imaging studies. Notably, even if the major complications listed above are adequately treated, optimal results are in no way guaranteed.

  18. Abnormal Cervical Cancer Screening Test Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... FREQUENTLY ASKED QUESTIONS FAQ187 GYNECOLOGIC PROBLEMS Abnormal Cervical Cancer Screening Test Results • What is cervical cancer screening? • What causes abnormal cervical cancer screening test results? • ...

  19. Multidisciplinary approach for patients with esophageal cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Victoria M Villaflor; Marco E Allaix; Bruce Minsky; Fernando A Herbella; Marco G Patti

    2012-01-01

    Patients with esophageal cancer have a poor prognosis because they often have no symptoms until their disease is advanced.There are no screening recommendations for patients unless they have Barrett's esophagitis or a significant family history of this disease.Often,esophageal cancer is not diagnosed until patients present with dysphagia,odynophagia,anemia or weight loss.When symptoms occur,the stage is often stage Ⅲ or greater.Treatment of patients with very early stage disease is fairly straight forward using only local treatment with surgical resection or endoscopic mucosal resection.The treatment of patients who have locally advanced esophageal cancer is more complex and controversial.Despite multiple trials,treatment recommendations are still unclear due to conflicting data.Sadly,much of our data is difficult to interpret due to many of the trials done have included very heterogeneous groups of patients both histologically as well as anatomically.Additionally,studies have been underpowered or stopped early due to poor accrual.In the United States,concurrent chemoradiotherapy prior to surgical resection has been accepted by many as standard of care in the locally advanced patient.Patients who have metastatic disease are treated palliatively.The aim of this article is to describe the multidisciplinary approach used by an established team at a single high volume center for esophageal cancer,and to review the literature which guides our treatment recommendations.

  20. [Preventing cervical cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, P; Noël, J-C

    2015-09-01

    The incidence of cervical cancer has hopefully been dropping down in our industrialized countries since the introduction of both primary and secondary prevention. Nevertheless, it is still lethal in one out of two affected women though the introduction of cytological screening has dramatically reduced the mortality. Progressive diffusion of anti-HPV vaccination, the broadening of the viral types concerned, its association with existing screening measures and finally the introduction of viral detection as a screening tool must optimize the results already obtained.

  1. Minimally invasive surgery for esophageal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santillan, Alfredo A; Farma, Jeffrey M; Meredith, Kenneth L; Shah, Nilay R; Kelley, Scott T

    2008-10-01

    Esophageal cancer represents a major public health problem worldwide. Several minimally invasive esophagectomy (MIE) techniques have been described and represent a safe alternative for the surgical management of esophageal cancer in selected centers with high volume and expertise in them. This article reviews the most recent and largest series evaluating MIE techniques. Recent larger series have shown MIE to be equivalent in postoperative morbidity and mortality rates to conventional surgery. MIE has been associated with less blood loss, less postoperative pain, and decreased intensive care unit and hospital length of stay compared with conventional surgery. Despite limited data, conventional surgery and MIE have shown no significant difference in survival, stage for stage. The myriad of MIE techniques complicates the debate of defining the optimal surgical approach for treating esophageal cancer. Randomized controlled trials comparing MIE with conventional open esophagectomy are needed to clarify the ideal procedure with the lowest postoperative morbidity, best quality of life after surgery, and long-term survival.

  2. Drugs Approved for Cervical Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Nonavalent Vaccine Recombinant Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Quadrivalent Vaccine Drugs Approved to Treat Cervical Cancer Avastin (Bevacizumab) Bevacizumab Blenoxane (Bleomycin) Bleomycin Hycamtin (Topotecan ...

  3. Avoiding complications in esophageal cancer surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Michael Bau

    2013-01-01

    Modern handling of esophageal cancer patients is based on a multidisciplinary concept, but surgery remains the primary curative treatment modality. Improvements in the perioperative care have reduced the overall morbidity and mortality, but 2-7% of the patients may still die within 30 days...... as a direct consequence of complications related to the esophagectomy procedure. Primarily based on results from randomized studies published after 2000 this review describes some of the factors that may contribute to the development of postoperative complications following esophageal cancer surgery as well...

  4. Sarcopenia and Visceral Obesity in Esophageal and Gastric Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-02-17

    Esophageal Cancer; Gastric Cancer; Sarcopenia; Sarcopenic Obesity; Obesity; Visceral Obesity; Quality of Life; Surgery; Complication of Treatment; Chemotherapeutic Toxicity; Physical Activity; Oncology

  5. Strategies to improve the outcome of esophagectomy for esophageal cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boone, J.

    2009-01-01

    Esophageal cancer is the 8th most common type of malignancy in the world. For the past decades the incidence of esophageal cancer has rapidly increased, particularly due to a rise in adenocarcinoma of the esophagus. Yet, worldwide the incidence of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) is highest

  6. Translational Research on Esophageal Cancer: From Cell Line to Clinic

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.J. Boonstra (Jurjen)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractWorldwide esophageal cancer is a signifi cant and an increasing health problem. In 2005, there were 497,700 new cases, and the prevalence is expected to increase by approximately 140% by 2025. Esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) accounts for most of the cases of esophageal cancer w

  7. CDC Vital Signs: Cervical Cancer is Preventable

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... HPV vaccine can reduce risk of cervical cancer. HPV causes most cervical cancers. Only 1 in 3 girls and 1 in ... Signs – Cervical Cancer [PSA - 0:60 seconds] Cervical Cancer Preteen and Teen Vaccines Human Papillomavirus (HPV)-Associated Cancers What Should I Know About ...

  8. Esophageal Cancer in Iran: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siavosh Nasseri-Moghaddam

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Esophageal cancer is the second and third most common malignancy in Iranian malesand females, respectively, claiming lives of approximately 5800 Iranians each year.Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC is presently the most common type accounting forabout 90% of all esophageal cancers in Iran. Recent studies have shown that there isa gradual increase in the incidence of adenocarcinoma of the distal esophagus alongwith gastric cardia adenocarcinoma. Thirty-five years ago, the age standardizied rate (ASR of esophageal SCC in thecity of Gonbad (Golestan Province, northeast of Iran was found to be one of the highestrates for any single cancer that had been reported worldwide (ASR >100/105/year.Recent studies have shown that the incidence of SCC in Gonbad has declined to lessthan half of what it was in the past. This decline in the incidence of esophageal SCCparallels an improvement in the socioeconomic situation of people living in thisregion. According to recent cancer registry data in Iran there is still an obviousintracountry variability between the incidence of esophageal cancer in the south withan ASR of 3 for males and 2 for females in Kerman and 43 and 36 in the northeasternprovince of Golestan. The reasons for this very high rate of SCC in northeastern Iranhave been the subject of several studies during the past 35 years. According to resultsof these studies the suspected risk factors are: low intake of fruits and vegetables, drinkinghot tea, consumption of opium products and tobacco, H.pyloriinfection in the stomach,using unhealthy drinking water from cisterns and genetic susceptibility. The mainsuspected mutagens are polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH and N-nitrosocompounds. In order to embark primary and secondary prevention of this fatal cancer,further prospective studies are presently underway in the region. The Golestanesophageal cancer cohort study which follows of 50,000 subjects is on going. We expectsimple and feasible evidence based

  9. Practical aspects of cervical cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tillaart, Sabrina Ada Hendrika Maria van den

    2013-01-01

    The thesis describes studies on practical aspects of cervical cancer, concering surgical considerations, and aspects of tumour behaviour and tumour spread. The thesis comprises studies on: the comparison of nerve-sparing and non-nerve-sparing radical hysterectomy for cervical cancer; a new surgical

  10. Esophageal cancer awareness in Bomet district, Kenya

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    EB

    Objective: To determine baseline level of knowledge of esophageal cancer in Bomet District in order to develop targeted ... malignancy in men and the third most common in .... Breast. 8. 10. Colon. 5. 6. “Leg” (as proposed. 4. 5 by interviewee).

  11. [Primary cervical cancer screening].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas-Hernández, Víctor Manuel; Vargas-Aguilar, Víctor Manuel; Tovar-Rodríguez, José María

    2015-01-01

    Cervico-uterine cancer screening with cytology decrease incidence by more than 50%. The cause of this cancer is the human papilloma virus high risk, and requires a sensitive test to provide sufficient sensitivity and specificity for early detection and greater interval period when the results are negative. The test of the human papilloma virus high risk, is effective and safe because of its excellent sensitivity, negative predictive value and optimal reproducibility, especially when combined with liquid-based cytology or biomarkers with viral load, with higher sensitivity and specificity, by reducing false positives for the detection of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 2 or greater injury, with excellent clinical benefits to cervical cancer screening and related infection of human papilloma virus diseases, is currently the best test for early detection infection of human papillomavirus and the risk of carcinogenesis. Copyright © 2015 Academia Mexicana de Cirugía A.C. Published by Masson Doyma México S.A. All rights reserved.

  12. Esophageal Cancer with Bone Marrow Hyperplasia Mimicking Bone Metastasis: Report of a Case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiromi Yasuda

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available A 63-year-old man visited the clinic with numbness in the right hand. Magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated multiple low-intensity lesions in the cervical vertebrae and sacrum, which was suspicious of cervical bone metastasis. Fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography revealed areas of increased fluorodeoxyglucose uptake in the thoracic esophagus, sternum and sacrum. A flat, elevated esophageal cancer was identified by upper gastrointestinal endoscopy, and the macroscopic appearance indicated early-stage disease. From the cervical, thoracic and abdominal computed tomography images, there were no metastatic lesions except for the bone lesions. To confirm whether the bone lesions were metastatic, we performed bone biopsy. The histopathological diagnosis was bone marrow hyperplasia. It was crucial for treatment planning to establish whether the lesions were distant metastases. Here, we report a case of esophageal cancer with bone marrow hyperplasia mimicking bone metastasis.

  13. with esophageal squamous cell cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao Li

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The aim of this study was to retrospectively observe and analyze the long-term treatment outcomes of 191 elderly patients with esophageal squamous cell cancer (ESCC who were treated with californium-252 (252Cf neutron brachytherapy (NBT in combination with external beam radiotherapy (EBRT. Material and methods : From January 2002 to November 2012, 191 patients with ESCC underwent NBT in combination with EBRT. The total radiation dose to the reference point via NBT was 8-25 Gy-eq in two to five fractions with one fraction per week. The total dose via EBRT was 50-60 Gy, which was delivered over a period of 5 to 6 weeks with normal fractionation. Results : The median survival time for the 191 patients was 23.6 months, and the 5-year rates for overall survival (OS and local-regional control (LRC were 28.7% and 54.2%, respectively. The patients’ age was a factor that was significantly associated with OS (p = 0.010, according to univariate analysis. The 5-year OS (LRC was 37.3% (58.6% for patients aged 70-74 years and 14.5% (47.9% for patients aged > 74 years (p = 0.010 and p = 0.038. In multivariate analysis, age and clinical N stage were associated with OS and LRC (p = 0.011 [0.041] and p = 0.005 [0.005]. From the time of treatment completion to the development of local-regional recurrence or death, 5 (2.6% patients experienced fistula and 15 (7.9% experienced massive bleeding. The incidence of severe late complications was related to older age (p = 0.027, higher NBT dose/fraction (20-25 Gy/5 fractions, and higher total dose (> 66 Gy. Conclusions : The clinical data indicated that NBT in combination with EBRT produced favorable local control and long-term survival rates for elderly patients with ESCC, and that the side effects were tolerable. Patient’s age, clinical stage N status, and radiation dose could be used to select the appropriate treatment for elderly patients.

  14. Proteomic profiling of fetal esophageal epithelium, esophageal cancer, and tumor-adjacent esophageal epithelium and immunohistochemical characterization of a representative differential protein, PRX6

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Jun-Hui; Xing, Guo-Lan; Fang, Xin-Hui; Wu, Hui-Fang; Zhang, Bo; Yu, Jin-Zhong; Fan, Zong-Min; Wang, Li-Dong

    2017-01-01

    AIM To understand the molecular mechanism of esophageal cancer development and provide molecular markers for screening high-risk populations and early diagnosis. METHODS Two-dimensional electrophoresis combined with mass spectrometry were adopted to screen differentially expressed proteins in nine cases of fetal esophageal epithelium, eight cases of esophageal cancer, and eight cases of tumor-adjacent normal esophageal epithelium collected from fetuses of different gestational age, or esophageal cancer patients from a high-risk area of esophageal cancer in China. Immunohistochemistry (avidin-biotin-horseradish peroxidase complex method) was used to detect the expression of peroxiredoxin (PRX)6 in 91 cases of esophageal cancer, tumor-adjacent normal esophageal tissue, basal cell hyperplasia, dysplasia, and carcinoma in situ, as well as 65 cases of esophageal epithelium from fetuses at a gestational age of 3-9 mo. RESULTS After peptide mass fingerprint analysis and search of protein databases, 21 differential proteins were identified; some of which represent a protein isoform. Varying degrees of expression of PRX6 protein, which was localized mainly in the cytoplasm, were detected in adult and fetal normal esophageal tissues, precancerous lesions, and esophageal cancer. With the progression of esophageal lesions, PRX6 protein expression showed a declining trend (P PRX6 protein expression showed a declining trend with age (P PRX6 protein expression was significantly higher in well-differentiated esophageal cancer tissues than in poorly differentiated esophageal cancer tissues (P PRX6 protein is associated with fetal esophageal development and cancer differentiation. PMID:28293090

  15. Second primary cancers after anogenital, skin, oral, esophageal and rectal cancers: etiological links?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemminki, K; Jiang, Y; Dong, C

    2001-07-15

    The Swedish Family-Cancer Database was used to analyze second cancers after oral, esophageal, rectal, cervical, genital and skin (squamous cell carcinoma) cancers. A strong and consistent association of second cancers was observed at all these sites, in men and women. As a novel finding, an association of rectal cancer with the human papillomavirus (HVP)-related cancers was shown. New evidence on an excess of skin cancer with the HPV-related cancers was also provided. As an epidemiological study, the associations were strong and often supported by a number of comparisons. These could not be explained by bias or long-term treatment related effects. However, whether the findings on rectal and skin cancer are due to HPV or other infections, transient or inherited depressed immune function or other constitutional factors remains to be established. Copyright 2001 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  16. Triapine, Cisplatin, and Radiation Therapy in Treating Patients With Cervical Cancer or Vaginal Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-04-21

    Recurrent Cervical Cancer; Recurrent Vaginal Cancer; Stage IB Cervical Cancer; Stage II Vaginal Cancer; Stage IIA Cervical Cancer; Stage IIB Cervical Cancer; Stage III Cervical Cancer; Stage III Vaginal Cancer; Stage IVA Cervical Cancer; Stage IVA Vaginal Cancer; Stage IVB Cervical Cancer; Stage IVB Vaginal Cancer; Therapy-related Toxicity

  17. Epidemiologic differences in esophageal cancer between Asian and Western populations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Han-Ze Zhang; Guang-Fu Jin; Hong-Bing Shen

    2012-01-01

    Esophageal cancer is a common cancer worldwide and has a poor prognosis.The incidence of esophageal squamous cell cancer has been decreasing,whereas the incidence of esophageal adenocarcinoma has been increasing rapidly,particularly in Western men.Squamous cell cancer continues to be the major type of esophageal cancer in Asia,and the main risk factors include tobacco smoking,alcohol consumption,hot beverage drinking,and poor nutrition.In contrast,esophageal adenocarcinoma predominately affects the whites,and the risk factors include smoking,obesity,and gastroesophageal reflux disease.In addition,Asians and Caucasians may have different susceptibilities to esophageal cancer due to different heritage backgrounds.However,comparison studies between these two populations are limited and need to be addressed in the near future.Ethnic differences should he taken into account in preventive and clinical practices.

  18. Cisplatin and Radiation Therapy Followed by Paclitaxel and Carboplatin in Treating Patients With Stage IB-IVA Cervical Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-05-03

    Cervical Adenocarcinoma; Cervical Adenosquamous Carcinoma; Cervical Squamous Cell Carcinoma, Not Otherwise Specified; Stage IB Cervical Cancer; Stage IIA Cervical Cancer; Stage IIB Cervical Cancer; Stage IIIA Cervical Cancer; Stage IIIB Cervical Cancer; Stage IVA Cervical Cancer

  19. [Current perspectives in cervical cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdespino Gómez, Víctor M; Valdespino Castillo, Víctor E

    2004-01-01

    Cervical cancer is a Public Health problem among women worldwide, especially in the developing world. The understanding of the HPV association with the high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions and cervical cancer and the knowledge of the pre-invasive lesions natural history have strengthened the justification of different means of cancer prevention and screening programs, the application of different pre-invasive lesion treatments and particularly advances in conventional treatments of cervical cancer. In the last thirty years, cervical cancer's incidence and mortality rates have decreased in more than 75% in developed nations due to efficient application of secondary prevention based on cytology and colposcopy screening programs plus to in-office implementation of precursor lesions treatment methods. In the developing nations, these achievements can be obtained using specific steps of primary prevention, massive participation of risk patients in screening programs and improving ambulatory application of pre-invasive cervical lesion treatments. In Mexico several indicators suggest that this condition has began. New knowledge paradigms of the local immune response to HPV-cervical cancer pre-invasive and invasive lesions are being added to the construction of new preventive and therapeutic anti-cancer strategies. The preventive vaccines anti-high risk oncogenic-HPVs offer a good perspective in short term, also the use of different cellular immunotherapy strategies anti-cervical cancer as adyuvant of conventional treatments offer an encouraging panorama in not long term. In the next years, the improving of specific genes determination and their correlation with biologic features of the specific tumor which are involved on pre-invasive and invasive stages of cervical cancer will raise the understanding and the treatment of these patients.

  20. Cervical cancer screening at crossroads

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lynge, Elsebeth; Rygaard, Carsten; Baillet, Miguel Vazquez-Prada

    2014-01-01

    Cervical screening has been one of the most successful public health prevention programmes. For 50 years, cytology formed the basis for screening, and detected cervical intraepithelial lesions (CIN) were treated surgically to prevent progression to cancer. In a high-risk country as Denmark......, screening decreased the incidence of cervical cancer from 34 to 11 per 100,000, age-standardized rate (World Standard Population). Screening is, however, also expensive; Denmark (population: 5.6 million) undertakes close to half a million tests per year, and has 6-8 CIN-treated women for each prevented...... cancer case. The discovery of human papillomavirus (HPV) as the cause of cervical cancer dramatically changed perspectives for disease control. Screening with HPV testing was launched around 1990, and preventive HPV vaccination was licensed in 2006. Long-term randomized controlled trials (RCT...

  1. Medicolegal aspects of esophageal cancer surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Giorgio, Fabio

    2005-01-01

    Forensic implications of esophageal cancer surgery are varied and complex depending on the field of specialization involved i.e. civil law, criminal law, insurance or social security and for the distinct probative requirements related to each field. The aim of this article is to reconstruct the logical procedure of a forensic doctor who actually examines a practical case to establish the profiles of professional responsibility in particular in civil or criminal law.

  2. Technological advances in radiotherapy for esophageal cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Milan; Vosmik; Jiri; Petera; Igor; Sirak; Miroslav; Hodek; Petr; Paluska; Jiri; Dolezal; Marcela; Kopacova

    2010-01-01

    Radiotherapy with concurrent chemotherapy and surgery represent the main treatment modalities in esophageal cancer.The goal of modern radiotherapy approaches,based on recent technological advances,is to minimize post-treatment complications by improving the gross tumor volume definition (positron emission tomography-based planning),reducing interfraction motion (image-guided radiotherapy) and intrafraction motion (respiratory-gated radiotherapy),and by better dose delivery to the precisely defined planning ...

  3. Multidisciplinary management for esophageal and gastric cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boniface MM

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Megan M Boniface,1 Sachin B Wani,2 Tracey E Schefter,3 Phillip J Koo,4 Cheryl Meguid,1 Stephen Leong,5 Jeffrey B Kaplan,6 Lisa J Wingrove,7 Martin D McCarter1 1Section of Surgical Oncology, Division of GI, Tumor and Endocrine Surgery, Department of Surgery, 2Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Department of Therapeutic and Interventional Endoscopy, 3Department of Radiation Oncology, 4Division of Radiology-Nuclear Medicine, Department of Radiology, 5Division of Medical Oncology, 6Department of Pathology, University of Colorado Denver, 7Department of Food and Nutrition Services, University of Colorado Hospital Cancer Center, Aurora, CO, USA Abstract: The management of esophageal and gastric cancer is complex and involves multiple specialists in an effort to optimize patient outcomes. Utilizing a multidisciplinary team approach starting from the initial staging evaluation ensures that all members are in agreement with the plan of care. Treatment selection for esophageal and gastric cancer often involves a combination of chemotherapy, radiation, surgery, and palliative interventions (endoscopic and surgical, and direct communication between specialists in these fields is needed to ensure appropriate clinical decision making. At the University of Colorado, the Esophageal and Gastric Multidisciplinary Clinic was created to bring together all experts involved in treating these diseases at a weekly conference in order to provide patients with coordinated, individualized, and patient-centered care. This review details the essential elements and benefits of building a multidisciplinary program focused on treating esophageal and gastric cancer patients. Keywords: tumor board, upper gastrointestinal malignancies, patient centered

  4. Study Points to Genetic Subtypes of Esophageal Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    A Cancer Currents blog post about a study by The Cancer Genome Atlas Research Network that identified distinct genetic and molecular changes in esophageal cancers that could improve their classification and identify potential new treatments.

  5. Unexpected esophageal diseases appeared in thyroid resections

    OpenAIRE

    Ye-huan, Liu; Shi-xu, Lyu; Yi-li, Zhou; Ou-chen, Wang; Xiao-hua, Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Objective In order to avoid the misdiagnosis of thyroid diseases, we need to discuss the clinical features and diagnostic methods of cervical esophageal cancer and Zenker’s diverticulum. Methods The clinical and laboratory data of seven cases were reviewed retrospectively, and in all cases, esophageal-related diseases were misdiagnosed as thyroid diseases preoperatively. Among them, two cases were cervical esophageal cancer metastasized to thyroids but initially, they were misdiagnosed as thy...

  6. Attributable causes of esophageal cancer incidence and mortality in China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian-Bing Wang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: To estimate the contribution of tobacco smoking, alcohol drinking, low vegetable intake and low fruit intake to esophageal cancer mortality and incidence in China. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We calculated the proportion of esophageal cancer attributable to four known modifiable risk factors [population attributable fraction (PAF]. Exposure data was taken from meta-analyses and large-scale national surveys of representative samples of the Chinese population. Data on relative risks were also from meta-analyses and large-scale prospective studies. Esophageal cancer mortality and incidence came from the 3(rd national death cause survey and population-based cancer registries in China. We estimated that 87,065 esophageal cancer deaths (men 67,686; women: 19,379 and 108,206 cases (men: 83,968, women: 24,238 were attributable to tobacco smoking, alcohol drinking, low vegetable intake and low fruit intake in China in 2005. About 17.9% of esophageal cancer deaths among men and 1.9% among women were attributable to tobacco smoking. About 15.2% of esophageal cancer deaths in men and 1.3% in women were caused by alcohol drinking. Low vegetable intake was responsible for 4.3% esophageal cancer deaths in men and 4.1% in women. The fraction of esophageal cancer deaths attributable to low fruit intake was 27.1% in men and 28.0% in women. Overall, 46% of esophageal cancers (51% in men and 33% in women were attributable to these four modifiable risk factors. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Tobacco smoking, alcohol drinking, low vegetable intake and low fruit intake were responsible for 46% of esophageal cancer mortality and incidence in China in 2005. These findings provide useful data for developing guidelines for esophageal cancer prevention and control in China.

  7. Cetuximab, Cisplatin, and Radiation Therapy in Treating Patients With Stage IB, Stage II, Stage III, or Stage IVA Cervical Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-29

    Cervical Adenocarcinoma; Cervical Adenosquamous Carcinoma; Cervical Small Cell Carcinoma; Cervical Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IB Cervical Cancer; Stage IIA Cervical Cancer; Stage IIB Cervical Cancer; Stage III Cervical Cancer; Stage IVA Cervical Cancer

  8. [Incidence and trend analysis of esophageal cancer in China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuo, T T; Zheng, R S; Zeng, H M; Zhang, S W; Chen, W Q; He, J

    2016-09-23

    Incidence data retrieved from population-based cancer registration were used to analyze the esophageal cancer incidence and trend in China. The results can provide basic information for prevention and control of esophageal cancer. Esophageal cancer incidence data in 2012 were retrieved from the National Central Cancer Registry, nationwide new esophageal cancer cases were estimated using age-specific rate by urban or rural and gender and national population in 2012. Esophageal cancer incidence data from 22 cancer registries were used to analyze the trend during 2000-2011. The estimates of new cases of esophageal cancer were about 286.7 thousand in 2012 in China. The incidence rate was 21.17/10(5,) the age-standardized incidence rates by Chinese standard population and by world population were 14.73/10(5) and 14.93/10(5,) respectively, and the cumulative incidence rate was 1.91%.There was a decreasing trend of incidence rate of esophageal cancer in registration areas of China during 2000-2011 with an average annual percentage change (AAPC) of 0.9% (95%CI: -1.6% to -0.1%), no significant differences were observed in urban area and an increasing trend with AAPC of 1.3% (95%CI: 0.2% to 2.5%) in rural area. After age standardization, the incidence rate was significantly decreased, with AAPC of -4.0% (95%CI: -5.5% to -2.6%) overall, -3.8% (95%CI: -4.9% to -2.7%) in urban and -1.7% (95%CI: -3.0% to -0.4%) in rural areas. Esophageal cancer is one of the most common cancers in China and is an emphasis for cancer control. After effective control of risk factors and development of esophageal cancer screening techniques in high-risk areas for years, esophageal cancer incidence appears to have a significant decreasing trend.

  9. Esophageal cancer developed 13 years after radiotherapy for lung cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okazaki, Atsushi; Matsuura, Masana; Noda, Masanobu; Katsumata, Yasushi; Maehara, Tadayuki; Tamura, Shizuo; Uzawa, Takeshi; Ishikawa, Toshitaka

    1988-05-01

    This paper reports on an autopsied case manifesting an esophageal cancer that had developed 13 years after radiotherapy for lung cancer. The patient was a 61-year-old man. He was found to have a squamous cell carcinoma of the right lower bronchus with a swelling of the mediastinal and left supraclavicular lymph nodes in July of 1973. He received 60 Gy of irradiation in the right lung, the mediastinum, and the left supraclavicular region. Later, after doing well until August of 1986, a squamous cell carcinoma of the esophagus was found at the upper intrathoracic site. Thus, he also received additional radiotherapy but died of pneumonia after this local recurrence 7 months later. At autopsy, no local recurrence of the primary lung cancer was found. The site of esophageal cancer was far from that of the primary lung cancer thought it was included in the previous treatment ports. This suggests the possibility that the primary esophageal cancer had been induded by therapeutic irradiation. So far as we know, this is the first report of esophageal cancer that may have developed after irradiation for lung cancer.

  10. [Esophageal cancer developing 13 years after radiotherapy of lung cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okazaki, A; Matsuura, M; Noda, M; Katsumata, Y; Maehara, T; Tamura, S; Uzawa, T; Ishiko, T

    1988-05-01

    This paper reports on an autopsied case manifesting an esophageal cancer that had developed 13 years after radiotherapy for lung cancer. The patient was a 61-year-old man. He was found to have a squamous cell carcinoma of the right lower bronchus with a swelling of the mediastinal and left supraclavicular lymph nodes in July of 1973. He received 60 Gy of irradiation in the right lung, the mediastinum, and the left supraclavicular region. Later, after doing well until August of 1986, a squamous cell carcinoma of the esophagus was found at the upper intrathoracic site. Thus, he also received additional radiotherapy but died of pneumonia after this local recurrence 7 months later. At autopsy, no local recurrence of the primary lung cancer was found. The site of esophageal cancer was far from that of the primary lung cancer though it was included in the previous treatment ports. This suggests the possibility that the primary esophageal cancer had been induced by therapeutic irradiation. So far as we know, this is the first report of esophageal cancer that may have developed after irradiation for lung cancer.

  11. Thoracoscopic esophagectomy for intrathoracic esophageal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osugi, Harushi; Takemura, Masashi; Lee, Sigeru; Nishikawa, Takayuki; Fukuhara, Kennichirou; Iwasaki, Hiroshi; Higashino, Masayuki

    2005-08-01

    Thoracoscopic approaches for esophageal cancer are still disparate. Complete scopic technique is feasible for esophagectomy. Mini-thoracotomy is effective for excellent exposure of the mediastinum for lymph node dissection. The magnifying effect of a video, by keeping the camera in close proximity to the dissection is essential to perform the same quality of dissection as open surgery. The benefit, for respiratory morbidity, remains to be studied in a large number of patients. Minimizing the chest wall injury contributed, to the reduction of constrictive pulmonary damage. Survival after the thoracoscopic approach was favorably compared with open surgery, when extensive lymphadenectomy was performed. Because the efficacy improves with the surgeon's experience, satisfactory outcome will only be obtained in a center performing a sufficient volume of esophageal surgery to provide the surgeon with opportunities to refine his necessary skills. Improvements in technique and instrumentation should make the procedure more accessible and steepen the learning curve.

  12. Fatal hemorrhage in irradiated esophageal cancer patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nemoto, Kenji; Takai, Yoshihiro; Ogawa, Yoshihiro; Kakuto, Yoshihisa; Ariga, Hisanori; Matsushita, Haruo; Wada, Hitoshi; Yamada, Shogo [Tohoku Univ., Sendai (Japan). Dept. of Radiology

    1998-09-01

    Between 1980 and 1994, 423 patients with esophageal cancer were given curative radiation therapy. Of these patients, 31 died of massive hemorrhage and were used as the subjects of analysis in this study. The incidence of massive hemorrhage in all patients was 7% (31/423). In the 31 patients who died of massive hemorrhage, 27 had local tumors and two had no tumors at hemorrhage (two unknown cases). The mean time interval from the start of radiation to hemorrhage was 9.2 months. In 9 autopsy cases the origin of hemorrhage was a tear of the aorta in 5 cases, necrotic local tumor in 3 cases and esophageal ulcer in 1 case. The positive risk factors for this complication seemed to be excess total dose, infection, metallic stent, and tracheoesophageal fistula. Chest pain or sentinel hemorrhage proceeding to massive hemorrhage was observed in about half of the patients. (orig.)

  13. A novel technique to insert nasogastric tube for the anesthetized patients during cervical esophageal reconstruction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ruijie Zhang; Yu Deng; Shengling Fu; Yixin Cai; Ni Zhang; Xiangning Fu

    2014-01-01

    Objective:We are describing a novel technique to insert nasogastric tube (NGT) in the anesthetized patients dur-ing cervical esophageal reconstruction. Methods:Forty patients with mid and upper esophageal tumor enrol ed into this study were randomly al ocated into two groups (the control group, group C and the novel method group, group N). Al the patients were applied mechanical anastomosis to finish the cervical esophageal reconstruction. The procedure of NGT insertion for group C use the conventional method;wel , the group N use the novel technique. Results:Al the patients in group N had been finished the NGT insertion in the first attempt, and the total time for insertion was (5.05 ± 1.15) mins;on the contrary, for the group C, duration of insertion (min) was (24.45 ± 5.23) mins, and the successful rate of NGT insertion in the first attempt was 40%(P<0.05);no one in group N had coiling/kinking, and 6/20 (30%) in group C had it (P=0.020). The complication rate of bleeding between the two group had no significant dif erence. Conclusion:For the patient with mid and upper esophageal tumor who need cervical esophageal reconstruction, this novel method can save the NGT insertion time, and make it easier with higher successful rate.

  14. A case of cervical esophageal duplication cyst in a newborn infant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawashima, Shoko; Segawa, Osamu; Kimura, Shuri; Tsuchiya, Masayoshi; Henmi, Nobuhide; Hasegawa, Hisaya; Fujibayashi, Mariko; Naritaka, Yoshihiko

    2016-12-01

    Esophageal duplication cyst is a rare congenital anomaly resulting from a foregut budding error during the fourth to sixth week of embryonic development. Cervical esophageal duplication cysts are very rare and may cause respiratory distress in infancy. A full-term newborn girl who was born by normal delivery was transferred to our hospital because of swelling of the right anterior neck since birth. Cervical ultrasonography showed a 40 × 24 × 33 mm simple cyst on the right neck. Tracheal intubation was required at 2 weeks of age because of worsening external compression of the trachea. Fine-needle aspiration cytology revealed the existence of ciliated epithelium. At 1 month of age, exploration was performed through a transverse neck incision. The cyst had a layer of muscle connected to the lateral wall of the esophagus. Histopathological diagnosis was a cervical esophageal duplication cyst. We describe the clinical features of infantile cervical esophageal duplication cysts based on our experience of this rare disease in a neonate, along with a review of 19 cases previously reported in literature.

  15. [A Case of Advanced Esophageal Cancer and Tongue Cancer Treated with Induction DCF Chemotherapy Followed by Radical Surgery].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Motomu; Koyanagi, Kazuo; Sugiura, Hitoshi; Kakefuda, Toshihiro

    2015-11-01

    A man in his 60s was admitted for the treatment of advanced cervical esophageal cancer with metastasis to the lymph nodes and advanced tongue cancer with metastasis to the lymph nodes. Esophageal cancer was suspected to have invaded the trachea. The tongue cancer was located on the left side and had invaded beyond the median line of the tongue. Both cancers were pathologically diagnosed as squamous cell carcinomas. Therefore, it was determined that pharyngo-laryngo- esophagectomy and total glossectomy were required prior to the treatment. However, after 2 courses of docetaxel/cisplatin/ 5-FU combined induction chemotherapy, both cancers remarkably decreased; consequently, an esophagectomy to preserve laryngeal function and partial glossectomy could be performed simultaneously. The patient is well without recurrence 1 year post-surgery.

  16. Esophageal cancer; Cancer de l'oesophage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dupuis, O.; Ganem, G.; Denis, F. [Centre Jean-Bernard, clinique Victor-Hugo, 72 - Le Mans (France); Bera, G.; Pointreau, Y. [Clinique d' oncologie radiotherapie, Centre Henry S. Kaplan, CHU Bretonneau, 37 - Tours (France); Pradier, O. [Departement de radiotherapie, CHU de Morvan, 29 - Brest (France); Martin, P. [Centre Bourgogne, 59 - Lille (France); Mirabel, X. [Departement universitaire de radiotherapie, centre Oscar-Lambret, 59 - Lille (France)

    2010-07-01

    Esophageal cancers are highly malignant tumours with often a poor prognosis, except for minimal lesions treated with surgery. Radiation therapy, or combined radiation and chemotherapy is the most used therapeutic modality, alone or before oesophagectomy. The delineation of target volumes is now more accurate owing the possibility to use routinely the new imaging techniques (mainly PET). The aim of this work is to precise the radio-anatomical particularities, the pattern of spread of esophageal cancer and the principles of 3D conformal radiotherapy illustrated with a clinical case. (authors)

  17. Current treatment options for the management of esophageal cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mawhinney MR

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Mark R Mawhinney, Robert E GlasgowDepartment of Surgery, Huntsman Cancer Institute at the University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT, USAAbstract: In recent years, esophageal cancer characteristics and management options have evolved significantly. There has been a sharp increase in the frequency of esophageal adenocarcinoma and a decline in the frequency of squamous cell carcinoma. A more comprehensive understanding of prognostic factors influencing outcome has also been developed. This has led to more management options for esophageal cancer at all stages than ever before. A multidisciplinary, team approach to management in a high volume center is the preferred approach. Each patient should be individually assessed based on type of cancer, local or regional involvement, and his or her own functional status to determine an appropriate treatment regimen. This review will discuss management of esophageal cancer relative to disease progression and patient functional status.Keywords: esophageal adenocarcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma, treatment regimen, disease progression, patient functional status

  18. Cervical Cancer Risk Prediction Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Developing statistical models that estimate the probability of developing cervical cancer over a defined period of time will help clinicians identify individuals at higher risk of specific cancers, allowing for earlier or more frequent screening and counseling of behavioral changes to decrease risk.

  19. Preventing Cervical Cancer with HPV Vaccines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cervical cancer can be prevented with HPV vaccines. NCI-supported researchers helped establish HPV as a cause of cervical cancer. They also helped create the first HPV vaccines, were involved in the vaccine trials, and contribute to ongoing studies.

  20. NIH Research Leads to Cervical Cancer Vaccine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Issues Sexually Transmitted Diseases NIH Research Leads to Cervical Cancer Vaccine Past Issues / Fall 2008 Table of Contents ... in women, the cause of the majority of cervical cancers. Photo courtesy of Judy Folkenberg, NLM Writer By ...

  1. Treatment Options by Stage (Cervical Cancer)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is found early. Signs and symptoms of cervical cancer include vaginal bleeding and pelvic pain. These and other signs and symptoms may be caused by cervical cancer or by other conditions . Check with your doctor ...

  2. MRI and PET Imaging in Predicting Treatment Response in Patients With Stage IB-IVA Cervical Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-27

    Cervical Adenocarcinoma; Cervical Adenosquamous Carcinoma; Cervical Squamous Cell Carcinoma, Not Otherwise Specified; Cervical Undifferentiated Carcinoma; Recurrent Cervical Carcinoma; Stage IB2 Cervical Cancer; Stage II Cervical Cancer; Stage IIA Cervical Cancer; Stage IIB Cervical Cancer; Stage III Cervical Cancer; Stage IIIA Cervical Cancer; Stage IIIB Cervical Cancer; Stage IVA Cervical Cancer

  3. Esophageal Cancer: Role of Imaging in Primary Staging and Response Assessment Post Neoadjuvant Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, Yvette

    2016-08-01

    Advances in the early detection and treatment of esophageal cancer have meant improved survival rates for patients with esophageal cancer. Accurate pretreatment and post-neoadjuvant treatment staging of esophageal cancer is essential for assessing operability and determining the optimum treatment plan. This article reviews the multimodality imaging approach in the diagnosis, staging, and assessment of treatment response in esophageal cancer.

  4. Cervical cancer: A global health crisis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Small, William; Bacon, Monica A; Bajaj, Amishi; Chuang, Linus T; Fisher, Brandon J; Harkenrider, Matthew M; Jhingran, Anuja; Kitchener, Henry C; Mileshkin, Linda R; Viswanathan, Akila N; Gaffney, David K

    2017-07-01

    Cervical cancer is the fourth most common malignancy diagnosed in women worldwide. Nearly all cases of cervical cancer result from infection with the human papillomavirus, and the prevention of cervical cancer includes screening and vaccination. Primary treatment options for patients with cervical cancer may include surgery or a concurrent chemoradiotherapy regimen consisting of cisplatin-based chemotherapy with external beam radiotherapy and brachytherapy. Cervical cancer causes more than one quarter of a million deaths per year as a result of grossly deficient treatments in many developing countries. This warrants a concerted global effort to counter the shocking loss of life and suffering that largely goes unreported. This article provides a review of the biology, prevention, and treatment of cervical cancer, and discusses the global cervical cancer crisis and efforts to improve the prevention and treatment of the disease in underdeveloped countries. Cancer 2017;123:2404-12. © 2017 American Cancer Society. © 2017 American Cancer Society.

  5. Treatment Option Overview (Esophageal Cancer)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Resources Conducting Clinical Trials Statistical Tools and Data Terminology Resources NCI Data Catalog Cryo-EM NCI's Role ... Contacts Other Funding Find NCI funding for small business innovation, technology transfer, and contracts Training Cancer Training ...

  6. General Information about Esophageal Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... stage 0 , abnormal cells are found in the mucosa or submucosa layer of the esophagus wall. These ... found. Stage IA : Cancer has formed in the mucosa or submucosa layer of the esophagus wall. The ...

  7. Application of colon interposition among the esophageal cancer patients with partial gastrectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Qiuqiang; Mao, Weimin; Yu, Huanming; Liang, Yixian; Wang, Jiane; Chen, Guoping

    2016-12-01

    Esophageal reconstruction with colon interposition is an alternative solution for the esophageal cancer patients who have partial gastrectomy. The aim of this study was to investigate the therapeutic effects of colon interposition among the esophageal carcinoma patients with partial gastrectomy. Under institutional review board approval, 32 esophageal carcinoma patients with a history of partial gastrectomy were included in this study. All the patients had been diagnosed and confirmed squamous cell carcinoma, adenocarcinoma, or adenosquamous carcinoma by histopathological examination. Surgical approaches, complications and therapeutic results were analyzed in the current study. Thirty-two esophageal carcinoma patients (29 men, 3 women, median age 63.2 years) were included in this study. Isoperistaltic colon interposition was carried out on 14 patients; their 1-year and 2-year survival rate was 92.9% and 78.6%, respectively. Antiperistaltic colon interposition was carried out on 18 patients; their 1-year and 2-year survival rate was 88.9% and 77.8%, respectively. In which, cervical anastomotic leakage was observed on six patients. Colon interposition is an ideal surgical approach for the esophageal carcinoma patients who had partial gastrectomy. Isoperistaltic colon interposition is preferred, but antiperistaltic colon interposition has the advantage that a longer colon can be used.

  8. 吻合口全层间断加强缝合用于食管癌颈部机械吻合%Efficacy Analysis of Anastomotic One Layer Interrupted Strengthening Suture on Cervical Mechanical Anasto-mosis of Esophageal Cancer Operation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙长鹏; 陈云琦; 管宏俊; 顾寅峰

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To explore the feasibility and efficacy of one layer interrupted strengthening suture applied in cervical mechanical anastomosis of esophageal cancer operation .Methods:Forty patients with upper and middle esophageal carcinoma , who underwent cervical mechanical anastomosis during operation ,were divided into two groups .In group A ,22 patients re‐ceived no further treatment for the anastomotic stoma after anastomosis .In group B ,18 patients received one‐layer interrupted strengthening suture with 3‐0 prolene for the anastomotic stoma after mechanical anastomosis .Results:The cervical mechanical anastomosis reached one‐time success in all 40 patients .In group A ,4 cases of anastomotic leakage and 3 cases of anastomotic stricture occurred after operation and were cured .No anastomotic leakage and anastomotic stricture was identified in group B . Conclusions:The application of anastomotic one layer interrupted strengthening suture in cervical mechanical anastomosis of esophageal cancer operation could significantly reduce the incidence rates of anastomotic leakage and stricture .It is worthy of promotion and application .%目的:探讨吻合口全层间断加强缝合在食管癌颈部机械吻合中应用的可行性和临床疗效。方法:将40例行食管上中段癌颈部机械吻合的患者分为两组。A组患者22例,吻合完成后,吻合口不作进一步处理;B组患者18例,吻合完成后,吻合口用3‐0薇荞缝线间断全层加强缝合一周。结果:40例患者行颈部机械吻合均一次成功。术后A组发生吻合口瘘4例,吻合口狭窄3例,均为吻合口瘘治愈的病例。B组未发生吻合口瘘及狭窄。结论:吻合口全层间断加强缝合在食管癌颈部机械吻合中应用可明显减少吻合口瘘及吻合口狭窄的发生率,值得推广。

  9. SU-E-P-18: Intensity-Modulated Radiation Therapy for Cervical Esophageal Squamous Cell Carcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bai, W; Qiao, X; Zhou, Z; Song, Y; Zhang, R; Zhen, C [The Fourth Hospital of Hebei Medical University, Shijiazhuang, Hebei (China)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: To retrospectively analyze the outcomes and prognostic factors of cervical esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) treated with intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT). Methods: Thirty-seven patients with cervical esophageal SCC treated with IMRT were analyzed retrospectively. They received 54–66 Gy in 27–32 fractions. Nineteen patients received concurrent (n=12) or sequential (n=7) platinum-based two drugs chemoradiotherapy. Overall survival (OS), local control rates (LCR) and prognostic factors were evaluated. Acute toxicities and patterns of first failures were observed. Results: The median follow-up was 46 months for alive patients. The l-, 3-, 4- and 5-year OS of the all patients were 83.8%, 59.1%, 47.5% and 32.6% respectively. The median survival time was 46 months. The l-, 3-,4- and 5-year LCR were 82.9%, 63.0%, 54.5% and 54.5%, respectively. Univariate and Multivariate analysis all showed that size of GTV was an independent prognostic factor (p=0.033, p=0.039). There were no patients with Grade 3 acute radiation esophagitis and Grade 2–4 acute pneumonitis. The local failure accounted for 70.0% of all treatment-related failures. Conclusion: IMRT is safe and effective in the treatment of cervical esophageal squamous cell carcinoma. Size of GTV is an independent prognostic factor. Local failure still remains the main reason of treatment failures. The authors declare no conflicts of interest in preparing this article.

  10. Risk of treatment-related esophageal cancer among breast cancer survivors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morton, L M; Gilbert, E S; Hall, P

    2012-01-01

    Radiotherapy for breast cancer may expose the esophagus to ionizing radiation, but no study has evaluated esophageal cancer risk after breast cancer associated with radiation dose or systemic therapy use.......Radiotherapy for breast cancer may expose the esophagus to ionizing radiation, but no study has evaluated esophageal cancer risk after breast cancer associated with radiation dose or systemic therapy use....

  11. Esophageal and gastric cancer incidence and mortality in alendronate users

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abrahamsen, Bo; Pazianas, Michael; Eiken, Pia Agnete

    2012-01-01

    their esophageal or gastric location could be accurately distinguished. We conducted a register-based, open cohort study using national healthcare data for Denmark. Upper endoscopy frequency, cancer incidence and mortality was examined in 30,606 alendronate users (female, age 50¿+¿) and 122,424 matched controls......Recent studies have reached conflicting conclusions regarding the risk of esophageal cancer with oral bisphosphonates. Prior studies did not record the number of cancer deaths or endoscopy rates, which could be higher in bisphosphonate users and lead to more cancers being diagnosed at a stage when....... Primary outcomes were esophageal cancer incidence and death due to esophageal cancer. The analysis showed that alendronate users were more likely to have undergone recent upper endoscopy (4.1 vs 1.7%, p¿...

  12. Biomarkers in Cervical Cancer Screening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolas Wentzensen

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available In industrialized countries, population wide cytological screening programs using the Pap test have led to a substantial reduction of the incidence of cervical cancer. Despite this evident success, screening programs that rely on Pap-stained cytological samples have several limitations. First, a number of equivocal or mildly abnormal test results require costly work up by either repeated retesting or direct colposcopy and biopsy, since a certain percentage of high grade lesions that require immediate treatment hide among these unclear test results. This work up of mildly abnormal or equivocal cytological tests consumes a large amount of the overall costs spent for cervical cancer screening. Improved triage of these samples might substantially reduce the costs. Cervical cancer is induced by persistent infections with oncogenic human papilloma viruses (HPV. While HPV infection is an indispensable factor, it is not sufficient to cause cancer. The majority of acute HPV infections induce low grade precursor lesions that are cleared spontaneously after several months in more than 90% of cases, and less than 10% eventually progress to high grade lesions or invasive cancer. Progression is characterized by the deregulated expression of the viral oncogenes E6 and E7 in infected basal and parabasal cells. Novel biomarkers that allow monitoring these essential molecular events in histological or cytological specimens are likely to improve the detection of lesions that have a high risk of progression in both primary screening and triage settings. In this review, we will discuss potential biomarkers for cervical cancer screening with a focus on the level of clinical evidence that supports their application as novel markers in refined cervical cancer screening programs.

  13. Tumour Debulking for Esophageal Cancer - Thermal Modalities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Fleischer

    1992-01-01

    Full Text Available Esophageal cancer usually is discovered at a late stage and curative therapy seldom is possible. The prognosis is poor and most therapy is palliative. Endoscopic therapy commonly is employed; two common treatments involve thermal modalities. The Nd:YAG laser has been employed for 10 years and is effective in relieving obstruction in approximately 90% of cases. Re-ohstruction usually occurs in two to three months and repeat treatment may be necessary. Limitations to laser use include the fact that equipment is expensive and there are technical restrictions. An alternative thermal modality is the bipolar coagulation tumour probe which employs bipolar electrocoagulation. It is less expensive and, if the tumour is circumferential, tends to be easier to use. (It should not be used if the cancer is noncircumferential. The advantages and limitations of each modality are addressed.

  14. Lymphedema After Surgery in Patients With Endometrial Cancer, Cervical Cancer, or Vulvar Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-23

    Lymphedema; Stage IA Cervical Cancer; Stage IA Uterine Corpus Cancer; Stage IA Vulvar Cancer; Stage IB Cervical Cancer; Stage IB Uterine Corpus Cancer; Stage IB Vulvar Cancer; Stage II Uterine Corpus Cancer; Stage II Vulvar Cancer; Stage IIA Cervical Cancer; Stage IIIA Vulvar Cancer; Stage IIIB Vulvar Cancer; Stage IIIC Vulvar Cancer; Stage IVB Vulvar Cancer

  15. Methods for Cervical Cancer Screening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Vargas-Revilla

    2014-12-01

    This article is divided in three sections: the first one focuses on the general impact of cervical cancer has hadin CostaRica, these condsection gathers information about different methodologies used around the world to detect this cancer and the third one makes reference to the current development of the screening devise in Mexico that works as a monitoring system and can used by women without external assistance.

  16. Identification of intramural metastasis in esophageal cancer using multiphoton microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jian; Kang, Deyong; Zhuo, Shuangmu; Zhu, Xiaoqin; Lin, jiangbo; Chen, Jianxin

    2017-02-01

    Intramural metastasis (IM) of esophageal cancer is defined as metastasis from a primary lesion to the esophageal wall without intraepithelial cancer extension. Esophageal cancer with IM is more common and such cases indicate a poor prognosis. In esophageal surgery, if curative resection is possible, the complete removal of both primary tumor and associated IMs is required. Therefore, accurate diagnosis of IMs in esophageal cancer prior to surgery is of particular importance. Multiphoton microscopy (MPM) with subcellular resolution is well-suited for deep tissue imaging since many endogenous fluorophores of fresh biological tissues are excited through two-photon excited fluorescence (TPEF) and second harmonic generation (SHG). Here, a study to identify IM in fresh tissue section using MPM is reported. In this study, the morphological and spectral differences between IM and surrounding tissue are described. These results show that MPM has the ability to accurately identify IM in esophageal tissues. With improvement of the penetration depth of MPM and the development of multiphton microendoscope, MPM may be a promising imaging technique for preoperative diagnosis of IMs in esophageal cancer in the future.

  17. CDC's Cervical Cancer Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Kidney Leukemia Liver Lung Lymphoma Myeloma Ovarian Prostate Skin Thyroid Uterine Vaginal and Vulvar How to Prevent Cancer or Find It Early Screening Tests Vaccines (Shots) Healthy Choices Data and Statistics For Different Kinds of Cancer Cancer Rates by ...

  18. Airway and esophageal stenting in patients with advanced esophageal cancer and pulmonary involvement.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabrice Paganin

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Most inoperable patients with esophageal-advanced cancer (EGC have a poor prognosis. Esophageal stenting, as part of a palliative therapy management has dramatically improved the quality of live of EGC patients. Airway stenting is generally proposed in case of esophageal stent complication, with a high failure rate. The study was conducted to assess the efficacy and safety of scheduled and non-scheduled airway stenting in case of indicated esophageal stenting for EGC. METHODS AND FINDINGS: The study is an observational study conducted in pulmonary and gastroenterology endoscopy units. Consecutive patients with EGC were referred to endoscopy units. We analyzed the outcome of airway stenting in patients with esophageal stent indication admitted in emergency or with a scheduled intervention. Forty-four patients (58+/-\\-8 years of age with esophageal stenting indication were investigated. Seven patients (group 1 were admitted in emergency due to esophageal stent complication in the airway (4 fistulas, 3 cases with malignant infiltration and compression. Airway stenting failed for 5 patients. Thirty-seven remaining patients had a scheduled stenting procedure (group 2: stent was inserted for 13 patients with tracheal or bronchial malignant infiltration, 12 patients with fistulas, and 12 patients with airway extrinsic compression (preventive indication. Stenting the airway was well tolerated. Life-threatening complications were related to group 1. Overall mean survival was 26+/-10 weeks and was significantly shorter in group 1 (6+/-7.6 weeks than in group 2 (28+/-11 weeks, p<0.001. Scheduled double stenting significantly improved symptoms (95% at day 7 with a low complication rate (13%, and achieved a specific cancer treatment (84% in most cases. CONCLUSION: Stenting the airway should always be considered in case of esophageal stent indication. A multidisciplinary approach with initial airway evaluation improved prognosis and decreased

  19. Efficacy and safety of endoscopic submucosal dissection for superficial cancer of the cervical esophagus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iizuka, Toshiro; Kikuchi, Daisuke; Hoteya, Shu; Kajiyama, Yoshiaki; Kaise, Mitsuru

    2017-08-01

    Cervical esophageal cancer (CEC) is a less common form of cancer and often locally advanced at the time of diagnosis; thus, survival rates for patients with CEC remain poor. However, no reports exist on results of endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) for superficial cancer at the cervical esophagus. The aim of this retrospective study was to elucidate the clinicopathological features and clinical outcomes of ESD for superficial CEC.  ESD was performed on 891 lesions (in 662 patients) for superficial esophageal cancer from January 2008 to December 2015. Of these, 45 lesions (45 patients) were enrolled in the case group (CEC), and 405 lesions (375 patients) were enrolled in the control group (superficial cancer in the middle thoracic esophagus). The safety of ESD, including R0 resection rate and adverse events, and the efficacy, such as the local recurrence rate and overall survival rate, were evaluated.  The R0 resection rate was 91.1 % in the case group and 96 % in the control group. The rate of esophageal stricture was significantly higher in the case group (20 %) than in the control group (6.6 %). There was no local recurrence, and the 3-year survival rate was 88.4 % in the case group and 96.7 % in the control group. ESD for superficial cancer in the cervical esophagus was achieved safely, and successful local control was also confirmed. However, the esophageal stricture after ESD was more frequent.

  20. National Comprehensive Cancer Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Nervous System Cancers Cervical Cancer Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia/Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma Chronic Myeloid Leukemia Colon Cancer Dermatofibrosarcoma Protuberans Esophageal and Esophagogastric Junction Cancers Gastric Cancer Hairy Cell Leukemia Head and Neck Cancer Hepatobiliary Cancers Hodgkin ...

  1. Incidence of brain metastasis from esophageal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welch, G; Ross, H J; Patel, N P; Jaroszewski, D E; Fleischer, D E; Rule, W G; Paripati, H R; Ramirez, F C; Ashman, J B

    2017-09-01

    We investigated whether the incidence of brain metastasis (BM) from primary esophageal and esophagogastric cancer is increasing. A single-institution retrospective review identified 583 patients treated from January 1997 to January 2016 for stages I through IV cancer of the esophagus and esophagogastric junction (follow-up, ≥3 months). Collected data included demographic information, date and staging at primary diagnosis, histologic subtype, treatment regimen for primary lesion, date of BM diagnosis, presence or absence of central nervous system symptoms, presence or absence of extracranial disease, treatment regimen for intracranial lesions, and date of death. The overall cohort included 495 patients (85%) with adenocarcinoma and 82 (14%) with squamous cell carcinoma (492 [84%] were male; median age at diagnosis, 68 years [range: 26-90 years]). BM was identified in 22 patients (3.8%) (median latency after primary diagnosis, 11 months). Among patients with BM, the primary histology was adenocarcinoma in 21 and squamous cell carcinoma in 1 (P = 0.30). BM developed in 12 who were initially treated for locally advanced disease and in 10 stage IV patients who presented with distant metastases. Overall survival (OS) after BM diagnosis was 18% at 1 year (median, 4 months). No difference in OS after BM diagnosis was observed in patients initially treated for localized disease compared to patients who presented with stage IV disease; however, OS was superior for patients who initially had surgical resection compared to patients treated with whole brain radiotherapy or stereotactic radiosurgery alone (1-year OS, 67% vs. 0%; median OS, 13.5 vs. 3 months; P = 0.003). The incidence of BM is low in patients with esophageal cancer. Outcomes were poor overall for patients with BM, but patients who underwent neurosurgical resection had improved survival. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of International Society for Diseases of the Esophagus

  2. Treatment protocols for cervical cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vujkov Tamara

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Cervical cancer is the second most common cancer in women worldwide and the second cause of cancer death among women. About 95% (90% in developed countries of invasive carcinomas are of sqamous types, and 5% (10% in developed countries are adenocarcinomas. FIGO classification of cervical carcinomas, based on clinical staging and prognostic factor dictate therapeutic procedures and help in designing treatment protocols. Therapeutic modalities Surgical therapy includes conization, radical hysterectomy with pelvic lymphadenectomy and palliative operation urinary diversion and colostomy. Radiotherapy, brachytherapy and teletherapy are most recently combined with chemotherapy as concurrent chemoradiation. Discussion and conclusion No change in therapeutic modalities will ever decrease mortality rate of cervical carcinoma as much as education, prevention and early screening. The 5-year survival for locally advanced disease has not improved during the last 40 years as a result of failure to deliver therapy to the paraaortic region. Paraaortic lymph nodes should be evaluated before therapy planning by different imaging procedures, or more exactly by surgical staging: laparoscopy or laparotomy. Radical operations of cervical carcinoma should be performed by experienced surgeons, educated for this type of operation, with sufficient number of cases.

  3. Preoperative Chemotherapy, Radiation Improve Survival in Esophageal Cancer (Updated)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patients with esophageal cancer who received chemotherapy and radiation before surgery survived, on average, nearly twice as long as patients treated with surgery alone, according to results of a randomized clinical trial published May 31, 2012, in NEJM.

  4. Endoscopic Diagnosis and Management of Iatrogenic Cervical Esophageal Perforation in Extremely Premature Infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-Jue Soong

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Blind oro-(naso-pharyngeal suction and feeding catheter intubation are very common practices in pediatric critical care. However, these simple procedures may produce unexpected complications in friable tiny patients. We encountered 3 extremely premature infants in whom cervical esophageal perforation and further submucosal excavation were caused by traumatic catheter injury and subsequently led to catastrophes. These episodes of iatrogenic trauma were all successfully diagnosed early, documented and managed with the aid of ultrathin flexible endoscopy.

  5. Cervical cancer: screening, diagnosis and staging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsikouras, Panagiotis; Zervoudis, Stefanos; Manav, Bachar; Tomara, Eirini; Iatrakis, George; Romanidis, Constantinos; Bothou, Anastasia; Galazios, George

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Despite the widespread screening programs, cervical cancer remains the third most common cancer in developing countries. Based on the implementation of cervical screening programs with the referred adoption of improved screening methods in cervical cytology with the knowledge of the important role of the human papilloma virus (HPV) it's incidence is decreased in the developed world. Even if cervical HPV infection is incredibly common, cervical cancer is relatively rare. Depending on the rarity of invasive disease and the improvement of detection of pre-cancerous lesions due to the participation in screening programs, the goal of screening is to detect the cervical lesions early in order to be treated before cancer is developed. In populations with many preventive screening programs, a decrease in cervical cancer mortality of 50-75% is mentioned over the past 50 years. The preventive examination of vagina and cervix smear, Pap test, and the HPV DNA test are remarkable diagnostic tools according to the American Cancer Association guidelines, in the investigation of asymptomatic women and in the follow up of women after the treatment of pre-invasive cervical cancer. The treatment of cervical cancer is based on the FIGO 2009 cervical cancer staging.

  6. Palliative Endoscopic Therapy for Cancer Patients with Esophageal Fistula

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Ji-chang; ZHANG Li-jian; WU Qi; ZHANG Jun; ZHOU Zong-hui; WU Yang; XU Zhao-li

    2008-01-01

    Objective:To find an effective treatment for advanced cancer patients with esophageal fistula. Methods:From 1998 to 2006, we studied 42 patients with advanced esophageal cancer and 5 lung cancer patients with carcinomatous esophageal fistula(3 females,44 males,aged 29-92 years). Ten patients with both esophageal cancer stricture and fistula were first dilated under endoscope,then a memory stent with a membrane was placed in the esophageal lumen. Others were treated only with a memory stent with a membrane,three of them with a large fistula(diameter>1.5 cm)were treated with bio-protein glue after placement of an esophageal metal stent.Results:The fistulas were covered by a stent and the patients could eat and drink immediately.Their quality of life was improved and their survival was prolonged, 44 out of 47 patients survived for>3 mo. Conclusion:Placement of esophageal stent with membrane or in combination with bio-protein glue through endoscope is an effective method for treating the bronchoesophageal fistula.

  7. Advances in Radiotherapy Management of Esophageal Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Vivek; Moreno, Amy C.; Lin, Steven H.

    2016-01-01

    Radiation therapy (RT) as part of multidisciplinary oncologic care has been marked by profound advancements over the past decades. As part of multimodality therapy for esophageal cancer (EC), a prime goal of RT is to minimize not only treatment toxicities, but also postoperative complications and hospitalizations. Herein, discussion commences with the historical approaches to treating EC, including seminal trials supporting multimodality therapy. Subsequently, the impact of RT techniques, including three-dimensional conformal RT, intensity-modulated RT, and proton beam therapy, is examined through available data. We further discuss existing data and the potential for further development in the future, with an appraisal of the future outlook of technological advancements of RT for EC. PMID:27775643

  8. XAF1 is frequently methylated in human esophageal cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiang-Yu Chen; Qiao-Yu He; Ming-Zhou Guo

    2012-01-01

    AIM:To explore epigenetic changes in the gene encoding X chromosome-linked inhibitor of apoptosis-associated factor 1 (XAF1) during esophageal carcinogenesis.METHODS:Methylation status of XAF1 was detected by methylation-specific polymerase chain reaction (MSP) in four esophageal cancer cell lines (KYSE30,KYSE70,BIC1 and partially methylated in TE3 cell lines),nine cases of normal mucosa,72 cases of primary esophageal cancer and matched adjacent tissue.XAF1 expression was examined by semi-quantitative reverse transcriptional polymerase chain reaction and Western blotting before and after treatment with 5-aza-deoxycytidine (5-aza-dc),a demethylating agent.To investigate the correlation of XAF1 expression and methylation status in primary esophageal cancer,immunohistochemistry for XAF1 expression was performed in 32 cases of esophageal cancer and matched adjacent tissue.The association of methylation status and clinicopathological data was analyzed by logistic regression.RESULTS:MSP results were as follows:loss of XAF1 expression was found in three of four esophageal cell lines with promoter region hypermethylation (com pletely methylated in KYSE30,KYSE70 and BIC1 cell lines and partially in TE3 cells); all nine cases of normal esophageal mucosa were unmethylated; and 54/72 (75.00%) samples from patients with esophageal cancer were methylated,and 25/72 (34.70%) matched adjacent tissues were methylated (75.00% vs 34.70%,x2 =23.5840,P =0.000).mRNA level of XAF1 measured with semi-quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction was detectable only in TE3 cells,and no expression was detected in KYSE30,KYSE70 or BIC1 cells.Protein expression was not observed in KYSE30 cells by Western blotting before treatment with 5-aza-dc.After treatment,mRNA level of XAF1 was detectable in KYSE30,KYSE70 and BIC1 cells.Protein expression was detected in KYSE30 after treatment with 5-aza-dc.Immunohistochemistry was performed on 32 cases of esophageal cancer and

  9. Percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy for nutritional palliation of upper esophageal cancer unsuitable for esophageal stenting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Grilo

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available CONTEXT: Esophageal cancer is often diagnosed at an advanced stage and has a poor prognosis. Most patients with advanced esophageal cancer have significant dysphagia that contributes to weight loss and malnutrition. Esophageal stenting is a widespread palliation approach, but unsuitable for cancers near the upper esophageal sphincter, were stents are poorly tolerated. Generally, guidelines do not support endoscopic gastrostomy in this clinical setting, but it may be the best option for nutritional support. OBJECTIVE: Retrospective evaluation of patients with dysphagia caused advanced esophageal cancer, no expectation of resuming oral intake and with percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy for comfort palliative nutrition. METHOD: We selected adult patients with unresecable esophageal cancer histological confirmed, in whom stenting was impossible due to proximal location, and chemotherapy or radiotherapy were palliative, using gastrostomy for enteral nutrition. Clinical and nutritional data were evaluated, including success of gastrostomy, procedure complications and survival after percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy, and evolution of body mass index, albumin, transferrin and cholesterol. RESULTS: Seventeen males with stage III or IV squamous cell carcinoma fulfilled the inclusion criteria. Mean age was 60.9 years. Most of the patients had toxic habits. All underwent palliative chemotherapy or radiotherapy. Gastrostomy was successfully performed in all, but nine required prior dilatation. Most had the gastrostomy within 2 months after diagnosis. There was a buried bumper syndrome treated with tube replacement and four minor complications. There were no cases of implantation metastases or procedure related mortality. Two patients were lost and 12 died. Mean survival of deceased patients was 5.9 months. Three patients are alive 6, 14 and 17 months after the gastrostomy procedure, still increasing the mean survival. Mean body mass index and laboratory

  10. Outcome of Locally Advanced Esophageal Cancer Treated with Concurrent Chemo-radiotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jang, Hyun Soo; Kang, Seung Hee; Jo, Sun Mi; Oh, Young Taek; Chun, Mi Son; Choi, Jin Hyuk; Kang, Seok Yun [Ajou University School of Medicine, Suwon (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Sun Young [Gonyang University School of Medicine, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-06-15

    We investigated the outcome and the prognostic factors of patients with locally advanced esophageal cancer who were treated with concurrent chemo-radiotherapy. Two hundred forty six patients with esophageal cancer that were treated by radiotherapy between January 1994 and July 2007. Of these, 78 patients who received radiotherapy of {>=}45 Gy with concurrent chemotherapy were retrospectively enrolled in this study. We included patients stages IIA, IIB, III, IVA, and IVB with supraclavicular metastasis in the middle/lower esophageal cancer or celiac node metastasis in cervical or upper/middle thoracic esophageal cancer. The median radiation dose was 54 Gy and the combination chemotherapy with 5-FU and cisplatin (FP chemotherapy) was given concurrently with radiotherapy in most patients (88%). The follow-up period ranged from 2 to 117 months (median 14 months). The treatment response of the 54 patients could be evaluated by computerized tomography or endoscopy. A complete response (CR) was observed in 17 patients, whereas a partial response was observed in 18 patients. In patients with a CR, the median recurrence time was 20 months and the first relapse sites constituted a locoregional failure in 3 patients and a distant failure in 7 patients. The 1-, 2-, and 5-year overall survival (OS) rates were 58.9%, 21.7%, and 12.2%, respectively. The median survival period was 14 months. A univariate analysis indicated that the treatment response and cycles of FP chemotherapy were significant prognostic factors for OS. Daily or weekly administration of cisplatin as a radiosensitizer showed a better treatment response than FP chemotherapy. This study has shown that results of concurrent chemo-radiotherapy in patients with locally advanced esophageal cancer is comparable to those of other studies. Daily or weekly cisplatin administration may be considered as an alternative treatment in patients that are medically unfit for FP chemotherapy.

  11. [Lugol's solution in endoscopic diagnosis of early esophageal cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, G; Zhou, M; Cong, Q

    1995-07-01

    About 1500 high-risk subjects of esophageal cancer were found during screening by balloon cytology and all of them were examined endoscopically. Among them, 120 were considered as having early esophageal cancer and precancerous lesions. During the examination, Lugol's solution staining was used and guiding biopsy was taken. 98 subjects with unstained lesions were found, and biopsy showed early esophageal cancer in 60 (61.2%) and moderate and severe dysplasia in 38 (38.8%). It is usually extremely difficult to detect and localize the very early esophageal mucosal and submucosal carcinoma. But endoscopic examination and using Lugol's solution staining with multiple spots biopsy from unstained area are of great assistance. Minute malignant lesions may not be overlooked.

  12. Glycoprotein and Glycan in Tissue and Blood Samples of Patients With Stage IB-IVA Cervical Cancer Undergoing Surgery to Remove Pelvic and Abdominal Lymph Nodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-08-23

    Cervical Adenocarcinoma; Cervical Adenosquamous Carcinoma; Cervical Small Cell Carcinoma; Cervical Squamous Cell Carcinoma, Not Otherwise Specified; Stage IB Cervical Cancer; Stage IIA Cervical Cancer; Stage IIB Cervical Cancer; Stage III Cervical Cancer; Stage IVA Cervical Cancer

  13. Preventive vaccines for cervical cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WHEELER COSETTE M

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available The potential use of vaccines for the human papillomavirus (HPV in the prevention and treatment of cervical cancer is a possibility in the near future. Close to 20 genotypes of HPV, of the 75 that have been identified, infect the femine genital tract, but four subtypes (16, 18, 31 and 45 have been associated in close to 80% of cervical cancers. this article proposes that in order to design an effective prophylactic vaccine against HPV infection, an adequate immune response should be guaranteed through four goals; a activation of antigens present in the cell; b overcoming the host response and viral genetic variability in the T cell response; c generation of high levels of T and B memory cells; and d persistence of antigens.

  14. Cisplatin and Radiation Therapy With or Without Triapine in Treating Patients With Previously Untreated Stage IB-IVA Cervical Cancer or Stage II-IVA Vaginal Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-25

    Cervical Adenocarcinoma; Cervical Adenosquamous Carcinoma; Cervical Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IB2 Cervical Cancer; Stage II Vaginal Cancer; Stage IIA1 Cervical Cancer; Stage IIA2 Cervical Cancer; Stage IIB Cervical Cancer; Stage III Vaginal Cancer; Stage IIIA Cervical Cancer; Stage IIIB Cervical Cancer; Stage IVA Cervical Cancer; Stage IVA Vaginal Cancer; Vaginal Adenocarcinoma; Vaginal Adenosquamous Carcinoma; Vaginal Squamous Cell Carcinoma

  15. Nanotechnology in the management of cervical cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jiezhong; Gu, Wenyi; Yang, Lei; Chen, Chen; Shao, Renfu; Xu, Kewei; Xu, Zhi Ping

    2015-03-01

    Cervical cancer is a major disease with high mortality. All cervical cancers are caused by infection with human papillomaviruses (HPV). Although preventive vaccines for cervical cancer are successful, treatment of cervical cancer is far less satisfactory because of multidrug resistance and side effects. In this review, we summarize the recent application of nanotechnology to the diagnosis and treatment of cervical cancer as well as the development of HPV vaccines. Early detection of cervical cancer enables tumours to be efficiently removed by surgical procedures, leading to increased survival rate. The current method of detecting cervical cancer by Pap smear can only achieve 50% sensitivity, whereas nanotechnology has been used to detect HPVs with greatly improved sensitivity. In cervical cancer treatment, nanotechnology has been used for the delivery of anticancer drugs to increase treatment efficacy and decrease side effects. Nanodelivery of HPV preventive and therapeutic vaccines has also been investigated to increase vaccine efficacy. Overall, these developments suggest that nanoparticle-based vaccine may become the most effective way to prevent and treat cervical cancer, assisted or combined with some other nanotechnology-based therapy. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  16. [Therapy of recurrent cervical cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekiba, K; Hayase, R

    1990-09-01

    1,122 uterine cancer patients above FIGO stage I a were treated at our hospital in the decade from 1980 to 1989. Total 69 patients diagnosed as recurrent cervical cancer had 82 lesions in 11 sites. The most frequent recurrent sites were uterus, vaginal stump and vaginal wall; the second sites were parametrium and pelvic wall. Radiotherapy and hyperthermia were done to patients with these lesions. Chemotherapy and radiotherapy were used to patients with distant metastatic lesions to left supraclavicular lymph nodes and lung. But there has been no good results.

  17. Effect of S1P5 on proliferation and migration of human esophageal cancer cells

    OpenAIRE

    Hu, Wei-Min; Li, Li; Jing, Bao-Qian; Zhao, Yong-Sheng; Wang, Chao-Li; Feng, Li; Xie, Yong-En

    2010-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P) receptor expression profile in human esophageal cancer cells and the effects of S1P5 on proliferation and migration of human esophageal cancer cells.

  18. Experimental reconstruction of cervical esophageal defect with artificial esophagus made of polyurethane in a dog model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, H; Cui, Y; Ma, K; Gong, M; Chang, D; Wang, T

    2016-01-01

    The defect of esophagus after surgical excision in patients is usually replaced by autologous stomach, jejunum, or colon. The operation brings severe trauma and complications. Using artificial esophagus to replace the defect in situ can reduce the operative trauma, simplify the operative procedures, and decrease the influence to digestive function. A variety of experiments have been designed for developing a practical artificial esophagus. Nevertheless, a safe and reliable artificial esophagus is not yet available. The objective is to evaluate the possibility of the artificial esophagus made of non-degradable polyurethane materials being used in reconstruction of the segmental defect of cervical esophagus in beagles, observe the regeneration of esophageal tissue, and gather experience for future study. The cervical esophageal defects in 13 beagles were designed to 2-cm long and were constructed by the artificial esophagus made of non-degradable polyurethane materials. Nutrition supports were given after the operation. The operative mortality, anastomotic leakage, migration of artificial esophagus, and dysphagia were followed up. The regeneration of the esophageal tissues was evaluated by histopathology and immunohistochemical labeled streptavidin-biotin method. The surgical procedures were successfully completed in all beagles, and 12-month follow-ups were done. Only one beagle died of severe infection, and all others survived until being killed. The anastomotic leakage occurred in nine beagles, most of them (8/9) were cured after supportive therapy. The migration of artificial esophagus occurred in all 12 surviving beagles, and one artificial esophagus stayed in situ after migration. All 12 surviving beagles showed dysphagia with taking only fluid or soft food. No beagle died of malnutrition. The neo-esophagus was composed of granulation tissue, and the inner surface was covered by epithelium in 2-3 months completely. But the inner surface of neo-esophagus with

  19. Pneumocephalus leading to the diagnosis of cerebrospinal fluid leak and esophageal perforation after cervical spine surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodwin, C Rory; Boone, Christine E; Pendleton, James; Elder, Benjamin D; Wei, Zhikui; Hsu, Wesley; Sciubba, Daniel M; Witham, Timothy F

    2016-04-01

    Pneumocephalus is a collection of air within in the intracranial cavity, most commonly seen following traumatic injury or cranial surgeries. Esophageal injury and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) leak are rare complications that may occur following anterior cervical discectomy and fusion (ACDF). We present a novel case of pneumocephalus arising from unrestricted leakage of CSF via coincident esophageal injury and durotomy in a patient who underwent an ACDF after trauma. A 21-year-old man presented to an outside hospital with C5/C6 subluxation, complete spinal cord injury, and quadriplegia from a motor vehicle accident. He underwent an ACDF, during which a CSF leak was observed. He was then transferred to our institution for rehabilitation and tracheostomy placement 1 week after the ACDF surgery. Following the tracheostomy, the patient developed intractable fevers and nonspecific symptoms. A CT scan demonstrated frontal pneumocephalus without mass effect. Air was found in the retropharyngeal space. There were no accumulations of CSF in the neck. Extravasation of contrast around instrumentation at C5/C6 on a cine esophagogram demonstrated an esophageal perforation at that level. Pneumocephalus may form when large volumes of CSF escape from the intracranial space and air is drawn into the space by the negative pressure. In this unusual case, the esophageal perforation promoted the formation of the pneumocephalus. Treatment included closure of both defects, disrupting the suspected communication between the intracranial space and the esophagus. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  20. 食管癌的微创术%Minimal Invasive Surgery for Esophageal Cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    A.H.H(o)lscher; Ch.Gutschow

    2004-01-01

    Thoracoscopic esophagectomy is only established in some centers and affords a cervical anastomosis because intrathoracic anastomosis as a routine is technically too difficult. Laparoscopic mobilisation of the stomach (gastrolysis) is an important contribution for minimal invasive surgery of esophageal cancer.This procedure reduces the stress of the two cavity operation for the patient and allows the construction of a comparable gastric conduit like by open surgery. The technique of laparoscopic gastrolysis as preparation for transthoracic en bloc esophagectomy is described in detail and preliminary results are briefly mentioned.

  1. Esophageal Cancer in Canada: Trends according to Morphology and Anatomical Location

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael C Otterstatter

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Esophageal adenocarcinoma has one of the fastest rising incidence rates and one of the lowest survival rates of any cancer type in the Western world. However, in many countries, trends in esophageal cancer differ according to tumour morphology and anatomical location. In Canada, incidence and survival trends for esophageal cancer subtypes are poorly known.

  2. 6 Common Cancers - Gynecologic Cancers Cervical, Endometrial, and Ovarian

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Therapy: There was a major advance in the treatment of cervical cancer when five NCI-sponsored clinical trials showed that ... to adding chemotherapy to radiation therapy in the treatment of invasive cervical cancer. (Cervical) HPV vaccine: Another major advance in the ...

  3. DDEC: Dragon database of genes implicated in esophageal cancer

    KAUST Repository

    Essack, Magbubah

    2009-07-06

    Background: Esophageal cancer ranks eighth in order of cancer occurrence. Its lethality primarily stems from inability to detect the disease during the early organ-confined stage and the lack of effective therapies for advanced-stage disease. Moreover, the understanding of molecular processes involved in esophageal cancer is not complete, hampering the development of efficient diagnostics and therapy. Efforts made by the scientific community to improve the survival rate of esophageal cancer have resulted in a wealth of scattered information that is difficult to find and not easily amendable to data-mining. To reduce this gap and to complement available cancer related bioinformatic resources, we have developed a comprehensive database (Dragon Database of Genes Implicated in Esophageal Cancer) with esophageal cancer related information, as an integrated knowledge database aimed at representing a gateway to esophageal cancer related data. Description: Manually curated 529 genes differentially expressed in EC are contained in the database. We extracted and analyzed the promoter regions of these genes and complemented gene-related information with transcription factors that potentially control them. We further, precompiled text-mined and data-mined reports about each of these genes to allow for easy exploration of information about associations of EC-implicated genes with other human genes and proteins, metabolites and enzymes, toxins, chemicals with pharmacological effects, disease concepts and human anatomy. The resulting database, DDEC, has a useful feature to display potential associations that are rarely reported and thus difficult to identify. Moreover, DDEC enables inspection of potentially new \\'association hypotheses\\' generated based on the precompiled reports. Conclusion: We hope that this resource will serve as a useful complement to the existing public resources and as a good starting point for researchers and physicians interested in EC genetics. DDEC is

  4. Cervical cancer control, priorities and new directions.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Monsonego, J; Bosch, F.X.; Coursaget, P.; Cox, JT; Franco, E; Frazer, I; Sankaranarayanan, R; Schiller, J; Singer, A; Wright, TCJr; Kinney, W; Meijer, C.J.L.M.; Linder, J

    2004-01-01

    99% of cervical cancer is initiated by HPV infection. The estimated lifetime risk of cervical cancer is nevertheless relatively low (less than 1 in 20 for most community based studies). Although sensitivity and specificity of the available diagnostic techniques are suboptimal, screening for persiste

  5. A second primary esophageal cancer developing 7 years after chemoradiotherapy for advanced esophageal cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suto, Ryuichiro; Enjoji, Akihito; Okudaira, Sadayuki; Furui, Junichiro; Kanematsu, Takashi [Nagasaki Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine; Matsuo, Takeshi

    2001-07-01

    We report a rare case of advanced carcinoma and a second primary carcinoma of the esophagus, both of which were successfully cured by chemotherapy and operation at different times. In 1991, a 38-year-old Japanese man was diagnosed with advanced esophageal cancer, which was unresectable because of the bronchial invasion of the tumor. He was given chemotherapy with cisplatin (CDDP), combined with radiotherapy. During a 4-year follow-up, neither regrowth of the primary tumor nor distant metastasis occurred. In 1995, esophagoscopy demonstrated a lugol-unstained region located 3 cm distal from the area of radiation to the primary lesion shown by esophagography. Histological examination of a biopsy specimen showed the mucosa to be normal. Nevertheless, yearly surveillance by endoscopy and histological examinations showed that the mucosa of the esophagus gradually began to demonstrate mild dysplasia, followed by severe dysplasia; in 1998, a diagnosis of squamous cell carcinoma was made. Esophagectomy with lymph node dissection was performed. Microscopic examination revealed that there had been pathologic complete response for the original advanced esophageal cancer. (author)

  6. Coccidioides immitis Cervical Lymphadenitis Complicated by Esophageal Fistula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Loudin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Coccidioidomycosis (valley fever is caused by the dimorphic fungi Coccidioides immitis or Coccidioides posadasii. Most infections are asymptomatic or result in self-limited pneumonia; extrapulmonary dissemination via either hematogenous or lymphatic spread is rare. Here, we present a case of cervical C. immitis lymphadenitis that resulted in fistula formation to the esophagus via mediastinal extension. This case highlights a very unusual extrapulmonary manifestation of coccidioidomycosis, the difficulty in diagnosing coccidioidal infection when it is not suspected, and the importance of obtaining a thorough exposure history to assist with diagnosis.

  7. Molecular epidemiology of and genetic susceptibility to esophageal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bajpai, Manisha; Das, Kiron M; Lefferts, Joel; Lisovsky, Mikhail; Mashimo, Hiroshi; Phillips, Wayne A; Srivastava, Amitabh; To, Henry

    2014-09-01

    The following, from the 12th OESO World Conference: Cancers of the Esophagus, includes commentaries on clonal evolution in Barrett's carcinogenesis; biomarkers for early detection of esophageal cancer; the role of the methylguanine methyl transferase biomarker in the management of adenocarcinoma; and the discovery of high-risk genes in families.

  8. Cervical cancer screening and treatment in Uganda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolyn Nakisige

    2017-05-01

    Training of health professionals, ongoing construction of new radiotherapy bunkers, and opening of regional centers are all geared towards improving cervical cancer care in Uganda. The Uganda Cancer Institute Bill establishes the Institute as a semi-autonomous agency mandated to undertake and coordinate the prevention and treatment of cancer. Its implementation will be a milestone in cervical cancer prevention and control. However, execution will require political will and an increase in domestic and international investment.

  9. Cervical cancer incidence in elderly women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lynge, Elsebeth; Lönnberg, Stefan; Törnberg, Sven

    2017-01-01

    Aim: In many countries, the age-specific pattern of cervical cancer incidence is currently bipolar with peaks at for instance 45 and 65 years of age. Consequently, a large proportion of cervical cancer cases are presently diagnosed in women above the screening age. The purpose of the study...... was to determine whether this bipolar pattern in age-specific incidence of cervical cancer reflects underlying biology or can be explained by the fact that the data come from birth cohorts with different screening histories. Methods: Combination of historical data on cervical screening and population-based cancer...... incidence data from Denmark 1943–2013, Finland and Norway 1953–2013, and Sweden 1958–2013. Results: Since the implementation of screening, the incidence of cervical cancer has decreased for each successive birth cohort. All birth cohorts showed a unipolar age-specific pattern. In unscreened women in Denmark...

  10. Oral contraceptives, human papillomavirus and cervical cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Vecchia, Carlo; Boccia, Stefania

    2014-03-01

    Oncogenic human papillomavirus is the key determinant of cervical cancer, but other risk factors interact with it to define individual risk. Among these, there is oral contraceptive (OC) use. A quantitative review of the link between OCs and cervical cancer was performed. Long-term (>5 year) current or recent OC use has been related to an about two-fold excess risk of cervical cancer. Such an excess risk, however, levels off after stopping use, and approaches unity 10 or more years after stopping. The public health implications of OC use for cervical cancer are limited. In any case, such implications are greater in middle-income and low-income countries, as well as in central and eastern Europe and Latin America, where cervical cancer screening and control remain inadequate.

  11. Feasibility of Imaging Esophageal Cancer with Labeled Somatostatin Analogue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gunnar Herlin

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. While the surface of a cell normally has some amount of somatostatin receptors, these receptors are overexpressed to a very high degree in multiple neoplastic diseases. No data exist for esophageal carcinoma. Purpose. To find out whether esophageal carcinoma could be imaged using somatostatin receptor scintigraphy. Material and Methods. 34 patients with esophageal lesions were prospectively examined by 99mTc-depreotide scintigraphy 2 and 4 hours after injection. Quantitative evaluation of 99mTc-depreotide uptake was performed around the lesion (T and in healthy lung parenchyma (B. The relative uptake was calculated as T−B/B. Scintigraphy results were compared with histopathology from surgery or biopsy specimens from endoscopic ultrasonography. Results. 21 patients had esophageal cancer, and 13 lesions were benign. Visual assessment revealed positive 99mTc-depreotide uptake in 16 of the 21 cancers. The 13 patients without cancer had no depreotide uptake. The Mann-Whitney U test showed a statistically significant difference (<.005 between 99mTc-depreotide uptake in malignant and benign lesions, for both the 2-hour and the 4-hour measurements. Conclusion. Scintigraphic examination with 99mTc-depreotide is feasible for imaging esophageal cancer, but the method is not suitable neither for screening or primary diagnosis, because of methods modest sensitivity. Our first results showed high specificity which should be used with caution, as the number of patients was relatively low. Further studies are needed to determine the role of the method.

  12. Economic burden of cervical cancer in Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharifa E.W. Puteh

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Cervical cancers form the second highest number of female cancers in Malaysia, imposing a substantial amount of cost burden on its management. However, an estimation of cost burden of abnormal smears, cervical pre-invasive and invasive diseases needs to be done to show how much spending has been allocated to the problem. An expert panel committee came up with the clinical pathway and management algorithm of  cervical pre invasive and invasive diseases from July-December 2006 Malaysia. An activity based costing for each clinical pathway was done. Results were converted to USD. The cost of managing pre-invasive cervical cancers stage is USD 420,150 (Range: USD 197,158-879,679. Management of invasive cancer (new cases costs USD 51,533,233.44 (Range: USD 32,405,399.69 - USD 129,014,768.40. The cost of managing existing cases is USD 17,005,966.87 (Range: USD 10,693,781.90 - USD  28,901,587.12. The total cost of managing cervical cancers by health care providers in a public setting is around USD 75,888,329.45 (Range: USD 48,083,804.60 - USD 48,083,804.60. The outcome of this study has shown that preventive modalities such as screening have only contributed to 10.3 % of the total management cost of cervical cancer. The major cost contribution (67% came from treatment of invasive cancer especially at more advanced stages of cancer, followed by treatment of existing cases (22% and lastly on pre-invasive disease (0.6%. This study revealed that proportion of preventive modality in this country was still low, and the major cost came from actual treatment cost of cervical cancer. Therefore, heightened public cervical cancer screening in the country is needed. (Med J Indones 2008; 17: 272-80Keywords: cervical cancers, pre invasive disease, HPV vaccination

  13. Cervical cancer screening in the Faroe Islands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hammer, Turið; Lynge, Elsebeth; Djurhuus, Gisela W;

    2014-01-01

    Background. The Faroe Islands have had nationally organised cervical cancer screening since 1995. Women aged 25-60 years are invited every third year. Participation is free of charge. Although several European overviews on cervical screening are available, none have included the Faroe Islands. Our...... aim was to provide the first description of cervical cancer screening, and to determine the screening history of women diagnosed with cervical cancer in the Faroe Islands. Material and methods. Screening data from 1996 to 2012 were obtained from the Diagnostic Centre at the National Hospital...... 1999. At present, 7.0% of samples have abnormal cytology. Of all ASCUS samples, 76-95% were tested for HPV. A total of 58% of women diagnosed with cervical cancer did not participate in screening prior to their diagnosis, and 32% had normal cytology in the previous four years. Conclusion. Despite...

  14. Immunosuppression and risk of cervical cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dugué, Pierre-Antoine; Rebolj, Matejka; Garred, Peter

    2013-01-01

    increase the risk of cervical cancer, while poor diet only moderately increased the risk. It is difficult to determine whether sexually transmitted infections other than human papillomavirus infection are independent risk factors. Identifying those groups of women likely to fail in clearing persistent......A markedly increased risk of cervical cancer is known in women immunosuppressed due to AIDS or therapy following organ transplantation. The aim of this review is to determine the association between other conditions affecting the immune system and the risk of cervical cancer. Patients with end......-stage renal disease seem to be at an increased risk of cervical cancer. A higher risk of cervical precancerous lesions was found in patients with some autoimmune diseases; particularly if treated with immunosuppressants. Among behavioral factors weakening the immune system, smoking appeared to strongly...

  15. [Cervical abscess by Streptococcus anginosus-milleri after foreign body ingestion and suspicion of esophageal perforation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pino Rivero, V; Trinidad Ramos, G; González Palomino, A; Pantoja Hernández, C G; Mogollón Cano-Cortés, T; Carrasco Claver, F; Guerra Camacho, M; Blasco Huelva, A

    2006-01-01

    We report a case of cervical abscess after the ingestion of foreign body (chicken bone) secondary to probable esophageal perforation that it was sent to us with suspicion of mediastinal complication. The girl, 17 years-old, nothing else to arrive our hospitalary center required entrance in ICU due to her severe clinical process: High fever, intense neck-thoracic pain, laterocervical diffuse and progressive left inflammation and bad general state. The CT showed the presence of a well defined abscess and abundant aerial component that dissected the cervical muscles that made necessary to perform drainage verifying intraoperatively no mediastinal involvement. The culture of the purulent collection revealed Streptococcus anginosus/milleri resistant to clindamicine but sensible to penicilina and derivatives. We exposed a serie of considerations at respect of such microorganism and its clinical signification.

  16. Treatment of esophageal cancer with vindesine: an open trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bezwoda, W R; Derman, D P; Weaving, A; Nissenbaum, M

    1984-05-01

    Fifty-two patients with advanced esophageal cancer have been entered in an open study with vindesine. The regimen consisted of vindesine at a dose of 3 mg/m2 as a continuous infusion over 48 hours followed by 3 mg/m2 iv weekly for 4 weeks and then by monthly maintenance therapy using the same dose. Objective response was seen in 14 (27%) patients. Patients who responded to treatment had significant prolongation of survival. Major pretreatment prognostic factors included performance status and serum albumin concentration. It is concluded that vindesine has definite, although limited, activity against esophageal cancer.

  17. Network Topologies Decoding Cervical Cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarika Jalan

    Full Text Available According to the GLOBOCAN statistics, cervical cancer is one of the leading causes of death among women worldwide. It is found to be gradually increasing in the younger population, specifically in the developing countries. We analyzed the protein-protein interaction networks of the uterine cervix cells for the normal and disease states. It was found that the disease network was less random than the normal one, providing an insight into the change in complexity of the underlying network in disease state. The study also portrayed that, the disease state has faster signal processing as the diameter of the underlying network was very close to its corresponding random control. This may be a reason for the normal cells to change into malignant state. Further, the analysis revealed VEGFA and IL-6 proteins as the distinctly high degree nodes in the disease network, which are known to manifest a major contribution in promoting cervical cancer. Our analysis, being time proficient and cost effective, provides a direction for developing novel drugs, therapeutic targets and biomarkers by identifying specific interaction patterns, that have structural importance.

  18. [Endoscopic and histopathological studies of experimental esophageal cancer in beagles].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeshita, K; Sunagawa, M; Nakajima, A; Ochi, K; Habu, H; Hoshi, K

    1985-02-01

    In order to obtain a reliable experimental model simulating human esophageal cancer, endoscopic and histopathological studies were undertaken in the esophageal cancer produced in the beagle dog. Thirty-seven dogs had been given a solution of N-Ethyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine (ENNG) at a concentration of 150 micrograms/ml for 3-9 months. Follow-up studies included serial endoscopy and biopsy, and almost all animals were eventually sacrificed for histological examination. The results were as follows: Squamous cell carcinoma was observed in 5 out of 22 female dogs, while none in male dogs at all. For the induction of squamous cell carcinoma in the esophagus, administration in the condition of 150 micrograms/ml (75mg/day) for 6-9 months was most suitable. Almost all of esophageal lesions were protruding and well-differentiated squamous cell carcinoma with invasion of the submucosa. The stages of hyperplasia, dysplasia and squamous cell carcinoma in the esophagus were chronologically followed. Carcinoma had been observed in the stomach about 4 months prior to the appearance of esophageal carcinoma. This experimental model was proved to be useful for studies on histogenesis of human esophageal cancer both light and electron microscopically.

  19. Impact of Body Mass Index on Complications and Survival after Surgery for Esophageal and Gastro-Esophageal-Junction Cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kruhlikava, Iryna; Kirkegård, Jakob; Mortensen, Frank Viborg

    2017-01-01

    and gastro-esophageal-junction cancer in a Danish population. Material and Methods: We identified 285 consecutive patients, who underwent curative-intended treatment for esophageal and gastro-esophageal-junction cancer in the period 2003–2010. We manually reviewed the electronic medical records of all......: 18.5–24.9 kg/m2), overweight (body mass index: 25–29.9 kg/m2), and obese (body mass index ⩽ 30 kg/m2). Results: Median age at surgery was 65 years (range: 27–84 years), of which 207 (72.6%) were males. Patients with the lowest body mass index and the obese patients seemed to have a higher frequency...... with esophageal and gastro-esophageal-junction cancers not receiving neoadjuvant oncological treatment....

  20. “Layer-to-Layer” Esophagogastric Anastomosis Combined with Intrathoracic Esophageal Mucosal Extention in Patients with Esophageal and Cardia Cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHIZhongqi; CAIPing; YANYu; CHENYinchun; LIUJunhua; YOUQinshen; CAIJixiang; XIZhongxia

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the clinical value of intrathoracic esophagogastric “layer-to-layer” anastomosis with esophageal mucosa extended varied in plane and to study the effective methods to prevent anastomotic leaking or stricture postoperatively. Methods: From May 1985 to December 2002, 2 240 esophageal and stomach cardia cancer patients treated by intrathoracic esophagogastric “layer-to-layer”anastomosis with esophageal mucosa extended varied in plane were retrospectively analyzed. Results:There was no anastomotic leaking and severe stricture in all above cases. Conclusion: Intrathoracic esophagogastric “layer-to-layer” anastomosis with esophageal mucosal extended varied in plane is an effective method to prevent anastomotic leaking and stricture postoperatively.

  1. Anatomic distribution of supraclavicular lymph node in patients with esophageal cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xing J

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Jun Xing,1 Yijun Luo,1,2 Xiaoli Wang,1,2 Min Gao,1 Mingping Sun,1 Xiuping Ding,1 Tingyong Fan,1 Jinming Yu1 1Department of Radiation Oncology and Radiology, Shandong Cancer Hospital Affiliated to Shandong University, 2School of Medical and Life Sciences, Shandong Academy of Medical Sciences, University of Jinan, Jinan, People’s Republic of China Purpose: Definitive chemoradiation therapy remains the standard of care for patients with localized esophageal carcinoma who choose nonsurgical management. However, there is no consensus regarding delineation of the nodal clinical target volume (CTVn, especially for lower cervical lymph nodes. This study aimed to map the location of metastatic supraclavicular lymph nodes in thoracic esophageal carcinoma patients with supraclavicular node involvement and generate an atlas to delineate the CTVn for elective nodal radiation of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma. Patients and methods: In this study, the supraclavicular regional lymph node was further divided into four subgroups. The locations of the involved supraclavicular nodes for all patients were then transferred onto a template computed tomography (CT image. A volume probability map was then generated with nodal volumes, and was displayed on the template CT to provide a visual impression of nodal frequencies and anatomic distribution. Results: We identified 154 supraclavicular nodal metastases based on CT image in 96 patients. Of these, 29.2% were located in group I region, 59.7% in group II region, 10.4% in group III region, and 0.7% in group IV region. Conclusion: On the basis of our study, we suggest that the appropriate radiation field of CTVn should include the group I and II regions and the CTVn exterior margin along the lateral side of the internal jugular vein may be suitable. Keywords: esophageal carcinoma, lymph node metastasis, clinical target volume, cervical lymph node

  2. Cervical Cancer Screening with HPV Test

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2009-10-15

    Dr. Stewart Massad, a professor in the Division of Gynecologic Oncology at Washington University in Saint Louis and a board member of the American Society for Colposcopy and Cervical Cancer Prevention (ASCCP), talks about cotesting with human papillomavirus (HPV) as part of a cervical cancer screening program.  Created: 10/15/2009 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP), Division of Cancer Prevention and Control (DCPC).   Date Released: 6/9/2010.

  3. New York esophageal squamous cell carcinoma-1 and cancer immunotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esfandiary, Ali; Ghafouri-Fard, Soudeh

    2015-01-01

    New York esophageal squamous cell carcinoma 1 (NY-ESO-1) is a known cancer testis gene with exceptional immunogenicity and prevalent expression in many cancer types. These characteristics have made it an appropriate vaccine candidate with the potential application against various malignancies. This article reviews recent knowledge about the NY-ESO-1 biology, function, immunogenicity and expression in cancers as well as and the results of clinical trials with this antigen.

  4. Socioeconomic position and survival after cervical cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ibfelt, E H; Kjær, S K; Høgdall, C

    2013-01-01

    In an attempt to decrease social disparities in cancer survival, it is important to consider the mechanisms by which socioeconomic position influences cancer prognosis. We aimed to investigate whether any associations between socioeconomic factors and survival after cervical cancer could...... be explained by socioeconomic differences in cancer stage, comorbidity, lifestyle factors or treatment....

  5. Green tea and prevention of esophageal and lung cancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Jian-Min

    2011-06-01

    Green tea contains high concentrations of tea polyphenols that have shown inhibitory effects against the development, progress, and growth of carcinogen-induced tumors in animal models at different organ sites, including the esophagus and lung. Green tea polyphenols also have shown to suppress cell proliferation and induce apoptosis. Besides antioxidative property, green tea polyphenols have pro-oxidative activities under certain conditions and modulate phase II metabolic enzymes that can enhance the detoxification pathway of environmental toxicants and carcinogens. Although epidemiological studies have provided inconclusive results on the effect of green tea consumption against the development of esophageal and lung cancers in humans overall, the inverse association between green tea intake and risk of esophageal cancer risk is more consistently observed in studies with adequate control for potential confounders. Epidemiological studies also have demonstrated an inverse, albeit moderate, association between green tea consumption and lung cancer, especially in non-smokers. This article reviews data on the cancer-preventive activities of green tea extract and green tea polyphenols and possible mechanisms against the esophageal and lung carcinogenesis in experimental animals, and summarizes the current knowledge from epidemiological studies on the relationship between green tea consumption and esophageal and lung cancer risk in humans.

  6. Vegetables and fruits consumption and risk of esophageal and gastric cancer subtypes in the Netherlands Cohort Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steevens, J.; Schouten, L.J.; Goldbohm, R.A.; Brandt, P.A. van den

    2011-01-01

    Prospective epidemiologic data on vegetables and fruits consumption and risk of subtypes of esophageal and gastric cancer are sparse. We studied the association between vegetables and fruits consumption and risk of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC), esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC), gastric

  7. Vital Signs-Cervical Cancer is Preventable!

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2014-11-05

    This podcast is based on the November 2014 CDC Vital Signs report. Every visit to a doctor or nurse is an opportunity to prevent cervical cancer. Women can get a Pap test and HPV test to help prevent cervical cancer and adolescent boys and girls can get the HPV vaccination series to help prevent cervical and other cancers.  Created: 11/5/2014 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 11/5/2014.

  8. Cervical Cancer is Preventable! PSA (:60)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2014-11-05

    This 60 second Public Service Announcement is based on the November 2014 CDC Vital Signs report. Every visit to a doctor or nurse is an opportunity to prevent cervical cancer. Women can get a Pap test and HPV test to help prevent cervical cancer and adolescent boys and girls can get the HPV vaccination series to help prevent cervical and other cancers.  Created: 11/5/2014 by National Center for Injury Prevention and Control (NCIPC).   Date Released: 11/5/2014.

  9. Decreased cervical cancer cell adhesion on nanotubular titanium for the treatment of cervical cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Crear J; Kummer KM; Webster TJ

    2013-01-01

    Jara Crear, Kim M Kummer, Thomas J Webster School of Engineering, Brown University, Providence, RI, USA Abstract: Cervical cancer can be treated by surgical resection, chemotherapy, and/or radiation. Titanium biomaterials have been suggested as a tool to help in the local delivery of chemotherapeutic agents and/or radiation to cervical cancer sites. However, current titanium medical devices used for treating cervical cancer do not by themselves possess any anticancer properties; such devices...

  10. Trends of cervical cancer in Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sander, Bente B; Rebolj, Matejka; Lynge, Elsebeth

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Due to its extraordinarily fast economic and social transition, virtually closed borders before 1940 and, moreover, that 85% of the population has the distinctive genetics of the Inuit, Greenland is a very interesting country to study cervical cancer from a historical perspective....... Nevertheless, little has been reported about long-term cancer trends in Greenland. Our aim was to describe and interpret the incidence of cervical cancer from 1950 to 2009. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We systematically searched PubMed for articles reporting the incidence of cervical cancer in Greenland. We...... supplemented this with data for 1980-2009 obtained from the Chief Medical Officer of Greenland. RESULTS: Incidence of cervical cancer was around 10 per 100 000 women (age-standardised, world population, ASW) in the 1950s, 30 per 100 000 in the 1960s, and in the 1980s around 60 per 100 000. From 1985 onwards...

  11. Triapine With Chemotherapy and Radiation Therapy in Treating Patients With IB2-IVA Cervical or Vulvar Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-09-12

    Cervical Adenocarcinoma; Cervical Adenosquamous Carcinoma; Cervical Squamous Cell Carcinoma, Not Otherwise Specified; Stage IB Vulvar Cancer; Stage IB2 Cervical Cancer; Stage II Vulvar Cancer; Stage IIA1 Cervical Cancer; Stage IIA2 Cervical Cancer; Stage IIB Cervical Cancer; Stage IIIA Cervical Cancer; Stage IIIA Vulvar Cancer; Stage IIIB Cervical Cancer; Stage IIIB Vulvar Cancer; Stage IIIC Vulvar Cancer; Stage IVA Cervical Cancer; Stage IVA Vulvar Cancer; Vulvar Adenocarcinoma; Vulvar Squamous Cell Carcinoma

  12. Colposcopy and High Resolution Anoscopy in Screening For Anal Dysplasia in Patients With Cervical, Vaginal, or Vulvar Dysplasia or Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-08

    Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia Grade 1; Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia Grade 2; Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia Grade 3; Recurrent Cervical Cancer; Recurrent Vaginal Cancer; Recurrent Vulvar Cancer; Stage 0 Cervical Cancer; Stage 0 Vaginal Cancer; Stage 0 Vulvar Cancer; Stage I Vaginal Cancer; Stage I Vulvar Cancer; Stage IA Cervical Cancer; Stage IB Cervical Cancer; Stage II Vaginal Cancer; Stage II Vulvar Cancer; Stage IIA Cervical Cancer; Stage IIB Cervical Cancer; Stage III Cervical Cancer; Stage III Vaginal Cancer; Stage III Vulvar Cancer; Stage IV Vulvar Cancer; Stage IVA Cervical Cancer; Stage IVA Vaginal Cancer; Stage IVB Cervical Cancer; Stage IVB Vaginal Cancer

  13. Safrole-DNA adducts in tissues from esophageal cancer patients: clues to areca-related esophageal carcinogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jang-Ming; Liu, Tsung-Yung; Wu, Deng-Chyang; Tang, Hseau-Chung; Leh, Julie; Wu, Ming-Tsang; Hsu, Hsao-Hsun; Huang, Pei-Ming; Chen, Jin-Shing; Lee, Chun-Jean; Lee, Yung-Chie

    2005-01-01

    Epidemiological studies have demonstrated that areca quid chewing can be an independent risk factor for developing esophageal cancer. However, no studies are available to elucidate the mechanisms of how areca induces carcinogenesis in the esophagus. Since the areca nut in Taiwan contains a high concentration of safrole, a well-known carcinogenic agent, we analyzed safrole-DNA adducts by the 32P-postlabelling method in tissue specimens from esophageal cancer patients. In total, we evaluated 47 patients with esophageal cancer (16 areca chewers and 31 non-chewers) who underwent esophagectomy at the National Taiwan University Hospital between 1996 and 2002. Of the individuals with a history of habitual areca chewing (14 cigarette smokers and two non-smokers), one of the tumor tissue samples and five of the normal esophageal mucosa samples were positive for safrole-DNA adducts. All patients positive for safrole-DNA adducts were also cigarette smokers. Such adducts could not be found in patients who did not chew areca, irrespective of their habits of alcohol consumption or cigarette smoking (psafrole was also tested in vitro in three esophageal cell lines and four cultures of primary esophageal keratinocytes. In two of the esophageal keratinocyte cultures, adduct formation was increased by treatment with safrole after induction of cytochrome P450 by 3-methyl-cholanthrene. This paper provides the first observation of how areca induces esophageal carcinogenesis, i.e., through the genotoxicity of safrole, a component of the areca juice.

  14. Anatomic distribution of supraclavicular lymph node in patients with esophageal cancer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Xing, Jun; Luo, Yijun; Wang, Xiaoli; Gao, Min; Sun, Mingping; Ding, Xiuping; Fan, Tingyong; Yu, Jinming

    2016-01-01

    ...), especially for lower cervical lymph nodes. This study aimed to map the location of metastatic supraclavicular lymph nodes in thoracic esophageal carcinoma patients with supraclavicular node involvement and generate an atlas to delineate...

  15. Impact of sarcopenia on outcome in patients with esophageal resection following neoadjuvant chemotherapy for esophageal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paireder, M; Asari, R; Kristo, I; Rieder, E; Tamandl, D; Ba-Ssalamah, A; Schoppmann, S F

    2017-02-01

    Nutritional status and body composition parameters such as sarcopenia are important risk factors for impaired outcome in patients with esophageal cancer. This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of sarcopenia on long-term outcome after esophageal resection following neoadjuvant treatment. Skeletal muscle index (SMI) and body composition parameters were measured in patients receiving neoadjuvant treatment for locally advanced esophageal cancer. Endpoints included relapse-free survival (RFS) and overall survival (OS). The study included 130 patients. Sarcopenia was found in 80 patients (61.5%). Patients with squamous-cell cancer (SCC) showed a decreased median SMI of 48 (range 28.4-60.8) cm/m(2) compared with that of patients with adenocarcinoma (AC) of 52 (range 34.4-74.2) cm/m(2), P sarcopenia had a significant impact on patient outcome: HR 1.69 (1.04-2.75), P = 0.036. Median OS was 20.5 (7.36-33.64) versus 52.1 (13.55-90.65) months in sarcopenic and non-sarcopenic patients, respectively. Sarcopenia was identified as an independent risk factor: HR 1.72 (1.049-2.83), P = 0.032. Our data provide evidence that sarcopenia impacts long-term outcome after esophageal resection in patients who have undergone neoadjuvant therapy. Assessment of the body composition parameter can be a reasonable part of patient selection and may influence treatment methods. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd, BASO ~ The Association for Cancer Surgery, and the European Society of Surgical Oncology. All rights reserved.

  16. The Role of Induction Therapy for Esophageal Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry, Mark F

    2016-08-01

    Survival of esophageal cancer generally is poor but has been improving. Induction chemoradiation is recommended before esophagectomy for locally advanced squamous cell carcinoma. Both induction chemotherapy and induction chemoradiation are found to be beneficial for locally advanced adenocarcinoma. Although a clear advantage of either strategy has not yet been demonstrated, consensus-based guidelines recommend induction chemoradiation for locally advanced adenocarcinoma.

  17. Delay in diagnostic workup and treatment of esophageal cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    B.A. Grotenhuis (Brechtje); P. van Hagen (Pieter); B.P.L. Wijnhoven (Bas); V.M.C.W. Spaander (Manon); H.W. Tilanus (Hugo); J.J-B. van Lanschot (Jan)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractIntroduction: Esophageal cancer should preferably be detected and treated at an early stage, but this may be prohibited by late onset of symptoms and delays in referral, diagnostic workup, and treatment. The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of these delays on outcome in pa

  18. Targeted treatments for cervical cancer: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peralta-Zaragoza O

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Oscar Peralta-Zaragoza,1 Víctor Hugo Bermúdez-Morales,1 Carlos Pérez-Plasencia,2,3 Jonathan Salazar-León,1 Claudia Gómez-Cerón,1 Vicente Madrid-Marina11Direction of Chronic Infections and Cancer, Research Center in Infection Diseases, National Institute of Public Health, Cuernavaca, Morelos, México; 2Oncogenomics Laboratory, National Cancer Institute of Mexico, Tlalpan, México; 3Biomedicine Unit, FES-Iztacala UNAM, México City, MéxicoAbstract: Cervical cancer is the second most common cause of cancer death in women worldwide and the development of new diagnosis, prognostic, and treatment strategies merits special attention. Although surgery and chemoradiotherapy can cure 80%–95% of women with early stage cancer, the recurrent and metastatic disease remains a major cause of cancer death. Many efforts have been made to design new drugs and develop gene therapies to treat cervical cancer. In recent decades, research on treatment strategies has proposed several options, including the role of HPV E6 and E7 oncogenes, which are retained and expressed in most cervical cancers and whose respective oncoproteins are critical to the induction and maintenance of the malignant phenotype. Other efforts have been focused on antitumor immunotherapy strategies. It is known that during the development of cervical cancer, a cascade of abnormal events is induced, including disruption of cellular cycle control, perturbation of antitumor immune response, alteration of gene expression, and deregulation of microRNA expression. Thus, in this review article we discuss potential targets for the treatment of cervical cancer associated with HPV infection, with special attention to immunotherapy approaches, clinical trials, siRNA molecules, and their implications as gene therapy strategies against cervical cancer development.Keywords: Cervical cancer, clinical trials, gene therapy, HPV E6 and E7 oncogenes, siRNAs

  19. Epidemiology of cervical cancer in Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muñoz, Nubia

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Worldwide, cervical cancer is the third most common cancer in women, and the first or second most common in developing countries. Cervical cancer remains in Colombia the first cause of cancer mortality and the second cause of cancer incidence among women, despite the existence of screening programs during the last 3 decades. Bucaramanga, Manizales and Cali reported rates around 20 per 100,000 and Pasto 27 per 100,000. The Cali cancer registry has reported a progressive decrease in the age standardized incidence and mortality rates of cervical cancer over the past 40 years. Reasons for the decline in incidence and mortality of cervical cancer are multiple and probably include: improvement in socio-economic conditions, decrease in parity rates and some effect of screening programs.Human papilloma Virus is the main cause of cervical cancer, HPV natural history studies have now revealed that HPVs are the commonest of the sexually transmitted infec¬tions in most populations. Most HPV exposures result in sponta¬neous clearance without clinical manifestations and only a small fraction of the infected persons, known as chronic or persistent carriers, will retain the virus and progress to precancerous and cancer. HPV 16 and 18 account for 70% of cervical cancer and the 8 most common types. (HPV 16, 18, 45, 33, 31, 52, 58 and 35 account for about 90% of cervical cancer. Case-control studies also allowed the identification of the following cofactors that acting together with HPV increase the risk of progression from HPV persistent infection to cervical cancer: tobacco, high parity, long term use of oral contraceptives and past infections with herpes simplex type 2 and Chlamydia trachomatis. The demonstration that infection with certain types of human papillomavirus (HPV is not only the main cause but also a necessary cause of cervical cancer has led to great advances in the prevention of this disease on two fronts: (i Primary prevention by the use of

  20. Epidemiology of cervical cancer in Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz, Nubia; Bravo, Luis Eduardo

    2012-10-01

    Worldwide, cervical cancer is the third most common cancer in women, and the first or second most common in developing countries. Cervical cancer remains in Colombia the first cause of cancer mortality and the second cause of cancer incidence among women, despite the existence of screening programs during the last 3 decades. Bucaramanga, Manizales and Cali reported rates around 20 per 100,000and Pasto 27 per 100,000. The Cali cancer registry has reported a progressive decrease in the age standardized incidence and mortality rates of cervical cancer over the past 40 years. Reasons for the decline in incidence and mortality of cervical cancer are multiple and probably include: improvement in socio-economic conditions, decrease in parity rates and some effect of screening programs. Human papilloma Virus is the main cause of cervical cancer, HPV natural history studies have now revealed that HPVs are the commonest of the sexually transmitted infections in most populations. Most HPV exposures result in spontaneous clearance without clinical manifestations and only a small fraction of the infected persons, known as chronic or persistent carriers, will retain the virus and progress to precancerous and cancer. HPV 16 and 18 account for 70% of cervical cancer and the 8 most common types. (HPV 16, 18, 45, 33, 31, 52, 58 and 35) account for about 90% of cervical cancer. Case-control studies also allowed the identification of the following cofactors that acting together with HPV increase the risk of progression from HPV persistent infection to cervical cancer: tobacco, high parity, long term use of oral contraceptives and past infections with herpes simplex type 2 and Chlamydia trachomatis. The demonstration that infection with certain types of human papillomavirus (HPV) is not only the main cause but also a necessary cause of cervical cancer has led to great advances in the prevention of this disease on two fronts: (i) Primary prevention by the use of prophylactic HPV

  1. Epidemiology of cervical cancer in Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nubia Muñoz

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Worldwide, cervical cancer is the third most common cancer in women, and the first or second most common in developing countries. Cervical cancer remains in Colombia the first cause of cancer mortality and the se­cond cause of cancer incidence among women, despite the existence of screening programs during the last 3 decades. Bucaramanga, Manizales and Cali reported rates around 20 per 100,000 and Pasto 27 per 100,000. The Cali cancer registry has reported a progressive decrease in the age standardized incidence and mortality rates of cervical cancer over the past 40 years. Reasons for the decline in incidence and mortality of cervical cancer are multiple and probably include: improvement in socio-economic conditions, decrease in parity rates and some effect of screening programs. Human papilloma Virus is the main cause of cervical cancer, HPV natural history studies have now revealed that HPVs are the commonest of the sexually transmitted infections in most populations. Most HPV expo­sures result in spontaneous clearance without clinical manifestations and only a small fraction of the infected persons, known as chronic or persistent carriers, will retain the virus and progress to precancerous and cancer. HPV 16 and 18 account for 70% of cervical cancer and the 8 most common types. (HPV 16, 18, 45, 33, 31, 52, 58 and 35 account for about 90% of cervical cancer. Case-control studies also allowed the identification of the following cofactors that acting together with HPV increase the risk of progression from HPV persistent infection to cervical cancer: tobacco, high parity, long term use of oral contraceptives and past infections with herpes simplex type 2 and Chlamydia trachomatis. The demonstration that infection with certain types of human papillomavirus (HPV is not only the main cause but also a necessary cause of cervical cancer has led to great advances in the prevention of this disease on two fronts: (i Primary prevention by the use of

  2. Laparoscopic Fertility Sparing Management of Cervical Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiara Facchini

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Fertility can be preserved after conservative cervical surgery. We report on a 29-year-old woman who was obese, para 0, and diagnosed with cervical insufficiency at the first trimester of current pregnancy due to a previous trachelectomy. She underwent laparoscopic transabdominal cervical cerclage (LTCC for cervical cancer. The surgery was successful and she was discharged two days later. The patient underwent a caesarean section at 38 weeks of gestation. Laparoscopic surgery is a minimally invasive approach associated with less pain and faster recovery, feasible even in obese women.

  3. Cervical cancer: screening and therapeutic perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sankaranarayanan, Rengaswamy; Thara, Somanathan; Esmy, Pulikottil Okkuru; Basu, Partha

    2008-01-01

    Cervical cancer is a major cause of mortality and premature death among women in their most productive years in low- and medium-resourced countries in Asia, Africa and Latin America, despite the fact that it is an eminently preventable cancer. While cytology screening programmes have resulted in a substantial reduction of cervical cancer mortality in developed countries, they have been shown to have a wide range of sensitivity in most routine settings including in developing countries. Although liquid-based cytology improves sample adequacy, claims on improved sensitivity remain controversial. Human papillomavirus testing is more sensitive than cytology, but whether this gain represents protection against future cervical cancer is not clear. Recently, in a randomized trial, the use of visual inspection with 4% acetic acid was shown to reduce cervical cancer incidence and mortality. Cryotherapy and large loop excision of the transformation zone are effective and safe treatment methods for cervical intraepithelial neoplasia. The clinical stage of cancer is the single most important prognostic factor and should be carefully evaluated in choosing optimal treatment between surgery and radiotherapy, with or without chemotherapy. At the public health level, health care infrastructure, affordability and capacity for initiating and sustaining vaccination and screening programmes are critical factors in cervical cancer control. On the other hand, an informed practitioner can utilize the multiple opportunities in routine primary care interactions for prevention, screening, early detection and prompt referral for treatment.

  4. Epidemiology of cervical cancer in Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nubia Muñoz

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To describe the incidence, mortality, time trends and prognostic factors for cervical cancer in Cali, Colombia, and to review the molecular epidemiological evidence showing that HPV is the major and necessary cause of cervical cancer and the implications of this discovery for primary and secondary prevention. Materials and methods. Incidence rates of cervical cancer during a 45-year period (1962-2007 were estimated based on the population-based cancer registry of Cali and the mortality statistics from the Municipal Health Secretariat of Cali. Prognostic factors were estimated based on relative survival. Review of the molecular epidemiological evidence linking HPV to cervical cancer was focused on the studies carried out in Cali and in other countries. Results. Incidence rates of squamous cell carcinoma (SCC declined from 120.4 per 100 000 in 1962-1966 to 25.7 in 2003-2007 while those of adenocarcinoma increased from 4.2 to 5.8. Mortality rates for cervical cancer declined from 18.5 in 1984-1988 to 7.0 per 100 000 in 2009-2011. Survival was lower in women over 65 years of age and in clinical stages 3-4. Review of the molecular epidemiological evidence showed that certain types of HPV are the central and necessary cause of cervical cancer. Conclusions. A decline in the incidence and mortality of SCC and an increase in the incidence of adenocarcinoma during a 45-year period was documented in Cali, Colombia

  5. Early detection and determinants of esophageal cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bus, P.

    2014-01-01

    Barrett’s esophagus (BE) is a premalignant condition of the esophagus and characterized by the metaplastic replacement of esophageal squamous epithelium by specialized intestinal-type columnar epithelium. A BE diagnosis is based on endoscopy and histological examination of biopsies taken during endo

  6. Eradication of cervical cancer in Latin America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F Xavier Bosch

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Cervical cancer remains within the three most common cancer in women worldwide and is still the commonest female cancer in 41 of 184 countries. Within Latin America, cervical ranks as the most common cancer among women in Bolivia and Peru and the second most frequent in Brazil, Colombia, Ecuador, Mexico, Paraguay, The Guyanas, Surinam and Venezuela. Due to its relatively early age at onset, it ranks among the three most frequent cancers in women aged below 45 years in 82% of all countries in the world irrespective of their screening practices.   DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.21149/spm.v58i2.7777

  7. Worldwide burden of cervical cancer in 2008

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Arbyn, M; Castellsagué, X; de Sanjosé, S; Bruni, L; Saraiya, M; Bray, F; Ferlay, J

    2011-01-01

    Background: The knowledge that persistent human papillomavirus infection is the main cause of cervical cancer has resulted in the development of assays that detect nucleic acids of the virus and prophylactic vaccines...

  8. Cervical cancer management in Zaria, Nigeria SUMMARY ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    kemrilib

    about cervical cancer is needed to minimise risk factors and encourage early presentation. Governments ... (Standard deviation). Range. Age at presentation. 47.61 years (11.55). 28 to 72 .... return to the hospital for continued care although.

  9. Risk Factors for Esophageal Fistula Associated With Chemoradiotherapy for Locally Advanced Unresectable Esophageal Cancer: A Supplementary Analysis of JCOG0303.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsushima, Takahiro; Mizusawa, Junki; Sudo, Kazuki; Honma, Yoshitaka; Kato, Ken; Igaki, Hiroyasu; Tsubosa, Yasuhiro; Shinoda, Masayuki; Nakamura, Kenichi; Fukuda, Haruhiko; Kitagawa, Yuko

    2016-05-01

    Esophageal fistula is a critical adverse event in patients treated with chemoradiotherapy (CRT) for locally advanced esophageal cancer. However, risk factors associated with esophageal fistula formation in patients receiving CRT have not yet been elucidated.We retrospectively analyzed data obtained from 140 patients who were enrolled in a phase II/III trial comparing low-dose cisplatin with standard-dose cisplatin administered in combination with 5-flurouracil and concomitant radiotherapy. Inclusion criteria were performance status (PS) 0 to 2 and histologically proven thoracic esophageal cancer clinically diagnosed as T4 and/or unresectable lymph node metastasis for which definitive CRT was applicable. Risk factors for esophageal fistula were examined with univariate analysis using Fisher exact test and multivariate analysis using logistic regression models.Esophageal fistula was observed in 31 patients (22%). Of these, 6 patients developed fistula during CRT. Median time interval between the date of CRT initiation and that of fistula diagnosis was 100 days (inter quartile range, 45-171). Esophageal stenosis was the only significant risk factor for esophageal fistula formation both in univariate (P = 0.026) and in multivariate analyses (odds ratio, 2.59; 95% confidence interval, 1.13-5.92, P = 0.025). Other clinicopathological factors, namely treatment arm, age, sex, PS, primary tumor location, T stage, lymph node invasion to adjacent organs, blood cell count, albumin level, and body mass index, were not risk factors fistula formation.Esophageal stenosis was a significant risk factor for esophageal fistula formation in patients treated with CRT for unresectable locally advanced thoracic esophageal squamous cell carcinoma.

  10. Costs Associated with Cervical Cancer Screening

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2009-10-15

    Dr. Tom Cox, a practicing gynecologist and president of the American Society of Colposcopy and Cervical Pathology, provides a brief introduction to cervical cancer screening guidelines and human papillomavirus (HPV) DNA testing.  Created: 10/15/2009 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP), Division of Cancer Prevention and Control (DCPC).   Date Released: 6/9/2010.

  11. Evidence-based Nursing’s Application and Effect on Nursing Postoperative Patients with Cervical ;Anastomosis Fistula of Esophageal Cancer%循证护理在食管癌术后颈部吻合口瘘患者护理中的应用及其实施效果

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹敏

    2015-01-01

    目的:探讨循证护理在食管癌术后颈部吻合口瘘临床护理中的应用及其实施效果。方法:选取2012年1月-2013年12月(循证护理实施后)食管癌术后颈部吻合口瘘27例,设为观察组,予以循证护理措施;回顾查找2010年1月-2011年12月(循证护理实施前)食管癌术后颈部吻合口瘘25例,设为对照组,护理措施为常规措施。比较两组的临床结局、吻合口瘘愈合时间、护理质量评分以及患者满意度。结果:除对照组1例患者中途转院治疗外,两组术后吻合口瘘痊愈率均为100%。但观察组吻合口瘘平均愈合时间短于对照组(t=4.68,P<0.05),护理质量评分高于对照组(t=4.29,P<0.05),患者满意度高于对照组(字2=4.53,P<0.05)。结论:循证护理运用于食管癌术后颈部吻合口瘘患者的临床护理具有良好的效果,不仅细化了护理照顾措施,提高了基础护理工作质量,也增进了和谐的护患关系,患者吻合口瘘痊愈时间有效缩短,体现了护理工作的知识价值。%Objective:To explore evidence-based nursing(EBN)’s application and effect on nursing postoperative patients with cervical anastomosis fistula of esophageal cancer. Method:27 postoperative patients with cervical anastomosis fistula of esophageal cancer from January 2012 to December 2013(after the application of EBN) were selected as observation group,and were given EBN.25 postoperative patients with cervical anastomosis fistula of esophageal cancer from January 2010 to December 2010(before the application of EBN)were selected as control group, and were given conventional nursing measures. Two groups’ clinical outcome,anastomotic fistula healing time,nursing quality score and patients satisfaction were compared.Result:Except 1 patient transferred to another hospital during treatment in control group,the others’healing rate of postoperative anastomotic fistula was 100% in the

  12. Chemoradiation Therapy and Ipilimumab in Treating Patients With Stages IB2-IIB or IIIB-IVA Cervical Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-09-28

    Cervical Adenocarcinoma; Cervical Adenosquamous Carcinoma; Cervical Squamous Cell Carcinoma, Not Otherwise Specified; Positive Para-Aortic Lymph Node; Positive Pelvic Lymph Node; Stage IB2 Cervical Cancer; Stage II Cervical Cancer; Stage IIA Cervical Cancer; Stage IIB Cervical Cancer; Stage IIIB Cervical Cancer; Stage IVA Cervical Cancer

  13. Neoadjuvant chemotherapy or chemoradiotherapy for locally advanced esophageal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smithers, B Mark; Thomson, Iain

    2013-11-01

    In patients with operable esophageal cancer, there is evidence supporting the use of preoperative chemotherapy or preoperative chemoradiation. The addition of radiotherapy to chemotherapy seems more relevant for the more locally advanced cancers. There is a need to examine in trials more modern chemotherapy combinations with and without concurrent radiation and for research into assessing methods for predicting outcomes from neoadjuvant therapy as part of the paradigm of therapy for this disease.

  14. Cervical cancer: A comprehensive approach towards extermination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bava, Smitha V; Thulasidasan, Arun Kumar T; Sreekanth, Chanickal N; Anto, Ruby John

    2016-01-01

    Human Papilloma Virus (HPV) is one of the most common sexually transmitted pathogen, globally. Oncogenic types of HPV are the causative agents of many neoplastic diseases, including cervical cancer, which ranks as the most common cancer affecting females in developing countries. HPV infection of the cervical epithelium and the subsequent integration of viral DNA into the host genome are the major risk factors for cervical cancer. The scientific discovery of HPV as the causal agent of cervical cancer has led to the development of HPV-based diagnostic tools. Prophylactic vaccines, based on the oncogenic HPV type virus-like particles have been introduced in several developed countries as a preliminary preventive approach. Nevertheless, it remains a continuous threat to women in developing countries, where the prophylactic vaccines are unaffordable and organized screening programmes are lacking. This warrants implementation of prevention strategies that will reduce cervical cancer-related mortality. In this review, we have discussed molecular pathogenesis of HPV infection and the risk factors associated with it. The diagnosis, treatment and prevention strategies of HPV-related cervical cancer have also been discussed.

  15. The Knowledge of South African Men Relating to Cervical Cancer and Cervical Cancer Screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rwamugira, Jeniffer; Maree, Johanna E; Mafutha, Nokuthula

    2017-09-06

    Cervical cancer is the second most common cancer in South African women, but the most common cancer in Black women. Despite having a national cervical cancer screening programme, most women present with advanced disease. Men play a role in cervical cancer as the HPV, the major cause of cervical cancer, is sexually transmitted. The purpose of our study was to describe the knowledge men, living in Muldersdrift, had about cervical cancer, cervical cancer screening and the cervical cancer screening programme and how they preferred to be taught about these health issues. We used a survey design and convenience sampling to select 101 men older than 18 years (n = 101). A pretested self-developed questionnaire was used as the data collection instrument, and the data were analyzed using the SPSS version 22-computer program and quantitative content analyses. The Fischer's exact test measured associations between variables (p = 0.05). The ages of the sample (n = 101) ranged from 18 to 92 years; most were from the Zulu cultural group, unemployed and unmarried. The majority (66.3%, n = 67) had not heard of cervical cancer, the cervical cancer screening programme (60.4%, n = 61) or the Pap smear (67.3%, n = 68). Age and educational level did not influence having ever heard of these health issues. HPV infection was the most well-known risk factor, and the very late symptoms of cervical cancer were the least known. Most men preferred to be educated in a group, which provided a practical, feasible and cost effective way of educating men living in this community about these health issues.

  16. Dietary Flavonoid Intake and Esophageal Cancer Risk in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition Cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vermeulen, Esther; Zamora-Ros, Raul; Duell, Eric J.

    2013-01-01

    We prospectively investigated dietary flavonoid intake and esophageal cancer risk in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) cohort. The study included 477,312 adult subjects from 10 European countries. At baseline, country-specific validated dietary questionnaires...... were used. During a mean follow-up of 11 years (1992-2010), there were 341 incident esophageal cancer cases, of which 142 were esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC), 176 were esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC), and 23 were other types of esophageal cancer. In crude models, a doubling in total dietary...... associated with esophageal cancer risk. No associations were found in either never or former smokers. These findings suggest that dietary flavonoid intake was not associated with overall esophageal cancer, EAC, or ESCC risk, although total flavonoids and some flavonoid subclasses, particularly flavonols, may...

  17. Human papillomavirus and cervical cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crosbie, Emma J; Einstein, Mark H; Franceschi, Silvia; Kitchener, Henry C

    2013-09-07

    Cervical cancer is caused by human papillomavirus infection. Most human papillomavirus infection is harmless and clears spontaneously but persistent infection with high-risk human papillomavirus (especially type 16) can cause cancer of the cervix, vulva, vagina, anus, penis, and oropharynx. The virus exclusively infects epithelium and produces new viral particles only in fully mature epithelial cells. Human papillomavirus disrupts normal cell-cycle control, promoting uncontrolled cell division and the accumulation of genetic damage. Two effective prophylactic vaccines composed of human papillomavirus type 16 and 18, and human papillomavirus type 16, 18, 6, and 11 virus-like particles have been introduced in many developed countries as a primary prevention strategy. Human papillomavirus testing is clinically valuable for secondary prevention in triaging low-grade cytology and as a test of cure after treatment. More sensitive than cytology, primary screening by human papillomavirus testing could enable screening intervals to be extended. If these prevention strategies can be implemented in developing countries, many thousands of lives could be saved.

  18. Hyperthermia by a nitinol stent in an alternating magnetic field:Safety and feasibility in rabbit esophageal cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jumei Zhou; Ning Li; Qisheng Xia; Lehui Du; Xiaowen Wang; Linyun Zhao; Xufei Wang; Jintian Tang

    2009-01-01

    Hyperthermia by heating in-stent is a potentially new method to treat esophageal cancer.This study assessed the safety of heating the rabbit esophagus with a nitinol stent in an alternating magnetic field (AMF) and investigated whether this method offers a therapeutic option for esophageal cancer.Nitinol stents were placed in the cervical esophagi of healthy rabbits,which were heated in an AMF for different times at 43,46 and 50 ℃.The esophagi were histologically examined after a week to observe whether there was transmural necroses.Then esophageal cancer of rabbit placed nitinol stents were heated in an AMF at 46℃ for 10 min.Stents were heated to a target temperature within 5 min.The highest tolerated temperature and time for the healthy rabbit esophagus was at 46℃ for 10 min.Tumor growth was delayed by heating and it was statistically significant.Heating the rabbit esophageal wall at 46℃ for 10 min proves to be safe and effective in delaying tumor growth.

  19. HEALTH TECHNOLOGY ASSESSMENT ON CERVICAL CANCER SCREENING, 2000–2014

    OpenAIRE

    Lahue, Betsy J.; Baginska, Eva; Li, Sophia S.; Parisi, Monika

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: The aim of this study was to conduct a review of health technology assessments (HTAs) in cervical cancer screening to highlight the most common metrics HTA agencies use to evaluate and recommend cervical cancer screening technologies. Methods: The Center for Reviews and Dissemination (CRD), MedLine, and national HTA agency databases were searched using keywords (“cervical cancer screening” OR “cervical cancer” OR “cervical screening”) and “HTA” from January 2000 to October 2014. N...

  20. Cisplatin and Radiation Therapy With or Without Carboplatin and Paclitaxel in Patients With Locally Advanced Cervical Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-17

    Cervical Adenocarcinoma; Cervical Adenosquamous Carcinoma; Cervical Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Chemotherapeutic Agent Toxicity; Cognitive Side Effects of Cancer Therapy; Psychological Impact of Cancer; Radiation Toxicity; Sexual Dysfunction and Infertility; Stage IB Cervical Cancer; Stage IIA Cervical Cancer; Stage IIB Cervical Cancer; Stage III Cervical Cancer; Stage IVA Cervical Cancer

  1. [A Case of Synchronous Multiple Esophageal Cancers Composed of Squamous Cell Carcinoma and Barrett's Adenocarcinoma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Toshiyuki; Shiozaki, Atsushi; Fujiwara, Hitoshi; Konishi, Hirotaka; Arita, Tomohiro; Kosuga, Toshiyuki; Morimura, Ryo; Murayama, Yasutoshi; Komatsu, Shuhei; Kuriu, Yoshiaki; Ikoma, Hisashi; Nakanishi, Masayoshi; Ichikawa, Daisuke; Okamoto, Kazuma; Otsuji, Eigo

    2015-11-01

    A 67-year-old man was admitted to our hospital for treatment for multiple superficial esophageal cancers. Screening upper gastrointestinal endoscopy examination revealed a superficial squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) at the middle thoracic esophagus and Barrett's epithelium and a superficial adenocarcinoma at the abdominal esophagus. We performed a subtotal esophagectomy with gastric tube reconstruction via the retrosternal route. Pathological examination revealed a Barrett's adenocarcinoma at the abdominal esophagus. Esophageal cancer is thought to be a multicentric disease, and we sometimes find multiple esophageal cancers. In Japan, most cases of multiple esophageal cancers are composed of SCCs, and the occurrence of multiple esophageal cancers composed of SCC and Barrett's adenocarcinoma is rare. In contrast, the number of the patients with Barrett's esophagus is increasing, and the number of the patients with Barrett's adenocarcinoma also seems to be on the rise. Therefore, it is important be aware of the possibility of multiple esophageal cancers composed of SCC and Barrett's adenocarcinoma while making diagnoses.

  2. [A case of metastatic esophageal cancer responding remarkably to combination chemotherapy of TS-1 and cisplatin].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwase, Hiroaki; Okeya, Masayuki; Shimada, Masaaki; Tsuzuki, Tomoyuki; Nakarai, Keiko; Kaida, Shogo; Doi, Reiko

    2004-05-01

    A 51-year-old male patient with esophageal cancer and cervical, thoracic and celiac artery lymph node metastases was treated by combination chemotherapy of TS-1 and cisplatin. TS-1 (80 mg/m2/day) was administered for 14 days followed by 14 days rest as 1 course. Cisplatin (70 mg/m2/day) was administered in 24-hour continuous intravenous infusion at day 8 after the start of TS-1. Before treatment, the tumor marker, CEA showed 27,060 ng/ml. After 5 courses of chemotherapy, endoscopy revealed that the primary tumor had disappeared and no cancer cells were detected by endoscopic biopsy. Chest and abdominal CT scan also showed almost total disappearance of the lymph nodes metastases. CEA decreased to 710 ng/ml. No high-grade toxicities (WHO grade 3 or 4) were seen during the chemotherapy. He is now very well. This TS-1/cisplatin chemotherapy regimen might be a useful treatment for metastatic esophageal cancer.

  3. Delayed Esophageal Pseudodiverticulum after Anterior Cervical Spine Fixation: Report of 2 Cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Sadrizadeh

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Although perforation of the esophagus, in the anterior cervical spine fixation, is well established, cases with delayed onset, especially cases that present pseudodiverticulum, are not common. In addition, management of the perforation in this situation is debated.  Case Report:   Delayed esophageal pseudodiverticulum was managed in two patients with a history of anterior spine fixation. Patients were operated on, the loose plate and screws were extracted, the wall of the diverticulum was excised, the perforation on the nasogastric tube was suboptimally repaired, and a closed suction drain was placed there. The NGT was removed on the 7th day and barium swallow demonstrated no leakage at the operation site; therefore, oral feeding was started without any problem.  Conclusion:  In cases with delayed perforation, fistula, or diverticulum removal of anterior fixation instruments, gentle repair of the esophageal wall without persistence on definitive and optimal perforation closure, wide local drainage, early enteral nutrition via NGT, and antibiotic prescription is suggested.

  4. January is Cervical Cancer Awareness Month

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Center for Global Health supports global activities to advance global cancer research, build expertise, and leverage resources across nations to address the challenges of cancer and reduce cancer deaths worldwide. Towards these aims, NCI has partnered with Pink Ribbon Red Ribbon, a global organization founded on public-private partnerships dedicated to saving women’s lives by advancing prevention, screening, and treatment for breast and cervical cancer in sub-Saharan Africa and Latin America.

  5. Esophageal cancer management controversies: Radiation oncology point of view

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Patricia; Tai; Edward; Yu

    2014-01-01

    Esophageal cancer treatment has evolved from single modality to trimodality therapy.There are some controversies of the role,target volumes and dose of radiotherapy(RT)in the literature over decades.The present review focuses primarily on RT as part of the treatment modalities,and highlight on the RT volume and its dose in the management of esophageal cancer.The randomized adjuvant chemoradiation(CRT)trial,intergroup trial(INT 0116)enrolled 559 patients with resected adenocarcinoma of the stomach or gastroesophageal junction.They were randomly assigned to surgery plus postoperative CRT or surgery alone.Analyses show robust treatment benefit of adjuvant CRT in most subsets for postoperative CRT.The Chemoradiotherapy for Oesophageal Cancer Followed by Surgery Study(CROSS)used a lower RT dose of41.4 Gray in 23 fractions with newer chemotherapeutic agents carboplatin and paclitaxel to achieve an excellent result.Target volume of external beam radiation therapy and its coverage have been in debate for years among radiation oncologists.Pre-operative and postoperative target volumes are designed to optimize for disease control.Esophageal brachytherapy is effective in the palliation of dysphagia,but should not be given concomitantly with chemotherapy or external beam RT.The role of brachytherapy in multimodality management requires further investigation.On-going studies of multidisciplinary treatment in locally advanced cancer include:ZTOG1201 trial(a phaseⅡtrial of neoadjuvant and adjuvant CRT)and QUINTETT(a phaseⅢtrial of neoadjuvant vs adjuvant therapy with quality of life analysis).These trials hopefully will shed more light on the future management of esophageal cancer.

  6. TRAILs towards improved cervical cancer treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maduro, John

    2009-01-01

    Cervical cancer is a life threatening disease occurring world-wide, but affecting especially women in developing countries. Standard treatment for cevical cancer varies per FIGO stage and patient related factors. In general patients with non bulky (<4 cm) FIGO stage IB and IIA are treated with a rad

  7. TRAILs towards improved cervical cancer treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maduro, John

    2009-01-01

    Cervical cancer is a life threatening disease occurring world-wide, but affecting especially women in developing countries. Standard treatment for cevical cancer varies per FIGO stage and patient related factors. In general patients with non bulky (<4 cm) FIGO stage IB and IIA are treated with a rad

  8. HPV genotypes in invasive cervical cancer in Danish women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirschner, Benny; Junge, Jette; Holl, Katsiaryna

    2013-01-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) genotype distribution in invasive cervical cancers may differ by geographic region. The primary objective of this study was to estimate HPV-genotype distribution in Danish women with a diagnosis of invasive cervical cancer....

  9. A Study on Knowledge and Screening for Cervical Cancer among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    More than three-fourth of these patients are diagnosed in advanced ... Knowledge about cervical cancer, its screening among women. • Role of ... doctors earlier, they were neither educated about cervical cancer nor were they told about.

  10. Factors associated with management of cervical cancer patients at ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Factors associated with management of cervical cancer patients at KCMC Hospital, Tanzania: a retrospective cross-sectional ... Abstract: Cervical cancer is an important public health problem among adult women worldwide. ... Article Metrics.

  11. U.S. Deaths from Cervical Cancer May Be Underestimated

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_163192.html U.S. Deaths From Cervical Cancer May Be Underestimated Rates ... women were factored out, Rositch's team found that U.S. cervical cancer deaths are 77 percent higher among ...

  12. situational analysis for diagnosis and treatment of cervical cancer in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2001-02-02

    Feb 2, 2001 ... Results: The most basic equipment for cytology-based cervical cancer ... medical personnel including nurses were poorly or hardly utilised for cervical cancer ..... required to take an adequate smear, process, analyses the.

  13. Knowledge and attitude towards cervical cancer screening among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    McRoy

    age at first sexual intercourse, multiple male sexual ... Background: Cervical cancer is a largely preventable disease. In western countries, the incidence of and mortality associated with cervical cancer ... and a key aspect of its prevention is the.

  14. Inoperable esophageal cancer and outcome of palliative care

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sima Besharat; Ali Jabbari; Shahryar Semnani; Abbasali Keshtkar; Jeran Marjani

    2008-01-01

    AIM: To determine the outcome of esophageal cancer patients referred for palliative care, in Gorgan and Gonbad gastrointestinal clinics, northeast of Iran.METHODS: This cross-sectional study was done on inoperable esophageal cancer cases referred to gastrointestinal clinics in Gorgan and Gonbad city (2005-2006). Demographic data were collected during the procedure and cases were followed up every one month. Improvement proportion was calculated with 95% confidence interval, to determine the rate of improvement. Survival analysis and Kaplan-Meier methods were used to estimate the duration of palliative care effectiveness.RESULTS: We recruited 39 cases into the study. Squamous cell carcinoma was the most prevalent (92.3%). The middle third of the esophagus was involved predominantly (51.3%). Dilation was the most preferred method (89.7%) and stenting was done in 4 cases. Decreasing dysphagia score was not related to palliation method or pathology type of carcinoma. Age of the patients was significantly related to the improvement of dysphagia score. Mean survival time was 137.6d and median was 103d.CONCLUSION: Results of this study showed a low survival rate after palliative care in esophageal cancer cases despite dysphagia scores' improvement after dilating or stenting.

  15. The genetic alteration of retinoblastoma gene in esophageal cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Jae Il; Shim, Yung Mok; Kim, Chang Min [Korea Cancer Center Hospital of Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1994-12-01

    Retinoblastoma(RB) gene is the prototype of tumor suppressor gene and it`s alteration have been frequently observed in a large number of human tumors. To investigate the role of RB in esophageal cancer, we studied 36 esophageal cancer tissues with Southern blot analysis to detect gross LOH and PCR-SSCP method to find minute LOH and mutation, if any. In the cases with abnormalities, the nucleotide sequence analysis was performed. Allelic loss of chromosome 13q14 occurred in 20 out of 32 informative cases (62.5%) by Southern analysis. Furthermore, PCR-LOH added three positive cases. Mobility shift by PCR-SSCP was observed in one case at exon 22, which showed 1 bp deletion in codon 771 of RB gene resulting in frame shift mutation. Besides, nine PCR-band alteration in tumor tissue compared with normal tissue were observed in exon 14 and 22, but mutation was not found on sequencing analysis suggesting the epigenetic alteration in tumor tissue. Analysis of the clinical data did not show any difference depending upon RB alteration. However, the total incidence of RB gene may play an important role in the development of esophageal cancer. The main genetic alteration of RB gene was deletion detected by Southern blot and one bp deletion leading to frame shift was also observed. 8 figs, 5 tabs. (Author).

  16. Prediction of Response to Multimodality Treatment in Esophageal Cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    RalfMetzger; HuanXi; FutoshiMiyazono; HiroshiHigashi; UteWarnecke-Eberz; StephanE.Baldus; JanBrabender; PaulM.Schneider

    2004-01-01

    Patients with locally advanced esophageal cancer have a dismal prognosis when treated exclusively by surgery. This fact prompted many investigators to apply neoadjuvant treatment strategies in an effort to improve survival. Results from phase Ⅲ randomized trials are encouraging however, they revealed that only patients with major histopathological response will benefit from treatment. Therefore, predictive molecular markers indicating response or non-response to neoadjuvant treatment would be extremely helpful in selecting patients for current and future treatment protocols. In this paper we review the role of the molecular markers ERCC1 (excision repair cross-complementing 1 gene) and c-erbB-2 (synonym:HER2/neu) in predicting response to radiochemotherapy and outcome for patients with locally advanced resectable esophageal cancers (cT2-4, Nx, M0). The results are promising and it appears that we might expect to unequivocally identify with ERCC1 and c-erbB-2 respectively, approximately up to one third of patients who fulfil the criteria for neoadjuvant treatment for locally advanced esophageal cancer but will not benefit from our treatment protocol. Integration of such markers in the clinical setting might prevent a substantial number of patients from expensive, non-effective and potentially harmful therapies, and could lead to a more individualized type of combined multimodality treatment in the near future.

  17. Prevention and Treatment of Esophageal Stenosis after Endoscopic Submucosal Dissection for Early Esophageal Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Wen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD for the treatment of esophageal mucosal lesions is associated with a risk of esophageal stenosis, especially for near-circumferential or circumferential esophageal mucosal defects. Here, we review historic and modern studies on the prevention and treatment of esophageal stenosis after ESD. These methods include prevention via pharmacological treatment, endoscopic autologous cell transplantation, endoscopic esophageal dilatation, and stent placement. This short review will focus on direct prevention and treatment, which may help guide the way forward.

  18. A Dilemma in Staging of Esophageal Cancer: How Should We Stage ypT0 N2 M0 Esophageal Cancer after Neoadjuvant Therapy?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebahattin Celik

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Since neoadjuvant treatment in esophageal cancer began to become popular, a complete pathological response at the primary tumour site has been commonly reported. An issue of conflict is whether complete response in the esophageal lumen means that the esophagus is completely tumour-free. Another important issue is whether lymph nodes that are retrieved from pathologically complete response cases are also tumour-free or not. There is a gap in the esophageal cancer staging system for ypT0 N2 M0 tumours that have received neoadjuvant therapy. Here, we will discuss the problem about staging of esophageal cancer associated with neoadjuvant therapy. Case. A female aged 40 years complaining of dysphagia was diagnosed as having locally advanced thoracic esophageal cancer. Neoadjuvant therapy decision was taken by oncology committee. Six weeks after neoadjuvant therapy, with a curative intention, minimal invasive surgery was performed. The pathology report was as follows. “There were no neoplastic cells in the suspected area of the esophageal mucosa upon examination with all staining. There was no cancer at resection margins. Four metastatic lymph nodes were infiltrated with squamous cell cancer.” Conclusion. Despite the growing use of neoadjuvant treatment in locally advanced esophageal cancer in world, we do not have a protocol for the evaluation of these patients’ pathology reports. We believe that new studies and new ideas are needed to resolve this dilemma associated with neoadjuvant therapy.

  19. Mapping HPV Vaccination and Cervical Cancer Screening Practice in the Pacific Region-Strengthening National and Regional Cervical Cancer Prevention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Obel, J; McKenzie, J; Buenconsejo-Lum, L E

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To provide background information for strengthening cervical cancer prevention in the Pacific by mapping current human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination and cervical cancer screening practices, as well as intent and barriers to the introduction and maintenance of national HPV vaccinatio...

  20. New molecular targets against cervical cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duenas-Gonzalez A

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Alfonso Duenas-Gonzalez,1,2 Alberto Serrano-Olvera,3 Lucely Cetina,4 Jaime Coronel4 1Unit of Biomedical Research in Cancer, Instituto de Investigaciones Biomedicas UNAM/Instituto Nacional de Cancerologia, Mexico City, 2ISSEMyM Cancer Center, Toluca, 3Medical Oncology Service, ABC Medical Center, Mexico City, 4Division of Clinical Research, Instituto Nacional de Cancerologia, Mexico City, Mexico On behalf of the Tumor Study Group Abstract: Cervical cancer is the third most commonly diagnosed cancer worldwide and the fourth leading cause of cancer death in women. Major advances but still insufficient achievements in the treatment of locally advanced and high-risk early stage patients have occurred in the last decade with the incorporation of concurrent cisplatin with radiation and, lately, gemcitabine added to cisplatin chemoradiation. Despite a number of clinical studies incorporating molecular-targeted therapy as radiosensitizers being in progress, so far, only antiangiogenic therapy with bevacizumab added to cisplatin chemoradiation has demonstrated safety and shown encouraging results in a Phase II study. In advanced disease, cisplatin doublets do not have a great impact on the natural history of the disease with median survival rates not exceeding 13 months. The first Phase III study of bevacizumab, added to cisplatin or a non-cisplatin-containing doublet, showed significant increase in both overall survival and progression-free survival. Further studies are needed before bevacizumab plus chemotherapy can be considered the standard of care for advanced disease. Characterization of the mutational landscape of cervical cancer has already been initiated, indicating that, for now, few of these targetable alterations match with available agents. Progress in both the mutational landscape knowledge and developments of novel targeted therapies may result in more effective and individualized treatments for cervical cancer. The potential efficacy of

  1. Natural History of HPV and Cervical Cancer

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2009-10-12

    Dr. Phil Castle, an intramural research scientist at the National Institutes of Health, talks about the natural history of human papillomavirus (HPV) infections, and cervical cancer and other anogenital cancers.  Created: 10/12/2009 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP), Division of Cancer Prevention and Control (DCPC).   Date Released: 6/9/2010.

  2. Routine endoscopy for esophageal cancer is suggestive for patients with oral, oropharyngeal and hypopharyngeal cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shih-Han Hung

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: This study attempted to reveal the incidence and risk of synchronous and metachronous esophageal cancer in subjects with oral, oropharyngeal and hypopharyngeal cancer based on a population-wide database in Taiwan. METHODS: We retrieved data for this cross-sectional study from the Taiwanese Longitudinal Health Insurance Database 2000. The study group included 2,965 subjects who had received their first-time diagnosis of oral/oropharyngeal/hypopharyngeal cancer in 2002∼2009. We assigned the date of their first diagnosis of oral/oropharyngeal/hypopharyngeal cancer as the index date. We also randomly retrieved 29,650 comparison subjects matched with the study subjects in terms of gender and age group. We assigned their first medical utilization that occurred in the index year as the index date for the comparison group. We further performed a conditional logistic regression to investigate the association between esophageal cancer and oral cancer. RESULTS: Results showed that prevalences of esophageal cancer within 3 months before and after the index date were respectively 2.19% and 0.04% for the study and comparison groups. A conditional logistic regression revealed that the odds ratio (OR of esophageal cancer for subjects with oral/oropharyngeal/hypopharyngeal cancer was 55.33 (95% confidence interval (CI: 29.86∼102.52 compared to comparison subjects. Furthermore, compared to comparison subjects, ORs for esophageal cancer were respectively 18.41 (95% CI: 8.50-39.85, 40.49 (95% CI: 15.11∼108.64, and 240.96 (95% CI: 125.49-462.69 for study subjects with a malignancy of the oral cavity, oropharynx, and hypopharynx. CONCLUSION: We concluded that there were relatively high chances for synchronous and metachronous esophageal cancers being detected through panendoscopy in patients with oral, oropharyngeal, and hypopharyngeal cancers. The routine use of panendoscopy in such patients should be encouraged with a higher priority.

  3. Detecting cervical cancer by quantitative promoter hypermethylation assay on cervical scrapings : A feasibility study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reesink-Peters, N; Wisman, G.B.A.; Jeronimo, C; Tokumaru, CY; Cohen, Y; Dong, SM; Klip, HG; Buikema, HJ; Suurmeijer, AJH; Hollema, H; Boezen, HM; Sidransky, D; van der Zee, AGJ

    2004-01-01

    Current morphology-based cervical cancer screening is associated with significant false-positive and false-negative results. Tumor suppressor gene hypermethylation is frequently present in cervical cancer. It is unknown whether a cervical scraping reflects the methylation status of the underlying ep

  4. Detecting cervical cancer by quantitative promoter hypermethylation assay on cervical scrapings : A feasibility study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reesink-Peters, N; Wisman, G.B.A.; Jeronimo, C; Tokumaru, CY; Cohen, Y; Dong, SM; Klip, HG; Buikema, HJ; Suurmeijer, AJH; Hollema, H; Boezen, HM; Sidransky, D; van der Zee, AGJ

    Current morphology-based cervical cancer screening is associated with significant false-positive and false-negative results. Tumor suppressor gene hypermethylation is frequently present in cervical cancer. It is unknown whether a cervical scraping reflects the methylation status of the underlying

  5. Detecting cervical cancer by quantitative promoter hypermethylation assay on cervical scrapings : A feasibility study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reesink-Peters, N; Wisman, G.B.A.; Jeronimo, C; Tokumaru, CY; Cohen, Y; Dong, SM; Klip, HG; Buikema, HJ; Suurmeijer, AJH; Hollema, H; Boezen, HM; Sidransky, D; van der Zee, AGJ

    2004-01-01

    Current morphology-based cervical cancer screening is associated with significant false-positive and false-negative results. Tumor suppressor gene hypermethylation is frequently present in cervical cancer. It is unknown whether a cervical scraping reflects the methylation status of the underlying ep

  6. Primary esophageal and gastro-esophageal junction cancer xenograft models: clinicopathological features and engraftment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodbiba, Lorin; Teichman, Jennifer; Fleet, Andrew; Thai, Henry; Sun, Bin; Panchal, Devang; Patel, Devalben; Tse, Alvina; Chen, Zhuo; Faluyi, Olusola O; Renouf, Daniel J; Girgis, Hala; Bandarchi, Bizhan; Schwock, Joerg; Xu, Wei; Bristow, Robert G; Tsao, Ming-Sound; Darling, Gail E; Ailles, Laurie E; El-Zimaity, Hala; Liu, Geoffrey

    2013-04-01

    There are very few xenograft models available for the study of esophageal (E) and gastro-esophageal junction (GEJ) cancer. Using a NOD/SCID model, we implanted 90 primary E and GEJ tumors resected from patients and six endoscopic biopsy specimens. Of 69 resected tumors with histologically confirmed viable adenocarcinoma or squamous cell carcinoma, 22 (32%) was engrafted. One of 11 tumors, considered to have had a complete pathological response to neo-adjuvant chemo-radiation, also engrafted. Of the 23 patients whose tumors were engrafted, 65% were male; 30% were early stage while 70% were late stage; 22% received neo-adjuvant chemo-radiation; 61% were GEJ cancers. Engraftment occurred in 18/54 (33%) adenocarcinomas and 5/16 (31%) squamous cell carcinomas. Small endoscopic biopsy tissue had a 50% (3/6) engraftment rate. Of the factors analyzed, pretreatment with chemo-radiation and well/moderate differentiation showed significantly lower correlation with engraftment (P<0.05). In the subset of patients who did not receive neo-adjuvant chemo-radiation, 18/41 (44%) engrafted compared with those with pretreatment where 5/29 (17%, P=0.02) engrafted. Primary xenograft lines may be continued through 4-12 passages. Xenografts maintained similar histology and morphological characteristics with only minor variations even after multiple passaging in most instances.

  7. Review of the Cervical Cancer Burden and Population-Based Cervical Cancer Screening in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di, Jiangli; Rutherford, Shannon; Chu, Cordia

    2015-01-01

    Cervical cancer continues to be a serious public health problem in the developing world, including China. Because of its large population with geographical and socioeconomic inequities, China has a high burden of cervical cancer and important disparities among different regions. In this review, we first present an overview of the cervical cancer incidence and mortality over time, and focus on diversity and disparity in access to care for various subpopulations across geographical regions and socioeconomic strata in China. Then, we describe population-based cervical cancer screening in China, and in particular implementation of the National Cervical Cancer Screening Program in Rural Areas (NACCSPRA) and the challenges that this program faces. These include low screening coverage, shortage of qualified health care personnel and limited funds. To improve prevention of cervical cancer and obtain better cancer outcomes, the Chinese government needs to urgently consider the following key factors: reducing disparities in health care access, collecting accurate and broadly representative data in cancer registries, expanding target population size and increasing allocation of government funding for training of personnel, improving health education for women, enhancing quality control of screening services and improving a system to increase follow up for women with positive results.

  8. Radiation dose and subsequent risk for stomach cancer in long-term survivors of cervical cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kleinerman, Ruth A; Smith, Susan A; Holowaty, Eric

    2013-01-01

    To assess the dose-response relationship for stomach cancer after radiation therapy for cervical cancer.......To assess the dose-response relationship for stomach cancer after radiation therapy for cervical cancer....

  9. Feasibility of Mask Immobilization Techniques in Radiotherapy for Cervical and Upper-Thoracic Esophageal Cancer%面罩固定技术应用于颈段及胸上段食管癌放疗的可行性探究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林浩; 陈鑑; 刘晓庆; 王国喜; 郭和锋

    2014-01-01

    目的探讨头颈肩面罩固定技术在颈段、胸上段食管癌放疗中的应用及其临床意义。方法选取在本院TrueBeam放射治疗系统治疗的66例颈段及胸上段食管癌患者,其中使用面罩固定技术34例,采用非面罩固定技术32例,利用锥形束CT(Cone-Beam Computed Tomography,CBCT)影像技术研究两组患者在治疗中的摆位误差,进行对比分析。结果面罩固定技术组在X、Y、Z轴方向上的摆位误差分别为(1.70±1.40)、(2.30±1.70)、(2.10±1.60)mm,而非面罩固定技术组为(2.80±2.40)、(2.70±2.40)、(2.00±1.70)mm,两组间比较应用检验,X轴方向无明显差异(>0.05),Y轴和Z轴方向差异均有显著意义(0.05)in displacement of X-axis between the two immobilization techniques. However, the setup error in Y-axis and Z-axis direction were significantly dif erent ( <0.01). Conclusion In radiotherapy of cervical and upper-thoracic esophageal cancer, setup accuracy of patients immobilized with mask is more stable than other methods, which can be popularized in clinic.

  10. Cyclooxygenase-2 expression in cervical cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mandić Aljoša

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Cyclooxygenase (COX or prostaglandin H2 synthase is the first enzyme that catalyzes the first two steps in the biosynthesis of prostaglandins from arachidonic acid. The aim of the study was to determine the expression level of COX-2 in patients with cervical cancer and compare it with that in the control group with no cervical pathology. Methods. The study included 76 patients divided into two groups: the control group - 30 patients without histopathological changes and the group A - 46 patients with cervical cancer, FIGO stage IB-IIA. Histopathological and immunohistochemical analyses were performed in these two groups of patients. Results. In the control group, the expression of COX-2 was not confirmed compared to the group A of 26 (56.52% patients. The expression of COX-2 showed a statistically significant difference in the presence of lymphocytic stromal infiltration (p = 0.0053. The expression of COX-2 was more pronounced in the stromal tissue without lymphocytic infiltration (80% vs 20%. Conclusion. A higher expression of COX-2 in cervical carcinoma without stromal lymphocytic infiltration suggests a possible paradoxical effect of COX-2 in immunosuppression. Frequent COX- 2 expression in the subgroup with poor prognostic histological parameters in the group A indicates the importance of COX-2 expression in the carcinogenesis of cervical cancer.

  11. Therapeutic Vaccination for HPV Induced Cervical Cancers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joeli A. Brinkman

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Cervical Cancer is the second leading cause of cancer–related deaths in women worldwide and is associated with Human Papillomavirus (HPV infection, creating a unique opportunity to treat cervical cancer through anti-viral vaccination. Although a prophylactic vaccine may be available within a year, millions of women, already infected, will continue to suffer from HPV-related disease, emphasizing the need to develop therapeutic vaccination strategies. A majority of clinical trials examining therapeutic vaccination have shown limited efficacy due to examining patients with more advanced-stage cancer who tend to have decreased immune function. Current trends in clinical trials with therapeutic agents examine patients with pre-invasive lesions in order to prevent invasive cervical cancer. However, longer follow-up is necessary to correlate immune responses to lesion regression. Meanwhile, preclinical studies in this field include further exploration of peptide or protein vaccination, and the delivery of HPV antigens in DNA-based vaccines or in viral vectors. As long as pre-clinical studies continue to advance, the prospect of therapeutic vaccination to treat existing lesions seem good in the near future. Positive consequences of therapeutic vaccination would include less disfiguring treatment options and fewer instances of recurrent or progressive lesions leading to a reduction in cervical cancer incidence.

  12. Preoperative Arterial Interventional Chemotherapy on Cervical Cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Hui; LING HU-Hua; TANG Liang-dan; ZHANG Xing-hua

    2008-01-01

    Objective:To discuss the therapeutic effect of preoperative interventional chemotherapy on cervical cancer.Methods:Preoperative interventional chemotherapy by femoral intubation was performed in 25 patients with bulky cervical cancer.The patients received bleomycin 45 mg and cisplatin or oxaliplatin 80 mg/m2.Results:25 cases(including 8 cases with stage Ⅰ and 17 cases with stage Ⅱ)received one or two courses of preoperative interventional chemotherapy.The size of the focal lesions was decreased greatly and radical hysterectomy and lymphadenectomy were performed successfully in all the patients.All of the specimens were sent for pathological examination.Lymphocyte infiltration was found more obvious in the cancer tissues as compared with their counterpart before treatment.As a result,relevant vaginal bleeding was stopped completely shortly after the treatment.Conclusion:Arterial interventional chemotherapy was proved to reduce the local size of cervical cancer and thus control the hemorrhage efficiently.The patients with cervical cancer can receive radical hysterectomy therapy after the interventional chemotherapy.

  13. Exploration of knowledge of cervical cancer and cervical cancer screening amongst HIV-positive women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johanna E. Maree

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Although preventable, cervical cancer, an AIDS-related disease, is the second most common cancer amongst South African women and the most common cancer amongst black women. Objective: The objective of the study was to determine what women being treated for HIV and AIDS at a specific healthcare centre in Johannesburg knew about cervical cancer and cervical screening. Method: A survey design was used, with data gathered by means of a self-administered questionnaire. Convenience sampling selected 315 women to participate (n = 315. Descriptive statistics were used to analyse the data and chi-square testing found associations between categorical variables. Results: The majority of respondents (78.7%; n = 248 indicated that they had heard of cervical cancer and 62.9% (n = 198 knew about the Pap smear, with nurses and doctors being the primary source of information. Of the women who knew about the Pap smear, less than one-third had had a smear done, the main reason being fear of the procedure. Conclusion: The study provided evidence that women attending the specific HIV clinic were more knowledgeable about cervical cancer and screening than those of unknown HIV status involved in previous studies. Knowledge was still at a low level, especially when their exceptionally high risk was taken into account. Once again it was found that having knowledge did not necessarily mean having had a Pap smear, which remains a huge challenge in the prevention of cervical cancer.

  14. Incidence and Survival for Gastric and Esophageal Cancer Diagnosed in British Columbia, 1990 to 1999

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morteza Bashash

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Geographical variation and temporal trends in the incidence of esophageal and gastric cancers vary according to both tumour morphology and organ subsite. Both diseases are among the deadliest forms of cancer. The incidence and survival rates for gastric and esophageal carcinoma in British Columbia (BC between 1990 and 1999 are described.

  15. A phase I study of concurrent chemoradiotherapy and cetuximab for locally advanced esophageal cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holländer, Cecilie; Jensen, Lene Bæksgaard; Sorensen, Morten

    2012-01-01

    To determine the maximum tolerated dose (MTD) and dose-limiting toxicities (DLTs) of concurrent chemoradiotherapy and cetuximab in patients with non-resectable locally advanced esophageal cancer.......To determine the maximum tolerated dose (MTD) and dose-limiting toxicities (DLTs) of concurrent chemoradiotherapy and cetuximab in patients with non-resectable locally advanced esophageal cancer....

  16. Collection of Biospecimen & Clinical Information in Patients w/ Gastrointestinal Cancers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-24

    Gastrointestinal Neoplasms; Gynecologic Cancers; Gynecologic Cancers Cervical Cancer; Gastric (Stomach) Cancer; Gastro-Esophageal(GE) Junction Cancer; Gastrointenstinal Stromal Tumor (GIST); Colon/Rectal Cancer; Colon/Rectal Cancer Colon Cancer; Colon/Rectal Cancer Rectal Cancer; Colon/Rectal Cancer Anal Cancer; Anal Cancer; Hepatobiliary Cancers; Hepatobiliary Cancers Liver; Pancreatic Cancer

  17. Cervical cancer in India--strategy for control.

    OpenAIRE

    Prabhakar A

    1992-01-01

    The available information on the incidence of cancers by site in India have indicated that of incidence of cancer of uterine cervix among women is by far the highest compared to other sites in women. The epidemiology of cervical cancer has been studied extensively in India and in other countries. The majority of factors related to cervical cancer are associated with sexual behaviour. The available evidence for control of cervical cancer is through secondary prevention, namely--early detection...

  18. [Cervical cancer screening in Switzerland - current practice and future challenges].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Untiet, Sarah; Schmidt, Nicole; Low, Nicola; Petignat, Patrick

    2013-04-01

    At the beginning of the 20th Century, cervical cancer was the leading cause of death from cancer in women. A marked decline in cervical cancer has been observed since the 1960s, in parallel with the introduction of the Papanicolau (Pap) test as a cytological screening method. Today, Pap smear screening is still the most widely used tool for cervical cancer prevention. Testing for human papillomavirus (HPV) in cervical specimens or a combination of Pap and HPV testing are also now available. In this article we compare current guidelines for cervical cancer screening in Switzerland with those in other European countries. In view of the opportunities offered by HPV testing and, since 2008, HPV vaccination, current guidelines for cervical cancer screening should be updated. Both the choice of screening tests and general organization of cervical cancer screening should be reviewed.

  19. Differential expression analsis of matrix metallo-proteinase 20 (MMP20) in human esophageal cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the different expressions of MMP20 in the process of esophageal cancer. RT-PCR, immunohistochemistry and Western blot were employed to detect the mRNA expression and protein expression of MMP20. Compared with the corresponding normal esophagus tissues, results showed the common trend of the dramatical overexpression of MMP20 in the esopha-geal cancer tissues. The analysis of MMP20 expression in different clinical early stages of esophageal cancer by RT-PCR indicated that MMP20 was much more overexpressed in the esophageal cancer with invasion than in the early stages. This suggested that MMP20 might play an important role in the progression of esophageal cancer. It probably plays a critical role in tumor invasion.

  20. Recurrent cervical cancer : detection and prognosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duyn, A; Van Eijkeren, M; Kenter, G; Zwinderman, K; Ansink, A

    2002-01-01

    Background. Only a small proportion of cervical cancer recurrences is detected during routine follow-up. We investigated which percentage of recurrences is detected during follow-up, which diagnostic tools are helpful to detect recurrent disease and which factors are of prognostic significance once

  1. Cervical Cancer: paradigms at home and abroad

    Science.gov (United States)

    NCI funded a clinical trial that will have an impact on the treatment of late-stage cervical cancer, and also supported a screening trial in India using a network of community outreach workers offering low tech-screening by direct visualization of the cer

  2. Cervical Cancer: Reality and Paradigm Shift

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfredo Quiñones Ceballos

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Invasive cervical carcinoma usually reaches its highest frequency between 35-50 years of age. The Cuban prevention program screens the female population aged 25 to 60 years using the Pap smear and reexamines them every three years. Despite this effort, advanced cancer is diagnosed in young women as well as in those 40 to 60 years of age.

  3. Engineering Stent Based Delivery System for Esophageal Cancer Using Docetaxel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaikh, Mohsin; Choudhury, Namita Roy; Knott, Robert; Garg, Sanjay

    2015-07-01

    Esophageal cancer patients are often diagnosed as "advanced" cases. These patients are subjected to palliative stenting using self-expanding metallic stents (SEMS) to maintain oral alimentation. Unfortunately, SEMS get reoccluded due to tumor growth, in and over the stent struts. To investigate potential solutions to this problem, docetaxel (DTX) delivery films were prepared using PurSil AL 20 (PUS), which can be used as a covering material for the SEMS. Drug-polymer miscibility and interactions were studied. Bilayer films were prepared by adhering the blank film to the DTX loaded film in order to maintain the unidirectional delivery to the esophagus. In vitro release and the local DTX delivery were studied using in vitro permeation experiments. It was found that DTX and PUS were physically and chemically compatible. The bilayer films exhibited sustained release (>30 days) and minimal DTX permeation through esophageal tissues in vitro. The rate-determining step for the DTX delivery was calculated. It was found that >0.9 fraction of rate control lies with the esophageal tissues, suggesting that DTX delivery can be sustained for longer periods compared to the in vitro release observed. Thus, the bilayer films can be developed as a localized sustained delivery system in combination with the stent.

  4. Cervical Cancer Screening in Underserved Populations

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2009-10-15

    Dr. Lisa Flowers, a specialist in human papillovarius (HPV)-related diseases and Director of Colposcopy at Emory University School of Medicine, talks about cervical cancer screening in underinsured or uninsured women.  Created: 10/15/2009 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP), Division of Cancer Prevention and Control (DCPC).   Date Released: 6/9/2010.

  5. Endoscopic mucosectomy: an alternative treatment for superficial esophageal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambert, R

    2000-01-01

    Recent trends in the management of superficial esophageal cancer consist of improved detection, pretherapeutic staging and reliable criteria for curative endoscopic therapy. The endoscopic treatment is legitimate when the cancer is at an early stage, intra-epithelial or microinvasive (m1 or m2) and N0. Submucosal cancer should not be treated with a curative intent by endotherapy. Concerning squamous cell cancer, the oriental and occidental pathologists include high-grade dysplasia in the same group as intramucosal cancer. The distinction is however maintained for adenocarcinoma in the Barrett's esophagus. Indications of endoscopic rather than surgical treatment rely on: (1) the small size of the tumor (not more than 2 cm in diameter); (2) the endoscopic morphology in the type 0 of the Japanese classification with the flat subtypes IIa and IIb rather than type IIc--there is high risk of submucosal invasion for the polypoid (type I) or ulcerated superficial cancer (type III); and (3) the endoscopic ultrasound staging, with confirmed integrity of the hyperechoic submucosal layer. The high-frequency (20 MHz) miniprobe is preferred to the standard (7.5 MHz) instrument. The elective procedure for tumor eradication is endoscopic mucosectomy. The technique is associated with a 6.8% risk of severe complications (hemorrhage or perforation) and a recurrence rate of 3%-7%. The 5-year survival rate is similar to that of surgery (over 80%). In the small group of patients with superficial esophageal cancer (less than 10% of the disease) endoscopic treatment may now be proposed in about 30% of cases, surgery is preferred for submucosal cancer and for neoplasia with a large surface. Areas of high-grade dysplasia in the Barrett's esophagus offer a new and increasing sector of indications. The concurrent endoscopic procedure of destruction--photodynamic therapy--is preferred for the destruction of lesions with poorly delineated limits.

  6. Esophageal Cancer Dose Escalation Using a Simultaneous Integrated Boost Technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Welsh, James, E-mail: jwelsh@mdanderson.org [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States); Palmer, Matthew B. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States); Ajani, Jaffer A. [Department of Gastrointestinal Medical Oncology, University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States); Liao Zhongxing [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States); Swisher, Steven G.; Hofstetter, Wayne L. [Department of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery, University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States); Allen, Pamela K.; Settle, Steven H.; Gomez, Daniel; Likhacheva, Anna; Cox, James D.; Komaki, Ritsuko [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: We previously showed that 75% of radiation therapy (RT) failures in patients with unresectable esophageal cancer are in the gross tumor volume (GTV). We performed a planning study to evaluate if a simultaneous integrated boost (SIB) technique could selectively deliver a boost dose of radiation to the GTV in patients with esophageal cancer. Methods and Materials: Treatment plans were generated using four different approaches (two-dimensional conformal radiotherapy [2D-CRT] to 50.4 Gy, 2D-CRT to 64.8 Gy, intensity-modulated RT [IMRT] to 50.4 Gy, and SIB-IMRT to 64.8 Gy) and optimized for 10 patients with distal esophageal cancer. All plans were constructed to deliver the target dose in 28 fractions using heterogeneity corrections. Isodose distributions were evaluated for target coverage and normal tissue exposure. Results: The 50.4 Gy IMRT plan was associated with significant reductions in mean cardiac, pulmonary, and hepatic doses relative to the 50.4 Gy 2D-CRT plan. The 64.8 Gy SIB-IMRT plan produced a 28% increase in GTV dose and comparable normal tissue doses as the 50.4 Gy IMRT plan; compared with the 50.4 Gy 2D-CRT plan, the 64.8 Gy SIB-IMRT produced significant dose reductions to all critical structures (heart, lung, liver, and spinal cord). Conclusions: The use of SIB-IMRT allowed us to selectively increase the dose to the GTV, the area at highest risk of failure, while simultaneously reducing the dose to the normal heart, lung, and liver. Clinical implications warrant systematic evaluation.

  7. Survival and Symptom Relief after Palliative Radiotherapy for Esophageal Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welsch, Julia; Kup, Philipp Günther; Nieder, Carsten; Khosrawipour, Veria; Bühler, Helmut; Adamietz, Irenäus A; Fakhrian, Khashayar

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the 6-months dysphagia-free survival, improvement in swallowing function, complication rate, and overall survival in patients with incurable esophageal cancer treated with palliative radiotherapy. We retrospectively reviewed data from 139 patients (median age 72 years) with advanced/recurrent incurable esophageal cancer, who were referred to 3 German radiation oncology centers for palliative radiotherapy between 1994 and 2014. Radiotherapy consisted of external beam radiotherapy (EBRT) with 30 - 40.5 Gy/2.5 - 3 Gy per fraction, brachytherapy alone (BT) with 15 - 25 Gy/5 - 7Gy per fraction/weekly and EBRT + BT (30 - 40.5 Gy plus 10 - 14 Gy with BT) in 65, 46, and 28 patients, respectively. Dysphagia-free survival (Dy-PFS) was defined as the time to worsening of dysphagia for at least one point, a new loco-regional failure or death of any cause. Median follow-up time was 6 months (range 1-6 months). Subjective symptom relief was achieved in 72 % of patients with median response duration of 5 months. The 1-year survival rate was 30%. The 6-months Dy-PFS time for the whole group was 73 ± 4%. The 6-months Dy-PFS was 90 ± 4% after EBRT, 92 ± 5% after EBRT + BT and 37 ± 7% after BT, respectively (p<0.001). Five patients lived for more than 2 years, all of them were treated with EBRT ± BT. Ulceration, fistula and stricture developed in 3, 6 and 7 patients, respectively. Radiotherapy leads to symptom improvement in the majority of patients with advanced incurable esophageal cancer. The present results favor EBRT ± BT over BT alone. Due to the retrospective nature of this study, imbalances in baseline characteristics might have contributed to this finding, and further trials appear necessary.

  8. Study to Understand Cervical Cancer Early Endpoints and Determinants (SUCCEED)

    Science.gov (United States)

    A study to comprehensively assess biomarkers of risk for progressive cervical neoplasia, and thus develop a new set of biomarkers that can distinguish those at highest risk of cervical cancer from those with benign infection

  9. A Metachronous splenic metastases from esophageal cancer: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vercelli Alessandro

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The spleen is an infrequent site for metastatic lesions, and solitary splenic metastases from squamous cell carcinoma of the esophagus are very rare: only 4 cases have been reported thus far. These lesions are whitish nodules that are macroscopically and radiologically similar to primary splenic lymphomas. We report a case of metachronous splenic metastases from esophageal cancer and multiple splenic abscesses, which developed nine months after apparently curative esophagectomy without adjuvant chemotherapy. The patient underwent splenectomy dissection followed by adjuvant chemotherapy, but liver and skin metastases developed, and the patient died 9 months later.

  10. Proton Beam Therapy and Concurrent Chemotherapy for Esophageal Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Steven H., E-mail: shlin@mdanderson.org [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Komaki, Ritsuko; Liao Zhongxing [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Wei, Caimiao [Department of Biostatistics, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Myles, Bevan [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Guo Xiaomao [Department of Radiation Oncology, Fudan University Cancer Hospital, Shanghai (China); Palmer, Matthew [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Mohan, Radhe [Department of Physics, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Swisher, Stephen G.; Hofstetter, Wayne L. [Department of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Ajani, Jaffer A. [Department of Gastrointestinal Medical Oncology, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Cox, James D. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States)

    2012-07-01

    Purpose: Proton beam therapy (PBT) is a promising modality for the management of thoracic malignancies. We report our preliminary experience of treating esophageal cancer patients with concurrent chemotherapy (CChT) and PBT (CChT/PBT) at MD Anderson Cancer Center. Methods and Materials: This is an analysis of 62 esophageal cancer patients enrolled on a prospective study evaluating normal tissue toxicity from CChT/PBT from 2006 to 2010. Patients were treated with passive scattering PBT with two- or three-field beam arrangement using 180 to 250 MV protons. We used the Kaplan-Meier method to assess time-to-event outcomes and compared the distributions between groups using the log-rank test. Results: The median follow-up time was 20.1 months for survivors. The median age was 68 years (range, 38-86). Most patients were males (82%) who had adenocarcinomas (76%) and Stage II-III disease (84%). The median radiation dose was 50.4 Gy (RBE [relative biologic equivalence]) (range, 36-57.6). The most common grade 2 to 3 acute toxicities from CChT/PBT were esophagitis (46.8%), fatigue (43.6%), nausea (33.9%), anorexia (30.1%), and radiation dermatitis (16.1%). There were two cases of grade 2 and 3 radiation pneumonitis and two cases of grade 5 toxicities. A total of 29 patients (46.8%) received preoperative CChT/PBT, with one postoperative death. The pathologic complete response (pCR) rate for the surgical cohort was 28%, and the pCR and near CR rates (0%-1% residual cells) were 50%. While there were significantly fewer local-regional recurrences in the preoperative group (3/29) than in the definitive CChT/PBT group (16/33) (log-rank test, p = 0.005), there were no differences in distant metastatic (DM)-free interval or overall survival (OS) between the two groups. Conclusions: This is the first report of patients treated with PBT/CChT for esophageal cancer. Our data suggest that this modality is associated with a few severe toxicities, but the pathologic response and clinical

  11. Multidisciplinary treatment including chemoradiotherapy for advanced esophageal cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kobayashi, Kenji; Fukuda, Kazuhiro; Kikkawa, Nobuteru; Kobayashi, Tetsurou; Yagyu, Toshio; Hasuike, Yasunori; Mishima, Hideyuki; Shin, Eisei [Osaka National Hospital (Japan)

    1997-03-01

    Over 3 years, concurrent chemoradiotherapy was performed in 16 patients with advanced esophageal cancer (clinical Stage IV) and suspected noncurative resection. The subjects were {>=}A3 or N3, or were stage IV with distant metastasis on preoperative diagnosis. Two courses of 5FU and CDDP were given with concurrent radiotherapy. The predominant side effects were nausea, vomiting and anorexia. Mild or moderate leukopenia also occurred. The response was complete remission (CR) in two patients, partial remission (PR) in eight, minor response (MR) in two, no change (NC) in two and progressive disease (PD) in two. The overall response rate was 62.5%. Esophagectomy was performed in four patients (histological stage II in one, stage III in one, and stage IV in two). Two of 4 resected patients are alive (33.8 months), while the other died of unrelated causes. One of the 6 non-resected PR patients has survived for 18 months, but all other patients died of cancer within nine months of starting treatment. The survival rate of 16 patients undergoing chemoradiotherapy was 16.7% at one and two years. Thus, chemoradiotherapy may improve the prognosis of advanced esophageal cancer with suspected noncurative resection by increasing the response rate and the curative resection rate. (author)

  12. Eight-year experience in esophageal cancer surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B Thakur

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Esophageal cancer remains a major and lethal health problem. In Nepal, not much has been explored about its management. The aim of this study was to conduct a retrospective review of esophageal cancer patients undergoing surgery or combined modality treatment at a cancer hospital in Nepal. Materials and Methods: Resectable cases were treated primarily with surgery. Locally advanced cases with doubtful or obviously unresectability underwent preoperative chemo/radiation or chemoradiation followed by surgery. Results: Among 900 patients, 103 were treated with curative intent. Mean age of patients was 54 years, and 100% of the patients presented with complaint of dysphagia. Surgery as a single modality of treatment was done in 57% of cases, and the remaining underwent combined modality treatment. Transthoracic and transhiatal approaches were used in 95% and 5% of cases, respectively. Nodal sampling, two-field (2-FD, and three-field lymphadenectomy (3-FD were done in 18%, 59%, and 20% of cases, respectively. A majority of patients had pathological stage III disease (46.6%. In-hospitality mortality was 5%, and anastomotic leakage rate was 14%. In 87% of patients, R0 resection was achieved. Overall, 4-year survival was 20%. A R0 resection, early-stage disease and 3-FD favored the survival advantage (P < 0.05. Conclusion: The mortality, complication, and survival results were in the acceptable range. R0 resection and radical nodal dissection should be standard practice.

  13. Endoscopic diagnosis and treatment of esophageal verrucous squamous cell cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweetser, S; Jacobs, N L; Wong Kee Song, L M

    2014-07-01

    Verrucous squamous cell cancer (VSCC) of the esophagus is a variant of squamous cell carcinoma. This rare entity has been described in only a handful of case reports in the literature. We sought to evaluate the endoscopic features, treatment, and outcomes related to esophageal VSCC. The medical records of all patients with esophageal VSCC seen at our institution from January 1995 to December 2010 were reviewed retrospectively. A total of 11 patients (6 men; mean age 66 years [range 57-75 years]) were identified, with a mean follow up of 4 years (range 0.5-10 years) available in nine patients after diagnosis. About half the patients smoked or consumed alcohol on a regular basis. The median time interval from onset of symptoms to diagnosis of esophageal VSCC was 2.5 years (range 1-20 years), with dysphagia being present in all patients. The majority of tumors (8 of 11) exhibited a white, warty, plaque-like appearance with superimposed Candida at endoscopy, which led solely to a diagnosis of Candida esophagitis on initial presentation. The disease was either extensive (n = 5) throughout the esophagus or localized (n = 6) often by tumor nodules or projections, with the lower third of the esophagus being most commonly involved. Initial pinch biopsies were nondiagnostic in eight (73%) of the patients. Six patients underwent esophagectomy; neoadjuvant chemoradiation therapy was provided in two. In patients treated solely with surgery and who had a preoperative endoscopic ultrasound, the latter tended to overestimate staging of the lesion relative to surgical pathologic staging. Two patients were deemed to be poor operative candidates and received only chemoradiation treatment. One patient with a T2N0 tumor by endoscopic ultrasound staging was managed symptomatically with intermittent endoscopic dilation because of significant comorbidities that precluded surgery and oncologic therapy. There has been no evidence for residual or recurrent neoplastic disease in the eight

  14. Cervical cancer prevention: new tools and old barriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scarinci, Isabel C; Garcia, Francisco A R; Kobetz, Erin; Partridge, Edward E; Brandt, Heather M; Bell, Maria C; Dignan, Mark; Ma, Grace X; Daye, Jane L; Castle, Philip E

    2010-06-01

    Cervical cancer is the second most common female tumor worldwide, and its incidence is disproportionately high (>80%) in the developing world. In the United States, in which Papanicolaou (Pap) tests have reduced the annual incidence to approximately 11,000 cervical cancers, >60% of cases are reported to occur in medically underserved populations as part of a complex of diseases linked to poverty, race/ethnicity, and/or health disparities. Because carcinogenic human papillomavirus (HPV) infections cause virtually all cervical cancer, 2 new approaches for cervical cancer prevention have emerged: 1) HPV vaccination to prevent infections in younger women (aged or =30 years). Together, HPV vaccination and testing, if used in an age-appropriate manner, have the potential to transform cervical cancer prevention, particularly among underserved populations. Nevertheless, significant barriers of access, acceptability, and adoption to any cervical cancer prevention strategy remain. Without understanding and addressing these obstacles, these promising new tools for cervical cancer prevention may be futile. In the current study, the delivery of cervical cancer prevention strategies to these US populations that experience a high cervical cancer burden (African-American women in South Carolina, Alabama, and Mississippi; Haitian immigrant women in Miami; Hispanic women in the US-Mexico Border; Sioux/Native American women in the Northern Plains; white women in the Appalachia; and Vietnamese-American women in Pennsylvania and New Jersey) is reviewed. The goal was to inform future research and outreach efforts to reduce the burden of cervical cancer in underserved populations.

  15. Value of oral effervescent powder administration for multidetector CT evaluation of esophageal cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ringe, Kristina I., E-mail: ringe.kristina@mh-hannover.de [Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Hannover Medical School, Carl-Neuberg Str. 1, 30625 Hannover (Germany); Meyer, Simone, E-mail: Meyer.simone.rad@mh-hannover.de [Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Hannover Medical School, Carl-Neuberg Str. 1, 30625 Hannover (Germany); Ringe, Bastian P., E-mail: Ringe.bastian@mh-hannover.de [Department of General, Visceral and Transplantation Surgery, Hannover Medical School, Carl-Neuberg Str. 1, 30625 Hannover (Germany); Winkler, Michael, E-mail: Winkler.michael@mh-hannover.de [Department of General, Visceral and Transplantation Surgery, Hannover Medical School, Carl-Neuberg Str. 1, 30625 Hannover (Germany); Wacker, Frank, E-mail: Wacker.frank@mh-hannover.de [Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Hannover Medical School, Carl-Neuberg Str. 1, 30625 Hannover (Germany); Raatschen, Hans-Juergen, E-mail: Raatschen.hans-juergen@mh-hannover.de [Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Hannover Medical School, Carl-Neuberg Str. 1, 30625 Hannover (Germany)

    2015-02-15

    Highlights: • Oral effervescent powder improves esophageal distension and wall assessment at CT. • This technique improves detection and T staging of esophageal cancer at CT. • It can be easily adopted in clinical routine in patients with esophageal pathology. - Abstract: Purpose: To assess the value of oral effervescent powder (EP) for evaluation of esophageal distension, and for detection and staging of esophageal cancer with contrast-enhanced CT. Materials and methods: 84 patients without esophageal pathology and 52 patients with histological confirmed diagnosis of esophageal cancer were included in this prospective IRB-approved study. Half of the patients in both groups received EP prior to CT. Esophageal distension was assessed by planimetry of the inner (IA) and outer area (OA). Two blinded readers evaluated the datasets separately with regard to diagnosis of esophageal cancer (yes/no) and staging (T0-T4), if applicable. Distension results were compared (t-Test). In patients with cancer sensitivity, specificity, NPV and PPV were calculated. CT staging results were compared to histopathology (Cohen-k). Results: IA and IA/OA were significantly larger after EP as compared to the group without EP (p < 0.05). Sensitivity, specificity, NPV and PPV for cancer detection cancer were as follows: 78%/78%, 98%/98%, 95%/95%, 87%/87% with EP; 60%/68%, 98%/98%, 94%/94%, 80%/83% without EP. Staging with EP was good (k = 0.84/0.67) and moderate without EP (k = 0.58/0.59). Conclusions: Administration of EP prior to CT results in good distension of the esophagus, and improves detection and staging of esophageal cancer, as compared to control studies without EP.

  16. [Papillomavirus and cervical cancer in Chile].

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Ryan, Miguel; Valenzuela, María Teresa

    2008-11-01

    Molecular, clinical and epidemiological studies have established beyond doubt that human papiloma viruses (HPV) cause cervical cancer. The virus is also associated with genital warts and other less common cancers in oropharynx, vulva, vagina and penis. Worldwide, VPH genotypes 16 and 18 are the most common high risk genotypes, detected in near 70% of women with cervical cancer. The discovery of a cause-effect relationship between several carcinogenic microorganisms and cancer open avenues for new diagnostic, treatment and prevention strategies. In this issue of Revista Médica de Chile, two papers on HPV are presented. Guzman and colleagues demonstrate that HPV can be detected in 66% to 77% of healthy male adolescents bypolymerase chain reaction and that positivity depends on the site of the penis that is sampled. These results support the role of male to female transmission of high risk HPVs in Chile and should lead to even more active educational campaigns. The second paper provides recommendations for HPV vaccine use in Chile, generated by the Immunization Advisory Committee of the Chilean Infectious Disease Society. To issue these recommendations, the Committee analyzes the epidemiological information available on HPV infection and cervical cancer in Chile, vaccine safety and effectiveness data, and describes cost-effectiveness studies. Taking into account that universal vaccination is controversial, the Committee favors vaccine use in Chile and it's incorporation into a national program. However, there is an indication that the country requires the implementation of an integrated surveillance approach including cross matching of data obtained from HPV genotype surveillance, monitoring of vaccination coverage, and surveillance of cervical cancer. The final decision of universal vaccine use in Chile should be based on a through analysis of information.ev Mid Chile

  17. Esophageal motion characteristics in thoracic esophageal cancer: Impact of clinical stage T4 versus stages T1-T3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuta Kobayashi, MS

    2016-10-01

    Conclusions: The EM and the ITV margins in cT4 were significantly smaller than those in cT1-T3. The NM and the ITV margins of abdominal LNs were much larger than those of cervicothoracic LNs and the esophagus. In clinical radiation therapy planning for esophageal cancer, we should take cT stage into consideration.

  18. Obesity-associated endometrial and cervical cancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Wenyi; Chen, Chen; Zhao, Kong-Nan

    2013-01-01

    Epidemiological studies have indicated that obesity (body mass index-BMI>30) and overweight (BMI>25) directly associated with risk of many cancers. The association of obesity with cancer risks may be explained by the alterations in the metabolism of endogenous hormones, production of specific proteins and cytokines, adipose related inflammatory reactions, and genetic factors. This review aims to illustrate the link between obesity and occurrence and prognosis of endometrial and cervical cancers. Convincing scientific evidence shows that nutrition and lifestyle factors initiate the development of obesity with excessive adipose tissues, which trigger production of hormones, cytokines and other factors to promote growth of cancer cells. Obese women with either endometrial or cervical cancer, especially in postmenopausal period, have shown a significantly higher mortality. This is mainly due to that the obese women are more vulnerable in cancer occurrence and they are more likely to miss routine cancer screening, putting them at a greater risk for delayed diagnosis of these cancers and deteriorate prognosis. Thus, healthcare providers should pay particular attention to this more vulnerable group of women.

  19. Gaseous distention of the hypopharynx and cervical esophagus with nasal CPAP: a mimicker of pharyngeal perforation and esophageal atresia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walor, David; Berdon, Walter; Holt, Peter D.; Fox, Matthew [Columbia University Medical Center, Department of Radiology, New York, NY (United States); Children' s Hospital of New York, New York, NY (United States); Anderson, Nicole [Columbia University Medical Center, Department of Neonatology, New York, NY (United States); Children' s Hospital of New York, New York, NY (United States)

    2005-12-01

    Nasal continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) has been used since 1975 as the initial treatment for respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) in very premature infants. Gaseous distention of the abdomen (CPAP belly) is a common secondary effect of CPAP. Gaseous distention of the hypopharynx is also common. To determine the incidence of hypopharyngeal distention in infants on CPAP. We performed a retrospective review of the chest radiographs of 57 premature infants treated with CPAP during a 4-week period to find the presence and degree of hypopharyngeal distention. Of the 57 radiographs, 14 (25%) revealed gaseous distention of the hypopharynx and/or cervical esophagus. On occasion, this raised concern for pharyngeal perforation or esophageal atresia. Awareness that CPAP-related hypopharyngeal distention is common should help radiologists avoid erroneous consideration of esophageal atresia or hypopharyngeal perforation. (orig.)

  20. Breast and cervical cancer risk in India: An update

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smita Asthana

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Breast and cervical cancers are two major cancers among Indian women. Analysis of trends would help in planning and organization of programs for control of these cancers. Objective: The objective of the following study is to compute risk of breast and cervical cancers using updated data from different cancer registries of India and study of its trends. Materials and Methods: Data on incidence rates of breast and cervical cancers were obtained from six major cancer registries of India for the years 1982-2008 and from the recently initiated cancer registries, North Eastern Registries of India with a total of 21 registries. Annual percent change in incidence and risk in terms of one in number of women likely to develop cancer was estimated for both the cancers in various registries. Results: The annual percentage change in incidence ranged from 0.46 to 2.56 and −1.14 to −3.4 for breast and cervical cancers respectively. Trends were significant for both cancers in the registries of Chennai, Bangalore, Mumbai and Delhi except Barshi and Bhopal. North East region showed decrease in risk for breast and cervical cancers whereas increasing trend was observed in Imphal (West and for cervical cancer in Silchar. Conclusion: North Eastern region recorded decline in the incidence of breast cancer which is contrary to the observation in other registries, which showed increase in breast cancer and decline in cervical cancer incidences.

  1. Detection of STAT2 in early stage of cervical premalignancy and in cervical cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liang Zeng; Li-Hua Gao; Li-Jun Cao; De-Yun Feng; Ya Cao; Qi-Zhi Luo; Ping Yu; Ming Li

    2012-01-01

    Objective:To measure the expression pattern ofSTAT2 in cervical cancer initiation and progression in tissue sections from patients with cervicitis, dysplasia, and cervical cancer. Methods:Antibody against humanSTAT2 was confirmed by plasmids transient transfection andWestern blot.Immunohistochemistry was used to detectSTAT2 expression in the cervical biopsies by using the confirmed antibody againstSTAT2 as the primary antibody.Results:It was found that the overall rate of positiveSTAT2 expression in the cervicitis, dysplasia and cervical cancer groups were38.5%,69.4% and76.9%, respectively.TheSTAT2 levels are significantly increased in premalignant dysplasia and cervical cancer, as compared to cervicitis(P<0.05). Noticeably,STAT2 signals were mainly found in the cytoplasm, implying thatSTAT2 was not biologically active.Conclusions:These findings reveal an association between cervical cancer progression and augmentedSTAT2 expression.In conclusion,STAT2 increase appears to be an early detectable cellular event in cervical cancer development.

  2. The male role in cervical cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Castellsagué Xavier

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Experimental, clinical, and epidemiological evidence strongly suggests that genital Human Papillomaviruses (HPVs are predominantly sexually transmitted. Epidemiological studies in virginal and HPV-negative women clearly indicate that sexual intercourse is virtually a necessary step for acquiring HPV. As with any other sexually transmitted disease (STD men are implicated in the epidemiological chain of the infection. Penile HPVs are predominantly acquired through sexual contacts. Sexual contacts with women who are prostitutes play an important role in HPV transmission and in some populations sex workers may become an important reservoir of high-risk HPVs. Acting both as "carriers" and "vectors" of oncogenic HPVs male partners may markedly contribute to the risk of developing cervical cancer in their female partners. Thus, in the absence of screening programs, a woman's risk of cervical cancer may depend less on her own sexual behavior than on that of her husband or other male partners. Although more rarely than women, men may also become the "victims" of their own HPV infections as a fraction of infected men are at an increased risk of developing penile and anal cancers. Male circumcision status has been shown to reduce the risk not only of acquiring and transmitting genital HPVs but also of cervical cancer in their female partners. More research is needed to better understand the natural history and epidemiology of HPV infections in men.

  3. The investment case for cervical cancer elimination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsu, Vivien Davis; Ginsburg, Ophira

    2017-07-01

    We already know what causes cervical cancer, how to prevent it, and how to treat it, even in resource-constrained settings. Inequitable access to human papillomavirus vaccine for girls and screening and precancer treatment for women in low- and middle-income countries is unacceptable on ethical, social, and financial grounds. The burden of cervical cancer falls on the poor and extends beyond the narrow bounds of the family, affecting national economic development and community life, as family resources are drained and poverty tightens its grip. Proven solutions are available and the priorities for the next few years are clear, as shown by the papers in this Supplement. Sustained political commitment and strategic investments in cervical cancer prevention can not only save millions of lives over the next 10 years, but can also pave the way for the broader fight against all cancers. © 2017 The Authors. International Journal of Gynecology & Obstetrics published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics.

  4. Usefulness of magnifying endoscopy for iodine-unstained lesions in a high-risk esophageal cancer population

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ik; Seong; Choi; Jae; Young; Jang; Won; Young; Cho; Tae; Hee; Lee; Hyun; Gun; Kim; Bo; Young; Lee; Soung; Won; Jeong; Joo; Young; Cho; Joon; Seong; Lee; So; Young; Jin

    2010-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the usefulness of magnified observations of iodine-unstained esophageal lesions in the histological diagnosis of esophageal mucosa abnormalities, in high-risk esophageal cancer groups. METHODS: The subjects included 38 patients who had at least one of the four criteria known to be highrisk factors for esophageal cancer. Following endoscopic observation, magnified observations were performed on iodine-unstained lesions of the esophagus. The total number of lesions was 43. These lesions we...

  5. Women's perceived susceptibility to and utilisation of cervical cancer ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2014-10-24

    Oct 24, 2014 ... aged 42 and older, must be informed about the advantages of cervical cancer .... Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 16.0 ..... viewed 24 August 2014, from http://www.who.int/cancer/media/en/cancer_.

  6. Correlates of Cervical Cancer Screening among Vietnamese American Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grace X. Ma

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Vietnamese American women are at the greatest risk for cervical cancer but have the lowest cervical cancer screening rates. This study was to determine whether demographic and acculturation, healthcare access, and knowledge and beliefs are associated with a prior history of cervical cancer screening among Vietnamese women. Methods. Vietnamese women (n=1450 from 30 Vietnamese community-based organizations located in Pennsylvania and New Jersey participated in the study and completed baseline assessments. Logistic regression analyses were performed. Results. Overall levels of knowledge about cervical cancer screening and human papillomavirus (HPV are low. Factors in knowledge, attitude, and beliefs domains were significantly associated with Pap test behavior. In multivariate analyses, physician recommendation for screening and having health insurance were positively associated with prior screening. Conclusion. Understanding the factors that are associated with cervical cancer screening will inform the development of culturally appropriate intervention strategies that would potentially lead to increasing cervical cancer screening rates among Vietnamese women.

  7. 75 FR 7282 - Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection and Control Advisory Committee (BCCEDCAC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-18

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection and... cervical cancer. The committee makes recommendations regarding national program goals and objectives... Force guidelines for breast and cervical cancer screening; Impact of the revised clinical...

  8. Radiation therapy for stage IVA cervical cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murakami, Naoya; Kasamatsu, Takahiro; Morota, Madoka; Sumi, Minako; Inaba, Koji; Ito, Yoshinori; Itami, Jun

    2013-11-01

    To evaluate the outcome and discover predictive factors for patients with stage IVA cervical cancer treated with definitive radiation therapy. We retrospectively reviewed 34 patients with stage IVA cervical cancer who received definitive radiation therapy between 1992 and 2009. On univariate analysis, statistically significant prognostic factors for improved local control rate (LCR) were absence of pyometra (p=0.037) and equivalent dose in 2 Gy fractions (EQD2) at point A greater than 60 Gy (p=0.023). Prognostic factors for improved progression-free survival (PFS) were absence of pelvic lymph node metastasis at initial presentation (p=0.014), and EQD2 at point A greater than 60 Gy (p=0.023). Patients with stage IVA disease had poor median survival. However adequate radiation dose to point A produced favorable LCR and PFS, therefore efforts should be made to increase the point A dose.

  9. Automatic treatment planning facilitates fast generation of high-quality treatment plans for esophageal cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Christian Rønn; Nielsen, Morten; Bertelsen, Anders Smedegaard

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The quality of radiotherapy planning has improved substantially in the last decade with the introduction of intensity modulated radiotherapy. The purpose of this study was to analyze the plan quality and efficacy of automatically (AU) generated VMAT plans for inoperable esophageal...... to the lungs. The automation of the planning process generated esophageal cancer treatment plans quickly and with high quality....... cancer patients. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Thirty-two consecutive inoperable patients with esophageal cancer originally treated with manually (MA) generated volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) plans were retrospectively replanned using an auto-planning engine. All plans were optimized with one full 6MV...

  10. Cervical cancer prevention and treatment in Latin America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, Melissa S; Baker, Ellen S; Maza, Mauricio; Fontes-Cintra, Georgia; Lopez, Aldo; Carvajal, Juan M; Nozar, Fernanda; Fiol, Veronica; Schmeler, Kathleen M

    2017-02-07

    Cervical cancer is a preventable disease with a known etiology (human papillomavirus), effective preventive vaccines, excellent screening methods, and a treatable pre-invasive phase. Surgery is the primary treatment for pre-invasive and early-stage disease and can safely be performed in many low-resource settings. However, cervical cancer rates remain high in many areas of Latin America. This article presents a number of evidence-based strategies being implemented to improve cervical cancer outcomes in Latin America.

  11. Drug Delivery Approaches for the Treatment of Cervical Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farideh Ordikhani

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Cervical cancer is a highly prevalent cancer that affects women around the world. With the availability of new technologies, researchers have increased their efforts to develop new drug delivery systems in cervical cancer chemotherapy. In this review, we summarized some of the recent research in systematic and localized drug delivery systems and compared the advantages and disadvantages of these methods.

  12. Risk factors for esophageal cancer in a low-incidence area of Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orlando Milhomem Mota

    Full Text Available CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVESEsophageal cancer is the eighth commonest type of cancer worldwide, occupying sixth place in terms of mortality. Smoking and alcohol use are known risk factors for this type of cancer. The aim here was to evaluate the risk factors for esophageal cancer in a low-incidence area.DESIGN AND SETTINGCase-control study in Goiânia, with 99 cases of esophageal cancer and 223 controls.METHODSThe variables were sociodemographic, dietary, occupational and lifestyle data. The sample was analyzed using the chi-square test, Mann-Whitney test and Mantel-Haenszel approach for multivariate analysis. Odds ratios (OR were calculated with 5% significance and 95% confidence intervals.RESULTSThe risk of esophageal cancer was higher in patients ≥ 55 years (OR = 1.95; P < 0.001. Patients from rural areas were at greater risk of esophageal cancer (OR = 4.9; P < 0.001. Smoking was a risk factor among the cases (OR = 3.8; P < 0.001, as was exposure to woodstoves (OR = 4.42; P < 0.001. The practice of oral sex was not a risk factor (OR = 0.45; P = 0.04. Consumption of apples, pears, vegetables, cruciferous vegetables and fruit juices were protective against esophageal cancer.CONCLUSIONIn a region in which the incidence of esophageal cancer is low, the most significant risk factors were exposure to woodstoves, smoking and living in rural areas.

  13. The comparison between two different methods of radiotherapy in palliation and survival of patients with esophageal cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keshvary M

    2001-10-01

    Full Text Available Esophageal cancer is one of the most common malignancies in our country. Patients often seek medical advice in advanced and inoperable stages or with cervical esophageal cancer, in which operation is accompanied by sever morbidity. In this conditions many of them cannot tolerate chemo-radiation, or refuse it. Therefore radiotherapy is applied as a single modality in palliation of many patients with esophageal cancer. One of the palliative radio therapeutic methods is application of 5000 CGY in 20 fractions (Long Course; but considering the great number of our patients and limited capacity of radiotherapy centers, as well as emphasis of literature on palliation with 4000 CGY in 13 fractions (short course, we decided to compare these two methods (which are both used in our departments. In this retrospective analytic study, the files of 283 patients with esophageal cancer referred to cancer institute of Imam Khomeini Hospital from 1989-1999 were studied. Patients were between 27-97 years old (mean age=58.3 and most of them were male (53.7 percent. The mean length of lesion was 8.5 cm. The most common site of lesion was middle third at esophagus (48.1 percent and the most common pathology was squamous cell carcinoma (99.6 percent. Fifty-four percent of patients were hot tea drinkers habitually. From the mentioned variables, only length of lesion had significant relationship with overall survival (P=0.04. Thirty-eight of 283 patients were excluded from analytic study because of incomplete follow-up. The number of patients had been treated by long course (5000 CGY in 20 fractions was 137 and the remainder (108 patients by short course (4000 CGY in 13 fractions. No significant difference was seen statistically between these two groups in overall and dysphagia-free survival (Kaplan-Meyer test. Also total dosage of spinal cord is lower in the short course. Thus regarding to less required time in short course and comparable palliation and survival between

  14. 颈段食管癌固定野调强与旋转调强放疗计划比较研究%Application of IMAT versus fixed-gantry IMRT in cervical esophageal cancer : A comparison in dosimetry and implementation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈进琥; 尹勇; 刘同海; 董晓玲; 王冬青; 孙涛; 马长升; 林秀桐

    2010-01-01

    Objective To compare and analyze the characteristics of intensity-modulated arc therapy (IMAT) versus fixed-gantry intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) in the treatment of cervical esophageal cancer.Methods Ten patients treated in our radiotherapy center were selected for this study.Based on the identical CT and planning target volume (PTV), two IMAT plans were generated with Eclipse ver8.6 planning system.IMAT1 consisting of a single 359.8° rotation, and IMAT2 consisting of two coplanar 359.8° rotations.PTV were prescribed to 60 Gy in 30 fractions.Planning objectives for PTV,corresponding with the IMRT plans, were V98 larger than 97% and V110 no more than 15%.The maximum dose of spinal-cord was constrained below 45 Gy.One-way ANOVA were applied to dose-volume values for PTV and OAR from DVH.Results There were no significant differences between IMRT and IMAT in PTV D98, V98, CI or total-lung V5, V10, V30, V40, V50 and mean lung dose (all P > 0.05).However, the differences were significant in terms of D2, V110 and HI of PTV, V20 of the total-lung (all P0.05);PTV的D2、V110及HI,肺V20差异均有统计学意义(P值均<0.05).总机器跳数比较,IMRT组(1174.8 MU)比IMAT1(709.7 MU)、IMAT2(803.8 MU)组分别减少了39.6%、31.6%(F=39.25,P=0.000).总治疗时间比较,IMRT组(14.9 min)比IMAT1(1.9 min)、IMAT2(2.66 min)组分别减少了87.2%、82.1%(F=45.14,P=0.000).结论 IMAT可以达到与IMRT相似的剂量学要求,IMAT2计划优于IMAT1.IMAT具有较少总MU、总治疗时间优势,并减少了治疗中不确定性因素影响及患者不适感.

  15. Chemoradiotherapy for superficial (sm{sub 2}/sm{sub 3}) esophageal cancer. Chemoradiotherapy for clinical stage I esophageal cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muro, Kei; Arai, Tatsuhiro; Hamanaka, Hisanao [National Cancer Center, Tokyo (Japan). Hospital

    2002-09-01

    We studied the clinical outcome of chemoradiotherapy for clinical Stage I squamous cell carcinoma of the esophagus. Seventy-one patients without possibility of cure by endoscopic mucosal resection (EMR) were analyzed. Patients received continuous infusion of 5FU at a dose of 700 mg/m{sup 2}/24 hours on days 1 to 4, combined with CDDP at a dose of 70 mg/m{sup 2} on day 1, and concurrent radiation therapy at a dose of 30 Gy in 15 fractions over 3 weeks. This schedule was repeated twice every 4 weeks, for a total radiation dose of 60 Gy. The 66 patients (93%) achieved a complete response. Toxicities were generally mild, but late radiation morbidity was relatively frequent. However, no toxicities interfering with function were seen. With a median follow-up duration of 23 months, the 1, 2 and 3-year survival rates were 97%, 90% and 80%, respectively. This survival rate compared with that obtained by ordinary surgery with three-field lymph node dissection. Chemoradiotherapy for clinical Stage I esophageal cancer is a promising method, because of its safety and its being a curative therapy. We should present this therapy as well as surgery as an option of possibly curative therapy to patients with clinical Stage I esophageal cancer. (author)

  16. Mothers' attitudes in Japan regarding cervical cancer screening correlates with intention to recommend cervical cancer screening for daughters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egawa-Takata, Tomomi; Ueda, Yutaka; Tanaka, Yusuke; Morimoto, Akiko; Kubota, Satoshi; Yagi, Asami; Terai, Yoshito; Ohmichi, Masahide; Ichimura, Tomoyuki; Sumi, Toshiyuki; Murata, Hiromi; Okada, Hidetaka; Nakai, Hidekatsu; Mandai, Masaki; Yoshino, Kiyoshi; Kimura, Tadashi; Saito, Junko; Kudo, Risa; Sekine, Masayuki; Enomoto, Takayuki; Horikoshi, Yorihiko; Takagi, Tetsu; Shimura, Kentaro

    2016-10-01

    Cervical cancer and its precancerous lesions caused by human papilloma virus (HPV) are steadily increasing in women in Japan. In comparison with women in other resource-rich countries, young women in Japan have a dismally low screening rate for cervical cancer. Our preliminary research has shown that 20-year-old women in Japan usually ask their mothers for advice regarding their initial cervical cancer screening. The objective of our current research is to determine the social factors among mothers in Japan that are causing them to give advice to their daughters regarding the HPV vaccine and cervical cancer screening. The survey's targets were mothers who had 20-year-old daughters. We recruited respondents from the roster of a commercial internet survey panel. We analyzed for correlations between a mother's knowledge concerning cervical cancer, her recent cancer screening history, and the advice she gave to her daughter regarding cervical cancer screening. We obtained 618 valid answers to the survey. Compared with mothers who did not get screening, mothers who had cervical cancer screening had significantly more knowledge about cervical cancer and its screening (p < 0.05). The daughters of mothers with recent screening had received HPV vaccination more often than those of mothers without recent screening (p = 0.018). Mothers with recent screening histories tended more often to encourage their daughters to have cervical cancer screening (p < 0.05). When mothers were properly educated concerning cervical cancer and its screening, they were significantly more likely than before to recommend that their daughters have it (p < 0.0001). In young Japanese women, given the important role their mothers have in their lives, it is probable that we could improve their cervical cancer screening rate significantly by giving their mothers better medical information, and a chance to experience cervical cancer screening for themselves.

  17. Primary Health Care and Cervical Cancer Mortality Rates in Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocha, Thiago Augusto Hernandes; da Silva, Núbia Cristina; Thomaz, Erika Bárbara Abreu Fonseca; Queiroz, Rejane Christine de Sousa; de Souza, Marta Rovery; Lein, Adriana; Alvares, Viviane; de Almeida, Dante Grapiuna; Barbosa, Allan Claudius Queiroz; Thumé, Elaine; Staton, Catherine; Vissoci, João Ricardo Nickenig; Facchini, Luiz Augusto

    2017-01-01

    Cervical cancer is a common neoplasm that is responsible for nearly 230 000 deaths annually in Brazil. Despite this burden, cervical cancer is considered preventable with appropriate care. We conducted a longitudinal ecological study from 2002 to 2012 to examine the relationship between the delivery of preventive primary care and cervical cancer mortality rates in Brazil. Brazilian states and the federal district were the unit of analysis (N = 27). Results suggest that primary health care has contributed to reducing cervical cancer mortality rates in Brazil; however, the full potential of preventive care has yet to be realized. PMID:28252500

  18. Radiation Therapy and Cisplatin With or Without Triapine in Treating Patients With Newly Diagnosed Stage IB2, II, or IIIB-IVA Cervical Cancer or Stage II-IVA Vaginal Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-03-23

    Cervical Adenocarcinoma; Cervical Adenosquamous Carcinoma; Cervical Squamous Cell Carcinoma, Not Otherwise Specified; Stage IB2 Cervical Cancer; Stage II Vaginal Cancer; Stage IIA Cervical Cancer; Stage IIB Cervical Cancer; Stage III Vaginal Cancer; Stage IIIB Cervical Cancer; Stage IVA Cervical Cancer; Stage IVA Vaginal Cancer; Stage IVB Vaginal Cancer

  19. Multimodality approach for locally advanced esophageal cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Khaldoun Almhanna; Jonathan R Strosberg

    2012-01-01

    Carcinoma of the esophagus is an aggressive and lethal malignancy with an increasing incidence world-wide.Incidence rates vary internationally,with the highest rates found in Southern and Eastern Africa and Eastern Asia,and the lowest in Western and Middle Africa and Central America.Patients with locally advanced disease face a poor prognosis,with 5-year survival rates ranging from 15%-34%.Recent clinical trials have evaluated different strategies for management of locoregional cancer; however,because of stage migration and changes in disease epidemiology,applying these trials to clinical practice has become a daunting task.We searched Medline and conference abstracts for randomized studies published in the last 3 decades.We restricted our search to articles published in English.Neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy followed by surgical resection is an accepted standard of care in the United States.Esophagectomy remains an essential component of treatment and can lead to improved overall survival,especially when performed at high volume institutions.The role of adjuvant chemotherapy following curative resection is still unclear.External beam radiation therapy alone is considered palliative and is typically reserved for patients with a poor performance status.

  20. Cervical syphilitic lesions mimicking cervical cancer: a rare case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoqing Zhu

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available A woman presented to the hospital due to postcoital vaginal bleeding. The patient was initially diagnosed with cervical carcinoma by clinicians at a local hospital. However, a biopsy of the cervical lesions revealed chronic inflammation and erosion of the cervical mucosa, and the rapid plasma reagin ratio titer was 1:256. The patient was eventually diagnosed with syphilitic cervicitis and treated with minocycline 0.1 g twice a day. The patient was cured with this treatment.

  1. DNA probes for papillomavirus strains readied for cervical cancer screening

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Merz, B.

    1988-11-18

    New Papillomavirus tests are ready to come to the aid of the standard Papanicolauo test in screening for cervical cancer. The new tests, which detect the strains of human papillomavirus (HPV) most commonly associated with human cervical cancer, are designed to be used as an adjunct to rather than as a replacement for the Papanicolaou smears. Their developers say that they can be used to indicated a risk of developing cancer in women whose Papanicolaou smears indicate mild cervical dysplasia, and, eventually, to detect papillomavirus infection in normal Papanicolaou smears. The rationale for HPV testing is derived from a growing body of evidence that HPV is a major factor in the etiology of cervical cancer. Three HPV tests were described recently in Chicago at the Third International Conference on Human Papillomavirus and Squamous Cervical Cancer. Each relies on DNA probes to detect the presence of papillomavirus in cervical cells and/or to distinguish the strain of papillomavirus present.

  2. [Indications for and limitations of HpD photodynamic therapy for esophageal cancer and gastric cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mimura, S; Ichii, M; Imanishi, K; Otani, T; Okuda, S

    1988-04-01

    HpD photodynamic therapy (PDT) was performed on 4 patients with superficial esophageal cancer, 20 patients with 22 early gastric cancer lesions and one patient with advanced gastric cancer. About 50 h before irradiation, 3 mg/kg of HpD or 1.3-2.5 mg/kg of Photofrin II was injected intravenously. The entire lesion including a 5-mm border of normal surrounding mucosa, was irradiated with an argon dye laser at 630nm wavelength with an output of 100-400mW at the tip of the fiber. Complete response (CR) to HpD-PDT was obtained in 2 of 2 mucosal esophageal cancers, and one of 2 submucosal lesions, totalling 3 of 4, and in 13 of 13 mucosal gastric cancers and 7 of 9 submucosal lesions totalling 20 of 22. The depths of cancer involvement were determined endoscopically. In Borrmann 1 lesion with muscularis externa involvement, in spite of two trials with HpD-PDT, only partial response (PR) was obtained. Tumor laser dose had to be more than 90 J/cm2, and in several cases combined hot biopsy with electrodiathermy and/or repeated HpD-PDT was needed to obtain CR. HpD-PDT is indicated for superficial esophageal cancer and depressed and/or assembled protuberant-type of early gastric cancer with poor risk.

  3. Preoperative diagnosis of lymph node metastasis in thoracic esophageal cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eguchi, Reiki; Yamada, Akiyoshi; Ueno, Keiko; Murata, Yoko [Tokyo Women`s Medical Coll. (Japan)

    1996-10-01

    From 1994 to 1995, to evaluate the utility of preoperative CT, EUS (endoscopic ultrasonography) and US in the diagnosis of lymph node metastasis in thoracic esophageal cancer, 94 patients with thoracic esophageal cancer who underwent esophagectomy were studied clinicopathologically. The sensitivity of EUS diagnosis of upper mediastinal lymph node metastasis (85%), left-sided paragastrin lymph node metastasis (73-77%), and especially lower paraesophageal lymph node metastasis (100%) were good. But due to their low-grade specificity in EUS diagnosis, their overall accuracy was not very good. On the other hand, the overall accuracy of the CT diagnosis of lymph node metastasis was fine. However, sensitivity, the most important clinical factor in the CT diagnosis of lymph node metastasis was considerably inferior to EUS. The assessment of the diagnosis of lymph node metastasis around the tracheal bifurcation and the pulmonary hilum and the left para-cardial lesion by CT or EUS was poor. It was concluded that lymph node metastasis of these area must be the pitfall in preoperative diagnosis. The average diameter of the lymph nodes and the proportion of cancerous tissue in the lymph nodes diagnosed as metastatic lymph nodes by CT was larger than that of the false negative lymph nodes. However, the lymph nodes diagnosed as true positives by EUS showed no such tendency. This must be the reason the sensitivity of the EUS diagnosis and specificity of the CT diagnosis were favorable, but the specificity of the EUS diagnosis and especially the sensitivity of the CT diagnosis were not as good. (author)

  4. Knowledge about Cervical Cancer and Barriers of Screening Program among Women in Wufeng County, a High-Incidence Region of Cervical Cancer in China

    OpenAIRE

    Yao Jia; Shuang Li; Ru Yang; Hang Zhou; Qunying Xiang; Ting Hu,; Qinghua Zhang; Zhilan Chen; Ding Ma; Ling Feng

    2013-01-01

    PURPOSE: Cervical cancer screening is an effective method for reducing the incidence and mortality of cervical cancer, but the screening attendance rate in developing countries is far from satisfactory, especially in rural areas. Wufeng is a region of high cervical cancer incidence in China. This study aimed to investigate the issues that concern cervical cancer and screening and the factors that affect women's willingness to undergo cervical cancer screening in the Wufeng area. PARTICIPANTS ...

  5. Knowledge about Cervical Cancer and Barriers of Screening Program among Women in Wufeng County, a High-Incidence Region of Cervical Cancer in China

    OpenAIRE

    Yao Jia; Shuang Li; Ru Yang; Hang Zhou; Qunying Xiang; Ting Hu; Qinghua Zhang; Zhilan Chen; Ding Ma; Ling Feng

    2013-01-01

    PURPOSE: Cervical cancer screening is an effective method for reducing the incidence and mortality of cervical cancer, but the screening attendance rate in developing countries is far from satisfactory, especially in rural areas. Wufeng is a region of high cervical cancer incidence in China. This study aimed to investigate the issues that concern cervical cancer and screening and the factors that affect women's willingness to undergo cervical cancer screening in the Wufeng area. PARTICIPANTS ...

  6. General Information about Cervical Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Resources Conducting Clinical Trials Statistical Tools and Data Terminology Resources NCI Data Catalog Cryo-EM NCI's Role ... Contacts Other Funding Find NCI funding for small business innovation, technology transfer, and contracts Training Cancer Training ...

  7. The role of postoperative adjuvant radiotherapy in resected esophageal cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Chang Geol; Kim, Choong Bae; Chung, Kyung Young; Lee, Doo Yun; Seong Jin Sil; Kim, Gwi Eon; Suh, Chang Ok [Yonsei University College of Medicine, Yonsei Cancer Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2002-12-15

    A retrospective study was performed to evaluate whether postoperative adjuvant radiotherapy can improve survival and decrease recurrence as compared with surgery alone in resected esophageal cancer. From Jan. 1985 to Dec. 1993, among 94 esophageal cancer patients treated with surgery, fifty-one patients were included in this study. Transthoracic esophagectomy was performed in 35 patients and transhiatal esophagectomy in 16. Postoperative adjuvant radiotherapy was performed 4 weeks after surgery in 26 among 38 patients in stage II and III. A total dose of 30 {approx} 60 Gy in 1.8 Gy daily fraction, median 54 Gy over 6 weeks, was delivered in the mediastinum + both supraclavicular lymph nodes or celiac lymph nodes according to the tumor location. Forty-seven patients (92%) had squamous histology. The median follow-up period was 38 months. The overall 2-year and 5-year survival and median survival were 56.4%, 36.8% and 45 months. Two-year and 5-year survival and median survival by stage were 92%, 60.3% for stage I, 63%, 42% and 51 months for stage II and 34%, 23% and 19 months for stage III ({rho} = 0.04). For stage II and III patients, 5-year survival and median survival were 22.8%. 45 months for the surgery alone group and 37.8%, 22 months for the postoperative RT group ({rho} = 0.89). For stage III patients, 2-year survival and median survival were 0%, 11 months for the surgery alone group and 36.5%, 20 months for the postoperative RT group ({rho} = 0.14). Local and distant failure rates for stage II and III were 50%, 16% for the surgery alone and 39%, 31% for the postoperative RT group. For N1 patients, local failure rate was 71% for the surgery alone group and 37% for the postoperative RT group ({rho} = 0.19). Among 10 local failures in the postoperative RT group, in-field failures were 2, marginal failures 1, out-field 5 and anastomotic site failures 2. There were no statistically significant differences in either the overall survival or the patterns of failure

  8. A MicroRNA Expression Signature for Cervical Cancer Prognosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Xiaoxia; Schwarz, Julie K.; Lewis, James S.; Huettner, Phyllis C.; Rader, Janet S.; Deasy, Joseph O.; Grigsby, Perry W.; Wang, Xiaowei

    2010-01-01

    Invasive cervical cancer is a leading cause of cancer death in women worldwide, resulting in about 300,000 deaths each year. The clinical outcomes of cervical cancer vary significantly and are difficult to predict. Thus, a method to reliably predict disease outcome would be important for individualized therapy by identifying patients with high-risk of treatment failures prior to therapy. In this study, we have identified a microRNA-based signature for the prediction of cervical cancer survival. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a newly identified family of small non-coding RNAs that are extensively involved in human cancers. Using our recently established PCR-based miRNA assays, we have analyzed 102 cervical cancers and identified two miRNAs (miR-200a and miR-9) that are likely to predict patient survival. A logistic regression model was developed based on these two miRNAs and the prognostic value of the model was subsequently validated with 42 independent cervical cancers. Furthermore, functional studies were performed to characterize the effect of miRNAs in cervical cancer cells. Our results suggest that both miR-200a and miR-9 could play important regulatory roles in cervical cancer control. In particular, miR-200a is likely to affect the metastatic potential of cervical cancer cells by simultaneously suppressing the expression of multiple genes that are important to cell motility. PMID:20124485

  9. Comparison of Dietary Habits and Serum Nitrate Levels in Patients with Esophageal Cancer and Healthy Individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Alipanah_Moghadam

    2017-07-01

    Conclusion: Consumption of fast foods, hot tea and saturated fats may be associated with esophageal cancer. Serum nitrate levels were lower in patients than control group, probably indicating the need for further research in this field.

  10. Clinical evaluation of radiotherapy for advanced esophageal cancer after metallic stent placement

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    You-Tao Yu; Guang Yang; Yan Liu; Bao-Zhong Shen

    2004-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the therapeutic effect of radiotherapy for esophageal cancer after expandable metallic stent placement.METHODS: Ten cases of advanced esophageal cancer were evaluated, 7 having complete obstruction and 3 with digestive-respiratory fistula. Ten nitinol stents were placed at the site of stenosis. Patients were treated with a total dose of 1 200 cGy divided into 3 fractions of 400 cGy 4-7 d after stents placement.RESULTS: All the 10 stents were placed successfully at one time. After radiotherapy for advanced esophageal cancer, the survival period of the cases ranged from 14 to 22 mo, with a mean survival of 17 mo. No re-stenosis occurred among all the 10 cases.CONCLUSION: Stent placement combined with radiotherapy for esophageal cancer is helpful to prolong patients' survival and reduce occurrence of re-stenosis.

  11. Mutations of p53 gene exons 4-8 in human esophageal cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li-Ya Li; Jin-Tian Tang; Li-Qun Jia; Pei-Wen Li

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To characterize the tumor suppressor gene p53 mutations in exon 4, esophageal cancer and adjacent noncancerous tissues.METHODS: We performed p53 (exons 4-8) gene mutation analysis on 24 surgically resected human esophageal cancer specimens by PCR, single-strand conformation polymorphism, and DNA sequencing. RESULTS: p53 gene mutations were detected in 9 of 22 (40.9%) esophageal cancer specimens and 10 of 17 (58.8%) adjacent non-cancerous tissues. Eight of sixteen (50.0%) point mutations detected were G-A transitions and 9 of 18 (50.0%) p53 gene mutations occurred in exon 4 in esophageal cancer specimens. Only 1 of 11 mutations detected was G-A transition and 4 of 11 (36.4%) p53 gene mutations occurred in exon 4 in adjacent non-cancerous tissues.CONCLUSION: Mutation of p53 gene in exon 4 may play an important role in development of esophageal cancer. The observation of p53 gene mutation in adjacent noncancerous tissues suggests that p53 gene mutation may be an early event in esophageal carcinogenesis. Some clinical factors, including age, sex, pre-operation therapy and location of tumors, do not influence p53 gene mutation rates.

  12. [Present and future state of cancer screening for esophageal cancer and gastric cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakashima, Hirotaka; Nagahama, Ryuji; Yoshida, Misao

    2012-01-01

    Recently, endoscopic examinations have played a major role in the diagnosis and treatment in the field of gastroenterology. It is considered that endoscopy would be an important examination for cancer screening of the esophagus and the stomach. However, endoscopic services for cancer screening are in short supply. Furthermore, we have to take the complications and poor economic benefits of endoscopy in to consideration when we apply it as a practical cancer screening system. Thus, an effective primary screening system must be provided for the endoscopic screening of cancer of the esophagus and the stomach. People with a defect in aldehyde dehydrogenase-2(ALDH2)should be distinguished by their facial flushing in drinking and for their high risks of esophageal cancer. In cases with gastric cancer screening by endoscopy, an x-ray study is expected to be a primary screening because of its efficacy. It already has been recommended for population-based screening in Japanese guidelines for gastric cancer screening. In cases with opportunistic screening of gastric cancer, patients should be allowed to choose from several studies such as the x-ray study, direct endoscopy, and the so-called high risk screening of gastric cancer for estimating risks and planning of screening for gastric cancer.

  13. Management and outcome of cervical versus intrathoracic manifestation of cervical anastomotic leakage after transthoracic esophagectomy for cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Rossum, Peter S N; Haverkamp, Leonie; Carvello, Michele; Ruurda, Jelle P; van Hillegersberg, Richard

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate management strategies and related outcomes for cervical versus intrathoracic manifestation of cervical anastomotic leakage after transthoracic esophagectomy for cancer with gastric conduit reconstruction. Patients with esophageal cancer undergoing transthoracic esophagectomy with cervical anastomosis from October 2003 to December 2014 were identified from a prospectively acquired database. Management strategies and related outcomes among patients with anastomotic leakage confined to the neck were compared to patients with intrathoracic manifestation of anastomotic leakage. From a total of 286 patients, leakage of the cervical anastomosis occurred in 60 patients (21%) at a median time of 7 days after esophagectomy. Leakage was confined to the neck in 23 of 60 patients (38%), whereas 37 of 60 patients (62%) presented with intrathoracic spread. Leakages with intrathoracic manifestation were more frequently accompanied by a positive SIRS score compared to leakages confined to the neck (73% vs. 35%, respectively; P = 0.004). Drainage of the anastomotic leakage through the neck wound was effective in all of 23 patients (100%) with cervical manifestation. In patients with intrathoracic manifestation, mediastinal drainage through the neck was successful in 15 of 37 patients (41%), whereas 22 patients (59%) required an intervention through the thoracic cavity. Compared to patients with leakage confined to the neck, patients with intrathoracic manifestation showed prolonged intensive care unit (ICU) stay (median 6 vs. 2 days, respectively; P = 0.001), hospital stay (median 34 vs. 19 days, respectively; P cervical anastomotic leakage occurs in more than half of patients with anastomotic leakage after transthoracic esophagectomy for cancer. A SIRS reaction should raise the suspicion of intrathoracic spread of leakage. Intrathoracic manifestation can be managed effectively by mediastinal drainage through the neck in 41% of

  14. Vegetables and fruits consumption and risk of esophageal and gastric cancer subtypes in the Netherlands Cohort Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steevens, J.; Schouten, L.J.; Goldbohm, R.A.; Brandt, P.A. van den

    2011-01-01

    Prospective epidemiologic data on vegetables and fruits consumption and risk of subtypes of esophageal and gastric cancer are sparse. We studied the association between vegetables and fruits consumption and risk of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC), esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC), gastric c

  15. Effect of S1P5 on proliferation and migration of human esophageal cancer cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    AIM:To investigate the sphingosine 1phosphate (S1P) receptor expression profile in human esophageal cancer cells and the effects of S1P5 on proliferation and migration of human esophageal cancer cells. METHODS: S1P receptor expression profile in human esophageal squamous cell carcinoma cell line Eca109 was detected by semiquantitative reverse trans cription polymerase chain reaction. Eca109 cells were stably transfected with S1P5EGFP or controlEGFP constructs. The relation between the responses of cell prol...

  16. Human Papillomavirus Testing in the Prevention of Cervical Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wentzensen, Nicolas; Wacholder, Sholom; Kinney, Walter; Gage, Julia C.; Castle, Philip E.

    2011-01-01

    Strong evidence now supports the adoption of cervical cancer prevention strategies that explicitly focus on persistent infection with the causal agent, human papillomavirus (HPV). To inform an evidence-based transition to a new public health approach for cervical cancer screening, we summarize the natural history and cervical carcinogenicity of HPV and discuss the promise and uncertainties of currently available screening methods. New HPV infections acquired at any age are virtually always benign, but persistent infections with one of approximately 12 carcinogenic HPV types explain virtually all cases of cervical cancer. In the absence of an overtly persistent HPV infection, the risk of cervical cancer is extremely low. Thus, HPV test results predict the risk of cervical cancer and its precursors (cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 3) better and longer than cytological or colposcopic abnormalities, which are signs of HPV infection. The logical and inevitable move to HPV-based cervical cancer prevention strategies will require longer screening intervals that will disrupt current gynecologic and cytology laboratory practices built on frequent screening. A major challenge will be implementing programs that do not overtreat HPV-positive women who do not have obvious long-term persistence of HPV or treatable lesions at the time of initial evaluation. The greatest potential for reduction in cervical cancer rates from HPV screening is in low-resource regions that can implement infrequent rounds of low-cost HPV testing and treatment. PMID:21282563

  17. Genetic polymorphisms of ADH2 and ALDH2 association with esophageal cancer risk in southwest China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the impact of alcohol dehydrogenase 2 (ADH2) and aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 (ALDH2)polymorphisms on esophageal cancer risk.METHODS: One hundred and ninety-one esophageal cancer patients and 198 healthy controls from Yanting County were enrolled in this study. ADH2 and ALDH2genotypes were examined by polymerase-chain-reaction with the confronting-two-pair-primer (PCR-CTPP)method. Unconditional logistic regression was used to calculate the odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence interval (95% CI).RESULTS: Both ,ADH2*1 allele and ,ALDH2*1/*2 allele showed an increased risk of developing esophageal cancer. The adjusted OR (95% CI) for ,ADH2*1allele compared with ,ADH2*2/*2 was 1.65 (95%CI= 1.02-2.68) and 1.67 (95% CI= 1.02-2.72) for ,ALDH2*1/*2 compared with ALDH2*1/*1. A significant interaction between ,ALDH2 and drinking was detected regarding esophageal cancer risk, the OR was 1.83(95% CI = 1.13-2.95). Furthermore, when compared with ADH2*2/*2 and ALDH2*1/*1 carriers, ADH2*1 and ALDH2*2 carriers showed an elevated risk of developing esophageal cancer among non-alcohol drinkers (OR =2.46, 95% CI= 0.98-6.14), and a significantly elevated risk of developing esophageal cancer among alcohol drinkers among alcohol drinkers (OR = 9.86, 95% CI=3.10-31.38).CONCLUSION: ADH2 and ALDH2 genotypes are associated with esophageal cancer risk. ADH2*1 allele and ALDH2*2 allele carriers have a much higher risk of developing esophageal cancer, especially among alcohol drinkers.

  18. Neoadjuvant irinotecan, cisplatin, and concurrent radiation therapy with celecoxib for patients with locally advanced esophageal cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Cleary, James M.; Mamon, Harvey J.; Szymonifka, Jackie; Bueno, Raphael; Choi, Noah; Donahue, Dean M.; Fidias, Panos M.; Gaissert, Henning A.; Jaklitsch, Michael T.; Kulke, Matthew H.; Lynch, Thomas P.; Mentzer, Steven J.; Meyerhardt, Jeffrey A.; Swanson, Richard S.; Wain, John

    2016-01-01

    Background: Patients with locally advanced esophageal cancer who are treated with trimodality therapy have a high recurrence rate. Preclinical evidence suggests that inhibition of cyclooxygenase 2 (COX2) increases the effectiveness of chemoradiation, and observational studies in humans suggest that COX-2 inhibition may reduce esophageal cancer risk. This trial tested the safety and efficacy of combining a COX2 inhibitor, celecoxib, with neoadjuvant irinotecan/cisplatin chemoradiation. Methods...

  19. THE TREATMENT AND EVOLUTION OF CERVICAL CANCER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduard Crauciuc,

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to establish the evolution of cervical cancer after applying a conventional treatment. Materials and methods. The study was performed on a number of 1249 patients who were suspected of having cervical neoplasia, and who were monitored between 2006-2010 in „Elena-Doamna” Clinical Hospital of Obstetrics and Gynecology in Ia�i, the Military Hospital Gala�i, the County Hospital Gala�i and the Emergency Hospital Buzau. Results and discussions. The study proved the effectiveness of the conservative treatment for the patients who were diagnosed using cytology, colposcopy, biopsy and histopathology, with or without HPV viral infection. Conclusions. The patients with an early diagnose have a 15% higher surviving probability. The patients who responded to the conservative preoperative treatment well are more likely to survive than the patients who did not respond favourably to the conservative preoperative treatment.

  20. Esophageal cancer with an esophagopericardial fistula and purulent pericarditis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takayama, Tsugumi; Okura, Yuji; Funakoshi, Kazuhiro; Sato, Tatsuhiko; Ohi, Hiroyuki; Kato, Toshiyuki

    2013-01-01

    We herein present the case of a 56-year-old Japanese woman who developed purulent pericarditis after undergoing chemoradiotherapy for esophageal cancer. She developed epigastralgia and a fever and was admitted to our hospital. A physical examination revealed hypotension, tachycardia and pericardial friction rub. Echocardiography revealed moderate pericardial effusion. Based on these observations, the patient was diagnosed with cardiac tamponade. Computed tomography confirmed the presence of an esophagopericardial fistula. Treatment with pericardiocentesis, drainage and short-term intrapericardial administration of antibiotics relieved the patient's symptoms. Daily rinsing through a catheter with normal saline prevented relapse of the purulent pericarditis. Esophagopericardial fistulas are so rare that their treatment is not well-established. We herein report successful palliative care of a malignant esophagopericardial fistula associated with purulent pericarditis.

  1. PET/Computed Tomography Scanning and Precision Medicine: Esophageal Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goel, Reema; Subramaniam, Rathan M; Wachsmann, Jason W

    2017-10-01

    Esophageal cancer commonly has a poor prognosis, which requires an accurate diagnosis and early treatment to improve outcome. Other modalities for staging, such as endoscopic ultrasound imaging and computed tomography (CT) scans, have a role in diagnosis and staging. However, PET with fluorine-18 fluoro-2-deoxy-d-glucose/CT (FDG PET/CT) scanning allows for improved detection of distant metastatic disease and can help to prevent unnecessary interventions that would increase morbidity. FDG PET/CT scanning is valuable in the neoadjuvant chemotherapy assessment and predicting survival outcomes subsequent to surgery. FDG PET/CT scanning detects recurrent disease and metastases in follow-up. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Cervical cancer screening policies and coverage in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anttila, Ahti; von Karsa, Lawrence; Aasmaa, Auni;

    2009-01-01

    The aim of the study was to compare current policy, organisation and coverage of cervical cancer screening programmes in the European Union (EU) member states with European and other international recommendations. According to the questionnaire-based survey, there are large variations in cervical...... with education, training and communication among women, medical professionals and authorities are required, accordingly. The study indicates that, despite substantial efforts, the recommendations of the Council of the EU on organised population-based screening for cervical cancer are not yet fulfilled. Decision......-makers and health service providers should consider stronger measures or incentives in order to improve cervical cancer control in Europe....

  3. Limitations of Colposcopy in Early Invasive Cervical Cancer Detection

    OpenAIRE

    Grubišić, Goran

    2007-01-01

    Colposcopy is a key element in the diagnostic chain required to reduce cervical cancer mortality but it has limitations in the diagnosis of malignant disease. In the Republic of Croatia the Croatian Society for Colposcopy and Cervical Pathology started constructing guidelines for early detection, therapy and follow-up of patients with early invasive cervical cancer in order to achieve the best possible results in diagnosis, therapy and follow-up. From 2001 to 2006 Croatian society ...

  4. Understanding cervical cancer in the context of developing countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farhad Ali

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Cancer is one of the leading causes of deaths worldwide. Among the women, gynecological cancers are most common. Cervical cancer is a main gynecological cancer of the women. The global burden of cervical cancer is disproportionately high among the developing countries where 85 per cent of the estimated 493, 000 new cases and 273, 000 deaths occur worldwide. There are several dimensions of the problem. Cervical cancer is a problem where people are poor, where the socio-economic status of the women is low and sometimes specific ethnicity also posses additional risk to the women to develop cervical cancer. Human papillomavirus infection is a main risk factor for the cervical cancer however there are some other factors which increase the risk. Among them some are number of sexual partners, age of first sexual intercourse, infection of sexually transmitted diseases, use of hormonal contraceptives, parity, age, smoking, food and diet. Apart from these factors, some other issues, such as policy on cancer, capacity of health system, socio-economic and cultural factors and awareness among the women are also associated with the cervical cancer related morbidity and mortality across the developing countries. There some interventions which give promising results in terms of reducing cervical cancer related morbidity and mortality. Among them visual inspection of cervix with acetic acid followed by treatment is one such effective method.

  5. Cervical Cancer Screening | Cancer Trends Progress Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Cancer Trends Progress Report, first issued in 2001, summarizes our nation's advances against cancer in relation to Healthy People targets set forth by the Department of Health and Human Services.

  6. Identification of tumor cells infiltrating into connective tissue in esophageal cancer by multiphoton microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jian; Jiang, Liwei; Kang, Deyong; Wu, Xuejing; Xu, Meifang; Zhuo, Shuangmu; Zhu, Xiaoqin; Lin, Jiangbo; Chen, Jianxin

    2016-10-01

    Esophageal cancer is one of the most common malignancies of the gastrointestinal cancers and carries poorer prognosis than other gastrointestinal cancers. In general practice, the depth of tumor infiltration in esophageal wall is crucial to establishing appropriate treatment plan which is established by detecting the tumor infiltration depth. Connective tissue is one of the main structures that form the esophageal wall. So, identification of tumor cells infiltrating into connective tissue is helping for detecting the tumor infiltration depth. Our aim is to evaluate whether multiphoton microscopy (MPM) can be used to detect tumor cells infiltrating into connective tissue in the esophageal cancer. MPM is well-suited for real-time detecting morphologic and cellular changes in fresh tissues since many endogenous fluorophores of fresh tissues are excited through two-photon excited fluorescence (TPEF) and second harmonic generation (SHG). In this work, microstructure of tumor cells and connective tissue are first studied. Then, morphological changes of collagen fibers after the infiltration of tumor cells are shown. These results show that MPM has the ability to detect tumor cells infiltrating into connective tissue in the esophageal cancer. In the future, MPM may be a promising imaging technique for detecting tumor cells in esophageal cancer.

  7. Telomerase antagonist imetelstat inhibits esophageal cancer cell growth and increases radiation-induced DNA breaks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xuping; Smavadati, Shirin; Nordfjäll, Katarina; Karlsson, Krister; Qvarnström, Fredrik; Simonsson, Martin; Bergqvist, Michael; Gryaznov, Sergei; Ekman, Simon; Paulsson-Karlsson, Ylva

    2012-12-01

    Telomerase is mainly active in human tumor cells, which provides an opportunity for a therapeutic window on telomerase targeting. We sought to evaluate the potential of the thio-phosphoramidate oligonucleotide inhibitor of telomerase, imetelstat, as a drug candidate for treatment of esophageal cancer. Our results showed that imetelstat inhibited telomerase activity in a dose-dependent manner in esophageal cancer cells. After only 1 week of imetelstat treatment, a reduction of colony formation ability of esophageal cancer cells was observed. Furthermore, long-term treatment with imetelstat decreased cell growth of esophageal cancer cells with different kinetics regarding telomere lengths. Short-term imetelstat treatment also increased γ-H2AX and 53BP1 foci staining in the esophageal cancer cell lines indicating a possible induction of DNA double strand breaks (DSBs). We also found that pre-treatment with imetelstat led to increased number and size of 53BP1 foci after ionizing radiation. The increase of 53BP1 foci number was especially pronounced during the first 1h of repair whereas the increase of foci size was prominent later on. This study supports the potential of imetelstat as a therapeutic agent for the treatment of esophageal cancer.

  8. Paclitaxel and carboplatin concurrent with radiotherapy for primary cervical cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Vos, FYFL; Bos, AME; Gietema, JA; Pras, E; Van Der Zee, AGJ; De Vries, EGE; Willemse, PHB

    2004-01-01

    Background: Concurrent radiochemotherapy is currently considered the new standard treatment in locally advanced cervical cancer. Patients and Methods: Eight women with cervical cancer stage IB2-IVA were treated with standard radiation therapy in combination with standard carboplatin (AUC=2, once wee

  9. Breaking the DNA damage response to improve cervical cancer treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wieringa, Hylke W.; van der Zee, Ate G. J.; Vries, de Elisabeth G. E.; van Vugt, Marcel A. T. M.

    2016-01-01

    Every year, cervical cancer affects similar to 500,000 women worldwide, and similar to 275,000 patients die of this disease. The addition of platin-based chemotherapy to primary radiotherapy has increased 5-year survival of advanced-stage cervical cancer patients, which is, however, still only 66%.

  10. An overview of innovative techniques to improve cervical cancer screening

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijhuis, Esther R.; Reesink-Peters, Nathalie; Wisman, G. Bea A.; Nijman, Hans W.; van Zanden, Jelmer; Volders, Haukeline; Hollema, Harry; Suurmeijer, Albert J. H.; Schuuring, Ed; van der Zee, Ate G. J.

    2006-01-01

    Although current cytomorphology-based cervical cancer screening has reduced the incidence of cervical cancer, Pap-smears are associated with high false positive and false negative rates. This has spurred the search for new technologies to improve current screening. New methodologies are automation o

  11. European cervical cancer screening:experiences and results

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    Europe has devoted great efforts to cervical cancer screening over 30 years.The mortality was generally declining although incidence rates of cervical cancer among young women have been increasing in many countries of Europe.The efficiency of screening,however,needs to be addressed by planners for an improved cost-effectiveness in the future.

  12. Social Construction of Cervical Cancer Screening among Panamanian Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvo, Arlene; Brown, Kelli McCormack; McDermott, Robert J.; Bryant, Carol A.; Coreil, Jeanine; Loseke, Donileen

    2012-01-01

    Background: Understanding how "health issues" are socially constructed may be useful for creating culturally relevant programs for Hispanic/Latino populations. Purpose: We explored the constructed meanings of cervical cancer and cervical cancer screening among Panamanian women, as well as socio-cultural factors that deter or encourage…

  13. Breaking the DNA damage response to improve cervical cancer treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wieringa, Hylke W.; van der Zee, Ate G. J.; Vries, de Elisabeth G. E.; van Vugt, Marcel A. T. M.

    2016-01-01

    Every year, cervical cancer affects similar to 500,000 women worldwide, and similar to 275,000 patients die of this disease. The addition of platin-based chemotherapy to primary radiotherapy has increased 5-year survival of advanced-stage cervical cancer patients, which is, however, still only 66%.

  14. An overview of innovative techniques to improve cervical cancer screening

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijhuis, Esther R.; Reesink-Peters, Nathalie; Wisman, G. Bea A.; Nijman, Hans W.; van Zanden, Jelmer; Volders, Haukeline; Hollema, Harry; Suurmeijer, Albert J. H.; Schuuring, Ed; van der Zee, Ate G. J.

    2006-01-01

    Although current cytomorphology-based cervical cancer screening has reduced the incidence of cervical cancer, Pap-smears are associated with high false positive and false negative rates. This has spurred the search for new technologies to improve current screening. New methodologies are automation o

  15. Reducing uncertainties about the effects of chemoradiotherapy for cervical cancer:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vale, Claire; Jakobsen, Anders

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: After a 1999 National Cancer Institute (NCI) clinical alert was issued, chemoradiotherapy has become widely used in treating women with cervical cancer. Two subsequent systematic reviews found that interpretation of the benefits was complicated, and some important clinical questions...

  16. Screening, HPV Vaccine Can Prevent Cervical Cancer: FDA

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_163464.html Screening, HPV Vaccine Can Prevent Cervical Cancer: FDA Agency recommends ... cancer, which is caused by the human papillomavirus (HPV). An FDA-approved vaccine called Gardasil 9 protects ...

  17. Are Fewer Cervical Cancer Screenings Needed After HPV Vaccine?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... html Are Fewer Cervical Cancer Screenings Needed After HPV Vaccine? Less testing could reduce risk of false positives ... said. Women vaccinated with earlier versions of the HPV vaccine -- which protect against the two worst cancer-causing ...

  18. Aberrant Expression of Notch1 in Cervical Cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Sun; Qimin Zhan; Wenhua Zhang; Yongmei Song; Tong Tong

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To investigate the putative role of the Notch1 receptor in cervical cancer carcinogenesis and progression.METHODS The expression of the Notch1 protein was analyzed by a Western-blotting approach in 40 cervical cancer and 30 normal cervical tissues.Some tissues were examined using RT-PCR To determine Mrna levels.Celluar localization of the Notch1 protein in the paraffin-embedded cervical tissues was also analyzed by immunohistochemistry.RESULTS The Notch1 protein was detected in all 30 normal cervical tissues.In contrast.only 6 samples of 40 cervical cancer tissues showed Notch1 expression.The level of the Notch1 protein expression was significantly lower in cervical cancer tissues than that in normal tissue samples.In agreement with these observations.levels of Notch1 Mrna were found to be substantially down-regulated in cervical cancer tissues.In the immunohistochemistry staining assay,the Notch1 protein was shown to localize predominantly in the cytoplasm and nucleoli of the normal cervical squamous epithelium of the cervix,but no staining was observed in the cervical cancer cells.Notch1 expression was observed to correlate with the clinical disease stage.but there were no correlations with age,tumor size,grade or lymph node metastasis (P>0.05).The levels of Notchl protein expression were significantly higher in early stages(I~lla,66.7%) compared to those in the advanced stages (Iib~IV,12.6%)(P=0.001).CONCLUSION Notch1 may play a role as a tumor suppressor in cervical tumorigenesis.Determination of Notch1 expression may be helpful for preoperative diagnosis and accuracy of staging.But its clinical use for cervical cancer requires further investigation.

  19. Common filaggrin gene mutations and risk of cervical cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bager, Peter; Wohlfahrt, Jan; Sørensen, Erik

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: As carriers of filaggrin gene (FLG) mutations may have a compromised cervical mucosal barrier against human papillomavirus infection, our primary objective was to study their risk of cervical cancer. METHODS: We genotyped 586 cervical cancer patients for the two most common FLG...... mutations, R501X and 2282del4, using blood from the Copenhagen Hospital Biobank, Denmark. Controls (n = 8050) were genotyped in previous population-based studies. Information on cervical cancer, mortality and emigration were obtained from national registers. Odds ratios (OR) were estimated by logistic...... and stratification by cancer stage. RESULTS: The primary results showed that FLG mutations were not associated with the risk of cervical cancer (6.3% of cases and 7.7% of controls were carriers; OR adjusted 0.81, 95% CI 0.57-1.14; OR adjusted+ weighted 0.96, 95% CI 0.58-1.57). Among cases, FLG mutations increased...

  20. Family history of cancer and risk for esophageal and gastric cancer in Shanxi, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goldstein Alisa

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Family history (FH by different relative types and risk of upper gastrointestinal (UGI cancers has been only rarely reported; the data on UGI cancer survival are sparse. Methods 600 esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC cases, 598 gastric cardia adenocarcinoma cases, and 316 gastric non-cardia adenocarcinoma cases, and 1514 age-, gender-, and neighborhood-matched controls were asked for FH in first degree relatives and non-blood relatives. Odds ratios (ORs and 95% confidence intervals (CIs from logistic regressions, and hazard ratios (HRs from Cox proportional hazard regressions were estimated. Results Increased ESCC risk was associated with FH of any cancer (OR = 1.72, 95% CI = 1.39–2.12, FH of any UGI cancer (OR = 2.28, 95%CI = 1.77–2.95 and FH of esophageal cancer (OR = 2.84, 95%CI = 2.09–3.86, but not FH of non-UGI cancer. Individuals with two or more affected first-degree relatives had 10-fold increased ESCC risk. FH of gastric cardia cancer was associated with an increased risk of all three cancers. Cancer in non-blood relatives was not associated with risk of any UGI cancer. FH of UGI cancer was associated with a poorer survival rate among younger ESCC cases (HR = 1.82, 95%CI = 1.01–3.29. Conclusion These data provide strong evidence that shared susceptibility is involved in esophageal carcinogenesis and also suggest a role in prognosis.

  1. Mutation screening of mismatch repair gene Mlh3 in familial esophageal cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hong-Xu Liu; Yu Li; Xue-Dong Jiang; Hong-Nian Yin; Lin Zhang; Yu Wang; Jun Yang

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To shed light on the possible role of mismatch repair gene Mlh3 in familial esophageal cancer (FEC).METHODS: A total of 66 members from 10 families suggestive of a genetic predisposition to hereditary esophageal cancer were screened for germline mutations in Mlh3 with denaturing high performance liquid chromatography (DHPLC), a newly developed method of comparative sequencing based on heteroduplex detection. For all samples exhibiting abnormal DHPLC profiles,sequence changes were evaluated by cycle sequencing.For any mutation in family members, we conducted a segregation study to compare its prevalence in sporadic esophageal cancer patients and normal controls.RESULTS: Exons of Mlh3 in all samples were successfully examined. Overall, 4 missense mutations and 3 polymorphisms were identified in 4 families. Mlh3 missense mutations in families 9 and 10 might be pathogenic, but had a reduced penetrance. While in families 1 and 7,there was no sufficient evidence supporting the monogenic explanations of esophageal cancers in families.The mutations were found in 33% of high-risk families and 50% of low-risk families.CONCLUSION: Mlh3 is a high risk gene with a reduced penetrance in some families. However, it acts as a low risk gene for esophageal cancer in most families. Mutations of Mlh3 may work together with other genes in an accumulated manner and result in an increased risk of esophageal tumor. DHPLC is a robust and sensitive technique for screening gene mutations.

  2. Inhibition of pRB Pathway Differentially Modulates Apoptosis in Esophageal Cancer Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soletti, Rossana C; Biasoli, Deborah; Rodrigues, Nathassya A L V; Delou, João M A; Maciel, Renata; Chagas, Vera L A; Martins, Rodrigo A P; Rehen, Stevens K; Borges, Helena L

    2017-10-01

    Esophageal cancer is the sixth most common cause of cancer-related death worldwide. Current chemotherapy regimens include a combination of 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) and cisplatin, but more efficient therapy strategies are needed to increase 5-year survival. Alterations in the signaling pathway of the tumor suppressor gene Rb-1, which encodes a phosphoprotein (pRB) that negatively regulates the G1/S transition of the cell cycle, are present in 70% of all tumors, but its role in esophageal cancer is still unclear. Most of these are alterations leading to up-regulation of the activity of cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs) to phosphorylate pRB, which suggests that keeping the wild type pRB phosphorylated might be advantageous. Besides proliferation, pRB also regulates apoptosis induced by tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) and DNA-damage. We investigated the status of phosphorylation of pRB along esophageal tumorigenesis stages, as well as whether hyperphosphorylation of pRB could suppress apoptosis induced by cisplatin, 5-FU, or TNF-α in esophageal cancer cells. pRB phosphorylation increased progressively from normal esophageal tissue to metaplasia and adenocarcinoma, suggesting that pRB phosphorylation increases along esophageal tumor stages. When RB-1 was knocked down or CDK inhibitors reduced the levels of phosphorylated pRB, opposite apoptotic effects were observed, depending on the combination of drugs tested: whereas TNF-α- and cisplatin-induced apoptosis increased, 5-FU-induced apoptosis decreased. Taken together, these data suggest that pRB plays a role in esophageal adenocarcinoma and that, depending on the type of anti-cancer treatment, combining CDK inhibitors and chemotherapy has the potential to increase the sensitivity of esophageal cancer cells to cell death. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Hot Food and Beverage Consumption and the Risk of Esophageal Cancer: A Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrici, Juliana; Eslick, Guy D

    2015-12-01

    Esophageal cancer is a neoplasm with a poor prognosis. Its two histologic subtypes, esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) and esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC), have been associated with different risk factors. The possibility of an association between the consumption of hot food and beverages and esophageal cancer, especially ESCC, has long been suspected, presenting a potentially modifiable risk factor. A meta-analysis of existing observational studies was performed to provide a quantitative estimate of the risk of esophageal cancer associated with the consumption of hot food and drink. A search was conducted through MEDLINE, PubMed, EMBASE, and Current Contents Connect to November 11, 2014. Pooled ORs and 95% CIs were calculated using a random effects model for the risk of esophageal cancer associated with the consumption of hot food and drink. Subgroup analyses were conducted for ESCC and EAC, as well as for studies that adjusted for tobacco smoking and alcohol consumption, two well-recognized risk factors for ESCC. Consumption of hot food and drink was associated with an increased risk of any esophageal cancer (OR=1.90, 95% CI=1.46, 2.48). Heterogeneity was observed. There was an increased risk of ESCC (OR=2.29, 95% CI=1.79, 2.93), which remained even after adjusting for significant confounding variables (OR=2.39, 95% CI=1.71, 3.33). The relationship was not significant for EAC. The consumption of hot food and beverages was associated with an increased risk of esophageal cancer, particularly ESCC. Crown Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Cervical Cancer Prevention: New Tools and Old Barriers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scarinci, Isabel C.; Garcia, Francisco A. R.; Kobetz, Erin; Partridge, Edward E.; Brandt, Heather M.; Bell, Maria C.; Dignan, Mark; Ma, Grace X.; Daye, Jane L.; Castle, Philip E.

    2010-01-01

    Cervical cancer is the second most common female tumor worldwide and its incidence is disproportionately high (>80%) in the developing world. In the U.S., where Pap tests have reduced the annual incidence to approximately 11,000 cervical cancers, more than 60% of cases occur in medically-underserved populations as part of a complex of diseases linked to poverty, race/ethnicity, and/or health disparities. Because carcinogenic human papillomavirus (HPV) infections cause virtually all cervical cancer, two new approaches for cervical cancer prevention have emerged: 1) HPV vaccination to prevent infections in younger women (≤18 years old) and 2) carcinogenic HPV detection in older women (≥30 years old). Together, HPV vaccination and testing, if used in an age-appropriate manner, have the potential to transform cervical cancer prevention particularly among underserved populations. Yet significant barriers of access, acceptability, and adoption to any cervical cancer prevention strategy remain. Without understanding and addressing these obstacles, these promising new tools for cervical cancer prevention may be futile. We share our experiences in the delivery of cervical cancer prevention strategies to U.S. populations experiencing high cervical cancer burden: African-American women in South Carolina, Alabama, Mississippi; Haitian immigrant women in Miami; Hispanic women in the U.S.-Mexico Border; Sioux/Native American women in the Northern Plains; white women in the Appalachia; and Vietnamese-American women in Pennsylvania and New Jersey. Our goal is to inform future research and outreach efforts to reduce the burden of cervical cancer in underserved populations. PMID:20310056

  5. Detection and significance of epidermal growth factor receptor mutation in esophageal,esophagogastric junction and gastric cancers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕萧

    2014-01-01

    Objective To detect the frequency of EGFR mutation and expression in Chinese patients with esophageal,esophagogastric junction and gastric cancers,and to clarify the value of EGFR mutation and expression in predicting the efficacy of TKI in the treatment of these tumors.Methods In this study,180 tumor samples with histologically confirmed esophageal cancer(39 cases),cancer of

  6. Changes in knowledge of cervical cancer following introduction of human papillomavirus vaccine among women at high risk for cervical cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Stewart Massad

    2015-04-01

    Conclusion: Substantial gaps in understanding of HPV and cervical cancer prevention exist despite years of health education. While more effective educational interventions may help, optimal cancer prevention may require opt-out vaccination programs that do not require nuanced understanding.

  7. Advancing cervical cancer prevention in India: implementation science priorities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnan, Suneeta; Madsen, Emily; Porterfield, Deborah; Varghese, Beena

    2013-01-01

    Cervical cancer is the leading cause of cancer mortality in India, accounting for 17% of all cancer deaths among women aged 30 to 69 years. At current incidence rates, the annual burden of new cases in India is projected to increase to 225,000 by 2025, but there are few large-scale, organized cervical cancer prevention programs in the country. We conducted a review of the cervical cancer prevention research literature and programmatic experiences in India to summarize the current state of knowledge and practices and recommend research priorities to address the gap in services. We found that research and programs in India have demonstrated the feasibility and acceptability of cervical cancer prevention efforts and that screening strategies requiring minimal additional human resources and laboratory infrastructure can reduce morbidity and mortality. However, additional evidence generated through implementation science research is needed to ensure that cervical cancer prevention efforts have the desired impact and are cost-effective. Specifically, implementation science research is needed to understand individual- and community-level barriers to screening and diagnostic and treatment services; to improve health care worker performance; to strengthen links among screening, diagnosis, and treatment; and to determine optimal program design, outcomes, and costs. With a quarter of the global burden of cervical cancer in India, there is no better time than now to translate research findings to practice. Implementation science can help ensure that investments in cervical cancer prevention and control result in the greatest impact.

  8. Fludeoxyglucose F 18 PET Scan, CT Scan, and Ferumoxtran-10 MRI Scan Before Chemotherapy and Radiation Therapy in Finding Lymph Node Metastasis in Patients With Locally Advanced Cervical Cancer or High-Risk Endometrial Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-11-14

    Cervical Adenocarcinoma; Cervical Adenosquamous Cell Carcinoma; Cervical Small Cell Carcinoma; Cervical Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Endometrial Clear Cell Carcinoma; Endometrial Papillary Serous Carcinoma; Stage I Endometrial Carcinoma; Stage IB Cervical Cancer; Stage II Endometrial Carcinoma; Stage IIA Cervical Cancer; Stage IIB Cervical Cancer; Stage III Cervical Cancer; Stage III Endometrial Carcinoma; Stage IVA Cervical Cancer

  9. Prevalence and management of colorectal neoplasia in surgically treated esophageal cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeuchi, Daisuke; Koide, Naohiko; Komatsu, Daisuke; Suzuki, Akira; Miyagawa, Shinichi

    2015-05-01

    The existence of other primary tumors during the treatment of esophageal cancer patients has been an important issue. Our aim is to investigate the prevalence and management of colorectal neoplasia (CRN) in surgically treated esophageal cancer patients. Between 2002 and 2008, 93 patients with esophageal cancer were surgically treated. Seventy-three patients underwent subtotal esophagectomy and 20 underwent lower esophagectomy for esophageal cancer. Colonoscopy was available for detecting CRN before and after surgery. Eighty-nine (95.7%) of the 93 patients were screened by colonoscopy preoperatively or within a year from the operation. Thirty-nine patients (43.8%) with CRN were synchronously identified: adenoma in 34 (38.2%) and adenocarcinoma in 5 patients (5.6%). Eleven adenomas with high grade-dysplasia and 8 adenomas with low grade-dysplasia were removed endoscopically. Three superficial adenocarcinomas were endoscopically removed before surgery, and 2 adenocarcinomas were surgically removed. Seventy-four patients (83.1%) were followed using colonoscopy, and 11 subsequent CRN, including 2 superficial adenocarcinomas, were endoscopically detected in 8 patients (10.8%). The size of esophageal cancer was larger in the patients with than without CRN (p = 0.036). The body mass index in esophageal cancer patients with CRN tended to be higher than in those without CRN (p = 0.065). We noted that esophageal cancer is frequently associated with synchronous and/or metachronous colorectal cancer and adenomas. Colonoscopy is useful to detect and manage CRN before and after esophagectomy, although a few limitations exist. Copyright © 2015 IJS Publishing Group Limited. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Efficacy of Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy After Surgery in Early Stage of Esophageal Carcinoma;

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-07-30

    Esophageal Neoplasm; Esophageal Cancer TNM Staging Primary Tumor (T) T2; Esophageal Cancer TNM Staging Primary Tumor (T) T3; Esophageal Cancer TNM Staging Regional Lymph Nodes (N) N0; Esophageal Cancer TNM Staging Distal Metastasis (M) M0

  11. Cervical cancer awareness and cervical screening uptake at the Mater Misericordiae Hospital, Afikpo, Southeast Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eze, Justus N; Umeora, Odidika U; Obuna, Johnson A; Egwuatu, Vincent E; Ejikeme, Brown N

    2012-01-01

    Cervical cancer is the most common genital tract malignancy among women in developing countries. To assess the awareness of cervical cancer among Igbo women in a rural population of Southeastern Nigerian and determine their uptake of cervical screening services. A questionnaire-based descriptive cross-sectional study. Structured questionnaires were administered to female attendees to the antenatal and gynecological clinics of a secondary hospital in the outskirts of Afikpo, Southeast Nigeria over a six-month period (1 st July to 31 st December 2007). Data analysis was by SPSS. Five hundred questionnaires were given out. Three hundred and sixty were correctly filled (72%) and analyzed. The mean age of respondents was 36.2 years, 25.0% had tertiary education and 40.3% were self employed. All the respondents were sexually active. There were high incidences of premarital sex, multiple sexual partners and abnormal vaginal discharge and low condom use. Awareness of cervical cancer (37.5%), its preventable nature (31.9%), cervical screening (25%) and screening centers (20.8%) were generally low and screening uptake (0.6%) was abysmally low. Lack of awareness, non-availability of screening centers locally, cost and time were the main reasons adduced by respondents for not being screened. Overall, 62.5% of all the respondents indicated willingness to be screened. The exposure to conditions that predispose women to cervical cancer was high, and the levels of awareness of cervical cancer and cervical screening uptake were low. Continued awareness creation, local provision of cheap and affordable services and poverty alleviation are needed to improve cervical screening uptake with the hope of reducing the incidence of cervical cancer in the long term.

  12. A Survey of Esophageal Cancer in Cixian County of Hebei Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JunHou; ZhifengChen; CuilanGuo; ShaosenLi; WenlongBai; GuolimngJin; YuxiaWang; FanshuMeng; FengGao; XujingLu; ZhifangWang; GangKuang

    2004-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To characterize the histologic types of esophageal cardiac mucosa by endoscopic survey in a high-risk cancer area of China. METHODS An endoscopic survey with Lugol,s staining was carried out in Cixian County, Hebei Province from December 2001 to May 2002. The data were processed using computer SPSS 10.0 software. RESULTS The incidences of mild esophagitis, moderate esophagitis, and severe esophagitis were for 2013 cases, 34.9%(703), 1.6%(33) and 0.1% (2)respectively; those with mild dysplasia, moderate dysplasia, severe dysplasia of the esophagus were 8.6% (172), 7.8% (157) and 2.6% (53) respectively; those with carcinoma in situ, intramucosal carcinoma, invasive squamous carcinoma of the esophagus were 2.5%(50), 0.2% (4) and 0.7%(14) respectively. The histologic-detecting rates of non-atrophic gastritis, and atrophic gastritis of the cardia were 36.3%(730), 11.5% (232) respectively; those with mild dysplasia, severe dysplasia of the cardia were 2.5%(51), 0.8%(17) respectively; those with intramucosal adenocarcinoma, invasive adenocarcinoma of the cardia were 0.1% (3), 0.8%(17) respectively. The early-detection rate of esophageal cancer was 79.4%(54/68). The survey rate(examined population to covered population) was 73.8% (2013/2725). CONCLUSIONS Esophageal endoscopic screening with Lugol's solution staining has an advantage over esophageal balloon cytology, in that the histological diagnoses of esophageal cardiac diseases can be obtained, thus contributing to the prevention of subsequent disease. In using the staining method the detection rate of early esophageal cancer is higher than that revealed by balloon cytology.

  13. Risk of cervical cancer after completed post-treatment follow-up of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rebolj, Matejka; Helmerhorst, Theo; Habbema, Dik;

    2012-01-01

    To compare the risk of cervical cancer in women with histologically confirmed cervical intraepithelial neoplasia who returned to routine screening after having completed post-treatment follow-up with consecutive normal smear test results with women with a normal primary smear test result....

  14. 76 FR 30723 - Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection and Control Advisory Committee (BCCEDCAC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-26

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection and... cervical cancer. The committee makes recommendations regarding national program goals and objectives... for breast and cervical cancer screening; updates on the National Breast and Cervical Cancer Early...

  15. Magnetic stent hyperthermia for esophageal cancer: an in vitro investigation in the ECA-109 cell line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jia-Yi; Zhao, Ling-Yun; Wang, Yu-Ying; Li, Dan-Ye; Tao, Dan; Li, Li-Ya; Tang, Jin-Tian

    2012-03-01

    Magnetic stent hyperthermia (MSH) is a novel approach for targeted thermotherapy for esophageal cancer, which is based on the mechanism that inductive heat can be generated by the esophageal stent upon exposure under an alternative magnetic field (AMF). A positive effect of MSH on esophageal cancer has been demonstrated, however, there is no study on the in vitro effects of heating treatment or of the effects of AMF exposure on human esophageal cancer cells. This study aimed to investigate the effect of MSH and of AMF exposure in esophageal cancer cells. Inductive heating characteristics of esophageal stents were assessed by exposing the stents under AMF. A rather rapid temperature rise of the Ni-Ti stent when subjected to AMF exposure was observed and the desired hyperthermic temperature could be controlled by adjusting the field parameter of the AMF. Human esophageal squamous carcinoma (ESCC) ECA-109 cells were divided into four groups: the control group, the water-bath heating group, the MSH group and the AMF exposure group. Hyperthermic temperatures were 43, 48 and 53˚C and the treatment time was in the range of 5-30 min. The MTT assay, apoptotic analysis and TUNEL staining were applied in the current investigation. Exposure of ECA-109 cells under AMF with a field intensity of 50 to 110 kA/m had negligible effect on cell viability, cell necrosis and apoptosis. Hyperthermia had a remarkable inhibitory effect on the cell viability and the effect was dependent on the thermal dose (temperature and time). The optimal thermal dose of MSH for ECA-109 cells was 48˚C for 20-30 min. The study also elucidated that there was a difference in the effects on cell necrosis and apoptosis between the heating mode of water bath and MSH. The data suggest that MSH may have clinical significance for esophageal cancer treatment.

  16. DIAGNOSTIC AND THERAPEUTIC POSSIBILITIES IN THE PROPHYLAXIS OF CERVICAL CANCER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marzena Wrześniewska

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Poland is one of the countries with high cervical cancer morbidity and mortality. The main means to change this situation is to manage an active and modern programme of cervical cancer prophylaxis and diagnostics. To a large extent, the effectiveness of a cervical cancer prophylaxis programme is decided by the availability of modern diagnostic research. The conventional Papanicolaou test and modern LBC cytology techniques were discussed in the article, taking into consideration HPV diagnostics in the procedures for carefully selected cytological diagnosis, in the so called in-depth stage of preventive screening tests and the role of the p16 biomarker in predicting the development of a higher degree of epithelial-cell pathologies of the cervix. Colposcopy as a diagnostic method for the verification of cytological and virological abnormalities. The modern LEEP/LLETZ procedure used in diagnosis and treatment of cervical changes is used to realise the in-depth stage of cervical cancer prophylaxis programmes.

  17. Women's perspectives on illness in being screened for cervical cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hounsgaard, Lise; Augustussen, Mikaela; Møller, Helle;

    2013-01-01

    Background In Greenland, the incidence of cervical cancer caused by human papillomavirus (HPV) is 25 per 100,000 women; 2.5 times the Danish rate. In Greenland, the disease is most frequent among women aged 30–40. Systematic screening can identify women with cervical cell changes, which...... if untreated may cause cervical cancer. In 2007, less than 40% of eligible women in Greenland participated in screening. Objective To examine Greenlandic women's perception of disease, their understanding of the connection between HPV and cervical cancer, and the knowledge that they deem necessary to decide...... whether to participate in cervical cancer screening. Study design The methods used to perform this research were 2 focus-group interviews with 5 Danish-speaking women and 2 individual interviews with Greenlandic-speaking women. The analysis involved a phenomenological-hermeneutic approach with 3 levels...

  18. Clinical and epidemiologic variations of esophageal cancer in Tanzania

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jaime V Gabel; Robert M Chamberlain; Twalib Ngoma; Julius Mwaiselage; Kendra K Schmid; Crispin Kahesa; Amr S Soliman

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To estimate the incidence of esophageal cancer(EC) in Kilimanjaro in comparison to other regions in Tanzania. METHODS: We also examined the clinical, epidemiologic, and geographic distribution of the 1332 EC patients diagnosed and/or treated at Ocean Road Cancer Institute(ORCI) during the period 2006-2013. Medical records were used to abstract patient information on age, sex, residence, smoking status, alcohol consumption, tumor site, histopathologic type of tumor, date and place of diagnosis, and type and date of treatment at ORCI. Regional variation of EC patients was investigated at the level of the 26 administrative regions of Tanzania. Total, age- and sex-specific incidence rates were calculated. RESULTS: Male patients 55 years and older had higher incidence of EC than female and younger patients. Of histopathologically-confirmed cases, squamous-cell carcinoma represented 90.9% of histopathologic types of tumors. The administrative regions in the central andeastern parts of Tanzania had higher incidence rates than western regions, specifically administrative regions of Kilimanjaro, Dar es Salaam, and Tanga had the highest rates. CONCLUSION: Further research should focus on investigating possible etiologic factors for EC in regions with high incidence in Tanzania.

  19. Cronkhite-Canada syndrome associated with esophageal and gastric cancers: report of a case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Masahiro; Matsumoto, Sohei; Takayama, Tomoyoshi; Wakatsuki, Kohei; Tanaka, Tetsuya; Migita, Kazuhiro; Nakajima, Yoshiyuki

    2015-06-01

    Cronkhite-Canada Syndrome (CCS) is a rare non-inherited gastrointestinal polyposis syndrome with characteristic ectodermal changes. We report an extremely unusual case of CCS associated with primary esophageal and gastric cancers. A 74-year-old Japanese man with symptoms of anorexia and diarrhea was found to have primary esophageal and gastric cancers, as well as multiple gastric and colonic polyps. Based on the physical findings of onychodystrophy and alopecia, we diagnosed CCS. Because of his age and nutritional status, we decided to perform total gastrectomy for gastric cancer and chemoradiotherapy for esophageal cancer, upon completion of which the patient was started on steroid therapy for the CCS. After 1 week of steroid therapy, the patient's watery diarrhea improved. We recommend that for patients with CCS, the therapeutic strategy be carefully considered based on the patient's nutritional status, the severity of the CCS, and the extent of gastrointestinal cancer.

  20. CERVICAL ACID PHOSPHATASE: EVALUATION AS AN ADJUVANT TO PAPANICOLAOU SMEAR SCREENING IN CERVICAL CANCER DETECTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niranjan

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Carcinoma of cervix accounts for 15% of all cancers diagnosed worldwide and is the second most common cancer in women. In the year 2000 there were over 4,71,000 new cases diagnosed and 2,88,000 deaths from cervical cancer. (1 Approximately 79% of these deaths occurred in developing countries. (2 Cervical cancer is preventable, but most women in poorer countries do not have access to effective screening programs. In India it is estimated that approximately 100,000 women develop cervical cancer each year. (3 Cancer cervix occupies either the top r ank or second among cancers in women in developing countries, whereas, in the developed countries cancer cervix does not find a place even in top five leading cancers in women. This is due to routine screening by cervical smear. Cervical smear cytology scr eening by Papanicolaou (Pap stained smears is the most efficacious and cost - effective method of cancer screening, decreasing the incidence and mortality from cervical cancer. (4 However, cervical smear screening has significant rates of false - positive and false - negative results, ranging from 10.3% for false positive cases to 5.6% for false negative cases. (5,6 To improve the detection and screening of cancerous and precancerous lesions of the cervix a number of sophisticated tests are available which are e xpensive and can be done only in a tertiary laboratory. To over - come this problems a cost effective cytochemical stain was introduced to measure the acid phosphatase activity in the cervical epithelium. (7 Since the description of the new Cervical Acid Phosphatase Test (CAP Test for visualization of cervical acid phosphatase activity (CAP inside abnormal cervical cells on smears, it has become possible to explore this enzyme as a biomarker for cervical dys plasia, and as a possible surrogate for PAP smear in detection of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN. AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: To assess the utility of Cervical Acid

  1. LOSS OF HETEROZYGOSITY ON CHROMOSOME 17p13.3 IN OVARIAN CANCER AND CERVICAL CANCER

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Guoling; Yang Huijian; Xu Kaili; Zhou Jin; Qin Ruidi; Lu Minghua

    1998-01-01

    Objective:To identify the loss of heterozygosity (LOH) on chromosome 17p13.3 in ovarian cancer and cervical cancer. Methods: The frequency of LOH on chromosome 17p13.3 in DNA samples from 24 ovarian cancers, 9 cervical cancers, and 13 non-malignant gynecological diseases were determined respectively, using Southern blot method with probe PYNZ.22. Results:LOH on 17p13.3 was found in 12 of 24 (50.0%) ovarian cancers (including a borderline mucinous cystadenoma), 4of 9 (44.4%) cervical carcinomas, and 1 of 13 (7.7%) nonmalignant gynecological diseases, which was cervical intraepithelial neoplasm HI (CIN Ⅲ) (P<0.01).Conclusion: These results show that LOH on 17p13.3 is associated with ovarian cancer and cervical cancer,suggesting that detection of LOH on 17p13.3 may be helpful to understand the molecular pathogenesis of ovarian cancer and cervical cancer.

  2. Angiogenesis and antiangiogenic agents in cervical cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomao F

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Federica Tomao,1 Anselmo Papa,2 Luigi Rossi,2 Eleonora Zaccarelli,2 Davide Caruso,2 Federica Zoratto,2 Pierluigi Benedetti Panici,1 Silverio Tomao2 1Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, Sapienza University of Rome, Policlinico Umberto I, Rome, 2Department of Medico-Surgical Sciences and Biotechnologies, Sapienza University of Rome, Oncology Unit, ICOT, Latina, Italy Abstract: Standard treatment of cervical cancer (CC consists of surgery in the early stages and of chemoradiation in locally advanced disease. Metastatic CC has a poor prognosis and is usually treated with palliative platinum-based chemotherapy. Current chemotherapeutic regimens are associated with significant adverse effects and only limited activity, making identification of active and tolerable novel targeted agents a high priority. Angiogenesis is a complex process that plays a crucial role in the development of many types of cancer. The dominant role of angiogenesis in CC seems to be directly related to human papillomavirus-related inhibition of p53 and stabilization of hypoxia-inducible factor-1α. Both of these mechanisms are able to increase expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF. Activation of VEGF promotes endothelial cell proliferation and migration, favoring formation of new blood vessels and increasing permeability of existing blood vessels. Since bevacizumab, a recombinant humanized monoclonal antibody binding to all isoforms of VEGF, has been demonstrated to significantly improve survival in gynecologic cancer, some recent clinical research has explored the possibility of using novel therapies directed toward inhibition of angiogenesis in CC too. Here we review the main results from studies concerning the use of antiangiogenic drugs that are being investigated for the treatment of CC. Keywords: cervical cancer, angiogenesis, human papillomavirus, bevacizumab, target therapies

  3. Results of Definitive Chemoradiotherapy for Unresectable Esophageal Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noh, O Kyu; Je, Hyoung Uk; Kim, Sung Bae [Ulsan University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)] (and others)

    2008-12-15

    To investigate the treatment outcome and failure patterns after definitive chemoradiation therapy in locally advanced, unresectable esophageal cancer. Materials and Methods: From February 1994 to December 2002, 168 patients with locally advanced unresectable or medically inoperable esophageal cancer were treated by definitive chemoradiation therapy. External beam radiation therapy (EBRT) (42-46 Gy) was delivered to the region encompassing the primary tumor and involved lymph nodes, while the supraclavicular fossa and celiac area were included in the treatment area as a function of disease location. The administered cone-down radiation dose to the gross tumor went up to 54-66 Gy, while the fraction size of the EBRT was 1.8-2.0 Gy/fraction qd or 1.2 Gy/fraction bid. An optional high dose rate (HDR) intraluminal brachytherapy (BT) boost was also administered (Ir-192, 9-12 Gy/3 -4 fx). Two cycles of concurrent FP chemotherapy (5-FU 1,000 mg/m2/day, days 2-6, 30-34, cisplatin 60 mg/m2/day, days 1, 29) were delivered during radiotherapy with the addition of two more cycles. Results: One hundred sixty patients were analyzable for this review [median follow-up time: 10 months (range 1-149 months)]. The number of patients within AJCC stages I, II, III, and IV was 5 (3.1%), 38 (23.8%), 68 (42.5%), and 49 (30.6%), respectively. A HDR intraluminal BT was performed in 26 patients. The 160 patients had a median EBRT radiation dose of 59.4 Gy (range 44.4-66) and a total radiation dose, including BT, of 60 Gy (range 44.4-72), while 144 patients received a dose higher than 40 Gy. Despite the treatment, the disease recurrence rate was 101/160 (63.1%). Of these, the patterns of recurrence were local in 20 patients (12.5%), persistent disease and local progression in 61 (38.1%), distant metastasis in 15 (9.4%), and concomitant local and distant failure in 5 (3.1%). The overall survival rate was 31.8% at 2 years and 14.2% at 5 years (median 11.1 months). Disease-free survival was 29

  4. Patient, Physician, and Nurse Factors Associated With Entry Onto Clinical Trials and Finishing Treatment in Patients With Primary or Recurrent Uterine, Endometrial, or Cervical Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-10-26

    Recurrent Cervical Carcinoma; Recurrent Uterine Corpus Carcinoma; Recurrent Uterine Corpus Sarcoma; Stage I Uterine Corpus Cancer; Stage I Uterine Sarcoma; Stage IA Cervical Cancer; Stage IB Cervical Cancer; Stage II Uterine Corpus Cancer; Stage II Uterine Sarcoma; Stage IIA Cervical Cancer; Stage IIB Cervical Cancer; Stage III Cervical Cancer; Stage III Uterine Corpus Cancer; Stage III Uterine Sarcoma; Stage IV Uterine Corpus Cancer; Stage IV Uterine Sarcoma; Stage IVA Cervical Cancer; Stage IVB Cervical Cancer

  5. Is 58% sensitivity for detection of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia 3 and invasive cervical cancer optimal for cervical screening?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Marshall Austin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent Food and Drug Administration (FDA approval of a Roche cobas human papillomavirus (HPV test application as a first line primary cervical screening tool in women 25 and older introduces a new era of complex cervical screening choices. Perhaps the most surprising findings in Roche′s supporting ATHENA trial data were the unexpectedly low verification bias-adjusted CIN3+ sensitivities documented by the FDA for both the proposed cobas HPV testing algorithm (58.26% and Pap testing algorithm (42.63%. These unexpectedly low sensitivity estimates suggest intuitively that there is still considerable room for improvement in cervical screening, and available data from large systems point to routine cytology and HPV co-testing as offering the greatest protection against development of cervical cancer. Observational studies of large populations screened over time remain essential to document actual protection from development of cervical cancer with any new cervical screening options, as natural history studies and available data from large systems indicate that most CIN2/3 cases detected in short term clinical trials would not progress to invasive cervical cancer. Interpretation of ATHENA trial data and its application to routine clinical practice is further limited by published studies which document that a significant proportion of CIN2/3 biopsy diagnoses in the ATHENA trial could not be confirmed as accurate when evaluated with p16 immunohistochemistry and that cytology laboratory performance in the trial was notably suboptimal.

  6. Polymorphisms of alcohol dehydrogenase-2 and aldehyde dehydrogenase-2 and esophageal cancer risk in Southeast Chinese males

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jian-Hua Ding; Su-Ping Li; Hai-Xia Cao; Jian-Zhong Wu; Chang-Ming Gao; Ping Su; Yan-Ting Liu; Jian-Nong Zhou; Jun Chang; Gen-Hong Yao

    2009-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the impact of alcohol dehydrogenase-2 (ADH2) and aldehyde dehydrogenase-2 (ALDH2) polymorphisms on esophageal cancer susceptibility in Southeast Chinese males. METHODS: Two hundred and twenty-one esophageal cancer patients and 191 healthy controls from Taixing city in Jiangsu Province were enrolled in this study. ADH2 and ALDH2 genotypes were examined by polymerase chain reaction and denaturing highperformance liquid chromatography. Unconditional logistic regression was used to calculate the odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI). RESULTS: The ADH G allele carriers were more susceptible to esophageal cancer, but no association was found between ADH2 genotypes and risk of esophageal cancer when disregarding alcohol drinking status. Regardless of ADH2 genotype, ALDH2G/A or A/A carriers had significantly increased risk of developing esophageal cancer, with homozygous individuals showing higher esophageal cancer risk than those who were heterozygous. A significant interaction between ALDH2 and drinking was detected regarding esophageal cancer risk; the OR was 3.05 (95% CI: 1.49-6.25). Compared with non-drinkers carrying both ALDH2 G/G and ADH2 A/A, drinkers carrying both ALDH2 A allele and ADH2 G allele showed a significantly higher risk of developing esophageal cancer (OR = 8.36, 95% CI: 2.98-23.46).CONCLUSION: Both ADH2 G allele and ALDH2 A allele significantly increase the risk of esophageal cancer development in Southeast Chinese males. ALDH2 A allele significantly increases the risk of esophageal cancer development especially in alcohol drinkers. Alcohol drinkers carrying both ADH2 G allele and ALDH2 A allele have a higher risk of developing esophageal cancer.

  7. Cervical Cancer Awareness: An Information Dissemination Campaign In Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dedeh Sri Rahayu

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This descriptive-correlational study was conducted to determine the level of cervical cancer awareness of 196 participants who were conveniently recruited from selected regions in South Cimahi, Melong, West Java,Indonesia. The survey was conducted on February 2014 for fifteen (15 days using a survey questionnaire for data collection. Descriptive statistics such as frequency and percentage distribution were used for demographic profile and weighted mean for the assessment of the level of awareness on cervical cancer, and inferential statistics such as Pearson r and chi square for hypothesis testing. They have moderate awareness on basic information on cervical cancer, foremost are the areas on prevention, anatomy, treatment and common diagnostic examination, but with very little knowledge or partial awareness on the items pertaining to signs and symptoms, etiology and mode of transmission of cervical cancer. The results of chi square and pearson r tests found that the participants’ gender and educational attainment were not significantly correlated with their level of awareness on cervical cancer while, family monthly income was significantly correlated to their level of awareness. Hence, this study concluded that gender and educational attainment do not necessarily determine a person’s level of awareness or knowledge but family income could contribute to their level of awareness. The study findings formed the basis of designing an information dissemination campaign material on cervical cancer among the residents of South Cimahi, Indonesia. In this regard, an intensive information dissemination campaign program on cervical cancer is recommended using the proposed campaign material designed.

  8. Screening for cervical cancer: when theory meets reality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nygård Mari

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Cervical cancer screening reduces morbidity and mortality due to cervical cancer. However, there are many factors that determine the success of any cervical cancer prevention effort: the prevalence of human papillomavirus infection in general population, the existence of an organized screening program and the corresponding coverage, the existence and quality of the field and laboratory facilities for screening and diagnostic follow-up, and the facilities available for treating diagnosed lesions. Monitoring the patient path or "chain of action" for each patient with an abnormal screening result is of crucial importance. Cost-effectiveness models are widely used by decision-makers to determine which cervical cancer screening program would maximize health benefits within a given, usually limited, set of resources. Regardless of their level of sophistication, however, these models cannot replace empirical evaluations of the effectiveness of screening programs. Cervical cancer prevention activities need to be monitored and evaluated in each country where they are introduced to see that they meet performance standards. Policy-makers responsible for allocating resources for cervical cancer prevention have a duty to allocate resources not only for cervical cancer screening, but also for screening program surveillance.

  9. Update on prevention and screening of cervical cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGraw, Shaniqua L; Ferrante, Jeanne M

    2014-01-01

    Cervical cancer is the third most common cause of cancer in women in the world. During the past few decades tremendous strides have been made toward decreasing the incidence and mortality of cervical cancer with the implementation of various prevention and screening strategies. The causative agent linked to cervical cancer development and its precursors is the human papillomavirus (HPV). Prevention and screening measures for cervical cancer are paramount because the ability to identify and treat the illness at its premature stage often disrupts the process of neoplasia. Cervical carcinogenesis can be the result of infections from multiple high-risk HPV types that act synergistically. This imposes a level of complexity to identifying and vaccinating against the actual causative agent. Additionally, most HPV infections spontaneously clear. Therefore, screening strategies should optimally weigh the benefits and risks of screening to avoid the discovery and needless treatment of transient HPV infections. This article provides an update of the preventative and screening methods for cervical cancer, mainly HPV vaccination, screening with Pap smear cytology, and HPV testing. It also provides a discussion of the newest United States 2012 guidelines for cervical cancer screening, which changed the age to begin and end screening and lengthened the screening intervals. PMID:25302174

  10. Symptomatic Pericardial Effusion After Chemoradiation Therapy in Esophageal Cancer Patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fukada, Junichi, E-mail: fukada@rad.med.keio.ac.jp [Department of Radiology, School of Medicine, Keio University, Tokyo (Japan); Shigematsu, Naoyuki [Department of Radiology, School of Medicine, Keio University, Tokyo (Japan); Takeuchi, Hiroya [Department of Surgery, School of Medicine, Keio University, Tokyo (Japan); Ohashi, Toshio [Department of Radiology, School of Medicine, Keio University, Tokyo (Japan); Saikawa, Yoshiro [Department of Surgery, School of Medicine, Keio University, Tokyo (Japan); Takaishi, Hiromasa [Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Department of Internal Medicine, School of Medicine, Keio University, Tokyo (Japan); Hanada, Takashi; Shiraishi, Yutaka [Department of Radiology, School of Medicine, Keio University, Tokyo (Japan); Kitagawa, Yuko [Department of Surgery, School of Medicine, Keio University, Tokyo (Japan); Fukuda, Keiichi [Department of Cardiology, School of Medicine, Keio University, Tokyo (Japan)

    2013-11-01

    Purpose: We investigated clinical and treatment-related factors as predictors of symptomatic pericardial effusion in esophageal cancer patients after concurrent chemoradiation therapy. Methods and Materials: We reviewed 214 consecutive primary esophageal cancer patients treated with concurrent chemoradiation therapy between 2001 and 2010 in our institute. Pericardial effusion was detected on follow-up computed tomography. Symptomatic effusion was defined as effusion ≥grade 3 according to Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events v4.0 criteria. Percent volume irradiated with 5 to 65 Gy (V5-V65) and mean dose to the pericardium were evaluated employing dose-volume histograms. To evaluate dosimetry for patients treated with two-dimensional planning in the earlier period (2001-2005), computed tomography data at diagnosis were transferred to a treatment planning system to reconstruct three-dimensional plans without modification. Optimal dosimetric thresholds for symptomatic pericardial effusion were calculated by receiver operating characteristic curves. Associating clinical and treatment-related risk factors for symptomatic pericardial effusion were detected by univariate and multivariate analyses. Results: The median follow-up was 29 (range, 6-121) months for eligible 167 patients. Symptomatic pericardial effusion was observed in 14 (8.4%) patients. Dosimetric analyses revealed average values of V30 to V45 for the pericardium and mean pericardial doses were significantly higher in patients with symptomatic pericardial effusion than in those with asymptomatic pericardial effusion (P<.05). Pericardial V5 to V55 and mean pericardial doses were significantly higher in patients with symptomatic pericardial effusion than in those without pericardial effusion (P<.001). Mean pericardial doses of 36.5 Gy and V45 of 58% were selected as optimal cutoff values for predicting symptomatic pericardial effusion. Multivariate analysis identified mean pericardial dose as the

  11. Preventive vaccines for cervical cancer Vacunas para prevenir el cáncer cervical

    OpenAIRE

    Wheeler, Cosette M.

    1997-01-01

    The potential use of vaccines for the human papillomavirus (HPV) in the prevention and treatment of cervical cancer is a possibility in the near future. Close to 20 genotypes of HPV, of the 75 that have been identified, infect the femine genital tract, but four subtypes (16, 18, 31 and 45) have been associated in close to 80% of cervical cancers. this article proposes that in order to design an effective prophylactic vaccine against HPV infection, an adequate immune response should be guarant...

  12. Youtube as a source of information on cervical cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janak Adhikari

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cervical cancer is the third most common cancer worldwide. Accurate information about cervical cancer to general public can lower the burden of the disease including its mortality. Aims: We aimed to look at the quality of information available in YouTube for cervical cancer. Materials and Methods: We searched YouTube (http://www.youtube.com for videos using the keyword "Cervical cancer" on November 12, 2015. Videos were then analyzed for their source and content of information. Results: We studied 172 videos using the keyword "Cervical cancer" on November 12, 2015. We found that there were videos describing the personal stories, risk factors, and the importance of screening. However, videos discussing all the aspects of cancers were lacking. Likewise, videos from the reputed organization were also lacking. Conclusion: Although there were numerous videos available in cervical cancer, videos from reputed organizations including Center for Disease Control and Prevention, American Cancer Society, and World Health Organization were lacking. We strongly believe that quality videos from such organizations via YouTube can help lower the burden of disease.

  13. Women's perspectives on illness in being screened for cervical cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hounsgaard, Lise; Augustussen, Mikaela; Møller, Helle;

    2013-01-01

    Background In Greenland, the incidence of cervical cancer caused by human papillomavirus (HPV) is 25 per 100,000 women; 2.5 times the Danish rate. In Greenland, the disease is most frequent among women aged 30–40. Systematic screening can identify women with cervical cell changes, which if untrea......Background In Greenland, the incidence of cervical cancer caused by human papillomavirus (HPV) is 25 per 100,000 women; 2.5 times the Danish rate. In Greenland, the disease is most frequent among women aged 30–40. Systematic screening can identify women with cervical cell changes, which...... of analysis: naive reading, structural analysis and critical interpretation. Results These revealed that women were unprepared for screening results showing cervical cell changes, since they had no symptoms. When diagnosed, participants believed that they had early-stage cancer, leading to feelings...

  14. GENERAL AWARNANCE OF HUMAN PAPILLOMA VIRUS VACCINE AGAINST CERVICAL CANCER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SAFILA NAVEED

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We have conducted a survey program on the awarnance of HPV vaccine of cervical cancer in common people. Methods: For this survey we perform 2 steps. First we made a questionnaires in which we ask to female of different belongs to different education field either they are married or not. Secondly we gone in the different hospitals of Karachi and observe treatment, diagnosis, vaccination availability and frequency of cervical cancer. Results:From questionnaire we observed that only 1 % female are aware about cervical cancer and its vaccine i.e. HPV, even female belongs medical field are not aware about it. Form hospital survey we observed that frequency of cervical cancer is very less but in Shaukat Khanum hospital 90 cases reported out of 1803 cancer. The given treatment is radiology, chemotherapy and surgery.

  15. Fruit Consumption Reduces the Risk of Esophageal Cancer in Yanting, People's Republic of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Qingkun; Zhao, Lin; Li, Jun; Ren, Jun

    2015-05-01

    This study aimed to investigate the contribution of fruit and family history to esophageal cancer, among residents with abnormal esophagus discovered in screening. The study was a frequency-matched case-control design in groups of normal esophagus, abnormal esophagus but not carcinoma, and esophageal squamous cell carcinoma. Odds ratio (OR) was estimated by unconditional logistic regression. Fruit intake (OR = 0.19, 95% CI = 0.06-0.56) and positive family history of esophageal cancer (OR = 3.87, 95% CI = 1.41-10.63) were associated with esophageal cancer compared to individuals with abnormal conditions of the esophagus. In individuals who consumed fruits at least once per week, the OR for family cancer history is reduced to a nonsignificant level (OR = 1.06, 95% CI = 0.07-15.91). In the individuals with abnormal esophagus at screening, fruit intake was possibly protective against esophageal cancer, even in the ones with positive family history. Local public health strategies should focus on the improvement in fruit intake.

  16. Flavonoids, Flavonoid Subclasses, and Esophageal Cancer Risk: A Meta-Analysis of Epidemiologic Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Lingling; Liu, Xinxin; Tian, Yalan; Xie, Chen; Li, Qianwen; Cui, Han; Sun, Changqing

    2016-06-08

    Flavonoids have been suggested to play a chemopreventive role in carcinogenesis. However, the epidemiologic studies assessing dietary intake of flavonoids and esophageal cancer risk have yielded inconsistent results. This study was designed to examine the association between flavonoids, each flavonoid subclass, and the risk of esophageal cancer with a meta-analysis approach. We searched for all relevant studies with a prospective cohort or case-control study design published from January 1990 to April 2016, using PUBMED, EMBASE, and Web of Science. Pooled odds ratios (ORs) were calculated using fixed or random-effect models. In total, seven articles including 2629 cases and 481,193 non-cases were selected for the meta-analysis. Comparing the highest-intake patients with the lowest-intake patients for total flavonoids and for each flavonoid subclass, we found that anthocyanidins (OR = 0.60, 95% CI: 0.49-0.74), flavanones (OR = 0.65, 95% CI: 0.49-0.86), and flavones (OR = 0.78, 95% CI 0.64-0.95) were inversely associated with the risk of esophageal cancer. However, total flavonoids showed marginal association with esophageal cancer risk (OR = 0.78, 95% CI: 0.59-1.04). In conclusion, our study suggested that dietary intake of total flavonoids, anthocyanidins, flavanones, and flavones might reduce the risk of esophageal cancer.

  17. Abnormal cerebral functional connectivity in esophageal cancer patients with theory of mind deficits in resting state.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Yin; Xiang, JianBo; Qian, Nong; Sun, SuPing; Hu, LiJun; Yuan, YongGui

    2015-01-01

    To explore the function of the default mode network (DMN) in the psychopathological mechanisms of theory of mind deficits in patients with an esophageal cancer concomitant with depression in resting the state. Twenty-five cases of esophageal cancer with theory of mind deficits (test group) that meet the diagnostic criteria of esophageal cancer and neuropsychological tests, including Beck depression inventory, reading the mind in the eyes, and Faux pas, were included, Another 25 cases of esophageal cancer patients but without theory of mind deficits (control group) were enrolled. Each patient completed a resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging. The functional connectivity intensities within the cerebral regions in the DMN of all the enrolled patients were analyzed. The results of each group were compared. The functional connectivity of the bilateral prefrontal central region with the precuneus, bilateral posterior cingulate gyrus and bilateral ventral anterior cingulate gyrus in the patients of the test group were all reduced significantly (P theory of mind deficits. The theory of mind deficits might have an important function in the pathogenesis of esophageal cancer.

  18. Gastric tube perforation after esophagectomy for esophageal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ubukata, Hideyuki; Nakachi, Takeshi; Tabuchi, Takanobu; Nagata, Hiroyuki; Takemura, Akira; Shimazaki, Jiro; Konishi, Satoru; Tabuchi, Takafumi

    2011-05-01

    We searched for cases of perforation of the gastric tube after esophagectomy for esophageal cancer by reviewing the literature. Only 13 cases were found in the English literature, and serious complications were seen in all cases, especially in cases of posterior mediastinal reconstruction. However, in the Japanese literature serious complications were also frequently seen in retrosternal reconstruction. Gastric tubes are at a higher risk of developing an ulcer than the normal stomach, including an ulcer due to Helicobacter pylori infection, insufficient blood supply, gastric stasis, and bile juice regurgitation. H. pylori eradication and acid-suppressive medications are important preventive therapies for ordinary gastric ulcers, but for gastric tube ulcers the effects of such treatments are still controversial. We tried to determine the most appropriate treatment to avoid serious complications in the gastric tubes, but we could not confirm an optimal route because each had advantages and disadvantages. However, at least in cases with severe atrophic gastritis due to H. pylori infection or a history of frequent peptic ulcer treatment, the antesternal route is clearly the best. Many cases of gastric tube ulcers involve no pain, and vagotomy may be one of the reasons for this absence of pain. Therefore, periodic endoscopic examination may be necessary to rule out the presence of an ulcer.

  19. Health-related quality of life in long-term esophageal cancer survivors after potentially curative treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Courrech Staal, E.F.W.; van Sandick, J.W.; van Tinteren, H.; Cats, A.; Aaronson, N.K.

    2010-01-01

    Objective Clinical outcomes have been investigated extensively in studies of esophageal cancer treatment. Less is known about long-term health-related quality of life outcomes. The aim of this study was to assess a range of health-related quality of life outcomes in patients with esophageal cancer t

  20. Red and processed meat consumption and the risk of esophageal and gastric cancer subtypes in the netherlands cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keszei, A.P.; Schouten, L.J.; Goldbohm, R.A.; Brandt, P.A. van den

    2012-01-01

    Background: Prospective data on red and processed meat in relation to risk of subtypes of esophageal and gastric cancer are scarce. We present analyses of association between red and processed meat and the risk of esophageal and gastric cancer subtypes within The Netherlands Cohort Study on Diet and

  1. Palliative Endoscopic Therapy of Esophageal Cancer%食管癌的内镜姑息治疗

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    H.Sch(a)fer; A.H.H(o)lscher

    2004-01-01

    @@ Patients with locally unresectable esophageal cancer or distant metastasis are usually treated with definite radiotherapy or radiochemotherapy. Dysphagia of these patients should further be treated by endoscopic therapy in order to maintain swallowing and oral food intake as long as possible.The same situation is present in patients with local recurrence of esophageal cancer after surgery or radiochemotherapy.

  2. Long-term outcomes of endoscopic argon plasma coagulation (APC) therapy for early esophageal cancer and precancerous lesions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王国清

    2013-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the long-term outcomes of endoscopic argon plasma coagulation (APC) therapy for early esophageal cancer and precancerous lesions.Methods One-hundred and seventy one cases with early esophageal cancer (intramucosal carcinoma) and precancerous lesions were treated by APC from 1994 to 2005,

  3. [Human papillomavirus detection in cervical cancer prevention].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picconi, María Alejandra

    2013-01-01

    Cervical cancer (CC), which is strongly associated to high-risk human papillomavirus (hr-HPV) infection, continues being a significant health problem in Latin America. The use of conventional cytology to detect precancerous cervical lesions has had no major impact on reducing CC incidence and mortality rates, which are still high in the region. New screening tools to detect precancerous lesions became available, which provide great opportunities for CC prevention, as do highly efficacious HPV vaccines able to prevent nearly all lesions associated with HPV-16 and -18 when applied before viral exposure. Currently, hr-HPV testing represents an invaluable component of clinical guidelines for screening, management and treatment of CC and their precursor lesions. Many testing strategies have been developed that can detect a broad spectrum of hr-HPV types in a single assay; however, only a small subset of them has documented clinical performance for any of the standard HPV testing indications. HPV tests that have not been validated and lack proof of reliability, reproducibility and accuracy should not be used in clinical management. Once incorporated into the lab, it is essential to submit the whole procedure of HPV testing to continuous and rigorous quality assurance to avoid sub-optimal, potentially harmful practices. Recent progress and current status of these methods are discussed in this article.

  4. Is cardiac toxicity a relevant issue in the radiation treatment of esophageal cancer?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beukema, Jannet C; van Luijk, Peter; Widder, Joachim; Langendijk, Johannes A; Muijs, Christina T

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: In recent years several papers have been published on radiation-induced cardiac toxicity, especially in breast cancer patients. However, in esophageal cancer patients the radiation dose to the heart is usually markedly higher. To determine whether radiation-induced cardiac toxicity is also

  5. Problems and needs in patients with incurable esophageal and pancreaticobiliary cancer: a descriptive study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Uitdehaag, M.J.; Verschuur, E.M.I.; Eijck, C.H. van; Gaast, A. van der; Rijt, C.C. van der; Man, R.A. de; Steyerberg, E.W.; Kuipers, E.J.; Siersema, P.D.

    2015-01-01

    Patients with incurable esophageal cancer (EC) or pancreaticobiliary cancer (PBC) often have multiple symptoms and their quality of life is poor. We investigated which problems these patients experience and how often care is expected for these problems to provide optimal professional care. Fifty-sev

  6. Expression of ECRG4, a novel esophageal cancer-related gene,downregulated by CpG island hypermethylation in human esophageal squamous cell carcinoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chun-Mei Yue; Da-Jun Deng; Mei-Xia Bi; Li-Ping Guo; Shih-Hsin Lu

    2003-01-01

    AIM: To study the mechanisms responsible for inactivation of a novel esophageal cancer related gene 4 (ECRG4) in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC). METHODS: A pair of primers was designed to amplify a 220 bp fragment, which contains 16 CpG sites in the core promoter region of the ECRG 4 gene. PCR products of bisulfite-modified CpG islands were analyzed by denaturing high-performance liquid chromatography (DHPLC), which were confirmed by DNA sequencing. The methylation status of ECRG 4 promoter in 20 cases of esophageal cancer and the adjacent normal tissues, 5 human tumor cell lines (esophageal cancer cell line-NEC, EC109, EC9706; gastric cancer cell line- GLC; human embryo kidney cell line-Hek293)and 2 normal esophagus tissues were detected. The expression level of the ECRG 4 gene in these samples was examined by RT-PCR. RESULTS: The expression level of ECRG 4 gene was varied.Of 20 esophageal cancer tissues, nine were unexpressed,six were lowly expressed and five were highly expressed compared with the adjacent tissues and the 2 normal esophageal epithelia. In addition, 4 out of the 5 human cell lines were also unexpressed. A high frequency of methylation was revealed in 12 (8 unexpressed and 4 lowly expressed)of the 15 (80%) downregulated cancer tissues and 3 of the 4 unexpressed cell lines. No methylation peak was observed in the two highly expressed normal esophageal epithelia and the methylation frequency was low (3/20) among the 20 cases in the highly expressed adjacent tissues. The methylation status of the samples was consistent with the result of DNA sequencing. CONCLUSION: These results indicate that the inactivation of ECRG 4gene by hypermethylation is a frequent molecular event in ESCC and may be involved in the carcinogenesis of this cancer.

  7. Impact of different IMRT techniques to improve conformity and normal tissue sparing in upper esophageal cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amin E Amin

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT for cervical esophageal cancer is challenging. Although IMRT techniques using inverse planning algorithms are facilitating the treatment planning process, the irradiation dose to the normal tissues can be a critical issue. This study was performed to investigate the effect of beam numbers and their directions and local optimization on: (1 dose conformity and homogeneity to the planning target volume (PTV and (2 dose to the organ at risks (OARs.Methods: Four upper esophageal cancer cases were randomly selected for this treatment planning study. Eight IMRT plans were generated for each case with the same dose-volume constraints but with different beam numbers and arrangements. Local optimization using regular structures drawn automatically around the PTV with margins from 0.5-1.5 cm was performed. IMRT plans were evaluated with respect to isodose distributions, dose-volume histograms (DVHs parameters, homogeneity index (HI, and conformity index (CI. The statistical comparison between the types of plans was done using the One Way ANOVA test.Results: The results showed that IMRT using three or five beams was not sufficient to obtain good dose optimization. The seven field plans showed the best coverage for the PTV with tolerable doses for the OARs, and the beam orientation was very critical. Increasing beams (Bs number from 7 to 13 did not show significant differences in the PTV coverage, while the mean lung dose was increased. The PTV coverage were 95.1, 95.1, 98.1, 97.3, 97.3, 97.3, 97.0, and 97.0% for 3Bs, 5Bs, 7Bs, 9Bs, 13Bs, 7Bs(30, 7Bs(60 (beam angles were changed from 0o to 30o and 60o, and 7Bs(R (seven IMRT plans with ring, respectively. The mean heart dose did not exceed 0.36 Gy with p < 0.05. For lung doses, the best plan was the one with 9Bs which reduced lung volume doses V20Gy (% and V30Gy (%, and reduced mean lung dose from 5.4 to 4.5 Gy with p < 0.05 for 7Bs(R plans. IMRT improved the

  8. Cervical cancer screening in Greenland, 1997-2011

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holst, Signe; Wohlfahrt, Jan; Kjær, Susanne K;

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: In spite of the high incidence of cervical cancer in Greenland, no assessment has been made of the impact of organized cervical screening, introduced in 1998, in relation to occurrence of high-grade cervical lesions. The objectives of the present study were to estimate coverage...... of the screening program and to examine possible changes in cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN3) incidence in Greenland during 1997-2011 according to calendar period and age. METHODS: Using nationwide registries, we calculated age-standardized incidence rates for all women born and living in Greenland...

  9. Delayed Esophageal Pseudodiverticulum after Anterior Cervical Spine Fixation: Report of 2 Cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Sadrizadeh

    2015-03-01

     Conclusion:  In cases with delayed perforation, fistula, or diverticulum removal of anterior fixation instruments, gentle repair of the esophageal wall without persistence on definitive and optimal perforation closure, wide local drainage, early enteral nutrition via NGT, and antibiotic prescription is suggested.

  10. Salivary microRNAs as promising biomarkers for detection of esophageal cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zijun Xie

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Tissue microRNAs (miRNAs can detect cancers and predict prognosis. Several recent studies reported that tissue, plasma, and saliva miRNAs share similar expression profiles. In this study, we investigated the discriminatory power of salivary miRNAs (including whole saliva and saliva supernatant for detection of esophageal cancer. MATERIALS AND METHODS: By Agilent microarray, six deregulated miRNAs from whole saliva samples from seven patients with esophageal cancer and three healthy controls were selected. The six selected miRNAs were subjected to validation of their expression levels by RT-qPCR using both whole saliva and saliva supernatant samples from an independent set of 39 patients with esophageal cancer and 19 healthy controls. RESULTS: Six miRNAs (miR-10b*, miR-144, miR-21, miR-451, miR-486-5p, and miR-634 were identified as targets by Agilent microarray. After validation by RT-qPCR, miR-10b*, miR-144, and miR-451 in whole saliva and miR-10b*, miR-144, miR-21, and miR-451 in saliva supernatant were significantly upregulated in patients, with sensitivities of 89.7, 92.3, 84.6, 79.5, 43.6, 89.7, and 51.3% and specificities of 57.9, 47.4, 57.9%, 57.9, 89.5, 47.4, and 84.2%, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: We found distinctive miRNAs for esophageal cancer in both whole saliva and saliva supernatant. These miRNAs possess discriminatory power for detection of esophageal cancer. Because saliva collection is noninvasive and convenient, salivary miRNAs show great promise as biomarkers for detection of esophageal cancer in areas at high risk.

  11. Cervical cancer: The preventive role of HPV vaccine (review article

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Behtash

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Cervical cancer is the second most common gynecologic cancer. A steady 70% annual decline in mortality from cervical cancers has been observed since the mid 20th century after the introduction of widespread papanicolaou cytological screening. But also cervical cancer continues to be an important world health problem for women. Cervical cancer is one of the best- understood neoplasm given its well known viral cause of persistent infection with high risk human papillomavirus (HPV. To date, two manufacturers have developed HPV vaccines composed of noninfectious, recombinant HPV viral-like particles (VLPs. This article presents current advances and perspectives on HPV vaccines.The vaccine is administered by intramuscular injection, and the recommended schedule is a 3-dose series with the second and third doses administered 2 and 6 months after the first dose. The recommended age for vaccination of females is 11-12 years. Vaccine can be administered as young as age 9 years. Catch-up vaccination is recommended for females aged 13--26 years who have not been previously vaccinated. Vaccination is not a substitute for routine cervical cancer screening, and vaccinated females should have cervical cancer screening as recommended.

  12. Survival analysis of cervical cancer using stratified Cox regression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purnami, S. W.; Inayati, K. D.; Sari, N. W. Wulan; Chosuvivatwong, V.; Sriplung, H.

    2016-04-01

    Cervical cancer is one of the mostly widely cancer cause of the women death in the world including Indonesia. Most cervical cancer patients come to the hospital already in an advanced stadium. As a result, the treatment of cervical cancer becomes more difficult and even can increase the death's risk. One of parameter that can be used to assess successfully of treatment is the probability of survival. This study raises the issue of cervical cancer survival patients at Dr. Soetomo Hospital using stratified Cox regression based on six factors such as age, stadium, treatment initiation, companion disease, complication, and anemia. Stratified Cox model is used because there is one independent variable that does not satisfy the proportional hazards assumption that is stadium. The results of the stratified Cox model show that the complication variable is significant factor which influent survival probability of cervical cancer patient. The obtained hazard ratio is 7.35. It means that cervical cancer patient who has complication is at risk of dying 7.35 times greater than patient who did not has complication. While the adjusted survival curves showed that stadium IV had the lowest probability of survival.

  13. Cost-benefit analysis of screening for esophageal and gastric cardiac cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wen-Qiang Wei; Chun-Xia Yang; Si-Han Lu; Juan Yang; Bian-Yun Li; Shi-Yong Lian; You-Lin Qiao

    2011-01-01

    In 2005, a program named “Early Detection and Early Treatment of Esophageal and Cardiac Cancer”(EDETEC) was initiated in China. A total of 8279 residents aged 40-69 years old were recruited into the EDETEC program in Linzhou of Henan Province between 2005 and 2008. Howerer, the cost-benefit of the EDETEC program is not very clear yet. We conducted herein a cost-benefit analysis of screening for esophageal and cardiac cancer. The assessed costs of the EDETEC program included screening costs for each subject, as well as direct and indirect treatment costs for esophageal and cardiac severe dyspiasia and cancer detected by screening. The assessed benefits of this program included the saved treatment costs, both direct and indirect, on esophageal and cardiac cancer, as well as the value of prolonged life due to screening, as determined by the human capital approach. The results showed the screening cost of finding esophageal and cardiac severe dysplasia or cancer ranged from ¥2707 to ¥4512, and the total cost on screening and treatment was ¥13 115-¥14 920. The cost benefit was ¥58 944-¥155 110 (the saved treatment cost, ¥17 730, plus the value of prolonged life,¥41 214-¥137 380). The ratio of benefit-to-cost (BCR) was 3.95-11.83. Our results suggest that EDETEC has a high benefit-to-cost ratio in China and could be instituted into high risk areas of China.

  14. Needs and priorities of women with endometrial and cervical cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jeppesen, Mette Moustgaard; Mogensen, Ole; Dehn, Pernille

    2015-01-01

    and 34.7% of endometrial cancer patients. Both the patient groups experienced significant lymphedema post-treatment [endometrial cancer (p = 0.006) and cervical cancer (p = 0.002)]. Further, urological problems were more prevalent post-treatment in endometrial cancer patients (p = 0.018), while sexual...... with endometrial and cervical cancer experience emotional problems prior to therapy and lymphedema, and urological and sexual problems following treatment. An awareness of these problems may facilitate early identification of women with unmet needs and enable individualized follow-up adjusted for such patient...

  15. Delivering cervical cancer prevention services in low-resource settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, J; Barone, M; Mahé, C; Lewis, R; Luciani, S

    2005-05-01

    The goals of any cervical cancer prevention program should be threefold: to achieve high coverage of the population at risk, to screen women with an accurate test as part of high-quality services, and to ensure that women with positive test results are properly managed. This article focuses on the experiences of the Alliance for Cervical Cancer Prevention (ACCP) in delivery of screening and treatment services as part of cervical cancer prevention projects in Africa, Latin America, and Asia. Research and experience show that cervical cancer can be prevented when strategies and services are well planned and well managed and when attention is paid to program monitoring and evaluation. Coordination of program components, reduction of the number of visits, improvement of service quality, and flexibility in how services are delivered are all essential features of an effective service.

  16. Bevacizumab improves survival for patients with advanced cervical cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patients with advanced, recurrent, or persistent cervical cancer that was not curable with standard treatment who received the drug bevacizumab (Avastin) lived 3.7 months longer than patients who did not receive the drug, according to an interim analysis

  17. Molecular mechanisms of cisplatin resistance in cervical cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhu H

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Haiyan Zhu, Hui Luo, Wenwen Zhang, Zhaojun Shen, Xiaoli Hu, Xueqiong Zhu Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, The Second Affiliated Hospital of Wenzhou Medical University, Wenzhou, People’s Republic of China Abstract: Patients with advanced or recurrent cervical cancer have poor prognosis, and their 1-year survival is only 10%–20%. Chemotherapy is considered as the standard treatment for patients with advanced or recurrent cervical cancer, and cisplatin appears to treat the disease effectively. However, resistance to cisplatin may develop, thus substantially compromising the efficacy of cisplatin to treat advanced or recurrent cervical cancer. In this article, we systematically review the recent literature and summarize the recent advances in our understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying cisplatin resistance in cervical cancer. Keywords: cisplatin, epithelial–mesenchymal transition, microRNA, molecular mechanism, resistance

  18. Grantee Spotlight: Dr. Kolawole Okuyemi - Improving Cervical Cancer Screening Attitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dr. Kolawole Okuyumi is studying cervical cancer screening attitudes and behaviors of African immigrants and refugees in Minnesota, and introducing “cancer” and “cervix” to their everyday vocabulary.

  19. Virus and Cervical Cancer: Role and implication: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalyani Raju

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Cervical cancer is one of the leading cancers in women worldwide especially in developing countries. Various etiological factors are described, of which Human papiloma virus (HPV is proved by various molecular epidemiological studies to play a major role. However many co-factors are required and thought to facilitate the action of HPV in cervical carcinogenesis. Here the role of various viruses in cervical cancer and its implication in screening and diagnosis of cervical cancer is highlighted. In-depth knowledge of role of different viruses helps in better screening methods and probably in target therapy / development of an appropriate vaccine. [Biomed Res Ther 2015; 2(3.000: 220-30

  20. IMAGE-GUIDED RADIOTHERAPY AND -BRACHYTHERAPY FOR CERVICAL CANCER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suresh eDutta

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Conventional radiotherapy for cervical cancer relies on clinical examination, 3-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (3D-CRT, and 2-dimensional intracavitary brachytherapy.Excellent local control and survival have been obtained for small early stage cervical cancer with definitive radiotherapy. For bulky and locally advanced disease, the addition of chemotherapy has improved the prognosis but toxicity remains significant. New imaging technology such as positron emission tomography (PET and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI has improved tumor delineation for radiotherapy planning. Image-guided radiotherapy (IGRT may decrease treatment toxicity of whole pelvic radiation because of its potential for bone marrow, bowel, and bladder sparring. Tumor shrinkage during whole pelvic IGRT may optimize image-guided brachytherapy (IGBT, allowing for better local control and reduced toxicity for patients with cervical cancer. IGRT and IGBT should be integrated in future prospective studies for cervical cancer.

  1. Comprehensive clinical study of concurrent chemotherapy breathing IMRT middle part of locally advanced esophageal cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, Jae Hong; Moon, Seong Kwon [Dept. of Radiation Oncology, College of Medicine, Soonchunhyang University , Asan (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Seung Chul [Dept. of Radiology, Songho College, Hoengseong (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-12-15

    The standard treatment of locally advanced type of mid-esophageal cancer is concurrent chemoradiation therapy (CRT). We evaluated the feasibility of chemotherapy with adding docetaxel to the classical basic regimens of cisplatin plus 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) and radiotherapy up to 70.2 Gy using dose escalations for esophageal cancer. It was possible to escalate radiation treatment dose up to 70.2 Gy by the respiratory-gated intensity- modulated radiotherapy (gated-IMRT) based on the 4DCT-simulation, with improving target coverage and normal tissue (ex., lung, heart, and spinal cord) sparing. This study suggested that the definitive chemo-radiotherapy with docetaxel, cisplatin, and 5-fluorouracil (i.e., DCF-R) and gating IMRT is tolerable and active in patients with locally advanced mid-esophageal cancer (AEC)

  2. Immunohistochemical study of p53, pRb, p16 in esophageal cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zo, Jae Ill; Zo, Kyung Ja; Park, Jong Ho; Kim, Mi Hee [Korea Cancer Center Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1998-01-01

    To confirm the expression of molecular genetic alterations of p53, pRb, p16 in esophageal cancer and to investigate the expression of p53, pRb, p16 in esophageal cancer according to the pathologic steps of carcinogenesis, immuno-histochemistry was performed in 15 resected esophageal cancer specimens with multiple separated lesions after pathologic mapping. The accumulation of mutant p53 was observed in 60 % of dysplasia and 47 % of invasive cancer, while pRb was not detected in 91 % of dysplasia and 72.7 % of invasive cancer. But p16 was not observed in 0 % in dysplasia and 7 % of invasive cancer. But p16 was not observed in 0 % in dysplasia and 28.6 % in invasive cancer. There was no simultaneous negative pRb and p16 expression. There was no relations between p53 and p16, pRb. As a results, the expression of p53, pRb, p16 was co-related well with molecular genetic changes and inactivation of p53, pRb, p16 was co-related well with molecular genetic changes and inactivation of p53 and pRb was common and early event in esophageal carcinogenesis in Korea, but inactivation of p16 was a infrequent change. (author). 17 refs., 2 tabs., 7 figs

  3. Quality of life characteristics inpatients with cervical cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjelic-Radisic, Vesna; Jensen, Pernille T; Vlasic, Karin Kuljanic

    2012-01-01

    Annually about 500,000 women worldwide are diagnosed with cervical cancer. For many patients, young age at the time of diagnosis and a good prognosis regarding the disease imply a long life with the side-effects and sequels of various treatment options. The present study investigated the extent...... to which different quality of life (QoL) domains in patients during and after treatment for cervical cancer are affected according to menopausal status, treatment status and treatment modality....

  4. Screening and cervical cancer cure: population based cohort study

    OpenAIRE

    Andrae, B.; Andersson, T. M.-L.; Lambert, P C; Kemetli, L.; Silfverdal, L.; Strander, B.; Ryd, W.; Dillner, J.; Tornberg, S.; Sparen, P.

    2012-01-01

    Objective To determine whether detection of invasive cervical cancer by screening results in better prognosis or merely increases the lead time until death. Design Nationwide population based cohort study. Setting Sweden. Participants All 1230 women with cervical cancer diagnosed during 1999-2001 in Sweden prospectively followed up for an average of 8.5 years. Main outcome measures Cure proportions and five year relative survival ratios, stratified by screening history, mode of detection, age...

  5. Occupational asbestos exposure and risk of esophageal, gastric and colorectal cancer in the prospective Netherlands Cohort Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Offermans, Nadine S M; Vermeulen, Roel; Burdorf, Alex; Goldbohm, R Alexandra; Keszei, András P; Peters, Susan; Kauppinen, Timo; Kromhout, Hans; van den Brandt, Piet a

    2014-01-01

    The evidence for an association between occupational asbestos exposure and esophageal, gastric and colorectal cancer is limited. We studied this association specifically addressing risk differences between relatively low and high exposure, risk associated with cancer subtypes, the influence of

  6. Low adherence to cervical cancer screening after subtotal hysterectomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Lea Laird; Møller, Lars Mikael Alling; Gimbel, Helga Margrethe

    2015-01-01

    have unnecessary tests performed after total hysterectomy. Clarification of the use of cervical/vaginal smears after hysterectomy is needed to identify women at risk of cervical dysplasia or cancer. FUNDING: Research Foundation of Region Zealand, University of Southern Denmark, Nykøbing Falster......INTRODUCTION: A reason for not recommending subtotal hysterectomy is the risk of cervical pathology. We aimed to evaluate cervical cancer screening and to describe cervical pathology after subtotal and total hysterectomy for benign indications. METHODS: Data regarding adherence to screening...... and pathology results from the national Danish registry (Patobank) were obtained on women from a randomised clinical trial and an observational study of subtotal versus total abdominal hysterectomy from the time of surgery until 2014. RESULTS: We included 501 women (259 subtotal hysterectomies and 242 total...

  7. Epidemiology and costs of cervical cancer screening and cervical dysplasia in Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valle Sabrina

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We estimated the number of women undergoing cervical cancer screening annually in Italy, the rates of cervical abnormalities detected, and the costs of screening and management of abnormalities. Methods The annual number of screened women was estimated from National Health Interview data. Data from the Italian Group for Cervical Cancer Screening were used to estimate the number of positive, negative and unsatisfactory Pap smears. The incidence of CIN (cervical intra-epithelial neoplasia was estimated from the Emilia Romagna Cancer Registry. Patterns of follow-up and treatment costs were estimated using a typical disease management approach based on national guidelines and data from the Italian Group for Cervical Cancer Screening. Treatment unit costs were obtained from Italian National Health Service and Hospital Information System of the Lazio Region. Results An estimated 6.4 million women aged 25–69 years undergo screening annually in Italy (1.2 million and 5.2 million through organized and opportunistic screening programs, respectively. Approximately 2.4% of tests have positive findings. There are approximately 21,000 cases of CIN1 and 7,000–17,000 cases of CIN2/3. Estimated costs to the healthcare service amount to €158.5 million for screening and €22.9 million for the management of cervical abnormalities. Conclusion Although some cervical abnormalities might have been underestimated, the total annual cost of cervical cancer prevention in Italy is approximately €181.5 million, of which 87% is attributable to screening.

  8. Risk of invasive cervical cancer after atypical glandular cells in cervical screening: nationwide cohort study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrae, Bengt; Sundström, Karin; Ström, Peter; Ploner, Alexander; Elfström, K Miriam; Arnheim-Dahlström, Lisen; Dillner, Joakim; Sparén, Pär

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To investigate the risks of invasive cervical cancer after detection of atypical glandular cells (AGC) during cervical screening. Design Nationwide population based cohort study. Setting Cancer and population registries in Sweden. Participants 3 054 328 women living in Sweden at any time between 1 January 1980 and 1 July 2011 who had any record of cervical cytological testing at ages 23-59. Of these, 2 899 968 women had normal cytology results at the first screening record. The first recorded abnormal result was atypical glandular cells (AGC) in 14 625, high grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (HSIL) in 65 633, and low grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (LSIL) in 244 168. Main outcome measures Cumulative incidence of invasive cervical cancer over 15.5 years; proportion of invasive cervical cancer within six months of abnormality (prevalence); crude incidence rates for invasive cervical cancer over 0.5-15.5 years of follow-up; incidence rate ratios compared with women with normal cytology, estimated with Poisson regression adjusted for age and stratified by histopathology of cancer; distribution of clinical assessment within six months after the abnormality. Results The prevalence of cervical cancer was 1.4% for women with AGC, which was lower than for women with HSIL (2.5%) but higher than for women with LSIL (0.2%); adenocarcinoma accounted for 73.2% of the prevalent cases associated with AGC. The incidence rate of invasive cervical cancer after AGC was significantly higher than for women with normal results on cytology for up to 15.5 years and higher than HSIL and LSIL for up to 6.5 years. The incidence rate of adenocarcinoma was 61 times higher than for women with normal results on cytology in the first screening round after AGC, and remained nine times higher for up to 15.5 years. Incidence and prevalence of invasive cervical cancer was highest when AGC was found at ages 30-39. Only 54% of women with AGC underwent histology assessment

  9. Incidence of cervical dysplasia and cervical cancer in women living with HIV in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorsteinsson, Kristina; Ladelund, Steen; Jensen-Fangel, Søren

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Women living with HIV (WLWH) are reportedly at increased risk of invasive cervical cancer (ICC). WLWH in Denmark attend the National ICC screening program less often than women in the general population. We aimed to estimate the incidence of cervical dysplasia and ICC in WLWH...... and hazard ratios (HRs) for time from inclusion to first cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN)/ICC and time from first normal cervical cytology to first CIN/ICC were estimated. Sensitivity analyses were performed to include prior screening outcome, screening intensity and treatment of CIN...... with normal baseline cytology, incidences of CIN1+ and CIN2+ were higher in WLWH. However, incidences were comparable between WLWH and controls adherent to the National ICC screening program. CONCLUSIONS: Overall, WLWH develop more cervical disease than controls. However, incidences of CIN are comparable...

  10. O-6-methylguanine-deoxyribonucleic acid methyltransferase methylation enhances response to temozolomide treatment in esophageal cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rifat Hasina

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: World-wide, esophageal cancer is a growing epidemic and patients frequently present with advanced disease that is surgically inoperable. Hence, chemotherapy is the predominate treatment. Cytotoxic platinum compounds are mostly used, but their efficacy is only moderate. Newer alkylating agents have shown promise in other tumor types, but little is known about their utility in esophageal cancer. Methods: We utilized archived human esophageal cancer samples and esophageal cancer cell lines to evaluate O-6-methylguanine-deoxyribonucleic acid methyltransferase (MGMT hypermethylation status and determined sensitivity to the alkylating drug temozolomide (TMZ. Immunoblot analysis was performed to determine MGMT protein expression in cell lines. To assess and confirm the effect of TMZ treatment in a methylated esophageal cancer cell line in vivo, a mouse flank xenograft tumor model was utilized. Results: Nearly 71% (12/17 of adenocarcinoma and 38% (3/8 of squamous cell carcinoma (SCC patient samples were MGMT hypermethylated. Out of four adenocarcinoma and nine SCC cell lines tested, one of each histology was hypermethylated. Immunoblot analyses confirmed that hypermethylated cell lines did not express the MGMT protein. In vitro cell viability assays showed the methylated Kyse-140 and FLO cells to be sensitive to TMZ at an IC 50 of 52-420 μM, whereas unmethylated cells Kyse-410 and SKGT-4 did not respond. In an in vivo xenograft tumor model with Kyse-140 cells, which are MGMT hypermethylated, TMZ treatment abrogated tumor growth by more than 60%. Conclusion: MGMT methylation may be an important biomarker in subsets of esophageal cancers and targeting by TMZ may be utilized to successfully treat these patients.

  11. Endoscopic submucosal dissection for superficial Barrett’s esophageal cancer in the Japanese state and perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Sachiko; Hanaoka, Noboru; Takeuchi, Yoji; Higashino, Koji; Uedo, Noriya; Iishi, Hiroyasu

    2014-01-01

    The incidence of Barrett’s esophageal cancer is one of the most rapidly increasing among all cancers in the West, and it is also expected to increase in Japan. The optimal treatment for early Barrett’s esophageal cancer remains controversial. En bloc esophagectomy with regional lymph node dissection has been considered the standard therapy. Endoscopic therapies are currently being evaluated as alternatives to esophagectomy because they can provide the least postoperative morbidity and the best quality of life. Endoscopic mucosal resection (EMR) and endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) allow for removal of visible lesions and histopathologic review of resected tissue, which help in diagnostic staging of the disease. EMR is limited with respect to resection size, and large lesions must be resected in several fragments. Piecemeal resection of lesions is associated with high local recurrence rates, probably because of minor remnants of neoplastic tissue being left in situ. ESD provides larger specimens than does EMR in patients with early Barrett’s neoplasia. This in turn allows for more precise histological analysis and higher en bloc and curative resection rates, potentially reducing the incidence of recurrence. Detailed endoscopic examination to determine the invasion depth and spread of Barrett’s esophageal cancer is essential before ESD. The initial inspection is usually conducted with white-light imaging followed by narrow-band imaging. The ESD procedure is similar to that for lesions in other parts of the gastrointestinal tract. However, the narrow space of the esophagogastric junction and contraction of the lower esophageal sphincter sometimes disturb the visual field and endoscopic control. Skilled endoscope handling, sometimes including retroflexion, is required during ESD for Barrett’s esophageal cancer. Previous reports have shown that ESD achieves en bloc resection in >80% of lesions. Although promising short-term results are reported, a long

  12. Expert Consensus Contouring Guidelines for Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy in Esophageal and Gastroesophageal Junction Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Abraham J., E-mail: wua@mskcc.org [Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States); Bosch, Walter R. [Washington University, St. Louis, Missouri (United States); Chang, Daniel T. [Stanford Cancer Institute, Stanford, California (United States); Hong, Theodore S. [Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Jabbour, Salma K. [Rutgers Cancer Institute of New Jersey, New Brunswick, New Jersey (United States); Kleinberg, Lawrence R. [Johns Hopkins Medical Center, Baltimore, Maryland (United States); Mamon, Harvey J. [Brigham and Women' s Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Thomas, Charles R. [Knight Cancer Institute, Oregon Health & Sciences University, Portland, Oregon (United States); Goodman, Karyn A. [Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States)

    2015-07-15

    Purpose/Objective(s): Current guidelines for esophageal cancer contouring are derived from traditional 2-dimensional fields based on bony landmarks, and they do not provide sufficient anatomic detail to ensure consistent contouring for more conformal radiation therapy techniques such as intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT). Therefore, we convened an expert panel with the specific aim to derive contouring guidelines and generate an atlas for the clinical target volume (CTV) in esophageal or gastroesophageal junction (GEJ) cancer. Methods and Materials: Eight expert academically based gastrointestinal radiation oncologists participated. Three sample cases were chosen: a GEJ cancer, a distal esophageal cancer, and a mid-upper esophageal cancer. Uniform computed tomographic (CT) simulation datasets and accompanying diagnostic positron emission tomographic/CT images were distributed to each expert, and the expert was instructed to generate gross tumor volume (GTV) and CTV contours for each case. All contours were aggregated and subjected to quantitative analysis to assess the degree of concordance between experts and to generate draft consensus contours. The panel then refined these contours to generate the contouring atlas. Results: The κ statistics indicated substantial agreement between panelists for each of the 3 test cases. A consensus CTV atlas was generated for the 3 test cases, each representing common anatomic presentations of esophageal cancer. The panel agreed on guidelines and principles to facilitate the generalizability of the atlas to individual cases. Conclusions: This expert panel successfully reached agreement on contouring guidelines for esophageal and GEJ IMRT and generated a reference CTV atlas. This atlas will serve as a reference for IMRT contours for clinical practice and prospective trial design. Subsequent patterns of failure analyses of clinical datasets using these guidelines may require modification in the future.

  13. Expert consensus contouring guidelines for IMRT in esophageal and gastroesophageal junction cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Abraham J.; Bosch, Walter R.; Chang, Daniel T.; Hong, Theodore S.; Jabbour, Salma K.; Kleinberg, Lawrence R.; Mamon, Harvey J.; Thomas, Charles R.; Goodman, Karyn A.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose/Objective(s) Current guidelines for esophageal cancer contouring are derived from traditional two-dimensional fields based on bony landmarks, and do not provide sufficient anatomical detail to ensure consistent contouring for more conformal radiotherapy techniques such as intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT). Therefore, we convened an expert panel with the specific aim to derive contouring guidelines and generate an atlas for the clinical target volume (CTV) in esophageal or gastroesophageal junction (GEJ) cancer. Methods and Materials Eight expert academically-based gastrointestinal radiation oncologists participated. Three sample cases were chosen: a GEJ cancer, a distal esophageal cancer, and a mid-upper esophageal cancer. Uniform CT simulation datasets and an accompanying diagnostic PET-CT were distributed to each expert, and he/she was instructed to generate gross tumor volume (GTV) and CTV contours for each case. All contours were aggregated and subjected to quantitative analysis to assess the degree of concordance between experts and generate draft consensus contours. The panel then refined these contours to generate the contouring atlas. Results Kappa statistics indicated substantial agreement between panelists for each of the three test cases. A consensus CTV atlas was generated for the three test cases, each representing common anatomic presentations of esophageal cancer. The panel agreed on guidelines and principles to facilitate the generalizability of the atlas to individual cases. Conclusions This expert panel successfully reached agreement on contouring guidelines for esophageal and GEJ IMRT and generated a reference CTV atlas. This atlas will serve as a reference for IMRT contours for clinical practice and prospective trial design. Subsequent patterns of failure analyses of clinical datasets utilizing these guidelines may require modification in the future. PMID:26104943

  14. Phase I/II Study of IMMU-132 in Patients With Epithelial Cancers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-20

    Colorectal Cancer; Gastric Adenocarcinoma; Esophageal Cancer; Hepatocellular Carcinoma; Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Small Cell Lung Cancer; Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Carcinoma Breast Stage IV; Hormone-refractory Prostate Cancer; Pancreatic Ductal Adenocarcinoma; Head and Neck Cancers- Squamous Cell; Renal Cell Cancer; Urinary Bladder Neoplasms; Cervical Cancer; Endometrial Cancer; Follicular Thyroid Cancer; Glioblastoma Multiforme

  15. Breast and cervical cancer screening programme implementation in 16 countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dowling, Emily C; Klabunde, Carrie; Patnick, Julietta;

    2010-01-01

    There is a continuing need to monitor and evaluate the impact of organized screening programmes on cancer incidence and mortality. We report results from a programme assessment conducted within the International Cancer Screening Network (ICSN) to understand the characteristics of cervical screening...... programmes within countries that have established population-based breast cancer screening programmes....

  16. A lectin-based diagnostic system using circulating antibodies to detect cervical intraepithelial neoplasia and cervical cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Yingji; Kim, Seung Cheol; Kim, Hyoung Jin; Ju, Woong; Kim, Yun Hwan; Kim, Hong-Jin

    2016-01-01

    In the present study, we developed serological strategies using immunoglobulin fractions obtained by protein A chromatography to screen for cervical cancer and cervical intraepithelial neoplasia I (CIN I). The reactivities of the immunoglobulins purified from sera of women with normal cytology, CIN I and cervical cancer were compared in enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA) and enzyme-linked lectin assays (ELLAs). To capture the immunoglobulins, ELISAs and ELLAs were performed in protein A immobilized microplates. The reactivity of immunoglobulin in ELISA was in the increasing order normal cytology, CIN I and cervical cancer, while that in ELLAs for detecting fucosylation was in the decreasing order normal cytology, CIN I and cervical cancer. It was confirmed that women with CIN I were distinguishable from women with normal cytology or women with cervical cancer in the ELISA or the ELLA for detecting fucosylation with considerable sensitivity and specificity. Women with cervical cancer were also distinguishable from women with normal cytology with high sensitivity (ELISA: 97%, ELLA: 87%) and specificity (ELISA: 69%, ELLA: 72%). Moreover, the logistic regression model of the ELISA and the ELLA discriminated cervical cancer from normal cytology with 93% sensitivity and 93% specificity. These results indicate that the ELISAs and the ELLAs have great potential as strategies for primary screening of cervical cancer and CIN. It is expected that the ELISA and the ELLA can provide new insights to understand systemic changes of serum immunoglobulins during cervical cancer progression.

  17. Women’s health behaviours regarding cervical cancer prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martyna Wychowaniec

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Cervical cancer is a serious problem in gynaecological oncology, which gains even more importance when it concerns young women at reproductive age – 20–39. It is an alarming fact that despite the knowledge about causes of the development of the disease, its dynamics, diagnostic and treatment methods, in Poland, very high mortality rates are still observed, compared to the other countries of the European Union. Aim of the research : To evaluate health behaviours of women with respect to cervical cancer prophylaxis. Material and methods: The study included 115 women aged 20 to 50, and was conducted in the Regional Mother and Newborn Child Centre in Kielce by the method of a diagnostic survey. The research instrument was a questionnaire consisting of 28 items designed by the author. Results : Analysis of the results of the study showed that 17.39% of respondents initiated sexual activity when aged under 18. The examined women had a relatively good knowledge of the basic cervical cancer risk factors. Among the main cervical cancer risk factors, 80.00% of respondents mentioned infection with HPV virus. Conclusions : Health behaviours of women with respect to cervical cancer prophylaxis are becoming increasingly positive. However, educational actions should be enhanced concerning detailed information pertaining to cervical cancer and benefits resulting from vaccination against HPV virus.

  18. Objective Diagnosis of Cervical Cancer by Tissue Protein Profile Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patil, Ajeetkumar; Bhat, Sujatha; Rai, Lavanya; Kartha, V. B.; Chidangil, Santhosh

    2011-07-01

    Protein profiles of homogenized normal cervical tissue samples from hysterectomy subjects and cancerous cervical tissues from biopsy samples collected from patients with different stages of cervical cancer were recorded using High Performance Liquid Chromatography coupled with Laser Induced Fluorescence (HPLC-LIF). The Protein profiles were subjected to Principle Component Analysis to derive statistically significant parameters. Diagnosis of sample types were carried out by matching three parameters—scores of factors, squared residuals, and Mahalanobis Distance. ROC and Youden's Index curves for calibration standards were used for objective estimation of the optimum threshold for decision making and performance.

  19. Optimal Use of Combined Modality Therapy in the Treatment of Esophageal Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaikh, Talha; Meyer, Joshua E; Horwitz, Eric M

    2017-07-01

    Esophageal cancer is associated with a poor prognosis with 5-year survival rates of approximately 15% to 20%. Although patients with early stage disease may adequately be treated with a single modality, combined therapy typically consisting of neoadjuvant chemoradiation followed by esophagectomy is being adopted increasingly in patients with locally advanced disease. In patients who are not surgical candidates, definitive chemoradiation is the preferred treatment approach. All patients with newly diagnosed esophageal cancer should be evaluated in the multidisciplinary setting by a surgeon, radiation oncologist, and medical oncologist owing to the importance of each specialty in the management of these patients. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Optoacoustic imaging of tissue blanching during photodynamic therapy of esophageal cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacques, Steven L.; Viator, John A.; Paltauf, Guenther

    2000-05-01

    Esophageal cancer patients often present a highly inflamed esophagus at the time of treatment by photodynamic therapy. Immediately after treatment, the inflamed vessels have been shut down and the esophagus presents a white surface. Optoacoustic imaging via an optical fiber device can provide a depth profile of the blanching of inflammation. Such a profile may be an indicator of the depth of treatment achieved by the PDT. Our progress toward developing this diagnostic for use in our clinical PDT treatments of esophageal cancer patients is presented.

  1. A clinicoepidemiological study of esophageal cancer patients at the National Cancer Institute, Cairo University, Egypt

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Soumaya Ezzat; Hisham El Hossieny; Mohamed Abd Alla; Azza Nasr; Nagwan Anter; Ahmed Adel

    2016-01-01

    Objective The purposes of this study were to (1) assess the clinicoepidemiological characteristics of esopha-geal cancer patients, (2) analyze the prognostic factors determining treatment failure and survival, and (3) evaluate the results of various treatment modalities for locoregional and disseminated disease and their ef ect on disease-free survival and overal survival (OS). Methods Clinicoepidemiological retrospective data from 81 esophageal cancer patients treated at the Na-tional Cancer Institute of Cairo between 2007 and 2011 were evaluated. Results The study showed that patients with esophageal cancer commonly present with local y advanced disease (87.7% had T-stage 3 and 12.3% had T-stage 4). There was a significant correlation between surgery and survival; patients who received radical surgery and postoperative radiation had a better median survival than patients who received radical radiotherapy (20 months vs. 16 months, respectively; P = 0.04). There was also a significant statistical correlation between radical concomitant chemoradiotherapy (NCRT) and pal iative treatment. Patients who received radical NCRT had a better median survival than patients who received pal-liative radiotherapy (16 months vs. 10 months, respectively; P = 0.001). The median fol ow-up period for al patients was 7 months. The median OS of the whole group was 12 months. The OS after 1 and 2 years was 57.8% and 15%, respectively. Conclusion High-dose NCRT is an acceptable alternative for patients unfit for surgery or with inoperable disease. High-dose radiation is more ef ective than low-dose radiation in terms of local control, time to relapse, and OS. Further study using a larger series of patients and introducing new treatment protocols is necessary for a final evaluation.

  2. Socioecological perspectives on cervical cancer and cervical cancer screening among Asian American women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jongwon; Carvallo, Mauricio

    2014-10-01

    Although cervical cancer is one of the most commonly diagnosed cancers among Vietnamese American women (VAW) and Korean American women (KAW), both groups consistently report much lower rates of cervical cancer screening compared with other Asian ethnic subgroups and non-Hispanic Whites. This study aimed to explore multilevel factors that may underlie low screening rates among VAW and KAW living in a city where their ethnic communities are relatively small. The socioecological model was used as a conceptual framework. Thirty participants were conveniently recruited from ethnic beauty salons run by VA and KA cosmetologists in Albuquerque, New Mexico. The participants' average age was 44.6 years (SD = .50; range = 21-60). Most participants were married (80 %) and employed (73.3 %), and had health insurance (83.3 %). A qualitative interview was conducted in Vietnamese or Korean and transcribed verbatim. A thematic content analysis was used to identify major codes, categories, and patterns across the transcripts. The study identified several factors at the individual (e.g., pregnancy, poverty, personality), interpersonal (e.g., family responsibility, mother as influential referent), and community (e.g., lack of availability, community size) levels. The study sheds light on four major areas that must be taken into consideration in the development of culturally appropriate, community-based interventions aimed to reduce disparities in cervical cancer screening among ethnic minority women in the United States: (1) ethnic community size and geographic location; (2) cross-cultural similarities and dissimilarities; (3) targeting of not only unmarried young women, but also close referents; and (4) utilization of trusted resources within social networks.

  3. Pathways of cervical cancer screening among Chinese women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ma GX

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Grace X Ma,1 Min Qi Wang,2 Xiang S Ma,3 Steven E Shive,4 Yin Tan,5 Jamil I Toubbeh51Department of Public Health, College of Health Professions, Temple University, Philadelphia, PA, 2Department of Public and Community Health, University of Maryland, College Park, MD, 3College of Health Professions and School of Medicine, Temple University, Philadelphia, PA, 4Center for Asian Health, Temple University, and Department of Health, East Stroudsburg University, East Stroudsburg, PA, 5Center for Asian Health, Department of Public Health, College of Health Professions, Temple University, Philadelphia, PA, USABackground: The purpose of this community-based study was to develop a structural equation model for factors contributing to cervical cancer screening among Chinese American women.Methods: A cross-sectional design included a sample of 573 Chinese American women aged 18 years and older. The initial step involved use of confirmatory factor analysis, that included the following variables: access to and satisfaction with health care, and enabling and predisposing cultural and health beliefs. Structural equation model analyses were conducted on factors related to cervical cancer screening.Results: Age, marital status, employment, household income, and having health insurance, but not educational level, were significantly related to cervical screening status. Predisposing and enabling factors were positively associated with cervical cancer screening. The cultural factor was significantly related to the enabling factor or the satisfaction with health care factor.Conclusion: This model highlights the significance of sociocultural factors in relation to cervical cancer screening. These factors were significant, with cultural, predisposing, enabling, and health belief factors and access to and satisfaction with health care reinforcing the need to assist Chinese American women with poor English fluency in translation and awareness of the importance of cervical

  4. Diagnostic accuracy of MRI in staging of cervical cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soheila Aminimoghaddam

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cervical cancer is the third most common gynecologic cancer in women worldwide. Cervical cancer has lower incidence and mortality rates than uterine corpus and ovarian cancer, as well as many other cancer sites. Unfortunately, in countries that do not have access to cervical cancer screening and prevention programs, cervical cancer remains the second most common type of cancer. Staging of the disease is made clinically. The aim of this study was to evaluate the role of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI for diagnosing the invasion of cancer to organs and staging of cervical cancer and the relationship between clinical and pathological findings and the sensitivity and specificity of the assay in cervical cancer. Methods: The study included records of 40 patients with cervical cancer that undergo surgery or Chemoradiation in Firoozgar University Hospital. In this study that made retrospectively, non-randomized, the MRI reports and clinical findings records and pathology results was discussed. The sensitivity and specificity of MRI for diagnosing the invasion to parameters, bladder, rectum, vagina, pelvic wall and it’s accuracy to determine tumor stage has been set. Results: A total of 40 patients with pathology information of cervical cancer was retrospectively reviewed in the study. The patients were 28-83 years old by mean age of 49.3 Pathology of cervical cancer in 80% of cases was SCC, 15% adenocarcinoma and 5% melanoma. The sensitivity and specificity of MRI for diagnosing invasion of parameter was 76% and 88%. The sensitivity of MRI in the detection of bladder invasion was 100% and specificity of 100%. The sensitivity of MRI in the diagnosis of rectal invasion was 50% and specificity of 100%. The sensitivity of MRI in the diagnosis of pelvic wall invasion was 100% and specificity of 86%. Sensitivity in detecting invasion into the upper third of the vagina was 100%. Conclusion: Overall, this study showed a good sensitivity and

  5. Nuclear expression of Rac1 in cervical premalignant lesions and cervical cancer cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mendoza-Catalán Miguel A

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Abnormal expression of Rho-GTPases has been reported in several human cancers. However, the expression of these proteins in cervical cancer has been poorly investigated. In this study we analyzed the expression of the GTPases Rac1, RhoA, Cdc42, and the Rho-GEFs, Tiam1 and beta-Pix, in cervical pre-malignant lesions and cervical cancer cell lines. Methods Protein expression was analyzed by immunochemistry on 102 cervical paraffin-embedded biopsies: 20 without Squamous Intraepithelial Lesions (SIL, 51 Low- grade SIL, and 31 High-grade SIL; and in cervical cancer cell lines C33A and SiHa, and non-tumorigenic HaCat cells. Nuclear localization of Rac1 in HaCat, C33A and SiHa cells was assessed by cellular fractionation and Western blotting, in the presence or not of a chemical Rac1 inhibitor (NSC23766. Results Immunoreacivity for Rac1, RhoA, Tiam1 and beta-Pix was stronger in L-SIL and H-SIL, compared to samples without SIL, and it was significantly associated with the histological diagnosis. Nuclear expression of Rac1 was observed in 52.9% L-SIL and 48.4% H-SIL, but not in samples without SIL. Rac1 was found in the nucleus of C33A and SiHa cells but not in HaCat cells. Chemical inhibition of Rac1 resulted in reduced cell proliferation in HaCat, C33A and SiHa cells. Conclusion Rac1 is expressed in the nucleus of epithelial cells in SILs and cervical cancer cell lines, and chemical inhibition of Rac1 reduces cellular proliferation. Further studies are needed to better understand the role of Rho-GTPases in cervical cancer progression.

  6. Mild obesity, physical activity, calorie intake, and the risks of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia and cervical cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jae Kwan; So, Kyeong A; Piyathilake, Chandrika J; Kim, Mi Kyung

    2013-01-01

    We investigated whether obesity, physical activity, and calorie intake are associated with the risks of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) and cervical cancer. We enrolled 1125 women (age, 18-65 years) into a human papillomavirus cohort study established from 2006 to 2012. Multinomial logistic regression models were used to estimate crude and multivariate odds ratios (ORs) and the corresponding 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs), and to assess whether body mass index (BMI), height, weight, total calorie intake, and physical activity were associated with the risks of CIN and cervical cancer. Cervical cancer risk was positively associated with BMI and inversely associated with physical activity. When compared with women with a normal BMI (18.5-23 kg/m(2)), the multivariate ORs (95% CIs) for those overweight (23-25 kg/m(2)) and mild obesity (≥25 kg/m(2)) were 1.25 (0.79-2.00) and 1.70 (1.10-2.63), respectively. When compared with women with the lowest tertile of physical activity (cervical cancer were 0.95 (0.61-1.48) and 0.61 (0.38-0.98) for women with medium physical activity (38.5-71.9 MET-hours/week) and those with high physical activity (72 MET-hours/week), respectively (p for linear trend  = 0.03). The CIN2/3 risk was inversely associated with physical activity after adjustment for confounders. Compared with women with low physical activity (cervical cancer after adjustment for confounders. Our results indicate that in addition to screening for and treatment of CIN, recommendations on the maintenance of an appropriate BMI with an emphasis on physical activity could be an important preventive strategy against the development of cervical cancer.

  7. Surface activity, lipid profiles and their implications in cervical cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Preetha A

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The profiles of lipids in normal and cancerous tissues may differ revealing information about cancer development and progression. Lipids being surface active, changes in lipid profiles can manifest as altered surface activity profiles. Langmuir monolayers offer a convenient model for evaluating surface activity of biological membranes. Aims: The aims of this study were to quantify phospholipids and their effects on surface activity of normal and cancerous human cervical tissues as well as to evaluate the role of phosphatidylcholine (PC and sphingomyelin (SM in cervical cancer using Langmuir monolayers. Methods and Materials: Lipid quantification was done using thin layer chromatography and phosphorus assay. Surface activity was evaluated using Langmuir monolayers. Monolayers were formed on the surface of deionized water by spreading tissue organic phase corresponding to 1 mg of tissue and studying their surface pressure-area isotherms at body temperature. The PC and SM contents of cancerous human cervical tissues were higher than those of the normal human cervical tissues. Role of PC and SM were evaluated by adding varying amounts of these lipids to normal cervical pooled organic phase. Statistical analysis: Student′s t-test (p < 0.05 and one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA was used. Results: Our results reveals that the phosphatidylglycerol level in cancerous cervical tissue was nearly five folds higher than that in normal cervical tissue. Also PC and sphingomyelin SM were found to be the major phospholipid components in cancerous and normal cervical tissues respectively. The addition of either 1.5 µg DPPC or 0.5 µg SM /mg of tissue to the normal organic phase changed its surface activity profile to that of the cancerous tissues. Statistically significant surface activity parameters showed that PC and SM have remarkable roles in shifting the normal cervical lipophilic surface activity towards that of cancerous lipophilic

  8. Health systems challenges in cervical cancer prevention program in Malawi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fresier C. Maseko

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cervical cancer remains the leading cause of cancer death among women in sub-Saharan Africa. In Malawi, very few women have undergone screening and the incidence of cervical cancer is on the increase as is the case in most developing countries. We aimed at exploring and documenting health system gaps responsible for the poor performance of the cervical cancer prevention program in Malawi. Design: The study was carried out in 14 randomly selected districts of the 29 districts of Malawi. All cervical cancer service providers in these districts were invited to participate. Two semi-structured questionnaires were used, one for the district cervical cancer coordinators and the other for the service providers. The themes of both questionnaires were based on World Health Organization (WHO health system frameworks. A checklist was also developed to audit medical supplies and equipment in the cervical cancer screening facilities. The two questionnaires together with the medical supplies and equipment checklist were piloted in Chikwawa district before being used as data collection tools in the study. Quantitative data were analyzed using STATA and qualitative in NVIVO. Results: Forty-one service providers from 21 health facilities and 9 district coordinators participated in the study. Our findings show numerous health system challenges mainly in areas of health workforce and essential medical products and technologies. Seven out of the 21 health facilities provided both screening and treatment. Results showed challenges in the management of the cervical cancer program at district level; inadequate service providers who are poorly supervised; lack of basic equipment and stock-outs of basic medical supplies in some health facilities; and inadequate funding of the program. In most of the health facilities, services providers were not aware of the policy which govern their work and that they did not have standards and guidelines for cervical

  9. Health systems challenges in cervical cancer prevention program in Malawi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maseko, Fresier C; Chirwa, Maureen L; Muula, Adamson S

    2015-01-01

    Cervical cancer remains the leading cause of cancer death among women in sub-Saharan Africa. In Malawi, very few women have undergone screening and the incidence of cervical cancer is on the increase as is the case in most developing countries. We aimed at exploring and documenting health system gaps responsible for the poor performance of the cervical cancer prevention program in Malawi. The study was carried out in 14 randomly selected districts of the 29 districts of Malawi. All cervical cancer service providers in these districts were invited to participate. Two semi-structured questionnaires were used, one for the district cervical cancer coordinators and the other for the service providers. The themes of both questionnaires were based on World Health Organization (WHO) health system frameworks. A checklist was also developed to audit medical supplies and equipment in the cervical cancer screening facilities. The two questionnaires together with the medical supplies and equipment checklist were piloted in Chikwawa district before being used as data collection tools in the study. Quantitative data were analyzed using STATA and qualitative in NVIVO. Forty-one service providers from 21 health facilities and 9 district coordinators participated in the study. Our findings show numerous health system challenges mainly in areas of health workforce and essential medical products and technologies. Seven out of the 21 health facilities provided both screening and treatment. RESULTS showed challenges in the management of the cervical cancer program at district level; inadequate service providers who are poorly supervised; lack of basic equipment and stock-outs of basic medical supplies in some health facilities; and inadequate funding of the program. In most of the health facilities, services providers were not aware of the policy which govern their work and that they did not have standards and guidelines for cervical cancer screening and treatment. Numerous health

  10. Predictors of Postoperative Complications After Trimodality Therapy for Esophageal Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Jingya [Department of Radiation Oncology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Wei, Caimiao [Department of Biostatistics, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Tucker, Susan L. [Department of Bioinformatics and Computational Biology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Myles, Bevan; Palmer, Matthew [Department of Radiation Oncology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Hofstetter, Wayne L.; Swisher, Stephen G. [Department of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Ajani, Jaffer A. [Department of Gastrointestinal Medical Oncology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Cox, James D.; Komaki, Ritsuko; Liao, Zhongxing [Department of Radiation Oncology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Lin, Steven H., E-mail: SHLin@mdanderson.org [Department of Radiation Oncology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States)

    2013-08-01

    Purpose: While trimodality therapy for esophageal cancer has improved patient outcomes, surgical complication rates remain high. The goal of this study was to identify modifiable factors associated with postoperative complications after neoadjuvant chemoradiation. Methods and Materials: From 1998 to 2011, 444 patients were treated at our institution with surgical resection after chemoradiation. Postoperative (pulmonary, gastrointestinal [GI], cardiac, wound healing) complications were recorded up to 30 days postoperatively. Kruskal-Wallis tests and χ{sup 2} or Fisher exact tests were used to assess associations between continuous and categorical variables. Multivariate logistic regression tested the association between perioperative complications and patient or treatment factors that were significant on univariate analysis. Results: The most frequent postoperative complications after trimodality therapy were pulmonary (25%) and GI (23%). Lung capacity and the type of radiation modality used were independent predictors of pulmonary and GI complications. After adjusting for confounding factors, pulmonary and GI complications were increased in patients treated with 3-dimensional conformal radiation therapy (3D-CRT) versus intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT; odds ratio [OR], 2.018; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.104-3.688; OR, 1.704; 95% CI, 1.03-2.82, respectively) and for patients treated with 3D-CRT versus proton beam therapy (PBT; OR, 3.154; 95% CI, 1.365-7.289; OR, 1.55; 95% CI, 0.78-3.08, respectively). Mean lung radiation dose (MLD) was strongly associated with pulmonary complications, and the differences in toxicities seen for the radiation modalities could be fully accounted for by the MLD delivered by each of the modalities. Conclusions: The radiation modality used can be a strong mitigating factor of postoperative complications after neoadjuvant chemoradiation.

  11. Mild Obesity, Physical Activity, Calorie Intake, and the Risks of Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia and Cervical Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Jae Kwan Lee; So, Kyeong A; Piyathilake, Chandrika J.; Mi Kyung Kim

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: We investigated whether obesity, physical activity, and calorie intake are associated with the risks of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) and cervical cancer. METHODS: We enrolled 1125 women (age, 18-65 years) into a human papillomavirus cohort study established from 2006 to 2012. Multinomial logistic regression models were used to estimate crude and multivariate odds ratios (ORs) and the corresponding 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs), and to assess whether body mass index...

  12. Cervical cytology and the diagnosis of cervical cancer in older women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landy, Rebecca; Castanon, Alejandra; Dudding, Nick; Lim, Anita Wey Wey; Hollingworth, Antony; Hamilton, Willie; Sasieni, Peter D

    2015-12-01

    Most non-screen-detected cervical cancers are advanced stage. We assess the potential for cytology to expedite diagnosis when used outside of routine call and recall screening for cervical cancer. Two cohorts of women with cytology that did not appear to have been taken as part of routine screening, nested within a census of cervical cytology, in England between April 2007 and March 2010 were studied: 93,322 women aged 40-69 at first cytology, and 14,668 women aged ≥70. The diagnostic performance of high grade cervical squamous intraepithelial lesion (HSIL) or worse cytology was estimated. We also estimated case-fatality from stage distribution in women aged ≥66 with and without cytology in the year prior to diagnosis. There were 259 cancers diagnosed in women aged 40-69 at first cytology, and 78 in women aged ≥70. The sensitivity of cytology ≥ HSIL for cancer was 89% and 83% respectively, and the number of women needed to test to identify one cancer was 404 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 355-462) and 226 (95% CI: 177-292) respectively. Women aged ≥66 with cytology within a year of diagnosis had earlier stage cancers than those without, corresponding to a 17-22% reduction in case fatality. Cervical cytology is an excellent identifier of cancer among women tested outside routine screening call and recall. Its use as a triage tool, for instance in women with vague gynaecological symptoms, could facilitate earlier stage diagnosis and reduce cervical cancer mortality. © The Author(s) 2015.

  13. Project conducted in Hirakata to improve cervical cancer screening rates in 20-year-old Japanese: Influencing parents to recommend that their daughters undergo cervical cancer screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yagi, Asami; Ueda, Yutaka; Egawa-Takata, Tomomi; Tanaka, Yusuke; Terai, Yoshito; Ohmichi, Masahide; Ichimura, Tomoyuki; Sumi, Toshiyuki; Murata, Hiromi; Okada, Hidetaka; Nakai, Hidekatsu; Mandai, Masaki; Matsuzaki, Shinya; Kobayashi, Eiji; Yoshino, Kiyoshi; Kimura, Tadashi; Saito, Junko; Hori, Yumiko; Morii, Eiichi; Nakayama, Tomio; Suzuki, Yukio; Motoki, Yoko; Sukegawa, Akiko; Asai-Sato, Mikiko; Miyagi, Etsuko; Yamaguchi, Manako; Kudo, Risa; Adachi, Sosuke; Sekine, Masayuki; Enomoto, Takayuki; Horikoshi, Yorihiko; Takagi, Tetsu; Shimura, Kentaro

    2016-12-01

    In Japan, the rate of routine cervical cancer screening is quite low, and the incidence of cervical cancer has recently been increasing. Our objective was to investigate ways to effectively influence parental willingness to recommend that their 20-year-old daughters undergo cervical cancer screening. We targeted parents whose 20-year-old daughters were living with them. In fiscal year 2013, as usual, the daughter received a reminder postcard several months after they had received a free coupon for cervical cancer screening. In fiscal year 2014, the targeted parents received a cervical cancer information leaflet, as well as a cartoon about cervical cancer to show to their daughters, with a request that they recommend to their daughter that she undergo cervical cancer screening. The subsequent screening rates for fiscal years 2013 and 2014 were compared. The cervical cancer screening rate of 20-year-old women whose parents received the information packet in fiscal year 2014 was significantly higher than for the women who, in fiscal year 2013, received only a simple reminder postcard (P cancer screening. This was achieved by sending a cervical cancer information leaflet and a cartoon about cervical cancer for these parents to show to their daughters. This method was significantly effective for improving cervical cancer screening rates. © 2016 Japan Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  14. Knowledge about cervical cancer and barriers of screening program among women in Wufeng County, a high-incidence region of cervical cancer in China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yao Jia

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: Cervical cancer screening is an effective method for reducing the incidence and mortality of cervical cancer, but the screening attendance rate in developing countries is far from satisfactory, especially in rural areas. Wufeng is a region of high cervical cancer incidence in China. This study aimed to investigate the issues that concern cervical cancer and screening and the factors that affect women's willingness to undergo cervical cancer screening in the Wufeng area. PARTICIPANTS AND METHODS: A cross-sectional survey of women was conducted to determine their knowledge about cervical cancer and screening, demographic characteristics and the barriers to screening. RESULTS: Women who were willing to undergo screenings had higher knowledge levels. "Anxious feeling once the disease was diagnosed" (47.6%, "No symptoms/discomfort" (34.1% and "Do not know the benefits of cervical cancer screening" (13.4% were the top three reasons for refusing cervical cancer screening. Women who were younger than 45 years old or who had lower incomes, positive family histories of cancer, secondary or higher levels of education, higher levels of knowledge and fewer barriers to screening were more willing to participate in cervical cancer screenings than women without these characteristics. CONCLUSION: Efforts are needed to increase women's knowledge about cervical cancer, especially the screening methods, and to improve their perceptions of the screening process for early detection to reduce cervical cancer incidence and mortality rates.

  15. Knowledge about cervical cancer and barriers of screening program among women in Wufeng County, a high-incidence region of cervical cancer in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Yao; Li, Shuang; Yang, Ru; Zhou, Hang; Xiang, Qunying; Hu, Ting; Zhang, Qinghua; Chen, Zhilan; Ma, Ding; Feng, Ling

    2013-01-01

    Cervical cancer screening is an effective method for reducing the incidence and mortality of cervical cancer, but the screening attendance rate in developing countries is far from satisfactory, especially in rural areas. Wufeng is a region of high cervical cancer incidence in China. This study aimed to investigate the issues that concern cervical cancer and screening and the factors that affect women's willingness to undergo cervical cancer screening in the Wufeng area. A cross-sectional survey of women was conducted to determine their knowledge about cervical cancer and screening, demographic characteristics and the barriers to screening. Women who were willing to undergo screenings had higher knowledge levels. "Anxious feeling once the disease was diagnosed" (47.6%), "No symptoms/discomfort" (34.1%) and "Do not know the benefits of cervical cancer screening" (13.4%) were the top three reasons for refusing cervical cancer screening. Women who were younger than 45 years old or who had lower incomes, positive family histories of cancer, secondary or higher levels of education, higher levels of knowledge and fewer barriers to screening were more willing to participate in cervical cancer screenings than women without these characteristics. Efforts are needed to increase women's knowledge about cervical cancer, especially the screening methods, and to improve their perceptions of the screening process for early detection to reduce cervical cancer incidence and mortality rates.

  16. Cervical cancer screening in primary health care setting in Sudan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ibrahim, Ahmed; Aro, Arja R.; Rasch, Vibeke;

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the feasibility of visual inspection with the use of acetic acid (VIA) as a screening method for cervical cancer, an alternative to the Pap smear used in primary health care setting in Sudan, and to compare sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values....../119 (73.9%) were positive for cervical intraepithelial neoplasia. VIA had higher sensitivity than Pap smear (74.2% versus 72.9%; P = 0.05) respectively. Out of 88 confirmed positive cases, 22 (25.0%) cases were invasive cervical cancer in stage 1, of which 19 versus three were detected by VIA and Pap...... of this study showed that VIA has higher sensitivity and lower specificity compared to Pap smear, but a combination of both tests has greater sensitivity and specificity than each test independently. It indicates that VIA is useful for screening of cervical cancer in the primary health care setting in Sudan...

  17. Small cell cervical cancer: an unusual finding at cholecystectomy.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Boyle, Emily

    2012-02-01

    BACKGROUND: Small cell carcinoma of the cervix is a rare cancer, comprising less than 3% of all cervical neoplasms. It uniformly has a poor prognosis, and has a high mortality even with early stage disease. It can metastasise rapidly and metastatic sites include lung, liver, brain, bone, pancreas and lymph nodes. CASE: Here, we report the case of a 60-year-old woman with no symptoms of cervical pathology who developed post-renal failure following a laparoscopic cholecystectomy. The cause was bilateral ureteric obstruction from metastatic small cell cervical cancer and metastases were subsequently found on her gallbladder specimen. CONCLUSION: This is an unusual presentation of small cell cervical cancer and demonstrates the aggressive nature of this disease.

  18. Current status of radiation therapy. Evidence-based medicine (EBM) of radiation therapy. Current management of patients with esophageal cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nemoto, Kenji [Tohoku Univ., Sendai (Japan). School of Medicine

    2002-03-01

    The best management for small mucosal esophageal cancer is generally endoscopic mucosal resection. However, for submucosal cancer and extensive mucosal caner, either radical surgery or radiation seems to be an equally efficacious option. Radiation therapy concurrent with chemotherapy is more effective than radiation therapy alone for patients with unresectable esophageal cancer. The key drugs are cisplatin and 5-fluorouracil. However, for patients with poor performance status or for aged patients, radiation therapy alone is still a choice of treatment. Surgery has generally been indicated for patients with resectable esophageal cancer. However, outcomes of concurrent chemoradiation therapy may be comparable with those of surgery. Therefore, a prospective randomized study should be performed to determine the best management for patients with resectable esophageal cancer. The usefulness of intra-cavitary irradiation for esophageal cancer has not been clarified. A prospective randomized trial with a large number of patients is necessary to determine the effectiveness of intra-cavitary irradiation. The best management for patients with loco-regionally recurrent esophageal cancer after surgery has not been determined. Intensive therapy should be considered if the site of recurrence is limited and the time interval from surgery to recurrence is long. Chemotherapy is essential in the management of patients with small cell esophageal cancer. However, the best local therapy has not been determined. (author)

  19. Anxiety and depressive disorders among patients with esophageal cancer in Taiwan: a nationwide population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Li-Yu; Ku, Fan-Chen; Wang, Yen-Po; Shen, Cheng-Che; Hu, Yu-Wen; Yeh, Chiu-Mei; Chen, Pan-Ming; Chiang, Huey-Ling; Lu, Ti; Chen, Tzeng-Ji; Teng, Chung-Jen; Liu, Chia-Jen

    2015-03-01

    The comorbidity of depression with anxiety disorders is associated with poorer treatment outcomes, worse quality of life, poorer adherence to treatment, and greater suicide risk in cancer patients. To assess the risk of comorbid anxiety and depressive disorders after the diagnosis of esophageal cancer compared with a matched cohort by using the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database (NHIRD). We conducted a retrospective study of 28,454 patients (14,227 patients with esophageal cancer and 14,227 matched patients) who were selected from the NHIRD. Patients were observed for a maximum of 12 years to determine the incidence of new-onset anxiety and depressive disorders for which antidepressants had been prescribed. A Cox regression analysis was performed to identify the risk factors associated with anxiety and depressive disorders in esophageal cancer patients. The cumulative incidence of anxiety and depressive disorders in the esophageal cancer patients was significantly higher than that in the matched cohort (P anxiety and depressive disorders among the patients with esophageal cancer included cirrhosis, cerebrovascular disease, and surgical treatment. Esophageal cancer may be a prominent risk factor for anxiety and depressive disorders. Based on our data, we suggest that attention should be focused on esophageal cancer patients with comorbid cirrhosis and cerebrovascular disease and those who have received surgical interventions.

  20. New Molecular Tools for Efficient Screening of Cervical Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magnus von Knebel Doeberitz

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Cytological screening using the Pap-smear led to a remarkable reduction of the mortality of cervical cancer. However, due to subjective test criteria it is hampered by poor inter- and intra-observer agreement. More reproducible assays are expected to improve the current screening and avoid unnecessary medical intervention and psychological distress for the affected women. Cervical cancer arises as consequence of persistent high risk papillomavirus (HR-HPV infections. Expression of two viral oncogenes, E6 and E7, in epithelial stem cells is required to initiate and maintain cervical carcinogenesis and results in significant overexpression of the cellular p16INK4a protein. Since this protein is not expressed in normal cervical squamous epithelia, screening for p16INK4a over-expressing cells allows to specifically identify dysplastic lesions, and significantly reduces the inter-observer disagreement of the conventional cytological or histological tests. Progression of preneoplastic lesions to invasive cancers is associated with extensive recombination of viral and cellular genomes which can be monitored by detection of papillomavirus oncogene transcripts (APOT assay derived from integrated viral genome copies. Detection of integrated type oncogene transcripts points to far advanced dysplasia or invasive cancers and thus represents a progression marker for cervical lesions. These new assays discussed here will help to improve current limitations in cervical cancer screening, diagnosis, and therapy control.

  1. Prospects for primary prevention of cervical cancer in developing countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franceschi Silvia

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The HPV types that cause cervical cancer are sexually transmitted, but there is little evidence that infection can be avoided by behavioural changes, such as condom use. In contrast, prophylactic vaccines against HPV infection are likely to have high efficacy. In principle, the effectiveness of HPV vaccination as a strategy for cervical cancer control can be measured either by monitoring secular trends in cervical cancer incidence or by conducting randomized trials. The former approach is unlikely to provide convincing evidence of effectiveness, since cervical cancer rates are subject to strong secular trends that are independent of intervention measures. A few phase III trials of HPV prophylactic vaccines are now being started. Such trials are very expensive studies involving frequent and complicated investigations. It is important, however, to start as soon as possible simpler trials designed to demonstrate the effectiveness of HPV vaccine in field conditions, i.e. in developing or intermediate countries which suffer the major burden of mortality from cervical cancer. Such trials may capture a difference in the most severe, and rarest, preinvasive cervical lesions (i.e., the real target of any HPV vaccine over a prolonged follow-up (20 years at least. The design of such studies is briefly considered for two areas: Southern India and South Korea.

  2. [Endoscopic microwave treatment of 53 cases with esophageal and cardiac cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, X H

    1990-09-01

    Fifty-three cases with moderate or advanced esophageal and cardiac cancer treated by endoscopic microwave therapy are reported. The results showed that after 2 to 4 treatments, dysphagia was relieved in 52 (98%), esophageal re-expansion was seen in 48 (90%). Improvement was most pronounced in lesions predominantly shown as localized polypoid projection type. Biopsy after treatment was confirmed pathologically as necrosis in 24 cases. After treatment, the follow-up of 22 cases for over 3 months and 8 cases for over 6 months was carried out. 22/22 could maintain the therapeutic effectiveness and 5/8 were on soft diet (noodles and steamed bread). Microwave therapy is a palliative measure that can definitely improve the dysphagia in short term courses and prolong the survival. Microwave endoscopy, being easy in manipulation without complications, is very useful in the treatment of esophageal and cardiac cancers contra-indicated for surgery.

  3. Cervical cancer screening at a tertiary care center in Rwanda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruzigana, George; Bazzet-Matabele, Lisa; Rulisa, Stephen; Martin, Allison N; Ghebre, Rahel G

    2017-08-01

    In limited resource settings such as Rwanda, visual inspection with acetic acid (VIA) is the primary model for cervical cancer screening. The objective of this study was to describe clinical characteristics and outcomes for women presenting for cervical cancer screening. A prospective, observational study was conducted between September 2015 and February 2016 at Kigali University Teaching Hospital (CHUK). Women referred to the VIA clinic were enrolled and completed a semi-structured questionnaire. During the six-month study period, 150 women were enrolled and evaluated with VIA followed by colposcopy directed biopsy for VIA positive. The median age was 42 years (IQR 36-49). Only 20 (13.3%) asymptomatic women presented for screening exam, whereas 126 (84%) were symptomatic. Among symptomatic patients, more than one-third had never had a speculum exam prior to referral (n = 43). Twenty-two (14.7%) women were VIA positive, and 8 (5.3%) had lesions suspicious for cancer, while 120 (80%) were found to be VIA negative. Among women undergoing biopsy (n = 30), 11 were normal (36.7%), 5 cases showed CIN 1 (16.6%), 4 cases showed CIN 2 (13.3%), 2 cases showed CIN 3 (6.7%) and 8 were confirmed cervical cancers (26.7%). In Rwanda, VIA is the current method for cervical cancer screening. In this study, few asymptomatic patients presented for cervical cancer screening. Increasing knowledge about cervical cancer screening and expanding access are key elements to improving cervical cancer control in Rwanda.

  4. Somatic LKB1 mutations promote cervical cancer progression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shana N Wingo

    Full Text Available Human Papilloma Virus (HPV is the etiologic agent for cervical cancer. Yet, infection with HPV is not sufficient to cause cervical cancer, because most infected women develop transient epithelial dysplasias that spontaneously regress. Progression to invasive cancer has been attributed to diverse host factors such as immune or hormonal status, as no recurrent genetic alterations have been identified in cervical cancers. Thus, the pressing question as to the biological basis of cervical cancer progression has remained unresolved, hampering the development of novel therapies and prognostic tests. Here we show that at least 20% of cervical cancers harbor somatically-acquired mutations in the LKB1 tumor suppressor. Approximately one-half of tumors with mutations harbored single nucleotide substitutions or microdeletions identifiable by exon sequencing, while the other half harbored larger monoallelic or biallelic deletions detectable by multiplex ligation probe amplification (MLPA. Biallelic mutations were identified in most cervical cancer cell lines; HeLa, the first human cell line, harbors a homozygous 25 kb deletion that occurred in vivo. LKB1 inactivation in primary tumors was associated with accelerated disease progression. Median survival was only 13 months for patients with LKB1-deficient tumors, but >100 months for patients with LKB1-wild type tumors (P = 0.015, log rank test; hazard ratio = 0.25, 95% CI = 0.083 to 0.77. LKB1 is thus a major cervical tumor suppressor, demonstrating that acquired genetic alterations drive progression of HPV-induced dysplasias to invasive, lethal cancers. Furthermore, LKB1 status can be exploited clinically to predict disease recurrence.

  5. An overview on applications of optical spectroscopy in cervical cancers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chilakapati Murali

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite advances in the treatment modalities, cervical cancers are one of the leading causes of cancer death among women. Pap smear and colposcopy are the existing screening methods and histopathology is the gold standard for diagnosis. However, these methods have been shown to be prone to reporting errors, which could be due to their subjective interpretation. Radiotherapy is the mainstay of treatment for the locally advanced stages of cervical cancers. The typical treatment regimen spans over 4 months, from the first fraction of radiation to clinical assessment of tumor response to radiotherapy. It is often noticed that due to intrinsic properties of tumors, patients with the same clinical stage and histological type respond differently to radiotherapy. Hence, there exists a need for the development of new methods for early diagnosis as well as for early prediction of tumor radioresponse. Optical spectroscopic methods have been shown to be potential alternatives for use in cancer diagnosis. In this review, we provide a brief background on the anatomy and histology of the uterine cervix and the etiology of cervical cancers; we briefly discuss the optical spectroscopic approach to cervical cancer diagnosis. A very brief discussion on radiation therapy and radiation resistance is also provided. We also share our experiences with the Raman spectroscopic methodologies in cervical cancer diagnosis as well as in the prediction of tumor radioresponse.

  6. Disparities in cervical and breast cancer mortality in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vania Reis Girianelli

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE To analyze cervical and breast cancer mortality in Brazil according to socioeconomic and welfare indicators. METHODS Data on breast and cervical cancer mortality covering a 30-year period (1980-2010 were analyzed. The data were obtained from the National Mortality Database, population data from the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics database, and socioeconomic and welfare information from the Institute of Applied Economic Research. Moving averages were calculated, disaggregated by capital city and municipality. The annual percent change in mortality rates was estimated by segmented linear regression using the joinpoint method. Pearson’s correlation coefficients were conducted between average mortality rate at the end of the three-year period and selected indicators in the state capital and each Brazilian state. RESULTS There was a decline in cervical cancer mortality rates throughout the period studied, except in municipalities outside of the capitals in the North and Northeast. There was a decrease in breast cancer mortality in the capitals from the end of the 1990s onwards. Favorable socioeconomic indicators were inversely correlated with cervical cancer mortality. A strong direct correlation was found with favorable indicators and an inverse correlation with fertility rate and breast cancer mortality in inner cities. CONCLUSIONS There is an ongoing dynamic process of increased risk of cervical and breast cancer and attenuation of mortality because of increased, albeit unequal, access to and provision of screening, diagnosis and treatment.

  7. Breast and cervical cancer knowledge and awareness among university students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altay, Birsen; Avci, Ilknur Aydin; Rizalar, Selda; Oz, Hatice; Meral, Damla

    2015-01-01

    Breast and cervical cancers are the most common types of cancer in women worldwide. Previous studies in Asia have shown that related knowledge and awareness is low among female university students. The goal of this study was to assess breast and cervical cancer knowledge, practices, and awareness among female university students in Samsun,Turkey. This research was a cross-sectional survey of female university students using a self-administered. questionnaire to investigate participant awareness and knowledge of breast and cervical cancer. A total of 301 female university students participated. Descriptive statistics and chi square tests were used for data analysis. The mean age of the participants in this study was 22.0 ± 5.91 years. Regarding family history, 89.7 % of the students had no known familial history of breast cancer. Students (65.4%) had knowledge about breast self examination and 52.2 % of them had performed breast self examinationm while 55.1% of them had knowledge about prevention of cervical cancer. Although the results are preliminary, the study points to an insufficient knowledge of university students in Samsun about breast and cervical cancer.

  8. Esophageal dilation in head and neck cancer patients: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moss, William J; Pang, John; Orosco, Ryan K; Weissbrod, Philip A; Brumund, Kevin T; Weisman, Robert A; Brigger, Matthew T; Coffey, Charles S

    2017-05-12

    To characterize the safety profile and effectiveness of esophageal dilation in head and neck cancer patients. A systematic review was undertaken for articles reporting outcomes of esophageal dilation in head and neck cancer patients. The Medline, Scopus, Web of Science, and Cochrane databases were searched in accordance with Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines. Complications related to esophageal dilation in head and neck cancer patients was the primary outcome of interest. Success rates, demographic data, cancer staging, and treatment data were assessed secondarily. Statistical analyses included both qualitative and quantitative assessments. A limited meta-analysis and pooling of the data was performed using a random effects model. Of the collective 8,243 initial candidate articles, 15 retrospective studies containing data for a collective 449 patients were ultimately included in the analysis. There was significant heterogeneity in the outcomes data. With an overall complication rate of 10.6% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 4.1%,17%) and a pooled success rate of 72.9% (95% CI: 65.7%,80.1%) per patient, the articles generally supported the use of dilation. Head and neck cancer patients experience a higher rate of complications following dilation compared to patients with other causes of benign stricture. Esophageal dilation is effective in improving dysphagia, but these benefits are often transient and thus necessitate repeat interventions. Laryngoscope, 2017. © 2017 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  9. Current status of predictive biomarkers for neoadjuvant therapy in esophageal cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Norihisa; Uemura; Tadashi; Kondo

    2014-01-01

    Neoadjuvant therapy has been proven to be extremely valuable and is widely used for advanced esophageal cancer. However, a significant proportion of treated patients(60%-70%) does not respond well to neoadjuvant treatments and develop severe adverse effects. Therefore, predictive markers for individualization of multimodality treatments are urgently needed in esophageal cancer. Recently, molecular biomarkers that predict the response to neoadjuvant therapy have been explored in multimodal approaches in esophageal cancer and successful examples of biomarker identification have been reported. In this review, promising candidates for predictive molecular biomarkers developed by using multiple molecular approaches are reviewed. Moreover, treatment strategies based on the status of predicted biomarkers are discussed, while considering the international differences in the clinical background. However, in the absence of adequate treatment options related to the results of the biomarker test, the usefulness of these diagnostic tools is limited and new effective therapies for biomarker-identified nonresponders to cancer treatment should be concurrent with the progress of predictive technologies. Further improvement in the prognosis of esophageal cancer patients can be achieved through the introduction of novel therapeutic approaches in clinical practice.

  10. Second Primary Pancreatic Adenocarcinoma Three Years After Successfully Treated Index Esophageal Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nina Nandy

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Context Development of a second primary malignancy after an index esophageal cancer is a rare event, primarily due to short survival of patients with esophageal cancer. However, the number of long-term esophageal cancer survivors has been increasing due to advances in early detection and therapy. Case report We report herein a case of pancreatic adenocarcinoma that developed three years after a successfully treated early-stage adenocarcinoma of the esophagus. A 70-year-old Caucasian male presented with vague complaints of nausea, vomiting and abdominal distention, with subsequent development of jaundice. A computed tomography scan of abdomen revealed a 2.9 cm soft tissue mass in the head of the pancreas and the patient underwent a Whipple’s procedure, with pathology confirming the diagnosis of pancreatic adenocarcinoma. Three years previously, the patient was successfully treated for adenocarcinoma of the esophagus via minimally invasive esophagogastrectomy. Despite chemoradiotherapy for localized disease and subsequent systemic chemotherapy for metastatic pancreatic cancer, the patient eventually succumbed to his illness. Conclusion We discuss the association between esophageal cancer and subsequent second malignancies, along with implications for surveillance and therapy.

  11. High enzyme activity UGT1A1 or low activity UGT1A8 and UGT2B4 genotypes increase esophageal cancer risk.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dura, P.; Salomon, J.; Morsche, R.H.M. te; Schaap-Roelofs, H.M.J.; Kristinsson, J.O.; Wobbes, T.; Witteman, B.J.; Tan, A.C.; Drenth, J.P.H.; Peters, W.H.M.

    2012-01-01

    Esophageal cancer (EC) has a globally increasing incidence with poor curative treatment options and survival rates. Environmental and dietary factors have crucial roles in esophageal carcinogenesis. Polymorphisms in the UGT genes, a superfamily of enzymes essential for the detoxification of

  12. Single nucleotide polymorphisms of ADH1B, ADH1C and ALDH2 genes and esophageal cancer: A population-based case-control study in China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wu, M.; Chang, S.; Kampman, E.; Kok, F.J.

    2013-01-01

    Alcohol drinking is a major risk factor for esophageal cancer (EC) and the metabolism of ethanol has been suggested to play an important role in esophageal carcinogenesis. Epidemiologic studies, including genomewide association studies (GWAS), have identified single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs)

  13. Multihelix rotating shield brachytherapy for cervical cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dadkhah, Hossein [Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of Iowa, 1402 Seamans Center for the Engineering Arts and Sciences, Iowa City, Iowa 52242 (United States); Kim, Yusung; Flynn, Ryan T., E-mail: ryan-flynn@uiowa.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Iowa, 200 Hawkins Drive, Iowa City, Iowa 52242 (United States); Wu, Xiaodong [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Iowa, 200 Hawkins Drive, Iowa City, Iowa 52242 and Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Iowa, 4016 Seamans Center for the Engineering Arts and Sciences, Iowa City, Iowa 52242 (United States)

    2015-11-15

    Purpose: To present a novel brachytherapy technique, called multihelix rotating shield brachytherapy (H-RSBT), for the precise angular and linear positioning of a partial shield in a curved applicator. H-RSBT mechanically enables the dose delivery using only linear translational motion of the radiation source/shield combination. The previously proposed approach of serial rotating shield brachytherapy (S-RSBT), in which the partial shield is rotated to several angular positions at each source dwell position [W. Yang et al., “Rotating-shield brachytherapy for cervical cancer,” Phys. Med. Biol. 58, 3931–3941 (2013)], is mechanically challenging to implement in a curved applicator, and H-RSBT is proposed as a feasible solution. Methods: A Henschke-type applicator, designed for an electronic brachytherapy source (Xoft Axxent™) and a 0.5 mm thick tungsten partial shield with 180° or 45° azimuthal emission angles and 116° asymmetric zenith angle, is proposed. The interior wall of the applicator contains six evenly spaced helical keyways that rigidly define the emission direction of the partial radiation shield as a function of depth in the applicator. The shield contains three uniformly distributed protruding keys on its exterior wall and is attached to the source such that it rotates freely, thus longitudinal translational motion of the source is transferred to rotational motion of the shield. S-RSBT and H-RSBT treatment plans with 180° and 45° azimuthal emission angles were generated for five cervical cancer patients with a diverse range of high-risk target volume (HR-CTV) shapes and applicator positions. For each patient, the total number of emission angles was held nearly constant for S-RSBT and H-RSBT by using dwell positions separated by 5 and 1.7 mm, respectively, and emission directions separated by 22.5° and 60°, respectively. Treatment delivery time and tumor coverage (D{sub 90} of HR-CTV) were the two metrics used as the basis for evaluation and

  14. The Effects of New Screening Tests in the Dutch Cervical Cancer Screening Programme

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K. Rozemeijer (Kirsten)

    2016-01-01

    markdownabstractCervical cancer is the fourth most common cancer in women all over the world, mainly affecting young women. As cervical cancer is easy to prevent by early detection and treatment of the disease, screening was introduced in the Netherlands in the 1970s. The number of cervical cancer c

  15. The Effects of New Screening Tests in the Dutch Cervical Cancer Screening Programme

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K. Rozemeijer (Kirsten)

    2016-01-01

    markdownabstractCervical cancer is the fourth most common cancer in women all over the world, mainly affecting young women. As cervical cancer is easy to prevent by early detection and treatment of the disease, screening was introduced in the Netherlands in the 1970s. The number of cervical cancer c

  16. The Effects of New Screening Tests in the Dutch Cervical Cancer Screening Programme

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K. Rozemeijer (Kirsten)

    2016-01-01

    markdownabstractCervical cancer is the fourth most common cancer in women all over the world, mainly affecting young women. As cervical cancer is easy to prevent by early detection and treatment of the disease, screening was introduced in the Netherlands in the 1970s. The number of cervical cancer

  17. Challenges in Prevention and Care Delivery for Women with Cervical Cancer in Sub-Saharan Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Randall, Thomas C.; Ghebre, Rahel

    2016-01-01

    Virtually all cases of invasive cervical cancer are associated with infection by high-risk strains of human papilloma virus. Effective primary and secondary prevention programs, as well as effective treatment for early-stage invasive cancer have dramatically reduced the burden of cervical cancer in high-income countries; 85% of the mortality from cervical cancer now occurs in low- and middle-income countries. This article provides an overview of challenges to cervical cancer care in sub-Sahar...

  18. Cervical cancer screening in Thailand: an overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sriamporn, Supannee; Khuhaprema, Thiravud; Parkin, Max

    2006-01-01

    In Thailand, there have been no 'organized' programmes of screening for cervical cancer. For the most part, screening has been unsystematic or provided to women 'on demand'. In 2002, the Department of Medical Services of the Ministry of Public Health proposed the screening of the entire population of women in Thailand at 5-yearly intervals from the ages of 35 to 60 years. As a first step, measures to increase the capacity for obtaining and interpreting papanicolaou (Pap) smears have been put in place. Research studies have examined the effectiveness of screening with Pap smears in Thailand, and confirmed that, as elsewhere, protection is related to the number of previous tests and the time elapsed since the most recent one. Coverage of the population remains low. Other methods of screening are being investigated in Thailand, including visual inspection following acetic acid (VIA), followed by immediate treatment of observed lesions by cryotherapy ('see and treat'). Other research studies have examined the acceptability and performance of self-sampling as a means of obtaining Pap smears, and the use of mobile clinics to increase coverage of at-risk women in rural settings. Human papillomavirus (HPV) testing has been used to identify high-risk women, or to help decide which women with low-grade abnormality on cytology should undergo more intensive follow-up. Prevalence of HPV in normal women in Thailand is 9-20%, but HPV testing has not been used on any systematic basis to date. Current screening programmes in Thailand are not very effective. The national cancer control programme aims to increase the coverage of screening. The population-based cancer registry will provide an effective and economical method of evaluating the impact of early diagnosis and screening at community level.

  19. Priority Setting for Improvement of Cervical Cancer Prevention in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azam Majidi

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Background Cervical cancer is the fourth most common cancer among women worldwide. Organized cervical screening and vaccination against human papilloma virus (HPV have been successful interventions for prevention of invasive cervical cancer (ICC. Because of cultural and religious considerations, ICC has low incidence in Iran and many other Muslim countries. There is no organized cervical screening in these countries. Therefore, ICC is usually diagnosed in advanced stages with poor prognosis in these countries. We performed a priority setting exercise and suggested priorities for prevention of ICC in this setting. Methods We invited experts and researchers to a workshop and asked them to list important suggestions for ICC prevention in Iran. After merging similar items and removing the duplicates, we asked the experts to rank the list of suggested items. We used a strategy grid and Go-zone analysis to determine final list of priorities for ICC prevention in Iran. Results From 26 final items suggested as priorities for prevention of ICC, the most important priorities were developing national guidelines for cervical screening and quality control protocol for patient follow-up and management of precancerous lesions. In addition, we emphasized considering insurance coverage for cervical screening, public awareness, and research priorities, and establishment of a cervical screening registry. Conclusion A comprehensive approach and implementation of organized cervical screening program is necessary for prevention of ICC in Iran and other low incidence Muslim countries. Because of high cost for vaccination and low incidence of cervical cancer, we do not recommend HPV vaccination for the time being in Iran.

  20. dose in cervical cancer intracavitary brachytherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Siavashpour

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To analyze the optimum organ filling point for organs at risk (OARs dose in cervical cancer high-dose-rate (HDR brachytherapy. Material and methods : In a retrospective study, 32 locally advanced cervical cancer patients (97 insertions who were treated with 3D conformal external beam radiation therapy (EBRT and concurrent chemotherapy during 2010-2013 were included. Rotterdam HDR tandem-ovoid applicators were used and computed tomography (CT scanning was performed after each insertion. The OARs delineation and GEC-ESTRO-based clinical target volumes (CTVs contouring was followed by 3D forward planning. Then, dose volume histogram (DVH parameters of organs were recorded and patients were classified based on their OARs volumes, as well as their inserted tandem length. Results : The absorbed dose to point A ranged between 6.5-7.5 Gy. D 0.1cm ³ and D 2cm ³ of the bladder significantly increased with the bladder volume enlargement (p value < 0.05. By increasing the bladder volume up to about 140 cm3, the rectum dose was also increased. For the cases with bladder volumes higher than 140 cm3, the rectum dose decreased. For bladder volumes lower than 75 cm3, the sigmoid dose decreased; however, for bladder volumes higher than 75 cm3, the sigmoid dose increased. The D 2cm ³ of the bladder and rectum were higher for longer tandems than for shorter ones, respectively. The divergence of the obtained results for different tandem lengths became wider by the extension of the bladder volume. The rectum and sigmoid volume had a direct impact on increasing their D 0.1cm ³ and D 2cm ³, as well as decreasing their D 10 , D 30 , and D 50 . Conclusions : There is a relationship between the volumes of OARs and their received doses. Selecting a bladder with a volume of about 70 cm3 or less proved to be better with regards to the dose to the bladder, rectum, and sigmoid.

  1. Association between dietary vitamin C intake and risk of esophageal cancer: A dose-response meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bo, Yacong; Lu, Yan; Zhao, Yan; Zhao, Erjiang; Yuan, Ling; Lu, Weiquan; Cui, Lingling; Lu, Quanjun

    2016-04-15

    While several epidemiological studies have investigated the association between vitamin C and risk of esophageal cancer, the results remain inconsistent. In the present study, a meta-analysis was conducted to assess the impact of dietary vitamin C intake on esophageal cancer risk. Online databases were searched up to March 29, 2015, for studies on the association between dietary vitamin C intake and esophageal cancer risk. Pooled risk ratios (RRs) or odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated using a random-effects model. Dose-response analyses were performed using the method of restricted cubic splines with four knots at percentiles of 5, 35, 65 and 95% of the distribution. Publication bias was estimated using Egger's tests and funnel plots. In all, 15 articles were included in this meta-analysis, including 20 studies, containing 7063 controls and 3955 cases of esophageal cancer. By comparing the highest vs. the lowest categories of vitamin C intake, we found that vitamin C was inversely associated with the risk of esophageal cancer [overall OR = 0.58, 95% CI = 0.49-0.68, I(2) = 56%]. A linear dose-response relationship was found. With an increase in dietary vitamin C intake of 50 mg/day, the risk of esophageal cancer statistically decreased by 13% (OR = 0.87, 95% CI = 0.80-0.93, p(linearity) = 0.0002). In conclusion, our analysis suggested that the higher intake of dietary vitamin C might have a protective effect against esophageal cancer.

  2. Increased serum midkine concentration as a possible tumor marker in patients with superficial esophageal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimada, Hideaki; Nabeya, Yoshihiro; Okazumi, Shin-ichi; Matsubara, Hisahiro; Kadomatsu, Kenji; Muramatsu, Takashi; Ikematsu, Shinya; Sakuma, Sadatoshi; Ochiai, Takenori

    2003-01-01

    Midkine, a heparin-binding growth factor, is expressed in numerous cancer tissues and is reportedly elevated in patients with various neoplasms. The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinicopathological significance of serum midkine concentration (S-MK) in patients with superficial esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). Pretreatment S-MK was measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in 135 healthy controls, 16 patients with benign esophageal disease, and 60 patients with primary superficial esophageal squamous cell cancer (SESCC). All patients with SESCC underwent curative resection. The disease was staged according to TNM/UICC guidelines. Serum concentrations of carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), squamous cell carcinoma antigen (SCC-Ag), and cytokeratin 19 fragment (CYFRA21-1) were also evaluated in the same populations. S-MK in patients with SESCC (388+/-411 pg/ml) was significantly higher than in benign esophageal disease or healthy controls (183+/-73 and 154+/-76 pg/ml, respectively). Using the mean + 2 standard deviations of healthy control S-MK (300 pg/ml) as the cut-off level, 50% of patients with esophageal SESCC were deemed positive. This S-MK positivity rate for detecting SESCC was significantly higher than for other tumor markers. Thus, S-MK may be useful as a tumor marker to detect SESCC.

  3. Chemotherapy and molecular targeting therapy for recurrent cervical cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuda, Naotake; Watari, Hidemichi; Ushijima, Kimio

    2016-01-01

    For patients with primary stage ⅣB, persistent, or recurrent cervical cancer, chemotherapy remains the standard treatment, although it is neither curative nor associated with long-term disease control. In this review, we summarized the history of treatment of recurrent cervical cancer, and the current recommendation for chemotherapy and molecular targeted therapy. Eligible articles were identified by a search of the MEDLINE bibliographical database for the period up to November 30, 2014. The search strategy included the following any or all of the keywords: “uterine cervical cancer”, “chemotherapy”, and “targeted therapies”. Since cisplatin every 21 days was considered as the historical standard treatment for recurrent cervical cancer, subsequent trials have evaluated and demonstrated activity for other agents including paclitaxel, gemcitabine, topotecan and vinorelbine among others. Accordingly, promising agents were incorporated into phase Ⅲ trials. To examine the best agent to combine with cisplatin, several landmark phase Ⅲ clinical trials were conducted by Gynecologic Oncology Group (GOG) and Japan Clinical Oncology Group (JCOG). Through, GOG204 and JCOG0505, paclitaxel/cisplatin (TP) and paclitaxel/carboplatin (TC) are now considered to be the recommended therapies for recurrent cervical cancer patients. However, the prognosis of patients who are already resistant to chemotherapy, are very poor. Therefore new therapeutic strategies are urgently required. Molecular targeted therapy will be the most hopeful candidate of these strategies. From the results of GOG240, bevacizumab combined with TP reached its primary endpoint of improving overall survival (OS). Although, the prognosis for recurrent cervical cancer patients is still poor, the results of GOG240 shed light on the usefulness of molecular target agents to chemotherapy in cancer patients. Recurrent cervical cancer is generally considered incurable and current chemotherapy regiments

  4. Green tea consumption and risk of esophageal cancer: a meta-analysis of epidemiologic studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zheng Ping

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Green tea has shown the role of chemoprevention for cancer. Recently, several studies suggested that green tea intake may have effect on esophageal cancer risk, whereas the results were inconsistent. Methods We performed a meta-analysis of all English and Chinese language studies of green tea consumption and esophageal cancer risk indexed in Medline, Embase, the Science Citation Index, the Chinese Biomedical Database and Wanfang Data from 1980 to June 2012. After reviewing each study, extracting data, and evaluating heterogeneity (Chi-square-based Q test and Ι2 and publication bias (Begg and Egger test, a meta-analysis was performed to evaluate the association between high/medium/low green tea consumption and non-drinking esophageal cancer risk. Pooled relative risk (RR or odds ratio (OR with 95% confidence intervals (CIs were calculated using the fixed- or random-effect models. Results Ten eligible epidemiologic studies including 33731 participants and 3557 cases for esophageal cancer were included. Eight of which were case–control studies, and two were cohort studies. Overall, there were no association between high/medium/low green tea consumption and non-drinking risk of esophageal cancer (High: highest vs non-drinker: RR/OR = 0.76, 95% CI: 0.49 to 1.02. Medium: drinker vs non-drinker: RR/OR = 0.86, 95% CI: 0.70 to 1.03. Low: lowest vs non-drinker: RR/OR = 0.83, 95% CI: 0.58 to 1.08. When stratified analyses according to study design (case–control and cohort studies, country (China and Japan, participates source (population-based and hospital-based case–control, and gender (female and male, there were significant association between high/medium/low green tea consumption and non-drinking risk of esophageal cancer among female (High: RR/OR = 0.32, 95% CI: 0.10 to 0.54. Medium: RR/OR = 0.43, 95% CI: 0.21 to 0.66. Low: RR/OR = 0.45, 95% CI: 0.10 to 0.79, but not the others. Conclusions We did not found significant

  5. Women's perspectives on illness when being screened for cervical cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hounsgaard, Lise; Augustussen, Mikaela; Møller, Helle

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In Greenland, the incidence of cervical cancer caused by human papillomavirus (HPV) is 25 per 100,000 women; 2.5 times the Danish rate. In Greenland, the disease is most frequent among women aged 30-40. Systematic screening can identify women with cervical cell changes, which if untre......BACKGROUND: In Greenland, the incidence of cervical cancer caused by human papillomavirus (HPV) is 25 per 100,000 women; 2.5 times the Danish rate. In Greenland, the disease is most frequent among women aged 30-40. Systematic screening can identify women with cervical cell changes, which...... if untreated may cause cervical cancer. In 2007, less than 40% of eligible women in Greenland participated in screening. OBJECTIVE: To examine Greenlandic women's perception of disease, their understanding of the connection between HPV and cervical cancer, and the knowledge that they deem necessary to decide...... of vulnerability and an increased need to care for themselves. Later on, an understanding of HPV as the basis for diagnosis and the realization that disease might not be accompanied by symptoms developed. The outcome for participants was a life experience, which they used to encourage others to participate...

  6. Current imaging strategies for the evaluation of uterine cervical cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourgioti, Charis; Chatoupis, Konstantinos; Moulopoulos, Lia Angela

    2016-04-28

    Uterine cervical cancer still remains an important socioeconomic issue because it largely affects women of reproductive age. Prognosis is highly depended on extent of the disease at diagnosis and, therefore, accurate staging is crucial for optimal management. Cervical cancer is clinically staged, according to International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics guidelines, but, currently, there is increased use of cross sectional imaging modalities [computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), positron emission tomography-CT (PET-CT)] for the study of important prognostic factors like tumor size, parametrial invasion, endocervical extension, pelvic side wall or adjacent/distal organs involvement and lymph node status. Imaging indications also include cervical cancer follow-up, evaluation of tumor response to treatment and selection of suitable candidates for less radical surgeries like radical trachelectomy for fertility preservation. The preferred imaging method for local cervical cancer evaluation is MRI; CT is equally effective for evaluation of extrauterine spread of the disease. PET-CT shows high diagnostic performance for the detection of tumor relapse and metastatic lymph nodes. The aim of this review is to familiarize radiologists with the MRI appearance of cervical carcinoma and to discuss the indications of cross sectional imaging during the course of the disease in patients with cervical carcinoma.

  7. Current imaging strategies for the evaluation of uterine cervical cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Charis Bourgioti; Konstantinos Chatoupis; Lia Angela Moulopoulos

    2016-01-01

    Uterine cervical cancer still remains an important socioeconomic issue because it largely affects women of reproductive age.Prognosis is highly depended on extent of the disease at diagnosis and,therefore,accurate staging is crucial for optimal management.Cervical cancer is clinically staged,according to International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics guidelines,but,currently,there is increased use of cross sectional imaging modalities [computed tomography(CT),magnetic resonance imaging(MRI),positron emission tomography-CT(PET-CT)] for the study of important prognostic factors like tumor size,parametrial invasion,endocervical extension,pelvic side wall or adjacent/distal organs involvement and lymph node status.Imaging indications also include cervical cancer follow-up,evaluation of tumor response to treatment and selection of suitable candidates for less radical surgeries like radical trachelectomy for fertility preservation.The preferred imaging method for local cervical cancer evaluation is MRI;CT is equally effective for evaluation of extrauterine spread of the disease.PETCT shows high diagnostic performance for the detection of tumor relapse and metastatic lymph nodes.The aim of this review is to familiarize radiologists with the MRI appearance of cervical carcinoma and to discuss the indications of cross sectional imaging during the course of the disease in patients with cervical carcinoma.

  8. Circulating microRNAs: Novel biomarkers for esophageal cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Esophageal carcinogenesis is a multi-stage process, involving a variety of changes in gene expression and physiological structure change. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of small non-coding endogenous RNA molecules. Recent innovation in miRNAs profiling technology have shed new light on the pathology of esophageal carcinoma (EC), and also heralded great potential for exploring novel biomarkers for both EC diagnosis and treatment. Frequent dysregulation of miRNA in malignancy highlights the study of molecular...

  9. Zoledronic acid induces apoptosis and autophagy in cervical cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, I-Te; Chou, Shou-Chu; Lin, Ying-Chin

    2014-12-01

    Cervical cancer is one of the most common gynecological cancers in association with high mortality and morbidity. The present study was aimed to investigate the in vitro effects of zoledronic acid (ZA) on viability and induction of apoptosis and autophagy as well as inflammatory effects in three human cervical cancer cell lines (HeLa, SiHa, and CaSki). Cell viability was measured by 3-(4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-Diphenyltetrazolium Bromide (MTT) assay. Induction of apoptosis was determined by quantitation of expression level of B cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2) and Bax messenger RNA (mRNA) and identification of the proteolytic cleavage of poly (ADP)-ribose polymerase (PARP) and caspase-3. Autophagic effects were examined by quantitation of mRNA expression of autophagy protein 5 (ATG5) and beclin1 and identifying accumulation of microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3 (LC3)-II. Inflammatory effect was determined by measuring expression and production of IL-6 and cyclooxygenase-2 (Cox-2). The results showed ZA significantly inhibited cell viability of cervical cancer cells. ZA-induced cell death displayed features characteristic to both apoptosis and autophagy and was associated with different changes in the levels of Bcl-2 and Bax in the various cervical cancer lines. Expression of metastatic cytokines, IL-6 and Cox-2, was upregulated in the presence of ZA at low concentration. Our data revealed that ZA inhibits cervical cancer cells through the synergistic effect of apoptosis induction and autophagy activation.

  10. Advances in diagnosis and treatment of metastatic cervical cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Haoran; Wu, Xiaohua; Cheng, Xi

    2016-07-01

    Cervical cancer is one of the most common cancers in women worldwide. The outcome of patients with metastatic cervical cancer is poor. We reviewed the relevant literature concerning the treatment and diagnosis of metastatic cervical cancer. There are two types of metastasis related to different treatments and survival rates: hematogenous metastasis and lymphatic metastasis. Patients with hematogenous metastasis have a higher risk of death than those with lymphatic metastasis. In terms of diagnosis, fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) and PET-computed tomography are effective tools for the evaluation of distant metastasis. Concurrent chemoradiotherapy and subsequent chemotherapy are well-tolerated and efficient for lymphatic metastasis. As for lung metastasis, chemotherapy and/or surgery are valuable treatments for resistant, recurrent metastatic cervical cancer and chemoradiotherapy may be the optimal choice for stage IVB cervical cancer. Chemotherapy and bone irradiation are promising for bone metastasis. A better survival is achieved with multimodal therapy. Craniotomy or stereotactic radiosurgery is an optimal choice combined with radiotherapy for solitary brain metastases. Chemotherapy and palliative brain radiation may be considered for multiple brain metastases and other organ metastases.

  11. Evaluation of miR-21 and miR-375 as prognostic biomarkers in esophageal cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winther, Mette; Alsner, Jan; Tramm, Trine

    2015-01-01

    of miR-21 and miR-375 in primary esophageal squamous cell carcinomas (ESCC) and esophagogastric adenocarcinomas (EAC). MATERIAL AND METHODS: Pre-therapeutic tumor specimens from 195 patients with loco-regional esophageal cancer treated with neoadjuvant or definitive chemoradiotherapy or perioperative...

  12. Meat intake and risk of stomach and esophageal adenocarcinoma within the European Prospective Investigation Into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC).

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    González, Carlos Alberto; Jakszyn, Paula; Pera, Guillem; Agudo, Antonio; Bingham, Sheila A; Palli, Domenico; Ferrari, Pietro; Boeing, Heiner; Giudice, Giuseppe del; Plebani, Mario; Carneiro, Fátima; Nesi, Gabriella; Berrino, Franco; Sacerdote, Carlotta; Tumino, Rosario; Panico, Salvatore; Berglund, Göran; Simán, Henrik; Nyrén, Olof; Hallmans, Göran; Martinez, Carmen; Dorronsoro Iraeta, Miren; Barricarte, Aurelio; Navarro, Carmen A; Quirós, José Ramón; Allen, Naomi E; Key, Timothy J; Day, Nicholas E; Linseisen, Jakob; Nagel, Gabriele; Bergmann, Manuela M; Overvad, Kim; Jensen, Majken K; Tjønneland, Anne; Olsen, Anja; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H Bas; Ocké, Marga C; Peeters, Petra H M; Numans, Mattijs E; Clavel-Chapelon, Françoise; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Psaltopoulou, Theodora; Roukos, Dimitrios; Lund, Eiliv; Hemon, Bertrand; Kaaks, Rudolf; Norat, Teresa; Riboli, Elio

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Dietary factors are thought to have an important role in gastric and esophageal carcinogenesis, but evidence from cohort studies for such a role is lacking. We examined the risks of gastric cancer and esophageal adenocarcinoma associated with meat consumption within the European Prospect

  13. Integration of targeted agents in the neo-adjuvant treatment of gastro-esophageal cancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Power, D G; Ilson, D H

    2009-11-01

    Pre- and peri-operative strategies are becoming standard for the management of localized gastro-esophageal cancer. For localized gastric/gastro-esophageal junction (GEJ) cancer there are conflicting data that a peri-operative approach with cisplatin-based chemotherapy improves survival, with the benefits seen in esophageal cancer likely less than a 5-10% incremental improvement. Further trends toward improvement in local control and survival, when combined chemotherapy and radiation therapy are given pre-operatively, are suggested by recent phase III trials. In fit patients, a significant survival benefit with pre-operative chemoradiation is seen in those patients who achieve a pathologic complete response. In esophageal/GEJ cancer, definitive chemoradiation is now considered in medically inoperable patients. In squamous cell carcinoma of the esophagus, surgery after primary chemoradiation is not clearly associated with an improved overall survival, however, local control may be better. In localized gastric/GEJ cancer, the integration of bevacizumab with pre-operative chemotherapy is being explored in large randomized studies, and with chemoradiotherapy in pilot trials. The addition of anti-epidermal growth factor receptor and anti-human epidermal growth factor receptor-2 antibody treatment to pre-operative chemoradiation continues to be explored. Early results show the integration of targeted therapy is feasible. Metabolic imaging can predict early response to pre-operative chemotherapy and biomarkers may further predict response to pre-operative chemo-targeted therapy. A multimodality approach to localized gastro-esophageal cancer has resulted in better outcomes. For T3 or node-positive disease, surgery alone is no longer considered appropriate and neo-adjuvant therapy is recommended. The future of neo-adjuvant strategies in this disease will involve the individualization of therapy with the integration of molecular signatures, targeted therapy, metabolic imaging

  14. Treatment-associated severe thrombocytopenia affects survival rate in esophageal cancer patients undergoing concurrent chemoradiotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y M Huang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Esophageal cancer is commonly treated with surgery, concurrent chemoradiotherapy (CCRT, or a combination of both. The correlation between the hematological parameters during CCRT and early survival of esophageal cancer has not been fully evaluated. Materials And Methods: We analyzed the records of 65 esophageal cancer patients treated by CCRT between 2007 and 2010 retrospectively. The association between CCRT-associated myelosuppression, demographic variables, and survival rates were analyzed by univariate and multivariate analysis. Results: The univariate analysis showed that tumor extent of T3-4, a higher stage of tumor, a lower albumin level, grade 3 or higher anemia and thrombocytopenia, and interruptions in treatment affected survival rates. Further, the multivariate analysis revealed that stage IV (P = 0.030 is an independently negative prognostic factor for a one-year survival rate. Stage IV (P = 0.035, tumor extent of T3-4 (P = 0.002, and grade 3-4 thrombocytopenia (P = 0.015 are independently negative prognostic factors for a two-year survival rate. Conclusions: Severe decrease in platelet count during CCRT independently affects survival of esophageal cancer patients in addition to stage of the tumor.

  15. [Recurrence of esophageal cancer treated by combination TS-1/CDDP therapy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiraki, Masatsugu; Yunotani, Seiji; Noguchi, Ryo; Shinozaki, Yukari; Tani, Hiroki; Sakai, Masashi; Ishimitsu, Toshiyuki; Tabuchi, Masanobu

    2005-02-01

    A 68-year-old man underwent subtotal esophagectomy with two fields lymphadenectomy and postoperative chemotherapy so called low dose FP therapy for advanced esophageal cancer (Stage IIIa, pT 3, pN 1, M 0) in October 1999. As he was diagnosed with a recurrence of esophageal cancer as metastatic lymph node tumors which were placed in the right anterocervical and supraclavicular region in March 2001, he underwent enucleation of metastatic lymph node tumors and postoperative chemoradiation therapy, so-called low-dose FP-R therapy. Recently, since other metastatic lymph node tumors in the neck appeared again in August 2001, he underwent radical neck lymph node dissection and postoperative chemoradiation treatment, so-called FAP-R therapy. In October 2003, a chest CT showed multiple lung tumors. He was diagnosed with multiple metastatic lung tumors originating from esophageal cancer. Then, two courses of a combined chemotherapy consisting of TS-1 and CDDP were administered at an interval of one month. We judged the effect of this chemotherapy to be a partial response (PR), because the largest metastatic lung tumor 18 mm in diameter showed a reduction rate of 81.9%, and other tumors had almost disappeared in the chest CT after the combined therapy. No severe adverse effects of more than grade 3 were observed during this combined therapy. This combined chemotherapy consisting of TS-1 and CDDP may prove effective for treating recurrent cases of esophageal cancer.

  16. FDG-PET parameters as prognostic factor in esophageal cancer patients: A review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.M. Omloo (Jikke); M. van Heijl (Mark); O.S. Hoekstra (Otto); M.I. van Berge Henegouwen (Mark); J.J.B. van Lanschot (Jan); G.W. Sloof (Gerrit)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractBackground:18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) has been used extensively to explore whether FDG Uptake can be used to provide prognostic information for esophageal cancer patients. The aim of the present review is to evaluate the literature available to date con

  17. The etiology of esophageal cancer in high- and low- risk areas of Jiangsu province, China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wu, M.

    2011-01-01

        [Background]Esophageal cancer (EC) remains one of the most common and fatal malignancies worldwide. The geographic variation in EC occurrence is striking, and China is an area with one of the highest incidences of EC. A number of epidemiological studies

  18. Re-irradiation of recurrent esophageal cancer after primary definitive radiotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Young Suk; Lee, Chang Geol; Kim, Kyung Hwan; Kim, Tae Hyung [Dept. of Radiation Oncology, Yonsei University Health System, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-12-15

    For recurrent esophageal cancer after primary definitive radiotherapy, no general treatment guidelines are available. We evaluated the toxicities and clinical outcomes of re-irradiation (re-RT) for recurrent esophageal cancer. We analyzed 10 patients with recurrent esophageal cancer treated with re-RT after primary definitive radiotherapy. The median time interval between primary radiotherapy and re-RT was 15.6 months (range, 4.8 to 36.4 months). The total dose of primary radiotherapy was a median of 50.4 Gy (range, 50.4 to 63.0 Gy). The total dose of re-RT was a median of 46.5 Gy (range, 44.0 to 50.4 Gy). The median follow-up period was 4.9 months (range, 2.6 to 11.4 months). The tumor response at 3 months after the end of re-RT was complete response (n = 2), partial response (n = 1), stable disease (n = 2), and progressive disease (n = 5). Grade 5 tracheoesophageal fistula developed in three patients. The time interval between primary radiotherapy and re-RT was less than 12 months in two of these three patients. Late toxicities included grade 1 dysphagia (n = 1). Re-RT of recurrent esophageal cancer after primary radiotherapy can cause severe toxicity.

  19. Leptomeningeal carcinomatosis in esophageal cancer: a case series and systematic review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukas, R V; Mata-Machado, N A; Nicholas, M K; Salgia, R; Antic, T; Villaflor, V M

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to more clearly define the clinical course of leptomeningeal carcinomatosis due to esophageal cancer. A single institution retrospective case series was conducted. Additionally, a systematic review of the literature was performed. We present a large case series (n = 7) of leptomeningeal carcinomatosis due to esophageal cancer. Our case series and systematic review of the literature report similar findings. In our series, we report a predominance of male patients (86%) with adenocarcinoma histology (77%). Variable onset of leptomeningeal involvement of esophageal cancer in relation to the original diagnosis of the primary disease (5 months to 3 years and 11 weeks) was noted. Disease progresses quickly and overall survival is poor, measured in weeks (2.5-16 weeks) from the diagnosis of leptomeningeal involvement. Four of our patients initiated whole-brain radiation therapy with only two completing the course prior to clinical deterioration. Our patient with the longest survival (16 weeks) received intrathecal topotecan and oral temozolomide. Leptomeningeal carcinomatosis secondary to esophageal cancer has a poor prognosis. A clearly beneficial treatment modality is lacking.

  20. Reduction of heart volume during neoadjuvant chemoradiation in patients with resectable esophageal cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haj Mohammad, Nadia; Kamphuis, Martijn; Hulshof, Maarten C C M; Lutkenhaus, Lotte J; Gisbertz, Suzanne S; Bergman, Jacques J G H M; de Bruin-Bon, H A C M Rianne; Geijsen, Elisabeth D; Bel, Arjan; Boekholdt, S Mathijs; van Laarhoven, Hanneke W M

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Neoadjuvant chemoradiation (nCRT) followed by surgery is considered curative intent treatment for patients with resectable esophageal cancer. The aim was to establish hemodynamic aspects of changes in heart volume and to explore whether changes in heart volume resulted in cli

  1. FDG-PET parameters as prognostic factor in esophageal cancer patients: a review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.M.T. Omloo; M. van Heijl; O.S. Hoekstra; M.I. van Berge Henegouwen; J.J.B. van Lanschot; G.W. Sloof

    2011-01-01

    (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) has been used extensively to explore whether FDG Uptake can be used to provide prognostic information for esophageal cancer patients. The aim of the present review is to evaluate the literature available to date concerning the potential

  2. Comparison of F-18-FLT PET and F-18-FDG PET in esophageal cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Westreenen, HL; Cobben, DCP; Jager, PL; van Dullemen, HM; Wesseling, J; Elsinga, PH; Plukker, JT

    F-18-FDG PET has gained acceptance for staging of esophageal cancer. However, FDG is not tumor specific and false-positive results may occur by accumulation of FDG in benign tissue. The tracer F-18-fluoro-3'-deoxy-3'-L-fluorothymidine (F-18-FLT) might not have these drawbacks. The aim of this study

  3. Esophagectomy as a Treatment Consideration for Early-Stage Esophageal Cancer and High-Grade Dysplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLaren, Patrick J; Dolan, James P

    2016-10-01

    In recent years, a number of endoluminal procedures such as endoscopic resection and thermal ablation have emerged as less invasive treatment options for early esophageal cancer. These therapies have demonstrated excellent oncologic outcomes for dysplasia as well as intramucosal cancers. However, few studies have directly compared long-term outcomes of endoscopic therapy versus traditional esophagectomy. Current esophagectomy techniques now deliver consistently good outcomes in the hands of experienced surgeons at high volume centers, and this option should be considered an important treatment consideration for early esophageal cancer. Under current recommendations, esophagectomy should be considered for tumors invading the submucosa, tumors with high-risk pathologic features, bulky tumors, multinodular tumors, tumors within a long segment of Barrett's esophagus, and tumors adjacent to a hiatal hernia. Likewise, individual patient factors and comorbidities must also be considered when determining the best treatment for a patient with early esophageal cancer. The risk of missing metastatic disease or recurrence that is associated with endoscopic treatment must be weighed against the surgical risks of esophagectomy. With these considerations in mind, the aim of this article is to review the current guidelines and literature that explore the role of esophagectomy for early esophageal malignancy in the era of endoscopic therapies.

  4. Nominated Texture Based Cervical Cancer Classification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edwin Jayasingh Mariarputham

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Accurate classification of Pap smear images becomes the challenging task in medical image processing. This can be improved in two ways. One way is by selecting suitable well defined specific features and the other is by selecting the best classifier. This paper presents a nominated texture based cervical cancer (NTCC classification system which classifies the Pap smear images into any one of the seven classes. This can be achieved by extracting well defined texture features and selecting best classifier. Seven sets of texture features (24 features are extracted which include relative size of nucleus and cytoplasm, dynamic range and first four moments of intensities of nucleus and cytoplasm, relative displacement of nucleus within the cytoplasm, gray level cooccurrence matrix, local binary pattern histogram, tamura features, and edge orientation histogram. Few types of support vector machine (SVM and neural network (NN classifiers are used for the classification. The performance of the NTCC algorithm is tested and compared to other algorithms on public image database of Herlev University Hospital, Denmark, with 917 Pap smear images. The output of SVM is found to be best for the most of the classes and better results for the remaining classes.

  5. Human Papilloma Virus Vaccine: Future of Cervical Cancer Prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jannatul Fardows

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Cervical cancer is a deadly cancer that clutches lives of the women in most of the cases due to lack of consciousness about the disease in the developing countries. It remains a threat which is second only to breast cancer in overall disease burden for women throughout the world. Cervical cancer is almost a preventable disease by prophylactic vaccine and routine screening. Both Cervarix and Gardasil vaccines have been effective in preventing persistent infection with targeted HPV types and in preventing cervical intraepithelial lesions. It is safe and nearly 100% effective if given before onset of sexual activity. This review article is aimed to explore different aspects of this vaccine as well as to develop awareness among health professionals of different disciplines.

  6. The Sternocleidomastoid Muscle Flap: A Versatile Local Method for Repair of External Penetrating Injuries of Hypopharyngeal-Cervical Esophageal Funnel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellabban, Mohamed A

    2016-04-01

    A primary repair of external penetrating injury to hypopharyngeal-cervical esophageal (HP-CE) funnel without reinforcement has more complications if compared with muscle reinforcement. The aim of the present study was to assess the outcome of using sternocleidomastoid (SCM) muscle flap for reinforcement of primary repair of HP-CE funnel injury. The study proposed an algorithm for different uses of SCM flap repair according to site and size of funnel perforation. A prospective analysis of 12 patients, who had surgical treatment for external penetrating injuries of HP-CE funnel between January 2011 and September 2014, was recorded. The following factors were studied for each case: demographic data, Revised Trauma Score (RTS), mechanism of injury, time interval between injury and definitive surgical care, injury morphology, any associated injuries, technique of SCM flap used, length of hospital stay, and surgical outcome and complications. They were 10 males and 2 females and the mean age was 31.9 years. The cause of injury was stab wound in 5 (41.7 %) cases, gunshot injury in 4 (33.3 %) cases and 3 (25 %) cases after anterior cervical spine surgery. Isolated injury to HP and CE was recorded in 5 cases (41.7 %) for each site. However, 2 (16.7 %) cases had injury to both HP and CE. Cranially based SCM flap was mainly used in cases with HP injury and caudally based flap in CE cases with some limitations. The whole muscle flap was used in large (≥ 1 cm) defects while and the split muscle flap in small (SCM flap is a very useful and versatile tool in reinforcement of HP-CE funnel injury with the advantages of high success rates of leakage prevention.

  7. Improvements in the Dutch Cervical Cancer Screening Programme since 1995

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.B. Bos (Anita)

    2006-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ Worldwide, cervical cancer is the second most common cancer in women, and therefore an important public health problem (1 ). In developing countries, the age standardised incidence rate varies between 16 - 40 per 100,000 women in 1988- 1992 (2). In the same period, in d

  8. Physical Activity and Cervical Cancer Testing among American Indian Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muus, Kyle J.; Baker-Demaray, Twyla B.; Bogart, T. Andy; Duncan, Glen E.; Jacobsen, Clemma; Buchwald, Dedra S.; Henderson, Jeffrey A.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Studies have shown that women who engage in high levels of physical activity have higher rates of cancer screening, including Papanicalaou (Pap) tests. Because American Indian (AI) women are at high risk for cervical cancer morbidity and mortality, we examined Pap screening prevalence and assessed whether physical activity was associated…

  9. Improvements in the Dutch Cervical Cancer Screening Programme since 1995

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.B. Bos (Anita)

    2006-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ Worldwide, cervical cancer is the second most common cancer in women, and therefore an important public health problem (1 ). In developing countries, the age standardised incidence rate varies between 16 - 40 per 100,000 women in 1988- 1992 (2). In the same period, in d

  10. Inadequate cervical cancer screening among mid-aged Australian women who have experienced partner violence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loxton, Deborah; Powers, Jennifer; Schofield, Margot; Hussain, Rafat; Hosking, Stacey

    2009-01-01

    Objectives. Partner violence is linked to cervical cancer and other gynaecological conditions. However, results of current research into associations between partner violence and cervical cancer screening have been inconclusive. Therefore, the current research investigates the association between pa

  11. Strategies for the Prevention and Control of Cervical Cancer in Rural ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    adedamla

    Majority of “most-at-risk” women for cervical cancer disease who reside in rural communities of low and middle income countries (LMIC) do not have access to cervical cancer prevention ... sexually transmitted infection in the sub Saharan.

  12. Inadequate cervical cancer screening among mid-aged Australian women who have experienced partner violence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loxton, Deborah; Powers, Jennifer; Schofield, Margot; Hussain, Rafat; Hosking, Stacey

    Objectives. Partner violence is linked to cervical cancer and other gynaecological conditions. However, results of current research into associations between partner violence and cervical cancer screening have been inconclusive. Therefore, the current research investigates the association between

  13. The anti-esophageal cancer cell activity by a novel tyrosine/phosphoinositide kinase inhibitor PP121

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peng, Yi; Zhou, Yajuan [Department of Radiation and Medical Oncology, Hubei Key Laboratory of Tumor Biological Behaviors, Zhongnan Hospital of Wuhan University, Wuhan 430071 (China); Department of Radiation Oncology, Hubei Cancer Hospital, Wuhan 430071 (China); Cheng, Long [Department of Interventional Radiology, the Second Affiliated Hospital of Soochow University, Soochow University, Suzhou 215001 (China); Hu, Desheng; Zhou, Xiaoyi; Wang, Zhaohua [Department of Radiation Oncology, Hubei Cancer Hospital, Wuhan 430071 (China); Xie, Conghua, E-mail: chxie_65@hotmail.com [Department of Radiation and Medical Oncology, Hubei Key Laboratory of Tumor Biological Behaviors, Zhongnan Hospital of Wuhan University, Wuhan 430071 (China); Zhou, Fuxiang, E-mail: ZhouFuxiangwuhan@126.com [Department of Radiation and Medical Oncology, Hubei Key Laboratory of Tumor Biological Behaviors, Zhongnan Hospital of Wuhan University, Wuhan 430071 (China)

    2015-09-11

    Here we explored the potential effect of PP121, a novel dual inhibitor of tyrosine and phosphoinositide kinases, against human esophageal cancer cells. We showed that PP121 exerted potent cytotoxic effect in primary (patient-derived) and established (Eca-109, TE-1 and TE-3 lines) esophageal cancer cells, possibly through activating caspase-3-dependnent apoptosis. PP121 was, however, non-cytotoxic to the normal human esophageal epithelial cells (EECs). At the molecular level, we showed that PP121 blocked Akt-mTOR (mammalian target of rapamycin) activation in esophageal cancer cells, which was restored by introducing a constitutively-active Akt (CA-Akt). Yet, CA-Akt only partly inhibited cytotoxicity by PP121 in Eca-109 cells. Importantly, we showed that PP121 inhibited nuclear factor kappa B (NFκB) signaling activation in esophageal cancer cells, which appeared independent of Akt-mTOR blockage. In vivo, oral administration of PP121 remarkably inhibited Eca-109 xenograft growth in nude mice, and significantly improved mice survival. Further, the immunohistochemistry (IHC) and Western blot assays analyzing xenografted tumors showed that PP121 inhibited Akt-mTOR and NFκB activations in vivo. Together, we demonstrate that PP121 potently inhibits esophageal cancer cells in vitro and in vivo, possibly through concurrently inhibiting Akt-mTOR and NFκB signalings. - Highlights: • PP121 is cytotoxic against primary and established esophageal cancer cells. • PP121 induces caspase-3-dependnent apoptosis in esophageal cancer cells. • PP121 blocks Akt-mTOR activation in esophageal cancer cells. • PP121 inhibits NFκB activation, independent of Akt-mTOR blockage. • PP121 inhibits Eca-109 xenograft growth and Akt-mTOR/NFκB activation in vivo.

  14. Endometrial and cervical cancer: incidence and mortality among women in the Lodz region

    OpenAIRE

    Beata Leśniczak; Grzegorz Krasomski; Przemysław Oszukowski; Tomasz Stetkiewicz; Piotr Woźniak

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: By the early 21st century the most common cancer of female genitals in Poland was cervical cancer. Now endometrial cancer ranks first. The aim of this study was to analyse the incidence and mortality of endometrial and cervical cancer among women in the Lodz region. Material and methods: Data on the incidence and mortality of endometrial and cervical cancer among inhabitants of the Lodz region were obtained from the National Cancer Registry and Bulletin of Cancer Cases...

  15. Cigarette smoking and alcohol drinking and esophageal cancer risk in Taiwanese women

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    I-Chen; Wu; Deng-Chyang; Wu; Hung-Ju; Su; Hui-Jen; Tsai; Chien-Yu; Lu; Jang-Ming; Lee; Ming-Tsang; Wu

    2010-01-01

    AIM:To investigate the etiology of esophageal cancer among Taiwanese women.METHODS:This is a multi-center,hospital-based,case-control study.Case patients consisted of women who were newly diagnosed and pathology-proven to have esophageal squamous cell carcinoma(ESCC) from three large medical centers(one from Northern and two from Southern Taiwan,respectively)between August 2000 and December 2008.Each ESCC patient was matched with 4 healthy women based on age(within 3 years)and hospital of origin,from the De...

  16. Endoscopic survey of esophageal cancer in a high-risk area of China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xu-Jing Lu; Jun Hou; Zhi-Feng Chen; Cui-Lan Guo; Shao-Sen Li; Wen-Long Bai; Guo-Liang Jin; Yu-Xia Wang; Fan-Shu Meng; Feng Gao

    2004-01-01

    AIM: To characterize the histological types of esophageal and cardiac mucosa by endoscopic survey of a population in a high-risk area of esophageal cancer of China.METHODS: A selected cohort of residents in Cixian County during December 2001 and May 2002 was surveyed by using Lugol′s staining, followed by computer-based statistical analysis of the data with SPSS 10.0 software.RESULTS: Histologically, the detection rates of squamous epithelial acanthosis, squamous epithelial atrophy, and basal cell hyperplasia in the esophagus were 1.9% (38/2 013),0.1% (3/2 013) and 0.9% (18/2 013) respectively, and those of mild, moderate, and severe esophagitis were 34.9% (703/2 013), 1.6% (33/2 013) and 0.2% (2/2 013)respectively. Mild, moderate, and severe esophageal dysplasia were detected in 8.6% (172/2 013), 7.8% (157/2 013) and 2.6% (53/2 013) respectively in the selected population,whereas in situ carcinoma, intramucosal carcinoma, invasive squamous carcinoma of the esophagus in 2.5% (50/2 013),0.2% (4/2 013) and 0.7% (14/2 013) respectively. The detection rates of non-atrophic gastritis and atrophic gastritis of the cardia were 36.3% (730/2 013) and 11.5% (232/2 013) respectively,with mild and severe dysplasia of the cardia detected in 2.5% (51/2 013) and 0.8% (17/2 013), respectively, in this population; the rates of intramucosal adenocarcinoma and invasive adenocarcinoma of the cardia were 0.1% (3/2 013)and 0.8% (17/2 013) respectively. The detection rate of esophageal cancer at early stage was 79.4% (54/68). The survey rate (ratio of examined population to expected population) was 73.8% (2 013/2 725).CONCLUSION: Histologic types of the esophageal and cardiac mucosa were characterized by endoscopic survey in a high-risk population of esophageal cancer, which may help the early detection and treatment of esophageal and cardiac cancers and dysplasia, and reduce the mortality of such malignancies.

  17. Cervical Microbiome and Cytokine Profile at Various Stages of Cervical Cancer: A Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahena-Román, Margarita; Téllez-Sosa, Juan; Martínez-Barnetche, Jesús; Cortina-Ceballos, Bernardo; López-Estrada, Guillermina; Delgado-Romero, Karina; Burguete-García, Ana I.; Cantú, David; García-Carrancá, Alejandro; Madrid-Marina, Vicente

    2016-01-01

    Cervical cancer (CC) is caused by high-risk human papillomavirus persistence due to the immunosuppressive tumor microenvironment mediated by cytokines. Vaginal microbiota determines the presence of certain cytokines locally. We assessed the association between cervical microbiota diversity and the histopathological diagnosis of each stage of CC, and we evaluated mRNA cervical expression levels of IL-4, IL-6, IL-10, TGF-β1, TNF-α and IFN-γ across the histopathological diagnosis and specific bacterial clusters. We determined the cervical microbiota by high throughput sequencing of 16S rDNA amplicons and classified it in community state types (CST). Mean difference analyses between alpha-diversity and histopathological diagnosis were carried out, as well as a β-diversity analysis within the histological diagnosis. Cervical cytokine mRNA expression was analyzed across the CSTs and the histopathological diagnoses. We found a significant difference in microbiota's diversity in NCL-HPV negative women vs those with squamous intraepithelial lesions (SIL) and CC(p = 0.006, p = 0.036).When β-diversity was evaluated, the CC samples showed the highest variation within groups (pbacteria in women with normal cytology were L. crispatus and L. iners, whereas for SIL, it was Sneathia spp. and for CC, Fusobacterium spp. We found higher median cervical levels of IL-4 and TGF-β1 mRNA in the CST dominated by Fusobacterium spp. These results suggest that the cervical microbiota may be implicated in cervical cancer pathology. Further cohort studies are needed to validate these findings. PMID:27115350

  18. Preventing cervical cancer : overviews of the National Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection Program and 2 US immunization programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Kris; Curtis, C Robinette; Ekwueme, Donatus U; Stokley, Shannon; Walker, Chastity; Roland, Katherine; Benard, Vicki; Saraiya, Mona

    2008-11-15

    Three federal programs with the potential to reduce cervical cancer incidence, morbidity, and mortality, especially among underserved populations, are administered by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC): the National Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection Program (NBCCEDP), the Vaccines for Children (VFC) Program, and the Section 317 immunization grant program. The NBCCEDP provides breast and cervical cancer screening and diagnostic services to uninsured and underinsured women. The VFC program and the Section 317 immunization grant program provide vaccines, including human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine, to targeted populations at no cost for these vaccines. This article describes the programs, their histories, populations served, services offered, and roles in preventing cervical cancer through HPV vaccination and cervical cancer screening. Potential long-term reduction in healthcare costs resulting from HPV vaccination is also discussed. As an example of an initiative to vaccinate uninsured women aged 19-26 years through a cancer services program, a state-based effort that was recently launched in New York, is highlighted.

  19. Analysis of clinical characteristics of 950 cases of cervical cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shu-li ZHU

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective To discuss the clinical features of the patients suffering from cervical cancer who visited Daping Hospital affiliated to Third Military Medical University in recent 10 years. Methods The clinical data of the patients who were pathologically diagnosed as invasive cervical cancer in Daping Hospital of TMMU from Jan. 2004 to Dec. 2013 were retrospectively analyzed. They were divided into different age groups and analyzed according to age, clinical features, pathological type, and surgical approach. Results Clinical data of 950 patients with invasive cervical cancer were reviewed in this study. The mean age of the patients was 46.9 years. The clinical features, pathological type, and surgical approaches were different in different age groups. Analysis of the age structure of the patients, the onset age of cervical cancer seemed to increase year by year. Conclusion The clinical features of cervical cancer are diversity in different age, and the strategy for controlling its development should be varied according to age. DOI: 10.11855/j.issn.0577-7402.2015.03.09

  20. HPV-based cervical cancer screening- facts, fiction, and misperceptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wentzensen, Nicolas; Arbyn, Marc

    2017-05-01

    Several randomized trials have demonstrated that HPV-based cervical cancer screening is more effective than cytology-based screening. A pooled analysis of long-term follow-up data from these trials has shown reduced cervical cancer mortality in women screened with HPV compared to cytology. As a consequence, many health systems are currently transitioning to HPV-based screening programs. However, there are several controversies that influence whether and how HPV-based cervical cancer screening is implemented in different settings. Here, we discuss the most important controversies surrounding cervical cancer screening using primary HPV testing in light of published data from clinical trials and large observational studies. Overall, there is strong and uniform evidence for the efficacy of HPV-based screening, and little evidence for the usefulness of adding cytology to primary screening. However, there is currently limited data on optimal triage strategies for HPV-positive women, a critical component of an HPV-based screening program. There will likely be multiple choices for integrated screening programs and implementation may differ depending on risk perception, healthcare funds, assay costs, and available infrastructure, among other factors, in different settings. A particular challenge is the integration of screening and vaccination programs, since increasingly vaccinated populations will have a continuous decrease of cervical cancer risk.