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Sample records for cervical dorsal root

  1. Functional profiles of SCN9A variants in dorsal root ganglion neurons and superior cervical ganglion neurons correlate with autonomic symptoms in small fibre neuropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Chongyang; Hoeijmakers, Janneke G J; Liu, Shujun; Gerrits, Monique M; te Morsche, Rene H M; Lauria, Giuseppe; Dib-Hajj, Sulayman D; Drenth, Joost P H; Faber, Catharina G; Merkies, Ingemar S J; Waxman, Stephen G

    2012-09-01

    Patients with small fibre neuropathy typically manifest pain in distal extremities and severe autonomic dysfunction. However, occasionally patients present with minimal autonomic symptoms. The basis for this phenotypic difference is not understood. Sodium channel Na(v)1.7, encoded by the SCN9A gene, is preferentially expressed in the peripheral nervous system within sensory dorsal root ganglion and sympathetic ganglion neurons and their small diameter peripheral axons. We recently reported missense substitutions in SCN9A that encode functional Na(v)1.7 variants in 28% of patients with biopsy-confirmed small fibre neuropathy. Two patients with biopsy-confirmed small fibre neuropathy manifested minimal autonomic dysfunction unlike the other six patients in this series, and both of these patients carry the Na(v)1.7/R185H variant, presenting the opportunity to compare variants associated with extreme ends of a spectrum from minimal to severe autonomic dysfunction. Herein, we show by voltage-clamp that R185H variant channels enhance resurgent currents within dorsal root ganglion neurons and show by current-clamp that R185H renders dorsal root ganglion neurons hyperexcitable. We also show that in contrast, R185H variant channels do not produce detectable changes when studied by voltage-clamp within sympathetic neurons of the superior cervical ganglion, and have no effect on the excitability of these cells. As a comparator, we studied the Na(v)1.7 variant I739V, identified in three patients with small fibre neuropathy characterized by severe autonomic dysfunction as well as neuropathic pain, and show that this variant impairs channel slow inactivation within both dorsal root ganglion and superior cervical ganglion neurons, and renders dorsal root ganglion neurons hyperexcitable and superior cervical ganglion neurons hypoexcitable. Thus, we show that R185H, from patients with minimal autonomic dysfunction, does not produce detectable changes in the properties of

  2. Oscillatory interaction between dorsal root excitability and dorsal root potentials in the spinal cord of the turtle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Delgado-Lezama, R; Perrier, J F; Hounsgaard, J

    1999-01-01

    The response to dorsal root stimulation, at one to two times threshold, was investigated in the isolated cervical enlargement of the turtle spinal cord. At frequencies near 10 Hz the synaptic response in motoneurons and the cord dorsum potential, after an initial lag time, oscillated in amplitude...

  3. Intracerebroventricular administration of nerve growth factor induces gliogenesis in sensory ganglia, dorsal root, and within the dorsal root entry zone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlachetzki, Johannes C M; Pizzo, Donald P; Morrissette, Debbi A; Winkler, Jürgen

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies indicated that intracerebroventricular administration of nerve growth factor (NGF) leads to massive Schwann cell hyperplasia surrounding the medulla oblongata and spinal cord. This study was designed to characterize the proliferation of peripheral glial cells, that is, Schwann and satellite cells, in the trigeminal ganglia and dorsal root ganglia (DRG) of adult rats during two weeks of NGF infusion using bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) to label dividing cells. The trigeminal ganglia as well as the cervical and lumbar DRG were analyzed. Along the entire neuraxis a small number of dividing cells were observed within these regions under physiological condition. NGF infusion has dramatically increased the generation of new cells in the neuronal soma and axonal compartments of sensory ganglia and along the dorsal root and the dorsal root entry zone. Quantification of BrdU positive cells within sensory ganglia revealed a 2.3- to 3-fold increase in glial cells compared to controls with a similar response to NGF for the different peripheral ganglia examined. Immunofluorescent labeling with S100β revealed that Schwann and satellite cells underwent mitosis after NGF administration. These data indicate that intracerebroventricular NGF infusion significantly induces gliogenesis in trigeminal ganglia and the spinal sensory ganglia and along the dorsal root entry zone as well as the dorsal root.

  4. Intracerebroventricular Administration of Nerve Growth Factor Induces Gliogenesis in Sensory Ganglia, Dorsal Root, and within the Dorsal Root Entry Zone

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    Johannes C. M. Schlachetzki

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies indicated that intracerebroventricular administration of nerve growth factor (NGF leads to massive Schwann cell hyperplasia surrounding the medulla oblongata and spinal cord. This study was designed to characterize the proliferation of peripheral glial cells, that is, Schwann and satellite cells, in the trigeminal ganglia and dorsal root ganglia (DRG of adult rats during two weeks of NGF infusion using bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU to label dividing cells. The trigeminal ganglia as well as the cervical and lumbar DRG were analyzed. Along the entire neuraxis a small number of dividing cells were observed within these regions under physiological condition. NGF infusion has dramatically increased the generation of new cells in the neuronal soma and axonal compartments of sensory ganglia and along the dorsal root and the dorsal root entry zone. Quantification of BrdU positive cells within sensory ganglia revealed a 2.3- to 3-fold increase in glial cells compared to controls with a similar response to NGF for the different peripheral ganglia examined. Immunofluorescent labeling with S100β revealed that Schwann and satellite cells underwent mitosis after NGF administration. These data indicate that intracerebroventricular NGF infusion significantly induces gliogenesis in trigeminal ganglia and the spinal sensory ganglia and along the dorsal root entry zone as well as the dorsal root.

  5. An Optimized Culture Method of Rat Dorsal Root Ganglion Neurons

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIUYin; CHENJing-Hong; GONGZe-Hui

    2004-01-01

    AIM: To establish a primary culture technique of acutely isolated dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons, and provide a simple & useful in vitro model for study of analgesia. Methods: Acutely isolated dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons were planted and cultured; the configuration and growth characters of DRG neurons were observed through inverted microscope.

  6. Clinical technique for invasive cervical root resorption

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    Luiz Fernando Machado Silveira

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This clinical case report describes the diagnosis and treatment of an external invasive cervical resorption. A 17-year-old female patient had a confirmed diagnosis of invasive cervical resorption class 4 by cone beam computerized tomography. Although, there was no communication with the root canal, the invasive resorption process was extending into the cervical and middle third of the root. The treatment of the cervical resorption of the lateral incisor interrupted the resorptive process and restored the damaged root surface and the dental functions without any esthetic sequelae. Both the radiographic examination and computed tomography are imperative to reveal the extent of the defect in the differential diagnosis.

  7. Delayed olfactory ensheathing cell transplants reduce nociception after dorsal root injury.

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    Wu, Ann; Lauschke, Jenny L; Gorrie, Catherine A; Cameron, Nicholas; Hayward, Ian; Mackay-Sim, Alan; Waite, Phil M E

    2011-05-01

    Injury to cervical dorsal roots mimics the deafferentation component of brachial plexus injury in humans, with intractable neuropathic pain in the deafferented limb being a common consequence. Such lesions are generally not amenable to surgical repair. The use of olfactory ensheathing cells (OECs) for dorsal root repair, via acute transplantation, has been successful in several studies. From a clinical point of view, delayed transplantation of OECs would provide a more realistic timeframe for repair. In this study we investigated the effect of delayed OEC transplantation on functional recovery of skilled forepaw movements and amelioration of neuropathic pain, using a C7 and C8 dorsal root injury rat model previously established in our lab. We found that OEC transplantation to the dorsal horn 1 week after root injury effectively attenuated neuropathic disturbances associated with dorsal root injury, including spontaneous pain behavior, tactile allodynia and thermal hyperalgesia. The sensory controls of complex, goal-oriented skilled reaching and ladder walking, however, were not improved by delayed OEC transplantation. We did not detect any significant influence of transplanted OECs on injury-induced central reorganisation and afferent sprouting. The anti-nociceptive effect mediated by OEC transplants may therefore be explained by alternative mechanisms such as modification of inflammation and astrogliosis. The significant effect of OEC transplants in mitigating neuropathic pain may be clinically useful in intractable pain syndromes arising from deafferentation. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Understanding olfactory ensheathing glia and their prospect for nervous system repair.

  8. Operating protocols of external root cervical resorption

    OpenAIRE

    Luca Venuti

    2015-01-01

    Aim: Theme of this report is the external cervical root resorption and the sequence of clinical procedures to be implemented during the phases of treatment. The external cervical root resorption (ICR) presents particular pathological conditions such as to classify between resorption of inflammatory origin.1–3 It is generally presented as a complex clinical situation both in the diagnosis in a predictable prognosis.3–6 It's often associated with loss of calcified tissue: dentin, cementum, a...

  9. Schwann cell cultures from human fetal dorsal root ganglia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yaping Feng; Hui Zhu; Jiang Hao; Xinmin Wang; Shengping Wu; Li Bai; Xiangming Li; Yun Zha

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND:Previous studies have used many methods for in vitro Schwann cells (SCs) cul-tures and purification,such as single cell suspension and cytosine arabinoside.However,it has been difficult to obtain sufficient cellular density,and the procedures have been quite tedious.OBJECTIVE:To investigate the feasibility of culturing high-density SCs using fetal human dorsal root ganglion tissue explants.DESIGN,TIME AND SETTING:Cell culture and immunohistochemistry were performed at the Cen-tral Laboratory of Kunming General Hospital of Chinese PLA between March 2001 and October 2008.MATERIALS:Culture media containing 10% fetal bovine serum,as well as 0.2% collagenase and 0.25% trypsin were purchased from Gibco,USA;mouse anti-human S-100 monoclonal antibody and goat anti-mouse IgG labeled with horseradish peroxidase were provided by Beijing Institute of Bi-ological Products,China.METHODS:Primarily cultured SCs were dissociated from dorsal root ganglia of human aborted fe-tuses at 4-6 months pregnancy.Following removal of the dorsal root ganglion perineurium,the gan-glia were dissected into tiny pieces and digested with 0.2% collagenase and 0.25% trypsin (volume ratio 1:1),then explanted and cultured.SC purification was performed with 5 mL 10% fetal bovine serum added to the culture media,followed by differential adhesion.MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES:SCs morphology was observed under inverted phase contrast light microscopy.SC purity was evaluated according to percentage of S-100 immunostained cells.RESULTS:SCs were primarily cultured for 5-6 days and then subcultured for 4-5 passages.The highly enriched SC population reached > 95% purity and presented with normal morphology.CONCLUSION:A high purity of SCs was obtained with culture methods using human fetal dorsal root ganglion tissue explants.

  10. Intracerebroventricular Administration of Nerve Growth Factor Induces Gliogenesis in Sensory Ganglia, Dorsal Root, and within the Dorsal Root Entry Zone

    OpenAIRE

    Schlachetzki, Johannes C.M.; Pizzo, Donald P.; Debbi A. Morrissette; Jürgen Winkler

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies indicated that intracerebroventricular administration of nerve growth factor (NGF) leads to massive Schwann cell hyperplasia surrounding the medulla oblongata and spinal cord. This study was designed to characterize the proliferation of peripheral glial cells, that is, Schwann and satellite cells, in the trigeminal ganglia and dorsal root ganglia (DRG) of adult rats during two weeks of NGF infusion using bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) to label dividing cells. The trigeminal ganglia...

  11. Excitation of dorsal root fibers in spinal cord stimulation: a theoretical study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Struijk, Johannes J.; Holsheimer, Jan; Boom, Herman B.K.

    1993-01-01

    In epidural spinal cord stimulation it is likely not only that dorsal column fibers are activated, but also that dorsal root fibers will be involved as well. In this investigation a volume conductor model of the spinal cord was used and dorsal root fibers were modeled by an electrical network includ

  12. Cervical selective dorsal rhizotomy for treating spasticity in upper limb neurosurgical way to neurosurgical technique

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    Yu Duan

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Selective dorsal rhizotomy is an effective method to reduce spasticity of the lower limbs. However, functional outcomes in the upper limb following selective dorsal rhizotomy at the cervical level have not been reported. Here we report the clinical course after selective dorsal rhizotomy at the cervical level in a patient with hemiplegic spasticity caused by brain injury. The selective dorsal rootlets at the cervical level were sectioned under electrophysiological monitoring. The patient was followed for 1 year to evaluate the outcome of surgery. The spasticity in the upper limb was reduced and the passive range of motion and function of movement improved. However, the effectiveness and the safety of operation should be studied further in clinical trials.

  13. Evaluation of Five Tests for Sensitivity to Functional Deficits following Cervical or Thoracic Dorsal Column Transection in the Rat.

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    Nitish D Fagoe

    Full Text Available The dorsal column lesion model of spinal cord injury targets sensory fibres which originate from the dorsal root ganglia and ascend in the dorsal funiculus. It has the advantages that fibres can be specifically traced from the sciatic nerve, verifiably complete lesions can be performed of the labelled fibres, and it can be used to study sprouting in the central nervous system from the conditioning lesion effect. However, functional deficits from this type of lesion are mild, making assessment of experimental treatment-induced functional recovery difficult. Here, five functional tests were compared for their sensitivity to functional deficits, and hence their suitability to reliably measure recovery of function after dorsal column injury. We assessed the tape removal test, the rope crossing test, CatWalk gait analysis, and the horizontal ladder, and introduce a new test, the inclined rolling ladder. Animals with dorsal column injuries at C4 or T7 level were compared to sham-operated animals for a duration of eight weeks. As well as comparing groups at individual timepoints we also compared the longitudinal data over the whole time course with linear mixed models (LMMs, and for tests where steps are scored as success/error, using generalized LMMs for binomial data. Although, generally, function recovered to sham levels within 2-6 weeks, in most tests we were able to detect significant deficits with whole time-course comparisons. On the horizontal ladder deficits were detected until 5-6 weeks. With the new inclined rolling ladder functional deficits were somewhat more consistent over the testing period and appeared to last for 6-7 weeks. Of the CatWalk parameters base of support was sensitive to cervical and thoracic lesions while hind-paw print-width was affected by cervical lesion only. The inclined rolling ladder test in combination with the horizontal ladder and the CatWalk may prove useful to monitor functional recovery after experimental

  14. Generalized cervical root resorption associated with periodontal disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beertsen, W; Piscaer, M; Van Winkelhoff, AJ; Everts, P. A. M.

    2001-01-01

    Background and description of case: The etiology and pathogenesis of generalized cervical root resorptions is not well understood. In the present report, a case of severe cervical root resorption involving 24 anterior and posterior teeth is presented. The lesions developed within a period of 2 years

  15. 大鼠颈背根神经节和交感神经节分支 支配颈椎关节突关节的关系%Relationship of the Branches of Cervical Dorsal Root Ganglia and Sympathetic Ganglia in Dominating the Zygapophyseal Joints of Rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王金武; 陈德松; 李继峰; 方有生; 顾玉东

    2000-01-01

    目的研究交感神经与支配颈椎关节突关节的初级感觉神经元分支关系,探讨椎间孔外颈神经受压产生颈肩痛和头面部症状的机制。方法选用8只Wistar大白鼠,右侧为实验侧,左侧对照。应用辣根过氧化物酶(horseradish peroxidase,HRP)逆行追踪标记技术,用微量注射器在右侧C5/C6颈椎关节突关节囊上注射30%HRP 5 μl,对照侧注射0.9%的生理盐水5 μl作为对照。动物存活48 h后经升主动脉灌注杀死,切取双侧C1~T1颈部脊髓背根神经节(dorsal root ganglion,DRG)、双侧颈交感神经节和双侧三叉神经节,冰冻切片后利用TMB法进行显色反应,观察切片内HRP标记细胞情况,并应用图像分析系统对实验侧DRG和交感神经节内标记细胞进行分类和计数。结果大鼠右侧C5/C6关节突关节进行HRP注射后,颈中、下(或星状)交感神经节和C5~C7 DRG内发现HRP标记细胞,以中型和小型细胞为主。其中颈中神经节和C6 DRG内标记细胞的平均面积和及平均光密度较高(P<0.01),而对照侧和双侧三叉神经节未发现标记细胞。结论颈椎关节突关节主要受相邻3条颈神经的感觉支和颈交感神经分支支配,可能与椎间孔外颈神经卡压产生颈肩痛及头面部症状有关。%Purpose To study the relationship between sympathetic nerve and the branches of primary sensory neurons in dominating cervical zygapophyseal joints with the HRP retrograde tracing methods.To explore the mechanism of the external intervertebral foramen's cryical nerve compression syndrome with neck-shoulder pain and the symptom of head and face regions. Methods 8 Wistar rats were used with the right side as experimental side and the left side as control side.5 μl of 30% HRP solution was injected into the C5/C6 cervical zygapophyseal joint capsule of the right side by microinjection syringe and 5 μl of 0.9% normal saline was injected into the left side as

  16. Visualizing sensory transmission between dorsal root ganglion and dorsal horn neurons in co-culture with calcium imaging.

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    Ohshiro, Hiroyuki; Ogawa, Shinji; Shinjo, Katsuhiro

    2007-09-15

    Sensory information is conveyed to the central nervous system by primary afferent neurons within dorsal root ganglia (DRG), which synapse onto neurons of the dorsal horn of the spinal cord. This synaptic connection is central to the processing of both sensory and pain stimuli. Here, we describe a model system to monitor synaptic transmission between DRG neurons and dorsal horn neurons that is compatible with high-throughput screening. This co-culture preparation comprises DRG and dorsal horn neurons and utilizes Ca(2+) imaging with the indicator dye Fura-2 to visualize synaptic transmission. Addition of capsaicin to co-cultures stimulated DRG neurons and led to activation of dorsal horn neurons as well as increased intracellular Ca(2+) concentrations. This effect was dose-dependent and absent when DRG neurons were omitted from the culture. NMDA receptors are a critical component of synapses between DRG and dorsal horn neurons as MK-801, a use-dependent non-competitive antagonist, prevented activation of dorsal horn neurons following capsaicin treatment. This model system allows for rapid and efficient analysis of noxious stimulus-evoked Ca(2+) signal transmission and provides a new approach both for investigating synaptic transmission in the spinal cord and for screening potential analgesic compounds.

  17. C5 Nerve root palsies following cervical spine surgery: A review

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    Nancy E Epstein

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cervical C5 nerve root palsies may occur in between 0% and 30% of routine anterior or posterior cervical spine operations. They are largely attributed to traction injuries/increased cord migration following anterior/posterior decompressions. Of interest, almost all studies cite spontaneous resolution of these deficits without surgery with 3-24 postoperative months. Methods: Different studies cite various frequencies for C5 root palsies following anterior or posterior cervical spine surgery. In their combined anterior/posterior series involving C4-C5 level  decompressions, Libelski et al. cited up to a 12% incidence of C5 palsies. In Gu et al. series, C5 root palsies occurred in 3.1% of double-door laminoplasty, 4.5% of open-door laminoplasty, and 11.3% of laminectomy. Miller et al. observed an intermediate 6.9% frequency of C5 palsies followed by posterior cervical decompressions and fusions (PCDF. Results: Gu et al. also identified multiple risk factors for developing C5 palsies following posterior surgery; male gender, ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament (OPLL, narrower foramina, laminectomy, and marked dorsal spinal cord drift. Miller et al. also identified an average $1918 increased cost for physical/occupational therapy for patients with C5 palsies. Conclusions: The incidence of C5 root deficits for anterior/posterior cervical surgery at C4-C5 was 12% in one series, and ranged up to 11.3% for laminectomies, while others cited 0-30%. Although identification of preoperative risk factors for C5 root deficits may help educate patients regarding these risks, there is no clear method for their avoidance at this time.

  18. Rapid identification of spinal ventral and dorsal roots using a quartz crystal microbalance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tao Sui; Jun Que; Dechao Kong; Hao Xie; Daode Wang; Kun Shi; Xiaojian Cao; Xiang Li

    2013-01-01

    The fast and accurate identification of nerve tracts is critical for successful nerve anastomosis. Taking advantage of differences in acetylcholinesterase content between the spinal ventral and dorsal roots, we developed a novel quartz crystal microbalance method to distinguish between these nerves based on acetylcholinesterase antibody reactivity. The acetylcholinesterase antibody was immobilized on the electrode surface of a quartz crystal microbalance and reacted with the acetylcholinesterase in sample solution. The formed antigen and antibody complexes added to the mass of the electrode inducing a change in frequency of the electrode. The spinal ventral and dorsal roots were distinguished by the change in frequency. The ventral and dorsal roots were cut into 1 to 2-mm long segments and then soaked in 250 μL PBS. Acetylcholinesterase antibody was immobilized on the quartz crystal microbalance gold electrode surface. The results revealed that in 10 minutes, both spinal ventral and dorsal roots induced a frequency change; however, the frequency change induced by the ventral roots was notably higher than that induced by the dorsal roots. No change was induced by bovine serum albumin or PBS. These results clearly demonstrate that a quartz crystal microbalance sensor can be used as a rapid, highly sensitive and accurate detection tool for the quick identification of spinal nerve roots intraoperatively.

  19. Does posture of the cervical spine influence dorsal neck muscle activity when lifting?

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    Peolsson, Anneli; Marstein, Eivind; McNamara, Timothy; Nolan, Damien; Sjaaberg, Espen; Peolsson, Michael; Jull, Gwendolen; O'Leary, Shaun

    2014-02-01

    Previous studies have shown that postural orientations of the neck, such as flexed or forward head postures, are associated with heightened activity of the dorsal neck muscles. While these studies describe the impact of variations in neck posture alone, there is scant literature regarding the effect of neck posture on muscle activity when combined with upper limb activities such as lifting. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of three different neck postures on the activity of the different layers of the dorsal neck muscles during a lifting task. Ultrasound measurements of dorsal neck muscle deformation were compared over two time points (rest, during lift) during a lifting task performed in three different neck postural conditions (neutral, flexed and forward head posture) in 21 healthy subjects. Data were analysed by post-process speckle tracking analysis. Results demonstrated significantly greater muscle deformation induced by flexed and forward head postures, compared to the neutral posture, for all dorsal neck muscles at rest (pposture of the cervical spine influenced the level of muscle deformation not only at rest, but also when lifting. The findings of the study suggest that neck posture should be considered during the evaluation or design of lifting activities as it may contribute to excessive demands on dorsal neck muscles with potential detrimental consequences.

  20. Dwarf with dual spinal kyphotic deformity at the cervical and dorsal spine unassociated with odontoid hypoplasia: Surgical management

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    Guru Dutta Satyarthee

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Morquio's syndrome is associated with systemic skeletal hypoplasia leading to generalized skeletal deformation. The hypoplasia of odontoid process is frequent association, which is responsible for atlantoaxial dislocation causing compressive myelopathy. However, development of sub-axial cervical kyphotic deformity unassociated with odontoid hypoplasia is extremely rare, and coexistence of dorsal kyphotic deformity is not reported in the western literature till date and represents first case. Current case is 16-year-old boy, who presented with severe kyphotic deformity of cervical spine with spastic quadriparesis. Interestingly, he also had additional asymptomatic kyphotic deformity of dorsal spine; however, odontoid proves hypoplasia was not observed. He was only symptomatic for cervical compression, accordingly surgery was planned. The patient was planned for correction of cervical kyphotic deformity under general anesthesia, underwent fourth cervical corpectomy with resection of posterior longitudinal ligament and fusion with autologous bone graft derived from right fibula, which was refashioned approximating to the width of the corpectomy size after harvesting and fixed between C3 and C5 vertebral bodies and further secured with anterior cervical plating. He tolerated surgical procedure well with improvement in power with significant reduction in spasticity. Postoperative X-ray, cervical spine revealed complete correction of kyphotic deformity cervical spine. At follow-up 6 months following surgery, he is doing well. Successful surgical correction of symptomatic cervical kyphotic deformity can be achieved utilizing anterior cervical corpectomy, autologous fibular bone graft, and anterior cervical plating.

  1. Differential expression of microRNAs in dorsal root ganglia after sciatic nerve injury

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Anjie Lu; Zufa Huang; Chaoyue Zhang; Xianfang Zhang; Jiuhong Zhao; Haiying Zhang; Quanpeng Zhang; Song Wu; Xinan Yi

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the possible involvement of microRNAs in the regulation of genes that participate in peripheral neural regeneration. A microRNA microarray analysis was conducted and 23 microRNAs were identiifed whose expression was signiifcantly changed in rat dorsal root ganglia after sciatic nerve transection. The expression of one of the downregulated microRNAs, microRNA-214, was validated using quantitative reverse transcriptase-PCR. MicroRNA-214 was predicted to target the 3′-untranslated region of Slit-Robo GTPase-activating protein 3. In situ hybridization veriifed that microRNA-214 was located in the cytoplasm of dorsal root ganglia primary neurons and was downregulated following sciatic nerve transection. Moreover, a com-bination of in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry revealed that microRNA-214 and Slit-Robo GTPase-activating protein 3 were co-localized in dorsal root ganglion primary neu-rons. Western blot analysis suggested that Slit-Robo GTPase-activating protein 3 was upregulated in dorsal root ganglion neurons after sciatic nerve transection. These data demonstrate that mi-croRNA-214 is located and differentially expressed in dorsal root ganglion primary neurons and may participate in regulating the gene expression of Slit-Robo GTPase-activating protein 3 after sciatic nerve transection.

  2. Dysregulation of Kv3.4 channels in dorsal root ganglia following spinal cord injury.

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    Ritter, David M; Zemel, Benjamin M; Hala, Tamara J; O'Leary, Michael E; Lepore, Angelo C; Covarrubias, Manuel

    2015-01-21

    Spinal cord injury (SCI) patients develop chronic pain involving poorly understood central and peripheral mechanisms. Because dysregulation of the voltage-gated Kv3.4 channel has been implicated in the hyperexcitable state of dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons following direct injury of sensory nerves, we asked whether such a dysregulation also plays a role in SCI. Kv3.4 channels are expressed in DRG neurons, where they help regulate action potential (AP) repolarization in a manner that depends on the modulation of inactivation by protein kinase C (PKC)-dependent phosphorylation of the channel's inactivation domain. Here, we report that, 2 weeks after cervical hemicontusion SCI, injured rats exhibit contralateral hypersensitivity to stimuli accompanied by accentuated repetitive spiking in putative DRG nociceptors. Also in these neurons at 1 week after laminectomy and SCI, Kv3.4 channel inactivation is impaired compared with naive nonsurgical controls. At 2-6 weeks after laminectomy, however, Kv3.4 channel inactivation returns to naive levels. Conversely, Kv3.4 currents at 2-6 weeks post-SCI are downregulated and remain slow-inactivating. Immunohistochemistry indicated that downregulation mainly resulted from decreased surface expression of the Kv3.4 channel, as whole-DRG-protein and single-cell mRNA transcript levels did not change. Furthermore, consistent with Kv3.4 channel dysregulation, PKC activation failed to shorten the AP duration of small-diameter DRG neurons. Finally, re-expressing synthetic Kv3.4 currents under dynamic clamp conditions dampened repetitive spiking in the neurons from SCI rats. These results suggest a novel peripheral mechanism of post-SCI pain sensitization implicating Kv3.4 channel dysregulation and potential Kv3.4-based therapeutic interventions.

  3. TRANSFORAMINAL CERVICAL NERVE ROOT BLOCK: OUTCOMES AND COMPLICATIONS

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    EMILIANO NEVES VIALLE

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objectives: To investigate the effect and complications after transforaminal injection for cervicobrachialgia caused by cervical disc herniation. Methods: We retrospectively reviewed all patients undergoing fluoroscopy-guided transforaminal injection for radiculopathy caused by cervical disc herniation. During the last seven years, 57 patients (39 female, 18 male, mean age 45.6 years experiencing cervical radiculopathy underwent cervical foraminal block guided by fluoroscopy by postero-lateral approach. The position of the needle was verified after injection of a small amount of contrast. A glucocorticosteroid was injected after 0.5 ml of 2% lidocaine. Results: The local with the highest prevalence of procedures was C6 root (31 procedures; 14 patients underwent C7 block, 7 had C5 block, and 5 in C4. Eight patients (14% had complications (3 syncopes, 3 transient hoarseness, one patient had worsening of symptoms and one patient had soft tissue hematoma. In total, 42.1% were asymptomatic after the procedure and therefore did not require surgery after the procedure. Other 57.9% had transient improvement, became asymptomatic for at least 2 months but required surgery due to the recurrence of symptoms. Conclusion: Cervical foraminal block for cervical disc herniation is a safe way to avoid surgery. Some patients still need surgery after the procedure, but the temporary improvement in symptoms gives the patient some relief while awaiting surgery.

  4. Electroacupuncture upregulated platelet derived growth factor expression in spared dorsal root ganglion of cats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xifeng Wang; Lianshuang Zhang; Xiaobo Xu; Wei Zhao; Guixiang Liu

    2012-01-01

    A bilateral spared dorsal root ganglion model was established in healthy adult cats by bilateral resection of L1-5 and L7-S2 dorsal root ganglia. L6 dorsal root ganglia were spared. Zusanli (ST36) and Xuanzhong (BL39) or Futu (ST32) and Sanyinjiao (SP6) were alternatively electro-stimulated on the right leg. Immunohistochemical staining of anti-serum platelet-derived growth factor demonstrated that the number of total neurons and medium-small sized platelet-derived growth factor positive neurons was significantly decreased on the 7th day following injury. After 7 days of acupuncture, the total number of positive and large neurons staining for platelet-derived growth factor on the acupuncture side significantly increased compared to the non-acupuncture side. After acupuncture for 14 days, the total positive and medium-small sized neurons significantly increased compared with the non-acupuncture side. Results indicate that acupuncture promoted the synthesis of platelet-derived growth factor in spared dorsal root ganglia.

  5. Long-lasting analgesic effect of radiofrequency treatment of the lumbosacral dorsal root ganglion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geurts, JWM; Wynne, HJ; van Wijk, R.

    2001-01-01

    Object. The authors conducted a study to establish the benefit of radiofrequency (RF) treatment of the lumbosacral dorsal root ganglion (DRG) as a therapy to reduce symptomatic pain in patients with chronic spinal pain radiating to the leg. Methods. Two hundred seventy-nine patients were evaluated a

  6. Dorsal root potential produced by a TTX-insensitive micro-circuitry in the turtle spinal cord

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Russo, R E; Delgado-Lezama, R; Hounsgaard, J

    2000-01-01

    1, The mechanisms underlying the dorsal root potential (DRP) were studied in transverse slices of turtle spinal cord. DRPs were evoked by stimulating one filament in a dorsal root and were recorded from another such filament. 2. The DRP evoked at supramaximal stimulus intensity was reduced...

  7. CT-guided cervical nerve root injections: comparing the immediate post-injection anesthetic-related effects of the transforaminal injection with a new indirect technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sutter, Reto; Pfirrmann, Christian W.A.; Peterson, Cynthia K. [Orthopaedic University Hospital of Balgrist, Department of Radiology, Zuerich (Switzerland); Zanetti, Marco [Hirslanden Hospital, Department of Radiology, Zuerich (Switzerland); Hodler, Juerg [University Hospital, Department of Radiology, Zuerich (Switzerland)

    2011-12-15

    To describe an ''indirect'' cervical nerve root injection technique with a dorsal approach that should carry less inherent risk than the ''direct'' cervical transforaminal injection approach, and to compare the immediate post-injection results of the two procedures. The indirect and direct cervical nerve root injection procedures are described in detail. Fifty-three consecutive patients receiving the indirect nerve root injections during 2009-2010 were age- and gender-matched to 53 patients who underwent direct transforaminal nerve root injections performed in 2006. Pain level data were collected immediately before and 20-30 min after each procedure. The percentages of pain change in the two groups were compared using the unpaired Student's t test. Fifty-two men (mean age 49) and 54 women (mean age 55) were included. The mean percentage of pain reduction for patients receiving indirect nerve root injections was 38.4% and for those undergoing the direct nerve root injections approach it was 43.2%. This was not significantly different (P = 0.455). No immediate or late adverse effects were reported after either injection procedure. The indirect cervical nerve root injection procedure is a potentially safer alternative to direct cervical transforaminal nerve root injections. The short-term pain reduction is similar using the two injection methods. (orig.)

  8. The same dorsal root ganglion neurons innervate uterus and colon in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaban, Victor; Christensen, Amy; Wakamatsu, Micah; McDonald, Michelle; Rapkin, Andrea; McDonald, John; Micevych, Paul

    2007-02-12

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether primary sensory neurons that innervate the uterus receive convergent input from the colon. To test this, in the rat, cell bodies of colonic and uterine dorsal root ganglia were retrogradely labeled with fluorescent tracer dyes microinjected into the colon/rectum and bilaterally into the uterine horns. Ganglia were harvested, cryoprotected and cut into 20 microm slices to identify positively stained cells for fluorescent microscopy. Up to 5% of neurons were colon-specific or uterus-specific, and 10-15% of labeled ganglion neurons innervate both viscera in the L1, L2, L6 and S1-S3 levels. These results suggest a novel form of visceral sensory integration in the dorsal root ganglion that may underlie comorbidity of many functional pain syndromes.

  9. Three dimensional-magnetic resonance imaging of dorsal root. Ganglion in lumbosacral disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taira, Gaku [Tokyo Medical Coll. (Japan)

    1997-07-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is commonly used for the diagnosis of lumbosacral disease. However, there are certain pitfalls in the use of this imaging technique. In particular, MRI is inadequate for accurate diagnosis of lateral spinal root lesions. Furthermore, it is also difficult to show the root ganglion of both sides on a plane by classical 2D-MRI. Moreover 2D-coronal views do not show several roots in one image because each lumbosacral nerve root is on a different plane. We have developed a new method of three-dimensional MRI (3D-MRI) which enables a stereoscopic view of the spinal cord and both sides of spinal nerve roots in one image. We evaluated three techniques of 3D-MRI, including rapid imaging spin echo (RISE), small tip angle gradient echo (STAGE) and short TI inversion recovery (STIR), in 30 patients with lumbar disc herniation. In a separate anatomical study lumbosacral nerve roots and dorsal root ganglion (DRG) were investigated by 3D-MRI in 20 normal subjects. In a pathophysiological study the use of 3D-MRI defects the signal changes following damage to the spinal nerve roots or ganglion in 70 patients. Our results indicated that the STIR method is the best for identifying abnormalities of the spinal cord, roots and intervertebral disc. It was possible to image the lateral part of damaged nerve roots. The S1 angulations and length were significantly smaller than those of others (p<0.05). The S1 DRG was oval and was the largest. With regard to signal changes in damaged root ganglion, a good correlation between root compression and root edema was detected by basic experiments. We are currently examining the relationship between the damaged root ganglion, pain and sensory disturbance. This study showed that the dorsal root ganglion plays an important role in sensory control of radiculopathy. In conclusion, our new data show a close relationship between sensory loss, pain and DRG finding on 3D-MRI. (author)

  10. Dysregulation of Kv3.4 Channels in Dorsal Root Ganglia Following Spinal Cord Injury

    OpenAIRE

    Ritter, David M.; Zemel, Benjamin M.; Hala, Tamara J.; O'Leary, Michael E; Lepore, Angelo C.; Covarrubias, Manuel

    2015-01-01

    Spinal cord injury (SCI) patients develop chronic pain involving poorly understood central and peripheral mechanisms. Because dysregulation of the voltage-gated Kv3.4 channel has been implicated in the hyperexcitable state of dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons following direct injury of sensory nerves, we asked whether such a dysregulation also plays a role in SCI. Kv3.4 channels are expressed in DRG neurons, where they help regulate action potential (AP) repolarization in a manner that depen...

  11. Generation of New Neurons in Dorsal Root Ganglia in Adult Rats after Peripheral Nerve Crush Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luisa Muratori

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The evidence of neurons generated ex novo in sensory ganglia of adult animals is still debated. In the present study, we investigated, using high resolution light microscopy and stereological analysis, the changes in the number of neurons in dorsal root ganglia after 30 days from a crush lesion of the rat brachial plexus terminal branches. Results showed, as expected, a relevant hypertrophy of dorsal root ganglion neurons. In addition, we reported, for the first time in the literature, that neuronal hypertrophy was accompanied by massive neuronal hyperplasia leading to a 42% increase of the number of primary sensory neurons. Moreover, ultrastructural analyses on sensory neurons showed that there was not a relevant neuronal loss as a consequence of the nerve injury. The evidence of BrdU-immunopositive neurons and neural progenitors labeled with Ki67, nanog, nestin, and sox-2 confirmed the stereological evidence of posttraumatic neurogenesis in dorsal root ganglia. Analysis of morphological changes following axonal damage in addition to immunofluorescence characterization of cell phenotype suggested that the neuronal precursors which give rise to the newly generated neurons could be represented by satellite glial cells that actively proliferate after the lesion and are able to differentiate toward the neuronal lineage.

  12. Dorsal root ganglion neurons promote proliferation and osteogenic differentiation of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Pei-xun Zhang; Xiao-rui Jiang; Lei Wang; Fang-min Chen; Lin Xu; Fei Huang

    2015-01-01

    Preliminary animal experiments have conifrmed that sensory nerve ifbers promote osteoblast differentiation, but motor nerve ifbers have no promotion effect. Whether sensory neurons pro-mote the proliferation and osteogenic differentiation of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells remains unclear. No results at the cellular level have been reported. In this study, dorsal root ganglion neurons (sensory neurons) from Sprague-Dawley fetal rats were co-cultured with bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells transfected with green lfuorescent protein 3 weeks after osteo-genic differentiationin vitro, while osteoblasts derived from bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells served as the control group. The rat dorsal root ganglion neurons promoted the prolifera-tion of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell-derived osteoblasts at 3 and 5 days of co-culture, as observed by lfuorescence microscopy. The levels of mRNAs for osteogenic differentiation-re-lated factors (including alkaline phosphatase, osteocalcin, osteopontin and bone morphogenetic protein 2) in the co-culture group were higher than those in the control group, as detected by real-time quantitative PCR. Our ifndings indicate that dorsal root ganglion neurons promote the proliferation and osteogenic differentiation of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells, which pro-vides a theoretical basis forin vitro experiments aimed at constructing tissue-engineered bone.

  13. Traumatic Cervical Nerve Root Avulsion with Pseudomeningocele Formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haider, Ali S; Watson, Ian T; Sulhan, Suraj; Arrey, Eliel N; Khan, Umair; Nguyen, Phu; Layton, Kennith F

    2017-01-01

    Cervical nerve root avulsion is a well-documented result of motor vehicle collision (MVC), especially when occurring at high velocities. These avulsions are commonly traction injuries of nerve roots that may be accompanied by a tear in the meninges through the vertebral foramina with associated collections of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), thereby resulting in a pseudomeningocele. We present a case of a 19-year-old male who experienced an MVC and was brought to the emergency department (ED) with right arm paralysis and other injuries. A neurological examination demonstrated intact sensation but 0/5 muscle strength in the right upper extremity. A magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the spinal cord demonstrated massive epidural hematomas extending the length of the cervical spine caudally from C2. An MRI of the right brachial plexus showed C3-C7 anterior horn cell edema and associated traumatic nerve root avulsion with pseudomeningoceles on the right from C5-C8. The development of spinal cord hematoma with these injuries has rarely been documented in the literature and the multiple level avulsion described here with extensive hematoma is a rare clinical presentation. A literature review was conducted to determine the diagnostic requirements, treatment strategies, and complications of such an injury. Our patient received conservative treatment of the right brachial plexus injury and was transferred to an inpatient rehabilitation facility 13 days later.  PMID:28352498

  14. The role of dorsal root ganglia activation and brain-derived neurotrophic factor in multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Wenjun; Frost, Emma E; Begum, Farhana; Vora, Parvez; Au, Kelvin; Gong, Yuewen; MacNeil, Brian; Pillai, Prakash; Namaka, Mike

    2012-08-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is characterized by focal destruction of the white matter of the brain and spinal cord. The exact mechanisms underlying the pathophysiology of the disease are unknown. Many studies have shown that MS is predominantly an autoimmune disease with an inflammatory phase followed by a demyelinating phase. Recent studies alongside current treatment strategies, including glatiramer acetate, have revealed a potential role for brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in MS. However, the exact role of BDNF is not fully understood. We used the experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) model of MS in adolescent female Lewis rats to identify the role of BDNF in disease progression. Dorsal root ganglia (DRG) and spinal cords were harvested for protein and gene expression analysis every 3 days post-disease induction (pdi) up to 15 days. We show significant increases in BDNF protein and gene expression in the DRG of EAE animals at 12 dpi, which correlates with peak neurological disability. BDNF protein expression in the spinal cord was significantly increased at 12 dpi, and maintained at 15 dpi. However, there was no significant change in mRNA levels. We show evidence for the anterograde transport of BDNF protein from the DRG to the dorsal horn of the spinal cord via the dorsal roots. Increased levels of BDNF within the DRG and spinal cord in EAE may facilitate myelin repair and neuroprotection in the CNS. The anterograde transport of DRG-derived BDNF to the spinal cord may have potential implications in facilitating central myelin repair and neuroprotection.

  15. Unusual cervical nerve root arrangement exposed during surgery: case report and review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zrinzo, L; Ashkan, K; Johnston, F

    2004-12-01

    Anatomical variations of neural structures in the cervical spine are rare and are not necessarily visible on pre-operative imaging. The authors report an unusual arrangement of neural structures identified during cervical foraminotomy. Anatomical variations of the cervical nerve roots are reviewed and their importance in neurosurgical practice is discussed.

  16. A rare Cervical Nerve Root, C2-C3 Schwannoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilesh Chordia

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Schwannomas, neurilemmomas or neurinomas are benign nerve sheath tumors deriving from Schwann cells that occur in the head and neck region in 25-45% of cases 1 .About 10% of schwannoma that occur in the head and neck region generally originate from the vagus or sympathetic nervous system, those arising from C2 nerve root are extremely rare. 2 Preoperative imaging studies such as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI and computed tomography (CT are used to distinguish its location and origin. The treatment of schwannoma is surgical resection, with several surgical modalities have been introduced to preserve the neurological function. We present a rare case of Cervical nerve (C2-C3 root schwannoma of 70 years old male who presented with lateral neck swelling with no neurological deficit ,swelling which also had intervertebral part was removed successfully through neck incision with no post-operative neurological symptoms

  17. Invasive cervical root resorption: Engineering the lost tissue by regeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dexton Antony Johns

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Invasive cervical resorption (ICR is a localized resorptive process that commences on the surface of the root below the epithelial attachment and the coronal aspect of the supporting alveolar process, namely the zone of the connective tissue attachment′ early diagnosis, elimination of the resorption and restorative management are the keys to a successful outcome. Treatment done was a combined non-surgical root canal therapy, surgical treatment to expose the resorptive defect and the resorptive defect was filled up with reverse sandwich technique and finally the bony defect filled with platelet rich fibrin (PRF, hydroxylapatite and PRF membrane. Significant bone fill was obtained in our case after a 2 year follow-up period. This case report presents a treatment strategy that might improve the healing outcomes for patients with ICR.

  18. Pain-related mediators underlie incision-induced mechanical nociception in the dorsal root ganglia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiuhong Yuan; Xiangyan Liu; Qiuping Tang; Yunlong Deng

    2013-01-01

    Approximately 50-70% of patients experience incision-induced mechanical nociception after sur-gery. However, the mechanism underlying incision-induced mechanical nociception is stil unclear. Interleukin-10 and brain-derived neurotrophic factor are important pain mediators, but whether in-terleukin-10 and brain-derived neurotrophic factor are involved in incision-induced mechanical no-ciception remains uncertain. In this study, forty rats were divided randomly into the incision surgery (n=32) and sham surgery (n=8) groups. Plantar incision on the central part of left hind paw was performed under anesthesia in rats from the surgery group. Rats in the sham surgery group re-ceived anesthesia, but not an incision. Von Frey test results showed that, compared with the sham surgery group, incision surgery decreased the withdrawal threshold of rats at 0.5, 3, 6 and 24 hours after incision. Immunofluorescence staining in the dorsal root ganglia of the spinal cord (L 3-5 ) showed that interleukin-10 and brain-derived neurotrophic factor were expressed mainly on smal-and medium-sized neurons (diameter40μm) at 6 and 24 hours after incision surgery, which corresponded to the decreased mechanical withdrawal threshold of rats in the surgery group. These experimental findings suggest that expression pattern shift of interleukin-10 and brain-derived neurotrophic factor induced by inci-sion surgery in dorsal root ganglia of rats was closely involved in lowering the threshold to me-chanical stimulus in the hind paw fol owing incision surgery. Pain-related mediators induced by in-cision surgery in dorsal root ganglia of rats possibly underlie mechanical nociception in ipsilateral hind paws.

  19. Mechanical and thermal hyperalgesia and ectopic neuronal discharge after chronic compression of dorsal root ganglia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, X J; Hu, S J; Greenquist, K W; Zhang, J M; LaMotte, R H

    1999-12-01

    Chronic compression of the dorsal root ganglion (CCD) was produced in adult rats by implanting a stainless steel rod unilaterally into the intervertebral foramen, one rod at L(4) and another at L(5). Two additional groups of rats received either a sham surgery or an acute injury consisting of a transient compression of the ganglion. Withdrawal of the hindpaw was used as evidence of a nocifensive response to mechanical and thermal stimulation of the plantar surface. In addition, extracellular electrophysiological recordings of spontaneous discharges were obtained from dorsal root fibers of formerly compressed ganglia using an in vitro nerve-DRG-dorsal root preparation. The mean threshold force of punctate indentation and the mean threshold temperature of heating required to elicit a 50% incidence of foot withdrawal ipsilateral to the CCD were significantly lower than preoperative values throughout the 35 days of postoperative testing. The number of foot withdrawals ipsilateral to the CCD during a 20-min contact with a temperature-controlled floor was significantly increased over preoperative values throughout postoperative testing when the floor was 4 degrees C (hyperalgesia) and, to a lesser extent, when it was 30 degrees C (spontaneous pain). Stroking the foot with a cotton wisp never elicited a reflex withdrawal before surgery but did so in most rats tested ipsilateral to the CCD during the first 2 postoperative weeks. In contrast, the CCD produced no changes in responses to mechanical or thermal stimuli on the contralateral foot. The sham operation and acute injury produced no change in behavior other than slight, mechanical hyperalgesia for approximately 1 day, ipsilateral to the acute injury. Ectopic spontaneous discharges generated within the chronically compressed ganglion and, occurring in the absence of blood-borne chemicals and without an intact sympathetic nervous system, were recorded from neurons with intact, conducting, myelinated or unmyelinated

  20. Inhibition of calcium currents in cultured rat dorsal root ganglion neurones by (-)-baclofen.

    OpenAIRE

    Dolphin, A C; Scott, R.H.

    1986-01-01

    Voltage-dependent inward calcium currents (ICa) activated in cultured rat dorsal root ganglion neurones were reversibly reduced in a dose-dependent manner by (-)-baclofen (10 microM to 100 microM). Baclofen (100 microM) reduced the calcium-dependent slow outward potassium current (IK(Ca)). This current was abolished in calcium-free medium and by 300 microM cadmium chloride. The action of baclofen on IK(Ca) was reduced when the calcium concentration in the medium was increased from 5 mM to 30 ...

  1. Molecular target size of the vanilloid (capsaicin) receptor in pig dorsal root ganglia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szallasi, A.; Blumberg, P.M. (National Cancer Institute, Bethesda, MD (USA))

    1991-01-01

    The size of the vanilloid receptor was examined by high-energy radiation inactivation analysis of the binding of ({sup 3}H)resiniferatoxin to pig dorsal root ganglion membranes; it was found to be 270 {plus minus} 25 kDa. This value most likely represents the size of a receptor complex rather than of an individual subunit. Other ligand-gated cation channel complexes have reported molecular weights in this range, e.g. 300 kDa for the acetylcholine receptor.

  2. Highly efficient method for gene delivery in mouse dorsal root ganglia neurons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lingli eYu

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The development of gene transfection technologies has greatly advanced our understanding of life sciences. While use of viral vectors has clear efficacy, it requires specific expertise and biological containment conditions. Electroporation has become an effective and commonly used method for introducing DNA into neurons and in intact brain tissue. The present study describes the use of the Neon® electroporation system to transfect genes into dorsal root ganglia neurons isolated from embryonic mouse Day 13.5 to 16. This cell type has been particularly recalcitrant and refractory to physical or chemical methods for introduction of DNA. By optimizing the culture condition and parameters including voltage and duration for this specific electroporation system, high efficiency (60 – 80% and low toxicity (> 60% survival were achieved with robust differentiation in response to Nerve growth factor (NGF. Moreover, 3-50 times fewer cells are needed (6x104 compared with other traditional electroporation methods. This approach underlines the efficacy of this type of electroporation, particularly when only limited amount of cells can be obtained, and is expected to greatly facilitate the study of gene function in dorsal root ganglia neuron cultures.

  3. Dorsal root ganglion compression as an animal model of sciatica and low back pain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao-Yu Lin; Jing Yang; Hui-Ming Li; San-Jue Hu; Jun-Ling Xing

    2012-01-01

    As sciatica and low back pain are among the most common medical complaints,many studies have duplicated these conditions in animals.Chronic compression of the dorsal root ganglion (CCD) is one of these models.The surgery is simple:after exposing the L4/L5 intervertebral foramina,stainless steel rods are implanted unilaterally,one rod for each vertebra,to chronically compress the lumbar dorsal root ganglion (DRG).Then,CCD can be used to simulate the clinical conditions caused by stenosis,such as a laterally herniated disc or foraminal stenosis.As the intraforaminal implantation of a rod results in neuronal somal hyperexcitability and spontaneous action potentials associated with hyperalgesia,spontaneous pain,and mechanical allodynia,CCD provides an animal model that mimics radicular pain in humans.This review concerns the mechanisms of neuronal hyperexcitability,focusing on various patterns of spontaneous discharge including one possible pain signal for mechanical allodynia-evoked bursting.Also,new data regarding its significant property of maintaining peripheral input are also discussed.Investigations using this animal model will enhance our understanding of the neural mechanisms for low back pain and sciatica.Furthermore,the peripheral location of the DRG facilitates its use as a locus for controlling pain with minimal central effects,in the hope of ultimately uncovering analgesics that block neuropathic pain without influencing physiological pain.

  4. Effects of Extracellular ATP on Survival of Sensory Neurons in the Dorsal Root Ganglia of Rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    ATP was added to the cultured sensory neurons obtained from the dorsal root ganglia of the neonatal rats and PBS was added to serve as control. MTT assays were conducted to evaluate the survival and activity of the cultured neurons. And the silicone regenerative chamber was used after the sciatic nerve incision of the mature SD rat. 1 mmol/L ATP was injected into the left chamber and 0.09 % natrium chloride was injected into the right chamber as controls. The changes of nitric oxide synthase (NOS) activity in the corresponding dorsal root ganglia were measured histochemically and image analysis was also performed 4 days after the sciatic nerve injury. The results showed that extracellular ATP could enhance the survival of the neurons and the number of NOS positive neurons were significantly different between the ATP and control groups (P<0.05). It was suggested that extracellular ATP had neurotrophic effect on neurons survival and could inhibit the NOS activity of the sensory neurons after the peripheral nerve incision, hence exerting the protective effect on the neurons, which was valuable for nerve regeneration after nerve injury.

  5. Developmental localization of calcitonin gene-related peptide in dorsal sensory axons and ventral motor neurons of mouse cervical spinal cord.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jeongtae; Sunagawa, Masanobu; Kobayashi, Shiori; Shin, Taekyun; Takayama, Chitoshi

    2016-04-01

    Calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) is a 37-amino-acid neuropeptide, synthesized by alternative splicing of calcitonin gene mRNA. CGRP is characteristically distributed in the nervous system, and its function varies depending on where it is expressed. To reveal developmental formation of the CGRP network and its function in neuronal maturation, we examined the immunohistochemical localization of CGRP in the developing mouse cervical spinal cord and dorsal root ganglion. CGRP immunolabeling (IL) was first detected in motor neurons on E13, and in ascending axons of the posterior funiculus and DRG neurons on E14. CGRP-positive sensory axon fibers entered Laminae I and II on E16, and Laminae I through IV on E18. The intensity of the CGRP-IL gradually increased in both ventral and dorsal horns during embryonic development, but markedly decreased in the ventral horn after birth. These results suggest that CGRP is expressed several days after neuronal settling and entry of sensory fibers, and that the CGRP network is formed in chronological and sequential order. Furthermore, because CGRP is markedly expressed in motor neurons when axons are vastly extending and innervating targets, CGRP may also be involved in axonal elongation and synapse formation during normal development.

  6. Neuregulin-mediated ErbB3 signaling is required for formation of zebrafish dorsal root ganglion neurons

    OpenAIRE

    Honjo, Yasuko; Kniss, Jonathan; Eisen, Judith S

    2008-01-01

    Dorsal root ganglia (DRGs) arise from trunk neural crest cells that emerge from the dorsal neuroepithelium and coalesce into segmental streams that migrate ventrally along the developing somites. Proper formation of DRGs involves not only normal trunk neural crest migration, but also the ability of DRG progenitors to pause at a particular target location where they can receive DRG-promoting signals. In mammalian embryos a receptor tyrosine kinase proto-oncogene, ErbB3, is required for proper ...

  7. Assessing the effectiveness of ‘pulse radiofrequency treatment of dorsal root ganglion’ in patients with chronic lumbar radicular pain: study protocol for a randomized control trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shanthanna Harsha

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chronic lumbar radicular pain can be described as neuropathic pain along the distribution of a particular nerve root. The dorsal root ganglion has been implicated in its pathogenesis by giving rise to abnormal impulse generation as a result of irritation, direct compression and sensitization. Chronic lumbar radicular pain is commonly treated with medications, physiotherapy and epidural steroid injections. Epidural steroid injections are associated with several common and rarer side effects such as spinal cord infarction and death. It is essential and advantageous to look for alternate interventions which could be effective with fewer side effects. Pulse radio frequency is a relatively new technique and is less destructive then conventional radiofrequency. Safety and effectiveness of pulse radio frequency in neuropathic pain has been demonstrated in animal and humans studies. Although its effects on dorsal root ganglion have been studied in animals there is only one randomized control trial in literature demonstrating its effectiveness in cervical radicular pain and none in lumbar radicular pain. Our primary objective is to study the feasibility of a larger trial in terms of recruitment and methodology. Secondary objectives are to compare the treatment effects and side effects. Methods/designs This is a single-center, parallel, placebo-controlled, triple-blinded (patients, care-givers, and outcome assessors, randomized control trial. Participants will have a history of chronic lumbar radicular pain for at least 4 months in duration. Once randomized, all patients will have an intervention involving fluoroscopy guided needle placement to appropriate dorsal root ganglion. After test stimulation in both groups; the study group will have a pulse radio frequency treatment at 42°C for 120 s to the dorsal root ganglion, with the control group having only low intensity test stimulation for the same duration. Primary outcome is to

  8. Application of shock waves to rat skin decreases calcitonin gene-related peptide immunoreactivity in dorsal root ganglion neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Norimasa; Wada, Yuichi; Ohtori, Seiji; Saisu, Takashi; Moriya, Hideshige

    2003-09-30

    There have been several reports on the use of extracorporeal shock waves in the treatment of pseudarthrosis, calcifying tendinitis, and tendinopathies of the elbow. However, the pathomechanism of pain relief has not been clarified. To investigate the analgesic properties of shock wave application, we analyzed changes in calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP)-immunoreactive (ir) dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons. In the nontreated group, fluorogold-labeled dorsal root ganglion neurons innervating the most middle foot pad of hind paw were distributed in the L4 and L5 dorsal root ganglia. Of these neurons, 61% were CGRP-ir. However, in the shock wave-treated group, the percentage of FG-labeled CGRP-ir DRG neurons decreased to 18%. These data show that relief of clinical pain after shock wave application may result from reduced CGRP expression in DRG neurons.

  9. Stem cells from wildtype and Friedreich's ataxia mice present similar neuroprotective properties in dorsal root ganglia cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan Jones

    Full Text Available Many neurodegenerative disorders share a common susceptibility to oxidative stress, including Alzheimer's, Parkinson Disease, Huntington Disease and Friedreich's ataxia. In a previous work, we proved that stem cell-conditioned medium increased the survival of cells isolated from Friedreich's ataxia patients, when submitted to oxidative stress. The aim of the present work is to confirm this same effect in dorsal root ganglia cells isolated from YG8 mice, a mouse model of Friedreich's ataxia. In this disorder, the neurons of the dorsal root ganglia are the first to degenerate. Also, in this work we cultured mesenchymal stem cells isolated from YG8 mice, in order to compare them with their wildtype counterpart. To this end, dorsal root ganglia primary cultures isolated from YG8 mice were exposed to oxidative stress and cultured with conditioned medium from either wildtype or YG8 stem cells. As a result, the conditioned medium increased the survival of the dorsal root ganglia cells. This coincided with an increase in oxidative stress-related markers and frataxin expression levels. BDNF, NT3 and NT4 trophic factors were detected in the conditioned medium of both wild-type and YG8 stem cells, all which bind to the various neuronal cell types present in the dorsal root ganglia. No differences were observed in the stem cells isolated from wildtype and YG8 mice. The results presented confirm the possibility that autologous stem cell transplantation may be a viable therapeutic approach in protecting dorsal root ganglia neurons of Friedreich's ataxia patients.

  10. Isolation and differentiation of neural stem/progenitor cells from fetal rat dorsal root ganglia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    To find a promising alternative to neurons or schwann cells (SCs) for peripheral nerve repair applications,this study sought to isolate stem cells from fetal rat dorsal root ganglion (DRG) explants.Molecular expression analysis confirmed neural stem cell characteristics of DRG-derived neurospheres in terms of expressing neural stem cell-specific genes and a set of well-defined genes related to stem cell niches and glial fate decision.Under the influence of neurotrophic factors,bFGF and NGF,the neurospheres gave rise to neurofilament-expressing neurons and S100-expressing Schwann cell-like cells by different pathways.This study suggests that a subpopulation of stem cells that reside in DRGs is the progenitor of neurons and glia,which could directly induce the differentiation toward neurons,or SCs.

  11. Neuropeptide FF receptor modulates potassium currents in a dorsal root ganglion cell line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mollereau, Catherine; Roumy, Michel; Zajac, Jean-Marie

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated the presence of neuropeptide FF (NPFF) receptors on F-11 cells, a hybridoma derived from rat dorsal root ganglia (DRG) and mouse neuroblastoma. Binding experiments revealed a low density (4 fmol/mg) of high affinity (0.5 nM) [(3)H]-EYF binding sites in these cells. The whole-cell planar patch-clamp technique showed that dNPA, a selective NPFF(2) agonist, increased the voltage-dependent potassium outward currents (about 30 pA/pF) by 21%; this reversible effect on sustained delayed potassium currents is blocked by tetraethylammonium. The similar effects of NPFF and opioid agonists on K(+) currents in this cell line may explain their similar antinociceptive actions at the spinal level.

  12. Pulsed radiofrequency -PRF- on the dorsal root ganglion (La radiofrequenza pulsata (PRF gangliare

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmelo Costa

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Radiofrequency is a high frequency electric alternating current. The therapeutic effects of radiofrequency (related to a thermal lesion of nervous targets have been used for many years for pain syndromes not responsive to pharmacological therapies. The mechanism of antalgic action is a through an electrode. The disadvantages of this method have always been correlated to limited use for sensitive nerve structures (nerve damage. In the mid-‘90s, a new method (PRF treated a nervous structure with a non-damaging temperature, above 44°C. To verify the efficacy of PRF when applied to dorsal root ganglia, (according to evidence based medicine the authors selected literature from several studies of chronic pain syndrome. Through a specific testing score, it is possible to select chronic pain syndromes with a positive response to the treatment. In summary, we see a large problem with the insufficient refund.

  13. G protein-coupled inwardly rectifying potassium channels in dorsal root ganglion neurons

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao-fei GAO; Hai-lin ZHANG; Zhen-dong YOU; Chang-lin LU; Cheng HE

    2007-01-01

    Aim: G protein-coupled inwardly rectifying potassium channels (GIRK) are important for neuronal signaling and membrane excitability. In the present study, we intend to find whether GIRK channels express functionally in adult rat dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons. Methods: We used RT-PCR to detect mRNA for4 subunits of GIRK in the adult DRG. The whole-cell patch clamp recording was used to confirm GIRK channels functionally expressed. Results: The mRNA for the 4 subunits of GIRK were detected in the adult DRG. GTPγS enhanced inwardly rectifying potassium (K+) currents of the DRG neurons, while Ba2+inhibited such currents. Furthermore, the GIRK channels were shown to be coupled to the GABAB receptor, a member of the G protein-coupled receptor family, as baclofen increased the inwardly rectifying K+ currents. Conclusion: GIRK channels are expressed and functionally coupled with GABAB receptors in adult rat DRG neurons.

  14. [Left hand clumsiness due to disturbance of kinesthesia after damage to the dorsal column of the high cervical cord].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashimoto, R; Kanho, M; Fujimoto, K; Tanaka, Y

    1997-04-01

    We described a 48-year-old, right-handed woman who manifested left hand clumsiness after damage to the dorsal column of the high cervical cord due to probable multiple sclerosis. On February 29, 1996, she developed a weakness in the right limbs. Subsequently, she suffered numbness and clumsiness in the left limbs, even though muscle strength of the left limbs was preserved. Seventeen days later, she was referred to our hospital. A T2-weighted MRI after admission demonstrated high signal intensities in the left dorsal column and the right antero-lateral part of the cervical cord at the C1 to C3 vertebral level. Under the diagnosis of probable multiple sclerosis, steroid pulse therapy was applied twice and she gradually regained muscle strength in the right limbs and sensation in the left limbs. One month later, elemental sensations such as pain, touch, temperature, vibration, and position, as well as discriminative sensations such as localization sensation, two-point discrimination, barognosis, pinch-press discrimination, and graphesthesia in the left limbs returned to normal. However, her left hand remained clumsy, especially when she tried to manipulate objects. She also showed a great difficulty in sustaining a constant level of pinching force by the left thumb and index finger, and in localizing her right thumb placed in space with the left hand with her eyes closed. She stated herself that she could not sense at all how her left hand and fingers were moving. Somatosensory evoked potentials recorded from the right scalp showed that the NI was poorly organized and the patency of subsequent peaks was delayed. Transcranial magnetic stimulation revealed that the pyramidal tract from the right motor cortex to the left cervical cord was functionally intact. These observations lead us to conclude as follows: (1) the patient's left hand clumsiness is probably due to the disturbance of kinesthesia, which is crucial to activate temporo-spatial patterns of complex hand and

  15. Repair of multiple cervical root avulsion with sural nerve graft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Sanford P C; Shih, Yang-Hsin; Huang, Ming-Chao; Chuang, Tien-Yow; Huang, Wen-Cheng; Wu, Hsiu-Mei; Lin, Pei-Hsin; Lee, Liang-Shong; Cheng, Henrich

    2004-09-01

    To obtain easier access to avulsed roots in the intradural space for patients suffering cervical root avulsion, the authors of this study developed a novel repair method. This involves using nerve grafts to bridge corresponding segments of the spinal cord and the trunk or cord level of the plexus, respectively, in two surgical stages. All eight patients admitted to this study received pre- and post-operative workups of electrophysiological evaluations and muscle power grading through Medical Research Council (MRC) scores. The degrees of impairment were also graded according to a modified version of Dumitru's and Wilbourn's scale (mild = 1; moderate = 2; severe = 3). The preoperative versus post-operative differences in the severity of the injuries and in the grading of the target muscle power were calculated according to the Wilcoxon signed-rank test. The preoperative degree of the severity of the injuries, as measured by electromyography (EMG), was 3.00 +/- 0.00 (mean +/- S.D.). The post-operative result was 2.125 +/- 0.641. Significant change took place after repair (P = 0.0313). Moreover, although little improvement was observed in the triceps, brachioradialis (BR), extensor carpi radialis (ECR), flexor digitorum profundus (FDP) and intrinsic hand muscles, the MRC grading showed significant yet not prominent motor recovery in the deltoid and biceps brachii (both P = 0.0313). We were impressed that the initial significant statistical results of differences in pre- and post-operative severity of the injuries and muscle power grading, demonstrated that regeneration does occur with this repair strategy.

  16. Use of fluorescently labelled calmodulins as tools to measure subcellular calmodulin activation in living dorsal root ganglion cells.

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    Milikan, J M; Bolsover, S R

    2000-01-01

    We have used fluorescently labelled calmodulins to probe the activity of calmodulin in living dorsal root ganglion cells. Calmodulin labelled with the fluorophore 5-([4,6 dichlorotriazin-2yl]amino)-fluorescein (FL-CaM) does not change its fluorescence when it binds calcium, while calmodulin labelled at lysine 75 with 2-chloro-(6-(4-N,N-diethylamino-phenyl)-1,4,5-triazin-4-yl (TA-CaM), an environment-sensitive probe, increases its fluorescence when it binds calcium. We micro-injected FL-CaM or TA-CaM into rat dorsal root ganglion cells and found that both probes localise to the cell nucleus. In contrast, endogenous cellular calmodulin, in dorsal root ganglion cells as in hippocampal neurones, is predominantly cytosolic unless the neurones are depolarised, then it moves to the nucleus. FL-CaM and TA-CaM, introduced into dorsal root ganglion cells via a patch pipette, also immediately move to the nucleus, indicating that the nuclear localisation is a property of the labelled calmodulins. Although the subcellular distribution of FL-CaM and TA-CaM does not necessarily match that of endogenous calmodulin, we show that FL-CaM can be used as a control for TA-CaM when studying calmodulin activation in different cellular compartments.

  17. Effect of type-2 astrocytes on the viability of dorsal root ganglion neurons and length of neuronal processes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chunling Fan; Hui Wang; Dan Chen; Xiaoxin Cheng; Kun Xiong; Xuegang Luo; Qilin Cao

    2014-01-01

    The role of type-2 astrocytes in the repair of central nervous system injury remains poorly un-derstood. In this study, using a relatively simple culture condition in vitro, type-2 astrocytes, differentiated from oligodendrocyte precursor cells by induction with bone morphogenetic pro-tein-4, were co-cultured with dorsal root ganglion neurons. We examined the effects of type-2 astrocytes differentiated from oligodendrocyte precursor cells on the survival and growth of dorsal root ganglion neurons. Results demonstrated that the number of dorsal root ganglion neurons was higher following co-culture of oligodendrocyte precursor cells and type-2 astrocytes than when cultured alone, but lower than that of neurons co-cultured with type-1 astrocytes. The length of the longest process and the length of all processes of a single neuron were shortest in neurons cultured alone, followed by neurons co-cultured with type-2 astrocytes, then neurons co-cultured with oligodendrocyte precursor cells, and longest in neurons co-cultured with type-1 astrocytes. These results indicate that co-culture with type-2 astrocytes can increase neuronal survival rate and process length. However, compared with type-1 astrocytes and oligodendrocyte precursor cells, the promotion effects of type-2 astrocytes on the growth of dorsal root ganglion neurons were weaker.

  18. Development and degeneration of dorsal root ganglia in the absence of the HMG-domain transcription factor Sox10

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sonnenberg-Riethmacher, Eva; Miehe, Michaela; Stolt, Claus C.

    2001-01-01

    neurogenesis seemed initially normal. A degeneration of motoneurons and sensory neurons occurred later in development. The mechanism that leads to the dramatic effects on the neural crest derived cell lineages in the dorsal root ganglia (DRG), however, has not been examined up to now. Here, we provide...

  19. Expression of Semaphorins, Neuropilins, VEGF, and Tenascins in Rat and Human Primary Sensory Neurons after a Dorsal Root Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindholm, Tomas; Risling, Mårten; Carlstedt, Thomas; Hammarberg, Henrik; Wallquist, Wilhelm; Cullheim, Staffan; Sköld, Mattias K.

    2017-01-01

    Dorsal root injury is a situation not expected to be followed by a strong regenerative growth, or growth of the injured axon into the central nervous system of the spinal cord, if the central axon of the dorsal root is injured but of strong regeneration if subjected to injury to the peripherally projecting axons. The clinical consequence of axonal injury is loss of sensation and may also lead to neuropathic pain. In this study, we have used in situ hybridization to examine the distribution of mRNAs for the neural guidance molecules semaphorin 3A (SEMA3A), semaphorin 3F (SEMA3F), and semaphorin 4F (SEMA4F), their receptors neuropilin 1 (NP1) and neuropilin 2 (NP2) but also for the neuropilin ligand vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and Tenascin J1, an extracellular matrix molecule involved in axonal guidance, in rat dorsal root ganglia (DRG) after a unilateral dorsal rhizotomy (DRT) or sciatic nerve transcetion (SNT). The studied survival times were 1–365 days. The different forms of mRNAs were unevenly distributed between the different size classes of sensory nerve cells. The results show that mRNA for SEMA3A was diminished after trauma to the sensory nerve roots in rats. The SEMA3A receptor NP1, and SEMA3F receptor NP2, was significantly upregulated in the DRG neurons after DRT and SNT. SEMA4F was upregulated after a SNT. The expression of mRNA for VEGF in DRG neurons after DRT showed a significant upregulation that was high even a year after the injuries. These data suggest a role for the semaphorins, neuropilins, VEGF, and J1 in the reactions after dorsal root lesions. PMID:28270793

  20. Effect of low level laser therapy on chronic compression of the dorsal root ganglion.

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    Yi-Jen Chen

    Full Text Available Dorsal root ganglia (DRG are vulnerable to physical injury of the intervertebral foramen, and chronic compression of the DRG (CCD an result in nerve root damage with persistent morbidity. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of low level laser therapy (LLLT on the DRG in a CCD model and to determine the mechanisms underlying these effects. CCD rats had L-shaped stainless-steel rods inserted into the fourth and fifth lumbar intervertebral foramen, and the rats were then subjected to 0 or 8 J/cm2 LLLT for 8 consecutive days following CCD surgery. Pain and heat stimuli were applied to test for hyperalgesia following CCD. The levels of TNF-α, IL-1β and growth-associated protein-43 (GAP-43 messenger RNA (mRNA expression were measured via real-time PCR, and protein expression levels were analyzed through immunohistochemical analyses. Our data indicate that LLLT significantly decreased the tolerable sensitivity to pain and heat stimuli in the CCD groups. The expression levels of the pro-inflammatory cytokines TNF-α and IL-1β were increased following CCD, and we found that these increases could be reduced by the application of LLLT. Furthermore, the expression of GAP-43 was enhanced by LLLT. In conclusion, LLLT was able to enhance neural regeneration in rats following CCD and improve rat ambulatory behavior. The therapeutic effects of LLLT on the DRG during CCD may be exerted through suppression of the inflammatory response and induction of neuronal repair genes. These results suggest potential clinical applications for LLLT in the treatment of compression-induced neuronal disorders.

  1. Temperature dependence of rapidly adapting mechanically activated currents in rat dorsal root ganglion neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Zhanfeng; Ling, Jennifer; Gu, Jianguo G

    2012-08-01

    Rapidly adapting mechanically activated channels (RA) are expressed on somatosensory neurons and thought to play a role in mechanical transduction. Because mechanical sensations can be significantly affected by temperatures, we examined thermal sensitivity of RA currents in cultured dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons to see if RA channel activity is highly temperature-dependent. RA currents were evoked from DRG neurons by membrane displacements and recorded by the whole-cell patch-clamp recording technique. We found that RA currents were significantly enhanced by warming temperatures from 22 to 32 °C and reduced by cooling temperatures from 24 to 14 °C. RA channel activation exhibited steep temperature-dependence with a large temperature coefficient (Q10>5) and a high activation energy (Ea>30 kcal/mol). We further showed that RA channel activation by mechanical stimulation led to membrane depolarization, which could result in action potential firing at 22 °C or 32 °C but not at 14 °C. Taken together, our results provide the measurements of thermal dynamics and activation energy of RA channels, and suggest that a high energy barrier is present for RA channels to open. These findings are in agreement with temperature sensitivity of mechanical sensations in mammals.

  2. The role of the transcription factor Rbpj in the development of dorsal root ganglia

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    Chen Jia-Yin

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The dorsal root ganglion (DRG is composed of well-characterized populations of sensory neurons and glia derived from a common pool of neural crest stem cells (NCCs, and is a good system to study the mechanisms of neurogenesis and gliogenesis. Notch signaling is known to play important roles in DRG development, but the full scope of Notch functions in mammalian DRG development remains poorly understood. Results In the present study, we used Wnt1-Cre to conditionally inactivate the transcription factor Rbpj, a critical integrator of activation signals from all Notch receptors, in NCCs and their derived cells. Deletion of Rbpj caused the up-regulation of NeuroD1 and precocious neurogenesis in DRG early development but led to an eventual deficit of sensory neurons at later stages, due to reduced cell proliferation and abnormal cell death. In addition, gliogenesis was delayed initially, but a near-complete loss of glia was observed finally in Rbpj-deficient DRG. Furthermore, we found P75 and Sox10, which are normally expressed exclusively in neuronal and glial progenitors of the DRG after the NCCs have completed their migration, were co-expressed in many cells of the DRG of Rbpj conditional knock-out mice. Conclusions Our data indicate that Rbpj-mediated canonical Notch signaling inhibits DRG neuronal differentiation, possibly by regulating NeuroD1 expression, and is required for DRG gliogenesis in vivo.

  3. Dorsal Root Ganglia Sensory Neuronal Cultures: a tool for drug discovery for peripheral neuropathies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melli, Giorgia; Höke, Ahmet

    2010-01-01

    Background Peripheral neuropathies affect many people worldwide and are caused by or associated with a wide range of conditions, both genetic and acquired. Current therapies are directed at symptomatic control because no effective regenerative treatment exists. Primary challenge is that mechanisms that lead to distal axonal degeneration, a common feature of all peripheral neuropathies, are largely unknown. Objective/Methods To address the role and specific characteristics of dorsal root ganglia (DRG) derived sensory neuron culture system as a useful model in evaluating the pathogenic mechanisms of peripheral neuropathies and examination and validation of potential therapeutic compounds. A thorough review of the recent literature was completed and select examples of the use of DRG neurons in different peripheral neuropathy models were chosen to highlight the utility of these cultures. Conclusion Many useful models of different peripheral neuropathies have been developed using DRG neuronal culture and potential therapeutic targets have been examined, but so far none of the potential therapeutic compounds have succeeded in clinical trials. In recent years, focus has changed to evaluation of axon degeneration as the primary outcome measure advocating a drug development strategy starting with phenotypic drug screening, followed by validation in primary complex co-cultures and animal models. PMID:20657751

  4. Interactions between neuronal and non-neuronal cells in adult rat isolated dorsal root ganglion cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    NG K Y; WONG Y H; WISE H

    2008-01-01

    Objective The glial cells of the central nervous system are involved in tripartite signaling, therefore we have been investigating the relationship between sensory neurons and non-neuronal cells in isolated preparations of dorsal root ganglia (DRG). Methods The mixed cell cultures of dissociated DRG cells were separated to yield enriched fractions of IB4-positive cells (small diameter, non-peptidergic cells), IB4-negative cells (small diameter, peptidergic cells, and large diameter cells), and non-neuronal cells (principally satellite glial cells, Schwarm cells and fibroblasts). Adenylyl cyclase activity was assayed by measuring production of [3H]cAMP from cells preloaded with [3H]adenine. Results PGE2 and the PGI2 mimetic eicaprost stimulated adenylyl cyclase activity which was inhibited by ONO-AE3-208 (EP4 antagonist) or CAY10441 (IP antagonist) with estimated pA2 values of 8.9 and 8.2, respectively. Surprisingly, both PGE2 and cicaprost-stimulated [3H] cAMP production was greatest in the non-neuronal cell preparation. Furthermore, when the number of non-neuronal cells was kept constant and the number of neuronal cells was increased, we observed a progressive decrease in prostanoid-stimulated activity. Conclusions Sensory neurons appear to regulate prostanoid receptor-mediated cell signaling in non-neuronal cells within the DRG.

  5. Taurine-induced modulation of voltage-sensitive Na+ channels in rat dorsal root ganglion neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Shan-Shan; Yu, Kuai; Gu, Yan; Ruan, Di-Yun

    2005-08-15

    The physiological role of taurine, an abundant free amino acid in the neural system, is still poorly understood. The aim of this study was to investigate its effect on TTX-sensitive (TTX-S) and TTX-resistant (TTX-R) Na+ currents in enzymatically dissociated neurons from rat dorsal root ganglion (DRG) with conventional whole-cell recording manner under voltage-clamp conditions. A TTX-S Na+ current was recorded preferentially from large DRG neurons and a TTX-R Na+ current preferentially from small ones. For TTX-S Na+ channel, taurine of the concentration > or = 10 mM shifted the activation curve in the depolarizing direction and the inactivation curve in the hyperpolarizing direction. There was no change in the activation curve for TTX-R Na+ channel and the inactivation curve was shifted in the hyperpolarizing direction slightly in the presence of taurine > or = 20 mM. When the recovery kinetics was examined, the presence of taurine resulted in a slower recovery from inactivation of TTX-S currents and no change of TTX-R ones. All the effects of taurine were weakly concentration-dependent and partly recovered quite slowly after washout. Our data indicate that taurine alters the properties of Na+ currents in intact DRG neurons. These may contribute to the understanding of taurine as a natural neuroprotectant and the potential of taurine as a useful medicine for the treatment of sensory neuropathies.

  6. Effects of eugenol on Na+ currents in rat dorsal root ganglion neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Jeong Seon; Kim, Tae Hoon; Lim, Jae-Min; Song, Jin-Ho

    2008-12-01

    Eugenol is an aromatic molecule found in several plants and widely used in dentistry for analgesic and antiseptic purposes. It inhibits pro-inflammatory mediators including nitric oxide synthase, cyclooxygenase and lipoxygenase. It also regulates ion channels involved in pain signaling, such as TRPV1 receptor, high-voltage-activated Ca(2+) channels, NMDA receptor and GABA(A) receptor. The expression and functional properties of voltage-gated Na(+) channels in primary sensory neurons are altered following inflammation or nerve injury. To elucidate an involvement of Na(+) channels in the eugenol-induced analgesia we investigated the effects of eugenol on tetrodotoxin-sensitive (TTX-S) and tetrodotoxin-resistant (TTX-R) Na(+) currents in acutely dissociated rat dorsal root ganglion neurons. Eugenol inhibited TTX-S and TTX-R Na(+) currents in a concentration-dependent manner. The K(d) values were 308 muM and 543 muM, respectively. Eugenol did not influence the activation voltage of either type of Na(+) current. However, eugenol moved the steady-state inactivation curves of both Na(+) currents to a hyperpolarizing direction and reduced the maximal Na(+) current. Thus eugenol appears to inhibit Na(+) currents through its interaction with both resting and inactivated Na(+) channels. The recovery from inactivation of both Na(+) currents was slowed by eugenol. The eugenol inhibition of Na(+) currents was not dependent on the stimulus frequency. The inhibition of Na(+) currents is considered as one of the mechanisms by which eugenol exerts analgesia.

  7. Postembryonic neuronal addition in Zebrafish dorsal root ganglia is regulated by Notch signaling

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    McGraw Hillary

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The sensory neurons and glia of the dorsal root ganglia (DRG arise from neural crest cells in the developing vertebrate embryo. In mouse and chick, DRG formation is completed during embryogenesis. In contrast, zebrafish continue to add neurons and glia to the DRG into adulthood, long after neural crest migration is complete. The molecular and cellular regulation of late DRG growth in the zebrafish remains to be characterized. Results In the present study, we use transgenic zebrafish lines to examine neuronal addition during postembryonic DRG growth. Neuronal addition is continuous over the period of larval development. Fate-mapping experiments support the hypothesis that new neurons are added from a population of resident, neural crest-derived progenitor cells. Conditional inhibition of Notch signaling was used to assess the role of this signaling pathway in neuronal addition. An increase in the number of DRG neurons is seen when Notch signaling is inhibited during both early and late larval development. Conclusions Postembryonic growth of the zebrafish DRG comes about, in part, by addition of new neurons from a resident progenitor population, a process regulated by Notch signaling.

  8. Immortalized human dorsal root ganglion cells differentiate into neurons with nociceptive properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raymon, H K; Thode, S; Zhou, J; Friedman, G C; Pardinas, J R; Barrere, C; Johnson, R M; Sah, D W

    1999-07-01

    A renewable source of human sensory neurons would greatly facilitate basic research and drug development. We had established previously conditionally immortalized human CNS cell lines that can differentiate into functional neurons (). We report here the development of an immortalized human dorsal root ganglion (DRG) clonal cell line, HD10.6, with a tetracycline-regulatable v-myc oncogene. In the proliferative condition, HD10.6 cells have a doubling time of 1.2 d and exhibit a neuronal precursor morphology. After differentiation of clone HD10.6 for 7 d in the presence of tetracycline, v-myc expression was suppressed, and >50% of the cells exhibited typical neuronal morphology, stained positively for neuronal cytoskeletal markers, and fired action potentials in response to current injection. Furthermore, this cell line was fate-restricted to a neuronal phenotype; even in culture conditions that promote Schwann cell or smooth muscle differentiation of neural crest stem cells, HD10.6 differentiated exclusively into neurons. Moreover, differentiated HD10.6 cells expressed sensory neuron-associated transcription factors and exhibited capsaicin sensitivity. Taken together, these data indicate that we have established an immortalized human DRG cell line that can differentiate into sensory neurons with nociceptive properties. The cell line HD10.6 represents the first example of a human sensory neuronal line and will be valuable for basic research, as well as for the discovery of novel drug targets and clinical candidates.

  9. Altered neuronatin expression in the rat dorsal root ganglion after sciatic nerve transection

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    Wu Chih-Hsien

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Several molecular changes occur following axotomy, such as gene up-regulation and down-regulation. In our previous study using Affymetrix arrays, it was found that after the axotomy of sciatic nerve, there were many novel genes with significant expression changes. Among them, neuronatin (Nnat was the one which expression was significantly up-regulated. Nnat was identified as a gene selectively expressed in neonatal brains and markedly reduced in adult brains. The present study investigated whether the expression of Nnat correlates with symptoms of neuropathic pain in adult rats with transected sciatic nerve. Methods Western blotting, immunohistochemistry, and the Randall and Selitto test were used to study the protein content, and subcellular localization of Nnat in correlation with pain-related animal behavior. Results It was found that after nerve injury, the expression of Nnat was increased in total protein extracts. Unmyelinated C-fiber and thinly myelinated A-δ fiber in adult dorsal root ganglions (DRGs were the principal sub-population of primary afferent neurons with distributed Nnat. The increased expression of Nnat and its subcellular localization were related to mechanical hyperalgesia. Conclusions The results indicated that there was significant correlation between mechanical hyperalgesia in axotomy of sciatic nerve and the increased expression of Nnat in C-fiber and A-δ fiber of adult DRG neurons.

  10. RNA-Seq Analysis of Human Trigeminal and Dorsal Root Ganglia with a Focus on Chemoreceptors.

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    Caroline Flegel

    Full Text Available The chemosensory capacity of the somatosensory system relies on the appropriate expression of chemoreceptors, which detect chemical stimuli and transduce sensory information into cellular signals. Knowledge of the complete repertoire of the chemoreceptors expressed in human sensory ganglia is lacking. This study employed the next-generation sequencing technique (RNA-Seq to conduct the first expression analysis of human trigeminal ganglia (TG and dorsal root ganglia (DRG. We analyzed the data with a focus on G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs and ion channels, which are (potentially involved in chemosensation by somatosensory neurons in the human TG and DRG. For years, transient receptor potential (TRP channels have been considered the main group of receptors for chemosensation in the trigeminal system. Interestingly, we could show that sensory ganglia also express a panel of different olfactory receptors (ORs with putative chemosensory function. To characterize OR expression in more detail, we performed microarray, semi-quantitative RT-PCR experiments, and immunohistochemical staining. Additionally, we analyzed the expression data to identify further known or putative classes of chemoreceptors in the human TG and DRG. Our results give an overview of the major classes of chemoreceptors expressed in the human TG and DRG and provide the basis for a broader understanding of the reception of chemical cues.

  11. Subpopulations of rat dorsal root ganglion neurons express active vesicular acetylcholine transporter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tata, Ada Maria; De Stefano, M Egle; Tomassy, Giulio Srubek; Vilaró, M Teresa; Levey, Allan I; Biagioni, Stefano

    2004-01-15

    The vesicular acetylcholine transporter (VAChT) is a transmembrane protein required, in cholinergic neurons, for selective storage of acetylcholine into synaptic vesicles. Although dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons utilize neuropeptides and amino acids for neurotransmission, we have previously demonstrated the presence of a cholinergic system. To investigate whether, in sensory neurons, the vesicular accumulation of acetylcholine relies on the same mechanisms active in classical cholinergic neurons, we investigated VAChT presence, subcellular distribution, and activity. RT-PCR and Western blot analysis demonstrated the presence of VAChT mRNA and protein product in DRG neurons and in the striatum and cortex, used as positive controls. Moreover, in situ hybridization and immunocytochemistry showed VAChT staining located mainly in the medium/large-sized subpopulation of the sensory neurons. A few small neurons were also faintly labeled by immunocytochemistry. In the electron microscope, immunolabeling was associated with vesicle-like elements distributed in the neuronal cytoplasm and in both myelinated and unmyelinated intraganglionic nerve fibers. Finally, [(3)H]acetylcholine active transport, evaluated either in the presence or in the absence of ATP, also demonstrated that, as previously reported, the uptake of acetylcholine by VAChT is ATP dependent. This study suggests that DRG neurons not only are able to synthesize and degrade ACh and to convey cholinergic stimuli but also are capable of accumulating and, possibly, releasing acetylcholine by the same mechanism used by the better known cholinergic neurons.

  12. Caspase-Mediated Apoptosis in Sensory Neurons of Cultured Dorsal Root Ganglia in Adult Mouse

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    Hamid Reza Momeni

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Sensory neurons in dorsal root ganglia (DRG undergo apoptosis after peripheral nerve injury. The aim of this study was to investigate sensory neuron death and the mechanism involved in the death of these neurons in cultured DRG.Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, L5 DRG from adult mouse were dissected and incubated in culture medium for 24, 48, 72 and 96 hours. Freshly dissected and cultured DRG were then fixed and sectioned using a cryostat. Morphological and biochemical features of apoptosis were investigated using fluorescent staining (Propidium iodide and Hoechst 33342 and the terminal Deoxynucleotide transferase dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL method respectively. To study the role of caspases, general caspase inhibitor (Z-VAD.fmk, 100 μM and immunohistochemistry for activated caspase-3 were used.Results: After 24, 48, 72 and 96 hours in culture, sensory neurons not only displayed morphological features of apoptosis but also they appeared TUNEL positive. The application of Z-VAD.fmk inhibited apoptosis in these neurons over the same time period. In addition, intense activated caspase-3 immunoreactivity was found both in the cytoplasm and the nuclei of these neurons after 24 and 48 hours.Conclusion: Results of the present study show caspase-dependent apoptosis in the sensory neurons of cultured DRG from adult mouse.

  13. Teratogenic effects of pyridoxine on the spinal cord and dorsal root ganglia of embryonic chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharp, A A; Fedorovich, Y

    2015-03-19

    Our understanding of the role of somatosensory feedback in regulating motility during chicken embryogenesis and fetal development in general has been hampered by the lack of an approach to selectively alter specific sensory modalities. In adult mammals, pyridoxine overdose has been shown to cause a peripheral sensory neuropathy characterized by a loss of both muscle and cutaneous afferents, but predominated by a loss of proprioception. We have begun to explore the sensitivity of the nervous system in chicken embryos to the application of pyridoxine on embryonic days 7 and 8, after sensory neurons in the lumbosacral region become post-mitotic. Upon examination of the spinal cord, dorsal root ganglion and peripheral nerves, we find that pyridoxine causes a loss of neurotrophic tyrosine kinase receptor type 3-positive neurons, a decrease in the diameter of the muscle innervating nerve tibialis, and a reduction in the number of large diameter axons in this nerve. However, we found no change in the number of Substance P or calcitonin gene-related peptide-positive neurons, the number of motor neurons or the diameter or axonal composition of the femoral cutaneous nerve. Therefore, pyridoxine causes a peripheral sensory neuropathy in embryonic chickens largely consistent with its effects in adult mammals. However, the lesion may be more restricted to proprioception in the chicken embryo. Therefore, pyridoxine lesion induced during embryogenesis in the chicken embryo can be used to assess how the loss of sensation, largely proprioception, alters spontaneous embryonic motility and subsequent motor development.

  14. Localization of P2X7 Receptor Immunoreactivity in the Dorsal Root Ganglia of Guinea Pig

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    BAI Xuegong; JIANG Ling; XIANG Zhenghua

    2005-01-01

    The P2X7 receptor mRNA and proteins in guinea-pig dorsal root ganglia (DRG) were studied by using RT-PCR and immunohistochemistry. The co-localization of P2X7 receptor with four cytochemical markers, the neurofilament protein NF200, S100, substance P and isolectin B4 (IB4) binding glyco-conjugates, were also examined. It was found that P2X7 receptor immunoreactivity (P2X7R-IR) was present mostly in large- and medium-sized DRG neurons (62 %±9 % and 36 %±6 % respectively in all P2X7R-IR neurons). All the P2X7R-IR neurons were also NF200 and S100 immunopositive. However, in a small number of NF200 or S100 immunopositive neurons no P2X7R-IR was detectable. All the IB4-positive or substance P-immunopositive neurons had no P2X7R-IR. These results demonstrate that P2X7 receptors are expressed in a large subpopulation of DRG neurons and they may play a role in the transduction of specific peripheral sensory signals.

  15. Cervical dorsal rhizotomy increases brain-derived neurotrophic factor and neurotrophin-3 expression in the ventral spinal cord.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, R A; Okragly, A J; Haak-Frendscho, M; Mitchell, G S

    2000-05-15

    Although neurotrophic factors have been implicated in several forms of neuroplasticity, little is known concerning their potential role in spinal plasticity. Cervical dorsal rhizotomy (CDR) enhances serotonin terminal density near (spinal) phrenic motoneurons and serotonin-dependent long-term facilitation of phrenic motor output (Kinkead et al., 1998). We tested the hypothesis that selected neurotrophic factors change in a manner consistent with an involvement in this model of spinal plasticity. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), neurotrophin-3 (NT-3), glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF), and transforming growth factor-beta(1) (TGF-beta(1)) concentrations were measured (ELISA) in three regions of interest to respiratory control: (1) ventral cervical spinal segments associated with the phrenic motor nucleus (C3-C6), (2) ventral thoracic spinal segments associated with inspiratory intercostal motor output (T3-T6) and (3) the diaphragm. Tissues were harvested from rats 7 d after bilateral CDR and compared with sham-operated and unoperated control rats. CDR increased BDNF (110%; p = 0.002) and NT-3 (100%; p = 0.002) in the cervical and NT-3 in the thoracic spinal cord (98%; p = 0.009). GDNF and TGF-beta(1) were not altered by CDR in any tissue. Immunohistochemistry localized BDNF and NT-3 to motoneurons and interneurons of the ventral spinal cord. These studies provide novel, suggestive evidence that BDNF and NT-3, possibly through their trophic effects on serotonergic neurons and/or motoneurons, may underlie serotonin-dependent plasticity in (spinal) respiratory motor control after CDR.

  16. Substance P and calcitonin gene-related peptide expression in dorsal root ganglia in sciatic nerve injury rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Changma Fu; Zongsheng Yin; Defu Yu; Zuhua Yang

    2013-01-01

    The neuropeptides, substance P and calcitonin gene-related peptide, have been shown to be involved in pain transmission and repair of sciatic nerve injury. A model of sciatic nerve defect was prepared by dissecting the sciatic nerve at the middle, left femur in female Sprague Dawley rats. The two ends of the nerve were encased in a silica gel tube. L5 dorsal root ganglia were harvested 7, 14 and 28 days post sciatic nerve injury for immunohistochemical staining. Results showed that substance P and cal-citonin gene-related peptide expression increased significantly in dorsal root ganglion of rats with sci-atic nerve injury. This increase peaked at 7 days, declined at 14 days, and reduced to normal levels by 28 days post injury. The findings indicate that the neuropeptides, substance P and calcitonin gene-related peptide, mainly increased in the early stages after sciatic nerve injury.

  17. Vitamin D Receptor and Enzyme Expression in Dorsal Root Ganglia of Adult Female Rats: Modulation by Ovarian Hormones

    OpenAIRE

    Tague, Sarah E.; Smith, Peter G.

    2010-01-01

    Vitamin D insufficiency impacts sensory processes including pain and proprioception, but little is known regarding vitamin D signaling in adult sensory neurons. We analyzed female rat dorsal root ganglia (DRG) for vitamin receptor (VDR) and the vitamin D metabolizing enzymes CYP27B1 and CYP24. Western blots and immunofluorescence revealed the presence of these proteins in sensory neurons. Nuclear VDR immunoreactivity was present within nearly all neurons, while cytoplasmic VDR was found prefe...

  18. Bilateral mechanical and thermal hyperalgesia and tactile allodynia after chronic compression of dorsal root ganglion in mice.

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    Chen, Rong-Gui; Kong, Wei-Wei; Ge, Da-Long; Luo, Ceng; Hu, San-Jue

    2011-08-01

    OBJECTIVE Low back pain is one of the most inextricable problems encountered in clinics. Animal models that imitate symptoms in humans are valuable tools for investigating low back pain mechanisms and the possible therapeutic applications. With the development of genetic technology in pain field, the possibility of mutating specific genes in mice has provided a potent tool for investigating the specific mechanisms of pain. The aim of the present study was to develop a mouse model of chronic compression of dorsal root ganglion (CCD), in which gene mutation can be applied to facilitate the studies of chronic pain. METHODS Chronic compression of L4 and L5 dorsal root ganglia was conducted in mice by inserting fine stainless steel rods into the intervertebral foramina, one at L4 and the other at L5. Mechanical allodynia and thermal hyperalgesia were examined with von Frey filaments and radiating heat stimulator, respectively. RESULTS The CCD mice displayed dramatic mechanical and thermal hyperalgesia as well as tactile allodynia in the hindpaw ipsilateral to CCD. In addition, this mechanical and thermal hyperalgesia as well as tactile allodynia was also found to spread to the contralateral hindpaw. CONCLUSION This model, combined with the possible genetic modification, will strengthen our knowledge of the underlying mechanisms of low back pain. It also favors the development of new treatment strategies for pain and hyperalgesia after spinal injury and other disorders which affect the dorsal root ganglion in humans.

  19. Calretinin-immunoreactive nerves in the uterus, pelvic autonomic ganglia, lumbosacral dorsal root ganglia and lumbosacral spinal cord.

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    Papka, R E; Collins, J; Copelin, T; Wilson, K

    1999-10-01

    Nerves containing the calcium-binding protein calretinin have been reported in several organs but not in female reproductive organs and associated ganglia. This study was undertaken to determine if nerves associated with the uterus contain calretinin and the source(s) of calretinin-synthesizing nerves in the rat (are they sensory, efferent, or both?). Calretinin-immunoreactive nerves were present in the uterine horns and cervix where they were associated with arteries, uterine smooth muscle, glands, and the epithelium. Calretinin-immunoreactive terminals were apposed to neurons in the paracervical ganglia; in addition, some postganglionic neurons in this ganglion were calretinin positive. Calretinin perikarya were present in the lumbosacral dorsal root ganglia, no-dose ganglia, and lumbosacral spinal cord. Retrograde axonal tracing, utilizing Fluorogold injected into the uterus or paracervical parasympathetic ganglia, revealed calretinin-positive/Fluorogold-labeled neurons in the dorsal root and nodose ganglia. Also, capsaicin treatment substantially reduced the calretinin-positive fibers in the uterus and pelvic ganglia, thus indicating the sensory nature of these fibers. The presence of calretinin immunoreactivity identifies a subset of nerves that are involved in innervation of the pelvic viscera and have origins from lumbosacral dorsal root ganglia and vagal nodose ganglia. Though the exact function of calretinin in these nerves is not currently known, calretinin is likely to play a role in calcium regulation and their function.

  20. In vivo imaging of dorsal root regeneration: rapid immobilization and presynaptic differentiation at the CNS/PNS border.

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    Di Maio, Alessandro; Skuba, Andrew; Himes, B Timothy; Bhagat, Srishiti L; Hyun, Jung Keun; Tessler, Alan; Bishop, Derron; Son, Young-Jin

    2011-03-23

    Dorsal root (DR) axons regenerate in the PNS but turn around or stop at the dorsal root entry zone (DREZ), the entrance into the CNS. Earlier studies that relied on conventional tracing techniques or postmortem analyses attributed the regeneration failure to growth inhibitors and lack of intrinsic growth potential. Here, we report the first in vivo imaging study of DR regeneration. Fluorescently labeled, large-diameter DR axons in thy1-YFPH mice elongated through a DR crush site, but not a transection site, and grew along the root at >1.5 mm/d with little variability. Surprisingly, they rarely turned around at the DREZ upon encountering astrocytes, but penetrated deeper into the CNS territory, where they rapidly stalled and then remained completely immobile or stable, even after conditioning lesions that enhanced growth along the root. Stalled axon tips and adjacent shafts were intensely immunolabeled with synapse markers. Ultrastructural analysis targeted to the DREZ enriched with recently arrived axons additionally revealed abundant axonal profiles exhibiting presynaptic features such as synaptic vesicles aggregated at active zones, but not postsynaptic features. These data suggest that axons are neither repelled nor continuously inhibited at the DREZ by growth-inhibitory molecules but are rapidly stabilized as they invade the CNS territory of the DREZ, forming presynaptic terminal endings on non-neuronal cells. Our work introduces a new experimental paradigm to the investigation of DR regeneration and may help to induce significant regeneration after spinal root injuries.

  1. Increased response to glutamate in small diameter dorsal root ganglion neurons after sciatic nerve injury.

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    Kerui Gong

    Full Text Available Glutamate in the peripheral nervous system is involved in neuropathic pain, yet we know little how nerve injury alters responses to this neurotransmitter in primary sensory neurons. We recorded neuronal responses from the ex-vivo preparations of the dorsal root ganglia (DRG one week following a chronic constriction injury (CCI of the sciatic nerve in adult rats. We found that small diameter DRG neurons (30 µm were unaffected. Puff application of either glutamate, or the selective ionotropic glutamate receptor agonists alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA and kainic acid (KA, or the group I metabotropic receptor (mGluR agonist (S-3,5-dihydroxyphenylglycine (DHPG, induced larger inward currents in CCI DRGs compared to those from uninjured rats. N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA-induced currents were unchanged. In addition to larger inward currents following CCI, a greater number of neurons responded to glutamate, AMPA, NMDA, and DHPG, but not to KA. Western blot analysis of the DRGs revealed that CCI resulted in a 35% increase in GluA1 and a 60% decrease in GluA2, the AMPA receptor subunits, compared to uninjured controls. mGluR1 receptor expression increased by 60% in the membrane fraction, whereas mGluR5 receptor subunit expression remained unchanged after CCI. These results show that following nerve injury, small diameter DRG neurons, many of which are nociceptive, have increased excitability and an increased response to glutamate that is associated with changes in receptor expression at the neuronal membrane. Our findings provide further evidence that glutamatergic transmission in the periphery plays a role in nociception.

  2. Citral sensing by Transient [corrected] receptor potential channels in dorsal root ganglion neurons.

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    Stephanie C Stotz

    Full Text Available Transient receptor potential (TRP ion channels mediate key aspects of taste, smell, pain, temperature sensation, and pheromone detection. To deepen our understanding of TRP channel physiology, we require more diverse pharmacological tools. Citral, a bioactive component of lemongrass, is commonly used as a taste enhancer, as an odorant in perfumes, and as an insect repellent. Here we report that citral activates TRP channels found in sensory neurons (TRPV1 and TRPV3, TRPM8, and TRPA1, and produces long-lasting inhibition of TRPV1-3 and TRPM8, while transiently blocking TRPV4 and TRPA1. Sustained citral inhibition is independent of internal calcium concentration, but is state-dependent, developing only after TRP channel opening. Citral's actions as a partial agonist are not due to cysteine modification of the channels nor are they a consequence of citral's stereoisoforms. The isolated aldehyde and alcohol cis and trans enantiomers (neral, nerol, geranial, and geraniol each reproduce citral's actions. In juvenile rat dorsal root ganglion neurons, prolonged citral inhibition of native TRPV1 channels enabled the separation of TRPV2 and TRPV3 currents. We find that TRPV2 and TRPV3 channels are present in a high proportion of these neurons (94% respond to 2-aminoethyldiphenyl borate, consistent with our immunolabeling experiments and previous in situ hybridization studies. The TRPV1 activation requires residues in transmembrane segments two through four of the voltage-sensor domain, a region previously implicated in capsaicin activation of TRPV1 and analogous menthol activation of TRPM8. Citral's broad spectrum and prolonged sensory inhibition may prove more useful than capsaicin for allodynia, itch, or other types of pain involving superficial sensory nerves and skin.

  3. Characterization of Na+ and Ca2+ channels in zebrafish dorsal root ganglion neurons.

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    Yu-Jin Won

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Dorsal root ganglia (DRG somata from rodents have provided an excellent model system to study ion channel properties and modulation using electrophysiological investigation. As in other vertebrates, zebrafish (Danio rerio DRG are organized segmentally and possess peripheral axons that bifurcate into each body segment. However, the electrical properties of zebrafish DRG sensory neurons, as compared with their mammalian counterparts, are relatively unexplored because a preparation suitable for electrophysiological studies has not been available. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We show enzymatically dissociated DRG neurons from juvenile zebrafish expressing Isl2b-promoter driven EGFP were easily identified with fluorescence microscopy and amenable to conventional whole-cell patch-clamp studies. Two kinetically distinct TTX-sensitive Na(+ currents (rapidly- and slowly-inactivating were discovered. Rapidly-inactivating I(Na were preferentially expressed in relatively large neurons, while slowly-inactivating I(Na was more prevalent in smaller DRG neurons. RT-PCR analysis suggests zscn1aa/ab, zscn8aa/ab, zscn4ab and zscn5Laa are possible candidates for these I(Na components. Voltage-gated Ca(2+ currents (I(Ca were primarily (87% comprised of a high-voltage activated component arising from ω-conotoxin GVIA-sensitive Ca(V2.2 (N-type Ca(2+ channels. A few DRG neurons (8% displayed a miniscule low-voltage-activated component. I(Ca in zebrafish DRG neurons were modulated by neurotransmitters via either voltage-dependent or -independent G-protein signaling pathway with large cell-to-cell response variability. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our present results indicate that, as in higher vertebrates, zebrafish DRG neurons are heterogeneous being composed of functionally distinct subpopulations that may correlate with different sensory modalities. These findings provide the first comparison of zebrafish and rodent DRG neuron electrical properties and

  4. Enrichment and proteomic analysis of plasma membrane from rat dorsal root ganglions

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    Lin Yong

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dorsal root ganglion (DRG neurons are primary sensory neurons that conduct neuronal impulses related to pain, touch and temperature senses. Plasma membrane (PM of DRG cells plays important roles in their functions. PM proteins are main performers of the functions. However, mainly due to the very low amount of DRG that leads to the difficulties in PM sample collection, few proteomic analyses on the PM have been reported and it is a subject that demands further investigation. Results By using aqueous polymer two-phase partition in combination with high salt and high pH washing, PMs were efficiently enriched, demonstrated by western blot analysis. A total of 954 non-redundant proteins were identified from the plasma membrane-enriched preparation with CapLC-MS/MS analysis subsequent to protein separation by sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE or shotgun digestion. 205 (21.5% of the identified proteins were unambiguously assigned as PM proteins, including a large number of signal proteins, receptors, ion channel and transporters. Conclusion The aqueous polymer two-phase partition is a simple, rapid and relatively inexpensive method. It is well suitable for the purification of PMs from small amount of tissues. Therefore, it is reasonable for the DRG PM to be enriched by using aqueous two-phase partition as a preferred method. Proteomic analysis showed that DRG PM was rich in proteins involved in the fundamental biological processes including material exchange, energy transformation and information transmission, etc. These data would help to our further understanding of the fundamental DRG functions.

  5. Cannabinoids inhibit acid-sensing ion channel currents in rat dorsal root ganglion neurons.

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    Yu-Qiang Liu

    Full Text Available Local acidosis has been found in various pain-generating conditions such as inflammation and tissue injury. Cannabinoids exert a powerful inhibitory control over pain initiation via peripheral cognate receptors. However, the peripheral molecular targets responsible for the antinociceptive effects of cannabinoids are still poorly understood. Here, we have found that WIN55,212-2, a cannabinoid receptor agonist, inhibits the activity of native acid-sensing ion channels (ASICs in rat dorsal root ganglion (DRG neurons. WIN55,212-2 dose-dependently inhibited proton-gated currents mediated by ASICs. WIN55,212-2 shifted the proton concentration-response curve downwards, with an decrease of 48.6±3.7% in the maximum current response but with no significant change in the EC(50 value. The inhibition of proton-gated current induced by WIN55,212-2 was almost completely blocked by the selective CB1 receptor antagonist AM 281, but not by the CB2 receptor antagonist AM630. Pretreatment of forskolin, an AC activator, and the addition of cAMP also reversed the inhibition of WIN55,212-2. Moreover, WIN55,212-2 altered acid-evoked excitability of rat DRG neurons and decreased the number of action potentials induced by acid stimuli. Finally, WIN55,212-2 attenuated nociceptive responses to injection of acetic acid in rats. These results suggest that WIN55,212-2 inhibits the activity of ASICs via CB1 receptor and cAMP dependent pathway in rat primary sensory neurons. Thus, cannabinoids can exert their analgesic action by interaction with ASICs in the primary afferent neurons, which was novel analgesic mechanism of cannabinoids.

  6. Lentiviral gene transfer into the dorsal root ganglion of adult rats

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    Park Frank

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Lentivector-mediated gene delivery into the dorsal root ganglion (DRG is a promising method for exploring pain pathophysiology and for genetic treatment of chronic neuropathic pain. In this study, a series of modified lentivector particles with different cellular promoters, envelope glycoproteins, and viral accessory proteins were generated to evaluate the requirements for efficient transduction into neuronal cells in vitro and adult rat DRG in vivo. Results In vitro, lentivectors expressing enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP under control of the human elongation factor 1α (EF1α promoter and pseudotyped with the conventional vesicular stomatitis virus G protein (VSV-G envelope exhibited the best performance in the transfer of EGFP into an immortalized DRG sensory neuron cell line at low multiplicities of infection (MOIs, and into primary cultured DRG neurons at higher MOIs. In vivo, injection of either first or second-generation EF1α-EGFP lentivectors directly into adult rat DRGs led to transduction rates of 19 ± 9% and 20 ± 8% EGFP-positive DRG neurons, respectively, detected at 4 weeks post injection. Transduced cells included a full range of neuronal phenotypes, including myelinated neurons as well as both non-peptidergic and peptidergic nociceptive unmyelinated neurons. Conclusion VSV-G pseudotyped lentivectors containing the human elongation factor 1α (EF1α-EGFP expression cassette demonstrated relatively efficient transduction to sensory neurons following direct injection into the DRG. These results clearly show the potential of lentivectors as a viable system for delivering target genes into DRGs to explore basic mechanisms of neuropathic pain, with the potential for future clinical use in treating chronic pain.

  7. Downregulation of miR-210 protected bupivacaine-induced neurotoxicity in dorsal root ganglion.

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    Wang, Yiheng; Ni, Hongxia; Zhang, Wenrui; Wang, Xiu; Zhang, Haishan

    2016-04-01

    Local anesthetic may cause neurotoxicity in developing neurons. In this study, we examined the molecular mechanisms of microRNA-210 (miR-210) in regulating bupivacaine-induced dorsal root ganglia (DRG) neurotoxicity in vitro. Young mouse (P30) DRG explants were cultured in vitro and treated with 5 mM bupivacaine to induce neurotoxicity. QRT-PCR was used to evaluate the expression profiles of miRNAs within 24 h after bupivacaine treatment. MiR-210 was downregulated in DRG, and its effects on bupivacaine-induced neurotoxicity were evaluated by apoptosis and neurite growth assays, respectively. Putative downstream target of miR-210 in DRG, BDNF, was evaluated by dual-luciferase assay, qRT-PCR, and western blot, respectively. BDNF was then knocked down by siRNA to assess its associated effects in regulating DRG neurotoxicity. Within the initial 24 h after bupivacaine treatment, various patterns of miRNA expression were observed, whereas miR-210 was constantly upregulated. Application of miR-210 inhibitor efficiently downregulated endogenous miR-210, protected apoptosis and neurite retraction in bupivacaine damaged DRG neurons. Using dual-luciferase assay, qRT-PCR, and western blot, BDNF was confirmed to the downstream target of miR-210 in DRG. SiRNA-mediated BDNF downregulation reversed the effect of miR-210 downregulation in DRG neurotoxicity. MiR-210, through the regulation of BDNF, plays important role in anesthetics-induced DRG neurotoxicity.

  8. Activation of neurotrophins in lumbar dorsal root probably contributes to neuropathic pain after spinal nerve ligation

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    Kazemi, Abdolreza; Rahmati, Masoud; Eslami, Rasoul; Sheibani, Vahid

    2017-01-01

    Objective(s): Neurotrophins (NTs) exert various effects on neuronal system. Growing evidence indicates that NTs are involved in the pathophysiology of neuropathic pain. However, the exact role of these proteins in modulating nociceptive signaling requires being defined. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of spinal nerve ligation (SNL) on NTs activation in the lumbar dorsal root. Materials and Methods: Ten male Wistar rats were randomly assigned to two groups: tight ligation of the L5 spinal nerve (SNL: n=5) and Sham (n=5). In order to produce neuropathic pain, the L5 spinal nerve was tightly ligated (SNL). Then, allodynia and hyperalgesia tests were conducted weekly. After 4 weeks, tissue samples were taken from the two groups for laboratory evaluations. Here, Real-Time PCR quantity method was used for measuring NTs gene expression levels. Results: SNL resulted in a significant weight loss in the soleus muscle (Pthermal hyperalgesia thresholds (respectively, P<0.05; P<0.05). Also, NGF, NT-4, NT-3, TrkA, TrkB and TrkC expression were up-regulated following spinal nerve ligation group (respectively, P=0.025, P=0.013, P=0.001, P=0.002, P<0.001, P=001) (respectively, 4.7, 5.2, 7.5, 5.1, 7.2, 6.2 folds). Conclusion: The present study provides new evidence that neuropathic pain induced by spinal nerve ligation probably activates NTs and Trk receptors expression in DRG. However, further studies are needed to better elucidate the role of NTs in a neuropathic pain. PMID:28133521

  9. Role of TRPM8 in dorsal root ganglion in nerve injury-induced chronic pain

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    Su Lin

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chronic neuropathic pain is an intractable pain with few effective treatments. Moderate cold stimulation can relieve pain, and this may be a novel train of thought for exploring new methods of analgesia. Transient receptor potential melastatin 8 (TRPM8 ion channel has been proposed to be an important molecular sensor for cold. Here we investigate the role of TRPM8 in the mechanism of chronic neuropathic pain using a rat model of chronic constriction injury (CCI to the sciatic nerve. Results Mechanical allodynia, cold and thermal hyperalgesia of CCI rats began on the 4th day following surgery and maintained at the peak during the period from the 10th to 14th day after operation. The level of TRPM8 protein in L5 dorsal root ganglion (DRG ipsilateral to nerve injury was significantly increased on the 4th day after CCI, and reached the peak on the 10th day, and remained elevated on the 14th day following CCI. This time course of the alteration of TRPM8 expression was consistent with that of CCI-induced hyperalgesic response of the operated hind paw. Besides, activation of cold receptor TRPM8 of CCI rats by intrathecal application of menthol resulted in the inhibition of mechanical allodynia and thermal hyperalgesia and the enhancement of cold hyperalgesia. In contrast, downregulation of TRPM8 protein in ipsilateral L5 DRG of CCI rats by intrathecal TRPM8 antisense oligonucleotide attenuated cold hyperalgesia, but it had no effect on CCI-induced mechanical allodynia and thermal hyperalgesia. Conclusions TRPM8 may play different roles in mechanical allodynia, cold and thermal hyperalgesia that develop after nerve injury, and it is a very promising research direction for the development of new therapies for chronic neuroapthic pain.

  10. [Effect of spontaneous firing of injured dorsal root ganglion neuron on excitability of wide dynamic range neuron in rat spinal dorsal horn].

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    Song, Ying; Zhang, Yong-Mei; Xu, Jie; Wu, Jing-Ru; Qin, Xia; Hua, Rong

    2013-10-25

    The aim of the paper is to study the effect of spontaneous firing of injured dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neuron in chronic compression of DRG (CCD) model on excitability of wide dynamic range (WDR) neuron in rat spinal dorsal horn. In vivo intracellular recording was done in DRG neurons and in vivo extracellular recording was done in spinal WDR neurons. After CCD, incidence of spontaneous discharge and firing frequency enhanced to 59.46% and (4.30 ± 0.69) Hz respectively from 22.81% and (0.60 ± 0.08) Hz in normal control group (P neuron in CCD rats decreased the spontaneous activities of WDR neurons from (191.97 ± 45.20)/min to (92.50 ± 30.32)/min (P neuron evoked spontaneous firing in a reversible way (n = 5) in silent WDR neurons of normal rats. There was 36.36% (12/33) WDR neuron showing after-discharge in response to innocuous mechanical stimuli on cutaneous receptive field in CCD rats, while after-discharge was not seen in control rats. Local administration of TTX on DRG with a concentration of 50 nmol/L attenuated innocuous electric stimuli-evoked after-discharge of WDR neurons in CCD rats in a reversible manner, and the frequency was decreased from (263 ± 56.5) Hz to (117 ± 30) Hz (P neurons is influenced by spontaneous firings of DRG neurons after CCD.

  11. Orexin A and Orexin Receptor 1 axonal traffic in dorsal roots at the CNS/PNS interface

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    Damien eColas

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Hypothalamic orexin/hypocretin neurons send long axonal projections through the dorsal spinal cord in lamina I-II of the dorsal horn at the interface with the peripheral nervous system (PNS. We show that in the dorsal horn OXA fibers colocalize with substance P (SP positive afferents of dorsal root ganglia (DRG neurons known to mediate sensory processing. Further, OR1 is expressed in p75NTR and SP positive DRG neurons, suggesting a potential signaling pathway between orexin and DRG neurons. Interestingly, DRG sensory neurons have a distinctive bifurcating axon where one branch innervates the periphery and the other one the spinal cord (pseudo-unipolar neurons, allowing for potential functional coupling of distinct targets. We observe that OR1 is transported selectively from DRG toward the spinal cord, while OXA is accumulated retrogradely toward the DRG. We hence report a rare situation of asymmetrical neuropeptide receptor distribution between axons projected by a single neuron. This molecular and cellular data are consistent with the role of OXA/OR1 in sensory processing, including DRG neuronal modulation, and support the potential existence of an OX/HCRT circuit between CNS and PNS.

  12. Dorsal root entry zone coagulation for treatment of deafferentation Pain syndromes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Xiao-hua; LI Yong-jie; HU Yong-sheng; TAO Wei; ZHENG Zhe

    2008-01-01

    Background Deafferentation pain is a kind of chronic pain syndrome and hard to manipulate.To evaluate the effectiveness and safety of junctional dorsal root entry zone (DREZ) coagulation,23 consecutive patients with intractable deafferentation pain syndrome were studied.Methods Twenty-three patients underwent junctional DREZ coagulation (C5-T1 for upper extremities and L2-S1 for lower extremities) under general anesthesia.The pain severity was evaluated by the short McGill pain questionnaire (MPQ) and the visual analog scale (VAS),and the depression and anxiety of patients were assessed by Hamilton rating scale for depression (HRSD),Hamilton anxiety scale (HAMA),self-rating anxiety scale(SAS)and self-rating depression scale (SDS).Results All the patients experienced significant pain reduction immediately after surgery.The scales of short MPQ and VAS at pre-operation,6-month and 12-month follow-up were 31.5±3.4 and 8.8±1.5,6.5±1.9 and 2.5±2.2,7.1±2.1 and 2.9±1.9,respectively.The postoperative scores comparing to pre-operative scores showed a statistically significant difference (P<0.01).The depression and anxiety state was also significantly relieved.At 12-month follow-up 6 patients had complete pain relief,11 had excellent results with more than 75% pain relief,17 had good results with more than 50% pain relief (73.9%).The main postoperative complications were transient slight hemiplegia(8),hypesthesia and paresthesia (15),a bearing down feeling of affected extremity (6),and deep sensory disability in the lower Iimbs(4)on the operated side.Because of the long time and prone position of the operation.13 cases had a transient hyperalgesia in the upper chest.Conclusion DREZ coagulation is a safe and effective procedure in the treatment of deafferentation pain syndromes.

  13. Modulatory effect of substance P on GABA-activated currents from rat dorsal root ganglion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jun-qiang SI; Zhi-qin ZHANG; Chun-xia LI; Li-feng WANG; Yun-lei YANG; Zhi-wang LI

    2004-01-01

    AIM: To explore the modulatory effect of substance P (SP) on GABA-activated current of dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons in rat. METHODS: The whole-cell patch-clamp technique was used to record SP- and GABAactivated currents in neurons freshly dissociated from rat DRG neurons. Drugs were applied by rapid solution exchange. RESULTS: Application of SP (28/41, 68.5 %) and GABA (36/41, 88.2 %) could induce concentrationdependent inward current in some cells. SP-(10 μmol/L) and GABA (100 μmol/L)-activated inward currents were (244±83) pA (n=9) and (1.8±0.5) nA (n=13), respectively. The majority of GABA-activated current had obvious three processes, the peak value (Ip), the steady state (Iss) and the desensitization (Ia). The desensitization of GABAactivated current was a biphasic process, including fast and slow desensitization. However, pre-application of SP (0.001-1 μmol/L) could inhibit the GABA-activated inward current which was identified to be GABAA receptormediated current. The inhibitory effects were concentration-dependent. The inhibitory effect of SP on the peak value of GABA-activated current was more than the steady state of GABA-activated current. The inhibition of GABA-activated current by SP (0.1 μmol/L) was related to the time after application of SP, the inhibition of GABAactivated currents by SP reached the peak at about 4 min (49.8 %±7.2 %, n=7, P<0.01) and took about 12 min to get a full recovery. The inhibition of GABA-activated currents by SP was almost completely removed after blockade of PKC by H-7 with the re-patch clamp. CONCLUSION: Pre-application of SP exerts a more strong inhibitory effect on the peak value of GABA-activated current than the steady state of GABA-activated current.

  14. Chronic recruitment of primary afferent neurons by microstimulation in the feline dorsal root ganglia

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    Fisher, Lee E.; Ayers, Christopher A.; Ciollaro, Mattia; Ventura, Valérie; Weber, Douglas J.; Gaunt, Robert A.

    2014-06-01

    Objective. This study describes results of primary afferent neural microstimulation experiments using microelectrode arrays implanted chronically in the lumbar dorsal root ganglia (DRG) of four cats. The goal was to test the stability and selectivity of these microelectrode arrays as a potential interface for restoration of somatosensory feedback after damage to the nervous system such as amputation. Approach. A five-contact nerve-cuff electrode implanted on the sciatic nerve was used to record the antidromic compound action potential response to DRG microstimulation (2-15 µA biphasic pulses, 200 µs cathodal pulse width), and the threshold for eliciting a response was tracked over time. Recorded responses were segregated based on conduction velocity to determine thresholds for recruiting Group I and Group II/Aβ primary afferent fibers. Main results. Thresholds were initially low (5.1 ± 2.3 µA for Group I and 6.3 ± 2.0 µA for Group II/Aβ) and increased over time. Additionally the number of electrodes with thresholds less than or equal to 15 µA decreased over time. Approximately 12% of tested electrodes continued to elicit responses at 15 µA up to 26 weeks after implantation. Higher stimulation intensities (up to 30 µA) were tested in one cat at 23 weeks post-implantation yielding responses on over 20 additional electrodes. Within the first six weeks after implantation, approximately equal numbers of electrodes elicited only Group I or Group II/Aβ responses at threshold, but the relative proportion of Group II/Aβ responses decreased over time. Significance. These results suggest that it is possible to activate Group I or Group II/Aβ primary afferent fibers in isolation with penetrating microelectrode arrays implanted in the DRG, and that those responses can be elicited up to 26 weeks after implantation, although it may be difficult to achieve a consistent response day-to-day with currently available electrode technology. The DRG are compelling targets

  15. KATP channel subunits in rat dorsal root ganglia: alterations by painful axotomy

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    Gemes Geza

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background ATP-sensitive potassium (KATP channels in neurons mediate neuroprotection, they regulate membrane excitability, and they control neurotransmitter release. Because loss of DRG neuronal KATP currents is involved in the pathophysiology of pain after peripheral nerve injury, we characterized the distribution of the KATP channel subunits in rat DRG, and determined their alterations by painful axotomy using RT-PCR, immunohistochemistry and electron microscopy. Results PCR demonstrated Kir6.1, Kir6.2, SUR1 and SUR2 transcripts in control DRG neurons. Protein expression for all but Kir6.1 was confirmed by Western blots and immunohistochemistry. Immunostaining of these subunits was identified by fluorescent and confocal microscopy in plasmalemmal and nuclear membranes, in the cytosol, along the peripheral fibers, and in satellite glial cells. Kir6.2 co-localized with SUR1 subunits. Kir6.2, SUR1, and SUR2 subunits were identified in neuronal subpopulations, categorized by positive or negative NF200 or CGRP staining. KATP current recorded in excised patches was blocked by glybenclamide, but preincubation with antibody against SUR1 abolished this blocking effect of glybenclamide, confirming that the antibody targets the SUR1 protein in the neuronal plasmalemmal membrane. In the myelinated nerve fibers we observed anti-SUR1 immunostaining in regularly spaced funneled-shaped structures. These structures were identified by electron microscopy as Schmidt-Lanterman incisures (SLI formed by the Schwann cells. Immunostaining against SUR1 and Kir6.2 colocalized with anti-Caspr at paranodal sites. DRG excised from rats made hyperalgesic by spinal nerve ligation exhibited similar staining against Kir6.2, SUR1 or SUR2 as DRG from controls, but showed decreased prevalence of SUR1 immunofluorescent NF200 positive neurons. In DRG and dorsal roots proximal to axotomy SLI were smaller and showed decreased SUR1 immunofluorescence. Conclusions We

  16. Motor and dorsal root ganglion axons serve as choice points for the ipsilateral turning of dI3 axons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avraham, Oshri; Hadas, Yoav; Vald, Lilach; Hong, Seulgi; Song, Mi-Ryoung; Klar, Avihu

    2010-11-17

    The axons of the spinal intersegmental interneurons are projected longitudinally along various funiculi arrayed along the dorsal-ventral axis of the spinal cord. The roof plate and the floor plate have a profound role in patterning their initial axonal trajectory. However, other positional cues may guide the final architecture of interneuron tracks in the spinal cord. To gain more insight into the organization of specific axonal tracks in the spinal cord, we focused on the trajectory pattern of a genetically defined neuronal population, dI3 neurons, in the chick spinal cord. Exploitation of newly characterized enhancer elements allowed specific labeling of dI3 neurons and axons. dI3 axons are projected ipsilaterally along two longitudinal fascicules at the ventral lateral funiculus (VLF) and the dorsal funiculus (DF). dI3 axons change their trajectory plane from the transverse to the longitudinal axis at two novel checkpoints. The axons that elongate at the DF turn at the dorsal root entry zone, along the axons of the dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons, and the axons that elongate at the VLF turn along the axons of motor neurons. Loss and gain of function of the Lim-HD protein Isl1 demonstrate that Isl1 is not required for dI3 cell fate. However, Isl1 is sufficient to impose ipsilateral turning along the motor axons when expressed ectopically in the commissural dI1 neurons. The axonal patterning of dI3 neurons, revealed in this study, highlights the role of established axonal cues-the DRG and motor axons-as intermediate guidepost cues for dI3 axons.

  17. A SCN9A gene-encoded dorsal root ganglia sodium channel polymorphism associated with severe fibromyalgia

    OpenAIRE

    Vargas-Alarcon Gilberto; Alvarez-Leon Edith; Fragoso Jose-Manuel; Vargas Angelica; Martinez Aline; Vallejo Maite; Martinez-Lavin Manuel

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background A consistent line of investigation suggests that autonomic nervous system dysfunction may explain the multi-system features of fibromyalgia (FM); and that FM is a sympathetically maintained neuropathic pain syndrome. Dorsal root ganglia (DRG) are key sympathetic-nociceptive short-circuit sites. Sodium channels located in DRG (particularly Nav1.7) act as molecular gatekeepers for pain detection. Nav1.7 is encoded in gene SCN9A of chromosome 2q24.3 and is predominantly expre...

  18. Sox10 contributes to the balance of fate choice in dorsal root ganglion progenitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madelaine, Romain; Busolin, Giorgia; Nikaido, Masataka; Colanesi, Sarah; Camargo-Sosa, Karen; Toppo, Stefano; Blader, Patrick; Tiso, Natascia; Kelsh, Robert N.

    2017-01-01

    The development of functional peripheral ganglia requires a balance of specification of both neuronal and glial components. In the developing dorsal root ganglia (DRGs), these components form from partially-restricted bipotent neuroglial precursors derived from the neural crest. Work in mouse and chick has identified several factors, including Delta/Notch signaling, required for specification of a balance of these components. We have previously shown in zebrafish that the Sry-related HMG domain transcription factor, Sox10, plays an unexpected, but crucial, role in sensory neuron fate specification in vivo. In the same study we described a novel Sox10 mutant allele, sox10baz1, in which sensory neuron numbers are elevated above those of wild-types. Here we investigate the origin of this neurogenic phenotype. We demonstrate that the supernumerary neurons are sensory neurons, and that enteric and sympathetic neurons are almost absent just as in classical sox10 null alleles; peripheral glial development is also severely abrogated in a manner similar to other sox10 mutant alleles. Examination of proliferation and apoptosis in the developing DRG reveals very low levels of both processes in wild-type and sox10baz1, excluding changes in the balance of these as an explanation for the overproduction of sensory neurons. Using chemical inhibition of Delta-Notch-Notch signaling we demonstrate that in embryonic zebrafish, as in mouse and chick, lateral inhibition during the phase of trunk DRG development is required to achieve a balance between glial and neuronal numbers. Importantly, however, we show that this mechanism is insufficient to explain quantitative aspects of the baz1 phenotype. The Sox10(baz1) protein shows a single amino acid substitution in the DNA binding HMG domain; structural analysis indicates that this change is likely to result in reduced flexibility in the HMG domain, consistent with sequence-specific modification of Sox10 binding to DNA. Unlike other Sox10

  19. A SAGE-based screen for genes expressed in sub-populations of neurons in the mouse dorsal root ganglion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garces Alain

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The different sensory modalities temperature, pain, touch and muscle proprioception are carried by somatosensory neurons of the dorsal root ganglia. Study of this system is hampered by the lack of molecular markers for many of these neuronal sub-types. In order to detect genes expressed in sub-populations of somatosensory neurons, gene profiling was carried out on wild-type and TrkA mutant neonatal dorsal root ganglia (DRG using SAGE (serial analysis of gene expression methodology. Thermo-nociceptors constitute up to 80 % of the neurons in the DRG. In TrkA mutant DRGs, the nociceptor sub-class of sensory neurons is lost due to absence of nerve growth factor survival signaling through its receptor TrkA. Thus, comparison of wild-type and TrkA mutants allows the identification of transcripts preferentially expressed in the nociceptor or mechano-proprioceptor subclasses, respectively. Results Our comparison revealed 240 genes differentially expressed between the two tissues (P Conclusion We have identified and characterized the detailed expression patterns of three genes in the developing DRG, placing them in the context of the known major neuronal sub-types defined by molecular markers. Further analysis of differentially expressed genes in this tissue promises to extend our knowledge of the molecular diversity of different cell types and forms the basis for understanding their particular functional specificities.

  20. ASIC2 is present in human mechanosensory neurons of the dorsal root ganglia and in mechanoreceptors of the glabrous skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabo, R; Alonso, P; Viña, E; Vázquez, G; Gago, A; Feito, J; Pérez-Moltó, F J; García-Suárez, O; Vega, J A

    2015-03-01

    Mechanosensory neurons lead to the central nervous system touch, vibration and pressure sensation. They project to the periphery and form different kinds of mechanoreceptors. The manner in which they sense mechanical signals is still not fully understood, but electrophysiological experiments have suggested that this may occur through the activation of ion channels that gate in response to mechanical stimuli. The acid-sensing ion channels (ASICs), especially ASIC2, may function as mechanosensors or are required for mechanosensation, and they are expressed in both mechanosensory neurons and mechanoreceptors. Here, we have used double immunohistochemistry for ASIC2 together with neuronal and glial markers associated with laser confocal microscopy and image analysis, to investigate the distribution of ASIC2 in human lumbar dorsal root ganglia, as well as in mechanoreceptors of the hand and foot glabrous skin. In lumbar dorsal root ganglia, ASIC2 immunoreactive neurons were almost all intermediate or large sized (mean diameter ≥20-70 µm), and no ASIC2 was detected in the satellite glial. ASIC2-positive axons were observed in Merkel cell-neurite complexes, Meissner and Pacinian corpuscles, all of them regarded as low-threshold mechanoreceptors. Moreover, a variable percent of Meissner (8 %) and Pacinian corpuscles (27 %) also displayed ASIC2 immunoreactivity in the Schwann-related cells. These results demonstrate the distribution of ASIC2 in the human cutaneous mechanosensory system and suggest the involvement of ASIC2 in mechanosensation.

  1. Etiology and prevention of external cervical root resorption associated to teeth bleaching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliane Mendes da SILVA

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction and objective: Esthetic dentistry has been prioritizedand the desire for whiter teeth has been increasingly present in dental offices, since whiter teeth tend to indicate health, beauty, youth and a more attractive smile. Teeth bleaching is a conservative method widely used to restore the original color of darkened teeth. However, possible relations with the external cervical root resorption have concerned many researchers and clinicians. Literature review: There are many mechanisms that can activate the external cervical root resorption, such as: chemical and physical action of the bleaching materials used, morphology of the cementoenamel junction associated to the immune system, material concentration, traumas and bleaching technique used. Conclusion: Therefore, considering many factors that are still not conclusive, preventing deleterious effects on teeth and support structures, care must be taken when choosing bleaching agent and bleaching technique, as well as when selecting each case, beyond a proper restoration after teeth bleaching.

  2. Risk factors for early post-operative neurological deterioration in dogs undergoing a cervical dorsal laminectomy or hemilaminectomy: 100 cases (2002-2014).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor-Brown, F E; Cardy, T J A; Liebel, F X; Garosi, L; Kenny, P J; Volk, H A; De Decker, S

    2015-12-01

    Early post-operative neurological deterioration is a well-known complication following dorsal cervical laminectomies and hemilaminectomies in dogs. This study aimed to evaluate potential risk factors for early post-operative neurological deterioration following these surgical procedures. Medical records of 100 dogs that had undergone a cervical dorsal laminectomy or hemilaminectomy between 2002 and 2014 were assessed retrospectively. Assessed variables included signalment, bodyweight, duration of clinical signs, neurological status before surgery, diagnosis, surgical site, type and extent of surgery and duration of procedure. Outcome measures were neurological status immediately following surgery and duration of hospitalisation. Univariate statistical analysis was performed to identify variables to be included in a multivariate model. Diagnoses included osseous associated cervical spondylomyelopathy (OACSM; n = 41), acute intervertebral disk extrusion (IVDE; 31), meningioma (11), spinal arachnoid diverticulum (10) and vertebral arch anomalies (7). Overall 54% (95% CI 45.25-64.75) of dogs were neurologically worse 48 h post-operatively. Multivariate statistical analysis identified four factors significantly related to early post-operative neurological outcome. Diagnoses of OACSM or meningioma were considered the strongest variables to predict early post-operative neurological deterioration, followed by higher (more severely affected) neurological grade before surgery and longer surgery time. This information can aid in the management of expectations of clinical staff and owners with dogs undergoing these surgical procedures.

  3. Altered acetylcholinesterase levels in the spinal cord anterior horn and dorsal root ganglion following sciatic nerve ischemia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhenjun Yang; Pei Wang; Songhe Yang; Jingfeng Xue

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Peripheral nerve ischemia has been shown to result in ischemic fiber degeneration and axoplasmic transport disturbance. However, the effect on acetylcholinesterase (AChE) expression in relevant cells following sciatic nerve ischemia remains unclear. OBJECTIVE: To observe AChE concentration changes following peripheral nerve ischemia. DESIGN, TIME AND SETTING: The present comparative observation, neuroanatomical experiment was performed at the Central Laboratory Animal of Chengde Medical College between 2006 and 2007. MATERIALS: A total of 20 healthy, adult, Wistar rats were randomized into two groups (n = 10): 8-day ischemia and 14-day ischemia. METHODS: Ischemia injury was induced in the unilateral sciatic nerve (experimental side) through ligation of the common iliac artery. The contralateral side received no intervention, and served as the control side. Rats in the 8-day ischemia and 14-day ischemia groups were allowed to survive for 8 and 14 days, respectively. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The L5 lumbar spinal cord and the L5 dorsal root ganglion were removed from both sides and sectioned utilizing a Leica vibrating slicer. AChE cellular expression was detected using Karnovsky-Root, and the number of AChE-positive cells and average gray value were analyzed using a MiVnt image analysis system. RESULTS: In the 8-day ischemia group, AChE-positive cell numbers were significantly less in the dorsal root ganglion and spinal cord anterior horn of the experimental side, but the average gray value was significantly greater, compared with the control side (P < 0.05). These changes were more significant in the 14-day ischemia group than in the 8-day ischemia group (P < 0.01). CONCLUSION: Peripheral nerve ischemia leads to decreased AChE expression in the associated cells in a time-dependent manner.

  4. Alteration of P2X3 expression in dorsal root ganglia after sciatic nerve ligation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guoxing Zhou; Lesi Xie; Qiben Wang; Qingping Yu; Xiaofu Liu; Qiumei Liu; Wei Peng; Zhicheng Zeng

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The expressions of P2X3 receptor in dorsal root ganglia (DRG) after different peripheral nerve injuries are diverse. It indicates the different roles of P2X3 in different models-caused neuropathologic pains.OBJECTIVE: To observe the expressions of P2X3 in corresponding DRG after sciatic nerve ligation in rats.DESIGN: Controlled observation experiment.SETTING: Department of Morphology, Hunan Traditional Chinese Medical College; Department of Human Anatomy and Neurobiology, Xiangya Medical College, Central South University.MATERIALS: Thirty-five healthy adult SD rats of clean grade an d either gender, weighing (200±20) g,were involved. According to the random digits table, the involved rats were randomized into 3 groups:normal group (n =5), sham-operated group (n =5) and experimental group (n =25). The experimental group were subdivided into 3, 7, 14, 21, 28 days groups according to different surviving time after operation, 5 rats at each time point. Polyclonal rabbit anti-P2X3 antibody (ABCAM company); biotinylated goat anti-rabbit IgG (Zhongshanjingqiao Biotechnical Co., Ltd., Beijing); Motic fluorescence microscope (Motic, Germany).METHODS: The experiments were carried out in the Department of Human Anatomy and Neurobiology,Xiangya Medical College, Central South University from June to December 2006. ① Rats of experimental group were created into models by ligation of right sciatic nerve according to the method of Seltzer et al. Left sciatic nerve was used as self-control. As for rats in the sham-operated group, ligation of sciatic nerve was omitted, but other procedures were the same as those in the experimental group. Rats of normal group were untouched. ② Rats of the normal group and sham-operated group survived for 14 days separately, and those of experimental group survived for corresponding time. After being deeply anesthetized by intraperitoneal injection of over-dose sodium pentobarbital, the rats of experimental group were transcardially

  5. Electroacupuncture diminishes P2X2 and P2X3 purinergic receptor expression in dorsal root ganglia of rats with visceral hypersensitivity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhijun Weng; Luyi Wu; Yuan Lu; Lidong Wang; Linying Tan; Ming Dong; Yuhu Xin

    2013-01-01

    Electroacupuncture at Shangjuxu (ST37) and Tianshu (ST25) can improve visceral hypersensitivity in rats. Colorectal distension was used to establish a rat model of chronic visceral hypersensitivity. Immunohistochemistry was used to detect P2X2 and P2X3 receptor expression in dorsal root ganglia from rats with chronic visceral hypersensitivity. Results demonstrated that abdominal withdrawal reflex scores obviously increased following establishment of the model, indicating visceral hypersensitivity. Simultaneously, P2X2 and P2X3 receptor expression increased in dorsal root ganglia. After bilateral electroacupuncture at Shangjuxu and Tianshu, abdominal withdrawal reflex scores and P2X2 and P2X3 receptor expression decreased in rats with visceral hypersensitivity. These results indicated that electroacupuncture treatment improved visceral hypersensitivity in rats with irritable bowel syndrome by reducing P2X2 and P2X3 receptor expression in dorsal root ganglia.

  6. MRI-guided and CT-guided cervical nerve root infiltration therapy. A cost comparison

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maurer, M.H.; Froeling, V.; Roettgen, R.; Bucourt, M. de; Hamm, B.; Streitparth, F. [Charite University Medicine Berlin (Germany). Dept. of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology; Bretschneider, T. [Magdeburg Univ. (Germany). Dept. of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine; Hartwig, T.; Disch, A.C. [Charite University Medicine Berlin (Germany). Center for Musculoskeletal Surgery

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: To evaluate and compare the costs of MRI-guided and CT-guided cervical nerve root infiltration for the minimally invasive treatment of radicular neck pain. Materials and Methods: Between September 2009 and April 2012, 22 patients (9 men, 13 women; mean age: 48.2 years) underwent MRI-guided (1.0 Tesla, Panorama HFO, Philips) single-site periradicular cervical nerve root infiltration with 40 mg triamcinolone acetonide. A further 64 patients (34 men, 30 women; mean age: 50.3 years) were treated under CT fluoroscopic guidance (Somatom Definition 64, Siemens). The mean overall costs were calculated as the sum of the prorated costs of equipment use (purchase, depreciation, maintenance, and energy costs), personnel costs and expenditure for disposables that were identified for MRI- and CT-guided procedures. Additionally, the cost of ultrasound guidance was calculated. Results: The mean intervention time was 24.9 min. (range: 12-36 min.) for MRI-guided infiltration and 19.7 min. (range: 5-54 min.) for CT-guided infiltration. The average total costs per patient were EUR 240 for MRI-guided interventions and EUR 124 for CT-guided interventions. These were (MRI/CT guidance) EUR 150/60 for equipment use, EUR 46/40 for personnel, and EUR 44/25 for disposables. The mean overall cost of ultrasound guidance was EUR 76. Conclusion: Cervical nerve root infiltration using MRI guidance is still about twice as expensive as infiltration using CT guidance. However, since it does not involve radiation exposure for patients and personnel, MRI-guided nerve root infiltration may become a promising alternative to the CT-guided procedure, especially since a further price decrease is expected for MRI devices and MR-compatible disposables. In contrast, ultrasound remains the less expensive method for nerve root infiltration guidance. (orig.)

  7. Persistent at-level thermal hyperalgesia and tactile allodynia accompany chronic neuronal and astrocyte activation in superficial dorsal horn following mouse cervical contusion spinal cord injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Jaime L; Hala, Tamara J; Putatunda, Rajarshi; Sannie, Daniel; Lepore, Angelo C

    2014-01-01

    In humans, sensory abnormalities, including neuropathic pain, often result from traumatic spinal cord injury (SCI). SCI can induce cellular changes in the CNS, termed central sensitization, that alter excitability of spinal cord neurons, including those in the dorsal horn involved in pain transmission. Persistently elevated levels of neuronal activity, glial activation, and glutamatergic transmission are thought to contribute to the hyperexcitability of these dorsal horn neurons, which can lead to maladaptive circuitry, aberrant pain processing and, ultimately, chronic neuropathic pain. Here we present a mouse model of SCI-induced neuropathic pain that exhibits a persistent pain phenotype accompanied by chronic neuronal hyperexcitability and glial activation in the spinal cord dorsal horn. We generated a unilateral cervical contusion injury at the C5 or C6 level of the adult mouse spinal cord. Following injury, an increase in the number of neurons expressing ΔFosB (a marker of chronic neuronal activation), persistent astrocyte activation and proliferation (as measured by GFAP and Ki67 expression), and a decrease in the expression of the astrocyte glutamate transporter GLT1 are observed in the ipsilateral superficial dorsal horn of cervical spinal cord. These changes have previously been associated with neuronal hyperexcitability and may contribute to altered pain transmission and chronic neuropathic pain. In our model, they are accompanied by robust at-level hyperaglesia in the ipsilateral forepaw and allodynia in both forepaws that are evident within two weeks following injury and persist for at least six weeks. Furthermore, the pain phenotype occurs in the absence of alterations in forelimb grip strength, suggesting that it represents sensory and not motor abnormalities. Given the importance of transgenic mouse technology, this clinically-relevant model provides a resource that can be used to study the molecular mechanisms contributing to neuropathic pain

  8. Accumulation of Misfolded SOD1 in Dorsal Root Ganglion Degenerating Proprioceptive Sensory Neurons of Transgenic Mice with Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Sábado

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS is an adult-onset progressive neurodegenerative disease affecting upper and lower motoneurons (MNs. Although the motor phenotype is a hallmark for ALS, there is increasing evidence that systems other than the efferent MN system can be involved. Mutations of superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1 gene cause a proportion of familial forms of this disease. Misfolding and aggregation of mutant SOD1 exert neurotoxicity in a noncell autonomous manner, as evidenced in studies using transgenic mouse models. Here, we used the SOD1G93A mouse model for ALS to detect, by means of conformational-specific anti-SOD1 antibodies, whether misfolded SOD1-mediated neurotoxicity extended to neuronal types other than MNs. We report that large dorsal root ganglion (DRG proprioceptive neurons accumulate misfolded SOD1 and suffer a degenerative process involving the inflammatory recruitment of macrophagic cells. Degenerating sensory axons were also detected in association with activated microglial cells in the spinal cord dorsal horn of diseased animals. As large proprioceptive DRG neurons project monosynaptically to ventral horn MNs, we hypothesise that a prion-like mechanism may be responsible for the transsynaptic propagation of SOD1 misfolding from ventral horn MNs to DRG sensory neurons.

  9. Revised vertebral count in the "longest-necked vertebrate" Elasmosaurus platyurus Cope 1868, and clarification of the cervical-dorsal transition in Plesiosauria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sven Sachs

    Full Text Available Elasmosaurid plesiosaurians are renowned for their immensely long necks, and indeed, possessed the highest number of cervical vertebrae for any known vertebrate. Historically, the largest count has been attributed to the iconic Elasmosaurus platyurus from the Late Cretaceous of Kansas, but estimates for the total neck series in this taxon have varied between published reports. Accurately determining the number of vertebral centra vis-à-vis the maximum length of the neck in plesiosaurians has significant implications for phylogenetic character designations, as well as the inconsistent terminology applied to some osteological structures. With these issues in mind, we reassessed the holotype of E. platyurus as a model for standardizing the debated cervical-dorsal transition in plesiosaurians, and during this procedure, documented a "lost" cervical centrum. Our revision also advocates retention of the term "pectorals" to describe the usually three or more distinctive vertebrae close to the cranial margin of the forelimb girdle that bear a functional rib facet transected by the neurocentral suture, and thus conjointly formed by both the parapophysis on the centrum body and diapophysis from the neural arch (irrespective of rib length. This morphology is unambiguously distinguishable from standard cervicals, in which the functional rib facet is borne exclusively on the centrum, and dorsals in which the rib articulation is situated above the neurocentral suture and functionally borne only by the transverse process of the neural arch. Given these easily distinguishable definitions, the maximum number of neck vertebrae preserved in E. platyurus is 72; this is only three vertebrae shorter than the recently described Albertonectes, which together with E. platyurus constitute the "longest necked" animals ever to have lived.

  10. Identification of differentially expressed genes by gabapentin in cultured dorsal root ganglion in a rat neuropathic pain model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heo, Ji Hye; Lee, Seung Ha; Chang, Kyung Ha; Han, Eun Hye; Lee, Seung Gwan; Choi, Dal Woong; Kim, Suhng Wook

    2013-03-01

    Neuropathic pain is a chronic pain disorder caused by nervous system lesions as a direct consequence of a lesion or by disease of the portions of the nervous system that normally signal pain. The spinal nerve ligation (SNL) model in rats that reflect some components of clinical pain have played a crucial role in the understanding of neuropathic pain. To investigate the direct effects of gabapentin on differential gene expression in cultured dorsal root ganglion (DRG) cells of SNL model rats, we performed a differential display reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction analysis with random priming approach using annealing control primer. Genes encoding metallothionein 1a, transforming growth factor-β1 and palmitoyl-protein thioesterase-2 were up-regulated in gabapentin-treated DRG cells of SNL model rats. The functional roles of these differentially expressed genes were previously suggested as neuroprotective genes. Further study of these genes is expected to reveal potential targets of gabapentin.

  11. Modulating nitric oxide levels in dorsal root ganglion neurons of rat with low-level laser therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Li-qin; Wang, Yu-hua; He, Yi-peng; Zhou, Jie; Yang, Hong-qin; Zhang, Yan-ding; Xie, Shu-sen

    2015-05-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) and nitric oxide synthase (NOS) have an important role in pain signaling transmission in animal models. Low-level laser therapy (LLLT) is known to have an analgesic effect, but the mechanism is unclear. The aim of the study is to investigate the influence of LLLT on NO release and NOS synthesis in dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons, in order to find whether LLLI can ameliorate pain through modulating NO production at the cellular level. The results show that in stress conditions, the laser irradiation at 658 nm can modulate NO production in DRG neurons with soma diameter of about 20 μm in a short time after illumination, and affect NOS synthesis in a dose-dependent manner. It is demonstrated that LLLT might treat pain by altering NO release directly and indirectly in DRG neurons.

  12. Applied anatomy of cervical dorsal rami nerve and its clinical significance%颈神经后支的解剖及其临床意义

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王金武; 陈德松; 王劼; 方有生; 顾玉东

    2001-01-01

    Objective:To provide anatomic basis for the diagnosis and treatment of the compression syndrome in cervical dorsal rami nerve.Methods:The origin,course,ramification,distribution of cervical dorsal rami nerve and its anatomic relationship with the adjacent tissues of the cervical vertebrae were observed on 20 adult embalmed cadavers(40 sides).Results:The C1 dorsal ramus passed between atlas and occipital bone.The medial branch of C2 dorsal ramus (the greater occipital nerve) passed through the osteo-fibruos aperture near the superior nuchal line and spreaded across the top of the skull.After arising outside their respective intervertebral foramina,C3~8 dorsal rami passed through osteo-fibruos aperture,entered the osteo-fibrous canal,passed through the tendious decussating fibers of the posterior muscles of neck and then supplied the cervical zygapophysial joints,the nuchal muscles and the occipital skin.The coordinate points of C5 osteo-fibrous apertures situated in 5.8±4.0 mm and 6.2±4.5 mm above the anterior tubercles of the same ordinal cervical vertebral transverse process and the coordinate points of C6 osteo-fibrous apertures situated in 12.2±2.5 mm and 13.6±3.9 mm behind the anterior tubercles of the same ordinal cervical vertebral transverse process.The coordinate points of C5 and C6 osteo-fibrous canals' central points situated in 4.5±3.4 mm and 4.7±3.4 mm above the anterior tubercles of the same ordinal cervical vertebral transverse process respectively and situated in 18.4±3.3 mm and 18.2±4.3 mm behind the anterior tubercles of the same ordinal cervical vertebral transverse process respectively.Conclusion:The osteo-fibrous apertures,osteo-fibrous canal and the tendious decussating fibers of the nuchal muscles passed through by cervical dorsal rami are the anatomic basis of the cervical dorsal rami compression syndrome.%目的:为临床诊治椎孔外颈神经后支卡压提供解剖学基础。方法:对20具(40侧)成人尸体的颈神经

  13. Cerebellar and brainstem infarction as a complication of CT-guided transforaminal cervical nerve root block

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suresh, S. [The Royal National Orthopaedic Hospital NHS Trust, London (United Kingdom); Berman, J. [The Royal National Orthopaedic Hospital NHS Trust, Anaesthetic Department, London (United Kingdom); Connell, David A. [The Royal National Orthopaedic Hospital NHS Trust, Department of Radiology, London (United Kingdom)

    2007-05-15

    A 60-year-old man with a 4-year history of intractable neck pain and radicular pain in the C5 nerve root distribution presented to our department for a CT-guided transforaminal left C5 nerve root block. He had had a similar procedure on the right 2 months previously, and had significant improvement of his symptoms with considerable pain relief. On this occasion he was again accepted for the procedure after the risks and potential complications had been explained. Under CT guidance, a 25G spinal needle was introduced and after confirmation of the position of the needle, steroid was injected. Immediately the patient became unresponsive, and later developed a MR-proven infarct affecting the left vertebral artery (VA) territory. This is the first report of a major complication of a cervical root injection under CT guidance reported in the literature. We present this case report and the literature review of the potential complications of this procedure. (orig.)

  14. Operative techniques for cervical radiculopathy and myelopathy.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Moran, C

    2012-02-01

    The surgical treatment of cervical spondylosis and resulting cervical radiculopathy or myelopathy has evolved over the past century. Surgical options for dorsal decompression of the cervical spine includes the traditional laminectomy and laminoplasty, first described in Asia in the 1970\\'s. More recently the dorsal approch has been explored in terms of minimally invasive options including foraminotomies for nerve root descompression. Ventral decompression and fusion techniques are also described in the article, including traditional anterior cervical discectomy and fusion, strut grafting and cervical disc arthroplasty. Overall, the outcome from surgery is determined by choosing the correct surgery for the correct patient and pathology and this is what we hope to explain in this brief review.

  15. The short- and medium-term effectiveness of CT-guided selective cervical nerve root injection for pain and disability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Desai, Amidevi; Saha, Shouvik; Sharma, Naveen; Huckerby, Lauren; Houghton, Russell [Guy' s and St. Thomas' Hospitals, Department of Radiology, London (United Kingdom)

    2014-07-15

    CT-guided cervical nerve root injection with corticosteroid and/or local anesthetic is a recognized technique in the evaluation and treatment of cervical radiculopathy. There are few prospective studies on the efficacy of the various techniques employed in cervical nerve root injection. We present our results from a 1-year prospective series using a CT-guided anterolateral transforaminal approach for cervical nerve root injection of bupivacaine and dexamethasone. Pain using a numeric rating scale was assessed at pre-injection, 15 min post-injection, 1 month, and 3 months. Disability was assessed using the Oswestry Neck Disability Index (NDI) questionnaire at pre-injection, 1 month post-injection, and 3 months. In total, 50 patients were followed for 3 months. The mean reductions in pain were: 15 min (77 %), 1 month (39 %), and 3 months (33 %). The mean reductions in NDI were: 1 month (26 %) and 3 months (also 26 %). Results were statistically significant. CT-guided selective cervical nerve root injection in the treatment of cervical radicular pain and related disability produces statistically significant reductions in pain and disability to at least 3 months post-procedure. (orig.)

  16. Inhibitory Activity of Yokukansankachimpihange against Nerve Growth Factor-Induced Neurite Growth in Cultured Rat Dorsal Root Ganglion Neurons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiaki Murayama

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Chronic pruritus is a major and distressing symptom of many cutaneous diseases, however, the treatment remains a challenge in the clinic. The traditional Chinese-Japanese medicine (Kampo medicine is a conservative and increasingly popular approach to treat chronic pruritus for both patients and medical providers. Yokukansankachimpihange (YKH, a Kampo formula has been demonstrated to be effective in the treatment of itching of atopic dermatitis in Japan although its pharmacological mechanism is unknown clearly. In an attempt to clarify its pharmacological actions, in this study, we focused on the inhibitory activity of YKH against neurite growth induced with nerve growth factor (NGF in cultured rat dorsal root ganglion (DRG neurons because epidermal hyperinnervation is deeply related to itch sensitization. YKH showed approximately 200-fold inhibitory activity against NGF-induced neurite growth than that of neurotropin (positive control, a drug used clinically for treatment of chronic pruritus. Moreover, it also found that Uncaria hook, Bupleurum root and their chemical constituents rhynchophylline, hirsutine, and saikosaponin a, d showed inhibitory activities against NGF-induced neurite growth, suggesting they should mainly contribute to the inhibitory activity of YKH. Further study on the effects of YKH against epidermal nerve density in “itch-scratch” animal models is under investigation.

  17. Forty-six Cases of the Nerve Root-Involved Cervical Spondylopathy Treated by Needling the "Sitian" Points

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dong Hongying; Wang Xiuyun; Meng Xiangwen; Liu Gongwang; Chen Zhenqiu

    2005-01-01

    In order to investigate the analgesic effect of needling at "Sitian" points for the nerve root-involved cervical spondylopathy, 68 cases of the nerve root-involved cervical spondylopathy were randomly divided into a treatment group of 46 cases treated by needling at "Sitian" points, and a control group of 22 cases treated by needling at cervical Jiaji points. After 2 therapeutic courses, the therapeutic effects were evaluated by using the visual analogue scale (VAS) and the semeiographic format. The results showed that the markedly effective rate was 78.3% and 54.5%, respectively in the treatment group and the control group, and the difference between the two groups was of significance (P<0.05). It can be concluded that needling at "Sitian" points can bring about a better therapeutic effect on the improvement of clinical symptoms, physical signs and pain than that of the needling at the cervical Jiaji points.

  18. A SCN9A gene-encoded dorsal root ganglia sodium channel polymorphism associated with severe fibromyalgia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vargas-Alarcon Gilberto

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A consistent line of investigation suggests that autonomic nervous system dysfunction may explain the multi-system features of fibromyalgia (FM; and that FM is a sympathetically maintained neuropathic pain syndrome. Dorsal root ganglia (DRG are key sympathetic-nociceptive short-circuit sites. Sodium channels located in DRG (particularly Nav1.7 act as molecular gatekeepers for pain detection. Nav1.7 is encoded in gene SCN9A of chromosome 2q24.3 and is predominantly expressed in the DRG pain-sensing neurons and sympathetic ganglia neurons. Several SCN9A sodium channelopathies have been recognized as the cause of rare painful dysautonomic syndromes such as paroxysmal extreme pain disorder and primary erythromelalgia. The aim of this study was to search for an association between fibromyalgia and several SCN9A sodium channels gene polymorphisms. Methods We studied 73 Mexican women suffering from FM and 48 age-matched women who considered themselves healthy. All participants filled out the Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire (FIQ. Genomic DNA from whole blood containing EDTA was extracted by standard techniques. The following SCN9A single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP were determined by 5' exonuclease TaqMan assays: rs4371369; rs4387806; rs4453709; rs4597545; rs6746030; rs6754031; rs7607967; rs12620053; rs12994338; and rs13017637. Results The frequency of the rs6754031 polymorphism was significantly different in both groups (P = 0.036 mostly due to an absence of the GG genotype in controls. Interestingly; patients with this rs6754031 GG genotype had higher FIQ scores (median = 80; percentile 25/75 = 69/88 than patients with the GT genotype (median = 63; percentile 25/75 = 58/73; P = 0.002 and the TT genotype (median = 71; percentile 25/75 = 64/77; P = 0.001. Conclusion In this ethnic group; a disabling form of FM is associated to a particular SCN9A sodium channel gene variant. These preliminary results raise the possibility that

  19. Motor Deficit After Cervical Surgery, Parsonage-Turner Syndrome or Root Lesion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayse Sarifakioglu

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available A 60 years old male patient was admitted to our outpatient clinic with the complaint of severe pain in right arm after cervical stenosis surgery which had been decreased with the formation of progressive motor weakness. Although clinical and physical evaluation was compatable with Parsonage-Turner syndrome (PTS, C5 root involvement has been detected. The patient was given exercise therapy with TENS for analgesia. The patient%u2019s motor weakness progressed and he had difficulties with daily living activities. With the review of literature, we are presenting a case, whose diagnosis was difficult in terms of differentiating both PTS and root lesion which could only be diagnosed by electroneuromyography.

  20. Effects of postnatal anti-NGF on the development of CGRP-IR neurons in the dorsal root ganglion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonra, J R; Mendell, L M

    1998-03-23

    Experiments were undertaken to examine anatomical correlates of physiological effects of rabbit sera raised against nerve growth factor (anti-NGF) on nociceptive afferents. This antiserum has been shown to deplete the population of A-delta high threshold mechanoreceptors and to reduce neurogenic vasodilatation. Because numerous studies implicate calcitonin gene related peptide (CGRP)-containing sensory neurons in these effects, immunocytochemical and anatomical techniques were used to examine the normal development of CGRP-immunoreactive (-IR) neurons in the dorsal root ganglion (DRG) of rats from 13 days to 19 weeks of age, and to compare this to the development in rats treated neonatally (postnatal days 2-14) with anti-NGF. In controls the rate of increase in the mean diameter of CGRP-IR cells was substantially greater between 13 days and 5 weeks of age than it was between 5 weeks and 19 weeks, in contrast to CGRP-negative neurons whose rate of growth remained relatively constant. Anti-NGF had no significant effect on growth rate, but rats treated with anti-NGF exhibited a reduced proportion of CGRP-IR neurons at 5 weeks. This deficit was reversed by 19 weeks unlike the physiological changes. These results indicate independent regulation of CGRP expression and nociceptor physiology by NGF.

  1. Slit-Robo GTPase-activating proteins are differentially expressed in murine dorsal root ganglia: modulation by peripheral nerve injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhi-Bing; Zhang, Hai-Ying; Zhao, Jiu-Hong; Zhao, Wei; Zhao, Dan; Zheng, Lin-Feng; Zhang, Xian-Fang; Liao, Xiao-Ping; Yi, Xi-Nan

    2012-04-01

    The Slit-Robo GTPase-activating proteins (srGAPs) play an important role in neurite outgrowth and axon guidance; however, little is known about its role in nerve regeneration after injury. Here, we studied the expression of srGAPs in mouse dorsal root ganglia (DRG) following sciatic nerve transection (SNT) using morphometric and immunohistochemical techniques. Reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction and Western blot analysis indicated that srGAP1 and srGAP3, but not srGAP2, were expressed in normal adult DRG. Following unilateral SNT, elevated mRNA and protein levels of srGAP1 and srGAP3 were detected in the ipsilateral relative to contralateral L(3-4) DRGs from day 3 to day 14. Immunohistochemical results showed that srGAP1 and srGAP3 were largely expressed in subpopulations of DRG neurons in naïve DRGs. However, after SNT, srGAP3 in neurons was significantly increased in the ipsilateral relative to contralateral DRGs, which peaked at day 7 to day 14. Interestingly, DRG neurons with strong srGAP3 labeling also coexpressed Robo2 after peripheral nerve injury. These results suggest that srGAPs are differentially expressed in murine DRG and srGAP3 are the predominant form. Moreover, srGAP3 may participate in Slit-Robo signaling in response to peripheral nerve injury or the course of nerve regeneration.

  2. The Survival Effects of Electeromagnetic Fields on Dorsal Root Ganglia Neurons of the Crushed Sciatic Nerve in the Rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.R. Nikravesh

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies have been shown that electromagnetic fields (EMF result in increasing the rate of nerve regeneration. Therefore it could be assumed following axotomy the signal induction of these fields may protect neural cells from death. For this study 24 male wistar rats (2 month age divided to 4 groups (experimental 1, 2, control and sham. For axotomy, the animals were anesthetized and their right Sciatic Nerve (SN were exposed and crushed in the mid portion of the thigh in experimental and control groups. In the sham group the SN just exposed (no compression. In the next phase experimental groups were exposed to the 50 HZ electeromagnetic field (EMF, 1.1mTl 2-4 hr/day (for 10 days. After 8 weeks, Dorsal Root Ganglions (DRGs in the lumbar segments (L4-L6 of spinal cord were sampled, processed sectioned serially and stained with toluidine blue (pH=4.5. By using stereological quantitative technique (physical disector, the neurons in the crushed side (DRGs were counted and compared in the all of groups. Statistical analyses of results have been shown a remarkable reduction in neuronal density in (DRGs of control. On the other hand we observed a cell death DRG significant among experimental groups (p<0/05. In addition we compared DRG volume in all groups but they didn’t show any significant difference. These findings indicate that the EMF may play a survival role against neuronal death during nerve injuries.

  3. The sensitivity of neurons with non-periodic activity to sympathetic stimulation in rat injured dorsal root ganglion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hong-Jun YANG; San-Jue HU; Pu-Lin GONG; Jian-Hong DUAN

    2006-01-01

    Objective The relationship between firing pattern and sensitivity of neurons was studied in chronically compressed dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons and the Hindmarsh-Rose (HR) neuronal model. Methods Spontaneous activities from single fibers of chronically compressed DRG neurons in rats were recorded, and divided into periodic and non-periodic firing patterns. The sensitivity of the two kinds of firing pattern neuron to sympathetic stimulation (SS)was compared. Result It was found that 27.3% of periodic firing neurons and 93.2% of non-periodic firing neurons responded to SS respectively ( periodic vs non-periodic, P < 0.01 ). The responses to SS with different stimulation time were greater non-periodic firing neurons than periodic firing neurons (P < 0.01 ). The non-periodic firing neurons obviously responded to SS. After the firing pattern of these neurons transformed to periodic firing pattern, their responses to SS disappeared or decreased obviously. The HR neuronal model exhibited a significantly greater response to perturbation in non-periodic (chaotic) firing pattern than in periodic firing pattern. Conclusion The non-periodic firing neurons with deterministic chaos are more sensitive to external stimuli than the periodic firing neurons.

  4. No further loss of dorsal root ganglion cells after axotomy in p75 neurotrophin receptor knockout mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Bodil; Tandrup, Trine; Koltzenburg, Martin;

    2003-01-01

    The role of the p75 neurotrophin receptor for neuronal survival after nerve crush was studied in L5 dorsal root ganglia (DRG) of knockout mice and controls with assumption-free stereological methods. Numbers of neuronal A- and B-cells were obtained using the optical fractionator and optical...... disector techniques. At birth, the total number of DRG neurons was 10,000 ±2,600 in control mice compared with 5,100 ±1,300 in p75 knockout mice. During postnatal development, 1,400 neuronal B-cell bodies were lost in p75 knockouts (2P ± 0.±05) and 1,100 in controls (NS), whereas the A-cell population...... remained stable. After a sciatic nerve crush, the total neuron loss in controls was 15.4% ±3.5% (2P ±0.05) and 22.7% 5.1% (2P knockout mice. Neuronal A-cell number was unchanged after...

  5. Regulation of Nav1.7: A Conserved SCN9A Natural Antisense Transcript Expressed in Dorsal Root Ganglia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Koenig

    Full Text Available The Nav1.7 voltage-gated sodium channel, encoded by SCN9A, is critical for human pain perception yet the transcriptional and post-transcriptional mechanisms that regulate this gene are still incompletely understood. Here, we describe a novel natural antisense transcript (NAT for SCN9A that is conserved in humans and mice. The NAT has a similar tissue expression pattern to the sense gene and is alternatively spliced within dorsal root ganglia. The human and mouse NATs exist in cis with the sense gene in a tail-to-tail orientation and both share sequences that are complementary to the terminal exon of SCN9A/Scn9a. Overexpression analyses of the human NAT in human embryonic kidney (HEK293A and human neuroblastoma (SH-SY5Y cell lines show that it can function to downregulate Nav1.7 mRNA, protein levels and currents. The NAT may play an important role in regulating human pain thresholds and is a potential candidate gene for individuals with chronic pain disorders that map to the SCN9A locus, such as Inherited Primary Erythromelalgia, Paroxysmal Extreme Pain Disorder and Painful Small Fibre Neuropathy, but who do not contain mutations in the sense gene. Our results strongly suggest the SCN9A NAT as a prime candidate for new therapies based upon augmentation of existing antisense RNAs in the treatment of chronic pain conditions in man.

  6. Regulation of Nav1.7: A Conserved SCN9A Natural Antisense Transcript Expressed in Dorsal Root Ganglia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koenig, Jennifer; Werdehausen, Robert; Linley, John E; Habib, Abdella M; Vernon, Jeffrey; Lolignier, Stephane; Eijkelkamp, Niels; Zhao, Jing; Okorokov, Andrei L; Woods, C Geoffrey; Wood, John N; Cox, James J

    2015-01-01

    The Nav1.7 voltage-gated sodium channel, encoded by SCN9A, is critical for human pain perception yet the transcriptional and post-transcriptional mechanisms that regulate this gene are still incompletely understood. Here, we describe a novel natural antisense transcript (NAT) for SCN9A that is conserved in humans and mice. The NAT has a similar tissue expression pattern to the sense gene and is alternatively spliced within dorsal root ganglia. The human and mouse NATs exist in cis with the sense gene in a tail-to-tail orientation and both share sequences that are complementary to the terminal exon of SCN9A/Scn9a. Overexpression analyses of the human NAT in human embryonic kidney (HEK293A) and human neuroblastoma (SH-SY5Y) cell lines show that it can function to downregulate Nav1.7 mRNA, protein levels and currents. The NAT may play an important role in regulating human pain thresholds and is a potential candidate gene for individuals with chronic pain disorders that map to the SCN9A locus, such as Inherited Primary Erythromelalgia, Paroxysmal Extreme Pain Disorder and Painful Small Fibre Neuropathy, but who do not contain mutations in the sense gene. Our results strongly suggest the SCN9A NAT as a prime candidate for new therapies based upon augmentation of existing antisense RNAs in the treatment of chronic pain conditions in man.

  7. Enhanced adenoviral gene delivery to motor and dorsal root ganglion neurons following injection into demyelinated peripheral nerves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yongjie; Zheng, Yiyan; Zhang, Yi Ping; Shields, Lisa B E; Hu, Xiaoling; Yu, Panpan; Burke, Darlene A; Wang, Heming; Jun, Cai; Byers, Jonathan; Whittemore, Scott R; Shields, Christopher B

    2010-08-15

    Injection of viral vectors into peripheral nerves may transfer specific genes into their dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons and motoneurons. However, myelin sheaths of peripheral axons block the entry of viral particles into nerves. We studied whether mild, transient peripheral nerve demyelination prior to intraneural viral vector injection would enhance gene transfer to target DRG neurons and motoneurons. The right sciatic nerve of C57BL/6 mice was focally demyelinated with 1% lysolecithin, and the left sciatic nerve was similarly injected with saline (control). Five days after demyelination, 0.5 microl of Ad5-GFP was injected into both sciatic nerves at the site of previous injection. The effectiveness of gene transfer was evaluated by counting GFP(+) neurons in the DRGs and ventral horns. After peripheral nerve demyelination, there was a fivefold increase in the number of infected DRG neurons and almost a 15-fold increase in the number of infected motoneurons compared with the control, nondemyelinated side. Focal demyelination reduced the myelin sheath barrier, allowing greater virus-axon contact. Increased CXADR expression on the demyelinated axons facilitated axoplasmic viral entry. No animals sustained any prolonged neurological deficits. Increased gene delivery into DRG neurons and motoneurons may provide effective treatment for amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, pain, and spinal cord injury.

  8. FGF and BMP derived from dorsal root ganglia regulate blastema induction in limb regeneration in Ambystoma mexicanum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satoh, Akira; Makanae, Aki; Nishimoto, Yurie; Mitogawa, Kazumasa

    2016-09-01

    Urodele amphibians have a remarkable organ regeneration ability that is regulated by neural inputs. The identification of these neural inputs has been a challenge. Recently, Fibroblast growth factor (Fgf) and Bone morphogenic protein (Bmp) were shown to substitute for nerve functions in limb and tail regeneration in urodele amphibians. However, direct evidence of Fgf and Bmp being secreted from nerve endings and regulating regeneration has not yet been shown. Thus, it remained uncertain whether they were the nerve factors responsible for successful limb regeneration. To gather experimental evidence, the technical difficulties involved in the usage of axolotls had to be overcome. We achieved this by modifying the electroporation method. When Fgf8-AcGFP or Bmp7-AcGFP was electroporated into the axolotl dorsal root ganglia (DRG), GFP signals were detectable in the regenerating limb region. This suggested that Fgf8 and Bmp7 synthesized in neural cells in the DRG were delivered to the limbs through the long axons. Further knockdown experiments with double-stranded RNA interference resulted in impaired limb regeneration ability. These results strongly suggest that Fgf and Bmp are the major neural inputs that control the organ regeneration ability.

  9. High concentrations of morphine sensitize and activate mouse dorsal root ganglia via TRPV1 and TRPA1 receptors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Messlinger Karl

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Morphine and its derivatives are key drugs in pain control. Despite its well-known analgesic properties morphine at high concentrations may be proalgesic. Particularly, short-lasting painful sensations have been reported upon dermal application of morphine. To study a possible involvement of TRP receptors in the pro-nociceptive effects of morphine (0.3 – 10 mM, two models of nociception were employed using C57BL/6 mice and genetically related TRPV1 and TRPA1 knockout animals, which were crossed and generated double knockouts. Hindpaw skin flaps were used to investigate the release of calcitonin gene-related peptide indicative of nociceptive activation. Results Morphine induced release of calcitonin gene-related peptide and sensitized the release evoked by heat or the TRPA1 agonist acrolein. Morphine activated HEK293t cells transfected with TRPV1 or TRPA1. Activation of C57BL/6 mouse dorsal root ganglion neurons in culture was investigated with calcium imaging. Morphine induced a dose-dependent rise in intracellular calcium in neurons from wild-type animals. In neurons from TRPV1 and TRPA1 knockout animals activation by morphine was markedly reduced, in the TRPV1/A1 double knockout animals this morphine effect was abrogated. Naloxone induced an increase in calcium levels similar to morphine. The responses to both morphine and naloxone were sensitized by bradykinin. Conclusion Nociceptor activation and sensitization by morphine is conveyed by TRPV1 and TRPA1.

  10. Tang-Luo-Ning Improves Mitochondrial Antioxidase Activity in Dorsal Root Ganglia of Diabetic Rats: A Proteomics Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yanbin; Gong, Yanbin; Zhou, Hui; Xie, Peifeng; Guan, Song; Yi, Wenming

    2017-01-01

    Tang-luo-ning (TLN) is a traditional Chinese herbal recipe for treating diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN). In this study, we investigated mitochondrial protein profiles in a diabetic rat model and explored the potential protective effect of TLN. Diabetic rats were established by injection of streptozocin (STZ) and divided into model, alpha lipoic acid (ALA), and TLN groups. Mitochondrial proteins were isolated from dorsal root ganglia and proteomic analysis was used to quantify the differentially expressed proteins. Tang-luo-ning mitigated STZ-induced diabetic symptoms and blood glucose level, including response time to cold or hot stimulation and nerve conductive velocity. As compared to the normal, there were 388 differentially expressed proteins in the TLN group, 445 in ALA group, and 451 in model group. As compared to the model group, there were 275 differential proteins in TLN group and 251 in ALA group. As compared to model group, mitochondrial complex III was significantly decreased, while glutathione peroxidase and peroxidase were increased in TLN group. When compared with ALA group, the mitochondrial complex III was increased, and mitochondrial complex IV was decreased in TLN group. Together, TLN should have a strong antioxidative activity, which appears to be modulated through regulation of respiratory complexes and antioxidases. PMID:28133612

  11. Microsurgical procedures in the peripheral nerves and the dorsal root entry zone for the treatment of spasticity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sindou, M; Keravel, Y

    1988-01-01

    When spasticity becomes severe and harmful, in spite of physical and medical therapy, neurosurgery can give functional improvement. This paper deals with the long term results of Selective Peripheral Neurotomies of the Tibial Nerve and Selective Posterior Rhizotomies in the Dorsal Root Entry Zone, in 123 patients with spastic disorders localized to the limbs. The micro-techniques and intra-operative electro-stimulation for identification of the nervous structures responsible for the spastic components, can give a substantial reduction of the harmful spasticity, without suppressing the useful muscle tone and impairing the residual motor and sensory functions. The results were effective, with a 1 to 13 year follow-up (5 on average), in 89% of 47 Selective Peripheral Neurotomies of the tibial nerve for spastic foot, in 92% of 53 Selective Posterior Rhizotomies for paraplegia and in 87% of 23 Selective Posterior Rhizotomies for hemiplegia. In the most severe situations ("comfort" indications), correction of the abnormal postures and relief of pain facilitated nursing and physiotherapy. Sometimes there was reappearance of some useful voluntary movements. In the less affected patients ("functional" indications), the suppression of the harmful spastic components made the persistant capacities more effective.

  12. Surgical extraction of human dorsal root ganglia from organ donors and preparation of primary sensory neuron cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valtcheva, Manouela V; Copits, Bryan A; Davidson, Steve; Sheahan, Tayler D; Pullen, Melanie Y; McCall, Jordan G; Dikranian, Krikor; Gereau, Robert W

    2016-10-01

    Primary cultures of rodent sensory neurons are widely used to investigate the cellular and molecular mechanisms involved in pain, itch, nerve injury and regeneration. However, translation of these preclinical findings may be greatly improved by direct validation in human tissues. We have developed an approach to extract and culture human sensory neurons in collaboration with a local organ procurement organization (OPO). Here we describe the surgical procedure for extraction of human dorsal root ganglia (hDRG) and the necessary modifications to existing culture techniques to prepare viable adult human sensory neurons for functional studies. Dissociated sensory neurons can be maintained in culture for >10 d, and they are amenable to electrophysiological recording, calcium imaging and viral gene transfer. The entire process of extraction and culturing can be completed in <7 h, and it can be performed by trained graduate students. This approach can be applied at any institution with access to organ donors consenting to tissue donation for research, and is an invaluable resource for improving translational research.

  13. Controlled release of 6-aminonicotinamide from aligned, electrospun fibers alters astrocyte metabolism and dorsal root ganglia neurite outgrowth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaub, Nicholas J.; Gilbert, Ryan J.

    2011-08-01

    Following central nervous system (CNS) injury, activated astrocytes form a glial scar that inhibits the migration of axons ultimately leading to regeneration failure. Biomaterials developed for CNS repair can provide local delivery of therapeutics and/or guidance mechanisms to encourage cell migration into damaged regions of the brain or spinal cord. Electrospun fibers are a promising type of biomaterial for CNS injury since these fibers can direct cellular and axonal migration while slowly delivering therapy to the injury site. In this study, it was hypothesized that inclusion of an anti-metabolite, 6-aminonicotinamide (6AN), within poly-l-lactic acid electrospun fibers could attenuate astrocyte metabolic activity while still directing axonal outgrowth. Electrospinning parameters were varied to produce highly aligned electrospun fibers that contained 10% or 20% (w/w) 6AN. 6AN release from the fiber substrates occurred continuously over 2 weeks. Astrocytes placed onto drug-releasing fibers were less active than those cultured on scaffolds without 6AN. Dorsal root ganglia placed onto control and drug-releasing scaffolds were able to direct neurites along the aligned fibers. However, neurite outgrowth was stunted by fibers that contained 20% 6AN. These results show that 6AN release from aligned, electrospun fibers can decrease astrocyte activity while still directing axonal outgrowth.

  14. Sprouting from chicken embryo dorsal root ganglia induced by nerve growth factor is specifically inhibited by affinity-purified antiganglioside antibodies.

    OpenAIRE

    Schwartz, M; Spirman, N

    1982-01-01

    The involvement of gangliosides in processes related to nerve regeneration and sprouting has been demonstrated recently. The type of interaction by which gangliosides may influence neuronal sprouting was investigated in the present work. Affinity-purified rabbit anti-GM1 antibodies were found to block the sprouting from dorsal root ganglia (DRG) of chicken embryo induced by nerve growth factor (NGF). Only a moderately inhibitory effect was produced by antibodies directed to GM2, suggesting a ...

  15. Bilateral Changes of Cannabinoid Receptor Type 2 Protein and mRNA in the Dorsal Root Ganglia of a Rat Neuropathic Pain Model

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Cannabinoid receptor type 2 (CB2R) plays a critical role in nociception. In contrast to cannabinoid receptor type 1 ligands, CB2R agonists do not produce undesirable central nervous system effects and thus promise to treat neuropathic pain that is often resistant to medical therapy. In the study presented here, we evaluated the bilateral distribution of the CB2R protein and messenger RNA (mRNA) in rat dorsal root ganglia (DRG) after unilateral peripheral nerve injury using immunohistochemistr...

  16. The Appropriative Cervical Vertebra Exercise of The Nerve Root Cervical Spondylosis%神经根型颈椎病专用颈椎操

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王东; 武欢; 苏道静; 张红星

    2013-01-01

      颈椎病是临床常见病,尤以神经根型颈椎病为常见,其防治值得予以足够重视。故笔者从中医学、解剖学、生物力学等理论入手,结合自身临床经验,并根据神经根型颈椎病的病因病机,有针对性地设计出一套颈椎操,欲为神经根型颈椎病的防治及康复提供一个新的思路。%Cervical Spondylosis is a common disease in clinic,especially in the nerve root cervi-cal spondylosis. The prevention of it is worthy to pay attention to. Therefore, the author started with the theories of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), biomechanics, etc, combined with own clinical experience, and specifically designed a set of cervical vertebra exercise according to the pathogene-sis. Wish to provide a new train of thought about the prevention and recovery of nerve root cervical spondylosis

  17. A CLINICAL OBSERVATION ON THE THERAPEUTIC EFFECT OF CERVICAL SPONDYLOPATHY OF NERVE ROOT TYPE TREATED BY COMBINED CERVICAL TRACTION AND ELECTROACUPUNCTURE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何涛; 何岚

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To observe the therapeutic effect of combined cervical traction and electroacupuncture (EA) on Cervical Spondylopathy of Nerve Root Type (CSNRT). Methods: 145 patients diagnosed as CSNRT were randomized into 3 groups: combined treatment group, EA group, and cervical traction (CT) group. The combined group was treated with traction followed 2), etc.. Patients of two control groups were only treated by either CT or EA. Results: The markedly-effective rate and total effective rate were 76.0% and 94.0% respectively in the combined treatment group, 62.5% and 81.25% respectively in CT group, and 63.82% and 82.97% respectively in EA group. The therapeutic effect of the combined treatment group was significantly superior to that of two control groups (P<0.05). At 6-month follow-up, the above two markedly-effective and total effective rates in the combined treatment group remained 74.0% and 92.0%, still significantly higher than that in two control groups. Conclusion: Combining cervicle traction with EA treatment can effectively eliminate or relieve the symptoms and signs in patients with nerve root type cervical spondylopathy.

  18. Clinical significance of the position of dorsal root ganglia in degenerative lumbar diseases. Correlation between anatomic study and imaging study with MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seki, Masahiro; Kikuchi, Tomiichi [Fukushima Medical Coll., Matsuoka (Japan)

    1995-06-01

    In order to estimate the ralationship between the position of dorsal root ganglia (DRG) and radicular symptoms, anatomical study was done on 81 cadavers, and a clinical study with MRI was done on 20 cases of lumbar disc herniation and 20 of lumbar spondylosis with L{sub 5} radiculopathy. The position of DRG is not related to the occurrence of radicular symptoms in disc herniation, while in lumbar spondylosis proximally placed DRG are related to both of unilateral and bilateral occurrence of redicular symptoms. Unilateral occurrence of radicular symptoms is influenced by surrounding tissues of the nerve root, rather than the position of DRG. (author).

  19. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor expression in dorsal root ganglion neurons in response to reanastomosis of the distal stoma after nerve grafting

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wei Yu; Jian Wang; Mingzhu Xu; Hanjiao Qin; Shusen Cui

    2012-01-01

    Studies have shown that retreatment of the distal stoma after nerve grafting can stimulate nerve regeneration. The present study attempted to verify the effects of reanastomosis of the distal stoma, after nerve grafting, on nerve regeneration by assessing brain-derived neurotrophic factor expression in 2-month-old rats. Results showed that brain-derived neurotrophic factor expression in L2-4 dorsal root ganglia began to increase 3 days after autologous nerve grafting post sciatic nerve injury, peaked at 14 days, decreased at 28 days, and reached similar levels to the sham-surgery group at 56 days. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor expression in L2-4 dorsal root ganglia began to increase 3 days after reanastomosis of the distal stoma, 59 days after autologous nerve grafting post sciatic nerve injury, significantly increased at 63 days, peaked at 70 days, and gradually decreased thereafter, but remained higher compared with the sham-surgery group up to 112 days. The results of this study indicate that reanastomosis of the distal stoma after orthotopic nerve grafting stimulated brain-derived neurotrophic factor expression in L2-4 dorsal root ganglia.

  20. Effect of FGF-2 and sciatic nerve grafting on ChAT expression in dorsal root ganglia neurons of spinal cord transected rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzen, Fausto Pierdoná; de Araújo, Dayane Pessoa; Lucena, Eudes Euler de Souza; de Morais, Hécio Henrique Araújo; Cavalcanti, José Rodolfo Lopes de Paiva; do Nascimento, Expedito Silva; Costa, Miriam Stela Maris de Oliveira; Cavalcante, Jeferson Sousa

    2016-03-11

    Neurotrophic factors and peripheral nerves are known to be good substrates for bridging CNS trauma. The involvement of fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF-2) activation in the dorsal root ganglion (DRG) was examined following spinal cord injury in the rat. We evaluated whether FGF-2 increases the ability of a sciatic nerve graft to enhance neuronal plasticity, in a gap promoted by complete transection of the spinal cord. The rats were subjected to a 4mm-long gap at low thoracic level and were repaired with saline (Saline or control group, n=10), or fragment of the sciatic nerve (Nerve group, n=10), or fragment of the sciatic nerve to which FGF-2 (Nerve+FGF-2 group, n=10) had been added immediately after lesion. The effects of the FGF-2 and fragment of the sciatic nerve grafts on neuronal plasticity were investigated using choline acetyl transferase (ChAT)-immunoreactivity of neurons in the dorsal root ganglion after 8 weeks. Preservation of the area and diameter of neuronal cell bodies in dorsal root ganglion (DRG) was seen in animals treated with the sciatic nerve, an effect enhanced by the addition of FGF-2. Thus, the addition of exogenous FGF-2 to a sciatic nerve fragment grafted in a gap of the rat spinal cord submitted to complete transection was able to improve neuroprotection in the DRG. The results emphasized that the manipulation of the microenvironment in the wound might amplify the regenerative capacity of peripheral neurons.

  1. Association of somatic action potential shape with sensory receptive properties in guinea-pig dorsal root ganglion neurones.

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    Djouhri, L; Bleazard, L; Lawson, S N

    1998-12-15

    1. Intracellular voltage recordings were made from the somata of L6 and S1 dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurones at 28.5-31 C in young guinea-pigs (150-300 g) anaesthetized with sodium pentobarbitone. Action potentials (APs) evoked by dorsal root stimulation were used to classify conduction velocities (CVs) as C, Adelta or Aalpha/beta. Units with overshooting APs and membrane potentials (Vm) more negative than -40 mV were analysed: 40 C-, 45 Adelta- and 94 Aalpha/beta-fibre units. 2. Sensory receptive properties were characterized as: (a) low-threshold mechanoreceptive (LTM) units (5 C-, 10 Adelta- and 57 Aalpha/beta-fibre units); (b) nociceptive units, responding to noxious mechanical stimuli, some also to noxious heat (40 C-, 27 Adelta- and 27 Aalpha/beta-fibre units); (c) unresponsive units that failed to respond to a variety of tests; and (d) C-fibre cooling-sensitive units (n = 4). LTM units made up about 8 % of identified C-fibre units, 36 % of identified Adelta-fibre units and > 73 % of identified Aalpha/beta-fibre units. Compared with LTM units, the nociceptive units had APs that were longer on average by 3 times (C-fibre units), 1.7 times (Adelta-fibre units) and 1.4 times (Aalpha/beta-fibre units). They also had significantly longer rise times (RTs) and fall times (FTs) in all CV ranges. Between Aalpha/beta-nociceptors and Aalpha/beta-LTMs there was a proportionately greater difference in RT than in FT. The duration of the afterhyperpolarization measured to 80 % recovery (AHP80) was also significantly longer in nociceptive than LTM neurones in all CV ranges: by 3 times (C-fibre units), 6.3 times (Adelta-fibre units) and 3.6 times (Aalpha/beta-fibre units). The mean values of these variables in unresponsive units were similar to those of nociceptive units in each CV range; in C- and Adelta-fibre groups their mean AHP duration was even longer than in nociceptive units. 3. A-fibre LTM neurones were divided into Adelta- (D hair units, n = 8), and Aalpha

  2. Light-evoked somatosensory perception of transgenic rats that express channelrhodopsin-2 in dorsal root ganglion cells.

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    Zhi-Gang Ji

    Full Text Available In vertebrate somatosensory systems, each mode of touch-pressure, temperature or pain is sensed by sensory endings of different dorsal root ganglion (DRG neurons, which conducted to the specific cortical loci as nerve impulses. Therefore, direct electrical stimulation of the peripheral nerve endings causes an erroneous sensation to be conducted by the nerve. We have recently generated several transgenic lines of rat in which channelrhodopsin-2 (ChR2 transgene is driven by the Thy-1.2 promoter. In one of them, W-TChR2V4, some neurons were endowed with photosensitivity by the introduction of the ChR2 gene, coding an algal photoreceptor molecule. The DRG neurons expressing ChR2 were immunohistochemically identified using specific antibodies to the markers of mechanoreceptive or nociceptive neurons. Their peripheral nerve endings in the plantar skin as well as the central endings in the spinal cord were also examined. We identified that ChR2 is expressed in a certain population of large neurons in the DRG of W-TChR2V4. On the basis of their morphology and molecular markers, these neurons were classified as mechanoreceptive but not nociceptive. ChR2 was also distributed in their peripheral sensory nerve endings, some of which were closely associated with CK20-positive cells to form Merkel cell-neurite complexes or with S-100-positive cells to form structures like Meissner's corpuscles. These nerve endings are thus suggested to be involved in the sensing of touch. Each W-TChR2V4 rat showed a sensory-evoked behavior in response to blue LED flashes on the plantar skin. It is thus suggested that each rat acquired an unusual sensory modality of sensing blue light through the skin as touch-pressure. This light-evoked somatosensory perception should facilitate study of how the complex tactile sense emerges in the brain.

  3. Vitamin D receptor and enzyme expression in dorsal root ganglia of adult female rats: modulation by ovarian hormones.

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    Tague, Sarah E; Smith, Peter G

    2011-01-01

    Vitamin D insufficiency impacts sensory processes including pain and proprioception, but little is known regarding vitamin D signaling in adult sensory neurons. We analyzed female rat dorsal root ganglia (DRG) for vitamin receptor (VDR) and the vitamin D metabolizing enzymes CYP27B1 and CYP24. Western blots and immunofluorescence revealed the presence of these proteins in sensory neurons. Nuclear VDR immunoreactivity was present within nearly all neurons, while cytoplasmic VDR was found preferentially in unmyelinated calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP)-positive neurons, colocalizing with CYP27B1 and CYP24. These data suggest that 1,25(OH)(2)D3 may affect sensory neurons through nuclear or extranuclear signaling pathways. In addition, local vitamin D metabolite concentrations in unmyelinated sensory neurons may be controlled through expression of CYP27B1 and CYP24. Because vitamin D deficiency appears to exacerbate some peri-menopausal pain syndromes, we assessed the effect of ovariectomy on vitamin D-related proteins. Two weeks following ovariectomy, total VDR expression in DRG dropped significantly, owing to a slight decrease in the percentage of total neurons expressing nuclear VDR and a large drop in unmyelinated CGRP-positive neurons expressing cytoplasmic VDR. Total CYP27B1 expression dropped significantly, predominantly due to decreased expression within unmyelinated CGRP-positive neurons. CYP24 expression remained unchanged. Therefore, unmyelinated CGRP-positive neurons appear to have a distinct vitamin D phenotype with hormonally-regulated ligand and receptor levels. These findings imply that vitamin D signaling may play a specialized role in a neural cell population that is primarily nociceptive.

  4. G(o) transduces GABAB-receptor modulation of N-type calcium channels in cultured dorsal root ganglion neurons.

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    Menon-Johansson, A S; Berrow, N; Dolphin, A C

    1993-11-01

    High-voltage-activated (HVA) calcium channel currents (IBa) were recorded from acutely replated cultured dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons. IBa was irreversibly inhibited by 56.9 +/- 2.7% by 1 microM omega-conotoxin-GVIA (omega-CTx-GVIA), whereas the 1,4-dihydropyridine antagonist nicardipine was ineffective. The selective gamma-aminobutyric acidB (GABAB) agonist, (-)-baclofen (50 microM), inhibited the HVA IBa by 30.7 +/- 5.4%. Prior application of omega-CTx-GVIA completely occluded inhibition of the HVA IBa by (-)-baclofen, indicating that in this preparation (-)-baclofen inhibits N-type current. To investigate which G protein subtype was involved, cells were replated in the presence of anti-G protein antisera. Under these conditions the antibodies were shown to enter the cells through transient pores created during the replating procedure. Replating DRGs in the presence of anti-G(o) antiserum, raised against the C-terminal decapeptide of the G alpha o subunit, reduced (-)-baclofen inhibition of the HVA IBa, whereas replating DRGs in the presence of the anti-Gi antiserum did not. Using anti-G alpha o antisera (1:2000) and confocal laser microscopy, G alpha o localisation was investigated in both unreplated and replated neurons. G alpha o immunoreactivity was observed at the plasma membrane, neurites, attachment plaques and perinuclear region, and was particularly pronounced at points of cell-to-cell contact. The plasma membrane G alpha o immunoreactivity was completely blocked by preincubation with the immunising G alpha o undecapeptide (1 microgram.ml-1) for 1 h at 37 degrees C. A similar treatment also blocked recognition of G alpha o in brain membranes on immunoblots.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  5. Pyruvate Dehydrogenase Kinase-mediated Glycolytic Metabolic Shift in the Dorsal Root Ganglion Drives Painful Diabetic Neuropathy.

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    Rahman, Md Habibur; Jha, Mithilesh Kumar; Kim, Jong-Heon; Nam, Youngpyo; Lee, Maan Gee; Go, Younghoon; Harris, Robert A; Park, Dong Ho; Kook, Hyun; Lee, In-Kyu; Suk, Kyoungho

    2016-03-11

    The dorsal root ganglion (DRG) is a highly vulnerable site in diabetic neuropathy. Under diabetic conditions, the DRG is subjected to tissue ischemia or lower ambient oxygen tension that leads to aberrant metabolic functions. Metabolic dysfunctions have been documented to play a crucial role in the pathogenesis of diverse pain hypersensitivities. However, the contribution of diabetes-induced metabolic dysfunctions in the DRG to the pathogenesis of painful diabetic neuropathy remains ill-explored. In this study, we report that pyruvate dehydrogenase kinases (PDK2 and PDK4), key regulatory enzymes in glucose metabolism, mediate glycolytic metabolic shift in the DRG leading to painful diabetic neuropathy. Streptozotocin-induced diabetes substantially enhanced the expression and activity of the PDKs in the DRG, and the genetic ablation of Pdk2 and Pdk4 attenuated the hyperglycemia-induced pain hypersensitivity. Mechanistically, Pdk2/4 deficiency inhibited the diabetes-induced lactate surge, expression of pain-related ion channels, activation of satellite glial cells, and infiltration of macrophages in the DRG, in addition to reducing central sensitization and neuroinflammation hallmarks in the spinal cord, which probably accounts for the attenuated pain hypersensitivity. Pdk2/4-deficient mice were partly resistant to the diabetes-induced loss of peripheral nerve structure and function. Furthermore, in the experiments using DRG neuron cultures, lactic acid treatment enhanced the expression of the ion channels and compromised cell viability. Finally, the pharmacological inhibition of DRG PDKs or lactic acid production substantially attenuated diabetes-induced pain hypersensitivity. Taken together, PDK2/4 induction and the subsequent lactate surge induce the metabolic shift in the diabetic DRG, thereby contributing to the pathogenesis of painful diabetic neuropathy.

  6. The aminoglycosides modulate the acid-sensing ionic channel currents in dorsal root ganglion neurons from the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garza, Aníbal; López-Ramírez, Omar; Vega, Rosario; Soto, Enrique

    2010-02-01

    Acid-sensing ionic channels (ASICs) have been shown to have a significant role in a growing number of physiological and pathological processes, such as nociception, synaptic transmission and plasticity, mechanosensation, and acidosis-induced neuronal injury. The discovery of pharmacological agents targeting ASICs has significant therapeutic potential and use as a research tool. In our work, we studied the action of transient perfusion (5-15 s) of aminoglycosides (AGs) (streptomycin and neomycin) on the proton-gated ionic currents in dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons of the rat and in human embryonic kidney (HEK)-293 cells. In DRG neurons, streptomycin and neomycin (30 microM) produced a significant, concentration-dependent, and reversible reduction in the amplitude of the proton-gated current, and a slowing of the desensitization rate of the ASIC current. Gentamycin (30 microM) also showed a significant reversible action on the ASIC currents. The curves of the pH effect for streptomycin and neomycin indicated that their effect was not significantly affected by pH. In HEK-293 cells, streptomycin (30 microM) produced a significant reduction in the amplitude of the proton-gated current. Neomycin and gentamycin had no significant action. Reduction of extracellular Ca(2+) concentration produced a significant increase in the action of streptomycin and neomycin on the desensitization time course of ASIC currents. These results indicate that ASICs are molecular targets for AGs, which may contribute to the understanding of their actions on excitable cells. Moreover, AGs may constitute a source to develop novel molecules with a greater affinity, specificity, and selectivity for the different ASIC subunits.

  7. Oxaliplatin-Induced Peripheral Neuropathy via TRPA1 Stimulation in Mice Dorsal Root Ganglion Is Correlated with Aluminum Accumulation.

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    Jin-Hee Park

    Full Text Available Oxaliplatin is a platinum-based anticancer drug used to treat metastatic colorectal, breast, and lung cancers. While oxaliplatin kills cancer cells effectively, it exhibits several side effects of varying severity. Neuropathic pain is commonly experienced during treatment with oxaliplatin. Patients describe symptoms of paresthesias or dysesthesias that are triggered by cold (acute neuropathy, or as abnormal sensory or motor function (chronic neuropathy. In particular, we found that aluminum levels were relatively high in some cancer patients suffering from neuropathic pain based on clinical observations. Based on these findings, we hypothesized that aluminum accumulation in the dorsal root ganglion (DRG in the course of oxaliplatin treatment exacerbates neuropathic pain. In mice injected with oxaliplatin (three cycles of 3 mg/kg i.p. daily for 5 days, followed by 5 days of rest, we detected cold allodynia using the acetone test, but not heat hyperalgesia using a hot plate. However, co-treatment with aluminum chloride (AlCl3∙6H2O; 7 mg/kg i.p. for 14 days: equivalent 0.78 mg/kg of elemental Al and oxaliplatin (1 cycle of 3 mg/kg i.p. daily for 5 days, followed by 5 days of rest synergistically induced cold allodynia as well as increased TRPAl mRNA and protein expression. Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS analysis showed a significant increase in aluminum concentrations in the DRG of mice treated with aluminum chloride and oxaliplatin compared to aluminum chloride alone. Similarly, in a mouse induced-tumor model, aluminum concentrations were increased in DRG tissue and tumor cells after oxaliplatin treatment. Taken together, these findings suggest that aluminum accumulation in the DRG may exacerbate neuropathic pain in oxaliplatin-treated mice.

  8. Expression of the immunoglobulin superfamily cell adhesion molecules in the developing spinal cord and dorsal root ganglion.

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    Gu, Zirong; Imai, Fumiyasu; Kim, In Jung; Fujita, Hiroko; Katayama, Kei ichi; Mori, Kensaku; Yoshihara, Yoshihiro; Yoshida, Yutaka

    2015-01-01

    Cell adhesion molecules belonging to the immunoglobulin superfamily (IgSF) control synaptic specificity through hetero- or homophilic interactions in different regions of the nervous system. In the developing spinal cord, monosynaptic connections of exquisite specificity form between proprioceptive sensory neurons and motor neurons, however, it is not known whether IgSF molecules participate in regulating this process. To determine whether IgSF molecules influence the establishment of synaptic specificity in sensory-motor circuits, we examined the expression of 157 IgSF genes in the developing dorsal root ganglion (DRG) and spinal cord by in situ hybridization assays. We find that many IgSF genes are expressed by sensory and motor neurons in the mouse developing DRG and spinal cord. For instance, Alcam, Mcam, and Ocam are expressed by a subset of motor neurons in the ventral spinal cord. Further analyses show that Ocam is expressed by obturator but not quadriceps motor neurons, suggesting that Ocam may regulate sensory-motor specificity in these sensory-motor reflex arcs. Electrophysiological analysis shows no obvious defects in synaptic specificity of monosynaptic sensory-motor connections involving obturator and quadriceps motor neurons in Ocam mutant mice. Since a subset of Ocam+ motor neurons also express Alcam, Alcam or other functionally redundant IgSF molecules may compensate for Ocam in controlling sensory-motor specificity. Taken together, these results reveal that IgSF molecules are broadly expressed by sensory and motor neurons during development, and that Ocam and other IgSF molecules may have redundant functions in controlling the specificity of sensory-motor circuits.

  9. Quantitative Analysis of Rat Dorsal Root Ganglion Neurons Cultured on Microelectrode Arrays Based on Fluorescence Microscopy Image Processing.

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    Mari, João Fernando; Saito, José Hiroki; Neves, Amanda Ferreira; Lotufo, Celina Monteiro da Cruz; Destro-Filho, João-Batista; Nicoletti, Maria do Carmo

    2015-12-01

    Microelectrode Arrays (MEA) are devices for long term electrophysiological recording of extracellular spontaneous or evocated activities on in vitro neuron culture. This work proposes and develops a framework for quantitative and morphological analysis of neuron cultures on MEAs, by processing their corresponding images, acquired by fluorescence microscopy. The neurons are segmented from the fluorescence channel images using a combination of segmentation by thresholding, watershed transform, and object classification. The positioning of microelectrodes is obtained from the transmitted light channel images using the circular Hough transform. The proposed method was applied to images of dissociated culture of rat dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neuronal cells. The morphological and topological quantitative analysis carried out produced information regarding the state of culture, such as population count, neuron-to-neuron and neuron-to-microelectrode distances, soma morphologies, neuron sizes, neuron and microelectrode spatial distributions. Most of the analysis of microscopy images taken from neuronal cultures on MEA only consider simple qualitative analysis. Also, the proposed framework aims to standardize the image processing and to compute quantitative useful measures for integrated image-signal studies and further computational simulations. As results show, the implemented microelectrode identification method is robust and so are the implemented neuron segmentation and classification one (with a correct segmentation rate up to 84%). The quantitative information retrieved by the method is highly relevant to assist the integrated signal-image study of recorded electrophysiological signals as well as the physical aspects of the neuron culture on MEA. Although the experiments deal with DRG cell images, cortical and hippocampal cell images could also be processed with small adjustments in the image processing parameter estimation.

  10. Prostaglandin E2 potentiation of P2X3 receptor mediated currents in dorsal root ganglion neurons

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    Huang Li-Yen

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Prostaglandin E2 (PGE2 is a well-known inflammatory mediator that enhances the excitability of DRG neurons. Homomeric P2X3 and heteromeric P2X2/3 receptors are abundantly expressed in dorsal root ganglia (DRG neurons and participate in the transmission of nociceptive signals. The interaction between PGE2 and P2X3 receptors has not been well delineated. We studied the actions of PGE2 on ATP-activated currents in dissociated DRG neurons under voltage-clamp conditions. PGE2 had no effects on P2X2/3 receptor-mediated responses, but significantly potentiated fast-inactivating ATP currents mediated by homomeric P2X3 receptors. PGE2 exerted its action by activating EP3 receptors. To study the mechanism underlying the action of PGE2, we found that the adenylyl cyclase activator, forskolin and the membrane-permeable cAMP analogue, 8-Br-cAMP increased ATP currents, mimicking the effect of PGE2. In addition, forskolin occluded the enhancement produced by PGE2. The protein kinase A (PKA inhibitors, H89 and PKA-I blocked the PGE2 effect. In contrast, the PKC inhibitor, bisindolymaleimide (Bis did not change the potentiating action of PGE2. We further showed that PGE2 enhanced α,β-meATP-induced allodynia and hyperalgesia and the enhancement was blocked by H89. These observations suggest that PGE2 binds to EP3 receptors, resulting in the activation of cAMP/PKA signaling pathway and leading to an enhancement of P2X3 homomeric receptor-mediated ATP responses in DRG neurons.

  11. Reactive species modify NaV1.8 channels and affect action potentials in murine dorsal root ganglion neurons.

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    Schink, Martin; Leipold, Enrico; Schirmeyer, Jana; Schönherr, Roland; Hoshi, Toshinori; Heinemann, Stefan H

    2016-01-01

    Dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons are important relay stations between the periphery and the central nervous system and are essential for somatosensory signaling. Reactive species are produced in a variety of physiological and pathophysiological conditions and are known to alter electric signaling. Here we studied the influence of reactive species on the electrical properties of DRG neurons from mice with the whole-cell patch-clamp method. Even mild stress induced by either low concentrations of chloramine-T (10 μM) or low-intensity blue light irradiation profoundly diminished action potential frequency but prolonged single action potentials in wild-type neurons. The impact on evoked action potentials was much smaller in neurons deficient of the tetrodotoxin (TTX)-resistant voltage-gated sodium channel NaV1.8 (NaV1.8(-/-)), the channel most important for the action potential upstroke in DRG neurons. Low concentrations of chloramine-T caused a significant reduction of NaV1.8 peak current and, at higher concentrations, progressively slowed down inactivation. Blue light had a smaller effect on amplitude but slowed down NaV1.8 channel inactivation. The observed effects were less apparent for TTX-sensitive NaV channels. NaV1.8 is an important reactive-species-sensitive component in the electrical signaling of DRG neurons, potentially giving rise to loss-of-function and gain-of-function phenomena depending on the type of reactive species and their effective concentration and time of exposure.

  12. Inflammation-induced changes in BKCa currents in cutaneous dorsal root ganglion neurons from the adult rat

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    Zhang Xiu-Lin

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Inflammation-induced sensitization of primary afferents is associated with a decrease in K+ current. However, the type of K+ current and basis for the decrease varies as a function of target of innervation. Because glabrous skin of the rat hindpaw is used often to assess changes in nociception in models of persistent pain, the purpose of the present study was to determine the type and extent to which K+ currents contribute to the inflammation-induced sensitization of cutaneous afferents. Acutely dissociated retrogradely labeled cutaneous dorsal root ganglion neurons from naïve and inflamed (3 days post complete Freund’s adjuvant injection rats were studied with whole cell and perforated patch techniques. Results Inflammation-induced sensitization of small diameter cutaneous neurons was associated with an increase in action potential duration and rate of decay of the afterhyperpolarization. However, no changes in voltage-gated K+ currents were detected. In contrast, Ca2+ modulated iberiotoxin sensitive and paxilline sensitive K+ (BKCa currents were significantly smaller in small diameter IB4+ neurons. This decrease in current was not associated with a detectable change in total protein levels of the BKCa channel α or β subunits. Single cell PCR analysis revealed a significant change in the pattern of expression of α subunit splice variants and β subunits that were consistent, at least in part, with inflammation-induced changes in the biophysical properties of BKCa currents in cutaneous neurons. Conclusions Results of this study provide additional support for the conclusion that it may be possible, if not necessary to selectively treat pain arising from specific body regions. Because a decrease in BKCa current appears to contribute to the inflammation-induced sensitization of cutaneous afferents, BKCa channel openers may be effective for the treatment of inflammatory pain.

  13. Neurotoxicity of isoniazid and its metabolites in cultures of mouse dorsal root ganglion neurons and hybrid neuronal cell line.

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    Sanfeliu, C; Wright, J M; Kim, S U

    1999-12-01

    Isoniazid (INH) is one of the anti-tuberculosis drugs widely prescribed for patients since the early 1950s. It is relatively nontoxic but some patients develop peripheral neuropathy attributed to a disturbance of vitamin B6 metabolism. Some isoniazid metabolites are hepatotoxic but little is known about their neurotoxic property. Isoniazid and its metabolites including acetylisoniazid, acetylhydrazine, diacetylhydrazine, isonicotinic acid and hydrazine were examined for their potential neurotoxic effects in cultured mouse dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons and mouse neuroblastoma x DRG neuron hybrid cell line N18D3. Isoniazid did not cause neurotoxicity at exposures up to 7 days. Hydrazine was found to be the most toxic metabolite with LC50 values of 2.7 mM and 0.3 mM after 7 days of exposure in DRG neurons and N18D3 hybrid neurons, respectively. Other metabolites including acetylisoniazid, acetylhydrazine, diacetylhydrazine and isonicotinic acid had moderate to minor neurotoxic effects on N18D3 hybrid neurons. Pyridoxine, which is used in clinical practice to prevent or ameliorate the isoniazid-induced neuropathy, did not consistently reverse the neurotoxicity of any of the metabolites in the cell cultures, but some interaction with hydrazine cannot be ruled out. Pyridoxine itself was found to be neurotoxic both in DRG neurons and N18D3 hybrid neurons, in agreement with human peripheral sensory neuropathy caused by prolonged overdosage. The enzymes catalase and superoxide dismutase and the antioxidant agent selenium showed some protection against hydrazine neurotoxicity, suggesting an involvement of the generation of reactive oxygen species in the pathogenesis of isoniazid neuropathy. Both mouse DRG neurons and N18D3 mouse hybrid neurons were shown to be useful culture systems for elucidating the neurotoxicity mechanisms of agents causing sensory neuropathies and general neurotoxic effects in the nervous system.

  14. Functional expression of P2X7 receptors in non-neuronal cells of rat dorsal root ganglia.

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    Zhang, Xu-Feng; Han, Ping; Faltynek, Connie R; Jarvis, Michael F; Shieh, Char-Chang

    2005-08-02

    The P2X7 receptor is an ATP-sensitive ligand-gated cation channel, expressed predominantly in cells with immune origin. Recent studies have demonstrated that P2X7 may play an important role in pain signaling. In the present study, the expression of P2X7 receptors in non-neuronal cells and neurons isolated from dorsal root ganglia was characterized using patch clamp, pharmacological and confocal microscopy approaches. In small diameter DRG neurons, 100 microM 2', 3'-O-(4-benzoylbenzoyl)-ATP (BzATP) evoked an inward current, which was inhibited completely by 1 microM A-317491, a potent and selective P2X3 receptor antagonist. In contrast, BzATP evoked concentration-dependent increases in inward currents in non-neuronal DRG cells with an EC50 value of 26 +/- 0.14 microM, which were resistant to the blockade by A-317491. The activity to evoke cationic currents by P2X receptor agonists in non-neuronal cells showed a rank order of BzATP > ATP > alpha,beta-meATP. Pyridoxal-phosphate-6-azophenyl-,2',4'-disulphonic acid (PPADS) and Mg2+ produced concentration-dependent inhibition of BzATP-evoked currents in non-neuronal cells. Confocal microscopy revealed positive immunoreactivity of anti-P2X7 receptor antibodies on non-neuronal cells. No anti-P2X7 immunoreactivity was observed on DRG neurons. Further electrophysiological studies showed that prolonged agonist activation of P2X7 receptors in non-neuronal cells did not lead to cytolytic pore formation. Taken together, the present study demonstrated functional expression of P2X7 receptors in non-neuronal but not in small diameter neurons from rat DRG. Modulation of P2X7 receptors in non-neuronal cells might have impact on peripheral sensory transduction under normal and pathological states.

  15. Intracanal management of a post traumatic perforative invasive cervical root resorption using calcium enriched matrix cement

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    Saeed Asgary

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Invasive cervical root resorption (ICR is a consequence of a resorptive soft-tissue penetrating into dentin that starts below the gingival attachment and tends to be asymptomatic unless dental pulp involvement. Prompt diagnosis is the key to retention of the involved tooth. Treatment procedure includes non-surgical elimination of the resorptive soft-tissues and restoration of the cavity. In case of pulp involvement, endodontic treatment is indicated. This is a report of a non-surgical intra canal treatment case in a maxillary central incisor, which involved the pulp and was successfully treated with calcium enriched mixture (CEM cement. Based on favorable long-term treatment outcomes, CEM cement may be a promising biomaterial in treatment of ICR cases.

  16. The effects of gallamine on field and dorsal root potentials produced by antidromic stimulation of motor fibres in the frog spinal cord.

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    Galindo, J; Rudomin, P

    1978-05-12

    The effects of gallamine on the intraspinal field potentials and the dorsal root potentials produced by antidromic stimulation of motor fibres were studied in the isolated frog spinal cord preparation. After gallamine (10-(3) M), the duration of the negative field potential produced by antidromic activation of motoneurons (N1 response) was increased often without changing its amplitude. This resulted in an increased passive spread of the antidromic action potential towards the dorsal dendritic regions, where afferent fibres terminate. In the untreated spinal cord, stimulation of motor axons produced a late negative dorsal root potential (VR-DRP) which was depressed after gallamine administration. Abolition of the VR-DRP was frequently associated with the appearance of a short latency, conducted response, in the dorsal roots (EVR-DRP). The earliest component of the EVR-DRP had a latency ranging between 0.5 and 2.5 ms measured after the peak of the N1 response recorded at the motor nucleus. Such a brief latency of the EVR-DRP suggests that this response results from electrical interaction between motoneurons and afferent fibres. After gallamine, the primary afferent depolarization produced by orthodromic stimulation of sensory nerves facilitates the EVR-DRP without necessarily increasing the amplitude or duration of the N1 response. Also, gallamine appears to increase directly the excitability of the afferent fibre terminal arborizations. The nature of the electrical interaction between motoneuron dendrites and afferent fibre terminal arborizations is discussed in terms of two hypotheses: interaction by current flows and by electrical coupling.

  17. Expression changes of parvalbumin and microtubule-associated protein 2 induced by chronic constriction injury in rat dorsal root ganglia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CAO Ming-hui; JI Feng-tao; LIU Ling; LI Feng

    2011-01-01

    Background Parvalbumin (PV), as a mobile endogenous calcium buffer, plays an important role in affecting temporospatial characteristics of calcium transients and in modulating calcium homeostasis. PV is expressed in neurons in the dorsal root ganglion (DRG) and spinal dorsal horn and may be involved in synaptic transmission through regulating cytoplasm calcium concentrations. But the exact role of PV in peripheral sensory neurons remains unknown.Microtubule-associated protein 2 (MAP-2), belonging to structural microtubule-associated protein family, is especially vulnerable to acute central nervous system (CNS) injury, and there will be rapid loss of MAP-2 at the injury site. The present study investigated the changes of PV expressing neurons and the MAP-2 neurons in the DRG after an operation for chronic constriction injury to the unilateral sciatic nerve (CCI-SN), in order to demonstrate the possible roles of PV and MAP-2 in transmission and modulation of peripheral nociceptive information.Methods Seventy-two adult male Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats, weighing 180-220 g, were randomly divided into two groups (36 rats in each group), the sham operation group and chronic constriction injury (CCI) group. Six rats in each group were randomly selected to receive mechanical and thermal sensitivity tests at one day before operation and 1,3, 5,7, and 14 days after surgery. After pain behavioral test, ipsilateral lumbar fifth DRGs were removed and double immunofluorescence staining was performed to assess the expression changes of PV and of MAP2 expressing neurons in the L5 DRG before or after surgery.Results The animals with CCI-SN showed obvious mechanical allodynia and thermal hyperalgesia (P<0.05). Both the thermal and mechanical hyperalgesia decreased to their lowest degree at 7 days after surgery compared to the baseline before surgery (P<0.01). In normal rats before surgery, a large number of neurons were MAP-2 single labeled cells, and just a small number of PV

  18. Hyperexcitability in Spinal WDR Neurons following Experimental Disc Herniation Is Associated with Upregulation of Fractalkine and Its Receptor in Nucleus Pulposus and the Dorsal Root Ganglion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moen, Aurora; Haugen, Fred; Gjerstad, Johannes

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. Lumbar radicular pain following intervertebral disc herniation may be associated with a local inflammatory response induced by nucleus pulposus (NP) cells. Methods. In anaesthetized Lewis rats, extracellular single unit recordings of wide dynamic range (WDR) neurons in the dorsal horn and qPCR were used to explore the effect of NP application onto the dorsal nerve roots (L3–L5). Results. A clear increase in C-fiber response was observed following NP conditioning. In the NP tissue, the expression of interleukin-1β (IL-1β), colony stimulating factor 1 (Csf1), fractalkine (CX3CL1), and the fractalkine receptor CX3CR1 was increased. Minocycline, an inhibitor of microglial activation, inhibited the increase in neuronal activity and attenuated the increase in IL-1β, Csf1, CX3L1, and CX3CR1 expression in NP tissue. In addition, the results demonstrated an increase in the expression of TNF, CX3CL1, and CX3CR1 in the dorsal root ganglions (DRGs). Conclusion. Hyperexcitability in the pain pathways and the local inflammation after disc herniation may involve upregulation of CX3CL1 signaling in both the NP and the DRG. PMID:28116212

  19. Hyperexcitability in Spinal WDR Neurons following Experimental Disc Herniation Is Associated with Upregulation of Fractalkine and Its Receptor in Nucleus Pulposus and the Dorsal Root Ganglion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Pitz Jacobsen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Lumbar radicular pain following intervertebral disc herniation may be associated with a local inflammatory response induced by nucleus pulposus (NP cells. Methods. In anaesthetized Lewis rats, extracellular single unit recordings of wide dynamic range (WDR neurons in the dorsal horn and qPCR were used to explore the effect of NP application onto the dorsal nerve roots (L3–L5. Results. A clear increase in C-fiber response was observed following NP conditioning. In the NP tissue, the expression of interleukin-1β (IL-1β, colony stimulating factor 1 (Csf1, fractalkine (CX3CL1, and the fractalkine receptor CX3CR1 was increased. Minocycline, an inhibitor of microglial activation, inhibited the increase in neuronal activity and attenuated the increase in IL-1β, Csf1, CX3L1, and CX3CR1 expression in NP tissue. In addition, the results demonstrated an increase in the expression of TNF, CX3CL1, and CX3CR1 in the dorsal root ganglions (DRGs. Conclusion. Hyperexcitability in the pain pathways and the local inflammation after disc herniation may involve upregulation of CX3CL1 signaling in both the NP and the DRG.

  20. Cervicitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... much growth of normal bacteria in the vagina (bacterial vaginosis) can also cause cervicitis. ... under a microscope (may show candidiasis , trichomoniasis , or bacterial vaginosis) Pap test Tests for gonorrhea or chlamydia Rarely, ...

  1. Differential expression of ATP7A, ATP7B and CTR1 in adult rat dorsal root ganglion tissue

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    Ip Virginia

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background ATP7A, ATP7B and CTR1 are metal transporting proteins that control the cellular disposition of copper and platinum drugs, but their expression in dorsal root ganglion (DRG tissue and their role in platinum-induced neurotoxicity are unknown. To investigate the DRG expression of ATP7A, ATP7B and CTR1, lumbar DRG and reference tissues were collected for real time quantitative PCR, RT-PCR, immunohistochemistry and Western blot analysis from healthy control adult rats or from animals treated with intraperitoneal oxaliplatin (1.85 mg/kg or drug vehicle twice weekly for 8 weeks. Results In DRG tissue from healthy control animals, ATP7A mRNA was clearly detectable at levels similar to those found in the brain and spinal cord, and intense ATP7A immunoreactivity was localised to the cytoplasm of cell bodies of smaller DRG neurons without staining of satellite cells, nerve fibres or co-localisation with phosphorylated heavy neurofilament subunit (pNF-H. High levels of CTR1 mRNA were detected in all tissues from healthy control animals, and strong CTR1 immunoreactivity was associated with plasma membranes and vesicular cytoplasmic structures of the cell bodies of larger-sized DRG neurons without co-localization with ATP7A. DRG neurons with strong expression of ATP7A or CTR1 had distinct cell body size profiles with minimal overlap between them. Oxaliplatin treatment did not alter the size profile of strongly ATP7A-immunoreactive neurons but significantly reduced the size profile of strongly CTR1-immunoreactive neurons. ATP7B mRNA was barely detectable, and no specific immunoreactivity for ATP7B was found, in DRG tissue from healthy control animals. Conclusions In conclusion, adult rat DRG tissue exhibits a specific pattern of expression of copper transporters with distinct subsets of peripheral sensory neurons intensely expressing either ATP7A or CTR1, but not both or ATP7B. The neuron subtype-specific and largely non

  2. Aberrant Dual Origin of the Dorsal Scapular Nerve and Its Communication with Long Thoracic Nerve: An Unusual Variation of the Brachial Plexus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shilal, Poonam; Sarda, Rohit Kumar; Chhetri, Kalpana; Lama, Polly; Tamang, Binod Kumar

    2015-06-01

    Pre and post-fixed variations at roots of the brachial plexus have been well documented, however little is known about the variations that exist in the branches which arise from the brachial plexus. In this paper, we describe about one such rare variation related to the dorsal scapular and the long thoracic nerve, which are the branches arising from the roots of the brachial plexus. The variation was found during routine dissection. The dorsal scapular nerve, which routinely arises from the fifth cervical nerve root (C5), was seen to receive contributions from C5 as well as sixth cervical nerve (C6), while the long thoracic nerve arose from C6 and seventh cervical nerves (C7) only. Furthermore along with variations in origin of the dorsal scapular and long thoracic nerves, the brachial plexus was seen to exist as a prefixed plexus receiving a contribution from C4 nerve root. An aberrant communicating branch between the dorsal scapular and long thoracic nerve was also identified. Knowledge about the course and anatomy of such variations can be vital for understanding the aetiology of various conditions such as winging of scapula, interscapular pain, administration of cervical nerve blocks, surgeries and for effective management of regions and muscles supplied by dorsal scapular and long thoracic nerve.

  3. Effects of Continuous Sciatic Nerve Block by Tetrodotoxin on Growth Associated Protein-43 Expression in Dorsal Root Ganglions of Normal and Sciatic Nerve Injury Rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chen Wang; Yong-fa Zhang; Xiao-yu Huang

    2007-01-01

    @@ Growth associated protein-43 (GAP-43) is considered to be one of the most useful molecular markers for the neural development, nerve regeneration, and neuroplasticity. In most mature neurons, the expression of GAP-43 is at very low or negative level; its expression is triggered in response to the interruption of axonal transport. The purpose of this study was to examine whether continuous sciatic nerve block by tetrodotoxin (TTX) affects GAP-43 expression in the dorsal root ganglion (DRG) of normal and sciatic nerve injury rats.

  4. Nav1.7 protein and mRNA expression in the dorsal root ganglia of rats with chronic neuropathic pain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chao Liu; Jing Cao; Xiuhua Ren; Weidong Zang

    2012-01-01

    Neuropathic pain was produced by chronic constriction injury of the sciatic nerve in rats. Behavioral tests showed that the thresholds for thermal and mechanical hyperalgesia were significantly reduced in neuropathic pain rats 3-28 days following model induction. The results of immunohistochemistry,western blot assays and reverse transcription-PCR showed that Nav1.7 protein and mRNA expression was significantly increased in the injured dorsal root ganglia. These findings indicated that Nav1.7 might play an important role in the model of chronic neuropathic pain.

  5. Inhibition of calcineurin inhibits the desensitization of capsaicin evoked currents in cultured dorsal root ganglion neurones from adult rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Docherty, RJ; Yeats, JC; Bevan, S; Boddeke, HWGM

    1996-01-01

    Capsaicin activates a non-specific cation conductance in mammalian sensory neurones. If capsaicin is applied continuously or repeatedly then there is a progressive decline in responsiveness. We have studied the mechanism of this desensitization using electrophysiological methods in cultured dorsal r

  6. Do clinical features and MRI suggest the same nerve root in acute cervical radiculopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Conradie

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Different proposed pathophysiological mechanisms can result in variable clinical presentations of cervical radiculopathy (CR, often making it difficult to detect minor nerve root (NR conditions. This descriptive study determined (1 the level(s of  NR involvement suggested by the distribution patterns of clinical features and detected by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI and (2 the most common associations between the different variables in patients diagnosed with acute CR by a neurosurgeon. A physiotherapist blinded to the level(s of NR involvement performed a standardized interview on 21 subjects to determine the distribution patterns of pain and paraesthesia, and a neurological examination. The Fisher exact test was used to determine associations between the different variables. Only seven subjects presented clinically and radiologically with the same single-level NR involvement. Multiple- level presentations occurred which might be due to dermatomal overlapping, central sensitization or the possible involvement of two adjacent NR levels. Distribution patterns of motor weakness, pain and paraesthesia, and to a lesser extent sensory and reflex changes, have value in identifying the compressed NR level. For this sample the distri-bution patterns of radicular features identified C6 and C8 with more certainty than C7.

  7. Treating nerve root type cervical spondylosis by massage%推拿治疗神经根型颈椎病

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谭滔胜; 谭周纯; 何凝凝; 李伟利; 殷贞燕

    2012-01-01

      Nerve root type cervical spondylosis was named by the symptom of pain and discomfort, upper limb weakness, finger numbness, paresthesia that caused by the degenerative changes of the cervical vertebra. The incidence of the disease in the cervical spondylosis was the highest, accounting for about 60 percent of cervical disease, it was a common disease of middle-aged and frequently-occurring, heavy manual workers was more than non-manual workers, it was mostly acute onset, it also may be due to mild sprain or induced long bow. In recent years due to changes in work and living habits, nerve root type cervical spondylosis have a younger age trend.%  神经根型颈椎病因颈椎的退行性变化,刺激、压迫神经根,引发疼痛不适、上肢无力、手指麻木、感觉异常等症状而得名。此病的发病率在颈椎病中最高,约占颈椎病的60%,是中老年的常见病、多发病,重体力劳动者多于非体力劳动者,多为急性发病,也可因轻度扭伤或长时间低头工作诱发。近年来由于工作和生活习惯的改变,神经根型颈椎病已有低龄化趋势。

  8. Application of radiofrequency thermocoagulation combined with adriamycin injection in dorsal root ganglia for controlling refractory pain induced by rib metastasis of lung cancer (a STROBE-compliant article)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Guang-lun; Guo, Da-peng; Li, Zhi-gang; Liu, Chang; Zhang, Wei

    2016-01-01

    Abstract This study aimed to observe the therapeutic effects and adverse reactions of radiofrequency thermocoagulation combined with adriamycin injection in dorsal root ganglia on lung cancer rib metastasis-related refractory pain which has no response to conventional therapy. This study contained 27 patients with lung cancer rib metastasis-related moderate or severe pain which had no response to conventional therapy. Under computed tomography (CT)-guidance, radiofrequency puncture need reached the corresponding intervertebral foramens to ensure needle point near dorsal root ganglia (DRG) by sensory and motor stimulation tests, and then radiofrequency thermocoagulation was performed on each corresponding DRG followed by injection of 0.5 to 1 mL of adriamycin (0.5%). The conditions of pain and complications were observed before management and 3 days, 1 month, and 3 months after management, respectively. Numerical rating scale (NRS) scores and dosage of morphine were all significantly decreased after management as compared with those before management (all P management as compared with that before management (all P management in nausea and vomiting, and constipation. CT-guided radiofrequency thermocoagulation combined with adriamycin injection in DRG can effectively control lung cancer rib metastasis-related pain which has no response to conventional therapy. This combinatory treatment regimen is featured by better therapeutic effects and a few complications, so it is worthy of being recommended in clinical application. PMID:27749531

  9. Responses of muscle spindles in feline dorsal neck muscles to electrical stimulation of the cervical sympathetic nerve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hellström, F; Roatta, S; Thunberg, J; Passatore, M; Djupsjöbacka, M

    2005-09-01

    Previous studies performed in jaw muscles of rabbits and rats have demonstrated that sympathetic outflow may affect the activity of muscle spindle afferents (MSAs). The resulting impairment of MSA information has been suggested to be involved in the genesis and spread of chronic muscle pain. The present study was designed to investigate sympathetic influences on muscle spindles in feline trapezius and splenius muscles (TrSp), as these muscles are commonly affected by chronic pain in humans. Experiments were carried out in cats anesthetized with alpha-chloralose. The effect of electrical stimulation (10 Hz for 90 s or 3 Hz for 5 min) of the peripheral stump of the cervical sympathetic nerve (CSN) was investigated on the discharge of TrSp MSAs (units classified as Ia-like and II-like) and on their responses to sinusoidal stretching of these muscles. In some of the experiments, the local microcirculation of the muscles was monitored by laser Doppler flowmetry. In total, 46 MSAs were recorded. Stimulation of the CSN at 10 Hz powerfully depressed the mean discharge rate of the majority of the tested MSAs (73%) and also affected the sensitivity of MSAs to sinusoidal changes of muscle length, which were evaluated in terms of amplitude and phase of the sinusoidal fitting of unitary activity. The amplitude was significantly reduced in Ia-like units and variably affected in II-like units, while in general the phase was affected little and not changed significantly in either group. The discharge of a smaller percentage of tested units was also modulated by 3-Hz CSN stimulation. Blockade of the neuromuscular junctions by pancuronium did not induce any changes in MSA responses to CSN stimulation, showing that these responses were not secondary to changes in extrafusal or fusimotor activity. Further data showed that the sympathetically induced modulation of MSA discharge was not secondary to the concomitant reduction of muscle blood flow induced by the stimulation. Hence

  10. Chronic at-level thermal hyperalgesia following rat cervical contusion spinal cord injury is accompanied by neuronal and astrocyte activation and loss of the astrocyte glutamate transporter, GLT1, in superficial dorsal horn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putatunda, Rajarshi; Hala, Tamara J; Chin, Jeannie; Lepore, Angelo C

    2014-09-18

    Neuropathic pain is a form of pathological nociception that occurs in a significant portion of traumatic spinal cord injury (SCI) patients, resulting in debilitating and often long-term physical and psychological burdens. While many peripheral and central mechanisms have been implicated in neuropathic pain, central sensitization of dorsal horn spinothalamic tract (STT) neurons is a major underlying substrate. Furthermore, dysregulation of extracellular glutamate homeostasis and chronic astrocyte activation play important underlying roles in persistent hyperexcitability of these superficial dorsal horn neurons. To date, central sensitization and astrocyte changes have not been characterized in cervical SCI-induced neuropathic pain models, despite the fact that a major portion of SCI patients suffer contusion trauma to cervical spinal cord. In this study, we have characterized 2 rat models of unilateral cervical contusion SCI that behaviorally result in chronic persistence of thermal hyperalgesia in the ipsilateral forepaw. In addition, we find that STT neurons are chronically activated in both models when compared to laminectomy-only uninjured rats. Finally, persistent astrocyte activation and significantly reduced expression of the major CNS glutamate transporter, GLT1, in superficial dorsal horn astrocytes are associated with both excitability changes in STT neurons and the neuropathic pain behavioral phenotype. In conclusion, we have characterized clinically-relevant rodent models of cervical contusion-induced neuropathic pain that result in chronic activation of both STT neurons and astrocytes, as well as compromise in astrocyte glutamate transporter expression. These models can be used as important tools to further study mechanisms underlying neuropathic pain post-SCI and to test potential therapeutic interventions.

  11. CLINICAL OBSERVATION ON TREATMENT OF NERVE-ROOT TYPE CERVICAL SPONDYLOSIS WITH ACUPUNCTURE, TRACTION PLUS SELF-EXERCISE OF QIGONG

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Qingwen; GUO Yi; WANG Huiqin; ZHENG Wanpeng; ZHENG Kunlun

    2002-01-01

    Purpose: To observe the therapeutic effect of acupuncture combined with traction and Qigong exercise for treatment of nerve-root type cervical spondylosis. Methods: A total of 130 nerve-root type cervical spondylosis patients were randomly divided into acupuncture + traction + Qigong-exercise (ATQE) group (n= 59), acupuncture +Qigong-exercise (AQE) group (n= 40) and traction + Qigong-exercise (TQE) group (n = 31 ). Main acupoints used were Fengchi (GB 20) and cervical Jiaji (EX-B 2) on the affected side. Results: After one month's treatment, in ATQE, AQE and TQE groups, 43 (72.88%), 18 (45.00%) and 12 (45. 16%) had remarkable amelioration, 14(23.72%), 14 (35.00%) and 10 (32.26%) were effective, and 2 (3.39%), 8 (20.00%) and 7 (22.58%) had no apparent changes with the total effective rates being 96.61%, 80.00 % and 77.41% respectively. The therapeutic effect of ATQE group was significantly superior to that of AQE and TQE groups (P< 0.01 ).

  12. Systemic administration of lidocaine suppresses the excitability of rat cervical dorsal horn neurons and tooth-pulp-evoked jaw-opening reflex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeda, Mamoru; Oshima, Katsuo; Takahashi, Masayuki; Matsumoto, Shigeji

    2009-10-01

    Although systemic lidocaine has been demonstrated to have analgesic actions in neuropathic pain conditions, the effect of intravenous lidocaine on trigeminal pain has not been elucidated. The aim of the present study is to investigate the effect of intravenous lidocaine administration on the excitability of the upper cervical dorsal horn (C1) neuron having convergent inputs from both tooth-pulp (TP) and facial skin as well as nociceptive jaw-opening reflex (JOR). After electrical stimulation of TP, extracellular single-unit recordings from 19 C1 neurons and the digastric muscle electromyogram (dEMG) were made in pentobarbital-anesthetized rats. These neurons also responded to non-noxious and noxious mechanical stimulation (touch and pinch) of facial skin, and every neuron was considered to be a wide dynamic range (WDR) neuron. The TP-evoked C1 neuronal and dEMG activities were dose-dependently inhibited by systematic administration of lidocaine (1-2 mg/kg, i.v.). After intravenous injection of lidocaine, the unit discharges induced by both touch and pinch stimuli were inhibited, and the size of the receptive field for pinch was also significantly decreased. The mean spontaneous discharge frequencies were significantly inhibited by the application of lidocaine. These changes were reversed within -20 min. These results suggest that in the absence of neuropathic pain intravenous lidocaine injection suppresses the trigeminal nociceptive reflex as well as the excitability of C1 neurons having convergent inputs from TP and somatic afferents. Systemic lidocaine administration, therefore, may contribute to the alleviation of trigeminal-referred pain associated with tooth pain.

  13. Autologous nucleus pulposus transplantation to lumbar 5 dorsal root ganglion after epineurium discission in rats: a modified model of non-compressive lumbar herniated intervertebral disc

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Jin-jun; SONG Wu; LUO Wen-ying; WEI Ming; SUN Lai-bao; ZOU Xue-nong; LIAO Wei-ming

    2011-01-01

    Background Nucleus pulposus of intervertebral discs has proinflammatory characteristics that play a key role in neuropathic pain in lumbar herniated intervertebral disc. One of the most commonly used animal models (the traditional model) of non-compressive lumbar hemiated intervertebral disc is created by L4-L5 hemilaminectomy and the application of autologous nucleus pulposus to cover the left L4 and L5 nerve roots in rats. However, such procedures have the disadvantages of excessive trauma and low success rate. We proposed a modified model of non-compressive lumbar herniated intervertebral disc in which only the left L5 dorsal root ganglion is exposed and transplanted with autologous nucleus pulposus following incision of epineurium. We aimed to compare the modified model with the traditional one with regard to trauma and success rate.Methods Thirty Sprague-Dawley male rats were randomized into three groups: sham operation group (n=6). traditional group (n=12), and modified group (n=12). The amount of blood loss and operative time for each group were analyzed. The paw withdrawal threshold of the left hind limb to mechanical stimuli and paw withdrawal latency to heat stimuli were examined from the day before surgery to day 35 after surgery.Results Compared with the traditional group, the modified group had shorter operative time, smaller amount of blood loss, and higher success rate (91.7% versus 58.3%, P <0.05). There was no decrease in paw withdrawal latency in any group. The sham operation group had no decrease in postoperative paw withdrawal threshold, whereas the modified and traditional groups had significant reduction in paw withdrawal threshold after surgery (mechanical hyperalgesia).Conclusions Transplantation of nucleus pulposus onto the L5 dorsal root ganglion following incision of epineurium in rats established an improved animal model of non-compressive lumbar herniated intervertebral disc with less trauma and more stable pain ethology.

  14. TNF-α enhances the currents of voltage gated sodium channels in uninjured dorsal root ganglion neurons following motor nerve injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xi; Pang, Rui-Ping; Shen, Kai-Feng; Zimmermann, Manfred; Xin, Wen-Jun; Li, Yong-Yong; Liu, Xian-Guo

    2011-02-01

    The ectopic discharges observed in uninjured dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons following various lesions of spinal nerves have been attributed to functional alterations of voltage-gated sodium channels (VGSCs). Such mechanisms may be important for the development of neuropathic pain. However, the pathophysiology underlying the functional modulation of VGSCs following nerve injury is largely unknown. Here, we studied this issue with use of a selective lumbar 5 ventral root transection (L5-VRT) model, in which dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons remain intact. We found that the L5-VRT increased the current densities of TTX-sensitive Na channels as well as currents in Nav1.8, but not Nav1.9 channels in uninjured DRG neurons. The thresholds of action potentials decreased and firing rates increased in DRG neurons following L5-VRT. As we found that levels of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) increased in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and in DRG tissue after L5-VRT, we tested whether the increased TNF-α might result in the changes in sodium channels. Indeed, recombinant rat TNF (rrTNF) enhanced the current densities of TTX-S and Nav1.8 in cultured DRG neurons dose-dependently. Furthermore, genetic deletion of TNF receptor 1 (TNFR-1) in mice attenuated the mechanical allodynia and prevented the increase in sodium currents in DRG neurons induced by L5-VRT. These data suggest that the increase in sodium currents in uninjured DRG neurons following nerve injury might be mediated by over-production of TNF-α.

  15. Changes in behaviors of rats with sciatic nerve injury and expression of growth associated protein-43 in dorsal root ganglion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chen Wang; Yongfa Zhang

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Neuropathic pain is closely related to neuroplasticity, and growth associated protein-43 (GAP 43) is a molecular marker for neuronal development and neuroplasticity. The expression of GAP-43 during the development of neuropathic pain should have its own characters.OBJECTIVE: To observe the changes in behaviors of rats with sciatic nerve injury and GAP-43 expression in dorsal root ganglion(DRG) affected ascribing to developing nerve transection and nerve crush, two types of neuropathic pain models.DESIGN: Randomized controlled animal experiment.SETTING: Department of Anesthesiology in Second Hospital of Xiamen City and Second Affiliated Hospital of Shantou University Medical College.MATERIALS: Totally 250 adult Wistar rats of either gender, weighing 180 to 250 g, were involved in the study. The rats were randomized into 3 groups: nerve transection group (n =120), nerve crush group (n =120), and normal control group (n =10). The rats in the nerve transection group and nerve crush group were subdivided separately into 6 groups,and were allowed to survive for 3, 7, 14, 21, 30 and 60 days after nerve injury (n =20). Mouse anti-GAP-43 monoclonal antibody (Sigma Co.,Ltd.), Supervision TM anti-mouse reagent (HRP, Changdao antibody diagnosis reagent Co.,Ltd., Shanghai), DAB/H2O2 (Boster Co.Ltd, Wuhan), and HMIAS-100 image analysis system (Qianping Image engineering Company, Tongji Medical University) were employed in this study.METHODS: This experiment was carried out in the Surgical Department and Pathological Laboratory, the Second Hospital Affiliated to Shantou Medical College during April 2004 to April 2005. ① Grouping intervention: Animals were anesthetized and the sciatic nerve of the right side was exposed at thigh around ischial tuberosity. Sciatic nerves of rats in nerve transection group were transected at 1 cm below infrapiriform foramen, and those in nerve crush group were exposed as well as the nerve transection group, and crushed at 0.5 cm below

  16. Peripheral effects of morphine and expression of μ-opioid receptors in the dorsal root ganglia during neuropathic pain: nitric oxide signaling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pol Olga

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The local administration of μ-opioid receptor (MOR agonists attenuates neuropathic pain but the precise mechanism implicated in this effect is not completely elucidated. We investigated if nitric oxide synthesized by neuronal (NOS1 or inducible (NOS2 nitric oxide synthases could modulate the local antiallodynic effects of morphine through the peripheral nitric oxide-cGMP-protein kinase G (PKG-ATP-sensitive K+ (KATP channels signaling pathway activation and affect the dorsal root ganglia MOR expression during neuropathic pain. Results In wild type (WT mice, the subplantar administration of morphine dose-dependently decreased the mechanical and thermal allodynia induced by the chronic constriction of the sciatic nerve (CCI, which effects were significantly diminished after their co-administration with different subanalgesic doses of a selective NOS1 (N-[(4S-4-amino-5-[(2-aminoethylamino]pentyl]-N'-nitroguanidine tris(trifluoroacetate salt; NANT, NOS2 (L-N(6-(1-iminoethyl-lysine; L-NIL, L-guanylate cyclase (1H-[1,2,4]oxadiazolo[4,3-a]quinoxalin-1-one; ODQ, PKG ((Rp-8-(para-chlorophenylthioguanosine-3',5'-cyclic monophosphorothioate; Rp-8-pCPT-cGMPs inhibitor or a KATP channel blocker (glibenclamide. The evaluation of the expression of MOR in the dorsal root ganglia from sham-operated and sciatic nerve-injured WT, NOS1 knockout (KO and NOS2-KO mice at 21 days after surgery demonstrated that, although the basal mRNA and protein levels of MOR were similar between WT and both NOS-KO animals, nerve injury only decreased their expression in WT mice. Conclusions These results suggest that the peripheral nitric oxide-cGMP-PKG-KATP signaling pathway activation participates in the local antiallodynic effects of morphine after sciatic nerve injury and that nitric oxide, synthesized by NOS1 and NOS2, is implicated in the dorsal root ganglia down-regulation of MOR during neuropathic pain.

  17. Preemptive analgesic effects of low-dose ketamine on growth-associated protein expression in dorsal root ganglion of chronic constriction injury model rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shuyong Lin; Chen Wang

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Ketamine is a noncompetitive N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonists and plays an important role in the treatment of pain.OBJECTIVE: To analyze the preemptive analgesic effects of different doses of ketamine on growth-associated protein-43 (GAP-43) expression in dorsal root ganglion in a rat model of chronic sciatic nerve constricted injury, and to study the differences between high-dose and low-dose ketamineDESIGN: Randomized controlled animal study.SETTING: Medical College of Shantou University. MATERIALS: Thirty-five adult male Sprague Dawley rats were provided by the Experimental Animal Center of Guangzhou University of Traditional Chinese Medicine. Ketamine hydrochloride injection was provided by Hengrui Pharmaceutical Co., Ltd., Jiangsu. METHODS: This study was performed at the Immunological Laboratory, Medical College of Shantou University from September to December 2006. Model of chronic sciatic nerve constricted injury: after anesthesia, the right sciatic nerve was exposed and ligated 1-cm distal to the ischiadic tuberosity with a No. 3-0 cat gut suture. Grouping and intervention: 35 rats were randomly divided into 4 groups: normal control group (n = 5), chronic constriction injury (CCI) group (n = 10), low-dose ketamine group (n = 10), and high-dose ketamine group (n = 10). Rats in the normal control group did not undergo any surgery or drug intervention. Rats in the CCI group received intraperitoneal injection of saline (1 mL), and their sciatic nerves were ligated after 10 minutes. Rats in the low-dose ketamine group underwent intraperitoneal injection of ketamine (25 mg/kg) 10 minutes prior to ligation of sciatic nerve; while, rats in the high-dose ketamine group were given intraperitoneal injection of ketamine (50 mg/kg) 10 minutes prior to ligation of sciatic nerve. On the third and the seventh days after surgery, dorsal root ganglion were resected from the sciatic nerve and cut into sections. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: GAP-43

  18. Effects of dragon's blood resin and its component loureirin B on tetrodotoxin-sensitive voltage-gated sodium currents in rat dorsal root ganglion neurons

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Xiangming; CHEN Su; YIN Shijin; MEI Zhinan

    2004-01-01

    Using whole-cell patch clamp technique on the membrane of freshly isolated dorsal root ganglion(DRG)neurons,the effects of dragon's blood resin and its important component Ioureirin B on tetrodotoxin-sensitive(TTX-S)voltage-gated sodium currents were observed.The results show that both blood resin and loureirin B could suppress TTX-S voltage-gated sodium currents in a dose-dependent way.The peak current amplitudes and the steady-state activation and inactivation curves are also made to shift by 0.05% blood resin and 0.2 mmol/L loureirin B.These results demonstrate that the effects of blood resin on TTX-S sodium current may contribute to loureirin B in blood resin.Perhaps the analgesic effect of blood resin is caused partly by loureirin B directly interfering with the nociceptive transmission of primary sensory neurons.

  19. Effect of NGF, BDNF, bFGF, aFGF and cell density on NPY expression in cultured rat dorsal root ganglion neurones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerekes, N; Landry, M; Lundmark, K; Hökfelt, T

    2000-07-01

    The effect of neurotrophic factors on neuropeptide Y (NPY) expression was studied in adult rat dispersed dorsal root ganglion (DRG) cultures. Nerve growth factor (NGF), brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), acidic fibroblast growth factor (aFGF) or basic FGF was included in the culture medium during incubation for 72 h. In untreated cultures, around 18% of all neurones (visualized by antibodies to PGP 9.5) expressed NPY-like immunoreactivity (LI). In contrast, in vivo uninjured neurones do not contain detectable levels of NPY-LI. In the immunohistochemical analysis aFGF increased the percentage of NPY-immunoreactive (-IR) neurones 1.8-fold, while NGF, BDNF or bFGF had no significant effect on NPY expression. When the effect of these growth factors was monitored with non-radioactive in situ hybridization, both aFGF and bFGF caused a significant increase (2.25- and 1.8-fold, respectively), whereas, again, NGF and BDNF had no effect. The results also showed an effect of cell density on NPY expression, whereby fewer neurones expressed NPY in high than in low density cultures. This difference was seen in untreated as well as growth factor-treated cultures. The present results support the hypothesis that DRG neurones in culture are in an axotomized state, since they express NPY to about the same extent as axotomized DRG neurones in vivo. Surprisingly, two growth factors of the FGF family enhance NPY expression in DRG neurones, which is in apparent contrast to a published in vivo study [Ji, R.-R., Zhang, Q., Pettersson, R.F., Hökfelt, T., 1996. aFGF, bFGF and NGF differentially regulate neuropeptide expression in dorsal root ganglia after axotomy and induce autotomy. Reg. Pept. 66, 179-189.]. Finally, NPY expression was also influenced by cell density.

  20. Up-regulation of brain-derived neurotrophic factor in the dorsal root ganglion of the rat bone cancer pain model

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    Tomotsuka N

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Naoto Tomotsuka,1 Ryuji Kaku,1 Norihiko Obata,1 Yoshikazu Matsuoka,1 Hirotaka Kanzaki,2 Arata Taniguchi,1 Noriko Muto,1 Hiroki Omiya,1 Yoshitaro Itano,1 Tadasu Sato,3 Hiroyuki Ichikawa,3 Satoshi Mizobuchi,1 Hiroshi Morimatsu1 1Department of Anesthesiology and Resuscitology, Okayama University Graduate School of Medicine, Dentistry and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Okayama, Japan; 2Department of Pharmacy, Okayama University Hospital, Okayama, Japan; 3Department of Oral and Craniofacial Anatomy, Tohoku University Graduate School of Dentistry, Sendai, Japan Abstract: Metastatic bone cancer causes severe pain, but current treatments often provide insufficient pain relief. One of the reasons is that mechanisms underlying bone cancer pain are not solved completely. Our previous studies have shown that brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF, known as a member of the neurotrophic family, is an important molecule in the pathological pain state in some pain models. We hypothesized that expression changes of BDNF may be one of the factors related to bone cancer pain; in this study, we investigated changes of BDNF expression in dorsal root ganglia in a rat bone cancer pain model. As we expected, BDNF mRNA (messenger ribonucleic acid and protein were significantly increased in L3 dorsal root ganglia after intra-tibial inoculation of MRMT-1 rat breast cancer cells. Among the eleven splice-variants of BDNF mRNA, exon 1–9 variant increased predominantly. Interestingly, the up-regulation of BDNF is localized in small neurons (mostly nociceptive neurons but not in medium or large neurons (non-nociceptive neurons. Further, expression of nerve growth factor (NGF, which is known as a specific promoter of BDNF exon 1–9 variant, was significantly increased in tibial bone marrow. Our findings suggest that BDNF is a key molecule in bone cancer pain, and NGF-BDNF cascade possibly develops bone cancer pain. Keywords: BDNF, bone cancer pain, chronic pain, nerve growth

  1. Effects of intrathecal injection of glial cell inhibitor on spinal cord astrocytes following chronic compression of dorsal root ganglia in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xianhong Zhang; Wen Shen; Mingde Wang; Yinming Zeng

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Astrocytes are considered to provide nutritional support in the central nervous system. However, recent studies have confirmed that astrocytes also play an important role in chronic pain. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effects of intrathecal injection of fluorocitrate, minocycline or both on astrocyte activation and proliferation in the spinal dorsal horn of compressed dorsal root ganglion in rats. DESIGN, TIME AND SETTING: The neurology randomized controlled animal study was performed at the Jiangsu Institute of Anesthesia Medicine, from September 2006 to April 2007. MATERIALS: A total of 96 male Sprague Dawley rats, aged 6-8 weeks, were selected for this study. Following intrathecal catheterization, 80 rats underwent steel bar insertion into the L4-5 intervertebral foramina to make a stable compression on the L4-5 posterior root ganglion. Thus rat models of ganglion compression were established. Minocycline and fluorocitrate were purchased from Sigma, USA. METHODS: A total of 96 rats were randomly and equally divided into six groups. Rat L4, L5 transverse process and intervertebral foramina were exposed in the sham operation group, but without steel bar insertion. The model group did not receive any manipulations. Rats in the phosphate buffered saline (PBS) group were intrathecally injected with 0.01 mmol/L PBS (20 μL). Rats in the fluorocitrate group were subjected to 1 μmol/L fluorocitrate (20 μL). Rats in the minocycline group were intrathecally injected with 5 g/L minocycline (20 μL). Rats in the minocycline and fluorocitrate group received a mixture (20 μL) of 5 g/L minocycline and 1 μmol/L fluorocitrate. Following model establishment, drugs were administered once a day. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: At 7 and 14 days following model induction, glial fibrillary acidic protein expression in the spinal dorsal horn was measured by immunofluorescence microscopy. Six sections with significant glial fibrillary acidic protein -positive expression were

  2. Neonatal intraperitoneal or intravenous injections of recombinant adeno-associated virus type 8 transduce dorsal root ganglia and lower motor neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foust, Kevin D; Poirier, Amy; Pacak, Christina A; Mandel, Ronald J; Flotte, Terence R

    2008-01-01

    Targeting lower motor neurons (LMNs) for gene delivery could be useful for disorders such as spinal muscular atrophy and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. LMNs reside in the ventral gray matter of the spinal cord and send axonal projections to innervate skeletal muscle. Studies have used intramuscular injections of adeno-associated virus type 2 (AAV2) to deliver viral vectors to LMNs via retrograde transport. However, treating large areas of the spinal cord in a human would require numerous intramuscular injections, thereby increasing viral titer and risk of immune response. New AAV serotypes, such as AAV8, have a dispersed transduction pattern after intravenous or intraperitoneal injection in neonatal mice, and may transduce LMNs by retrograde transport or through entry into the nervous system. To test LMN transduction after systemic injection, we administered recombinant AAV8 (rAAV8) carrying the green fluorescent protein (GFP) gene by intravenous or intraperitoneal injection to neonatal mice on postnatal day 1. Tissues were harvested 5 and 14 days postinjection and analyzed by real-time polymerase chain reaction and GFP immunohistochemistry to assess the presence of AAV genomes and GFP expression, respectively. Spinal cords were positive for AAV genomes at both time points. GFP immunohistochemistry revealed infrequent labeling of LMNs across all time points and injection routes. Somewhat surprisingly, there was extensive labeling of fibers in the dorsal horns and columns, indicating dorsal root ganglion transduction across all time points and injection routes. Our data suggest that systemic injection of rAAV8 is not an effective delivery route to target lower motor neurons, but could be useful for targeting sensory pathways in chronic pain.

  3. Percutaneous radiofrequency lesions adjacent to the dorsal root ganglion alleviate spasticity and pain in children with cerebral palsy: pilot study in 17 patients

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    van Rhijn Lodewijk W

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cerebral palsy (CP may cause severe spasticity, requiring neurosurgical procedures. The most common neurosurgical procedures are continuous infusion of intrathecal baclofen and selective dorsal rhizotomy. Both are invasive and complex procedures. We hypothesized that a percutaneous radiofrequency lesion of the dorsal root ganglion (RF-DRG could be a simple and safe alternative treatment. We undertook a pilot study to test this hypothesis. Methods We performed an RF-DRG procedure in 17 consecutive CP patients with severe hip flexor/adductor spasms accompanied by pain or care-giving difficulties. Six children were systematically evaluated at baseline, and 1 month and 6 months after treatment by means of the Modified Ashworth Scale (MAS, Gross Motor Function Measure (GMFM and a self-made caregiver's questionnaire. Eleven subsequent children were evaluated using a Visual Analogue Scale (VAS for spasticity, pain and ease of care. Results A total of 19 RF-DRG treatments were performed in 17 patients. We found a small improvement in muscle tone measured by MAS, but no effect on the GMFM scale. Despite this, the caregivers of these six treated children unanimously stated that the quality of life of their children had indeed improved after the RF-DRG. In the subsequent 11 children we found improvements in all VAS scores, in a range comparable to the conventional treatment options. Conclusion RF-DRG is a promising new treatment option for severe spasticity in CP patients, and its definitive effectiveness remains to be defined in a randomised controlled trial.

  4. Minocycline reduces the injury-induced expression of prodynorphin and pronociceptin in the dorsal root ganglion in a rat model of neuropathic pain.

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    Mika, J; Rojewska, E; Makuch, W; Przewlocka, B

    2010-02-17

    A role of neuropeptides in neuropathic pain development has been implicated; however, the neuroimmune interactions that are involved in the underlying mechanisms may be more important than previously thought. To examine a potential role of relations between glia cells and neuropeptides in neuropathic pain, we performed competitive reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) from the dorsal lumbar spinal cord and the dorsal root ganglion (DRG) after chronic constriction injury (CCI) in the rat sciatic nerve. The RT-PCR results indicated that complement component 1, q subcomponent (C1q) mRNA expression was higher than glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) in the spinal cord 3 and 7 days post-CCI, suggesting that spinal microglia and perivascular macrophages are more activated than astrocytes. In parallel, we observed a strong upregulation of prodynorphin mRNA in the spinal cord after CCI, with no changes in the expression of proenkephalin or pronociceptin. Conversely, the expression of GFAP mRNA in the DRG was higher than C1q, which suggests that the satellite cells are activated shortly after injury, followed by the macrophages and polymorphonuclear leukocytes infiltrating the DRG. In the DRG, we also observed a very strong upregulation of prodynorphin (1387%) as well as pronociceptin (122%) and a downregulation of proenkephalin (47%) mRNAs. Interestingly, preemptive and repeated i.p. injection of minocycline reversed the activation of microglia/macrophages in the spinal cord and the trafficking of peripheral immune cells into the DRG, and markedly diminished the upregulation of prodynorphin and pronociceptin in the DRG. We thus provide novel findings that inhibition of C1q-positive cells by minocycline can diminish injury-induced neuropeptide changes in the DRG. This suggests that immune cells-derived pronociceptive factors may influence opioid peptide expression. Therefore, the injury-induced activation of microglia and leukocytes and the subsequent

  5. Nerve root distribution of deltoid and biceps brachii muscle in cervical spondylotic myelopathy: a potential risk factor for postoperative shoulder muscle weakness after posterior decompression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yonemura, Hiroshi; Kaneko, Kazuo; Taguchi, Toshihiko; Fujimoto, Hideaki; Toyoda, Kouichiro; Kawai, Shinya

    2004-01-01

    To investigate the nerve root distribution of deltoid and biceps brachii muscle, compound muscle action potentials (CMAPs) were recorded intraoperatively following nerve root stimulation in cervical spondylotic myelopathy. A total of 19 upper limbs in 12 patients aged 55-72 years (mean, 65.5 years) with cervical spondylotic myelopathy were examined. CMAPs were recorded from deltoid and biceps brachii muscle following C5 and C6 root stimulation. Although both C5 and C6 roots were innervated for deltoid and biceps brachii muscle in all subjects, the amplitude ratio of CMAPs (C5/C6) differed individually depending on the symptomatic intervertebral levels of the spinal cord. The C5 root predominantly innervated both deltoid and biceps brachii in patients with symptomatic cord lesions at the C4-C5 intervertebral level compared to patients with symptomatic cord lesions at the C5-C6 intervertebral level. Although no patients sustained postoperative radiculopathy in our study, severe weakness and unfavorable recovery are expected when the C5 root in patients with C4-C5 myelopathy is damaged. From the electrophysiological aspect, C4-C5 cord lesions are likely to be a potential risk factor for postoperative shoulder muscle weakness in patients with compressive cervical myelopathy.

  6. TRPV1 channels are functionally coupled with BK(mSlo1 channels in rat dorsal root ganglion (DRG neurons.

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    Ying Wu

    Full Text Available The transient receptor potential vanilloid receptor 1 (TRPV1 channel is a nonselective cation channel activated by a variety of exogenous and endogenous physical and chemical stimuli, such as temperature (≥42 °C, capsaicin, a pungent compound in hot chili peppers, and allyl isothiocyanate. Large-conductance calcium- and voltage-activated potassium (BK channels regulate the electric activities and neurotransmitter releases in excitable cells, responding to changes in membrane potentials and elevation of cytosolic calcium ions (Ca(2+. However, it is unknown whether the TRPV1 channels are coupled with the BK channels. Using patch-clamp recording combined with an infrared laser device, we found that BK channels could be activated at 0 mV by a Ca(2+ influx through TRPV1 channels not the intracellular calcium stores in submilliseconds. The local calcium concentration around BK is estimated over 10 μM. The crosstalk could be affected by 10 mM BAPTA, whereas 5 mM EGTA was ineffectual. Fluorescence and co-immunoprecipitation experiments also showed that BK and TRPV1 were able to form a TRPV1-BK complex. Furthermore, we demonstrated that the TRPV1-BK coupling also occurs in dosal root ganglion (DRG cells, which plays a critical physiological role in regulating the "pain" signal transduction pathway in the peripheral nervous system.

  7. TRPV1 channels are functionally coupled with BK(mSlo1) channels in rat dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Ying; Liu, Yongfeng; Hou, Panpan; Yan, Zonghe; Kong, Wenjuan; Liu, Beiying; Li, Xia; Yao, Jing; Zhang, Yuexuan; Qin, Feng; Ding, Jiuping

    2013-01-01

    The transient receptor potential vanilloid receptor 1 (TRPV1) channel is a nonselective cation channel activated by a variety of exogenous and endogenous physical and chemical stimuli, such as temperature (≥42 °C), capsaicin, a pungent compound in hot chili peppers, and allyl isothiocyanate. Large-conductance calcium- and voltage-activated potassium (BK) channels regulate the electric activities and neurotransmitter releases in excitable cells, responding to changes in membrane potentials and elevation of cytosolic calcium ions (Ca(2+)). However, it is unknown whether the TRPV1 channels are coupled with the BK channels. Using patch-clamp recording combined with an infrared laser device, we found that BK channels could be activated at 0 mV by a Ca(2+) influx through TRPV1 channels not the intracellular calcium stores in submilliseconds. The local calcium concentration around BK is estimated over 10 μM. The crosstalk could be affected by 10 mM BAPTA, whereas 5 mM EGTA was ineffectual. Fluorescence and co-immunoprecipitation experiments also showed that BK and TRPV1 were able to form a TRPV1-BK complex. Furthermore, we demonstrated that the TRPV1-BK coupling also occurs in dosal root ganglion (DRG) cells, which plays a critical physiological role in regulating the "pain" signal transduction pathway in the peripheral nervous system.

  8. CULTIVOS DE CÉLULAS DE NERVIO CIÁTICO Y DE GANGLIO DE LA RAÍZ DORSAL DE RATÓN ADULTO Cell Cultures of the Sciatic Nerve and Dorsal Root Ganglia from Adult Mouse

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    C OCHOA

    Full Text Available Las células de Schwann (CS son la glía de sistema nervio periférico. El diseño de prótesis nerviosas se ha centrado en la producción de CS autólogas cultivadas a partir de nervios ciáticos (NC y de ganglios de la raíz dorsal (GRD. Muy poca literatura reporta cultivo de células perineurales (CP y fibroblastos endoneurales (FE, y no son consideradas como elementos a incluir en una prótesis. En este trabajo, se describe la importancia de la microdisección del nervio ciático y de los GRD para obtener cultivos de CS, FE y CP con 98%±2 de purificación. Las CS crecen sobre diferentes soportes, con y sin mitógenos. Se obtuvo un porcentaje de CS elevado cuando se elimina el epineuro y perineuro de los NC 90%±3 y la cápsula de los GRD 94%±3 antes de la disociación enzimática, comparado a 70%±4,2 sin microdisección u 80%±3,5 sin epineuro. Los FE se adhieren preferencialmente en las primeras 24 h y 20% de suero favorece su crecimiento. En el primer sub-cultivo, son 99% CS o FE, siendo confluentes a los 6 y 8 días respectivamente. Las CP o de la cápsula de GRD no se disocian y no crecen en sub-cultivos, únicamente crecen a partir de explantes de perineuro; no forman monocapa sino una "lámina" de múltiples capas celulares. En conclusión, la microdisección del GRD y del NC y su disociación son indispensables para obtener en pocos días CS, FE y CP de animales adultos en cultivos altamente purificados.The Schwann cells (SC are glial of system peripheral nerve. The nervous prostheses are related to the production of autologous SC obtained from the peripheral nervous and from the dorsal root ganglia (DRG. There is a small amount of literature that reports perineural cells (PC and endoneural fibroblast (EF cultures as elements to take account of prostheses. In this work, the micro dissection importance is described in the sciatic nerve (SN and in the DRG to achieve SC, EF and PC culture with a purity of 98%. The SC grows up on

  9. Effects of (−-Gallocatechin-3-Gallate on Tetrodotoxin-Resistant Voltage-Gated Sodium Channels in Rat Dorsal Root Ganglion Neurons

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    Jian-Min Jiang

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The (−-gallocatechin-3-gallate (GCG concentration in some tea beverages can account for as much as 50% of the total catechins. It has been shown that catechins have analgesic properties. Voltage-gated sodium channels (Nav mediate neuronal action potentials. Tetrodotoxin inhibits all Nav isoforms, but Nav1.8 and Nav1.9 are relatively tetrodotoxin-resistant compared to other isoforms and functionally linked to nociception. In this study, the effects of GCG on tetrodotoxin-resistant Na+ currents were investigated in rat primary cultures of dorsal root ganglion neurons via the whole-cell patch-clamp technique. We found that 1 μM GCG reduced the amplitudes of peak current density of tetrodotoxin-resistant Na+ currents significantly. Furthermore, the inhibition was accompanied by a depolarizing shift of the activation voltage and a hyperpolarizing shift of steady-state inactivation voltage. The percentage block of GCG (1 μM on tetrodotoxin-resistant Na+ current was 45.1% ± 1.1% in 10 min. In addition, GCG did not produce frequency-dependent block of tetrodotoxin-resistant Na+ currents at stimulation frequencies of 1 Hz, 2 Hz and 5 Hz. On the basis of these findings, we propose that GCG may be a potential analgesic agent.

  10. The effects of rises in external K+ on the hyperpolarization-activated cation current Ih in rat dorsal root ganglion neurons

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DU ZhengQing; WU WenJie; ZHOU YuFen

    2009-01-01

    The effects of rises in external K+ (Kent) were examined on the hyperpolarization-activated cation current (4,) in rat dorsal root ganglion neurons using the whole-cell patch clamp technique.The results showed that Kext,increased Ih in a certain concentration and voltage-dependent manner.At the basal Kext level (4 mmol/L),4,had a maximal amplitude of 1085 ±340 pA which was enhanced by~45% and~92% at 8 and 16 mmol/L Kext,respectively.The midpoint activation voltage was significantly shifted from-98 mV in the hyperpolarizing direction by 8 and 12 mV at 8 and 16 mmol/L Kext,respectively with alteration of the activation course of Ih.The short time constants of activation became longer with the increasing amplitude of the command potential upon rises in Kext.The long time constants became shorter.The reversal potentials were shifted in the positive direction without significant alterations upon rises in Kext.According to the functional role of 4,,Kext increased Ih resulting in an enhanced neuronal excitability,which might produce activation potential abnormality and perhaps neuropathic pain involved.

  11. The effects of rises in external K~+ on the hyperpolarization-activated cation current I_h in rat dorsal root ganglion neurons

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    The effects of rises in external K+(Kext) were examined on the hyperpolarization-activated cation current(Ih) in rat dorsal root ganglion neurons using the whole-cell patch clamp technique.The results showed that Kext increased Ih in a certain concentration and voltage-dependent manner.At the basal Kext level(4 mmol/L),Ih had a maximal amplitude of 1085 ± 340 pA which was enhanced by ~45% and ~92% at 8 and 16 mmol/L Kext,respectively.The midpoint activation voltage was significantly shifted from -98 mV in the hyperpolarizing direction by 8 and 12 mV at 8 and 16 mmol/L Kext,respectively with alteration of the activation course of Ih.The short time constants of activation became longer with the increasing amplitude of the command potential upon rises in Kext.The long time constants became shorter.The reversal potentials were shifted in the positive direction without significant alterations upon rises in Kext.According to the functional role of Ih,Kext increased Ih,resulting in an enhanced neuronal excitability,which might produce activation potential abnormality and perhaps neuropathic pain involved.

  12. Slack and Slick Kna channels are required for the depolarizing afterpotential of acutely isolated, medium diameter rat dorsal root ganglion neu-rons

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shang-bang GAO; Ying WU; Cai-xia L(U); Zhao-hua GUO; Chen-hong LI; Jiu-ping DING

    2008-01-01

    Aim: Na+-activated K+ (Kna) channels set and stabilize resting membrane poten- tial in rat small dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons. However, whether Kna chan- nels play the same role in other size DRG neurons is still elusive. The aim of this study is to identify the existence and potential physiological functions of Kna channels in medium diameter (25-35 μm) DRG neurons. Methods: Inside-out and whole-cell patch-clamp were used to study the electrophysiological characteriza- tions of native Kna, channels. RT-PCR was used to identify the existence of Slack and Slick genes. Results: We report that Kna channels are required for depolariz- ing afterpotential (DAP) in medium sized rat DRG neurons. In inside-out patches, Ks, channels represented 201 pS unitary chord conductance and were activated by cytoplasmic Na+ [the half maximal effective concentration (EC50): 35 mmol/L] in 160 mmol/L symmetrical K+/K+ solution. Additionally, these Kna channels also represented cytoplasmic Cl--dependent activation. RT-PCR confirmed the exist- ence of Slack and Slick genes in DRG neurons. Tetrodotoxin (TTX, 100 nmol/L) completely blocked the DRG inward Na+ currents, and the following outward cur- rents which were thought to be Kna currents. The DAP was increased when extracellular Na+ was replaced by Li+. Conclusion: We conclude that Slack and Slick Kna channels are required for DAP of medium diameter rat DRG neurons that regulate DRG action potential repolarization.

  13. PKCε-dependent potentiation of TTX-resistant Nav1.8 current by neurokinin-1 receptor activation in rat dorsal root ganglion neurons

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    Zhao Zhi-Qi

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Substance P (SP, which mainly exists in a subtype of small-diameter dorsal root ganglion (DRG neurons, is an important signal molecule in pain processing in the spinal cord. Our previous results have proved the expression of SP receptor neurokinin-1 (NK-1 on DRG neurons and its interaction with transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1 receptor. Results In this study we investigated the effect of NK-1 receptor agonist on Nav1.8, a tetrodotoxin (TTX-resistant sodium channel, in rat small-diameter DRG neurons employing whole-cell patch clamp recordings. NK-1 agonist [Sar9, Met(O211]-substance P (Sar-SP significantly enhanced the Nav1.8 currents in a subgroup of small-diameter DRG neurons under both the normal and inflammatory situation, and the enhancement was blocked by NK-1 antagonist Win51708 and protein kinase C (PKC inhibitor bisindolylmaleimide (BIM, but not the protein kinase A (PKA inhibitor H89. In particular, the inhibitor of PKCε, a PKC isoform, completely blocked this effect. Under current clamp model, Sar-SP reduced the amount of current required to evoke action potentials and increased the firing rate in a subgroup of DRG neurons. Conclusion These data suggest that activation of NK-1 receptor potentiates Nav1.8 sodium current via PKCε-dependent signaling pathway, probably participating in the generation of inflammatory hyperalgesia.

  14. Functional upregulation of nav1.8 sodium channels on the membrane of dorsal root Ganglia neurons contributes to the development of cancer-induced bone pain.

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    Xiao-Dan Liu

    Full Text Available We have previously reported that enhanced excitability of dorsal root ganglia (DRG neurons contributes to the development of bone cancer pain, which severely decreases the quality of life of cancer patients. Nav1.8, a tetrodotoxin-resistant (TTX-R sodium channel, contributes most of the sodium current underlying the action potential upstroke and accounts for most of the current in later spikes in a train. We speculate that the Nav1.8 sodium channel is a potential candidate responsible for the enhanced excitability of DRG neurons in rats with bone cancer pain. Here, using electrophysiology, Western blot and behavior assays, we documented that the current density of TTX-R sodium channels, especially the Nav1.8 channel, increased significantly in DRG neurons of rats with cancer-induced bone pain. This increase may be due to an increased expression of Nav1.8 on the membrane of DRG neurons. Accordantly, blockade of Nav1.8 sodium channels by its selective blocker A-803467 significantly alleviated the cancer-induced mechanical allodynia and thermal hyperalgesia in rats. Taken together, these results suggest that functional upregulation of Nav1.8 channels on the membrane of DRG neurons contributes to the development of cancer-induced bone pain.

  15. Inhibition of cystathionine β-synthetase suppresses sodium channel activities of dorsal root ganglion neurons of rats with lumbar disc herniation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Jun; Hu, Shufen; Zou, Kang; Xu, Min; Wang, Qianliang; Miao, Xiuhua; Yu, Shan Ping; Xu, Guang-Yin

    2016-01-01

    The pathogenesis of pain in lumbar disc herniation (LDH) remains poorly understood. We have recently demonstrated that voltage-gated sodium channels (VGSCs) in dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons were sensitized in a rat model of LDH. However, the detailed molecular mechanism for sensitization of VGSCs remains largely unknown. This study was designed to examine roles of the endogenous hydrogen sulfide synthesizing enzyme cystathionine β-synthetase (CBS) in sensitization of VGSCs in a previously validated rat model of LDH. Here we showed that inhibition of CBS activity by O-(Carboxymethyl) hydroxylamine hemihydrochloride (AOAA) significantly attenuated pain hypersensitivity in LDH rats. Administration of AOAA also reduced neuronal hyperexcitability, suppressed the sodium current density, and right-shifted the V1/2 of the inactivation curve, of hindpaw innervating DRG neurons, which is retrogradely labeled by DiI. In vitro incubation of AOAA did not alter the excitability of acutely isolated DRG neurons. Furthermore, CBS was colocalized with NaV1.7 and NaV1.8 in hindpaw-innervating DRG neurons. Treatment of AOAA markedly suppressed expression of NaV1.7 and NaV1.8 in DRGs of LDH rats. These data suggest that targeting the CBS-H2S signaling at the DRG level might represent a novel therapeutic strategy for chronic pain relief in patients with LDH. PMID:27905525

  16. Gene therapy for neuropathic pain by silencing of TNF-α expression with lentiviral vectors targeting the dorsal root ganglion in mice.

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    Nobuhiro Ogawa

    Full Text Available Neuropathic pain can be a debilitating condition. Many types of drugs that have been used to treat neuropathic pain have only limited efficacy. Recent studies indicate that pro-inflammatory mediators including tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α are involved in the pathogenesis of neuropathic pain. In the present study, we engineered a gene therapy strategy to relieve neuropathic pain by silencing TNF-α expression in the dorsal root ganglion (DRG using lentiviral vectors expressing TNF short hairpin RNA1-4 (LV-TNF-shRNA1-4 in mice. First, based on its efficacy in silencing TNF-α in vitro, we selected shRNA3 to construct LV-TNF-shRNA3 for in vivo study. We used L5 spinal nerve transection (SNT mice as a neuropathic pain model. These animals were found to display up-regulated mRNA expression of activating transcription factor 3 (ATF3 and neuropeptide Y (NPY, injury markers, and interleukin (IL-6, an inflammatory cytokine in the ipsilateral L5 DRG. Injection of LV-TNF-shRNA3 onto the proximal transected site suppressed significantly the mRNA levels of ATF3, NPY and IL-6, reduced mechanical allodynia and neuronal cell death of DRG neurons. These results suggest that lentiviral-mediated silencing of TNF-α in DRG relieves neuropathic pain and reduces neuronal cell death, and may constitute a novel therapeutic option for neuropathic pain.

  17. The Venom of the Spider Selenocosmia Jiafu Contains Various Neurotoxins Acting on Voltage-Gated Ion Channels in Rat Dorsal Root Ganglion Neurons

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    Zhaotun Hu

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Selenocosmia jiafu is a medium-sized theraphosid spider and an attractive source of venom, because it can be bred in captivity and it produces large amounts of venom. We performed reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC and matrix-assisted laser-desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS analyses and showed that S. jiafu venom contains hundreds of peptides with a predominant mass of 3000–4500 Da. Patch clamp analyses indicated that the venom could inhibit voltage-gated Na+, K+ and Ca2+ channels in rat dorsal root ganglion (DRG neurons. The venom exhibited inhibitory effects on tetrodotoxin-resistant (TTX-R Na+ currents and T-type Ca2+ currents, suggesting the presence of antagonists to both channel types and providing a valuable tool for the investigation of these channels and for drug development. Intra-abdominal injection of the venom had severe toxic effects on cockroaches and caused death at higher concentrations. The LD50 was 84.24 μg/g of body weight in the cockroach. However, no visible symptoms or behavioral changes were detected after intraperitoneal injection of the venom into mice even at doses up to 10 mg/kg body weight. Our results provide a basis for further case-by-case investigations of peptide toxins from this venom.

  18. Co-expression patterns of cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART) with neuropeptides in dorsal root ganglia of the pig.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zacharko-Siembida, Anna; Kulik, Paweł; Szalak, Radosław; Lalak, Roman; Arciszewski, Marcin Bartłomiej

    2014-03-01

    In the present study the neuronal distribution of CART was evaluated immunohistochemically in porcine dorsal root ganglia (DRGs). In co-localization studies the co-expression patterns of CART with SP, CGRP, galanin, CALB and LENK were investigated by means of triple immunohistochemical stainings. In porcine DRGs, the expression of CART was found in approximately 5% of primary sensory neurons. The vast majority (ca. 95%) of CART-immunoreactive (IR) neurons were small and middle sized, and only 5% were categorized as large. CART-IR neurons additionally exhibiting the presence of SP/CGRP (ca. 12%), SP/CALB (ca. 12%), SP/LENK (ca. 5%) were found. The vast majority of CART-IR/CGRP-IR neurons did not display immunoreaction to SP (ca. 60%). Subclasses of CART-IR/LENK-IR/SP-negative (ca. 5%), as well as CART-IR/CALB-IR/SP-negative neurons (ca. 10%), were also visualized. In addition, CART-IR neurons with no immunoreactivities to any of the neuropeptides studied were also shown. In porcine DRGs none of the CART-IR neurons exhibited the presence of galanin. The results obtained in the study suggest that CART may functionally modulate the activity of the porcine primary sensory neurons. It is concluded that co-expression of CART with CGRP, SP, LENK and CALB in subsets of the pig L1-L6 DRGs neurons provide anatomical evidence for a CART role in pain processing.

  19. Neuro-fuzzy decoding of sensory information from ensembles of simultaneously recorded dorsal root ganglion neurons for functional electrical stimulation applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rigosa, J.; Weber, D. J.; Prochazka, A.; Stein, R. B.; Micera, S.

    2011-08-01

    Functional electrical stimulation (FES) is used to improve motor function after injury to the central nervous system. Some FES systems use artificial sensors to switch between finite control states. To optimize FES control of the complex behavior of the musculo-skeletal system in activities of daily life, it is highly desirable to implement feedback control. In theory, sensory neural signals could provide the required control signals. Recent studies have demonstrated the feasibility of deriving limb-state estimates from the firing rates of primary afferent neurons recorded in dorsal root ganglia (DRG). These studies used multiple linear regression (MLR) methods to generate estimates of limb position and velocity based on a weighted sum of firing rates in an ensemble of simultaneously recorded DRG neurons. The aim of this study was to test whether the use of a neuro-fuzzy (NF) algorithm (the generalized dynamic fuzzy neural networks (GD-FNN)) could improve the performance, robustness and ability to generalize from training to test sets compared to the MLR technique. NF and MLR decoding methods were applied to ensemble DRG recordings obtained during passive and active limb movements in anesthetized and freely moving cats. The GD-FNN model provided more accurate estimates of limb state and generalized better to novel movement patterns. Future efforts will focus on implementing these neural recording and decoding methods in real time to provide closed-loop control of FES using the information extracted from sensory neurons.

  20. The venom of the spider Selenocosmia jiafu contains various neurotoxins acting on voltage-gated ion channels in rat dorsal root ganglion neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Zhaotun; Zhou, Xi; Chen, Jia; Tang, Cheng; Xiao, Zhen; Ying, Dazhong; Liu, Zhonghua; Liang, Songping

    2014-03-05

    Selenocosmia jiafu is a medium-sized theraphosid spider and an attractive source of venom, because it can be bred in captivity and it produces large amounts of venom. We performed reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) and matrix-assisted laser-desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS) analyses and showed that S. jiafu venom contains hundreds of peptides with a predominant mass of 3000-4500 Da. Patch clamp analyses indicated that the venom could inhibit voltage-gated Na+, K+ and Ca2+ channels in rat dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons. The venom exhibited inhibitory effects on tetrodotoxin-resistant (TTX-R) Na+ currents and T-type Ca2+ currents, suggesting the presence of antagonists to both channel types and providing a valuable tool for the investigation of these channels and for drug development. Intra-abdominal injection of the venom had severe toxic effects on cockroaches and caused death at higher concentrations. The LD50 was 84.24 μg/g of body weight in the cockroach. However, no visible symptoms or behavioral changes were detected after intraperitoneal injection of the venom into mice even at doses up to 10 mg/kg body weight. Our results provide a basis for further case-by-case investigations of peptide toxins from this venom.

  1. Up-regulation of miR-26a promotes neurite outgrowth and ameliorates apoptosis by inhibiting PTEN in bupivacaine injured mouse dorsal root ganglia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Changlei; Xu, Gong; Qiu, Jinpeng; Fan, Xiushuang

    2015-08-01

    Local anesthetic of bupivacaine may inhibit neurite outgrowth and induce apoptosis in mouse dorsal root ganglia (DRG) neurons. In this work, we intended to investigate the functional role of microRNA 26a (miR-26a) in regulating bupivacaine-induced nerve injury in DRG neurons. DRG neurons were extracted from C57BL/6 mice and cultured in vitro. Bupivacaine was applied in vitro and it induced apoptosis, inhibited neurite growth, and significantly down-regulated miR-26a gene in DRG neurons. MiR-26a mimic was then used to up-regulate miR-26a expression in DRG neurons. We found that miR-26a up-regulation promoted neurite outgrowth and reduced apoptosis in bupivacaine-injured DRG neurons. Luciferase assay and Western blot confirmed that Phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN) was down-stream target of miR-26a in DRG neurons. Ectopic PTEN up-regulation was then able to reverse the protective effect of miR-26a overexpression on bupivacaine-induced nerve injury in DRG neurons. Overall, this work demonstrated that miR-26a had a functional role in regulating bupivacaine-induced nerve injury in DRG neurons. Up-regulating miR-26a to suppress PTEN signaling pathway may be an effective method to protect local anesthetic-induced nerve injury in spinal cord.

  2. Involvement of TRPV4-NO-cGMP-PKG pathways in the development of thermal hyperalgesia following chronic compression of the dorsal root ganglion in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Xin-Li; Wang, Yong-Hui; Ning, Li-Ping; Zhang, Yang; Ge, Hong-You; Jiang, Hong; Wang, Rong; Yue, Shou-Wei

    2010-03-17

    The aim of the present study was to test the hypothesis that the TRPV4-NO-cGMP-PKG cascade is involved in the maintenance of thermal hyperalgesia following chronic compression of the dorsal root ganglion (DRG) (the procedure hereafter termed CCD) in rats. CCD rats showed thermal hyperalgesia and increased nitrite production. Intrathecal administration of ruthenium red (TRPV4 antagonist, 0.1-1 nmol), TRPV4 antisense ODN (TRPV4 AS, 40 microg, daily for 7 days), N(G)-L-nitro-arginine methyl ester (l-NAME, inhibitor of NO synthase, 30-300 nmol), 1H-[1,2,4]-oxadiazolo [4,3-a] quinoxalin-1-one (ODQ, a soluble guanylate cyclase inhibitor, 50-100 nmol) or 8-(4-Chlorophenylthio) guanosine 3',5'-cyclic Monophosphothioate, Rp-Isomer sodium salt (Rp-8-pCPT-cGMPS, a PKG inhibitor, 25-50 nmol) induced a significant (Pthermal hyperalgesia and nitrite production. Our data suggested that the TRPV4-NO-cGMP-PKG pathway could be involved in CCD-induced thermal hyperalgesia.

  3. Nuclear factor-kappa B mediates TRPV4-NO pathway involved in thermal hyperalgesia following chronic compression of the dorsal root ganglion in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chao; Ning, Li-Ping; Wang, Yong-Hui; Zhang, Yang; Ding, Xin-Li; Ge, Hong-You; Arendt-Nielsen, Lars; Yue, Shou-Wei

    2011-08-01

    The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) is involved in TRPV4-NO pathway in thermal hyperalgesia following chronic compression of the dorsal root ganglion (DRG) (the procedure hereafter termed CCD) in rat. Intrathecal administration of two NF-κB inhibitors, pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate (PDTC; 10(-1) to 10(-2)M) and BAY (100-50 μM), both induced significantly dose-dependent increase in the paw withdrawal latency (PWL) and decrease in nitric oxide (NO) content in DRG when compared with control rats. Pretreatment with 4α-phorbol 12,13-didecanoate (4α-PDD, transient receptor potential vanilloid 4 (TRPV4) synthetic activator, 1 nm) attenuated the suppressive effects of PDTC (10(-1)M) and BAY (100 μM) on CCD-induced thermal hyperalgesia and NO production. In addition, Western blot analysis indicated that CCD rats exhibited nuclear NF-κB protein expression and low levels of cytoplasmic inhibitory-kappa B (I-κB) expression; the increase in NF-κB expression and decrease in I-κB expression were reversed after intrathecal injection of PDTC. In conclusion, our data suggested that NF-κB could be involved in TRPV4-NO pathway in CCD-induced thermal hyperalgesia.

  4. Dorsal root ganglion-derived Schwann cells combined with poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid)/chitosan conduits for the repair of sciatic nerve defects in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Li; Qu, Wei; Wu, Yuxuan; Ma, Hao; Jiang, Huajun

    2014-11-15

    Schwann cells, nerve regeneration promoters in peripheral nerve tissue engineering, can be used to repair both the peripheral and central nervous systems. However, isolation and purification of Schwann cells are complicated by contamination with fibroblasts. Current reported measures are mainly limited by either high cost or complicated procedures with low cell yields or purity. In this study, we collected dorsal root ganglia from neonatal rats from which we obtained highly purified Schwann cells using serum-free melanocyte culture medium. The purity of Schwann cells (> 95%) using our method was higher than that using standard medium containing fetal bovine serum. The obtained Schwann cells were implanted into poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid)/chitosan conduits to repair 10-mm sciatic nerve defects in rats. Results showed that axonal diameter and area were significantly increased and motor functions were obviously improved in the rat sciatic nerve tissue. Experimental findings suggest that serum-free melanocyte culture medium is conducive to purify Schwann cells and poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid)/chitosan nerve conduits combined with Schwann cells contribute to restore sciatic nerve defects.

  5. Dorsal root ganglion-derived Schwann cells combined with poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid)/chitosan conduits for the repair of sciatic nerve defects in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Zhao; Wei Qu; Yuxuan Wu; Hao Ma; Huajun Jiang

    2014-01-01

    Schwann cells, nerve regeneration promoters in peripheral nerve tissue engineering, can be used to repair both the peripheral and central nervous systems. However, isolation and puriifcation of Schwann cells are complicated by contamination with ifbroblasts. Current reported measures are mainly limited by either high cost or complicated procedures with low cell yields or purity. In this study, we collected dorsal root ganglia from neonatal rats from which we obtained highly puriifed Schwann cells using serum-free melanocyte culture medium. The purity of Schwann cells (> 95%) using our method was higher than that using standard medium containing fetal bovine serum. The obtained Schwann cells were implanted into poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid)/chi-tosan conduits to repair 10-mm sciatic nerve defects in rats. Results showed that axonal diameter and area were signiifcantly increased and motor functions were obviously improved in the rat sciatic nerve tissue. Experimental ifndings suggest that serum-free melanocyte culture medium is conducive to purify Schwann cells and poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid)/chitosan nerve conduits combined with Schwann cells contribute to restore sciatic nerve defects.

  6. Dorsal root ganglia neurons and differentiated adipose-derived stem cells: an in vitro co-culture model to study peripheral nerve regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Luca, Alba C; Faroni, Alessandro; Reid, Adam J

    2015-02-26

    Dorsal root ganglia (DRG) neurons, located in the intervertebral foramina of the spinal column, can be used to create an in vitro system facilitating the study of nerve regeneration and myelination. The glial cells of the peripheral nervous system, Schwann cells (SC), are key facilitators of these processes; it is therefore crucial that the interactions of these cellular components are studied together. Direct contact between DRG neurons and glial cells provides additional stimuli sensed by specific membrane receptors, further improving the neuronal response. SC release growth factors and proteins in the culture medium, which enhance neuron survival and stimulate neurite sprouting and extension. However, SC require long proliferation time to be used for tissue engineering applications and the sacrifice of an healthy nerve for their sourcing. Adipose-derived stem cells (ASC) differentiated into SC phenotype are a valid alternative to SC for the set-up of a co-culture model with DRG neurons to study nerve regeneration. The present work presents a detailed and reproducible step-by-step protocol to harvest both DRG neurons and ASC from adult rats; to differentiate ASC towards a SC phenotype; and combines the two cell types in a direct co-culture system to investigate the interplay between neurons and SC in the peripheral nervous system. This tool has great potential in the optimization of tissue-engineered constructs for peripheral nerve repair.

  7. Adeno-associated virus and lentivirus vectors mediate efficient and sustained transduction of cultured mouse and human dorsal root ganglia sensory neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleming, J; Ginn, S L; Weinberger, R P; Trahair, T N; Smythe, J A; Alexander, I E

    2001-01-01

    Peripheral nervous system (PNS) sensory neurons are directly involved in the pathophysiology of numerous inherited and acquired neurological conditions. Therefore, efficient and stable gene delivery to these postmitotic cells has significant therapeutic potential. Among contemporary vector systems capable of neuronal transduction, only those based on herpes simplex virus have been extensively evaluated in PNS neurons. We therefore investigated the transduction performance of recombinant adeno-associated virus type 2 (AAV) and VSV-G-pseudotyped lentivirus vectors derived from human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1) in newborn mouse and fetal human dorsal root ganglia (DRG) sensory neurons. In dissociated mouse DRG cultures both vectors achieved efficient transduction of sensory neurons at low multiplicities of infection (MOIs) and sustained transgene expression within a 28-day culture period. Interestingly, the lentivirus vector selectively transduced neurons in murine cultures, in contrast to human cultures, in which Schwann and fibroblast-like cells were also transduced. Recombinant AAV transduced all three cell types in both mouse and human cultures. After direct microinjection of murine DRG explants, maximal transduction efficiencies of 20 and 200 transducing units per neuronal transductant were achieved with AAV and lentivirus vectors, respectively. Most importantly, both vectors achieved efficient and sustained transduction of human sensory neurons in dissociated cultures, thereby directly demonstrating the exciting potential of these vectors for gene therapy applications in the PNS.

  8. Avaliação da hiperalgesia e alterações histológicas do gânglio da raiz dorsal induzidas pelo núcleo pulposo Evaluation of hyperalgesia and histological changes of dorsal root ganglion induced by nucleus pulposus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Luiz de Souza Grava

    2010-01-01

    estruturas do gânglio da raiz dorsal e apresentaram aumento da intensidade nos períodos mais longos de observação.OBJECTIVE: To evaluate hyperalgesia and histological changes of dorsal root ganglia induced by nucleus pulposus (NP contact. METHODS: Twenty Wistar rats were used, divided into two experimental groups. In one of the groups, a fragment of the autologous NP was removed from the sacroccocigeal region and deposited on the L5 dorsal root ganglia. In the control group, the NP was removed from the sacrococcygeal region, L5 dorsal root ganglia were exposed and covered by a piece of adipous fat tissue. Hyperalgesia was evaluated by the von Frey electronic test and Hargreaves test, and histological changes of the dorsal root ganglia by HE staining and immunohistochemistry using iNOS. The evaluation of hyperalgesia and histological changes of the dorsal root ganglia were performed on the third postoperative day and after 1, 3, 5, and 7 weeks. RESULTS: NP induced higher intensity mechanical and thermal hyperalgesia. Dorsal root ganglia in contact with nucleus pulposus presented histological changes and the intensity of these changes were proportional to the length of time in contact. The expression of iNOS was higher in the glial cells in contact with the nucleus pulposus. CONCLUSION: The contact of nucleus pulposus with dorsal root ganglia induced histological changes and mechanical and thermal hyperalgesia. These changes were more intense after longer period of evaluation.

  9. Uso terapêutico da radiofrequência pulsátil no gânglio dorsal da raiz de L2 na lombalgia discogênica Uso terapéutico de la radiofrecuencia pulsátil en el ganglio dorsal de la raíz de L2 en la lumbalgia discogénica Pulsed radiofrequency on L2 dorsal root ganglion as a therapeutic method for lumbar discogenic pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabrício Dias Assis

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar a eficácia da radiofrequência pulsátil sobre o gânglio da raiz dorsal de L2 no tratamento dos pacientes com lombalgia discogênica. MÉTODOS: Realizou-se análise retrospectiva de 50 pacientes portadores de lombalgia crônica discogênica atendidos no período de janeiro de 2004 a julho de 2007. O processo diagnóstico foi constituído por exame físico, ressonância magnética e bloqueio diagnóstico do gânglio da raiz dorsal de L2. Todos os pacientes foram submetidos à radiofrequência pulsátil no gânglio da raiz dorsal de L2 e acompanhados por, no mínimo, 12 meses. A intensidade de dor foi medida pela escala visual analógica (EVA de dor. RESULTADOS: A análise estatística mostrou melhora significativa da intensidade de dor (pOBJETIVO: evaluar la eficacia de la radiofrecuencia pulsátil sobre el ganglio de la raíz dorsal de L2 en el tratamiento de los pacientes con lumbalgia discogénica. MÉTODOS: fue realizado un análisis retrospectivo de 50 pacientes portadores de lumbalgia crónica discogénica, atendidos en el periodo de Enero de 2004 a Julio de 2007. El proceso diagnóstico constó de un examen físico, resonancia magnética y bloqueo diagnóstico del ganglio de la raíz dorsal de L2. Todos los pacientes fueron sometidos a la radiofrecuencia pulsátil en el ganglio de la raíz dorsal de L2 y seguidos por 12 meses, como mínimo. La intensidad del dolor fue medida por la escala visual analógica del dolor. RESULTADOS: el análisis estadístico mostró mejoría significativa de la intensidad del dolor (pOBJECTIVE: to evaluate the effectiveness of pulsate radio-frequency on L2 dorsal root ganglion for chronic discogenic low back pain. Of L2 in the treatment of the patient with discogenic low back pain. METHODS: Between January 2004 and July 2007, 50 patients with diagnosis of low back discogenic pain were retrospectively assessed based on physical examination, magnetic resonance imaging findings and selective L

  10. Electroacupuncture Reduces Carrageenan- and CFA-Induced Inflammatory Pain Accompanied by Changing the Expression of Nav1.7 and Nav1.8, rather than Nav1.9, in Mice Dorsal Root Ganglia

    OpenAIRE

    Chun-Ping Huang; Hsiang-Ni Chen; Hong-Lin Su; Ching-Liang Hsieh; Wei-Hsin Chen; Zhen-Rung Lai; Yi-Wen Lin

    2013-01-01

    Several voltage-gated sodium channels (Navs) from nociceptive nerve fibers have been identified as important effectors in pain signaling. The objective of this study is to investigate the electroacupuncture (EA) analgesia mechanism by changing the expression of Navs in mice dorsal root ganglia (DRG). We injected carrageenan and complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA) into the mice plantar surface of the hind paw to induce inflammation and examined the antinociception effect of EA at the Zusanli (ST3...

  11. Long term outcomes from CT-guided indirect cervical nerve root blocks and their relationship to the MRI findings. A prospective study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bensler, Susanne; Sutter, Reto; Pfirrmann, Christian W.A.; Peterson, Cynthia K. [Orthopedic University Hospital Balgrist, Department of Radiology, Zurich (Switzerland); University of Zurich, Faculty of Medicine, Zurich (Switzerland)

    2015-11-15

    To investigate long-term pain reduction and 'improvement' in patients with indirect cervical nerve-root-blocks in comparison to MRI findings. One hundred and twelve patients with MRI confirmed cervical radiculopathy and an indirect cervical nerve-root-block were included. Two radiologists independently evaluated the MRI examinations. 12 different MRI abnormalities at the level and side of infiltration were compared to pain relief and 'improvement' at 1-month, 3-months and 1-year post injection. The proportion of patients reporting clinically relevant 'improvement' was 36.7 % at 1-month, 53.9 % at 3-months and 68.1 % at 1-year. At 1-month post injection, a statistically significantly lower percentage of patients eventually requiring surgery reported improvement and lower NRS change scores compared to those who did not undergo surgery (p = 0.001). Patients with extrusion of the disc were around 4-times more likely to have surgery. At 1-year post-injection the presence of nerve-root compromise was significantly linked to treatment outcome (p = 0.011). Patients with nerve root compression were more likely to report improvement at 1 year. Patients with disc extrusions have less pain relief and are 4 times more likely to go to surgery than patients with disc protrusions. (orig.)

  12. Effects of cyclooxygenase 2 inhibitor on growth-associated protein 43 and nerve growth factor expression in dorsal root ganglion during neuropathic pain development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chen Wang; Zhenwei Zheng

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND:Inflammatory responses in injured nerves have been recognized as important factors for initially sensitizing nociceptive neurons.Cyclooxygenase (COX) is the rate-limiting enzyme in prostaglandin synthesis,and COX-2 inhibitor is involved in mechanisms of analgesia and anti-inflammation.OBJECTIVE:To investigate the effects of COX-2 inhibitor on thermal and mechanical hyperalgesia,as well as expression of growth associated protein 43 (GAP-43) and nerve growth factor (NGF) in dorsal root ganglion,in a rat model of neuropathic pain due to chronic constriction injury.DESIGN,TIME AND SETTING:A randomized,controlled,comparison study that was performed at the Surgical Department and Pathological Laboratory,Second Affiliated Hospital of Shantou University Medical College from September 2006 to September 2007.MATERIALS:COX-2 inhibitor,Iomoxicam,was purchased from Nycomed Pharmaceutical (Austria);rabbit anti-GAP-43,and rabbit anti-NGF polyclonal antibodies were purchased from Boster,Wuhan,China.METHODS:A total of 50 adult,Wistar rats were randomly assigned to four groups:normal control (n=5),model (n=15),normal saline control (n=15),and lornoxicam treatment (n=15).With exception of the control group,the sciatic nerve of all rats was loosely ligated to establish a model of chronic constriction injury.The model rats were divided into three subgroups according to varying post-operative survival periods:3,7 and 14 days (n=5),respectively.Rats in the Iornoxicam treatment group were intraperitoneally injected with 1.3 mg/kg Iornoxicam every 12 hours throughout the entire experimental procedure.Rats in the normal saline control group were intraperitoneally injected with 1.3 mL/kg saline.MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES:Immunohistochemistry revealed expression of GAP-43 and NGF in the L5 dorsal root ganglions.Mechanical withdrawal threshold and thermal withdrawal latency were used to observe neurological behavioral changes in rats.RESULTS:The relative gray values of GAP-43-and NGF

  13. Evaluation of the synuclein-γ (SNCG gene as a PPARγ target in murine adipocytes, dorsal root ganglia somatosensory neurons, and human adipose tissue.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamara N Dunn

    Full Text Available Recent evidence in adipocytes points to a role for synuclein-γ in metabolism and lipid droplet dynamics, but interestingly this factor is also robustly expressed in peripheral neurons. Specific regulation of the synuclein-γ gene (Sncg by PPARγ requires further evaluation, especially in peripheral neurons, prompting us to test if Sncg is a bona fide PPARγ target in murine adipocytes and peripheral somatosensory neurons derived from the dorsal root ganglia (DRG. Sncg mRNA was decreased in 3T3-L1 adipocytes (~68% by rosiglitazone, and this effect was diminished by the PPARγ antagonist T0070907. Chromatin immunoprecipitation experiments confirmed PPARγ protein binding at two promoter sequences of Sncg during 3T3-L1 adipogenesis. Rosiglitazone did not affect Sncg mRNA expression in murine cultured DRG neurons. In subcutaneous human WAT samples from two cohorts treated with pioglitazone (>11 wks, SNCG mRNA expression was reduced, albeit highly variable and most evident in type 2 diabetes. Leptin (Lep expression, thought to be coordinately-regulated with Sncg based on correlations in human adipose tissue, was also reduced in 3T3-L1 adipocytes by rosiglitazone. However, Lep was unaffected by PPARγ antagonist, and the LXR agonist T0901317 significantly reduced Lep expression (~64% while not impacting Sncg. The results support the concept that synuclein-γ shares some, but not all, gene regulators with leptin and is a PPARγ target in adipocytes but not DRG neurons. Regulation of synuclein-γ by cues such as PPARγ agonism in adipocytes is logical based on recent evidence for an important role for synuclein-γ in the maintenance and dynamics of adipocyte lipid droplets.

  14. Prokaryotic expression of recombinant human p75NTR-Fc fusion protein and its effect on the neurite outgrowth of dorsal root ganglia neuron

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhu Feng; Wang Yongtang; Lu Xiumin; Zeng Lin; Wu Yamin

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To clone, express, and identify the extracellular domain gene of human p75 neurotrophin receptor with IgG-Fc (hp75NTR-Fc) in prokaryotic expression system, and investigate the effect of the recombinant protein on dorsal root ganglia (DRG) neuron neurites. Methods: The hp75NTR-Fc coding sequence was amplified from pcDNA-hp75NTR-Fc by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and subcloned into vector pET30a (+), in which hp75NTR-Fc expression was controlled under the T7 promoter. The recombinant vectors were amplified in E. coli DH5a and identified by PCR, enzyme digestion and sequencing, and then transformed into E. coli BL21 (DE3). The expression product was analyzed with SDS-PAGE and Western blot. Then after the recombinant protein purified with Protein A affinity chromatograph, and renaturated with dialysis, respectively, the effect of the recombinant protein on DRG neuron neuritis was further investigated. Results: The results of PCR, enzyme digestion, and sequencing demonstrated the success of inserting the hp75NTR-Fc fragment into vector pET30a (+). SDS-PAGE and Western blot showed a positive protein band with molecular weight about 50 kD in the expression product, which is accordant with the interest protein, and this band could be specifically recognized by rabbit anti-NGFRp75 antibody. The purified infusion protein following dialysis could promote neurite outgrowth of DRG neurons cultured with myelin-associated glycoprotein (MAG). Conclusion: The hp75NTR-Fc coding sequence was subcloned into the expression vector pET30a (+) correctly and expressed successfully in the prokaryotic expression system. The infusion protein could promote neurite outgrowth of DRG neurons cultured with MAG.

  15. Modulation of oxidative stress and Ca(2+) mobilization through TRPM2 channels in rat dorsal root ganglion neuron by Hypericum perforatum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nazıroğlu, M; Çiğ, B; Özgül, C

    2014-03-28

    A main component of St. John's Wort (Hypericum perforatum, HP) is hyperforin which has antioxidant properties in dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons, due to its ability to modulate NADPH oxidase and protein kinase C. Recent reports indicate that oxidative stress through NADPH oxidase activates TRPM2 channels. HP may be a useful treatment for Ca(2+) entry and oxidative stress through modulation of TRPM2 channels in the DRG. We aimed to investigate the protective role of HP on Ca(2+) entry and oxidative stress through TRPM2 channels in DRG neurons of rats. The native rat DRG neurons were used in whole-cell patch-clamp, Fura-2 and antioxidant experiments. Appropriate, nontoxic concentrations and incubation times for HP were determined in the DRG neurons by assessing cell viability. The H2O2-induced TRPM2 currents were inhibited by 2-aminoethyl diphenylborinate (2-APB) and N-(p-amylcinnamoyl)anthranilic acid (ACA). TRPM2 current densities and cytosolic free Ca(2+) concentration in the neurons were also reduced by HP (2 and 24h). In Fura-2 experiments, cytosolic Ca(2+) mobilization was reduced by voltage-gated calcium channel blockers (verapamil+diltiazem, V+D) and HP. Glutathione peroxidase activity and GSH values in the DRG were high in HP, 2-APB and V+D groups although lipid peroxidation level was low in the groups. In conclusion, we observed a protective role for HP on Ca(2+) entry through a TRPM2 channel in the DRG neurons. Since over-production of oxidative stress and Ca(2+) entry are implicated in the pathophysiology of neuropathic pain and neuronal inflammation, our findings may be relevant to the etiology and treatment of neuropathology in DRG neurons.

  16. Effects of sciatic nerve transection on glucose uptake in the presence and absence of lactate in the frog dorsal root ganglia and spinal cord

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F Rigon

    Full Text Available Frogs have been used as an alternative model to study pain mechanisms because the simplicity of their nervous tissue and the phylogenetic aspect of this question. One of these models is the sciatic nerve transection (SNT, which mimics the clinical symptoms of “phantom limb”, a condition that arises in humans after amputation or transverse spinal lesions. In mammals, the SNT increases glucose metabolism in the central nervous system, and the lactate generated appears to serve as an energy source for nerve cells. An answerable question is whether there is elevated glucose uptake in the dorsal root ganglia (DRG after peripheral axotomy. As glucose is the major energy substrate for frog nervous tissue, and these animals accumulate lactic acid under some conditions, bullfrogs Lithobates catesbeianus were used to demonstrate the effect of SNT on DRG and spinal cord 1-[14C] 2-deoxy-D-glucose (14C-2-DG uptake in the presence and absence of lactate. We also investigated the effect of this condition on the formation of 14CO2 from 14C-glucose and 14C-L-lactate, and plasmatic glucose and lactate levels. The 3-O-[14C] methyl-D-glucose (14C-3-OMG uptake was used to demonstrate the steady-state tissue/medium glucose distribution ratio under these conditions. Three days after SNT, 14C-2-DG uptake increased, but 14C-3-OMG uptake remained steady. The increase in 14C-2-DG uptake was lower when lactate was added to the incubation medium. No change was found in glucose and lactate oxidation after SNT, but lactate and glucose levels in the blood were reduced. Thus, our results showed that SNT increased the glucose metabolism in the frog DRG and spinal cord. The effect of lactate on this uptake suggests that glucose is used in glycolytic pathways after SNT.

  17. Small-fiber neuropathy Nav1.8 mutation shifts activation to hyperpolarized potentials and increases excitability of dorsal root ganglion neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jianying; Yang, Yang; Zhao, Peng; Gerrits, Monique M; Hoeijmakers, Janneke G J; Bekelaar, Kim; Merkies, Ingemar S J; Faber, Catharina G; Dib-Hajj, Sulayman D; Waxman, Stephen G

    2013-08-28

    Idiopathic small-fiber neuropathy (I-SFN), clinically characterized by burning pain in distal extremities and autonomic dysfunction, is a disorder of small-caliber nerve fibers of unknown etiology with limited treatment options. Functional variants of voltage-gated sodium channel Nav1.7, encoded by SCN9A, have been identified in approximately one-third of I-SFN patients. These variants render dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons hyperexcitable. Sodium channel Nav1.8, encoded by SCN10A, is preferentially expressed in small-diameter DRG neurons, and produces most of the current underlying the upstroke of action potentials in these neurons. We previously demonstrated two functional variants of Nav1.8 that either enhance ramp current or shift activation in a hyperpolarizing direction, and render DRG neurons hyperexcitable, in I-SFN patients with no mutations of SCN9A. We have now evaluated additional I-SFN patients with no mutations in SCN9A, and report a novel I-SFN-related Nav1.8 mutation I1706V in a patient with painful I-SFN. Whole-cell voltage-clamp recordings in small DRG neurons demonstrate that the mutation hyperpolarizes activation and the response to slow ramp depolarizations. However, it decreases fractional channels resistant to fast inactivation and reduces persistent currents. Current-clamp studies reveal that mutant channels decrease current threshold and increase the firing frequency of evoked action potentials within small DRG neurons. These observations suggest that the effects of this mutation on activation and ramp current are dominant over the reduced persistent current, and show that these pro-excitatory gating changes confer hyperexcitability on peripheral sensory neurons, which may contribute to pain in this individual with I-SFN.

  18. Acute morphine activates satellite glial cells and up-regulates IL-1β in dorsal root ganglia in mice via matrix metalloprotease-9

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    Berta Temugin

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Activation of spinal cord glial cells such as microglia and astrocytes has been shown to regulate chronic opioid-induced antinociceptive tolerance and hyperalgesia, due to spinal up-regulation of the proinflammatory cytokines such as interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β. Matrix metalloprotease-9 (MMP-9 has been implicated in IL-1β activation in neuropathic pain. However, it is unclear whether acute opioid treatment can activate glial cells in the peripheral nervous system. We examined acute morphine-induced activation of satellite glial cells (SGCs and up-regulation of IL-1β in dorsal root ganglia (DRGs, and further investigated the involvement of MMP-9 in these opioid-induced peripheral changes. Results Subcutaneous morphine injection (10 mg/kg induced robust peripheral glial responses, as evidenced by increased GFAP expression in DRGs but not in spinal cords. The acute morphine-induced GFAP expression is transient, peaking at 2 h and declining after 3 h. Acute morphine treatment also increased IL-1β immunoreactivity in SGCs and IL-1β activation in DRGs. MMP-9 and GFAP are expressed in DRG neurons and SGCs, respectively. Confocal analysis revealed a close proximity of MMP-9 and GFAP immunostaining. Importantly, morphine-induced DRG up-regulation of GFAP expression and IL-1β activation was abolished after Mmp9 deletion or naloxone pre-treatment. Finally, intrathecal injections of IL-1β-selective siRNA not only reduced DRG IL-1β expression but also prolonged acute morphine-induced analgesia. Conclusions Acute morphine induces opioid receptors- and MMP-9-dependent up-regulation of GFAP expression and IL-1β activation in SGCs of DRGs. MMP-9 could mask and shorten morphine analgesia via peripheral neuron-glial interactions. Targeting peripheral glial activation might prolong acute opioid analgesia.

  19. Modulation of Kv3.4 channel N-type inactivation by protein kinase C shapes the action potential in dorsal root ganglion neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritter, David M; Ho, Cojen; O'Leary, Michael E; Covarrubias, Manuel

    2012-01-01

    Fast inactivation of heterologously expressed Kv3.4 channels is dramatically slowed upon phosphorylation of the channel's N-terminal (N-type) inactivation gate by protein kinase C (PKC). However, the presence and physiological importance of this exquisite modulation in excitable tissues were unknown. Here, we employed minimally invasive cell-attached patch-clamping, single-cell qPCR and specific siRNAs to unambiguously demonstrate that fast-inactivating Kv3.4 channels underlie a robust high voltage-activated A-type K(+) current (I(AHV)) in nociceptive dorsal root ganglion neurons from 7-day-old rats. We also show that PKC activation with phorbol 12,13-dibutyrate (PDBu) causes a 4-fold slowing of Kv3.4 channel inactivation and, consequently, accelerates the repolarization of the action potential (AP) by 22%, which shortens the AP duration by 14%. G-protein coupled receptor (GPCR) agonists eliminate I(AHV) fast inactivation in a membrane-delimited manner, suggesting a Kv3.4 channel signalling complex. Preincubation of the neurons with the PKC inhibitor bisindolylmaleimide II inhibits the effect of GPCR agonists and PDBu. Furthermore, activation of PKC via GPCR agonists recapitulates the effects of PDBu on the AP. Finally, transfection of the neurons with Kv3.4 siRNA prolongs the AP by 25% and abolishes the GPCR agonist-induced acceleration of the AP repolarization. These results show that Kv3.4 channels help shape the repolarization of the nociceptor AP, and that modulation of Kv3.4 channel N-type inactivation by PKC regulates AP repolarization and duration. We propose that the dramatic modulation of I(AHV) fast inactivation by PKC represents a novel mechanism of neural plasticity with potentially significant implications in the transition from acute to chronic pain.

  20. Effects of complete Freund's adjuvant on immunohistochemical distribution of IL-1β and IL-1R I in neurons and glia cells of dorsal root ganglion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Man LI; Chuan-you LIN; Xin-min GUAN; Jing SHI; Jun-rui TANG; Di CHEN; Bo AI; Jun CHEN; Li-na WANG; Fu-yuan CAO; Ling-li LI

    2005-01-01

    Aim: To investigate the effects of complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA) on inflammatory hyperalgesia and morphological change of the coexsistence of interleukin- 1 beta (IL-1β) and type Ⅰ IL-1 receptor (IL-1RI) in neurons and glia cells of rat dorsal root ganglion (DRG). Methods: The pain-related parameters and the expression of IL- 1RI and IL-1β positive neurons and glia cells of DRG in normal saline (NS) and adjuvant-induced arthritic (AA) group were examined with pain behavior assessment methods and immunohistochemical assay, respectively. Results: Five hours,1 d, and 2 d after intra-articular injection of 50 μL CFA, tactile hyperalgesia in duced by CFA was observed in the foot flexion and extension scores of the ipsilateral hindpaw of AA group. Three days after injection, the distribution of IL-1RI/ IL-1β double-stained coexisted neurons and glia cells were observed in ipsilateral DRG of both groups. The number of IL-1β positive neurons, IL-1RI positive neurons, IL-1 β/IL-1RI double-stained neurons, and IL-1RI positive glia cells in ipsilateral DRG of the AA group were higher than that of NS group (P<0.05 or P< 0.01). Conclusion: The coexsistence of IL- 1 β and IL- 1 RI in neurons and nonneuronal cells suggests an as yet unknown autocrine and/or paracrine function of IL-1 β in the DRG. The function was enhanced in articular arthritis induced by CFA and could play an important role in hyperalgesia under inflammatory conditions.

  1. Modulation of dragon's blood on tetrodotoxin-resistant sodium currents in dorsal root ganglion neurons and identification of its material basis for efficacy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU; Xiangming; CHEN; Su; ZHANG; Yuxia

    2006-01-01

    To clarify the modulation of dragon's blood on the tetrodotoxin-resistant (TTX-R) sodium currents in dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons and explore its corresponding material basis for the efficacy, using whole-cell patch clamp technique, the effects of dragon's blood and the combined effects of three components (cochinchinenin A, cochinchinenin B, and loureirin B) extracted from dragon's blood on the TTX-R sodium currents in acute-isolated DRG neurons of rats were observed. According to the operational definition of material basis for the efficacy of TCM established, the material basis of the modulation on the TTX-R sodium currents in DRG neurons of dragon's blood was judged from the experimental results. The drug interaction equation of Greco et al. was used to assess the interaction of the three components extracted from dragon's blood. This investigation demonstrated that dragon's blood suppressed the peak TTX-R sodium currents in a dose-dependent way and affected the activations of TTX-R sodium currents. The effects of the combination of cochinchinenin A, cochinchinenin B, and loureirin B were in good agreement with those of dragon's blood. Although the three components used alone could modulate TTX-R sodium currents, the concentrations of the three components used alone were respectively higher than those used in combination when the inhibition rates on the TTX-R sodium currents of them used alone and in combination were the same. The combined effects of the three components were synergistic. These results suggested that the interference with pain messages caused by the modulation of dragon's blood on TTX-R sodium currents in DRG neurons may explain some of the analgesic effect of dragon's blood and the corresponding material basis for the efficacy is the combination of cochinchinenin A, cochinchinenin B, and loureirin B.

  2. Systematic and quantitative mRNA expression analysis of TRP channel genes at the single trigeminal and dorsal root ganglion level in mouse

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    Vandewauw Ine

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Somatosensory nerve fibres arising from cell bodies within the trigeminal ganglia (TG in the head and from a string of dorsal root ganglia (DRG located lateral to the spinal cord convey endogenous and environmental stimuli to the central nervous system. Although several members of the transient receptor potential (TRP superfamily of cation channels have been implicated in somatosensation, the expression levels of TRP channel genes in the individual sensory ganglia have never been systematically studied. Results Here, we used quantitative real-time PCR to analyse and compare mRNA expression of all TRP channels in TG and individual DRGs from 27 anatomically defined segments of the spinal cord of the mouse. At the mRNA level, 17 of the 28 TRP channel genes, TRPA1, TRPC1, TRPC3, TRPC4, TRPC5, TRPM2, TRPM3, TRPM4, TRPM5, TRPM6, TRPM7, TRPM8, TRPV1, TRPV2, TRPV4, TRPML1 and TRPP2, were detectable in every tested ganglion. Notably, four TRP channels, TRPC4, TRPM4, TRPM8 and TRPV1, showed statistically significant variation in mRNA levels between DRGs from different segments, suggesting ganglion-specific regulation of TRP channel gene expression. These ganglion-to-ganglion differences in TRP channel transcript levels may contribute to the variability in sensory responses in functional studies. Conclusions We developed, compared and refined techniques to quantitatively analyse the relative mRNA expression of all TRP channel genes at the single ganglion level. This study also provides for the first time a comparative mRNA distribution profile in TG and DRG along the entire vertebral column for the mammalian TRP channel family.

  3. Effects of BmKNJX11, a bioactive polypeptide purified from Buthus martensi Karsch, on sodium channels in rat dorsal root ganglion neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xi-Jie; An, Shan-Shan; Cheng, Hong; Xu, San-Hua; Cheng, Jie; Lu, Wei; Gao, Rong; Xiao, Hang

    2009-01-01

    A long-chain polypeptide BmKNJX11 was purified from the venom of Asian scorpion Buthus martensi Karsch (BmK) by a combination of gel filtration, ion-exchange chromatography, and reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography. The molecular mass was found to be 7036.85 Da by electrospray ionization mass spectrometry. The first 15 N-terminal amino acid sequence of BmKNJX11 was determined to be GRDAY IADSE NCTYT by Edman degradation. With whole cell recording, BmKNJX11 inhibited tetrodotoxin-sensitive voltage-gated sodium channels (TTX-S VGSC) in freshly isolated rat dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons in a concentration- and voltage-dependent manner. At a concentration of 40 mug/ml BmKNJX11 lowered the activation threshold and produced negative shifting of TTX-S sodium current (I(Na)) activation curve. In addition, BmKNJX11 induced shifting of the steady-state inactivation curve to the left, delayed the recovery of TTX-S I(Na) from inactivation, and also reduced the fraction of available sodium channels. These results suggested that BmKNJX11 might exert effects on VGSC by binding to a specific site. Considering that TTX-S VGSC expressed in DRG neurons play a critical role in nociceptive transmission, the interaction of BmKNJX11 with TTX-S VGSC might lead to a change in excitability of nociceptive afferent fibers, which may be involved in the observed peripheral pain expression.

  4. Antinociceptive Effects of AGAP, a Recombinant Neurotoxic Polypeptide: Possible Involvement of the Tetrodotoxin-Resistant Sodium Channels in Small Dorsal Root Ganglia Neurons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chun-Li; Liu, Xi-Fang; Li, Gui-Xia; Ban, Meng-qi; Chen, Jian-Zhao; Cui, Yong; Zhang, Jing-Hai; Wu, Chun-Fu

    2016-01-01

    Antitumor-analgesic peptide (AGAP) is a novel recombinant polypeptide. The primary study showed that AGAP 1.0 mg/kg exhibited strong analgesic and antitumor effects. The tail vein administration of AGAP potently reduced pain behaviors in mice induced by intraplantar injection of formalin or intraperitoneal injection of acetic acid, without affecting basal pain perception. To further assess the mechanisms of AGAP, the effects of AGAP on sodium channels were assessed using the whole-cell patch clamp recordings in dorsal root ganglia (DRG) neurons. The results showed that AGAP (3–1000 nM) inhibited the sodium currents in small-diameter DRG neurons in a dose-dependent manner. 1000 nM AGAP could inhibit the current density-voltage relationship curve of sodium channels in a voltage-dependent manner and negatively shift the activation curves. 1000 nM AGAP could reduce the tetrodotoxin-resistant (TTX-R) sodium currents by 42.8% in small-diameter DRG neurons. Further analysis revealed that AGAP potently inhibited NaV1.8 currents by 59.4%, and negatively shifted the activation and inactivation kinetics. 1000 nM AGAP also reduced the NaV1.9 currents by 33.7%, but had no significant effect on activation and inactivation kinetics. Thus, our results demonstrated that submicromolar concentrations of AGAP inhibited TTX-R sodium channel in rat small-diameter DRG neurons. It is concluded that these new results may better explain, at least in part, the analgesic properties of this polypeptide. PMID:28066245

  5. Antinociceptive effects of AGAP, a recombinant neurotoxic polypeptide: Possible involvement of the tetrodotoxin-resistant sodium channels in small dorsal root ganglia neurons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Chunli

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Antitumor-analgesic peptide(AGAP)is a novel recombinant polypeptide. The primary study showed that AGAP 1.0 mg/kg exhibited strong analgesic and antitumor effects. The tail vein administration of AGAP potently reduced pain behaviors in mice induced by intraplantar injection of formalin or intraperitoneal injection of acetic acid, without affecting basal pain perception. To further assess the mechanisms of AGAP, the effects of AGAP on sodium channels were assessed using the whole-cell patch clamp recordings in dorsal root ganglia (DRG neurons. The results showed that AGAP (3-1000 nM inhibited the sodium currents in small-diameter DRG neurons in a dose-dependent manner. 1000 nM AGAP could inhibit the current density-voltage relationship curve of sodium channels in a voltage-dependent manner and negatively shift the activation curves. 1000 nM AGAP could reduce the tetrodotoxin-resistant (TTX-R sodium currents by 42.8% in small-diameter DRG neurons. Further analysis revealed that AGAP potently inhibited NaV1.8 currents by 59.4%, and negatively shifted the activation and inactivation kinetics. 1000 nM AGAP also reduced the NaV1.9 currents by 33.7%, but had no significant effect on activation and inactivation kinetics. Thus, our results demonstrated that submicromolar concentrations of AGAP inhibited TTX-R sodium channel in rat small-diameter DRG neurons. It is concluded that these new results may better explain, at least in part, the analgesic properties of this polypeptide.

  6. Local peripheral opioid effects and expression of opioid genes in the spinal cord and dorsal root ganglia in neuropathic and inflammatory pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obara, Ilona; Parkitna, Jan Rodriguez; Korostynski, Michal; Makuch, Wioletta; Kaminska, Dorota; Przewlocka, Barbara; Przewlocki, Ryszard

    2009-02-01

    We investigated the efficacy of local intraplantar (i.pl.) injection of peptide and non-peptide mu-, delta- and kappa-opioid receptor agonists in rat models of inflammatory and neuropathic pain. Locally applied agonists dose-dependently reduced formalin-induced flinching of the inflamed paw and induced antiallodynic and antihyperalgesic effects in sciatic nerve ligation-induced neuropathic pain. These effects were mediated by peripheral opioid receptors localized at the side of tissue/nerve injury, as was demonstrated by selective and non-selective opioid receptors antagonists. The ED(50) dose range of mu- and kappa-agonists required to induce analgesia in neuropathy was much higher than the ED(50) for inflammation; moreover, only delta-agonists were effective in the same dose range in both pain models. Additionally, effective antinociception was achieved at a lower dose of peptide, compared to non-peptide, opioids. Such findings support the use of the peripheral administration of opioid peptides, especially delta-agonists, in treating chronic pain. Furthermore, in order to assess whether adaptations in the expression of opioid genes could underlie the clinical observation of reduced opioid effectiveness in neuropathic pain, we analyzed the abundance of opioid transcripts in the spinal cord and dorsal root ganglia (DRG) during the neuropathy and inflammation. Nerve injury down-regulated mRNA for all types of opioid receptors in the DRG, which is predicted to decrease in the synthesis of opioid receptors to possibly account for the reduced effectiveness of locally administered opioids in neuropathy. The obtained results differentiate inflammatory and neuropathic pain and provide a novel insight into the peripheral effectiveness of opioids in both types of pain.

  7. Effects of Intrathecally Administerd NaV1.8 Antisense Oligonucleotide on the Expression of Sodium Channel mRNA in Dorsal Root Ganglion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Yongmin; YAO Shanglong; SONG Wenge; WANG Yuelan; LIU Dong; ZEN Lian

    2005-01-01

    Neuropathic pain has been hypothesized to be the result of aberrant expression and function of sodium channels at the site of injury. To investigate the effects of NaV1.8 antisense oligonucleotide on the expression of sodium channel mRNA in dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons in chronic neuropathic pain. 24 Sprague-Dawley rats weighing 200-260 g were anesthetized with the in of sciatic nerve trunk by 4-0 chromic gut. The mechanical and thermal pain threshold were measured before operation and 1, 3, 5, 7, 9, 11, 13 days after operation. A PE-10 catheter was implanted in subarachnoid space at lumbar region. On the 7th postoperative day the animals were randomly divided into 4 groups. The drugs were injected intrathecally twice a day for 5 consecutive days in group 2-4. The animals were decapitated 14 days after the surgery. The L4-L6 DRG of the operated side was removed and crushed, and total RNA was extracted with Trizol reagent. The contralateral side was used as control. The change of NaV1.8 sodium channel transcripts was determined by RT-PCR. Pain threshold was significantly lowered after CCI as compared with that in control group and was elevated 3 days after antisense oligonucleotide injection. Sensory neuron specific TTX-R sodium channel NaV1.8 transcript was down-regulated after antisense oligonucleotide injection at the dosage of 45 μg as compared with that in CCI group (P<0.01), and it was even greater at the dosage of 90 μg. The intrathecally injected NaV1.8 antisense oligonucleotide can reduce the mechanical allodynia and thermal hyperalgesia partially by downregulating the SNS transcript expression.

  8. Inflammation in the uterus induces phosphorylated extracellular signal-regulated kinase and substance P immunoreactivity in dorsal root ganglia neurons innervating both uterus and colon in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jichang; Micevych, Paul; McDonald, John; Rapkin, Andrea; Chaban, Victor

    2008-09-01

    In women, clinical studies suggest that pain syndromes such as irritable bowel syndrome and interstitial cystitis, which are associated with visceral hyperalgesia, are often comorbid with endometriosis and chronic pelvic pain. One of the possible explanations for this phenomenon is viscerovisceral cross-sensitization, in which increased nociceptive input from an inflamed pelvic organ sensitizes neurons that receive convergent input to the same dorsal root ganglion (DRG) from an unaffected visceral organ. Nociception induces up-regulation of cellular mechanisms such as phosphorylated extracellular signal-regulated kinase (pERK) and substance P (SP), neurotransmitters associated with induced pain sensation. The purpose of this study was to determine, in a rodent model, whether uterine inflammation increased the number of pERK- and SP-positive neurons that received input from both the uterus and the colon. Cell bodies of colonic and uterine DRG were retrogradely labeled with fluorescent tracer dyes microinjected into the colon/rectum and into the uterus. Ganglia were harvested for fluorescent microscopy to identify positively stained neurons. Approximately 6% of neurons were colon specific and 10% uterus specific. Among these uterus- or colon-specific neurons, up to 3-5% of DRG neurons in the lumbosacral neurons (L1-S3 levels) received input from both visceral organs. Uterine inflammation increased the number of pERK- and SP-immunoreactive DRG neurons innervating specifically colon, or innervating specifically uterus, and those innervating both organs. These results suggest that a localized inflammation activates primary visceral afferents, regardless of whether they innervate the affected organ. This visceral sensory integration in the DRG may underlie the observed comorbidity of female pelvic pain syndromes.

  9. Increased gene and protein expressions of the transient receptor potential vanilloid receptor 4 following sustained pure mechanical pressure on rat dorsal root ganglion neurons

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yang Zhang; Juan Huai; Yonghui Wang; Yanqin Wang; Shouwei Yue

    2011-01-01

    Dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons from newborn Wistar rats cultured in vitro were pressurized with 20, 40, 80 or 120 mm Hg compressive loadings (1 mm Hg = 0.133 kPa) for 12, 24, 48 or 72 hours, respectively. The 3-[4, 5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2, 5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide test showed that pressures less than 80 mm Hg had no obvious impact on the activity of DRG neurons. The protein expression levels of transient receptor potential vanilloid receptor 4 (TRPV4), transient receptor potential vanilloid receptor 1, transient receptor potential channel of melastatin type 8, and transient receptor potential subtype ankyrin 1 were assessed by western blot analysis. The mRNA expression of TRPV4 was assessed by real-time PCR. The results showed that sustained mechanical compression up-regulated TRPV4 mRNA and protein expression in the rat DRG neurons, in a time-dependent fashion. Similar changes were not found in the protein expression of transient receptor potential vanilloid receptor 1, transient receptor potential channel of melastatin type 8, and transient receptor potential subtype ankyrin 1. Images of cells using a laser scanning confocal microscope showed that the sustained mechanical pressure increased the number of responsive DRG neurons and was synergistic on the enhanced Ca2+ responses to the TRPV4 phorbol ester agonist 4a-phorbol 12, 13-didecanoate and hypotonic solutions. These findings demonstrate that sustained mechanical compressive loading in vitro increases the expression of TRPV4 mRNA and protein in DRG neurons and sensitizes TRPV4 Ca2+ signals. Mechanical compression does not impact other ion channels in thetransient receptor potential family.

  10. Comparison between low-level 50 Hz and 900 MHz electromagnetic stimulation on single channel ionic currents and on firing frequency in dorsal root ganglion isolated neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchionni, I; Paffi, A; Pellegrino, M; Liberti, M; Apollonio, F; Abeti, R; Fontana, F; D'Inzeo, G; Mazzanti, M

    2006-05-01

    Alteration of membrane surface charges represents one of the most interesting effects of the electromagnetic exposure on biological structures. Some evidence exists in the case of extremely low frequency whereas the same effect in the radiofrequency range has not been detected. Changes in transmembrane voltages are probably responsible for the mobilization of intracellular calcium described in some previous studies but not confirmed in others. These controversial results may be due to the cell type under examination and/or to the permeability properties of the membranes. According to such a hypothesis, calcium oscillations would be a secondary effect due to the induced change in the membrane voltage and thus dependent on the characteristics of ionic channels present in a particular preparation. Calcium increases could suggest more than one mechanism to explain the biological effects of exposure due to the fact that all the cellular pathways using calcium ions as a second messenger could be, in theory, disturbed by the electromagnetic field exposure. In the present work, we investigate the early phase of the signal transmission in the peripheral nervous system. We present evidence that the firing rate of rat sensory neurons can be modified by 50/60 Hz magnetic field but not by low level 900 MHz fields. The action of the 50/60 Hz magnetic field is biphasic. At first, the number of action potentials increases in time. Following this early phase, the firing rate decreases more rapidly than in control conditions. The explanation can be found at the single-channel level. Dynamic action current recordings in dorsal root ganglion neurons acutely exposed to the electromagnetic field show increased functionality of calcium channels. In parallel, a calcium-activated potassium channel is able to increase its mean open time.

  11. Long-term activation of group I metabotropic glutamate receptors increases functional TRPV1-expressing neurons in mouse dorsal root ganglia

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    Takayoshi eMasuoka

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Damaged tissues release glutamate and other chemical mediators for several hours. These chemical mediators contribute to modulation of pruritus and pain. Herein, we investigated the effects of long-term activation of excitatory glutamate receptors on functional expression of transient receptor potential vaniloid type 1 (TRPV1 in dorsal root ganglion (DRG neurons and then on thermal pain behavior. In order to detect the TRPV1-mediated responses in cultured DRG neurons, we monitored intracellular calcium responses to capsaicin, a TRPV1 agonist, with Fura-2. Long-term (4 h treatment with glutamate receptor agonists (glutamate, quisqualate or DHPG increased the proportion of neurons responding to capsaicin through activation of metabotropic glutamate receptor mGluR1, and only partially through the activation of mGluR5; engagement of these receptors was evident in neurons responding to allylisothiocyanate (AITC, a transient receptor potential ankyrin type 1 (TRPA1 agonist. Increase in the proportion was suppressed by phospholipase C, protein kinase C, mitogen/extracellular signal-regulated kinase, p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase or transcription inhibitors. Whole-cell recording was performed to record TRPV1-mediated membrane current; TRPV1 current density significantly increased in the AITC-sensitive neurons after the quisqualate treatment. To elucidate the physiological significance of this phenomenon, a hot plate test was performed. Intraplantar injection of quisqualate or DHPG induced heat hyperalgesia that lasted for 4 h post injection. This chronic hyperalgesia was attenuated by treatment with either mGluR1 or mGluR5 antagonists. These results suggest that long-term activation of mGluR1/5 by peripherally released glutamate may increase the number of neurons expressing functional TRPV1 in DRG, which may be strongly associated with chronic hyperalgesia.

  12. Role of PAF receptor in proinflammatory cytokine expression in the dorsal root ganglion and tactile allodynia in a rodent model of neuropathic pain.

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    Shigeo Hasegawa

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Neuropathic pain is a highly debilitating chronic pain following damage to peripheral sensory neurons and is often resistant to all treatments currently available, including opioids. We have previously shown that peripheral nerve injury induces activation of cytosolic phospholipase A(2 (cPLA(2 in injured dorsal root ganglion (DRG neurons that contribute to tactile allodynia, a hallmark of neuropathic pain. However, lipid mediators downstream of cPLA(2 activation to produce tactile allodynia remain to be determined. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here we provide evidence that platelet-activating factor (PAF is a potential candidate. Pharmacological blockade of PAF receptors (PAFRs reduced the development and expression of tactile allodynia following nerve injury. The expression of PAFR mRNA was increased in the DRG ipsilateral to nerve injury, which was seen mainly in macrophages. Furthermore, mice lacking PAFRs showed a reduction of nerve injury-induced tactile allodynia and, interestingly, a marked suppression of upregulation of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFalpha and interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta expression in the injured DRG, crucial proinflammatory cytokines involved in pain hypersensitivity. Conversely, a single injection of PAF near the DRG of naïve rats caused a decrease in the paw withdrawal threshold to mechanical stimulation in a dose-dependent manner and an increase in the expression of mRNAs for TNFalpha and IL-1beta, both of which were inhibited by pretreatment with a PAFR antagonist. CONCLUSIONS: Our results indicate that the PAF/PAFR system has an important role in production of TNFalpha and IL-1beta in the DRG and tactile allodynia following peripheral nerve injury and suggest that blocking PAFRs may be a viable therapeutic strategy for treating neuropathic pain.

  13. The impact of spinal cord nerve roots and denticulate ligaments on cerebrospinal fluid dynamics in the cervical spine.

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    Soroush Heidari Pahlavian

    Full Text Available Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF dynamics in the spinal subarachnoid space (SSS have been thought to play an important pathophysiological role in syringomyelia, Chiari I malformation (CM, and a role in intrathecal drug delivery. Yet, the impact that fine anatomical structures, including nerve roots and denticulate ligaments (NRDL, have on SSS CSF dynamics is not clear. In the present study we assessed the impact of NRDL on CSF dynamics in the cervical SSS. The 3D geometry of the cervical SSS was reconstructed based on manual segmentation of MRI images of a healthy volunteer and a patient with CM. Idealized NRDL were designed and added to each of the geometries based on in vivo measurments in the literature and confirmation by a neuroanatomist. CFD simulations were performed for the healthy and patient case with and without NRDL included. Our results showed that the NRDL had an important impact on CSF dynamics in terms of velocity field and flow patterns. However, pressure distribution was not altered greatly although the NRDL cases required a larger pressure gradient to maintain the same flow. Also, the NRDL did not alter CSF dynamics to a great degree in the SSS from the foramen magnum to the C1 level for the healthy subject and CM patient with mild tonsillar herniation (∼ 6 mm. Overall, the NRDL increased fluid mixing phenomena and resulted in a more complex flow field. Comparison of the streamlines of CSF flow revealed that the presence of NRDL lead to the formation of vortical structures and remarkably increased the local mixing of the CSF throughout the SSS.

  14. The Impact of Spinal Cord Nerve Roots and Denticulate Ligaments on Cerebrospinal Fluid Dynamics in the Cervical Spine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heidari Pahlavian, Soroush; Yiallourou, Theresia; Tubbs, R. Shane; Bunck, Alexander C.; Loth, Francis; Goodin, Mark; Raisee, Mehrdad; Martin, Bryn A.

    2014-01-01

    Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) dynamics in the spinal subarachnoid space (SSS) have been thought to play an important pathophysiological role in syringomyelia, Chiari I malformation (CM), and a role in intrathecal drug delivery. Yet, the impact that fine anatomical structures, including nerve roots and denticulate ligaments (NRDL), have on SSS CSF dynamics is not clear. In the present study we assessed the impact of NRDL on CSF dynamics in the cervical SSS. The 3D geometry of the cervical SSS was reconstructed based on manual segmentation of MRI images of a healthy volunteer and a patient with CM. Idealized NRDL were designed and added to each of the geometries based on in vivo measurments in the literature and confirmation by a neuroanatomist. CFD simulations were performed for the healthy and patient case with and without NRDL included. Our results showed that the NRDL had an important impact on CSF dynamics in terms of velocity field and flow patterns. However, pressure distribution was not altered greatly although the NRDL cases required a larger pressure gradient to maintain the same flow. Also, the NRDL did not alter CSF dynamics to a great degree in the SSS from the foramen magnum to the C1 level for the healthy subject and CM patient with mild tonsillar herniation (∼6 mm). Overall, the NRDL increased fluid mixing phenomena and resulted in a more complex flow field. Comparison of the streamlines of CSF flow revealed that the presence of NRDL lead to the formation of vortical structures and remarkably increased the local mixing of the CSF throughout the SSS. PMID:24710111

  15. The impact of spinal cord nerve roots and denticulate ligaments on cerebrospinal fluid dynamics in the cervical spine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heidari Pahlavian, Soroush; Yiallourou, Theresia; Tubbs, R Shane; Bunck, Alexander C; Loth, Francis; Goodin, Mark; Raisee, Mehrdad; Martin, Bryn A

    2014-01-01

    Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) dynamics in the spinal subarachnoid space (SSS) have been thought to play an important pathophysiological role in syringomyelia, Chiari I malformation (CM), and a role in intrathecal drug delivery. Yet, the impact that fine anatomical structures, including nerve roots and denticulate ligaments (NRDL), have on SSS CSF dynamics is not clear. In the present study we assessed the impact of NRDL on CSF dynamics in the cervical SSS. The 3D geometry of the cervical SSS was reconstructed based on manual segmentation of MRI images of a healthy volunteer and a patient with CM. Idealized NRDL were designed and added to each of the geometries based on in vivo measurments in the literature and confirmation by a neuroanatomist. CFD simulations were performed for the healthy and patient case with and without NRDL included. Our results showed that the NRDL had an important impact on CSF dynamics in terms of velocity field and flow patterns. However, pressure distribution was not altered greatly although the NRDL cases required a larger pressure gradient to maintain the same flow. Also, the NRDL did not alter CSF dynamics to a great degree in the SSS from the foramen magnum to the C1 level for the healthy subject and CM patient with mild tonsillar herniation (∼ 6 mm). Overall, the NRDL increased fluid mixing phenomena and resulted in a more complex flow field. Comparison of the streamlines of CSF flow revealed that the presence of NRDL lead to the formation of vortical structures and remarkably increased the local mixing of the CSF throughout the SSS.

  16. Inhibition of Human Cervical Cancer Cell Growth by Ethanolic Extract of Boerhaavia diffusa Linn. (Punarnava Root

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    Rakhi Srivastava

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In Indian traditional medicine, Boerhaavia diffusa (punarnava roots have been widely used for the treatment of dyspepsia, jaundice, enlargement of spleen, abdominal pain and as an anti-stress agent. Pharmacological evaluation of the crude ethanolic extract of B. diffusa roots has been shown to possess antiproliferative and immunomodulatory properties. The extract of B. diffusa was studied for anti-proliferative effects on the growth of HeLa cells and for its effect on cell cycle. Bio-assays of extracts from B. diffusa root showed that a methanol : chloroform fraction (BDF 5 had an antiproliferative effect on HeLa cells. After 48 h of exposure, this fraction at a concentration of 200 μg mL−1 significantly reduced cell proliferation with visible morphological changes in HeLa cells. Cell cycle analysis suggests that antiproliferative effect of BDF 5 could be due to inhibition of DNA synthesis in S-phase of cell cycle in HeLa cells, whereas no significant change in cell cycle was detected in control cells. The fraction BDF 5 caused cell death via apoptosis as evident from DNA fragmentation and caspase-9 activation. Thus the extract has potential to be evaluated in detail to assess the molecular mechanism-mediated anticancer activities of this plant.

  17. 改良高选择性脊神经后根部分切断术中前后根神经分束的应用解剖%Applied anatomy of anterior and dorsal root nerve tracts in the improved high selective dorsal rhizotomy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梅晰凡; 王伟; 秦书俭; 张平

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Anterior and dorsal root nerve tracts should be separated to small tracts in high selective dorsal rhizotomy, because detailed tract separation will benefit electrostimulation, thereby helping correctly cutting the lower-threshold Ia nerve fibers that cause convulsion, and meanwhile sensory nerve fibers in dorsal nerve root can be reserved as many as possible.OBJECTIVE: To meet the needs of limited and high selective spinal dorsal rhizotomy, anterior and dorsal root of spinal nerve were microanatomized to be certain of the separation standard and the number of small nerve tracts, so as to provide reliable basis and novel operative standard for clinical operation.DESIGN: Single sample experiment with adult corpses as subjects.SETTING: Orthopedic Department of the First Affiliated Hospital and Department of Anatomy, Jinzhou Medical College.PARTICIPANTS: This study was carried out at the Anatomical Laboratory of Jinzhou Medical College in December 1999. Fifteen adult corpses, 11 males and 4 males, were donated, and the donators signed informed consent when alive.tained from the 15 adult spinal cords (30 sides) and subjected to morphoanterior and dorsal roots of L5 spinal cord were obtained from a fresh corpse for immunohistochemical staining. The starting part, middle part and the exterior of intervertebral foremen was cut into slices, and the total number of nerve fibers, the number of Ia nerve fibers responsible for convulsion, and their percentage in the total fibers were counted. Meanwhile the distribution and the number of Ia nerve fibers in the three parts were compared.ber of nerve fibers per 100 μm2, the percentage of Ia nerve fibers in the total nerve fibers at the starting part, middle part and exterior of intervertebral foremen of spinal nerve dorsal root.root filaments. Microsurgical observation proved that dorsal root could be divided into 10-18 small tracts and anterior root 6-11 tracts; the diameter number of nerve fibers in the three parts

  18. Effects of estrogens and bladder inflammation on mitogen-activated protein kinases in lumbosacral dorsal root ganglia from adult female rats

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    Keast Janet R

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Interstitial cystitis is a chronic condition associated with bladder inflammation and, like a number of other chronic pain states, symptoms associated with interstitial cystitis are more common in females and fluctuate during the menstrual cycle. The aim of this study was to determine if estrogens could directly modulate signalling pathways within bladder sensory neurons, such as extracellular signal-related kinase (ERK and p38 mitogen-activated protein (MAP kinases. These signalling pathways have been implicated in neuronal plasticity underlying development of inflammatory somatic pain but have not been as extensively investigated in visceral nociceptors. We have focused on lumbosacral dorsal root ganglion (DRG neurons projecting to pelvic viscera (L1, L2, L6, S1 of adult female Sprague-Dawley rats and performed both in vitro and in vivo manipulations to compare the effects of short- and long-term changes in estrogen levels on MAPK expression and activation. We have also investigated if prolonged estrogen deprivation influences the effects of lower urinary tract inflammation on MAPK signalling. Results In studies of isolated DRG neurons in short-term (overnight culture, we found that estradiol and estrogen receptor (ER agonists rapidly stimulated ER-dependent p38 phosphorylation relative to total p38. Examination of DRGs following chronic estrogen deprivation in vivo (ovariectomy showed a parallel increase in total and phosphorylated p38 (relative to β-tubulin. We also observed an increase in ERK1 phosphorylation (relative to total ERK1, but no change in ERK1 expression (relative to β-tubulin. We observed no change in ERK2 expression or phosphorylation. Although ovariectomy increased the level of phosphorylated ERK1 (vs. total ERK1, cyclophosphamide-induced lower urinary tract inflammation did not cause a net increase of either ERK1 or ERK2, or their phosphorylation. Inflammation did, however, cause an increase in p38

  19. P2X7 receptors in satellite glial cells mediate high functional expression of P2X3 receptors in immature dorsal root ganglion neurons

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    Chen Yong

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The purinergic P2X3 receptor (P2X3R expressed in the dorsal root ganglion (DRG sensory neuron and the P2X7 receptor (P2X7R expressed in the surrounding satellite glial cell (SGC are two major receptors participating in neuron-SGC communication in adult DRGs. Activation of P2X7Rs was found to tonically reduce the expression of P2X3Rs in DRGs, thus inhibiting the abnormal pain behaviors in adult rats. P2X receptors are also actively involved in sensory signaling in developing rodents. However, very little is known about the developmental change of P2X7Rs in DRGs and the interaction between P2X7Rs and P2X3Rs in those animals. We therefore examined the expression of P2X3Rs and P2X7Rs in postnatal rats and determined if P2X7R-P2X3R control exists in developing rats. Findings We immunostained DRGs of immature rats and found that P2X3Rs were expressed only in neurons and P2X7Rs were expressed only in SGCs. Western blot analyses indicated that P2X3R expression decreased while P2X7R expression increased with the age of rats. Electrophysiological studies showed that the number of DRG neurons responding to the stimulation of the P2XR agonist, α,β-meATP, was higher and the amplitudes of α,β-meATP-induced depolarizations were larger in immature DRG neurons. As a result, P2X3R-mediated flinching responses were much more pronounced in immature rats than those found in adult rats. When we reduced P2X7R expression with P2X7R-siRNA in postnatal and adult rats, P2X3R-mediated flinch responses were greatly enhanced in both rat populations. Conclusions These results show that the P2X7R expression increases as rats age. In addition, P2X7Rs in SGCs exert inhibitory control on the P2X3R expression and function in sensory neurons of immature rats, just as observed in adult rats. Regulation of P2X7R expression is likely an effective way to control P2X3R activity and manage pain relief in infants.

  20. Hypericum perforatum Attenuates Spinal Cord Injury-Induced Oxidative Stress and Apoptosis in the Dorsal Root Ganglion of Rats: Involvement of TRPM2 and TRPV1 Channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özdemir, Ümit Sinan; Nazıroğlu, Mustafa; Şenol, Nilgün; Ghazizadeh, Vahid

    2016-08-01

    Oxidative stress and cytosolic Ca(2+) overload have important roles on apoptosis in dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons after spinal cord injury (SCI). Hypericum perforatum (HP) has an antioxidant property in the DRGs due to its ability to modulate NADPH oxidase and protein kinase C pathways. We aimed to investigate the protective property of HP on oxidative stress, apoptosis, and Ca(2+) entry through transient receptor potential melastatin 2 (TRPM2) and transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) channels in SCI-induced DRG neurons of rats. Rats were divided into four groups as control, HP, SCI, and SCI + HP. The HP groups received 30 mg/kg HP for three concessive days after SCI induction. The SCI-induced TRPM2 and TRPV1 currents and cytosolic free Ca(2+) concentration were reduced by HP. The SCI-induced decrease in glutathione peroxidase and cell viability values were ameliorated by HP treatment, and the SCI-induced increase in apoptosis, caspase 3, caspase 9, cytosolic reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, and mitochondrial membrane depolarization values in DRG of SCI group were overcome by HP treatment. In conclusion, we observed a protective role of HP on SCI-induced oxidative stress, apoptosis, and Ca(2+) entry through TRPM2 and TRPV1 in the DRG neurons. Our findings may be relevant to the etiology and treatment of SCI by HP. Graphical Abstract Possible molecular pathways of involvement of Hypericum perforatum (HP) on apoptosis, oxidative stress, and calcium accumulation through TRPM2 and TRPV1 channels in DRG neurons of SCI-induced rats. The TRPM2 channel is activated by ADP-ribose and oxidative stress through activation of ADP-ribose pyrophosphate although it was inhibited by N-(p-amylcinnamoyl) anthranilic acid (ACA) and 2-aminoethyl diphenylborinate (2APB). The TRPV1 channel is activated by oxidative stress and capsaicin and it is blocked by capsazepine. Injury in the DRG can result in augmented ROS release, leading to Ca(2+) uptake through

  1. Electromagnetic radiation (Wi-Fi) and epilepsy induce calcium entry and apoptosis through activation of TRPV1 channel in hippocampus and dorsal root ganglion of rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghazizadeh, Vahid; Nazıroğlu, Mustafa

    2014-09-01

    Incidence rates of epilepsy and use of Wi-Fi worldwide have been increasing. TRPV1 is a Ca(2+) permeable and non-selective channel, gated by noxious heat, oxidative stress and capsaicin (CAP). The hyperthermia and oxidant effects of Wi-Fi may induce apoptosis and Ca(2+) entry through activation of TRPV1 channel in epilepsy. Therefore, we tested the effects of Wi-Fi (2.45 GHz) exposure on Ca(2+) influx, oxidative stress and apoptosis through TRPV1 channel in the murine dorsal root ganglion (DRG) and hippocampus of pentylentetrazol (PTZ)-induced epileptic rats. Rats in the present study were divided into two groups as controls and PTZ. The PTZ groups were divided into two subgroups namely PTZ + Wi-Fi and PTZ + Wi-Fi + capsazepine (CPZ). The hippocampal and DRG neurons were freshly isolated from the rats. The DRG and hippocampus in PTZ + Wi-Fi and PTZ + Wi-Fi + CPZ groups were exposed to Wi-Fi for 1 hour before CAP stimulation. The cytosolic free Ca(2+), reactive oxygen species production, apoptosis, mitochondrial membrane depolarization, caspase-3 and -9 values in hippocampus were higher in the PTZ group than in the control although cell viability values decreased. The Wi-Fi exposure induced additional effects on the cytosolic Ca(2+) increase. However, pretreatment of the neurons with CPZ, results in a protection against epilepsy-induced Ca(2+) influx, apoptosis and oxidative damages. In results of whole cell patch-clamp experiments, treatment of DRG with Ca(2+) channel antagonists [thapsigargin, verapamil + diltiazem, 2-APB, MK-801] indicated that Wi-Fi exposure induced Ca(2+) influx via the TRPV1 channels. In conclusion, epilepsy and Wi-Fi in our experimental model is involved in Ca(2+) influx and oxidative stress-induced hippocampal and DRG death through activation of TRPV1 channels, and negative modulation of this channel activity by CPZ pretreatment may account for the neuroprotective activity against oxidative stress.

  2. Tumor necrosis factor-α inhibits angiotensin II receptor type 1 expression in dorsal root ganglion neurons via β-catenin signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Y; Wu, H; Yan, J-Q; Song, Z-B; Guo, Q-L

    2013-09-17

    Both tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and the angiotensin (Ang) II/angiotensin II receptor type 1 (AT1) axis play important roles in neuropathic pain and nociception. In the present study, we explored the interaction between the two systems by examining the mutual effects between TNF-α and the Ang II/AT1 receptor axis in dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons. Rat DRG neurons were treated with TNF-α in different concentrations for different lengths of time in the presence or absence of transcription inhibitor actinomycin D, TNF receptor 1 (TNFR1) inhibitor SPD304, β-catenin signaling inhibitor CCT031374, or different kinase inhibitors. TNF-α decreased the AT1 receptor mRNA level as well as the AT1a receptor promoter activity in a dose-dependent manner within 30 h, which led to dose-dependent inhibition of Ang II-binding AT1 receptor level on the cell membrane. Actinomycin D (1 mg/ml), SPD304 (50 μM), p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) inhibitor PD169316 (25 μM), and CCT031374 (50 μM) completely abolished the inhibitory effect of TNF-α on AT1 receptor expression. TNF-α dose-dependently increased soluble β-catenin and phosphorylated GSK-3β levels, which was blocked by SPD304 and PD169316. In DRG neurons treated with AT2 receptor agonist CGP421140, or Ang II with or without AT1 receptor antagonist losartan or AT2 receptor antagonist PD123319 for 30 h, we found that Ang II and Ang II+PD123319 significantly decreased TNF-α expression, whereas CPG421140 and Ang II+losartan increased TNF-α expression. In conclusion, we demonstrate that TNF-α inhibits AT1 receptor expression at the transcription level via TNFR1 in rat DRG neurons by increasing the soluble β-catenin level through the p38 MAPK/GSK-3β pathway. In addition, Ang II appears to inhibit and induce TNF-α expression via the AT1 receptor and the AT2 receptor in DRG neurons, respectively. This is the first evidence of crosstalk between TNF-α and the Ang II/AT receptor axis in DRG neurons.

  3. The effect of botulinum neurotoxin A on sciatic nerve injury-induced neuroimmunological changes in rat dorsal root ganglia and spinal cord.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mika, J; Rojewska, E; Makuch, W; Korostynski, M; Luvisetto, S; Marinelli, S; Pavone, F; Przewlocka, B

    2011-02-23

    Botulinum neurotoxin serotype A (BoNT/A) acts by cleaving synaptosome-associated-protein-25 (SNAP-25) in nerve terminals to inhibit neuronal release and shows long-lasting antinociceptive action in neuropathic pain. However, its precise mechanism of action remains unclear. Our study aimed to characterize BoNT/A-induced neuroimmunological changes after chronic constriction injury (CCI) of the sciatic nerve. In the ipsilateral lumbar spinal cords of CCI-exposed rats, the mRNA of microglial marker (complement component 1q, C1q), astroglial marker (glial fibrillary acidic protein, GFAP), and prodynorphin were upregulated, as measured by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). No changes appeared in mRNA for proenkephalin, pronociceptin, or neuronal and inducible nitric oxide synthase (NOS1 and NOS2, respectively). In the dorsal root ganglia (DRG), an ipsilateral upregulation of prodynorphin, pronociceptin, C1q, GFAP, NOS1 and NOS2 mRNA and a downregulation of proenkephalin mRNA were observed. A single intraplantar BoNT/A (75 pg/paw) injection induced long-lasting antinociception in this model. BoNT/A diminished the injury-induced ipsilateral spinal upregulation of C1q mRNA. In the ipsilateral DRG a significant decrease of C1q-positive cell activation and of the upregulation of prodynorphin, pronociceptin and NOS1 mRNA was also observed following BoNT/A admistration. BoNT/A also diminished the injury-induced upregulation of SNAP-25 expression in both structures. We provide evidence that BoNT/A impedes injury-activated neuronal function in structures distant from the injection site, which is demonstrated by its influence on NOS1, prodynorphin and pronociceptin mRNA levels in the DRG. Moreover, the silence of microglia/macrophages after BoNT/A administration could be secondary to the inhibition of neuronal activity, but this decrease in neuroimmune interactions could be the key to the long-lasting BoNT/A effect on neuropathic pain.

  4. 针刀治疗神经根型颈椎病的临床探索%Clinical Exploration of Needle-Scalpel Technique as Treatment for Nerve Root Type Cervical Spondylosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨义靖; 杨霞

    2011-01-01

    Cervical nerve root type cervical spondylosis is more frequently seen in the elderly,often due to poor posture, fatigue and other reasons. External force induced cervical biomechanical imbalance causes cervical soft tissue degeneration,adhesion, hardening, calcification, and thus compresses cervical nerve roots and cervical blood vessels, which is the root cause of cervical disease. The mechanism of needle-scalpel for the treatment of cervical spondylosis is to loosen muscle adhesion, release nerve compression and stimulation,and re-establish cervical spine biomechanics balance. Clinical reports show that needle-scalpel treatment for nerve root type cervical spondylosis is better than conventional therapy,while the inadequacies are low scientific awareness of practitioners, and the overall level of scientific research needs improvement.%神经根型颈椎病多见于中老年人,常常由于不良体位、劳损等原因所致.外力造成颈椎生物力学平衡失调,使得颈椎周围软组织变性、粘连、变硬、钙化,从而压迫颈椎的颈神经根和血管,这是神经根型颈椎病发病的根本原因.针刀治疗颈椎病的机制为松解肌粘连,解除对神经的压迫、刺激,重新建立颈椎生物力学平衡.临床报告针刀治疗神经根型颈椎病较传统疗法好,这一疗法不足之处是执业人员科研意识较低,总体科研水平有待提高.

  5. 大鼠背根神经节神经元细胞纯化培养的模型建立%MODEL BULLDING OF PRIMARY CULTURE AND PURIFICATION OF RAT DORSAL ROOT GANGLION NEURONS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李全波; 马文庭; 刘静芷; 史可梅; 郑宝森

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To establish a feasible method of culture and purification of newborn dorsal root ganglion neurons of rats. Methods: Sufficient dorsal root ganglions (DRG) were obtained by microdissection, then were dissociated with trypsin and EDTA. The dissociated neurons were cultured with DF-12 media and Cytarabine for purification. NSE staining was used to determine the purification percentage of DRG. Results: The isolated and cultured DRG survived and grew in good condition in vitro, and the purified percentage of DRG was over 90%. Conclusion: The method is very feasible in obtaining the massive highly purified newborn dorsal root ganglion neurons of rats.%目的:建立一种切实可行的新生SD大鼠背根神经节神经元培养及纯化方法.方法:用显微解剖方法获取足够数量新生大鼠背根神经节,通过胰蛋白酶+EDTA消化、交替使用DF-12培养基和加有阿糖胞苷抗有丝分裂的DF-12培养基培养等方法,在体外获得纯化的背根神经节神经元,并采用NSE免疫细胞化学染色方法检测神经元的纯度.结果:获得的背根神经节神经元在体外生长良好,纯度可达到90%以上.结论:本方法可以获得大量高度纯化的大鼠背根神经节神经元.

  6. Laser-guided cervical selective nerve root block with the Dyna-CT: initial experience of three-dimensional puncture planning with an ex-vivo model.

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    Miriam I E Freundt

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Cervical selective nerve root block (CSNRB is a well-established, minimally invasive procedure to treat radicular cervical pain. However, the procedure is technically challenging and might lead to major complications. The objective of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of a three-dimensional puncture planning and two-dimensional laser-guidance system for CSNRB in an ex-vivo model. METHODS: Dyna-CT of the cervical spine of an ex-vivo lamb model was performed with the Artis Zee® Ceiling (Siemens Medical Solutions, Erlangen, Germany to acquire multiplanar reconstruction images. 15 cervical nerve root punctures were planned and conducted with the syngo iGuide® laser-guidance system. Needle tip location and contrast dye distribution were analyzed by two independent investigators. Procedural, planning, and fluoroscopic time, tract length, and dose area product (DAP were acquired for each puncture. RESULTS: All 15 punctures were rated as successful with 12 punctures on the first attempt. Total procedural time was approximately 5 minutes. Mean planning time for the puncture was 2.03 (±0.39 min. Mean puncture time was 2.16 (±0.32 min, while mean fluoroscopy time was 0.17 (±0.06 min. Mean tract length was 2.68 (±0.23 cm. Mean total DAP was 397.45 (±15.63 µGy m(2. CONCLUSION: CSNRB performed with Dyna-CT and the tested laser guidance system is feasible. 3D pre-puncture planning is easy and fast and the laser-guiding system ensures very accurate and intuitive puncture control.

  7. P2Y1 purinoceptor inhibition reduces extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase 1/2 phosphorylation in spinal cord and dorsal root ganglia: implications for cancer-induced bone pain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jun Chen; Lina Wang; Yanbing Zhang; Jianping Yang

    2012-01-01

    It remains unclear as to whether P2Y1 purinergic receptor (P2Y1R) and the molecules that act downstream,such as extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2),are involved in the development of cancer-induced bone pain (CIBP) in vivo.Here,we investigated the role of the P2Y1R in the modulation of CIBP-associated nociception in spinal cord and dorsal root ganglia (DRG).A CIBP model was established by inoculating Walker 256 gland carcinoma cells into the tibia of female rats.Tactile ailodynia and spontaneous pain were assessed using von Frey filaments and ambulatory scores.The results showed that both the paw withdrawal latency to tactile allodynia and the ambulatory score to spontaneous pain were significantly different between the CIBP group and the sham group on days 7-9 post-inoculation (P < 0.01).Furthermore,rats in the CIBP group also showed a progressive increase in ambulatory score,which is different from the sham group (P<0.01).Furthermore,P2Y1R mRNA and phosphory lated ERK1/2 (p-ERK1/2) protein expression levels were increased in the spinal dorsal horn and DRG of the CIBP group relative to the sham group.However,intrathecal injection of the P2Y1R antagonist MRS2179 decreased P2Y1R mRNA and p-ERK1/2 protein expression in the spinal dorsal horn and DRG (P<0.01).These results provide evidence that the inhibition of P2Y1R-mediated ERK1/2 phosphorylation in the spinal dorsal horn and DRG can attenuate nociception transmission.

  8. Invasive cervical resorption: treatment challenges

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    Invasive cervical resorption is a relatively uncommon form of external root resorption. It is characterized by invasion of cervical region of the root by fibrovascular tissue derived from the periodontal ligament. This case presents an invasive cervical resorption occurring in maxillary lateral incisor, following damage in cervical cementum from avulsion and intracoronal bleaching procedure. Flap reflection, debridement and restoration with glass ionomer cement were performed in an attempt to...

  9. Dolor cervical incoercible

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    Adrián F Narváez-Muñoz

    2014-03-01

    Astrocytomas are relatively common glial neoplasm of the central nervous system, but only a small percentage of them are located in the spinal cord, with a predilection for the cervical and dorsal regions. In most cases, extend longitudinally, affecting several cord segments. Pain is a frequent symptom of local character bone segments involving the tumor, associated with sensory deficit and / or motor. The following is the case of a 60 year old woman with cervical cord astrocytoma extended to the brainstem.

  10. Comparison of conventional and semilunar coronally positioned flap techniques for root coverage in teeth with cervical abrasion restored with pink resin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santos FR

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Felipe Rychuv Santos,1 Carmen Lucia Mueller Storrer,1 Emanuelle Juliana Cunha,1 Lucienne M Ulbrich,1 Camilo Andress Villabona Lopez,2,3 Tatiana Miranda Deliberador1 1Department of Dentistry, Universidade Positivo, Curitiba, Paraná, Brazil; 2Department of Dentistry, University of Santo Tomás, Bucaramanga, Santander, Colombia; 3Department of Implantology, Federal University of Santa Cataria, Florianópolis, Brazil Abstract: Gingival recession is the most common mucogingival defect, characterized by apical migration of the gingival margin from the cementoenamel junction and root exposure. Several surgical techniques are reported for the treatment of gingival recession. Here we present a comparison of the conventional (coronally advanced flap and semilunar coronally positioned flap techniques for root coverage in teeth with cervical abrasion restored with pink resin that mimics the color of the gingiva. Although the conventional technique is more predictable, we found that both techniques were effective in achieving satisfactory and esthetic root coverage. Keywords: gingival recession, root coverage, surgical flaps

  11. Changes of action potential properties in dorsal root ganglion neurons of rats with diabetic neuropathy pain%糖尿病神经痛大鼠背根神经节细胞动作电位特征变化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗超; 刘忠武; 孙晓东

    2011-01-01

    Objective It is to observe the action potential electrophysiological changes of dorsal root ganglion neurons in rats with painful diabetic peripheral neuropathy, and thus to elucidate the mechanism of hyperalgesia during diabetic peripheral neuropathy. Methods Dorsal root ganglion neurons from rats with painful diabetic peripheral neuropathy selected for electrophysiological recording the whole cell current. V rest, V peak, theobase, Vthreshold, APD level changes were recorded and compared with that of normal rats. Results V rest and V peak showed no significant difference between the rats with painful diabetic peripheral neuropathy and the normal rats. The threshold of action potential outbreak were reduced and the duration of action potential were broadened in large, medium and small dorsal root ganglion neurons in the rats with diabetic peripheral neuropathy ; The lower rheobase was observed in both small and medium dorsal root ganglion neurons from diabetic peripheral neuropathy. Conclusion Painful diabetic peripheral neuropathy could induce hyperexcitability of primary sensory neurons,which might he an important mechanism for hyperalgesia during diabetic peripheral neuropathy.%目的 通过观察背根神经节细胞的动作电位特征在糖尿病大鼠周围神经病变中的变化,探讨糖尿病大鼠周围神经病变引起痛觉过敏的发生机制.方法 运用全细胞电流钳技术对糖尿病周围神经痛觉过敏大鼠背根神经节细胞进行电生理记录,与正常大鼠比较静息电位水平、动作电位峰值、基强度、动作电位爆发阈值、动作电位时程变化.结果 糖尿病神经痛大鼠与正常大鼠静息电位水平和动作电位峰值无显著性差异;糖尿病神经痛大鼠大、中、小直径神经元动作电位爆发阈值下降,动作电位时程变宽,中、小直径神经元基强度降低.结论 糖尿病大鼠周围神经病变引起初级感觉神经元背根神经节细胞的兴奋性增强,这

  12. 糖尿病神经痛中大鼠背根神经节细胞电生理特性的改变%Influence of diabetic neuropathy pain on electrophysiological properties in dorsal root ganglion neurons of rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗超; 余明华; 刘忠武

    2011-01-01

    目的 通过观察背根神经节细胞的动作电位特征在糖尿病大鼠周围神经病变中的变化,以探讨糖尿病大鼠周围神经病变引起痛觉过敏的发生机制.方法 运用全细胞电流钳技术对糖尿病周围神经痛觉过敏大鼠背根神经节细胞进行电生理记录,与正常大鼠比较静息电位水平、动作电位峰值、动作电时程变化、基强度、动作电位爆发阈值.结果 与正常组比较,糖尿病神经痛大鼠背根神经节细胞静息电位水平和动作电位峰值无显著差异;大、中、小直径神经元动作电位与正常大鼠比较爆发阈值下降,动作电时程变宽,基强度显著降低.结论 糖尿病大鼠周围神经病变引起初级感觉神经元背根神经节细胞的兴奋性增强,这可能是引起糖尿病大鼠周围神经痛觉过敏原因之一.%Objective To explore the mechanism of hyperalgesia during diabetic peripheral neuropathy by examining the cellular electrophysiological changes of dorsal root ganglion neurons in rats with painful diabetic peripheral neuropathy. Methods Dorsal root ganglion neurons from rats with painful diabetic peripheral neuropathy ( DPN group ) and counterparts from normal rats ( control group ) were selected for electrophysiologically recording the whole cell current. The resting potential ( Vrest ) , action potential peak amplitude ( Vpeak ) , action potential duration at half amplitude( APD0.5 ) , theobase, action potential threshold( Vthreshold ) were recorded and compared hetween 2 groups. Results Vrest and Vpeak showed no significant difference between two groups. The threshold of action potential outbreak was reduced and the duration of action potential was broadened in large,medium and small dorsal root ganglion neurons from rats with diabetic peripheral neuropathy. The lower theobase was observed in large,medium and small dorsal root ganglion neurons from rats with diabetic peripheral neuropathy. Conclusion These results

  13. Functional profiles of SCN9A variants in dorsal root ganglion neurons and superior cervical ganglion neurons correlate with autonomic symptoms in small fibre neuropathy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Han, C.; Hoeijmakers, J.G.; Liu, S.; Gerrits, M.M.; te Morsche, R.H.; Lauria, G.; Dib-Hajj, S.D.; Drenth, J.P.H.; Faber, C.G.; Merkies, I.S.; Waxman, S.G.

    2012-01-01

    Patients with small fibre neuropathy typically manifest pain in distal extremities and severe autonomic dysfunction. However, occasionally patients present with minimal autonomic symptoms. The basis for this phenotypic difference is not understood. Sodium channel Na(v)1.7, encoded by the SCN9A gene,

  14. Cervical perineural cyst masquerading as a cervical spinal tumor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Vijay P; Zanwar, Atul; Karande, Anuradha; Agrawal, Amit

    2014-04-01

    Tarlov (perineural) cysts of the nerve roots are common and usually incidental findings during magnetic resonance imaging of the lumbosacral spine. There are only a few case reports where cervical symptomatic perineural cysts have been described in the literature. We report such a case where a high cervical perineural cyst was masquerading as a cervical spinal tumor.

  15. Comparative immunohistochemical localisation of GABA(B1a), GABA(B1b) and GABA(B2) subunits in rat brain, spinal cord and dorsal root ganglion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles, K J; Evans, M L; Robbins, M J; Calver, A R; Leslie, R A; Pangalos, M N

    2001-01-01

    GABA(B) receptors are G-protein-coupled receptors mediating the slow onset and prolonged synaptic actions of GABA in the CNS. The recent cloning of two genes, GABA(B1) and GABA(B2), has revealed a novel requirement for GABA(B) receptor signalling. Studies have demonstrated that the two receptor subunits associate as a GABA(B1)/GABA(B2) heterodimer to form a functional GABA(B) receptor. In this study we have developed polyclonal antisera specific to two splice variants of the GABA(B1) subunit, GABA(B1a) and GABA(B1b), as well as an antiserum to the GABA(B2) subunit. Using affinity-purified antibodies derived from these antisera we have mapped out the distribution profile of each subunit in rat brain, spinal cord and dorsal root ganglion. In brain the highest areas of GABA(B1a), GABA(B1b) and GABA(B2) subunit expression were found in neocortex, hippocampus, thalamus, cerebellum and habenula. In spinal cord, GABA(B1) and GABA(B2) subunits were expressed in the superficial layers of the dorsal horn, as well as in motor neurones in the deeper layers of the ventral horn. GABA(B) receptor subunit immunoreactivity in dorsal root ganglion suggested that expression of GABA(B1b) was restricted to the large diameter neurones, in contrast to GABA(B1a) and GABA(B2) subunits which were expressed in both large and small diameter neurones. Although expression levels of GABA(B1) and GABA(B2) subunits varied we found no areas in which GABA(B1) was expressed in the absence of GABA(B2). This suggests that most, if not all, GABA(B1) immunoreactivity may represent functional GABA(B) receptors. Although our data are in general agreement with functional studies, some discrepancies in GABA(B1) subunit expression occurred with respect to other immunohistochemical studies. Overall our data suggest that GABA(B) receptors are widely expressed throughout the brain and spinal cord, and that GABA(B1a) and GABA(B1b) subunits can associate with GABA(B2) to form both pre- and post-synaptic receptors.

  16. An Inquiry into Acupuncture Treatment on Cervical Vertebral Disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    @@ Introduction: The cervical vertebral diseases are the diseases of cervical osteoarticular and ligament hypertrophy that cause stenosis of vertebral canals and intervertebral foraminae and compression of nerve roots or cervical segments.

  17. Inhibition of SNL-induced upregulation of CGRP and NPY in the spinal cord and dorsal root ganglia by the 5-HT(2A) receptor antagonist ketanserin in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Dongmei; Chen, Tingjun; Gao, Yun; Quirion, Rémi; Hong, Yanguo

    2012-05-01

    Our previous study has demonstrated that topical and systemic administration of the 5-HT(2A) receptor antagonist ketanserin attenuates neuropathic pain. To explore the mechanisms involved, we examined whether ketanserin reversed the plasticity changes associated with calcitonin gene-related peptides (CGRP) and neuropeptide Y (NPY) which may reflect distinct mechanisms: involvement and compensatory protection. Behavioral responses to thermal and tactile stimuli after spinal nerve ligation (SNL) at L5 demonstrated neuropathic pain and its attenuation in the vehicle- and ketanserin-treated groups, respectively. SNL surgery induced an increase in CGRP and NPY immunoreactivity (IR) in laminae I-II of the spinal cord. L5 SNL produced an expression of NPY-IR in large, medium and small diameter neurons in dorsal root ganglion (DRG) only at L5, but not adjacent L4 and L6. Daily injection of ketanserin (0.3 mg/kg, s.c.) for two weeks suppressed the increase in CGRP-IR and NPY-IR in the spinal cord or DRG. The present study demonstrated that: (1) the expression of CGRP was enhanced in the spinal dorsal horn and NPY was expressed in the DRG containing injured neurons, but not in the adjacent DRG containing intact neurons, following L5 SNL; (2) the maladaptive changes in CGRP and NPY expression in the spinal cord and DRG mediated the bioactivity of 5-HT/5-HT(2A) receptors in neuropathic pain and (3) the blockade of 5-HT(2A) receptors by ketanserin reversed the evoked upregulation of both CGRP and NPY in the spinal cord and DRG contributing to the inhibition of neuropathic pain.

  18. Ciática: tratamiento con ozono intradiscal y radiofrecuencia del ganglio de la raíz dorsal frente a cada una de estas dos técnicas Sciatica: intradiscal ozone administration associated with pulsed radiofrequency of the dorsal root ganglia compared with the isolated use of each of these two techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Cánovas

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Estudio prospectivo y comparativo que compara la eficacia de la administración intradiscal de ozono asociada a radiofrecuencia pulsada de la raíz lumbar comprometida con cada una de estas 2 técnicas, de forma aislada, en el tratamiento del dolor radicular secundario a hernia discal. Material y método: Se incluyó en el estudio a 30 pacientes con clínica de dolor lumbar severo, escala visual analógica (EVA > 6, de más de 3 meses de duración, resistente al tratamiento conservador (medicación oral y fármacos epidurales, con signos de afectación radicular con o sin parestesia e hipoestesia y con distribución correspondiente al dermatoma afectado. Los criterios radiológicos de inclusión fueron: evidencia en la resonancia magnética (RM de hernia discal contenida con o sin degeneración discal. Los pacientes se distribuyeron aleatoriamente en 3 grupos: grupo A (5-15 ml de ozono intradiscal a 27 mg/ml de concentración y radiofrecuencia pulsada del ganglio de la raíz dorsal correspondiente; grupo B (5-15 ml de ozono intradiscal a 27 mg/ml de concentración y grupo C (radiofrecuencia pulsada del ganglio de la raíz dorsal al nivel comprometido. La eficacia analgésica se valoró a los 15 días, al mes, y a los 3 y 6 meses de la técnica, mediante EVA y se llevó a cabo una valoración radiológica con RM a los 3 meses. El estudio estadístico se realizó mediante el programa SPSS 14.0 para Windows. Se consideró significativa una p Objective: We performed a prospective, comparative study that evaluated the effectiveness of intradiscal ozone administration associated with pulsed radiofrequency of the compromised lumbar root versus the isolated use of each of these two techniques in the management of radicular pain secondary to a herniated disc. Materials and method: The study included 30 patients with severe back pain, visual analog scale (VAS > 6 and onset more than 3 months previously, who were resistant to conservative

  19. 阿霉素中毒大鼠背根神经节神经元及核孔的改变%Changes of nuclear pore and neurons in lumbar dorsal root ganglion of doxorubicin- intoxicated rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赫秋月; 韩漫夫; 大西晃生

    2001-01-01

    Objective To study how Doxorubicin (DXR) causes degeneration of neurons in the lumbar dorsal root ganglion (DRG) in rats.Methods Light microscopic studies, which included the terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase- mediated deoxyuridine triphosphate- biotin nick end labeling method, and electron microscopic observation revealed that the moderate nuclear and remarkeble cytoplasmic degeneration of DRG neurons of Sprague- Dawley rats after intravenous administration of 8 mg/kg of DXR was cell necrosis, not apoptosis.Results In some neurons, mostly dark and usually with moderate degrees of nuclear degenerative changes, the nuclear pores were decreased in number and obscure 14 and 20 days after DXR administration. DXR enters presumabley the nucleus and is partly removed through the nuclear pores. However, the diameters of nuclear pores were similar in DXR- intoxicated and control rats.Conclusion The changes in nuclear pores of neurons in DXR intoxication, which to our knowledge has not been previously studied, are considered to be part of the degenerative or necrotic changes of DRG neurons.

  20. The sea anemone Bunodosoma caissarum toxin BcIII modulates the sodium current kinetics of rat dorsal root ganglia neurons and is displaced in a voltage-dependent manner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salceda, Emilio; López, Omar; Zaharenko, André J; Garateix, Anoland; Soto, Enrique

    2010-03-01

    Sea anemone toxins bind to site 3 of the sodium channels, which is partially formed by the extracellular linker connecting S3 and S4 segments of domain IV, slowing down the inactivation process. In this work we have characterized the actions of BcIII, a sea anemone polypeptide toxin isolated from Bunodosoma caissarum, on neuronal sodium currents using the patch clamp technique. Neurons of the dorsal root ganglia of Wistar rats (P5-9) in primary culture were used for this study (n=65). The main effects of BcIII were a concentration-dependent increase in the sodium current inactivation time course (IC(50)=2.8 microM) as well as an increase in the current peak amplitude. BcIII did not modify the voltage at which 50% of the channels are activated or inactivated, nor the reversal potential of sodium current. BcIII shows a voltage-dependent action. A progressive acceleration of sodium current fast inactivation with longer conditioning pulses was observed, which was steeper as more depolarizing were the prepulses. The same was observed for other two anemone toxins (CgNa, from Condylactis gigantea and ATX-II, from Anemonia viridis). These results suggest that the binding affinity of sea anemone toxins may be reduced in a voltage-dependent manner, as has been described for alpha-scorpion toxins.

  1. Electroacupuncture Reduces Carrageenan- and CFA-Induced Inflammatory Pain Accompanied by Changing the Expression of Nav1.7 and Nav1.8, rather than Nav1.9, in Mice Dorsal Root Ganglia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Chun-Ping; Chen, Hsiang-Ni; Su, Hong-Lin; Hsieh, Ching-Liang; Chen, Wei-Hsin; Lai, Zhen-Rung; Lin, Yi-Wen

    2013-01-01

    Several voltage-gated sodium channels (Navs) from nociceptive nerve fibers have been identified as important effectors in pain signaling. The objective of this study is to investigate the electroacupuncture (EA) analgesia mechanism by changing the expression of Navs in mice dorsal root ganglia (DRG). We injected carrageenan and complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA) into the mice plantar surface of the hind paw to induce inflammation and examined the antinociception effect of EA at the Zusanli (ST36) acupoint at 2 Hz low frequency. Mechanical hyperalgesia was evaluated by using electronic von Frey filaments, and thermal hyperalgesia was assessed using Hargreaves' test. Furthermore, we observed the expression and quality of Navs in DRG neurons. Our results showed that EA reduced mechanical and thermal pain in inflammatory animal model. The expression of Nav1.7 and Nav1.8 was increased after 4 days of carrageenan- and CFA-elicited inflammatory pain and further attenuated by 2 Hz EA stimulation. The attenuation cannot be observed in Nav1.9 sodium channels. We demonstrated that EA at Zusanli (ST36) acupoint at 2 Hz low-frequency stimulation attenuated inflammatory pain accompanied by decreasing the expression of Nav1.7 and 1.8, rather than Nav1.9, sodium channels in peripheral DRG neurons.

  2. Electroacupuncture Reduces Carrageenan- and CFA-Induced Inflammatory Pain Accompanied by Changing the Expression of Nav1.7 and Nav1.8, rather than Nav1.9, in Mice Dorsal Root Ganglia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chun-Ping Huang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Several voltage-gated sodium channels (Navs from nociceptive nerve fibers have been identified as important effectors in pain signaling. The objective of this study is to investigate the electroacupuncture (EA analgesia mechanism by changing the expression of Navs in mice dorsal root ganglia (DRG. We injected carrageenan and complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA into the mice plantar surface of the hind paw to induce inflammation and examined the antinociception effect of EA at the Zusanli (ST36 acupoint at 2 Hz low frequency. Mechanical hyperalgesia was evaluated by using electronic von Frey filaments, and thermal hyperalgesia was assessed using Hargreaves' test. Furthermore, we observed the expression and quality of Navs in DRG neurons. Our results showed that EA reduced mechanical and thermal pain in inflammatory animal model. The expression of Nav1.7 and Nav1.8 was increased after 4 days of carrageenan- and CFA-elicited inflammatory pain and further attenuated by 2 Hz EA stimulation. The attenuation cannot be observed in Nav1.9 sodium channels. We demonstrated that EA at Zusanli (ST36 acupoint at 2 Hz low-frequency stimulation attenuated inflammatory pain accompanied by decreasing the expression of Nav1.7 and 1.8, rather than Nav1.9, sodium channels in peripheral DRG neurons.

  3. Intrathecal administration of Cav3.2 and Cav3.3 antisense oligonucleotide reverses tactile allodynia and thermal hyperalgesia in rats following chronic compression of dorsal root of ganglion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xian-jie WEN; Zhang-jun LI; Zhi-xin CHEN; Zhi-yuan FANG; Chen-xiang YANG; Heng LI; Yin-ming ZENG

    2006-01-01

    Aim: The present study aimed to elucidate the role of T-subtype calcium channels (Cav3.1, Cav3.2, and Cav3.3) in the pathogenesis of neuropathic pain at spinal level. Methods: The chronic compression of the dorsal root ganglion (CCD) rat model was adopted. The antisense oligonucleotide of Cav3.1, Cav3.2, and Cav3.3 or normal saline (NS) were intrathecally administered twice per day from the first day to the fourth day after operation. Paw mechanical withdrawal threshold and paw thermal withdrawal latency were measured to evaluate the tactile allodynia and thermal hyperalgesia, respectively. Results: CCD rats developed reliable tactile allodynia and thermal hyperalgesia after operation. Intrathecal administration of antisense oligonucleotide of Cav3.2 and Cav3.3 significantly relieved tactile allodynia and thermal hyperalgesia in CCD rats, but not Cav3.1. Conclusion: Cav2 and Cav3.3 subtype calcium channels in the spinal cord may play an important role in the pathogenesis of neuropathic pain, which may contribute to the management of the neuropathic pain.

  4. Anatomic comparison of transarticular screws with lateral mass screws in cervical vertebrae

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Guan-yi; XU Rong-ming; MA Wei-hu; RUAN Yong-ping; SUN Shao-hua; HUANG Lei

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To compare the potential incidence of nerve root (ventral and dorsal ramus) injury caused by cervical transarticular screws and Roy-Camille lateral mass screws.Methods: Insertion techniques with Klekamp transarticular screws and Roy-Camille lateral mass screws were respectively performed in this study. Each technique involved four specimens and 40 screws, which were inserted from C3 to C7. And 20-mm-long screws were used to overpenetrate the ventral cortex. The anterolateral aspect of the cervical spine was carefully dissected to allow observation of the screw-ramus relationship.Results: The overall percentage of nerve invasion was significantly lower with Klekamp (45%) technique than with Roy-Camille (85%) technique (P<0.05). The largest percentage of nerve invasion for Klekamp transarticular screws was found at the dorsal ramus (25%), followed by the ventral ramus (15%) and the bifurcation of the ventral dorsal ramus (5%). The largest percentage of nerve invasion for Roy-Camille lateral mass screws was found at the ventral ramus (80%).Conclusion: The potential risk of nerve root invasion is lower with Klekamp transarticular screws than with Roy-Camille lateral mass screws.

  5. 姜黄素对2型糖尿病神经痛大鼠脊髓背角和背根神经节RAGE表达的影响%Effects of curcumin on expression of receptor for advanced glycation end-products in spinal dorsal horn and dorsal root ganglion of rats with type 2 diabetic neuropathic pain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    史小婷; 徐霞; 曹红; 李佳佳; 吴绍胜; 李军

    2014-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the effects of curcumin on the expression of receptor for advanced glycation end-products (RAGE) in the spinal dorsal horn and dorsal root ganglion (DRG) of the rats with type 2 diabetic neuropathic pain (DNP).Methods Male Sprague-Dawley rats,weighing 160-180 g,were used in this study.Type 2 diabetes mellitus was induced by high-fat and high-sucrose diet for 8 weeks and intraperitoneal streptozotocin (STZ) 35 mg/kg and confirmed by fasting blood glucose level ≥ 16.7 mmol/L 3 days later.Type 2 DNPwas confirmed by the mechanical paw withdrawal threshold (MWT) and thermal paw withdrawal latency (TWL) measured on day 14 after STZ administration less than 80% of the baseline value.Eighty-one rats with type 2 DNP were randomly divided into 3 groups (n =27 each) using a random number table:DNP group,DNP + curcumin group (DCur group),and DNP+ solvent group (group DSC).In DCur and DSC groups,curcumin 100 mg· kg-1 · d-1 and corn oil 4 ml · kg-1 · d-1 were injected intraperitonally,respectively,for 14 consecutive days starting from the day 14 after STZ administration.Another 27 normal male Sprague-Dawley rats served as control group (group C) and were fed with normal forage.MWT and TWL were measured before STZ injection,at day 14 after STZ injection,and on 3,7 and 14 days after curcumin injection.RAGE positive cells were determined by immuno-histochemistry and the expression of RAGE by Western blot in the spinal dorsal horn and DRG after MWT and TWL were measured on 3,7 and 14 days after curcumin injection.Results Compared with group C,MWT was significantly decreased and TWL was shortened at 14 days after STZ injection and each time point after curcumin injection,the rate of RAGE positive cells in the spinal dorsal horn and DRG was increased at each time point after curcumin injection,and the expression of RAGE was up-regulated in the spinal dorsal horn at each time point after curcumin injection and in the DRG at 7 and 14 days after curcumin

  6. 体外原代培养小鼠胚胎背根神经节细胞的神经化学特征%Neurochemical characteristics of cultured primary neurons from embryonic mouse dorsal root ganglia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李夏青; Julie A Coffield; 王志如; 张宏

    2012-01-01

    目的 探讨胚胎背根神经节(DRG)感觉神经元作为体外研究神经多肽的细胞模型之有效性.方法 采用免疫荧光及相差显微技术对30只胚胎小鼠背跟神经节细胞选择性神经多肽的分布、细胞大小及其多肽表达与细胞大小之间的关系进行观察比较.结果 培养时间达3周龄的DRG细胞主要以中小直径(30~ 20μm)的细胞为主,与成年在体脊髓DRG细胞的形态多形性特征类似;选择性神经多肽(钙调素基因相关多肽、P物质、甘丙肽和nociceptin)的表达也随着体外培养时间的延长明显增强,且从早期仅在胞体部位表达到3周时细胞周围神经突起也出现显著免疫荧光阳性.此外,体外培养达到3周时,降钙素基因相关多肽和P物质主要在体积较小的神经细胞表达,与成年鼠DRG的分布特征一致.而甘丙肽与nociceptin在不同大小DRG神经元的表达没有像降钙素基因相关多肽和P物质一样随着培养时间的延长而出现明显改变.结论 胚胎小鼠DRG神经细胞培养可以作为研究感觉神经细胞某些重要的神经多肽(降钙素基因相关多肽,P物质)在调节感觉神经细胞内相关信号转导通路中作用的体外模型.%Objective Morphological heterogeneity and the expression of neuropeptides in the cultured primary neurons of the dorsal root ganglia from the embryonic mouse were investigated. Methods Morphology and neurochemistry of cultured dorsal root ganglia ( DRG) neurons were analyzed by phase-contrast microscopy and immnuofluorensence. Results Morphological characteristics of DRG neurons with a 3-week culture period appeared similar to those observed in adult DRG neurons. The ratio of median to small sized neurons (20 - 30μm) was increased from (8. 9 ± 0. 61) % after 1 -week culture to (29.58 ±1.23)% after 3-weeks culture. The selective neuropeptides, CGRP, substance-P, galanin and nociceptin, were expressed in neuron soma from the first week of the

  7. Bay11-7082 attenuates neuropathic pain via inhibition of nuclear factor-kappa B and nucleotide-binding domain-like receptor protein 3 inflammasome activation in dorsal root ganglions in a rat model of lumbar disc herniation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ailiang; Wang, Kun; Ding, Lianghua; Bao, Xinnan; Wang, Xuan; Qiu, Xubin; Liu, Jinbo

    2017-01-01

    Lumbar disc herniation (LDH) is an important cause of radiculopathy, but the underlying mechanisms are incompletely understood. Many studies suggested that local inflammation, rather than mechanical compression, results in radiculopathy induced by LDH. On the molecular and cellular level, nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) and nucleotide-binding domain-like receptor protein 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome have been implicated in the regulation of neuroinflammation formation and progression. In this study, the autologous nucleus pulposus (NP) was implanted in the left L5 dorsal root ganglion (DRG) to mimic LDH in rats. We investigated the expression of NF-κB and the components of NLRP3 inflammasome in the DRG neurons in rats. Western blotting and immunofluorescence for the related molecules, including NLRP3, apoptosis-associated speck-like protein containing caspase-1 activator domain (ASC), caspase-1, interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-18, IκBα, p-IκBα, p65, p-p65, and calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) were examined. In the NP-treated group, the activations of NLRP3, ASC, caspase-1, IL-1β, IL-18, p-IκBα, and p-p65 in DRG neurons in rats were elevated at 1 day after surgery, and the peak occurred at 7 days. Treatment with Bay11-7082, an inhibitor of the actions of IKK-β, was able to inhibit expression and activation of the molecules (NLRP3, ASC, caspase-1, IL-1β, IL-18, p-IκBα, and p-p65) and relieve the pain in rats. Our study shows that NF-κB and NLRP3 inflammasome are involved in the maintenance of NP-induced pain, and that Bay11-7082 could alleviate mechanical allodynia and thermal hyperalgesia by inhibiting NF-κB and NLRP3 inflammasome activation.

  8. 激活素A促进鸡胚背根神经节神经突起生长的作用机制%Effect mechanism of activin A in neurite outgrowth of embryonic dorsal root ganglia of the chicken

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    方琳; 王轶楠; 刘海岩; 李晨光; 李继茹; 柳忠辉

    2012-01-01

    采用半定量PCR检测激活素II型受体(ActRII)、钙基因相关肽(cGRP)、血管活性肠肽(VIP)mRNA表达,液相一质谱联用仪检测5-羟色胺释放水平。结果显示,5μg/L激活素A能明显促进鸡胚背根神经节神经突起生长,同时可见激活素A促进ActRIIA、CGRPmRNA表达及神经递质5-羟色胺释放,但对ActRIIB及VIPmRNA表达无影响。结果表明,ActivinA可能通过ActivinA—ActRIIA途径发挥作用,其促进鸡胚背根神经节神经突起生长与其上调CGRP表达及5-HT释放有关。%To investigate the effect mechanism of activin A in neurite outgrowth of embryonic dorsal root ganglia (DRG) of the chiken. ActRII,CGRP and VIP mRNA expressions were analyzed by semi-quantitative RT-PCR, and the secretion of serotonin (5-HT) was examined by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS). Activin A significantly induced neurite outgrowth of DRG and up-regulated the mRNA expressions of the activin receptor type IIA (ActRIIA) and CGRP in DRG. In addition,activin A stimulated 5-HT release from DRG. Activin A might stimulate DRG neurite outgrowth via activin A-ActRIIA pathway and promoting CGRP expression and 5-HT secretion.

  9. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor promotes vesicular glutamate transporter 3 expression and neurite outgrowth of dorsal root ganglion neurons through the activation of the transcription factors Etv4 and Etv5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Dong; Liu, Zhen; Liu, Huaxiang; Li, Hao; Pan, Xinliang; Li, Zhenzhong

    2016-03-01

    Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is critical for sensory neuron survival and is necessary for vesicular glutamate transporter 3 (VGLUT3) expression. Whether the transcription factors Etv4 and Etv5 are involved in these BDNF-induced effects remains unclear. In the present study, primary cultured dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons were used to test the link between BDNF and transcription factors Etv4 and Etv5 on VGLUT3 expression and neurite outgrowth. BDNF promoted the mRNA and protein expression of Etv4 and Etv5 in DRG neurons. These effects were blocked by extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2) inhibitor PD98059 but not phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) inhibitor LY294002 or phospholipase C-γ (PLC-γ) inhibitor U73122. Etv4 siRNA and Etv5 siRNA effectively blocked the VGLUT3 expression and neurite elongation induced by BNDF. The overexpression of Etv4 or Etv5 potentiated the effects of BNDF-induced neurite elongation and growth-associated protein 43 (GAP-43), medium neurofilament (NF-M), and light neurofilament (NF-L) expression while these effects could be inhibited by Etv4 and Etv5 siRNA. These data imply that Etv4 and Etv5 are essential transcription factors in modulating BDNF/TrkB signaling-mediated VGLUT3 expression and neurite outgrowth. BDNF, through the ERK1/2 signaling pathway, activates Etv4 and Etv5 to initiate GAP-43 expression, promote neurofilament (NF) protein expression, induce neurite outgrowth, and mediate VGLUT3 expression for neuronal function improvement. The biological effects initiated by BDNF/TrkB signaling linked to E26 transformation-specific (ETS) transcription factors are important to elucidate neuronal differentiation, axonal regeneration, and repair in various pathological states.

  10. 坐骨神经结扎对大鼠背根神经节和脊髓背角神经元磷酸化环酸腺苷反应元件结合蛋白表达的影响%Increased phosphorylation of cyclic AMP response element binding protein (CREB) in the dorsal root ganglia and superficial dorsal hornneurons following chronic constriction injury

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姚永兴; 祝继洪; 宋学军; 张励才; 曾因明

    2005-01-01

    Objective To investigate whether chronic constriction injury (CCI) of the sciatic nerve of rats could produce alterations in the phosphorylation of cyclic AMP response element binding(CREB) protein in dorsal root ganglia (DRG) and superficial dorsal horn neurons of the spinal cord. Methods Chronic constriction injury (CCI) of the sciatic nerve was employed as a model of neuropathic pain. Thirty-two Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into Naive, Sham, CCI 2w(received CCI for 2 weeks) and CCI 4w(received CCI for 4 weeks)groups. Hind paw withdrawal threshold to mechanical stimuli and withdrawal latency to thermal stimuli were used to determine the mechanical and thermal hyperalgesia. Then all the rats were deeply anesthetized and perfused intracardially with paraformaldehyde. The fixed L4-5 spinal cord and the L5 DRG ipsilateral to CCI were harvested for fixation. The pCREB-immunoreactive(pCREB-IR) cells in both DRG and superficial dorsal horn neurons were quantified for analysis using immunohistochemistry methods. Results On the 14th day after sciatic nerve injury, all the rats exhibited significant mechanical and thermal hyperalgesia. The mechanical withdrawal thresholds to yon Frey filament from CCI 2w group decreased significantly compared to both baseline values and those of Sham group( P < 0.01); Thermal withdwal latencies from CCI 2w group decreased significantly compared to both baseline values and those of Sham group( P <0.01). Some rats from Sham group also showed mechanical hyperalgesia compared to hoth baseline values and those of Naive group( P < 0.01 ). 28 days after CCI, both mechanical and thermal hypersensitivity were significantly alleviated, with no statistical significance compared to those of Sham group. On the 14th day after CCI, the number of pCREB-IR cells significantly increased in ipsilateral L5 DRGs and superficial dorsal horns( P <0.01) compared to Sham group. The number of phosphorylated CREB-IR cells in the ipsilateral DRGs

  11. Expression of NK-1 Receptor in Dorsal Root Ganglia Neuron of Chronic Arsenism Rats%NK-1受体在慢性砷中毒大鼠背根神经节的表达

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵明; 石文艳; 曹玉文; 朱贺; 李丽; 马克涛; 司军强

    2011-01-01

    To discuss the expression of Neurokinin-1 receptor in the dorsal root ganglion(DRG) after chronic arsenism for exploring the mechanism of nerve damages included by arsenic, 30 SD(weight: 180~230g) rats were randomly divided into 2 groups (15 rats in each group) :the control group and the arsenic poisoning group. The normal group drank tap water,and the chronic arsenic poisoning group drank tap water containing 100 mg/L NaAsO2. All rats died 3 months later,observe Neurokinin-1 receptor expression in DRG was detected by immunohitochemical method on frozen sections. Neurokinin-1 receptor were distributed widely in DRG cell membrane. The expression is buff and buffy on cell membrane. Compared with its masc rate (67.23%±6.31% ,96.66% ±0.96%) and demi-quantitation optical density mean (0. 118±0. 012,0. 153±0. 018) in two groups respectively. There were significant differences between the normal group and the chronic arsenic poisoning group(P<0. 05). The chronic arsenism is concomitant with the significant increase of Neurokinin-1 receptor expression in dorsal horn,and Neurokinin-1 receptor might play an important role in the transmisson of pain information in arsenic poisoning induces nerve damages.%为探讨慢性砷中毒对大鼠背根神经节(DRG)神经激肽-1(NK-1)受体的表达影响,以此了解砷中毒引起神经损伤的机制.将清洁级2~3月龄SD大鼠30只,体重180~230 g,随机分为正常对照组和砷中毒组,每组15只,雌雄不拘.将NaAsO2配制成浓度为100 mg/L的水溶液供砷中毒组大鼠自由饮用,正常对照组自由饮用自来水,连续喂养3个月后,采用冰冻切片和ABC免疫组化技术,观察NK-1在大鼠DRG神经元的表达.结果显示,NK-1受体在大鼠DRG神经元细胞膜分布广泛,在正常对照组和慢性砷中毒组细胞膜着色呈浅黄色和棕黄色,DRG神经元表达阳性率分别为67.23%士6.31%和96.66%±0.96%,阳性细胞半定量光密度均值分别为0.118±0.012和0.153

  12. Transcriptional regulation of metabotropic glutamate receptor 2/3 expression by the NF-κB pathway in primary dorsal root ganglia neurons: a possible mechanism for the analgesic effect of L-acetylcarnitine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicoletti Ferdinando

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract L-acetylcarnitine (LAC, a drug utilized for the treatment of neuropathic pain in humans, has been shown to induce analgesia in rodents by up-regulating the expression of metabotropic glutamate receptor 2 (mGlu2 in dorsal root ganglia (DRG. We now report that LAC-induced upregulation of mGlu2 expression in DRG cultures involves transcriptional activation mediated by nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-κB. A single application of LAC (250 μM to DRG cultures induced a transient increase in mGlu2 mRNA, which was observable after 1 hour and was no longer detectable after 1 to 4 days. In contrast, LAC treatment had no effect on mGlu3 mRNA expression. Pharmacological inhibition of NF-κB binding to DNA by caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE (2.5 μg/ml for 30 minutes reduced the constitutive expression of mGlu2 and mGlu3 mRNA after 1–4 days and reduced the constitutive expression of mGlu2/3 protein at 4 days. This evidence combined with the expression of p65/RelA and c-Rel in DRG neurons indicated that expression of mGlu2 and mGlu3 is endogenously regulated by the NF-κB family of transcription factors. Consistent with this idea, the transient increase in mGlu2 mRNA induced by LAC after 1 hour was completely suppressed by CAPE. Furthermore, LAC induced an increase in the acetylation of p65/RelA, a process that enhances the transcriptional activity of p65/RelA. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that LAC selectively induces the expression of mGlu2 by acting as a donor of acetyl groups, thus enhancing the activity of the NF-κB family of transcription factors. Accordingly, we show that carnitine, which has no effect on pain thresholds, had no effect on p65/RelA acetylation and did not enhance mGlu2 expression. Taken together, these results demonstrate that expression of mGlu2 and mGlu3 mRNA is regulated by the NF-κB transcriptional machinery, and that agents that increase acetylation and activation of NF-κB transcription factors might

  13. Effect of the Massage Treatment for Cervical Spondylosis of Nerve Root Type%按摩推拿治疗神经根型颈椎病的疗效观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁杰

    2012-01-01

    Objective;To evaluate the clinical effect of acupressure and rotary repositioning manipulation on nerve-root type cervical spondylosis patients. Methods:A total of 119 nerve-root type cervical spondylosis patients were randomly divided into the testing group (n=67) and the control group (n=52). The patients of testing group were treated combined acupressure and rotary repositioning manipulation, while the patients of control group were treated with simple neck traction therapy. The pain visual analog scale (VAS) and comprehensive assessment for cervical function methods were measured before and two weeks after treatment. Results:The VAS and comprehensive cervical function score in two groups both improved dramatically after treatment (P<0. 01), which was more dramatically in the testing group (P<0. 01). Conclusion:The acupressure and rotary repositioning manipulation is high clinical value for nerve-root type cervical spondylosis patients.%目的:观察穴位按压加旋转复位法治疗神经根型颈椎病的临床疗效.方法:将119例患者用随机数字表法分成两组,治疗组67例,采用穴位按压加旋转复位法治疗;对照组52例,单纯牵引治疗.治疗14d,采用疼痛视觉模拟评分法(VAS)、颈椎病颈椎功能评定表分别于治疗前、治疗后2周对疼痛及综合症状进行评分.结果:两组治疗后VAS、颈椎功能综合评分均有改善(P<0.01),而且穴位按压加旋转复位改善颈椎疼痛及症状优于单纯牵引治疗(P<0.01).结论:穴位按压加旋转复位治疗神经根型颈椎病疗效有较高的临床推广价值.

  14. 焦亚硫酸钠对大鼠背根节神经元钠电流的影响%Effects of Sodium Metabisulfite on Sodium Currents in Rat Dorsal Root Ganglion Neurons

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏彩玲; 孟紫强

    2011-01-01

    应用全细胞膜片钳技术,研究了食品添加剂--焦亚硫酸钠(sodium metabisulfite,SMB)对大鼠背根节神经元河豚毒素敏感型(tetrodotoxin-sensitive,TTX-S)钠电流和河豚毒素不敏感型(tetrodotoxin-resistant,TTX-R)钠电流的影响.结果表明,SMB可增大TTX-S钠电流和TTX-R钠电流,且具剂量依赖性和电压依赖性.10μ,mol/L的SMB不影响TTX-S钠电流的激活过程,但却非常显著地影响其失活过程.TTX-S钠电流的半数激活电压在给药前后分别为(-28.06±130)mV和(-29.92±1.42)mV(n=8,P>0.05),斜率因子不改变;其半数失活电压在给药前后分别为(-71.33±0.87)mV和(-57.88±0.98)mV(n=8,P<0.01),斜率因子不改变.5μmol/L的SMB显著影响TTX-R钠电流的激活过程和失活过程,给药前后,TTX-R钠电流的半数激活电压分别为(-10.44±0.62)mV和(-16.62±0.82)mV(n=8,P<0.01),半数失活电压分别为(-33.39±0.38)mV和(-40.94±0.60)mV(n=8,P<0.01),均不改变其斜率因子.说明SMB显著增大TTX-S和TTX-R钠电流,使TTX-R钠电流的激活过程提前,抑制TTX-S和TTX-R钠电流的失活过程,从而导致神经细胞的兴奋性增加.这也意味着,二氧化硫及其衍生物亚硫酸氢盐对背根节神经元钠通道具有生理调节作用和病理生理学影响.%Effects of sodium metabisulfite (SMB), a food preservative, on tetrodotoxin-sensitive (TTX-S) and tetrodotoxin-resistant (TTX-R) sodium channels in cultured post-natal dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons were studied using the whole cell configuration of patch-clamp technique. The results showed SMB increased the sodium currents of TTX-S and TTX-R in a concentration- and voltage-dependent manner. 10μmol/L SMB did not affect the activation process of TTX-S, the half-activation voltages of TTX-S were (-28.06± 1.30) and (-29.92 ± 1.42) mV (n = 8, P>0.05) before and after application of 10 μmol/L SMB, respectively, and their slope factors were not changed. But the inactivation curve of TTX-S was

  15. 颈神经后支源性颈肩痛神经阻滞与手法治疗的效果比较%A comparative study on the effects of nerve block and manipulation therapy for cervical dorsal rami neck-shoulder pain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王希; 袁君君

    2004-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Still not completely understood due to lack of characteristic physical signs, cervical dorsal rami neck-shoulder pain(CDRNSP) is often confused with other diseases with similar symptoms but different causes. Misdiagnosis and wrong treatment are frequent.OBJECTIVE: To analyze the pathological characters of CDRNSP, and compare the therapeutic effects of nerve block and manipulation therapy.DESIGN: A retrospective controlled study was conducted on the basis of diagnosis.SETTING and PARTICIPANTS: Totally 130 CDRNSP patients, 45 males and 85 females, aged (40 ±4) years old, were selected from the Outpatient or Inpatient Departments, the Fifth Affilated Hospital of Sun Yat-sen University.INTERVENTIONS: Sixty-three patients in the nerve block group underwent nerve block at the cervical dorsal rami once a week. Sixty-seven patients in the manipulation group were treated with manipulation of rotation at fixed-points twice a week, 4 times making up a course of treatment.NAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: To observe and compare the improvement of the sign of neck-shoulder pain in these two groups.RESULTS: In the nerve block group, the treatment was markedly effective in 20 cases, effective in 26 cases, and ineffective in 17 cases, with a general effective rate of 73% (46/63) . In the manipulation group, the treatment was markedly effective in 40 cases, effective in 22 cases, and ineffective in 6 cases with a general effective rate of 90. 3% (61/67) . The difference in curative effect between these two groups was significant(X2 = 7.04, P < 0.01 ).CONCLUSION: Manipulation therapy for CDRNSP is more effective than nerve block therapy.%背景:颈神经后支源性颈肩痛(cervical dorsal rami neck-shoulder pain,CDRNSP)因缺乏特征性体征,目前认识不足.极容易同具有相似症状而不同病因的疾病相混淆,发生误诊误治.目的:分析CDRNSP的病理特点,对照比较神经阻滞和手法松解的治疗效果.设计:以诊断为依据,设立对照的回

  16. 168 Cases of Chinese Water Acupoint Injection Treatment for Nerve Root Type Cervical Spondylosis%中药水针穴位注射治疗神经根型颈椎病168例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张四凤

    2013-01-01

    cervical vertebra disease is a common disease in the elderly, disease, due to the degeneration of intervertebral disc, hyperosteogeny, joint loosening, dislocation or oppression of nerve root stimulation of corresponding to the neck, shoulder and arm pain and numbness, pain radiating to neck nerve on, distal parts, heavy limbs weakness, numbness in the fingers and a series of syndrome. A lot of treatment. The author in 2011 July ~2013 year in July by Chinese medicine acupoint injection for treatment of nerve root type cervical spondylosis ef icacy of 168 cases.%颈椎病是一种中老年常见病,多发病,因椎间盘退变,骨质增生,关节松动,错位刺激或压迫相应神经根,出现以颈项肩臂疼痛麻木,颈项神经串痛,向肢体远端部位放射,肢体沉重无力,手指麻木等一系列综合征。治疗方法很多。笔者2011年7月~2013年7月采用中药水针穴位注射治疗神经根型颈椎病168例疗效满意。

  17. 颈2背根神经节脉冲射频术治疗颈源性头痛的疗效%Efficacy of pulsed radiofrequency application to C2 dorsal root ganglion for the treatment of cervicogenic headache

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    廖翔; 张德仁; 蒋劲; 熊东林; 张强; 肖礼祖; 郑虎山; 沙彤; 梁豪文; 罗裕辉

    2011-01-01

    Seventy-four patients aged 26-63 yr who had suffered cervicogenic headache for 3 months-21 yr were treated with puked radiofrequency applied to C2 dorsal root ganglion, which is located in the middle of the posterior side of lateral atlantoaxial joint. A trochar was introduced percutaneously under the guidance of X-ray aiming at the target point. As it was inserted through the deep fascia, the stylet was withdrawn and a 10 cm long 22 gauge curved blunt electrode was inserted into the trochar and advanced until the patients felt radiating pain from the point of puncture to occiput. Lateral radiograph was obtained to verify the placement of electrode. The tip of the electrode was usually located in front of spinal canal at the atlantoaxial joint level. Sensory stimulation was performed with 50 Hz and 0.1-0.5 V and the patients could feel radiating pain at occiput. Motor stimulation was performed with 2 Hz and 0.4-1.0 V and regular pulsation of the patient's muscle of occiput could occur. Pulsed radiofrequency was applied at 42 ℃7 for 240 s and was performed twice on each side. VAS scores and disturbances of daily activity, mood and sleep were recorded before operation and at 1 week and 1, 3, 6, 12 and 18 months after pulsed radiofrequency treatment. Complications and recurrence within 12 and 18 months were recorded. Follow-up was lost in 22 patients. VAS scores and disturbances of daily activity, mood and sleep significantly decreased after procedure. All of the patients responded without complications like infection, spinal cord and vertebral artery injury. Some patients had transient occipital neuralgia which was usually relieved within 24 h. The recurrence rate in 12 and 18 months after operation was 19% and 31% respectively.%本院2007年6月-2009年6月行颈2背根神经节脉冲射频术的颈源性头痛患者74例,年龄26~63岁,病程3个月-21年.术后随访18个月,行疼痛评分、生活质量参数(日常活动干扰参

  18. Non-surgical spinal decompression traction treatment of nerve root type cervical spondylosis%非手术脊柱减压牵引治疗神经根型颈椎病疗效观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄莉华; 白跃宏

    2013-01-01

    Objective To observe the SDS9900 cervical spinal decompression system of curative effect in patients with cervical spondylosis of nerve root type. Methods 60 patients with cervical spondylosis of nerve root type were randomly divided into treatment group and control group. Treat-ment group using SDS 9900 cervical spinal decompression treatment traction system,the control group with conventional traction,two groups give the dynamic interference electric traction or after treatment. Before treatment and 4 weeks after treatment using the method of visual analog score (VAS) and quality of life scale for SF-36 pairs of two groups of patients with curative effect e-valuation. Results Two groups of patients after treatment for 4 weeks respectively,found that the VAS score and the result of SF-36 scale was better,the margin of improvement and the above in-dexes in the treatment group is significant,and the differences between the control group with sta-tistical significance (P<0.05);Conclusion SDS 9900 cervical spinal decompression system can re-duce the pain of nerve root type of cervical spondylosis patients, and significantly improve the pa-tients quality of life.%目的:观察SDS9900颈椎脊柱减压系统对神经根型颈椎病患者的临床疗效。方法将60例神经根型颈椎病患者随机分为治疗组及对照组,治疗组采用SDS 9900颈椎脊柱减压牵引系统治疗,对照组用常规颈椎牵引;两组牵引后均给予动态干扰电治疗。治疗前、治疗4周后采用目测类比评分法(VAS)及生存质量量表SF-36对两组患者进行疗效评定。结果两组患者分别经4周治疗后,VAS评分及SF-36评分结果均较治疗前好转,治疗组的改善幅度较显著,与对照组间差异具有统计学意义(P<0.05);结论 SDS 9900颈椎脊柱上述指标均以减压系统能缓解神经根型颈椎病患者的疼痛,并显著提高患者生活质量。

  19. Therapeutic Observation of General Balance Therapy for Cervical Spondylosis of Nerve Root Type%整体平衡疗法治疗神经根型颈椎病疗效观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邹来勇; 涂国卿; 朱玉辉

    2015-01-01

    Objective To observe the clinical efficacy of general balance therapy in treating cervical spondylosis of nerve root type.Method Totally 120 patients with cervical spondylosis of nerve root type were randomized into a treatment group and a control group, 60 cases in each group. The treatment group was intervened by general balance therapy (balance needling plus balance tuina manipulations), while the control group was by ordinary acupuncture and tuina manipulations. The cervical movement ranges were observed before and after the treatment, and the clinical efficacies were compared between the two groups. Result The cervical movement ranges (forward flexion, backward extension, lateral flexion, and turning range) were significantly changed in both groups after the treatment (P<0.05). The cervical movement ranges of the treatment group were significantly different from that of the control group (P<0.05). The total effective rate was 95.0% in the treatment group versus 85.0% in the control group, and the difference was statistically significant (P<0.01).Conclusion General balance therapy is an effective method in treating cervical spondylosis of nerve root type.%目的:观察整体平衡疗法治疗神经根型颈椎病的临床疗效。方法将120例神经根型颈椎病患者随机分为治疗组和对照组,每组60例。治疗组采用整体平衡疗法(平衡针刺配合平衡推拿)治疗,对照组采用常规针刺配合推拿治疗。观察两组治疗前后颈部活动度各项指标,并比较两组临床疗效。结果两组治疗后颈部活动度各项指标(颈部前屈、颈部后伸、侧屈度及旋转角度)与同组治疗前比较,差异均具有统计学意义(P<0.05)。治疗组治疗后颈部活动度各项指标与对照组比较,差异均具有统计学意义(P<0.05)。治疗组总有效率为95.0%,对照组为85.0%,两组比较差异具有统计学意义(P<0.01)。结论整体平衡疗法是一种治疗神经根型颈椎病的有效方法。

  20. 生理型颈枕颈椎牵引治疗神经根型颈椎病的疗效%Efficacy of physiological cervical traction with neck pillow in the treatment of patients with cervical spondylopathy of nerve root type

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙其斌; 张崇岳; 冀全谋; 谢永明; 陈国梁

    2015-01-01

    目的 观察生理型颈枕颈椎牵引治疗神经根型颈椎病的临床疗效.方法 神经根型颈椎病180例,随机分为生理型颈枕颈椎牵引治疗组(Ⅰ组)和垂直颈椎牵引治疗组(Ⅱ组),各组90例.分别采用生理型颈枕颈椎牵引治疗与垂直颈椎牵引治疗,两组患者每次牵引重量均为3.0~7.0 kg,牵引时间均为20 min.牵引10次为1个疗程,2个疗程后判定疗效.结果 Ⅰ组的优效率61.1%(55/90例)和总有效率93.3%(84/90例)分别高于Ⅱ组的优效率42.2%(38/90例)和总有效率72.2%(65/90例),差异有统计学意义(P<0.05).结论 生理型颈枕颈椎牵引治疗神经根型颈椎病疗效确切,较垂直牵引效果好.%Objective To observe the clinical efficacy of physiological cervical traction with neck pillow in the treatment of cervical spondylopathy of nerve root type.Methods One hundred and eighty patients with nerve root type cervical spondylopathy were randomly divided into group Ⅰ and Ⅱ, 90 cases in each group.Patients were received the treatment with physiological type neck pillow cervical traction in the group Ⅰ ,while received vertical cervical traction in the group Ⅱ.The tractive weight was 3~7 kg and the tractive time was 20 minute in all patients every time, 10 times for a course.The efficacy was evaluated after 2 courses.Resuits The excellent effect and total effective rates in the group Ⅰ were significantly higher than those in the group Ⅱ respectively (61.1%, 55/90 cases vs 42.2%, 38/90 cases;93.3%, 84/90 cases vs 72.2%, 65/90 cases) (P < 0.05).Conclusion The efficacy of physiological type cervical traction with neck pillow is definite and superior to the vertical traction in the treatment of patients with nerve root type cervical spondylopathy.

  1. Cervical Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the place where a baby grows during pregnancy. Cervical cancer is caused by a virus called HPV. The ... for a long time, or have HIV infection. Cervical cancer may not cause any symptoms at first. Later, ...

  2. Cervical Cancer

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2007-03-06

    Did you know that cervical cancer rates differ by race/ethnicity and region? Or that cervical cancer can usually be prevented if precancerous cervical lesions are found by a Pap test and treated? Find out how getting regular Pap tests can save a woman's life.  Created: 3/6/2007 by National Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection Program.   Date Released: 4/25/2007.

  3. Efficacy of triple therapy treatment on the nerve root type cervical spondylosis%三联疗法治疗神经根型颈椎病疗效观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘敏娟; 穆敬平; 曾静; 郑苏; 佟春媛

    2013-01-01

    Objective It is to observe the clinical efficacy of warm acupuncture and Chinese medicine iontophoresis in the treatment of nerve root type cervical spondylosis. Methods 160 cases of nerve root type cervical spondylosis patients were randomly divided into drug group, warm acupuncture group, Chinese medicine iontophoresis group and integrated group, 40 cases in each group. The drug group was treated with intravenous and oral drug, warm acupuncture group were treated with acupuncture and moxibustion. Chinese medicine iontophoresis group was treated with iontophoresis therapy, integrated group was treated with a joint application of the above treatments. Each group after three courses of treatment efficacy was evaluated by hand. Results The drug group's clinical total effective rate was 75% , that of the warm acupuncture group and the Chinese medicine iontophoresis group were 85% and 78% . The rate in integrated group was 98% , which was significantly higher than that in the other three groups( P <0.05 ). Conclusion Warm acupuncture combined with Chinese medicine iontophoresis treatment of the nerve root type cervical spondylosis is significant and worthy of clinical application.%目的 观察药物加温针灸配合中药离子导入治疗神经根型颈椎病的临床疗效.方法 将160例神经根型颈椎病患者随机分为药物组、温针灸组、中药离子导入组和综合组,每组40例.药物组采用静脉滴注和口服药物方法治疗;温针灸组采用针刺配合艾灸方法治疗;中药离子导入组采用离子导入法治疗;综合组是以上治疗方法联合应用.每组在治疗3个疗程后由专人进行疗效评定.结果 药物组总有效率为75%,温针灸组总有效率为85%,中药离子导入组总有效率为78%,综合组总有效率为98%;综合组总有效率明显优于其他组(P均<0.05).结论 药物加温针配合中药离子导入治疗神经根型颈椎病疗效显著,值得临床推广应用.

  4. 四步推拿治疗神经根型颈椎病60例疗效观察%Four Steps the Massage Treatment of Cervical Spondylosis of Nerve Root Type 60 Cases of Clinical Observation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨杜林

    2015-01-01

    目的 分析探讨四步推拿治疗神经根型颈椎病的临床效果,对其临床价值进行总结.方法 选择2009年1月至2014年6月我院收治的105例神经根型颈椎病患者作为本次研究的对象,随机将其分成治疗组和对照组,治疗组60例,对照组45例,对照组患者采取常规牵引治疗,研究组采取四步推拿法进行临床治疗,治疗结束后,对比分析两组患者的治疗效果.结果 研究组患者的治疗效果优于对照组患者 (P< 0.05),差异具有统计学意义.结论 四步推拿治疗神经根型颈椎病的疗效显著,与单纯牵引、理疗治疗相较,更具临床优势,具有安全、简便、易行的临床优点,且受环境影响的限制较小,故该治疗模式值得在临床实践的过程中,大力借鉴和推广.%Objective Analysis of the clinical effect of four step massage treatment of cervical spondylosis of nerve root type, the value of its clinical summary. Methods 2009 January to 2014 June in our hospital 105 cases of nerve root type cervical spondylosis patients as the research object, and were randomly divided into treatment group and control group, 60 cases in the treatment group, 45 cases in the control group, the control group were treated by conventional traction therapy, the study group to take the four step massage clinical treatment, after the end of treatment, compared two groups of treatment effect. Results The treatment effect of patients in the study group is better than the patients in the control group (P< 0.05), the difference was statisticaly significant.Conclusion Effect of four step massage treatment of nerve root type cervical spondylosis significantly, compared with pure traction, physiotherapy, more clinical advantages, has the advantages of safety, convenient clinical use, and less restrictive effects on the environment, so the treatment is in the process of clinical practice, to reference and promotion.

  5. 针刀结合手法治疗神经根型颈椎病临床研究%Clinical Research of Needle-knife Combined with Massage Therapy in Treating Nerve Root Cervical Spondylosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张中义; 张建福; 李帅磊

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To explore the clinical curative effects of needle-knife combined with massage therapy in treating Nerve Root Cervical Spondylosis Methods; 120 patients of Nerve Root Cervical Spondylosis were randomly divided into two groups. The treatment group was treated by needle-knife combined with massage therapy, the control group was treated by traction combined with massage therapy. Both groups were treated once of five days, with four to five times as one course of treatment. Results: Effective rate of the treatment group was 98.33% , the control group was 93. 33% , their difference had no statistical significance (P >0. 05), Symptoms and signs score of both groups after treatment obviously reduced compared with before treatment (P <0.01) ,and comparison among two groups after treatment also had statistical significance (P < 0. 05 ). The treatment group was superior to the control group at every symptom score, especially had obviously curative effects in the symptom of pain and discomfort of neck and shoulders, range of motion at neck f numbness of upper limbs and fingers. Conclusion:Needle-knife combined with massage therapy had significant curative effects in the treatment of Nerve Root Cervical Spondylosis.%目的:探讨针刀结合手法治疗神经根型颈椎病的临床疗效.方法:将120例神经根型颈椎病患者随机分为两组,治疗组采用针刀结合手法治疗,对照组采用牵引结合手法治疗.5d治疗1次,4~5次为1个疗程.结果:治疗组有效率为98.33%,对照组有效率为76.66%.两组比较差异无统计学意义(P>0.05).两组治疗后症状体征计分较治疗前有明显降低(P<0.01),治疗后两组比较差异有统计学意义(P<0.05).治疗组在各项症状评分中优于对照组,特别是在颈肩部疼痛不适、颈部活动度、上肢及手指麻木的临床症状方面疗效明显.结论:针刀结合手法治疗神经根型颈病疗效显著.

  6. 循经弹拨结合悬吊运动疗法治疗神经根型颈椎病临床观察%Observation of Meridian Plucking Manipulation and SET on Nerve-Root Cervical Spondylosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董雯雯

    2015-01-01

    目的:观察循经弹拨结合悬吊运动疗法治疗神经根型颈椎病的临床疗效。方法:将颈椎病患者84例随机分为弹拨组、悬吊组和结合组各28例。弹拨组采用循经弹拨法,悬吊组采用悬吊运动疗法SET技术,结合组两种方法相结合进行治疗。分别于治疗前、治疗2个疗程后采用视觉模拟量表法(VAS)和颈椎关节活动度对患者疗效进行评定。结果:3组患者治疗前后比较颈椎病症状均有所改善,其差异具有统计学意义(P<0.05);3组间比较,结合组VAS评分和颈椎关节活动度优于弹拨组与悬吊组,其差异具有统计学意义(P<0.05)。结论:循经弹拨法结合悬吊运动疗法治疗神经根型颈椎病临床疗效显著。%Objective:To observe the clinical efficacy of meridian plucking manipulation combined with sling exercise therapy (SET) in the treatment of nerve root cervical spondylosis.Methods:Totally 84 patients with cervical spondylosis were randomly divided into 28 cases of plucked, sling and combined groups. The meridian plucking ma-nipulation was used to treat patients of plucked group, the SET technology was implemented in the cases of sling group and the combination of the two methods was carried out in the combined group. The clinical effects before treatment and after 2-course treatment by visual analog scale (VAS) and observing motion ranges of cervical joints were evaluated. Results: The comparison of cervical spondylosis patients' symptoms improved in 3 groups before and after treatment had statistical meaning (P<0.05);in the comparison of 3 groups, the VAS scores and motion ranges of cervical joints in the combined group were better than those in both the plucked and sling groups and their differences had statistical meaning (P<0.05). Conclusions:The clinical efficacy of the combining therapy in treating nerve-root cervical spondylosis is significant.

  7. Ultrasonographic nerve enlargement of the median and ulnar nerves and the cervical nerve roots in patients with demyelinating Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease: distinction from patients with chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugimoto, Takamichi; Ochi, Kazuhide; Hosomi, Naohisa; Takahashi, Tetsuya; Ueno, Hiroki; Nakamura, Takeshi; Nagano, Yoshito; Maruyama, Hirofumi; Kohriyama, Tatsuo; Matsumoto, Masayasu

    2013-10-01

    Demyelinating Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease (CMT) and chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP) are both demyelinating polyneuropathies. The differences in nerve enlargement degree and pattern at multiple evaluation sites/levels are not well known. We investigated the differences in nerve enlargement degree and the distribution pattern of nerve enlargement in patients with demyelinating CMT and CIDP, and verified the appropriate combination of sites/levels to differentiate between these diseases. Ten patients (aged 23-84 years, three females) with demyelinating CMT and 16 patients (aged 30-85 years, five females) with CIDP were evaluated in this study. The nerve sizes were measured at 24 predetermined sites/levels from the median and ulnar nerves and the cervical nerve roots (CNR) using ultrasonography. The evaluation sites/levels were classified into three regions: distal, intermediate and cervical. The number of sites/levels that exhibited nerve enlargement (enlargement site number, ESN) in each region was determined from the 24 sites/levels and from the selected eight screening sites/levels, respectively. The cross-sectional areas of the peripheral nerves were markedly larger at all evaluation sites in patients with demyelinating CMT than in patients with CIDP (p demyelinating CMT and CIDP were 0.90 and 0.94, respectively, with the cut-off value set at four. Nerve ultrasonography is useful to detect nerve enlargement and can clarify morphological differences in nerves between patients with demyelinating CMT and CIDP.

  8. Avulsión del plexo braquial traumático no controlado con remifentalino: Papel de la analgesia epidural cervical Traumatic brachial plexus root avulsion unresponsive to remifentanyl role cervical epidural analgesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Cortiñas

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Presentamos el caso de una paciente que sufrió accidente de tráfico con avulsión del plexo braquial izquierdo, y que presentaba dolor muy intenso (escala visual analógica 8 de características neuropáticas en la fase aguda postraumática. Dosis altas de remifentanilo fueron inefectivas para control del cuadro álgico, el cual se trato con éxito con una infusión de ropivacaína a través de catéter epidural cervical (C5-6. El dolor es controlado en fase crónica (escala visual analógica 2 con agentes específicos contra dolor neuropático (gabapentina, amitriptilina, clonacepam y tramadol.We presented you a patient who suffered a left brachial plexus avulsión with hard neuropatic pain in the posttraumatic acute phase (visual analogue scale 8. High-dose remifentanil infusión was uneffective in controlling pain, which was further ameliorated by ropivacaine infused through a cervical (C5-6 epidural catheter. At discharge pain remained controlled (visual analogue scale 2 with specific treatment against neuropathic pain (gabapentin, amytriptiline, clonacepam, and tramadol.

  9. Neuronal hyperexcitability in the dorsal horn after painful facet joint injury

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    Excessive cervical facet capsular ligament stretch has been implicated as a cause of whiplash-associated disorders following rear-end impacts, but the pathophysiological mechanisms that produce chronic pain in these cases remain unclear. Using a rat model of C6/C7 cervical facet joint capsule stretch that produces sustained mechanical hyperalgesia, the presence of neuronal hyperexcitability was characterized 7 days after joint loading. Extracellular recordings of spinal dorsal horn neuronal a...

  10. The nursing of high epidural ozone therapy for nerve root cervical spondylopathy%高位硬膜外臭氧治疗神经根型颈椎病的护理研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘焕仪; 曾祝文; 曾彦茹; 余守章; 郑彬

    2012-01-01

    目的 探讨高位硬膜外臭氧治疗神经根型颈椎病的规范化护理配合.方法 高位硬膜外臭氧治疗神经根型颈椎病患者60例,给予充分的术前心理护理、肺功能检查护理和术前准备;术中紧密配合,密切监测患者;术后随访,鼓励患者康复训练并给予正确的生活指导.结果 规范化护理配合后,各种操作规范、紧凑,患者配合主动、默契,术后恢复良好,无明显并发症,满意度较高,疗效较好.结论 术前、术中及术后高质量的规范化护理为神经根型颈椎病高位硬膜外臭氧治疗创造了良好的条件,提高了治疗的安全性和患者的满意度,是行之有效的方法.%Objective To explore the standardized nursing care of high epidural ozone therapy for nerve root cervical spondylopathy.Methods Sixty patients with nerve root cervical spondylopathy who were treated with epidural ozone received sufficient preoperative psychological nursing,the nursing of lung functional examination and preoperative preparation.During the operation,the patients were carefully monitored.Results After the operation,all patients would be followed up.They were encouraged with rehabilitation trainiug,and implanted with correct life guidance.After the implementation of standardized the nursing care,operations were carried out normatively and compactly,meanwhile patients coordinated initiatively.Conclusions After the operation,all patients had a good recovery with good therapeutic outcome and without significant complications.During the perioperative period,high quality and standardized nursing can create good conditions for epidural ozone therapy for cervical spondylopathy,and improves the safety of treatment and the satisfaction of patients.It is an effective way.

  11. The Clinical Value Analysis of Fire Needle in Treatment of Nerve Root Type Cervical Spondylosis%火针治疗神经根型颈椎病的临床价值分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韦士豪

    2013-01-01

      目的:探讨火针治疗神经根型颈椎病的临床治疗价值。方法:选取2004年6月-2012年12月收治的148例神经型颈椎病患者,随机分为观察组和对照组,观察组的患者给予火针治疗,对照组患者使用毫针进行治疗。结果:观察组治疗总有效率为94.6%,对照组治疗总有效率为78.4%,两组比较差异有统计学意义(P<0.05);两组患者在患肢放射痛和颈肩部疼痛的改善情况比较差异有统计学意义(P<0.05)。结论:火针治疗神经根型颈椎病取得的临床疗效显著,能够有效改善患者的临床症状,值得在临床上广泛使用和推广。%Objective:To explore the clinical value of the fire needle in treatment of nerve root type cervical spondylosis.Methods:148 patients with nerve type cervical spondylosis from June 2004 to December 2012 were randomly divided into observation group and control group,the observation group were treated with fire needle treatment,the patients in control group were treated with acupuncture.Results:The total effective in the treatment group was 94.6%,the total effective rate in control group was 78.4%,there was significant difference(P<0.05 );the existence of differences in the improvement of limb pain and neck and shoulder pain on patients in the two groups had statistical significance(P<0.05).Conclusion:The therapeutic effect of fire needle therapy on nerve root cervical spondylosis is remarkable,it can effectively improve the clinical symptoms,it is worthy widely using and popularizing in clinic.

  12. Endomorphins: localization, release and action on rat dorsal horn neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dun, N J; Dun, S L; Wu, S Y; Williams, C A; Kwok, E H

    2000-01-01

    Endomorphin (Endo) 1 and 2, two tetrapeptides isolated from the bovine and human brain, have been proposed to be the endogenous ligand for the mu-opiate receptor. A multi-disciplinary study was undertaken to address the issues of localization, release and biological action of Endo with respect to the rat dorsal horn. First, immunohistochemical studies showed that Endo-1- or Endo-2-like immunoreactivity (Endo-1- or Endo-2-LI) is selectively expressed in fiber-like elements occupying the superficial layers of the rat dorsal horn, which also exhibit a high level of mu-opiate receptor immunoreactivity. Second, release of immunoreactive Endo-2-like substances (irEndo) from the in vitro rat spinal cords upon electrical stimulation of dorsal root afferent fibers was detected by the immobilized antibody microprobe technique. The site of release corresponded to laminae I and II where the highest density of Endo-2-LI fibers was localized. Lastly, whole-cell patch clamp recordings from substantia gelatinosa (SG) neurons of rat lumbar spinal cord slices revealed two distinct actions of exogenous Endo-1 and Endo-2: (1) depression of excitatory and/or inhibitory postsynaptic potentials evoked by stimulation of dorsal root entry zone, and (2) hyperpolarization of SG neurons. These two effects were prevented by the selective mu-opiate receptor antagonist beta-funaltrexamine. The localization of endomorphin-positive fibers in superficial layers of the dorsal horn and the release of irEndo upon stimulation of dorsal root afferents together with the observation that Endo inhibits the activity of SG neurons by interacting with mu-opiate receptors provide additional support of a role of Endo as the endogenous ligand for the mu-opiate receptor in the rat dorsal horn.

  13. Sensory and sympathetic innervation of cervical facet joint in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Hai-yu; CHEN An-min; GUO Feng-jing; LIAO Guang-jun; XIAO Wei-dong

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To explore the patterns of innervation of cervical facet joints and determine the pathways from facet joints to dorsal root ganglions (DRGs) in order to clarify the causes of diffuse neck pain, headache, and shoulder pain.Methods: Forty-two male Sprague-Dawley rats,weighing 250-300 g, were randomly divided into three groups: Group A ( n = 18), Group B ( n = 18), and Group C (n = 6 ). Under anesthesia with intraperitoneal pentobarbital sodium (45 mg/kg body weight), a midline dorsal longitudinal incision was made over the cervical spine to expose the left cervical facet joint capsule of all the rats under a microscope. The rats in Group A underwent sympathectomy, but the rats in Group B and Group C did not undergo sympathectomy. Then 0.6 μl 5 % bisbenzimide (Bb) were injected into the C1-2, C3-4 and C5-6 facet joints of 6 rats respectively in Group A and Group B. The holes were immediately sealed with mineral wax to prevent leakage of Bb and the fascia and skin were closed. But in Group C, 0.9% normal saline was injected into the corresponding joint capsules. Then under deep reanesthesia with intraperitoneal pentobarbital sodium (45 mg/kg body weight), C1-C8 left DRGs in all rats and the sympathetic ganglions in Group B were obtained and the number of the labeled neurons was determined.Results: Neurons labeled with Bb were present in C1-C8 DRGs in both Group A and Group B, and sympathetic ganglions in Group B. In the C1-2 and C3-4 subgroups,labeled neurons were present from C1 to C8 DRGs, while in C5-6 subgroups they were from C, to C8. The number of Bb ( + ) neurons after sympathectomy was not significantly different in the injected level from that without sympathectomy. But in the other levels, the number of Bb ( + ) neurons after sympathectomy was significantly less than that without sympathectomy.Conclusions: The innervation of the cervical facet joints is derived from both sensory and sympathetic nervous system, and DRGs are associated with

  14. Acupuncture Treating 136 cases of Nerve Root Type of Cervical Disease with Severe Sleep Disorders%针灸治疗神经根型颈椎病伴重度睡眠障碍136例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邱晓岚

    2014-01-01

    目的:探讨针灸在神经根型颈椎病伴重度睡眠障碍治疗中的应用疗效。方法:将272例神经根型颈椎病伴重度睡眠障碍患者以数字表法随机分为对照组和治疗组各136例,2组均给予推拿治疗,在此基础上,对照组给予右佐匹克隆片改善睡眠,治疗组给予针灸治疗,2个疗程后对比2组疗效。结果:治疗组治愈率53.68%、总有效率98.53%均分别高于对照组的30.15%、88.24%,治疗组治疗前后颈椎病VAS评分差值(4.72±0.53)分大于对照组(3.88±0.69)分,差异均有统计学意义(P<0.05);治疗组PSQI总分及睡眠质量、睡眠时间、睡眠障碍、日间功能均较对照组改善更为明显,差异均有统计学意义(P<0.05);2组不良反应发生率差异无统计学意义(P>0.05)。结论:针灸治疗神经根型颈椎病伴重度睡眠障碍可促进病情缓解,明显改善睡眠质量,疗效确切,安全性高,值得临床进一步研究推广。%Objective:To investigate the curative effect of acupuncture treating nerve root type of cervical spondylosis with severe sleep disorders.Methods:Two hundred and seventy two patients with nerve root type of cervical spondylosis with severe sleep disorders were randomly divided into control group (n=136)and treatment group (n=136).Patients in both groups were treated with Tuina therapy. Besides,patients in the control group were given Eszopiclone tablets to improve sleep,and the treatment group applied acupuncture treatment.Therapeutic effects were compared after 2 treatment courses.Results:The curative rate of the treatment group was 53.68%, and the total effective rate was 98.53%,which were both higher than those of the control group (30.15% and 88.24%).VAS score difference of cervical disease before and after treatment was (4.72 ±0.53)in the treatment group,which was higher than that of con-trol group (3.88 ±0.69),and the differences were

  15. Dissociation of the dorsal-cactus complex and phosphorylation of the dorsal protein correlate with the nuclear localization of dorsal

    OpenAIRE

    1993-01-01

    The formation of dorsal-ventral polarity in Drosophila requires the asymmetric nuclear localization of the dorsal protein along the D/V axis. This process is regulated by the action of the dorsal group genes and cactus. We show that dorsal and cactus are both phosphoproteins that form a stable cytoplasmic complex, and that the cactus protein is stabilized by its interaction with dorsal. The dorsal-cactus complex dissociates when dorsal is targeted to the nucleus. While the phosphorylation of ...

  16. Cervical Angina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sussman, Walter I.; Makovitch, Steven A.; Merchant, Shabbir Hussain I.

    2015-01-01

    Cervical angina has been widely reported as a cause of chest pain but remains underrecognized. This series demonstrates the varied clinical presentation of patients with cervical angina, the delay in diagnosis, and the extensive cardiac examinations patients with this condition typically undergo prior to a definitive diagnosis. Recognition of this condition in patients with acute chest pain requires a high index of suspicion and an awareness of the common presenting features and clinical findings of cervical angina. PMID:25553225

  17. Neurotrophin-3-mediated regeneration and recovery of proprioception following dorsal rhizotomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramer, Matt S; Bishop, Thomas; Dockery, Peter; Mobarak, Makarim S; O'Leary, Donald; Fraher, John P; Priestley, John V; McMahon, Stephen B

    2002-02-01

    Injured dorsal root axons fail to regenerate into the adult spinal cord, leading to permanent sensory loss. We investigated the ability of intrathecal neurotrophin-3 (NT3) to promote axonal regeneration across the dorsal root entry zone (DREZ) and functional recovery in adult rats. Quantitative electron microscopy showed robust penetration of CNS tissue by regenerating sensory axons treated with NT3 at 1 and 2 weeks postrhizotomy. Light and electron microscopical anterograde tracing experiments showed that these axons reentered appropriate and ectopic laminae of the dorsal horn, where they formed vesicle-filled synaptic buttons. Cord dorsum potential recordings confirmed that these were functional. In behavioral studies, NT3-treated (but not untreated or vehicle-treated) rats regained proprioception. Recovery depended on NT3-mediated sensory regeneration: preventing regeneration by root excision prevented recovery. NT3 treatment allows sensory axons to overcome inhibition present at the DREZ and may thus serve to promote functional recovery following dorsal root avulsions in humans.

  18. 姜黄素对2型糖尿病神经病理性痛大鼠脊髓背角及背根神经节p-ERK和p-CREB表达的影响%Effect of curcumin on expression of p-ERK and p-CREB in spinal dorsal horn and dorsal root ganglion in type 2 diabetic neuropathic pain in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周林; 袁超; 史小婷; 郑昌健; 连庆泉; 李军; 曹红

    2013-01-01

    目的 评价姜黄素对2型糖尿病神经病理性痛大鼠脊髓背角及背根神经节磷酸化细胞外信号调节激酶(p-ERK)、磷酸化环磷酸腺苷反应元件结合蛋白(p-CREB)表达的影响.方法 高脂高糖喂养雄性SD大鼠8周诱导胰岛素抵抗,以35 mg/kg链脲佐菌素(STZ)单次腹腔注射,3d后血糖≥16.7 mmol/L大鼠为2型糖尿病大鼠.注射STZ后14d机械缩足阈(MWT)和热缩足潜伏期(TWL)低于基础值80%的大鼠为2型糖尿病神经病理性痛大鼠,采用随机数字表法,将其分为3组(n=27):2型糖尿病神经病理性痛组(DNP组)、姜黄素组(Cur组)和溶剂对照组(SC组).Cur组和SC组于注射STZ后14 d腹腔注射姜黄素和玉米油100 mg/kg(25 mg/ml),1次/d,连续14 d,DNP组不做任何处理.另取27只正常大鼠为对照组(C组),给予普通饲料喂养.给予姜黄素后第3、7和14天(T13)时测定MWT和TWL后各组随机取9只大鼠处死,取L4-6脊髓背角和背根神经节,采用Westem blot法检测p-ERK和p-CREB的表达.结果 与C组比较,DNP组和SC组T13时MWT降低,TWL缩短,脊髓背角和背根神经节p-ERK、p-CREB表达上调,Cur组T1时MWT降低,TWL缩短,脊髓背角和背根神经节p-ERK、p-CREB表达上调(P<0.05);与DNP组比较,Cur组T23时MWT升高,TWL延长,脊髓背角和背根神经节p-ERK、p-CREB表达下调(P<0.05).DNP组与SC组各指标比较差异无统计学意义(P>0.05).结论 姜黄素可通过抑制脊髓背角和背根神经节p-ERK、p-CREB表达上调减轻大鼠2型糖尿病神经病理性痛.%Objective To evaluate the effects of curcumin on the expression of phosphorylated extracellular signal-related kinase (p-ERK) and phosphorylated cAMP response element binding protein (p-CREB) in the spinal dorsal horn and dorsal root ganglion (DRG) in type 2 diabetic neuropathic pain (DNP) in rats.Methods Type 2 diabetes mellitus was induced by high-fat and high-sucrose diet and intraperitoneal streptozotocin (STZ) 35mg/kg,and confirmed by

  19. 姜黄素对2型糖尿病大鼠神经病理性痛及脊髓背角和背根神经节IRE1α表达的影响%Effects of curcumin on type 2 diabetic neuropathic pain and expression of inositol-requiring enzyme 1α in spinal dorsal horn and dorsal root ganglia in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    党江坤; 汪小丹; 周林; 曹红; 吴艳; 李军; 连庆泉

    2012-01-01

    目的 评价姜黄素对2型糖尿病大鼠神经病理性痛及脊髓背角和背根神经节肌醇需求激酶1α(IRE1α)表达的影响.方法 高脂高糖喂养雄性SD大鼠8周诱导胰岛素抵抗,以35 mg/kg链脲佐菌素(STZ)单次腹腔注射,3d后血糖≥16.7 mmol/L大鼠为2型糖尿病大鼠.注射STZ 14 d后机械缩足阈值(MWT)和热缩足潜伏期(TWL)低于基础值80%的大鼠为2型糖尿病神经病理性痛大鼠,采用随机数字表法,将其随机分为3组(n=27):2型糖尿病神经病理性痛组(DNP组)、姜黄素组(Cur组)和溶剂对照组(SC组).Cur组和SC组于注射STZ 14 d后腹腔注射姜黄素或玉米油100 mg/kg(25mg/ml),1次/d,连续14d,DNP组不做任何处理.另取27只正常大鼠为对照组(C组),给予普通饲料喂养.给予姜黄素后第3、7和14天时测定MWT和TWL,痛阈测定后用Western blot法检测大鼠脊髓背角和背根神经节IREIα的表达.结果 与C组比较、DNP组、Cur组和SC组MWT降低,TWL缩短,脊髓背角和背根神经节IRE1α表达上H调(P<0.05);与DNP组比较,Cur组MWT升高,TWL延长,脊髓背角和背根神经节IREIα表达下调(p<0.05).SC组和DNP组上述指标比较差异无统计学意义(P>0.05).结论 姜黄素可减轻2型糖尿病大鼠神经病理性痛,其机制与抑制脊髓背角和背根神经节IRE1α表达有关.%Objective To investigate the effects of curcumin on type 2 diabetic neuropathic pain (DNP)and expression of inositol-requiring enzyme 1α (IRE1α) in spinal dorsal horn and dorsal root ganglia (DRG) in rats.Methods Type 2 diabetes mellitus was induced by high-fat and high-sucrose diet and intraperitoneal streptozotocin (STZ) 35 mg/kg,and confirmed by fasting blood glucose level > 16.7 mmol/L in male SD rats.Type 2 DNP was confirmed by the mechanical withdrawal threshold (MWT) and thermal withdrawal latency (TWI.) measured on day 14 after STZ administration < 80% of the baseline value.The rats were then randomly divided into 3

  20. 姜黄素对2型糖尿病神经病理性痛大鼠脊髓背角和背根神经节MMP-2及MMP-9表达的影响%Effect of curcumin on expression of MMP-2 and MMP-9 in spinal dorsal horn and dorsal root ganglion of rats with type 2 diabetic neuropathic pain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴绍胜; 孙传峰; 曹红; 李佳佳; 史小婷; 李军

    2014-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the effect of curcumin on the expression of MMP-2 and MMP-9 in the spinal dorsal horn and dorsal root ganglion (DRG) of rats with type 2 diabetic neuropathic pain (DNP).Methods Type 2 diabetes mellitus was induced by high-fat and high-sucrose diet and intraperitoneal streptozotocin 35 mg/kg,and confirmed by fasting blood glucose level ≥ 16.7 mmol/L in male Sprague-Dawley rats.Type 2 DNP was confirmed by the mechanical paw withdrawal threshold (MWT) and thermal paw withdraw latency (TWL) measured on day 14 after streptozotocin administration < 80% of the baseline value.The rats were then randomly divided into 3 groups (n =27 each):type 2 DNP group (group DNP); curcumin group (group Cur); solvent control group (group SC).In Cur and SC groups,curcumin 100 mg/kg and corn oil 4 ml/kg were injected intraperitonally,respectively,once a day for 14 consecutive days starting from day 14 after streptozotocin administration.Another 27 normal Sprague-Dawley male rats served as control group (group C) and were fed with normal forage.MWT and TWL were measured before type 2 DNP was induced,after type 2 DNP was induced,and at 3,7 and 14 days after curcumin injection(T1-5).The rats were sacrificed after MWT and TWL were measured at T3-5,and the lumbar segments of the spinal cord and DRG (L4-6) were removed for determination of the expression of MMP-2 and MMP-9 by Western blot.Results Compared with group C,MWT was significantly decreased and TWL was shortened,and MMP-2 and MMP-9 expression in the spinal dorsal horn and DRG was up-regulated in DNP,Cur and SC groups.Compared with DNP group,MWT was significantly increased and TWL was prolonged,and MMP-2 and MMP-9 expression in the spinal dorsal horn and DRG was down-regulated in Cur group,and no significant changes were found in the parameters mentioned above in SC group.Conclusion The mechanism by which curcumin attenuates type 2 DNP may be related to up-regulation of the expression of MMP-2 and MMP-9 in the

  1. 许旺细胞源神经营养因子对脊髓背根节感觉神经元的保护作用%Protective effect of Schwann cell-derived neurotrophic factor on sensory neurons in spinal dorsal root ganglia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘黎军; 朱家恺; 王大平; 肖建德; 杨雷

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Schwann cell-derived neurotrophic factor is a bioactive protein isolated and purified from the kytoplasm of Schwann cell. It can obviously maintain the survival of spinal cord anterior horn motor neuron and promote the regeneration of peripheral nerve.OBJECTIVE: To observe the protective effect of Schwann cell-derived neurotrophic factor on the high injury of peripheral nerve-induced apoptosis of sensory neurons in spinal dorsal root ganglia.DESIGN: Randomized and controlled animal experiment.SETTING: Shenzhen Second People's Hospital.MATERIALS: Totally 30 3-week-old SD infant rats, of clean grade and either gender, were used in this experiment. They were randomly divided into neurotrophic factor group and control group with 15 rats in each one.Left sides of the animals in both two groups were set as normal sides and right sides as injured sides.METHODS: This experiment was carried out at the Experimental Animal Center, Medical College of Sun Yat-sen University from May 2003 to July 2003. ① L4.5 nerve root high-mutilation animal models were developed on the rats in two groups. Proximal nerve stump was connected with silicone tube. According to grouping, 60 mg/L Schwann cell-derived neurotrophic factors and 20 μL normal saline were injected into the silicone tubes respectively. Two ends of silicone tube were enveloped with vaseline.② Sample collecting was conducted at postoperative 4 weeks, survival rate and morphological change of sensory neurons in dorsal root ganglia of injured nerve was observed.MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: ① Gross observation of sciatic nerve regeneration at injured side of the rats in two groups ② Survival of sensory neurons in dorsal root ganglia ③ Morphological change of sensory neurons in dorsal root ganglia.RESULTS: All the 30 rats entered the stage of result analysis. ① Gross observation of sciatic nerve regeneration: In the neurotrophic factor group,nerve new born axon grew along silicone tube, with 1cm in length

  2. Agenesis of the dorsal pancreas

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    Lale Pasaoglu; Murat Vural; Hatice Gul Hatipoglu; Gokce Tereklioglu; Suha Koparal

    2008-01-01

    Developmental anomalies of the pancreas have been reported but dorsal pancreatic agenesis is an extremely rare entity. We report an asymptomatic 62-year-old woman with complete agenesis of the dorsal pancreas.Abdominal computed tomography (CT) revealed a normal pancreatic head, but pancreatic body and tail were not visualized. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)findings were similar to CT. At magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography (MRCP), the major pancreatic duct was short and the dorsal pancreatic duct was not visualized. The final diagnosis was dorsal pancreatic agenesis.

  3. Longitud de las raíces cervicales en resonancia magnética: relación con la parálisis postoperatoria de la quinta raíz cervical Medida do comprimento das raízes cervicais pela ressonância magnética: relação com a paralisia pós-operatória e a quinta raiz cervical Cervical nerve root length in magnetic resonance imaging: its relationship with postoperative fifth root palsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan José Mezzadri

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: determinar la longitud de la raíz C5. MÉTODOS: se estudiaron con resonancia magnética (Signa 1,5 T, cortes axiales de 5 mm de espesura, TR=850, TE=26, FOV=200 las columnas cervicales de 50 pacientes (29 hombres - 21 mujeres entre 26 y 68 años. Se incluyeron solo casos con cervicalgia y/o cervicobraquialgia. Se midió (en mm la longitud de las raíces cervicales tercera a séptima, derechas e izquierdas. La comparación de los promedios se realizó a través del análisis de varianza, para un nivel de significación α=0,05 con IC de 95%. Las comparaciones post-hoc se hicieron empleando el test de Bonferroni. RESULTADOS: se observó que el lado (derecho o izquierdo y el sexo (varón o mujer no tuvieron incidencia estadísticamente significativa en el valor de la longitud de las raíces (p>0,05. La raíz C5 tuvo un tamaño significativamente diferente (pOBJETIVO: determinar o comprimento da raiz C5. MÉTODOS: as colunas cervicais de 50 pacientes (29 homens - 21 mulheres, com idades entre 26 e 68 anos foram analisadas com ressonância magnética (Signa 1,5 T, cortes axiais de 5 mm de espessura, TR=850, TE=26, FOV=200. Foram incluídos casos com dor cervical e/ou cervicobraquial. O comprimento das raízes C3 a C7, à direita e esquerda, foi medido. A comparação das médias foi realizada com uma análise de variância para um nível de significação α = 0,05 com IC de 95%. As comparações post-hoc foram feitas com o teste de Bonferroni. RESULTADOS: foi observado que o lado (direito ou esquerdo e o sexo (homem ou mulher não tiveram incidência estatística significante em relação ao valor do comprimento das raízes. A raiz C5 evidenciou um tamanho significativamente diferente (pOBJECTIVE: to determine the length of the C5 root. METHODS: the cervical spines of 50 patients (29 male and 21 female, between 26 and 68 years old, were studied with magnetic resonance imaging (Signa 1.5 T, axial images with 5 mm thickness, TR=850, TE=26

  4. Squamous cell carcinoma causing dorsal atlantoaxial spinal cord compression in a dog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyazaki, Yuta; Aikawa, Takeshi; Nishimura, Masaaki; Iwata, Munetaka; Kagawa, Yumiko

    2016-10-01

    A 12-year-old Chihuahua dog was presented for cervical pain and progressive tetraparesis. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed spinal cord compression due to a mass in the dorsal atlantoaxial region. Surgical treatment was performed. The mass was histopathologically diagnosed as a squamous cell carcinoma. The dog recovered to normal neurologic status after surgery.

  5. Cervical dysplasia - series (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to detect cervical cancer. Limited or early cervical cancer (carcinoma in situ, or cervical intraepithelial neoplasia, or dysplasia) requires treatment with ablation therapy, usually in the form of ...

  6. Traumatic cervical epidural hematoma in an infant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vithal Rangarajan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available An 8-month-old male infant had presented with a history of a fall from the crib a fortnight ago. He had developed progressive weakness of both lower limbs. On examination, the infant had spastic paraplegia. Magnetic resonance (MR imaging of the cervical spine showed an epidural hematoma extending from the fourth cervical (C4 to the first dorsal (D1 vertebral level with cord compression. The patient had no bleeding disorder on investigation. He underwent cervical laminoplasty at C6 and C7 levels. The epidural hematoma was evacuated. The cervical cord started pulsating immediately. Postoperatively, the patient′s paraplegia improved dramatically in 48 hours. According to the author′s literature search, only seven cases of post-traumatic epidural hematoma have been reported in pediatric patients, and our patient is the youngest. The present case report discusses the etiopathology, presentation, and management of this rare case.

  7. EFFECTIVENESS OF TENS VERSUS INTERMITTENT CERVICAL TRACTION IN PATIENTS WITH CERVICAL RADICULOPATHY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Himanshi Sharma

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cervical radiculopathy is a dysfunction of nerve root of the cervical spine where C6& C7 nerve roots are the most commonly affected. It encompasses important symptoms other than pain, such as paresthesia, numbness and muscle weakness in dermatomal or myotomal distribution of an affected nerve root. A multitude of physical therapy interventions have been proposed to be effective in the management of cervical radiculopathy, including mechanical cervical traction, manipulation, therapeutic exercises and TENS. Studies to find out the effectiveness of TENS versus Intermittent Cervical Traction among patients with Cervical Radiculopathy are sparse. Hence the present study was undertaken to find out and compare effectiveness of TENS versus Intermittent Cervical Traction a newer technique towards betterment in treatment of cervical radiculopathy patients. Methodology: 30 patients from Baroda association for the blind (Lions club of Baroda, Subhanpura & Sushrut Physiotherapy Clinic, Akota were chosen based on the inclusion and exclusion criteria. Group A comprised of 15 people with cervical radiculopathy were given TENS with Isometric neck exercises and active neck movements. Group B comprised of 15 people with cervical radiculopathy were given Intermittent Cervical Traction with Isometric neck exercise and active neck movements. VAS Scale & Neck Disability Index (NDI were used as outcome measures pre & post treatment. Results: The pre test evaluation showed that, there is no significant difference (P> 0.05 between the two groups for all the variables measured. The post-test evaluation of both groups showed a very high significance (P< 0.05 within the group for all the outcome measurements. A post-test comparison of measured variables, between the groups showed that the Group A demonstrated a statistically significant (P< 0.05 reduction in pain and Neck Disability Index. Conclusion: From the above study concluded that TENS was more effective

  8. Clinical Observation of Spinal Nerve Dorsal Root Impulse Radio Frequency Combined with Epidural Nerve Block in the Treatment of Post Herpes Zoster Neuralgia%脊神经背根脉冲射频联合硬膜外神经阻滞治疗带状疱疹后神经痛的临床观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓茹; 刘庆

    2016-01-01

    目的:采用新型微创脊神经背根脉冲射频联合硬膜外神经阻滞治疗带状疱疹后神经痛,探讨两种方法结合治疗带状疱疹后神经痛的临床疗效,观测它和生活质量之间关系,从而为PHN治疗提供借。方法以泸州医学院附属中医院疼痛科2011年12月~2012年12月符合标准的带状疱疹后神经痛患者60例作为研究对象。并随机将其划分成硬膜外神经阻滞复合加巴喷丁和硬膜外神经阻滞复合加巴喷丁+脊神经背根脉冲射频组。进行五次A、B两组患者的视觉模拟评分,自评抑郁量表以及焦虑自评量表评分。结果①VAS评分、抑郁评分院与T0比较,A组和B组T1~T4时VAS评分、抑郁评分显著降低。和A组相比,B组T1~T4各时点VAS评分、抑郁评分显著降低。②焦虑评分院与T0比较,A组和B组T1~T4时焦虑评分显著降低;与A组比较,B组T2~T4各时点焦虑评分显著降低。结论①两种方案治疗PHN均有效,但联合脊神经背根脉冲射频疗效更好。②PHN患者的抑郁和焦虑评分随着疼痛的缓解降低。%Objective A new minimally invasive dorsal root pulsed radiofrequency treatment combined with epidural nerve block postherpetic neuralgia, explore the relationship between clinical efficacy neuralgia, observing that the two methods and quality of life after combined treatment of herpes zoster , by providing for the treatment of PHN. Methods Affiliated Hospital of Luzhou Pain in December 2011 - after the period December 2012-compliant herpetic neuralgia 60 patients for the study. And randomly divided into epidural nerve block combined gabapentin (A group, n=30) and epidural nerve block combined gabapentin+dorsal root pulsed radiofrequency (group B, n=30). Five times A, B groups were visual analog scale, self-rating depression scale and self-rating anxiety scale score. Results ①VAS score, depression score: Compared with T0, A group A and group B T1-T4 when the VAS

  9. Bilateral mechanical and thermal hyperalgesia and tactile allodynia after chronic compression of dorsal root ganglion in mice%小鼠背根节慢性压迫诱致的双侧机械性痛敏和热痛敏行为

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈荣贵; 孔微微; 葛大龙; 罗层; 胡三觉

    2011-01-01

    Objective Low back pain is one of the most inextricable problems encountered in clinics.Animal models that imitate symptoms in humans are valuable tools for investigating low back pain mechanisms and the possible therapeutic applications.With the development of genetic technology in pain field,the possibility of mutating specific genes in mice has provided a potent tool for investigating the specific mechanisms of pain.The aim of the present study was to develop a mouse model of chronic compression of dorsal root ganglion (CCD),in which gene mutation can be applied to facilitate the studies of chronic pain.Methods Chronic compression of L4 and L5 dorsal root ganglia was conducted in mice by inserting fine stainless steel rods into the intervertebral foramina,one at L4 and the other at L5.Mechanical allodynia and thermal hyperalgesia were examined with von Frey filaments and radiating heat stimulator,respectively.Results The CCD mice displayed dramatic mechanical and thermal hyperalgesia as well as tactile allodynia in the hindpaw ipsilateral to CCD.In addition,this mechanical and thermal hyperaigesia as well as tactile allodynia was also found to spread to the contralateral hindpaw.Conclusion This model,combined with the possible genetic modification,will strengthen our knowledge of the underlying mechanisms of low back pain.It also favors the development of new treatment strategies for pain and hyperalgesia after spinal injury and other disorders which affect the dorsal root ganglion in humans.%目的 腰背痛是一个临床常见的棘手问题.动物模型可以很好地模拟人类的临床症状,并为研究腰背痛的机制及其药物治疗带来希望.随着转基因技术的发展,特定的转基因小鼠模型为研究疼痛机制提供了一个强有力的工具.本研究旨在建立慢性背根节压迫小鼠模型,为应用转基因动物深入研究慢性痛的发生机制提供重要工具.方法 向小鼠腰4和腰5椎间

  10. Neutrophilic dermatosis of dorsal hands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Kaur

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Sweet′s syndrome is characterized by erythematous tender nodules and plaques over face and extremities. Fever, leukocytosis with neutrophilia, and a neutrophilic infiltrate in the dermis are characteristic features. Neutrophilic dermatosis of dorsal hands is a rare localized variant of Sweet′s syndrome occurring predominantly over dorsa of hands. Various degrees of vascular damage may be observed on histopathology of these lesions. Both Sweet′s syndrome and its dorsal hand variant have been reported in association with malignancies, inflammatory bowel diseases, and drugs. We report a patient with neutrophilic dermatoses of dorsal hands associated with erythema nodosum. He showed an excellent response to corticosteroids and dapsone.

  11. Cervical Laminoplasty

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... spine showing extension of the spine following a cervical laminoplasty. B) Post-operative lateral x-rays of the same patient showing flexion. Note that the range of motion is maintained after the laminoplasty and that no ...

  12. Cervical spondylosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cervical osteoarthritis; Arthritis - neck; Neck arthritis; Chronic neck pain; Degenerative disk disease ... therapist). Sometimes, a few visits will help with neck pain. Cold packs and heat therapy may help your ...

  13. 雷氏大疣蛛粗毒对DRG细胞上钠钾钙离子通道的影响%Effects of Venoms from the Spider Macrothele Raveni on Voltage-Gated Na+, K+ and Ca2+ Channels in Rat Dorsal Root Ganglia Neurons

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王小娟; 朱阳慧; 刘中华

    2011-01-01

    By whole-cell patch-clamp recording, it was observed the effects of the vetnon from the spider Mac-rothele raveni on voltage-activated Na+ , K+ and Ca2+ channels in adult rat dorsal root ganglia (DRG) neurons. It has no evident effect on tetrodotoxin-resistant (TTX-R) Na* currents, K+ currents and Ca2+ currents, while it is able to inhibit tetrodotoxin-sensitive (TTX-S) Na+ currents. The inhibition is dose-dependent with an ICX value of 11.04 mg/L. At a concentration of 100 mg/L it can cause both the initial activated voltage and the membrane reversal potential to shift 10 mV in the hyperpolarizing direction. And it also causes the steady-state inactivation curve of TTX-S Na+ channels to shift approximate 15 mV in the hyperpolarizing direction without changing the slope factor (k) significantly.%采用全细胞记录( whole-cell recording)模式膜片钳技术在大鼠背根神经节细胞(dorsal root ganglia,DRG)上检测了雷氏大疣蛛粗毒对电压门控钠通道、钾通道及钙通道的影响.结果表明,雷氏大疣蛛粗毒对TTX-R型钠电流、电压门控钾电流以及钙电流均无明显作用,但对TTX-S型钠电流表现出较强的浓度依赖性抑制效应,半有效抑制浓度(IC50)为11.04 mg/L.100 mg/L雷氏大疣蛛粗毒对DRG细胞TTX敏感性钠电流的电压-电流(I-V)曲线的激活阈值和逆转电位均有近- 10 mV的漂移作用,并使稳态失活曲线向超极化方向漂移15 mV左右,但并不影响失活曲线的常数k.

  14. Electrodiagnosis of cervical radiculopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hakimi, Kevin; Spanier, David

    2013-02-01

    Cervical radiculopathy is a common diagnosis with a peak onset in the fifth decade. The most commonly affected nerve root is C7, C6, and C8. The etiology is often compressive, but may arise from noncompressive sources. Patients commonly complain of pain, weakness, numbness, and/or tingling. Examination may reveal sensory or motor disturbance in a dermatomal/myotomal distribution. Neural compression and tension signs may be positive. Diagnostic tests include imaging and electrodiagnostic study. Electrodiagnostic study serves as an extension of the neurologic examination. Electrodiagnostic findings can be useful for patients with atypical symptoms, potential pain-mediated weakness, and nonfocal imaging findings.

  15. The Expression Changes of Nociceptor P2X3 in Dorsal Root Ganglia after Sciatic Nerve Ligation%大鼠坐骨神经结扎后疼痛受体P2X3在背根神经节内的表达变化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周国兴; 刘求梅; 彭薇; 曾志成

    2007-01-01

    目的:研究坐骨神经结扎损伤后疼痛受体P2X3在相应背根神经节(dorsal root ganglia,DRG)内的表达变化情况.方法:选取健康成年SD大鼠35只,建立右侧坐骨神经结扎损伤模型,采用免疫组织化学和图像分析技术检测相应L4-6DRG内P2X3的表达情况.结果:正常大鼠L4-6DRG内有大量P2X3免疫阳性神经元,坐骨神经结扎后3d P2X3表达即下调,3,7,14,21和28d其表达呈进行性下降趋势,各时间点与正常和假手术对照比较差异均有统计学意义(P<0.05).结论:坐骨神经结扎后P2X3在L4-6DRG内表达明显下调,提示其可能在神经源性疼痛中发挥一定的作用.

  16. Effect of curcumin on apoptosis in spinal cord and dorsal root ganglion neurons in a rat model of diabetic neuropathic pain%姜黄素对糖尿病神经病理性痛大鼠脊髓和背根神经节神经细胞凋亡的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈果; 黄葱葱; 党江坤; 连庆泉; 李军; 曹红

    2011-01-01

    目的 探讨姜黄素对糖尿病神经病理性痛(DNP)大鼠脊髓和背根神经节(DRG)神经细胞凋亡的影响.方法雄性SD大鼠108只,体重200~230 g,采用腹腔注射链唑霉素70 mg/kg的方法建立大鼠DNP模型.采用随机数字表法,将大鼠随机分为4组(n=27),正常对照组(C组):不制备DNP模型;DNP组;溶剂对照组(SC组)和姜黄素组(Cur组):于腹腔注射链唑霉素后14 d分别腹腔注射玉米油或姜黄素100 mg/kg(25 mg/ml),1次/d,连续2周.于链唑霉素给药前2 d、给药后14 d、姜黄素给药后3、7、14 d时测定机械缩足阈值(MWT)和热缩足潜伏期(TWL);于姜黄素给药后3、7、14 d时分别采用免疫组化法和Western blot法测定脊髓和DRG caspase-3和Bcl-2的表达水平,并测定神经细胞的凋亡率.结果 与C组比较,DNP组、SC组和Cur组MWT降低,TWL缩短,脊髓和DRG神经细胞凋亡率升高,caspase-3表达上调,Bcl-2表达下调(P<0.05);与DNP组比较,Cur组MWT升高,TWL延长,脊髓和DBG神经细胞凋亡率降低,caspase-3表达下调,Bcl-2表达上调(P<0.05),SC组差异无统计学意义(P>0.05).结论 姜黄素可通过抑制脊髓和DRG神经细胞凋亡,从而减轻大鼠DNP,其机制与抑制caspase-3水平、增强Bcl-2水平有关.%Objective To investigate the effect of curcumin on the apoptosis in spinal cord and dorsal root ganglion neurons in a rat model of diabetic neuropathic pain (DNP) . Methods One hundred and eight male SD rats weighing 200-230 g were randomly divided into 4 groups ( n = 27 each): control group (group C), DNP group, solvent control group (group SC) and curcumin group (group Cur) . Diabetes was induced with intraperitoneal streptozocin 70 mg/kg. Successful induction of diabetes was defined as blood glucose > 16.7 mmol/L. Curcumin and com oil 100 mg/kg (23 mg/ml) were given intraperitoneally once a day for 14 consecutive days starting from 14 days after administration of streptozocin in Cur and SC groups respectively

  17. 两种不同牵引角度对神经根型颈椎病牵引疗效的影响%Clinical observation on treating nerve root type cervical spondylosis by two different traction angles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱发宝; 张勋; 丁小飞

    2014-01-01

    目的:探讨前屈位和中立位两种不同牵引角度对神经根型颈椎病牵引疗效的影响。方法:选取自愿接受牵引治疗的神经根型颈椎病患者72例,随机分为观察组和对照组,每组36例。观察组采用根据颈椎增生部位和颈椎曲度情况,以5~20°前屈位牵引治疗,对照组以中立位(垂直0°)牵引治疗,两组均以2周为1个疗程。比较两组患者治疗1个疗程后的总体疗效。结果:观察组总有效率75.00%,对照组总有效率52.78%,观察组总有效率明显高于对照组,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05)。结论:5~20°前屈位牵引是治疗神经根型颈椎病的较佳牵引体位,临床医生应根据患者X线片及受累神经根定位选取合适的前屈角度。%Objective: To discuss clinical effects of two different angels on nerve root type cervical spondylosis. Methods: 72 patients were randomly divided into the observation group and the control group, 36 cases for each. The control group was given 5~20° forward flexion traction; while the control group was given 0° central position traction, 2 weeks for one course, clinical effects were compared with one course. Results: The total efficiency(75.00%) in the observation group was significantly better than that (52.78%) in the control (P<0.05). Conclusion: The clinical efficacy of 5~20°forward flexion traction was better, clinical doctors should select the appropriate flexion angle according to the X-ray and position in nerve root involvement.

  18. Peripheral mechanism underlying mirror-image mechanical allodynia in the chronic compression of multiple dorsal root ganglia in rats%多节段背根节慢性压迫大鼠机械触刺激诱发痛镜像痛的外周机制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢雅彬; 张天蔚; 焦西英; 解柔刚; 胡三觉; 游思维; 徐晖

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To study the possible peripheral mechanism of mirror-image mechanical allodynia in the chronic compression of multiple dorsal root ganglia( multiple CCD) in rats. Methods; On the basis of unilateral compression of L3-L5 CCD model in the rat, the behavior of mechanical tactile allodynia on both sides were examined with von Frey filaments, and the expression of calcitonin gene-related peptide(CGRP) ,one pain transmission-related neuropeptide, in large or medium and small DRG neurons were examined with immunohistochemical technology on both sides of the DRGs. Results: An obviously behavior of both ipsilateral and contralateral mechanical tactile allodynia could be observed in the multiple CCD model, and there was an obviously high expression of CGRP in both ipsilateral and contralateral large and medium DRG neurons of multiple CCD group compared to control group (P 0.05). Conclusion: The pain transmission neuropep-tide-CGRP was significantly increased in bilateral DRG neurons of multiple CCD rats, it suggest that the change of the plasticity of bilateral peripheral DRG neurons could be involved in the occurrence of mirror-image mechanical allodynia in the multiple CCD rats.%目的:研究多节段背根节慢性压迫(chronic compression of multiple dorsal root ganlia,CCD)大鼠机械触刺激诱发痛镜像痛的外周机制.方法:制作单侧L3-L5 CCD模型大鼠,并应用von Freyfilaments检测双侧机械触刺激诱发痛行为,利用免疫组织化学方法检测该模型大鼠同侧及对侧DRG大中型和小型神经元中与痛觉信息传递相关的神经肽-降钙素基因相关肽(calcitonin gene-related peptide,CGRP)的表达情况.结果:CCD大鼠表现出明显双侧机械触刺激诱发痛行为;免疫组织化学结果显示,CCD模型大鼠同侧及对侧DRG大和中等大小神经元内,CGRP的表达与正常组大鼠DRG神经元比较有明显升高(P<0.05),而同侧及对侧DRG小神经元,CGRP的表达与正常组大鼠DRG神

  19. Regulatory effect of nerve growth factor on release of substance P in cultured dorsal root ganglion neurons of rat%神经生长因子对培养的大鼠背根神经节神经元P物质释放的调节作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨向东; 刘真; 刘花香; 王丽红; 马春红; 李振中

    2007-01-01

    Objective To investigate the regulatory effects of nerve growth factor (NGF) on basal and capsaicin-induced release of neuropeptide substance P (SP) in primary cultured embryonic rat dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons. Methods DRGs were dissected from 15-day-old embryonic Wistar rats. DRG neurons were dissociated and cultured, and then exposed to different concentrations of NGF (10 ng/mL, 30 ng/mL, or 100 ng/mL) for 72 h. The neurons cultured in media without NGF served as control. RT-PCR were used for detecting the mRNAs of S P and vanilloid receptor 1 (VR1) in the DRG neurons. The SP basal and capsaicin (100 nmol/L)-induced release in the culture were measured by radioimmunoassay (RIA). Results SP mRNA and VR1 mRNA expression increased in primary cultured DRG neurons in a dose-dependent manner of NGF. Both basal release and capsaicin-evoked release of SP increased in NGF-treated DRG neurons compared with in control group. The capsaicin-evoked release of SP also increased in a dose-dependent manner of NGF. Conclusion NGF may promote both basal release and capsaicin-evoked release of SP. NGF might increase the sensitivity of nociceptors by increasing the SP mRNA or VR1 mRNA.%目的 观察神经生长因子(nerve growth factor,NGF)对原代培养的背根神经节(dorsal root ganglion,DRG)神经元中P物质(substance P,SP)的基础释放量和辣椒素诱发释放量的调节效应.方法 将15天胚龄的Wistar大鼠DRG神经元培养于含有不同浓度NGF的DMEM/F12培养液中,不含NGF的培养液培养的神经元作为对照.72小时后,用RT-PCR检测神经元中SP mRNA和辣椒素受体(vanilloid receptor 1,VR1)mRNA的表达,用放射免疫分析(radioimmunoassay,RIA)法检测SP的基础释放量和辣椒素(100 nmol/L)刺激10 min后的诱发释放量.结果 SPmRNA和VR1 mRNA在NGF孵育的标本中表达增加,并与孵育液中NGF的浓度呈剂量依赖关系.SP的基础释放量和辣椒素诱发释放量在NGF孵育的标本中均增加,而且诱

  20. 用于膜片钳研究的大鼠背根神经节细胞急性分离技术的改良%Modification of the procedure for dissociating rats' dorsal root ganglion cells used for patch clamp

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邱方; 刘艳红; 姜雨鸽; 张树卓; 刘晓燕; 米卫东

    2012-01-01

    目的 通过技术改良,进一步摸索适于膜片钳实验的成年大鼠背根神经节(dorsal root ganglion,DRG)细胞的急性分离方法.方法 应用显微外科技术获取成年大鼠DRG,采用改良的双酶顺序消化(先胶原酶,后胰蛋白酶)及双血清(胎牛血清+马血清)共同培养法,急性分离培养DRG.倒置显微镜下观察神经元的形态,选取已贴壁的细胞,用全细胞膜片钳技术记录其基本膜电生理特性.加入河豚毒素(tetrodotoxin,TTX)后再次记录DRG神经元的钠离子电流变化.结果 本实验可获得形态良好、结构完整的单个DRG神经元,表面光亮,胞膜完整清晰,呈圆形或椭圆形.其静息膜电位为(55.22±4.39)mV,加入TTX后可记录到缓慢失活的河豚毒素不敏感(tetrodotoxin-resistant,TTX-r)的钠离子电流.其中,中等直径DRG神经元高阻封接成功率为73.2%,高于小直径和大直径DRG神经元的封接成功率(P<0.05).结论 经改良的DRG急性分离方法分离效率高、可操作性强.分离得到的中等直径DRG神经元状态良好,更适合膜片钳实验.%Objective To modify the previous procedure for dissociating rats' dorsal root ganglion (DRG) cells used for whole-cell patch-clamp studies. Methods The rats' DRGs were obtained by microsurgical techniques, and then the DRG cells were acutely dissociated and acquired with optimized culture method including dual enzyme digestion and dual serum incubation. After a short-time of culture, the DRG neurons were observed under inverted microscope and those with normal morphologic characterstics were selected for the further studies. The basic electrophysiological membrane characteristics and sodium channel currents were recorded by whole-cell patch-clamp technique before and after the administration of TTX, respectively. Results The cultured DRG cells, which were acutely dissociated and acquired with optimized method, were morphologically intact with a round or oval shape and smooth

  1. Cervical Cancer Stage IVA

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... historical Searches are case-insensitive Cervical Cancer Stage IVA Add to My Pictures View /Download : Small: 756x576 ... Large: 3150x2400 View Download Title: Cervical Cancer Stage IVA Description: Stage IVA cervical cancer; drawing and inset ...

  2. Immunization with a Vaccine Combining Herpes Simplex Virus 2 (HSV-2) Glycoprotein C (gC) and gD Subunits Improves the Protection of Dorsal Root Ganglia in Mice and Reduces the Frequency of Recurrent Vaginal Shedding of HSV-2 DNA in Guinea Pigs Compared to Immunization with gD Alone ▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awasthi, Sita; Lubinski, John M.; Shaw, Carolyn E.; Barrett, Shana M.; Cai, Michael; Wang, Fushan; Betts, Michael; Kingsley, Susan; DiStefano, Daniel J.; Balliet, John W.; Flynn, Jessica A.; Casimiro, Danilo R.; Bryan, Janine T.; Friedman, Harvey M.

    2011-01-01

    Attempts to develop a vaccine to prevent genital herpes simplex virus 2 (HSV-2) disease have been only marginally successful, suggesting that novel strategies are needed. Immunization with HSV-2 glycoprotein C (gC-2) and gD-2 was evaluated in mice and guinea pigs to determine whether adding gC-2 to a gD-2 subunit vaccine would improve protection by producing antibodies that block gC-2 immune evasion from complement. Antibodies produced by gC-2 immunization blocked the interaction between gC-2 and complement C3b, and passive transfer of gC-2 antibody protected complement-intact mice but not C3 knockout mice against HSV-2 challenge, indicating that gC-2 antibody is effective, at least in part, because it prevents HSV-2 evasion from complement. Immunization with gC-2 also produced neutralizing antibodies that were active in the absence of complement; however, the neutralizing titers were higher when complement was present, with the highest titers in animals immunized with both antigens. Animals immunized with the gC-2-plus-gD-2 combination had robust CD4+ T-cell responses to each immunogen. Multiple disease parameters were evaluated in mice and guinea pigs immunized with gC-2 alone, gD-2 alone, or both antigens. In general, gD-2 outperformed gC-2; however, the gC-2-plus-gD-2 combination outperformed gD-2 alone, particularly in protecting dorsal root ganglia in mice and reducing recurrent vaginal shedding of HSV-2 DNA in guinea pigs. Therefore, the gC-2 subunit antigen enhances a gD-2 subunit vaccine by stimulating a CD4+ T-cell response, by producing neutralizing antibodies that are effective in the absence and presence of complement, and by blocking immune evasion domains that inhibit complement activation. PMID:21813597

  3. Immunization with a vaccine combining herpes simplex virus 2 (HSV-2) glycoprotein C (gC) and gD subunits improves the protection of dorsal root ganglia in mice and reduces the frequency of recurrent vaginal shedding of HSV-2 DNA in guinea pigs compared to immunization with gD alone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awasthi, Sita; Lubinski, John M; Shaw, Carolyn E; Barrett, Shana M; Cai, Michael; Wang, Fushan; Betts, Michael; Kingsley, Susan; Distefano, Daniel J; Balliet, John W; Flynn, Jessica A; Casimiro, Danilo R; Bryan, Janine T; Friedman, Harvey M

    2011-10-01

    Attempts to develop a vaccine to prevent genital herpes simplex virus 2 (HSV-2) disease have been only marginally successful, suggesting that novel strategies are needed. Immunization with HSV-2 glycoprotein C (gC-2) and gD-2 was evaluated in mice and guinea pigs to determine whether adding gC-2 to a gD-2 subunit vaccine would improve protection by producing antibodies that block gC-2 immune evasion from complement. Antibodies produced by gC-2 immunization blocked the interaction between gC-2 and complement C3b, and passive transfer of gC-2 antibody protected complement-intact mice but not C3 knockout mice against HSV-2 challenge, indicating that gC-2 antibody is effective, at least in part, because it prevents HSV-2 evasion from complement. Immunization with gC-2 also produced neutralizing antibodies that were active in the absence of complement; however, the neutralizing titers were higher when complement was present, with the highest titers in animals immunized with both antigens. Animals immunized with the gC-2-plus-gD-2 combination had robust CD4+ T-cell responses to each immunogen. Multiple disease parameters were evaluated in mice and guinea pigs immunized with gC-2 alone, gD-2 alone, or both antigens. In general, gD-2 outperformed gC-2; however, the gC-2-plus-gD-2 combination outperformed gD-2 alone, particularly in protecting dorsal root ganglia in mice and reducing recurrent vaginal shedding of HSV-2 DNA in guinea pigs. Therefore, the gC-2 subunit antigen enhances a gD-2 subunit vaccine by stimulating a CD4+ T-cell response, by producing neutralizing antibodies that are effective in the absence and presence of complement, and by blocking immune evasion domains that inhibit complement activation.

  4. 糖络宁对STZ诱导糖尿病大鼠背根神经节线粒体抗氧化剂活性的影响%Effect of Tangluoning on activities of mitochondrial antioxidants in dorsal root ganglion in STZ induced diabetic rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张涛静; 龚燕冰; 周晖; 谢培凤; 关崧; 易文明

    2015-01-01

    Objective To observe the effect of Chinese herbal compound Tangluoning on 3 kinds of antioxidants mi-tochondrial dorsal root ganglion cells in diabetic rats. Methods There were 40 SD male rats, 7 of them were randomly select-ed as the control group, the rest 33 were used to establish the streptozotocin ( STZ) diabetic rat model, 29 rats of the model were randomly divided into model group with 9 rats, treatment group with 10 rats, Chinese medicine group with 10 rats, they were given saline, alpha lipoic acid and Tangluoning respectively, they was given the medicine for 8 weeks, mitochondria of rat manganese superoxide dismutase ( MnSOD) , glutathione peroxidase ( GPX) , catalase ( CAT) activity changes of the dor-sal root ganglion cells were observed. Results Compared with the control group, the model group rats’ mitochondrial Mn-SOD, GPX, the activity of CAT (U/mg protein) decreased significantly (32. 16 ± 4. 75 vs. 20. 17 ± 3. 31, 45. 67 ± 5. 64 vs. 30. 19 ± 4. 33, 2. 87 ± 0. 47 vs. 1. 24 ± 0. 34, P <0. 01);compared with the model group, treatment group and the tradition-al hinese medicine group’ s mitochondrial MnSOD, GPX, the activity of CAT were significantly improved (30. 78 ± 5. 27, 39. 10 ± 7. 67, 2. 56 ± 0. 31, 29. 14 ± 3. 79, 39. 43 ± 6. 23, 2. 49 ± 0. 28, respectively, P <0. 01). Conclusion It proved that the Tangluoning would significantly improve the 3 kinds of antioxidant activity in dorsal root ganglion mitochondria of dia-betic rats, which maybe the mechanism of Tangluoning for prevention and treatment of diabetic peripheral neuropathy.%目的:观察中药复方糖络宁对糖尿病大鼠背根神经节细胞线粒体中3种抗氧化剂的影响。方法SD雄性大鼠40只,随机取7只为对照组,余33只制作链脲佐菌素糖尿病大鼠模型,其中29只造模成功后随机分为模型组9只、治疗组10只、中药组10只,分别给予生理盐水、α硫辛酸和糖络宁灌胃,共给药8周,观察各组大鼠背根神

  5. Effect of bee venom injection on TrkA and TRPV1 expression in the dorsal root ganglion of rats with collagen-induced arthritis%蜂毒对胶原诱导性关节炎炎性痛大鼠背根神经节TrkA、TRPV1的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冼培凤; 陈莹; 杨路; 刘国涛; 彭澎; 王升旭

    2016-01-01

    Objective To investigate the therapeutic effect of acupoint injection of bee venom on collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) in rats and explore the mechanism of bee venom therapy in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis. Methods Fifteen male Wistar rats were randomly divided into bee venom treatment group (BV group), CIA model group, and control group. In the former two groups, CIA was induced by injections of collagen II+IFA (0.2 mL) via the tail vein, and in the control group, normal saline was injected instead. The rats in BV group received daily injection of 0.1 mL (3 mg/mL) bee venom for 7 consecutive days. All the rats were assessed for paw thickness and arthritis index from days 14 to 21, and the pain threshold was determined on day 21. The expressions of TRPV1 and TrkA in the dorsal root ganglion at the level of L4-6 were detected using immunohistochemistry and Western blotting, respectively. Results The rats in CIA model group started to show paw swelling on day 10, and by day 14, all the rats in this group showed typical signs of CIA. In BV group, the rats receiving been venom therapy for 7 days showed a significantly smaller paw thickness and a low arthritis index than those in the model group. The pain threshold was the highest in the control group and the lowest in the model group. TRPV1-positive cells and TrkA expression in the dorsal root ganglion was significantly reduced in BV group as compared with that in the model group. Conclusions Injection of bee venom can decrease expression of TRPV1 and TrkA in the dorsal root ganglion to produce anti-inflammatory and analgesic effects, suggesting the potential value of bee venom in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis.%目的:探讨蜂毒对胶原诱导性关节炎(collagen-induced arthritis, CIA)大鼠TrkA、TRPV1疼痛信号分子的影响。方法分为正常对照组、模型组、蜂毒组(BV,3 mg/mL)。采用Wistar雄性成年大鼠,CollagenⅡ+IFA 0.2 mL造模。BV组于造模14 d

  6. 针刀配合推拿与单纯推拿治疗神经根型颈椎病:100例随机对照分析%Needle scalpel combined with massage therapy and simple massage therapy for nerve-root type cervical spondylopathy:A randomized controlled analysis on 100 patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林木南; 刘献祥; 刘建华; 张爱平; 许书亮; 郭健红

    2004-01-01

    AIM: To observe the curative effect of cervical spondylopathy of nerve root type mainly treated by needle scalpel therapy.METHODS: One hundred patients with typical cervical spondylopathy of nerve root type were divided into treatment group and control group according to random stratified grouping. Fifty patients in the treatment group were treated by needle scalpel combined with massage therapy, and 50 patients in the control group were treated by simple massage therapy. The patients were treated for 3 months respectively and followed up for 6 months to judge the curative effect that was compared and analyzed later to investigate the related mechanism of cervical spondylopathy of nerve root type mainly treated by needle scalpel therapy.RESULTS: The effective rate of treatment group was 98% (49/50) and that of control group was 83% (41/50) . The difference between the two groups was significant(X2 =7. 11, P <0.05).CONCLUSION: Needle scalpel therapy combined with massage for cervical spondylopathy of nerve root type can relax adhesion, remit spasm of soft tissues, remove compression to blood vessels and nerves, relieve pains and recover functions.%目的:观察以针刀为主治疗神经根型颈椎病的疗效.方法:选择典型病例100例,按分层随机分组法分为治疗组50例,采用针刀配合推拿治疗神经根型颈椎病;对照组50例,采用单纯推拿治疗神经根型颈椎病.分别治疗3个疗程,随访6个月判定疗效.对两组临床疗效进行分析比较,并探析针刀为主治疗神经根型颈椎病的相关机制.结果:治疗组有效率为98%(49/50),对照组有效率为83%(41/50).两组疗效比较,差异有显著性意义(x2=7.11,0.01,P<0.05).结论:针刀配合手法推拿治疗神经根型颈椎病可松解粘连,缓解软组织痉挛,使血管、神经受压得到解除,缓解疼痛,恢复功能.

  7. Nonoperative Management of Cervical Radiculopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Childress, Marc A; Becker, Blair A

    2016-05-01

    Cervical radiculopathy describes pain in one or both of the upper extremities, often in the setting of neck pain, secondary to compression or irritation of nerve roots in the cervical spine. It can be accompanied by motor, sensory, or reflex deficits and is most prevalent in persons 50 to 54 years of age. Cervical radiculopathy most often stems from degenerative disease in the cervical spine. The most common examination findings are painful neck movements and muscle spasm. Diminished deep tendon reflexes, particularly of the triceps, are the most common neurologic finding. The Spurling test, shoulder abduction test, and upper limb tension test can be used to confirm the diagnosis. Imaging is not required unless there is a history of trauma, persistent symptoms, or red flags for malignancy, myelopathy, or abscess. Electrodiagnostic testing is not needed if the diagnosis is clear, but has clinical utility when peripheral neuropathy of the upper extremity is a likely alternate diagnosis. Patients should be reassured that most cases will resolve regardless of the type of treatment. Nonoperative treatment includes physical therapy involving strengthening, stretching, and potentially traction, as well as nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, muscle relaxants, and massage. Epidural steroid injections may be helpful but have higher risks of serious complications. In patients with red flag symptoms or persistent symptoms after four to six weeks of treatment, magnetic resonance imaging can identify pathology amenable to epidural steroid injections or surgery.

  8. An unusual case of idiopathic multiple invasive cervical resorption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sathya Prakash Reddy Kesary

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Invasive cervical resorption is a rare form of root resorption, characterized by destruction of the cervical region of teeth resulting from the action of tooth resorbing cells. Being an asymptomatic condition, it is often discovered on routine radiographic examination. This multifactorial disease process can most commonly occur as a sequel to orthodontic treatment, dental trauma, bleaching procedures, and less commonly, as an outcome of segmental orthognathic surgery, periodontal root planning, tetracycline conditioning of the root canal, bruxism, transplantation of tooth, guided tissue regeneration, cementoenamel disjunction. In the absence of these predisposing factors, it can be labeled as ′idiopathic multiple cervical resorption′. This article describes the case of a medically fit Indian male, who displayed idiopathic invasive cervical resorption in multiple teeth.

  9. 苯佐卡因对大鼠背根神经节神经元河豚毒素不敏感型钠离子通道的影响%Effects of benzocaine on tetrodotoxin-resistant sodium channels in rat dorsal root ganglion neurons

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    章艳; 陈少锐; 贾岩岩; 刘培庆; 蒋建敏

    2011-01-01

    目的 研究苯佐卡因(BZC)对大鼠背根神经节(DRG)神经元河豚毒素不敏感型(TTX-r)钠电流的影响,探讨其镇痛作用的机制.方法 酶解法分离新生大鼠单个DRG神经元,应用全细胞膜片钳技术记录不同浓度BZC对TTX-r钠电流的影响.结果 BZC浓度依赖性静息阻断TTX-r钠电流,30、100和300 μmol·L-1的BZC分别使TTX-r钠电流峰值抑制率达(18.83 ± 8.51)%、(33.08 ± 9.19)%、(58.91 ± 12.02)%,并使TTX-r钠电流稳态失活曲线浓度依赖性向超极化方向移动.结论 BZC浓度依赖性阻断DRG神经元TTX-r钠离子通道并改变通道的失活,可能是其影响痛觉传导通路以及产生镇痛作用的机制之一.%Aim To investigate the effects of benzo-caine ( BZC ) on tetrodotoxin-resistant ( TTX-r ) Na+ currents in the rat dorsal root ganglion ( DRG ) neurons. Methods Neonatal rat DRG cells were isolated and the effects of BZC on TTX-r Na + currents were observed by whole cell patch clamp recordings. Results BZC tonically blocked the TTX-r Na+ currents con-centration-dependently, and the percentages of block by 30, 100 and 300 μnol. L-1 BZC on TTX-r Na + currents were ( 18. 83 ± 8.51 )% , ( 33.08 ± 9. 19 )% and ( 58. 91 ± 12. 02 )% respectively. Inaddition, BZC shifted the steady-state inactivation curves of TTX-r Na+ currents to the hyperpolarization direction, also in a concentration-dependent manner. Conclusion BZC may induce analgesic effect by inhibiting TTX-r Na + currents of DRG neurons and shifting steady-state inactivation curves to more negative potential values.

  10. Monosynaptic connections between primary afferents and giant neurons in the turtle spinal dorsal horn

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fernández, A; Radmilovich, M; Russo, R E

    1996-01-01

    This paper reports the occurrence of monosynaptic connections between dorsal root afferents and a distinct cell type-the giant neuron-deep in the dorsal horn of the turtle spinal cord. Light microscope studies combining Nissl stain and transganglionic HRP-labeling of the primary afferents have...... revealed the occurrence of axosomatic and axodendritic contacts between labeled boutons and giant neurons. The synaptic nature of these contacts has been confirmed by use of electron microscope procedures involving the partial three-dimensional reconstruction of identified giant neurons. Intracellular...... recording in spinal cord slices provided functional evidence indicating the monosynaptic connections between dorsal root afferents and giant neurons. The recorded neurons were morphologically identified by means of biocytin injection and with avidin conjugates. Electrical stimulation of the ipsilateral...

  11. Cervical spine injuries in American football.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rihn, Jeffrey A; Anderson, David T; Lamb, Kathleen; Deluca, Peter F; Bata, Ahmed; Marchetto, Paul A; Neves, Nuno; Vaccaro, Alexander R

    2009-01-01

    American football is a high-energy contact sport that places players at risk for cervical spine injuries with potential neurological deficits. Advances in tackling and blocking techniques, rules of the game and medical care of the athlete have been made throughout the past few decades to minimize the risk of cervical injury and improve the management of injuries that do occur. Nonetheless, cervical spine injuries remain a serious concern in the game of American football. Injuries have a wide spectrum of severity. The relatively common 'stinger' is a neuropraxia of a cervical nerve root(s) or brachial plexus and represents a reversible peripheral nerve injury. Less common and more serious an injury, cervical cord neuropraxia is the clinical manifestation of neuropraxia of the cervical spinal cord due to hyperextension, hyperflexion or axial loading. Recent data on American football suggest that approximately 0.2 per 100,000 participants at the high school level and 2 per 100,000 participants at the collegiate level are diagnosed with cervical cord neuropraxia. Characterized by temporary pain, paraesthesias and/or motor weakness in more than one extremity, there is a rapid and complete resolution of symptoms and a normal physical examination within 10 minutes to 48 hours after the initial injury. Stenosis of the spinal canal, whether congenital or acquired, is thought to predispose the athlete to cervical cord neuropraxia. Although quite rare, catastrophic neurological injury is a devastating entity referring to permanent neurological injury or death. The mechanism is most often a forced hyperflexion injury, as occurs when 'spear tackling'. The mean incidence of catastrophic neurological injury over the past 30 years has been approximately 0.5 per 100,000 participants at high school level and 1.5 per 100,000 at the collegiate level. This incidence has decreased significantly when compared with the incidence in the early 1970s. This decrease in the incidence of

  12. The effect of cervical traction combined with neural mobilization on pain and disability in cervical radiculopathy. A case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savva, Christos; Giakas, Giannis

    2013-10-01

    Cervical radiculopathy is the result of cervical nerve root pathology that may lead to chronic pain and disability. Although manual therapy interventions including cervical traction and neural mobilization have been advocated to decrease pain and disability caused by cervical radiculopathy, their analgesic effect has been questioned due to the low quality of research evidence. The purpose of this paper is to present the effect of cervical traction combined with neural mobilization on pain and disability in a patient experiencing cervical radiculopathy. A 52-year-old woman presented with a 2 month history of neurological cervico-brachial pain and whose presentation was consistent with cervical radiculopathy. Cervical traction and a slider neural mobilization of the medial nerve were applied simultaneously to reduce the patient's pain and disability measured at baseline and at 2 and 4 weeks using the Numeric Pain Rating Scale, the Neck Disability Index and the Patient-Specific Functional Scale. Improvements in all outcome measures were noted over a period of four weeks. Scores in all outcome measures revealed that the patient's pain had almost disappeared and that she was able to perform her household chores and job tasks without difficulties and limitations. In conclusion, the findings of this study support that the application of cervical traction combined with neural mobilization can produce significant improvements in terms of pain and disability in cervical radiculopathy.

  13. Differential diagnosis of cervical nerve compression syndrome of the external intervertebral foramen

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Jinwu; NI Weifeng; LI Qi; XU Jianguang; ZHU Haibo; ZHAO Binghui; GUO Shangchun; ZENG Bingfang

    2007-01-01

    The aim of the present research is to study the mechanism of cervical nerve compression syndrome of the external intervertebral foramen and its difierential diagnosis with cervical spondylosis.Diagnostic treatment with muscle relaxant,vasodilator,neurotrophic medicine and celecoxib (COX)-2 inhibitor were performed in 20 patients with cervical nerve compression syndrome of the external intervertebral foramen and 20 patients with cervical spondylosis confirmed by operation.Diagnostic local block therapy was performed additionally in cases showing little effect after diagnostic treatment.All the patients were followed up postoperatively for more than one year.Fifteen cases with cervical nerve compression syndrome of the external intervertebral foramen were healed by the diagnostic treatment.The other five cases had a short-term remission and there was no recurrence after diagnostic local block therapy.Diagnostic treatment led to short-term alleviation of the symptom in 20 cases with cervical spondylosis confirmed by operation,the results of which was far from satisfactory and operation was undertaken finally in all the 20 cases.The etiology of cervical nerve compression syndrome of the extemal intervertebral foramen lies in the compression of the cervical plexus,brachial plexus and cervical dorsal rami by the tendinous decussating fibers of the scalenus anticus,medius,minimus and the posterior muscles of the neck.Diagnostic treatment was propitious to differentiate cervical nerve compression syndrome of the external intervertebral foramen from cervical spondylosis.

  14. The first cervical vertebra as an indicator of mandibular growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huggare, J

    1989-02-01

    The association between the morphology of the first cervical vertebra, the atlas, and the direction of mandibular growth is studied by analysing two sets of lateral roentgenocephalograms--one comprising 18 non-treated children and another comprising 18 orthodontically treated subjects divided into three groups with regard to mandibular growth rotation. Among the non-treated cases there was a significant correlation between horizontal growth of the mandible during a two-year period and the initial height of the atlas dorsal arch. The treated subjects with forward mandibular rotation during treatment, demonstrated a significantly higher pretreatment dorsal arch than the subjects with either no rotation or a backward mandibular rotation.

  15. Agenesis of the dorsal pancreas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wolfgang J Schnedl; Claudia Piswanger-Soelkner; Sandra J Wallner; Robert Krause; Rainer W Lipp

    2009-01-01

    During the last 100 years in medical literature, there are only 54 reports, including the report of Pasaoglu et al ( World J Gastroenterol 2008; 14: 2915-2916), with clinical descriptions of agenesis of the dorsal panc reas in humans . Agenes i s of the dor sal pancreas, a rare congenital pancreatic malformation,is associated with some other medical conditions such as hyperglycemia, abdominal pain, pancreatitis and a few other diseases. In approximately 50% of reported patients with this congenital malformation,hyperglycemia was demonstrated. Evaluation of hyperglycemia and diabetes mellitus in all patients with agenesis of the dorsal pancreas including description of fasting blood glucose, oral glucose tolerance test, glycated hemoglobin and medical treatment would be a future goal. Since autosomal dominant transmission has been suggested in single families,more family studies including imaging technologies with demonstration of the pancreatic duct system are needed for evaluation of this disease. With this letter to the editor, we aim to increase available information for the better understanding of this rare disease.

  16. 尼氟灭酸对CCI模型鼠DRG神经元GABA介导膜电流的影响%Effects of Niflumic Acid on GABA-Activated Currents in Isolated Dorsal Root Ganglion Neurons in Rats with Chronic Constriction Injury

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈梦洁; 马克涛; 司军强; 李丽

    2014-01-01

    To investigate the effects of niflumic acid (NFA) on GABA-activated currents in isolated dorsal root ganglion neurons in rats with neuropathic pain and explore the analgesia mechanism of NFA. (1) CCI mice model and the pseudo-operation model was established and the change of thermal withdrawal latency on operated side was detected by Hot-plate test. (2) Whole-cell patch-clamp technique was employed to record the changes of GABA-activated currents in the CCI model group, the pseudo-operation group and the control group.Results showed that:(1)The thermal withdrawal latency on operated side of the CCI model group was significantly shortened. (2)The GABA (1~1000 μmol/L) made the DRG neurons to produce concentration dependent inward currents (P<0.05,n=6). (3)The GABA-activated currents of injured side in CCI group were significantly decreased compared with the pseudo-operation and control groups (GABA concentration,1~100 μmol/L)(P<0.01).(4) The currents of control groups were decreased significantly compared with the CCI group by the same concentration of NFA (P<0.05,n=5).The attenuation of the effect of inhibition on GABA-activated currents by NFA is due to the increased numbers of the CaCCs on DRG neurons in CCI group.%为观察尼氟灭酸(NFA)对坐骨神经慢性压迫损伤(CCI)所导致的神经病理性痛大鼠的背根神经节(dorsal root ganglion,DRG)神经元上GABAA 受体激活电流的影响,探讨尼氟灭酸在神经病理性疼痛时在脊髓水平的作用及可能机制。采用如下方法:(1)制作CCI模型。(2)运用热板实验检测CCI组、假手术组术侧下肢热缩足反射潜伏期的变化。(3)运用全细胞膜片钳技术记录CCI模型组术侧、假手术组术侧、正常组DRG神经元上GABAA受体激活电流的幅度。(4)记录尼氟灭酸对正常组和CCI组术侧DRG神经元上GABAA受体激活电流的调节作用。结果显示,(1)CCI组术侧下肢热缩足反

  17. 加巴喷丁对糖尿病神经病理痛大鼠背根神经节Toll样受体4表达的影响%The effect of systemic administration of gabapentin on the expression of toll-like receptor 4 in dorsal root ganglion neurons in diabetic neuropathic pain rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苗蓓; 殷悦; 周田田; 邵翠杰; 曹君利

    2013-01-01

    目的 探讨加巴喷丁(gabapentin,GBP)对糖尿病神经病理性疼痛(diabetic neuropathic pain,DNP)大鼠背根神经节(dorsal root ganglia,DRG)Toll样受体4(toll-like receptor 4,TLR4)表达的影响. 方法 108只成年健康雄性SD大鼠,采用完全随机分组法分为4组:对照组(C组)、模型组(DNP组)、生理盐水(SC)+DNP组和GBP+DNP组(每组27只).观察链脲佐菌素(streptozocin,STZ)注射前1d及注射后3、7、10、14、21、28 d测定缩足反射机械刺激阈值(paw withdrawal mechanical threshold,PWMT)和缩足反射热辐射潜伏期(paw withdrawal thermal latency,PWTL),SC+DNP组和GBP+DNP组于STZ注射15d起分别腹腔注射生理盐水或GBP 50 mg/kg,1次/d,连续7d,并于21、28 d测定PWMT和PWTL.行为学测试完成后选择21 d大鼠用免疫组化和Western blot方法检测大鼠DRG中TLR4的表达. 结果 与C组比较,DNP组PWMT (3.9±0.9)g降低,PWTL[(6.1±0.8)s]缩短,DRG中TLR4蛋白的表达显著上调(P<0.05);与DNP组比较,SC+DNP组大鼠在腹腔注射生理盐水后,PWMT、PWTL和TLR4蛋白的表达无明显改变(P>0.05);与DNP组和SC+DNP组比较,GBP+DNP组PWMT(8.3±0.8)g升高,PWTL[(9.9±1.2)s]延长,DRG中TLR4蛋白的表达下调(P<0.05). 结论 GBP可通过抑制DRG中TLR4表达,从而减轻大鼠DNP.%Objective To investigate the effect of systemic administration of gabapentin(GBP) on the expression of toll-like receptor 4(TLR4) in dorsal root ganglion neurons in a rat model of diabetic neuropathic pain (DNP).Methods One hundred and eight male SD rats weighing 200 g-220 g were randomly divided into 4 groups (n=27):control group (group C),DNP group,saline group (SC+DNP group)and gabapentin group(GBP+DNP group).Diabetes was induced with streptozocin(70 mg/kg) subcutaneously.Paw withdrawal mechanical threshold (PWMT) and paw withdrawal thermal latency (PWTL) were measured at 1 d before and 3,7,10,14,21,28 d after streptozocin injection and 21,28 d after administration of GBP (50 mg

  18. 脊髓后根入髓区切开术治疗臂丛神经损伤后疼痛的疗效和并发症分析%Dorsal root entry zone incision for pain induced by brachial plexus injury: an analysis of curative effect and complications

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑喆; 胡永生; 陶蔚; 张晓华; 李勇杰

    2010-01-01

    目的 评价脊髓后根入髓区(dorsal root entry zone,DREZ)切开术治疗臂丛神经损伤后疼痛的有效性及安全性. 方法 队列研究2005年7月-2007年12月因臂丛神经损伤后疼痛行DREZ切开术治疗的患者41例,其中19例截肢并存在幻肢觉.由1名专人随访患者术后的口述疼痛缓解率和并发症,口述疼痛缓解率≥50%认为疼痛缓解良好. 结果 41例患者术后2周、3个月、6个月和最后随访时(1年6个月)疼痛缓解良好的患者比率分别为90%(37/41)、81%(30/37)、77%(24/31)和70%(16/23).疼痛病程≥10年的16例患者最后随访时15例疼痛缓解良好,而痛病程<10年的25例患者最后随访时16例疼痛缓解良好(x2=4.682,P=0.030).随访3个月以上幻肢觉有变化的7例患者全部疼痛缓解良好,幻肢觉无变化的9例患者只有4例疼痛缓解良好.随访3个月以上的37例患者中严重并发症3例,其中同侧下肢轻度力弱1例,同侧下肢深感觉严重障碍2例. 结论 DREZ切开术治疗臂丛神经损伤后疼痛安全有效,疼痛病程长和术后幻肢觉变化可能预示手术疗效良好.%Objective To evaluate the efficacy and safety of dorsal root entry zone (DREZ) incision for pain induced by brachial plexus injury. Methods A cohort study was performed in 41 consecutive patients with pain induced by brachial plexus injury treated with DREZ incision from July 2005 to December 2007. Of all, 19 patients were amputated and had phantom limb sensation. Oral pain relief (0%-100%) and complications were followed up by one professional doctor. Oral pain relief rate ≥50% was considered satisfactory outcome. Results The proportion of patients with satisfactory pain relief was 90% (37/41), 81% (30/37), 77% (24/31) and 70% (16/23) at 2 weeks, 3 months, 6 months and last follow-up (over one year) after surgery. At last follow-up, 15 out of 16 patients with over 10 years of pain duration got satisfactory pain relief; while only 16 out of 25

  19. 咪达唑仑对大鼠背根神经节神经元GABAA受体激活电流的影响%Effects of midazolam on GABAA receptor-activated currents in isolated dorsal root ganglion neurons in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    樊超; 马克涛; 杨越; 成洪聚; 王洋; 李丽; 司军强

    2012-01-01

    目的 咪达唑仑对大鼠背根神经节(DRG)神经元GABAA受体激活电流的影响.方法 健康SD大鼠,体重200 ~ 250 g,4周龄,雌雄不拘,分离DRG神经元,采用全细胞膜片钳技术记录GABAA受体激活电流.采用无糖细胞外液进行药物配制.记录咪达唑仑(终浓度3.00 μmol/L,)与不同浓度(终浓度0.03、0.10、1.00、10.00、100.00、1000.00 μmol/L) GABA混合液作用下的GABAA受体激活电流、不同浓度(终浓度0.03、0.10、1.00、3.00、10.00、100.00 μmol/L)咪达唑仑作用下的GABAA受体激活电流、不同浓度(终浓度0.03、0.10、1.00、3.00、10.00、100.00 μmol/L)咪达唑仑与GABA(终浓度100.00 μmol/L)混合液作用下的GABAA受体激活电流和不同咪达唑仑预灌注时间(灌注即刻、20、40、60、120 s)时咪达唑仑(终浓度1.00 μmol/L)与GABA(终浓度100.00 μmol/L)混合液作用下的GABAA受体激活电流.计算咪达唑仑·给药前后电流的增强率.结果 对GABA敏感的神经元灌注咪达唑仑均未记录到可检测的膜电流变化;各浓度GABA下,咪达唑仑给药后GABAA受体激活电流均较给药前增强(P<0.01);各浓度咪达唑仑给药后DRG神经元GABAA受体激活电流均较给药前增强,且随咪达唑仑浓度升高,对DRG神经元GABAA受体激活电流的增强率逐渐升高,咪达唑仑3.00 μmol/L时达峰值(P <0.05或0.01);随咪达唑仑预灌流时间延长,DRG神经元GABAA受体激活电流增强率逐渐升高,预灌流40 s时达峰值(β<0.05或0.01).结论 咪达唑仑可增强DRG神经元GABAA受体激活电流,提示咪达唑仑可通过增强GABAA受体活性,从而增强GABA的作用,在脊髓水平产生镇痛作用.%Objective To investigate the effects of midazolam on GABAA receptor-activated currents in isolated dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons in rats.Methods Sprague-Dawley rats of both sexes,weighing 200-250 g,aged 4 weeks,were used in the study.The DRG neurons were isolated and GABAA receptor

  20. Cervical cancer - screening and prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cancer cervix - screening; HPV - cervical cancer screening; Dysplasia - cervical cancer screening; Cervical cancer - HPV vaccine ... Almost all cervical cancers are caused by HPV (human papilloma virus). HPV is a common virus that spreads through sexual contact. Certain ...

  1. Dorsal penile nerves and primary premature ejaculation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Hai-feng; ZHANG Chun-ying; LI Xing-hua; FU Zhong-ze; CHEN Zhao-yan

    2009-01-01

    Background Based on our clinical experience, the number of dorsal penile nerves in patients with primary premature ejaculation (PPE) is not consistent with the average number (2 branches). In this study, we evaluated the number and distribution of dorsal penile nerves among healthy Chinese adults and patients with PPE.Methods The dorsal nerve of the penis, the deep dorsal vein of the penis, and the dorsal artery of the penis between the deep fascia of the penis and the albuginea penis were carefully educed, observed, and counted in 38 adult autopsy specimens. The number and distribution of the dorsal penile nerve in 128 surgical patients with PPE were determined. Results The numbers of dorsal penile nerves of the 38 cases were as follows:7 branches in 1 case; 6 branches in 1 case; 5 branches in 6 cases; 4 branches in 9 cases; 3 branches in 14 cases; and 2 branches in 7 cases. Most of the dorsal nerves were parallel to each other and in the dorsum of the penis. In only 8 cases, the branches were connected by some communicating branches. In 4 cases, 1 or 2 thin dorsal nerves continued their pathway over the ventral aspect of the penis. The average number of branches of the dorsal penile nerve in patients with PPE was 7.16. Conclusions Based on the study of 38 cases, the average number of dorsal penile nerves was 3.55 branches and that of patients with PPE was greater. These preliminary results suggest that the excessive dorsal penile nerves may have an impact on PPE via increased sensitivity and provide topographic data for the possible treatment of PPE.

  2. Clinical Research of Small Needle-knife Combined with Chiropractic Manipulative Therapy in Treating Nerve Root Type Cervical Spondylopathy%小针刀配合整脊手法治疗神经根型颈椎病的临床研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王顺兴; 黄泳

    2012-01-01

    Objective:To explore the clinical curative effects of applying small needle-knife combined with chiropractic manipulation therapy in treating nerve root cervical spondylopathy. Methods;82 cases of nerve root type cervical spondylopathy patients were divided into the small needle-knife group and the combination treatment group,with each group of 41 patients. The small needle-knife group was treated by small needle-knife; the combination treatment group was treated by small needle-knife combined with chiropractic manipulative treatment methods. Results;The recovery effects of patients' disease condition after treatment in the combination treatment group was obviously superior to the small needle-knife group; improved degree of VAS score was significantly greater than the small needle-knife group; number of adverse reactions are obviously less than that of the small needle-knife group; recurrence rate was significantly lower than that of small group. Conclusion: The application of small needle-knife combined with chiropractic manipulation has distinctly clinical curative effects in treating nerve root type cervical spondylopathy.%目的:探讨应用小针刀联合整脊手法治疗神经根型颈椎病的临床疗效.方法:将82例神经根型颈椎病患者分为对照组和治疗组,每组41例.对照组采用小针刀治疗;治疗组采用小针刀与整脊手法联合方法治疗.结果:治疗组治疗后病情好转效果明显优于对照组;VAS评分的改善幅度明显优于对照组;出现不良反应的人数明显少于对照组;复发率明显低于对照组.结论:小针刀联合整脊手法治疗神经根型颈椎病临床效果明显.

  3. Complete agenesis of dorsal pancreas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malwinder Singh

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Complete agenesis of body and tail of pancreas is a very rare type of developmental anomaly of pancreas. It is important regarding its presentations of diabetes mellitus, pancreatitis, and exocrine insufficiency. Case Report: An old man had presented with atypical symptoms of obstructive jaundice with exocrine insufficiency. CECT helped to reveal the complete absence of the body and tail of pancreas with radiologically normal head with no signs of pancreatitis or mass lesion. Conclusions: The cause of agenesis of the dorsal pancreas is currently not well understood. It can also present lately as the presenting case. The presentations are usually related to secretory malfunctions. CECT is an initial investigation for diagnosis

  4. Liposarcome dorsal: aspect clinique rare

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agbessi, Odry; Arrob, Adil; Fiqhi, Kamal; Khalfi, Lahcen; Nassih, Mohammed; El Khatib, Karim

    2015-01-01

    Décrit la première fois par Virchow en 1860, le liposarcome est une tumeur mésenchymateuse rare. Cette rareté est relative car les liposarcomes représentent quand même 14 à 18% de l'ensemble des tumeurs malignes des parties molles et ils constituent le plus fréquent des sarcomes des parties molles. Pour la majorité des auteurs, il ne se développerait jamais sur un lipome ou une lipomatose préexistant. Nous rapportons un cas de volumineux liposarcome de la face dorsale du tronc. L'histoire de la maladie, l'aspect clinique inhabituel « de tumeur dans tumeur », l'aspect de la pièce opératoire nous fait évoquer la possibilité de la transformation maligne d'un lipome bénin préexistant. PMID:26113914

  5. Neurogenic bladder: Highly selective rhizotomy of specific dorsal rootlets maybe a better choice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Genying; Zhou, Mouwang; Wang, Wenting; Zeng, Fanshuo

    2016-02-01

    Spinal cord injury results not only in motor and sensory dysfunctions, but also in loss of normal urinary bladder functions. A number of clinical studies were focused on the strategies for improvement of functions of the bladder. Completely dorsal root rhizotomy or selective specific S2-4 dorsal root rhizotomy suppress autonomic hyper-reflexia but have the same defects: it could cause detrusor and sphincter over-relaxation and loss of reflexive erection in males. So precise operation needs to be considered. We designed an experimental trail to test the possibility on the basis of previous study. We found that different dorsal rootlets which conduct impulses from the detrusor or sphincter can be distinguished by electro-stimulation in SD rats. Highly selective rhizotomy of specific dorsal rootlets could change the intravesical pressure and urethral perfusion pressure respectively. We hypothese that for neurogenic bladder following spinal cord injury, highly selective rhizotomy of specific dorsal rootlets maybe improve the bladder capacity and the detrusor sphincter dyssynergia, and at the same time, the function of other pelvic organ could be maximize retainment.

  6. Dorsal border periaqueductal gray neurons project to the area directly adjacent to the central canal ependyma of the C4-T8 spinal cord in the cat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mouton, L J; Kerstens, L; Van der Want, J; Holstege, G

    1996-11-01

    In a previous study horseradish peroxidase (HRP) injections in the upper thoracic and cervical spinal cord revealed some faintly labeled small neurons at the dorsal border of the periaqueductal gray (PAG). The present light microscopic and electronmicroscopic tracing study describes the precise location of these dorsal border PAG-spinal neurons and their terminal organization. Wheat germ agglutinin-conjugated HRP (WGA-HRP) injections into cervical and upper thoracic spinal segments resulted in several hundreds of small retrogradely labeled neurons at the dorsal border of the ipsilateral caudal PAG. These neurons were not found after injections in more caudal segments. WGA-HRP injections in the dorsal border PAG region surprisingly resulted in anterogradely labeled fibers terminating in the area dorsally and laterally adjoining the central canal ependyma of the C4-T8 spinal cord. No anterogradely labeled fibers were found more caudal in the spinal cord. The labeled fibers found in the upper cervical cord were not located in the area immediately adjoining the ependymal layer of the central canal, but in the lateral part of laminae VI, VII and VIII and in area X bilaterally. Electronmicroscopic results of one case show that the dorsal border PAG-spinal neurons terminate in the neuropil of the subependymal area and in the vicinity of the basal membranes of capillaries located laterally to the central canal. The terminal profiles contain electron-lucent and densecored vesicles, suggesting a heterogeneity of possible transmitters. A striking observation was the lack of synaptic contacts, suggesting nonsynaptic release from the profiles. The function of the dorsal border PAG-spinal projection is unknown, but considering the termination pattern of the dorsal border PAG neurons on the capillaries the intriguing similarity between this projection system and the hypothalamohypophysial system is discussed.

  7. Cervical Cancer Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Cancer found early may be easier to treat. Cervical cancer screening is usually part of a woman's health ... may do more tests, such as a biopsy. Cervical cancer screening has risks. The results can sometimes be ...

  8. Cervical Cancer Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... are at increased risk for HPV infections. Other risk factors for cervical cancer include: Giving birth to many children. Smoking cigarettes. Using oral contraceptives ("the Pill"). Having a weakened immune system . Cervical Cancer Screening ...

  9. Cervical Cancer Stage IVB

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of the body, such as the lymph nodes, lung, liver, intestine, or bone. Stage IVB cervical cancer. Topics/Categories: Anatomy -- Gynecologic Cancer Types -- Cervical Cancer Staging Type: Color, ...

  10. Dorsal border periaqueductal gray neurons project to the area directly adjacent to the central canal ependyma of the C4-T8 spinal cord in the cat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mouton, LJ; Kerstens, L; VanderWant, J; Holstege, G

    1996-01-01

    In a previous study horseradish peroxidase (HRP) injections in the upper thoracic and cervical spinal cord revealed some faintly labeled small neurons at the dorsal border of the periaqueductal gray (PAG). The present light microscopic and electronmicroscopic tracing study describes the precise loca

  11. The influence of protein-calorie malnutrition on the development of paranodal regions in spinal roots. A study with the OTAN method on rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordborg, C

    1977-11-28

    During the early postnatal development of spinal roots in rats paranodal regions were often found, containing OTAN-positive inclusions in the Schwann cell cytoplasm. The presence of OTAN-positive paranodal regions showed variations in time, which were synchronous for ventral and dorsal roots. Dorsal roots, however, showed a more marked presence during development than ventral roots. Spinal roots of animals submitted to a 50% food restriction, were shown to contain more OTAN-positive paranodal regions than controls. This was true for ventral as well as dorsal roots. It is suggested that crowding of internodal segments could be one factor, determining the presence of paranodal, OTAN-positive material.

  12. Effect of Salvia miltiorrhiza injection on hyperpolarization-activated current channels in dorsal root ganglion neurons of rats%丹参注射液对背根神经节细胞超极化激活电流通道的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈素; 刘向明

    2006-01-01

    目的 观察丹参对背根神经节细胞超极化激活通道电流的影响,探讨丹参缓解疼痛和阻滞钙内流,以及减轻钙超载的作用机制.方法 应用全细胞膜片钳技术,观察了丹参注射液对大鼠背根神经节细胞超极化激活电流(Ih)通道的影响.结果 10%,25%和50%的丹参注射液对大鼠背根神经节细胞Ih通道的电流幅值、激活时间常数和翻转电位均没有影响,但可使Ih通道电流的半激活电压向超极化方向偏移.结论 丹参特异性地使Ih通道电流的半激活电压向超极化方向偏移所产生的对外周痛敏的对抗作用,可能也是其缓解疼痛的作用机制之一.%Aim To explore the modulation of Salvia miltiorrhiza on hyperpolarization-activated current (Ih) channels in dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons of rats and identify the mechanism of Salvia miltiorrhiza in alleviating pain and inhibiting calcium overload. Methods The effect of Salvia miltiorrhiza injection on Ih channels in DRG neurons of rats were examined by using whole-cell patch clamp technique. Results The experimental results showed that the amplitude of Ih evoked by -150 mV was (-1.06±0.18) nA. The Ih could be fitted well into the single kinetics and the time constant of activation, τ was clearly voltage-dependent with τ=(322.14±28.81) ms at -100 mV, decreasing to τ=(62.51±9.78) ms at -150 mV. The reversal potential of Ih was (-35.03±1.12) mV measured from tail currents. But no significant differences were found between the DRG neurons in the absence and presence of Salvia miltiorrhiza injection (10%, 25%, 50%) in the current amplitude, the time constant of activation and the reversal potential. The only difference between the DRG neurons in the absence and presence of Salvia miltiorrhiza injection was the half-activation potential of Ih. In control recordings the half-activation potential was (-106.07±3.59) mV. By comparison, the half-activation potentials changed to (-111.59±3.79) m

  13. The experimental study on co-culture of dorsal root ganglia and the neotype scaffolds of neural tissue engineering%新型多肽神经组织工程支架与背根神经节细胞联合培养的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邹枕玮; 郑启新; 吴永超; 吴斌

    2008-01-01

    Objective To investigate the biological compatibility of gel self-organized from IKVAV-containing peptides with nerve tissue.Methods The peptide was dissolved in NaOH solution where pH was adjusted to 8.5 and the content of peptide was 0.01 g/ml.Peptide covered with coverslip was triggered to be self-organized into gel by the addition of DMEM/F12,which was detected by TEM.The dorsal root ganglion (DRG) explants were collected from newborn rats,and then the tissues were dispersed into individual cell suspension by primary isolated culture methods.The DRG and dissociated cells were divided into experimental (EG) and control group (CG).In EG,DRG and cells were transplanted on the surface of gels.Growth of DRG neurons was observed by IPCM.The gel's cytotoxicity and its effect on attachment of DRG neurons were detected by live/dead assay kit and immunofluorescence staining in combination with cell counting.Results TEM showed that the self-assembly gel was composed of network nanofibers.The growth of axons from DRG in EG was better than in CG.There was no significant difference in percentage of living cells between EG and CG 1 and 7 days after culture.The number of attached DRG neurons in EG was greater than in CG 3 h and 6 h after culture.Conclusion The gel self-organized from IKVAV-containing peptides,which can enhance the growth of DRG and attachment of DRG neurons,has low toxicity to cells and can be acted as a superordinary nerve tissue engineering scaffold.%目的 观察自组装含IKVAV多肽凝胶材料与神经组织的生物相容性.方法 肽溶于NaOH溶液中,调整pH至8.5,浓度为0.01g/ml,加DMEM/F12在盖玻片上触发多肽自组装为凝胶,透射电镜检测.取新生SD大鼠背根神经节及其游离细胞分为实验组与对照组,实验组中DRG及其游离细胞与凝胶材料联合培养.倒置相差显微镜观察DRG生长情况,免疫荧光染色结合镜下细胞计数检测凝胶材料的细胞毒性和黏附性.结果 透射电镜显示

  14. Inhibition of Sodium Channels in Rat Dorsal Root Ganglion Neurons by Hainantoxin-IV, a Novel Spider Toxin%海南捕鸟蛛毒素-IV对大鼠背根神经节细胞钠通道的抑制影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖玉成; 梁宋平

    2003-01-01

    The effects of Hainantoxin-IV (HNTX-IV), a neurotoxic peptide isolated from the venom of the Chinese bird spider Seleconosmia hainana, on the adult rat dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons were investigated. Using the whole-cell patch-clamp technique HNTX-IV inhibited mammal neural TTX-sensitive (TTX-S) sodium currents evidently but the toxin failed to affect TTX-resistant (TTX-R) ones. The inhibition of HNTX-IV is dose-dependent with the IC50 value of 44.6 nmol/L. The toxin didn't affect the activation and inactivation kinetics of sodium currents, but it caused a 10.1 mV hyperpolarizing shift in the voltage midpoint of steady-state sodium channel inactivation on DRG neurons. The results indicated that HNTX-IV, a novel spider toxin, maybe alternate voltage-gated sodium channels through a mechanism distinct from other spider toxins such as δ-ACTXs, μ-agatoxins I-VI which targeted the receptor site 3 to slow the inactivation kinetics of sodium currents.%海南捕鸟蛛毒素-IV(HNTX-IV)是从中国捕鸟蛛Seleconosmia hainana粗毒中分离得到的一种肽类神经毒素, 在成年大鼠背根神经节(DRG)细胞上观察了该毒素对电压门控钠通道的影响. 在全细胞膜片钳条件下, HNTX-IV能明显抑制哺乳动物神经性河豚毒敏感型(TTX-S)钠电流, 但不影响河豚毒不敏感型(TTX-R)钠电流. HNTX-IV对DRG细胞TTX-S钠电流的抑制作用具有浓度依从性, 其有效半抑制浓度(IC50)为44.6 nmol/L. 该毒素不影响DRG钠电流的激活与失活时间特征, 但能导致钠通道的半数稳态失活电压向超极化方向漂移约10.1 mV. 结果表明HNTX-IV是一种新型的蜘蛛毒素, 其影响电压门控钠通道的机制可能有别于那些结合于通道位点3来延缓钠电流失活时间特征的蜘蛛毒素如δ-澳洲漏斗网蛛毒素、μ-美洲漏斗网蛛毒素I-VI等.

  15. MODULATORY EFFECT OF CAFFEINE ON GABA-ACTIVATED CURRENT FROM ACUTELY ISOLATED RAT DORSAL ROOT GANGLION NEURONS%咖啡因对急性分离大鼠DRG神经元GABA-激活电流的调制作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李韶; 孙长凯; 张健; 李爱萍; 朴花; 李之望

    2007-01-01

    应用全细胞膜片钳记录大鼠新鲜分离背根神经节(DRG)神经元GABA-激活电流,观察咖啡因对GABA-激活电流(IGABA)的调制作用.结果显示:大部分受检细胞(97.4%,113/116) 对外加GABA敏感.1-1000 μmol/L GABA引起一剂量依赖性、有明显去敏感作用的内向电流.预加咖啡因(0.01-100 μmol/L)30 s后再加GABA能明显抑制GABA(100 μmol/L )激活电流的幅值.预加咖啡因后GABA量效曲线明显下移;GABA-激活电流的最大值较之对照下降约57%;而Kd值(30 μmol/L)几乎不变.该结果提示此种抑制为非竞争性的.预加氨茶碱(theophylline)亦可明显抑制GABA激活电流,同一浓度(10 μmol/L)下氨茶碱的抑制作用较咖啡因的抑制作用强.预加安定(diazepam, 1 μmol/L)对GABA(10 μmol/L )激活电流有增强作用,而预加咖啡因(10 μmol/L )有拮抗安定增强IGABA的作用.胞内透析H-8后,几乎可以完全消除咖啡因对IGABA的抑制作用.本结果表明咖啡因在初级传入末稍可能产生对抗突触前抑制的效应.%Whole-cell patch clamp technique was performed on acutely isolated rat dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons to investigate the modulatory effect of caffeine on γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-activated currents (IGABA). The results showed that the majority of the neurons examined (97.4%, 113/116) were sensitive to GABA. 1-1000 μmol/L GABA activated a concentration-dependent inward current which manifested obvious desensitization. After the neurons were treated with caffeine (0.01-100 μmol/L) prior to the application of GABA (100 μmol/L) for 30 s, GABA-activated membrane currents were obviously inhibited. Caffeine shifted the GABA dose-response curve downward and decreased the maximum response to 57% without changing Kd value. These results indicate that the inhibitory effect is non-competitive. Theophylline showed a similar and stronger inhibitory effect on IGABA. The pretreatment with caffeine (10 μmol/L) inhibited IGABA, which was

  16. 神经生长因子在骨癌痛大鼠DRG的变化及其对疼痛行为学的影响%CHANGES OF NERVE GROWTH FACTOR IN THE DORSAL ROOT GANGLION NEURONS OF RATS WITH BONE CANCER PAIN AND ITS EFFECTS ON PAIN-RELATED BEHAVIORS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姚鹏; 蒋晶晶; 张锦; 孟凌新; 崔健君

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To determine the expression of nerve growth factor (NGF) and its receptors ( TrkA,P75 ) in L4/L5 dorsal root ganglia (DRG) of rats with bone cancer pain, and anti-NGF were administered intrathecally at 16 ~ 21 days after implantation to observe the changes of pain-related behavior. To investigate the potential role of NGF on bone cancer pain in rats. Methods: Bone cancer pain was induced by implantation of Walker 256 breast carcinosarcoma cells into the tibia. After surgery, mechanical and thermal hyperalgesia and ambulation scores were evaluated to identify pain-related behavior. Western blotting and fluorescent quantitation real-time RT-PCR were used to determine NGF,TrkA, P75 protein and mRNA expression in ipsilateral L4/L5 DRG at 21 days after surgery between tumor-bearing and sham rats.Anti-NGF were administered intrathecally at 16 ~ 21 days after surgery to compare the changes in pain-related behavior. Results: Western-blot and real-time RT-PCR showed that the total expression of NGF, TrkA,P75 protein and mRNA levels significantly increased in ipsilateral L4/L5 DRG of cancer rats compared with the sham group. Cancer rats exhibited mechanical and thermal hyperalgesia from day 13 after implantation of Walker 256 cells, and cancer rats also showed alleviated mechanical hyperalgesia and ambulatory-evoked pain after administration of anti-NGF intrathecally. Conclusion: NGF is involved in the development of bone cancer pain. Intrathecal anti-NGF significantly attenuates bone cancer-caused hyperalgesia.%目的:检测骨癌痛大鼠背根神经节(DRG)神经生长因子(NGF)及其受体TrkA及P75的表达,并观察鞘内注射抗神经生长因子抗体(anti-NGF)对骨癌痛大鼠疼痛行为学的影响,探讨NGF在骨癌痛中可能的作用.方法:建立大鼠胫骨骨癌痛模型,观察疼痛行为学变化,造模21天,检测大鼠DRG神经元NGF、TrkA及P75蛋白及mRNA表达;并进一步将骨癌痛大鼠分成cancer及cancer+anti-NGF组,观

  17. Fentanyl induced hyperalgesia and upregulation of pro-inflammatory cytokines in dorsal root ganglions in ;rats%芬太尼可诱导大鼠痛觉过敏与背根神经节促炎因子过表达

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    常路; 叶芳; 舒海华; 杨琳; 黄文起

    2016-01-01

    目的:探索大剂量芬太尼诱导的痛觉过敏模型中,大鼠背根神经节促炎因子的表达。方法:64只雄性SD大鼠分为2组(n =32),皮下注射芬太尼60μg/kg或生理盐水共4次,每次注射间隔15 min。注射前1 d和注射后1、2、3、4 h及1~7 d对大鼠进行压尾机械伤害阈值(TFT)和足底热伤害潜时(PWL)测试。注射前1 d和注射后4 h及1、3、5、7 d每组选取4只大鼠处死,取腰段背根神经节(DRG),以酶联免疫吸附法测定前列腺素E2、白介素1-β、白介素6和肿瘤坏死因子α的表达。结果:对照组大鼠的行为学及DRG中促炎因子水平在各个时间点无统计学差异。实验组大鼠注射后1~4 h TFT及PWL值升高,1~3 d降低;DRG促炎因子在注射后1、3、5、7 d表达升高。结论:大剂量芬太尼可引起大鼠痛觉过敏及DRG促炎因子升高。促炎因子表达峰值延迟于痛觉过敏的表现,且持续更长时间,和痛觉过敏无直接相关。%Objective To investigate the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines in lumbar dorsal root ganglions (DRG) of rats model of high-dose fentanyl induced hyperalgesia. Methods 64 male SD rats were divided into 2 groups (n = 32), fentanyl group and normal saline (NS) group. The rats were injected with fentanyl (60 μg/kg) or NS 4 times in total subcutaneously with a 15-minute interval. Mechanical and thermal nociception were measured via the tail pressure test (tail flick thresholds, TFT) and paw withdrawal test (paw withdrawal latency, PWL) at 1 day before, at 1, 2, 3 and 4 hour and on 1 ~ 7 day after administration. 4 rats were sacrificed and the lumbar DRG were harvested to analyze the expression of PGE2 , IL-1β, IL-6 and TNF-αvia ELISA. Results There were no significant changes of TFT, PWL and the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines in DRG compared to baseline of rats in NS group. The value of TFT , PWL in fentanyl group were above the baseline

  18. Effects of gabapentin on high voltage active calcium currents in injured dorsal root ganglion neurons in a rat model of neuropathic pain%加巴喷丁对神经病理性痛大鼠背根神经节神经元高电压激活钙电流的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈晓东; 朱敏敏; 安珊珊; 王强; 陆亮; 孙芹; 肖杭; 徐建国; 段满林

    2010-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effect of gabapentin on high voltage active calcium currents in the injured dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons in a rat model of neuropathic pain.Methods Pathogen-free male SD rats aged 4-6 weeks were used in this study. The animals were anesthetized with intraperitoneal pentobarbital soclium 50 mg/kg. L_5 spinal nerve was ligated between DRG and sciatic nerve and cut distal to the ligature. The animals were decapitated on the 14th postoperative day. L_5 DRG was isolated and the neurons in the ganglion were enzymatically dissociated. The high voltage active calcium current was recorded using whole-cell patch-clamp technique.Results Gabapentin inhibited the peak calcium current in the injured DEG neurons. Peak calcium current was decreased by gabapentin 100 μmol/L and both activation and steady-state inactivation curve shifted to more hyperpolarized potentials. Conclusion Gabapentin can inhibit high voltage active in the injured DRG neurons in a rat model of neuropathic pain. The alteration in the inactivation of the electrophysiological properties may be involved in the mechanism.%目的 评价加巴喷丁对神经病理性痛大鼠背根神经节神经元高电压激活钙电流的影响.方法 雄性SD大鼠,周龄4~6周,采用结扎L_5脊神经的方法建立神经病理性痛模型.于术后14 d时采用酶消化法急性分离损伤侧L_5背根神经节神经元,采用全细胞膜片钳技术记录神经元高电压激活钙电流,记录加巴喷丁0.1、1、10、100、300 μmol/L(G_(1~5)组)作用下的钙电流,计算电流抑制率;并绘制100 μmol/L加巴喷丁作用下钙电流-电压曲线、钙通道激活曲线和稳态失活曲线.结果 与给药前比较,G_(1~5)组给药后钙电流均降低(P<0.05).给予100 μmol/L加巴喷丁后钙电流-电压曲线左移.与给药前比较,给予100 μmol/L加巴喷丁后钙通道激活曲线的半数激活电压和稳态失活曲线的半数失活电压降低(P<0.05),激

  19. Cervical abscess and pharyngeal fistula in a horse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, E A

    1975-04-15

    A weanling Quarter Horse filly developed ventral swelling of the lower cervical area after difficult passage of a stomach tube for deworming. Intermittent bilateral nasal discharge developed. Radiography revealed fluid and gas density dorsal to the trachea and esophagus. Surgical incision with drainage and debridement of the abscess and fistulous tract, facilitated by use of drains, led to complete recovery. Contrast medium injected after surgery demonstrated a communication between the abscess and the pharyngeal region.

  20. 温针配合中药离子导入治疗神经根型颈椎病临床研究%Clincal Study on Warm Acupuncture and Chinese Medicine Iontophoresis Treatment of Type Cervical Spondylosis of Nerve Root

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘敏娟; 王魁; 郑苏; 佟春媛

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To observe the effect of warm needling with Chinese medicine iontophoresis on cervical spondylosis of nerve root type. Methods: 110 cases of cervical spondylosis of nerve root type were randomly divided into the treatment group and control group, 55 cases in each group. The treatment group was given warm needling with Chinese medicine iontophoresis and the control group was treated with medication and traction. Three courses after treatment, there were specific staff for curative effect evaluation. Results:The treatment group clinical cure rate was 49% and the total effective rate was 94.5%, the control group clinical cure rate was 23.6% and the total effective rate was 83.6%, the treatment group was superior to thecontrol group. Cured patients treatment comparison showed that the cure rates of treatment group in one or two courses were both higher than that of control group, indicating that the warm acupuncture with Chinese medicine inotophoresis can significantly shorten the treatment course of cervical spondylosis of nerve root type. The treatment group had significant difference compared with control group ( P<0.05 ) . Conclusion: The warm acupuncture with Chinese medicine inotophoresis on cervical spondylosis of nerve root type has distinct curative effect , and is worthy of clinical application.%目的:观察温针配合中药离子导入治疗神经根型颈椎病的临床疗效.方法:将110例椎神经根型颈椎病患者随机分为治疗组55例和对照组55例.治疗组采用温针配合中药离子导入治疗,对照组采用药物配合牵引治疗,两组在治疗3个疗程后由专人进行疗效评定.结果:治疗组临床治愈率为49%,总有效率为94.5%;对照组临床治愈率为23.6%,总有效率为83.6%,治疗组总有效率及临床治愈率均优于对照组;两组痊愈患者中疗程与疗效比较显示,治疗组1个疗程和2个疗程内痊愈率均高于对照组,说明温针配合中药离子导入能明显

  1. Clinical Efficacy of Acupuncture and Moxibustion Therapy Combined with Flames in 30 Cases of Nerve Root Type Cervical Spondylosis%针刺结合火龙灸法治疗30例神经根型颈椎病的疗效观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    景福权; 袁红丽; 马晓丽; 王增亮

    2016-01-01

    Objective To study the clinical efficacy of both acupuncture combined with flames and simple acupuncture and moxibustion treatment of nerve root cervical spondylosis,so as to provide appropriate basis for the improvement of nerve root cervical spondylosis treatment. Methods A total of 60 cases of nerve root cervical spondylosis were enrolled for the study and randomly divided into two groups with the treatment of acupuncture combined with dragon moxibustion group(treatment group,n=30)and simple acupuncture group(control group,n=30). The clinical symptoms before and after treatment,and signs changes between the two groups were compared. Results Patients of both two groups showed significant im⁃provement after treatments(P<0.05);CSR simplify McGill Pain Scale scores inquiry(P<0.05). The total effective rate of the treatment group was 96.67%,which was 90.0%in the control group,with statistically significant difference(P<0.05). It indicated that the combined use of acupuncture and moxibustion therapy had better efficacy than simple acupuncture treatment. Conclusion The combined use of acupuncture and moxibustion therapy with flames in nerve root cervical spondylosis showed better clinical effect,which can be used as a preferred method of clinical treatment pro⁃grams.%目的:比较针刺结合火龙灸法与单纯针刺法治疗神经根型颈椎病的临床疗效。方法收集神经根颈椎病60例,随机分为针刺结合火龙灸法治疗组(治疗组,n=30)和单纯针刺法治疗组(对照组,n=30),观察治疗前后患者症状及体征的变化,并对2组的疗效进行比较。结果治疗组和对照组治疗后症状积分均较治疗前改善,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05)。在接受治疗后,2组CSR简化McGill疼痛询问量表PRI评分以及VAS评分量表评分均减小,不同治疗方法这2种评分的减小程度不全相同,治疗组对降低PRI以及VAS评分帮助最大。治疗组总有效率96.67%

  2. Operative Outcomes for Cervical Myelopathy and Radiculopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. G. Galbraith

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Cervical spondylotic myelopathy and radiculopathy are common disorders which can lead to significant clinical morbidity. Conservative management, such as physical therapy, cervical immobilisation, or anti-inflammatory medications, is the preferred and often only required intervention. Surgical intervention is reserved for those patients who have intractable pain or progressive neurological symptoms. The goals of surgical treatment are decompression of the spinal cord and nerve roots and deformity prevention by maintaining or supplementing spinal stability and alleviating pain. Numerous surgical techniques exist to alleviate symptoms, which are achieved through anterior, posterior, or circumferential approaches. Under most circumstances, one approach will produce optimal results. It is important that the surgical plan is tailored to address each individual's unique clinical circumstance. The objective of this paper is to analyse the major surgical treatment options for cervical myelopathy and radiculopathy focusing on outcomes and complications.

  3. Surgical Strategies for Cervical Spinal Neurinomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Kiyoshi; Aoyama, Tatsuro; Miyaoka, Yoshinari; Horiuchi, Tetsuyoshi; Hongo, Kazuhiro

    2015-01-01

    Cervical spinal neurinomas are benign tumors that arise from nerve roots. Based on their location, these tumors can also take the form of a dumbbell-shaped mass. Treatment strategies for these tumors have raised several controversial issues such as appropriate surgical indications and selection of surgical approaches for cervical dumbbell-shaped spinal neurinomas. In this report, we review previous literature and retrospectively analyze cervical spinal neurinoma cases that have been treated at our hospital. Surgical indications and approaches based on tumor location and severity are discussed in detail. Thus, with advances in neuroimaging and neurophysiological monitoring, we conclude that appropriate surgical approaches and intraoperative surgical manipulations should be chosen on a case-by-case basis.

  4. Management of invasive cervical resorption in a maxillary central incisor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, S Senthil; Kumar, N S Mohan; Karunakaran, J V; Nagendran, S

    2015-08-01

    Invasive cervical resorption is often not diagnosed properly, leading to improper treatment or unnecessary loss of the tooth structure. Early diagnosis and appropriate treatment are the keys to a successful outcome of therapy. Invasive cervical resorption is often seen in the cervical area of the tooth, but because it is initiated apical to the epithelial attachment, it can present anywhere in the root. In the early stages, it may be symmetrical, but larger lesions have the tendency to be asymmetrical. It can expand apically or coronally.

  5. Anterior cervical plating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gonugunta V

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Although anterior cervical instrumentation was initially used in cervical trauma, because of obvious benefits, indications for its use have been expanded over time to degenerative cases as well as tumor and infection of the cervical spine. Along with a threefold increase in incidence of cervical fusion surgery, implant designs have evolved over the last three decades. Observation of graft subsidence and phenomenon of stress shielding led to the development of the new generation dynamic anterior cervical plating systems. Anterior cervical plating does not conclusively improve clinical outcome of the patients, but certainly enhances the efficacy of autograft and allograft fusion and lessens the rate of pseudoarthrosis and kyphosis after multilevel discectomy and fusions. A review of biomechanics, surgical technique, indications, complications and results of various anterior cervical plating systems is presented here to enable clinicians to select the appropriate construct design.

  6. Acupuncture inhibition on neuronal activity of spinal dorsal horn induced by noxious colorectal distention in rat

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Pei-Jing Rong; Bing Zhu; Qi-Fu Huang; Xin-Yan Gao; Hui Ben; Yan-Hua Li

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To observe how acupuncture stimulation influences the visceral nociception in rat and to clarify the interactions between acupuncture or somatic input and visceral nociceptive inputs in the spinal dorsal horn. These will provide scientific base for illustrating the mechanism of acupuncture on visceral pain.METHODS: Experiments were performed on SpragueDawley rats and the visceral nociceptive stimulus was generated by colorectal distention (CRD). Unit discharges from individual single neuron were recorded extracellularly with glass-microelectrode in L1-3 spinal dorsal horn.Acupuncture stimulation was applied at contralateral heterotopic acupoint and ipsilateral homotopic acupoint,both of which were innervated by the same segments that innervate also the colorectal-gut.RESULTS: The visceral nociception could be inhibited at the spinal level by the heterotopic somatic mechanical stimulation and acupuncture. The maximal inhibition was induced by acupuncture or the somatic noxious stimulation at spinal dorsal horn level with inhibiting rate of 68.61%and 60.79%, respectively (P<0.01 and <0.001). In reversible spinalized rats (cervical-thoracic cold block)both spontaneous activity and responses to CRD increased significantly in 16/20 units examined, indicating the existence of tonic descending inhibition. The inhibition of acupuncture on the noxious CRD disappeared totally in the reversible spinalized rats (P<0.001).CONCLUSION: The inputs of noxious CRD and acupuncture may interact at the spinal level. The nociceptive visceral inputs could be inhibited by acupuncture applied to hetero-topic acupoint. The effect indicates that the spinal dorsal horn plays a significant role in mediating the inhibition of acupuncture and somatic stimulation on the neuronal response to the noxious visceral stimulation and the inhibition is modulated by upper cervical cord and/or supra-spinal center.

  7. 牵引下手法治疗神经根型颈椎病临床疗效观察%Clinically Therapeutic Effect of Traction Manipulation on Cervical Spondylosis with Nerve Root Type

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘江艺

    2015-01-01

    目的:观察牵引下手法调整颈椎曲度和单纯牵引治疗神经根型颈椎病的治疗效果,对比两组疗效。方法:将神经根型颈椎病患者60例随机分成治疗组和对照组,各30例,其中治疗组采用颈椎牵引下手法调整颈椎曲度治疗。对照组采用单纯牵引治疗。两组均是隔天1次,10次为一疗程,连续治疗两疗程。治疗前后均采用VAS评分。结果:两组治疗后较治疗前VAS都有明显改善,治疗组VAS改善优于对照组。治疗组疗效优于对照组。结论:牵引下推拿手法调整颈椎曲度治疗神经根型颈椎病疗效显著,明显优于单纯牵引治疗。%Objective:To investigate the technique of adjusting the curvature of cervical vertebrae traction and traction alone in the treatment of CSR in order to compare the treatment effects respectively.Methods:Divide 60 CSR patients equally into two groups.Adopt cervical traction manipulation under adjusting the curvature of cer-vical vertebrae treatment in the treatment group, whereas traction treatment was only used in the control group. Both groups received treatment for ten times with every two days in one courses of treatment.Two continual courses of treatment were needed.Results:Both groups showed great improvements.However, the treatment group had a greater improvement than the control group after comparing the VAS scores.Conclusion:Traction massage technique of adjusting the curvature of cervical vertebrae is a better treatment for CSR than the only traction treatment.

  8. Syntactic processing depends on dorsal language tracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Stephen M; Galantucci, Sebastiano; Tartaglia, Maria Carmela; Rising, Kindle; Patterson, Dianne K; Henry, Maya L; Ogar, Jennifer M; DeLeon, Jessica; Miller, Bruce L; Gorno-Tempini, Maria Luisa

    2011-10-20

    Frontal and temporal language areas involved in syntactic processing are connected by several dorsal and ventral tracts, but the functional roles of the different tracts are not well understood. To identify which white matter tract(s) are important for syntactic processing, we examined the relationship between white matter damage and syntactic deficits in patients with primary progressive aphasia, using multimodal neuroimaging and neurolinguistic assessment. Diffusion tensor imaging showed that microstructural damage to left hemisphere dorsal tracts--the superior longitudinal fasciculus including its arcuate component--was strongly associated with deficits in comprehension and production of syntax. Damage to these dorsal tracts predicted syntactic deficits after gray matter atrophy was taken into account, and fMRI confirmed that these tracts connect regions modulated by syntactic processing. In contrast, damage to ventral tracts--the extreme capsule fiber system or the uncinate fasciculus--was not associated with syntactic deficits. Our findings show that syntactic processing depends primarily on dorsal language tracts.

  9. 多节段脊髓型颈椎病经颈后路不同术式治疗后C5神经根麻痹的观察对比%Comparative observation of C5 nerve root palsy after posterior surgical treatment of multilevel cervical spondylotic myelopathy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贺建军; 梁盾; 陆兴

    2014-01-01

    Objective To compare the incidence of C5 nerve root palsy after laminoplasty and laminectomy with internal fixation for treating multilevel cervical spondylotic myelopathy (MCSM).Methods From January 2008 to August 2012,98 patients with MCSM were treated with laminoplasty (47 patients,group A) or laminectomy (51 patients,group B) with internal fixation.All the patients were followed up for 13-56(26.5 ± 7.9) months.In both groups,Cobb's method was applied to measure cervical lordotic angle,and Ishihara's method was conducted to measure cervical curvature index (CCI) before and after operation.The incidence of C5 nerveroot palsy was recorded and compared.Results The incidence of C5 nerve root palsy in group A was 2.1% (1/47),while 21.6 % (11/51) in group B (x2 =5.430,P < 0.05).The JOA scores in group A and group B before and after operation and improvement rate of JOA scores had no significant difference (P> 0.05).The cervical lordotic angle and CCI in group A and group B before and after operation had no significant difference (P > 0.05).The improvement rate of CCI between two groups had no significant difference (P > 0.05).All of 11 patients with C5 nerve root palsy were group B 1,and other 40 patients were group B2.The improvement rate of CCI in group B1 was significantly higher than that in group B2 [(38.7 ± 18.3)% vs.(22.1 ± 12.1)%](t =1.772,P< 0.05).Conclusions Compared with laminoplasty,laminectomy with internal fixation has a higher incidence of C5 nerve root palsy.The C5 nerve root palsy may be associated with postoperative increase of cervical lordosis angle.Moreover,tethering of the C5 root may he one of its important pathomechanisms.%目的 分析颈后路单开门椎管成形术与椎板切除内固定术治疗多节段脊髓型颈椎病术后C5神经根麻痹的发生率及其原因.方法 2008年1月至2012年8月因多节段脊髓型颈椎病分别接受椎管成形术的患者47例(A组)、接受椎

  10. Cervical insufficiency and cervical cerclage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Richard; Gagnon, Robert; Delisle, Marie-France; Gagnon, Robert; Bujold, Emmanuel; Basso, Melanie; Bos, Hayley; Brown, Richard; Cooper, Stephanie; Crane, Joan; Davies, Gregory; Gouin, Katy; Menticoglou, Savas; Mundle, William; Pylypjuk, Christy; Roggensack, Anne; Sanderson, Frank; Senikas, Vyta

    2013-12-01

    Objectif : La présente directive clinique a pour but de fournir un cadre de référence que les cliniciens pourront utiliser pour identifier les femmes qui sont exposées aux plus grands risques de connaître une insuffisance cervicale, ainsi que pour déterminer les circonstances en présence desquelles la mise en place d’un cerclage pourrait s’avérer souhaitable. Résultats : La littérature publiée a été récupérée par l’intermédiaire de recherches menées dans PubMed ou MEDLINE, CINAHL et The Cochrane Library en 2012 au moyen d’un vocabulaire contrôlé (p. ex. « uterine cervical incompetence ») et de mots clés appropriés (p. ex. « cervical insufficiency », « cerclage », « Shirodkar », « cerclage », « MacDonald », « cerclage », « abdominal », « cervical length », « mid-trimester pregnancy loss »). Les résultats ont été restreints aux analyses systématiques, aux essais comparatifs randomisés / essais cliniques comparatifs et aux études observationnelles. Aucune restriction n’a été appliquée en matière de date ou de langue. Les recherches ont été mises à jour de façon régulière et intégrées à la directive clinique jusqu’en janvier 2011. La littérature grise (non publiée) a été identifiée par l’intermédiaire de recherches menées dans les sites Web d’organismes s’intéressant à l’évaluation des technologies dans le domaine de la santé et d’organismes connexes, dans des collections de directives cliniques, dans des registres d’essais cliniques et auprès de sociétés de spécialité médicale nationales et internationales. Valeurs : La qualité des résultats est évaluée au moyen des critères décrits dans le rapport du Groupe d’étude canadien sur les soins de santé préventifs (Tableau). Recommandations 1. Les femmes qui sont enceintes ou qui planifient connaître une grossesse devraient faire l’objet d’une évaluation visant les facteurs de

  11. Superficial Dorsal Vein Injury/Thrombosis Presenting as False Penile Fracture Requiring Dorsal Venous Ligation

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    Arash Rafiei, MD

    2014-12-01

    Conclusion: Early exploration of patients with suspected penile fracture provides excellent results with maintenance of erectile function. Also, in the setting of dorsal vein thrombosis, ligation preserves the integrity of the penile tissues and avoids unnecessary complications from conservative management. Rafiei A, Hakky TS, Martinez D, Parker J, and Carrion R. Superficial dorsal vein injury/thrombosis presenting as false penile fracture requiring dorsal venous ligation. Sex Med 2014;2:182–185.

  12. Quantitative morphometric analysis of the lumbar vertebral facets and evaluation of feasibility of lumbar spinal nerve root and spinal canal decompression using the Goel intraarticular facetal spacer distraction technique: A lumbar/cervical facet comparison

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Savni R Satoskar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective : The authors evaluate the anatomic subtleties of lumbar facets and assess the feasibility and effectiveness of use of ′Goel facet spacer′ in the treatment of degenerative spinal canal stenosis. Materials and Methods : Twenty-five lumbar vertebral cadaveric dried bones were used for the purpose. A number of morphometric parameters were evaluated both before and after the introduction of Goel facet spacers within the confines of the facet joint. Results : The spacers achieved distraction of facets that was more pronounced in the vertical perspective. Introduction of spacers on both sides resulted in an increase in the intervertebral foraminal height and a circumferential increase in the spinal canal dimensions. Additionally, there was an increase in the disc space or intervertebral body height. The lumbar facets are more vertically and anteroposteriorly oriented when compared to cervical facets that are obliquely and transversely oriented. Conclusions : Understanding the anatomical peculiarities of the lumbar and cervical facets can lead to an optimum utilization of the potential of Goel facet distraction arthrodesis technique in the treatment of spinal degenerative canal stenosis.

  13. Cervical spondylomyelopathy (wobbler syndrome in the Boerboel

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    M.J. Gray

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available The Boerboel is a South African large-breed dog resembling a Bullmastiff. The records of Onderstepoort Veterinary Academic Hospital were searched for dogs that had presented, between 1998 and 2003, with symptoms indicative of wobbler syndrome and had undergone survey radiographic and myelographic studies. Ten cases fitted the inclusion criteria. Dogs presented within the first 2 years of life, often with acute onset of symptoms. All presented with pelvic limb and 6 with concomitant thoracic limb ataxia or paresis. Treatment varied and included none (4, prednisolone (2, and dorsal laminectomy (2. Two dogs were euthanased at the time of diagnosis. The breed appears to be affected with a form of spondylomyelopathy that comprises bony malformation of cervical and/or thoracic vertebrae. In 8 dogs, malformations were evident on survey radiographs and were characterised by enlarged, irregular articular facets and associated medial deviation of the pedicles. These changes resulted in axial compression of the spinal cord best seen on ventrodorsal or dorsoventral myelographic studies. Multiple vertebrae were affected in some dogs and lesions were not confined to the caudal area of the cervical spine. Three dogs were alive and without symptoms at follow-up. Four were euthanased as a result of the disease and 1 died as a result of post-operative complications. Two additional dogs presenting with wobbler clinical signs are also described. One had medial deviation of the T5 and T6 caudal pedicles and 1 dog suffered from multiple cervical articular facet synovial cysts.

  14. Treatment Option Overview (Cervical Cancer)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Cancer Prevention Cervical Cancer Screening Research Cervical Cancer Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information About Cervical Cancer ... Certain factors affect prognosis (chance of recovery) and treatment options. The prognosis (chance of recovery) depends on ...

  15. Effects of gabapentin on high-voltage-activated calcium currents in dorsal root ganglion neurons in mice with oxaliplatin-induced neuropathic pain%加巴喷丁对奥沙利铂诱发神经病理性痛小鼠背根神经节神经元高电压激活钙通道的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宗剑; 王强; 李丹; 崔耀梅; 肖杭; 段满林

    2011-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effects of gabapentin on high-voltage-activated calcium currents in dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons in mice with oxaliplatin-induced neuropathic pain (NP). Methods Pathogen-free male Kunming mice aged 6 weeks weighing 20-25 g were used in this study. NP was induced by injection of intraperitoneal oxaliplatin 3 mg/kg. Successful induction of NP was defined as the mechanical paw withdrawal threshold (MWT) measured at 3 d after oxaliplatin administration decreased to 40% of the baseline ( before administration of oxaliplatin). Forty-one mice in which NP was successfully induced were randomly divided into 2 groups: NP group ( n = 20) and gabapentin group (group G, n = 21 ). Another 10 normal mice served as control group (group C). At 3 days after oxaliplatin administration, gabapentin 100 mg/kg was injected intraperitoneally once a day for 3 consecutive days in group G, while C and NP groups received the equal volume of normal saline.MWT to von Fray filament stimulation was measured immediately before and 1-3 days after gabapentin administration (T1-4). After the last measurement of MWT, bilateral L4.5 DRG was collected and neurons were isolated. The high-voltage-activated calcium currents were recorded using whole-cell patch-clamp technique. The peak current density and the voltage where half of the current was activated ( Va1/2 ) or inactivated ( Vi 1/2 ) were calculated. Results Compared with group C, MWT at T1-4 was decreased, the peak current density and Vi1/2 were significantly increased in group NP, and MWT at T1 was decreased in group G ( P < 0.05). There was no significant difference in the peak current density, Vi1/2 and Va1/2 between C and G groups ( P > 0.05). MWT at T2-4 was significantly increased, while the peak current density and Vi1/2 were significantly decreased in group G compared with group NP (P < 0.05). Conclusion Gabapentin can reduce oxaliplatin-induced NP in mice through inhibiting high

  16. Effect of lacosamide on expression of Nav1.8 in dorsal root ganglia in a rat model of chronic neuropathic pain%拉科酰胺对神经病理性痛大鼠背根神经节Nav1.8表达的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王昕辉; 易红蕾; 刘春江; 龚政; 熊源长

    2011-01-01

    目的 探讨拉科酰胺对神经病理性痛大鼠背根神经节(DRG)Nav1.8表达的影响.方法 SPF级雌性SD大鼠36只,体重120~130 g,采用随机数字表法,将其随机分为3组(n=12):假手术组(S组)、模型组(M组)、拉科酰胺组(L组).M组和L组将钢棒插入椎间孔压迫L5DRG制备神经病理性痛模型.于术前2 d、术后2,4、6、7、8、9、10 d(T0-7)时测定机械痛阈.于T4时,S组和L组腹腔注射拉科酰胺20 mg/kg(生理盐水溶解至0.5 ml),M组注射生理盐水0.5 ml,2次/d,连续4 d.每天末次给药后测定痛阈.于T7时痛阈测定后取术侧L5DRG,采用RT-PCR法和免疫组织化学法测定Nav1.8mRNA和蛋白表达水平.结果 与S组比较,M组和L组T1~7时机械痛阚降低,Nav1.8 mRNA和蛋白表达上调(P<0.05);与M组比较,L组T4~7时机械痛阈升高,Nav1.8 mRNA和蛋白表达下调(P<0.05).结论 拉科酰胺减轻大鼠慢性神经病理性痛的机制与下调损伤DRG的Nav1.8表达有关.%Objective To investigate the effect of lacosamide on expression of Nav1 .8 in dorsal root ganglia (DRG) in a rat model of chronic neuropathic pain.Methods Thirty-six female specific-pathogen-free (SPF)SD rats were randomly assigned into 3 groups ( n = 12 each): sham operation group (group S), model group (group M) and lacosamide group (group L) . Chronic neuropathic pain was produced by insertion of a small stainless steel rod (4.00 mm in length and 0.63 mm in diameter) into the L, intervertebral foramen in the rat, producing a chronic steady compression of the DRG in M and L groups. The mechanical threshold was measured 2 days before operation and on the 2, 4, 6, 7, 8, 9 and 10 days after operation (T0-7 ) . Intraperitoneal lacosamide 20mg/kg (in normal saline 0.5 ml) was injected at T4-7, twice a day in S and L groups. In group M, normal saline 0.5 ml was injected at T4-7 twice a day and the mechanical threshold was measured after the last administration everyday . The L, DRG on the operated side was

  17. 背根神经节内代谢型谷氨酸受体2与酸敏感性离子通道3和辣椒素受体1的共存研究%Co-localization of metabotropic glutamate receptor 2 with ASIC3 or TRPV1 in the dorsal root

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张婷; 王旭翾; 张靖; 史娟; 李会莉; 李云庆

    2008-01-01

    Metabotropie glutamate receptor (mGluR) 2/3 plays an important role on the nociceptive transmission from periphery to spinal cord.The previous studies demonstrated that mGluR2 can contribute to mechanical hypersensitivity and thermal hypersensitivity in rat.Therefore,in the present study,by using the immunofluorescenee histochemical technique,we try to explore that whether mGluR2 is colocalized with acid-sensing ion channel 3 (ASIC3),a muhi-modulator of mechanosensation,or transient receptor potential/vanilloid receptor subtype-1 (TRPV1),which responses for thermosensation in dorsal root ganglion (DRG).Morphological observations showed that mGluR2-immunoreactivity was mainly distributed in cellular plasma of neurons in DRG.The counting number results indicated that 35.84% of DRG neurons were mGluR2-immunoreactive (ir).On the other hand,82.61% of mGluR2-ir cells were the small-diameter neurons (diameter:<30 μm),5.79% of which were the medium-diameter neurons (diameter:30-50μm) and 11.59% of which was the large-diameter neurons (diameter:>50 tun).Furthermore,42.45% and 79.78% of mGiuR2-ir cells was individually co-localized with ASIC3-or TRPVI-ir in small-diameter neurons in the double-labeled immunofluorescence sections.The present results suggest that mGhiR2 mainly exists in small neurons of the DRG,which are regarded as nociceptors consisting of AS-and C-fibers.While mGluR2 is highly co-localized with ASIC3 and TRPV1,implying their potential relationship in DRG may be involved in mechanical hypersensitivity and thermal hypersensitivity.%代谢型谷氨酸受体(mGluR)2/3在伤害性信息从外周向脊髓传递的过程中发挥着重要作用.以往研究证明在大鼠中mGluR2参与了机械性超敏和热超敏的形成,因此本研究拟采用免疫荧光组织化学染色技术揭示背根节(DRG)中mGluR2和酸敏感性离子通道3(ASIC3),一个多觉机械性感受器,或者和热伤害性感受器辣椒素受体(TRPV1)的共存情

  18. The effect of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation on neuropathic pain and nNOS in dorsal root ganglia in a rat model%低频和高频重复经颅磁刺激对大鼠神经病理性疼痛及背根神经节内nNOS的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭铁成; 许惊飞

    2014-01-01

    Objective In order to explore the mechanism of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation rTMS) on neuropathic pain,we observed the effect of different frequencies of rTMS on neuropathic pain and the expression of neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) in the dorsal root ganglion (DRG).Methods A total of 28 male Sprague-Dawley rats were used and divided into a control group,in which sham-operation was performed,and an experimental group which was further divided into a sham-rTMS group,a 1 Hz group and a 20 Hz group after successful neuropathic pain model was established by operation to ligate the left sciatic nerves,with 7 rats in each group.Three days after the operation,rTMS was applied to the primary motor cortex (M1) contralateral to the pain once dai ly for 10 consecutive days.The pain behavior and nNOS expression in the DRG were measured before and after 10 days of rTMS intervention.Results All the neuropathic pain model rats demonstrated pain-related behaviors 3 days postoperation,the mechanical pain thresholds were significantly lower than those in the control group (P < 0.05).After rTMS treatment,the mechanical hyperalgsia was significantly relieved in 20 Hz group but not 1 Hz group as demonstrated by a comparison with the sham-rTMS group (P < 0.05).The expression of nNOS in DRG ipsilateral to the neuropathic pain was significantly increased in sham-rTMS group and 1 Hz group (P < 0.05) when compared with the control group.Meanwhile,it was shown that expression of nNOS was down-regulated in 20 Hz group but not 1 Hz group (P < 0.05).The degree of pain relief in 20 Hz group was negatively correlated with the expression of nNOS in DRG (P <0.05).Conclusions Neuropathic pain induced by peripheral nerve injury is associated with elevated expression of nNOS in the DRG.High-frequency rTMS can relieve neuropathic pain through down-regulating the overexpression of nNOS in the DRG,but the low-frequency rTMS has no such effect.%目的 观察不同频率的

  19. 清络通痹方对小鼠疼痛行为及 DRG 中 COX-2表达和血 PGE2的影响%Effects of Qingluo Tongbi Compound on Pain Behavior and Expression of COX-2 in Dorsal Root Ganglion and Blood PGE2

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱亚梅; 周玲玲; 彭孝武; 唐宗湘; 周学平

    2016-01-01

    目的:观察清络通痹方对疼痛模型和胶原关节炎(CIA)小鼠模型的疼痛行为的影响,及背根神经节(DRG)环氧合酶(COX)-2 mRNA 及血前列腺素 E2(PGE2)含量的影响,初步探讨清络通痹方干预类风湿关节炎疼痛的作用及可能机制。方法采用热板和醋酸扭体致痛模型,分为空白对照组、塞来昔布组(30 mg/kg)、清络通痹低剂量组(4.35 g/kg)、中剂量组(8.70 g/kg)、高剂量组(17.4 g/kg),观察各组痛阈值和扭体次数的改变。DBA/1小鼠,复制 CIA 模型,随机分为空白对照组、模型组、清络通痹方组(8.7 g/kg)及塞来昔布组(30 mg/kg),观察一般情况及关节肿胀,各组机械缩足反射阈值(MWT)和热缩足反射阈值(TWL)的变化,灌胃给药4周后,检测 DRG COX-2 mRNA 及血清 PGE2含量。结果清络通痹方使小鼠热板法致痛模型痛阈值提高、醋酸扭体法致痛模型扭体次数减少(P <0.01);可显著减轻 CIA 小鼠足肿胀(P <0.05),提高其 MWT(P<0.01)和 PWL(P <0.05)阈值,降低 DRG 中 COX-2 mRNA 的表达(P <0.05)和血 PGE2的含量(P <0.05)。结论清络通痹方具有一定的镇痛作用,其镇痛机制可能与抑制 DRG 中 COX-2 mRNA 表达和血清中 PGE2含量相关。%ABSTRACT:OBJECTIVE To study the effects of Qingluo Tongbi Compound(QLT)on pain behavior and COX-2 mRNA ex-pression in dorsal root ganglion(DRG)and blood PGE2 concentration,and to explore the mechanisms of pain in rheumatoid ar-thritis.METHODS The mice were randomly divided into control group,celecoxib 30 mg∕kg,QLT 4.35 g∕kg,QLT 8.70 g∕kg and QLT 1 7.4 g∕kg groups.The mice pain threshold change were measured by hot plate method,and body torsion times were tested by acetic acid twisting method.The collagen-induced arthritis(CIA) was induced by collagenⅡ in DBA∕1 mice. The mice were randomly divided into control group,CIA group,celecoxib 30 mg∕kg group,QLT 8.70 g∕kg.The paws swell-ing,mechanical withdrawal

  20. 骨癌痛大鼠DRG神经元GRK2和β-arrestin2表达以及NGF调节作用的研究%Expression of GRK2 and β-arrestin2 in the dorsal root ganglion neurons and the regulated effect by nerve growth factor in rats with bone cancer pain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姚鹏; 王志彬; 蒋晶晶; 张锦; 孟凌新

    2011-01-01

    目的:观察大鼠骨癌痛时脊髓背根神经节(DRG)G蛋白偶联受体激酶2(GRK2)和β-arrestin2的变化,探讨鞘内注射抗神经生长因子抗体(anti-NGF)对其表达及疼痛行为学的影响.方法:60只雌性SD大鼠随机分为假手术组、骨癌痛组及骨癌痛+anti-NGF组,13 d后鞘内置管,16 d开始鞘内注入生理盐水或anti-NGF不同时点观察疼痛行为学变化;21 d取同侧L4、L5 DRG,检测β-arrestin2、GRK2蛋白及mRNA表达变化.结果:与假手术组比较,骨癌痛组大鼠体质量减轻[(219±4.8)vs(243±8.1)],自发缩足次数增多[(24.1±3.6)vs(2.9±0.4)],热辐射潜伏期(PWL)缩短[(3.8±0.5)vs(10.9±1.3)],机械痛阈(PWT)降低[(3.2±1.1)vs(12.3±1.3)];与骨癌痛组比较,骨癌痛+anti-NGF组大鼠缩足次数减少(6.7±1.2),PWL延长(9.7±1.2),PWT增高(9.7±1.5).骨癌痛组大鼠β-arrestin2、GRK2表达均高于假手术组,而骨癌痛+anti-NGF组则明显低于骨癌痛组.骨癌痛组大鼠DRG神经元β-arrestin2与GRK2 mRNA的表达均高于假手术组,而骨癌痛+anti-NGF组则均低于骨癌痛组.结论:大鼠骨癌痛时DRG神经元GRK2和β-arrestin2的表达增加,anti-NGF可明显缓解骨癌痛,并对GRK2和β-arrestin2具有调制作用.%OBJECTIVE: To observe the expression of β-arrestin2 and G protein-coupled receptor kinases 2 (GRK2) in the dorsal root ganglion(DRG) neurons, and further investigate the regulated effects by intrathecal application of anti-NGF on the expression and pain-related behavior in rats with bone cancer pain.METHODS: Sixty female rats were divided into sham, cancer and cancer+ anti-NGF group.Bone cancer pain rats were induced by implantation of Walker 256 breast carcinosarcoma cells into the tibia.Each rat was surgically fitted with an intrathecal catheter at days 13, Sodium chloride (groups sham and cancer) or anti-NGF(group eancer+anti-NGF) 10 μL was injected by intrathecal catheter from 16 to 21 days, pain-related behavior were assessed.Western blotting

  1. 腰交感神经节射频热凝术对糖尿病神经痛大鼠DRG交感神经芽生和IL-6生成的影响%Effect of lumbar sympathetic ganglion radiofrequency thermocoagulation on sympathetic sprouting and IL-6 generation in dorsal root ganglion of rats with diabetic neuropathic pain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    熊青明; 王汉兵; 张锦华; 贺俭; 何万友; 赵伟成; 杨承祥; 张斌

    2015-01-01

    目的 评价腰交感神经节射频热凝术对糖尿病神经痛大鼠背根神经节(DRG)交感神经芽生和白细胞介素6(IL-6)生成的影响.方法 健康雄性SD大鼠,体重180~200 g,2月龄,采用腹腔注射链尿佐菌素(STZ) 60 mg/kg的方法制备糖尿病模型.取糖尿病并发神经痛成功的大鼠36只,采用随机数字表法,将其分为3组(n=12):糖尿病神经痛组(DNP组)、假手术组(S组)和射频热凝组(RFT组).另取12只同月龄正常大鼠作为对照组(C组).RFT组行右侧L3椎旁射频热凝术,以毁损腰交感神经节,S组仅进行右侧L3椎旁射频针穿刺.于注射STZ前(基础水平)、射频热凝术前、射频热凝术后1、3、5、7、14 d时测定机械缩足反应阈(MWT).于最后一次痛阈测定结束后处死大鼠,取术侧L4节段DRG,采用免疫组化法测定交感神经纤维表达,计算篮状结构密度,采用ELISA法测定IL-6含量.结果 与C组比较,DNP组、S组和RFT组术前及术后各时点MWT降低,DRG篮状结构密度和IL-6含量升高(P<0.05);与DNP组比较,RFT组术后各时点MWT升高,DRG篮状结构密度和IL-6含量降低(P<0.05),S组上述指标差异无统计学意义(P>0.05).结论 腰交感神经节射频热凝术减轻大鼠糖尿病神经痛的机制与抑制DRG交感神经芽生和IL-6生成有关.%Objective To evaluate the effect of lumbar sympathetic ganglion radiofrequency thermocoagulation (RFT) on sympathetic sprouting and interleukin-6 (IL-6) generation in the dorsal root ganglion (DRG) of the rats with diabetic neuropathic pain (DNP).Methods Healthy adult male SpragueDawley rats, aged 2 months, weighing 180-200 g, received a single intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin 60 mg/kg to induce the diabetes mellitus.Thirty-six rats with diabetes mellitus complicated with neuropathic pain were selected, and randomly divided into 3 groups (n =12 each) using a random number table: group DNP, sham operation group (group S) and RFT group.Another 12

  2. Role of Nav1.7 in dorsal root ganglia in a rat model of diabetic neuropathic pain%背根神经节Nav1.7在大鼠糖尿病神经病理性痛中的作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    柯昌斌; 黄晓霞; 王燕; 刘菊英

    2011-01-01

    目的 评价背根神经节(DRG) Nav1.7在大鼠糖尿病神经病理性痛中的作用.方法 雌性Wistar大鼠32只,月龄3个月,体重180~220 g.采用腹腔注射链脲菌素65 mg/kg的方法制备糖尿病神经病理性痛模型.模型制备成功后第10天鞘内置管.采用随机数字表法,将大鼠随机分为4组(n=8),正常对照组(C组):不做任何处理;假手术组(S组):仅鞘内置管;糖尿病神经病理性痛(DNP组):制备糖尿病神经病理性痛模型,并鞘内置管;Nav1.7阻断剂组(E组):制备糖尿病神经病理性痛模型,鞘内置管后第4天鞘内注射Nav1.7阻断剂ProTx-Ⅱ10 μg/kg,DNP组和S组注射等容量生理盐水.于鞘内注射后1h测定机械缩足阈值(MWT)和神经传导速度(NCV),随后处死大鼠,取L4-6 DRG,采用免疫组化法和Western blot法测定DRG Nav1.7蛋白的表达水平,采用RT-PCR法测定Nav1.7mRNA的表达水平.结果 与C组比较,DNP组和E组MWT和NCV明显下降,DRGNav1.7 mRNA及其蛋白表达上调(P<0.05),S组上述指标差异无统计学意义(P>0.05);与DNP组比较,E组MWT升高(P<0.05),NCV、DRG Nav1.7 mRNA及其蛋白表达水平差异无统计学意义(P>0.05).结论 DRG Nav1.7参与了大鼠糖尿病神经病理性痛的维持.%Objective To investigate the role of Nav1.7 in dorsal root ganglia (DRG) in a rat model of diabetic neuropathic pain (DNP).Methods Thirty-two female Wistar rats aged 3 months weighing 180-220 g were randomly divided into 4 groups ( n = 8 each):control group ( group C),sham operation group ( group S),DNP group and ProTx- Ⅱ (a selective Nav1.7 blocker) group (group E).Diabetes mellitus was induced by intraperitoneal streptozocin 65 mg/kg.Blood glucose level and mechanical paw withdrawal threshold (MWT)to von Froy filamentstimulation were measured 2 weeks later.DNP was confirmed by blood glucose level ≥ 16.0 mmol/L and MWT decreased by more than 50% of the baseline value.Intrathecal catheter was implanted at L5

  3. Dexmedetomidine blocks hyperalgesia and dorsal root ganglia ERK signal activation in a rat model of neuropathic pain%右美托咪定缓解神经病理性疼痛大鼠的痛觉过敏并抑制背根神经节内p-ERK信号通路的激活

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹铭辉; 何惠燕; 纪风涛; 刘玲; 刘付宁; 刘安民; 李方成

    2011-01-01

    目的 观察重复腹腔注射右美托咪定(DEX)对神经病理性疼痛大鼠的痛觉过敏和背根神经节(DRG)中ERK信号通路激活的影响.方法 给坐骨神经部分结扎(PSNL)神经病理性疼痛大鼠重复腹腔注射不同剂量的DEX.观察各组大鼠的机械、热痛觉过敏阈值.行为学测试完成后用免疫荧光和Western blot方法检测大鼠手术侧L5 DRG中p-ERK的表达.结果 (1)腹腔注射DEX 40 μg/kg 7、14 d均明显减轻PSNL诱导的机械、热痛觉过敏(P<0.05).而腹腔注射DEX20μg/kg对PSNL大鼠疼痛行为学无明显影响.(2)重复腹腔注射40μg/kg DEX 7、14 d p-ERK的平均荧光强度比同一时间点的PSNL组明显减弱(P<0.05),但仍明显高于对照组(P<0.05).重复腹腔注射20μg/kg对PSNL大鼠p-ERK的平均荧光强度无明显影响(P>0.05).(3)Westem blot 结果显示重复腹腔注射40μg/kg DEX 7、14 d明显抑制PSNL诱导的p-ERK的蛋白表达增多(P<0.05).重复腹腔注射20μg/kg对PSNL大鼠p-ERK的蛋白表达无明显影响(P>0.05).结论 重复腹腔注射DEX能够减轻神经损伤引起的痛觉过敏,抑制外周初级感觉神经系统中ERK信号通路的激活可能是其缓解的疼痛症状的机制之一.%Objective To investigate the effect of systemic administration of dexmedetomidine, a selective alpha 2 adrenergic receptor agonist, on mechanical and thermal hyperalgesia and dorsal root ganglia ERK activation induced by neuropathic pain. Methods Intraperitoneal injection of dexmedetomidine was repeatedly given once daily for 7 days or 14 days with the first injection one day before partial sciatic nerve ligation ( PSNL) surgery. Mechanical and thermal nociceptive thresholds were assessed in all animals. Then, animals were killed at corresponding time points, and the L5 DRG was removed for L5 DRG ERK activation status analysis by using immunoflurecence and Western blotting. Results (1) Partial sciatic never ligation produced a robust mechanical and

  4. 神经病理性疼痛大鼠背根神经节神经元中小白蛋白的分布特征及表达变化%Distribution and altered expression of parvalbumin in dorsal root ganglion induced by neuropathtic pain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹铭辉; 纪风涛; 刘玲; 李方成; 李峰

    2010-01-01

    Objective To explore the distribution and expression changes of parvalbumin in the dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons in chronic constriction injury rat models. Methods Forty-two adult male SD rats, weighing 180-200 g, were randomly divided into control group, sham operation group, chronic constriction injury (CCI) 1-, 3- 5-, 7-, 14-day groups, with 6 rats in each group. The right sciatic nerves of rats in CCI groups were moderately ligated proximal to its bifurcation using 4-0 chromic gut, ligation of 4, 1 mm intervals. The sciatic nerves in sham group were only exposed and isolated but not ligated.The changes of naturopathic pain behavior in all animals were observed one day before surgery and 1,3, 5,7 and 14 days after surgery. DRG of L5 spinal nerve was removed for analysis of parvalbumin and MAP2-immunoreactive neurons in DRG in relation to chronic constriction injury. Results ( 1 ) CCI, but not sham surgery, produced significant mechanical allodynia and thermal hyperalgesia ( P < 0. 05 ). The mechanical hyperalfesia was significantly decreased one day after CCI, and the thermal hyperalgesia was greatly attenuated on the 3th day after CCI. Both the thermal and mechanical hyperalgesia was decreased at the lowest level at the 7th day after surgery ( P <0. 01 ). (2) In normal rats, there was only a small amount of PV-IR neurons in DRG that were mostly large-and medium-sized neurons, but a few small-sized neurons.PV-IR nerve fibers constituted a network of nerve fibers around cell body of non-PV neurons. In the deep tissue of DRG, bundles of PV-positive nerve fibers traversed between PV-negative neurons. (3) PV-IR neurons in DRG had no significant changes at CCI day 1,3. MAP-2 in PV positive neurons was relatively in good condition, compared with non-PV neurons. PV-IR neurons were decreased from the 5th day after surgery, reduced more significantly until the 7th day (P <0. 05), and recovered at the 14th day (P >0. 05), compared with the control group

  5. 有序胶原支架联合胶原靶向神经营养因子3对背根节细胞突起延伸的影响%Effect of collagen scaffold loaded with collagen-targeting neurotrophin-3 on the extension of cellular processes of dorsal root ganglion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐国强; 徐如祥; 樊娟; 姜晓丹; 薛杉; 酉建; 蔡颖谦

    2010-01-01

    目的 研究天然有序胶原支架联合具有胶原靶向结合域(CBD)的神经营养因子3(NT3)(CBD-NT3)对背根节细胞(DRGs)突起延伸的影响,探讨这种联合策略对脊髓损伤修复的意义. 方法 将SD大鼠尾肌腱行去细胞处理制备胶原支架,HE染色评价支架的处理效果;去细胞处理后支架负载CBD-NT3并与SD大鼠原代DRGs体外共培养1、3、5 d,同时设NT3、PBS组作对照;FDA染色观察共培养后DRGs并定量分析各组细胞突起的长度及角度;扫描电镜观察共培养3 d后支架和DRGs的超微结构. 结果 HE染色显示经处理后支架内细胞成分基本去除;共培养3 d后CBD-NT3组DRGs突起延伸长度最长,与NT3组和PBS组比较差异均有统计学意义(P<0.05);细胞突起总体延伸方向与支架纤维长轴夹角的双侧95%可信区间为(18.8~20.7)°;扫描电镜显示DRGs能依靠胶原支架表面地貌锚定和生长. 结论 有序胶原支架联合CBD-NT3能定向引导并促进细胞突起延伸,为脊髓损伤修复的研究提供了一种有效的途径.%Objective To investigate the effect of collagen scaffold loaded with collagen-binding domain neurotrophin-3 (CBD-NT3) on the extension of cellular processes of dorsal root ganglions (DRGs), and explore the significance of this kind of combinatorial strategies in the spinal cord injury repair. Methods The tail tendons of SD neonatal rats were performed the removal of cellular components to prepare the collagen scaffold; HE staining was employed to evaluate whether the cells were completely removed from the collagen scaffold. The collagen scaffold was loaded with CBD-NT3,and then, they were co-cultured with primary DRGs for 1, 3 and 5 d, respectively. NT3 and PBS were also co-cultured with primary DRGs for 1, 3 and 5 d, respectively, as controls. Cells on the scaffold were stained by fluorescein diacetate (FDA) for morphology observation and the lengths and angles of the processes in each group were also

  6. Treatment of maxillary central incisor with external root resorption using mineral trioxide aggregate: 18 months follow-up

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    External cervical resorption is the loss of dental hard tissue as a result of odontoclastic action; it usually begins on the cervical region of the root surface of the teeth. This case report demonstrates an external cervical resorption in a maxillary central incisor of a 24-year-old male patient. After surgical intervention and root canal treatment, the resorption was subsequently sealed with mineral trioxide aggregate. The 18 months follow-up demonstrates no pathological changes on clinical...

  7. Cervical Total Disc Arthroplasty

    OpenAIRE

    Basho, Rahul; Hood, Kenneth A.

    2012-01-01

    Symptomatic adjacent segment degeneration of the cervical spine remains problematic for patients and surgeons alike. Despite advances in surgical techniques and instrumentation, the solution remains elusive. Spurred by the success of total joint arthroplasty in hips and knees, surgeons and industry have turned to motion preservation devices in the cervical spine. By preserving motion at the diseased level, the hope is that adjacent segment degeneration can be prevented. Multiple cervical disc...

  8. Acupoints for cervical spondylosis

    OpenAIRE

    Zhu, Jihe; Arsovska, Blagica; Vasileva, Dance; Petkovska, Sofija; Kozovska, Kristina

    2015-01-01

    Cervical spondylosis is a chronic degenerative condition of the cervical spine that affects the vertebral bodies and intervertebral disks of the neck, as well as the contents of the spinal canal. This is one of the most common degenerative disorders of the spine. The disease can be symptomatic and asymptomatic. Symptoms that are distinctive for cervical spondylosis are: tingling, numbness and weakness in the limbs, lack of coordination, stiff neck, shoulder pain, occipital pain, vertigo, poor...

  9. Preventing cervical cancer globally.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmeler, Kathleen M

    2012-11-01

    Cervical cancer is one of the leading causes of cancer and cancer-related deaths among women worldwide. More than 85% of cases and deaths occur in the developing world where the availability of effective screening is limited. In this issue of the journal, Pierce and colleagues (beginning on page 1273) describe a novel technique using a high-resolution microendoscope (HRME) to diagnose cervical dysplasia. This perspective reviews the limitations of existing cervical cancer screening methods currently in use in low-resource settings and the potential for HRME imaging to contribute to cervical cancer prevention in the developing world.

  10. 颈椎管狭窄症保留伸颈结构的颈后路有限化单开门治疗效果探讨%Discussion of the treatment effect of finity single door laminoplasty with preservation of cervical posterior of flec-tion structure on cervical stenosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王志国; 罗俊普; 吴一凡; 杜异凡; 原宏

    2016-01-01

    Objective To investigate the treatment effect of finity single door laminoplasty of cervical posterior to treat cervical stenosis on preservation of flection structure. Methods Forty cases of patients with cervical stenosis were se-lected. They were all admitted by the department of spine surgery of NO. 153 hospital of people’s liberation army from May 2012 to May 2013. They were treated by the treatment method of finity single door laminoplasty of cervical posterior. The clinical effects were reviewed and its effects on preservation of flection structure were observed. Results This group of pa-tients postoperative JOA score,excellent in 8 cases(20% );good in 19 cases,accounting for 47. 5% ;13 cases can be ac-counted for 32. 5% . Compared with the preoperative and postoperative last follow-up,JOA score was significantly lower, there were significant differences(P < 0. 05). The average operative time(75. 2 ± 2. 4)min,blood loss(204. 3 ± 2. 3) ml,without the fifth cervical nerve root damage,no traditional single door closed adverse consequence,for better retention extended neck structure. Conclusions The application of finity single door laminoplasty of cervical posterior in treating cervical stenosis,which can maintain the completeness of structure and function of the cervical dorsal muscles and semispi-nalis muscles at the greatest degree,reduce the damage of cervical stability mechanism and rear protraction mechanism and play a remarkable role in reducing the rate of postoperative cervical axial symptoms and retaining cervical range of motion.%目的:探讨颈后路有限化单开门治疗颈椎管狭窄症对保留伸颈结构的临床效果。方法选取颈椎管狭窄症患者40例,均为解放军第一五三中心医院骨科2012年5月至2013年5月收治,采用颈后路有限化单开门手术治疗,回顾性分析临床效果及观察对保留伸颈结构的作用。结果本研究患者术后行 JOA 评分,优8例,占20%;良19例,占47

  11. 中医“三联”外治法治疗神经根型颈椎病临床疗效观察%Clinical Observation of Three United Remedy of TCM External Therapy in Treating Nerve Root Type Cervical Spondylosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘建军; 董万涛

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To observe the therapeutic effect of three united external treatment (Chinese massage techniques, traction, and traditional Chinese medicine fumigation) on nerve root type cervical spondylosis, and to explore the mechanism. Methods: All 160 cases of nerve root type cervical spondylosis were selected in Gansu hospital of TCM from July 2004 to June 2010, and they were randomly divided into treatment group and control group, with 80 cases in each group. The patients of the treatment group were treated with massage, traction, and traditional Chinese medicine fumigation. And the patients of the control group were treated with traction and fluid therapy. The comprehensive assessment of pain and improvement of symptoms and signs were evaluated in the two groups before and after treatment. Results: All patients were followed up for 12-18months. The efficiency in treatment group was higher than the control group (P<0. 05). The scores of pain, the positive rate of signs test, the symptoms and signs points differences were significant difference between the two groups before and after treatment (P<0, 05). Conclusion: The three united remedy of TCM external therapy (Chinese massage techniques, traction, and traditional Chinese medicine fumigation) is effect to relieve symptoms of nerve root type cervical spondylosis by restoring the spine mechanical balance and improving the neck muscles mechanical imbalance.%目的:分析中医手法推拿、牵引、中药熏蒸等“三联”外治法对神经根型颈椎病患者的治疗效果,探讨手法推拿、牵引、中药熏蒸治疗神经根型颈椎病的机理.方法:2004年7月~2010年6月选择160例甘肃中医学院附属医院住院的神经根型颈椎病患者,随机分为治疗组和对照组,每组80例,对治疗组进行手法推拿、牵引、中药熏蒸治疗;对照组进行牵引及液体疗法.采用疼痛综合评定、症状与体征改善评定,分别在治疗前后对2

  12. [Intact cervical pregnancy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habek, D; Bobic, M V; Dosen, L

    2003-01-01

    The authors describe a case of intact cervical pregnancy in a 24-year-old secundigravida. The patient was treated successfully with Methotrexate. Conservative treatment is the first choice in the therapy of uncomplicated cervical pregnancy. Conservative and operative therapeutic procedures are discussed.

  13. T1-nerve root neuroma presenting with apical mass and Horner's syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Podnar Simon

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The appearance of dumbbell neuroma of the first thoracic root is extremely rare. The extradural component of a T1-dumbbell neuroma may present as an apical mass. The diagnosis of hand weakness is complex and may be delayed in T1-neuroma because of absence of the palpable cervical mass. One-stage removal of a T1-root neuroma and its intrathoracic extension demanded an extended posterior midline approach in the sitting position. Case presentation A 51-year old man had suffered a traumatic partial tendon rupture of his wrist flexor muscles 6 years ago. Since the incident he occasionally felt fullness and tenderness in the affected forearm with some tingling in his fingers bilaterally. During the last two years the hand weakness was continuous and hypotrophy of the medial flexor and intrinsic hand muscles had become apparent. Electrophysiological studies revealed an ulnar neuropathy in addition to mild median and radial nerve dysfunction, including a mild contralateral carpal tunnel syndrome. The diagnostic work-up for multiple mononeuropathy in the upper extremity was negative. Repeated electrophysiological studies revealed fibrillations in the C7 paravertebral muscles on the affected side. Chest x-ray revealed a large round apical mass on the affected side. A Horner's syndrome was noted at this point of diagnostic work-up. MRI of the cervical and thoracic spine revealed a dumbbell T1 neuroma enlarging the intervertebral foramen at T1-2 and a 5 cm large extradural tumor with extension into the apex of the ipsilateral lung. The patient underwent surgery in sitting position using a left dorsal midline approach. Although the T1 root could not be preserved, the patient's neurological condition was unchanged after the surgery. Conclusion Extended posterior midline exposure described here using hemilaminectomy, unilateral facetectomy and costo-transversectomy is efficient and safe for one-stage removal of dumbbell tumors at the T1

  14. Facial nerve paralysis after cervical traction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    So, Edmund Cheung

    2010-10-01

    Cervical traction is a frequently used treatment in rehabilitation clinics for cervical spine problems. This modality works, in principle, by decompressing the spinal cord or its nerve roots by applying traction on the cervical spine through a harness placed over the mandible (Olivero et al., Neurosurg Focus 2002;12:ECP1). Previous reports on treatment complications include lumbar radicular discomfort, muscle injury, neck soreness, and posttraction pain (LaBan et al., Arch Phys Med Rehabil 1992;73:295-6; Lee et al., J Biomech Eng 1996;118:597-600). Here, we report the first case of unilateral facial nerve paralysis developed after 4 wks of intermittent cervical traction therapy. Nerve conduction velocity examination revealed a peripheral-type facial nerve paralysis. Symptoms of facial nerve paralysis subsided after prednisolone treatment and suspension of traction therapy. It is suspected that a misplaced or an overstrained harness may have been the cause of facial nerve paralysis in this patient. Possible causes were (1) direct compression by the harness on the right facial nerve near its exit through the stylomastoid foramen; (2) compression of the right external carotid artery by the harness, causing transient ischemic injury at the geniculate ganglion; or (3) coincidental herpes zoster virus infection or idiopathic Bell's palsy involving the facial nerve.

  15. 不同传入神经损伤对大鼠神经病理性痛形成的影响及其与脊髓和背根神经节BDNF的关系%Effects of different afferent nerve injury on development of neuropathic pain and its relationship with brain-derived neurotrophic factor in spinal cord and dorsal root ganglion in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨涛; 叶西就; 王志; 彭书凌

    2010-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effects of different afferent nerve injury on development of neuropathic pain and its relationship with brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in spinal cord and dorsal root ganglion (DRG) in rats. Methods Twenty-four male SD rats aged 2 months weighing 200-250 g were randomly divided into 3 groups:group Ⅰ sham operation (group S); group Ⅱ sural nerve injury (group SUR) and group Ⅲ gastrocnemius-soleus nerve injury (group GS). Sural nerve and gastrocnemius-soleus nerve were transected in group SUR and GS respectively. Paw withdrawal threshold to von Frey filament stimulation was measured the day before and at day 3 and 7 after operation. The animals were killed at postoperative day 7 after the measurement of paw withdrawal threshold. The ipsllateral L5 DRG and L5 segment of the spinal cord were removed. BDNF expression in the spinal dorsal horn was determined. The percentage of BDNF positive neurons and ATF-3 positive neurons in the total DRG neurons and the percentage of BDNF positive neurons in the damaged neurons (ATF-3 positive) were calculated. Results Mechanical hyperalgesia developed after transection of gastrocnemius-soleus muscle in group GS. Mechanical pain threshold was sinificantly lower, while BDNF expression in the spinal dorsal horn and the percentage of BDNF positive neurons in total DRG neurons were significantly higher in group GS than in group S and SUR (P < 0.01). There was no significant difference in all variables between group SUR and S (P>0.05). There was no significant difference in the percentage of ATF-3 positive neurons in the total DRG neurons between group GS and SUR (P > 0.05), but the percentage of BDNF positive neurons in the damaged neurons (ATF-3 positive) was significantly higher in group GS than in group SUR (P < 0.05). Conclusion Transection of the afferent nerve innervating muscle can produce neuropathic pain through up-regulation of BDNF expression in spinal dorsal horn and DRG in

  16. Superficial Dorsal Vein Injury/Thrombosis Presenting as False Penile Fracture Requiring Dorsal Venous Ligation

    OpenAIRE

    Arash Rafiei, MD; Tariq S. Hakky, MD; Daniel Martinez, MD; Justin Parker, MD; Rafael Carrion, MD

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Conditions mimicking penile fracture are extremely rare and have been seldom described. Aim: To describe a patient with false penile fracture who presented with superficial dorsal vein injury/thrombosis managed with ligation. Methods: A 33‐year‐old male presented with penile swelling and ecchymosis after intercourse. A penile ultrasound demonstrated a thrombosed superficial dorsal vein but also questionable fracture of the tunica albuginea. As the thrombus was expanding, h...

  17. Treatment of maxillary central incisor with external root resorption using mineral trioxide aggregate: 18 months follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gandi, Padma; Disha, Saraswathi

    2013-07-09

    External cervical resorption is the loss of dental hard tissue as a result of odontoclastic action; it usually begins on the cervical region of the root surface of the teeth. This case report demonstrates an external cervical resorption in a maxillary central incisor of a 24-year-old male patient. After surgical intervention and root canal treatment, the resorption was subsequently sealed with mineral trioxide aggregate. The 18 months follow-up demonstrates no pathological changes on clinical and radiographic examination. This case report presents a treatment strategy that might improve the healing outcomes for patients with external cervical resorption.

  18. 辨证疗法对颈椎关节功能障碍的康复观察%Study on effect of differentiating treament on joint dysfunction following cervical spondylopathy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    @@ Background:Cervical spondylopathy belonging to chronic and multiple diseases is common among elders,which seriously affects work and life of patients.Cervical spondylopathy is considered as arthragia- syndrome,dizzy,flaccidity- syndrome,stiffness of nape in traditional chinese medicine.Differentiating treatment was effective in treatmenting the condition. Objective:To study effect of differntiating treatment on joint dysfunction following cervical spondylopathy. Unit:Shenzhen Chinese Medicine Hospital Subjects:128 outpatients,76 male,52 femlae,aged 24~ 68 years.Duration of condition lasted for 3 months to 18 years.Teachers,band staffs are susceptible for the condition.Of all patients,47 suffered from cervical spondylopathy of nerve root form,42 from cervical spondylopathy of cervical form,23 from cervical spondylopathy of vertebral artery form,8 from cervical spondylopathy of myeloid form.According to differntiating type in traditional chinese medicine,89 patients suffered from arthralgia form,31 from dizzy form,and 8 from flaccidity form. Intervention:Huangqi Guizhi Tang Jiajian consisting of Astragalus root(30 g),Cinnamom twig(10 g),White peony root(15 g),Pueravia root(20 g),Licorice root(6 g),Fresh ginger(10 g),Chiness- date(10 g),Notoptery gium root(10 g),Ledebouriella root(10 g)Spatholobus stem(30 g) was administrated for patients suffered from cervical spondylopathy of arthrlgia form.For patients

  19. Cervical spine CT scan

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... defects of the cervical spine Bone problems Fracture Osteoarthritis Disc herniation Risks Risks of CT scans include: ... Ma, MD, Assistant Professor, Chief, Sports Medicine and Shoulder Service, UCSF Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, San Francisco, ...

  20. Cervical Radiculopathy (Pinched Nerve)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... help relieve pain, strengthen neck muscles, and improve range of motion. In some cases, traction can be used to ... Learn more about surgery for radiculopathy online at Cervical ... a wide range of musculoskeletal conditions and injuries. All articles are ...

  1. Immunotherapy for Cervical Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    In an early phase NCI clinical trial, two patients with metastatic cervical cancer had a complete disappearance of their tumors after receiving treatment with a form of immunotherapy called adoptive cell transfer.

  2. Clinical Anatomy and Measurement of the Medial Branch of the Spinal Dorsal Ramus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shuang, Feng; Hou, Shu-Xun; Zhu, Jia-Liang; Liu, Yan; Zhou, Ying; Zhang, Chun-Li; Tang, Jia-Guang

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Percutaneous block and neurotomy of the medial branch of the spinal dorsal ramus has shown excellent results in treating facet joint-mediated low back pain. This study aimed to describe the clinical anatomy of the medial branch and its measurements. We dissected the lumbar spine of 12 adult cadavers (24 sides) and measured the distances between the medial branch and various anatomical landmarks. The distances were compared between L1 and L5 vertebrae. The distance between the dorsal ramus bifurcation and the superior border of the root of the transverse process was 3.52 ± 1.15 mm, 3.63 ± 1.36 mm, 3.46 ± 1.31 mm, 3.38 ± 1.24 mm, and 1.87 ± 0.88 for L1 to L5, respectively. The medial branch of the dorsal ramus is enclosed in a fibro-osseous canal bounded by the accessory process, the mammillary process, and the mammilloaccessory ligament. For the percutaneous treatment of block and neurotomy, the first choice of target is the medial branch fibro-osseous canal near to the accessory process. The accessory process is not displayed in x-ray films; therefore, the junction of the superior articular process and the root of the transverse process can be targeted. PMID:26717379

  3. LECTURE ON ACUPUNCTURE PartⅠ Clinical Acupuncture Lecture Thirty-fiveCervical Spondylopathy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗汀; 王卫; 徐力

    2004-01-01

    @@ Cervical spondylopathy, also known as cervical syndrome, is a commonly encountered disease in the middle-aged and elderly people. This disease mostly results from the retrograde affection of the cervical intervertebral disc and hyperosteogeny of the cervical vertebrae. This hyperplastic substance may stimulate and give rise to oppression to the surrounding spinal cord, nerve roots, blood vessels and sympathetic nerves, resulting in a series of symptoms as numbness, pain, etc. in the neck, shoulder and the upper limbs. The cervical vertebra of the human spine is smallest in the size, weakest in the strength, higher in the motor range and frequency, and bigger in the bearing of per unit area. Along with the increasing of people's age and the accumulated aftereffect of chronic and acute injury, the pulpiform nucleus of the cervical intervertebral disc presents retrograde affection, dehydration, bulge and rupture of the fibrous ring, narrowing of the intervertebral space, and reduction in the stability of cervical vertebrae due to injury and slackening of intervertebral ligaments to stretch and to induce compression upon periosteum. All these changes may lead to break of blood vessels to cause bleeding and hematoma. With the organization of hematoma and calcium salt deposit, osteophyte is formed at last. When the protruded intervertebral disc and hyperplastic osteophyte stimulate and oppress the surrounding spinal nerve root, vertebral artery or spinal cord, the resultant injury, aseptic inflammation, reactions after renovation, etc. will generate a series of clinical symptoms of cervical spondylopathy. In Western medicine, there are five types of cervical spondylopathy including stiff-neck type, nerve root type, spinal cord type, vertebral artery type and sympathetic nerve type. The stiff-neck type, nerve root type and vertebral artery type will be introduced in this article.

  4. Identification of transient receptor potential vanilloid 4 downstream signaling molecule and its effect in behavioural hyperalgesia following chronic compression of the dorsal root ganglion in rats%瞬时感受器电位离子通道香草素受体4下游信号分子的确定及其对大鼠背根神经节慢性压迫后痛觉过敏的作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁欣利; 张杨; 王永慧; 宁丽萍; 岳寿伟

    2011-01-01

    目的:探讨大鼠背根神经节慢性压迫CCD后瞬时感受器电位离子通道香草素受体4(TRPV4)下游信号分子及其在痛觉过敏中的机制.方法:鞘内分别注射TRPV4拮抗剂钉红(RR)、TRPV4反义寡脱氧核苷酸(AS ODN)和一氧化氮合成酶(NOS)抑制剂L-NAME,检测CCD大鼠背根神经节DRG内一氧化氮(NO)代谢产物亚硝酸盐(nitrite)含量变化,并观测热刺激缩爪反应潜伏期(PWL)的变化.结果:鞘内分别注射RR、TRPV4 AS ODN和L-NAME后,均能够显著降低CCD大鼠DRG内亚硝酸盐含量(P<0.05).CCD大鼠的热痛敏行为也能够显著改善(P<0.05).结论:TRPV4及其下游信号分子NO参与介导CCD大鼠的热痛觉过敏,%Objective: To investigate transient receptor potential vanilloid 4 (TRPV4) downstream signaling molecule and its effect in behavioural hyperalgesia following chronic compression of dorsal root ganglion (DRG) (CCD) in rats.Method: Intrathecal administration of ruthenium red (RR,TRPV4 antagonist), TRPV4 antisense oligodeoxynucleotide (ODN)(TRPV4 AS ODN) or L-NAME (inhibitor of NO synthase) were adopted to study the thermal stimuli paw withdrawl latency (PWL) and the nitrite (an index of nitric oxide formation) production in the DRG of CCD rats.Result: Intrathecal administration of RR TRPV4 AS ODN or L-NAME induced significant increase of PWL(P<0.05)and significant decrease of nitrite in DRG(P<0.05), compared with control rats, respectively.Conclusion: TRPV4-NO pathway is involved in thermal hyperalgesia in CCD rats.

  5. The dorsal shell wall structure of Mesozoic ammonoids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregor Radtke

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The study of pristine preserved shells of Mesozoic Ammonoidea shows different types of construction and formation of the dorsal shell wall. We observe three major types: (i The vast majority of Ammonoidea, usually planispirally coiled, has a prismatic reduced dorsal shell wall which consists of an outer organic component (e.g., wrinkle layer, which is the first layer to be formed, and the subsequently formed dorsal inner prismatic layer. The dorsal mantle tissue suppresses the formation of the outer prismatic layer and nacreous layer. With the exception of the outer organic component, secretion of a shell wall is omitted at the aperture. A prismatic reduced dorsal shell wall is always secreted immediately after the hatching during early teleoconch formation. Due to its broad distribution in (planispiral Ammonoidea, the prismatic reduced dorsal shell wall is probably the general state. (ii Some planispirally coiled Ammonoidea have a nacreous reduced dorsal shell wall which consists of three mineralized layers: two prismatic layers (primary and secondary dorsal inner prismatic layer and an enclosed nacreous layer (secondary dorsal nacreous layer. The dorsal shell wall is omitted at the aperture and was secreted in the rear living chamber. Its layers are a continuation of an umbilical shell doubling (reinforcement by additional shell layers that extends towards the ventral crest of the preceding whorl. The nacreous reduced dorsal shell wall is formed in the process of ontogeny following a prismatic reduced dorsal shell wall. (iii Heteromorph and some planispirally coiled taxa secrete a complete dorsal shell wall which forms a continuation of the ventral and lateral shell layers. It is formed during ontogeny following a prismatic reduced dorsal shell wall or a priori. The construction is identical with the ventral and lateral shell wall, including a dorsal nacreous layer. The wide distribution of the ability to form dorsal nacre indicates that it is

  6. EFFECTIVENESS OF NEURODYNAMICS IN COMPARISON TO MANUAL TRACTION IN THE MANAGEMENT OF CERVICAL RADICULOPATHY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mamoona Anwar

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cervical radiculopathy is a condition of pain and sensorimotor deficits due to cervical nerve root compression. The symptoms may include weakness, tingling, numbness and pain. C6, C7 nerve roots are most involved in cervical radiculopathy. Various modalities and therapeutic interventions are used and recommended for management of cervical radiculopathy including cervical collars, immobilization, manipulation, cervical traction TENS and therapeutic exercises.The aimof this study is to evaluate the efficacy of neurodynamics in comparison to manual traction in the management of cervical radiculopathy. Methods: An Interventional research was performed in the Department of Physiotherapy, Mayo hospital Lahore, Pakistan. 40 subjects aged between 18-60 years participated in the study. They were divided into two groups namely Group A and Group B with 20 subjects in each group. The duration of the study was 4 weeks with 4 sessions per week. GroupA received neurodynamics along with strengthening exercises while Group B received manual traction along with strengthening exercises. Neck Disability Index (NDI scale was used as an outcome measure andpaired sample t-test was used for statistical analysis. Results: A significant improvement was found in both neurodynamics group and manual traction group for pain and functional status with p value< 0.05. Conclusion: This study concluded that the treatment techniques, neurodynamics and manual traction were effective in alleviating the symptoms associated with cervical radiculopathy in terms of decreasing pain intensity, increasing ranges of motion and improving functional capacity.

  7. Root resorption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjaer, Inger

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: This paper summarizes the different conditions, which have a well-known influence on the resorption of tooth roots, exemplified by trauma and orthodontic treatment. The concept of the paper is to summarize and explain symptoms and signs of importance for avoiding resorption during...... orthodontic treatment. The Hypothesis: The hypothesis in this paper is that three different tissue layers covering the root in the so-called periroot sheet can explain signs and symptoms of importance for avoiding root resorption during orthodontic treatment. These different tissue layers are; outermost...... processes provoked by trauma and orthodontic pressure. Inflammatory reactions are followed by resorptive processes in the periroot sheet and along the root surface. Evaluation of the Hypothesis: Different morphologies in the dentition are signs of abnormal epithelium or an abnormal mesodermal layer. It has...

  8. Incomplete ossification of the atlas in dogs with cervical signs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren-Smith, Christopher M R; Kneissl, Sibylle; Benigni, Livia; Kenny, Patrick J; Lamb, Christopher R

    2009-01-01

    Osseous defects affecting the atlas were identified in computed tomography and magnetic resonance images of five dogs with cervical signs including pain, ataxia, tetraparesis, or tetraplegia. Osseous defects corresponded to normal positions of sutures between the halves of the neural arch and the intercentrum, and were compatible with incomplete ossification. Alignment between the portions of the atlas appeared relatively normal in four dogs. In these dogs the bone edges were smooth and rounded with a superficial layer of relatively compact cortical bone. Displacement compatible with unstable fracture was evident in one dog. Concurrent atlantoaxial subluxation, with dorsal displacement of the axis relative to the atlas, was evident in four dogs. Three dogs received surgical treatment and two dogs were treated conservatively. All dogs improved clinically. Incomplete ossification of the atlas, which may be associated with atlantoaxial subluxation, should be considered in the differential diagnosis of dogs with clinical signs localized to the cranial cervical region.

  9. Magnetic resonance imaging atlas of the cervical spine musculature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Au, John; Perriman, Diana M; Pickering, Mark R; Buirski, Graham; Smith, Paul N; Webb, Alexandra L

    2016-07-01

    The anatomy of the cervical spine musculature visible on magnetic resonance (MR) images is poorly described in the literature. However, the correct identification of individual muscles is clinically important because certain conditions of the cervical spine, for example whiplash associated disorders, idiopathic neck pain, cervical nerve root avulsion and cervical spondylotic myelopathy, are associated with different morphological changes in specific muscles visible on MR images. Knowledge of the precise structure of different cervical spine muscles is crucial when comparisons with the contralateral side or with normal are required for accurate description of imaging pathology, management and assessment of treatment efficacy. However, learning the intricate arrangement of 27 muscles is challenging. A multi-level cross-sectional depiction combined with three-dimensional reconstructions could facilitate the understanding of this anatomically complex area. This paper presents a comprehensive series of labeled axial MR images from one individual and serves as a reference atlas of the cervical spine musculature to guide clinicians, researchers, and anatomists in the accurate identification of these muscles on MR imaging. Clin. Anat. 29:643-659, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Nonoperative modalities to treat symptomatic cervical spondylosis.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Hirpara, Kieran Michael

    2012-01-01

    Cervical spondylosis is a common and disabling condition. It is generally felt that the initial management should be nonoperative, and these modalities include physiotherapy, analgesia and selective nerve root injections. Surgery should be reserved for moderate to severe myelopathy patients who have failed a period of conservative treatment and patients whose symptoms are not adequately controlled by nonoperative means. A review of the literature supporting various modalities of conservative management is presented, and it is concluded that although effective, nonoperative treatment is labour intensive, requiring regular review and careful selection of medications and physical therapy on a case by case basis.

  11. A Gompertzian model with random effects to cervical cancer growth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mazlan, Mazma Syahidatul Ayuni; Rosli, Norhayati [Faculty of Industrial Sciences and Technology, Universiti Malaysia Pahang, Lebuhraya Tun Razak, 26300 Gambang, Pahang (Malaysia)

    2015-05-15

    In this paper, a Gompertzian model with random effects is introduced to describe the cervical cancer growth. The parameters values of the mathematical model are estimated via maximum likehood estimation. We apply 4-stage Runge-Kutta (SRK4) for solving the stochastic model numerically. The efficiency of mathematical model is measured by comparing the simulated result and the clinical data of the cervical cancer growth. Low values of root mean-square error (RMSE) of Gompertzian model with random effect indicate good fits.

  12. MR imaging in neuroborreliosis of the cervical spinal cord

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hattingen, Elke; Weidauer, Stefan; Zanella, Friedhelm E. [University of Frankfurt, Institute of Neuroradiology, Frankfurt (Germany); Kieslich, Matthias; Boda, Volker [University of Frankfurt, Department of Pediatric Neurology, Frankfurt (Germany)

    2004-11-01

    The central nervous system is involved in 10-20% of cases in Lyme disease. The neurological symptoms, time course of the disease and imaging findings are multifaceted. We report two patients with cervical radiculitis. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed strong enhancement of the cervical nerve roots on contrast-enhanced T1-weighted images. These imaging patterns of borrelia-associated radiculitis have not been reported before. Knowledge of these imaging features may help to diagnose neuroborreliosis, which presents with non-specific symptoms. (orig.)

  13. First description of cervical intradural thymoma metastasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marotta, Nicola; Mancarella, Cristina; Colistra, Davide; Landi, Alessandro; Dugoni, Demo Eugenio; Delfini, Roberto

    2015-11-16

    Thymoma and thymic carcinoma are rare epithelial tumors, which originate from the thymus gland. According to the World Health Organization there are "organotypic" (types A, AB, B1, B2, and B3) and "non-organotypic" (thymic carcinomas) thymomas. Type B3 thymomas are aggressive tumors, which can metastasize. Due to the rarity of these lesions, only 7 cases of extradural metastasis are described in the literature. We report the first and unique case of a man with cervical intradural B3 thymoma metastasis. A 46-year-old man underwent thymoma surgical removal. The year after the procedure he was treated for a parietal pleura metastasis. In 2006 he underwent cervical-dorsal extradural metastasis removal and C5-Th1 stabilization. Seven years after he came to our observation complaining left cervicobrachialgia and a reduction of strength of the left arm. He underwent a cervical spine magnetic resonance imaging, which showed a new lesion at the C5-C7 level. The patient underwent a surgery for the intradural B3 thymoma metastasis. Neurological symptoms improved although the removal was subtotal. He went through postoperative radiation therapy with further mass reduction. Spinal metastases are extremely rare. To date, only 7 cases of spinal extradural metastasis have been described in the literature. This is the first case of spinal intradural metastasis. Early individuation of these tumors and surgical treatment improve neurological outcome in patients with spinal cord compression. A multimodal treatment including neoadjuvant chemotherapy, surgery and postoperative radiation therapy seems to improve survival in patients with metastatic thymoma.

  14. Dorsally located corneal dermoid in a cat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander J LoPinto

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Case summary A 2-month-old, male kitten was presented for evaluation of unilateral blepharospasm and epiphora involving the right eye. Ocular examination revealed conjunctivitis, a superficial corneal ulcer, reflex anterior uveitis and a haired mass within the dorsal cornea of the right eye. The mass was subsequently removed surgically via a lamellar keratectomy. Histologic evaluation of the mass via light microscopy revealed it to be comprised of normal-haired skin with mild inflammation. One week after surgical removal and medical management of the corneal ulcer, all ocular clinical signs had resolved with minimal corneal scarring. On re-examination 6 months following surgical excision of the mass, the kitten was noted to be comfortable with no significant corneal scarring. Relevance and novel information To our knowledge, this is the first case report of a dorsally located corneal dermoid in a cat.

  15. The Cervical Osteology of Okapia johnstoni and Giraffa camelopardalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danowitz, Melinda; Solounias, Nikos

    2015-01-01

    Giraffidae is the only family of ruminants that is represented by two extant species; Okapia johnstoni and Giraffa camelopardalis. Of these taxa, O. johnstoni represents a typical short-necked ungulate, and G. camelopardalis exemplifies the most extreme cervical elongation seen in any ruminant. We utilize these two species to provide a comprehensive anatomic description of the cervical vertebrae. In addition, we compare the serial morphologic characteristics of the okapi and giraffe cervical vertebrae, and report on several osteologic differences seen between the two taxa. The giraffe neck appears to exhibit homogenization of C3-C7; the position of the dorsal tubercle, thickness of the cranial articular process, shape of the ventral vertebral body, and orientation of the ventral tubercle are constant throughout these vertebrae, whereas these features are serially variable in the okapi. We also report on several specializations of the giraffe C7, which we believe relates to an atypical cervico-thoracic junction, corresponding to the substantial neck lengthening. The morphologic differences exhibited between the okapi and giraffe cervical vertebrae have implications on the function of the necks relating to both fighting and feeding.

  16. The Cervical Osteology of Okapia johnstoni and Giraffa camelopardalis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melinda Danowitz

    Full Text Available Giraffidae is the only family of ruminants that is represented by two extant species; Okapia johnstoni and Giraffa camelopardalis. Of these taxa, O. johnstoni represents a typical short-necked ungulate, and G. camelopardalis exemplifies the most extreme cervical elongation seen in any ruminant. We utilize these two species to provide a comprehensive anatomic description of the cervical vertebrae. In addition, we compare the serial morphologic characteristics of the okapi and giraffe cervical vertebrae, and report on several osteologic differences seen between the two taxa. The giraffe neck appears to exhibit homogenization of C3-C7; the position of the dorsal tubercle, thickness of the cranial articular process, shape of the ventral vertebral body, and orientation of the ventral tubercle are constant throughout these vertebrae, whereas these features are serially variable in the okapi. We also report on several specializations of the giraffe C7, which we believe relates to an atypical cervico-thoracic junction, corresponding to the substantial neck lengthening. The morphologic differences exhibited between the okapi and giraffe cervical vertebrae have implications on the function of the necks relating to both fighting and feeding.

  17. [Endovascular treatment of spinal dorsal intradural arteriovenous fistulas].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos-Franco, Jorge Arturo; Collado-Arce, María Griselda Lizbeth; Dávila-Romero, Julio César; Saavedra-Andrade, Rafael; Sandoval-Balanzario, Miguel Antonio

    2015-01-01

    Introducción: las fístulas arteriovenosas intradurales dorsales espinales (FAVIDE) son lesiones poco frecuentes y complejas que son subdiagnósticadas y condicionan discapacidad. El objetivo es presentar nuestra experiencia en el manejo endovascular. Métodos: estudio ambispectivo de pacientes con FAVIDE, tratados mediante terapia endovascular (TEV) con n-butil-cianoacrilato en el periodo de 2007 a 2013. Resultados: se incluyeron 15 pacientes con edad media de 37 años. En 12 casos la presentación fue progresiva e insidiosa en un lapso de entre 6 meses y un año, mientras que 3 presentaron hemorragia. La lesión tuvo localización torácica en 73 % de los casos, lumbar en 20 % y cervical en 7 %. Previo al tratamiento observamos discapacidad de grados 5 y 4 en 73 %, y 67 % tenían alteraciones de la micción de grado 3. Como complicaciones, solo una paciente tuvo deterioro del estado de alerta transitorio 6 horas después del procedimiento. Se encontró una mejoría hacia los grados 1 y 2 de discapacidad, a las 48 horas, 3 y 6 meses, de 53 %, 73 % y 87 %, respectivamente. Conclusiones: con la TEV se tiene un tiempo quirúrgico corto, el volumen de hemorragia es bajo y la estancia hospitalaria es corta, respecto de otras técnicas quirúrgicas. La TEV es un procedimiento seguro y con efectividad significativa en el tratamiento de FAVIDE. Esta es la primera serie de casos tratados con TEV en México.

  18. Fos, nociception and the dorsal horn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coggeshall, Richard E

    2005-12-01

    The protooncogene c-fos is rapidly activated after noxious stimuli to express the protein Fos in spinal dorsal horn neurons that are in the 'correct' locations for nociceptive information transfer. As such, therefore, mapping Fos expression in these neurons is at present the best global marker for efficiently locating populations of neurons in the awake animal that respond to nociceptive input. This allows, among other things, precise behavioral measurements to be correlated with Fos expression. Two arenas where mapping dorsal horn Fos expression has made a major impact are in the anatomy of nociceptive systems and as a useful assay for the analgesic properties of various therapeutic regimens. Also Fos expression is the only way to map populations of neurons that are responding to non-localized input such as withdrawal after addiction and vascular occlusion. Another insight is that it shows a clear activation of neurons in superficial 'pain-processing' laminae by innocuous stimuli after nerve lesions, a finding that presumably bears on the allodynia that often accompanies these lesions. It is to be understood, however, that the Fos localizations are not sufficient unto themselves, but the major function of these studies is to efficiently locate populations of cells in nociceptive pathways so that powerful anatomic and physiologic techniques can be brought to bear efficiently. Thus, the purpose of this review is to summarize the studies whose numbers are geometrically expanding that deal with Fos in the dorsal horn and the conclusions therefrom.

  19. 大鼠背根节慢性压迫或急性分离引起的cGMP-PKG信号通路持续激活介导背根节神经元的异常兴奋性和痛觉过敏%Activation of cGMP-PKG signaling pathway contributes to neuronal hyperexcitability and hyperalgesia after in vivo prolonged compression or in vitro acute dissociation of dorsal root ganglion in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄志江; 李浩川; 刘苏; 宋学军

    2012-01-01

    Injury or inflammation affecting sensory neurons in the dorsal root ganglia (DRG) causes hyperexcitability of DRG neurons that can lead to spinal central sensitization and neuropathic pain.Recent studies have indicated that,following chronic compression of DRG (CCD) or acute dissociation of DRG (ADD) treatment,both hyperexcitability of neurons in intact DRG and behaviorally expressed hyperalgesia are maintained by activity in cGMP-PKG signaling pathway.Here,we provide evidence supporting the idea that CCD or ADD treatment activates cGMP-PKA signaling pathway in the DRG neurons.The results showed that CCD or ADD results in increase of levels of cGMP concentration and expression of PKG-I mRNA,as well as PKG-I protein in DRG.CCD or ADD treatedDRG neurons become hyperexcitable and exhibit increased responsiveness to the activators of cGMP-PKG pathway,8-Br-cGMP and Sp-cGMP.Hyperexcitability of the injured neurons is inhibited by cGMP-PKG pathway inhibitors,ODQ and Rp-8-pCPT-cGMPS.In vivo delivery of Rp-8-pCPT-cGMPS into the compressed ganglion within the intervertebral foramen suppresses CCD-induced thermal hyperalgesia.These findings indicate that the in vivo CCD or in vitro ADD treatment can activate the cGMP-PKG signaling pathway,and that continuing activation of cGMP-PKG pathway is required to maintain DRG neuronal hyperexcitability and/or hyperalgesia after these two dissimilar forms of injury-related stress.%背根节(dorsal root ganglion,DRG)损伤或炎症可导致DRG神经元兴奋性异常增强和痛觉过敏.我们近期研究显示,长期慢性在体压迫(chronic compression of DRG,CCD)或急性离体分离(acute dissociation of DRG,ADD)背根节导致的神经元兴奋性异常增强和痛觉过敏受环鸟苷酸(cGMP)-蛋白激酶G(PKG)信号通路活动的调控.本研究采用大鼠CCD模型和ADD模型,直接在DRG上检测cGMP浓度和PKG mRNA及其蛋白质的表达,进一步证明了cGMP-PKG信号通路活动在CCD和ADDDRG所致神经元兴奋性

  20. Pain-related synaptic plasticity in spinal dorsal horn neurons: role of CGRP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Willis William D

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The synaptic and cellular mechanisms of pain-related central sensitization in the spinal cord are not fully understood yet. Calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP has been identified as an important molecule in spinal nociceptive processing and ensuing behavioral responses, but its contribution to synaptic plasticity, cellular mechanisms and site of action in the spinal cord remain to be determined. Here we address the role of CGRP in synaptic plasticity in the spinal dorsal horn in a model of arthritic pain. Results Whole-cell current- and voltage-clamp recordings were made from substantia gelatinosa (SG neurons in spinal cord slices from control rats and arthritic rats (> 6 h postinjection of kaolin/carrageenan into the knee. Monosynaptic excitatory postsynaptic currents (EPSCs were evoked by electrical stimulation of afferents in the dorsal root near the dorsal root entry zone. Neurons in slices from arthritic rats showed increased synaptic transmission and excitability compared to controls. A selective CGRP1 receptor antagonist (CGRP8-37 reversed synaptic plasticity in neurons from arthritic rats but had no significant effect on normal transmission. CGRP facilitated synaptic transmission in the arthritis pain model more strongly than under normal conditions where both facilitatory and inhibitory effects were observed. CGRP also increased neuronal excitability. Miniature EPSC analysis suggested a post- rather than pre-synaptic mechanism of CGRP action. Conclusion This study is the first to show synaptic plasticity in the spinal dorsal horn in a model of arthritic pain that involves a postsynaptic action of CGRP on SG neurons.

  1. Phrenic nerve afferents elicited cord dorsum potential in the cat cervical spinal cord

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davenport Paul W

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The diaphragm has sensory innervation from mechanoreceptors with myelinated axons entering the spinal cord via the phrenic nerve that project to the thalamus and somatosensory cortex. It was hypothesized that phrenic nerve afferent (PnA projection to the central nervous system is via the spinal dorsal column pathway. Results A single N1 peak of the CDP was found in the C4 and C7 spinal segments. Three peaks (N1, N2, and N3 were found in the C5 and C6 segments. No CDP was recorded at C8 dorsal spinal cord surface in cats. Conclusion These results demonstrate PnA activation of neurons in the cervical spinal cord. Three populations of myelinated PnA (Group I, Group II, and Group III enter the cat's cervical spinal segments that supply the phrenic nerve

  2. Risks of Cervical Cancer Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... are at increased risk for HPV infections. Other risk factors for cervical cancer include: Giving birth to many children. Smoking cigarettes. Using oral contraceptives ("the Pill"). Having a weakened immune system . Cervical Cancer Screening ...

  3. Interobserver agreement on MRI evaluation of patients with cervical radiculopathy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuijper, B., E-mail: kuijperb@maasstadziekenhuis.n [Department of Neurology, Medical Centre Haaglanden, The Hague (Netherlands); Department of Neurology, Maasstad Hospital, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Beelen, A. [Department of Rehabilitation, Academic Medical Centre, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Kallen, B.F. van der [Department of Neurology, Medical Centre Haaglanden, The Hague (Netherlands); Department of Radiology, Medical Centre Haaglanden, The Hague (Netherlands); Nollet, F. [Department of Rehabilitation, Academic Medical Centre, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Lycklama a Nijeholt, G.J. [Department of Neurology, Medical Centre Haaglanden, The Hague (Netherlands); Department of Radiology, Medical Centre Haaglanden, The Hague (Netherlands); Visser, M. de [Department of Neurology, Academic Medical Centre, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Tans, J. Th.J. [Department of Neurology, Medical Centre Haaglanden, The Hague (Netherlands)

    2011-01-15

    Aim: To evaluate the interobserver agreement on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) evaluation of herniated discs, spondylotic neuroforaminal stenosis, and root compression in patients with recent onset cervical radiculopathy and in addition, to assess the added value of disclosure of clinical information to interobserver agreement. Materials and methods: The MRI images of 82 patients with less than 1 month of symptoms and signs of cervical radiculopathy were evaluated independently by two neuroradiologists who were unaware of clinical findings. MRI analysis was repeated after disclosure of clinical information. Interobserver agreement was calculated using kappa statistics. Results: The kappa score for evaluation of herniated discs and of spondylotic foramen stenosis was 0.59 and 0.63, respectively. A kappa score of 0.67 was found for the presence of root compression. After disclosure of clinical information kappa scores increased slightly: from 0.59 to 0.62 for the detection of herniated discs, from 0.63 to 0.66 for spondylotic foramen stenosis, and from 0.67 to 0.76 for root compression. Conclusion: Interobserver reliability of MRI evaluation in patients with cervical radiculopathy was substantial for root compression, with or without clinical information. Agreement on the cause of the compression, i.e., herniated disc or spondylotic foraminal stenosis, was lower.

  4. Infrared neural stimulation of human spinal nerve roots in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cayce, Jonathan M; Wells, Jonathon D; Malphrus, Jonathan D; Kao, Chris; Thomsen, Sharon; Tulipan, Noel B; Konrad, Peter E; Jansen, E Duco; Mahadevan-Jansen, Anita

    2015-01-01

    Infrared neural stimulation (INS) is a neurostimulation modality that uses pulsed infrared light to evoke artifact-free, spatially precise neural activity with a noncontact interface; however, the technique has not been demonstrated in humans. The objective of this study is to demonstrate the safety and efficacy of INS in humans in vivo. The feasibility of INS in humans was assessed in patients ([Formula: see text]) undergoing selective dorsal root rhizotomy, where hyperactive dorsal roots, identified for transection, were stimulated in vivo with INS on two to three sites per nerve with electromyogram recordings acquired throughout the stimulation. The stimulated dorsal root was removed and histology was performed to determine thermal damage thresholds of INS. Threshold activation of human dorsal rootlets occurred in 63% of nerves for radiant exposures between 0.53 and [Formula: see text]. In all cases, only one or two monitored muscle groups were activated from INS stimulation of a hyperactive spinal root identified by electrical stimulation. Thermal damage was first noted at [Formula: see text] and a [Formula: see text] safety ratio was identified. These findings demonstrate the success of INS as a fresh approach for activating human nerves in vivo and providing the necessary safety data needed to pursue clinically driven therapeutic and diagnostic applications of INS in humans.

  5. Deep cervical infection?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernardo T

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Inflammatory cervical swelling may have several causes. The jugular vein thrombosis is a rare entity, often forgotten. Most frequently arises due to a cervical sepsis by the use of a central venous catheter or intravenous drug abuse (drug addicts. Rarely, is secondary to a hypercoagulability state associated with a visceral carcinoma (Trousseau Syndrome. Material and Methods: The authors present the case of a 65 years old male, who used the ENT Emergency Service due to a painful left cervical swelling with local and systemic inflammatory signs of 3 days duration. Results: An cervical ultrasound suggested a neck abscess. CT was performed and confirmed the ultrasound results. Because of its location in the path of the internal jugular vein, we requested re-evaluation by CT with intravenous contrast and doppler ultrasound, obtaining the diagnosis of thrombosis of the internal jugular vein. Further studies were conduct to clarify the hypercoagulability state, since the patient had no known predisposing factor. Finally the diagnosis of unresectable gastric carcinoma was made. Discussion and Conclusion: The ENT must be aware and be able to understand any cervical imagiologic studies. A deep knowledge of the anatomical imagiología is important for the diagnosis of jugular thrombosis. When we have a case of spontaneous jugular thrombosis, we must look for possible visceral carcinoma.

  6. Prognostic factors in cervical cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Biewenga, P.

    2015-01-01

    Surgery is the standard of care for women with early stage cervical cancer; radiotherapy is the cornerstone in patients with advanced stages of disease. Recent changes in the treatment of cervical cancer involve less radical surgery in early stage cervical cancer, concomitant chemo- and radiotherapy

  7. Infiltration of Rhodamin B into three materials used as cervical barrier

    OpenAIRE

    SOUZA,Grazielle Morais de; Rasquin, Luis Cardoso; Carvalho,Fabíola Bastos de

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate in vitro the sealing ability of three materials used as cervical barrier for internal dental bleaching.METHODS: Thirty-three canines were selected, and after biomechanical root canal preparation, the canals were filled by lateral condensation technique. After the filling material setting reaction, the teeth were randomly divided into three groups of ten teeth each, according to the following materials for constructing the cervical barrier: X Temp LC; Vitro Fil; Coltosol...

  8. Cervical deciduosis imitating dysplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Diepen, Diederik Anthony; Hellebrekers, Bart; van Haaften, Anne-Marie; Natté, Remco

    2015-09-22

    Ectopic cervical deciduosis is generally an accidental finding during pregnancy, and usually presents without any symptoms or need for therapeutic intervention. However, it can sometimes imitate dysplasia or carcinoma. We report a case of a 34-year-old G2P0, with a history of cervical dysplasia, presenting at 11 weeks of gestation, with vaginal blood loss. During examination, lesions mimicking dysplasia were found on the cervix. Histological examination reported cervical deciduosis. Deciduosis is a benign change during pregnancy and will resolve spontaneously. With the increasing use of cytology and colposcopy, the reported incidence is growing. When it is hard to differentiate between dysplasia and deciduosis, histological confirmation should be considered.

  9. Regional variation in root dentinal tubule infection by Streptococcus gordonii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Love, R M

    1996-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the pattern of bacterial invasion of dentinal tubules at different regions in human roots. Specimens were obtained from single-rooted teeth that had their root canals prepared in a standard manner. Roots were then sectioned longitudinally through the canals and the resulting specimens chemically treated to remove the smear layers. Specimens were immersed in a suspension of Streptococcus gordonii for 3 weeks and then prepared for histological analysis. Sections from the cervical, midroot, and apical areas were examined. The pattern of bacterial infection of the cervical and midroot areas was similar, characterized as a heavy infection with bacteria penetrating as deep as 200 microns. Invasion of the apical dentin was significantly different, with a mild infection and maximum penetration of 60 microns.

  10. Dorsal and ventral streams across sensory modalities

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Anna Sedda; Federica Scarpina

    2012-01-01

    In this review,we describe the current models of dorsal and ventral streams in vision,audition and touch.Available theories take their first steps from the model of Milner and Goodale,which was developed to explain how human actions can be efficiently carried out using visual information.Since then,similar concepts have also been applied to other sensory modalities.We propose that advances in the knowledge of brain functioning can be achieved through models explaining action and perception patterns independently from sensory modalities.

  11. Influence of operating microscope in the sealing of cervical perforations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruna Schwingel Schmidt

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Accidental root canal perforations are among the main complications of endodontic treatment. Aim: This study evaluated the influence of operating microscope (OM in the marginal adaptation of mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA (Angelus® and glass ionomer (Vitremer inserted into cervical perforations. Materials and Methods: Perforations were made in the cervical third of the buccal wall of the root canal in mandibular incisors. Next, the teeth were divided into four groups (N = 10: MG - MTA without OM; VG - Vitremer without OM; MOMG - MTA with OM; VOMG - Vitremer with OM. The perforations were sealed according to the group and the teeth were prepared for analysis by confocal laser scanning microscope. Images of perforation region (1,024Χ were made and the gap presented by the materials was measured using the Image J program. LEXT OLS4100 three dimensional (3D measuring laser microscope measured the volumetric misfit. Data of gap were analyzed by Kruskal-Wallis and Dunn′s tests. Analysis of variance (ANOVA and Tukey′s tests compared the volumetric misfits. Results: The results showed lower volume and gap in the interface dentin/material in VOMG compared to the other groups (P < 0.05. Conclusion: The use of OM improved the quality of cervical perforations sealed with Vitremer, being indicated in clinical situations of iatrogenic cervical perforations.

  12. PROJECTIONS OF DORSAL AND MEDIAN RAPHE NUCLEI TO DORSAL AND VENTRAL STRIATUM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. R. Hassanzadeh G. Behzadi

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available The ascending serotonergic projections are derived mainly from mesencephalic raphe nuclei. Topographical projections from mesencephalic raphe nuclei to the striatum were examined in the rat by the retrograde transport technique of HRP (horseradish peroxidase. In 29 rats stereotaxically injection of HRP enzyme were performed in dorsal and ventral parts of striatum separately. The extent of the injection sites and distribution of retrogradely labeled neuronal cell bodies were drawed on representative sections using a projection microscope. Following ipsilateral injection of HRP into the dorsal striatum, numerous labeled neurons were seen in rostral portion of dorsal raphe (DR nucleus. In the same level the cluster of labeled neurons were hevier through caudal parts of DR. A few neurons were also located in lateral wing of DR. More caudally some labeled neurons were found in lateral, medial line of DR. In median raphe nucleus (MnR the labeled neurons were scattered only in median portion of this nucleus. The ipsilateral injection of HRP into the ventral region of striatum resulted on labeling of numerous neurons in rostral, caudal and lateral portions of DR. Through the caudal extension of DR on 4th ventricle level, a large number of labeled neurons were distributed along the ventrocaudal parts of DR. In MnR, labeled neurons were observed only in median part of this nucleus. These findings suggest the mesencephalic raphe nuclei projections to caudo-putamen are topographically organized. In addition dorsal and median raphe nuclei have a stronger projection to the ventral striatum.

  13. Survival of 534 incisors after intra-alveolar root fracture in patients aged 7-17 years

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cvek, M.; Tsilingaridis, G.; Andreasen, Jens Ove

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to evaluate and assess the survival rate of 534 root fractured teeth, including factors that may affect the survival rate but were not included in previous long-term studies. Location of fracture was registered as in the cervical, cervical/middle, middle and apical one...

  14. Syringomyelia secondary to "occult" dorsal arachnoid webs: Report of two cases with review of literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parag P Sayal

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In a certain group of patients with syringomyelia, even with the advent of sophisticated magnetic resonance imaging (MRI, no associated abnormality or cerebrospinal fluid (CSF block is easily identified. This type of syringomyelia is often termed idiopathic. Current literature has less than 10 reports of arachnoid webs to be the causative factor. We present our experience in the management of two cases of syringomyelia secondary to arachnoid webs. Both our patients presented with progressive neurological deterioration with MRI scans demonstrating cervical/thoracic syrinx without Chiari malformation or low-lying cord. There was no history of previous meningitis or trauma. Both patients underwent myelography that demonstrated dorsal flow block implying CSF obstruction. Cord displacement/change in caliber was also noted and this was not evident on MRI scans. Both patients underwent thoracic laminectomy. After opening the dura, thickened/abnormal arachnoid tissue was found that was resected thus widely communicating the dorsal subarachnoid space. Postoperatively at 6 months, both patients had significant symptomatic improvement with follow-up MRI scans demonstrating significant resolution of the syrinx. In patients with presumed idiopathic syringomyelia, imaging studies should be closely inspected for the presence of a transverse arachnoid web. We believe that all patients with idiopathic symptomatic syringomyelia should have MRI CSF flow studies and/or computed tomography (CT myelography to identify such arachnoid abnormalities that are often underdiagnosed. Subsequent surgery should be directed at the establishment of normal CSF flow by laminectomy and excision of the offending arachnoid tissue.

  15. Syringomyelia secondary to "occult" dorsal arachnoid webs: Report of two cases with review of literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayal, Parag P; Zafar, Arif; Carroll, Thomas A

    2016-01-01

    In a certain group of patients with syringomyelia, even with the advent of sophisticated magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), no associated abnormality or cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) block is easily identified. This type of syringomyelia is often termed idiopathic. Current literature has less than 10 reports of arachnoid webs to be the causative factor. We present our experience in the management of two cases of syringomyelia secondary to arachnoid webs. Both our patients presented with progressive neurological deterioration with MRI scans demonstrating cervical/thoracic syrinx without Chiari malformation or low-lying cord. There was no history of previous meningitis or trauma. Both patients underwent myelography that demonstrated dorsal flow block implying CSF obstruction. Cord displacement/change in caliber was also noted and this was not evident on MRI scans. Both patients underwent thoracic laminectomy. After opening the dura, thickened/abnormal arachnoid tissue was found that was resected thus widely communicating the dorsal subarachnoid space. Postoperatively at 6 months, both patients had significant symptomatic improvement with follow-up MRI scans demonstrating significant resolution of the syrinx. In patients with presumed idiopathic syringomyelia, imaging studies should be closely inspected for the presence of a transverse arachnoid web. We believe that all patients with idiopathic symptomatic syringomyelia should have MRI CSF flow studies and/or computed tomography (CT) myelography to identify such arachnoid abnormalities that are often underdiagnosed. Subsequent surgery should be directed at the establishment of normal CSF flow by laminectomy and excision of the offending arachnoid tissue.

  16. Isolated dorsal dislocation of the tarsal naviculum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaziz Hamdi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Isolated dislocation of the tarsal naviculum is an unusual injury, scarcely reported in the literature. The naviculum is surrounded by the rigid bony and ligamentous support hence fracture dislocation is more common than isolated dislocation. The mechanism and treatment options remain unclear. In this case report, we describe a 31 year old man who sustained an isolated dorsal dislocation of the left tarsal naviculum, without fracture, when he was involved in a motor vehicle collision. The reported mechanism of the dislocation is a hyper plantar flexion force applied to the midfoot, resulting in a transient disruption of the ligamentous support of the naviculum bone, with dorsal displacement of the bone. The patient was treated with open reduction and Krischner-wire fixation of the navicular after the failure of closed reduction. The wires were removed after 6 weeks postoperatively. Physiotherapy for stiffness and midfoot pain was recommended for 2 months. At 6 months postoperatively, limping, midfoot pain and weakness were reported, no X-ray abnormalities were found. The patient returned to his obvious activities with a normal range of motion.

  17. Load and speed effects on the cervical flexion relaxation phenomenon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Descarreaux Martin

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The flexion relaxation phenomenon (FRP represents a well-studied neuromuscular response that occurs in the lumbar and cervical spine. However, the cervical spine FRP has not been investigated extensively, and the speed of movement and loading effects remains to be characterized. The objectives of the present study were to evaluate the influence of load and speed on cervical FRP electromyographic (EMG and kinematic parameters and to assess the measurement of cervical FRP kinematic and EMG parameter repeatability. Methods Eighteen healthy adults (6 women and 12 men, aged 20 to 39 years, participated in this study. They undertook 2 sessions in which they had to perform a standardized cervical flexion/extension movement in 3 phases: complete cervical flexion; the static period in complete cervical flexion; and extension with return to the initial position. Two different rhythm conditions and 3 different loading conditions were applied to assess load and speed effects. Kinematic and EMG data were collected, and dependent variables included angles corresponding to the onset and cessation of myoelectric silence as well as the root mean square (RMS values of EMG signals. Repeatability was examined in the first session and between the 2 sessions. Results Statistical analyses revealed a significant load effect (P Conclusions The load increase evoked augmented FRP onset and cessation angles as well as heightened muscle activation. Such increments may reflect the need to enhance spinal stability under loading conditions. The kinematic and EMG parameters showed promising repeatability. Further studies are needed to assess kinematic and EMG differences between healthy subjects and patients with neck pain.

  18. Cervical Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... infected with HPV, those who have used oral contraceptives ("the Pill") for 5 to 9 years have a risk of cervical cancer that is 3 times greater than that of women who have never used oral contraceptives. The risk is 4 times greater after 10 ...

  19. Diabetes and cervical myelopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houten, John K; Lenart, Christopher

    2016-05-01

    Diabetes may affect the typical physical findings associated with cervical spondylotic myelopathy, as coexisting diabetic neuropathy may dampen expected hyperreflexia and also produce non-dermatomal extremity numbness. Most large studies of surgically treated diabetic patients with cervical spondylotic myelopathy have focused upon infection rates rather than exploring any differences in the presenting physical signs. We conducted a retrospective study of the pattern of presenting neurological signs and symptoms and of the clinical outcomes in 438 patients surgically treated for cervical spondylotic myelopathy, 79 of whom had diabetes. Compared with non-diabetic patients, those with diabetes were slightly older and had lower preoperative modified Japanese Orthopaedic Association (mJOA) scores. Those with diabetes also had a significantly higher incidence of hyporeflexia and a higher incidence of a positive Babinski sign, but there was no difference in the appearance of the Hoffman sign. The magnitude of mJOA improvement after surgery was comparable. We conclude that diabetes may alter the typical signs and symptoms of cervical spondylotic myelopathy and suggest that knowledge of the differences may aid in securing a prompt and accurate diagnosis.

  20. Prevent Cervical Cancer!

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2015-01-08

    Cervical cancer can be prevented. Listen as two friends—one a doctor—talk about screening tests and early detection. Learn what test you might need.  Created: 1/8/2015 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 1/8/2015.

  1. Function of dorsal fins in bamboo shark during steady swimming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maia, Anabela; Wilga, Cheryl A

    2013-08-01

    To gain insight into the function of the dorsal fins in white-spotted bamboo sharks (Orectolobiformes: Hemiscyillidae) during steady swimming, data on three-dimensional kinematics and electromyographic recordings were collected. Bamboo sharks were induced to swim at 0.5 and 0.75 body lengths per second in a laminar flow tank. Displacement, lag and angles were analyzed from high-speed video images. Onset, offset, duration, duty cycle and asynchrony index were calculated from three muscle implants on each side of each dorsal fin. The dorsal fins were displaced more laterally than the undulating body. In addition, the dorsal tips had larger lateral displacement than the trailing edges. Increased speed was accompanied by an increase in tail beat frequency with constant tail beat amplitude. However, lateral displacement of the fins and duration of muscle bursts remained relatively constant with increased speed. The range of lateral motion was greater for the second dorsal fin (mean 33.3°) than for the first dorsal fin (mean 28.4°). Bending within the fin was greater for the second dorsal fin (mean 43.8°) than for the first dorsal fin (mean 30.8°). Muscle onset and offset among implants on the same side of each dorsal fin was similar. Three-dimensional conformation of the dorsal fins was caused by interactions between muscle activity, material properties, and incident flow. Alternating bilateral activity occurred in both dorsal fins, further supporting the active role of these hydrofoils in thrust production during steady swimming. The dorsal fins in bamboo sharks are capable of thrust production during steady swimming and do not appear to function as stabilizing structures.

  2. Cetuximab, Cisplatin, and Radiation Therapy in Treating Patients With Stage IB, Stage II, Stage III, or Stage IVA Cervical Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-29

    Cervical Adenocarcinoma; Cervical Adenosquamous Carcinoma; Cervical Small Cell Carcinoma; Cervical Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IB Cervical Cancer; Stage IIA Cervical Cancer; Stage IIB Cervical Cancer; Stage III Cervical Cancer; Stage IVA Cervical Cancer

  3. Cisplatin and Radiation Therapy Followed by Paclitaxel and Carboplatin in Treating Patients With Stage IB-IVA Cervical Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-16

    Cervical Adenocarcinoma; Cervical Adenosquamous Carcinoma; Cervical Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IB Cervical Cancer; Stage IIA Cervical Cancer; Stage IIB Cervical Cancer; Stage IIIA Cervical Cancer; Stage IIIB Cervical Cancer; Stage IVA Cervical Cancer

  4. Flexion/extension cervical spine views in blunt cervical

    OpenAIRE

    Nasir Sadaf; Hussain Manzar; Mahmud Roomi

    2012-01-01

    【Abstract】Objective: To examine the contribution of flexion and extension radiographs in the evaluation of ligamentous injury in awake adults with acute blunt cervical spine trauma, who show loss of cervical lordosis and neck pain. Methods: All patients who presented to our emer-gency department following blunt trauma were enrolled in this study, except those with schiwora, neurological defi-cits or fracture demonstrated on cross-table cervical spine X-rays, and tho...

  5. Personal technique for wrist dorsal approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcuzzi, A; Leigheb, M; Russomando, A; Landi, A

    2014-09-24

    In hand disorders surgical procedures are more and more widely used and often it's necessary to approach the wrist by the dorsal way. Beneath anatomy of this region is well known, there is still room enough to develop new surgical exposure techniques mostly related to physiology and biomechanics. Our goals are to present an innovative surgical dorsal exposure of the wrist, to show its use for different problems solving, and to evaluate its mini-invasive and functional outcome. Our inedited surgical technique is presented. Since November 1999 to February 2008, this technique has been used by the same surgeon in 60 cases for different pathologies and procedures: 14 SNAC-SLAC wrists III-IV treated by proximal row resection and Resurface-Capitate Pyrocarbon Implant (RCPI), 2 Fenton syndromes by bone graft and RCPI, 6 SNACSLAC II by proximal row resection +/- radial styloidectomy, 2 SLAC III by scaphoidectomy and capito-lunate arthrodesis, 12 scapho-lunate recent dissociations by ligamentoplasty (double approach), 4 scapho-lunate inveterate dissociations by Cuenod Saffar-Romano modified technique and 4 by synthetic ligaments, 1 fracture of the scaphoid proximal pole by synthesis-revascularization-S.L.ligament reconstruction, 15 Kienbock's diseases revascularized by II m.c. artery +/- radial osteotomy. Patients have been evaluated at follow up through the DASH disability questionnaire, the Mayo score for the force, ROM, pain, satisfaction grade. Results are good and encouraging for these applications. In conclusion this new technique with its limited exposure permits an early mobilization with a lower risk of stiffness and can be considered mini-invasive.

  6. Muscular Arrangement and Muscle Attachment Sites in the Cervical Region of the American Barn Owl (Tyto furcata pratincola).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boumans, Mark L L M; Krings, Markus; Wagner, Hermann

    2015-01-01

    Owls have the largest head rotation capability amongst vertebrates. Anatomical knowledge of the cervical region is needed to understand the mechanics of these extreme head movements. While data on the morphology of the cervical vertebrae of the barn owl have been provided, this study is aimed to provide an extensive description of the muscle arrangement and the attachment sites of the muscles on the owl's head-neck region. The major cervical muscles were identified by gross dissection of cadavers of the American barn owl (Tyto furcata pratincola), and their origin, courses, and insertion were traced. In the head-neck region nine superficial larger cervical muscles of the craniocervical, dorsal and ventral subsystems were selected for analysis, and the muscle attachment sites were illustrated in digital models of the skull and cervical vertebrae of the same species as well as visualised in a two-dimensional sketch. In addition, fibre orientation and lengths of the muscles and the nature (fleshy or tendinous) of the attachment sites were determined. Myological data from this study were combined with osteological data of the same species. This improved the anatomical description of the cervical region of this species. The myological description provided in this study is to our best knowledge the most detailed documentation of the cervical muscles in a strigiform species presented so far. Our results show useful information for researchers in the field of functional anatomy, biomechanical modelling and for evolutionary and comparative studies.

  7. Muscular Arrangement and Muscle Attachment Sites in the Cervical Region of the American Barn Owl (Tyto furcata pratincola.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark L L M Boumans

    Full Text Available Owls have the largest head rotation capability am