WorldWideScience

Sample records for certified sickness absence

  1. Medically certified sickness absence with insurance benefits in women with and without children

    OpenAIRE

    Floderus, Birgitta; Hagman, Maud; Aronsson, Gunnar; Marklund, Staffan; Wikman, Anders

    2011-01-01

    Background: Sickness absence in Sweden is high, particularly in young women and the reasons are unclear. Many Swedish women combine parenthood and work and are facing demands that may contribute to impaired health and well-being. We compared mothers and women without children under different conditions, assuming increased sickness absence in mothers, due to time-based stress and psychological strain. Methods: All women born in 1960–79 (1.2 million) were followed from 1993 to 2003. Information...

  2. Do gastrointestinal complaints increase the risk for subsequent medically certified long-term sickness absence? The HUSK study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Øverland Simon

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Gastrointestinal complaints are very common in the general population and very often co-occur with common mental disorders. We aimed to study the prospective impact of gastrointestinal complaints on long term sickness absence, and address the contribution from co-occurring common mental disorders and other somatic symptoms. Method Health data on 13 880 40-45 year olds from the Hordaland Health Study (1997-99 were linked to national registries on sickness absence. As part of a wider health screening, gastrointestinal complaints were ascertained. Participant's anxiety and depression, and the presence of other somatic symptoms were evaluated. In Cox regression models, we predicted sickness absences over an average 5.4 years follow-up, with adjustment for confounders, anxiety and depression and other somatic symptoms. Results After adjusting for gender, level of education and smoking, those reporting GI complaints had higher risk for later sickness absence (HR = 1.42, 95% CI 1.34-1.51. GI complaints were associated with both anxiety (OR = 3.66, 95% CI 3.31-4.04 and depression (OR = 3.28, 95% CI 2.89-3.72, and a high level of other somatic symptoms (OR = 8.50, 95% CI 7.69-9.40. The association of GI complaints was still independently associated with future sickness absence (HR = 1.17, 95% CI 1.10-1.16 adjusting for mental illness and other somatic symptoms. Discussion Sickness absence is a complex behavioural outcome, but our results suggest GI complaints contribute by increasing the risk of long term sickness absence independently of comorbid mental illness and presence of other somatic symptoms. Occupational consequences of illness are important, and should also be addressed clinically with patients presenting with GI complaints.

  3. Coping and sickness absence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rhenen, W. van; Schaufeli, W.B.; Dijk, F.J.H. van; Blonk, R.W.B.

    2008-01-01

    Objectives: The aim of this study is to examine the role of coping styles in sickness absence. In line with findings that contrast the reactive-passive focused strategies, problem-solving strategies are generally associated with positive results in terms of well-being and overall health outcomes; ou

  4. Parenthood, gender and sickness absence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mastekaasa, A

    2000-06-01

    It is well documented that women have generally higher morbidity rates than men. In line with this women are also more absent from work due to sickness. This paper considers one popular explanation of the morbidity difference in general and of the difference in sickness absence in particular, viz. that women to a greater extent than men are exposed to the 'double burden' of combining paid work with family obligations. We discuss theories of role overload and role conflict, which both assume that the combination of multiple roles may have negative health effects, as well theories of role enhancement, which assume positive health effects of multiple roles. Using two large Norwegian data sets, the relationship between the number of and the age of children on the one hand and sickness absence on the other is examined separately for men and women and for a number of theoretically interesting subpopulations of women defined in terms of marital status (also taking account of unmarried cohabitation), level of education, and working hours. Generally speaking the association between children and sickness absence is weak, particularly for married people of both genders. To the extent that married persons with children are more absent than married persons without children, this is largely due to respiratory conditions. The relationship between children and sickness absence is somewhat stronger for single, never married mothers, but not for single mothers who have been previously married or for women living in unmarried cohabitation. The findings thus provide little support for either role overload/conflict or role enhancement theories. The possibility that these effects are both present and counterbalancing each other or that they are confounded with uncontrolled selection effects can not, however, be ruled out. PMID:10798335

  5. Workplace bullying and sickness absence in hospital staff

    OpenAIRE

    Kivimäki, M; Elovainio, M; Vahtera, J

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVES—In the past, evidence on the negative consequences of workplace bullying has been limited to cross sectional studies of self reported bullying. In this study, these consequences were examined prospectively by focusing on sickness absence in hospital staff.
METHODS—The Poisson regression analyses of medically certified spells (⩾4 days) and self certified spells (1-3 days) of sickness absence, relating to bullying and other predictors of health, were based on a cohort of 674 male and...

  6. Sickness Absence and Business Cycles

    OpenAIRE

    Jan Erik Askildsen; Espen Bratberg; Oivind Anti Nilsen

    2000-01-01

    Absenteeism is affected by the sickness benefit system. Countries with generous compensation during sick leaves also experience high numbers of sick leave. Sick leaves may vary over the business cycle due to unemployment disciplining effects or changes in labour force composition. The latter hypothesis maintains that sickness may be pro-cyclical due to employment of `marginal' workers with poorer health when demand increases. Using individual records of labour force participants in Norway, we...

  7. Teachers' Sickness Absence in Primary Schools: A Panel Data Multilevel Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Bratberg, Espen; Holmås, Tor Helge; Islam, M. Kamrul; Vaage, Kjell

    2010-01-01

    This paper uses longitudinal employer–employee data and multilevel models to examine both observed and unobserved variation of the probability and length of certified and self-certified sickness absence for Norwegian primary school teachers. We argue that self-certified absences are particularly prone to moral hazard. We find that most of the observed teacher, school and municipality characteristics are significantly associated with the probability and the length of sickness absence. However,...

  8. The illness flexibility model and sickness absence

    OpenAIRE

    Johansson, Gun

    2007-01-01

    Research on sickness absence has repeatedly been described as theoretically undeveloped. In this thesis the model of illness flexibility is introduced. In this model, sickness absence is assumed to be caused by people’s ability and motivation to work. Ability and motivation will in turn be affected by conditions met in and outside work. In the model, five basic components are discerned describing such conditions. Adjustment latitude describes opportunities to adjust work to ...

  9. Sickness absence due to depressive symptoms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koopmans, P. C.; Roelen, C. A. M.; Groothoff, J. W.

    2008-01-01

    Objective There is no information on the duration of absence of depressed Dutch workers. The aim of this study was to determine the duration of sickness absence due to depressive symptoms in the working population. Methods In this observational study of 15% of the Dutch working population, all absen

  10. Trends in sickness absence in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Kristina; Bihrmann, Kristine; Mikkelsen, Sigurd; Lynge, Elsebeth

    2009-01-01

    linear regression analysis to analyze time trends in sickness absence based on datasets from the Danish Employers Confederation, the State Employer's Authority, the Labour Force Survey, and Statistics Denmark. RESULTS: The findings from the Confederation of Danish Employers, the State Employer......'s Authority, and the Labor Force Survey indicated a stable and largely unaltered pattern of sickness absence during the last 20 years. Findings from Statistics Denmark showed an increase in the cumulative incidence proportion from 6.6 to 7.5% among employed people between 2000 and 2007. CONCLUSION: Our data...

  11. Psychological climate, sickness absence and gender

    OpenAIRE

    González-Romá, V.; Väänänen, A.; Ripoll, P; Caballer, A.; Peiró, J.M.; Kivimäki, M

    2005-01-01

    We examined whether the relationship between psychological climate and sickness absence is moderated by gender. We expected that this relationship would be stronger among men than among women. We tested this general hypothesis using two samples of men and women nurses (made up of 114 and 189 subjects, respectively). The results obtained supported our expectation. The three climate facets considered (support, goals orientation and rules orientation) showed a significant relationship with sickn...

  12. Determinants for return to work among sickness certified patients in general practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    von Celsing Anna-Sophia

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Long-term sickness absence is one of the main risk factors for permanent exit out of the labour market. Early identification of the condition is essential to facilitate return to work. The aim of this study was to analyse possible determinants of return to work and their relative impact. Methods All 943 subjects aged 18 to 63 years, sickness certified at a Primary Health Care Centre in Sweden from 1 January until 31 August 2004, were followed up for three years. Baseline information on sex, age, sick leave diagnosis, employment status, extent of sick leave, and sickness absence during the year before baseline was obtained, as was information on all compensated days of sick leave, disability pension and death during follow-up. Results Slightly more than half the subjects were women, mean age was 39 years. Half of the study population returned to work within 14 days after baseline, and after three years only 15 subjects were still on sick leave. In multivariate proportional hazards regression analysis the extent of previous sick leave, age, being on part-time sick leave, and having a psychiatric, musculoskeletal, cardiovascular, nervous disease, digestive system, or injury or poisoning diagnosis decreased the return to work rate, while being employed increased it. Marital status, sex, being born in Sweden, citizenship, and annual salary had no influence. In logistic regression analyses across follow-up time these variables altogether explained 88-90% of return to work variation. Conclusions Return to work was positively or negatively associated by a number of variables easily accessible in the GP’s office. Track record data in the form of previous sick leave was the most influential variable.

  13. Sickness absence frequency among women working in hospital care

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roelen, Corne A. M.; Schreuder, Jolanda A. H.; Koopmans, Petra C.; Moen, Bente E.; Groothoff, Johan W.

    2009-01-01

    Background Frequent short sickness absences result in understaffing and interfere with work processes. We need more knowledge about factors associated with this type of absence. Aims To investigate associations between the frequency of previous sickness absence and self-reported perceptions of healt

  14. The effect of working conditions on teachers'sickness absence

    OpenAIRE

    Rønning, Marte

    2012-01-01

    This paper investigates the effect of working conditions on the amount of teachers’sickness absence in Norway. Exploiting intertemporal variation within teachers who have not changed schools, the findings indicate that teachers lower their amount of sickness absence if the school’s resource use increases. Increased workload and permanent employment contract are associated with higher sickness absence. When stratifying on teachers’age, increased workload appears to have a larger ...

  15. Return to work following sickness absence due to infectious mononucleosis

    OpenAIRE

    Koopmans, P. C.; Bakhtali, R.; Katan, A.A.; Groothoff, J. W.; Roelen, C.A.

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Epstein-Barr virus infectious mononucleosis among adults is notorious because of the prolonged incapacitating fatigue it causes. AIMS: To investigate the duration of sickness absence and return to work following infectious mononucleosis. METHODS: Episodes of sickness absence due to infectious mononucleosis were selected from an occupational health services register. The duration of sickness absence and return to work was assessed with Kaplan-Meier survival analysis. RESULTS: Two t...

  16. Return to work following sickness absence due to infectious mononucleosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koopmans, P.C.; Bakhtali, R.; Katan, A.A.; Groothoff, J.W.; Roelen, C.A.

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Epstein-Barr virus infectious mononucleosis among adults is notorious because of the prolonged incapacitating fatigue it causes. AIMS: To investigate the duration of sickness absence and return to work following infectious mononucleosis. METHODS: Episodes of sickness absence due to infec

  17. The Role of Work Group in Individual Sickness Absence Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaananen, Ari; Tordera, Nuria; Kivimaki, Mika; Kouvonen, Anne; Pentti, Jaana; Linna, Anne; Vahtera, Jussi

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of our two-year follow-up study was to examine the effect of the social components of the work group, such as group absence norms and cohesion, on sickness absence behavior among individuals with varying attitudes toward work attendance. The social components were measured using a questionnaire survey, and data on sickness absence…

  18. Does muscle strength predict future musculoskeletal disorders and sickness absence?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Faber, A; Sell, L; Hansen, J V;

    2012-01-01

    High muscle strength is considered relevant for preventing musculoskeletal disorders and long-term sickness absence. However, prospective studies on the association between muscle strength and future musculoskeletal disorders and long-term sickness absence are few and show contrasting results....

  19. Analyzing sickness absence with statistical models for survival data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Karl Bang; Andersen, Per Kragh; Smith-Hansen, Lars; Nielsen, Martin L; Kristensen, Tage S

    2007-01-01

    absence data deal with events occurring over time, the use of statistical models for survival data has been reviewed, and the use of frailty models has been proposed for the analysis of such data. METHODS: Three methods for analyzing data on sickness absences were compared using a simulation study......OBJECTIVES: Sickness absence is the outcome in many epidemiologic studies and is often based on summary measures such as the number of sickness absences per year. In this study the use of modern statistical methods was examined by making better use of the available information. Since sickness...... involving the following: (i) Poisson regression using a single outcome variable (number of sickness absences), (ii) analysis of time to first event using the Cox proportional hazards model, and (iii) frailty models, which are random effects proportional hazards models. Data from a study of the relation...

  20. Psychosocial work conditions associated with sickness absence among hospital employees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Suadicani, P; Olesen, K; Bonde, J P;

    2014-01-01

    essential covariates of sickness absence. METHODS: A cross-sectional questionnaire study of hospital employees which sought information on elements of the psychosocial work environment, general health status, life style, age, gender and profession. Data on sickness absence were obtained from the employer......'s salary database. RESULTS: A total of 1809 hospital employees took part with a response rate of 65%. The mean age was 43 (range: 20-69) and 75% were female. Totally, 363 study participants (20%) had at least 14 days sickness absence (defined as high absence) during the preceding year. Associations between...

  1. Low back pain predict sickness absence among power plant workers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murtezani, Ardiana; Hundozi, Hajrije; Orovcanec, Nikola; Berisha, Merita; Meka, Vjollca

    2010-01-01

    Background: Low back pain (LBP) remains the predominant occupational health problem in most industrialized countries and low-income countries. Both work characteristics and individual factors have been identified as risk factors. More knowledge about the predictors of sickness absence from LBP in the industry will be valuable in determining strategies for prevention. Objectives: The aim of this longitudinal study was to investigate whether individual, work-related physical risk factors were involved in the occurrence of LBP sickness absence. Methods: A follow-up study was conducted among 489 workers, aged 18–65 years, at Kosovo Energetic Corporation in Kosovo. This cross-sectional study used a self-administered questionnaire to collect data on individual and work-related risk factors and the occurrence of LBP sickness absence. Logistic regression models were used to determine associations between risk factors and the occurrence of sickness absence due to LBP. Results: Individual factors did not influence sickness absence, whereas work-related physical factors showed strong associations with sickness absence. The main risk factors for sickness absence due to LBP among production workers were extreme trunk flexion (OR = 1.71, 95% CI = 1.05–2.78) as well as very extreme trunk flexion (OR = 6.04, 95% CI = 1.12–32.49) and exposure to whole-body vibration (OR = 1.75, 95% CI = 1.04–2.95). Conclusion: Reducing sickness absence from LBP among power plant workers requires focusing on the working conditions of blue-collar workers and risk factors for LBP. Increasing social support in the work environment may have effects in reducing sickness absence from LBP. PMID:21120081

  2. Low back pain predict sickness absence among power plant workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murtezani Ardiana

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Low back pain (LBP remains the predominant occupational health problem in most industrialized countries and low-income countries. Both work characteristics and individual factors have been identified as risk factors. More knowledge about the predictors of sickness absence from LBP in the industry will be valuable in determining strategies for prevention. Objectives: The aim of this longitudinal study was to investigate whether individual, work-related physical risk factors were involved in the occurrence of LBP sickness absence. Methods: A follow-up study was conducted among 489 workers, aged 18-65 years, at Kosovo Energetic Corporation in Kosovo. This cross-sectional study used a self-administered questionnaire to collect data on individual and work-related risk factors and the occurrence of LBP sickness absence. Logistic regression models were used to determine associations between risk factors and the occurrence of sickness absence due to LBP. Results: Individual factors did not influence sickness absence, whereas work-related physical factors showed strong associations with sickness absence. The main risk factors for sickness absence due to LBP among production workers were extreme trunk flexion (OR = 1.71, 95% CI = 1.05-2.78 as well as very extreme trunk flexion (OR = 6.04, 95% CI = 1.12-32.49 and exposure to whole-body vibration (OR = 1.75, 95% CI = 1.04-2.95. Conclusion: Reducing sickness absence from LBP among power plant workers requires focusing on the working conditions of blue-collar workers and risk factors for LBP. Increasing social support in the work environment may have effects in reducing sickness absence from LBP.

  3. The effect on length of sickness absence by recognition of undetected psychiatric disorder in long-term sickness absence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søgaard, Hans Jørgen; Bech, Per

    2009-01-01

    the rate of return to work. RESULTS: The rate of return to work was non-significantly lower for the intervention group than for the control group, except for persons without a psychiatric sick-leave diagnosis who were sick-listed from full time work, who showed a significantly higher rate of return to......BACKGROUND: The burden caused by psychiatric disorders on the individual and society has resulted in more studies examining interventions aimed at reducing sickness absence. AIMS: To examine if detection of undetected psychiatric disorders in long-term sickness absence (LSA) would improve the rate...... of return to work. METHODS: Over one year all 2,414 incident persons on LSA in a well-defined population were within one week after eight weeks of continuous sickness absence posted the Common Mental Disorders Screening Questionnaire (CMD-SQ) to screen for mental disorders. In a randomized controlled...

  4. Focus Group Study Exploring Factors Related to Frequent Sickness Absence.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annette Notenbomer

    Full Text Available Research investigating frequent sickness absence (3 or more episodes per year is scarce and qualitative research from the perspective of frequent absentees themselves is lacking. The aim of the current study is to explore awareness, determinants of and solutions to frequent sickness absence from the perspective of frequent absentees themselves.We performed a qualitative study of 3 focus group discussions involving a total of 15 frequent absentees. Focus group discussions were audiotaped and transcribed verbatim. Results were analyzed with the Graneheim method using the Job Demands Resources (JD-R model as theoretical framework.Many participants were not aware of their frequent sickness absence and the risk of future long-term sickness absence. As determinants, participants mentioned job demands, job resources, home demands, poor health, chronic illness, unhealthy lifestyles, and diminished feeling of responsibility to attend work in cases of low job resources. Managing these factors and improving communication (skills were regarded as solutions to reduce frequent sickness absence.The JD-R model provided a framework for determinants of and solutions to frequent sickness absence. Additional determinants were poor health, chronic illness, unhealthy lifestyles, and diminished feeling of responsibility to attend work in cases of low job resources. Frequent sickness absence should be regarded as a signal that something is wrong. Managers, supervisors, and occupational health care providers should advise and support frequent absentees to accommodate job demands, increase both job and personal resources, and improve health rather than express disapproval of frequent sickness absence and apply pressure regarding work attendance.

  5. Focus Group Study Exploring Factors Related to Frequent Sickness Absence

    OpenAIRE

    Annette Notenbomer; Roelen, Corné A. M.; Willem van Rhenen; Groothoff, Johan W.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Research investigating frequent sickness absence (3 or more episodes per year) is scarce and qualitative research from the perspective of frequent absentees themselves is lacking. The aim of the current study is to explore awareness, determinants of and solutions to frequent sickness absence from the perspective of frequent absentees themselves. Methods We performed a qualitative study of 3 focus group discussions involving a total of 15 frequent absentees. Focus group discussion...

  6. Sickness absence, moral hazard, and the business cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pichler, Stefan

    2015-06-01

    The procyclical nature of sickness absence has been documented by many scholars in literature. So far, explanations have been based on labor force composition and reduced moral hazard caused by fear of job loss during recessions. In this paper, we propose and test a third mechanism caused by reduced moral hazard during booms and infections. We suggest that the workload is higher during economic booms and thus employees have to go to work despite being sick. In a theoretical model focusing on infectious diseases, we show that this will provoke infections of coworkers leading to overall higher sickness absence during economic upturns. Using state-level aggregated data from 112 German public health insurance funds (out of 145 in total), we find that sickness absence due to infectious diseases shows the largest procyclical pattern, as predicted by our theoretical model. PMID:24737552

  7. Common Mental Disorders in Longterm-Sickness Absence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søgaard, Hans Jørgen

    Common Mental Disorders (CMD) such as depression, anxiety, and somatoform disorders impose heavy burdens on individuals and on society in the form of sickness absence. CMD are frequently undetected in primary care which postpone the initiation of proper treatment. This seriously worsens return...

  8. Controlling sickness absence: a study of changes in the Danish sickness absence legislation since 1973

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Kristina; Andersen, John Sahl; Mikkelsen, Sigurd; Pass, Ole; Raffnsøe, Sverre; Lynge, Elsebeth

    2007-01-01

    amendments to the act. RESULTS: Entitlement to sickness benefit in Denmark has undergone considerable changes during the past 30 years. The guiding principles of the reforms have been financial savings in combination with an assumption that human behaviour can be controlled through bureaucratic...

  9. Sickness absence at a young age and later sickness absence, disability pension, death, unemployment and income in native Swedes and immigrants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansson, Bo; Nordqvist, Tobias; Lundberg, Ingvar; Vingård, Eva

    2015-01-01

    Background: Sickness absence with cash benefits from the sickness insurance gives an opportunity to be relieved from work without losing financial security. There are, however, downsides to taking sickness absence. Periods of sickness absence, even short ones, can increase the risk for future spells of sickness absence and unemployment. The sickness period may in itself have a detrimental effect on health. The aim of the study was to investigate if there is an association between exposure to sickness absence at a young age and later sickness absence, disability pension, death, unemployment and income from work. Methods: Our cohort consisted of all immigrants aged 21–25 years in Sweden in 1993 (N = 38 207) and a control group of native Swedes in the same age group (N = 225 977). We measured exposure to sickness absence in 1993 with a follow-up period of 15 years. We conducted separate analyses for men and women, and for immigrants and native Swedes. Results: Exposure to ≥60 days of sickness absence in 1993 increased the risk of sickness absence [hazard ratio (HR) 1.6–11.4], unemployment (HR 1.1–1.2), disability pension (HR 1.2–5.3) and death (HR 1.2–3.5). The income from work, during the follow-up period, among individuals with spells of sick leave for ≥60 days in 1993 was around two-thirds of that of the working population who did not take sick leave. Conclusions: Individuals on sickness absence had an increased risk for work absence, death and lower future income. PMID:25634955

  10. [Reducing problematic sickness absence: of importance to every general practitioner].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wind, H; Opstelten, W; Hendriks, A C

    2016-01-01

    Problematic sickness absence is an issue that concerns not only occupational health physicians, but all physicians. More collaboration between occupational health and treating physicians, plus improved alignment of symptom treatment and reintegration counselling, can help avoid long-term sickness absence of employees. Achieving this goal presupposes mutual knowledge of each other's professions. Medical practice guidelines are a tool par excellence to share knowledge and bring this into practice. Treating physicians should not refrain from posing work-related and return-to-work questions, even if the overall responsibility lies with the occupational health physicians in terms of reintegration efforts. The patient's interest should be the leading principle for all physicians involved. This means not only provision of good care, aimed at patient recovery, but also adequate reintegration in the labour market. Occupational health physicians, general practitioners and consultant specialists should share this common goal. PMID:27299497

  11. Multidimensional intervention and sickness absence in assistant nursing students

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svensson, Annemarie Lyng; Strøyer, Jesper; Ebbehøj, Niels Erik;

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: When handling patients, nursing assistant (NA) students and nurse students are frequently exposed to risk factors for low back pain (LBP) including sudden loads and twisting and bending of the spine. Furthermore, LBP is a major cause of sickness absence. AIMS: To ascertain...... at two schools of health and social care in Copenhagen, Denmark. The participants completed a comprehensive questionnaire regarding sickness absence, LBP and psychosocial factors on commencement and after completion of the study. RESULTS: Of 766 female NA students, 668 (87%) completed the baseline...... of general health perception, energy/fatigue or psychological well-being at follow-up, while the control group reported a decline on those scales. There were no significant differences in the prevalence of LBP at follow-up between the intervention and control group. CONCLUSIONS: Compared to the control group...

  12. Sickness absence in workplaces: Does it reflect a healthy hire effect?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karin Nordström

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Sickness absence in workplaces may reflect working conditions. It may also reflect a “healthy hire effect,” i.e., that workplaces recruit individuals with experience of sickness absence differently. The purpose of the study was to determine if a history of sickness absence among recruits is associated with the average level of sickness absence in workplaces. Material and Methods: In a register-based follow-up study, Swedish workplaces with at least 5 employees in 2006 were selected (approximately 127 000 workplaces with 3.9 million employees. The workplaces were categorized according to the average workplace sickness absence in 2006 and the recruits were categorized according to the individual sickness absence in 2005. The workplaces with a high average level of sickness absence were more likely than those with a low level to hire employees with high sickness absence in the year preceding employment: men – odds ratio (OR = 7.2, 95% confidence interval (CI: 6.6–7.8, women – OR = 7.5, 95% CI: 6.9–8.1. Results: The results show that there is a greater likelihood of employing individuals with high levels of sickness absence in the workplaces with many days of the average sickness absence than in the workplaces with few days of the average sickness absence. Conclusions: The results suggest that sickness absence in workplaces may reflect a healthy hire effect.

  13. Does self-efficacy predict return-to-work after sickness absence? A prospective study among 930 employees with sickness absence for three weeks or more

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Labriola, Merete; Lund, Thomas; Christensen, Karl B;

    2007-01-01

    AIM: To compare levels of self-efficacy among the general working population and employees with sickness absence from work, and to examine if general self-efficacy measured before occurrence of sickness absence predicted subsequent onset of sickness absence and Return-to-Work. METHODS: The study ...... labor market status; this will help to focus Return-to-Work interventions where planning has to be attentive towards the change in self-efficacy that can occur after onset of disease and sickness absence....

  14. Long-term sickness absence : Aspects of society, work, and family

    OpenAIRE

    Lidwall, Ulrik

    2010-01-01

    Sickness absence has varied considerably in Sweden over time and increased substantially between 1997 and 2002, especially among women. The composition of such absence has also changed in that there have been increases in sick leave due to mental illness, prolongation of sickness absence periods, and a larger proportion of women than men on long-term sick leave. The general aim of the research presented in this thesis was to identify societal and work- and health-related...

  15. Does Perceived Stress Mediate the Association Between Workplace Bullying and Long-Term Sickness Absence?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grynderup, Matias Brdsgaard; Nabe-Nielsen, Kirsten; Lange, Theis;

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine if perceived stress mediated the association between workplace bullying and subsequent long-term sickness absence. METHODS: The PRISME cohort was established in 2007 and re-examined in 2009. Questionnaire data about workplace bullying and perceived stress were obtained from...... 4114 individuals. Participants were followed in registers on long-term sickness absence (≥30 consecutive days of sickness absence). RESULTS: Workplace bullying was associated with subsequent sickness absence (odds ratio [OR] = 2.05; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.57 to 2.65) and concurrent high...... perceived stress levels (OR = 2.34; 95% CI: 1.86 to 2.96). A high perceived stress level was also associated with subsequent sickness absence (OR = 1.33; 95% CI: 1.13 to 1.56). Perceived stress explained 13% (95% CI: 6 to 23%) of the total association between bullying and sickness absence. CONCLUSIONS: The...

  16. Promoting return to work : lay experiences after sickness absence with musculoskeletal diagnoses

    OpenAIRE

    Östlund, Gunnel

    2002-01-01

    Introduction: Musculoskeletal disorders constitute the greatest cause of sickness absence from work. Despite research and efforts at rehabilitation, sickness absence due to these disorders has not decreased, but has instead increased, particularly in women. Clients’ perceptions of care and rehabilitation, i.e. knowledge generated from a lay perspective, is a neglected area of research. This thesis deals with lay experiences of rehabilitation following sickness absence due to back, neck or sho...

  17. Chronic fatigue syndrome after Giardia enteritis: clinical characteristics, disability and long-term sickness absence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naess Halvor

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A waterborne outbreak of Giardia lamblia gastroenteritis led to a high prevalance of long-lasting fatigue and abdominal symptoms. The aim was to describe the clinical characteristics, disability and employmentloss in a case series of patients with Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (CFS after the infection. Methods Patients who reported persistent fatigue, lowered functional capacity and sickness leave or delayed education after a large community outbreak of giardiasis enteritis in the city of Bergen, Norway were evaluated with the established Centers for Disease Control and Prevention criteria for CFS. Fatigue was self-rated by the Fatigue Severity Scale (FSS. Physical and mental health status and functional impairment was measured by the Medical Outcome Severity Scale-short Form-36 (SF-36. The Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS was used to measure co-morbid anxiety and depression. Inability to work or study because of fatigue was determined by sickness absence certified by a doctor. Results A total of 58 (60% out of 96 patients with long-lasting post-infectious fatigue after laboratory confirmed giardiasis were diagnosed with CFS. In all, 1262 patients had laboratory confirmed giardiasis. At the time of referral (mean illness duration 2.7 years 16% reported improvement, 28% reported no change, and 57% reported progressive course with gradual worsening. Mean FSS score was 6.6. A distinctive pattern of impairment was documented with the SF-36. The physical functioning, vitality (energy/fatigue and social functioning were especially reduced. Long-term sickness absence from studies and work was noted in all patients. Conclusion After giardiasis enteritis at least 5% developed clinical characteristics and functional impairment comparable to previously described post-infectious fatigue syndrome.

  18. The impact of effort-reward imbalance and learning motivation on teachers' sickness absence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derycke, Hanne; Vlerick, Peter; Van de Ven, Bart; Rots, Isabel; Clays, Els

    2013-02-01

    The aim of this study was to analyse the impact of the effort-reward imbalance and learning motivation on sickness absence duration and sickness absence frequency among beginning teachers in Flanders (Belgium). A total of 603 teachers, who recently graduated, participated in this study. Effort-reward imbalance and learning motivation were assessed by means of self-administered questionnaires. Prospective data of registered sickness absence during 12 months follow-up were collected. Multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed. An imbalance between high efforts and low rewards (extrinsic hypothesis) was associated with longer sickness absence duration and more frequent absences. A low level of learning motivation (intrinsic hypothesis) was not associated with longer sickness absence duration but was significantly positively associated with sickness absence frequency. No significant results were obtained for the interaction hypothesis between imbalance and learning motivation. Further research is needed to deepen our understanding of the impact of psychosocial work conditions and personal resources on both sickness absence duration and frequency. Specifically, attention could be given to optimizing or reducing efforts spent at work, increasing rewards and stimulating learning motivation to influence sickness absence. PMID:22337584

  19. Predicting long-term sickness absence and early retirement pension from self-reported work ability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sell, Lea; Bültmann, Ute; Rugulies, Reiner Ernst;

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to examine the relationship between self-reported work ability and long-term term of sickness absence or early retirement from the labour market.......The aim of this paper is to examine the relationship between self-reported work ability and long-term term of sickness absence or early retirement from the labour market....

  20. Sleep disturbances and fatigue : independent predictors of sickness absence? A prospective study among 6538 employees

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bultmann, Ute; Nielsen, Maj Britt D.; Madsen, Ida E. H.; Burr, Hermann; Rugulies, Reiner

    2013-01-01

    Background: Although sleep disturbances and fatigue are common conditions, frequently shown to be associated with sickness absence, only a few studies have prospectively investigated their independent effects on sickness absence, while adjusting for depressive symptoms. This study aims (i) to examin

  1. Does computer use pose a hazard for future long-term sickness absence?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, JH; Mikkelsen, Sigurd

    2010-01-01

    . The hazard ratio for sickness absence with weekly increase of one hour in computer use was 0.99 (95% CI: 0.99 to 1.00). Low satisfaction with work place arrangements and female gender both doubled the risk of sickness absence.We have earlier found that computer use did not predict persistent pain in the neck...

  2. Leadership styles of nurse managers and registered sickness absence among their nursing staff

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schreuder, Jolanda A. H.; Roelen, Corne A. M.; van Zweeden, Nely F.; Jongsma, Dianne; van der Klink, Jac J. L.; Groothoff, Johan W.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Sickness absence leads to understaffing and interferes with nursing efficiency and quality. It has been reported in literature that managerial leadership is associated with self-reported sickness absence in the working population. Purposes: This study investigated the relationship betwee

  3. Leadership effectiveness and recorded sickness absence among nursing staff : a cross-sectional pilot study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schreuder, Jolanda A. H.; Roelen, Corne A. M.; Van Zweeden, Nely F.; Jongsma, Dianne; Van der Klink, Jac J. L.; Groothoff, Johan W.

    2011-01-01

    Aim To investigate nurse managers' leadership behaviour in relation to the sickness absence records of nursing staff. Background Sickness absence is high in healthcare and interferes with nursing efficiency and quality. Nurse managers' leadership behaviour may be associated with nursing staff sickne

  4. Work-related determinants of return to work of employees on long-term sickness absence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Post, M; Krol, B; Groothoff, JW

    2005-01-01

    Purpose. The aim of the study is to identify work-related determinants of return to work (RTW) of employees who are on long-term sickness absence. Method. The study was based on a sample of 926 employees on sickness absence ( maximum duration of 12 weeks). The employees filled out a baseline questio

  5. Undetected common mental disorders in long-term sickness absence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søgaard, Hans Jørgen

    2012-01-01

    Background. Undetected Common Mental Disorders (CMDs) amongst people on sick leave complicate rehabilitation and return to work because appropriate treatments are not initiated. Aims. The aim of this study is to estimate (1) the frequencies of CMD, (2) the predictors of undetected CMD, and (3) the...... individuals registered on LSA who were sick-listed without a psychiatric sick leave diagnosis. In this respect, Phase 1 included 831 individuals, who were screened for mental disorders. In Phase 2, following the screening of Phase 1, 227 individuals were thoroughly examined by a psychiatrist applying Present...... State Examination. The analyses of the study were carried out based on the 227 individuals from Phase 2 and, subsequently, weighted to be representative of the 831 individuals in Phase 1. Results. The frequencies of undetected mental disorders among all sick-listed individuals were for any psychiatric...

  6. Health problems and disability in long-term sickness absence: ICF coding of medical certificates

    OpenAIRE

    Morgell Roland; Backlund Lars G; Arrelöv Britt; Strender Lars-Erik; Nilsson Gunnar H

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background The purpose of this study was to test the feasibility of International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) and to explore the distribution, including gender differences, of health problems and disabilities as reflected in long-term sickness absence certificates. Methods A total of 433 patients with long sick-listing periods, 267 women and 166 men, were included in the study. All certificates exceeding 28 days of sick-listing sent to the local office ...

  7. Sickness absence in hospital physicians: 2 year follow up study on determinants

    OpenAIRE

    Kivimaki, M.; Sutinen, R; Elovainio, M; Vahtera, J; Rasanen, K.; Toyry, S; Ferrie, J. E.; Firth-Cozens, J

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVES—To identify determinants of sickness absence in hospital physicians.
METHODS—The Poisson regression analyses of short (1-3 days) and long (>3 days) recorded spells of sickness absence relating to potential determinants of sickness absence were based on a 2 year follow up period and cohorts of 447 (251 male and 196 female) physicians and 466 controls (female head nurses and ward sisters).
RESULTS—There were no differences in health outcomes, self rated health status, prevalence of c...

  8. Workplace levels of psychosocial factors as prospective predictors of registered sickness absence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Karl Bang; Nielsen, Martin L; Rugulies, Reiner; Smith-Hansen, Lars; Kristensen, Tage S

    2005-01-01

    absence in the technical services (rate ratio = 0.66, 95% confidence interval = 0.51-0.86) and high workplace levels of skill discretion predicted low sickness absence in the pharmaceutical company (rate ratio = 0.74, 95% confidence interval = 0.62-0.88) after control for relevant confounders. Workplaces......OBJECTIVE: We sought to investigate whether workplace levels of psychosocial work environment factors predict individual sickness absence. METHODS: Data were collected in a prospective study in 52 Danish workplaces in three organizations: municipal care, technical services, and a pharmaceutical...... company. Psychosocial factors were aggregated as workplace means. We used multilevel Poisson regression models with psychosocial factors as predictors and individual level sickness absence from absence registries as outcome. RESULTS: High workplace levels of decision authority predicted low sickness...

  9. Process evaluation of a problem solving intervention to prevent recurrent sickness absence in workers with common mental disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arends, Iris; Bultmann, Ute; Nielsen, Karina; van Rhenen, Willem; de Boer, Michiel R.; van der Klink, Jac J. L.

    2014-01-01

    Common mental disorders (CMOs) are a major cause of sickness absence. Twenty to 30% of the workers who return to work after sickness absence due to CMOs experience recurrent sickness absence. We developed the Stimulating Healthy participation And Relapse Prevention (SHARP)-at work intervention, a pr

  10. Leading during change: the effects of leader behavior on sickness absence in a Norwegian health trust

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernstrøm Vilde Hoff

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Organizational change often leads to negative employee outcomes such as increased absence. Because change is also often inevitable, it is important to know how these negative outcomes could be reduced. This study investigates how the line manager’s behavior relates to sickness absence in a Norwegian health trust during major restructuring. Methods Leader behavior was measured by questionnaire, where employees assessed their line manager’s behavior (N = 1008; response rate 40%. Data on sickness absence were provided at department level (N = 35 and were measured at two times. Analyses were primarily conducted using linear regression; leader behavior was aggregated and weighted by department size. Results The results show a relationship between several leader behaviors and sickness absence. The line managers’ display of loyalty to their superiors was related to higher sickness absence; whereas task monitoring was related to lower absence. Social support was related to higher sickness absence. However, the effect of social support was no longer significant when the line manager also displayed high levels of problem confrontation. Conclusions The findings clearly support the line manager’s importance for employee sickness absence during organizational change. We conclude that more awareness concerning the manager’s role in change processes is needed.

  11. Transitions between sickness absence, work, unemployment, and disability in Denmark 2004-2008

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Jacob; Bjørner, Jakob; Burr, Hermann;

    2012-01-01

    Studies of labor market outcomes like sickness absence are usually restricted to a single outcome. This paper investigates the use of multi-state models for studying multiple transitions between sick-listing, work, unemployment, and disability pension by analyzing longitudinal register data. Every...

  12. Differences in sickness absence in Sweden and Denmark: the cross national HAKNAK study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Thomas; Christensen, Karl Bang; Vaez, Marjan; Labriola, Merete; Josephson, Malin; Villadsen, Ebbe; Voss, Margaretha

    2009-01-01

    AIM: To investigate potential differences in sickness absence among public sector employees in Sweden and Denmark, and to what extent a difference was associated with age, gender, physical and psychosocial work environment exposures, lifestyle factors, self-rated health or work ability. METHODS: In...... 2000, two cross-sectional samples of 8562 public sector employees in Sweden and Denmark were surveyed. The study outcome, self-reported number of sick-leave days the year preceding interview, was dichotomized into 7 days or less, and more than 7 days. Chi square test was used to analyse distribution of......: More subjects from the Swedish study population reported more than 7 days of sickness absence. Factors associated with sickness absence were largely similar in the two countries. The difference in absence level between Sweden and Denmark was not associated with differences in age, gender, skill level...

  13. Sickness absence in gender-equal companies A register study at organizational level

    OpenAIRE

    Öhman Ann; Sörlin Ann; Lindholm Lars

    2011-01-01

    Background: The differences in sickness absence between men and women in Sweden have attracted a great deal of interest nationally in the media and among policymakers over a long period. The fact that women have much higher levels of sickness absence has been explained in various ways. These explanations are contextual and one of the theories points to the lack of gender equality as an explanation. In this study, we evaluate the impact of gender equality on health at organizational level. Gen...

  14. Prognostic factors for musculoskeletal sickness absence and return to work among welders and metal workers

    OpenAIRE

    Burdorf, Alex; Naaktgeboren, B.; Post, Wendel

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To analyse factors that determine the occurrence of sickness absence due to musculoskeletal problems and the time it takes to return to work. METHODS: A longitudinal study with two year follow up was conducted among 283 male welders and metal workers. The survey started with a standardised interview on the occurrence of musculoskeletal complaints. 61 (22%) workers were lost to follow up. Data on sickness absence among 222 workers during the follow up were collected from abse...

  15. Psychosocial factors and work related sickness absence among permanent and non-permanent employees

    OpenAIRE

    Gimeno, D.; Benavides, F. G.; Amick, B.C.; Benach, J.; Martinez, J M

    2004-01-01

    Study objective: To examine the association between psychosocial work factors and work related sickness absence among permanent and non-permanent employees by sex.Design: A cross sectional survey conducted in 2000 of a representative sample of the European Union total active population, aged 15 years and older. The independent variables were psychological job demands and job control as measures of psychosocial work environment, and work related sickness absence as the main outcome. Poisson re...

  16. Longitudinal relationships between organizational justice, productivity, loss and sickness absence older employees

    OpenAIRE

    Ybema, J.F.; Meer, L. van der; Leijten, F.R.M

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The aim of this study was to assess whether organizational justice lowers productivity loss and sickness absence, and whether there are reverse effects of productivity loss and sickness absence on organizational justice.Method A longitudinal study with 2 years of follow-up was conducted among employed persons aged 45–64 years from the Study on Transitions in Employment, Ability and Motivation (STREAM). Participants (N = 7011) yearly filled out an online questionnaire. Structural equat...

  17. Hearing difficulties, ear-related diagnoses and sickness absence or disability pension - a systematic literature review

    OpenAIRE

    Friberg Emilie; Gustafsson Klas; Alexanderson Kristina

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Hearing difficulties is a large public health problem, prognosticated to be the ninth leading burden of disease in 2030, and may also involve large consequences for work capacity. However, research regarding sickness absence and disability pension in relation to hearing difficulties is scarce. The aim was to gain knowledge about hearing difficulties or other ear-related diagnoses and sickness absence and disability pension through conducting a systematic literature review ...

  18. Predictors of short- and long-term sickness absence in female post office workers in Poland

    OpenAIRE

    Zuzanna Szubert; Teresa Makowiec-Dąbrowska; Dorota Merecz; Wojciech Sobala

    2016-01-01

    Background: The aim of this study was to highlight major predictors of the frequency of sickness absence in a group of workers directly involved in customer service. Material and Methods: The study was carried out on a random sample of 229 women employed as assistants and clerks in post offices. The survey was based on the Subjective Work, Health Status and Life Style Characteristics Questionnaire, and sickness absence data for the years 2004–2006. Results: The negative binominal regression m...

  19. Prediction of sickness absence in patients with chronic low back pain: A systematic review

    OpenAIRE

    Kuijer, Wietske; Groothoff, Johan W.; Brouwer, Sandra; Geertzen, Jan H. B.; Dijkstra, Pieter U.

    2006-01-01

    Objectives: To provide evidence of predictors for sickness absence in patients with non-specific chronic low back pain (CLBP), distinguishing predictors aimed at the decision to report sick (absence threshold) and decision to return to work (return to work threshold). Methods: Medical and psychological databases were searched, as well as citations from relevant reviews. In- and exclusion criteria were applied. Two reviewers assessed the methodological quality of the papers independently. Resu...

  20. Self-reported Occupational Skin Exposure and Risk of Physician-certified Long-term Sick Leave

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alfonso, Jose H; Tynes, Tore; Thyssen, Jacob P;

    2016-01-01

    Little is known about the contribution of occupational skin exposure as a risk factor for physician-certified long-term sick leave in the general working population of Norway. This study drew a cohort (n = 12,255; response at baseline 69.9%) randomly from the general population of Norway. Occupat......Little is known about the contribution of occupational skin exposure as a risk factor for physician-certified long-term sick leave in the general working population of Norway. This study drew a cohort (n = 12,255; response at baseline 69.9%) randomly from the general population of Norway...

  1. Predicting return to work among sickness-certified patients in general practice: Properties of two assessment tools

    OpenAIRE

    von Celsing, Anna-Sophia; Svärdsudd, Kurt; Wallman, Thorne

    2014-01-01

    Aim The purpose was to analyse the properties of two models for the assessment of return to work after sickness certification, a manual one based on clinical judgement including non-measurable information (‘gut feeling’), and a computer-based one. Study population All subjects aged 18 to 63 years, sickness-certified at a primary health care centre in Sweden during 8 months (n = 943), and followed up for 3 years. Methods Baseline information included age, sex, occupational status, sickness cer...

  2. Multilevel analysis of workplace and individual risk factors for long-term sickness absence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Labriola, Merete; Christensen, Karl B; Lund, Thomas;

    2006-01-01

    -environment factors at the individual level and psychosocial work environment factors at the workplace level. Interaction between the individual physical and workplace-level psychosocial risk factors was found. CONCLUSION: Workplace-based absence reduction interventions can be enhanced by concurrently addressing the......OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to examine if psychosocial and physical work-environment factors predict long-term sickness absence (>8 weeks) at both the individual and the workplace level. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Data were collected in a prospective study in 52 Danish workplaces....... Psychosocial factors were aggregated as workplace means. We used multilevel logistic regression models with psychosocial factors as predictors of long-term sickness absence over 5 years based on data from a national absence register. RESULTS: Long-term sickness absence was predicted by physical work...

  3. Leading during change: the effects of leader behavior on sickness absence in a Norwegian health trust

    OpenAIRE

    Bernstrøm Vilde Hoff; Kjekshus Lars Erik

    2012-01-01

    Background Organizational change often leads to negative employee outcomes such as increased absence. Because change is also often inevitable, it is important to know how these negative outcomes could be reduced. This study investigates how the line manager’s behavior relates to sickness absence in a Norwegian health trust during major restructuring. Methods Leader behavior was measured by questionnai...

  4. Sickness absence associated with shared and open-plan offices - a national cross sectional questionnaire survey

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pejtersen, Jan; Feveile, H; Christensen, Karl Bang;

    2011-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to examine whether shared and open-plan offices are associated with more days of sickness absence than cellular offices. Methods The analysis was based on a national survey of Danish inhabitants between 18–59 years of age (response rate 62%), and the study...... confounders. Compared to cellular offices, occupants in 2-person offices had 50% more days of sickness absence [rate ratio (RR) 1.50, 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 1.13–1.98], occupants in 3–6-person offices had 36% more days of sickness absence (RR 1.36, 95% CI 1.08–1.73), and occupants in open......-plan offices (>6 persons) had 62% more days of sickness absence (RR 1.62, 95% CI 1.30–2.02). Conclusion Occupants sharing an office and occupants in open-plan offices (>6 occupants) had significantly more days of sickness absence than occupants in cellular offices....

  5. A ‘Balanced’ Life: Work-Life Balance and Sickness Absence in Four Nordic Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D Antai

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Little attention has been given to the relationship between work-life balance and sickness absence.Objective: To investigate the association between poor work-life balance and sickness absence in 4 Nordic welfare states.Methods: Multivariable logistic regression analysis was performed on pooled cross-sectional data of workers aged 15–65 years from Denmark, Finland, Sweden, and Norway (n=4186 obtained from the 2010 European Working Conditions Survey (EWCS. Poor work-life balance was defined based on the fit between working hours and family or social commitments outside work. Self-reported sickness absence was measured as absence for ≥7 days from work for health reasons.Results: Poor work-life balance was associated with elevated odds (OR 1.38, 95% CI 1.06 to 1.80 of self-reported sickness absence and more health problems in the 4 Nordic countries, even after adjusting for several important confounding factors. Work-related characteristics, ie, no determination over schedule (OR 1.26, 95% CI 1.04 to 1.53, and job insecurity (OR 1.56, 95% CI 1.21 to 2.02 increased the likelihood of sickness absence, and household characteristics, ie, cohabitation status (OR 0.75, 95% CI 0.58 to 0.96 reduced this likelihood. The associations were non-significant when performed separately for women and men.Conclusion: Sickness absence is predicted by poor work-life balance. Findings suggest the need for implementation of measures that prevent employee difficulties in combining work and family life.

  6. Experiences of sickness absence, marginality and Medically Unexplained Physical Symptoms - A focus group study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    E.L., Werner; A, Aamland; Malterud, Kirsti

    2013-01-01

    medically unexplained. Systematic text condensation was applied for analysis. Inspired by theories of marginalization and coping, the authors searched for knowledge of how patients' positive resources can be mobilized to counteract processes of marginality. RESULTS: Analysis revealed how invisible symptoms...... with a purposive sample of 12 participants, six men and six women, aged 24-59 years. Their average duration of sickness absence was 10.5 months. Participants were invited to share stories about experiences from the process leading to the ongoing sickness absence, with a focus on the causes being...... and lack of objective findings were perceived as an additional burden to the sickness absence itself. Factors that couldcounteract further marginalization were a supportive social network, positive coping strategies such as keeping to the daily schedule and physical activity, and positive attention...

  7. Sickness absence and workplace levels of satisfaction with psychosocial work conditions at public service workplaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munch-Hansen, Torsten; Wieclaw, Joanna; Agerbo, Esben;

    2009-01-01

    . Satisfaction with psychosocial work conditions was rated on a scale from 0 (low) to 10 (high). Individual ratings were aggregated to workplace scores. Analysis of variance was used to compare the average number of days of yearly sickness absence in three groups with different levels of satisfaction with...... psychosocial work conditions. RESULTS: Sickness absence was 30.8% lower in the most satisfied group (11.7 days/year (CI 95%: 10.2; 13.1)) than in the least satisfied group (16.9 days/year (CI 95%: 15.3; 18.6)) adjusted for the covariates included. CONCLUSIONS: Satisfaction with psychosocial work conditions has......BACKGROUND: The objective of this study was to examine the impact of psychosocial work conditions on sickness absence while addressing methodological weaknesses in earlier studies. METHODS: The participants were 13,437 employees from 698 public service workplace units in Aarhus County, Denmark...

  8. The attribution of work environment in explaining gender differences in long-term sickness absence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Labriola, Merete; Holte, Kari Anne; Christensen, Karl Bang;

    2011-01-01

    . Results 298 workers (5.9%) received sickness absence compensation for 8 weeks or more. Women had an excess risk of 37% compared to men, when adjusting for age, family status and socio-economic position. Physical work environment exposures could not explain this difference, whereas differences in......Objectives To identify differences in risk of long-term sickness absence between female and male employees in Denmark and to examine to what extent differences could be explained by work environment factors. Methods A cohort of 5026 employees (49.1% women, mean age 40.4 years; 50.9% men, mean age...... psychosocial work environment exposures explained 32% of the differences in risk of long-term sickness absence between men and women, causing the effect of gender to become statistically insignificant. The combined effect of physical and psychosocial factors was similar, explaining 30% of the gender difference...

  9. The effect of intelligent physical exercise training on sickness absence and job performance among office workers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Jeanette Reffstrup; Sjøgaard, Gisela; Søgaard, Karen;

    The effect of intelligent physical exercise training on sickness absence and job performance among office workers: a randomized controlled trial Christensen, JR. 1, Sjøgaard, G. 1, Søgaard, K. 1, Justesen, JB. 1 SDU (Odense, Denmark) Introduction Physical training may improve health and decrease...... the risk of sickness absence and low job performance. The aim of this paper was thus to investigate the effect of individually tailored intelligent physical exercise training (IPET) on sickness absence and job performance among office workers. Methods In a randomized controlled trial employees from six...... companies located across Denmark were allocated to a training group, TG, (N = 194) or a control group, CG, (N = 195). The TG received one-hour high intensity IPET every week within working hours, and was recommended to perform 30 minutes of moderate intensity physical activity six days a week during leisure...

  10. Indications of a Scarring Effect of Sickness Absence Periods in a Cohort of Higher Educated Self-Employed.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liesbeth E C Wijnvoord

    Full Text Available Little is known regarding incidence and recurrence of sickness absence in self-employed. The primary aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of the number of prior episodes of sickness absence on the risk of subsequent periods of sickness absence in higher educated self-employed.In a historic register study based on the files of a Dutch private disability insurance company all sickness absence periods of 30 days or more were analysed.A total of 15,868 insured persons contributed 141,188 person years to the study. In total, 5608 periods of sickness absence occurred during follow-up. The hazard of experiencing a new period of sickness absence increased with every previous period, ranging from a hazard ratio of 2.83 in case of one previous period of sickness absence to a hazard ratio of 6.72 in case of four previous periods. This effect was found for both men and women and for all diagnostic categories of the first period of sickness absence.Our study shows that for all diagnostic categories the hazard of experiencing a recurrence of sickness absence is appreciably higher than for experiencing a first episode. This suggests that this increased hazard may be related to the occurrence of sickness absence itself rather than related to characteristics of the insured person or of the medical condition. These findings could indicate that sickness absence periods may have a scarring effect on the self-employed person experiencing the sickness absence.

  11. Effect of the Danish return-to-work program on long-term sickness absence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Otto M; Aust, Birgit; Bjørner, Jakob;

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of the Danish return-to-work (RTW) program on long-term sickness absence in a randomized controlled trial in three municipalities. METHODS: The intervention group comprised 1948 participants while the control group comprised 1157...... participant receiving ordinary sickness benefit management (OSM). Study participants were working-age adults receiving long-term (≥8 weeks or more) benefits, included regardless of reason for sickness absence or employment status. Each beneficiary was followed-up for a maximum period of 52 weeks. Cox...... proportional hazards model was used to estimate hazard ratios (HR) for return to work (RTW) with 95% confidence intervals (95% CI). RESULTS: The intervention effect differed significantly between the municipalities (P=0.00005). In one municipality (M2) the intervention resulted in a statistically significant...

  12. Workaholism as a Risk Factor for Depressive Mood, Disabling Back Pain, and Sickness Absence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsudaira, Ko; Shimazu, Akihito; Fujii, Tomoko; Kubota, Kazumi; Sawada, Takayuki; Kikuchi, Norimasa; Takahashi, Masaya

    2013-01-01

    Objectives Although it is understood that work-related factors, including job demands, job control, and workplace support, are associated with workers' health and well-being, the role played by personal characteristics, especially workaholism, has not been fully investigated. This study examined workaholism's associations with psychological ill health, low back pain with disability, and sickness absence among Japanese workers. Methods A cross-sectional Internet survey was conducted using self-administered questionnaires. Data from 3,899 Japanese workers were analyzed. Workaholism was measured using the Dutch Workaholism Scale (DUWAS). Scores were divided into tertiles, where respondents were classified into three groups (high, middle, and low). Depressive mood as a measure of psychological ill health was assessed using the SF-36 mental health subscale, and low back pain using a standardized question. Sickness absence, except that due to physical injuries, was categorized either as absence due to mental health problems or to physical/somatic problems including the common cold. Multiple logistic regression analyses were conducted to examine the association between workaholism and depressive mood, low back pain with disability, and sickness absence, adjusting for demographic characteristics, job demand, job control, and workplace support. Results Compared to the low workaholism group, the middle and high workaholism groups had significantly higher odds for depressive mood (Odds ratio (OR) = 1.93 and 3.62 for the middle and high groups, respectively), disabling back pain (ORs = 1.36 and 1.77 for the middle and high groups, respectively). Workaholism was more strongly associated with sickness absence due to mental health problems than that for other reasons (ORs = 1.76 vs. 1.21 for the middle group and 3.52 vs. 1.37 for the high groups). Conclusions Workaholism is significantly associated with poor psychological health, disabling back pain, and sickness

  13. Workaholism as a risk factor for depressive mood, disabling back pain, and sickness absence.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ko Matsudaira

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: Although it is understood that work-related factors, including job demands, job control, and workplace support, are associated with workers' health and well-being, the role played by personal characteristics, especially workaholism, has not been fully investigated. This study examined workaholism's associations with psychological ill health, low back pain with disability, and sickness absence among Japanese workers. METHODS: A cross-sectional Internet survey was conducted using self-administered questionnaires. Data from 3,899 Japanese workers were analyzed. Workaholism was measured using the Dutch Workaholism Scale (DUWAS. Scores were divided into tertiles, where respondents were classified into three groups (high, middle, and low. Depressive mood as a measure of psychological ill health was assessed using the SF-36 mental health subscale, and low back pain using a standardized question. Sickness absence, except that due to physical injuries, was categorized either as absence due to mental health problems or to physical/somatic problems including the common cold. Multiple logistic regression analyses were conducted to examine the association between workaholism and depressive mood, low back pain with disability, and sickness absence, adjusting for demographic characteristics, job demand, job control, and workplace support. RESULTS: Compared to the low workaholism group, the middle and high workaholism groups had significantly higher odds for depressive mood (Odds ratio (OR = 1.93 and 3.62 for the middle and high groups, respectively, disabling back pain (ORs = 1.36 and 1.77 for the middle and high groups, respectively. Workaholism was more strongly associated with sickness absence due to mental health problems than that for other reasons (ORs = 1.76 vs. 1.21 for the middle group and 3.52 vs. 1.37 for the high groups. CONCLUSIONS: Workaholism is significantly associated with poor psychological health, disabling back pain

  14. The influence of lifestyle and gender on sickness absence in Brazilian workers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    F.M. Rabacow (Fabiana Maluf); R.B. Levy (Renata Bertazzi); P.R. Menezes (Paulo Rossi); O. Do Carmo Luiz (Olinda); A.M. Malik (Ana Maria); A. Burdorf (Alex)

    2014-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Despite an increasing body of knowledge concerning gender and lifestyle factors as determinants of sickness absence in well-developed countries, the relationship between these variables has not been elucidated in emerging economic power countries, where the burden of non-comm

  15. The impact of health behaviour on long term sickness absence : Results from DWECS/DREAM

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Christensen, Karl B.; Lund, Thomas; Labriola, Merete; Bultmann, Ute; Villadsen, Ebbe

    2007-01-01

    Long term sickness absence (LTSA) is a major public health problem. We examined the impact of four, potentially modifiable, health behaviours, such as smoking, alcohol consumption, leisure time physical activity, and the associated variable of body mass index on the risk of subsequent LTSA. This was

  16. Predicting the duration of sickness absence for patients with common mental disorders in occupational health care

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nieuwenhuijsen, K.; Verbeek, J.H.A.M.; Boer, A.G.E.M. de; Blonk, R.W.B.; Dijk, F.J.H. van

    2006-01-01

    Objectives: This study attempted to determine the factors that best predict the duration of absence from work among employees with common mental disorders. Methods: A cohort of 188 employees, of whom 102 were teachers, on sick leave with common mental disorders was followed for 1 year. Only informat

  17. 0156 Predictors of sickness absence in pregnancy - a Danish cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lausten Hansen, Mette; Marie Thulstrup, Ane; Kolding Kristensen, Jette;

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To investigate if parity, fertility treatment, body mass index (BMI), time to pregnancy (TTP), and engagement in physical exercise are risk factors for sickness absence during pregnancy weeks 10 to 30. METHOD: We use data from The Danish National Birth Cohort (DNBC) and the Danish...

  18. A lifecourse approach to long-term sickness absence--a cohort study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Max Henderson

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Most research on long-term sickness absence has focussed on exposure to occupational psychosocial risk factors such as low decision latitude. These provide an incomplete explanation as they do not account for other relevant factors. Such occupational risk factors may be confounded by social or temperamental risk factors earlier in life. METHODS: We analysed data from the 1958 British Birth Cohort. Long-term sickness absence was defined as receipt of Incapacity Benefit/Severe Disablement Allowance at age 42. In those in employment aged 33 we examined the effects of psychological distress, musculoskeletal symptoms, and low decision latitude. These were then adjusted for IQ, educational attainment, and the presence of early life somatic and neurotic symptoms. RESULTS: Low decision latitude predicted subsequent long-term absence, and this association remained, albeit reduced, following adjustment for psychological distress and musculoskeletal symptoms at age 33. Low decision latitude was no longer associated with long-term absence when IQ and educational attainment were included. Adjusting for early life somatic and neurotic symptoms had little impact. DISCUSSION: A greater understanding of the ways in which occupational risk factors interact with individual vulnerabilities across the life-course is required. Self reported low decision latitude might reflect the impact of education and cognitive ability on how threat, and the ability to manage threat, is perceived, rather than being an independent risk factor for long-term sick leave. This has implications for policy aimed at reducing long-term sick leave.

  19. A multisite randomized controlled trial on time to self-support among sickness absence beneficiaries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Maj Britt D.; Vinsløv Hansen, Jørgen; Aust, Birgit;

    2015-01-01

    sickness absence beneficiaries at high risk for exclusion from the labour market. The aim of this article was to evaluate the effectiveness of the RTW programme on self-support. METHODS: Beneficiaries from three municipalities (denoted M1, M2 and M3) participated in a randomized controlled trial. We...

  20. Effects of organizational justice on depressive symptoms and sickness absence: A longitudinal perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ybema, J.F.; Bos, K. van den

    2010-01-01

    A longitudinal three-wave study among a large representative sample of 1519 employees of various companies in The Netherlands examined how organizational justice (as measured by distributive and procedural justice) was related to depressive symptoms and sickness absence. It was predicted that percei

  1. Self-reported noise exposure as a risk factor for long-term sickness absence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Thomas; Christensen, Karl Bang; Lund, Thomas;

    2009-01-01

    association was investigated using the Cox proportional hazards model to analyze outcomes in Danish register data on the basis of Danish survey data (5357 employees aged 18-69 in 2000). The analyses showed that self-reported noise exposure was significantly associated with long-term sickness absence for both...

  2. Recovery and recurrence of mental sickness absence among production and office workers in the industrial sector

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Norder-Kuper, Giny; Bultmann, Ute; Hoedeman, Rob; de Bruin, Johan; van der Klink, Jac J. L.; Roelen, Corne A. M.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Manual workers in the public sector have previously been found to be at risk of mental sickness absence (SA). As the impact of mental illness differs across economic sectors, this study investigated mental SA in the industrial sector, differentiating between office and production workers

  3. Physical, psychosocial, and organisational factors relative to sickness absence: a study based on Sweden Post

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Voss, M; Floderus, B; Diderichsen, F

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To analyse incidence of sickness for women and men relative to potential aetiological factors at work-physical, psychosocial, and organisational. METHODS: The study group comprised 1557 female and 1913 male employees of Sweden Post. Sickness absence was measured by incidence of sickness...... (sick leave events and person-days at risk). Information on explanatory factors was obtained by a postal questionnaire, and incidence of sickness was based on administrative files of the company. RESULTS: Complaints about heavy lifting and monotonous movements were associated with increased risk of high...... incidence of sickness among both women and men. For heavy lifting, an odds ratio (OR) of 1.70 (95% confidence interval (95% CI) 1.22 to 2.39) among women, and OR 1.70 (1.20 to 2.41) among men was found. For monotonous movements the risk estimates were OR 1.42 (1.03 to 1.97) and OR 1.45 (1.08 to 1.95) for...

  4. The Effects of Sickness Absence in School on Educational Achievements, Mortality and Income

    OpenAIRE

    Kamhöfer, Daniel A.; Cattan, Sarah; Karlsson, Martin; Nilsson, Therese

    2015-01-01

    This study investigates the effect of missed instruction time in school on short-term educational performance as well as long-term retirement income and mortality. Using self-gathered Swedish register data, we are able to distinguish total days of absence within a school year and missed instructional time due to sickness. Using various fixed effects strategies and an instrumental variables approach we find that individual absence leads on average to a decrease of 4.4% of standard deviation in...

  5. Sickness absence in gender-equal companies A register study at organizational level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Öhman Ann

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The differences in sickness absence between men and women in Sweden have attracted a great deal of interest nationally in the media and among policymakers over a long period. The fact that women have much higher levels of sickness absence has been explained in various ways. These explanations are contextual and one of the theories points to the lack of gender equality as an explanation. In this study, we evaluate the impact of gender equality on health at organizational level. Gender equality is measured by an index ranking companies at organizational level; health is measured as days on sickness benefit. Methods Gender equality was measured using the Organizational Gender Gap Index or OGGI, which is constructed on the basis of six variables accessible in Swedish official registers. Each variable corresponds to a key word illustrating the interim objectives of the "National Plan for Gender Equality", implemented by the Swedish Parliament in 2006. Health is measured by a variable, days on sickness benefit, also accessible in the same registers. Results We found significant associations between company gender equality and days on sickness benefit. In gender-equal companies, the risk for days on sickness benefit was 1.7 (95% CI 1.6-1.8 higher than in gender-unequal companies. The differences were greater for men than for women: OR 1.8 (95% CI 1.7-2.0 compared to OR 1.4 (95% CI 1.3-1.5. Conclusions Even though employees at gender-equal companies had more days on sickness benefit, the differences between men and women in this measure were smaller in gender-equal companies. Gender equality appears to alter health patterns, converging the differences between men and women.

  6. Sickness absence and concurrent low back and neck–shoulder pain: results from the MUSIC-Norrtälje study

    OpenAIRE

    Nyman, Teresia; Grooten, Wilhelmus Johannes Andreas; Wiktorin, Christina; Liwing, Johan; Norrman, Linda

    2006-01-01

    In Sweden, musculoskeletal disorders, in particular low back disorders (LBD) and neck–shoulder disorders (NSD) constitute by far the most common disorders, causing sick leave and early retirement. Studies that compare sickness absence in individuals with LBD and individuals with NSD are lacking. Moreover, it is likely that having concurrent complaints from the low back region and the neck–shoulder region could influence sickness absence. The purpose of the present study was to explore potenti...

  7. A prospective cohort study on musculoskeletal risk factors for long-term sickness absence among healthcare workers in eldercare

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Lars; Clausen, Thomas; Mortensen, Ole S;

    2012-01-01

    The socioeconomic burden of sickness absence from musculoskeletal disorders is considerable. However, knowledge about the risk of sickness absence from pain in different body regions among specific job groups is needed to more efficiently target preventative strategies. This study estimates the r...

  8. Sickness presenteeism predicts suboptimal self-rated health and sickness absence: a nationally representative study of the Swedish working population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Taloyan

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Earlier studies have suggested that sickness presenteeism (SP may be a risk factor for future health problems. The purpose of the present study was to test this in a nationally representative prospective study of Swedish workers. METHODS: Prospective cohort with a representative sample of the Swedish working population surveyed in 2008 and 2010. Odds ratios (OR with 95% confidence intervals (CI were calculated using logistic regression. RESULTS: Those who reported more than 7 days of SP had higher risk of suboptimal SRH compared to those who reported no SP (OR = 5.95; 95% CI 4.98-7.12, also after adjustment for confounders (OR = 1.64; 95% CI 1.30-2.06. Those who reported 1-7 days of SP also had an increased risk before and after adjustments. Inclusion of self-rated physical and psychological work capacity did not attenuate the associations, whereas of emotional exhaustion attenuated the ORs to non-significance for both outcomes, indicating that the health consequences associated with SP are largely related to mental health. CONCLUSION: The results strengthen earlier findings suggesting that SP can be a risk factor for future suboptimal general health and sickness absence, particularly through mental health problems. This indicates that asking about SP could yield important information for employers, occupational health practitioners and GPs, possibly leading to more timely intervention that could decrease the risk of future sickness absence and more serious health problems, especially in the mental domain. Further studies of the possible causal pathways between SP and future health development are also warranted, especially since going to work is often seen as desirable also for those with poor health.

  9. Physical work environment risk factors for long term sickness absence: prospective findings among a cohort of 5357 employees in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Thomas; Labriola, Merete; Christensen, Karl Bang;

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To examine the effects of physical work environment on long term sickness absence and to investigate interaction between physical and psychosocial risk factors. DESIGN AND SETTING: Prospective cohort study of long term sickness absence among employees in Denmark. PARTICIPANTS: 5357...... employees interviewed in 2000 about their physical work environment, and various covariates were followed for 18 months in a national sickness absence register. Outcome measurements Cox regression analysis was performed to assess risk estimates for physical risk factors in the work environment and onset of...... environment risk factors among female employees (P<0.05). CONCLUSION: Uncomfortable working positions, lifting or carrying loads, and pushing or pulling loads increased the risk of onset of long term sickness absence. The study shows a potential for reducing long term sickness absence through modifying work...

  10. Stability of return to work after a coordinated and tailored intervention for sickness absence compensation beneficiaries with mental health problems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martin, Marie H. T.; D. Nielsen, Maj Britt; Pedersen, Jacob;

    2015-01-01

    , coordinated and tailored RTW-intervention in terms of stability of RTW, cumulative sickness absence and labour market status after 2 years among sickness absence compensation beneficiaries with MHPs. METHODS: In a quasi-randomised, controlled trial, we followed recipients of the intervention (n = 88) and of...... conventional case management (n = 80) for 2 years to compare their risk of recurrent sickness absence and unemployment after RTW, their cumulative sickness absence and their labour market status after 2 years. RESULTS: We found no statistically significant intervention effect in terms of the risk of recurrent...... problems is limited, as most research to date has been done in the context of musculoskeletal disorders. A complex, multidisciplinary intervention, detached from the workplace, does not appear to improve the stability of RTW and may actually lead to more sickness absence days and less self-support when...

  11. Gender and age differences in the recurrence of sickness absence due to common mental disorders: a longitudinal study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bültmann Ute

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Common mental disorders (CMDs are an important cause of sickness absence and long-term work disability. Although CMDs are known to have high recurrence rates, little is known about the recurrence of sickness absence due to CMDs. The aim of this study was to investigate the recurrence of sickness absence due to CMDs, including distress, adjustment disorders, depressive disorders and anxiety disorders, according to age, in male and female employees in the Netherlands. Methods Data on sickness absence episodes due to CMDs were obtained for 137,172 employees working in the Dutch Post and Telecommunication companies between 2001 and 2007. The incidence density (ID and recurrence density (RD of sickness absence due to CMDs was calculated per 1000 person-years in men and women in the age-groups of Results The ID of one episode of CMDs sickness absence was 25.0 per 1000 person-years, and the RD was 76.7 per 1000 person-years. Sickness absence due to psychiatric disorders (anxiety and depression does not have a higher recurrence density of sickness absence due to any CMDs as compared to stress-related disorders (distress and adjustment disorders: 81.6 versus 76.0 per 1000 person-years. The ID of sickness absence due to CMDs was higher in women than in men, but the RD was similar. Recurrences were more frequent in women Conclusions Employees who have been absent from work due to CMDs are at increased risk of recurrent sickness absence due to CMDs and should be monitored after they return to work. The RD was similar in men and in women. In women

  12. Socioeconomic status and duration and pattern of sickness absence. A 1-year follow-up study of 2331 hospital employees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikkelsen Sigurd

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sickness absence increases with lower socioeconomic status. However, it is not well known how this relation depends on specific aspects of sickness absence or the degree to which socioeconomic differences in sickness absence may be explained by other factors. The purpose of the study was to examine differences in sickness absence among occupational groups in a large general hospital; how they depend on combinations of frequency and duration of sickness absence spells; and if they could be explained by self-reported general health, personal factors and work factors. Methods The design is a 1-year prospective cohort study of 2331 hospital employees. Baseline information include job title, work unit, perceived general health, work factors and personal factors recorded from hospital administrative files or by questionnaire (response rate 84%. Sickness absence during follow-up was divided into short (1-3 days, medium (4-14 days and long (>14 days spells, and into no absence, "normal" absence (1-3 absences of certain durations and "abnormal" absence (any other absence than "normal". Socioeconomic status was assessed by job titles grouped in six occupational groups by level of education (from doctors to cleaners/porters. Effects of occupational group on sickness absence were adjusted for significant effects of age, gender, general health, personal factors and work factors. We used Poisson or logistic regression analysis to estimate the effects of model covariates (rate ratios (RR or odds ratios (OR and their 95% confidence intervals (CI. Results With a few exceptions sickness absence increased with decreasing socioeconomic status. However, the social gradient was quite different for different types of sickness absence. The gradient was strong for medium spells and "abnormal" absence, and weak for all spells, short spells, long spells and "normal" absence. For cleaners compared to doctors the adjusted risk estimates increased 4.2 (95

  13. Approaches for predicting long-term sickness absence. Re: Schouten et al. "Screening manual and office workers for risk of long-term sickness absence: cut-off points for the Work Ability Index".

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Amelsvoort, Ludovic Gpm; Jansen, Nicole W H; Kant, I Jmert

    2015-05-01

    We read with much interest the article of Schouten et al (1) on identifying workers with a high risk for future long-term sickness absence using the Work Ability Index (WAI). The ability to identify high-risk workers might facilitate targeted interventions for such workers and, consequently, can reduce sickness absence levels and improve workers' health. Earlier studies by both Tamela et al (2), Kant et al (3), and Lexis et al (4) have demonstrated that such an approach, based on the identification of high-risk workers and a subsequent intervention, can be effectively applied in practice to reduce sickness absence significantly. The reason for our letter on Schouten et al's article is twofold. First, by including workers already on sick leave in a study predicting long-term sick leave will result in an overestimation of the predictive properties of the instrument and biased predictors, especially when also the outcome of interest is included as a factor in the prediction model. Second, we object to the use of the term "screening" when subjects with the condition screened for are included in the study. Reinforced by the inclusion of sickness absence in the prediction model, including workers already on sick leave will shift the focus of the study findings towards the prediction of (re)current sickness absence and workers with a below-average return-to-work rate, rather than the identification of workers at high risk for the onset of future long-term sickness absence. The possibilities for prevention will shift from pure secondary prevention to a mix of secondary and tertiary prevention. As a consequence, the predictors of the model presented in the Schouten et al article can be used as a basis for tailoring neither preventive measures nor interventions. Moreover, including the outcome (sickness absence) as a predictor in the model, especially in a mixed population including workers with and without the condition (on sick leave), will result in biased predictors and

  14. The Relationship between Disease, Work and Sickness Absence among Psoriasis Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parvin MANSOURI

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of absenteeism in patients with psoriasis and determine the factors influencing the incidence of absenteeism in these patients.Methods: A cross-sectional study from December 2012 to November of 2013 was conducted on 192 psoriasis patients referred to the Dermatology Clinic of Imam Khomeini Hospital, Tehran, Iran. The number day of absence from work due to psoriasis in the last year was asked from the patients; the absence of 7 days has been considered as short-term and more than 7 days as long-term. Logistic regression was used to data analysis.Results: Sickness absence in 21.4% of patients was positive. The average numbers of days of absence were 10.25 and the duration of absence from work in 48.7% were long-term ≥7 days. 51.3% had short-term absence (<7 days. Among disease factors: moderate to severe disease (SAPASI score >10, palms and soles involvement, joint problems and radiation therapy and among job factors: hazardous physical and chemical exposures in the workplace, non-office work, disability, exacerbations of disease on work days and problem on employment were associated with high incidence of sickness absence.Conclusion: Psoriasis with its chronic and recurrent nature especially in higher severities causes disabilities that deeply affect Work performance and can decrease the efficiency. In better management of psoriasis patients, physicians should pay special attention to occupational factors. Keywords: Sickness absence, Occupational stress, Psoriasis patients, SAPASI

  15. Sickness absence poses a threat to the Swedish Welfare State: a cross-sectional study of sickness absence and self-reported illness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johansson Sven-Erik

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The increasing cost of public social sickness insurance poses a serious economic threat to the Swedish welfare state. In recent years, expenditures for social insurance in general, as well as social sickness insurance in particular, have risen steeply in Sweden. This cross-sectional study analyzed the association between sickness absence (SA and self-reported reduced working capacity due to a longstanding illness (>3 months, as well between SA and a number of other health problems. Methods Self-reported data on longstanding illness and resultant reduced working capacity, socioeconomic factors, working environment, psychosomatic complaints, anxiety, and general health were obtained for 22,281 employed (paid persons aged 25 to 64 years. These data were retrieved from the Swedish Living Conditions Survey for 1995 to 2002. National civic registration numbers, replaced with serial numbers to ensure anonymity, were used to link these data to individual-level SA records from the National Social Insurance Board. A logistic regression model was used to estimate the odds ratio of the main outcome variable for the three levels of the SA variable (0–28, 29–90, >90 days/year. Results There was an obvious increasing gradient in length of SA and increasing odds of reporting reduced working capacity. Odds ratios ranged from 3.5 to 19.0; i.e., those with more than ninety days of SA had 19.0 times higher odds of reporting reduced working capacity than those with 0–28 days of SA a year. This very strong association changed less than 10% after adjusting for demographic, socioeconomic, and working environment characteristics. A total of 48.7% of persons on sick leave ≥ 29 days reported no longstanding illness and reduced working capacity. Of these persons, about 43% reported one or more other health problem. Conclusion We confirmed that longstanding illness that results in self-reported reduced working capacity is an important variable

  16. Efficacy of 'Tailored Physical Activity' on reducing sickness absence among health care workers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Lotte Nygaard; Juul-Kristensen, Birgit; Roessler, Kirsten Kaya;

    2015-01-01

    AIM: The aim was to evaluate efficacy of "Tailored Physical Activity" (TPA) versus a reference group (REF) in reducing the number of self-reported days of sickness absence for health care workers in the Sonderborg Municipality. METHODS: In this randomised controlled trial, all participants (n = 54......) received health guidance for 1.5 h and were randomised to TPA or REF. The primary aim was to make a comparison of participants' self-reported sickness absence due to musculoskeletal troubles measured three months after baseline. Secondary outcomes included anthropometric, health-related and physical......), increasing work ability from 7.3 to 8.1 (p = .04) and decreasing kinesiophobia from 26.7 to 22.5 (p < .01). A trend towards a significant improvement was seen for aerobic capacity while no effect of the intervention was found on productivity, BMI or grip strength. CONCLUSION: This physical activity...

  17. Sickness absence and return to work among Japanese stroke survivors: a 365-day cohort study

    OpenAIRE

    Endo, Motoki; Sairenchi, Toshimi; Kojimahara, Noriko; Haruyama, Yasuo; Sato, Yasuto; Kato, Rika; Yamaguchi, Naohito

    2016-01-01

    Objectives The objective of this study was to investigate the cumulative return to work (RTW) rate and to clarify the predictors of the time to full-time RTW (full RTW) and resignation among Japanese stroke survivors, within the 365-day period following their initial day of sickness absence due to stroke. Setting This study was based on tertiary prevention of occupational health in large-scaled Japanese companies of various industries. Participants The participants in this study were 382 Japa...

  18. Workaholism as a Risk Factor for Depressive Mood, Disabling Back Pain, and Sickness Absence

    OpenAIRE

    Matsudaira, Ko; Shimazu, Akihito; FUJII, TOMOKO; Kubota, Kazumi; Sawada, Takayuki; Kikuchi, Norimasa; Takahashi, Masaya

    2013-01-01

    Objectives Although it is understood that work-related factors, including job demands, job control, and workplace support, are associated with workers' health and well-being, the role played by personal characteristics, especially workaholism, has not been fully investigated. This study examined workaholism's associations with psychological ill health, low back pain with disability, and sickness absence among Japanese workers. Methods A cross-sectional Internet survey was conducted using self...

  19. Variation in effect of intervention studies in research on sickness absence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soegaard H

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Hans Joergen SoegaardResearch Unit West, Centre for Psychiatric Research, Aarhus University Hospital, RisskovBackground: Intervention studies in sickness absence research demonstrate a low effect and ambiguous results in reducing sickness absence and improving work status. The aim of this study was to determine if the effect of interventions is related to type of intervention, target population, inclusion criteria used, and impact of the scientific quality of the studies.Methods: Based on a structured review of 57 studies, short-term, medium-term, and long-term effects were analyzed with regard to the type of intervention, target population, inclusion criteria, and scientific quality of the studies.Results: The overall result was that the effect rate was low, ie, about 20% for short-term effect (up to 6 months and medium-term effect (6–12 months, and 40% for long-term effect (≥12 months. Interventions using stress reduction were most effective with regard to short-term and medium-term effects, whereas collaborative care was most effective for long-term effects. The effects were related to the inclusion criteria and, to a minor degree, to the scientific quality of the studies.Conclusion: In the field of sickness absence research, more attention should be paid to the interrelationship between the types of interventions, target populations, and inclusion criteria for the studies. Larger studies of high methodological quality are needed. Steps should be taken to standardize outcome measures.Keywords: nonparticipation, sickness absence, return to work, controlled trial, review

  20. Management of long-term sickness absence: a systematic realist review

    OpenAIRE

    Higgins, Angela; O'Halloran, Peter; Porter, Samuel

    2012-01-01

    Purpose The increasing impact and costs of long term sickness absence have been well documented. However, the diversity and complexity of interventions and of the contexts in which these take place makes a traditional review problematic. Therefore, we undertook a systematic realist review to identify the dominant programme theories underlying best practice, to assess the evidence for these theories, and to throw light on important enabling or disabling contextual factors. MethodA search of th...

  1. Harmful alcohol habits did not explain the social gradient of sickness absence in Swedish women and men

    OpenAIRE

    Ann-Charlotte M Mardby; Kristina EM Holmgren; Gunnel KE Hensing

    2013-01-01

    Background: the aim of this study was to examine the prevalence and socioeconomic distribution of harmful alcohol habits in sick-listed women and men, and whether the social gradient in sickness absence could be explained by the socioeconomic distribution of harmful alcohol habits.Methods: this cross-sectional questionnaire study included newly sick-listed individuals (n=2 798, 19-64 years, 66% women) from Sweden. The outcome variable, self-reported harmful alcohol habits, was measured with t...

  2. The effectiveness of return-to-work interventions that incorporate work-focused problem-solving skills for workers with sickness absences related to mental disorders: a systematic literature review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewa, Carolyn S; Loong, Desmond; Bonato, Sarah; Joosen, Margot C W

    2015-01-01

    Objectives This paper reviews the current state of the published peer-reviewed literature related to return-to-work (RTW) interventions that incorporate work-related problem-solving skills for workers with sickness absences related to mental disorders. It addresses the question: What is the evidence for the effectiveness of these RTW interventions? Design Using a multiphase screening process, this systematic literature review was based on publically available peer-reviewed studies. Five electronic databases were searched: (1) Medline Current, (2) Medline In-process, (3) PsycINFO, (4) Econlit and (5) Web of Science. Setting The focus was on RTW interventions for workers with medically certified sickness absences related to mental disorders. Participants Workers with medically certified sickness absences related to mental disorders. Interventions RTW intervention included work-focused problem-solving skills. Primary and secondary outcome measures RTW rates and length of sickness absences. Results There were 4709 unique citations identified. Of these, eight articles representing a total of six studies were included in the review. In terms of bias avoidance, two of the six studies were rated as excellent, two as good and two as weak. Five studies were from the Netherlands; one was from Norway. There was variability among the studies with regard to RTW findings. Two of three studies reported significant differences in RTW rates between the intervention and control groups. One of six studies observed a significant difference in sickness absence duration between intervention and control groups. Conclusions There is limited evidence that combinations of interventions that include work-related problem-solving skills are effective in RTW outcomes. The evidence could be strengthened if future studies included more detailed examinations of intervention adherence and changes in problem-solving skills. Future studies should also examine the long-term effects of problem

  3. Predictive validity of common mental disorders screening questionnaire as a screening instrument in long sickness absence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søgaard, Hans Jørgen; Bech, Per

    2010-01-01

    AIMS: Screening instruments for detection of common mental disorders have not been validity tested in long term sickness absence (LSA), which is the aim of this study for the Common Mental Disorders Screening Questionnaire (CMD-SQ). METHODS: Of all 2,414 incident persons on continuous sick......-leave for more than eight weeks in a Danish population of 120,000 inhabitants 1,121 participated in a two-phased study by being screened for mental disorders by CMD-SQ in Phase 1. A subgroup of 337 was examined by a psychiatrist and diagnosed with Present State Examination in Phase 2. Results performed on...... Phase 2 were weighted up to Phase 1. Test performance was analyzed by ROC-analyses, and the fraction with a positive screening test, Q, the sensitivity SE, and 1 minus the specificity, SP, were plotted against decreasing cut-point in the tested scales for specific diagnostic groups. RESULTS: A sub...

  4. Pressure pain sensitivity maps, self-reported musculoskeletal disorders and sickness absence among cleaners

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Binderup, Asbjørn Thalund; Holtermann, Andreas; Søgaard, Karen; Madeleine, Pascal

    2011-01-01

    back regions (27 points). LTSA was defined as ten or more consecutive workdays with sick leave. RESULTS: The PPT maps revealed the spatial heterogeneity in mechanical sensitivity among cleaners. The level of pain in the neck and dominant shoulder and upper back within the last 7 days correlated......BACKGROUND: Pressure pain threshold mapping is a valuable method for the identification of distinct zones of mechanical pain sensitivity. Such approach was applied for the first time in relation to self-reported musculoskeletal disorders and long-term sickness absence (LTSA) within the last 12...... months among cleaners. METHODS: About 29 cleaners filled out a self-administered questionnaire regarding health, work-related measures and musculoskeletal disorders. Subsequently, PPTs were measured at (1) tibialis anterior (control location, 1 point), (2) the neck-shoulder (48 points) and (3) the low...

  5. Sickness absence due to otoaudiological diagnoses and risk of disability pension: a nationwide Swedish prospective cohort study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilie Friberg

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Hearing difficulties are a large public health problem. Knowledge is scarce regarding risk of disability pension among people who have been sickness absent due to these difficulties. METHODS: A cohort including all 4,687,756 individuals living in Sweden in 2005, aged 20-64, and not on disability or old-age pension, was followed through 2009. Incidence rate ratios (RR of disability pension with 95% confidence intervals (CI were estimated using Cox proportional hazard models. RESULTS: In multivariable models, individuals who had a sick-leave spell due to otoaudiological diagnoses in 2005 had a 1.52-fold (95% CI: 1.43-1.62 increased risk of being granted a disability pension compared to individuals on sick leave due to other diagnoses. Hearing and tinnitus sick-leave diagnoses were associated with risk of disability pension: RR 3.38, 95% CI: 3.04-3.75, and 3.30, 95% CI: 2.95-3.68, respectively. No association was observed between sick leave due to vertigo diagnoses and disability pension whereas otological diagnoses and no sick leave were inversely associated with risk of disability pension compared to non-otoaudiological sick-leave diagnoses. Sick leave due to otoaudiological diagnoses was positively associated with risk of disability pension due to otoaudiological diagnoses and sick leave due to a tinnitus diagnosis was also associated with risk of disability pension due to mental diagnoses. The risk of disability pension among individuals with hearing or tinnitus sick-leave diagnoses was highest in the age group 35-44. Moreover, men had a slightly higher risk. CONCLUSION: This large cohort study suggests an increased risk of disability pension among those with sickness absence due to otoaudiological diagnoses, particularly hearing and tinnitus diagnoses, compared to those with sickness absence due to non-otoaudiological diagnoses.

  6. Why are NHS staff sickness absence rates higher than other organisations in the public and private sector? A critical review.

    OpenAIRE

    Clifton, Helen

    2011-01-01

    Background There has been a great deal of media attention surrounding the amount of sick days that are taken by public sector employees and recently this focus has been on NHS staff. NHS employees take more sickness absence days that than both other public sector and the private sector employees. It is estimated that staff sickness absence costs the NHS £1.7 billion per year as 10.3 million working days are lost. Aim The aim of the study is to answer the question, Why are NHS staff sicknes...

  7. Sickness absence following coronary revascularisation. A national study of women and men of working age in Sweden 1994-2006.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margaretha Voss

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Evidence based and gender specific knowledge about sickness absence following coronary revascularisation is lacking. The objective was to investigate sickness absence after a first coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG or percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI among women and men in a national Swedish study. MATERIALS AND METHODS: All patients 30-63 years of age, who underwent a first CABG (n = 22,985, 16% women or PCI (40,891, 22% women in Sweden between 1994 and 2006 were included. Information on sickness absence, co-morbidity, and other patient characteristics was obtained from national registers. Long-term sickness absence (LTSA was defined as >180 and >90 sick-leave days in the first sick-leave spell following CABG and PCI, respectively. Prevalence ratio (PR and 95% confidence interval (CI of LTSA were calculated. FINDINGS: LTSA followed the interventions in 41% and 36% for CABG and PCI patients, respectively. Women had more often LTSA compared with men, (CABG PR = 1.23: 95% CI 1.19-1.28 and PCI PR = 1.19; 95% CI 1.16-1.23. A history of sickness absence the year before the intervention increased the risk for LTSA after the intervention in both genders. Among women, older age, or being self employed or unemployed was associated with a lower risk for LTSA. Among men previous cardiovascular disease, diabetes and low socio-economic position increased the risk. During the observation period, there was no change in sickness absence rates among PCI patients but an increase among CABG patients adjusting for patient characteristics. CONCLUSION: This national study covering a 13-year period shows that long-term sickness absence following coronary revascularisation is common in Sweden, especially among women, and is associated with socio-economic position, co-morbidity, and sickness absence during the year before the intervention. Gender specific scientific knowledge about use and effects of sickness absence following coronary

  8. Pain in multiple sites and sickness absence trajectories: a prospective study among Finns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haukka, Eija; Kaila-Kangas, Leena; Ojajärvi, Anneli; Miranda, Helena; Karppinen, Jaro; Viikari-Juntura, Eira; Heliövaara, Markku; Leino-Arjas, Päivi

    2013-02-01

    We studied the number of musculoskeletal pain sites as a predictor of sickness absence during a 7-year follow-up among a nationally representative sample (the Health 2000 survey) of occupationally active Finns 30 to 55years of age (3420 subjects who did not retire or die during the follow-up). Baseline data (questionnaire, interview, clinical examination by a physician) were gathered in 2000 to 2001 and linked with information from national registers on annual compensated sickness absence periods (⩾10workdays) covering the years 2002 to 2008. Pain during the preceding month in 18 body locations was inquired and combined into 4 sites (neck, upper limbs, low back, lower limbs). Demographic factors, BMI, smoking, leisure-time physical activity, sleep disorders, physical and psychosocial workload, and chronic diseases were assessed. Four distinct sickness absence trajectories emerged, labeled as Low (59% of the subjects), Ascending (21%), Mixed (11%), and High (9%). In multinomial logistic regression, the odds ratios (ORs) for belonging to the High vs. the Low trajectory increased with the number of pain sites, being 2.1 for single-site pain, 2.6 for 2 pain sites, 2.9 for 3 pain sites, and 4.1 for 4 pain sites, after adjustment for chronic diseases, demographic and lifestyle factors, and workload. The confidence intervals of the ORs did not include unity. The adjusted ORs for belonging to the Ascending trajectory were 1.1, 1.3, 1.7, and 1.7, respectively. As the number of pain sites was a strong independent predictor of work absenteeism, early screening of workers with multisite pain and interventions to support work ability seem warranted. PMID:23245998

  9. The impact of health behaviour on long term sickness absence: results from DWECS/DREAM

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Karl B; Lund, Thomas; Labriola, Merete;

    2007-01-01

    Long term sickness absence (LTSA) is a major public health problem. We examined the impact of four, potentially modifiable, health behaviours, such as smoking, alcohol consumption, leisure time physical activity, and the associated variable of body mass index on the risk of subsequent LTSA. This...... of 1.61 and 2.05 respectively after adjustment for age, family status, socio economic status, school education, physical and psychosocial work environment exposures and diagnosed disease. In men, effect estimates were smaller and only borderline significant in the fully-adjusted model. The etiologic...

  10. Sickness absence in student nursing assistants following a preventive intervention programme

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svensson, A L; Marott, J L; Suadicani, P;

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: We have previously shown that a multidimensional programme combining physical training, patient transfer techniques and stress management significantly reduced sickness absence rates in student nurse assistants (NAs) after 14 months of follow-up. At follow-up, the control group had...... reduced SF-36 scores for general health perception [general health (GH)], psychological well-being [mental health (MH)] and energy/fatigue [vitality (VT)] compared with the intervention group, which remained at the baseline level for all three measures. AIMS: To ascertain whether this effect remained...

  11. Do psychosocial working conditions modify the effect of depressive symptoms on long-term sickness absence?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjarsbech, Pernille U.; Christensen, Karl Bang; Andersen, Rikke Voss;

    2013-01-01

    Background: The objective of this study was to investigate whether work unit-levels of psychosocial working conditions modify the effect of depressive symptoms on risk of long-term sickness absence (LTSA). Methods: A total of 5,416 Danish female eldercare workers from 309 work units were surveyed...... psychosocial working conditions, predicted LTSA. Psychosocial working conditions did not statistically significantly modify the effect of depressive symptoms on LTSA. Conclusions: Psychosocial working conditions did not modify the effect of depressive symptoms on LTSA. The results, however, need to be...

  12. Influence of lifestyle factors on long-term sickness absence among female healthcare workers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Quist, Helle Gram; Thomsen, Birthe L; Christensen, Ulla;

    2014-01-01

    activity and body mass index) and the occurrence of long-term sickness absence (LTSA; more than three consecutive weeks of registered sickness absence) within a cohort of female health care workers. METHODS: A total of 7401 employees filled out a questionnaire about their health behaviour and work...... significant associations between all three lifestyle factors and risk of LTSA. The strongest lifestyle factor was current smoking, which increased the risk of LTSA by 35% (95% CI: 1.17-1.54) compared to non- smokers. For body mass index, the risk of LTSA increased with the distance away from 18.5 kg/m2 in...... either direction (below 18.5 kg/m2: HR: 1.32 per kg/m2; 95% CI. 1.06-1.66; above 18.5 kg/m2: HR: 1.04 per kg/m2; 95% CI: 1.03-1.05). In other words, the more underweight or overweight the women were, the higher the risk of LTSA. A dose-response relationship was found between LTSA and leisure...

  13. Does Postponement of First Pregnancy Increase Gender Differences in Sickness Absence? A Register Based Analysis of Norwegian Employees in 1993–2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ariansen, Anja M. S.; Mykletun, Arnstein

    2014-01-01

    Background From 1970–2012, the average age at first delivery increased from 23.2–28.5 in Norway. Postponement of first pregnancy increases risks of medical complications both during and after pregnancy. Sickness absence during pregnancy has over the last two decades increased considerably more than in non-pregnant women. The aim of this paper is twofold: Firstly to investigate if postponement of pregnancy is related to increased sickness absence and thus contributing to the increased gender difference in sickness absence; and secondly, to estimate how much of the increased gender difference in sickness absence that can be accounted for by increased sickness absence amongst pregnant women. Methods We employed registry-data to analyse sickness absence among all Norwegian employees with income equivalent to full-time work in the period 1993–2007. Results After control for age, education, and income, pregnant women's sickness absence (age 20–44) increased on average 0.94 percentage points each year, compared to 0.29 in non-pregnant women and 0.14 in men. In pregnant women aged 20–24, sickness absence during pregnancy increased by 0.96 percent points per calendar year, compared to 0.60 in age-group 30–34. Sickness absence during pregnancy accounted for 25% of the increased gender gap in sickness absence, accounting for changes in education, income and age. Conclusions Postponement of first pregnancy does not explain the increase in pregnant women's sickness absence during the period 1993–2007 as both the highest level and increase in sickness absence is seen in the younger women. Reasons are poorly understood, but still important as it accounts for 25% of the increased gender gap in sickness absence. PMID:24667483

  14. A one-item workability measure mediates work demands, individual resources and health in the prediction of sickness absence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorsen, Sannie Vester; Burr, Hermann; Diderichsen, Finn; Bjorner, Jakob Bue

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The study tested the hypothesis that a one-item workability measure represented an assessment of the fit between resources (the individuals' physical and mental health and functioning) and workplace demands and that this resource/demand fit was a mediator in the prediction of sickness...... control and quantitative demands. RESULTS: High age, poor health and ergonomic exposures were associated with low workability and mediated by workability to sickness absence for both genders. Low social class and low quantitative demands were associated with low workability and mediated to sickness...

  15. Depressive symptoms and the risk of long-term sickness absence: a prospective study among 4747 employees in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bültmann, Ute; Rugulies, Reiner; Lund, Thomas;

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The aim of this paper is to examine the impact of depressive symptoms on long-term sickness absence in a representative sample of the Danish workforce. METHODS: This prospective study is based on 4,747 male and female employees, participating in the Danish Work Environment Cohort Stud...... and 8.9% in women. Both men and women with severe depressive symptoms (......BACKGROUND: The aim of this paper is to examine the impact of depressive symptoms on long-term sickness absence in a representative sample of the Danish workforce. METHODS: This prospective study is based on 4,747 male and female employees, participating in the Danish Work Environment Cohort Study....... Depressive symptoms were measured at baseline. Data on sickness absence were obtained from a national register on social transfer payments. Onset of long-term sickness absence was followed up for 78 weeks. RESULTS: The cumulative 78 weeks incidence for the onset of long-term sickness absence was 6.5% in men...

  16. Economic evaluation of a problem solving intervention to prevent recurrent sickness absence in workers with common mental disorders.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iris Arends

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: Workers with common mental disorders (CMDs frequently experience recurrent sickness absence but scientifically evaluated interventions to prevent recurrences are lacking. The objectives of this study are to evaluate the cost-effectiveness and cost-benefit of a problem solving intervention aimed at preventing recurrent sickness absence in workers with CMDs compared to care as usual. METHODS: An economic evaluation was conducted alongside a cluster-randomised controlled trial with 12 months follow-up. Treatment providers were randomised to either a 2-day training in the SHARP-at work intervention, i.e. a problem solving intervention, or care as usual. Effect outcomes were the incidence of recurrent sickness absence and time to recurrent sickness absence. Self-reported health care utilisation was measured by questionnaires. A cost-effectiveness analysis (CEA from the societal perspective and a cost-benefit analysis (CBA from the employer's perspective were conducted. RESULTS: The CEA showed that the SHARP-at work intervention was more effective but also more expensive than care as usual. The CBA revealed that employer's occupational health care costs were significantly higher in the intervention group compared to care as usual. Overall, the SHARP-at work intervention showed no economic benefit compared to care as usual. CONCLUSIONS: As implementation of the SHARP-at work intervention might require additional investments, health care policy makers need to decide if these investments are worthwhile considering the results that can be accomplished in reducing recurrent sickness absence.

  17. The gender gap in sickness absence from work and the influence of parental absence on offspring absence 15 years later: register-based cohort of Norwegians born in 1974–1976

    OpenAIRE

    Kristensen, Petter; Corbett, Karina; Mehlum, Ingrid Sivesind

    2015-01-01

    Background Women have shown consistently higher levels of sickness absence from work in comparison to men, but explanations for this gender gap have not been completely understood. Life-course studies suggest that health and health-related social benefits in adult age are influenced by early life experiences. We aimed to estimate intergenerational associations with a 15-year time gap between parents’ and offspring sickness absences, pursuing the hypothesis that this parental influence would h...

  18. Effects on musculoskeletal pain, work ability and sickness absence in a 1-year randomised controlled trial among cleaners

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Marie B.; Faber, Anne; Hansen, Jørgen V.;

    2011-01-01

    Only a few workplace initiatives among cleaners have been reported, even though they constitute a job group in great need of health promotion. The purpose of this trial was to evaluate the effect of either physical coordination training or cognitive behavioural training on musculoskeletal pain......, work ability and sickness absence among cleaners. A cluster-randomised controlled trial was conducted among 294 female cleaners allocated to either physical coordination training (PCT), cognitive behavioural training (CBTr) or a reference group (REF). Questionnaires about musculoskeletal pain and work...... ability were completed at baseline and after one year's intervention. Sickness absence data were obtained from the managers' records. Analyses were performed according to the intention-to-treat-principle (ITT). No overall reduction in musculoskeletal pain, work ability or sickness absence from either PCT...

  19. Return to Work among Employees with Long-Term Sickness Absence in Eldercare: A Prospective Analysis of Register-Based Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clausen, Thomas; Friis Andersen, Malenea; Bang Christensen, Karl; Lund, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    This study investigates whether psychosocial work characteristics and work-related psychological states predict return to work (RTW) after long-term sickness absence among eldercare staff. We followed 9947 employees in a national register on payment of sickness-absence compensation for 1 year and found that 598 employees had absence periods of 8…

  20. Socioeconomic differences in the association between sickness absence and mortality: The prospective DREAM study of Danish private sector employees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Thomas; Kivimäki, Mika; Christensen, Karl Bang; Labriola, Merete

    2008-01-01

    sector receiving sickness absence compensation from the municipality in 1998. A total of 236 207 persons (38.2% women, 61.8% men, age range 18-65, mean age 37.8) who were still alive 1 January 2001 were included in the study. Mortality during the period 1 January 2001 through 31 December 2004 was...... grades; and 2.0 (1.7-2.3) in blue collar occupations. CONCLUSION: Administratively collected data on sickness absence compensation for periods of six weeks or more identified "at risk" groups for future excess mortality in male and female private sector employees across occupational grade levels....

  1. The dimensional structure of the functional abilities in cases of long-term sickness absence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mulders Henny PG

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The health problems that working people suffer can affect their functional abilities and, consequently, can cause a mismatch between those abilities and the demands of the work, leading to sickness absence. A lasting decrease in functional abilities can lead to long-term sickness absence and work disability, with negative consequences for both the worker and the larger society. The objective of this study was to identify common disability characteristics among large groups of long-term sick-listed and disabled employees. Methods As part of the disability benefit entitlement procedure in the Netherlands, an insurance physician assesses the functional abilities of the claimant in a standardised form, known as the List of Functional Abilities (LFA, which consists of six sections containing a total of 106 items. For the purposes of this study, we compiled data from 50,931 assessments. These data were used in an exploratory factor analyses, and the results were then used to construct scales. The stability of dimensional structure of the LFA and of the internal consistency of the scales was studied using data from 80,968 assessments carried out earlier, under a slightly different legislation. Results Three separate factor analyses carried out on the functional abilities of five sections of the LFA resulted in 14 scale variables, and one extra scale variable was based on the items from the sixth section. The resulting scale variables showed Cronbach's Alphas ranging from 0.59 to 0.97, with the exception of one of 0.54. The dimensional structure of the LFA in the verification population differed in some aspects. The Cronbach's Alphas of the verification population ranged from 0.58 to 0.97, again with the exception of the same scale: Alpha = 0.49. Conclusion The differences between the dimensional structures of the primary data and the earlier data we found in this study restrict the possibilities to generalise the results. The scales

  2. Sickness absence in musculoskeletal disorders - patients' experiences of interactions with the Social Insurance Agency and health care. A qualitative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arvidsson Barbro

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sickness absence has represented a growing public health problem in many Western countries over the last decade. In Sweden disorders of the musculoskeletal system cause approximately one third of all sick leave. The Social Insurance Agency (SIA and the health care system are important actors in handling the sickness absence process. The objective was to study how patients with personal experience of sickness absence due to musculoskeletal disorders perceived their contact with these actors and what they considered as obstructing or facilitating factors for recovery and return to work in this situation. Methods In-depth interviews using open-ended questions were conducted with fifteen informants (aged 33-63, 11 women, all with experience of sickness absence due to musculoskeletal disorders and purposefully recruited to represent various backgrounds as regards diagnosis, length of sick leave and return to work. The interviews were audio-recorded, transcribed verbatim and analysed using content analysis. Results The informants' perceived the interaction with the SIA and health care as ranging from coherent to fragmented. Being on sick leave was described as going through a process of adjustment in both private and working life. This process of adjustment was interactive and included not only the possibilities to adjust work demands and living conditions but also personal and emotional adjustment. The informants' experiences of fragmented interaction reflected a sense that their entire situation was not being taken into account. Coherent interaction was described as facilitating recovery and return to work, while fragmented interaction was described as obstructing this. The complex division of responsibilities within the Swedish rehabilitation system may hamper sickness absentees' possibilities of taking responsibility for their own rehabilitation. Conclusions This study shows that people on sick leave considered the interaction

  3. The association between health and sickness absence among Danish and non-Western immigrant cleaners in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carneiro, Isabella G.; Rasmussen, Charlotte D. N.; Jørgensen, Marie B.; Flyvholm, Mari-Ann; Olesen, Kasper; Madeleine, Pascal; Ekner, Dorte; Søgaard, Karen; Holtermann, Andreas

    2013-01-01

    health consisted of self-report and objective assessments. The relationship between sickness absence and health was analyzed through multinomial logistic regression, stratified by immigrant status. RESULTS: For both Danish and non-Western immigrant cleaners, poor self-reported health was significantly...

  4. Labour market trajectories following sickness absence due to self-reported all cause morbidity-a longitudinal study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Pernille; Lund, Thomas; Lindholdt, Louise;

    2016-01-01

    -to-event analysis and with sequence analysis. RESULTS: Individuals with mental health reasons for sickness absence had a higher risk of not having returned to work (RR 0.87 (0.80;0.93)). Adjusting for gender, age, education and employment did not change the estimate, however, after adding RTW expectations to the...

  5. Shift work and mental health sickness absence : a 10-year observational cohort study among male production workers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Norder-Kuper, Giny; Roelen, Corne A. M.; Bultmann, Ute; van der Klink, Jac J. L.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Epidemiological studies investigating mental-health-related sickness absence (SA) among shift workers are lacking. This 10-year observational study investigated the risk of mental health SA among shift compared with day workers. Methods The data of 5826 male production workers were used f

  6. Psychometric analysis of common mental disorders -- Screening Questionnaire (CMD-SQ) in long-term sickness absence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søgaard, Hans Jørgen; Bech, Per

    2009-01-01

    conviction), SCL-ANX4 (anxiety), SCL-DEP6 (depression), SCL-8 (emotional disorder), and CAGE (alcohol dependency). RESULTS: Of 2,414 incident persons on long-term sickness absence within one year, 1,121 participated in the study by filling in CMD-SQ and a subsample of 337 was diagnosed by a psychiatric...

  7. Workplace social capital and risk of long-term sickness absence. Are associations modified by occupational grade?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rugulies, Reiner; Hasle, Peter; Pejtersen, Jan Hyld;

    2016-01-01

    Background: Workplace social capital (WSC) is an emerging topic among both work environment professionals and researchers. We examined (i) whether high WSC protected against risk of long-term sickness absence (LTSA) in a random sample of the Danish workforce during a 1-year follow-up and (ii...

  8. Alcohol-related sickness absence of young employees in Norway: The impact of social roles and socioeconomic status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schou Line

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available AIMS – First, to establish whether there are differences in alcohol-related sickness absence according to socioeconomic status and family situation among young employees in Norway. Second, if differences are found, to assess whether they can be attributed mainly to differences in drinking patterns.

  9. Socioeconomic status and duration and pattern of sickness absence. A 1-year follow-up study of 2331 hospital employees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Trine Rønde; Jensen, Signe Marie; Kreiner, Svend;

    2010-01-01

    prospective cohort study of 2331 hospital employees. Baseline information include job title, work unit, perceived general health, work factors and personal factors recorded from hospital administrative files or by questionnaire (response rate 84%). Sickness absence during follow-up was divided into short (1...

  10. Effects on musculoskeletal pain, work ability and sickness absence in a 1-year randomised controlled trial among cleaners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jørgensen Marie B

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Only a few workplace initiatives among cleaners have been reported, even though they constitute a job group in great need of health promotion. The purpose of this trial was to evaluate the effect of either physical coordination training or cognitive behavioural training on musculoskeletal pain, work ability and sickness absence among cleaners. Methods A cluster-randomised controlled trial was conducted among 294 female cleaners allocated to either physical coordination training (PCT, cognitive behavioural training (CBTr or a reference group (REF. Questionnaires about musculoskeletal pain and work ability were completed at baseline and after one year's intervention. Sickness absence data were obtained from the managers' records. Analyses were performed according to the intention-to-treat-principle (ITT. Results No overall reduction in musculoskeletal pain, work ability or sickness absence from either PCT or CBTr compared with REF was found in conservative ITT analyses. However, explorative analyses revealed a treatment effect for musculoskeletal pain of the PCT. People with chronic neck/shoulder pain at baseline were more frequently non-chronic at follow-up after PCT compared with REF (p = 0.05. Conclusions The PCT intervention appeared effective for reducing chronic neck/shoulder pain among the female cleaners. It is recommended that future interventions among similar high-risk job groups focus on the implementation aspects of the interventions to maximise outcomes more distal from the intervention such as work ability and sickness absence. Trial registration ISRCTN: ISRCTN96241850

  11. Workplace social capital and risk of long-term sickness absence. Are associations modified by occupational grade?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rugulies, Reiner; Hasle, Peter; Hyld Pejtersen, Jan; Aust, Birgit; Bjørner, Jakob Bue

    Background: Workplace social capital (WSC) is an emerging topic among both work environment professionals and researchers. We examined (i) whether high WSC protected against risk of long-term sickness absence (LTSA) in a random sample of the Danish workforce during a 1-year follow-up and (ii...

  12. Impact of burnout and psychosocial work characteristics on future long-term sickness absence. Prospective results of the Danish PUMA-study among human service workers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borritz, Marianne; Christensen, KB; Rugulies, R;

    2010-01-01

    Objectives: The objective of this study was to examine if burnout and psychosocial factors predicted long-term sickness absence (>2 weeks) at work unit level. Methods: Data were collected prospectively at 82-work units in human services (PUMA cohort, PUMA: Danish acronym for Burnout, Motivation and...... Job satisfaction) followed up during the proceeding 18 months regarding onset of long-term sickness absence. Questionnaire data regarding burnout and psychosocial factors were aggregated at work unit level. We used Poisson regression models with psychosocial factors and burnout as predictors of long......-term sickness absence for more than 18 months based on data from a national absence register. Results: Long-term sickness absence was predicted by psychosocial factors and by burnout at work unit level. Conclusion: To reduce sickness absence, organizations within human services should improve the psychosocial...

  13. How do job characteristics, family situation, domestic work, and lifestyle factors relate to sickness absence? A study based on Sweden Post

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Voss, Margaretha; Floderus, Birgitta; Diderichsen, Finn

    2004-01-01

    associations with sickness absence were observed for complaints attributed to heavy, arduous work, and sickness presenteeism. The use of tranquilizers, occurrence of bullying, and the existence of a high total workload from paid and unpaid work were associated with sickness absence in women. In men, the use of...... alcohol as sedative, anxiety of reorganization, not holding a supervisor position, adverse life events, and divorce were related with sickness absence. CONCLUSIONS: Our study identified different areas at work and outside work for women and men that could be targets for actions aiming at preventing high...

  14. Sickness certification for mental health problems: an analysis of a general practice consultation database

    OpenAIRE

    Mallen, CD; Wynne-Jones, G.; Dunn, KM

    2011-01-01

    Although mental illness remains the leading cause of both sickness absence and incapacity benefit in most high-income countries, little is known about how frequently patients with mental ill-health receive sickness certificates and what conditions are most commonly certified for. This study aims to use general practice consultation data to determine the rate of sickness certification for common mental health problems.

  15. A prospective cohort study on severe pain as a risk factor for long-term sickness absence in blue- and white-collar workers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Lars Louis; Mortensen, Ole Steen; Hansen, Jørgen Vinsløv; Burr, Hermann

    2011-01-01

    followed in 2001-2002 in a national sickness absence register. Cox regression analysis was performed to assess the risk estimates of mutually adjusted severe pain in the neck/shoulder, low back, hand/wrist and knees for onset of LTSA, defined as receiving sickness absence compensation for at least 3...

  16. Self-reported Occupational Skin Exposure and Risk of Physician-certified Long-term Sick Leave: A Prospective Study of the General Working Population of Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfonso, Jose H; Tynes, Tore; Thyssen, Jacob P; Holm, Jan-Øivind; Johannessen, Håkon A

    2016-03-01

    Little is known about the contribution of occupational skin exposure as a risk factor for physician-certified long-term sick leave in the general working population of Norway. This study drew a cohort (n = 12,255; response at baseline 69.9%) randomly from the general population of Norway. Occupational skin exposure (in 2009) was measured based on 5 items. The outcome of interest was physician-certified long-term sick leave ≥ 16 days during 2010. Statistical adjustment for psychosocial and mechanical occupational exposures was performed. Long-term sick leave was predicted by occupational skin exposure to cleaning products (odds ratio (OR) 1.7; 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 1.1-2.5) and waste (OR 2.1; 95% CI 1.1-3.7) among men, and occupational skin exposure to water (OR 1.3; 95% CI 1.0-1.6) among women. The estimated population attributable risk for occupational skin exposure was 14.5%, which emphasizes its contribution as an important risk factor for long-term sick leave. PMID:26439508

  17. Has the Spanish economic crisis affected the duration of sickness absence episodes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murcia López, Guillermo; Delclós Clanchet, Jordi; Ubalde López, Mònica; Calvo Bonacho, Eva; Benavides, Fernando G

    2016-07-01

    The global economic crisis has had particularly intense effects on the Spanish labor market. We investigated whether the duration of non-work related sickness absence (SA) episodes in salaried workers had experienced any changes before and after the crisis started. This was a repeated cross-sectional analysis conducted in a dynamic cohort in 2006 and 2010. Database was provided by eight mutual insurance companies, covering 983,108 workers and 451,801 SA episodes. Descriptive analysis and crude, bivariate and multivariate analyses using Cox proportional hazards modeling were performed, to quantify the changes in duration of SA episodes between 2006 and 2010, stratified by sex. There was a higher number of episodes in 2010 for both sexes, but especially for women. Unadjusted median duration in men was similar for both years, while for women it was shorter in 2010. Final multivariate models show a greater risk of longer episode duration for men in 2010 (HR 0.95; 95% CI, 0.95-0.95), but a shorter one for women (HR 1.07; 95% CI, 1.07-1.07). Once the economic crisis started affecting the Spanish labor market, the number of SA episodes in women equalized with those in men. There was a decrease of episodes in the youngest age groups, in the construction and in temporary contracts. The relative ranking of leading diagnoses was similar in both years with an increase in infectious, nervous system and respiratory diseases and in mental disorder episodes for both sexes, but especially for women. The risk of longer episode duration was greater in 2010 among men, but smaller in women. PMID:27209364

  18. Effects on musculoskeletal pain, work ability and sickness absence in a 1-year randomised controlled trial among cleaners

    OpenAIRE

    Jørgensen Marie B; Faber Anne; Hansen Jørgen V; Holtermann Andreas; Søgaard Karen

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Only a few workplace initiatives among cleaners have been reported, even though they constitute a job group in great need of health promotion. The purpose of this trial was to evaluate the effect of either physical coordination training or cognitive behavioural training on musculoskeletal pain, work ability and sickness absence among cleaners. Methods A cluster-randomised controlled trial was conducted among 294 female cleaners allocated to either physical coordination tra...

  19. Using a psychosocial subgroup assignment to predict sickness absence in a working population with neck and back pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jensen Irene

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The overall objective was to evaluate the predictive validity of a subgroup classification based on the Swedish version of the MPI, the MPI-S, among gainfully employed workers with neck pain (NP and/or low back pain (LBP during a follow-up period of 18 and 36 months. Methods This is a prospective cohort study that is part of a larger longitudinal multi-centre study entitled Work and Health in the Process and Engineering Industries (AHA. The attempt was to classify individuals at risk for developing chronic disabling NP and LBP. This is the first study using the MPI-questionnaire in a working population with NP and LBP. Results Dysfunctional individuals (DYS demonstrated more statistically significant sickness absence compared to adaptive copers (AC after 36 months. DYS also had a threefold increase in the risk ratio of long-term sickness absence at 18 months. Interpersonally distressed (ID subgroup showed overall more sickness absence compared to the AC subgroup at the 36-month follow-up and had a twofold increase in the risk ratio of long-term sickness absence at 18 months. There was a significant difference in bodily pain, mental and physical health for ID and DYS subgroups compared to the AC group at both follow-ups. Conclusions The present study shows that this multidimensional approach to the classification of individuals based on psychological and psychosocial characteristics can distinguish different groups in gainfully employed working population with NP/LBP. The results in this study confirm the predictive validity of the MPI-S subgroup classification system.

  20. Introducing waiting times for health care in a labor supply model for sickness absence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Andrén

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper studies the association between waiting times for different health care services and the duration of sick leave, using a Swedish register database supplemented with information from questionnaires for 3,653 employees. The duration of sick leave is positively associated with waiting two weeks or more for primary care, technical investigations and specialists, compared to waiting one week or less. Except for waiting for a specialist, there is no indication that waiting four weeks or more is associated with longer durations of sick leave than waiting two to three weeks. Long waiting times for surgery is negatively associated with the duration of sick leave, which might be explained by prioritizing where patients with longer waiting times are those with less severe conditions. Including these waiting time variables did not induce substantial changes on the impact of traditional labor supply variables, which suggests that the parameter estimates of traditional variables are relatively robust.

  1. Psychosocial work environment exposures as risk factors for long-term sickness absence among Danish employees: results from DWECS/DREAM

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Thomas; Labriola, Merete; Christensen, Karl Bang;

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: This study examines effects of psychosocial risk factors on long-term sickness absence, and investigates possible interactions between psychosocial and physical work environment risk factors. METHODS: A total of 5,357 employees were interviewed in 2000 regarding work environment and......-term sickness absence among men. No significant interactions between psychosocial and physical exposures were found for female or male employees. CONCLUSIONS: The study suggests a potential for reducing long-term sickness absence through interventions targeted toward reducing role conflict, and improving reward...

  2. Mental health symptoms identify workers at risk of long-term sickness absence due to mental disorders : prospective cohort study with 2-year follow-up

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Hoffen, Marieke F. A.; Joling, Catelijne I.; Heymans, Martijn W.; Twisk, Jos W. R.; Roelen, Corne A. M.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Mental health problems are a leading cause of long-term sickness absence (LTSA). Workers at risk of mental LTSA should preferably be identified before they report sick. The objective of this study was to examine mental health symptoms as predictors of future mental LTSA in non-sicklisted

  3. Long-term sickness absence due to mental disorders is associated with individual features and psychosocial work conditions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Silvestre da Silva-Junior

    Full Text Available Sickness absence is a socioeconomic global burden. In Brazil, mental disorders are the third leading cause of social security benefits payments. The aim of the present study was to compare factors associated with long-term sickness absence between workers who claimed social benefits due to mental disorders or by other causes. We investigated individual features and occupational characteristics. In addition, we evaluated psychosocial factors at work assessed by the Demand-Control-Support (DCS and Effort-Reward Imbalance (ERI models, and whether they were associated with long-term sickness absence due to mental disorders (LTSA-MD.The present case-control study was conducted in São Paulo, Brazil. The sample (n = 385 included workers on sick leave for more than 15 days. Cases were the participants with disabling psychiatric illnesses, and controls were the ones with other disabling diseases. Interviews were conducted to assess individual features (sociodemographic data, health habits/lifestyle, health conditions and occupational characteristics. The participants' perception of exposure to dimensions of the DCS and ERI models was also recorded. Multiple logistic regressions were performed to evaluate the association between independent variables and LTSA-MD.All the regression analyses showed that LTSA-MD was associated with female sex, self-reported white skin color, higher education level, high tobacco consumption, high alcohol intake, two or more comorbidities, exposure to violence at work, high job strain and low social support at work, effort-reward imbalance and high overcommitment to work. LTSA-MD was associated with separate and combined DCS and ERI stress models.Individual features and work conditions were associated with LTSA-MD. Combined analysis of stress models showed that psychosocial factors at work were significantly associated with LTSA-MD. Resourceful use of this information may contribute to the implementation of preventive

  4. Risk factors for sickness absence due to low back pain and prognostic factors for return to work in a cohort of shipyard workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexopoulos, Evangelos C; Konstantinou, Eleni C; Bakoyannis, Giorgos; Tanagra, Dimitra; Burdorf, Alex

    2008-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine risk factors for the occurrence of sickness absence due to low back pain (LBP) and to evaluate prognostic factors for return to work. A longitudinal study with 1-year follow-up was conducted among 853 shipyard workers. The cohort was drawn around January 2004 among employees in the shipyard industry. Baseline information was obtained by questionnaire on physical and psychosocial work load, need for recovery, perceived general health, musculoskeletal complaints, sickness absence, and health care use during the past year. During the 1-year follow-up for each subject medical certifications were retrieved for information on the frequency and duration of spells of sickness absence and associated diagnoses. Cox regression analyses were conducted on occurrence and on duration of sickness absence with hazard ratios (HR) with 95% confidence interval (95% CI) as measure of association. During the 1-year follow-up period, 14% of the population was on sick leave at least once with LBP while recurrence reached 41%. The main risk factors for sickness absence were previous absence due to a health problem other than LBP (HR 3.07; 95%CI 1.66-5.68) or previous sickness absence due to LBP (HR 6.52; 95%CI 3.16-13.46). Care seeking for LBP and lower educational level also hold significant influences (HR 2.41; 95%CI 1.45-4.01 and HR 2.46; 95%CI 1.19-5.07, respectively). Living with others, night shift and supervising duties were associated with less absenteeism due to LBP. Workers with a history of herniated disc had a significantly decreased rate of returning to work, whereas those who suffered from hand-wrist complaints and LBP returned to work faster. Prior sick leave due to LBP partly captured the effects of work-related physical and psychosocial factors on occurrence of sick leave. Our study showed that individual and job characteristics (living alone, night shift, lower education, sick leave, or care seeking during the last 12 months

  5. Using administrative sickness absence data as a marker of future disability pension: the prospective DREAM study of Danish private sector employees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, T.; Kivimaki, M.; Labriola, M.;

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to examine duration of sickness absence as a risk marker for future disability pension among all private sector employees in Denmark 1998-2004. METHODS: All private sector employees receiving sickness absence compensation from the municipality in 1998, a total...... duration as an early risk marker. RESULTS: 5694 persons (2.5%) received disability pension during follow-up, more men (53.4%) than women (46.6%). There was a strong graded association between increasing length of absence and increasing risk of future disability pension. Significant differences were found......: The findings suggest that administratively collected data on sickness absence compensation are an important predictor of disability pension among private sector employees. The use of information on sick leave may improve the effectiveness of early interventions by policy makers, case managing authorities...

  6. Predictive validity of common mental disorders screening questionnaire as a screening instrument in long term sickness absence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søgaard, Hans Jørgen; Bech, Per

    2010-01-01

    AIMS: Screening instruments for detection of common mental disorders have not been validity tested in long term sickness absence (LSA), which is the aim of this study for the Common Mental Disorders Screening Questionnaire (CMD-SQ). METHODS: Of all 2,414 incident persons on continuous sick......-leave for more than eight weeks in a Danish population of 120,000 inhabitants 1,121 participated in a two-phased study by being screened for mental disorders by CMD-SQ in Phase 1. A subgroup of 337 was examined by a psychiatrist and diagnosed with Present State Examination in Phase 2. Results performed on...... Phase 2 were weighted up to Phase 1. Test performance was analyzed by ROC-analyses, and the fraction with a positive screening test, Q, the sensitivity SE, and 1 minus the specificity, SP, were plotted against decreasing cut-point in the tested scales for specific diagnostic groups. RESULTS: A sub...

  7. Do traditional male role norms modify the association between high emotional demands in work, and sickness absence?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Labriola, Merete; Hansen, Claus D.; Lund, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    questionnaires measuring emotional demands using COPSOQ and the Male Role Norms Inventory (MRNI). The primary outcomes, self-reported absenteeism and presenteeism and mental health (SF-12) are analysed using Linear and Poisson regressions. Results Emotional demands were associated with higher levels of sickness...... absenteeism and presenteeism, and poor mental health (p<0.01 in all cases). Subgroup analyses showed no differences in the effect of emotional demands on sickness absence, whereas the subgroup with low MRNI-score showed relatively stronger associations between emotional demands and presenteeism. Additional...... analysis showed that participants with high MRNI-score were more affected by emotional demands in terms of their mental health than participants with lower MRNI-score. Conclusions The study confirms the association between emotional demands and absenteeism, and furthermore showed that the effect of...

  8. Determinants in adolescence for adult sickness absence in women and men : a 26-year follow-up of a prospective population based cohort (Northern Swedish cohort)

    OpenAIRE

    Mittendorfer-Rutz Ellenor; Hensing Gunnel; Westerlund Hugo; Backheden Magnus; Hammarström Anne

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Background To date little is known regarding how factors measured in adolescence predict sickness absence in adulthood, and whether different patterns of factors exist for women and men that could contribute to an explanation of adult gender differences in sickness absence. Methods All pupils in the last year of compulsory school in the municipality of Luleå with complete information from surveys (questionnaires) in 1981 and 1983 (compulsory and upper-secondary schooling; 16 and 18 y...

  9. Does Postponement of First Pregnancy Increase Gender Differences in Sickness Absence? A Register Based Analysis of Norwegian Employees in 1993–2007

    OpenAIRE

    Ariansen, Anja Maria Steinsland; Mykletun, Arnstein

    2014-01-01

    Background: From 1970–2012, the average age at first delivery increased from 23.2–28.5 in Norway. Postponement of first pregnancy increases risks of medical complications both during and after pregnancy. Sickness absence during pregnancy has over the last two decades increased considerably more than in non-pregnant women. The aim of this paper is twofold: Firstly to investigate if postponement of pregnancy is related to increased sickness absence and thus contributing to the incre...

  10. Sickness absence due to specific mental diagnoses and all-cause and cause-specific mortality: a cohort study of 4.9 million inhabitants of Sweden.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ellenor Mittendorfer-Rutz

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Despite the magnitude and increase of sickness absence due to mental diagnoses, little is known regarding long-term health outcomes. The aim of this nationwide population-based, prospective cohort study was to investigate the association between sickness absence due to specific mental diagnoses and the risk of all-cause and cause-specific mortality. METHODS: A cohort of all 4 857 943 individuals living in Sweden on 31.12.2004 (aged 16-64 years, not sickness absent, or on retirement or disability pension, was followed from 01.01.2005 through 31.12.2008 for all-cause and cause-specific mortality (suicide, cancer, circulatory disease through linkage of individual register data. Individuals with at least one new sick-leave spell with a mental diagnosis in 2005 were compared to individuals with no sickness absence. Hazard ratios (HR and 95% confidence intervals (CI were estimated by Cox regression, adjusting for age, sex, education, country of birth, family situation, area of residence, and pre-existing morbidity (diagnosis-specific hospital inpatient (2000-2005 and outpatient (2001-2005 care. RESULTS: In the multivariate analyses, mental sickness absence in 2005 was associated with an increased risk for all-cause mortality: HR: 1.65, 95% CI: 1.47-1.86 in women and in men: 1.73, 1.57-1.91; for suicide, cancer (both smoking and non-smoking related as well as mortality due to circulatory disease only in men. Estimates for cause-specific mortality ranged from 1.48 to 3.37. Associations with all-cause mortality were found for all mental sickness absence diagnostic groups studied. CONCLUSIONS: Knowledge about the prognosis of patients sickness absent with specific mental diagnoses is of crucial clinical importance in health care. Sickness absence due to specific mental diagnoses may here be used as a risk indictor for subsequent mortality.

  11. Job characteristics, physical and psychological symptoms, and social support as antecedents of sickness absence among men and women in the private industrial sector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Väänänen, Ari; Toppinen-Tanner, Salla; Kalimo, Raija; Mutanen, Pertti; Vahtera, Jussi; Peiró, José M

    2003-09-01

    Most longitudinal studies on the relationship between psychosocial health resources and risks, and the employees' subsequent sickness absences have been conducted in the public sector. The purpose of this study was to find out psychosocial antecedents of sickness absenteeism in the private industrial sector. The effects of job characteristics (job autonomy and job complexity), physical and psychological symptoms, and social support (from coworkers and supervisors) on sickness absenteeism were investigated. The number of long (4-21 days) and very long (>21 days) sickness absence episodes of 3895 persons (76% men and 24% women, mean age 44 years) was obtained from the health registers of a multinational forest industry corporation in 1995-1998. A questionnaire survey on the working conditions and health of the workers was carried out in 1996. The follow-up time of the sickness absences was 1-year 9-month. Job autonomy was found to be associated with long and very long episodes in men (rate ratio (RR) in the lowest autonomy group approximately 2 times higher than the highest autonomy group), and with very long episodes of absence in women (2-3 times higher RR between the low vs. the high category). Low job complexity predicted men's very long absences (RR 1.4). Long and very long episodes were associated with physical and psychological symptoms (RR 1.2-1.7) among men and women. Lack of coworkers' support increased the frequency of very long sickness absence among men (RR 1.4), and lack of supervisor's support among women (RR 1.6). Also, some interaction effects of social support variables were observed among both genders. We conclude that the studied psychosocial factors are associated with subsequent sickness absence, and that the associations are partly gender-specific. The results showing which variables are related to employees' sickness absenteeism in the private industrial sector can be applied in human resource management and health service planning. PMID

  12. Threshold of musculoskeletal pain intensity for increased risk of long-term sickness absence among female healthcare workers in eldercare.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lars L Andersen

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: Musculoskeletal disorders increase the risk for absenteeism and work disability. However, the threshold when musculoskeletal pain intensity significantly increases the risk of sickness absence among different occupations is unknown. This study estimates the risk for long-term sickness absence (LTSA from different pain intensities in the low back, neck/shoulder and knees among female healthcare workers in eldercare. METHODS: Prospective cohort study among 8,732 Danish female healthcare workers responding to a questionnaire in 2004-2005, and subsequently followed for one year in a national register of social transfer payments (DREAM. Using Cox regression hazard ratio (HR analysis we modeled risk estimates of pain intensities on a scale from 0-9 (reference 0, where 0 is no pain and 9 is worst imaginable pain in the low back, neck/shoulders and knees during the last three months for onset of LTSA (receiving sickness absence compensation for at least eight consecutive weeks during one-year follow-up. RESULTS: During follow-up, the 12-month prevalence of LTSA was 6.3%. With adjustment for age, BMI, smoking and leisure physical activity, the thresholds of pain intensities significantly increasing risk of LTSA for the low back (HR 1.44 [95%CI 1.07-1.93], neck/shoulders (HR 1.47 [95%CI 1.10-1.96] and knees (HR 1.43 [95%CI 1.06-1.93] were 5, 4 and 3 (scale 0-9, respectively, referencing pain intensity of 0. CONCLUSION: The threshold of pain intensity significantly increasing the risk for LTSA among female healthcare workers varies across body regions, with knee pain having the lowest threshold. This knowledge may be used in the prevention of LTSA among health care workers.

  13. Barriers and facilitators for implementation of a return-to-work intervention for sickness absence beneficiaries with mental health problems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martin, Marie H. T.; Moefelt, Louise; Dahl Nielsen, Maj Britt;

    2015-01-01

    guidelines. Data sources were individual and group interviews, observations, national registers, and documents used in the intervention. RESULTS: The quality of the implementation varied greatly across the three settings. Barriers included lack of skills to assess MHPs according to the inclusion criteria......AIMS: Evidence for the effectiveness of return-to-work (RTW) interventions aimed at sickness absence beneficiaries with mental health problems (MHPs) is still relatively sparse and mostly inconclusive. This may in part reflect the varying settings and inconsistent implementations associated with...

  14. Global measure of satisfaction with psychosocial work conditions versus measures of specific aspects of psychosocial work conditions in explaining sickness absence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Westergaard-Nielsen Niels

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Attempts to identify particular aspects of psychosocial work conditions as predictors of sickness absence remain inconclusive. A global measure has previously been suggested to be an efficient way to measure psychosocial work conditions in questionnaires. This paper investigates whether satisfaction with specific aspects of psychosocial work conditions explains sickness absence beyond its association with a global measure of psychosocial work conditions. Methods The participants were 13,437 employees from 698 public service workplaces in Aarhus County, Denmark. 33 items from a questionnaire fell in groupings around six aspects of psychosocial work conditions: skill discretion, professionalism, management, decision authority, workload and cooperation. A global measure rating satisfaction with psychosocial work conditions on a scale from 0 to 10 was also included in the questionnaire. Individual ratings were aggregated to workplace scores. Analysis of variance and multiple linear regression was used to compare the average number of days of yearly sickness absence with different levels of satisfaction with six aspects of psychosocial work conditions. The covariates included were gender, age, occupation, size of workplace, contact to hospital, civil status and children below 13 living at home. Results Dissatisfaction with each of the six aspects of psychosocial work conditions was associated with an increase in sickness absence. When all aspects were simultaneously included in the model, only skill discretion and professionalism were negatively associated with sickness absence. When a global measure of satisfaction with psychosocial work conditions was also included in the model none of the specific aspects showed a statistically significant association with sickness absence. Conclusion Low global satisfaction with psychosocial work conditions is associated with increased levels of sickness absence. Including specific aspects of

  15. Prognostic factors for long-term sickness absence among employees with neck-shoulder and low-back pain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holtermann, Andreas; Hansen, Jørgen V; Burr, Hermann;

    2010-01-01

    the last three months on a 10-point scale; using a questionnaire, they also reported on physical and psychosocial work factors, health behavior, work ability and self-efficacy. Employees reporting pain intensity of >or=4 were considered to have musculoskeletal pain. As a result, we defined two...... neck-shoulder and low-back pain experienced long-term sickness absence during the two-year follow-up. Among employees with neck-shoulder and low-back pain, respectively, the main significant risk factors were (i) pain intensity [hazard ratio (HR)=1.12, 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 1.02-1.24 and HR......OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to identify prognostic factors for long-term sickness absence among employees with neck-shoulder or low-back pain. METHODS: In 2000, a representative sample of Danish employees (N=5036) rated their average pain intensity in the neck-shoulder and low-back during...

  16. Certified reference materials for testing of the presence/absence of Staphylococcus aureus enterotoxin A (SEA) in cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeleny, Reinhard; Nia, Yacine; Schimmel, Heinz; Mutel, Isabelle; Hennekinne, Jacques-Antoine; Emteborg, Håkan; Charoud-Got, Jean; Auvray, Frédéric

    2016-08-01

    Staphylococcal enterotoxins (SEs) account for a substantial number of food-poisoning outbreaks. European legislation (Commission Regulation 1441/2007) stipulates the reference procedure for SE analysis in milk and dairy products, which is based on extraction, dialysis concentration and immunochemical detection using one of two approved assays (VIDAS(®) SET2, Ridascreen(®) SET Total). However, certified reference materials (CRMs) are lacking to support laboratories in performing reliable detection of Staphylococcus aureus enterotoxin A (SEA) in relevant matrices at sub-nanogram per gram levels. The certification of a set of three reference materials (blank and two SEA-containing materials) for testing of the presence/absence of SEA in cheese is described. The reference procedure was applied in an intercomparison with 15 laboratories, and results were reported in a qualitative manner (presence or absence of SEA in the sample). No false-negative or false-positive results were obtained. The certified values were stated as diagnostic specificity (blank material) or diagnostic sensitivity (SEA-containing materials) and were 100 % in all cases. Stability studies demonstrated suitable material stability when stored cooled or frozen. An in-house study on the recovery of SEA in the cheese materials using a double-sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) revealed comparable recovery values of around 45 % at the two spiking levels and in both the SEA-containing CRMs as well as blank CRM freshly spiked prior to analysis. The values were also comparable over time and among different analysts. The materials provide valuable support to laboratories for method validation and method performance verification and will increase the reliability of measuring SEA in cheese. PMID:27220526

  17. Employees Sick-Listed with Mental Disorders : Who Returns to Work and When?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roelen, C. A. M.; Norder, G.; Koopmans, P. C.; van Rhenen, W.; van der Klink, J. J. L.; Bultmann, U.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose To investigate return to work (RTW) in employees sick-listed with mental disorders classified according to the International Classification of Diseases (ICD). Methods Sickness absences (SA) medically certified as emotional disturbance (ICD-10 R45) or mental and behavioral disorders (ICD-10 F

  18. Employees sick-listed with mental disorders : Who returns to work and when?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roelen, C.A.M.; Norder, G.; Koopmans, P.C.; Rhenen, van W.; et al.,

    2012-01-01

    To investigate return to work (RTW) in employees sick-listed with mental disorders classified according to the International Classification of Diseases (ICD). Methods: Sickness absences (SA) medically certified as emotional disturbance (ICD-10 R45) or mental and behavioral disorders (ICD-10 F00–F99)

  19. The role of poor sleep in the relation between workplace bullying/unwanted sexual attention and long‑term sickness absence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nabe-Nielsen, Kirsten; Grynderup, Matias Brødsgaard; Lange, Theis;

    2016-01-01

    Purpose While exposure to bullying and unwanted sexual attention was previously found to increase the risk of sickness absence, the underlying mechanisms are largely unknown. Poor sleep can be a consequence of stressful exposures and a cause of poor health, and poor sleep is also a determinant of...... insufficient recovery. Therefore, the present study investigated whether poor sleep mediates and/or moderates the association between bullying and unwanted sexual attention, on the one hand, and long-term sickness absence (LTSA), on the other hand. Methods We used questionnaire data from 7650 individuals...... contributing with 15,040 2-year observation periods. Workplace bullying, unwanted sexual attention, disturbed sleep, and difficulties awakening were measured at three time points, and participants were followed in registers to measure the occurrence of LTSA, defined as ≥30 consecutive days of sickness absence...

  20. Are there any associations between single and/or multiple social roles and self-rated physical health, psychiatric disorder and long-term sickness absence in women?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carin Staland Nyman

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available

    Abstract:
    Background: the relationship between single and/or multiple social roles that women hold (occupa- tional, partner, and parent and health and sickness absence is an important public health issue. Few studies on the social roles held by women have been performed in the Swedish context of gender equality. The aim of this study was to analyse associations between occupational, partner and parent roles (and combinations of these roles and their relation to self-rated physical health, psychiatric disorders and long-term sickness absence in a population based sample of women in Sweden.
    Methods: women born in 1935, 1945, 1955, 1965, 1970 or 1975 (n=600 were interviewed at baseline and five years later. cross-sectional data were analysed with multivariate logistic regression analysis adjusted for age, socio-economic position, alcohol dependence and abuse.
    Results: an occupational role was associated with lower odds for poor self-rated physical health, 0.28 (0.10-0.82, and sickness absence, 0.25 (0.10-0.86. a partner role was associated with lower odds for psy- chiatric disorder, 0.58 (0.35-0.98 while a parental role (children < 14 years was associated with higher odds for sickness absence, 4.17 (1.86-9.38. The combination of holding an occupational and partner role was associated with lower odds for health outcomes compared with having three roles. Conclusion: holding an occupational and partner role was related to lower odds for poor self-rated physical health, psychiatric disorder and long-term sickness absence, while having a parental role was adversely related to sickness absence. results are important in the light of discussions on reconciliation of work and family, and are of interest in countries with high or increasing female labour force participation.

  1. Prevention of recurrent sickness absence among employees with common mental disorders: design of a cluster-randomised controlled trial with cost-benefit and effectiveness evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bültmann Ute

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Common mental disorders, such as depression, anxiety disorder, and adjustment disorder, have emerged as a major public and occupational health problem in many countries. These disorders can have severe consequences such as absenteeism and work disability. Different interventions have been developed to improve the return-to-work of employees with common mental disorders, but still a large proportion of employees experiences health and work problems after their return-to-work. For this reason, the SHARP-at work intervention is developed to prevent a relapse of sickness absence among employees who have returned to work after a period of sickness absence because of common mental disorders. We aim to evaluate the effectiveness, cost-benefit and process of the intervention compared to care as usual. Methods/Design The study is designed as a cluster-randomised controlled trial with randomisation at the level of the occupational physician. Employees who have returned to work after a period of sickness absence because of a common mental disorder are included in the study. Employees in the intervention group will receive the SHARP-at work intervention. The intervention focusses on active guidance of employees by occupational physicians during the first weeks of work after sickness absence. Employees in the control group will receive care as usual. Outcomes will be assessed at baseline and at 3, 6, and 12 months follow-up. The primary outcome is cumulative recurrent sickness absence days. Secondary outcome measures are mental health, work functioning, and coping. Adherence to the protocol, communication between stakeholders, and satisfaction with the treatment are the process measures assessed in both study groups. Cost-benefit is calculated from a societal perspective. Finally, prognostic factors for a relapse of sickness absence are investigated. Discussion This study goes beyond return-to-work by focussing on the prevention of

  2. Sickness Absence from Work among Persons with New Physician-Diagnosed Carpal Tunnel Syndrome: A Population-Based Matched-Cohort Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atroshi, Isam; Zhou, Caddie; Jöud, Anna; Petersson, Ingemar F.; Englund, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Background Carpal tunnel syndrome is common among employed persons. Data on sickness absence from work in relation to carpal tunnel syndrome have been usually based on self-report and derived from clinical or occupational populations. We aimed to determine sickness absence among persons with physician-diagnosed carpal tunnel syndrome as compared to the general population. Methods In Skåne region in Sweden we identified all subjects, aged 17–57 years, with new physician-made diagnosis of carpal tunnel syndrome during 5 years (2004–2008). For each subject we randomly sampled, from the general population, 4 matched reference subjects without carpal tunnel syndrome; the two cohorts comprised 5456 and 21,667 subjects, respectively (73% women; mean age 43 years). We retrieved social insurance register data on all sickness absence periods longer than 2 weeks from 12 months before to 24 months after diagnosis. Of those with carpal tunnel syndrome 2111 women (53%) and 710 men (48%) underwent surgery within 24 months of diagnosis. We compared all-cause sickness absence and analyzed sickness absence in conjunction with diagnosis and surgery. Results Mean number of all-cause sickness absence days per each 30-day period from 12 months before to 24 months after diagnosis was significantly higher in the carpal tunnel syndrome than in the reference cohort. A new sickness absence period longer than 2 weeks in conjunction with diagnosis was recorded in 12% of the women (n = 492) and 11% of the men (n = 170) and with surgery in 53% (n = 1121) and 58% (n = 408) of the surgically treated, respectively; median duration in conjunction with surgery was 35 days (IQR 27–45) for women and 41 days (IQR 28–50) for men. Conclusions Persons with physician-diagnosed carpal tunnel syndrome have substantially more sickness absence from work than age and sex-matched persons from the general population from1 year before to 2 years after diagnosis. Gender differences were small. PMID:25803841

  3. Epidemiology of sickness absence in a Swedish county in 1985, 1986 and 1987. A three year longitudinal study with focus on gender, age and occupation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexanderson, K; Leijon, M; Akerlind, I; Rydh, H; Bjurulf, P

    1994-03-01

    In order to get a better epidemiological base for preventive intervention in the county of Ostergötland, Sweden, a comprehensive study of sickness absence was done. During the years 1985, 1986 and 1987, all new periods of sick-leave exceeding seven days were registered with demographic variables. This information was related to data about the total population of Ostergötland. Each year approx. 45,000 persons had approx. 61,000 sickness spells. These figures were stable over the years while the number of sick-leave days increased. Blue-collar occupations had the highest sick-leave rates and the female sick-leave rate was higher in general and much higher in most male-dominated occupations. The male rate was lower within female-dominated areas, except among secretaries and textile workers. Females in extremely male-dominated groups had the highest rates, while both male and female sick-leave rates were lower in more gender-integrated occupations. PMID:8029663

  4. Predictors of recurrent sickness absence due to depressive disorders--a Delphi approach involving scientists and physicians.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giny Norder

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Depression is a common and highly recurrent mental disorder that is accompanied by poor functioning at home and at work. Not all depressed employees report sick and little is known about variables associated with sickness absence (SA due to depression. Recurrent SA due to depression tends to marginalize employees from the workforce and exclude them from social participation. Therefore, this study sought group consensus on factors predicting recurrent SA due to depression. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: 23 scientists in the field of work and mental health and 23 physicians with expertise in assessing work disability were invited for a Delphi study. Sixty-seven factors retrieved from the literature were scored for their impact on the recurrence of SA due to depression, range 1 (no impact to 10 (very high impact in two Delphi rounds. The third Delphi round addressed the assessability and modifiability of elected predictors. Group consensus was defined as 75% agreement. In the first round (response 78%, group consensus was reached on a high impact of 13 factors on recurrent SA due to depression. The second round (response 79% added another 8 factors with high impact on recurrent SA due to depression. The panelists were of the opinion that stressful life and work events, age at first diagnosis, duration of the last depressive episode, anxiety, lifetime number of depressive episodes, and psychological work demands were readily assessable in consultation with patients. Furthermore, work factors, particularly decision latitude, psychological job demands, and commitment to work, were recognized as modifiable. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Although results have to be validated with further quantitative research, physicians may identify employees at risk of recurrent SA due to depression and may support them to adjust their work aimed at increasing commitment to work and preventing future SA due to depression.

  5. The contribution of work engagement to self-perceived health, work ability, and sickness absence beyond health behaviors and work-related factors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rongen, Anne; Robroek, Suzan J W; Schaufeli, Wilmar; Burdorf, Alex

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To investigate whether work engagement influences self-perceived health, work ability, and sickness absence beyond health behaviors and work-related characteristics. Methods: Employees of two organizations participated in a 6-month longitudinal study (n = 733). Using questionnaires, infor

  6. Perceived impeding factors for return-to-work after long-term sickness absence due to major depressive disorder: A concept mapping approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vries, G. de; Hees, H.L.; Koeter, M.W.J.; Lagerveld, S.E.; Schene, A.H.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of the present study was to explore various stakeholder perspectives regarding factors that impede return-to-work (RTW) after long-term sickness absence related to major depressive disorder (MDD). Methods: Concept mapping was used to explore employees', supervisors' and occupa

  7. Perceived impeding factors for return-to-work after long-term sickness absence due to major depressive disorder: a concept mapping approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vries, G. de; Hees, H.L.; Koeter, M.W.; Lagerveld, S.E.; Schene, A.H.

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The purpose of the present study was to explore various stakeholder perspectives regarding factors that impede return-to-work (RTW) after long-term sickness absence related to major depressive disorder (MDD). METHODS: Concept mapping was used to explore employees', supervisors' and occupa

  8. Can the Maslach Burnout Inventory and Utrecht Work Engagement Scale be used to screen for risk of long-term sickness absence?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roelen, C. A M; van Hoffen, M. F A; Groothoff, J. W.; de Bruin, J.; Schaufeli, W. B.; van Rhenen, W.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: To investigate the Maslach Burnout Inventory—General Survey (MBI—GS) and the Utrecht Work Engagement Scale (UWES) for their ability to identify non-sicklisted employees at increased risk of long-term sickness absence (LTSA). Methods: One-year prospective cohort study including 4,921 empl

  9. Can the Maslach Burnout Inventory and Utrecht Work Engagement Scale be used to screen for risk of long-term sickness absence?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roelen, C. A. M.; van Hoffen, M. F. A.; Groothoff, J. W.; de Bruin, J.; Schaufeli, W. B.; van Rhenen, W.

    2015-01-01

    To investigate the Maslach Burnout Inventory-General Survey (MBI-GS) and the Utrecht Work Engagement Scale (UWES) for their ability to identify non-sicklisted employees at increased risk of long-term sickness absence (LTSA). One-year prospective cohort study including 4,921 employees participating i

  10. Compensating for non-response in a study estimating the incidence of mental disorders in long-term sickness absence by a two-phased design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søgaard, Hans Jørgen; Bech, Per

    2010-01-01

    AIMS: The study compensates for the non-response that was observed in a previous study that estimated the frequencies of mental disorders in long-term sickness absence (LSA) (more than eight weeks of continuous sickness absence). In this study, the frequency of any mental disorder was estimated a...... compensation for non-response was applied, the frequencies of mental disorders were similar. The variables used for the compensation were of problematic value.......AIMS: The study compensates for the non-response that was observed in a previous study that estimated the frequencies of mental disorders in long-term sickness absence (LSA) (more than eight weeks of continuous sickness absence). In this study, the frequency of any mental disorder was estimated at...... 48% by a two-phase design and weighted logistic regression. The total non-response rate was 53.6%. This motivated the present study to compensate for non-response by applying adjustment of the weights and by multiple imputation of missing data in the estimation of the frequencies of mental disorders...

  11. Increase in sickness absence with psychiatric diagnosis in Norway: a general population-based epidemiologic study of age, gender and regional distribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brage Sören

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of this study was to assess the incidence of sickness absence with psychiatric diagnoses from 1994–2000, and the distribution across gender, age groups, diagnostic groups and regions in a general population. Methods The population at risk was defined as all individuals aged 16–66 years who were entitled to sickness benefits in 1994, 1996, 1998 and 2000 (n = 2,282,761 in 2000. All individuals with a full-time disability pension were excluded. The study included approximately 77% of the Norwegian population aged 16–66 years. For each year, the study base started on 1 January and ended on 31 December. Individuals that were sick-listed for more than 14/16 consecutive days with a psychiatric diagnosis on their medical certificate were selected as cases. Included in this study were data for Norway, the capital city Oslo and five regions in the southeast of the country. Results Sickness absence with psychiatric diagnoses increased in all age groups, in women and men, and in all regions. At the national level, the cumulative incidence increased in women from 1.7% in 1994 to 4.6% in 2000, and in men from 0.8% in 1994 to 2.2% in 2000. The highest cumulative incidence was found in middle-aged women and men (30–59 years. Women had a higher incidence than men in all stratification groups. The cumulative incidences in 2000 varied between 4.6% to 5.6% in women in the different regions, and for men the corresponding figures were 2.1% to 3.2%. Throughout the four years studied, women in Oslo had more than twice as high incidence levels of sickness absence with alcohol and drug diagnoses as the country as a whole. There were some differences between regions in sickness absence with specific psychiatric diagnoses, but they were small and most comparisons were non-significant. Conclusion Sickness absence with psychiatric diagnoses increased between 1994 and 2000 in Norway. The increase was highest in the middle-aged, and in women

  12. Reducing long term sickness absence by an activating intervention in adjustment disorders: a cluster randomised controlled design

    OpenAIRE

    Klink, van der, J.; Blonk, R.W B; Schene, A.H.; Dijk, van, B.W.

    2003-01-01

    Aims: To compare an innovative activating intervention with "care as usual" (control group) for the guidance of employees on sickness leave because of an adjustment disorder. It was hypothesised that the intervention would be more effective than care as usual in lowering the intensity of symptoms, increasing psychological resources, and decreasing sickness leave duration.

  13. Comparison of self-reported and register data on sickness absence among Norwegian patients participating in an occupational rehabilitation program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irene Øyeflaten

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Sick leave and return to work are common outcome variables in studies where the aim is to measure the effect of targeted interventions for individuals that are on sick leave benefits or other allowances. Use of official register data is often restricted, and research on sick leave and return to work are often based on the participants self-reports. However, there is insufficient documentation that there is agreement between self-reports and register data on sick leave benefits and allowances.Aims: The aim of this study was to analyse the individuals' knowledge about states of sick leave benefits or allowances compared with register data from The Labour and Welfare Administration (NAV in Norway.Method: 153 individuals, sick-listed or on allowances, participated in a 4-week inpatient occupational rehabilitation program. 132 (86% answered a questionnaire on assessments of work, sick leave, and allowances three months after completed rehabilitation. Self-reported data were compared with register data from NAV according to four categories: working, sick-listed, on medical/vocational rehabilitation allowance or disability pension. Agreement between self-reported and register data was evaluated in cross-tabulations and reported with kappa values. Stratified analyses were done for gender, age, education, medical diagnosis and length of sick leave/allowances at baseline.Results: Good agreement was found for medical/vocational rehabilitation allowance (kappa=.70 and disability pension (kappa=.65. Moderate agreement was found for working (kappa=.49 and fair agreement for sick-listed (kappa=.36. Stratified analyses showed significant better kappa values for individuals that had been sick-listed less than 12 months before entering the rehabilitation program.Conclusions: Agreements from good to fair were found between self-reported and official register data on sick leave. However, official register data is preferred in research because this will

  14. Compensating for non-response in a study estimating the incidence of mental disorders in long-term sickness absence by a two-phased design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søgaard, Hans Jørgen; Bech, Per

    2010-01-01

    , municipality, and social transfer income variables were used for the adjustment of weights in weighted analyses and in the imputation models. RESULTS: The frequencies were: any mental disorder 46%-49%, depression 31%-36%, anxiety 13%-15%, and somatoform disorder 8%-9%. CONCLUSIONS: Irrespective of whether......AIMS: The study compensates for the non-response that was observed in a previous study that estimated the frequencies of mental disorders in long-term sickness absence (LSA) (more than eight weeks of continuous sickness absence). In this study, the frequency of any mental disorder was estimated at...... 48% by a two-phase design and weighted logistic regression. The total non-response rate was 53.6%. This motivated the present study to compensate for non-response by applying adjustment of the weights and by multiple imputation of missing data in the estimation of the frequencies of mental disorders...

  15. The role of poor sleep in the relation between workplace bullying/unwanted sexual attention and long‑term sickness absence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nabe-Nielsen, Kirsten; Grynderup, Matias Brødsgaard; Lange, Theis;

    2016-01-01

    Purpose While exposure to bullying and unwanted sexual attention was previously found to increase the risk of sickness absence, the underlying mechanisms are largely unknown. Poor sleep can be a consequence of stressful exposures and a cause of poor health, and poor sleep is also a determinant of...... contributing with 15,040 2-year observation periods. Workplace bullying, unwanted sexual attention, disturbed sleep, and difficulties awakening were measured at three time points, and participants were followed in registers to measure the occurrence of LTSA, defined as ≥30 consecutive days of sickness absence...... during the subsequent 2 years. Results The odds of LTSA were significantly increased by workplace bullying (OR 1.77; 95 % CI 1.50–2.12) and unwanted sexual attention (OR 1.55; 95 % CI 1.06–2.29). Together, disturbed sleep and difficulties awakening mediated 12.8 % (95 % CI 8.1–19.8) of the association...

  16. Effects of multidisciplinary inpatient rehabilitation for chronic back or neck pain: a register-linkage study of sickness absences and analgesic purchases in an occupational cohort.

    OpenAIRE

    Suoyrjö, H.; Hinkka, K.; Oksanen, T.; Kivimäki, M; Klaukka, T; Pentti, J.; Vahtera, J.

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the effects of multidisciplinary in-patient rehabilitation for chronic back or neck pain on sickness absences and analgesic purchases. DESIGN: A prospective observational study. SETTING: 10 towns in Finland. PARTICIPANTS: 34 838 local government employees, including 418 participants in rehabilitation for chronic back pain and 195 participants in rehabilitation for chronic neck pain between 1994 and 2002. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The annual rates of short (1-3 days), long...

  17. Reorganization increases long-term sickness absence at all levels of hospital staff: panel data analysis of employees of Norwegian public hospitals

    OpenAIRE

    Ingelsrud, Mari Holm

    2014-01-01

    Background The Norwegian specialist health service has undergone many processes of reorganization during the last three decades. Changes are mainly initiated to increase the efficiency and quality of health care serving an ageing population under the condition of a diminishing labour supply. The aim of this study is to investigate the effects of reorganization on long-term sickness absence among different levels of hospital staff. Methods The study draws on panel data on employees of Norwegia...

  18. Perceived impeding factors for return-to-work after long-term sickness absence due to major depressive disorder: A concept mapping approach

    OpenAIRE

    Gabe de Vries; Hees, Hiske L; Koeter, Maarten W. J.; Lagerveld, Suzanne E.; Aart H Schene

    2014-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of the present study was to explore various stakeholder perspectives regarding factors that impede return-to-work (RTW) after long-term sickness absence related to major depressive disorder (MDD). Methods: Concept mapping was used to explore employees', supervisors' and occupational physicians' perspectives on these impeding factors. Results: Nine perceived themes, grouped in three meta-clusters were found that might impede RTW: Person, (personality/coping problems, sym...

  19. General practitioners' perceptions of working with the certification of sickness absences following changes in the Swedish social security system : A qualitative focus-group study

    OpenAIRE

    Carlsson, L.; Lännerström, L.; Wallman, T; Holmström, Inger K.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Many physicians in Sweden, as well as in other countries, find the matter of certification of sickness absence (COSA) particularly burdensome. The issuing of COSAs has also been perceived as a work-environment problem among physicians. Among general practitioners (GPs) are the highest proportion of physicians in Sweden who experience difficulties with COSA. Swedish authorities have created several initiatives, by changing the social security system, to improve the rehabilitation o...

  20. Assessment of the magnitude of geographical variations in the duration of non-work-related sickness absence by individual and contextual factors

    OpenAIRE

    Isabel Torá-Rocamora; José Miguel Martínez; David Gimeno; Constança Alberti; Josefina Jardí; Rafael Manzanera; Benavides, Fernando G.; George Delclos

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To examine variation in the duration of non-work-related sickness absence (NWRSA) across geographical areas and the degree to which this variation can be explained by individual and/or contextual factors. Methods: All first NWRSA episodes ending in 2007 and 2010 were analyzed. Individual (diagnosis, age, sex) and contextual factors (healthcare resources, socioeconomic factors) were analyzed to assess how much of the geographical variation was explained by these factors. Median N...

  1. Sickness absence and disability pension due to otoaudiological diagnoses: risk of premature death – a nationwide prospective cohort study

    OpenAIRE

    Friberg, Emilie; Rosenhall, Ulf; Alexanderson, Kristina

    2014-01-01

    Background It is estimated that hearing difficulties will be one of the top ten leading burdens of disease by 2030. Knowledge of mortality among individuals on sick leave or disability pension due to hearing diagnoses is virtually non-existent. We aimed prospectively to examine the associations of diagnosis-specific sick leave and disability pension due to different otoaudiological diagnoses with risks of all-cause and cause-specific mortality. Methods A cohort, based on Swedish registry data...

  2. Long Absence from Work Due to Sickness among Psychiatric Out¬patients in Japan, with Reference to a Recent Trend for Perfec¬tionism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K Nakayama

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available "nBackground: Sick leave from work due to psychiatric disorders is a major public health problem, not only in Japan but also worldwide. As males and females in Japan tend to differ in their approach to work, a gender difference in perfectionism might be expected. We investigated the background factors leading to long-term absence from work due to sickness among psychiatric outpatients in Japan.  "n Methods: We surveyed 73 psychiatric outpatients who were absent from work for a long time (POAWs and 228 employees without long-term sickness absence as controls. GHQ-30, NEO-FFI, MPS, RSS and questionnaires inquiring about background factors, including relationships with others, was used, and the data were compared between males and females. "nResults: Male POAWs had a significantly higher tendency for depression and perfectionism than the controls, but in females this difference was not significant. With regard to personal relationships of POAWs, males had worse relationships with superiors and colleagues, whereas females had worse relationships with superiors, colleagues, and family. "nConclusions: The data suggested that male workers exhibiting perfectionism tend to undertake too much work and become exhausted when trying to cope with complex human relationships in the workplace. Female workers having the double burden of family commitment and perfectionism tend to be isolated in terms of personal relationships, leading to exhaustion both in and outside the workplace.

  3. Long-term sickness absence and disability pension award as consequences of common mental disorders. Epidemiological studies using a population-based health survey and official ill health benefit registries

    OpenAIRE

    Knudsen, Ann Kristin

    2013-01-01

    The common mental disorders anxiety and depression are widespread in the population and will affect 1 in 4 adults at least once during their lifetime. Due to high prevalence of common mental disorders within official benefit statistics, the contribution from these conditions on sickness absence and ill health retirement in the population is increasingly recognised. Sickness absence and ill health retirement rates have increased dramatically across the western world since the 19...

  4. Effectiveness of psychoeducation in reducing sickness absence and improving mental health in individuals at risk of having a mental disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Pernille; Søgaard, Hans Jørgen; Labriola, Merete;

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of psychoeducation on return to work as an adjunct to standard case management in individuals on sick leave at risk of having a mental disorder. The participants could have different diagnoses but were all at risk of having a mental...... disorder. METHODS: Between 2012 and 2014, 430 participants on sick leave were randomly allocated to either an intervention or control group. The psychoeducation consisted of 2-h sessions once a week for 6 weeks. The sessions focused on stress and work life and was based on problem-solving techniques and...... coping strategies. The main outcome, the relative risk (RR) of a full return to work based on register data from the job centres, was determined during the first 3 and 6 months after participation in the psychoeducation programme. At baseline and at 3 and 6 months after the intervention, the participants...

  5. Sickness Absence Due to Otoaudiological Diagnoses and Risk of Disability Pension: A Nationwide Swedish Prospective Cohort Study

    OpenAIRE

    Friberg, Emilie; Jansson, Catarina; Mittendorfer-Rutz, Ellenor; Rosenhall, Ulf; Alexanderson, Kristina

    2012-01-01

    Background Hearing difficulties are a large public health problem. Knowledge is scarce regarding risk of disability pension among people who have been sickness absent due to these difficulties. Methods A cohort including all 4,687,756 individuals living in Sweden in 2005, aged 20–64, and not on disability or old-age pension, was followed through 2009. Incidence rate ratios (RR) of disability pension with 95% confidence intervals (CI) were estimated using Cox proportional hazard models. Result...

  6. Modelling the effects of exposure to whole-body vibration on low-back pain and its long-term consequences for sickness absence and associated work disability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burdorf, A.; Hulshof, C. T. J.

    2006-12-01

    BackgroundExposure to whole-body vibration (WBV) is a well-known risk factor for the occurrence of low-back pain (LBP). Little is known about the long-term course of back pain in workers exposed to WBV and the consequences for (temporary) disability, due to lack of cohort studies with sufficiently long follow-up periods. MethodsA systematic review of the literature was performed to assess associations between exposure to WBV and LBP, sickness absence due to low-back disorders and permanent disability. A meta-analysis was used to estimate the prevalences of LBP and sickness absence due to low-back disorders in occupational populations, depending on relevant exposure characteristics. These prevalences were converted into probabilities for transitions between no complaints, LBP, sickness due to LBP, and disability. A Markov model was applied to evaluate a hypothetical cohort of workers without LBP at the start of the cohort and a follow-up of 40 years (40 cycles of 1 year) to reflect a long-life career with continuous exposure to WBV. ResultsIn this hypothetical cohort it was estimated that among workers with the highest exposure to WBV on average about 47 weeks of their working life were lost due to sick leave because of LBP, which is approximately 2.5% of their working life. When all workers on prolonged sick leave for 52 weeks would remain disabled for the rest of their working life, a maximum of 23.4% of their working life could be lost due to high WBV exposure. Among workers without or low exposure to WBV the corresponding losses were 0.8% and 7.8%, respectively. ConclusionThe approach to assess years of work lost due to an occupational exposure may provide a more adequate description for stakeholders than the traditional measures of relative risk or attributable risk fraction. The concept of work years lost may also facilitate a better appreciation of the potential benefits of preventive measures.

  7. A prospective cohort study on severe pain as a risk factor for long-term sickness absence in blue- and white-collar workers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Lars Louis; Mortensen, Ole Steen; Hansen, Jørgen Vinsløv; Burr, Hermann

    2011-01-01

    followed in 2001-2002 in a national sickness absence register. Cox regression analysis was performed to assess the risk estimates of mutually adjusted severe pain in the neck/shoulder, low back, hand/wrist and knees for onset of LTSA, defined as receiving sickness absence compensation for at least 3......). During 2001-2002, the prevalence of LTSA among blue- and white-collar workers was 18% and 12%, respectively. Hand/wrist pain (HR 1.49, 95% CI 1.23 to 1.81) and low back pain (HR 1.30, 95% CI 1.11 to 1.53) were significant risk factors among the total cohort. Neck/shoulder pain was a significant risk...... factor among white-collar workers only (HR 1.35, 95% CI 1.21 to 1.85). Knee pain was not a significant risk factor. Conclusion While hand/wrist pain and low back pain are general risk factors for LTSA, neck/shoulder pain is a specific risk factor among white-collar workers. This study suggests the...

  8. Perceived impeding factors for return-to-work after long-term sickness absence due to major depressive disorder: a concept mapping approach.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabe de Vries

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The purpose of the present study was to explore various stakeholder perspectives regarding factors that impede return-to-work (RTW after long-term sickness absence related to major depressive disorder (MDD. METHODS: Concept mapping was used to explore employees', supervisors' and occupational physicians' perspectives on these impeding factors. RESULTS: Nine perceived themes, grouped in three meta-clusters were found that might impede RTW: Person, (personality / coping problems, symptoms of depression and comorbid (health problems, employee feels misunderstood, and resuming work too soon, Work (troublesome work situation, too little support at work, and too little guidance at work and Healthcare (insufficient mental healthcare and insufficient care from occupational physician. All stakeholders regarded personality/coping problems and symptoms of depression as the most important impeding theme. In addition, supervisors emphasized the importance of mental healthcare underestimating the importance of the work environment, while occupational physicians stressed the importance of the lack of safety and support in the work environment. CONCLUSIONS: In addition to the reduction of symptoms, more attention is needed on coping with depressive symptoms and personality problems in the work environment support in the work environment and for RTW in mental healthcare, to prevent long term sickness absence.

  9. Psychosocial work environment predictors of short and long spells of registered sickness absence during a 2-year follow up

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Martin L; Rugulies, Reiner; Christensen, Karl B;

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to investigate the impact of psychosocial work environment factors on short and long absence spells. METHODS: Questionnaire data on work environment exposures and registered absence data during 2-year follow up were analyzed with Poisson regression for...... 1919 employees from the private and public sector. RESULTS: Short spells (1-10 working days) were predicted by low supervisor support, low predictability, and low meaning at work among men and high skill discretion among women. Long spells (>10 days) were predicted by low decision authority, low...... and long absence spells. Effects also differ by gender....

  10. A multi-wave study of organizational justice at work and long-term sickness absence among employees with depressive symptoms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjarsbech, Pernille U; Christensen, Karl Bang; Bjørner, Jakob;

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Mental health problems are strong predictors of long-term sickness absence (LTSA). In this study, we investigated whether organizational justice at work - fairness in resolving conflicts and distributing work - prevents risk of LTSA among employees with depressive symptoms. METHODS: In...... a longitudinal study with five waves of data collection, we examined a cohort of 1034 employees with depressive symptoms. Depressive symptoms and organizational justice were assessed by self-administered questionnaires and information on LTSA was derived from a national register. Using Poisson.......47, 95% CI 0.20-1.10). We found no such results for women. In both sexes, neither favorable nor adverse changes in organizational justice were statistically significantly associated with the risk of LTSA. CONCLUSIONS: This study shows that organizational justice may have a protective effect on the risk...

  11. To what extent do single symptoms from a depression rating scale predict risk of long-term sickness absence among employees who are free of clinical depression?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rugulies, R; Hjarsbech, PU; Aust, B; Christensen, KB; Andersen, RV; Borg, V

    2013-01-01

    PURPOSE: Depression rating scales have predicted long-term sickness absence (LTSA) in previous studies. With this study, we investigated to what extent single symptoms from a depression rating scale predicted LTSA among employees who were free of clinical depression. METHODS: We studied 6......,670 female employees in the Danish eldercare sector. Frequency of 12 depressive symptoms over the last 2 weeks was assessed with the Major Depression Inventory. A symptom was considered as elevated if it was present at least "slightly more than half of the time." Data were linked to a national register on...... LTSA (≥3 weeks). We calculated hazard ratios (HR) from Cox's proportional hazard models to analyze whether a symptom predicted time to onset of LTSA during a 1-year follow-up. Analyses were adjusted for age, family status, health behaviors, occupational group, and previous LTSA. RESULTS: Of the 12...

  12. Increased risk of long-term sickness absence, lower rate of return to work, and higher risk of unemployment and disability pensioning for thyroid patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nexo, M A; Watt, T; Pedersen, J;

    2014-01-01

    CONTEXT: Little is known about how thyroid diseases affect work ability. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to evaluate the risk of work disability for patients with thyroid disease compared with the general population. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: In a longitudinal register study......, outpatients (n = 862) with nontoxic goiter, hyperthyroidism, Graves' orbitopathy (GO), autoimmune hypothyroidism, or other thyroid diseases and their matched controls (n = 7043) were observed in the years 1994-2011 in Danish national registers of social benefits, health, and work characteristics. Cox...... regression analyses estimated adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) for the first year after diagnosis and subsequent years. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Transitions between work, long-term sickness absence, unemployment, and disability pension were measured. RESULTS: Patients differed significantly from the general...

  13. Physical workload and risk of long-term sickness absence in the general working population and among blue-collar workers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Lars L.; Fallentin, Nils; Thorsen, Sannie Vester; Holtermann, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    four combined physical workloads. Results largely remained stable in subgroup analyses including only blue-collar workers (n=5055). Population attributable risks for LTSA from one or more physical workloads were 26% and 40% in the general working population and among blue-collar workers, respectively......OBJECTIVE: To determine the prospective association between physical workload-in terms of specific physical exposures and the number of exposures-and long-term sickness absence (LTSA). METHODS: Using cox-regression analyses, we estimated the risk of register-based incident LTSA (at least 3...... work time (HR 1.19 (95% CI 1.00 to 1.42), were risk factors for LTSA when adjusted for baseline age, gender, psychosocial work environment, lifestyle, musculoskeletal and mental disorders, and socioeconomic status. HR increased from 1.25 (95% CI 1.04 to 1.51) for one to 1.94 (95% CI 1.56 to 2.41) for...

  14. Sickness absence from 1978 to 1992 of Electricite de France (EDF) workers exposed to ELF-EMF: the substation group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Electromagnetic fields are suspected of many health effects, including cancers, immunity and fertility disorders, congenital malformations, suicides and depression.... Although the results of all studies are contradictory and no biological mechanism has been found, populations are concerned about this matter. This study analyzes the absence from work of some EDF employees who are a priori the most professionally exposed to ELF EMF. Absence from work is taken as an health indicator. Although it is not specific, it can be predictive of serious health problems. The specific context of EDF has made it possible to collect and analyze the medical aspect of absence from work, that is rare in France. We were interested with employees working with high voltage (over 90 kV). Three job categories have been selected: live line workers, substation maintenance workers and substation exploitation workers (called in the company the ATEX). The first group concerned the live linemen and the results were exposed previously. It appeared they had more accidents at work, but this was more related to the job of lineman rather than to the EMF exposure. Nevertheless, substation workers have an exposure less intensive but longer than live linemen. We present here the result about the absenteeism of the substation workers, maintenance and exploitation. (author)

  15. The Association Between Self-Assessed Future Work Ability and Long-Term Sickness Absence, Disability Pension and Unemployment in a General Working Population: A 7-Year Follow-Up Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundin, A; Kjellberg, K; Leijon, O; Punnett, L; Hemmingsson, T

    2016-06-01

    Purpose Work ability is commonly measured with self-assessments, in the form of indices or single items. The validity of these assessments lies in their predictive ability. Prospective studies have reported associations between work ability and sickness absence and disability pension, but few examined why these associations exist. Several correlates of work ability have been reported, but their mechanistic role is largely unknown. This study aims to investigate to what extent individual's own prognosis of work ability predicts labor market participation and whether this was due to individual characteristics and/or working conditions. Methods Self-assessed prognosis of work ability, 2 years from "now," in the Stockholm Public Health Questionnaire (2002-2003) was linked to national registers on sickness absence, disability pension and unemployment up to year 2010. Effects were studied with Cox regression models. Results Of a total of 12,064 individuals 1466 reported poor work ability. There were 299 cases of disability pension, 1466 long-term sickness absence cases and 765 long-term unemployed during follow-up. Poor work ability increased the risk of long-term sickness absence (HR 2.25, CI 95 % 1.97-2.56), disability pension (HR 5.19, CI 95 % 4.07-6.62), and long-term unemployment (HR 2.18, CI 95 % 1.83-2.60). These associations were partially explained by baseline health conditions, physical and (less strongly) psychosocial aspects of working conditions. Conclusions Self-assessed poor ability predicted future long-term sickness absence, disability pension and long-term unemployment. Self-assessed poor work ability seems to be an indicator of future labor market exclusion of different kinds, and can be used in public health monitoring. PMID:26319413

  16. An Exploration of the Factors Considered When Forming Expectations for Returning to Work following Sickness Absence Due to a Musculoskeletal Condition.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda E Young

    Full Text Available Workers' own expectations for returning to work following a period of sickness absence have been found to be one of the best predictors of future work status; however, there is a limited understanding of why people expect what they do. The current study was undertaken with the aim of determining what people take into consideration when forming their expectations for returning to work.Thirty-four people (8 women, 26 men, who were off work due to a musculoskeletal condition, participated in one of 14 focus groups. Participants were aged 25 to 65 (M = 45, SD = 12.6, and all had been out of work for 3 months or less.All participants reported expecting to return to work, with the most common timeframe being approximately 30 days (Range = 1 day-12 months. When explaining what they thought about when forming their expectations, participants referenced numerous considerations. Much of what was spoken about could be compartmentalized to reflect features of themselves, their condition, or their broader environmental contexts. Participant's subjective experience of these features influenced his or her expectations. Prominent themes included concerns about employability, a desire to get back to normal, no job to go back to, mixed emotions, re-injury concerns, the judgments of workplace stakeholders, being needed by their employer, waiting for input, until the money runs out, and working out what was in their best interest.Indications are that many of the reported considerations are amenable to intervention, suggesting opportunities to assist workers in the process of returning to work.

  17. Pilot study of a cluster randomised trial of a guided e-learning health promotion intervention for managers based on management standards for the improvement of employee well-being and reduction of sickness absence: GEM Study

    OpenAIRE

    Stansfeld, Stephen A; Kerry, Sally; Chandola, Tarani; Russell, Jill; Berney, Lee; Hounsome, Natalia; Lanz, Doris; Costelloe, Céire; Smuk, Melanie; Bhui, Kamaldeep

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To investigate the feasibility of recruitment, adherence and likely effectiveness of an e-learning intervention for managers to improve employees’ well-being and reduce sickness absence. Methods The GEM Study (guided e-learning for managers) was a mixed methods pilot cluster randomised trial. Employees were recruited from four mental health services prior to randomising three services to the intervention and one to no-intervention control. Intervention managers received a facilitat...

  18. Pilot study of a cluster randomised trial of a guided e-learning health promotion intervention for managers based on management standards for the improvement of employee well-being and reduction of sickness absence: GEM Study

    OpenAIRE

    Stansfeld, Stephen A; Kerry, Sally; Chandola, Tarani; Russell, Jill; Berney, Lee; Hounsome, Natalia; Lanz, Doris; Costelloe, Ceire; Smuk, Melanie; Bhui, Khamaldeep

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To investigate the feasibility of recruitment, adherence and likely effectiveness of an e-learning intervention for managers to improve employees' well-being and reduce sickness absence. METHODS: The GEM Study (guided e-learning for managers) was a mixed methods pilot cluster randomised trial. Employees were recruited from four mental health services prior to randomising three services to the intervention and one to no-intervention control. Intervention managers rece...

  19. Literature survey on building-related health, comfort, productivity and sickness absence with respect to energy consumption; Literatuuronderzoek gebouwgebonden gezondheid, comfort, productiviteit en ziekteverzuim in relatie tot energiegebruik

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boerstra, A.C.; Leijten, J.L.; Haans, L. [BBA Binnenmilieu, Rotterdam (Netherlands)

    2006-09-15

    The aim of the literature survey on the title subjects was to test the following hypotheses: (1) measures to improve the public health and thermal comfort of occupants in buildings result in an improvement of the energy efficiency and thus save energy; (2) measures to reduce absence caused by illness of occupants in buildings also result in an improvement of the energy efficiency and thus save energy; (3) measures to improve the productivity of occupants in buildings also result in an improvement of the energy efficiency and thus save energy. [Dutch] In opdracht van het ministerie van VROM voert SenterNovem het Kompas programma voor energiebewust wonen en werken uit. Dit programma heeft als doel bij te dragen aan de vermindering van CO2-uitstoot van de gebouwde omgeving. Het onderdeel Utiliteitsbouw van het Kompas programma beoogt relevante beslissers en beienvloeders binnen de U-bouw te voorzien van instrumenten en informatie waarmee zij energiebesparing kunnen realiseren in de utiliteitsbouw. Sinds enige jaren hanteren diverse programma's binnen Kompas de strategie om de motivatie voor energiebesparing te verhogen door het item te koppelen aan gezondheid in de meest brede zin des woords. De specifieke claims zijn als volgt samen te vatten: kiezen voor energiebesparing is (vaak) ook kiezen voor bevordering van de gezondheid van gebouwgebruikers, verhoging van het comfort, beienvloeding van de productiviteit en verlaging van het ziekteverzuim. Een literatuuronderzoek is uitgevoerd rond de genoemde thema's, waarbij zowel Nederlandse als buitenlandse literatuur bestudeerd is. et doel van het literatuuronderzoek is toetsing (waar? niet waar?) van de volgende hypotheses: (1) Maatregelen gericht op verbetering van de gezondheid van gebouwgebruikers (bv. minder 'Sick building klachten') en verbetering van het comfort leiden ook tot verbetering van de energieprestatie (verlaging van het energiegebruik); (2) Maatregelen gericht op verlaging van het

  20. Behavioral Determinants as Predictors of Return to Work After Long-Term Sickness Absence : An Application of the Theory of Planned Behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brouwer, Sandra; Krol, Boudien; Reneman, Michiel F.; Bultmann, Ute; Franche, Renee-Louise; van der Klink, Jac J. L.; Groothoff, Johan W.

    2009-01-01

    Background The aim of this prospective, longitudinal cohort study was to analyze the association between the three behavioral determinants of the theory of planned behavior (TPB) model-attitude, subjective norm and self-efficacy-and the time to return-to-work (RTW) in employees on long-term sick lea

  1. Effectiveness of an intervention to reduce sickness absence in patients with emotional distress or minor mental disorders: a randomized controlled effectiveness trial.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brouwers, E.P.M.; Tiemens, B.G.; Terluin, B.; Verhaak, P.F.M.

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of an activating intervention designed to reduce sick leave duration in patients with emotional distress or minor mental disorders. METHOD: In a 1.5-year randomized controlled trial, 194 patients with minor mental disorders recei

  2. Morning Sickness

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... these methods to relieve or prevent morning sickness: Acupressure wristbands. Wearing these wristbands may help with morning ... these methods to relieve or prevent morning sickness: Acupressure wristbands. Wearing these wristbands may help with morning ...

  3. Sleeping sickness

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/001362.htm Sleeping sickness To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Sleeping sickness is an infection caused by germs carried ...

  4. Car Sickness

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... in Action Medical Editor & Editorial Advisory Board Sponsors Sponsorship Opporunities Spread the Word Shop AAP Find a ... Share Car Sickness Page Content Article Body My child gets sick in the car quite often. How ...

  5. Sick of Taxes?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ljunge, Jan Martin

    I estimate a price elasticity of sickness absence. Sick leave is an intensive margin of labor supply where individuals are free to adjust. I exploit variation in tax rates over two decades, which provide thousands of differential incentives across time and space, to estimate the price responsiven......I estimate a price elasticity of sickness absence. Sick leave is an intensive margin of labor supply where individuals are free to adjust. I exploit variation in tax rates over two decades, which provide thousands of differential incentives across time and space, to estimate the price...... responsiveness. High taxes provide an incentive to take more sick leave, as less after tax income is lost when taxes are high. The panel data, which is representative of the Swedish population, allow for extensive controls including unobserved individual characteristics. I find a substantial price elasticity of...... sick leave, -0.7, with respect to the net of tax rate. Though large relative to traditional labor supply elasticities, Swedes are half as price elastic as bike messengers, and just as elastic as stadium vendors on the margin which they can adjust freely....

  6. Effectiveness of an intervention to reduce sickness absence in patients with emotional distress or minor mental disorders: a randomized controlled effectiveness trial.

    OpenAIRE

    Brouwers, E.P.M.; Tiemens, B.G.; Terluin, B.; Verhaak, P.F.M.

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of an activating intervention designed to reduce sick leave duration in patients with emotional distress or minor mental disorders. METHOD: In a 1.5-year randomized controlled trial, 194 patients with minor mental disorders received either an experimental intervention by social workers or general practitioners' usual care. The intervention focused on understanding causes, developing and implementing problem-solving strateg...

  7. Are self-report of disability pension and long-term sickness absence accurate? Comparisons of self-reported interview data with national register data in a Swedish twin cohort

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lichtenstein Paul

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Self-reported disability pension (DP and sickness absence are commonly used in epidemiological and other studies as a measure of exposure or even as an outcome. The aims were (1 to compare such self-reports with national register information in order to evaluate the validity of self-reported DP and sickness absence, and (2 to estimate the concordance of reporting behaviour in different twin zygosity groups, also by sex. Methods All Swedish twins born 1933-1958 who participated in the Screening Across the Lifespan Twin study (SALT 1998-2003, were included (31,122 individuals. The self-reported DP and long-term sickness absence (LTSA at the time of interview was compared to the corresponding register information retrieved from the National Social Insurance Agency by calculating the proportions of agreements, kappa, sensitivity, specificity, concordance rates, and chi-square test, to evaluate construct validity. Results The proportions of overall agreement were 96% and specificity 99% for both DP and LTSA, while the sensitivity was 70% for DP and 45% for LTSA. Kappa estimates were 0.76 for DP, and 0.58 for LTSA. The proportions of positive agreement were 64% for DP and 42% for LTSA. No difference in response style was found between zygosity groups among complete twin pairs for DP and LTSA. Results were similar for women and men and across age. Kappa estimates for DP differed somewhat depending on years of education, 0.68 (college/university vs. 0.77 (less than 13 years in school but not for LTSA. Conclusions Self-reported DP data may be very useful in studies when register information is not available, however, register data is preferred especially for LTSA. The same degree of twin similarity was found for truthful self-report of DP and LTSA in both monozygotic and dizygotic twin pairs. Thus, the response style was not influenced by genetic factors. One consequence of this would be that when estimating the relative importance of

  8. Radiation sickness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The frequency of radiation sickness in 1,060 patients treated at our Department was 12.8 percent. It was frequent in patients with brain cancer (12 percent), whole spine cancer (47 percent), uterus cancer (28 percent), lung cancer (22 percent) and esophagus cancer (12 percent). Radiation sickness following X-irradiation was studied in its relation to patient's age, size of radiation fields, dosis and white blood cell count. However, we could not find any definite clinical feature relevant to occurrence. There are many theories published concerning the mechanism of radiation sickness. Clinical experiences have shown that radiation sickness cannot be explained by one theory alone but by several theories such as those based on psychology, stress or histamine. (author)

  9. Sickness insurance

    OpenAIRE

    Mráčková, Věra

    2011-01-01

    "Sickness insurance" was selected as a theme of this bachelor work. The first part of this work focuses on the general conditions of the health insurance in the Czech Republic, including the current legislation and the identification of the institutions such as Czech Social Security Administration. In addition it focuses on the range of insured persons and of the detailed description of health insurance benefits, sick-benefits, nursing care, maternity benefits and compensatory allowance durin...

  10. Early risk assessment of long-term sick leave among patients in primary health care : risk factors, assessment tools, multidisciplinary intervention, and patients’ views on sick leave conclusion

    OpenAIRE

    von Celsing, Anna-Sophia

    2016-01-01

    Background. Long-term sick leave is one of the main risk factors for permanent exit out of the labour market. The longer the duration of sickness absence, the less likely sick leave conclusion. Objectives and Methods. The aims were to analyse possible determinants of sick leave conclusion and their relative impacts, to analyse the properties of two models for the assessment of sick leave conclusion, to study the impact of a multidisciplinary vocational intervention for sick leave conclusion i...

  11. Spacelab experiments on space motion sickness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oman, Charles M.

    Recent research results from ground and flight experiments on motion sickness and space sickness conducted by the Man Vehicle Laboratory are reviewed. New tools developed include a mathematical model for motion sickness, a method for quantitative measurement of skin pallor and blush in ambulatory subjects, and a magnitude estimation technique for ratio scaling of nausea or discomfort. These have been used to experimentally study the time course of skin pallor and subjective symptoms in laboratory motion sickness. In prolonged sickness, subjects become hypersensitive to nauseogenic stimuli. Results of a Spacelab-1 flight experiment are described in which four observers documented the stimulus factors for and the symptoms/signs of space sickness. The clinical character of space sickness differs somewhat from acute laboratory motion sickness. However SL-1 findings support the view that space sickness is fundamentally a motion sickness. Symptoms were subjectively alleviated by head movement restriction, maintenance of a familiar orientation with respect to the visual environment, and wedging between or strapping onto surfaces which provided broad contact cues confirming the absence of body motion.

  12. Sick sinus syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... chambers is a common cause of sick sinus syndrome. Coronary artery disease , high blood pressure, and aortic and ... pressure may be normal or low. Sick sinus syndrome may cause symptoms of heart failure to start or get worse. Sick sinus ...

  13. Acute mountain sickness

    Science.gov (United States)

    High altitude cerebral edema; Altitude anoxia; Altitude sickness; Mountain sickness; High altitude pulmonary edema ... Acute mountain sickness is caused by reduced air pressure and lower oxygen levels at high altitudes. The faster you ...

  14. Sickness absenteeism from work--a critical review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luz, J; Green, M S

    1997-01-01

    Medically certified absence (absence from work attributed to disease and accident) is an important and convenient index of workers' health and attitudes. It also constitutes the largest part of total absence from work. Depending on the country and on industry and population characteristics, sick-leave accounts for 60-70%, and injuries for another 7-20%. The balance is defined as "healthy-worker absence", taken with or without prior permission or post-facto justification. It is characteristic of the first and last phases of an employee's history at the firm; either before he has time to become a permanent employee and adapt to the local "absence culture", or when he contemplates leaving. On the other hand, certified absence is confirmed by a higher authority, and so it is accepted by management, the insuring institution, and the peer group (which often have to carry the extra workload). This absence belongs to the phase of regular relationships, which both sides seek to maintain. Whether and how often the employee has recourse to certification depends on a number of factors. Those mentioned most often in the literature are: (a) absence--proneness-apparently a defined personality trait (psychological or psychosomatic) leading to repeated absences; (b) poor working conditions; (c) lack of group cohesiveness--members of a well-structured group are upheld by its solidarity and sense of belonging ("esprit de corps"); this is observed in smaller and more closely-knit groups such as shift and group teams, as in the Volvo experiment; (d) quality of the leadership and organizational behavior; (e) job satisfaction--deprivation of recognition, use of abilities, responsibility, and interest have strong psychosomatic repercussion; (f) interaction with external forces, especially marketplace conditions--lack of external demand may restrain absence. PMID:9322420

  15. Prediction of future labour market outcome in a cohort of long-term sick- listed Danes

    OpenAIRE

    Pedersen, Jacob; Gerds, Thomas Alexander; Bjorner, Jakob Bue; Christensen, Karl Bang

    2014-01-01

    Background Targeted interventions for the long-term sick-listed may prevent permanent exclusion from the labour force. We aimed to develop a prediction method for identifying high risk groups for continued or recurrent long-term sickness absence, unemployment, or disability among persons on long-term sick leave. Methods We obtained individual characteristics and follow-up data from the Danish Register of Sickness Absence Compensation Benefits and Social Transfer Payments (RSS) during 2004 to ...

  16. Exploring factors relevant in the assessment of the return-to-work process of employees on long-term sickness absence due to a depressive disorder: a focus group study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muijzer Anna

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Efforts undertaken during the Return-to-Work (RTW process need to be sufficient in order to optimize the quality of the RTW process. The purpose of this study was to explore factors relevant to Return-to-Work Effort Sufficiency (RTW-ES in cases of sick-listed employees with a Depressive Disorder (DD. Method A case of a long-term sick-listed employee with a DD applying for disability benefits was used to gather arguments and grounds relevant to the assessment of RTW-ES. Two focus group meetings were held, consisting of Labor Experts working at the Dutch Social Insurance Institute. Factors were collected and categorized using the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF model. Results Sixteen factors relevant to RTW-ES assessment in a case of DD were found, categorized in the ICF-model under activities (e.g. functional capacity, personal (e.g. competencies, attitude and environmental domain (e.g. employer-employee relationship, or categorized under interventions, job accommodations and measures. Conclusions This study shows that 16 factors are relevant in the assessment of RTW-ES in employees sick-listed due to DD. Further research is necessary to expand this knowledge to other health conditions, and to investigate the impact of these results on the quality of the RTW-ES assessment.

  17. Certified Schools - SEVIS

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — Certified schools must provide specific information regarding the school, the nature and requirements of the educational program, location and contact information,...

  18. Identifying factors relevant in the assessment of return-to-work efforts in employees on long-term sickness absence due to chronic low back pain: a focus group study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muijzer Anna

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Efforts undertaken during the return to work (RTW process need to be sufficient to prevent unnecessary applications for disability benefits. The purpose of this study was to identify factors relevant to RTW Effort Sufficiency (RTW-ES in cases of sick-listed employees with chronic low back pain (CLBP. Methods Using focus groups consisting of Labor Experts (LE's working at the Dutch Social Insurance Institute, arguments and underlying grounds relevant to the assessment of RTW-ES were investigated. Factors were collected and categorized using the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF model. Results Two focus groups yielded 19 factors, of which 12 are categorized in the ICF model under activities (e.g. functional capacity and in the personal (e.g. age, tenure and environmental domain (e.g. employer-employee relationship. The remaining 7 factors are categorized under intervention, job accommodation and measures. Conclusions This focus group study shows that 19 factors may be relevant to RTW-ES in sick-listed employees with CLBP. Providing these results to professionals assessing RTW-ES might contribute to a more transparent and systematic approach. Considering the importance of the quality of the RTW process, optimizing the RTW-ES assessment is essential.

  19. Absentismo laboral por causa médica en trabajadores del área operativa de una compañía de extracción de minerales en Colombia, 2011 Sickness absence in workers from an operating area of a mining company in Colombia, 2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elsa María Vásquez Trespalacios

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: El sector minero es uno de los más dinámicos de la economía en Colombia, sin embargo, poco se conoce acerca del ausentismo laboral que enfrenta. Objetivo: Describir la magnitud del ausentismo laboral por causa médica en el área operativa de una empresa minera Colombiana, durante el año 2011. Material y métodos: estudio descriptivo, transversal, en el que se analizaron 130 ausencias por causa médica. Los episodios se categorizaron según grupos diagnósticos de la Clasificación Internacional de Enfermedades versión 10 (CIE-10 y se calcularon indicadores de ausentismo. Resultados y discusión: 66.9% de las ausencias se debió a enfermedad general y el 33.3% a accidentes de trabajo. El promedio de ausencia es de 4.28 +/-5.64 días por trabajador. Las enfermedades musculoesqueléticas y los traumatismos y envenenamientos tuvieron los mayores días de ausencia, similar a lo reportado por otros investigadores. Los accidentes de trabajo generaron 315 días de ausencia. 19 ausentistas repetitivos aportaron en total 100 días perdidos. La edad promedio de los ausentistas repetitivos es de 28.6 años+/-6.7. Los ausentistas crónicos generaron una pérdida de 258 días por cada 100 trabajadores programados.Introduction: The mining sector is one of the most dynamic in Colombian economy, however, little is known about absenteeism. Aim: To describe the extent of sickness absence in an operating area of a mining company in Colombia, in 2011. Material and Methods: A descriptive, cross-sectional study, which analyzed 130 sickness absences. The episodes were categorized according to diagnostic groups of the International Classification of Diseases version 10 (ICD-10 and calculated rates of absenteeism. Results and discussion: 66.9% of absences were due to general illness and 33.3% of accidents at work. The average absence is 4.28 +/-5.64 days per worker. Most of absence days were generated by musculoskeletal diseases and injuries and

  20. Certified Subterm Criterion and Certified Usable Rules

    OpenAIRE

    Sternagel, Christian; Thiemann, René

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we present our formalization of two important termination techniques for term rewrite systems: the subterm criterion and the reduction pair processor in combination with usable rules. For both techniques we developed executable check functions in the theorem prover Isabelle/HOL which can certify the correct application of these techniques in some given termination proof. As there are several variants of usable rules we designed our check function in such a way ...

  1. Presenteeism among sick workers

    OpenAIRE

    Houtman, I.L.D.

    2003-01-01

    Much attention has been focused on absenteeism. However, ‘presenteeism’ is also an issue, i.e. staying at work even when feeling sick. Analyses have shown that, the greater the work pressure, the higher the percentage of people who keep working when feeling sick.

  2. FDA Certified Mammography Facilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Products Radiation-Emitting Products Home Radiation-Emitting Products Mammography Quality Standards Act and Program Consumer Information (MQSA) ... it Email Print This list of FDA Certified Mammography Facilities is updated weekly. If you click on ...

  3. ENERGY STAR Certified Boilers

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Certified models meet all ENERGY STAR requirements as listed in the Version 3.0 ENERGY STAR Program Requirements for Boilers that are effective as of October 1,...

  4. ENERGY STAR Certified Dehumidifiers

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Certified models meet all ENERGY STAR requirements as listed in the Version 3.0 ENERGY STAR Program Requirements for Dehumidifiers that are effective as of October...

  5. ENERGY STAR Certified Computers

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Certified models meet all ENERGY STAR requirements as listed in the Version 6.1 ENERGY STAR Program Requirements for Computers that are effective as of June 2,...

  6. ENERGY STAR Certified Displays

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Certified models meet all ENERGY STAR requirements as listed in the Version 6.0 ENERGY STAR Program Requirements for Displays that are effective as of June 1, 2013....

  7. Munchausen syndrome: Playing sick or sick player.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prakash, Jyoti; Das, R C; Srivastava, K; Patra, P; Khan, S A; Shashikumar, R

    2014-01-01

    Munchausen syndrome is rare factitious disorder which entails frequent hospitalization, pathological lying and intentional production of symptoms for sick role. Management requires collateral history taking, sound clinical approach, exclusion of organicity and addressing psychological issues. A case which presented with unusual symptoms of similar dimension is discussed here. The case brings out finer nuances in evaluation and management of this entity. PMID:25535450

  8. Munchausen syndrome: Playing sick or sick player

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jyoti Prakash

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Munchausen syndrome is rare factitious disorder which entails frequent hospitalization, pathological lying and intentional production of symptoms for sick role. Management requires collateral history taking, sound clinical approach, exclusion of organicity and addressing psychological issues. A case which presented with unusual symptoms of similar dimension is discussed here. The case brings out finer nuances in evaluation and management of this entity .

  9. Got a Sick Fish?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Welfare Veterinary Careers Public Health Got a sick fish? Fish with disease can show a variety of signs. If you notice your pet fish having any unusual disease signs, contact your veterinarian ...

  10. Travelers' Health: Motion Sickness

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Visiting Friends and Family in Areas with Chikungunya, Dengue, or Zika Travel to the Olympics Infographic: Olympic ... ibandronate sodium, risedronate sodium TREATMENT Nonpharmacologic treatments for preventing and treating motion sickness can be effective with ...

  11. Predictors of return to work in employees sick-listed with mental health problems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    D.Nielsen, Maj Britt; Madsen, Ida E.H.; Bültmann, Ute;

    2011-01-01

    Sickness absence due to mental health problems (MHPs) is increasing in several European countries. However, little is known about return to work (RTW) for employees with MHPs. This prospective study aimed to identify predictors for RTW in employees sick-listed with MHPs.......Sickness absence due to mental health problems (MHPs) is increasing in several European countries. However, little is known about return to work (RTW) for employees with MHPs. This prospective study aimed to identify predictors for RTW in employees sick-listed with MHPs....

  12. Sick building syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tjandra Y. Aditama

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available Sick building syndrome describes a number of mostly unspesific complaints of some occupants of the building. The exact pathophysiological mechanism remains elusive. It is a multi factorial event which may include physical, chemical, biological as well as psycological factors. In many cases it is due to insufficient maintenance of the HVAC (heating, ventilation, air conditioning system in the building. Sign and symptoms can be uncomfortable and even disabling, which may include mucus membrane irritation, neurotoxic symptoms, asthma like symptoms, skin complaints, gastrointestinal symptoms and other related symptoms. There are various investigation methods to diagnose sick building syndrome, and on site assessment of the building is extremely useful. Prevention through a proactive air quality monitoring program is far more desirable than dealing with an actual sick building. Indoor air and the sick building symdrome serves as a paradigm of modern occupational and environmental medicine. (Med J Indones 2002; 11:124-31Keywords: indoor air pollution, sick building syndrome, building related illness

  13. Certifying the Absence of Apparent Randomness under Minimal Assumptions

    OpenAIRE

    de la Torre, Gonzalo; Dhara, Chirag; Acin, Antonio

    2013-01-01

    Contrary to classical physics, the predictions of quantum theory for measurement outcomes are of a probabilistic nature. Questions about the completeness of such predictions lie at the core of quantum physics and can be traced back to the foundations of the field. Recently, the completeness of quantum probabilistic predictions could be established based on the assumption of freedom of choice. Here we ask when can events be established to be as unpredictable as we observe them to be relying on...

  14. DGNB certified Healthcare Centres

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brunsgaard, Camilla; Larsen, Tine Steen

    2015-01-01

    sustainability and wants a certification. This research investigates the decision‐making and design process (DMaDP) behind four DGNB certified Healthcare Centres (HCC) in Northern Jutland in Denmark. In general, knowledge about the DMaDP is important. However it is important to know what part DGNB plays in an...... the architect, the construction engineer, the plumbing engineer etc. which overlap professional field just like other disciplines. Secondly, the general conception is that DGNB brings in limited new things into the project, but it gives a common notion of sustainability which usually can be discussed...... Healthcare Centres, which was certified as office buildings, however more traditional office buildings might differ en experience with DGNB....

  15. DGNB certified Healthcare Centres

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brunsgaard, Camilla; Larsen, Tine Steen

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, research and the building industry greatly focused on lowering and optimising the energy use of buildings during operation. It has resulted in several pilot projects which illustrate how it can be achieved. At the same time voluntary sustainability certification schemes (BEAM, LEED...... already highly complex design processes; does it become even more complex? What can we learn from these projects about future DMaDP in DGNB certified projects?The research project is setup as a case study design, where the HCC act as four cases. We analyse the DMaDP behind the four HCC using qualitative...... interviews of key actors in each design team. Each interview is analysed individually and summarised in a report. Finally the four cases are analysed in a comparative study which draw a picture of what kind of DMaDP the DGNB certified HCC have had. At time of writing the analysis of the interviews are in...

  16. Certified Rule Labeling

    OpenAIRE

    Nagele, Julian; Zankl, Harald

    2015-01-01

    The rule labeling heuristic aims to establish confluence of (left-)linear term rewrite systems via decreasing diagrams. We present a formalization of a confluence criterion based on the interplay of relative termination and the rule labeling in the theorem prover Isabelle. Moreover, we report on the integration of this result into the certifier CeTA, facilitating the checking of confluence certificates based on decreasing diagrams for the first time. The power of the method is illustrated by ...

  17. General practitioners' experiences with sickness certification: a comparison of survey data from Sweden and Norway

    OpenAIRE

    Winde Lee D; Alexanderson Kristina; Carlsen Benedicte; Kjeldgård Linnea; Wilteus Anna; Gjesdal Sturla

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background In most countries with sickness insurance systems, general practitioners (GPs) play a key role in the sickness-absence process. Previous studies have indicated that GPs experience several tasks and situations related to sickness certification consultations as problematic. The fact that the organization of primary health care and social insurance systems differ between countries may influence both GPs' experiences and certification. The aim of the present study was to gain ...

  18. Sickness and love: an introduction

    OpenAIRE

    Geest, der; Vandamme, S.

    2008-01-01

    Love is a neglected topic in anthropology, for good reasons: it has always resisted scientific definition and analysis. By associating love with sickness seven authors attempt to capture various meanings and experiences of love. Two broad concepts arise: love as sickness and love in response to sickness; the former refers mainly to 'romantic love', the latter to love as care and doing / testing love.

  19. Sickness and love: an introduction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. van der Geest; S. Vandamme

    2008-01-01

    Love is a neglected topic in anthropology, for good reasons: it has always resisted scientific definition and analysis. By associating love with sickness seven authors attempt to capture various meanings and experiences of love. Two broad concepts arise: love as sickness and love in response to sick

  20. Prescriptions for Sick Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ornstein, Allan C.

    1993-01-01

    Increasing insulation in schools as an energy-saving measure has given rise to the Sick Building Syndrome (SBS), which afflicts roughly one-third of the nation's schools. This article examines asbestos, radon, electromagnetic radiation, and chemical pollutants and describes steps to make schools environmentally safe for students. School officials…

  1. [Mountaineering and altitude sickness].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maggiorini, M

    2001-06-01

    Almost every second trekker or climber develops two to three symptoms of the high altitude illness after a rapid ascent (> 300 m/day) to an altitude above 4000 m. We distinguish two forms of high altitude illness, a cerebral form called acute mountain sickness and a pulmonary form called high altitude pulmonary edema. Essentially, acute mountain sickness is self-limiting and benign. Its symptoms are mild to moderate headache, loss of appetite, nausea, dizziness and insomnia. Nausea rarely progresses to vomiting, but if it does, this may anticipate a progression of the disease into the severe form of acute mountain sickness, called high altitude cerebral edema. Symptoms and signs of high altitude cerebral edema are severe headache, which is not relieved by acetaminophen, loss of movement coordination, ataxia and mental deterioration ending in coma. The mechanisms leading to acute mountain sickness are not very well understood; the loss of cerebral autoregulation and a vasogenic type of cerebral edema are being discussed. High altitude pulmonary edema presents in roughly twenty percent of the cases with mild symptoms of acute mountain sickness or even without any symptoms at all. Symptoms associated with high altitude pulmonary edema are incapacitating fatigue, chest tightness, dyspnoe at the minimal effort that advances to dyspnoe at rest and orthopnoe, and a dry non-productive cough that progresses to cough with pink frothy sputum due to hemoptysis. The hallmark of high altitude pulmonary edema is an exaggerated hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction. Successful prophylaxis and treatment of high altitude pulmonary edema using nifedipine, a pulmonary vasodilator, indicates that pulmonary hypertension is crucial for the development of high altitude pulmonary edema. The primary treatment of high altitude illness consists in improving hypoxemia and acclimatization. For prophylaxis a slow ascent at a rate of 300 m/day is recommended, if symptoms persist, acetazolamide at a

  2. Psychiatric disorders in long-term sickness absence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søgaard, Hans Jørgen; Bech, Per

    2009-01-01

    % for any somatoform disorder. Multivariable analyses showed that female sex and unemployment were predictors of a psychiatric disorder, whereas living with children below 18 years and being a skilled worker carried a reduced risk of a psychiatric disorder. CONCLUSIONS: The high frequency of psychiatric...

  3. Among Absences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Coronado

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Utilizando el género epistolar, una carta a mi madre, reflexiono sobre mi nueva vida e identidad como emigrante en Australia explorando mis percepciones sobre la diferencia cultural y lingüística. Lejos de mis hijas y nietos en México, en esta carta, tardíamente escrita, relato mis recuerdos, nostalgias y vivencias en el nuevo ambiente, y sobre todo, hablo de mis dificultades para manejar emocionalmente mi miedo a la ausencia en los momentos importantes del ciclo de vida, la enfermedad y la muerte. Using the epistolary genre, a letter to my mother, I reflect on my life and identity as an emigrant in Australia by exploring my perceptions of cultural and linguistic difference. Far from my children and grandchildren in Mexico, in this belatedly written letter I recall my memories, nostalgic feelings and expereinces in the new environment, and above all, I speak of my difficulties in mangaing emotionally my fears of being absent in the important moments of the cycle of life, sickness and death.

  4. Genetics Home Reference: sick sinus syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Genetics Home Health Conditions sick sinus syndrome sick sinus syndrome Enable Javascript to view the expand/collapse ... Print All Open All Close All Description Sick sinus syndrome (also known as sinus node dysfunction) is ...

  5. Morning Sickness: Nausea and Vomiting of Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... About ACOG Morning Sickness: Nausea and Vomiting of Pregnancy Home For Patients Search FAQs Morning Sickness: Nausea ... PDF Format Morning Sickness: Nausea and Vomiting of Pregnancy Pregnancy How common is nausea and vomiting of ...

  6. 40 CFR 161.175 - Certified limits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Certified limits. 161.175 Section 161... Certified limits. The applicant must propose certified limits for the ingredients in the product. Certified limits become legally binding limits upon approval of the application. Certified limits will apply to...

  7. Sick as a Dog

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    当形容一个人病得很重时,英语中有这样的说法:Sick as a dog,为什么人们会用"狗"来表示"生病"的意思呢?原来,英语中dog一词有时含有贬义,比如:俚语going to the dogs,表示"糟糕透顶";dog in the manger,表示"犬占马槽、自私自利"的意思。

  8. Dust and the Sick Building Syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gyntelberg, Finn; Suadicani, Poul; Wohlfahrt Nielsen, Jan; Skov, Peder; Valbjørn, Ole; Nielsen, Peter A.; Schneider, Thomas; Jørgensen, Ole; Wolkoff, Peder; Wilkins, C. K.; Gravesen, Suzanne; Norn, Svend

    Farmakologi, bacteria, dust, histamine, disease, gram-negative, indoor climate, sick building syndrome......Farmakologi, bacteria, dust, histamine, disease, gram-negative, indoor climate, sick building syndrome...

  9. Cinerama sickness and postural instability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bos, J.E.; Ledegang, W.D.; Lubeck, A.J.A.; Stins, J.F.

    2013-01-01

    Motion sickness symptoms and increased postural instability induced by motion pictures have been reported in a laboratory, but not in a real cinema. We, therefore, carried out an observational study recording sickness severity and postural instability in 19 subjects before, immediately and 45 min af

  10. The influence of managers' and colleagues' absence on public employee absence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Ann-Kristina Løkke; Jensen, Morten Berg

    2015-01-01

    public sector employees (De Paola, 2010). Research on the effect of managers’ own absence on their employees’ absence is scarce (Kristensen et al., 2006, Løkke, 2008) and so is the effect of colleagues’ absence in a large scale (Bradley et al., 2007, Dale-Olsen et al., 2010, Hesselius et al., 2009). To...... aim of this study is to identify the effect of managers’ and colleagues’ absence on employee absence in the public sector. Method: We use register data from a large Danish municipality including 8000 employees. We use multilevel analysis to explain the number of periods of absence due to sickness......Background: The level of absence is higher in the public sector than in the private sector both internationally and in a Danish context (e.g. The Confederation of Danish Employers, 2002, Winkelmann, 1999). However, little economic research is conducted to understand determinants of absence among...

  11. Impact of work, health and health beliefs on new episodes of pain-related and general absence-taking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frost, P.; Haahr, J. P.; Andersen, JH

    2009-01-01

    -64 years of age. A questionnaire was used to obtain information about workloads, physical and mental health, fear avoidance and other health beliefs. Sickness absence data were collected from company reports, supplemented by self-report of the health problem to which absence was attributed, and by linkage...... public sector, pain intensity, care-seeking behaviour, female gender and compensated sickness absence in the year prior to follow-up were the most important predictors of new episodes of sickness absence. Pain-related absence was associated with the same variables and also with high body mass index, but...

  12. ENERGY STAR Certified Pool Pumps

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Certified models meet all ENERGY STAR requirements as listed in the Version 1.0 ENERGY STAR Program Requirements for Pool Pumps that are effective as of February...

  13. ENERGY STAR Certified Imaging Equipment

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Certified models meet all ENERGY STAR requirements as listed in the Version 2.0 ENERGY STAR Program Requirements for Imaging Equipment that are effective as of...

  14. ENERGY STAR Certified Audio Video

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Certified models meet all ENERGY STAR requirements as listed in the Version 3.0 ENERGY STAR Program Requirements for Audio Video Equipment that are effective as of...

  15. ENERGY STAR Certified Ventilating Fans

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Certified models meet all ENERGY STAR requirements as listed in the Version 4.0 ENERGY STAR Program Requirements for Ventilating Fans that are effective as of...

  16. ENERGY STAR Certified Water Heaters

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Certified models meet all ENERGY STAR requirements as listed in the Version 3.0 ENERGY STAR Program Requirements for Water Heaters that are effective April 16,...

  17. ENERGY STAR Certified Roof Products

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Certified models meet all ENERGY STAR requirements as listed in the Version 2.3 ENERGY STAR Program Requirements for Roof Products that are effective as of July 1,...

  18. ENERGY STAR Certified Water Coolers

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Certified models meet all ENERGY STAR requirements as listed in the Version 2.0 ENERGY STAR Program Requirements for Water Coolers that are effective as of February...

  19. ENERGY STAR Certified Vending Machines

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Certified models meet all ENERGY STAR requirements as listed in the Version 3.0 ENERGY STAR Program Requirements for Refrigerated Beverage Vending Machines that are...

  20. ENERGY STAR Certified Commercial Fryers

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Certified models meet all ENERGY STAR requirements as listed in the Version 2.0 ENERGY STAR Program Requirements for Commercial Fryers that are effective as of...

  1. ENERGY STAR Certified Ceiling Fans

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Certified models meet all ENERGY STAR requirements as listed in the Version 3.0 ENERGY STAR Program Requirements for Ceiling Fans that are effective as of April 1,...

  2. Certifying controls and systems software

    OpenAIRE

    Feron, Eric; Roozbehani, Mardavij

    2007-01-01

    Software system certification presents itself with many challenges, including the necessity to certify the system at the level of functional requirements, code and binary levels, the need to chase down run-time errors, and the need for proving timing properties of the eventual, compiled system. This paper illustrates possible approaches for certifying code that arises from control systems requirements as far as stability properties are concerned. The relative simplicity of the certification p...

  3. [Epidemiology of "sick buildings"].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sterling, T D; Collett, C; Rumel, D

    1991-02-01

    The indoor environment of modern buildings, especially those designed for commercial and administrative purposes, constitutes a unique ecological niche with its own biochemical environment, fauna and flora. Sophisticated construction methods and the new materials and machinery required to maintain the indoor environment of these enclosed structures produce a large number of chemical by-products and permit the growth of many different microorganisms. Because modern office buildings are sealed, the regulation of humidification and temperature of ducted air presents a dilemma, since difference species of microorganisms flourish at different combinations of humidity and temperature. If the indoor environment of modern office buildings is not properly maintained, the environment may become harmful to its occupants' health. Such buildings are classified as "Sick Buildings". A review of the epidemiology of building illness is presented. The etiology of occupant illnesses, sources of toxic substances, and possible methods of maintaining a safe indoor environment are described. PMID:1784964

  4. Social inequalities in 'sickness'

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wel, Kjetil A. van der; Dahl, Espen; Thielen, Karsten

    2011-01-01

    inequalities in health by studying the often overlooked ‘sickness’-dimension of health, namely employment behaviour among people with illnesses. We use European Union Statistics on Income and Living Conditions (EU-SILC) data from 2005 covering 26 European countries linked to country characteristics derived...... from Eurostat and OECD that include spending on active labour market policies, benefit generosity, income inequality, and employment protection. Using multilevel techniques we find that comprehensive welfare states have lower absolute and relative social inequalities in sickness, as well as more......The aim of this paper is to examine educational inequalities in the risk of non-employment among people with illnesses and how they vary between European countries with different welfare state characteristics. In doing so, the paper adds to the growing literature on welfare states and social...

  5. 40 CFR 158.350 - Certified limits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Certified limits. 158.350 Section 158... REQUIREMENTS FOR PESTICIDES Product Chemistry § 158.350 Certified limits. The applicant must propose certified limits for the ingredients in the product. Certified limits become legally binding limits upon...

  6. 12 CFR 327.2 - Certified statements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... known as the quarterly certified statement invoice. Each insured depository institution shall file and certify its quarterly certified statement invoice in the manner and form set forth in this section. (2) The quarterly certified statement invoice shall reflect the institution's risk assignment,...

  7. When You're Sick

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... dehydrated. These are liquids like water and diet soft drinks. It's easy to run low on fluids when ... sick-day plan may include regular (not diet) soft drinks. Other high-carbohydrate liquids and almost-liquids are ...

  8. Sleeping Sickness and Nagana Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Steverding, Dietmar

    2016-01-01

    The hemoflagellate Trypanosoma brucei is the causative agent of human and animal African trypanosomiasis, also known as sleeping sickness and nagana disease, respectively. The infec-tious disease is transmitted by the bite of infected tsetse flies and afflicts mainly rural popula-tions in sub-Saharan Africa. The subspecies T. b. gambiense and T. b. rhodesiense are responsi-ble for the two forms of human African trypanosomiasis, the West and East African sleeping sickness, respectively. A thir...

  9. TOGAF 9 certified study guide

    CERN Document Server

    Group, The Open

    2010-01-01

    The TOGAF 9 certification program is a knowledge-based certification program. It has two levels, leading to certification for TOGAF 9 Foundation and TOGAF 9 Certified, respectively. The purpose of certification to TOGAF 9 Certified is to provide validation that, in addition to the knowledge and comprehension of TOGAF 9 Foundation level, the Candidate is able to analyze and apply this knowledge. The learning objectives at this level therefore focus on application and analysis in addition to knowledge and comprehension.This Study Guide supports students in preparation for the TOGAF 9 Part 2 Exam

  10. Reincentivizing – a new theory of work and work absence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thulesius Hans O

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Work capacity correlates weakly to disease concepts, which in turn are insufficient to explain sick leave behavior. With data mainly from Sweden, a welfare state with high sickness absence rates, our aim was to develop an explanatory theory of how to understand and deal with work absence and sick leave. Methods We used classic grounded theory for analyzing data from >130 interviews with people working or on sick leave, physicians, social security officers, and literature. Several hundreds of typed and handwritten memos were the basis for writing up the theory. Results In this paper we present a theory of work incentives and how to deal with work absence. We suggest that work disability can be seen as hurt work drivers or people caught in mode traps. Work drivers are specified as work capacities + work incentives, monetary and non-monetary. Also, people can get trapped in certain modes of behavior through changed capacities or incentives, or by inertia. Different modes have different drivers and these can trap the individual from reincentivizing, ie from going back to work or go on working. Hurt drivers and mode traps are recognized by driver assessments done on several different levels. Mode driver calculations are done by the worker. Then follows employer, physician, and social insurance officer assessments. Also, driver assessments are done on the macro level by legislators and other stakeholders. Reincentivizing is done by different repair strategies for hurt work drivers such as body repair, self repair, work-place repair, rehumanizing, controlling sick leave insurance, and strengthening monetary work incentives. Combinations of these driver repair strategies also do release people from mode traps. Conclusion Reincentivizing is about recognizing hurt work drivers and mode traps followed by repairing and releasing the same drivers and traps. Reincentivizing aims at explaining what is going on when work absence is dealt

  11. Sick Leave and Subjective Health Complaints

    OpenAIRE

    2007-01-01

    The aims of this thesis were to identify risk factors for high levels of sick leave and investigate what – if anything – can be done to reduce sick leave. What is the role of “subjective health complaints”, coping, and psychosocial work factors in relation to sick leave, and to what extent do these factors and the sick leave relate to quality of life? Are there any interventions with a documented effect on sick leave in the literature? Is it possible to influence sick leave thr...

  12. General practitioners' experiences with sickness certification: a comparison of survey data from Sweden and Norway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Winde Lee D

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In most countries with sickness insurance systems, general practitioners (GPs play a key role in the sickness-absence process. Previous studies have indicated that GPs experience several tasks and situations related to sickness certification consultations as problematic. The fact that the organization of primary health care and social insurance systems differ between countries may influence both GPs' experiences and certification. The aim of the present study was to gain more knowledge of GPs' experiences of sickness certification, by comparing data from Sweden and Norway, regarding frequencies and aspects of sickness certification found to be problematic. Methods Statistical analyses of cross-sectional survey data of sickness certification by GPs in Sweden and Norway. In Sweden, all GPs were included, with 3949 (60.6% responding. In Norway, a representative sample of GPs was included, with 221 (66.5% responding. Results Most GPs reported having consultations involving sickness certification at least once a week; 95% of the GPs in Sweden and 99% of the GPs in Norway. A majority found such tasks problematic; 60% of the GPs in Sweden and 53% in Norway. In a logistic regression, having a higher frequency of sickness certification consultations was associated with a higher risk of experiencing them as problematic, in both countries. A higher rate of GPs in Sweden than in Norway reported meeting patients wanting a sickness certification without a medical reason. GPs in Sweden found it more problematic to discuss the advantages and disadvantages of sick leave with patients and to issue a prolongation of a sick-leave period initiated by another physician. GPs in Norway more often worried that patients would go to another physician if they did not issue a certificate, and a higher proportion of Norwegian GPs found it problematic to handle situations where they and their patient disagreed on the need for sick leave. Conclusions The

  13. How primary health care physicians make sick listing decisions: The impact of medical factors and functioning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svärdsudd Kurt

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The decision to issue sickness certification in Sweden for a patient should be based on the physician's assessment of the reduction of the patient's work capacity due to a disease or injury, not on psychosocial factors, in spite of the fact that they are known as risk factors for sickness absence. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of medical factors and functioning on sick listing probability. Methods Four hundred and seventy-four patient-physician consultations, where sick listing could be an option, in general practice in Örebro county, central Sweden, were documented using physician and patient questionnaires. Information sought was the physicians' assessments of causes and consequences of the patients' complaints, potential to recover, diagnoses and prescriptions on sick leave, and the patients' view of their family and work situation and functioning as well as data on the patients' former and present health situation. The outcome measure was whether or not a sickness certificate was issued. Multivariate analyses were performed. Results Complaints entirely or mainly somatic as assessed by the physician decreased the risk of sick listing, and complaints resulting in severe limitation of occupational work capacity, as assessed by the patient as well as the physician, increased the risk of sick listing, as did appointments for locomotor complaints. The results for patients with infectious diseases or musculoskeletal diseases were partly similar to those for all diseases. Conclusion The strongest predictors for sickness certification were patient's and GP's assessment of reduced work capacity, with a striking concordance between physician and patient on this assessment. When patient's complaints were judged to be non-somatic the risk of sickness certification was enhanced.

  14. Altitude, Acute Mountain Sickness and Headache

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Follow us on Instagram DONATE TODAY Altitude, Acute Mountain Sickness and Headache Abuse, Maltreatment, and PTSD and Their Relationship to Migraine Altitude, Acute Mountain Sickness and Headache Alcohol and Migraine Anxiety and ...

  15. Reporting Sick: Are Sporting Events Contagious?

    OpenAIRE

    Skogman Thoursie, Peter

    2002-01-01

    Moral hazard is easy to justify theoretically but difficult to detect empirically. Individuals may report sick due to illness as well as for moral hazard reasons. Potential abuse of the sickness insurance system in Sweden is estimated by comparing the change between the number of men and women who report sick during a popular sporting event and a preceding time period. Difference-in- difference estimates provide clear evidence that the number of men who reported sick increased in order to wat...

  16. New Rules for No Shows: Accounting for Compensated Absences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gauthier, Stephen J.

    1993-01-01

    The Government Accounting Standards Board Statement No. 16 is concerned with the measurement of the liability for compensated absences. The pronouncement provides separate guidance for vacation leave and sick leave and deals with a variety of related issues, such as salary-related payments, rates, sabbaticals, and measurability. (MLF)

  17. 7 CFR 1221.4 - Certified organization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Certified organization. 1221.4 Section 1221.4 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING... organization. Certified organization means any organization that has been certified by the Secretary...

  18. 7 CFR 1280.103 - Certified organization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Certified organization. 1280.103 Section 1280.103 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING... organization. Certified organization means any organization which has been certified by the Secretary...

  19. 24 CFR 1710.504 - Cooperation among certified states and between certified states and the Secretary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Cooperation among certified states and between certified states and the Secretary. 1710.504 Section 1710.504 Housing and Urban....504 Cooperation among certified states and between certified states and the Secretary. (a) By...

  20. Predictors of repeated sick leave in the workplace because of mental disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sado M

    2014-01-01

    at RTW and the number of previous sick-leave episodes were significant variables. Conclusion: Age and the number of previous sick-leave episodes appeared to be predictors of repeated sick leave. Therefore, effective intervention to prevent repeated sick leave for those with high risk is quite crucial. Analyses including various work-related factors with subjects from multiple companies should be conducted in future studies. Keywords: sickness absence, occupational mental health, relapse/recurrence

  1. Certifiable Java for Embedded Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schoeberl, Martin; Dalsgaard, Andreas Engelbredt; Hansen, Rene Rydhof;

    2014-01-01

    The Certifiable Java for Embedded Systems (CJ4ES) project aimed to develop a prototype development environment and platform for safety-critical software for embedded applications. There are three core constituents: A profile of the Java programming language that is tailored for safety......-critical applications, a predictable Java processor built with FPGA technology, and an Eclipse based application development environment that binds the profile and the platform together and provides analyses that help to provide evidence that can be used as part of a safety case. This paper summarizes key contributions...

  2. Psychoeducation to facilitate return to work in individuals on sick leave and at risk of having a mental disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Pernille; Søgaard, Hans Jørgen; Yde, Bjarne Frostholm;

    2014-01-01

    given by psychiatric nurses, a psychologist, a social worker, a physiotherapist and a person who had previously been on sick leave due to mental health problems. The sessions focused on stress and work life, and the purpose was to provide individuals on sick leave the skills to understand and improve......BACKGROUND: Sickness absence due to poor mental health is a common problem in many Western countries. To facilitate return to work, it may be important to identify individuals on sick leave and at risk of having a mental disorder and subsequently to offer appropriate treatment. Psychoeducation...... of having a mental disorder. The psychoeducation was a supplement to the various standard offers provided by the job centres.Methods/design: The study is a randomised controlled trial, in which individuals on sick leave either receive psychoeducation and standard case management or standard case...

  3. Child-to-Teacher Ratio and Day Care Teacher Sickeness Absenteeism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gørtz, Mette; Andersson, Elvira

    2014-01-01

    The literature on occupational health points to work pressure as a trigger of sickness absence. However, reliable, objective measures of work pressure are in short supply. This paper uses Danish day care teachers as an ideal case for analysing whether work pressure measured by the child-to-teache......The literature on occupational health points to work pressure as a trigger of sickness absence. However, reliable, objective measures of work pressure are in short supply. This paper uses Danish day care teachers as an ideal case for analysing whether work pressure measured by the child......-to-teacher ratio, that is, the number of children per teacher in an institution, affects teacher sickness absenteeism. We control for individual teacher characteristics, workplace characteristics, and family background characteristics of the children in the day care institutions. We perform estimations for two...

  4. Sick, the spectroscopic inference crank

    CERN Document Server

    Casey, Andrew R

    2016-01-01

    There exists an inordinate amount of spectral data in both public and private astronomical archives which remain severely under-utilised. The lack of reliable open-source tools for analysing large volumes of spectra contributes to this situation, which is poised to worsen as large surveys successively release orders of magnitude more spectra. In this Article I introduce sick, the spectroscopic inference crank, a flexible and fast Bayesian tool for inferring astrophysical parameters from spectra. sick can be used to provide a nearest-neighbour estimate of model parameters, a numerically optimised point estimate, or full Markov Chain Monte Carlo sampling of the posterior probability distributions. This generality empowers any astronomer to capitalise on the plethora of published synthetic and observed spectra, and make precise inferences for a host of astrophysical (and nuisance) quantities. Model intensities can be reliably approximated from existing grids of synthetic or observed spectra using linear multi-di...

  5. Bone scintigraphy of decompression sickness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Value of bone scintigraphy in decompression sickness of 42 patients was retrospectively evaluated. Bone scintigraphy was positive in 30 of 42 patients (83 lesions), while radiography and symptoms were positive in 23 patients (48 lesions), and in 29 patients (44 lesions) respectively. Bone scintigraphy was positive in many lesions with negative radiography or symptoms. However, approximately half of the lesions in which either radiography or symptoms was positive could not be detected by bone scintigraphy. These cases mostly showed radiographic abnormalities such as irregular calcified areas and ''bone island'' in the cervical regions of the humerus, femur and tibia. Both bone scintigraphy and radiography were positive in most of the patients with symptoms of the bends and there seems to be a close relationship between the bends symptoms and bone lesion. We concluded that bone scintigraphy is useful for the evaluation of decompression sickness, but it must be complemented by bone radiography to avoid a significant number of false negative cases. (author)

  6. Spaceflight Decompression Sickness Contingency Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dervay, Joseph P.

    2007-01-01

    A viewgraph presentation on the Decompression Sickness (DCS) Contingency Plan for manned spaceflight is shown. The topics include: 1) Approach; 2) DCS Contingency Plan Overview; 3) Extravehicular Activity (EVA) Cuff Classifications; 4) On-orbit Treatment Philosophy; 5) Long Form Malfunction Procedure (MAL); 6) Medical Checklist; 7) Flight Rules; 8) Crew Training; 9) Flight Surgeon / Biomedical Engineer (BME) Training; and 10) DCS Emergency Landing Site.

  7. Predictors of suicidal behaviour in 36,304 individuals sickness absent due to stress-related mental disorders -- a Swedish register linkage cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ishtiak-Ahmed, Kazi; Perski, Aleksander; Mittendorfer-Rutz, Ellenor

    2013-01-01

    regardless of diagnosis were predictive of suicide. CONCLUSIONS: Several predictors related to socio-demographics, sickness absence and health-care consumption were identified as risk factors for suicidal behavior. Consideration of these risk factors is of both clinical and public health importance.......BACKGROUND: Stress-related mental disorders (SRMD), which correspond to the diagnostic code F43 in the International Classification of Diseases, version 10, rank among the leading causes of sickness absence in several European countries. Despite the size of this health problem, research on risk...... individuals attempted suicide and 34 committed suicide. In the multivariate analyses, the following factors increased the risk of suicide attempt: =< 25 years of age, low educational level, lone parenthood, > 1 sickness absence spell, long duration of the first spell of sickness absence due to SRMD (> 180...

  8. Sickness Behavior in Honey Bees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazlauskas, Nadia; Klappenbach, Martín; Depino, Amaicha M.; Locatelli, Fernando F.

    2016-01-01

    During an infection, animals suffer several changes in their normal physiology and behavior which may include lethargy, appetite loss, and reduction in grooming and general movements. This set of alterations is known as sickness behavior and although it has been extensively believed to be orchestrated primarily by the immune system, a relevant role for the central nervous system has also been established. The aim of the present work is to develop a simple animal model to allow studying how the immune and the nervous systems interact coordinately during an infection. We administered a bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) into the thorax of honey bees to mimic a bacterial infection, and then we evaluated a set of stereotyped behaviors of the animals that might be indicative of sickness behavior. First, we show that this immune challenge reduces the locomotor activity of the animals in a narrow time window after LPS injection. Furthermore, bees exhibit a loss of appetite 60 and 90 min after injection, but not 15 h later. We also demonstrate that LPS injection reduces spontaneous antennal movements in harnessed animals, which suggests a reduction in the motivational state of the bees. Finally, we show that the LPS injection diminishes the interaction between animals, a crucial behavior in social insects. To our knowledge these results represent the first systematic description of sickness behavior in honey bees and provide important groundwork for the study of the interaction between the immune and the neural systems in an insect model. PMID:27445851

  9. Certifying nonlocality from separable marginals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vértesi, Tamás; Laskowski, Wiesław; Pál, Károly F.

    2014-01-01

    Imagine three parties, Alice, Bob, and Charlie, who share a state of three qubits such that all two-party reduced states A-B, A-C, and B-C are separable. Suppose that they have information only about these marginals but not about the global state. According to recent results, there exists an example for a set of three separable two-party reduced states that is only compatible with an entangled global state. In this paper, we show a stronger result by exhibiting separable two-party reduced states A-B, A-C, and B-C, such that any global state compatible with these marginals is nonlocal. Hence, we obtain that nonlocality of multipartite states can be certified from information only about separable marginals.

  10. Sparsity-certifying Graph Decompositions

    CERN Document Server

    Streinu, Ileana

    2007-01-01

    We describe a new algorithm, the $(k,\\ell)$-pebble game with colors, and use it obtain a characterization of the family of $(k,\\ell)$-sparse graphs and algorithmic solutions to a family of problems concerning tree decompositions of graphs. Special instances of sparse graphs appear in rigidity theory and have received increased attention in recent years. In particular, our colored pebbles generalize and strengthen the previous results of Lee and Streinu and give a new proof of the Tutte-Nash-Williams characterization of arboricity. We also present a new decomposition that certifies sparsity based on the $(k,\\ell)$-pebble game with colors. Our work also exposes connections between pebble game algorithms and previous sparse graph algorithms by Gabow, Gabow and Westermann and Hendrickson.

  11. [Treating sleeping sickness, Takalafiya, c.1940

    OpenAIRE

    Unknown

    2003-01-01

    Showing a woman being given an injection. The photograph is part of a series of British Official photographs (Crown Copyright Reserved) issued under the general title 'Sleeping sickness experiment is pattern for progress in rural Africa'. It has two typewritten captions on the reverse. The first reads: 'At the Takalafiya dispensary this woman victim of sleeping sickness is given intravenous injections of tryparsimide by the sleeping sickness service attendant'. The second reads: 'The Br...

  12. Long-term sick leave and the impact of a graded return-to-work program: evidence from Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Udo; Linder, Roland; Verheyen, Frank

    2016-06-01

    The implementation of a graded return-to-work (RTW) program to reintegrate the long-term sick started in Germany in 1971 and has been manifested in the Social Code Book V since 1989. Based on a return plan by the physician and the insured, participants increase their working hours slowly over a specified period of time. As participants are still classified as incapable of working they still receive sick leave benefits. Using claims data from the Techniker Krankenkasse, the largest German sickness fund, the study aims at identifying participants and analyzing the full return-to-work and the impact of the RTW program. Thereby, we account for socio-economic factors, insurance-based characteristics, and medical and health-related information. We consider a possible selection bias by using individual weights to analyze determinants of length of the sickness absence by applying models for survival analysis (Cox proportional hazard model). As a main result - depending on the central assumption of unconfoundedness - sickness absence is positively related to participation in the RTW program for those with sickness absence longer than 120 days. For mental disorders, our results indicate an even stronger effect. The study results emphasize the need further promotion of this instrument among those insured, physicians and employers, as occupational health management is one key for a successful return-to-work. PMID:26183381

  13. Animal models in motion sickness research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daunton, Nancy G.

    1990-01-01

    Practical information on candidate animal models for motion sickness research and on methods used to elicit and detect motion sickness in these models is provided. Four good potential models for use in motion sickness experiments include the dog, cat, squirrel monkey, and rat. It is concluded that the appropriate use of the animal models, combined with exploitation of state-of-the-art biomedical techniques, should generate a great step forward in the understanding of motion sickness mechanisms and in the development of efficient and effective approaches to its prevention and treatment in humans.

  14. Waterborne outbreak of gastroenteritis: effects on sick leaves and cost of lost workdays.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaana I Halonen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In 2007, part of a drinking water distribution system was accidentally contaminated with waste water effluent causing a gastroenteritis outbreak in a Finnish town. We examined the acute and cumulative effects of this incidence on sick leaves among public sector employees residing in the clean and contaminated areas, and the additional costs of lost workdays due to the incidence. METHODS: Daily information on sick leaves of 1789 Finnish Public Sector Study participants was obtained from employers' registers. Global Positioning System-coordinates were used for linking participants to the clean and contaminated areas. Prevalence ratios (PR for weekly sickness absences were calculated using binomial regression analysis. Calculations for the costs were based on prior studies. RESULTS: Among those living in the contaminated areas, the prevalence of participants on sick leave was 3.54 (95% confidence interval (CI 2.97-4.22 times higher on the week following the incidence compared to the reference period. Those living and working in the clean area were basically not affected, the corresponding PR for sick leaves was 1.12, 95% CI 0.73-1.73. No cumulative effects on sick leaves were observed among the exposed. The estimated additional costs of lost workdays due to the incidence were 1.8-2.1 million euros. CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of sickness absences among public sector employees residing in affected areas increased shortly after drinking water distribution system was contaminated, but no long-term effects were observed. The estimated costs of lost workdays were remarkable, thus, the cost-benefits of better monitoring systems for the water distribution systems should be evaluated.

  15. [Saints as protectors against falling sickness].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moog, Ferdinand Peter; Karenberg, Axel

    2003-01-01

    In Christian Europe of the High Middle Ages, saints played a central role in the everyday life of the ailing. Alongside healing attempts which involved magic and/or scientifically-based medicine, the invocation of specific patron saints for protection against evils or for the curing of ailments was a widespread practise. A large choice of patron saints was "ävailable" for a wide range of diseases, especially those nowadays classified as neurologic or psychiatric. For the falling sickness alone, e.g., there is evidence of some twenty patron saints reputed to have a particular involvement. Surprisingly, there is no evidence of a comparable devotion to patrons for apoplectics. This "negative result"is confirmed by a thorough examination of medieval sources. St. Wolfgang and St. Andreas Avellino are the only two proven stroke patrons. Both, however, were only known within their respective locations. The absence of a specific supportive Christian figure for stroke victims deserves particular analysis: The high fatality rate of apoplexy and the lack of commercial interest on the part of the Christian places of pilgrimage may serve as possible explanations. PMID:15043049

  16. 21 CFR 82.6 - Certifiable mixtures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Certifiable mixtures. 82.6 Section 82.6 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL LISTING OF CERTIFIED... mixture is harmless and suitable for use therein; and (3) No diluent (except resins, natural gum,...

  17. sick: The Spectroscopic Inference Crank

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casey, Andrew R.

    2016-03-01

    There exists an inordinate amount of spectral data in both public and private astronomical archives that remain severely under-utilized. The lack of reliable open-source tools for analyzing large volumes of spectra contributes to this situation, which is poised to worsen as large surveys successively release orders of magnitude more spectra. In this article I introduce sick, the spectroscopic inference crank, a flexible and fast Bayesian tool for inferring astrophysical parameters from spectra. sick is agnostic to the wavelength coverage, resolving power, or general data format, allowing any user to easily construct a generative model for their data, regardless of its source. sick can be used to provide a nearest-neighbor estimate of model parameters, a numerically optimized point estimate, or full Markov Chain Monte Carlo sampling of the posterior probability distributions. This generality empowers any astronomer to capitalize on the plethora of published synthetic and observed spectra, and make precise inferences for a host of astrophysical (and nuisance) quantities. Model intensities can be reliably approximated from existing grids of synthetic or observed spectra using linear multi-dimensional interpolation, or a Cannon-based model. Additional phenomena that transform the data (e.g., redshift, rotational broadening, continuum, spectral resolution) are incorporated as free parameters and can be marginalized away. Outlier pixels (e.g., cosmic rays or poorly modeled regimes) can be treated with a Gaussian mixture model, and a noise model is included to account for systematically underestimated variance. Combining these phenomena into a scalar-justified, quantitative model permits precise inferences with credible uncertainties on noisy data. I describe the common model features, the implementation details, and the default behavior, which is balanced to be suitable for most astronomical applications. Using a forward model on low-resolution, high signal

  18. Indoor air pollution and sick building syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The topics discussed in this paper are accept that SBS (Sick building syndrome) is a reality ; understand the dimensions of the problem ; differentiate between sick building syndrome and building related illness ; introduce standards ; understanding the economics ; act pro-actively not re-actively

  19. Predicting motion sickness during parabolic flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harm, Deborah L.; Schlegel, Todd T.

    2002-01-01

    BACKGROUND: There are large individual differences in susceptibility to motion sickness. Attempts to predict who will become motion sick have had limited success. In the present study, we examined gender differences in resting levels of salivary amylase and total protein, cardiac interbeat intervals (R-R intervals), and a sympathovagal index and evaluated their potential to correctly classify individuals into two motion sickness severity groups. METHODS: Sixteen subjects (10 men and 6 women) flew four sets of 10 parabolas aboard NASA's KC-135 aircraft. Saliva samples for amylase and total protein were collected preflight on the day of the flight and motion sickness symptoms were recorded during each parabola. Cardiovascular parameters were collected in the supine position 1-5 days before the flight. RESULTS: There were no significant gender differences in sickness severity or any of the other variables mentioned above. Discriminant analysis using salivary amylase, R-R intervals and the sympathovagal index produced a significant Wilks' lambda coefficient of 0.36, p=0.006. The analysis correctly classified 87% of the subjects into the none-mild sickness or the moderate-severe sickness group. CONCLUSIONS: The linear combination of resting levels of salivary amylase, high-frequency R-R interval levels, and a sympathovagal index may be useful in predicting motion sickness severity.

  20. Genetic aspects of sick sinus syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chernova A.A.

    2013-03-01

    consistent with that of the genotypes of the above genes in the general population of primary sick sinus syndrome patients. The allelic variants of the above genes were not found to be associated with ompensated sick sinus syndrome. Conclusion. The genetic predictors of idiopathic sick sinus syndrome are heterozygous genotypes 44 GA and 4a/4b genes Cx 40 and NOS3 as well as homozygous genotypes in rare allele DD and GG genes ADRA2B and SCN5A. Polymorphic allelic variant 2161C > T (Arg721Trp of MYH6 gene was not revealed in the examined cohort of Krasnoyarsk population. The distribution of the genotypes of the investigated genes in latent sick sinus syndrome patients was found to be consistent with that of the genotypes in the general population of primary sick sinus syndrome patients.

  1. Disability, sickness, and unemployment benefits among long-term sickness absentees five years before, during, and after a multidisciplinary medical assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pia Svedberg

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Klas Gustafsson1, Göran Lundh1, Pia Svedberg1, Jürgen Linder2, Kristina Alexanderson1, Staffan Marklund11Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Division of Insurance Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden; 2Diagnostic Centre, Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm, SwedenAim: The aim was to describe how a multidisciplinary medical assessment changed the distribution of long-term sickness absentees between three different forms of social security support during a period of eleven years.Methods: The study group (n = 1002 consisted of persons on long-term sickness absence who were referred to a multidisciplinary medical assessment by the Social Insurance Office in Stockholm, Sweden between 1998 and 2007. Register data from the years 1993–2008 were linked to the study group. A calculation was provided for the number of days per person and year on unemployment benefits, sickness benefits, and disability pension, five years before, during, and five years after the assessment. Also, differences in the average number of days per person and year were calculated with one-way analysis of variance.Results: The number of days on sickness benefits increased up to the time of multidisciplinary medical assessment, from 69 to 218 days on average. After the assessment there was a decrease in the average number of days on sickness benefits, from 218 to 16 days. Before the assessment the number of days on disability pension was 21, but this increased after the assessment from 104 days to an average of 272 days five years after the assessment. There were age differences regarding number of compensated days, and these were particularly pronounced for disability days after the assessment. Further, there were significant differences between types of diagnosis in relation to average days on disability pension after the assessment.Conclusion: The study shows that after a multidisciplinary medical assessment there is a rapid increase in disability pension

  2. Archives, libraries and museums: containers often sick, sometimes seriously sick

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Nicolucci

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available As far as the feeling of quietness and peace that they often convey, archives, museums and libraries also hide dangers that you may not imagine, either for visitors or especially for the members of the staff. Indeed the poor microclimatic conditions – often the consequences of materials and construction or building technologies that appear definitely obsolete – often arouse suspicion and worry among the staff. Wrong Thermo hygrometric parameters, the presence of volatile organic elements, mineral fibers, biocides, radon gas, aerial dispersive molecules, are among others some of the chemical physical polluters of major influence that may contribute to giving life to the so-called Sick Building Syndrome. But such spaces also bear biological polluters that can provoke pathologies of various types and importance, among which the feared Illness of Legionnaire. The presence of electromagnetic fields, but above all wrong lighting and wrong ergonomic working positions represent some risk factors for members of staff and visitors.

  3. 76 FR 80741 - TRICARE: Certified Mental Health Counselors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-27

    ... psychologists, certified psychiatric nurse specialists, certified clinical social workers, certified marriage... counseling by the jurisdiction where practicing. In jurisdictions with two or more licenses allowing for... who is licensed for independent practice in mental health counseling in the jurisdiction...

  4. Workplace bullying and sickness presenteeism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Conway, Paul Maurice; Clausen, Thomas; Hansen, Åse Marie;

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this study is to investigate exposure to workplace bullying as a potential risk factor for sickness presenteeism (SP), i.e., working while ill. Methods: This study is based on data collected through self-reported questionnaires in a 2-year prospective study on employees in...... missing values, the final samples were composed of 2,865 and 1,331participants in the cross-sectional and prospective analyses, respectively. Results: Modified poisson regression analyses showed that frequent (i.e., daily or weekly) exposure to workplace bullying was associated with reporting 8 or more...... indications of a significant relationship between exposure to frequent workplace bullying and SP, although causal connections could not be established. Methodological and theoretical considerations about study findings are provided, which could be of benefit to future studies examining the impact of being a...

  5. Sickness certificates in Sweden: did the new guidelines improve their quality?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilsing Emma

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Long-term sickness absence is high in many Western countries. In Sweden and many other countries, decisions on entitlement to sickness benefits and return to work measures are based on information provided by physicians in sickness certificates. The quality demands, as stressed by the Swedish sick leave guidelines from 2008, included accurate sickness certificates with assessment of functioning clearly documented. This study aims to compare quality of sickness certificates between 2007 and 2009 in Östergötland County, Sweden. Quality is defined in terms of descriptions of functioning with the use of activity and participation according to WHO’s International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF, and in prescriptions of early rehabilitation. Methods During two weeks in 2007 and four weeks in 2009, all certificates had been collected upon arrival to the social insurance office in Östergötland County, Sweden. Four hundred seventy-five new certificates were included in 2007 and 501 in 2009. Prolongations of sick leave were included until the last date of sick listing. Free text on functioning was analysed deductively using the ICF framework, and placed into categories (body functions/structures, activity, participation, no description for statistical analysis. Results The majority of the certificates were issued for musculoskeletal diseases or mental disorders. Text on functioning could be classified into the components of ICF in 65% and 78% of sickness certificates issued in 2007 and 2009, respectively. Descriptions according to body components such as “sensations of pain” or “emotional functions” were given in 58% of the certificates from 2007 and in 65% from 2009. The activity component, for example “walking” or “handling stress”, was more frequent in certificates issued in 2009 compared with 2007 (33% versus 26%. Prescriptions of early rehabilitation increased from 27% in 2007 to 35

  6. Psychosocial work environment and registered absence from work: estimating the etiologic fraction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Martin L; Rugulies, Reiner; Smith-Hansen, Lars;

    2006-01-01

    supervisor, predictability, and meaning of work were assessed with questionnaires at baseline and sickness absence was followed-up in employers' registers for 1,919 respondents (response rate 75.2%, 68% women, mainly low-skilled jobs) from 52 Danish workplaces during a 2-year period. Etiologic fractions (EFs......BACKGROUND: Evidence is growing that an adverse psychosocial work environment increases sickness absence, but little is known on the magnitude of this problem or the impact of specific factors. METHODS: Psychological demands, decision authority, skill discretion, social support from colleagues or...

  7. Radioactive solutions and reagents with certified activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An international directory of radioactive solutions and reagents with certified activity is compiled. Data are given in tables on radioactivity concentration, uncertainty, volume, supplier, availability and form of solutions and reagents

  8. ENERGY STAR Certified Small Network Equipment

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Certified models meet all ENERGY STAR requirements as listed in the Version 1.0 ENERGY STAR Program Requirements for Small Networking Equipment that are effective...

  9. ENERGY STAR Certified Light Commercial HVAC

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Certified models meet all ENERGY STAR requirements as listed in the Version 2.0 ENERGY STAR Program Requirements for Light Commercial HVAC that are effective as of...

  10. ENERGY STAR Certified Uninterruptible Power Supplies

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Certified models meet all ENERGY STAR requirements as listed in the Version 1.0 ENERGY STAR Program Requirements for Uninterruptible Power Supplies that are...

  11. ENERGY STAR Certified Data Center Storage

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Certified models meet all ENERGY STAR requirements as listed in the Version 1.0 ENERGY STAR Program Requirements for Data Center Storage that are effective as of...

  12. ENERGY STAR Certified Commercial Refrigerators and Freezers

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Certified models meet all ENERGY STAR requirements as listed in the Version 3.0 ENERGY STAR Program Requirements for Commercial Refrigerators and Freezers that are...

  13. ENERGY STAR Certified Geothermal Heat Pumps

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Certified models meet all ENERGY STAR requirements as listed in the Version 3.0 ENERGY STAR Program Requirements for Geothermal Heat Pumps that are effective as of...

  14. ENERGY STAR Certified Decorative Light Strings

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Certified models meet all ENERGY STAR requirements as listed in the Version 1.5 ENERGY STAR Program Requirements for Decorative Light Strings that are effective as...

  15. Short-term and long-term sick-leave in Sweden

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blank, N; Diderichsen, Finn

    1995-01-01

    The primary aim of the study was to analyse similarities and differences between repeated spells of short-term sick-leave (more than 3 spells of less than 7 days' duration in a 12-month period) and long-term absence through sickness (at least 1 spell of more than 59 days' duration in a 12-month...... the period 1986-89. The study group comprised 13,828 employed persons between the ages of 16 and 65. The results suggested the existence of a common mechanism by which a variety of factors are related to the taking of both repeated short spells and long-term sick-leave; gender differences with regard...... to the effect of working conditions on the taking of sick-leave may be incorrectly estimated if factors related to occupational structure are not taken into consideration; a less than additive effect of physical job demands and repeated short spells of sick-leave on subjective health was found....

  16. A pointer logic and certifying compiler

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Yiyun; GE Lin; HUA Baojian; LI Zhaopeng; LIU Cheng; WANG Zhifang

    2007-01-01

    Proof-Carrying Code brings two big challenges to the research field of programming languages.One is to seek more expressive logics or type systems to specify or reason about the properties of low-level or high-level programs.The other is to study the technology of certifying compilation in which the compiler generates proofs for programs with annotations.This paper presents our progress in the above two aspects.A pointer logic was designed for PointerC (a C-like programming language) in our research.As an extension of Hoare logic,our pointer logic expresses the change of pointer information for each statement in its inference rules to support program verification.Meanwhile,based on the ideas from CAP (Certified Assembly Programming) and SCAP (Stack-based Certified Assembly Programming),a reasoning framework was built to verify the properties of object code in a Hoare style.And a certifying compiler prototype for PointerC was implemented based on this framework.The main contribution of this paper is the design of the pointer logic and the implementation of the certifying compiler prototype.In our certifying compiler,the source language contains rich pointer types and operations and also supports dynamic storage allocation and deallocation.

  17. "Here we're all in the same boat" - a qualitative study of group based rehabilitation for sick-listed citizens with chronic pain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Lotte Nygaard; Kohberg, Maria; Herborg, Lene Gram;

    2014-01-01

    Musculoskeletal pain impacts upon everyday life. A degree of chronicity may pose an increased risk of sickness absence. One of two rehabilitative interventions, "Tailored Physical Activity" or "Chronic Pain Self-Management Program", was offered to sick-listed citizens who experienced pain. The...... objectives of this paper were to: (1) Assess what factors are experienced as problematic for sick-listed citizens in everyday life with chronic pain, and (2) Evaluate the significance of two distinct rehabilitative interventions on the future everyday lives of sick-listed citizens. Seven semi......-structured interviews with sick-listed citizens were analyzed using a phenomenological-hermeneutical approach. Results were discussed by applying the theoretical framework of Antonovsky's salutogenetic model and Yaloms principles for group psychology. The potential for development of citizen's coping is evaluated based...

  18. Evidence Report: Risk of Decompression Sickness (DCS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conkin, Johnny; Norcross, Jason R.; Wessel, James H., III; Klein, Jill S.; Dervay, Joseph P.; Gernhardt, Michael L.

    2016-01-01

    Given that tissue inert gas partial pressure is often greater than ambient pressure during phases of a mission, primarily during extravehicular activity (EVA), there is a possibility of decompression sickness (DCS).

  19. Occupational exposures and sick leave during pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Mette Lausten; Thulstrup, Ane Marie; Juhl, Mette; Kristensen, Jette Kolding; Ramlau-Hansen, Cecilia Høst

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to investigate associations between work postures, lifting at work, shift work, work hours, and job strain and the risk of sick leave during pregnancy from 10-29 completed pregnancy weeks in a large cohort of Danish pregnant women. METHODS: Data from 51 874 pregnancies...... time of first episode of sick leave as the primary outcome. RESULTS: We found statistically significant associations between all the predictors and risk of sick leave; for non-sitting work postures (HRrange 1.55-2.79), cumulative lifting HRtrend 1.29, 95% CI 1.26-1.31, shift work (HRevening 1.90, 95......: Our results support previous findings and suggest that initiatives to prevent sick leave during pregnancy could be based on work conditions. Preventive measures may have important implications for pregnant women and workplaces....

  20. Metals: In Sickness and in Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... View All Articles | Inside Life Science Home Page Metals: In Sickness and in Health By Stephanie Dutchen ... 2012 We're not quite Iron Man, but metals are intricately entwined with our bodies. They make ...

  1. Fever and sickness behavior: Friend or foe?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harden, L M; Kent, S; Pittman, Q J; Roth, J

    2015-11-01

    Fever has been recognized as an important symptom of disease since ancient times. For many years, fever was treated as a putative life-threatening phenomenon. More recently, it has been recognized as an important part of the body's defense mechanisms; indeed at times it has even been used as a therapeutic agent. The knowledge of the functional role of the central nervous system in the genesis of fever has greatly improved over the last decade. It is clear that the febrile process, which develops in the sick individual, is just one of many brain-controlled sickness symptoms. Not only will the sick individual appear "feverish" but they may also display a range of behavioral changes, such as anorexia, fatigue, loss of interest in usual daily activities, social withdrawal, listlessness or malaise, hyperalgesia, sleep disturbances and cognitive dysfunction, collectively termed "sickness behavior". In this review we consider the issue of whether fever and sickness behaviors are friend or foe during: a critical illness, the common cold or influenza, in pregnancy and in the newborn. Deciding whether these sickness responses are beneficial or harmful will very much shape our approach to the use of antipyretics during illness. PMID:26187566

  2. Headache and school absence.

    OpenAIRE

    Collin, C; Hockaday, J M; Waters, W E

    1985-01-01

    The amount of time missed from school in two small town school populations was estimated by measuring absence from school and attendance at sickbay, and stated causes were analysed. School absence related to headache (expressed as percentage of pupil days missed out of possible pupil days, during two 12 week periods) in children aged 5 to 14 years, was 0.05%. This represented approximately 1% of all school absence, and was recorded (usually only once) in 3.7% of children. The duration of abse...

  3. 7 CFR 201.69 - Classes of certified seed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Classes of certified seed. 201.69 Section 201.69..., Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) FEDERAL SEED ACT FEDERAL SEED ACT REGULATIONS Certified Seed § 201.69 Classes of certified seed. (a) Classes of certified seed are as...

  4. 7 CFR 945.7 - Certified seed potatoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Certified seed potatoes. 945.7 Section 945.7... Certified seed potatoes. Certified seed potatoes means and includes all potatoes officially certified and tagged, marked, or otherwise appropriately identified, under the supervision of the official seed...

  5. A prospective study of prognostic factors for duration of sick leave after endoscopic carpal tunnel release

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dalsgaard Jesper

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Endoscopic carpal tunnel release with a single portal technique has been shown to reduce sick leave compared to open carpal tunnel release, claiming to be a less invasive procedure and reducing scar tenderness leading to a more rapid return to work, and the purpose of this study was to identify prognostic factors for prolonged sick leave after endoscopic carpal tunnel release in a group of employed Danish patients. Methods The design was a prospective study including 75 employed patients with carpal tunnel syndrome operated with ECTR at two hospitals. The mean age was 46 years (SD 10.1, the male/female ratio was 0.42, and the mean preoperative duration of symptoms 10 months (range 6-12. Only 21 (28% were unable to work preoperatively and mean sick leave was 4 weeks (range 1-4. At base-line and at the 3-month follow-up, a self-administered questionnaire was collected concerning physical, psychological, and social circumstances in relation to the hand problem. Data from a nerve conduction examination were collected at baseline and at the 3-month follow-up. Significant prognostic factors were identified through multiple logistic regression analysis. Results After the operation, the mean functional score was reduced from 2.3 to 1.4 (SD 0.8 and the mean symptom score from 2.9 to 1.5 (SD 0.7. The mean sick leave from work after the operation was 19.8 days (SD 14.3. Eighteen patients (24% had more than 21 days of sick leave. Two patients (3% were still unable to work after 3 months. Significant prognostic factors in the multivariate analysis for more than 21 days of postoperative sick leave were preoperative sick leave, blaming oneself for the hand problem and a preoperative distal motor latency. Conclusion Preoperative sick leave, blaming oneself for the hand problem, and a preoperative distal nerve conduction motor latency were prognostic factors for postoperative work absence of more than 21 days. Other factors may be important

  6. Kernicterus in sick and preterm infants (1999-2002): a need for an effective preventive approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhutani, Vinod K; Johnson, Lois H; Shapiro, Steven M

    2004-10-01

    Kernicterus in sick and preterm infants is a rarity. Universal availability of phototherapy and concerted clinical efforts to identify, effectively manage and establish clinical guidelines have been instrumental in preventing kernicterus in US intensive care nurseries. However, in sick and preterm infants the absence of precise data on prevalence of bilirubin induced neurologic injury, the lack of proven predictive indices and the absence of evidence-based studies that clearly demonstrate the actual risk of kernicterus. These leave questions regarding the basis for clinical strategies and recommendations for the management of neonatal jaundice in this select population. This article reviews 6 preterm infants selected from the Pilot Kernicterus Registry who had recovered from life-threatening neonatal illnesses, briefly discusses current indices used to ascertain risk, and offers an initial bilirubin level based identification of infants while future directions and studies are conducted to supplement our presently incomplete knowledge for safer clinical practice. PMID:15686262

  7. An investigation of safety climate in OHSAS 18001-certified and non-certified organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghahramani, Abolfazl

    2016-09-01

    Many organizations worldwide have implemented Occupational Health and Safety Assessment Series (OHSAS) 18001 in their premises because of the assumed positive effects of this standard on safety. Few studies have analyzed the effect of the safety climate in OHSAS 18001-certified organizations. This case-control study used a new safety climate questionnaire to evaluate three OHSAS 18001-certified and three non-certified manufacturing companies in Iran. Hierarchical regression indicated that the safety climate was influenced by OHSAS implementation and by safety training. Employees who received safety training had better perceptions of the safety climate and its dimensions than other respondents within the certified companies. This study found that the implementation of OHSAS 18001 does not guarantee improvement of the safety climate. This study also emphasizes the need for high-quality safety training for employees of the certified companies to improve the safety climate. PMID:27108658

  8. Industrial-Strength Formally Certified SAT Solving

    CERN Document Server

    Darbari, Ashish; Marques-Silva, Joao

    2009-01-01

    Boolean Satisfiability (SAT) solvers are now routinely used in the verification of large industrial problems. However, their application in safety-critical domains such as the railways, avionics, and automotive industries requires some form of assurance for the results, as the solvers can (and sometimes do) have bugs. Unfortunately, the complexity of modern, highly optimized SAT solvers renders impractical the development of direct formal proofs of their correctness. This paper presents an alternative approach where an untrusted, industrial-strength, SAT solver is plugged into a trusted, formally certified, SAT proof checker to provide industrial-strength certified SAT solving. The key novelties and characteristics of our approach are (i) that the checker is automatically extracted from the formal development, (ii), that the combined system can be used as a standalone executable program independent of any supporting theorem prover, and (iii) that the checker certifies any SAT solver respecting the agreed form...

  9. Constructing health and sickness in the context of motherhood and paid work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham-Burley, Sarah; Backett-Milburn, Kathryn; Kemmer, Debbie

    2006-05-01

    Changes in the labour market, especially the rise in the employment of women (lone or partnered) with children, alongside an increased policy emphasis on work as a component of active citizenship for men and women, have stimulated the development of research examining the balance between work and home. Although sociologists have long been interested in the interface between the spheres of paid work and domestic life, understandings of the subjective experience of health and illness have tended to keep the domains of family and work separate. This paper addresses the construction of health and illness as operating at the interface between the worlds of work and home. Interviews were conducted with 30 mothers in paid work and having primary school aged children; the study was located in Edinburgh, Scotland. Through an analysis of the interview accounts, this paper examines respondents' experiences and constructions of health, sickness and wellbeing in themselves and in their children. Four areas are discussed: respondents' accounts of the effects of caring and providing on their own health; respondents' accounts of the influence of workplace relationships in the construction of sickness; respondents' accounts of negotiating absence for their children's sickness and how they made sense of and defined child sickness. We argue that managing sickness, itself an anticipated but unpredictable event, gives analytical purchase to understanding the values and practices that characterise the interrelationship between work and family life. The intersections of home and work operate powerfully in respondents' constructions of health and sickness, and the analysis demonstrates how these are played out in everyday life, at home and at work. PMID:16669805

  10. 31 CFR 341.14 - Certifying officers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Certifying officers. 341.14 Section 341.14 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) FISCAL... imprint of the corporate seal, or, where the institution is an authorized issuing agent for United...

  11. 31 CFR 346.14 - Certifying officers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Certifying officers. 346.14 Section 346.14 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) FISCAL... imprint of the corporate seal, or, where the institution is an authorized issuing agent for United...

  12. 31 CFR 357.31 - Certifying individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Certifying individuals. 357.31 Section 357.31 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) FISCAL... institutions, corporate central credit unions, and institutions that are members of...

  13. 31 CFR 306.45 - Certifying individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Certifying individuals. 306.45 Section 306.45 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) FISCAL... employees of depository institutions, corporate central credit unions, and institutions that are members...

  14. Certified reference materials for organic analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This presentation discusses the requirements for certified reference materials (CRMs) to be used in measurements of residues of pesticides in food and environmental samples. It deals with the types of CRMs, matrix selection, sample preparation and representativeness. It also discusses CRM validity period and gives some examples of CRM preparation

  15. Congenital Absence of Tibia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudesh Sharma, Saleem Mir, Vikrant Sharma, Irshad Dar, Rafee

    2002-10-01

    Full Text Available Congenital absence of tibia is a rare anomaly. We repol1 a case who presented at the age of 3 years withabsence of tibia right side with associated anomolies and was managed by reconstruction of the kneeand ankle joints b transfer of fibula

  16. Do lower vertebrates suffer from motion sickness?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lychakov, Dmitri

    The poster presents literature data and results of the author’s studies with the goal to find out whether the lower animals are susceptible to motion sickness (Lychakov, 2012). In our studies, fish and amphibians were tested for 2 h and more by using a rotating device (f = 0.24 Hz, a _{centrifugal} = 0.144 g) and a parallel swing (f = 0.2 Hz, a _{horizontal} = 0.059 g). The performed studies did not revealed in 4 fish species and in toads any characteristic reactions of the motion sickness (sopite syndrome, prodromal preparatory behavior, vomiting). At the same time, in toads there appeared characteristic stress reactions (escape response, an increase of the number of urinations, inhibition of appetite), as well as some other reactions not associated with motion sickness (regular head movements, eye retractions). In trout fry the used stimulation promoted division of the individuals into the groups differing by locomotor reaction to stress, as well as the individuals with the well-expressed compensatory reaction that we called the otolithotropic reaction. Analysis of results obtained by other authors confirms our conclusions. Thus, the lower vertebrates, unlike mammals, are immune to motion sickness either under the land conditions or under conditions of weightlessness. On the basis of available experimental data and theoretical concepts of mechanisms of development the motion sickness, formulated in several hypotheses (mismatch hypothesis, Traisman‘ s hypothesis, resonance hypothesis), there presented the synthetic hypothesis of motion sickness that has the conceptual significance. According to the hypothesis, the unusual stimulation producing sensor-motor or sensor-sensor conflict or an action of vestibular and visual stimuli of frequency of about 0.2 Hz is perceived by CNS as poisoning and causes the corresponding reactions. The motion sickness actually is a byproduct of technical evolution. It is suggested that in the lower vertebrates, unlike mammals

  17. Increase the Great Sports Events Sick Leave?

    OpenAIRE

    Štefánik, Adam

    2012-01-01

    In case that watching sports yields more benefits than costs of the activity, employees are tempted to find a way to avoid work and watch sports. The thesis looks into influence of the most watched sport events on amount of sickness rate among employees in the Czech Republic using daily data from 2004 to 2010. Gender-specific regression analysis proved relevant impact of summer Olympic Games 2004 and 2008 on rising of men and women sickness rate. During these Olympic Games by more than 16 per...

  18. 76 FR 19310 - Information Collection; Certified State Mediation Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-07

    ... Farm Service Agency Information Collection; Certified State Mediation Program AGENCY: Farm Service... Mediation Program. The information collection is necessary to ensure the grant program is being administered... following methods: Mail: Carol Wagner, Certified State Mediation Program Manager, USDA, FSA, Appeals...

  19. Screening instruments for predicting return to work in long-term sickness absence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Momsen, A-M H; Stapelfeldt, C M; Nielsen, Claus Vinther;

    2016-01-01

    from two municipal job centres, with at least 8 weeks of SA. The instruments used were the Symptom Check List of somatic distress (SCL-SOM) (score 0-48 points), the Bodily Distress Syndrome Questionnaire (BDSQ) (0-120 points) and the one-item self-rated health (SRH) (1-5 points). The instruments......' predictive value was explored in a time-to-event analysis. Different cut-points were analysed to find the highest number of correctly classified RTW cases, identified in a register on public transfer payments. RESULTS: The study involved 305 subjects. The adjusted relative risk regarding prediction of RTW...

  20. Life Stories: Lay Musical Practices among Men and Women with Long-Term Sickness Absence

    OpenAIRE

    Batt-Rawden, Kari Bjerke

    2013-01-01

    This text introduces the reader to music’s role in a salutogenic approach to health, focusing on lay musical practice among men and women with long-term illnesses. It is based on a longitudinal study conducted over the course of one year in Norway (Batt-Rawden, 2007, 2010a, 2010b, 2011). One objective of this study was to explore the role and significance of music in the life of these afflicted men and women in or through different life phases, situations, events, issues and contexts. The stu...

  1. Effect of Psychosocial Work Environment on Sickness Absence Among Patients Treated for Ischemic Heart Disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Biering, Karin; Lund, Thomas; Andersen, Johan Hviid;

    2015-01-01

    Introduction During the last decades mortality has declined in patients with coronary heart disease due to improvements in treatments and changes in life style, resulting in more people living with chronic heart disease. This implies that focus on rehabilitation and re-integration to the work...

  2. Objectively measured work load, health status and sickness absence among Danish ambulance personnel. A longitudinal study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Claus D.

    2013-01-01

    levels of self-rated health (OR: 1.79), higher levels of musculoskeletal pain (OR: 1.16) but was unrelated to mental health. In addition, increasing work load was associated with higher levels of emotional demands and work pace (p < 0.000). The objective measure of work load was also associated with self...

  3. Return to work among employees with long-term sickness absence in eldercare

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Thomas; Andersen, Malene Friis; Christensen, Karl Bang;

    2011-01-01

    estos 598 empleados durante un año a partir del inicio de su ausencia por enfermedad para investigar asociaciones entre los datos de línea de base de cuestionario sobre, por un lado, las características del trabajo psicosocial y los estados psicológicos relacionados con el trabajo, y por el otro el......: el compromiso organizativo afectivo y la experiencia de motivación en el trabajo, los resultados mostraron que los empleados ausentes por enfermedad que sentían un bajo nivel de motivación en el trabajo en la línea de base tenían un ‘riesgo’ notablemente reducido de VAT al compararse con empleados...... suivis pendant un an en après le début des congés maladie en utilisant l'analyse de régression de Cox, afin d'étudier les associations entre les données du questionnaire de base sur les caractéristiques psychosociales du travail et les états psychologiques liés au travail d'une part et les risque du RAT...

  4. Psychiatric disorders in long-term sickness absence -- a population-based cross-sectional study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søgaard, Hans Jørgen; Bech, Per

    2009-01-01

    % for any somatoform disorder. Multivariable analyses showed that female sex and unemployment were predictors of a psychiatric disorder, whereas living with children below 18 years and being a skilled worker carried a reduced risk of a psychiatric disorder. CONCLUSIONS: The high frequency of psychiatric...

  5. The transition between work, sickness absence and pension in a cohort of Danish colorectal cancer survivors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carlsen, Kathrine; Harling, Henrik; Pedersen, Jacob; Christensen, Karl Bang; Osler, Merete

    2013-01-01

    : Population-based study with use of administrative health-related and socioeconomic registers. Participants: All persons (N=4343) diagnosed with colorectal cancer in Denmark during the years 2001-2009 while they were in their working age (18-63 years) and who were part of the labour force 1 year postdiagnosis...

  6. Efficacy of 'Tailored Physical Activity' in reducing sickness absence among health care workers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nygaard Andersen, Lotte; Juul-Kristensen, Birgit; Roessler, Kirsten Kaya; Herborg, Lene Gram; Sørensen, Thomas Lund; Søgaard, Karen

    2013-01-01

    Health care workers have high physical work demands, involving patient handling and manual work tasks. A strategy for prevention of work-related musculoskeletal disorders can enhance the physical capacity of the health care worker. The aim of this study is to evaluate the efficacy of 'Tailored...... Physical Activity' for health care workers in the Sonderborg Municipality....

  7. Sensory neurobiology: demystifying the sick sense.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozza, Thomas

    2015-02-16

    The vomeronasal organ, a sensory structure within the olfactory system, detects chemical signals that affect social and sexual behaviors and that elicit responses to predator odors. A recent study demonstrates that innate avoidance of sick conspecifics requires an intact vomeronasal organ, expanding the repertoire of biological functions known to be mediated by this olfactory subsystem. PMID:25689911

  8. [23andMe and motion sickness].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, Bertrand

    2016-05-01

    A Genome Wide Association Study on propensity to motion sickness published by 23andMe gives interesting results, shows validity for self-reported phenotypic information and underlines the value of the model developed by the company for customer participation in genetic studies. PMID:27225928

  9. Cerebral blood flow in acute mountain sickness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, J B; Wright, Anne; Lassen, N A;

    1990-01-01

    Changes in cerebral blood flow (CBF) were measured using the radioactive xenon technique and were related to the development of acute mountain sickness (AMS). In 12 subjects, ascending from 150 to 3,475 m, CBF was 24% increased at 24 h [45.1 to 55.9 initial slope index (ISI) units] and 4% increased...

  10. Stroboscopic Goggles for Reduction of Motion Sickness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reschke, M. F.; Somers, Jeffrey T.

    2005-01-01

    A device built around a pair of electronic shutters has been demonstrated to be effective as a prototype of stroboscopic goggles or eyeglasses for preventing or reducing motion sickness. The momentary opening of the shutters helps to suppress a phenomenon that is known in the art as retinal slip and is described more fully below. While a number of different environmental factors can induce motion sickness, a common factor associated with every known motion environment is sensory confusion or sensory mismatch. Motion sickness is a product of misinformation arriving at a central point in the nervous system from the senses from which one determines one s spatial orientation. When information from the eyes, ears, joints, and pressure receptors are all in agreement as to one s orientation, there is no motion sickness. When one or more sensory input(s) to the brain is not expected, or conflicts with what is anticipated, the end product is motion sickness. Normally, an observer s eye moves, compensating for the anticipated effect of motion, in such a manner that the image of an object moving relatively to an observer is held stationary on the retina. In almost every known environment that induces motion sickness, a change in the gain (in the signal-processing sense of gain ) of the vestibular system causes the motion of the eye to fail to hold images stationary on the retina, and the resulting motion of the images is termed retinal slip. The present concept of stroboscopic goggles or eyeglasses (see figure) is based on the proposition that prevention of retinal slip, and hence, the prevention of sensory mismatch, can be expected to reduce the tendency toward motion sickness. A device according to this concept helps to prevent retinal slip by providing snapshots of the visual environment through electronic shutters that are brief enough that each snapshot freezes the image on each retina. The exposure time for each snapshot is less than 5 ms. In the event that a higher

  11. Job satisfaction among multiple sclerosis certified nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulick, Elsie E; Halper, June; Costello, Kathleen

    2007-08-01

    Several studies document high levels of job satisfaction among certified nurses, but no study has examined job satisfaction and factors influencing job satisfaction of certified multiple sclerosis (MS) nurses. This study tested a theoretical model proposing that two organizational factors, colleague relationships and benefits, will predict job satisfaction. Job satisfaction was represented by four factors: autonomy, professional status, professional growth, and time efficiency. Participants included MS nurses certified for 6 months or more practicing mostly in three countries (Canada, Great Britain, and the United States) who anonymously completed the Misener Nurse Practitioner Job Satisfaction Scale, an overall job satisfaction rating, and demographic information. Findings indicate that colleague relationships and benefits significantly estimated organization structure and that autonomy, professional status, professional growth, and time efficiency significantly estimated job satisfaction; furthermore, organization factors such as colleague relationships and benefits significantly predict job satisfaction. Among the countries, several statistically significant differences were observed between job satisfaction factors as well as items in both organization and job satisfaction subscales. Average factor scores among the countries were mostly rated satisfactory. The International Organization of Multiple Sclerosis Nurses Executive Board plans to use the study findings to see how it needs to focus efforts as an organization toward enhancing and standardizing MS care and develop MS nurse professionalism worldwide. PMID:17847673

  12. Past absence as a predictor of present absence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Løkke Møller, Ann-Kristina Løkke

    2014-01-01

    This article investigates whether past absence behaviour is a predictor of present absence duration in a large Danish municipality with 17,499 individuals observed from 1996 to 2004. Past absence behaviour is measured in both absence days and absence spells. The article also investigates a number...... of confounders such as gender, age, seniority, wage, contracted number of work hours and season. The results of the empirical study show that there is a significant positive relationship between employees' absence duration and past absence spells and past absence days, respectively. The study thus...... confirms that past days and past spells have an equal potential of predicting present absent. Past absence behaviour can thus be used as an early warning for managers. The study also confirms that personal characteristics such as age and seniority also influence absence duration. Moreover, job...

  13. Evidence of Absence software

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalthorp, Daniel; Huso, Manuela M. P.; Dail, David; Kenyon, Jessica

    2014-01-01

    Evidence of Absence software (EoA) is a user-friendly application used for estimating bird and bat fatalities at wind farms and designing search protocols. The software is particularly useful in addressing whether the number of fatalities has exceeded a given threshold and what search parameters are needed to give assurance that thresholds were not exceeded. The software is applicable even when zero carcasses have been found in searches. Depending on the effectiveness of the searches, such an absence of evidence of mortality may or may not be strong evidence that few fatalities occurred. Under a search protocol in which carcasses are detected with nearly 100 percent certainty, finding zero carcasses would be convincing evidence that overall mortality rate was near zero. By contrast, with a less effective search protocol with low probability of detecting a carcass, finding zero carcasses does not rule out the possibility that large numbers of animals were killed but not detected in the searches. EoA uses information about the search process and scavenging rates to estimate detection probabilities to determine a maximum credible number of fatalities, even when zero or few carcasses are observed.

  14. Risk markers of all-cause and diagnosis-specific disability pension--a prospective cohort study of individuals sickness absent due to stress-related mental disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ishtiak-Ahmed, Kazi; Perski, Aleksander; Mittendorfer-Rutz, Ellenor

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Stress-related mental disorders rank among the leading causes of sickness absence in several European countries. The aim of this study was to investigate predictors of all-cause and diagnosis-specific disability pension in sickness absentees with stress-related mental disorders. METHODS......: A cohort of 36304 non-retired individuals aged 16-64 years at 31.12.2004 with at-least one sickness absence spell due to stress-related mental disorders (SRMD) initiated in 2005 in Sweden was followed-up with regard to disability pension (2006-2010) by linkage of registers. Uni- and multivariate...... Hazard ratios (HR) with 95% Confidence Intervals, CI, were estimated using Cox regression for several risk markers. RESULTS: During the follow-up period, 2735 individuals (7.5%) were granted a disability pension, predominantly due to mental diagnoses (n = 2004, 73.3%). In the multivariate analyses...

  15. CEH Certified Ethical Hacker Study Guide

    CERN Document Server

    Graves, Kimberly

    2010-01-01

    Prepare for the new version of CEH certification with this advanced guide. Once you learn the thought processes of unethical hackers, you can figure out how to secure your computer systems to defend against them. That's the philosophy behind ethical hacking, and it's a growing field. Prepare for certification in this important area with this advanced study guide that covers all exam objectives for the challenging CEH Certified Ethical Hackers exam. The book provides full coverage of exam topics, real-world examples, and a CD with additional materials for extra review and practice.:; Covers eth

  16. CISA Certified Information Systems Auditor : study guide

    CERN Document Server

    Cannon, David L

    2011-01-01

    The industry-leading study guide for the CISA exam, fully updated. More than 27,000 IT professionals take the Certified Information Systems Auditor exam each year. SC Magazine lists the CISA as the top certification for security professionals. Compliances, regulations, and best practices for IS auditing are updated twice a year, and this is the most up-to-date book available to prepare aspiring CISAs for the next exam.: CISAs are among the five highest-paid IT security professionals; more than 27,000 take the exam each year and the numbers are growing; Standards are updated twice a year, and t

  17. Diagnosis of moderate acute radiation sickness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forty patients with malignant lymphoma were given 60Co TLI. 21 cases received 6 Gy and 19 received 8 Gy. It was estimated that a single TLI of 6 and 8 Gy would correspond to TBI of 3.55 Gy and 4.25 Gy (average values) by analysing peripheral blood cell chromosome aberrations and 1.85-2.37 Gy by measuring red bone marrow stem cells clinically. Moderate acute radiation sickness with digestive tract reaction and hemopoietic and immunologic depression was observed. WBC and platelets decreased rapidly. Lymphocytes showed quantitative and qualitative changes even at early stage. All these indexes are significant for diagnosis. Besides, the degree of labial stimulation response, levels of C-reactive protein, corticoid, and urinal nucleoside and alkaloid base presented great changes both pre-and post-irradiation. Early diagnosis of moderate acute radiation sickness could be made in cancer patients subjected to 6-8 Gy TLI

  18. The Genetic Basis of Chronic Mountain Sickness

    OpenAIRE

    Ronen, Roy; Zhou, Dan; Bafna, Vineet; Haddad, Gabriel G.

    2014-01-01

    Chronic mountain sickness (CMS) is a disease that affects many high-altitude dwellers, particularly in the Andean Mountains in South America. The hallmark symptom of CMS is polycythemia, which causes increased risk of pulmonary hypertension and stroke (among other symptoms). A prevailing hypothesis in high-altitude medicine is that CMS results from a population-specific “maladaptation” to the hypoxic conditions at high altitude. In contrast, the prevalence of CMS is very low in other high-alt...

  19. Visfatin induces sickness responses in the brain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Byong Seo Park

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVE: Visfatin, also known as nicotiamide phosphoribosyltransferase or pre-B cell colony enhancing factor, is a pro-inflammatory cytokine whose serum level is increased in sepsis and cancer as well as in obesity. Here we report a pro-inflammatory role of visfatin in the brain, to mediate sickness responses including anorexia, hyperthermia and hypoactivity. METHODOLOGY: Rats were intracerebroventricularly (ICV injected with visfatin, and changes in food intake, body weight, body temperature and locomotor activity were monitored. Real-time PCR was applied to determine the expressions of pro-inflammatory cytokines, proopiomelanocortin (POMC and prostaglandin-synthesizing enzymes in their brain. To determine the roles of cyclooxygenase (COX and melanocortin in the visfatin action, rats were ICV-injected with visfatin with or without SHU9119, a melanocortin receptor antagonist, or indomethacin, a COX inhibitor, and their sickness behaviors were evaluated. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Administration of visfatin decreased food intake, body weight and locomotor activity and increased body temperature. Visfatin evoked significant increases in the levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines, prostaglandin-synthesizing enzymes and POMC, an anorexigenic neuropeptide. Indomethacin attenuated the effects of visfatin on hyperthermia and hypoactivity, but not anorexia. Further, SHU9119 blocked visfatin-induced anorexia but did not affect hyperthermia or hypoactivity. CONCLUSIONS: Visfatin induced sickness responses via regulation of COX and the melanocortin pathway in the brain.

  20. Serum sickness secondary to ciprofloxacin use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guharoy, S R

    1994-12-01

    Although serum sickness-like reactions are uncommon, various drugs have recently been implicated to manifest the reaction. The following case report is of a possible serum sickness-like reaction secondary to ciprofloxacin use, a commonly prescribed antibiotic in the US. A 62-y-old female developed polyarthralgias, myalgia and a generalized urticarial rash following 5 d use of ciprofloxacin. On admission to the hospital, patient was placed on cefazolin and gentamicin for suspected bacteremia. However, the regimen was discontinued after 72 h because of worsening clinical condition. Patient was placed on iv methylprednisolone therapy, and within 18 h a significant improvement was noted in her myalgias and rash. Over the next 72 h the steroid therapy was changed to a po regimen and the patient became asymptomatic 5 d after the initiation of steroid therapy. Patient was discharged on day 9 of hospital admission. Though serum sickness-like reactions have been reported with various drugs, only 1 case has been reported implicating ciprofloxacin. Clinicians should be aware of this potential adverse event secondary to ciprofloxacin use. PMID:7900274

  1. Random numbers certified by Bell's theorem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pironio, S; Acín, A; Massar, S; de la Giroday, A Boyer; Matsukevich, D N; Maunz, P; Olmschenk, S; Hayes, D; Luo, L; Manning, T A; Monroe, C

    2010-04-15

    Randomness is a fundamental feature of nature and a valuable resource for applications ranging from cryptography and gambling to numerical simulation of physical and biological systems. Random numbers, however, are difficult to characterize mathematically, and their generation must rely on an unpredictable physical process. Inaccuracies in the theoretical modelling of such processes or failures of the devices, possibly due to adversarial attacks, limit the reliability of random number generators in ways that are difficult to control and detect. Here, inspired by earlier work on non-locality-based and device-independent quantum information processing, we show that the non-local correlations of entangled quantum particles can be used to certify the presence of genuine randomness. It is thereby possible to design a cryptographically secure random number generator that does not require any assumption about the internal working of the device. Such a strong form of randomness generation is impossible classically and possible in quantum systems only if certified by a Bell inequality violation. We carry out a proof-of-concept demonstration of this proposal in a system of two entangled atoms separated by approximately one metre. The observed Bell inequality violation, featuring near perfect detection efficiency, guarantees that 42 new random numbers are generated with 99 per cent confidence. Our results lay the groundwork for future device-independent quantum information experiments and for addressing fundamental issues raised by the intrinsic randomness of quantum theory. PMID:20393558

  2. Work and family: associations with long-term sick-listing in Swedish women – a case-control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandmark Hélène

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The number of Swedish women who are long-term sick-listed is high, and twice as high as for men. Also the periods of sickness absence have on average been longer for women than for men. The objective of this study was to investigate the associations between factors in work- and family life and long-term sick-listing in Swedish women. Methods This case-control study included 283 women on long-term sick-listing ≥90 days, and 250 female referents, randomly chosen, living in five counties in Sweden. Bivariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses with odds ratios were calculated to estimate the associations between long-term sick-listing and factors related to occupational work and family life. Results Long-term sick-listing in women is associated with self-reported lack of competence for work tasks (OR 2.42 1.23–11.21 log reg, workplace dissatisfaction (OR 1.89 1.14–6.62 log reg, physical workload above capacity (1.78 1.50–5.94, too high mental strain in work tasks (1.61 1.08–5.01 log reg, number of employers during work life (OR 1.39 1.35–4.03 log reg, earlier part-time work (OR 1.39 1.18–4.03 log reg, and lack of influence on working hours (OR 1.35 1.47–3.86 log reg. A younger age at first child, number of children, and main responsibility for own children was also found to be associated with long-term sick-listing. Almost all of the sick-listed women (93% wanted to return to working life, and 54% reported they could work immediately if adjustments at work or part-time work were possible. Conclusion Factors in work and in family life could be important to consider to prevent women from being long-term sick-listed and promote their opportunities to remain in working life. Measures ought to be taken to improve their mobility in work life and control over decisions and actions regarding theirs lives.

  3. Training and Certification Program for Certified Energy Auditors (CEA) and Certified Building Commissioning Professionals (CBCP)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kent, Bill

    2012-08-24

    The Association of Energy Engineers (AEE) has offered energy efficiency training and certification programs for over 30 years. During that time AEE has certified more than 22,000 professionals. All of our certification programs are the result of extensive industry research and program development and oversight by certification boards. For this project award, AEE proposed to work with the Department of Energy to utilize and extend existing industry recognized Certified Energy Auditor (CEA) and Certified Building Commissioning Professional (CBCP) programs under this Training Program Development Announcement. These expanded training programs will have significant impact in training professionals for building commissioning and energy auditing to achieve the goal of bringing existing buildings up to their optimal energy performance potential and ensuring that new buildings maintain their expected optimal level of performance. The goals and objectives of the training development project were achieved with the development of new training programs that are now being offered as self-sustaining commercial training and certification programs. These new programs are training and certifying professionals who are accomplishing the goal of increasing building energy performance in both existing and new buildings.

  4. Prediction of Sickness Absenteeism, Disability Pension and Sickness Presenteeism Among Employees with Back Pain

    OpenAIRE

    Bergström, Gunnar; Hagberg, Jan; Busch, Hillevi; Jensen, Irene; Björklund, Christina

    2013-01-01

    Purpose The primary aim of this study was to evaluate the predictive ability of the Örebro Musculoskeletal Pain Screening Questionnaire (ÖMPSQ) concerning long-term sick leave, sickness presenteeism and disability pension during a follow-up period of 2 years. Methods The study group consisted of 195 employees visiting the occupational health service (OHS) due to back pain. Results Using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves, the area under the curve (AUC) varied from 0.67 to 0.93, wh...

  5. Cytokines: how important are they in mediating sickness?

    OpenAIRE

    Ho, YS; Poon, DCH; Chang, RCC; Chiu, K.

    2013-01-01

    Sickness refers to a set of coordinated physiological and behavioral changes in response to systemic inflammation. It is characterized by fever, malaise, social withdrawal, fatigue, and anorexia. While these responses collectively represent a protective mechanism against infection and injury, increasing lines of evidence indicate that over-exaggerated or persistent sickness can damage the brain, and could possibly raise the risk to developing delirium. Therefore, a clear understanding in sick...

  6. Motion sickness: advances in pathogenesis, prediction, prevention, and treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shupak, Avi; Gordon, Carlos R

    2006-12-01

    Motion sickness has a major influence on modern traveling activities and the rapidly spreading engagement in virtual reality immersion. Recent evidence emphasizes the role of the otoliths in the pathogenesis of motion sickness, and several new theories may help explain its occurrence beyond the traditional sensory conflict theory. A promising new direction is the recently reported association of genetic polymorphism of the alpha2-adrenergic receptor with increased autonomic response to stress and motion sickness. Various physiological measures for the evaluation and prediction of motion sickness have been tested. However, no single parameter has yet been found to be of high enough sensitivity and specificity for the diagnosis or prediction of individual motion sickness susceptibility. A number of pharmacological and non-pharmacological countermeasures are used for the prevention and treatment of motion sickness. The non-pharmacological options include all procedures that reduce conflicting sensory input, accelerate the process of multi-sensory adaptation, and promote psychological factors which enable the subject to cope with his/her condition. The most effective anti-motion sickness drugs are central acting anticholinergics and H1 antihistamines; however, adverse effects on psychomotor performance may limit their use in drivers, pilots, and naval crewmembers. Recent studies may be relevant to our understanding of the link between motion sickness, migraine, vertigo, and anxiety. Based on these findings and on recent neurochemical data, the development of new anti-motion sickness agents is a promising field of investigation. PMID:17183916

  7. MR Imaging of Subclinical Cerebral Decompression Sickness. A case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diving accidents related to barotrauma constitute a unique subset of ischemic insults to the central nervous system. Victims may demonstrate components of arterial gas embolism, which has a propensity for cerebral involvement, and/or decompression sickness, with primarily spinal cord involvement. Decompression sickness-related radiology literature is very limited. We present our MR findings including FLAIR images in a decompression sickness patient with atypical presentation and review the related literature. We believe MR can be useful in follow-up studies and in early diagnosis of decompression sickness when symptoms do not fit the classic picture or loss of consciousness in surfacing

  8. Trends of Sickness Certifications in Primary Health Care in Muscat, Sultanate of Oman

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faiz A’Rashdy

    2015-03-01

    identify determinates of high sickness absence. Robust guidelines are important to regulate the number of sickness certificates issued.

  9. Sickness presenteeism in Spanish-born and immigrant workers in Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felt Emily

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Previous studies have shown that immigrant workers face relatively worse working and employment conditions, as well as lower rates of sickness absence than native-born workers. This study aims to assess rates of sickness presenteeism in a sample of Spanish-born and foreign-born workers according to different characteristics. Methods A cross-sectional survey was conducted amongst a convenience sample of workers (Spanish-born and foreign-born, living in four Spanish cities: Barcelona, Huelva, Madrid and Valencia (2008-2009. Sickness presenteeism information was collected through two items in the questionnaire ("Have you had health problems in the last year?" and "Have you ever had to miss work for any health problem?" and was defined as worker who had a health problem (answered yes, first item and had not missed work (answered no, second item. For the analysis, the sample of 2,059 workers (1,617 foreign-born who answered yes to health problems was included. After descriptives, logistic regressions were used to establish the association between origin country and sickness presenteeism (adjusted odds ratios aOR; 95% confidence interval 95%CI. Analyses were stratified per time spent in Spain among foreign-born workers. Results All of the results refer to the comparison between foreign-born and Spanish-born workers as a whole, and in some categories relating to personal and occupational conditions. Foreign-born workers were more likely to report sickness presenteeism compared with their Spanish-born counterparts, especially those living in Spain for under 2 years [Prevalence: 42% in Spanish-born and 56.3% in Foreign-born; aOR 1.77 95%CI 1.24-2.53]. In case of foreign-born workers (with time in Spain Conclusions Immigrant workers report more sickness presenteeism than their Spanish-born counterparts. These results could be related to precarious work and employment conditions of immigrants. Immigrant workers should benefit from the

  10. Development studies of captopril certified reference material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel Nogueira

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the studies performed with the candidate Certified Reference Material (CRM of captopril, the first CRM of an active pharmaceutical ingredient (API in Brazil, including determination of impurities (organic, inorganic and volatiles, homogeneity testing, short- and long-term stability studies, calculation of captopril content using the mass balance approach, and estimation of the associated measurement uncertainty.Este artigo descreve os estudos realizados com o candidato a Material de Referência Certificado (MRC de captopril, primeiro MRC de fármacos no Brasil, incluindo a determinação de impurezas (orgânicas, inorgânicas e voláteis, testes de homogeneidade, testes de estabilidade de curta e longa duração, cálculo do teor de captopril por balanço de massa e estimativa da incerteza de medição associada ao valor certificado.

  11. Fertilizers applied to certified organic tomato culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The tomato culture demands large quantities of mineral nutrients, which are supplied by synthetic fertilizers in the conventional cultivation system. In the organic cultivation system only alternative fertilizers are allowed by the certifiers and accepted as safe for humans and environment. The chemical composition of rice bran, oyster flour, cattle manure and ground charcoal, as well as soils and tomato fruits were evaluated by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA). The potential contribution of organic fertilizers to the enrichment of chemical elements in soil and their transfer to fruits was investigated using concentration ratios for fertilizer and soil samples, and also for soil and tomato. Results evidenced that these alternative fertilizers could be taken as important sources of Br, Ca, Ce, K, Na and Zn for the organic tomato culture. (author)

  12. 'The Value of Rude Health': Employees' Well Being, Absence and Workplace Performance

    OpenAIRE

    Marsden, David; Moriconi, Simone

    2009-01-01

    This paper brings new evidence on the relationship between employees' well being, sickness absence and four dimensions of workplace performance i.e. productivity, efficiency, quality of service and profitability. It uses a new panel dataset with monthly observations over two years for 48 local units of a large multi-site organisation in the logistics sector. It finds that good consultation and communication at the local level are associated with lower absenteeism. It also finds that lower abs...

  13. Continuity of nursing and the time of sickness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elstad, Ingunn; Torjuul, Kirsti

    2009-04-01

    This paper explores the relationship between temporal continuity in nursing and temporal features of sickness. It is based on phenomenological and hermeneutical philosophy, empirical studies of sickness time, and the nursing theories of Nightingale, of Benner and of Benner and Wrubel. In the first part, temporal continuity is defined as distinct from interpersonal continuity. Tensions between temporal continuity and discontinuity are discussed in the contexts of care management, of conceptualisations of disease and of time itself. Temporal limitations to the methodological concept of situation are discussed. The main part of this paper explores nurses' possibilities to relate to their patients' time, and how temporal features of sickness may warrant temporal continuity of nursing. Three temporal characteristics of sickness are discussed: the immediacy of patients' suffering, the basic continuity of life through sickness and health care, and the indeterminism and precariousness of sickness. The timing of nursing acts is discussed. The paper explores how sickness is both part of the continuity of life, and threatens this continuity. It concludes that this tension is implicitly recognised in the temporal continuity of nursing, which allows for discontinuous and continuous aspects of sickness time. Nurses accordingly perceive the sick person's time at several levels of temporality, and distinguish highly complex temporal processes in their patients' trajectory. Temporal continuity provides the time, flexibility, and closeness for nurses to perceive and act into time dimensions of individual sickness. The paper shows that temporal continuity of nursing is grounded in temporal characteristics of severe sickness. It suggests that temporal continuity is an important theoretical concept in nursing. PMID:19291197

  14. Prediction of future labour market outcome in a cohort of long-term sick-listed Danes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Jacob; Gerds, Thomas Alexander; Bjørner, Jakob;

    2014-01-01

    absence, and early retirement from the labour market. Predictor variables included gender, age, socio-economic position, job type, chronic disease status, history of sickness absence, and prior history of unemployment. Separate models were built for times of economic growth (2005-2007) and times...... only moderate prediction accuracy for the five outcome states. Results obtained with discrete event simulation were comparable with logistic regression. CONCLUSIONS: Only moderate prediction accuracy could be achieved using the selected information from the Danish register RSS. Other variables need...

  15. The association between self-efficacy and sick-leave among men and women: a cross-sectional study of the general working population in Sweden

    OpenAIRE

    Kristina E M Holmgren; Ann-Carlotte Mårdby

    2013-01-01

    Background: The aim of this study was to investigate if low self-efficacy was associated with increased risk for sickness absence, in a general population of employed women and men. The aim was also to analyse differences in self-efficacy concerning age, education, income, and socio-economic position.Methods: This cross-sectional study was based on data collected in western Sweden, 2008. The study population consisted of 2,900 employed sick-listed individuals (E-SL) and 2,649 random working p...

  16. Efficacy of Tailored Physical Activity or Chronic Pain Self-Management Programme on return to work for sick-listed citizens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Lotte Nygaard; Juul-Kristensen, Birgit; Sørensen, Thomas Lund;

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The aim was to evaluate the efficacy of 'Tailored Physical Activity' (TPA) and a 'Chronic Pain Self-management Programme' (CPSMP) compared with a reference group (REF) on return to work after 3 months as sick-listed citizens with pain related to the back or the upper body. METHODS...... the municipality and the co-primary endpoint was duration of the sickness absence period. Secondary outcomes consisted of pain, body mass index, aerobic capacity, grip strength, work ability and kinesiophobia. The trial was conducted in Sonderborg Municipality from March 2011 to October 2013. RESULTS...

  17. 7 CFR 97.143 - Certified seed only.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Certified seed only. 97.143 Section 97.143 Agriculture... PLANT VARIETY AND PROTECTION Marking Or Labeling Provisions § 97.143 Certified seed only. (a) Upon filing an application, or amendment thereto, specifying seed of the variety is to be sold by variety...

  18. 19 CFR 115.9 - Certifying Authorities responsibilities-containers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Certifying Authorities responsibilities-containers...; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY CARGO CONTAINER AND ROAD VEHICLE CERTIFICATION PURSUANT TO INTERNATIONAL CUSTOMS CONVENTIONS Administration § 115.9 Certifying Authorities responsibilities—containers. (a) General....

  19. 40 CFR 121.21 - When Administrator certifies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false When Administrator certifies. 121.21... CERTIFICATION OF ACTIVITIES REQUIRING A FEDERAL LICENSE OR PERMIT Certification by the Administrator § 121.21 When Administrator certifies. Certification by the Administrator that the discharge resulting from...

  20. 78 FR 58567 - Criteria to Certify Coal Mine Rescue Teams

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-24

    ... Safety and Health Administration Criteria to Certify Coal Mine Rescue Teams AGENCY: Mine Safety and... mine rescue team training. MSHA prescribes training materials through the issuance of instruction guides. Existing standards for coal mine rescue teams include criteria for mine operators to certify...

  1. 42 CFR 441.153 - Team certifying need for services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Team certifying need for services. 441.153 Section... § 441.153 Team certifying need for services. Certification under § 441.152 must be made by terms..., certification must be made by an independent team that— (1) Includes a physician; (2) Has competence...

  2. 77 FR 43535 - Grantee Codes for Certified Radiofrequency Equipment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-25

    ... COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 2 Grantee Codes for Certified Radiofrequency Equipment AGENCY: Federal Communications... continue to have new ones to assign to parties that wish to certify new equipment. DATES: Effective August....gov . Summary of the Order 1. The Commission operates an equipment authorization program...

  3. 7 CFR 97.122 - Certified seed only election.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Certified seed only election. 97.122 Section 97.122 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... PLANT VARIETY AND PROTECTION Reissuance of Certificate § 97.122 Certified seed only election. When...

  4. Identifying employees at risk for job loss during sick leave

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Flach, Peter A.; Groothoff, Johan W.; Bultmann, Ute

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To examine the associations between medical, work-related, organizational and sociodemographic factors and job loss during sick leave in a Dutch population of 4132 employees on sick leave. Methods: Data were assessed by occupational health physicians (OHPs) on sociodemographic, medical, wor

  5. Reliability of provocative tests of motion sickness susceptibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calkins, D. S.; Reschke, M. F.; Kennedy, R. S.; Dunlop, W. P.

    1987-01-01

    Test-retest reliability values were derived from motion sickness susceptibility scores obtained from two successive exposures to each of three tests: (1) Coriolis sickness sensitivity test; (2) staircase velocity movement test; and (3) parabolic flight static chair test. The reliability of the three tests ranged from 0.70 to 0.88. Normalizing values from predictors with skewed distributions improved the reliability.

  6. Late stage infection in sleeping sickness.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hartwig Wolburg

    Full Text Available At the turn of the 19(th century, trypanosomes were identified as the causative agent of sleeping sickness and their presence within the cerebrospinal fluid of late stage sleeping sickness patients was described. However, no definitive proof of how the parasites reach the brain has been presented so far. Analyzing electron micrographs prepared from rodent brains more than 20 days after infection, we present here conclusive evidence that the parasites first enter the brain via the choroid plexus from where they penetrate the epithelial cell layer to reach the ventricular system. Adversely, no trypanosomes were observed within the parenchyma outside blood vessels. We also show that brain infection depends on the formation of long slender trypanosomes and that the cerebrospinal fluid as well as the stroma of the choroid plexus is a hostile environment for the survival of trypanosomes, which enter the pial space including the Virchow-Robin space via the subarachnoid space to escape degradation. Our data suggest that trypanosomes do not intend to colonize the brain but reside near or within the glia limitans, from where they can re-populate blood vessels and disrupt the sleep wake cycles.

  7. The pathologic anatomy of radiation sickness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The monograph considers pathologic anatomy and some problems of injury pathogenesis from external and incorporated radiation sources. The book is based on the generalized results of perennial authors investigations and literary data. The general characteristic of existing knowledge of the material substrate of different forms and types of radiation injuries, as well as of the dependence of structural changes on the nature and type of radiation, is given. Pathomorphology of organic manifestations of acute radiation sickness is thoroughly studied. The dynamics of structural alterations in blood ressels and their role in delayed trophic derangements due to radiation sickness are considered in detail; the peculiarities of infections and noninfections inflammatory changes in an irradiated organism and in the case of injuries due to the effect of incorporated radioactive substances, are described. Special attention is paid to the nonuniform external irradiation. Structural violations due to injuries caused by various radioactive substances and the peculiarities of their microdistribution in the case of different ways of administration into the organism, are described. Spectral attention is paid to delayed consequences of the organism injury by incorporated radioactive substances. The concluding chapter of the book presents the problems of differential pathoanatomical diagnostics of radiation injuries and their delayed effect due to generally spread nosologic forms of disease

  8. Explanation of diagnosis criteria for radiation sickness from internal exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A revised edition of the Diagnostic Criteria for Radiation Sickness from Internal Exposure has been approved and issued by the Ministry of Health. It is necessary to research the internal radiation sickness to adapt to the current serious anti-terrorism situation. This standard was enacted based on the extensive research of related literature, from which 12 cases with internal radiation sickness and screened out were involving 7 types of radionuclide. The Development of Emergency Response Standard Extension Framework: Midterm Evaluation Report is the main reference which approved by the International Atomic Energy Agency and World Health Organization. This amendment contains many new provisions such as internal radiation sickness effects models and threshold dose, and the appendix added threshold dose of serious deterministic effects induced by radionuclide intake and radiotoxicology parameters of some radionuclides. In order to understand and implement this standard, and to diagnose and treat the internal radiation sickness correctly, the contents of this standard were interpreted in this article. (authors)

  9. Stroboscopic Vision as a Treatment for Space Motion Sickness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reschke, Millard F.; Somers, Jeffrey T.; Ford, George; Krnavek, Jody M.

    2007-01-01

    Results obtained from space flight indicate that most space crews will experience some symptoms of motion sickness causing significant impact on the operational objectives that must be accomplished to assure mission success. Based on the initial work of Melvill Jones we have evaluated stroboscopic vision as a method of preventing motion sickness. Given that the data presented by professor Melvill Jones were primarily post hoc results following a study not designed to investigate motion sickness, it is unclear how motion sickness results were actually determined. Building on these original results, we undertook a three part study that was designed to investigate the effect of stroboscopic vision (either with a strobe light or LCD shutter glasses) on motion sickness using: (1) visual field reversal, (2) Reading while riding in a car (with or without external vision present), and (3) making large pitch head movements during parabolic flight.

  10. The dynamics of absence behaviour: Interrelations between absence from class and absence in class

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jonasson, Charlotte

    2011-01-01

    absence is best prevented. Sample: Fieldwork was conducted at a vocational school containing 850 students. In this particular study, 24 student interviews were used in combination with interviews from four teachers and three school managers. Design and methods: The study is an ethnographic case study of a...... single school conducted over a continuous six-month period. It used participant observation followed by semi-structured interviews and school documents. Results: Findings suggest that student absence consists of interrelated forms of absence behaviour that have specific consequences for student...... the social practice of students, teachers and school managers. Evaluations of both absence from class and absence in class are important for understanding how absence behaviour can be identified and prevented....

  11. 0144 Sick leave patterns as predictors of disability pension or long-term sick leave

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stapelfeldt, Christina; Vinther Nielsen, Claus; Trolle Andersen, Niels;

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The public health care sector is challenged by high sick leave rates among home-care personnel. This group also has a high probability of being granted a disability pension. We studied whether a workplace-registered frequent short-term sick leave spell pattern was an early indicator of...... future disability pension or future long-term sick leave among eldercare workers. METHOD: 2774 employees' sick leave days were categorised: 0-2 and 3-17 short (1-7 days) spells, 2-13 mixed short and long (8+ days) spells, and long spells only. Disability pension and long-term sick leave were subsequently...... pattern was not associated with a significantly increased RR compared with a non-frequent short-term pattern. The risk of long-term sick leave was significantly increased (1.35-1.64 (95% CI: 1.12-2.03) for all sick leave patterns beyond 0-2 short spells. CONCLUSIONS: Sick leave length was a better...

  12. The Person in a State of Sickness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Árnason, Vilhjálmur; Hjörleifsson, Stefán

    2016-04-01

    In this article, we discuss the ideas of Eric J. Cassell about the patient-professional relationship. We argue that his approach combines in an interesting way features from the literature on patient autonomy and paternalistic practices. We suggest that these seemingly paternalistic features of practicing medicine, which are widely either ignored or condemned in bioethical discussion, are of vital significance in medical practice. In the first sections of the article, we describe the main features of Cassell's understanding of the sick person and his version of personalized medicine. We pay particular attention to his notion of information control and compare his ideas about conversation with patients to Hans-Georg Gadamer's analysis of patient-professional dialogue. In the latter part of the article, we explore through a couple of examples the implications these ideas have for medical practice. PMID:26957446

  13. Vasopressin and motion sickness in cats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, R. A.; Keil, L. C.; Daunton, N. G.; Crampton, G. H.; Lucot, J.

    1987-01-01

    Levels of arginine vasopressin (AVP) in blood plasma and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) were measured in cats under several motion-sickness-inducing conditions. Plasma AVP increased significantly in both susceptible and resistant animals exposed to motion. When vomiting occurred, levels of plasma AVP were drmatically elevated (up to 27 times resting levels). There was no difference in resting levels of AVP of susceptible and resistant cats. Levels of CSF-AVP were not elevated immediately after vomiting, but the testing levels of CSF-AVP were lower in animals that vomited during motion than in those animals which did not vomit during motion. The results of these experiments show that changes in systemic AVP are directly related to vomiting induced by motion, however, CSF-AVP apparently does not change in association with vomiting. CSF-AVP does appear to be lower in animals that reach frank vomiting during motion stimulation than in animals which do not vomit.

  14. Habituation of motion sickness in the cat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crampton, George H.; Lucot, James B.

    1991-01-01

    Thirty femal cats were subjected to a motion sickness stimulus in three series of tests. A series consisted of five tests given biweekly, weekly, or daily. Each test consisted of 30 min of stimulation followed by 1 min of rest, and series were separated by a period of not less than 14 d. Retching was the dependent variable. No habituation (reduction in the incidence of retching) was found with biweekly testing but pronounced habituation was observed with weekly and daily testing. The 30 cats were divided evenly into high and low susceptibility groups based on the results of the biweekly tests. The rate of habituation was the same for the two susceptibility groups in both the weekly and daily series.

  15. Nonparametric decision tree: The impact of ISO 9000 on certified and non certified companies Nonparametric decision tree: The impact of ISO 9000 on certified and non certified companies Nonparametric decision tree: The impact of ISO 9000 on certified and non certified companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joaquín Texeira Quirós

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: This empirical study analyzes a questionnaire answered by a sample of ISO 9000 certified companies and a control sample of companies which have not been certified, using a multivariate predictive model. With this approach, we assess which quality practices are associated to the likelihood of the firm being certified. Design/methodology/approach: We implemented nonparametric decision trees, in order to see which variables influence more the fact that the company be certified or not, i.e., the motivations that lead companies to make sure. Findings: The results show that only four questionnaire items are sufficient to predict if a firm is certified or not. It is shown that companies in which the respondent manifests greater concern with respect to customers relations; motivations of the employees and strategic planning have higher likelihood of being certified. Research implications: the reader should note that this study is based on data from a single country and, of course, these results capture many idiosyncrasies if its economic and corporate environment. It would be of interest to understand if this type of analysis reveals some regularities across different countries. Practical implications: companies should look for a set of practices congruent with total quality management and ISO 9000 certified. Originality/value: This study contributes to the literature on the internal motivation of companies to achieve certification under the ISO 9000 standard, by performing a comparative analysis of questionnaires answered by a sample of certified companies and a control sample of companies which have not been certified. In particular, we assess how the manager’s perception on the intensity in which quality practices are deployed in their firms is associated to the likelihood of the firm being certified.Purpose: This empirical study analyzes a questionnaire answered by a sample of ISO 9000 certified companies and a control sample of companies

  16. Pharmacological and neurophysiological aspects of space/motion sickness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucot, James B.; Crampton, George H.

    1991-01-01

    A motorized motion testing device modeled after a Ferris wheel was constructed to perform motion sickness tests on cats. Details of the testing are presented, and some of the topics covered include the following: xylazine-induced emesis; analysis of the constituents of the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) during motion sickness; evaluation of serotonin-1A (5-HT sub 1A) agonists; other 5HT receptors; antimuscarinic mechanisms; and antihistaminergic mechanisms. The ability of the following drugs to reduce motion sickness in the cats was examined: amphetamines, adenosinergic drugs, opioid antagonists, peptides, cannabinoids, cognitive enhancers (nootropics), dextromethorphan/sigma ligands, scopolamine, and diphenhydramine.

  17. Absence Epilepsy and Moyamoya Disease

    OpenAIRE

    J Gordon Millichap

    2006-01-01

    The case of a 6-year-old girl with typical absence epilepsy associated with moyamoya disease (MMD) is reported from the Department of Neurosurgery, Kyoto University Graduate School of Medicine, Japan.

  18. Galactosemia and phantom absence seizures

    OpenAIRE

    Zeynep Aydin-Özemir; Pinar Tektürk; Zehra Oya Uyguner; Betül Baykan

    2014-01-01

    Generalized and focal seizures can rarely be seen in galactosemia patients, but absence seizures were not reported previously. An 18-year-old male was diagnosed as galactosemia at the age of 8 months. No family history of epilepsy was present. His absence seizures realized at the age of 9 years. Generalized 3-4 Hz spike-wave discharges were identified in his electroencephalography. Homozygous mutation at exon 6 c. 563A > G was identified. The electroencephalogram of his sibling was unremarkab...

  19. Integrated pest management for certified organic production in Oklahoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Integrated pest management (IPM) and sustainable agriculture are basic precepts within the organic crop production philosophy. The establishment of federal guidelines for organic certification in 2002 provided a structure for producers and processors to market certified organic foods. The guidelin...

  20. Classical probabilistic realization of "Random Numbers Certified by Bell's Theorem"

    OpenAIRE

    Khrennikov, Andrei

    2015-01-01

    We question the commonly accepted statement that random numbers certified by Bell's theorem carry some special sort of randomness, so to say, quantum randomness or intrinsic randomness. We show that such numbers can be easily generated by classical random generators.

  1. ENERGY STAR Certified Commercial Hot Food Holding Cabinet

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Certified models meet all ENERGY STAR requirements as listed in the Version 2.0 ENERGY STAR Program Requirements for Commercial Hot Food Holding Cabinets that are...

  2. Water Well Locations - MO 2012 Certified Wells (SHP)

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This data set provides information about wells that are certified by the State of Missouri. The parent data set is the Wellhead Information Management System (WIMS)...

  3. Catherine Barr: Manager, Monterey Bay Certified Farmers' Markets

    OpenAIRE

    Rabkin, Sarah

    2010-01-01

    Catherine Barr manages the Monterey Bay Certified Farmers’ Markets (MBCFM), a consortium that includes the oldest and largest farmers’ markets on California’s Central Coast. Founded in 1976, MBCFM now boasts a total of more than eighty vendors at four locations, including Aptos, Monterey, Del Monte (also in Monterey), and Carmel. (At the time when this oral history was recorded, MBCFM had a now-discontinued market in Salinas, while the Del Monte location had not yet been established.) Certifi...

  4. An overview of the certified organic export sector in Uganda

    OpenAIRE

    Gibbon, Peter

    2006-01-01

    This paper reports the results of a survey of almost all certified and in-conversion organic export operations in Uganda in late 2005. It covers products exported, company size and ownership, standards exported to, certification costs, total export values, value-added in Uganda, marketing channels, crop procurement systems, management of organic operations and the main challenges experienced by exporters. Findings include that numbers of certified exporters are growing rapidly. Export values ...

  5. Gut Feelings About Gastritis: When Your Stomach's Sick

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... disclaimer . Subscribe Gut Feelings About Gastritis When Your Stomach’s Sick Your stomach lining has an important job. It makes acid ... pain or an uncomfortable feeling in their upper stomach. But many other conditions can cause these symptoms. ...

  6. Explanation of nurse standard of external exposure acute radiation sickness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    National occupational health standard-Nurse Standard of External Exposure Acute Radiation Sickness has been approved and issued by the Ministry of Health. Based on the extensive research of literature, collection of the previous nuclear and radiation accidents excessive exposed personnel data and specific situations in China, this standard was enacted according to the current national laws, regulations, and the opinions of peer experts. It is mainly used for care of patients with acute radiation sickness, and also has directive significance for care of patients with iatrogenic acute radiation sickness which due to the hematopoietic stem cell transplantation pretreatment. To correctly carry out this standard and to reasonably implement nursing measures for patients with acute radiation sickness, the contents of this standard were interpreted in this article. (authors)

  7. Stress of Caring for Sick Spouse May Raise Stroke Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/news/fullstory_157606.html Stress of Caring for Sick Spouse May Raise Stroke ... University of California, San Francisco (UCSF), said chronic stress boosts blood levels of the hormone cortisol and ...

  8. Junior MARSIPAN (Management of Really Sick Patients with Anorexia Nervosa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marikar, Dilshad; Reynolds, Sarah; Moghraby, Omer S

    2016-06-01

    We present a review of the Junior MARSIPAN (Management of Really Sick Patients with Anorexia Nervosa) guideline, which provides paediatricians with a framework for managing Anorexia Nervosa in the inpatient setting. PMID:26407730

  9. Braid My Hair - Randy Owen sings out for sick children

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Braid My Hair - Randy Owen sings out for sick children Past ... debut performance of his latest song, "Braid My Hair," was the highlight during this year's Songwriter's Dinner ...

  10. Acute Mountain Sickness and Hemoconcentration in Next Generation Spacecraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conkin, Johnny

    2009-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the threat astronauts face from acute mountain sickness (AMS). It includes information about the symptoms of AMS, the potential threat to astronauts, and future efforts to mitigate the AMS threat.

  11. The Influence of Promotional Brochures and Pricing Strategies on Consumer Purchase Decisions for Forest Stewardship Council Certified Hardwood Boards in Home Centers

    OpenAIRE

    Gomon, Stephanie J

    2004-01-01

    This study is one of the first of its kind to examine actual consumer purchasing decisions for forest products certified by the Forest Stewardship Council (FSC). Consumer purchasing was examined based on the presence or absence of a promotional brochure and a price premium for red oak and yellow poplar surfaced-four-sides (S4S) boards. This research also compared typical demographic factors for purchasers and non-purchasers of FSC certified S4S boards. Finally, the study examined subscales f...

  12. SICK EUTHYROID SYNDROME IN CHRONIC KIDNEY DISEASE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jigar

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Sick euthyroid syndrome is an undermined entity seen in many chronic illness. CKD is one of the forerunners in terms of magnitude in the list of chronic illnesses. Also there is evidence of abnormal thyroid metabolism at several levels in uremia. Hence the need to evaluate thyroid function in CKD patients exists, as revealed by recent studies. AIMS: To study thyroid function test in patients of chronic renal failure. Also, to study the correlation between thyroid function test and severity of renal failure, defined by creatinine clearance. MATERIALS & METHODS : In a cross sectional observational case control study, 50 patients of chronic renal failure either on conservative management or on maintenance haemodialysis and 50 normal healthy subjects as control were enrolled. Creatinine clearance was calculated by Cockcroft – Gault Equation. Thyroid function tests were done by C.L.I.A (Chemiluminescence Immunoassay. RESULTS : Of the 50 patients (M:F – 58:42%, with a mean age 40.58 ± 12.65 years, 28 (56% were on conservative management, 22 (44% were on hemodialysis for a minimum period of three months. All patients were clinically euthyroid. Thyroid function tests were normal (all parameters within normal range in 13 (26% patien ts. However 37 (74% out of 50 patients of CKD had deranged thyroid function test (sick euthyroid syndrome. Mean Total T3 in patients of CKD and controls were 71.52 ± 27.88ng/dl and 95.34 ± 16.31ng/dl respectively (p < 0.005. Mean Free T3 in patients of CKD and controls were 2.19 ± 0.70pg/ml and 3.23 ± 0.79pg/ml respectively (p < 0.005. Mean Total T4 in patients of CKD and controls were 6.03 ± 1.60μg/dl and 6.88 ± 1.06μg/dl respectively (p < 0.005. Mean Free T4 in patients of CKD and controls were 1. 18 ± 0.55ng/ml and 1.29 ± 0.24ng/dl respectively (no statistically significant difference. Mean TSH in patients of CKD and controls were 2.90 ± 1.39 vs. 2.81 ± 0.99μIU/ml respectively (no

  13. Cutaneous Finding in Anti Thymocyte Globulin Induced Serum Sickness

    OpenAIRE

    Seyed Hesamedin Nabavizadeh; Mehran Karimi; Reza Amin

    2006-01-01

    Polyclonal anti-thymocyte globulin (ATG) is used as an immunosuppressive agent in the treatment of aplastic anemia (AA). Serum sickness is a recognized side effect of ATG. We observed abnormal skin manifestation in patient with aplastic anemia who had been treated with ATG. We conclude that abnormal immune function caused by aplastic anemia and ATG and corticosteroids may aggravate the signs of serum sickness.

  14. Neural Circuitry Engaged by Prostaglandins during the Sickness Syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Saper, Clifford B.; Andrej A Romanovsky; Scammell, Thomas E.

    2012-01-01

    During illnesses caused by infectious disease or other sources of inflammation, a suite of brain-mediated responses called the “sickness syndrome” occurs, including fever, anorexia, sleepiness, hyperalgesia, and elevated corticosteroid secretion. Much of the sickness syndrome is mediated by prostaglandins acting on the brain, and can be prevented by non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, such as aspirin or ibuprofen, that block prostaglandin synthesis. By examining which prostaglandins are pr...

  15. Management of Sick Leave due to Musculoskeletal Disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Faber, Elske

    2007-01-01

    textabstractMusculoskeletal disorders are a common problem that may lead to func-Ational limitations and (work) disability. It is not clear yet how improvement in Apain or functional limitations is related to return to work after an episode of sick Aleave. Furthermore, several physicians are involved in the treatment and man-Aagement of a patient is on sick leave. In the Netherlands a strict separation be-Atween treating physicians and occupational physicians exists, whereby the treating Aphy...

  16. Legitimacy Work : Managing Sick Leave Legitimacy in Interaction

    OpenAIRE

    Flinkfeldt, Marie

    2016-01-01

    This thesis studies how sick leave legitimacy is managed in interaction and develops an empirically driven conceptualization of ‘legitimacy work’. The thesis applies an ethnomethodological framework that draws on conversation analysis, discursive psychology, and membership categorization analysis. Naturally occurring interaction is examined in two settings: (1) multi-party meetings at the Swedish Social Insurance Agency, in which participants assess and discuss the ‘status’ of the sick leave ...

  17. GPs’ negotiation strategies regarding sick leave for subjective health complaints

    OpenAIRE

    Nilsen, Stein; Malterud, Kirsti; Werner, Erik L.; Maeland, Silje; Magnussen, Liv Heide

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Objectives. To explore general practitioners’ (GPs’) specific negotiation strategies regarding sick-leave issues with patients suffering from subjective health complaints. Design. Focus-group study. Setting. Nine focus-group interviews in three cities in different regions of Norway. Participants. 48 GPs (31 men, 17 women; age 32–65), participating in a course dealing with diagnostic practice and assessment of sickness certificates related to patients with subjective health complaints...

  18. Space Motion Sickness and Stress Training Simulator using Electrophysiological Biofeedback

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaudeau, C.; Golding, J. F.; Thevot, F.; Lucas, Y.; Bobola, P.; Thouvenot, J.

    2005-06-01

    An important problem in manned spaceflight is the nausea that typically appears during the first 3 days and then disappears after 5 days. Methods of detecting changes in electrophysiological signals are being studied in order to reduce susceptibility to space motion sickness through biofeedback training, and for the early detection of nausea during EVA. A simulator would allow subjects to control their body functions and to use biofeedback to control space motion sickness and stress.

  19. A New Measure of Decompression Sickness in the Rat

    OpenAIRE

    Peter Buzzacott; Aleksandra Mazur; Qiong Wang; Kate Lambrechts; Michael Theron; Jacques Mansourati; François Guerrero

    2014-01-01

    In this study we assessed the reliability of a tilting-board grip score as a measure of decompression sickness in rats. In experiments using a hyperbaric compression/decompression protocol, rats were observed for signs of decompression sickness and their grip strength measured on a tilting particle board hinged to a metal frame. Angles at which rats lost grip were converted to gravitational vectors. Decreased mean grip scores following decompression were fitted to a logistic regression model ...

  20. Less sickness with more motion and/or mental distraction

    OpenAIRE

    Bos, J.E.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Motion sickness may reduce passenger comfort and crew performance. Countermeasures are dominated by medication with specific and often undesirable side effects. OBJECTIVE: To shown that sickness due to motion can be reduced by adding an inherent non-sickening vibration and by mental distraction. METHODS: Eighteen blindfolded subjects were exposed to 20 minutes of off-vertical axis rotation (OVAR). Vibration was added by means of a head rest. Effects of OVAR and vibration were test...

  1. Is Physics Sick? [In Praise of Classical Physics

    OpenAIRE

    Ghassib, Hisham

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, it is argued that theoretical physics is more akin to an organism than to a rigid structure.It is in this sense that the epithet, "sick", applies to it. It is argued that classical physics is a model of a healthy science, and the degree of sickness of modern physics is measured accordingly. The malady is located in the relationship between mathematics and physical meaning in physical theory.

  2. Human heart rate variability relation is unchanged during motion sickness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullen, T. J.; Berger, R. D.; Oman, C. M.; Cohen, R. J.

    1998-01-01

    In a study of 18 human subjects, we applied a new technique, estimation of the transfer function between instantaneous lung volume (ILV) and instantaneous heart rate (HR), to assess autonomic activity during motion sickness. Two control recordings of ILV and electrocardiogram (ECG) were made prior to the development of motion sickness. During the first, subjects were seated motionless, and during the second they were seated rotating sinusoidally about an earth vertical axis. Subjects then wore prism goggles that reverse the left-right visual field and performed manual tasks until they developed moderate motion sickness. Finally, ILV and ECG were recorded while subjects maintained a relatively constant level of sickness by intermittent eye closure during rotation with the goggles. Based on analyses of ILV to HR transfer functions from the three conditions, we were unable to demonstrate a change in autonomic control of heart rate due to rotation alone or due to motion sickness. These findings do not support the notion that moderate motion sickness is manifested as a generalized autonomic response.

  3. A New Measure of Decompression Sickness in the Rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Buzzacott

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study we assessed the reliability of a tilting-board grip score as a measure of decompression sickness in rats. In experiments using a hyperbaric compression/decompression protocol, rats were observed for signs of decompression sickness and their grip strength measured on a tilting particle board hinged to a metal frame. Angles at which rats lost grip were converted to gravitational vectors. Decreased mean grip scores following decompression were fitted to a logistic regression model with strain, age, and weight. Decrease in grip score was significantly associated with observed decompression sickness (P=0.0036. The log odds ratio for decompression sickness = 1.40 (decrease in grip score. In rats with no decrease in mean grip score there was a 50% probability of decompression sickness (pDCS. This increased steadily with decreases in mean grip score. A decrease of 0.3 had a 60% pDCS, a decrease of 0.6 had a 70% pDCS, and a decrease of 2.1 had a 95% pDCS. The tilting board grip score is a reliable measure of the probability of decompression sickness.

  4. Galactosemia and phantom absence seizures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeynep Aydin-Özemir

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Generalized and focal seizures can rarely be seen in galactosemia patients, but absence seizures were not reported previously. An 18-year-old male was diagnosed as galactosemia at the age of 8 months. No family history of epilepsy was present. His absence seizures realized at the age of 9 years. Generalized 3-4 Hz spike-wave discharges were identified in his electroencephalography. Homozygous mutation at exon 6 c. 563A > G was identified. The electroencephalogram of his sibling was unremarkable. Our aim was to present the long-term follow-up of a patient diagnosed with galactosemia, who had phantom absence seizures and typical 3-4 Hz spike-wave discharges in his electroencephalogram to draw attention to this rare association.

  5. Galactosemia and phantom absence seizures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aydin-Özemir, Zeynep; Tektürk, Pınar; Uyguner, Zehra Oya; Baykan, Betül

    2014-01-01

    Generalized and focal seizures can rarely be seen in galactosemia patients, but absence seizures were not reported previously. An 18-year-old male was diagnosed as galactosemia at the age of 8 months. No family history of epilepsy was present. His absence seizures realized at the age of 9 years. Generalized 3-4 Hz spike-wave discharges were identified in his electroencephalography. Homozygous mutation at exon 6 c. 563A > G was identified. The electroencephalogram of his sibling was unremarkable. Our aim was to present the long-term follow-up of a patient diagnosed with galactosemia, who had phantom absence seizures and typical 3-4 Hz spike-wave discharges in his electroencephalogram to draw attention to this rare association. PMID:25624930

  6. Changes in sickness absenteeism following the introduction of a qualifying day for sickness benefit--findings from Sweden Post

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Voss, M; Floderus, B; Diderichsen, F

    2001-01-01

    AIMS: In 1993, a qualifying day without sickness benefit was introduced to the Swedish sickness benefit system. The aim of the present study is to investigate sickness absenteeism before and after the introduction of the qualifying day, in the light of conditions inside and outside working life...... observed. Men with heavy lifting at work more often showed an increase in incidence compared to men without heavy lifting, and the same tendency was found for women. CONCLUSION: The reduction in sickness incidence following the introduction of the qualifying day was fairly independent of different work......-related and non-work-related factors. The impact of the qualifying day differed depending on health status and the physical workload....

  7. Certifying Auto-Generated Flight Code

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denney, Ewen

    2008-01-01

    Model-based design and automated code generation are being used increasingly at NASA. Many NASA projects now use MathWorks Simulink and Real-Time Workshop for at least some of their modeling and code development. However, there are substantial obstacles to more widespread adoption of code generators in safety-critical domains. Since code generators are typically not qualified, there is no guarantee that their output is correct, and consequently the generated code still needs to be fully tested and certified. Moreover, the regeneration of code can require complete recertification, which offsets many of the advantages of using a generator. Indeed, manual review of autocode can be more challenging than for hand-written code. Since the direct V&V of code generators is too laborious and complicated due to their complex (and often proprietary) nature, we have developed a generator plug-in to support the certification of the auto-generated code. Specifically, the AutoCert tool supports certification by formally verifying that the generated code is free of different safety violations, by constructing an independently verifiable certificate, and by explaining its analysis in a textual form suitable for code reviews. The generated documentation also contains substantial tracing information, allowing users to trace between model, code, documentation, and V&V artifacts. This enables missions to obtain assurance about the safety and reliability of the code without excessive manual V&V effort and, as a consequence, eases the acceptance of code generators in safety-critical contexts. The generation of explicit certificates and textual reports is particularly well-suited to supporting independent V&V. The primary contribution of this approach is the combination of human-friendly documentation with formal analysis. The key technical idea is to exploit the idiomatic nature of auto-generated code in order to automatically infer logical annotations. The annotation inference algorithm

  8. Submarine tower escape decompression sickness risk estimation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loveman, G A M; Seddon, E M; Thacker, J C; Stansfield, M R; Jurd, K M

    2014-01-01

    Actions to enhance survival in a distressed submarine (DISSUB) scenario may be guided in part by knowledge of the likely risk of decompression sickness (DCS) should the crew attempt tower escape. A mathematical model for DCS risk estimation has been calibrated against DCS outcome data from 3,738 exposures of either men or goats to raised pressure. Body mass was used to scale DCS risk. The calibration data included more than 1,000 actual or simulated submarine escape exposures and no exposures with substantial staged decompression. Cases of pulmonary barotrauma were removed from the calibration data. The calibrated model was used to estimate the likelihood of DCS occurrence following submarine escape from the United Kingdom Royal Navy tower escape system. Where internal DISSUB pressure remains at - 0.1 MPa, escape from DISSUB depths 60% DCS risk predicted for a 200-meter escape from saturation at 0.21 MPa. Using the calibrated model to predict DCS for direct ascent from saturation gives similar risk estimates to other published models. PMID:25109085

  9. Colonic Fermentation Promotes Decompression sickness in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Maistre, Sébastien; Vallée, Nicolas; Gempp, Emmanuel; Lambrechts, Kate; Louge, Pierre; Duchamp, Claude; Blatteau, Jean-Eric

    2016-01-01

    Massive bubble formation after diving can lead to decompression sickness (DCS). During dives with hydrogen as a diluent for oxygen, decreasing the body's H2 burden by inoculating hydrogen-metabolizing microbes into the gut reduces the risk of DCS. So we set out to investigate if colonic fermentation leading to endogenous hydrogen production promotes DCS in fasting rats. Four hours before an experimental dive, 93 fasting rats were force-fed, half of them with mannitol and the other half with water. Exhaled hydrogen was measured before and after force-feeding. Following the hyperbaric exposure, we looked for signs of DCS. A higher incidence of DCS was found in rats force-fed with mannitol than in those force-fed with water (80%, [95%CI 56, 94] versus 40%, [95%CI 19, 64], p < 0.01). In rats force-fed with mannitol, metronidazole pretreatment reduced the incidence of DCS (33%, [95%CI 15, 57], p = 0.005) at the same time as it inhibited colonic fermentation (14 ± 35 ppm versus 118 ± 90 ppm, p = 0.0001). Pre-diveingestion of mannitol increased the incidence of DCS in fasting rats when colonic fermentation peaked during the decompression phase. More generally, colonic fermentation in rats on a normal diet could promote DCS through endogenous hydrogen production. PMID:26853722

  10. The genetic basis of chronic mountain sickness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronen, Roy; Zhou, Dan; Bafna, Vineet; Haddad, Gabriel G

    2014-11-01

    Chronic mountain sickness (CMS) is a disease that affects many high-altitude dwellers, particularly in the Andean Mountains in South America. The hallmark symptom of CMS is polycythemia, which causes increased risk of pulmonary hypertension and stroke (among other symptoms). A prevailing hypothesis in high-altitude medicine is that CMS results from a population-specific "maladaptation" to the hypoxic conditions at high altitude. In contrast, the prevalence of CMS is very low in other high-altitude populations (e.g., Tibetans and Ethiopians), which are seemingly well adapted to hypoxia. In recent years, concurrent with the advent of genomic technologies, several studies have investigated the genetic basis of adaptation to altitude. These studies have identified several candidate genes that may underlie the adaptation, or maladaptation. Interestingly, some of these genes are targeted by known drugs, raising the possibility of new treatments for CMS and other ischemic diseases. We review recent discoveries, alongside the methodologies used to obtain them, and outline some of the challenges remaining in the field. PMID:25362634

  11. MRI in spinal cord decompression sickness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spinal cord decompression sickness (DCS) is a rare condition that can lead to spinal cord infarction. Despite the low incidence of diving-related DCS, we have managed to collect the data and MRI findings of seven patients who have been diagnosed with and treated for DCS in our local hyperbaric facility. This study describes the clinical presentation, MRI spinal cord findings, treatment administered and outcome of these patients. The patient medical records, from 1997 to 2007, were retrospectively reviewed. All patients with a final diagnosis of DCS and who underwent examination were included. The images were independently reviewed by two radiologists who recorded the location and number of lesions within the spinal cord. The Frankel grading was used to assess the initial and clinical outcome response. Patchy-increased T2W changes affecting several levels at the same time were found. Contrary to the popular notion that venous infarction is the leading cause of DCS, most of our patients also demonstrated affliction of grey matter, which is typically seen in an arterial pattern of infarction. Initial involvement of multiple (>6) spinal cord levels was associated with a poor outcome. Patients who continued to have multiple neurological sequelae with less than 50% resolution of symptoms despite recompression treatment were also those who had onset of symptoms within 30 min of resurfacing. DCS is probably a combination of both arterial and venous infarction. Short latency to the onset of neurological symptoms and multilevel cord involvement may be associated with a poorer outcome.

  12. THE OLFACTORY SYSTEM REGULATES ACUTE MOUNTAIN SICKNESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Savitha Nagabhushan

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE:Hyperventilation is the first response to hypoxia in high altitude (HA. Our study on rats was designed to establish an integrated hypothesis to include hyperventilation, increased activity of hypothalamicpituitary-adrenocortical axis (HPA in response to initial exposure to hypoxia and failure of adaptation to stress in olfactory bulbectomised rats. .METHODS:Albino rats whose olfactory lobes were removed were subjected to hypoxia and hypothermic conditions. Blood and urine samples were collected at various stages to measure biochemical parameters. Rats whose olfactory systems were intact were used as controls.RESULTS:The results suggested that the olfactory system regulated pituitary function and that in rats whose olfactory lobes were removed failed to adapt to the stress created by hypoxia and hypothermia.CONCLUSIONS:Acute Mountain Sickness (AMS is a type of stress. Normal rats when subjected to stress such as AMSare able to adapt. This adaptation is lost when the olfactory bulbs are removed. It is postulated that serotonin receptors in the hypothalamus, through the splanchnic pathway regulate stress. This mechanism is independent of ACTH – Cortisol feed back system. Perhaps irregular and rapid respiratory rhythm simulates physiological Olfactory Bulbectomy during rapid climbing and AMS manifests as a failure of stress adaptation.

  13. Introduction of a medical questionnaire concerning long-term sick leave

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2011-01-01

    In order to ensure a closer follow-up of those on long-term sick leave, the Organization will introduce a new medical questionnaire to be sent to employed members of the personnel. This questionnaire consisting of four questions (concerning the diagnosis, pending and future examinations and treatments, the prognostic and the possibility to resume work) will be sent from the Consulting Medical Practitioner to all employed members of the personnel following two consecutive months of sick leave and, thereafter, periodically on a case by case basis. The employed member of the personnel is requested to submit the medical questionnaire to his/her medical practitioner (or the specialist taking care of him/her) in order to complete and return it to the Consulting Medical Practitioner. It should be noted that this questionnaire does not exempt, in any way, the employed member of personnel from providing a medical certificate for all absence due to illness of more than three consecutive calendar days. The procedure to...

  14. Sickness Absenteeism, Morbidity and Workplace Injuries among Iron and Steel workers – A Cross Sectional Study from Karnataka, Southern India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manjunatha R

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundThe study of illnesses causing absence of workers from workin industries is a practical method to study the health statusof industrial workers and to identify occupational healthhazards. The iron and steel industries are particularlyhazardous places of work. Published data from India onhealth status of iron and steel workers is limited, thereforethis study was undertaken to investigate the sicknessabsenteeism, morbidity and workplace injuries among thispopulation.MethodWorkers were selected using stratified random sampling. Astructured pre-tested interview schedule was used tocollect the data. A p value of < 0.05 was considered forstatistical significance.ResultsFrom a total of 2525 workers, 353 (mean age 55.1 yrs, male69.4% participated in the study. The overall proportion ofsickness absenteeism was 66.9% (95% CI: 0.62 – 0.71.Overall 16.4 days were lost per worker per year (male = 16.5& female = 16.2 due to sickness absence. A blue collarworker lost 21.5 days compared to 11.9 days by a whitecollar worker (p < 0.01. Among workers, health ailmentsrelated to the musculoskeletal system (31.4%,gastrointestinal system (25.8%, hypertension (24.4%,respiratory system (18.1% and other minor ailments(19.3% were found to be high.ConclusionSickness absenteeism is significantly higher among iron andsteel workers when compared to other occupations in India.Blue collar workers and shift workers loose higher numberof days due to sickness absence, and they face problemsrelated to musculoskeletal system, gastrointestinal systemand hypertension in higher proportions compared to theircounterparts. Women experienced hypertension as thecommon health problem and higher proportions of injuriesoutside the work environment.

  15. 7 CFR 201.67 - Seed certifying agency standards and procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Seed certifying agency standards and procedures. 201...) FEDERAL SEED ACT FEDERAL SEED ACT REGULATIONS Certified Seed § 201.67 Seed certifying agency standards and procedures. In order to qualify as a seed certifying agency for purposes of section 101(a)(25) of the...

  16. National Board Certified Teachers andTheir Students' Achievement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leslie G. Vandevoort

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Contemporary research on teaching indicates that teachers are powerful contributors to students’ academic achievement, though the set and interrelationships of characteristics that make for high-quality and effective teaching have yet to be satisfactorily determined. Nevertheless, on the basis of the extant research and a vision of exemplary teaching, the National Board for Professional Teaching Standards stipulated a definition of a superior teacher. The Board did this without empirical evidence to support their claim that teachers’ who meet the standards set by the Board were superior in promoting academic achievement to those who did not meet those standards. In the 17 years since the founding of the National Board, only a few empirical studies have addressed this important issue. In this study we compare the academic performance of students in the elementary classrooms of 35 National Board Certified teachers and their non-certified peers, in 14 Arizona school districts. Board Certified teachers and their principals provide additional information about these teachers and their schools. Four years of results from the Stanford Achievement Tests in reading, mathematics and language arts, in grades three through six, were analyzed. In the 48 comparisons (four grades, four years of data, three measures of academic performance, using gain scores adjusted for students’ entering ability, the students in the classes of National Board Certified Teachers surpassed students in the classrooms of non-Board certified teachers in almost threequarters of the comparisons. Almost one-third of these differences were statistically significant. In the cases where the students of non-Board certified teachers gained more in an academic year, none of the differences found were statistically significant. Effect size, translated into grade equivalents, informs us that the gains made by students of Board Certified teachers were over one month greater than the

  17. Testosterone treatment diminishes sickness behavior in male songbirds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashley, Noah T; Hays, Quentin R; Bentley, George E; Wingfield, John C

    2009-06-01

    Males of many vertebrate species are typically more prone to disease and infection than female conspecifics, and this sexual difference is partially influenced by the immunosuppressive properties of testosterone (T) in males. T-induced immunosuppression has traditionally been viewed as a pleiotropic handicap, rather than an adaptation. Recently, it has been hypothesized that suppression of sickness behavior, or the symptoms of infection, may have adaptive value if sickness interferes with the expression of T-mediated behaviors important for male reproductive success. We conduct a classic hormone replacement experiment to examine if T suppresses sickness behavior in a seasonally-breeding songbird, Gambel's white-crowned sparrow (Zonotrichia leucophrys gambelii). Triggered experimentally by bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS), sickness behavior includes decreased activity, anorexia, and weight loss. Gonadectomized (GDX) males that were treated with silastic implants filled with T exhibited suppression of behavioral and physiological responses to LPS compared to GDX and sham-GDX controls given empty implants. Sickness responses of control groups were statistically indistinguishable. T-implanted birds had significantly higher plasma T than control groups and levels were within the range associated with aggressive interactions during male-to-male contests. These findings imply that suppression of sickness behavior could occur when T is elevated to socially-modulated levels. Alternatively, it is possible that this suppressive effect is mediated through a stress-induced mechanism, as corticosterone levels were elevated in T-implanted subjects compared to controls. We propose that males wounded and infected during contests may gain a brief selective advantage by suppressing sickness responses that would otherwise impair competitive performance. The cost of immunosuppression would be manifested in males through an increased susceptibility to disease, which is presumably

  18. African horse sickness surveillance systems and regionalisation/zoning: the case of South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosman, P; Brückner, G K; Faul, A

    1995-09-01

    Central and Southern Africa are generally regarded as being endemic areas for African horse sickness (AHS). With the advent of the concepts of risk analysis and regionalisation/zoning, however, the possibility has now arisen of establishing 'zones' within South Africa for AHS surveillance purposes. In 1993, a protocol was submitted to the European Community (now European Union: EU), proposing the establishment of an AHS-free zone in the Cape peninsula. The proposal is based on historical evidence that AHS virus overwinters (in zebra) only in the Kruger National Park, from where it spreads westwards and southwards every year. The infection only extends to the Western Cape Province once every fifteen years. A ban on vaccination in the proposed AHS-free zone has been suggested, together with strict control of the movement of horses into and through this zone. The entire equine population of this zone (some 8,000 animals) would serve as sentinels. All equine mortalities would be notifiable, with mandatory post-mortem examinations. The establishment of an insect-free quarantine station in this zone would enable the movement of certified AHS virus-free horses from South Africa to the EU and the rest of the world. PMID:8593398

  19. Decompression sickness following breath-hold diving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schipke, J D; Gams, E; Kallweit, Oliver

    2006-01-01

    Despite convincing evidence of a relationship between breath-hold diving and decompression sickness (DCS), the causal connection is only slowly being accepted. Only the more recent textbooks have acknowledged the risks of repetitive breath-hold diving. We compare four groups of breath-hold divers: (1) Japanese and Korean amas and other divers from the Pacific area, (2) instructors at naval training facilities, (3) spear fishers, and (4) free-dive athletes. While the number of amas is likely decreasing, and Scandinavian Navy training facilities recorded only a few accidents, the number of spear fishers suffering accidents is on the rise, in particular during championships or using scooters. Finally, national and international associations (e.g., International Association of Free Drives [IAFD] or Association Internationale pour Le Developpment De L'Apnee [AIDA]) promote free-diving championships including deep diving categories such as constant weight, variable weight, and no limit. A number of free-diving athletes, training for or participating in competitions, are increasingly accident prone as the world record is presently set at a depth of 171 m. This review presents data found after searching Medline and ISI Web of Science and using appropriate Internet search engines (e.g., Google). We report some 90 cases in which DCS occurred after repetitive breath-hold dives. Even today, the risk of suffering from DCS after repetitive breath-hold diving is often not acknowledged. We strongly suggest that breath-hold divers and their advisors and physicians be made aware of the possibility of DCS and of the appropriate therapeutic measures to be taken when DCS is suspected. Because the risk of suffering from DCS increases depending on depth, bottom time, rate of ascent, and duration of surface intervals, some approaches to assess the risks are presented. Regrettably, none of these approaches is widely accepted. We propose therefore the development of easily manageable

  20. Cost Benefit Analysis of Certified Cocoa Production in Ondo State, Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Oseni, Joseph Olumide; Adams, Adewale Quam

    2013-01-01

    The paper is on Cost-Benefit Analysis of certified cocoa production in Ondo state.Data were collected by purposively choosing three local government areas noted for certified cocoa production, namely Idanre, Ile oluji and Owo local government areas of the state. Simple random sampling technique was used to select thirty certified cocoa farmers from Idanre, twenty certified cocoa farmers from Ile oluji/Oke-igbo and ten certified cocoa farmers from Owo local government areas of the state making...

  1. Does Pollution Increase School Absences?

    OpenAIRE

    Janet Currie; Eric Hanushek; E. Megan Kahn; Matthew Neidell; Steven Rivkin

    2007-01-01

    We examine the effect of air pollution on school absences using unique administrative data for elementary and middle school children in the 39 largest school districts in Texas. These data are merged with information from monitors maintained by the Environmental Protection Agency. To control for potentially confounding factors, we adopt a difference-in-difference-in differences strategy, and control for persistent characteristics of schools, years, and attendance periods in order to focus on ...

  2. Neurochemical background and approaches in the understanding of motion sickness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohl, R. L.

    1982-01-01

    The problems and nature of space motion sickness were defined. The neurochemical and neurophysiological bases of vestibular system function and of the expression of motion sickness wre reviewed. Emphasis was given to the elucidation of the neuropharmacological mechanisms underlying the effects of scopolamine and amphetamine on motion sickness. Characterization of the ascending reticular activating system and the limbic system provided clues to the etiology of the side effects of scopolamine. The interrelationship between central cholinergic pathways and the peripheral (autonomic) expression of motion sickness was described. A correlation between the stress of excessive motion and a variety of hormonal responses to that stress was also detailed. The cholinergic system is involved in the efferent modulation of the vestibular hair cells, as an afferent modulator of the vestibular nuclei, in the activation of cortical and limbic structures, in the expression of motion sickness symptoms and most likely underscores a number of the hormonal changes that occur in stressful motion environments. The role of lecithin in the regulation of the levels of neurotransmitters was characterized as a possible means by which cholinergic neurochemistry can be modulated.

  3. Sensory conflict in motion sickness: An observer theory approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oman, Charles M.

    1989-01-01

    Motion sickness is the general term describing a group of common nausea syndromes originally attributed to motion-induced cerebral ischemia, stimulation of abdominal organ afferent, or overstimulation of the vestibular organs of the inner ear. Sea-, car-, and airsicknesses are the most commonly experienced examples. However, the discovery of other variants such as Cinerama-, flight simulator-, spectacle-, and space sickness in which the physical motion of the head and body is normal or absent has led to a succession of sensory conflict theories which offer a more comprehensive etiologic perspective. Implicit in the conflict theory is the hypothesis that neutral and/or humoral signals originate in regions of the brain subversing spatial orientation, and that these signals somehow traverse to other centers mediating sickness symptoms. Unfortunately, the present understanding of the neurophysiological basis of motion sickness is far from complete. No sensory conflict neuron or process has yet been physiologically identified. To what extent can the existing theory be reconciled with current knowledge of the physiology and pharmacology of nausea and vomiting. The stimuli which causes sickness, synthesizes a contemporary Observer Theory view of the Sensory Conflict hypothesis are reviewed, and a revised model for the dynamic coupling between the putative conflict signals and nausea magnitude estimates is presented. The use of quantitative models for sensory conflict offers a possible new approach to improving the design of visual and motion systems for flight simulators and other virtual environment display systems.

  4. Final Report - Certifying the Performance of Small Wind Turbines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sherwood, Larry [Small Wind Certification Council, Clifton Park, NY (United States)

    2015-08-28

    The Small Wind Certification Council (SWCC) created a successful accredited certification program for small and medium wind turbines using the funding from this grant. SWCC certifies small turbines (200 square meters of swept area or less) to the American Wind Energy Association (AWEA) Small Wind Turbine Performance and Safety Standard (AWEA Standard 9.1 – 2009). SWCC also certifies medium wind turbines to the International Electrical Commission (IEC) Power Performance Standard (IEC 61400-12-1) and Acoustic Performance Standard (IEC 61400-11).

  5. The manifestation certified and farm seed at selected potato varieties

    OpenAIRE

    PÁVEK, Miroslav

    2016-01-01

    The main aim of this thesis was to evaluate the manifestation of certified seed and farm seed in selected varieties of potatoes. The experiment started in 2015 on the estate of Agricultural faculty of the University of South Bohemia. Four varieties (Magda, Adéla, Laura, Satina) with different vegetation period were planted. The certified seed was used in step A and the farm seed was divided according to size and it was tested for the presence of virus diseases. It was established 32 plots. Th...

  6. CEH certified ethical hacker : version 8 : study guide

    CERN Document Server

    Oriyano, Sean-Philip

    2014-01-01

    Prepare for the new Certified Ethical Hacker version 8 exam with this Sybex guide Security professionals remain in high demand. The Certified Ethical Hacker is a one-of-a-kind certification designed to give the candidate a look inside the mind of a hacker. This study guide provides a concise, easy-to-follow approach that covers all of the exam objectives and includes numerous examples and hands-on exercises. Coverage includes cryptography, footprinting and reconnaissance, scanning networks, enumeration of services, gaining access to a system, Trojans, viruses, worms, covert channels, and muc

  7. The use of certified seeds of improved wheat varieties in farms and the contributions of certified seed usage to enterprise economies: the case of Ankara province in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanrivermiş, Harun; Akdoğan, Ilyas

    2007-12-15

    In this research, the use of certificated seeds of improved wheat varieties in farms of Ankara, which have an important share in wheat production of Turkey and the contributions of the certified seeds usage to enterprise economy have been evaluated by using data collected from farms via a questionnaire. The low level of use of certificated wheat seed in farms is associated with many factors, such as price of the seed (cost), yield gains and suitability of the varieties for the farming aims of producers. Average productivity is 49.5% and average net profit is 39.7% higher in the production of wheat with certificated seeds of improved varieties in farms in comparison to farming with traditional varieties. Average productivity in wheat production with uncertified seeds of improved varieties is 24.9% and net profit per unit area is 24.3% higher than wheat production with traditional varieties. The net economic benefit of wheat production using certificated seeds of improved varieties and that of wheat farming with uncertified seeds has been estimated at $ 102.40 and $ 62.70 ha(-1), respectively. Some $ 6.4 benefit is generated in return for $ 1 of expense in wheat farming with certificated seeds of improved varieties instead of traditional varieties. In the absence of state subsidies for certificated seeds the use of uncertified seeds seems to be advantageous for producers. While the amount of subsidy per hectare will be a minimum of $ 101 for certificated seeds per hectare of planting area (as technological improvement), the support will be encouraging for usage of certified seeds. Many variables, such as farm size, use of certified seeds, topography of land, production system, education level and frequency of visiting the agriculture organizations of the producers influence the level of gross profit per unit area in wheat farming. Low level of use of certificated seed in farms decreases the economic benefit of new varieties which are developed as a result of long

  8. MR findings of spinal cord in decompression sickness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To determine the MR imaging findings of spinal cord decompression sickness. We retrospectively analysed the spinal MR images of eight patients (M : 6, F : 2) with decompression sickness affecting the cervical spine (n=1) or thoracic spine (n=7). The observed extent, location, continuity, signal intensity and contrast enhancement pattern of spinal cord lesions were analysed. The chief MR finding was continuous (n=2) or non-continuous (n=3) high signal intensity on T2-weighted images in the posterior paramedian spinal cord. In three cases, additional T2 signal abnormality in the ventral horn of the gray matter was observed. There was no signal intensity abnormality on T1-weighted images or abnormal enhancement of post-Gadolinium T1-weighted images. In one case, cord swelling in addition to T2 signal abnormality was observed. MR imaging is useful for evaluating spinal cord lesions in patients with decompression sickness

  9. MRI diagnosis of acute spinal cord decompression sickness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To describe MRI findings of acute spinal cord decompression sickness. Methods: MRI findings of 5 cases with clinical definite acute spinal cord decompression sickness were retrospectively analyzed. The main clinical informations included underwater performance history against regulations, short-term complete or incomplete spinal cord injury symptoms after fast going out of water, sensory disability and urinary and fecal incontinence, etc. Results: Spinal cord vacuole sign was found in all 5 cases. Iso-signal intensity (n=3), high signal intensity (n=1), and low signal intensity (n=1) was demonstrated on T1WI, and high signal intensity (n=5) was found on T2WI. Owl eye sign was detected in 3 cases, and lacune foci were seen in 2 cases. Conclusion: MRI findings of acute spinal cord decompression sickness had some characteristics, and it was easy to diagnose by combining diving history with clinical manifestations. (authors)

  10. Ambulation Increases Decompression Sickness in Altitude Exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conkin, Johnny; Pollock, N. W.; Natoli, M. J.; Wessel, J. H., III; Gernhardt, M. L.

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION - Exercise accelerates inert gas elimination during oxygen breathing prior to decompression (prebreathe), but may also promote bubble formation and increase the risk of decompression sickness (DCS). The timing, pattern and intensity of exercise are likely critical to the net effect. The NASA Prebreathe Reduction Program (PRP) combined oxygen prebreathe and exercise preceding a 4.3 psi exposure in non-ambulatory subjects (a microgravity analog) to produce two protocols now used by astronauts preparing for extravehicular activity (CEVIS and ISLE). Additional work is required to investigate whether exercise normal to 1 G environments increases the risk of DCS over microgravity simulation. METHODS - The CEVIS protocol was replicated with one exception. Our subjects completed controlled ambulation (walking in place with fixed cadence and step height) during both preflight and at 4.3 psi instead of remaining non-ambulatory throughout. Decompression stress was graded with aural Doppler (Spencer 0-IV scale). Two-dimensional echocardiographic imaging was used to look for left heart gas emboli (the presence of which prompted test termination). Venous blood was collected at three points to correlate Doppler measures of decompression stress with microparticle (cell fragment) accumulation. Fisher Exact Tests compared test and control groups. Trial suspension would occur when DCS risk >15% or grade IV venous gas emboli (VGE) risk >20% (at 70% confidence). RESULTS - Eleven person-trials were completed (9 male, 2 female) when DCS prompted suspension. DCS was greater than in CEVIS trials (3/11 [27%] vs. 0/45 [0%], respectively, p=0.03). Statistical significance was not reached for peak grade IV VGE (2/11 [18%] vs. 3/45 [7%], p=0.149) or cumulative grade IV VGE observations per subject-trial (8/128 [6%] vs. 26/630 [4%], p=0.151). Microparticle data were collected for 5/11 trials (3 with DCS outcomes), with widely varying patterns that could not be resolved statistically

  11. Job Satisfaction of Certified Nurse Midwives: An Examination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hampton, Gerald M.; Peterson, Robin T.

    2012-01-01

    Health care providers face pressure to reduce costs and enhance patient satisfaction. One approach is to employ primary care providers such as nurse practitioners, physician assistants, and certified nurse midwives. Since there is a positive relationship between job satisfaction and patient satisfaction, positive job satisfaction on the part of…

  12. Intercollegiate athletic program fully certified by the NCAA

    OpenAIRE

    Hincker, Lawrence

    2008-01-01

    Virginia Tech recently completed a comprehensive self study as part of the NCAA Division I Athletics Certification program, which is required of all NCAA member schools to ensure integrity in the operation of athletics programs at the university, and has been fully certified by the NCAA's Committee on Athletics Certification.

  13. Certifying and reasoning on cost annotations of functional programs

    CERN Document Server

    Amadio, Roberto M

    2011-01-01

    We present a so-called labelling method to insert cost annotations in a higher-order functional program, to certify their correctness with respect to a standard compilation chain to assembly code, and to reason on them in a higher-order Hoare logic.

  14. Relevant or determinant: Importance in certified sustainable food consumption

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dam, van Y.K.; Trijp, van J.C.M.

    2013-01-01

    Perceived relevance and determinance are two distinct constructs, underlying the overall concept of attribute importance. The present study proposes a survey based measure of attribute determinance. Based on construal level theory it is argued and empirically shown that actual choices of certified

  15. Compatibility of OMRI certified surfactants with three entomopathogenic fungi

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Organic Materials Review Institute (OMRI) is a nonprofit organization providing an independent review of products intended for use in organic production systems to certify compliance with U.S. National organic standards. Since all adjuvants to be used in organic agriculture production are requir...

  16. Core Competencies of the Certified Pediatric Doctor of Chiropractic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hewitt, Elise; Hestbaek, Lise; Pohlman, Katherine A

    2016-01-01

    An outline of the minimum core competencies expected from a certified pediatric doctor of chiropractic was developed using a Delphi consensus process. The initial set of seed statements and substatements was modeled on competency documents used by organizations that oversee chiropractic and medical...

  17. Software testing an ISTQB-BCS certified tester foundation guide

    CERN Document Server

    Hambling, Brian; Samaroo, Angelina; Thompson, Geoff; Williams, Peter; Hambling, Brian

    2015-01-01

    This practical guide provides insight into software testing, explaining the basics of the testing process and how to perform effective tests. It provides an overview of different techniques and how to apply them. It is the best-selling official textbook of the ISTQB-BCS Certified Tester Foundation Level.

  18. 31 CFR 360.55 - Individuals authorized to certify.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Individuals authorized to certify. 360.55 Section 360.55 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued... imprint of either the corporate seal of the institution or of the issuing or paying agent's stamp....

  19. 31 CFR 353.55 - Individuals authorized to certify.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Individuals authorized to certify. 353.55 Section 353.55 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued... imprint of either the corporate seal of the institution or of the issuing or paying agent's stamp....

  20. 31 CFR 315.55 - Individuals authorized to certify.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Individuals authorized to certify. 315.55 Section 315.55 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued... authenticated by a legible imprint either of a corporate stamp of the institution or of the issuing or...

  1. 78 FR 79010 - Criteria to Certify Coal Mine Rescue Teams

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-27

    ... training. MSHA published a notice in the Federal Register (78 FR 58567) announcing the availability of the... Safety and Health Administration Criteria to Certify Coal Mine Rescue Teams AGENCY: Mine Safety and... Safety and Health Administration (MSHA) has updated the coal mine rescue team certification criteria....

  2. 29 CFR 1601.80 - Certified designated FEP agencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Human Resources Rhode Island Commission for Human Rights St. Louis (MO) Civil Rights Enforcement Agency... Note: For Federal Register citations affecting § 1601.80, see the List of CFR Sections Affected which... REGULATIONS FEP Agency Designation Procedures § 1601.80 Certified designated FEP agencies. The designated...

  3. Impact on Student Learning: National Board Certified Teachers' Perceptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petty, Teresa M.; Good, Amy J.; Handler, Laura K.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to report National Board Certified Teachers' (NBCTs) perceived impact on student learning. The guiding research question for this study, "How do teachers perceive the influence of the National Board Certification process on student learning in their own classrooms?" was explored. A total of 496 NBCTs…

  4. BCR certified reference materials for reactor neutron dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A series of reference materials intended for use as activation or fission monitors for neutron fluence rate measurements has been prepared by the Joint Research Centre of the European Commission. Certification has been carried out by expert European laboratories and distribution of the certified reference materials (CRMs) is through the BCR programme of the Commission. The list (18 CRMs) includes materials to cover the complete energy spectrum, and suitable for different irradiation times. Fission monitors are 238UO2 or 237NpO2 in the form of microspheres. Activation monitors are high purity metals (Ni, Cu, Al, Fe, Nb, Rh, or Ti), certified for interfering trace impurities, or dilute aluminium-based alloys, where aluminium is chosen as a suitable matrix for reducing the neutron self-shielding effect. Newly certified materials are IRMM-530R Al-0.1%Au, replacing the exhausted IRMM-530 material, used as comparator for k0-standardization, and three new Al-Co alloys (0.01-1%Co). Two others, in the process of certification are Al-0.1%Ag and Al-2%Sc for thermal and epithermal fluence rate measurements. Other candidate reference materials currently being certified are two uranium-doped glass intended for dosimetry by the fission-track technique. (author)

  5. 7 CFR 762.106 - Preferred and certified lender programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... local area, drop in local land values, industries moving into or out of an area, loss of access to a..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SPECIAL PROGRAMS GUARANTEED FARM LOANS § 762.106 Preferred and certified lender... guaranteed loans by showing that the lender: (i) Submitted substantially complete and correct guaranteed...

  6. 18 CFR 385.714 - Certified questions (Rule 714).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Certified questions (Rule 714). 385.714 Section 385.714 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY... question arising in the proceeding, including any question of law, policy, or procedure. (b) Notice....

  7. Early modern green sickness and pre-Freudian hysteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schleiner, Winfried

    2009-01-01

    In early modern medicine, both green sickness (or chlorosis) and hysteria were understood to be gendered diseases, diseases of women. Green sickness, a disease of young women, was considered so serious that John Graunt, the father of English statistics, thought that in his time dozens of women died of it in London every year. One of the symptoms of hysteria was that women fell unconscious. The force of etymology and medical tradition was so strong that in one instance the gender of the patient seems to have been changed by the recorder to make the case fit medical theory. PMID:20027761

  8. Early coordinated multidisciplinary intervention to prevent sickness absence and labour market exclusion in patients with low back pain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fisker, Annette; Langberg, Henning; Petersen, Tom;

    2013-01-01

    this type of intervention, and the implementation of a return-to-work (RTW)-coordinator is suggested as an effective strategy in this process. The purpose of this paper is to describe the study protocol and present a new type of intervention, where the physiotherapist both has the role as RTW...

  9. Using a psychosocial subgroup assignment to predict sickness absence in a working population with neck and back pain

    OpenAIRE

    Jensen Irene; Bodin Lennart; Hagberg Jan; Bergström Cecilia; Bergström Gunnar

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background The overall objective was to evaluate the predictive validity of a subgroup classification based on the Swedish version of the MPI, the MPI-S, among gainfully employed workers with neck pain (NP) and/or low back pain (LBP) during a follow-up period of 18 and 36 months. Methods This is a prospective cohort study that is part of a larger longitudinal multi-centre study entitled Work and Health in the Process and Engineering Industries (AHA). The attempt was to classify indiv...

  10. Body mass affects seasonal variation in sickness intensity in a seasonally breeding rodent

    OpenAIRE

    Carlton, Elizabeth D.; Demas, Gregory E

    2015-01-01

    Species that display seasonal variation in sickness intensity show the most intense response in the season during which they have the highest body mass, suggesting that sickness intensity may be limited by an animal's energy stores. Siberian hamsters (Phodopus sungorus) display lower body masses and less intense sickness when housed in short, winter-like days as opposed to long, summer-like days. To determine whether reduced sickness intensity displayed by short-day hamsters is a product of s...

  11. Some determinants of sick leave for respiratory disease : Occupation, asthma, obesity, smoking and rehabilitation

    OpenAIRE

    Nathell, Lennart

    2002-01-01

    The cost to society of sick leave and disability pensions is currently the most urgent economic problem in Sweden. The availability of a large sick-listing database, Collective Group Health Insurance, AGS (in Swedish: Avtalsgruppsjukförsäkring) provides a rare opportunity to study sick leave in Sweden. Periods of sick leave exceeding 14 days are recorded together with a mandatory diagnosis by a physician, gender, age, residential area, name of the employer, and occupation. ...

  12. 20 CFR 323.2 - Definition of nongovernmental plan for unemployment or sickness insurance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... unemployment or sickness insurance. 323.2 Section 323.2 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD REGULATIONS UNDER THE RAILROAD UNEMPLOYMENT INSURANCE ACT NONGOVERNMENTAL PLANS FOR UNEMPLOYMENT OR SICKNESS INSURANCE § 323.2 Definition of nongovernmental plan for unemployment or sickness insurance....

  13. Care for Sick Children as a Proxy for Gender Equality in the Family

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eriksson, Rickard; Nermo, Magnus

    2010-01-01

    Swedish parents are entitled to government paid benefits to take care of sick children. In this paper we show that the gender distribution of paid care for sick children is a good proxy for the gender division of household work. Using two examples we show that registry data on care for sick children is a useful data source for studies on gender…

  14. The Absence of Structural Americanization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Rasmus Kleis

    2013-01-01

    use, and funding for public service media from a strategic sample of six countries to test the structural version of the convergence hypothesis, looking at the period from 2000 to 2009. (The countries included are Finland, France, Germany, Italy, the United Kingdom, and the United States.) The......Several comparative media researchers have hypothesized that the media systems of affluent Western democracies are becoming more and more structurally homogeneous—that they are becoming “Americanized.” This article uses data on newspaper industry revenues, commercial television revenues, Internet...... analysis demonstrates an “absence of Americanization” as the six media systems have not become structurally more similar over the last decade. Instead, developments are summarized as a combination of (1) parallel displacements, (2) persistent particularities, and (3) the emergence of some new peculiarities...

  15. Left ventricular hemodynamics in patients with sick sinus syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The left ventricular (LV) systolic and diastolic functions in 31 patients with sick sinus syndrome (types I and II) were analyzed using LV time activity curves obtained by a 99mTc-RBC cardiac pool scintigraphy-forward and backward multiple gated study (FBMG) and compared with those in controls. On A-V sequential pacing (rate, 70 bpm; A-V delay, 150 msec), LV-peak ejection rate (PER) and peak filling rate (PFR) were significantly decreased compared to those in normal controls. As pacing rate was increased, PFR decreased significantly in patients in whom PER was decreased. The etiology of disturbed LV systolic and diastolic functions in patients with sick sinus syndrome remains unknown. No patient had significant organic coronary artery disease or other cardiac disorder. On the other hand, the frequency of vasospastic angina was higher in this group than in the controls. We suspect that sick sinus syndrome and vasospastic angina probably share a common pathophysiology. In patients with sick sinus syndrome, LV systolic and diastolic functions are impaired at rest and during A-V sequential pacing. (author)

  16. Reliability of psychophysiological responses across multiple motion sickness stimulation tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stout, C. S.; Toscano, W. B.; Cowings, P. S.

    1995-01-01

    Although there is general agreement that a high degree of variability exists between subjects in their autonomic nervous system responses to motion sickness stimulation, very little evidence exists that examines the reproducibility of autonomic responses within subjects during motion sickness stimulation. Our objectives were to examine the reliability of autonomic responses and symptom levels across five testing occasions using the (1) final minute of testing, (2) change in autonomic response and the change in symptom level, and (3) strength of the relationship between the change in symptom level and the change in autonomic responses across the entire motion sickness test. The results indicate that, based on the final minute of testing, the autonomic responses of heart rate, blood volume pulse, and respiration rate are moderately stable across multiple tests. Changes in heart rate, blood volume pulse, respiration rate, and symptoms throughout the test duration are less stable across the tests. Finally, autonomic responses and symptom levels are significantly related across the entire motion sickness test.

  17. GPs' negotiation strategies regarding sick leave for subjective health complaints

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nilsen, Stein; Malterud, Kirsti; Werner, Erik L; Maeland, Silje; Magnussen, Liv Heide

    2015-01-01

    main goal: motivating the patient for a rapid return to work by pointing out the positive effects of staying at work, making legal and moral arguments, and warning against long-term sick leave. Additional solutions might also be applied, such as involving other stakeholders in this process to provide...

  18. Development of a neural net paradigm that predicts simulator sickness

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allgood, G.O.

    1993-03-01

    A disease exists that affects pilots and aircrew members who use Navy Operational Flight Training Systems. This malady, commonly referred to as simulator sickness and whose symptomatology closely aligns with that of motion sickness, can compromise the use of these systems because of a reduced utilization factor, negative transfer of training, and reduction in combat readiness. A report is submitted that develops an artificial neural network (ANN) and behavioral model that predicts the onset and level of simulator sickness in the pilots and aircrews who sue these systems. It is proposed that the paradigm could be implemented in real time as a biofeedback monitor to reduce the risk to users of these systems. The model captures the neurophysiological impact of use (human-machine interaction) by developing a structure that maps the associative and nonassociative behavioral patterns (learned expectations) and vestibular (otolith and semicircular canals of the inner ear) and tactile interaction, derived from system acceleration profiles, onto an abstract space that predicts simulator sickness for a given training flight.

  19. Quantitative relationship of sick building syndrome symptoms with ventilation rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Data from published studies were combined and analyzed to develop best-fit equations and curves quantifying the change in sick building syndrome (SBS) symptom prevalence in office workers with ventilation rate. For each study, slopes were calculated, representing the fractional...

  20. Pathophysiology of acute mountain sickness and high altitude pulmonary oedema

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sutton, J R; Lassen, N

    1979-01-01

    We review the evidence that acute mountain sickness (AMS) and high altitude pulmonary oedema (HAPO) occur together more often than is realized. We hypothesize that AMS and HAPO have a common pathophysiological basis: both are due to increased pressure and flow in the microcirculation, causing...

  1. What bothers the sick-listed employee with severe MUPS?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoedeman, R.; Blankenstein, A. H.; Koopmans, P. C.; Groothoff, J. W.

    2013-01-01

    Aims: The aim of this study was to explore what employees with severe medically unexplained physical symptoms (MUPS) experience as causes of distress with regard to employees with mild or no MUPS. Methods: This study is an additional analysis of a cross-sectional study in which 486 sick-listed emplo

  2. Respiratory impact on motion sickness induced by linear motion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mert, A.; Klöpping-Ketelaars, I.; Bles, W.

    2009-01-01

    Motion sickness incidence (MSI) for vertical sinusoidal motion reaches a maximum at 0.167 Hz. Normal breathing frequency is close to this frequency. There is some evidence for synchronization of breathing with this stimulus frequency. If this enforced breathing takes place over a larger frequency ra

  3. Mood and simulator sickness after truck simulator exposure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcin Biernacki

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Studies involving simulators are increasingly popular. We examined to what extent exposure to a variety of test conditions on the simulator affects the level of mood and severity of simulator sickness. In addition, we were interested in finding out to what degree the changes in mood are associated with the severity of the symptoms of simulator sickness. Material and Methods: Twelve men (aged M: 29.8, SD: 4.26 participated in the study, performing two 30-minute tasks in a driving simulator truck (fixed-base and mobile platform. For measuring mood, the UMACL questionnaire was used, and to assess the severity of the symptoms of simulator sickness, the SSQ questionnaire was used. Mood and the severity of simulator sickness symptoms were measured 3 times during the study (pretest, 2 min and 0.5 h after the test. Results: Symptoms of nausea and disorientation occurred after the tests on both simulators. In the case of the mobile platform, exacerbation of the symptoms associated with oculomotor disturbances was observed. These symptoms were particularly severe 2 min after completion of the test on the simulator, and they persisted for at least 0.5 h after the end of the test. The correlations between simulator sickness and mood explained from 35% to 65% of the variance of these variables. In particular, a strong association was observed between the oculomotor disturbances and a decrease in energetic arousal. This refers both to the effect level and the duration of these symptoms. Conclusions: Simulator sickness is a major problem in the use of simulators in both the research and the training of operators. In the conditions involving the mobile platform, not only was a higher severity of the symptoms of simulator sickness observed, but also a decrease in energetic arousal. Therefore, the implementation of the mobile platform can provide an additional source of conflict at the level of incoming stimuli and changes in mood may increase this

  4. Ventilation in day-care centres and sick leave among nursery children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kolarik, Barbara; Andersen, Zorana Jovanovic; Ibfelt, Tobias; Engelund, Eva Hoy; Møller, Eva; Bräuner, Elvira Vaclavik

    2016-01-01

    ventilation in DCCs and sick leave among nursery children. Data on child sick leave within an 11 week period was obtained for 635 children attending 20 DCCs. Ventilation measurements included three proxies of ventilation: air exchange rate (ACR) measured with the decay method, ACR measured by the...... inverse relationship between the number of sick days and ACR measured with the decay method was found for crude and adjusted analysis, with a 12% decrease in number of sick days per 1 h(-1) increase in ACR measured with the decay method. This study suggests a relationship between sick leave among nursery...

  5. Head movements in non-terrestrial force environments elicit motion sickness - Implications for the etiology of space motion sickness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lackner, J. R.; Graybiel, A.

    1986-01-01

    Space motion sickness has become an operational concern in manned space flight. Considerable evidence exists that head movements in free fall, especially pitch movements, are provocative until adaptation occurs. The question arises whether space motion sickness is an unique nosological entity or is due to body movements in a nonterrestrial force environment, a force environment for which the body's dynamic sensory-motor adaptions to 1 G are no longer appropriate. To evaluate this issue, subjects were asked to make controlled head movements during exposure to high gravitoinertial force levels, 1.8-2.0 G, in parabolic flight maneuvers. Head movements in pitch with eyes open were most evocative of motion sickness, yaw movements with eyes covered were least provocative. This pattern is identical to that which occurs when the same types of head movements are made in the free fall phase of parabolic maneuvers. It appears that space motion sickness is the consequence of prolonged exposure to a nonterrestrial force background rather than of exposure to free fall per se.

  6. Certifying qubit operations below the fault tolerance threshold

    CERN Document Server

    Blume-Kohout, Robin; Nielsen, Erik; Rudinger, Kenneth; Mizrahi, Jonathan; Fortier, Kevin; Maunz, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Quantum information processors promise fast algorithms for problems inaccessible to classical computers. But since qubits are noisy and error-prone, they will depend on fault-tolerant quantum error correction (FTQEC) to compute reliably. Quantum error correction can protect against general noise if -- and only if -- the error in each physical qubit operation is smaller than a certain threshold. The threshold for general errors is quantified by their diamond norm. Until now, qubits have been assessed primarily by randomized benchmarking (RB), which reports a different "error rate" that is not sensitive to all errors, cannot be compared directly to diamond norm thresholds, and cannot efficiently certify a qubit for FTQEC. We use gate set tomography (GST) to completely characterize the performance of a trapped-Yb$^+$-ion qubit and certify it rigorously as suitable for FTQEC by establishing that its diamond norm error rate is less than $6.7\\times10^{-4}$ with $95\\%$ confidence.

  7. Certified reduced basis methods for parametrized partial differential equations

    CERN Document Server

    Hesthaven, Jan S; Stamm, Benjamin

    2016-01-01

    This book provides a thorough introduction to the mathematical and algorithmic aspects of certified reduced basis methods for parametrized partial differential equations. Central aspects ranging from model construction, error estimation and computational efficiency to empirical interpolation methods are discussed in detail for coercive problems. More advanced aspects associated with time-dependent problems, non-compliant and non-coercive problems and applications with geometric variation are also discussed as examples.

  8. Certified Computation of planar Morse-Smale Complexes

    OpenAIRE

    Chattopadhyay, Amit; Vegter, Gert; Yap, Chee K.

    2015-01-01

    The Morse-Smale complex is an important tool for global topological analysis in various problems of computational geometry and topology. Algorithms for Morse-Smale complexes have been presented in case of piecewise linear manifolds. However, previous research in this field is incomplete in the case of smooth functions. In the current paper we address the following question: Given an arbitrarily complex Morse-Smale system on a planar domain, is it possible to compute its certified (topological...

  9. CeTA - A Tool for Certified Termination Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Sternagel, Christian; Thiemann, René; Winkler, Sarah; Zankl, Harald

    2012-01-01

    Since the first termination competition in 2004 it is of great interest, whether a proof that has been automatically generated by a termination tool, is indeed correct. The increasing number of termination proving techniques as well as the increasing complexity of generated proofs (e.g., combinations of several techniques, exhaustive labelings, tree automata, etc.), make certifying (i.e., checking the correctness of) such proofs more and more tedious for humans. Hence the interest in automate...

  10. Certified Nursing Assistants’ Explanatory Models of Nursing Home Resident Depression

    OpenAIRE

    Piven, Mary Lynn; Anderson, Ruth A.; Colón-Emeric, Cathleen S.; Sandelowski, Margarete

    2008-01-01

    In this study, we explored how Certified Nursing Assistants (CNAs) understood resident depression. Interviews with 18 CNAs, working in two nursing homes were guided by Kleinman’s Explanatory Models of Illness framework. Interview data were content analyzed and CNAs’ descriptions of depression were compared to the MDS 2.0 Mood Screen and to DSM-IV-TR Depression Criteria. CNAs identified causes, signs, and symptoms of depression, but they were unsure about the duration and normalcy of depressio...

  11. A comparison of certified and noncertified pet foods.

    OpenAIRE

    Brown, R G

    1997-01-01

    The market presents the buyer with a wide array of pet food choices. Marketing pet foods has changed in the last decade and today foods may be bought at a variety of outlets. The present study compares nutrient composition, digestibility, and effect on urine pH (cat foods only) of selected certified and noncertified pet foods from different outlets. The selected foods were considered analogous in terms of declared ingredients and macronutrient profiles. The analytical methods used were those ...

  12. Ambulation Increases Decompression Sickness in Spacewalk Simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollock, N. W.; Natoli, M. J.; Conkin, J.; Wessel, J. H., III; Gernhardt, M. L.

    2014-01-01

    Musculoskeletal activity has the potential to both improve and compromise decompression safety. Exercise enhances inert gas elimination during oxygen breathing prior to decompression (prebreathe), but it may also promote bubble nuclei formation (nucleation), which can lead to gas phase separation and bubble growth and increase the risk of decompression sickness (DCS). The timing, pattern and intensity of musculoskeletal activity and the level of tissue supersaturation may be critical to the net effect. Understanding the relationships is important to evaluate exercise prebreathe protocols and quantify decompression risk in gravity and microgravity environments. Data gathered during NASA's Prebreathe Reduction Program (PRP) studies combined oxygen prebreathe and exercise followed by low pressure (4.3 psi; altitude equivalent of 30,300 ft [9,235 m]) microgravity simulation to produce two protocols used by astronauts preparing for extravehicular activity. Both the Phase II/CEVIS (cycle ergometer vibration isolation system) and ISLE (in-suit light exercise) trials eliminated ambulation to more closely simulate the microgravity environment. The CEVIS results (35 male, 10 female) serve as control data for this NASA/Duke study to investigate the influence of ambulation exercise on bubble formation and the subsequent risk of DCS. METHODS Four experiments will replicate the CEVIS exercise-enhanced oxygen prebreathe protocol, each with a different exception. The first of these is currently underway. Experiment 1 - Subjects complete controlled ambulation (walking in place with fixed cadence and step height) during both preflight and at 4.3 psi instead of remaining nonambulatory throughout. Experiment 2 - Subjects remain non-ambulatory during the preflight period and ambulatory at 4.3 psi. Experiment 3 - Subjects ambulate during the preflight period and remain non-ambulatory at 4.3 psi. Experiment 4 - The order of heavy and light exercise employed in the CEVIS protocol is

  13. 7 CFR 201.70 - Limitations of generations for certified seed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Limitations of generations for certified seed. 201.70... SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) FEDERAL SEED ACT FEDERAL SEED ACT REGULATIONS Certified Seed § 201.70 Limitations of generations for certified...

  14. 7 CFR 201.74 - Labeling of all classes of certified seed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Labeling of all classes of certified seed. 201.74... SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) FEDERAL SEED ACT FEDERAL SEED ACT REGULATIONS Certified Seed § 201.74 Labeling of all classes of certified seed....

  15. 7 CFR 201.72 - Production of all classes of certified seed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Production of all classes of certified seed. 201.72... SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) FEDERAL SEED ACT FEDERAL SEED ACT REGULATIONS Certified Seed § 201.72 Production of all classes of certified...

  16. 7 CFR 201.71 - Establishing the source of all classes of certified seed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... seed. 201.71 Section 201.71 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued... (CONTINUED) FEDERAL SEED ACT FEDERAL SEED ACT REGULATIONS Certified Seed § 201.71 Establishing the source of all classes of certified seed. The certifying agency shall have evidence of the class and source...

  17. 7 CFR 457.145 - Potato crop insurance-certified seed endorsement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Potato crop insurance-certified seed endorsement. 457... INSURANCE CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMON CROP INSURANCE REGULATIONS § 457.145 Potato crop insurance—certified seed endorsement. The Potato Crop Insurance Certified Seed Endorsement Provisions...

  18. 9 CFR 149.5 - Offsite identification and segregation of certified swine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Offsite identification and segregation of certified swine. 149.5 Section 149.5 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH... § 149.5 Offsite identification and segregation of certified swine. Certified swine moved from...

  19. 7 CFR 766.114 - State-certified mediation or voluntary meeting of creditors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false State-certified mediation or voluntary meeting of... Programs § 766.114 State-certified mediation or voluntary meeting of creditors. (a) A borrower who is...) State-certified mediation; or (2) Voluntary meeting of creditors when a State does not have a...

  20. 7 CFR 785.4 - Grants to certified State mediation programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Grants to certified State mediation programs. 785.4..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SPECIAL PROGRAMS CERTIFIED STATE MEDIATION PROGRAM § 785.4 Grants to certified State mediation programs. (a) Eligibility. To be eligible to receive a grant, a State mediation...