WorldWideScience

Sample records for cerrado

  1. Conjuntos secuencialmente cerrados

    OpenAIRE

    Caicedo, Xavier

    2012-01-01

    Decimos que un subconjunto A de un espacio topológico de Hausdorff es  secuencialmente cerrado si el límite de cualquier sucesión convergente de elementos de A esta en A. Todo sub conjunto cerrado es secuencialmente cerrado; sin embargo la afirmación conversa no es valida.

  2. Bioactive Compounds Found in Brazilian Cerrado Fruits

    OpenAIRE

    Elisa Flávia Luiz Cardoso Bailão; Ivano Alessandro Devilla; Edemilson Cardoso da Conceição; Leonardo Luiz Borges

    2015-01-01

    Functional foods include any natural product that presents health-promoting effects, thereby reducing the risk of chronic diseases. Cerrado fruits are considered a source of bioactive substances, mainly phenolic compounds, making them important functional foods. Despite this, the losses of natural vegetation in the Cerrado are progressive. Hence, the knowledge propagation about the importance of the species found in Cerrado could contribute to the preservation of this biome. This review provi...

  3. Bioactive Compounds Found in Brazilian Cerrado Fruits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisa Flávia Luiz Cardoso Bailão

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Functional foods include any natural product that presents health-promoting effects, thereby reducing the risk of chronic diseases. Cerrado fruits are considered a source of bioactive substances, mainly phenolic compounds, making them important functional foods. Despite this, the losses of natural vegetation in the Cerrado are progressive. Hence, the knowledge propagation about the importance of the species found in Cerrado could contribute to the preservation of this biome. This review provides information about Cerrado fruits and highlights the structures and pharmacologic potential of functional compounds found in these fruits. Compounds detected in Caryocar brasiliense Camb. (pequi, Dipteryx alata Vog. (baru, Eugenia dysenterica DC. (cagaita, Eugenia uniflora L. (pitanga, Genipa americana L. (jenipapo, Hancornia speciosa Gomes (mangaba, Mauritia flexuosa L.f. (buriti, Myrciaria cauliflora (DC Berg (jabuticaba, Psidium guajava L. (goiaba, Psidium spp. (araçá, Solanum lycocarpum St. Hill (lobeira, Spondias mombin L. (cajá, Annona crassiflora Mart. (araticum, among others are reported here.

  4. Bioactive Compounds Found in Brazilian Cerrado Fruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailão, Elisa Flávia Luiz Cardoso; Devilla, Ivano Alessandro; da Conceição, Edemilson Cardoso; Borges, Leonardo Luiz

    2015-01-01

    Functional foods include any natural product that presents health-promoting effects, thereby reducing the risk of chronic diseases. Cerrado fruits are considered a source of bioactive substances, mainly phenolic compounds, making them important functional foods. Despite this, the losses of natural vegetation in the Cerrado are progressive. Hence, the knowledge propagation about the importance of the species found in Cerrado could contribute to the preservation of this biome. This review provides information about Cerrado fruits and highlights the structures and pharmacologic potential of functional compounds found in these fruits. Compounds detected in Caryocar brasiliense Camb. (pequi), Dipteryx alata Vog. (baru), Eugenia dysenterica DC. (cagaita), Eugenia uniflora L. (pitanga), Genipa americana L. (jenipapo), Hancornia speciosa Gomes (mangaba), Mauritia flexuosa L.f. (buriti), Myrciaria cauliflora (DC) Berg (jabuticaba), Psidium guajava L. (goiaba), Psidium spp. (araçá), Solanum lycocarpum St. Hill (lobeira), Spondias mombin L. (cajá), Annona crassiflora Mart. (araticum), among others are reported here. PMID:26473827

  5. Barrios cerrados como estrategia de desarrollo municipal

    OpenAIRE

    Nora Libertun de Duren

    2010-01-01

    Los barrios cerrados han sido generalmente estudiados desde la perspectiva de sus residentes, preferencias, estatus económico, y ambiciones sociales. Aun más, estos proyectos han sido asociados con el debilitamiento del estado y un desarrollo urbano gobernado por las necesidades del mercado. Sin embargo, queda por responder cual ha sido el papel de las instituciones públicas en la proliferación de barrios cerrados. Este artículo analiza e...

  6. O cerrado brasileiro: notas para estudo

    OpenAIRE

    Mauro Augusto dos Santos; Alisson Flávio Barbieri; José Alberto Magno de Carvalho; Carla Jorge Machado

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a short literature review on the Brazilian Cerrado, with emphasis on the following aspects: (1) characterization of the area, (2) environmental degradation and population occupation, (3) history of regional occupation (4) role of immigration; the use of technology; and the land market.

  7. Ró - Cerrados e Mundo A'uwe Xavante

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    Maria Lucia Cereda Gomide

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The Xavante people live in what is now the western Brazilian state of Mato Grosso, on nine indigenous reservations that are fragments of their original territory, characteristic for its still untouched biodiversity and cerrado, a scrub-like ecosystem endemic to Brazil. This article discusses the relationship between the Xavante and the cerrado, and, accordingly, the concept of Ró is discussed, which for the Xavante means “cerrado, world, our land, everything”. In summary, it is a complex that is configured spatially through concentric circles that spread out from villages to the cerrado and its spirits. The importance of the cerrado with regards to their cosmology and their vision of Mother Nature is also emphasized, along with indigenous classifications for the phytophysiognomy of the cerrado.

  8. Microbial Diversity in Cerrado Biome (Neotropical Savanna) Soils

    OpenAIRE

    Alinne Pereira de Castro; Maria Regina Silveira Sartori da Silva; Betania Ferraz Quirino; Mercedes Maria da Cunha Bustamante; Ricardo Henrique Krüger

    2016-01-01

    The Cerrado, the largest savanna region in South America, is located in central Brazil. Cerrado physiognomies, which range from savanna grasslands to forest formations, combined with the highly weathered, acidic clay Cerrado soils form a unique ecoregion. In this study, high-throughput sequencing of ribosomal RNA genes was combined with shotgun metagenomic analysis to explore the taxonomic composition and potential functions of soil microbial communities in four different vegetation physiogno...

  9. Ró - Cerrados e Mundo A'uwe Xavante

    OpenAIRE

    Maria Lucia Cereda Gomide

    2011-01-01

    The Xavante people live in what is now the western Brazilian state of Mato Grosso, on nine indigenous reservations that are fragments of their original territory, characteristic for its still untouched biodiversity and cerrado, a scrub-like ecosystem endemic to Brazil. This article discusses the relationship between the Xavante and the cerrado, and, accordingly, the concept of Ró is discussed, which for the Xavante means “cerrado, world, our land, everything”. In summary, it is a complex that...

  10. Antifungal properties of Brazilian cerrado plants

    OpenAIRE

    Souza Lúcia Kioko Hasimoto e; Oliveira Cecília Maria Alves de; Ferri Pedro Henrique; Santos Suzana Costa; Oliveira Júnior Juldásio Galdino de; Miranda André Thiago Borges; Lião Luciano Morais; Silva Maria do Rosário Rodrigues

    2002-01-01

    Ethanolic extracts from leaves of Hyptis ovalifolia, H. suaveolens, H. saxatilis, Hyptidendrum canum, Eugenia uniflora, E. dysenterica, Caryocar brasiliensis and Lafoensia pacari were investigated for their antifungal activity against dermatophytes. The most effective plants were H. ovalifolia and E. uniflora, while Trichophyton rubrum was the most sensitive among the four dermatophytes species evaluated. This study has demonstrated antifungal properties of Brazilian Cerrado plant extracts in...

  11. Antifungal properties of Brazilian cerrado plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Souza Lúcia Kioko Hasimoto e

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Ethanolic extracts from leaves of Hyptis ovalifolia, H. suaveolens, H. saxatilis, Hyptidendrum canum, Eugenia uniflora, E. dysenterica, Caryocar brasiliensis and Lafoensia pacari were investigated for their antifungal activity against dermatophytes. The most effective plants were H. ovalifolia and E. uniflora, while Trichophyton rubrum was the most sensitive among the four dermatophytes species evaluated. This study has demonstrated antifungal properties of Brazilian Cerrado plant extracts in "in vitro" assays.

  12. Factors influencing seed germination in Cerrado grasses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosana Marta Kolb

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Few studies address the ecology of herbs of Cerrado grasslands, which are ecosystems where the long dry season, high temperatures, insolation, fire and invasive grasses greatly influencing germination and the establishment of plants. We assessed germination of 13 species of Poaceae from Cerrado grasslands under nursery conditions or in germination chambers, the latter with i recently collected seeds and seeds after six months storage, ii under constant and alternating temperatures, and iii in the presence and absence of light. Germinability, mean germination time (MGT and required light were quantified to elucidate factors involved in successful germination. Germinability was low for most grasses, probably because of low seed viability. For most species, germinability and MGT were not altered by seed storage. Germination percentages were higher at alternating temperatures and in the presence of light, factors that are more similar to natural environmental situations compared with constant temperature or the absence of light. Our findings indicate that alternating temperatures and light incidence are key factors for germination of species of Poaceae. The maintenance of these environmental factors, which are crucial for the conservation of Cerrado grasslands, depends on appropriate management interventions, such as fire management and the control of biological invasion.

  13. Children's Perceptions of Brazilian Cerrado Landscapes and Biodiversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bizerril, Marcelo X. A.

    2004-01-01

    In this study, the author evaluated Brazilian students' environmental perceptions of Cerrado (savanna-like vegetation). The author administered tests of knowledge and perception of the Cerrado biome's wildlife to students of different social classes. The students (age range: 11-17 years) generally exhibited low identification with the region, and…

  14. Trends in water balance components across the Brazilian Cerrado

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Brazilian Cerrado (Savanna) is considered one of the most important biomes for Brazilian water resources; however, little is known about the components of the water balance in this biome. In this study, we reviewed the available literature on the water balance components in the Brazilian Cerrado...

  15. Barrios cerrados como estrategia de desarrollo municipal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nora Libertun de Duren

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Los barrios cerrados han sido generalmente estudiados desde la perspectiva de sus residentes, preferencias, estatus económico, y ambiciones sociales. Aun más, estos proyectos han sido asociados con el debilitamiento del estado y un desarrollo urbano gobernado por las necesidades del mercado. Sin embargo, queda por responder cual ha sido el papel de las instituciones públicas en la proliferación de barrios cerrados. Este artículo analiza el caso de Buenos Aires, donde las municipalidades suburbanas más pobres han visto a las urbanizaciones cerradas como una estrategia de desarrollo local. Aprovechando la descentralización de la reglamentación sobre los usos del suelo del nivel provincial al municipal, las municipalidades con un alto porcentaje de hogares pobres han facilitado el desarrollo de urbanizaciones cerradas como estrategia para aumentar el empleo local y la inversión privada en la zona. Como consecuencia de esta política, las urbanizaciones cerradas se han concentrado en las municipalidades más pobres del cono urbano bonaerense. Así, se ha incrementando la polarización social dentro de cada municipalidad, lo cual llama a revisar el efecto de las reformas de descentralización en la formación de una sociedad mas inclusiva y participativa.

  16. Interception of rainfall and surface runoff in the Brazilian Cerrado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarso Oliveira, Paulo; Wendland, Edson; Nearing, Mark; Perea Martins, João

    2014-05-01

    The Brazilian Cerrado plays a fundamental role in water resources dynamics because it distributes fresh water to the largest basins in Brazil and South America. In recent decades, the native Cerrado vegetation has increasingly been replaced by agricultural crops and pasture. These land cover and land use changes have altered the hydrological processes. Meanwhile, little is known about the components of the water balance in the Brazilian Cerrado, mainly because the experimental field studies in this region are scarce or nonexistent. The objective of this study was to evaluate two hydrological processes under native Cerrado vegetation, the canopy interception (CI) and the surface runoff (R). The Cerrado physiognomy was classified as "cerrado sensu stricto denso" with an absolute density of 15,278 trees ha-1, and a basal area of 11.44 m2 ha-1. We measured the gross rainfall (P) from an automated tipping bucket rain gauge (model TB4) located in a tower with 11 m of height on the Cerrado. Throughfall (TF) was obtained from 15 automated tipping bucket rain gauges (model Davis) spread below the Cerrado vegetation and randomly relocated every month during the wet season. Stemflow (SF) was measured on 12 trees using a plastic hose wrapped around the trees trunks, sealed with neutral silicone sealant, and a bucket to store the water. The canopy interception was computed by the difference between P and the sum of TF and SF. Surface runoff under undisturbed Cerrado was collected in three plots of 100 m2(5 x 20 m) in size and slope steepness of approximately 0.09 m m-1. The experimental study was conducted between January 2012 and November 2013. We found TF of 81.0% of P and SF of 1.6% of P, i.e. the canopy interception was calculated at 17.4% of P. There was a statistically significant correlation (p 0.8. Our results suggest that the rainfall intensity, the characteristics of the trees trunks (crooked and twisted) and stand structure are the main factors that have influenced

  17. Modelling Fire Frequency in a Cerrado Savanna Protected Area

    OpenAIRE

    Pereira Júnior, Alfredo C.; Oliveira, Sofia L. J.; José M.C. Pereira; Turkman, Maria Antónia Amaral

    2014-01-01

    Covering almost a quarter of Brazil, the Cerrado is the world’s most biologically rich tropical savanna. Fire is an integral part of the Cerrado but current land use and agricultural practices have been changing fire regimes, with undesirable consequences for the preservation of biodiversity. In this study, fire frequency and fire return intervals were modelled over a 12-year time series (1997–2008) for the Jalapão State Park, a protected area in the north of the Cerrado, based on burned area...

  18. Antifungal properties of Brazilian cerrado plants Propriedades antifúngicas de plantas do Cerrado brasileiro

    OpenAIRE

    Lúcia Kioko Hasimoto e Souza; Cecília Maria Alves de Oliveira; Pedro Henrique Ferri; Suzana Costa Santos; Juldásio Galdino de Oliveira Júnior; André Thiago Borges Miranda; Luciano Morais Lião; Maria do Rosário Rodrigues Silva

    2002-01-01

    Ethanolic extracts from leaves of Hyptis ovalifolia, H. suaveolens, H. saxatilis, Hyptidendrum canum, Eugenia uniflora, E. dysenterica, Caryocar brasiliensis and Lafoensia pacari were investigated for their antifungal activity against dermatophytes. The most effective plants were H. ovalifolia and E. uniflora, while Trichophyton rubrum was the most sensitive among the four dermatophytes species evaluated. This study has demonstrated antifungal properties of Brazilian Cerrado plant extracts in...

  19. A FLORA DO CERRADO E SUAS FORMAS DE APROVEITAMENTO UTILIZATION OF CERRADO FLORA

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    Cynthia Santos

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available

    Para colher informações sobre as formas de utilização do cerrado, realizou-se um levantamento por meio de questionários aplicados nas regiões do país onde ocorre esse tipo de vegetação. As informações solicitadas foram: nome comum, local de ocorrência, época de floração, frutificação, partes utilizáveis e seu aproveitamento geral. Encontrou-se um número superior a 170 espécies que são utilizadas das mais diferentes formas. As famílias que se destacam em número de espécies são, em ordem decrescente: Leguminosae, Palmae, Apocynaceae, Solanaceae, Anacardiaceae, Euphorbiaceae, Bignoniaceae, Compositae, Vochysiaceae, Annonaceae, Sapindaceae, Myrtaceae, Convolvulaceae, Boraginaceae, Moraceae, Dilleniaceae, Guttiferae, Gentianaceae, Cucurbitaceae, Colchospermaceae, Bromeliaceae, Tiliacea, e Sapotaceae, entre outras de menor utilização.

    PALAVRAS-CHAVE: Cerrado; flora nativa; flora do cerrado; savana; savana flora.

    The uses of Brazilian cerrado vegetation were surveyed by means of a questionnaire, requesting common name, local of occurrence, flowering and fruitage time, usable parts and general utilization. Over 170 species were found, with a wide variety of uses. In decreasing order, the most frequent families were: Leguminosae, Palmae, Apocynaceae, Solanaceae, Anacardiaceae, Euphorbiaceae, Bignoniaceae, Compositae, Vochysiaceae, Annonaceae, Sapindaceae, Myrtaceae, Convolvulaceae, Boraginaceae, Moraceae,

  20. L’invention du biome Cerrado

    OpenAIRE

    Aubertin, Catherine; pinton, florence

    2014-01-01

    L’enjeu de cet article est de comprendre comment le Cerrado, espace d’abord ignoré, puis voué à l’agriculture intensive, a été au début des années 2000 requalifié en biome, sujet de préoccupations environnementales. Sa propulsion sur la scène internationale lors de la conférence Climat de Copenhague en 2009 a par la suite contribué à transformer cet espace mal défini en un enjeu international du changement climatique et de la lutte contre la déforestation avec l’affirmation de deux mouvements...

  1. Ant plant herbivore interactions in the neotropical cerrado savanna

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Paulo S.; Freitas, André V. L.

    2004-12-01

    The Brazilian cerrado savanna covers nearly 2 million km2 and has a high incidence on foliage of various liquid food sources such as extrafloral nectar and insect exudates. These liquid rewards generate intense ant activity on cerrado foliage, making ant plant herbivore interactions especially prevalent in this biome. We present data on the distribution and abundance of extrafloral nectaries in the woody flora of cerrado communities and in the flora of other habitats worldwide, and stress the relevance of liquid food sources (including hemipteran honeydew) for the ant fauna. Consumption by ants of plant and insect exudates significantly affects the activity of the associated herbivores of cerrado plant species, with varying impacts on the reproductive output of the plants. Experiments with an ant plant butterfly system unequivocally demonstrate that the behavior of both immature and adult lepidopterans is closely related to the use of a risky host plant, where intensive visitation by ants can have a severe impact on caterpillar survival. We discuss recent evidence suggesting that the occurrence of liquid rewards on leaves plays a key role in mediating the foraging ecology of foliage-dwelling ants, and that facultative ant plant mutualisms are important in structuring the community of canopy arthropods. Ant-mediated effects on cerrado herbivore communities can be revealed by experiments performed on wide spatial scales, including many environmental factors such as soil fertility and vegetation structure. We also present some research questions that could be rewarding to investigate in this major neotropical savanna.

  2. Microbial Diversity in Cerrado Biome (Neotropical Savanna) Soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Castro, Alinne Pereira; Sartori da Silva, Maria Regina Silveira; Quirino, Betania Ferraz; da Cunha Bustamante, Mercedes Maria; Krüger, Ricardo Henrique

    2016-01-01

    The Cerrado, the largest savanna region in South America, is located in central Brazil. Cerrado physiognomies, which range from savanna grasslands to forest formations, combined with the highly weathered, acidic clay Cerrado soils form a unique ecoregion. In this study, high-throughput sequencing of ribosomal RNA genes was combined with shotgun metagenomic analysis to explore the taxonomic composition and potential functions of soil microbial communities in four different vegetation physiognomies during both dry and rainy seasons. Our results showed that changes in bacterial, archaeal, and fungal community structures in cerrado denso, cerrado sensu stricto, campo sujo, and gallery forest soils strongly correlated with seasonal patterns of soil water uptake. The relative abundance of AD3, WPS-2, Planctomycetes, Thermoprotei, and Glomeromycota typically decreased in the rainy season, whereas the relative abundance of Proteobacteria and Ascomycota increased. In addition, analysis of shotgun metagenomic data revealed a significant increase in the relative abundance of genes associated with iron acquisition and metabolism, dormancy, and sporulation during the dry season, and an increase in the relative abundance of genes related to respiration and DNA and protein metabolism during the rainy season. These gene functional categories are associated with adaptation to water stress. Our results further the understanding of how tropical savanna soil microbial communities may be influenced by vegetation covering and temporal variations in soil moisture. PMID:26849674

  3. Microbial Diversity in Cerrado Biome (Neotropical Savanna Soils.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alinne Pereira de Castro

    Full Text Available The Cerrado, the largest savanna region in South America, is located in central Brazil. Cerrado physiognomies, which range from savanna grasslands to forest formations, combined with the highly weathered, acidic clay Cerrado soils form a unique ecoregion. In this study, high-throughput sequencing of ribosomal RNA genes was combined with shotgun metagenomic analysis to explore the taxonomic composition and potential functions of soil microbial communities in four different vegetation physiognomies during both dry and rainy seasons. Our results showed that changes in bacterial, archaeal, and fungal community structures in cerrado denso, cerrado sensu stricto, campo sujo, and gallery forest soils strongly correlated with seasonal patterns of soil water uptake. The relative abundance of AD3, WPS-2, Planctomycetes, Thermoprotei, and Glomeromycota typically decreased in the rainy season, whereas the relative abundance of Proteobacteria and Ascomycota increased. In addition, analysis of shotgun metagenomic data revealed a significant increase in the relative abundance of genes associated with iron acquisition and metabolism, dormancy, and sporulation during the dry season, and an increase in the relative abundance of genes related to respiration and DNA and protein metabolism during the rainy season. These gene functional categories are associated with adaptation to water stress. Our results further the understanding of how tropical savanna soil microbial communities may be influenced by vegetation covering and temporal variations in soil moisture.

  4. Microbial Diversity in Cerrado Biome (Neotropical Savanna) Soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira de Castro, Alinne; Sartori da Silva, Maria Regina Silveira; Quirino, Betania Ferraz; da Cunha Bustamante, Mercedes Maria; Krüger, Ricardo Henrique

    2016-01-01

    The Cerrado, the largest savanna region in South America, is located in central Brazil. Cerrado physiognomies, which range from savanna grasslands to forest formations, combined with the highly weathered, acidic clay Cerrado soils form a unique ecoregion. In this study, high-throughput sequencing of ribosomal RNA genes was combined with shotgun metagenomic analysis to explore the taxonomic composition and potential functions of soil microbial communities in four different vegetation physiognomies during both dry and rainy seasons. Our results showed that changes in bacterial, archaeal, and fungal community structures in cerrado denso, cerrado sensu stricto, campo sujo, and gallery forest soils strongly correlated with seasonal patterns of soil water uptake. The relative abundance of AD3, WPS-2, Planctomycetes, Thermoprotei, and Glomeromycota typically decreased in the rainy season, whereas the relative abundance of Proteobacteria and Ascomycota increased. In addition, analysis of shotgun metagenomic data revealed a significant increase in the relative abundance of genes associated with iron acquisition and metabolism, dormancy, and sporulation during the dry season, and an increase in the relative abundance of genes related to respiration and DNA and protein metabolism during the rainy season. These gene functional categories are associated with adaptation to water stress. Our results further the understanding of how tropical savanna soil microbial communities may be influenced by vegetation covering and temporal variations in soil moisture. PMID:26849674

  5. Mapping Fire Scars in the Brazilian Cerrado Using AVHRR Imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hlavka, C. A.; Ambrosia, V. G.; Brass, J. A.; Rezendez, A.; Alexander, S.; Guild, L. S.; Peterson, David L. (Technical Monitor)

    1995-01-01

    The Brazilian cerrado, or savanna, spans an area of 1,800,000 square kilometers on the great plateau of Central Brazil. Large fires covering hundreds of square kilometers, frequently occur in wildland areas of the cerrado, dominated by grasslands or grasslands mixed with shrubs and small trees, and also within area in the cerrado used for agricultural purposes, particularly for grazing. Smaller fires, typically extending over arm of a few square kilometers or less, are associated with the clewing of crops, such as dry land rice. A method for mapping fire scars and differentiating them from extensive areas of bare sod with AVHRR bands 1 (.55 -.68 micrometer) and 3 (3.5 - 3.9 micrometers) and measures of performance based on comparison with maps of fires with Landsat imagery will be presented. Methods of estimating total area burned from the AVHRR fire scar map will be discussed and related to land use and scar size.

  6. Scarabaeoidea (Insecta: Coleoptera) no Cerrado brasileiro: estado atual do conhecimento

    OpenAIRE

    Milena Luçardo; Charles Martins de Oliveira; Marina Regina Frizzas

    2014-01-01

    Besouros pertencentes à superfamília Scarabaeoidea ocupam habitats variados, possuem hábitos alimentares diversificados, desempenham importante papel ecológico e diversas espécies apresentam importância agrícola. No entanto, estudos com esse grupo na região do Cerrado são escassos. Nesta revisão realizou-se um levantamento dos artigos publicados nos últimos 30 anos a respeito dos Scarabaeoidea no Cerrado. Foram recuperados 64 artigos, realizados em nove unidades da federação, que focavam quat...

  7. Soil organic matter dynamics in a cerrado oxisol

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roscoe, R.

    2002-01-01

    The Brazilian Cerrado is the second largest biome in the country, spreading over 23 % of the national territory. In the last three decades, it has increasingly contributed to the national production, being responsible in 1995 for 25% of the national agricultural production and sheltering 40% of the

  8. Modelling fire frequency in a Cerrado savanna protected area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira Júnior, Alfredo C; Oliveira, Sofia L J; Pereira, José M C; Turkman, Maria Antónia Amaral

    2014-01-01

    Covering almost a quarter of Brazil, the Cerrado is the world's most biologically rich tropical savanna. Fire is an integral part of the Cerrado but current land use and agricultural practices have been changing fire regimes, with undesirable consequences for the preservation of biodiversity. In this study, fire frequency and fire return intervals were modelled over a 12-year time series (1997-2008) for the Jalapão State Park, a protected area in the north of the Cerrado, based on burned area maps derived from Landsat imagery. Burned areas were classified using object based image analysis. Fire data were modelled with the discrete lognormal model and the estimated parameters were used to calculate fire interval, fire survival and hazard of burning distributions, for seven major land cover types. Over the study period, an area equivalent to four times the size of Jalapão State Park burned and the mean annual area burned was 34%. Median fire intervals were generally short, ranging from three to six years. Shrub savannas had the shortest fire intervals, and dense woodlands the longest. Because fires in the Cerrado are strongly responsive to fuel age in the first three to four years following a fire, early dry season patch mosaic burning may be used to reduce the extent of area burned and the severity of fire effects. PMID:25054540

  9. Modelling fire frequency in a Cerrado savanna protected area.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfredo C Pereira Júnior

    Full Text Available Covering almost a quarter of Brazil, the Cerrado is the world's most biologically rich tropical savanna. Fire is an integral part of the Cerrado but current land use and agricultural practices have been changing fire regimes, with undesirable consequences for the preservation of biodiversity. In this study, fire frequency and fire return intervals were modelled over a 12-year time series (1997-2008 for the Jalapão State Park, a protected area in the north of the Cerrado, based on burned area maps derived from Landsat imagery. Burned areas were classified using object based image analysis. Fire data were modelled with the discrete lognormal model and the estimated parameters were used to calculate fire interval, fire survival and hazard of burning distributions, for seven major land cover types. Over the study period, an area equivalent to four times the size of Jalapão State Park burned and the mean annual area burned was 34%. Median fire intervals were generally short, ranging from three to six years. Shrub savannas had the shortest fire intervals, and dense woodlands the longest. Because fires in the Cerrado are strongly responsive to fuel age in the first three to four years following a fire, early dry season patch mosaic burning may be used to reduce the extent of area burned and the severity of fire effects.

  10. Seasonality of litterfall and leaf decomposition in a cerrado site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valenti, M W; Cianciaruso, M V; Batalha, M A

    2008-08-01

    We investigated annual litterfall and leaf decomposition rate in a cerrado site. We collected woody plant litter monthly from April 2001 to March 2002 and from July 2003 to June 2004. We placed systematically 13 litter traps (0.5 x 0.5 m) in a line, 10 m one from the other. We sorted litter into 'leaves', 'stems', 'reproductive structures', and 'miscellanea' fractions, oven-dried them at 80 degrees C until constant mass and weighed the dry material. To assess leaf decomposition rate, we packed leaves recently shed by plants in litter bags. We placed seven sets of nine litter bags in a line, 10 m one from the other, on the soil surface and collected nine bags each time after 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 9, and 12 months. Total and leaf litter productions showed a seasonal pattern. Leaf litterfall was the phenological attribute that showed the strongest response to seasonality and drought. Decomposition was slower in the cerrado that we studied compared to a more closed cerrado physiognomy, reflecting their structural and environmental differences. Thus, decomposition rates seem to increase from open to closed cerrado physiognomies, probably related to an increase of humidity and nutrients in the soil. PMID:18833466

  11. Shrub and tree species composition in the cerrados of southwest Minas Gerais

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douglas Antônio de Carvalho

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available In order to improve the knowledge about variations in the floristic community of Brazilian cerrado, especially inregard to soil and climate conditions, we conducted a floristic assessment of the tree and shrub community of three disjoint adjacentregions situated in three municipalities of southwest Minas Gerais state (geographical coordinates 20-23ºS and 44-47ºW. Over aperiod of 24 months, in 49 allocated plots of 20 x 20 m, all tree and shrub species 1 m high or more in vegetative and/or reproductivestage were sampled. Additional random samples of blossoming plants were collected outside plots, and each plot was analyzed andcategorized for soil type. 170 botanical species were identified belonging to 103 genera and 46 families. Family Fabaceae and genusMiconia presented the largest number of species. Although the cerrado of southwest Minas Gerais extends over marginal areas ofoccurrence of Brazilian cerrado, its floristic composition is rich not only in species but also in genera and families. Some species foundin these cerrados also occur in local semideciduous forests, while other species that are frequently found in other areas of cerrado werenot found in southwest Minas Gerais. Tibouchina sellowiana does not feature in the list of species occurring in Brazilian cerrados.There is little similarity among the three sampled areas due to soil factors and different types of human influence in each of the areas.Alpinópolis presented cerrado sensu stricto subtype cerrado ralo, with 75 species and red-yellow latosol. Campo do Meiopresented cerrado sensu stricto subtype cerrado típico, with 88 species and red latosol. Pimenta falls under the cerradão category,with 124 species and red latosol. On the subsurface, the soil of Pimenta was found to present lower Al+++ saturation, which apparentlyshapes conditions for a more vigorous vegetation. The cerrado soils sampled in this study showed high similarity to cerrado soils inother parts of Brazil.

  12. Produção de serrapilheira no Cerrado e Floresta de Transição Amazônia-Cerrado do Centro-Oeste Brasileiro Litterfall production in the Brazilian mid-western Amazonia-Cerrado transition forest

    OpenAIRE

    Carlos José da Silva; Luciana Sanches; Monica Elisa Bleich; Francisco de Almeida Lobo; José de Souza Nogueira

    2007-01-01

    O presente trabalho teve como objetivo verificar a variação da produção de serrapilheira de diferentes biomas: Cerrado (com as fitofisionomias Cerrado sensu stricto e Cerradão) e Floresta de Transição Amazônia-Cerrado, em clima tropical. Para a determinação da produção de serrapilheira foram utilizados coletores de tela em náilon. Dados micrometereológicos foram coletados nas áreas de estudo. A produção de serrapilheira nos dois biomas mostrou acentuada sazonalidade, com as maiores produções ...

  13. Soil organic matter dynamics in a cerrado oxisol

    OpenAIRE

    Roscoe, R

    2002-01-01

    The Brazilian Cerrado is the second largest biome in the country, spreading over 23 % of the national territory. In the last three decades, it has increasingly contributed to the national production, being responsible in 1995 for 25% of the national agricultural production and sheltering 40% of the cattle flock. Development strategies have stimulated strongly mechanised and intensive agricultural practices, which has raised concerns about soil organic matter (SOM) losses and soil degradation....

  14. A year in a Cerrado wet grassland: a non-seasonal island in a seasonal savanna environment Um ano em um campo úmido no Cerrado: uma ilha não-estacional em um ambiente de savana estacional

    OpenAIRE

    MV. Cianciaruso; MA. Batalha

    2008-01-01

    In some Cerrado regions where the water table is superficial and soils are hydromorphic, we may find wet grasslands. We studied temporal changes in some community descriptors, such as species density, plant density, basal area, and cylindrical volume in a Cerrado wet grassland in four different seasons of the year. We also compared the species richness and composition of the wet grassland with a hyperseasonal cerrado, and a seasonal cerrado. We found significant differences among the seasons ...

  15. Pequenas Parmelia S.L. (Líquens: Ascomycotina ciliadas dos cerrados brasileiros Little ciliate Parmeliae in the brazilian cerradoes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Pinto Marcelli

    1993-12-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho foi baseado em coletas realizadas em todos os tipos estruturais de cerrado, incluindo formações de altitude e rochosas. São apresentadas descrições detalhadas, chave de identificação e ilustrações das espécies de Bulboíhrix (16, Relicina (2, Myelochroa (2, Parmelinella (1, Parmelinopsis (6 e Hypotrachyna (3 encontradas. B. linteolocarpa M.P. Marcelli e B. subklementii M.P. Marcelli são descritas como novas. E feita a combinação nova Parmelinella versiformis (Kremp. M.P. Marcelli. B. sensibilis (Steiner & Zahlbr. Hale é nova para o Brasil. B. meizospora (Nyl. Hale e Parmelinopsis jamesii (Hale Elix & Hale são novas para o Continente Americano. Há um grande número de primeiras citações para vários estados e várias segundas referências para o Brasil.This work deals with species of the lichen genera Bulboihrix (16, Relicina (2, Myelochroa (2, Parmelinella (1, Parmelinopsis (6 and Hypotrachyna (3 (ciliate species growing in the brazilian "cerrado" vegetation. All types of cerradoes were investigated, since almost open fields to forestal formations and including altitude rock fields, gallery forests and others placed inside cerrado areas. Altogether 30 species were found and are described in detail. B. linteolocarpa M.P. Marcelli and B. subklementii M.P. Marcelli are new species. The new combination Parmelinella versiformis (Kremp. M.P. Marcelli is done. B. sensibilis (Steiner & Zahlbr. Hale is new for Brazil. B. meizospora (Nyl. Hale and Parmelinopsis jamesii (Hale Elix & Hale are new for the American Continent.

  16. Ceras foliares epicuticulares de espécies congêneres da mata e do cerrado Foliar epicuticular waxes of congeneric species from forest and cerrado vegetation

    OpenAIRE

    Elenice Mouro Varanda; Déborah Yara Alves Cursino dos Santos

    1996-01-01

    Espécies de cerrado e mata foram analisadas quanto à sua composição em ceras foliares epicuticulares e de seus componentes hidrocarbonetos. Observou-se nas espécies de cerrado uma tendência a teores de ceras pouco maiores que os de espécies de mata estacionai semidecídua. A porcentagem de hidrocarbonetos nas ceras foi maior na maioria das espécies de mata que nas espécies congêneres de cerrado. Pela análise em CG, os hidrocarbonetos mostraram predominância de C29 e C31 apresentando um comprim...

  17. Diversidade alfa e beta no cerrado sensu strictu da Chapada Pratinha, Brasil Alfa and Beta diversity in the cerrado sensu stricto

    OpenAIRE

    Maria Cristina Felfili; Jeanine Maria Felfili

    2001-01-01

    O bioma cerrado possui uma das mais ricas floras dentre as savanas mundiais com mais de 6000 espécies, abrange uma vasta extensão territorial, contém as três maiores bacias hidrográficas sul americanas, e se destaca pela elevada biodiversidade. O objetivo deste trabalho, que faz parte do Projeto Biogeografia do Bioma Cerrado, foi analisar as diversidades alfa e beta em comunidades de cerrado sensu stricto. Foram amostrados o Parque Nacional de Brasília, a Estação Ecológica de Águas Emendadas,...

  18. Variation in plant defenses of Didymopanax vinosum (Cham. & Schltdl.) Seem. (Apiaceae) across a vegetation gradient in a Brazilian cerrado

    OpenAIRE

    Pais Mara Patrícia; Varanda Elenice Mouro

    2003-01-01

    Cerrado vegetation is composed of a mosaic of vegetation types, from campo sujo, dominated by herbs; campo cerrado and cerrado sensu stricto, with shrubby vegetation; to cerradão, with trees forming a denser forest. This physiognomic mosaic is related to differences in the water availability in the soil. Cerrado plants are considered physically and chemically well defended against herbivores, but there are no studies showing how plants allocate investment to various types of defensive mechani...

  19. Comportamento alimentar de aves em Miconia rubiginosa (Melastomataceae) em fragmento de Cerrado, São Paulo

    OpenAIRE

    Marcondes-Machado Luiz Octavio

    2002-01-01

    Birds of 11 species were observed feeding on fruits of Miconia rubiginosa (Bonpl.)DL between February and March 1985 in Itirapina cerrado, State of São Paulo, Brazil. The feeding strategies of birds with regards to fruit use, and the role of the fruits as food resources for the birds in cerrado are analyzed.

  20. Groundwater recharge decrease with increased vegetation density in the Brazilian Cerrado 2322

    Science.gov (United States)

    Approximately one half of the outcrop areas of the Guarani Aquifer System (GAS) are located in the Cerrado biome, the main agricultural expansion region in Brazil. Large areas of cerrado vegetation have been converted into farmland in recent years; however, little attention has been paid to the cons...

  1. New Ravenelia species on leguminous hosts from the Brazilian Cerrado Novas espécies de Ravenelia sobre leguminosas do Cerrado brasileiro

    OpenAIRE

    DENISE V. REZENDE; JOSÉ C. DIANESE

    2001-01-01

    Four new Ravenelia species were described on native leguminous hosts from the Brazilian Cerrado, as follows: Ravenelia cerradensis sp. nov., R. chapadensis sp. nov., R. mineirosensis sp. nov. and R. emaensis sp. nov. on Chamaecrista clausenii var. cyclophylla, Chamaecriista conferta var. virgata, Anadenanthera colubrina var. colubrina, and on Anadenanthera sp., respectively.Quatro espécies novas de Ravenelia foram descritas em leguminosas do Cerrado brasileiro, a saber: Ravenelia cerradensis ...

  2. Degradation of aldrin im samples of 'cerrado' Brazilian soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    14C-aldrin degradation was studied in the laboratory, in samples of 'cerrado' Brazilian soils, during a period of 240 days. Recovery of radiocarbon decreased with time, although radiocarbon was not incorporated to the soil organic matter as show by soil combustion. In both soils 14C-aldrin degraded to dieldrin and another compound that showed caracteristics of a hydrosoluble derivative of aldrin 14C-aldrin was more persistent in sandy soil but amendment of this soil with nutrients or fertilizers did not enhanced aldrin degradation in this soil. (Author)

  3. Liming and phosphorus fertilization in soils under cerrado

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effects of liming and phosphorus fertilizer (300 Kg P2O5/ha) application on dry matter accumulation and P-uptake by sorghum plants were studied under greenhouse conditions. Plants were grown in four Oxisols originally under cerrado vegetation. There was a positive correlation between P-fertilization and liming on dry matter accumulation and P-uptake by plants. The results showed that the main effect of liming in these soils was on the elimination of phytotoxicity, mainly due to exchangeable aluminum. (M.A.C.)

  4. Using Remote Sensing and Random Forest to Assess the Conservation Status of Critical Cerrado Habitats in Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Jason Reynolds; Kathryn Wesson; Arnaud L. J. Desbiez; Jose M. Ochoa-Quintero; Peter Leimgruber

    2016-01-01

    Brazil’s Cerrado is a highly diverse ecosystem and it provides critical habitat for many species. Cerrado habitats have suffered significant degradation and decline over the past decades due to expansion of cash crops and livestock farming across South America. Approximately 1,800,000 km2 of the Cerrado remain in Brazil, but detailed maps and conservation assessments of the Cerrado are lacking. We developed a land cover classification for the Cerrado, focusing on the state of Mato Grosso do S...

  5. Phytochemical Compounds and Antioxidant Capacity of Tucum-Do-Cerrado (Bactris setosa Mart), Brazil's Native Fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosa, Fernanda R; Arruda, Andréa F; Siqueira, Egle M A; Arruda, Sandra F

    2016-03-01

    This study identified major phenolic compounds of the tucum-do-cerrado (Bactris setosa) peel, as well as antioxidant activity and total phytochemical compound concentration of different extracts of the peel and pulp of this fruit. Phenolic compounds of the different extracts of tucum-do-cerrado peel were identified and quantified using a high-performance liquid chromatography system coupled to a diode array detector (DAD). Total phytochemical compound content was determined by spectrophotometric assays and the antioxidant activity by ferric reducing antioxidant power and β-carotene/linoleic assays. Total phenolic, flavanols, total anthocyanins and yellow flavonoids concentration of tucum-do-cerrado were 122-, 14-, 264- and 61-fold higher in the peel than in the pulp, respectively. The aqueous, methanolic and ethanolic extracts of the tucum-do-cerrado peel exhibited higher antioxidant activity compared to its pulp. Flavanols, anthocyanins, flavones, phenolic acids and stilbenes were the main phenolic classes identified in the tucum-do-cerrado peel extracts. Results suggest that the antioxidant capacity and the phytochemical compound content of the tucum-do-cerrado are mainly associated with the peel. Although flavonoids are the main compounds identified in tucum-do-cerrado peel, other phenolics identified in minor amounts, such as phenolic acids and stilbenes, may be responsible for the high antioxidant capacity of the fruit. PMID:26907338

  6. Discrimination And Biophysical Characterization Of Brazilian Cerrado Physiognomies With Eo-1 Hyperspectral Hyperion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miura, Tomoaki; Huete, Alfredo R.; Ferreira, Laerte G.; Sano, Edson E.

    2004-01-01

    The savanna, typically found in the sub-tropics and seasonal tropics, are the dominant vegetation biome type in the southern hemisphere, covering approximately 45% of the South America. In Brazil, the savanna, locally known as "cerrado," is the most intensely stressed biome with both natural environmental pressures (e.g., the strong seasonality in weather, extreme soil nutrient impoverishment, and widespread fire occurrences) and rapid/aggressive land conversions (Skole et al., 1994; Ratter et al., 1997). Better characterization and discrimination of cerrado physiognomies are needed in order to improve understanding of cerrado dynamics and its impact on carbon storage, nutrient dynamics, and the prospect for sustainable land use in the Brazilian cerrado biome. Satellite remote sensing have been known to be a useful tool for land cover and land use mapping (Rougharden et al., 1991; Hansen et al., 2000). However, attempts to discriminate and classify Brazilian cerrado using multi-spectral sensors (e.g., Landsat TM) and/or moderate resolution sensors (e.g., NOAA AVHRR NDVI) have often resulted in a limited success due partly to small contrasts depicted in their multiband, spectral reflectance or vegetation index values among cerrado classes (Seyler et al., 2002; Fran a and Setzer, 1998). In this study, we aimed to improve discrimination as well as biophysical characterization of the Brazilian cerrado physiognomies with hyperspectral remote sensing. We used Hyperion, the first satellite-based hyperspectral imager, onboard the Earth Observing-1 (EO-1) platform.

  7. Species composition and temporal activity of Arctiinae (Lepidoptera: Erebidae) in two cerrado vegetation types

    OpenAIRE

    Scheila Scherrer; Viviane G. Ferro; Marina N. Ramos; Ivone R Diniz

    2013-01-01

    Arctiinae moths include nearly 11,000 species worldwide, of which approximately 700 species occur in the Brazilian Cerrado. The aim of this study was to describe the species composition of Arctiinae, as well as the variation in annual and nightly moth activity, in two Cerrado vegetation types. We sampled moths one night per month from September 2008 to June 2009, in the gallery forest and in the cerrado sensu stricto in the Jardim Botânico de Brasília. We collected 395 tiger moths belonging t...

  8. Use of LANDSAT images to study cerrado vegetation. [Mato Grosso Sul, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parada, N. D. J. (Principal Investigator); Filho, P. H.

    1982-01-01

    Channel 5 and 7 LANDSAT imagery at the scale of 1:250,000 made during passes in the dry and rainy seasons were used to select the optimal season for cerrado characterization in Mato Grosso do Sul State. The study area is located around the cities of Campo Grande and Tres Lagoas, a region being used for reforestation and rangeland activities. Imagery acquired during the dry season permitted a good discrimination between "cerrado" (woodsy pasture) vegetation and reforestation. In relation to the altered areas, only the recently modified area presented good discrimination of cerrado vegetation. Imagery of the rainy season did not provide a reasonable separation between cerrado and reforestation areas but the altered area could be easily discriminated.

  9. [Social wasps (Hymenoptera: Vespidae) diversity in a cerrado vegetation in Bahia State, Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de M Santos, Gilberto M; da Cruz, Jucelho D; Marques, Oton M; Gobbi, Nivar

    2009-01-01

    This study aimed to analyze the social wasps species diversity in a cerrado vegetation at the west region of the State of Bahia. Nineteen species of social wasps were found, with Chartergus globiventris de Saussure, Chartergellus communis Richards and Metapolybia cingulata (Fabricius) being recorded for the first time for the State of Bahia. The arboreous cerrado showed a higher species richness (S=19) and diversity (H'=2.33) than the agroecossistems (farms) (S=8; H'=1,84). However, nest abundance was higher at the agroecossystems (N=107 nests) than at the arboreous cerrado (N=87 nests). The physiognomy of 'cerrado campo sujo' showed the lowest abundance of social wasps colonies (N=61 nests) and intermediate values of species richness (S=13) and diversity (H'=2.20). PMID:19618045

  10. Genetic potential of half-sib families of popcorn for cerrado area from southern Tocantins State

    OpenAIRE

    Gustavo André Colombo; Aurélio Vaz-de-Melo; Markus Taubinger; Wilma Dias Santana; Júlio Cesar DoVale

    2014-01-01

    The existence of high genetic variability in the tropical germplasm popcorn, suggests the possibility of breeding for productivity and popping expansion. It is known that the cerrado area from Tocantins State presents favorable conditions for the exploration of this culture, the aim of this study to evaluate the genetic potential of families of 40 half-sib of popcorn in conditions of the cerrado area from Tocantins State. Thus, were recombined two brands of popcorn, Produtos Paulista an...

  11. On the margins of soy farms : traditional populations and selective environmental policies in the Brazilian Cerrado

    OpenAIRE

    Eloy, Ludivine; Aubertin, Catherine; Toni, Fabiano; Lucio, Silvia; Bosgiraud, Marion

    2015-01-01

    In the Cerrado, the expansion of soybean cultivation since the 1990s has coincided with the strengthening of environmental regulations. We analyze how the two main environmental policies - Protected Areas and the Forest Code - have played out at the ground level in western Bahia state. These policies in Cerrado have not been designed to curb the expansion of this agricultural frontier. These norms have, on the contrary, accommodated this expansion because the way environmental managers select...

  12. ANALYSIS OF PROJECT ABOUT CERRADO FRUITS DEVELOPED WITH STUDENTS FROM TWO PUBLIC SCHOOLS

    OpenAIRE

    Rodrigues, D. B.; Costa, L. T.; C. P. O. F. Melo; A. G. Souza; E. M. Garcia; H. A. Taroco; J. O. F. Melo

    2016-01-01

    The Brazilian Cerrado has enormous diversity featuring a large number of fruit native plants that have a high nutritional value and distinctive flavor. This work belongs to an extension program of Cerrado fruits, where two species stand out in this region: Cagaita tree (Eugenia dysenterica DC) and Pequi tree (Caryocar brasiliense). The same was done in a neighborhood located near the Federal University of Sao Joao del Rei, Campus of Sete Lagoas - MG and developed in two municipal schools, wit...

  13. Orchid bee (Hymenoptera: Apidae) community from a gallery forest in the Brazilian Cerrado

    OpenAIRE

    Francinaldo S Silva

    2012-01-01

    The orchid bees are a very important group of pollinators distributed in the Neotropics. Although a lot of studies concerning male euglossine bees have been done in this region, few works have so far been carried out in the Cerrado biome. This manuscript has the main objective to present the orchid bee community from a Gallery Forest in the Northeastern Brazilian Cerrado landscape, taking account the species composition, abundance, seasonality and hourly distribution. Male euglossine bees wer...

  14. Using remote sensing images for stratification of the cerrado in forest inventories

    OpenAIRE

    Sérgio Teixeira da Silva; José Marcio de Mello; Fausto Weimar Acerbi Junior; Aliny Aparecida dos Reis; Marcel Regis Raimundo; Iasmim Louriene Gouveia Silva; José Roberto Soares Scolforo

    2014-01-01

    Remote sensing imagery can be a very useful auxiliary tool for native forests inventory. Thus, the objective of this study was to evaluate the stratification of a cerrado (Brazilian savanna) patch based on visual image interpretation techniques as well as to compare the errors from two sampling designs, the Stratified Random Sampling (SRS) and the Systematic Sampling (SS).The study area corresponds to a cerrado sensu stricto patch located in the municipality of Papagaios, Minas Gerais, Brazil...

  15. Growth and maturation of pequi fruit of the Brazilian cerrado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz José Rodrigues

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to characterize the development of pequi fruit (Caryocar brasiliense of the Brazilian cerrado. It takes 84 days (12 weeks for pequi to develop with the onset of flowering in September and early fruit set in January. Pequi fruit showed a simple sigmoid growth curve, and its growth was characterized based on fresh mass and longitudinal and transverse diameters. The contents of titratable acidity, soluble solids, β-carotene, and vitamin C increased during fruit growth, reaching their maximum values at the 12th week (84 days after anthesis. Pequi is a fruit with an extremely high respiratory activity; its respiratory rate decreased during its development. Pequi fruit has been classified as a non-climacteric fruit due to the decrease of both respiration and ethylene production rates during maturation and ripening.

  16. Remote Sensing for Mapping Soybean Crop in the Brazilian Cerrado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trabaquini, K.; Bernardes, T.; Mello, M. P.; Formaggio, A.; Rosa, V. G.

    2011-12-01

    The soybean expansion in the Brazilian Cerrado has been strongly affected by internal and external markets. The main factors driving that expansion are the climatic conditions, the development of technologies and genetic improvement. Recent studies have shown that the soybean expansion has become a major cause of reduction of native vegetation in Mato Grosso State - Brazil, responding for 17% of deforestation from 2000 to 2004. This work aims to map soybean areas in the Brazilian Cerrado in Mato Grosso State, using MODIS data. Thirteen MODIS images (MOD13 - 16 days composition), acquired from September, 2005 to March, 2006, were used to run principal component analysis (PCA) in order to reduce the dimensionality of the data. The first three components (PC1, PC2 and PC3), which contained about 90% of data variability were segmented and utilized as input for an unsupervised classification using the ISOSEG classifier, implemented in the SPRING software. Eighty field work points were randomly selected for the accuracy assessment. An intersection between the soybean map and a map generated by the "Project Monitoring Deforestation of Brazilian Biomes Satellite - PMDBBS", which aimed at identifying anthropic areas, was conducted in order to evaluate the distribution of soybeans within those areas. Moreover a soil map was used in order to evaluate the soybean distribution over the classes of soil. The classification result presented overall index of 83% and the kappa coefficient of 0.64 for the soybean map, which presented a total soybean area of about 42,317 square kilometers. Furthermore, it was verified that 27% of anthropic area was covered by soybean. In relation to the soil analysis, 87% of the total soybean area was planted in Oxisoils. Despite the economic gain related to the soybean production, an adequate management is needed to avoid soil acidification, soil erosion and pollution, aiming at providing a sustainable environment.

  17. Cerrado ground-dwelling ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae as indicators of edge effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Roberto F. Brandão

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Large-scale agricultural production in Brazil preferentially occupies plateaus reclaimed from areas originally covered by Cerrado (savanna. Depending on the region, a percentage of the pristine vegetation coverage must be preserved by law, resulting in the creation of fragmented legal Cerrado reserves. The geometry of these relatively small legal reserves creates new habitat edges and ecotones, whose effects on the invertebrate fauna are poorly understood. This study aimed to assess the effects of abrupt edges resulting from soy production on ground-dwelling ant assemblages in the Brazilian Cerrado. The study sites are located within the Amazon region, in the state of Maranhão, northern Brazil, but were covered by Cerrado on a relatively low plateau, irregularly inter-spaced with gallery forests along streams. We compared species richness and species composition of ground-dwelling ants along eight transects set 0, 50, 100, 150, 200, and 250 m into the sensu stricto Cerrado and 50 and 100 m into the soy field. The collecting periods covered the wet and dry seasons. Effects on ant species richness were non-significant, although composition of the assemblages was significantly affected by edge effects, which were, in part, found to be species specific. We hypothesize that edge effects are probably greater than estimated because of the shape and complexity of reserves. Consideration of edge effects in the Cerrado Biome should enable the design of appropriate reserve sizes and shapes to meet conservation goals.

  18. Impact of land-use change in the net radiation of the Cerrado of the southern Mato Grosso

    OpenAIRE

    Marcos Alves Fausto; Lucas Peres Angelini; Heloisa Oliveira Marques; Armando Silva Filho; Nadja Gomes Machado; Marcelo Sacardi Biudes

    2016-01-01

    Changes resulting from land use and occupation modify the surface radioactive balance. This paper evaluated the impact on the net radiation caused by the conversion of a Cerrado area in an agricultural zone in the southern Mato Grosso using Landsat 5 TM sensor imagery acquired between June and October 2011. The analyses were performed of the following land use classes: Cerrado, riparian vegetation, sugarcane, soybean, pasture, bare soil and water. The replacement of Cerrado by agricultural ar...

  19. Desenvolvimento inicial de mudas de jatobazeiro do cerrado em Aquidauana-MS Initial seedling development of "jatobazeiro do cerrado" in Aquidauana, MS

    OpenAIRE

    Edilson Costa; Paulo Ademar Martins Leal; Norton Hayd Rego; Jarbas Benatti

    2011-01-01

    A busca por uma alimentação saudável tem aumentado o consumo de frutas e hortaliças, proporcionando maior aceitação das fruteiras do cerrado no mercado. Visando à obtenção de mudas de qualidade, este trabalho avaliou a formação de mudas do jatobazeiro-do-cerrado em diferentes ambientes protegidos e substratos, na UEMS, Aquidauana, no período de novembro de 2008 a março de 2009. Foram utilizados três ambientes protegidos: estufa plástica de polietileno transparente, viveiro de tela de sombream...

  20. Variation in plant defenses of Didymopanax vinosum (Cham. & Schltdl. Seem. (Apiaceae across a vegetation gradient in a Brazilian cerrado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pais Mara Patrícia

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Cerrado vegetation is composed of a mosaic of vegetation types, from campo sujo, dominated by herbs; campo cerrado and cerrado sensu stricto, with shrubby vegetation; to cerradão, with trees forming a denser forest. This physiognomic mosaic is related to differences in the water availability in the soil. Cerrado plants are considered physically and chemically well defended against herbivores, but there are no studies showing how plants allocate investment to various types of defensive mechanisms in different habitat physiognomies. The defensive mechanisms and the nutritional traits of a cerrado plant, Didymopanax vinosum (Cham. & Schltdl. Seem. (Apiaceae, were compared along a vegetation gradient. Toughness, as well as water, nitrogen, cellulose, lignin, and tannin contents were measured in young and mature leaves of D. vinosum collected in campo cerrado, cerrado sensu stricto (s.s. and cerradão. Plants from cerrado s.s. and cerradão were of better nutritional quality but also had higher tannin contents than campo cerrado plants. Some type of compensation mechanism could have been selected to provide an optimum investment in defense, according to limitations imposed by water deficits in the habitat.

  1. Floristic composition of the cerrado in the Pé-de-Gigante Reserve (Santa Rita do Passa Quatro, southeastern Brazil)

    OpenAIRE

    Batalha Marco Antônio; Mantovani Waldir

    2001-01-01

    We studied a 1225 ha area, composed mainly of cerrado, in Santa Rita do Passa Quatro, São Paulo State, southeastern Brazil (21°36-38'S, 47°36-39'W). In three cerrado physiognomies (campo cerrado -- a wooded savanna, cerrado sensu stricto -- a woodland, and cerradão -- a tall woodland), we collected all vascular plants in reproductive stage, and identified them to species level. We found 360 species, representing 236 genera and 69 families. The richest families were: Asteraceae, Fabaceae, Poac...

  2. Germination of seeds from herbaceous plants artificially stored in cerrado soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SASSAKI R. M.

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available The germination of three cerrado herbaceous species: Bidens gardneri, Vernonia herbacea (Asteraceae and Psychotria barbiflora (Rubiaceae was studied using seeds stored in cerrado soil and in refrigerator at 4°C. The field experiment was carried out at a preserved area of cerrado, the Reserva Biológica e Estação Experimental de Mogi-Guaçu, State of São Paulo, Brazil. The soil was collected in the same cerrado where the experiment was carried out. The achenes of Bidens gardneri are light sensitive, but this sensitivity disappeared when the achenes were stored in soil. With 3 months storage in cerrado soil no differences in germination in light or darkness were detected. The number of intact achenes retrieved from storage in soil decreased with increasing time of storage. A large number of seeds had already germinated during the 3 months storage in soil. The longevity of seeds of this species stored for nearly 10 years at 4°C was checked: the achenes were viable for a long period of time but less than 10 years. Intact achenes of Vernonia herbacea could be retrieved from the soil only with 1 month storage. Germination was always very low and only 15% of the achenes possessed embryos. The number of intact seeds of Psychotria barbiflora decreased the longer the period of storage in soil. Germination of seeds stored at 4°C or in the soil was always very low. From the germination studies of stored seeds in cerrado it can be concluded that Vernonia herbacea does not form a seed bank and Bidens gardneri and Psychotria barbiflora may form a temporary seed bank in cerrado.

  3. Species composition, diversity, and vegetation structure in a gallery forest-cerrado sensu stricto transition zone in eastern Mato Grosso, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Eddie Lenza; Josias O. Santos; Leonardo Maracahipes-Santos

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACTWe investigated the existence of an ecotone in the species composition, diversity and vegetation structure in the transition between gallery forest and cerrado sensu strictoin central Brazil. We tested two hypotheses: 1) a ecotone can be found between gallery forest and cerrado; 2) a gradient exists in the species composition of the cerrado. We established three parallel transects of 5 m × 350 m running between gallery forest and cerrado, which were divided into subplots of 5 m × 10 m...

  4. Identifying hydrological responses of micro-catchments under contrasting land use in the Brazilian Cerrado

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    R. L. B. Nobrega

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In recent decades, the Brazilian Cerrado biome has been affected by intense land-use change, particularly the conversion of natural forest to agricultural land. Understanding the environmental impacts of this land-use change on landscape hydrological dynamics is one of the main challenges in the Amazon agricultural frontier, where part of the Brazilian Cerrado biome is located and where most of the deforestation has occurred. This study uses empirical data from field measurements to characterize controls on hydrological processes from three first-order micro-catchments 2 in the Cerrado biome. These micro-catchments were selected on the basis of predominant land use including native cerrado vegetation, pasture grass with cattle ranching, and cash crop land. We continuously monitored precipitation, streamflow, soil moisture, and meteorological variables from October 2012 to September 2014. Additionally, we determined the physical and hydraulic properties of the soils, and conducted topographic surveys. We used these data to quantify the water balance components of the study catchments and to relate these water fluxes to land use, catchment physiographic parameters, and soil hydrophysical properties. The results of this study show that runoff coefficients were 0.27, 0.40, and 0.16 for the cerrado, pasture, and cropland catchments, respectively. Baseflow is shown to play a significant role in streamflow generation in the three study catchments, with baseflow index values of more than 0.95. The results also show that evapotranspiration was highest in the cerrado (986 mm yr−1 compared to the cropland (828 mm yr−1 and the pasture (532 mm yr−1. However, discharges in the cropland catchment were unexpectedly lower than that of the cerrado catchment. The normalized discharge was 55 % higher and 57 % lower in the pasture and cropland catchments, respectively, compared with the cerrado catchment. We attribute this finding to the differences in soil

  5. Fraccionamientos Cerrados Residenciales, Productores de Inseguridad Urbana Subjetiva

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    Ana Isabel Galaviz Mosqueda

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Independientemente del tamaño, de la importancia o las particularidades de las ciudades y sus sociedades, las condiciones de aislamiento y encerramiento sociourbano de los fraccionamientos cerrados residenciales de clase alta enfatizan aspectos subjetivos de inseguridad urbana como percepción de riesgo, imaginarios del miedo y sentimientos de inseguridad. Con método descriptivo-correlacional o estrategia no experimental mixta, este estudio muestra el impacto de lo mencionado en la vida cotidiana de sus habitantes. Este hecho acentúa dicotomías sociourbanas que incrementan el miedo al otro diferente y al territorio desconocido, modifica significados tradicionales atribuidos al concepto de inseguridad urbana, supera procesos formales de seguridad y traspasa fronteras, jerarquías de ciudad y tipologías de sociedades. Todo esto afecta las estructuras psicosociales de sus residentes, abona la cultura del miedo, consolida una espiral ascendente de inseguridad urbana, imprime universalidad en la relación entre aspectos subjetivos de inseguridad urbana y la manera en que se vive, conforma el territorio y estructura el espacio urbano.

  6. Plants from Brazilian Cerrado with potent tyrosinase inhibitory activity.

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    Paula Monteiro Souza

    Full Text Available The increased amount of melanin leads to skin disorders such as age spots, freckles, melasma and malignant melanoma. Tyrosinase is known to be the key enzyme in melanin production. Plants and their extracts are inexpensive and rich resources of active compounds that can be utilized to inhibit tyrosinase as well as can be used for the treatment of dermatological disorders associated with melanin hyperpigmentation. Using in vitro tyrosinase inhibitory activity assay, extracts from 13 plant species from Brazilian Cerrado were evaluated. The results showed that Pouteria torta and Eugenia dysenterica extracts presented potent in vitro tyrosinase inhibition compared to positive control kojic acid. Ethanol extract of Eugenia dysenterica leaves showed significant (p<0.05 tyrosinase inhibitory activity exhibiting the IC₅₀ value of 11.88 µg/mL, compared to kojic acid (IC₅₀ value of 13.14 µg/mL. Pouteria torta aqueous extract leaves also showed significant inhibitory activity with IC₅₀ value of 30.01 µg/mL. These results indicate that Pouteria torta and Eugenia dysenterica extracts and their isolated constituents are promising agents for skin-whitening or antimelanogenesis formulations.

  7. Padrões espaciais e conservação da diversidade de serpentes do bioma cerrado = Spatial patterns and biodiversity conservation of snakes from Cerrado biome

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    Larice de Fátima Couto

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Em geral, as tentativas para estabelecer áreas prioritárias para conservação no Cerrado têm sido baseadas em critérios subjetivos. No presente trabalho, foram utilizados dados macroecológicos de distribuição de 129 espécies de serpentes distribuídas em 181 células com 1o de latitude/longitude do Cerrado para analisar padrões espaciais na riqueza e propor uma estratégia de conservação para essas espécies. Verificou-se que as cinco variáveis ambientaisanalisadas explicaram apenas 34,65% da variação na riqueza de serpentes do Cerrado. Para seleção de áreas prioritárias utilizando-se procedimentos de otimização, estabeleceu-se que 14 células são necessárias para representar todas as espécies pelo menos uma vez. Também foram incorporados ao modelo os padrões de ocupação humana no Cerrado, visando minimizar conflitos entre desenvolvimento e conservação, e neste caso as células concentram-se principalmente nosudoeste do bioma. Em função da falta geral de conhecimento sobre os padrões mais locais de distribuição de espécies no Cerrado, esses resultados devem ser considerados preliminares. De qualquer modo, o presente estudo, em escala biogeográfica, é importante para estabelecer estratégias metodológicas e para fornecer uma visão ampla dos padrões de diversidade e de que regiões seriam mais importantes para sua conservação. Until recently, the conservation of Cerrado has been neglected andattempts to establish conservation priorities were usually based on subjective criteria. In this paper, macroecological data of distribution of 129 species of snakes in the Cerrado were used to evaluate spatial patterns in species richness and to establish a system of potential areas that preserves all snake species in the region. The five environment variables used as predictors explained only 34.65% of the variance in species richness. In order to establishconservation priorities, optimization procedures were used

  8. Diversidade alfa e beta no cerrado sensu strictu da Chapada Pratinha, Brasil Alfa and Beta diversity in the cerrado sensu stricto

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    Maria Cristina Felfili

    2001-08-01

    Full Text Available O bioma cerrado possui uma das mais ricas floras dentre as savanas mundiais com mais de 6000 espécies, abrange uma vasta extensão territorial, contém as três maiores bacias hidrográficas sul americanas, e se destaca pela elevada biodiversidade. O objetivo deste trabalho, que faz parte do Projeto Biogeografia do Bioma Cerrado, foi analisar as diversidades alfa e beta em comunidades de cerrado sensu stricto. Foram amostrados o Parque Nacional de Brasília, a Estação Ecológica de Águas Emendadas, a Area de Proteção Ambiental (APA Gama-Cabeça de Veado, Silvânia-GO, Paracatu-MG e Patrocínio-MG. A amostragem foi aleatória com 10 parcelas de 20x50m em cada área de estudo. Foram incluídas plantas lenhosas, exceto lianas, que tivessem no mínimo 5cm de diâmetro. Foi calculada a diversidade alfa pelo teste de Shannon & Wienner e o de Simpson. A diversidade beta foi calculada pelo índice de Whittaker que mede a mudança ou taxa de substituição na composição de espécies de um local para outro. Foi efetuada a curva espécie-área para as 60 parcelas amostradas e efetuada a classificação por TWINSPAN. O cerrado sensu stricto da Chapada Pratinha pode ser diferenciado em duas zonas fitogeográficas: Distrito Federal-Silvânia e Paracatu-Patrocínio. Estas coincidem com um zoneamento por sistemas de terra que classifica a primeira zona como terras altas em contraposição à segunda.The cerrado flora is one of the richest among the world's savannas with more than 6000 species. The cerrado covers a large territory, contains the three most important hydrographycal basins in South America and a high diversity. The objective of this work, that is part of the project Biogeography of the Cerrado Biome, was to analyse alfa and beta diversity in the cerrado sensu stricto. The sampled places were: Brasília National Park -- DF, Águas Emendadas Ecological Station -- DF, Environmentally protected Area of Gama-Cabeça de Veado -- DF, Silv

  9. Episodic nitrous oxide soil emissions in Brazilian savanna (cerrado) fire-scars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nobre, A. D.; Crill, P. M.; Harriss, R. C.

    1994-01-01

    The seasonally burned cerrados of Brazil are the largest savanna-type ecosystem of South America and their contribution to the global atmospheric nitrous oxide (N20) budget is unknown. Four types of fire-scarred cerrado along a vegetation gradient from grassland to forest were investigated during the wet season of 1992/93. The effect of fire and subsequent water additions on epiodic emissions of N2O and the associated profile dynamic of soil/gas phase N2O concentrations were studied for several months. Additionally, the effect on episodic emissions of N2O of nitrate and glucose additions to a cerrado soil after fire and the associated profile dynamic of soil/gas phase N2O mixing ratios were determined. Finally, N2O episodic emissions in cerrado converted to corn, soybean, and pasture fields were investigated during one growing/wet season. Results showed N2O consumption/emission for the four fire-scared savanna ecosystems, for nitrogen and carbon fertilization, and for agriculture/pasture ranging from -0.3 to +0.7, 1.8 to 9.1, and 0.5 to 3.7 g N2O-N ha(exp -1) d(exp -1), respectively. During the wet season the cerrado biome does not appear to be a major source of N2O to the troposphere, even following fire events. However, the results of this study suggest that conversion of the cerrado to high input agriculture, with liming and fertilization, can increase N2O emissions more than ten fold.

  10. Use of Orbital LIDAR in the Brazilian Cerrado Biome: Potential Applications and Data Availability

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    Laerte Guimarães Ferreira

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on the Ice, Cloud and land Elevation Satellite (ICESat Geoscience Laser Altimeter System (GLAS data availability over the 2 million km2 Cerrado, the Brazilian central savanna biome and one of the world’s biodiversity hotspots. Overall, about 2.5 million laser shots, distributed along the seven years of ICESat operation (2003–2009 and comprising three major seasonal domains, were acquired, from which, 206,026 and 176,035 screened footprints are coincident with the remnant vegetation and cultivated pasture areas (the dominant land-use form in the Cerrado. Although these points are well distributed over the entire Cerrado, the ICESat track data collection results in substantial data gaps. In relation to the 15,612 Cerrado watersheds (6th order Otto basin system, 8,369 and 4,415 watersheds are completely deprived of data points over their remnant vegetation and pasture covers, respectively. Light Detection and Ranging (LIDAR availability was also evaluated in relation to specific targets of interest, including both fully-protected conservation units as well as areas impacted by fire and deforestation. In spite of the very few occurrences, our assessments indicate that enough LIDAR data is available for retrieving structural and functional properties of a variety of Cerrado physiognomies, as well as to assess how these physiognomies respond to anthropogenic induced changes. In fact, the comprehensive data availability analysis conducted in this study corroborate the potential of GLAS LIDAR waveforms for the retrieval of biophysical properties at both local and regional scales, particularly concerning remnant carbon stocks and pasture conditions, key information for the conservation of the fast-changing and severely threatened Cerrado.

  11. Un operador compacto en un subconjunto cerrado de h2 1 (sn)

    OpenAIRE

    Granados, Claudia; Olaya, Wilson

    2013-01-01

    En este artículo consideramos el problema de la existencia deuna subsucesión convergente de una sucesión en un subconjunto cerrado del espacio de Hilbert H2 1 (Sn). Más precisamente, demostramos que cierta funcional Jp Fréchet diferenciable en un subconjunto cerrado del espacio de Hilbert H2 1 (Sn) es compacta en un sentido análogo a la condición Palais-Smale usada en espacios de Banach.

  12. Using Landsat 8 Image Time Series for Crop Mapping in a Region of Cerrado, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bendini, H.; Sanches, I. D.; Körting, T. S.; Fonseca, L. M. G.; Luiz, A. J. B.; Formaggio, A. R.

    2016-06-01

    The objective of this research is to classify agricultural land use in a region of the Cerrado (Brazilian Savanna) biome using a time series of Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI) from Landsat 8 OLI. Phenological metrics extracted from EVI time series, a Random Forest algorithm and data mining techniques are used in the process of classification. The area of study is a region in the Cerrado in a region of the municipality of Casa Branca, São Paulo state, Brazil. The results are encouraging and demonstrate the potential of phenological parameters obtained from time series of OLI vegetation indices for agricultural land use classification.

  13. Conserving Biogeography: Habitat Loss and Vicariant Patterns in Endemic Squamates of the Cerrado Hotspot.

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    Pietro L H de Mello

    Full Text Available Little is known about the threat levels and impacts of habitat loss over the Cerrado Squamate fauna. The region is under severe habitat loss due to mechanized agriculture, accelerated by changes in the Brazilian National Forest Code. The Squamate fauna of the Cerrado is rich in endemics and is intrinsically associated with its surrounding microhabitats, which make up a mosaic of phitophysiognomies throughout the region. Herein we evaluate current conservation status of Squamate biogeographic patterns in the Brazilian Cerrado, the single savanna among global biodiversity hotspots. To do so, we first updated point locality data on 49 endemic Squamates pertaining to seven non-random clusters of species ranges in the Cerrado. Each cluster was assumed to be representative of different biogeographic regions, holding its own set of species, herein mapped according to their extent of occurrence (EOO. We then contrasted these data in four different scenarios, according to the presence or absence of habitat loss and the presence or absence of the current protected area (PA cover. We searched for non-random patterns of habitat loss and PA coverage among these biogeographic regions throughout the Cerrado. Finally, with the species EOO as biodiversity layers, we used Zonation to discuss contemporary PA distribution, as well as to highlight current priority areas for conservation within the Cerrado. We ran Zonation under all four conservation scenarios mentioned above. We observed that habitat loss and PA coverage significantly differed between biogeographic regions. The southernmost biogeographic region is the least protected and the most impacted, with priority areas highly scattered in small, disjunct fragments. The northernmost biogeographic region (Tocantins-Serra Geral is the most protected and least impacted, showing extensive priority areas in all Zonation scenarios. Therefore, current and past deforestation trends are severely threatening

  14. Conserving Biogeography: Habitat Loss and Vicariant Patterns in Endemic Squamates of the Cerrado Hotspot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Mello, Pietro L H; Machado, Ricardo B; Nogueira, Cristiano de C

    2015-01-01

    Little is known about the threat levels and impacts of habitat loss over the Cerrado Squamate fauna. The region is under severe habitat loss due to mechanized agriculture, accelerated by changes in the Brazilian National Forest Code. The Squamate fauna of the Cerrado is rich in endemics and is intrinsically associated with its surrounding microhabitats, which make up a mosaic of phitophysiognomies throughout the region. Herein we evaluate current conservation status of Squamate biogeographic patterns in the Brazilian Cerrado, the single savanna among global biodiversity hotspots. To do so, we first updated point locality data on 49 endemic Squamates pertaining to seven non-random clusters of species ranges in the Cerrado. Each cluster was assumed to be representative of different biogeographic regions, holding its own set of species, herein mapped according to their extent of occurrence (EOO). We then contrasted these data in four different scenarios, according to the presence or absence of habitat loss and the presence or absence of the current protected area (PA) cover. We searched for non-random patterns of habitat loss and PA coverage among these biogeographic regions throughout the Cerrado. Finally, with the species EOO as biodiversity layers, we used Zonation to discuss contemporary PA distribution, as well as to highlight current priority areas for conservation within the Cerrado. We ran Zonation under all four conservation scenarios mentioned above. We observed that habitat loss and PA coverage significantly differed between biogeographic regions. The southernmost biogeographic region is the least protected and the most impacted, with priority areas highly scattered in small, disjunct fragments. The northernmost biogeographic region (Tocantins-Serra Geral) is the most protected and least impacted, showing extensive priority areas in all Zonation scenarios. Therefore, current and past deforestation trends are severely threatening biogeographic patterns in

  15. Variation in plant defenses of Didymopanax vinosum (Cham. & Schltdl.) Seem. (Apiaceae) across a vegetation gradient in a Brazilian cerrado Variações no investimento em defesas em Didymopanax vinosum (Cham. & Schltdl.) Seem. (Apiaceae) ao longo de um gradiente de vegetação num cerrado brasileiro

    OpenAIRE

    Mara Patrícia Pais; Elenice Mouro Varanda

    2003-01-01

    Cerrado vegetation is composed of a mosaic of vegetation types, from campo sujo, dominated by herbs; campo cerrado and cerrado sensu stricto, with shrubby vegetation; to cerradão, with trees forming a denser forest. This physiognomic mosaic is related to differences in the water availability in the soil. Cerrado plants are considered physically and chemically well defended against herbivores, but there are no studies showing how plants allocate investment to various types of defensive mechani...

  16. Padrões espaciais e conservação da diversidade de serpentes do bioma cerrado = Spatial patterns and biodiversity conservation of snakes from Cerrado biome

    OpenAIRE

    Larice de Fátima Couto; Levi Carina Terribile; José Alexandre Felizola Diniz-Filho

    2007-01-01

    Em geral, as tentativas para estabelecer áreas prioritárias para conservação no Cerrado têm sido baseadas em critérios subjetivos. No presente trabalho, foram utilizados dados macroecológicos de distribuição de 129 espécies de serpentes distribuídas em 181 células com 1o de latitude/longitude do Cerrado para analisar padrões espaciais na riqueza e propor uma estratégia de conservação para essas espécies. Verificou-se que as cinco variáveis ambientaisanalisadas explicaram apenas 34,65% da vari...

  17. The role of gallery forests in the distribution of cerrado mammals O papel das matas de galeria na distribuição dos mamíferos do cerrado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. JOHNSON

    1999-08-01

    Full Text Available The Cerrado biome contains a rich mammal community, with an influence from the Amazonian and Atlantic rainforests, principally observed in the gallery forests. In this paper, through literature review, it is shown that the non-volant mammal community of the gallery forests is distinct from the mammal communities of any other physionomy of the Cerrado. Additionally, the gallery forests contain twice as many species common to the rainforests when compared to all the other physiognomies of the Cerrado combined. The gallery forests appear to provide habitat within the Cerrado for rainforest mammals, increasing the biodiversity of this biome. As such, gallery forests may function as dispersion corridors for these species.O bioma dos cerrados contém uma rica comunidade de mamíferos, com influência das matas Amazônica e Atlântica, principalmente observada nas matas de galeria. Neste trabalho, por revisão da literatura, foi demonstrado que a comunidade de mamíferos não voadores das matas de galeria no cerrado é distinta das comunidades de mamíferos de qualquer outro tipo de fisionomia do cerrado. Além disso, as matas de galeria contêm duas vezes mais espécies comuns às matas úmidas que às outras fisionomias do cerrado (sensu latu reunidas. As matas de galeria parecem fornecer hábitat dentro do cerrado (sensu latu para mamíferos das matas úmidas, aumentando a biodiversidade deste bioma. Assim, as matas de galeria podem funcionar como corredores de dispersão para estas espécies.

  18. Agronomic performance of watermelon cultivars in the Cerrado region of Boa Vista, Roraima = Desempenho agronômico de cultivares de melancia no cerrado de Boa Vista, Roraima

    OpenAIRE

    Ignácio Lund Gabriel da Silva Carmo; Edgley Soares da Silva; João Luiz Lopes Monteiro Neto; Luciana Baú Trassato; Roberto Dantas de Medeiros; Dilacy Sales Porto

    2015-01-01

    Production of the watermelon is important in all regions of Brazil. However, productive and qualitative information for fruit of different cultivars grown in the same environment is still scarce, especially in the State of Roraima, a fact that makes it necessary to carry out studies in order to meet this need. As a result, this study aimed to evaluate the agronomic performance of watermelon cultivars produced in the Cerrado at Boa Vista, Roraima. The experiment was conducted at the Agua Bo...

  19. Phytochemical Compounds and Antioxidant Capacity of Tucum-Do-Cerrado (Bactris setosa Mart), Brazil’s Native Fruit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosa, Fernanda R.; Arruda, Andréa F.; Siqueira, Egle M. A.; Arruda, Sandra F.

    2016-01-01

    This study identified major phenolic compounds of the tucum-do-cerrado (Bactris setosa) peel, as well as antioxidant activity and total phytochemical compound concentration of different extracts of the peel and pulp of this fruit. Phenolic compounds of the different extracts of tucum-do-cerrado peel were identified and quantified using a high-performance liquid chromatography system coupled to a diode array detector (DAD). Total phytochemical compound content was determined by spectrophotometric assays and the antioxidant activity by ferric reducing antioxidant power and β-carotene/linoleic assays. Total phenolic, flavanols, total anthocyanins and yellow flavonoids concentration of tucum-do-cerrado were 122-, 14-, 264- and 61-fold higher in the peel than in the pulp, respectively. The aqueous, methanolic and ethanolic extracts of the tucum-do-cerrado peel exhibited higher antioxidant activity compared to its pulp. Flavanols, anthocyanins, flavones, phenolic acids and stilbenes were the main phenolic classes identified in the tucum-do-cerrado peel extracts. Results suggest that the antioxidant capacity and the phytochemical compound content of the tucum-do-cerrado are mainly associated with the peel. Although flavonoids are the main compounds identified in tucum-do-cerrado peel, other phenolics identified in minor amounts, such as phenolic acids and stilbenes, may be responsible for the high antioxidant capacity of the fruit. PMID:26907338

  20. Phytochemical Compounds and Antioxidant Capacity of Tucum-Do-Cerrado (Bactris setosa Mart, Brazil’s Native Fruit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda R. Rosa

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This study identified major phenolic compounds of the tucum-do-cerrado (Bactris setosa peel, as well as antioxidant activity and total phytochemical compound concentration of different extracts of the peel and pulp of this fruit. Phenolic compounds of the different extracts of tucum-do-cerrado peel were identified and quantified using a high-performance liquid chromatography system coupled to a diode array detector (DAD. Total phytochemical compound content was determined by spectrophotometric assays and the antioxidant activity by ferric reducing antioxidant power and β-carotene/linoleic assays. Total phenolic, flavanols, total anthocyanins and yellow flavonoids concentration of tucum-do-cerrado were 122-, 14-, 264- and 61-fold higher in the peel than in the pulp, respectively. The aqueous, methanolic and ethanolic extracts of the tucum-do-cerrado peel exhibited higher antioxidant activity compared to its pulp. Flavanols, anthocyanins, flavones, phenolic acids and stilbenes were the main phenolic classes identified in the tucum-do-cerrado peel extracts. Results suggest that the antioxidant capacity and the phytochemical compound content of the tucum-do-cerrado are mainly associated with the peel. Although flavonoids are the main compounds identified in tucum-do-cerrado peel, other phenolics identified in minor amounts, such as phenolic acids and stilbenes, may be responsible for the high antioxidant capacity of the fruit.

  1. Atributos físicos, químicos e biológicos de um Latossolo de cerrado em plantio de espécies florestais Physical, chemical and biological attributes of a cerrado Oxisol under different forest species

    OpenAIRE

    Luciana Gomes da Silva; Iêda de Carvalho Mendes; Fábio Bueno Reis Junior; Marcelo Ferreira Fernandes; José Teodoro de Melo; Eiyti Kato

    2009-01-01

    O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o impacto de plantios florestais nos atributos físicos, químicos e biológicos de um Latossolo Vermelho-Amarelo de cerrado. Amostras de solo foram coletadas à profundidade de 0 a 10 cm, em áreas cultivadas há mais de 20 anos com pínus (Pinus tecunumanii), eucalipto (Eucalyptus grandis) ou carvoeiro (Sclerolobium paniculatum). Uma área adjacente de cerrado nativo foi incluída como referência do solo original. Foram observados, em relação ao cerrado, aumento...

  2. Macroecologia de mamíferos neotropicais com ocorrência no Cerrado Macroecology of neotropical mammals with occurrence in the brazilian "Cerrado"

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    Cleiber Marquez Vieira

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available The macroecological approach has been used recently to analyze correlations between ecological variables in large taxonomic groups, at continental scales. A positive relationship between body weight and geographic range size has been described as a poligonal space envelope form, that can be explained by ecological and evolutionary constraints. However, these variables can be disturbed by spatial and phylogenetic autocorrelation effects. In this work, the relationship between body weight and geographic range size was analyzed for 80 species of Neotropical mammals present in the Brazilian "cerrado". Spatial and taxonomic effects were tested using a linear trend surface analysis and an ANOVA (at level of order, combined in a generalized model. Around 61% of variation in geographic range size and 69% of variation in body weight in mammals of the "cerrado" can be explained simultaneously by spatial and taxonomic effects. The analysis of residuals of the generalized model showed that positive correlation between variables persist even after removing these effects. Thus, variation and covariation of traits in the mammals of the brazilian "cerrado" agree with the general macroecological pattern proposed for another taxonomic groups such as mammals, birds and snakes worldwilde.

  3. A contribution to the identification of charcoal origin in Brazil II - Macroscopic characterization of Cerrado species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves, Thaís A P; Nisgoski, Silvana; Oliveira, Julia S; Marcati, Carmen R; Ballarin, Adriano W; Muñiz, Graciela I B

    2016-05-13

    The Brazilian Cerrado is the richest savanna in the world. It is also one of the biomes more threatened in the country and a hotspot for conservation priorities. The main causes of deforestation in Cerrado are agricultural practices, livestock and charcoal production. Although charcoal has a minor impact, its consumption represents the deforestation of 16.000 Km² of the Cerrado. To contribute for the biomes's conservation it is very important to improve forestry supervision. Thus, in this work we present the macroscopic characterization of charcoal from 25 Cerrado's species. We simulate the real conditions of forest controllers by using the magnifications of 10x, 25x and 65x. Likewise, the charcoals micrographs are all of transverse sections due to the larger amount of anatomical information. We also analyzed texture, brightness, vitrification, ruptures and some special features. The species present several differences in their anatomical structure. Although some of them are very unique, this work does not intent to identify charcoals only by macroscopic analyses. But it might give directions to future identification of genera or species. It also provides knowledge for government agents to verify the documents of forestry origin by fast analyzing a sample of charcoal itself. PMID:27192198

  4. The water balance components of undisturbed tropical woodlands in the Brazilian cerrado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deforestation of the Brazilian cerrado region has caused major changes in hydrological processes. These changes in water balance components are still poorly understood but are important for making land management decisions in this region. To better understand pre-deforestation conditions, we determi...

  5. Occurrence of invertebrate-pathogenic fungi in a Cerrado ecosystem in Central Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biological diversity of microorganisms in natural environments is threatened worldwide by human activities. In a protected area of Cerrado, Goiás State, Brazil, naturally occurring invertebrate-pathogenic fungi were isolated from soils, slurries and water samples collected during the dry season in 2...

  6. Curve number estimation from Brazilian Cerrado rainfall and runoff data 2274

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Curve Number (CN) method has been widely used to estimate runoff from rainfall events in Brazil, however, CN values for use in the Brazilian savanna (Cerrado) are poorly documented. In this study we used experimental plots to measure natural rainfall-driven rates of runoff under undisturbed Cerr...

  7. Prevalence and lineage diversity of avian haemosporidians from three distinct cerrado habitats in Brazil.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nayara O Belo

    Full Text Available Habitat alteration can disrupt host-parasite interactions and lead to the emergence of new diseases in wild populations. The cerrado habitat of Brazil is being fragmented and degraded rapidly by agriculture and urbanization. We screened 676 wild birds from three habitats (intact cerrado, disturbed cerrado and transition area Amazonian rainforest-cerrado for the presence of haemosporidian parasites (Plasmodium and Haemoproteus to determine whether different habitats were associated with differences in the prevalence and diversity of infectious diseases in natural populations. Twenty one mitochondrial lineages, including 11 from Plasmodium and 10 from Haemoproteus were identified. Neither prevalence nor diversity of infections by Plasmodium spp. or Haemoproteus spp. differed significantly among the three habitats. However, 15 of the parasite lineages had not been previously described and might be restricted to these habitats or to the region. Six haemosporidian lineages previously known from other regions, particularly the Caribbean Basin, comprised 50-80% of the infections in each of the samples, indicating a regional relationship between parasite distribution and abundance.

  8. Approche d'un grand espace: la maille municipale des Cerrados brésiliens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philippe WANIEZ

    1987-09-01

    Full Text Available L'espace des Cerrados brésiliens est en cours de colonisation. Le système d'information SISECSO facilite l'analyse des transformations économiques et sociales de ce territoire. Le film de la formation de la maille municipale est une première approche originale.

  9. Seed germination and seedling growth of two Pseudobombax species (Malvaceae) with contrasting habitats from Brazilian Cerrado.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendes-Rodrigues, Clesnan; Oliveira, Paulo Eugênio; Ranal, Marli Aparecida

    2011-12-01

    Pseudobombax tomentosum and P. longiflorum are common trees in the Cerrado region, but the former species is more common in forest edges while the later is present in open cerrado areas. This work aimed to investigate differences in seed germination and seedling growth in these species, from seed collected from Cerrado areas in Central Brazil. For this, a seed germination experiment was designed and included four replicates with 25 seeds per species; seeds were randomly distributed in the germination chamber. To evaluate initial seedling growth, seedlings height was measured up to 67 days after seedling emergence; besides, some of these seedlings were grown for biomass evaluation during nine months. Results showed that seeds of the two species had the same germinability (near 100%) and mean germination time (ca. 12 days). However, P. longiflorum showed a more spread seed germination through time, with higher values of coefficient of variation in germination time and uncertainty index; and lower values of synchronization than P. tomentosum. The two species showed basically the same growth pattern, but lower values for height of apical meristem, diameter of underground structures (mostly roots), dry mass of shoots, underground structure and total mass of seedlings in P. tomentosum were obtained, compared to P. longiflorum. Both species allocated more dry mass to underground structures in detriment of shoot. This probably allows resprouting behavior which prevents hydric stress and detrimental fire action typical of the open Cerrado areas. PMID:22208102

  10. Evaluation of three methods for sampling ground-dwelling Ants in the Brazilian Cerrado.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, Cauê T; Vasconcelos, Heraldo L

    2008-01-01

    Few studies have evaluated the efficiency of methods for sampling ants, especially in regions with highly variable vegetation physiognomies such as the Cerrado region of central Brazil. Here we compared three methods to collect ground-dwelling ants: pitfall traps, sardine baits, and the Winkler litter extractor. Our aim was to determine which method would be most appropriate to characterize the ant assemblages inhabiting different vegetation types. More species were collected with pitfall traps and with the Winkler extractor than with sardine baits. Pitfall traps collected more species in the cerrado (savanna) physiognomies, particularly in those with a poor litter cover, whereas the Winlker extractor was more efficient in the forest physiognomies, except the one subject to periodic inundations. There was a low similarity in species composition between forest and cerrado physiognomies, and this pattern was detected regardless of the method used to sampling ants. Therefore, even the use of a single, relatively selective method of collection can be enough for studies comparing highly distinct habitats and/or conditions. However, if the purpose of the sampling is to produce a more thoroughly inventory of the ant fauna, we suggest the use of a combination of methods, particularly pitfall traps and the Winkler extractor. Therefore, the Ants of the Leaf-Litter (ALL) Sampling Protocol appear to be an adequate protocol for sampling ants in the highly-threatened Brazilian cerrado biome. PMID:18813741

  11. First record of Mesoclemmys tuberculata (Reptilia, Testudines, Chelidae) in the Cerrado area of Minas Gerais state, southeastern Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Adriano Lima Silveira; Raquel Valinhas e Valinhas

    2010-01-01

    Mesoclemmys tuberculata is a turtle species that is distributed in northeastern Brazil, recorded mainly in the Caatinga and at some localities in the Atlantic Forest and Cerrado. In this paper we report the first species record in an area of Cerrado of Minas Gerais state, and it is the only known state record in a specific location. During field sampling, a specimen of M. tuberculata was collected in the municipality of João Pinheiro, northwest state, in a Cerrado nuclear area in the São Fran...

  12. Identifying hydrological responses of micro-catchments under contrasting land use in the Brazilian Cerrado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nobrega, R. L. B.; Guzha, A. C.; Torres, G. N.; Kovacs, K.; Lamparter, G.; Amorim, R. S. S.; Couto, E.; Gerold, G.

    2015-09-01

    In recent decades, the Brazilian Cerrado biome has been affected by intense land-use change, particularly the conversion of natural forest to agricultural land. Understanding the environmental impacts of this land-use change on landscape hydrological dynamics is one of the main challenges in the Amazon agricultural frontier, where part of the Brazilian Cerrado biome is located and where most of the deforestation has occurred. This study uses empirical data from field measurements to characterize controls on hydrological processes from three first-order micro-catchments cattle ranching, and cash crop land. We continuously monitored precipitation, streamflow, soil moisture, and meteorological variables from October 2012 to September 2014. Additionally, we determined the physical and hydraulic properties of the soils, and conducted topographic surveys. We used these data to quantify the water balance components of the study catchments and to relate these water fluxes to land use, catchment physiographic parameters, and soil hydrophysical properties. The results of this study show that runoff coefficients were 0.27, 0.40, and 0.16 for the cerrado, pasture, and cropland catchments, respectively. Baseflow is shown to play a significant role in streamflow generation in the three study catchments, with baseflow index values of more than 0.95. The results also show that evapotranspiration was highest in the cerrado (986 mm yr-1) compared to the cropland (828 mm yr-1) and the pasture (532 mm yr-1). However, discharges in the cropland catchment were unexpectedly lower than that of the cerrado catchment. The normalized discharge was 55 % higher and 57 % lower in the pasture and cropland catchments, respectively, compared with the cerrado catchment. We attribute this finding to the differences in soil type and topographic characteristics, and low-till farming techniques in the cropland catchment, additionally to the buffering effect of the gallery forests in these catchments

  13. The water balance components of undisturbed tropical woodlands in the Brazilian cerrado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, P. T. S.; Wendland, E.; Nearing, M. A.; Scott, R. L.; Rosolem, R.; da Rocha, H. R.

    2015-06-01

    Deforestation of the Brazilian cerrado region has caused major changes in hydrological processes. These changes in water balance components are still poorly understood but are important for making land management decisions in this region. To better understand pre-deforestation conditions, we determined the main components of the water balance for an undisturbed tropical woodland classified as "cerrado sensu stricto denso". We developed an empirical model to estimate actual evapotranspiration (ET) by using flux tower measurements and vegetation conditions inferred from the enhanced vegetation index and reference evapotranspiration. Canopy interception, throughfall, stemflow, surface runoff, and water table level were assessed from ground measurements. We used data from two cerrado sites, Pé de Gigante (PDG) and Instituto Arruda Botelho (IAB). Flux tower data from the PDG site collected from 2001 to 2003 were used to develop the empirical model to estimate ET. The other hydrological processes were measured at the field scale between 2011 and 2014 at the IAB site. The empirical model showed significant agreement (R2 = 0.73) with observed ET at the daily timescale. The average values of estimated ET at the IAB site ranged from 1.91 to 2.60 mm day-1 for the dry and wet seasons, respectively. Canopy interception ranged from 4 to 20 % and stemflow values were approximately 1 % of the gross precipitation. The average runoff coefficient was less than 1 %, while cerrado deforestation has the potential to increase that amount up to 20-fold. As relatively little excess water runs off (either by surface water or groundwater), the water storage may be estimated by the difference between precipitation and evapotranspiration. Our results provide benchmark values of water balance dynamics in the undisturbed cerrado that will be useful to evaluate past and future land-cover and land-use changes for this region.

  14. Hydrological impacts of land-use change and agricultural policy in the Brazilian Cerrado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macedo, M.; Coe, M. T.; Soares-Filho, B.; Ferreira, L. G.; Panday, P. K.

    2013-12-01

    Land-use change and climate variability are two of the most important forces driving changes to the surface water and energy balance in tropical ecosystems. Our analysis combines satellite-derived data on rainfall (CRU), evapotranspiration (MOD16), soil water storage (GRACE), and land cover (MOD12Q1) to understand the effect of past (2000-2012) land cover changes and climate variability on the water balance of the Brazilian Cerrado (savannah woodlands). Based on these historical relationships, we examine potential future land-use transitions from native Cerrado to pasturelands and mechanized agriculture, using the Brazilian Water Agency's (ANA) 12th order watersheds as our unit of analysis. In the Cerrado, these watersheds constitute nearly 37,500 units (mean area ~5,400 ha) and serve as a useful proxy for property-level land-use decisions. Our future scenarios evaluate the potential ramifications of recent changes in the Brazilian Forest Code, which we estimate may allow for legal deforestation of an additional 40 × 2 million hectares of native Cerrado. Our analysis indicates that historical land-cover changes have already caused a significant decrease in evapotranspiration, leading to a three-fold increase in discharge in small watersheds and a nearly 25% increase in large river basins like the Tocantins-Araguaia. As global demand for agricultural commodities continues to rise, it is likely that large-scale conversion of the Cerrado will continue or accelerate in the coming decade. Our research suggests that the cumulative impact of such large-scale land cover change may shift the water balance sufficiently to alter regional precipitation and deplete groundwater stores. Future research will focus on understanding the potential feedbacks of these large-scale hydrological changes on regional climate and agricultural productivity.

  15. Fitossociologia de cerrado sensu stricto no município de Abaeté-MG Phytosociology of the cerrado sensu stricto in Abaeté, MG, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amilcar Walter Saporetti Jr

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available O cerrado tem sido objeto de discussão de grupos temáticos que estudam a conservação de biodiversidade no Estado de Minas Gerais. São inúmeras as áreas de conservação com vegetação de cerrado das quais não se têm informações a respeito de sua composição florística e estrutura. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar florística e fitossociologicamente uma área de cerrado sensu stricto, no município de Abaeté-MG. A área de estudo é um fragmento com 2 ha de cerrado sensu stricto, preservado como área de reserva da CAF-Santa Bárbara, situada nas coordenadas 19º05'S e 44º58'W, a uma altitude de 480 m, em leve depressão próxima de uma vereda. O clima pertence ao tipo Cwa pelo sistema de Köppen, com precipitação média anual de 1.400 mm. O solo é do tipo Latossolo Vermelho distrófico. Foram instaladas 15 parcelas de 200 m² (10 x 20 m, distribuídas sistematicamente ao longo de trilhas, distanciadas 10 m entre si. Foram amostrados todos os indivíduos lenhosos vivos com circunferência do caule ao nível do solo (CAS igual ou maior que 10 cm. O índice de Shannon foi de 3,590 e a equabilidade foi de 0,804, considerados comuns para cerrados bem conservados. Foram amostrados 1.339 indivíduos, sendo a composição florística constituída por 85 espécies, distribuídas em 44 famílias. As famílias com maior número de espécies foram Leguminosae Caesalpinioideae com sete espécies, Annonaceae com cinco, Myrtaceae, Malpighiaceae, Erythroxylaceae, Anacardiaceae, Rubiaceae e Bignoniaceae com quatro, seguidas de Vochysiaceae e Leguminosae Papilionoideae com três. As espécies que apresentaram o maior valor de importância (VI foram Xylopia aromatica (Lam. Mart. (22,21, Myrcia lingua Berg (18,18 Caryocar brasiliense Cambess. (17,91, Eugenia dysenterica DC. (17,58, Byrsonima intermedia A. Juss. (13,69 e Brosimum gaudichaudii Trécul (11,86.The cerrado has been a topic of discussion of thematic groups studying biodiversity

  16. Florística do cerrado na Reserva Biológica de Moji Guaçu, SP Floristic of the "cerrado" in the Moji Guaçu Biological Reserve, São Paulo State

    OpenAIRE

    Waldir Mantovani; Fernando Roberto Martins

    1993-01-01

    Foi analisada uma área de 343,42 ha situada em mancha disjunta do cerrado, no Município de Moji Guaçu (Reserva Biológica de Moji Guaçu), São Paulo, sudeste do Brasil (22º15'-16'S e 47º08'-12'W). A área do cerrado estudada apresenta predomínio de fisionomias abertas, que vão do campo cerrado ao cerrado senso restrito. Foram amostradas as plantas vasculares em fase reprodutiva, em dezenove excursões de coletga, com intervalos de 30-45 dias, quando eram anotados dados fenológicos e as formas de ...

  17. The role of gallery forests in the distribution of cerrado mammals O papel das matas de galeria na distribuição dos mamíferos do cerrado

    OpenAIRE

    M. A. Johnson; Saraiva, P.M.; Coelho, D

    1999-01-01

    The Cerrado biome contains a rich mammal community, with an influence from the Amazonian and Atlantic rainforests, principally observed in the gallery forests. In this paper, through literature review, it is shown that the non-volant mammal community of the gallery forests is distinct from the mammal communities of any other physionomy of the Cerrado. Additionally, the gallery forests contain twice as many species common to the rainforests when compared to all the other physiognomies of the C...

  18. Radionuclides and heavy metal contents in phosphogypsum samples in comparison to cerrado soils Conteúdo de radionuclídeos e metais pesados em amostras de fosfogesso, comparativamente ao de solos de cerrado

    OpenAIRE

    Vanusa Maria Feliciano Jacomino; Kerley Alberto Pereira de Oliveira; Maria Helena Tirollo Taddei; Maria Célia Siqueira; Maria Eleonora Deschamps Pires Carneiro; Marcos Roberto Lopes Nascimento; David Faria da Silva; Jaime Wilson Vargas de Mello

    2009-01-01

    Phosphogysum (PG) or agricultural gypsum, a solid waste from the phosphate fertilizer industry, is used as soil amendment, especially on soils in the Cerrado region, in Brazil. This material may however contain natural radionuclides and metals which can be transferred to soils, plants and water sources. This paper presents and discusses the results of physical and chemical analyses that characterized samples of PG and compares them to the results found in two typical soils of the Cerrado, a c...

  19. First record of Mesoclemmys tuberculata (Reptilia, Testudines, Chelidae in the Cerrado area of Minas Gerais state, southeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriano Lima Silveira

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Mesoclemmys tuberculata is a turtle species that is distributed in northeastern Brazil, recorded mainly in the Caatinga and at some localities in the Atlantic Forest and Cerrado. In this paper we report the first species record in an area of Cerrado of Minas Gerais state, and it is the only known state record in a specific location. During field sampling, a specimen of M. tuberculata was collected in the municipality of João Pinheiro, northwest state, in a Cerrado nuclear area in the São Francisco river basin. The locality of this record is the southern and western limits of M. tuberculata’s known distribution, as well as the most inland locality of species record in the Cerrado biome.

  20. Runoff and soil erosion for an undisturbed tropical woodland in the Brazilian Cerrado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Paulo Tarso S.; Nearing, Mark; Wendland, Edson

    2015-04-01

    The Brazilian Cerrado is a large and important economic and environmental region that is experiencing major loss of its natural landscapes due to pressures of food and energy production, which has caused large increases in soil erosion. However the magnitude of the soil erosion increases in this region is not well understood, in part because scientific studies of surface runoff and soil erosion are scarce or nonexistent in undisturbed Cerrado vegetation. In this study we measured natural rainfall-driven rates of runoff and soil erosion for an undisturbed tropical woodland classified as "cerrado sensu stricto denso" and bare soil to compute the Universal Soil Loss Equation (USLE) cover and management factor (C-factor) to help evaluate the likely effects of land use change on soil erosion rates. Replicated data on precipitation, runoff, and soil loss on plots (5 x 20 m) under bare soil and cerrado were collected for 55 erosive storms occurring in 2012 and 2013. The measured annual precipitation was 1247.4 mm and 1113.0 mm for 2012 and 2013, resulting in a rainfall erosivity index of 4337.1 MJ mm ha-1 h-1 and 3546.2 MJ mm ha-1 h-1, for each year respectively. The erosive rainfall represented 80concentrated in the wet season, which generally runs from October through March. In the plots on bare soil, the runoff coefficient for individual rainfall events (total runoff divided by total rainfall) ranged from 0.003 to 0.860 with an average value and standard deviation of 0.212 ± 0.187. Moreover, the runoff coefficient found for the bare soil plots (~20infiltration capacity. In forest areas the leaf litter and the more porous soil tend to promote the increase of infiltration and water storage, rather than rapid overland flow. Indeed, runoff coefficients ranged from 0.001 to 0.030 with an average of less than 1under undisturbed cerrado. The soil losses measured under bare soil and cerrado were 15.68 t ha-1yr-1 and 0.24 t ha-1 yr-1 in 2012, and 14.82 t ha-1 yr-1, 0.11 t ha-1

  1. Mammal occurrence and roadkill in two adjacent ecoregions (Atlantic Forest and Cerrado) in south-western Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Nilton C. Cáceres; Wellington Hannibal; Dirceu R. Freitas; Edson L. Silva; Cassiano Roman; Janaina Casella

    2010-01-01

    This paper examines the frequencies of mammal roadkill in two adjacent biogeographic ecoregions (Atlantic Forest and Cerrado) of Brazil. Mammals were recorded during a seven-year period and over 3,900 km of roads, in order to obtain data for frequencies of species in habitats (sites) and frequencies of species killed by cars on roads. Sites (n = 80) within ecoregions (Cerrado, n = 57; Atlantic Forest, n = 23) were searched for records of mammals. Species surveyed in the entire region totaled ...

  2. Phytochemical Compounds and Antioxidant Capacity of Tucum-Do-Cerrado (Bactris setosa Mart), Brazil’s Native Fruit

    OpenAIRE

    Fernanda R. Rosa; Arruda, Andréa F.; Egle M. A. Siqueira; Sandra F. Arruda

    2016-01-01

    This study identified major phenolic compounds of the tucum-do-cerrado (Bactris setosa) peel, as well as antioxidant activity and total phytochemical compound concentration of different extracts of the peel and pulp of this fruit. Phenolic compounds of the different extracts of tucum-do-cerrado peel were identified and quantified using a high-performance liquid chromatography system coupled to a diode array detector (DAD). Total phytochemical compound content was determined by spectrophotomet...

  3. Organic matter fractions in areas Oxisol under different management systems in Cerrado the State of Goiás, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Roni Fernandes Guareschi; Marcos Gervasio Pereira; Adriano Perin

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the physical and chemical fractions of soil organic matter (SOM), as well as perform the spectroscopic analysis in ultraviolet-visible humic acid in a Oxisol under no-tillage system (NTS) with different years of implementation, and compare them to areas of native cerrado and pasture. Was evaluated five areas namely: native cerrado (CE), planted pasture (PA) with Brachiaria decumbens; NTS with 3 (NTS 3) years of implementation; NTS with 15 years (NTS...

  4. Quality of granola prepared with dried caju-do-cerrado (Anacardium othonianum Rizz) and baru almonds (Dipteryx alata Vog)

    OpenAIRE

    Souza, Priscila Laís C.; Silva, Mara R.

    2013-01-01

    The use of Brazilian Cerrado fruits and research into their nutritional potential are important for socioeconomic development and the sustainable preservation of the environment. The use of these fruits in products such as granola encourages the inclusion of healthier and more-natural foods in the diet. This study was undertaken to evaluate acceptability, microbiological, physical and nutritional characteristics and the stability of granola made from dried caju-do-cerrado and baru almonds. Gr...

  5. Circuito cerrado para una industria sostenible, aportaciones del sector cementero

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaragoza, A.

    2010-03-01

    de recursos y las emisiones a la atmósfera. El producto debe incorporar características sostenibles tales como la posibilidad de ser reciclado y/o valorizado en algún momento de su ciclo de vida y, así, poder ser reintroducido de nuevo en la actividad industrial. De esta manera, el producto se convierte en la piedra angular de un sistema de producción en “circuito cerrado” que implique a todos los sectores industriales en el concepto de reciclaje de productos y residuos y que minimice la huella del proceso. El sector cementero debe seguir incidiendo en las posibilidades de reciclado de los materiales fabricados con cemento, además de los utilizados propiamente en su fabricación, y, sobre todo, se debe seguir profundizando en la relación entre Ciclo de Vida y reciclaje, lo que proporcionará al sector una metodología y unas herramientas útiles para reducir el impacto ambiental y reforzar sus contribuciones sociales y económicas. Por ello el sector está haciendo esfuerzos para la puesta en marcha de una industria en circuito cerrado en la que se reutilicen materiales y energía, minimizando al máximo su afección en el entorno, a la vez que se está trabajando en una conceptualización de este modelo de producción en cadena, que implique a todos los sectores industriales en el reciclado de materiales. Prueba de este compromiso son los acuerdos firmados con FER y Sigrauto para el aprovechamiento de vehículos fuera de uso y con UNESID para la valorización de residuos siderúrgicos, así como el proyecto Pressure para la gestión integral de residuos industriales.

  6. Phosphogypsum applications in the cerrado agriculture and his radiological implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inert, Not Corrosive and Not Reactive. The soil samples analyzed as were acids, with low content of organic matter and high potential acidity. The average of specific activity for 226Ra in phosphogypsum samples (252 Bq.kg-1) was below of the maximum level recommended by USEPA, which is 370 Bq.kg-1 for agricultural use. Although the most of the results of mean specific activity of radionuclides present in samples of lettuce present values below the Minimum Detectable Activity (MDA), the Transfer Factors were estimated for those conditions in which the mean specific activity proved to be superior to MDA. The values ranges from 1.8 10-3 to 2.3 10-2 for 232Th; 3.5 10-2 to 4.1 10-2 for 226Ra, 2.4 10-1 to 3.2 10-1 for 228Ra and 3.5 10-2 to 8.5 10-2 for 210Po, depending on the type of soil used in the planting of the vegetables. In general, the results obtained in the present study indicated that the mobility of radionuclides in both studied soils was low. The effective doses committed calculated well below the limit of 1 mSv.year-1 established by ICRP, for the public in general (4,3 10-3 mSv for the experiments in loamy soil and 7,5 10-3 mSv for the experiments in sandy soil). It is possible to conclude that from the point of view of the radiological protection, the data obtained in this work demonstrated the viability of the use of phosphogypsum in agriculture of the Cerrado, Brazil. (author)

  7. Impact of land-use change in the net radiation of the Cerrado of the southern Mato Grosso

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    Marcos Alves Fausto

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Changes resulting from land use and occupation modify the surface radioactive balance. This paper evaluated the impact on the net radiation caused by the conversion of a Cerrado area in an agricultural zone in the southern Mato Grosso using Landsat 5 TM sensor imagery acquired between June and October 2011. The analyses were performed of the following land use classes: Cerrado, riparian vegetation, sugarcane, soybean, pasture, bare soil and water. The replacement of Cerrado by agricultural areas changed the biophysical indices of the surface due to the change in biomass and the optical properties of the surface as observed in this study. The NDVI values were higher in the typical Cerrado vegetation and Riparian Forest than in agricultural areas. The surface temperature and the surface albedo showed an inverse pattern of NDVI, with lower values in the typical Cerrado vegetation and Riparian Forest and higher values in agricultural areas and bare soil. The replacement of Cerrado by cultivated crops in the south of Mato Grosso decreased the available energy at the surface, as indicated by the radiation balance.

  8. Floristic composition of the cerrado in the Pé-de-Gigante Reserve (Santa Rita do Passa Quatro, southeastern Brazil

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    Batalha Marco Antônio

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available We studied a 1225 ha area, composed mainly of cerrado, in Santa Rita do Passa Quatro, São Paulo State, southeastern Brazil (21°36-38'S, 47°36-39'W. In three cerrado physiognomies (campo cerrado -- a wooded savanna, cerrado sensu stricto -- a woodland, and cerradão -- a tall woodland, we collected all vascular plants in reproductive stage, and identified them to species level. We found 360 species, representing 236 genera and 69 families. The richest families were: Asteraceae, Fabaceae, Poaceae, and Rubiaceae. The savanna physiognomies were richer than the forest one. The ratio between herbaceous and woody species was approximately 2:1. We analysed the whole flora and its two components separately, woody and herbaceous, comparing them with other disjunct cerrado areas. We obtained similarity values (Sørensen index from 0.47 to 0.81, which showed that the 3 diversity of the cerrado was higher in the herbaceous component than in the woody one.

  9. Levantamento florístico no cerrado de Pedregulho, SP, Brasil Floristic inventory of cerrado at Pedregulho, São Paulo State, Brazil

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    Denise Sasaki

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Em Pedregulho, município do extremo nordeste do Estado de São Paulo, ocorrem fragmentos de cerrado considerados floristicamente distintos dos demais remanescentes paulistas. Nesse estudo, foi realizado um levantamento florístico em Pedregulho, abordando duas regiões geologicamente distintas: o Parque Estadual das Furnas do Bom Jesus e o distrito de Estreito. Em cada uma, delimitaram-se duas parcelas de 50×50 m, totalizando um hectare, onde foram encontradas 65 famílias e 379 espécies de angiospermas. Coletas em áreas adjacentes totalizaram 71 famílias e 443 espécies. As duas regiões estudadas têm baixa similaridade florística entre si. A distribuição geográfica das espécies é analisada e oito padrões são delimitados para aquelas cuja distribuição no Estado de São Paulo é restrita à região de Pedregulho.Pedregulho municipality in the far northeastern region of São Paulo state has fragments of cerrado vegetation thought to be floristically distinct from other cerrado remmants in the state. In this study, a floristic survey was carried out at Pedregulho, focusing on two geologically distinct regions: Furnas do Bom Jesus State Park and the Estreito district. In each region, 50×50 m plots were set up for a total sample area of 1 hectare, where 65 families and 379 angiosperm species were recorded. Collecting efforts in adjacent areas resulted in a total of 71 families and 443 species. The two study areas had low floristic similarity. Geographic species distribution was analyzed and eight patterns were defined for those species restricted to the Pedregulho region in São Paulo.

  10. Técnicas de coleta de besouros copronecrófagos no Cerrado Collection techniques of dung beetle in the Cerrado, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Michelle Silva Milhomem; Fernando Zagury Vaz de Mello; Ivone Rezende Diniz

    2003-01-01

    Métodos de coleta passiva, com o uso de armadilhas, têm sido utilizados na coleta de besouros da família Scarabaeidae. No Cerrado existem poucos estudos sobre estes insetos, apesar da sua importância para o ecossistema e para o controle biológico de pragas do gado bovino. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar técnicas de coleta de besouros copronecrófagos (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae sensu stricto) com armadilha de interceptação de vôo e armadilha de queda com fezes e com carcaça. O experimento ...

  11. Using Remote Sensing and Random Forest to Assess the Conservation Status of Critical Cerrado Habitats in Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason Reynolds

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Brazil’s Cerrado is a highly diverse ecosystem and it provides critical habitat for many species. Cerrado habitats have suffered significant degradation and decline over the past decades due to expansion of cash crops and livestock farming across South America. Approximately 1,800,000 km2 of the Cerrado remain in Brazil, but detailed maps and conservation assessments of the Cerrado are lacking. We developed a land cover classification for the Cerrado, focusing on the state of Mato Grosso do Sul, which may also be used to map critical habitat for endangered species. We used a Random Forest algorithm to perform a supervised classification on a set of Landsat 8 images. To determine habitat fragmentation for the Cerrado, we used Fragstats. A habitat connectivity analysis was performed using Linkage Mapper. Our final classification had an overall accuracy of 88%. Our classification produced higher accuracies (72% in predicting Cerrado than existing government maps. We found that remaining Cerrado habitats were severely fragmented. Four potential corridors were identified in the southwest of Mato Grosso do Sul, where large Cerrado patches are located. Only two large patches remain in Mato Grosso do Sul: one within the Kadiwéu Indian Reserve, and one near the southeastern edge of the Pantanal-dominated landscape. These results are alarming for rare species requiring larger tracts of habitat such as the giant armadillo (Priodontes maximus.

  12. Assessment of different management systems in an area of cerrado sensu strict

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávia Nascimento de Souza

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to evaluate the effect of different management systems on the floristic composition and diversity of a fragment of Cerrado sensu stricto vegetation located in Brasilândia de Minas (MG, eleven years after interventions. In 1997, 30 plots were installed in the study site, in a random block design, consisting of ten treatments with three replications: 50%, 60%, 70% and 80% removal of the basal area, involving 20% reduction and increase in the De Liocourt quotient value; clear cutting and control treatment. Prior to treatment installation, an inventory was compiled of original vegetation. In 2004 and 2008 further inventories were produced. It was observed that interventions in the relevant Cerrado area led to changes in the floristic composition and diversity of local vegetation, yet these changes were also observed in undisturbed areas which had not been subjected to management plans.

  13. Composition and ecological patterns of snake assemblages in an Amazon-Cerrado Transition Zone in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leandra C. Pinheiro

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The present study encompasses the species composition and ecological characteristics of the snake community in a Cerrado-Amazon transition zone in Midwest of Brazil (state of Mato Grosso. The data were collected during six excursions to the "Tanguro" (study area by visual encounter survey, pitfall traps with drift fences and non-systematic sampling. We collected 194 specimens, distributed in 34 species, 26 genera, and eight families. The most abundant species were Crotalus durissus Linnaeus, 1758 (n = 50, Philodryas olfersii (Lichtenstein, 1823 (n = 15, Philodryas nattereri Steindachner, 1870 (n = 13, Xenodon rabdocephalus (Wied, 1824 (n = 12, Lachesis muta (Linnaeus, 1766 (n = 10 and Erythrolamprus almadensis (Wagler, 1824 (n = 10. The composition of species found here represents a combination of Cerrado and Amazonian savanna fauna.

  14. Effects of environmental factors on community structure of Leptophlebiidae (Insecta, Ephemeroptera in Cerrado streams, Brazil

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    Leandro S. Brasil

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available We analyzed the effects of environmental factors on abundance, species richness, and functional group richness of Leptophlebiidae in 16 sampling points along four Cerrado streams. Across three periods of 2005, we collected 5,492 larvae from 14 species in stream bed substrate. These species belong to three functional feeding groups: scrapers, filtering collectors and shredders. The abundance and species richness were not affected by water quality, but habitat quality related to presence of riparian vegetation had positive effects on the abundance of shredders. Our results add important information on the natural history of the species and functional groups of aquatic insects and also provide relevant data for the monitoring and conservation of streams in the Brazilian Cerrado.

  15. Biomassa aérea da vegetação de cerrado

    OpenAIRE

    Santos, João Roberto dos

    1988-01-01

    O presente trabalho pretende fornecer subsídios aos procedimentos de estimativa da biomassa aérea do cerrado, utilizando técnicas de sensoriamento remoto a nível orbital. Portanto, o objetivo principal é avaliar a relação funcional entre a biomassa foliar do cerrado (stricto sensu) e os índices de vegetação (razão simples, razão normalizada e transformada) oriundos das bandas 3 (0,63 - 0,69 um), 4 (0,76 - 0,90 um) e 5 (1,55 - 1,75 um) do Thematic Mapper/LANDSAT-5. No Distrito Federal, área ce...

  16. Areas of climate stability of species ranges in the Brazilian Cerrado

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Terribile, Levi Carina; Lima-Ribeiro, Matheus Souza; Bastos Araujo, Miguel;

    2012-01-01

    Recognizing the location of climatically stable areas in the future is subjected to uncertainties from ecological niche models, climatic models, variation in species ranges responses, and from the climatic variation through time. Here, we proposed an approach based on hierarchical ANOVA to reduce...... uncertainties and to identify climatically stable areas, working with Cerrado tree species as a model organism. Ecological niche models were generated for 18 Cerrado tree species and their potential distributions were projected into past and future. Analyses of the sources of uncertainties in ensembles...... hindcasts/forecasts revealed that the time component was the most important source of variation, whereas the climatic models had the smallest effect. The species responses to climate changes do not showed marked differences within each time period. By comparing past and future predictions, a single...

  17. Potential use of zeolites in attenuation water deficit in cerrado latosol

    OpenAIRE

    Samara Martins Barbosa; Geraldo César de Oliveira; Carla Eloize Carducci; Bruno Montoani Silva

    2014-01-01

    The improvements of hydro-physical conditions of the Cerrado Biome soils are extremely important in the view point of agricultural limitations in seasons of poor rainfall distribution and drought period. Against this background, we emphasize the potential use zeolites as soil conditioners, because they are minerals that have large interconnected voids that give them a high degree of hydration with ease to retain and release water. This study aimed to characterize the water retention in dystro...

  18. Composition and ecological patterns of snake assemblages in an Amazon-Cerrado Transition Zone in Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Leandra C. Pinheiro; Pedro S. Abe; Youszef O. C. Bitar; Luiz P. P. Albarelli; Maria C. Santos-Costa

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT The present study encompasses the species composition and ecological characteristics of the snake community in a Cerrado-Amazon transition zone in Midwest of Brazil (state of Mato Grosso). The data were collected during six excursions to the "Tanguro" (study area) by visual encounter survey, pitfall traps with drift fences and non-systematic sampling. We collected 194 specimens, distributed in 34 species, 26 genera, and eight families. The most abundant species were Crotalus durissus...

  19. Sources and sinks of trace gases in Amazonia and the Cerrado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bustamante, M. M. C.; Keller, M.; Silva, D. A.

    Data for trace gas fluxes (NOx, N2O, and CH4) from the Amazon and cerrado region are presented with focus on the processes of production and consumption of these trace gases in soils and how they may be changed because of land use changes in both regions. Fluxes are controlled by seasonality, soil moisture, soil texture, topography, and fine-root dynamics. Compared to Amazonian forests where the rapid cycling of nitrogen supports large emissions of N2O, nitrification rates and soil emissions of N oxide gases in the cerrado region are very low. Several studies report CH4 consumption during both wet and dry seasons in forest soils, but there is occasionally net production of CH4 during the wet season. A few studies suggest an unknown source of CH4 from upland forests. As with N oxide emissions, there are few data on CH4 emissions from cerrado soils, but CH4 consumption occurs during both wet and dry seasons. Clearing natural vegetation, burning, fertilization of agricultural lands, intensive cattle ranching, and increasing dominance by legume species in areas under secondary succession after land conversion have all been identified as causes of increasing N2O and NO emissions from tropical regions. Large uncertainties remain for regional estimates of trace gas fluxes. Improvement of models for the N oxides and CH4 fluxes for Amazonia and the cerrado still depends upon gathering more data from sites more widely distributed across two vast biomes and more importantly on basic theory about the controls of emissions from the ecosystem to the atmosphere.

  20. Resource Selection and Its Implications for Wide-Ranging Mammals of the Brazilian Cerrado

    OpenAIRE

    Vynne, Carly; Keim, Jonah L.; Machado, Ricardo B.; Marinho-Filho, Jader; Silveira, Leandro; Groom, Martha J.; Wasser, Samuel K.

    2011-01-01

    Conserving animals beyond protected areas is critical because even the largest reserves may be too small to maintain viable populations for many wide-ranging species. Identification of landscape features that will promote persistence of a diverse array of species is a high priority, particularly, for protected areas that reside in regions of otherwise extensive habitat loss. This is the case for Emas National Park, a small but important protected area located in the Brazilian Cerrado, the wor...

  1. Cryptic lineages and diversification of an endemic anole lizard (Squamata, Dactyloidae) of the Cerrado hotspot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guarnizo, Carlos E; Werneck, Fernanda P; Giugliano, Lilian G; Santos, Marcella G; Fenker, Jéssica; Sousa, Lucas; D'Angiolella, Annelise B; Dos Santos, Adriana R; Strüssmann, Christine; Rodrigues, Miguel T; Dorado-Rodrigues, Tainá F; Gamble, Tony; Colli, Guarino R

    2016-01-01

    The Cerrado is a wide Neotropical savanna with tremendously high endemic diversity. Yet, it is not clear what the prevalent processes leading to such diversification are. We used the Cerrado-endemic lizard Norops meridionalis to investigate the main abiotic factors that promoted genetic divergence, the timings of these divergence events, and how these relate to cryptic diversity in the group. We sequenced mitochondrial and nuclear genes from 21 sites of N. meridionalis to generate species tree, divergence time estimations, and estimate species limits. We also performed population-level analysis and estimated distribution models to test the roles of niche conservatism and divergence in the group diversification. We found that N. meridionalis is composed by at least five cryptic species. Divergence time estimations suggest that the deepest branches split back into the early-mid Miocene, when most of the geophysical activity of the Cerrado took place. The deep divergences found in N. meridionalis suggest that beta anoles invaded South America much earlier than previously thought. Recent published evidence supports this view, indicating that the Panama gap closed as early as 15 mya, allowing for an early invasion of Norops into South America. The spatial pattern of diversification within N. meridionalis follows a northwest-southeast direction, which is consistent across several species of vertebrates endemic to the Cerrado. Also, we found evidence for non-stationary isolation by distance, which occurs when genetic differentiation depends on space. Our preliminary data in two out of five lineages suggest that niche conservatism is an important mechanism that promoted geographic fragmentation in the group. PMID:26385121

  2. In Vitro Schistosomicidal Activity of Some Brazilian Cerrado Species and Their Isolated Compounds

    OpenAIRE

    Nayanne Larissa Cunha; Camila Jacintho de Mendonça Uchôa; Lucas Silva Cintra; Herbert Cristian de Souza; Juliana Andrade Peixoto; Claudia Peres Silva; Lizandra Guidi Magalhães; Valéria Maria Meleiro Gimenez; Milton Groppo; Vanderlei Rodrigues; Ademar Alves da Silva Filho; Márcio Luís Andrade e Silva; Wilson Roberto Cunha; Patrícia Mendonça Pauletti; Ana Helena Januário

    2012-01-01

    Miconia langsdorffii Cogn. (Melastomataceae), Roupala montana Aubl. (Proteaceae), Struthanthus syringifolius (Mart.) (Loranthaceae), and Schefflera vinosa (Cham. & Schltdl.) Frodin (Araliaceae) are plant species from the Brazilian Cerrado whose schistosomicidal potential has not yet been described. The crude extracts, fractions, the triterpenes betulin, oleanolic acid, ursolic acid and the flavonoids quercetin 3-O- β -D-rhamnoside, quercetin 3-O- β -D-glucoside, quercetin 3-O- β -D-glucopyran...

  3. Work in Darkness: How Hawk Moth Produce Mangabas (Hancornia speciosa, Apocynaceae) in Brazilian Cerrado

    OpenAIRE

    Oliveira, Reisla; Fernando C. V. Zanella; Martins, Celso F.; Antonini, Yasmine; Grieb, Beatrice; Schlindwein, Clemens

    2015-01-01

    Mangaba (Hancornia speciosa, Apocynaceae), native to Cerrado in Brazil, is a tropical fruit crop, consumed mainly as juice. Supply, however, does not satisfy the market because mangabas are still harvested mainly in natural populations. Thus, the species has a great potential as future fruit crop. Recently, first experimental mangaba orchards arose in agricultural research stations in northeastern Brazil. We analysed floral biology and breeding systems, determined effective pollinators and...

  4. Human transportation network as ecological barrier for wildlife on Brazilian Pantanal-Cerrado corridors

    OpenAIRE

    Fischer, Wagner A.; Ramos-Neto, Mario B.; Silveira, Leandro; Jacomo, Anah T.A.

    2003-01-01

    Highway impacts on terrestrial fauna are known as a serious mortality source for several species around the world. Despite the international concerns about this issue, only recently has this question been included in Brazilian policies of transportation. Brazilian Pantanal and Cerrado biomes and corridors are known as two of the broadest wildlife sanctuaries in South America, and their fauna movements has been drastically affected by road development. The last 13 years of road fauna-...

  5. Productivity and nutritional quality of Flechinha grass ( Echinolaena inflexa ), native grass of Brazilian Cerrado

    OpenAIRE

    Sylvia Rocha e Silveira; Rafael Sandin Ribeiro; João Paulo Sacramento; Domingos Sávio Campos Paciullo; Luiz Gustavo Ribeiro Pereira; Rogério Martins Maurício

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT: Due to scarce nutritional data, this study assessed the productivity and nutritional value of Echinolaena inflexa (EI) grass, native to the Cerrado biome. It was compared to B. brizantha (BB), one of the most cultivated grasses in Brazil, during a whole year (rainy; RS and dry season; DS). Sampling was held in accordance with pasture management (entry / exit height; 50 / 5cm and 80 / 25cm for EI and BB, respectively). Dry matter production (DMP), crude protein (CP), neutral and acid...

  6. Antimicrobial activity of some medicinal plants from the cerrado of the centralwestern region of Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Violante, Ivana Maria Póvoa; Hamerski, Lidilhone; Garcez, Walmir Silva; Batista, Ana Lucia; Chang, Marilene Rodrigues; Pott, Vali Joana; Garcez, Fernanda Rodrigues

    2012-01-01

    Ethanol extracts from six selected species from the Cerrado of the Central-Western region of Brazil, which are used in traditional medicine for the treatment of infectious diseases and other medical conditions, namely Erythroxylum suberosum St. Hil. (Erythroxylaceae), Hyptis crenata Pohl. ex Benth. (Lamiaceae), Roupala brasiliensis Klotz. (Proteaceae), Simarouba versicolor St. Hil. (Simaroubaceae), Guazuma ulmifolia Lam. (Sterculiaceae) and Protium heptaphyllum (Aubl.) March. (Burseraceae), a...

  7. Origins and recent radiation of Brazilian Eupatorieae (Asteraceae) in the eastern Cerrado and Atlantic Forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera, Vanessa Lopes; Panero, Jose L; Schilling, Edward E; Crozier, Bonnie S; Moraes, Marta Dias

    2016-04-01

    The remarkable diversity of Eupatorieae in the Brazilian flora has received little study, despite the tribe's very high levels of endemism and importance in the threatened Cerrado and the Atlantic Forest biodiversity hotspots. Eupatorieae are one of the largest tribes in Asteraceae with 14 of 19 recognized subtribes occurring in Brazil. We constructed the largest phylogeny of Brazilian Eupatorieae to date that sampled the nrITS and ETS, chloroplast ndhI and ndhF genes, and the ndhI-ndhG intergenic spacer for 183 species representing 77 of the 85 Brazilian genera of the tribe. Maximum likelihood and Bayesian phylogenetic analyses showed that these species are not collectively monophyletic, so their distribution reflects multiple introductions into Brazil. A novel clade was found that includes 75% of the genera endemic to Brazil (Cerrado-Atlantic Forest Eupatorieae, "CAFE" clade). This radiation of at least 247 species concentrated in the Cerrado and Atlantic Forest biomes of central eastern Brazil is Brazil. PMID:26667031

  8. Convergence beyond flower morphology? Reproductive biology of hummingbird-pollinated plants in the Brazilian Cerrado.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, C; Maruyama, P K; Oliveira, P E

    2016-03-01

    Convergent reproductive traits in non-related plants may be the result of similar environmental conditions and/or specialised interactions with pollinators. Here, we documented the pollination and reproductive biology of Bionia coriacea (Fabaceae), Esterhazya splendida (Orobanchaceae) and Ananas ananassoides (Bromeliaceae) as case studies in the context of hummingbird pollination in Cerrado, the Neotropical savanna of Central South America. We combined our results with a survey of hummingbird pollination studies in the region to investigate the recently suggested association of hummingbird pollination and self-compatibility. Plant species studied here differed in their specialisation for ornithophily, from more generalist A. ananassoides to somewhat specialist B. coriacea and E. splendida. This continuum of specialisation in floral traits also translated into floral visitor composition. Amazilia fimbriata was the most frequent pollinator for all species, and the differences in floral display and nectar energy availability among plant species affect hummingbirds' behaviour. Most of the hummingbird-pollinated Cerrado plants (60.0%, n = 20), including those studied here, were self-incompatible, in contrast to other biomes in the Neotropics. Association to more generalist, often territorial, hummingbirds, and resulting reduced pollen flow in open savanna areas may explain predominance of self-incompatibility. But it is possible that mating system is more associated with the predominance of woody hummingbird plants in the Cerrado plant assemblage than to the pollination system itself. PMID:26370490

  9. Bat flies on phyllostomid hosts in the Cerrado region: component community, prevalence and intensity of parasitism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan Eriksson

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Streblidae flies are specialised parasites of bat hosts, mainly phyllostomids. There is a high richness of streblids in the savannah-like Cerrado region; however, there is little quantitative data available in parasitological indices. Here, we describe the component community, prevalence and intensity of a streblid infestation on a phyllostomid bat assemblage in Serra da Bodoquena, a Cerrado region in Southwest Brazil. We conducted surveys by capturing and inspecting bat hosts during the seven-month period between October 2004-December 2005. All the ectoparasites found on the bats were collected in the field and then counted and identified in the laboratory. We captured 327 bats belonging to 13 species, of which eight species were parasitized by 17 species of streblids. Carollia perspicillata and Glossophaga soricina were infested with seven streblid species, whereas the other bat species were infested with four or fewer streblid species. Megistopoda proxima and Aspidoptera falcata flies were found on Sturnira lilium, and Trichobius joblingi was the most prevalent fly on C. perspicillata. Megistopoda aranea and Aspidoptera phyllostomatis were highly prevalent and had a high intensity of infestation on Artibeus planirostris. Overall comparisons of the available data suggest that the component communities of streblids vary more between the Cerrado and Atlantic Forest phytogeographical regions than between localities within the same phytogeographical region.

  10. Accidental Fire in the Cerrado: Its Impact on Communities of Caterpillars on Two Species of Erythroxylum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cintia Lepesqueur

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Among the mechanisms that influence herbivorous insects, fires, a very frequent historical phenomenon in the cerrado, appear to be an important modifying influence on lepidopteran communities. The purpose of this study was to compare the richness, abundance, frequency, and composition of species of caterpillars in two adjacent areas of cerrado sensu stricto, one recently burned and one unburned since 1994, on the experimental farm “Fazenda Água Limpa” (FAL (15∘55′S and 47∘55′W, DF, Brazil. Caterpillars were surveyed on two plant species, genus Erythroxylum: E. deciduum A. St.-Hil. and E. tortuosum Mart. (Erythroxylaceae. We inspected a total of 4,196 plants in both areas, and 972 caterpillars were found on 13.3% of these plants. The number of plants with caterpillars (frequency differed significantly between the areas. The results indicate that recent and accidental fires have a positive effect on the abundance of caterpillars up to one year postfire, increase the frequency of caterpillars associated with Erythroxylum species in the cerrado and do not affect the richness of caterpillars on these plants. Moreover, the fires change the species composition of caterpillars by promoting an increase in rare or opportunistic species.

  11. Genetic potential of half-sib families of popcorn for cerrado area from southern Tocantins State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo André Colombo

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The existence of high genetic variability in the tropical germplasm popcorn, suggests the possibility of breeding for productivity and popping expansion. It is known that the cerrado area from Tocantins State presents favorable conditions for the exploration of this culture, the aim of this study to evaluate the genetic potential of families of 40 half-sib of popcorn in conditions of the cerrado area from Tocantins State. Thus, were recombined two brands of popcorn, Produtos Paulista and Yoki. A randomized block design was used with two replications. At harvest time the traits were measured, mass of grains per ear, grains yield and popping expansion. Were observed significant genetic variability for all traits. The three traits showed gains with selection. Thus, it was found that the half-sib families of popcorn have genetic potential to be exploited in breeding programs for the conditions of the cerrado area from Tocantins State. However, future studies need to be conducted to determine which breeding strategy should provide more significant results.

  12. Bird richness and composition in a Cerrado fragment in the State of São Paulo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manica, L T; Telles, M; Dias, M M

    2010-05-01

    Bird species richness is an important measure for monitoring biodiversity changes. We analysed avifauna richness and composition in a 472 ha protected cerrado fragment and surroundings at Fazenda Canchim (RL-CPPSE), São Carlos, in the State of São Paulo (SP). We carried out 95.1 hours of observation (22 visits) at irregular intervals from May 2004 to December 2006. Qualitative surveys were done walking through tracks inside the fragment and on the roads at its edge. We recorded 160 species, six of which were endemic to Cerrado domain, 22 migratory, seven threatened within the State of São Paulo, and two globally threatened. We found 28 species in the cerradão, 110 in the cerrado sensu stricto, 13 in the gallery forest, 26 in the reservoir border, 26 in pasturelands and sugar cane monoculture and 55 in an anthropic area. Most of the species had low frequency of occurrence in all vegetation forms. Insectivores were the major trophic category (46.9%), which is typical in tropical regions, and it is also related to resource availability. Omnivores followed with 19.4%, granivores with 8.8% and frugivores with 7.5%. We conclude that, despite its size and conservation status, our study area has a remarkable bird community and must be considered as a priority conservation area to preserve bird species in Sao Paulo State. PMID:20552144

  13. Diversity of medium and large sized mammals in a Cerrado fragment of central Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F.S. Campos

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Studies related to community ecology of medium and large mammals represent a priority in developing strategies for conservation of their habitats. Due to the significant ecological importance of these species, a concern in relation to anthropogenic pressures arises since their populations are vulnerable to hunting and fragmentation. In this study, we aimed to analyze the diversity of medium and large mammals in a representative area of the Cerrado biome, located in the National Forest of Silvânia, central Brazil, providing insights for future studies on the biodiversity and conservation of Cerrado mammals. Sampling was carried out by linear transects, search for traces, footprint traps and camera traps. We recorded 23 species, among which three are listed in threat categories (e.g., Myrmecophaga tridactyla, Chrysocyon brachyurus and Leopardus tigrinus. We registered 160 records in the study area, where the most frequently recorded species were Didelphis albiventris (30 records and Cerdocyon thous (28 records. Our results indicated that a small protected area of Cerrado can include a large and important percentage of the diversity of mammals in this biome, providing information about richness, abundance, spatial distribution and insights for future studies on the biodiversity and conservation of these biological communities.

  14. LEAF MICROMOPHOMETRY OF PALICOUREA RIGIDA KUNTH. (RUBIACEAE FROM BRAZILIAN CERRADO AND CAMPO RUPESTRE ENVIRONMENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Losada Gavilanes

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate qualitative and quantitative leaf anatomical traits of Palicourea rigida Kunth. (Rubiaceae species occurring in the Brazilian Cerrado and Campo Rupestre ecosystems. Anatomical analysis was performed in fresh or fixed leaves processed with usual plant microtechnique. Leaves showed uniseriate epidermis in petiole and leaf blade which contains uniseriate nonglandular tricomes (tector type occurring only over the vascular bundles. Likewise, paracytic stomata were found only in abaxial side of the leaf surface. The mesophyll contains uniseriate palisade parenchyma and multiseriate spongy parenchyma (nine layers which showed cells with different morphology and size. Crystal idoblasts of different types were observed in both the petiole and leaf blade. Collateral vascular bundles were found both in the petiole and leaf blade. Leaf venation type was pinnate, campylodromous or brochydodromous. The micromorphometric analysis showed significant differences from plants of different environments for all leaf characteristics and Cerrado plants showed higher means for all evaluated traits. Therefore, the influence of environments may had modulated morphological responses in P. rigida, since no difference was found in the type or distribution of leaf tissues in Cerrado or Campo Rupestre.

  15. Dinâmica das populações bacterianas em solos de Cerrados Dynamic of bacterial populations from Cerrado soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Carlos Pereira

    1999-05-01

    Full Text Available Nos ambientes tropicais, os Cerrados destacam-se pelo seu potencial agrícola. Apesar das funções dos microrganismos no crescimento das plantas e na produtividade das culturas, existem poucas informações dos efeitos resultantes do manejo do solo, na ecologia microbiana. Neste estudo, foram avaliados os efeitos das condições ambientais e das práticas agrícolas sobre as populações bacterianas. As densidades das populações em solos com vegetação nativa foram variáveis e diferenciadas. Em Sete Lagoas, MG, as populações de actinomicetos variaram de 1,7 a 50 X 10(4 UFC/g de solo seco, enquanto em Planaltina as densidades das populações bacterianas em solo com primeiro e segundo ano de cultivo de soja foram semelhantes, mas superiores ao solo com vegetação nativa. A utilização agrícola deste solo não resultou em desequilíbrios acentuados das populações de actinomicetos provenientes de esporos e hifas. As relações esporos/hifas variaram de 1,1 a 5,8. Na rizosfera da soja, os coeficientes de correlação entre as populações de actinomicetos com as demais populações bacterianas foram significativos. Os resultados evidenciam que as práticas agrícolas utilizadas na introdução da cultura da soja em solos de Cerrados pode influenciar o equilíbrio das populações na comunidade bacteriana.Among tropical environments, Cerrados stand out because of its agriculture potencial. Although microorganisms play an important role on soil sustainability and crop production, few information is available on the effects of soil management systems on Cerrado's microbial ecology. In this study the effects of environmental conditions and soil management practices on bacterial populations were evaluated. Bacterial population densities in soil under native vegetation were variable and diferentiated. Actinomycetes densities varied from 1.7 to 50 X 10(4 CFU/g dry soil in Sete Lagoas region, Brazil, whereas bacterial populations in both the

  16. Mapping fire events in the transition of Amazon and Cerrado biome using remote sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antunes Daldegan, G.; Roberts, D. A.; Peterson, S.; Ribeiro, F.

    2015-12-01

    Abstract to AGU Fire is considered one of the determinant factors that have shaped Cerrado biome, the Brazilian Savanna, considered the most biodiverse savanna in the world. At the same time, fire has not acted a major role during the evolution of the Amazon Forest due to the strong capacity it has to resist burning. Recently, with the expansion of the agricultural activities in the central Brazil, about 49% of the Cerrado has been converted to other uses and as deforestation vector runs towards the Amazon Forest it modifies the natural moist microclimate in the edges of the forest, increasing the likelihood of wildfires. Every year these ecosystems suffer with several fire events responsible for large burned areas, causing losses of biomass, biodiversity, soil nutrients, and releasing tons of CO2 that help climate change. The occurrence of fires has a direct relationship with the climate of the central portion of the south american continent, charaterized by a two seasons regime, wet and dry, each one lasting around 6 months. In this region is located the ecotone of these two majors Brazilians ecosystems. In the Cerrado biome fire is often used to manage pasture, stimulating the regrowth of natural grasses used as pasture and also to open new areas for agriculture. There are researches showing that people have been traditionally using fire as a lower cost way to manage their lands for different purposes. In the Amazon forest the cycle of deforestation started around the 60's with incentives from the federal government to populate the region in the middle of the last century, and most recently by the progress of the commodities prices, such as soybean and sugar-cane, that has occupied vast areas of the Cerrado and is marching towards the forest. In the Amazon, fire is frequently used to further open the areas that were previously logged selectively and then converted to agricultural uses.Given the ecological importance of the Amazon Forest and Cerrado biome and the

  17. Study of the cerrado vegetation in the Federal District area from orbital data. M.S. Thesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dejesusparada, N. (Principal Investigator); Aoki, H.; Dossantos, J. R.

    1980-01-01

    The physiognomic units of cerrado in the area of Distrito Federal (DF) were studied through the visual and automatic analysis of products provided by Multispectral Scanning System (MSS) of LANDSAT. The visual analysis of the multispectral images in black and white, at the 1:250,000 scale, was made based on the texture and tonal patterns. The automatic analysis of the compatible computer tapes (CCT) was made by means of IMAGE-100 system. The following conclusions were obtained: (1) the delimitation of cerrado vegetation forms can be made by the visual and automatic analysis; (2) in the visual analysis, the principal parameter used to discriminate the cerrado forms was the tonal pattern, independently of the year's seasons, and the channel 5 gave better information; (3) in the automatic analysis, the data of the four channels of MSS can be used in the discrimination of the cerrado forms; and (4) in the automatic analysis, the four channels combination possibilities gave more information in the separation of cerrado units when soil types were considered.

  18. Glandular trichome density and essential oil composition in leaves and inflorescences of Lippia origanoides Kunth (Verbenaceae) in the Brazilian Cerrado.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tozin, Luiz R S; Marques, Marcia O M; Rodrigues, Tatiane M

    2015-01-01

    The essential oils from leaves and inflorescences of Lippia origanoides Kunth present aromatic and medicinal potential and have been used to treat several diseases, including melanoma. In Brazil, L. origanoides is commonly found in campo cerrado and cerrado stricto sensu, physiognomies featured mainly by the differential light conditions to which short and medium-sized plants are subjected. Our aim was to investigate the glandular trichome density and the yield and chemical composition of the essential oils in leaves and inflorescences of L. origanoides from campo cerrado and cerrado stricto sensu. For glandular density analysis, leaves and inflorescences were processed according to conventional techniques for scanning electron microscopy. The essential oils of leaves and inflorescences were obtained by hydrodistillation and identified with gas chromatography. Bracts and sepals showed the highest glandular density, followed by petals and leaves. The glandular density in the abaxial leaf surface was higher in individuals from the campo cerrado. In both populations the essential oil yield was higher in inflorescences than in leaves. The chemical composition of the essential oils varied among individuals from different areas and inside a same population. Our results demonstrated the chemical plasticity of L. origanoides suggesting the importance of monitoring its popular use. PMID:26131639

  19. Avaliação de imagens QuickBird para estimativa de fitomassa aérea do cerrado / Evaluation of QuickBird data to estimate aboveground cerrado phytomass

    OpenAIRE

    Eduardo da Silva Pinheiro; Giselda Durigan; João Roberto dos Santos

    2008-01-01

    Estimar a fi tomassa com precisão em áreas extensas tem sido um grande desafi o e a utilização de sensoriamento remoto com esta fi nalidade foi objeto do presente estudo. São apresentados os resultados da avaliação de imagens com alta resolução espacial do QuickBird para estimar a fi tomassa de cerrado lato sensu na Estação Ecológica de Assis (EEcA). A unidade de conservação preserva um dos poucos remanescentes do Cerrado no estado de São Paulo. A fi tomassa do cerrado foi estimada por meio de equ...

  20. Técnicas de coleta de besouros copronecrófagos no Cerrado Collection techniques of dung beetle in the Cerrado, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle Silva Milhomem

    2003-11-01

    Full Text Available Métodos de coleta passiva, com o uso de armadilhas, têm sido utilizados na coleta de besouros da família Scarabaeidae. No Cerrado existem poucos estudos sobre estes insetos, apesar da sua importância para o ecossistema e para o controle biológico de pragas do gado bovino. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar técnicas de coleta de besouros copronecrófagos (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae sensu stricto com armadilha de interceptação de vôo e armadilha de queda com fezes e com carcaça. O experimento foi realizado em três fitofisionomias (campo sujo, cerrado sensu stricto e mata de galeria da Reserva Ecológica do IBGE (Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatística, a 35 km de Brasília, DF, na época das chuvas (outubro/1999 a janeiro/2000 e da seca (maio a agosto/2000. A armadilha de queda com isca de fezes e o campo sujo apresentaram maior riqueza e abundância de espécies. Houve uma associação positiva entre as chuvas e a distribuição temporal dos besouros. A armadilha de queda com isca de fezes humanas é a mais indicada para coletas de besouros copronecrófagos.Passive collection methods, with the use of traps, have been used to collect beetles of the Scarabaeidae family. However, in the Cerrado (Brazilian savanna-like vegetation there are few studies about these insects, despite its importance to the ecosystem and to the biological control of cattle pests. The aim of this work was to evaluate techniques of dung beetle (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae sensu stricto collections with the use of flight interception traps, pitfall traps baited with human faeces, and with carcass. The experiment was accomplished in three different phytophysiognomies (low tree and shrub savanna, semi-open scrub mixed with trees and gallery forests of the Ecological Reserve of IBGE (Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatística, 35 km away from Brasília, DF, in the rainy season (October/1999 to January/2000 and in the dry season (May to August/2000. The

  1. Floristic composition of the cerrado in the Pé-de-Gigante Reserve (Santa Rita do Passa Quatro, southeastern Brazil) Composição florística do cerrado na Reserva Pé-de-Gigante (Santa Rita do Passa Quatro, SP)

    OpenAIRE

    Marco Antônio Batalha; Waldir Mantovani

    2001-01-01

    We studied a 1225 ha area, composed mainly of cerrado, in Santa Rita do Passa Quatro, São Paulo State, southeastern Brazil (21°36-38'S, 47°36-39'W). In three cerrado physiognomies (campo cerrado -- a wooded savanna, cerrado sensu stricto -- a woodland, and cerradão -- a tall woodland), we collected all vascular plants in reproductive stage, and identified them to species level. We found 360 species, representing 236 genera and 69 families. The richest families were: Asteraceae, Fabaceae, Poac...

  2. In vitro investigation of Brazilian Cerrado plant extract activity against Plasmodium falciparum, Trypanosoma cruzi and T. brucei gambiense.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charneau, Sébastien; de Mesquita, Mariana Laundry; Bastos, Izabela Marques Dourado; Santana, Jaime Martins; de Paula, José Elias; Grellier, Philippe; Espindola, Laila Salmen

    2016-06-01

    The threatened Brazilian Cerrado biome is an important biodiversity hotspot but still few explored that constitutes a potential reservoir of molecules to treat infectious diseases. We selected eight Cerrado plant species for screening against the erythrocytic stages of Plasmodium falciparum, human intracellular stages of Trypanosoma cruzi and bloodstream forms of T. brucei gambiense, and for their cytotoxicity upon the rat L6-myoblast cell line. Bioassays were performed with 37 hexane, ethyl acetate and ethanol extracts prepared from different plant organs. Activities against parasites were observed for 24 extracts: 9 with anti-P. falciparum, 4 with anti-T. cruzi and 11 with anti-T. brucei gambiense activities. High anti-protozoal activity (IC50 values knowledge essential for Cerrado conservation and sustainable development. PMID:26222897

  3. The insect gall collection of the Museu Nacional/Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro: biome cerrado, rupestrian fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maia, V C; Rodrigues, A R; Ascendino, S H S; Boggi, M

    2014-08-01

    An inventory of the insect gall from Brazilian savanna (Cerrado) was elaborated based on samples of the collection of the Museu Nacional, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro. Data on localities and host plants were obtained from the labels and information about the gall morphology (plant organ of occurrence, shape, and presence of trichomes) by observing the samples. The galling species was determined based on the literature. The collection includes 131 morphotypes of galls from Cerrado, obtained from 71 host plant species distributed in 50 genera and 30 botanical families (Table 1). All galls were collected in rupestrian fields (a rare vegetation physiognomy of the Brazilian Cerrado) in the state of Minas Gerais. As the collection comprises a great diversity of insect galls, it can be considered representative of this physiognomy. PMID:25627387

  4. Tulostoma Persoon (Gasteromycetes) from the cerrado region, State of São Paulo, Brazil Tulostoma Persoon (Gasteromycetes) em região de cerrado, Estado de São Paulo, Brasil

    OpenAIRE

    Iuri Goulart Baseia; Adauto Ivo Milanez

    2002-01-01

    Tulostoma species were collected on sandy soil and decaying wood in the cerrado region. Three species were identified: Tulostoma beccarianum Bresad., T. brumale Pers.: Pers. and T. exasperatum Mont. Tulostoma brumale represent first record from Brazil.Algumas espécies de Tulostoma foram coletadas em solo arenoso e madeira em decomposição em região de cerrado do Estado de São Paulo, sendo identificadas três espécies: Tulostoma beccarianum Bresad., T. brumale Pers.: Pers. e T. exasperatum Mont....

  5. Ajuste do modelo Chistiansen-Hargreaves para estimativa da evapotranspiração do feijão no cerrado Chistiansen-Hargreaves model adjustment for estimating evapotranspiration of bean crop in the Cerrado region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omar C. Rocha

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available Os produtores de feijão da região do Cerrado contam com apenas uma tecnologia, já estabelecida, para o manejo das irrigações: a tensiometria. Muito embora essa metodologia tenha alto potencial de uso não tem sido amplamente adotada pelos produtores, razão pela qual a utilização de modelos de estimativa de evapotranspiração tem se mostrado bastante aplicável à realidade da região. Assim, este trabalho tem o objetivo de avaliar o desempenho do modelo Chistiansen-Hargreaves na estimativa da evapotranspiração da cultura do Feijão Preto, no período seco do Cerrado brasileiro, almejando colocar à disposição dos produtores um modelo ajustado, que permita um manejo eficiente da irrigação no sistema produtivo da região. A evapotranspiração do feijoeiro foi medida com um lisímetro de pesagem. O experimento foi conduzido na Embrapa Cerrados, localizada em Planaltina, DF, Brasil. Quando calculado com coeficientes de cultura determinados na pesquisa e testado com o termo energético ajustado (S0 = 0,5 o modelo apresentou ótimo desempenho podendo, nesta condição, ser empregado com segurança no manejo de irrigação.Bean producers from the Brazilian Cerrado region have only one technology for the irrigation management: the measurement of the water tension in the soil through the use of tensiometers. Although this methodology has high potential, it has not been widely adopted by the producers. Thus, the utilization of models to estimate evapotranspiration estimate has shown to be applicable to the Cerrado region. So, this paper aims to evaluate the performance of the Chistiansen-Hargreaves model to estimate evapotranspiration of black bean crop in the dry season of the Brazilian Cerrado region. It also aims to provide producers an the adjusted model to estimate evapotranspiration which permit an efficient management for the agricultural irrigated system of the Cerrado region. The evapotranspiration of the black bean crop was

  6. Indução do processo de regeneração da vegetação de cerrado em área de pastagem, Assis, SP Inducement of cerrado regeneration in a pasture area, Assis, SP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giselda Durigan

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available A vegetação natural do cerrado apresenta grande potencial de regeneração natural, principalmente através da brotação de raízes, ainda que se verifique a regeneração por sementes, em menor escala. Visando acelerar o processo de recuperação da cobertura arbustivo-arbórea em área de cerrado anteriormente utilizada como pastagem de Brachiaria decumbens em Assis, SP, foram testados seis tratamentos: A - Testemunha; B - Subsolagem; C - Preparo convencional de solo + calagem; D - Aplicação de herbicida de amplo espectro; E - Herbicida seletivo para gramíneas; F - Preparo convencional do solo + herbicida pré-emergente. Os tratamentos foram aplicados após corte raso (roçada mecanizada de toda a vegetação arbustivo-arbórea pré-existente na área experimental. A aplicação de herbicida de amplo espectro, controlando as gramíneas sem afetar as espécies do cerrado, proporcionou densidade 20% maior e cobertura 48% superior à testemunha, dois anos após a aplicação dos tratamentos. Nos tratamentos em que houve revolvimento do solo, os resultados foram inferiores à testemunha. O tratamento em que se fez também calagem, alterando a química do solo, apresentou os mais baixos valores de densidade e cobertura da vegetação de cerrado. Foram observadas 32 espécies do cerrado em regeneração, com predominância de Stryphnodendron obovatwn, com 44,8% dos indivíduos.Cerrado vegetation has a high potencial for natural regeneration. With the aim of accelerating the natural regeneration of cerrado woody species in an abandoned pasture of Brachiaria decumbens in Assis, São Paulo State, Brazil, six treatments were tested: A- control area; B- grubbing; C- tillage and liming; D- wide spectrum herbicide; E- selective herbicide for grasses, and F- tillage plus pre-emergence herbicide. Two years after the treatments, the application of a wide spectrum herbicide provided a density 20% higher and a crown cover 48% higher than in the control

  7. Crescimento e resistência à seca de leucena em solo de cerrado Growth and drought resistence of leucaena in "cerrado" soil

    OpenAIRE

    Sonia Cristina Juliano Gualtieri de Andrade Perez; Silmara Cristina Fanti

    1999-01-01

    Plantas envasadas de Leucaena leucocephala Lam. (De Witt) foram cultivadas em casa de vegetação sob 30% de sombreamento artificial, em solo de cerrado, com adição de 0, 750, 1.500 e 3.000 kg ha-1 de NPK (4-14-8). Aos 180 dias após a emergência (DAE), as plantas crescidas em solo sem adubo químico apresentaram os menores valores de taxa de crescimento relativo (TCR = 0,028 g g-1 dia-1), biomassa total (5,2 g), taxa assimilatória líquida (TAL= 4,2.10-4 g cm-2 dia-1), e não produziram nem flores...

  8. Agronomic performance of watermelon cultivars in the Cerrado region of Boa Vista, Roraima = Desempenho agronômico de cultivares de melancia no cerrado de Boa Vista, Roraima

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ignácio Lund Gabriel da Silva Carmo

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Production of the watermelon is important in all regions of Brazil. However, productive and qualitative information for fruit of different cultivars grown in the same environment is still scarce, especially in the State of Roraima, a fact that makes it necessary to carry out studies in order to meet this need. As a result, this study aimed to evaluate the agronomic performance of watermelon cultivars produced in the Cerrado at Boa Vista, Roraima. The experiment was conducted at the Agua Boa Experimental Farm of Embrapa Roraima, from December 2013 to February 2014. The experimental design was of randomised blocks (DBC, with six replications. The treatments comprised six watermelon cultivars: Verena, Explore, Elisa, Juliane, Crimson Sweet and Crimson Sweet Super, for which the productive, physical, chemical and physicochemical characteristics of the fruit were evaluated. There was no difference between cultivars in yield, number of fruit ha-1 or the number of fruit with a weight of between 6 and 9 kg. The cultivars differed as to physical characteristics (weight, size and number of seeds per fruit. There were differences between cultivars for all the chemical and physicochemical characteristics of the fruit. The cultivar Elisa displayed the highest levels for total soluble solids (12.58 °Brix. Fruits of the cultivars Explore and Crimson Sweet Super showed the greatest ratio between total soluble solids and titratable acidity. The fruits of the cultivars Explore and Elisa had the highest pH. The conditions of soil and climate in the Cerrado at Boa Vista favour the productive and qualitative characteristics of the cultivars being analysed. = A produção de melancia é consolidada em todas as regiões do Brasil. Porém, as informações sobre produtividade e qualidade dos frutos, de diferentes cultivares no mesmo ambiente, ainda são tímidas, sobretudo em Roraima, tornando necessária a realização de estudos para suprir essa carência. Objetivou

  9. Physical quality of the trails at the state park Cerrado – PR Qualidade física do solo das trilhas do parque estadual do Cerrado – PR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jully Gabriela Retzlaf de Oliveira

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The tourism in protected areas has been gaining attention and interest. However, the increased flow of people in these areas may endanger the ecological integrity of these environments preserved since the intensification of tourist crossing the tracks may enhance the possibility of soil compaction (soil degradation. This study aims to evaluate the effect of the movement of people in some soil physical properties of the State Park trails Cerrado (PR to guide future actions in planning the use and occupation of the area that contribute to the preservation of the ecosystem. To evaluate the physical soil were collected at random points, 5 soil samples off track (FTr and track (Tr with preserved structure in the depth of 0-20 cm. With these samples, we determined the bulk density, total porosity, macro and micro, organic matter and aggregate stability. The trails of the state park Cerrado (PR receiving more than 50 visitors over the month, showed no degradation as the organic matter content and soil aggregation in relation to the area of native soil. A atividade turística em unidades de conservação vem ganhando interesse e destaque. Contudo, o aumento do fluxo de pessoas nestas áreas pode colocar em risco a integridade ecológica desses ambientes preservados, pois, a intensificação da passagem de turistas nas trilhas pode acentuar a possibilidade de compactação do solo (degradação do solo. O presente trabalho tem por objetivo avaliar o efeito do trânsito de pessoas em alguns atributos físicos do solo das trilhas do Parque Estadual do Cerrado (PR, a fim orientar futuras ações de planejamento do uso e ocupação da área que concorram para preservação do ecossistema. Para a avaliação física do solo foram coletadas em pontos aleatórios, 5 amostras de solo fora da trilha (FTr e na trilha (Tr com estrutura preservada na profundidade de 0-20 cm. Com essas amostras, determinou-se a densidade do solo, a porosidade total, a macro e

  10. Morpho-anatomical features of underground systems in six Asteraceae species from the Brazilian Cerrado

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    Beatriz Appezzato-da-Glória

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available In the Brazilian Cerrado (neotropical savanna, the development of bud-bearing underground systems as adaptive structures to fire and dry periods can comprise an important source of buds for this ecosystem, as already demonstrated in the Brazilian Campos grasslands and North American prairies. Asteraceae species from both woody and herbaceous strata have subterranean organs that accumulate carbohydrates, reinforcing the adaptive strategy of these plants to different environmental conditions. This study aims to analyse the morpho-anatomy of underground systems of six species of Asteraceae (Mikania cordifolia L.f. Willd., Mikania sessilifolia DC, Trixis nobilis (Vell. Katinas, Pterocaulon alopecuroides (Lam. DC., Vernonia elegans Gardner and Vernonia megapotamica Spreng., to describe these structures and to verify the occurrence and origin of shoot buds, and to analyse the presence of reserve substances. Individuals sampled in Cerrado areas in São Paulo State showed thick underground bud-bearing organs, with adventitious or lateral roots and presence of fructans. Xylopodium was found in all studied species, except for Trixis nobilis, which had stem tuber. The presence of fructans as reserve, and the capacity of structures in the formation of buds indicate the potential of herbaceous species of Asteraceae in forming a viable bud bank for vegetation regeneration in the Brazilian Cerrado.No Cerrado brasileiro (savana neotropical, o desenvolvimento de sistemas subterrâneos que produzem gemas, como estruturas adaptativas contra o fogo e períodos de seca, pode compreender um importante suprimento de gemas para esse ecossistema, como já demonstrado nos campos brasileiros e nas pradarias norte-americanas. Espécies de Asteraceae tanto do estrato lenhoso, quanto do herbáceo têm órgãos que acumulam carboidratos, reforçando a estratégia adaptativa dessas plantas a diferentes condições ambientais. Este estudo tem o objetivo de analisar a morfo

  11. CERRADO EM ÁREA DISJUNTA EM BREJO DE ALTITUDE NO AGRESTE PERNAMBUCANO, BRASIL

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    Linaldo Severino dos Santos

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available O estudo dos brejos de altitude configura-se como fundamental para a Geografia do semiárido pernambucano, uma vez que permite resolver questões de valor tanto na sua vertente física, quanto na social. Nos estudos biogeográficos, a distribuição das espécies do bioma cerrado, em Pernambuco, ainda é pouco referida na literatura. O objetivo deste trabalho foi identificar uma possível mancha de cerrado num brejo de altitude entre os municípios de Iatí e Saloá, no Agreste Meridional de Pernambuco. Para tanto, buscou-se identificar as unidades ambientais existentes na área de estudo e o seu padrão climático. Em campo, foram realizadas coletas para a identificação de espécies vegetais e houve o registro fotográfico para a descrição da fisionomia da área de estudo. As espécies de plantas foram coletadas em área de colinas altas, com floresta subcaducifólia sobre Neossolos Quartzarênicos, Argissolos Vermelho-amarelos e Vermelho-escuros, afloramentos de quartzito (50- 25-25%, sob clima mesotérmico com chuvas de inverno e com verão quente. Das 13 espécies identificadas, 6 são típicas do bioma cerrado, ocorrendo em áreas de fisionomia arbóreo-arbustiva com altura entre 4 e 6 metros. Assim, pode-se concluir que essa área constitui um núcleo de importância para o estudo da biogeografia do bioma em questão, sobretudo no tangente às suas variações ao longo do tempo geológico recente.

  12. Landscape structure in the expansion area of deforestation of the Brazilian Cerrado in Minas Gerais

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brito, A. D.; Streher, A. S.

    2013-05-01

    The Cerrado is the second largest Brazilian biome and is listed as one of the hotspots for biodiversity conservation priority. The biome provides important ecosystem services such as maintenance of the biodiversity, water cycle and carbon storage, and your preservation is essential to protecting the Amazon Rainforest. Although its importance, it was heavily affected by deforestation, with a loss of about 49% of its original native cover by the year of 2010. In Minas Gerais state, the remaining Cerrado original cover is very expressive, shaped by a mosaic of phytophysionomies, comprising grassland, savanna and forest. The great species diversity and endemism in these landscapes, associated with changes imposed by man over time, caused major environmental damage in this biome. Recently, new deforestation fronts have been identified throughout the Brazilian Cerrado, including Minas Gerais State. This study aimed to analyze the landscape structure in front of expansion in this state, as a subsidy for the establishment of guidelines for future biodiversity conservation and landscape planning. The study site comprised the sub basins of the Paracatú River (SF7) and Middle São Francisco (SF9). The analyses were performed based on land use, mapped through remote sensing techniques, resulting in 18 classes of land use. The most important results of the calculated indices showed that the study area is highly fragmented, with most of the remaining patches small, with large perimeter and strong edge effect, favoring biodiversity loss. Moreover, the biological flow in the study area is hindered by the presence of few fragments into a predetermined radius of 10 km. It has been found that less than 30% of the native vegetation remnant in the area, making all existing fragments relevant to conservation. Finally, the landscape metrics analyzed showed that there is a high level of environmental risk determining low support existing biodiversity in the landscape.

  13. Seed rain generated by bats under Cerrado's pasture remnant trees in a Neotropical savanna.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ragusa-Netto, J; Santos, A A

    2015-11-01

    In this study we described the seed rain generated by bats under four Cerrado's tree species common within pastures, Buchenavia tomentosa, Couepia grandiflora, Licania humilis and Qualea grandiflora. We analyzed the similarity among the four tree species in terms of seed rain composition, and compared the number of seeds and seed species deposited under them. Besides that, we assessed the relationship between seed rain intensity and the density of each tree species. Then, we randomly selected 10 mature trees of each species to sample seed rain. We recorded a total of 4892 bat dispersed seeds from 11 species. Also, we observed that along the year seed deposition varied substantially under all trees. At least two seed sub-communities could be distinguished according to tree species used by bats as feeding roost. One related to Couepia grandiflora and Licania humilis, and the other to Buchenavia tomentosa and Qualea grandiflora trees. The variability of seed rain composition in any particular tree and the range of actual seed fall into a particular species indicate patchiness in seed rain, and the overall results appear to be consistent in terms of a substantial and diverse seed rain generated by bats in a highly anthropized landscape. This is the first study concerning seed dispersal by bats in modified Brazilian Cerrado, one of the most endangered biomes in the world. In this respect, by preserving a dense and diverse collection of remnant trees within today's pastures may, potentially, contribute to a faster Cerrado recovery in extensive areas that can be reclaimed for restoration in the future. PMID:26602344

  14. First report of Ditylenchus gallaeformans in Miconia albicans from the Brazilian Cerrado, State of Goiás

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    Rodrigo Vieira da Silva

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Miconia albicans (Melastomataceae, whose common name is canela-de-velha, is a native plant of the tropical region that is abundant in the Cerrado biome. A nematode species was found parasitizing M. albicans, causing severe deformation and gall-like structures on the infected leaves and inflorescences. Morphological, morphometric and molecular characterizations identified the nematode as Ditylenchus gallaeformans. This nematode has great potential as a biocontrol agent of plants in the family Melastomataceae, which are invasive weeds in ecosystems of the Pacific Islands. This is the first report of D. gallaeformans parasitizing M. albicans in the Cerrado of the state of Goiás.

  15. Accesibilidad en los cines : ampliación y mejora de un sistema de subtitulado cerrado

    OpenAIRE

    Martínez Arroyo, Alberto

    2009-01-01

    El objeto de este proyecto de fin de carrera es el diseño y construcción de un prototipo de gafas inalámbricas de subtitulado cerrado en cines. Dicho sistema está pensado para que sea empleado por gente que tenga problemas de audición y mejorar así la accesibilidad de este tipo de salas. De esta forma, aunque estas personas no puedan escuchar correctamente los diálogos de una película, empleando este dispositivo podrán seguir la trama más fácilmente. Al mismo tiempo puede ser utilizado por ot...

  16. Influência do ambiente em cultivares de feijoeiro-comum em cerrado com baixa altitude

    OpenAIRE

    Helton Santos Pereira; Válter Martins de Almeida; Leonardo Cunha Melo; Adriane Wendland; Luís Cláudio de Faria; Maria José Del Peloso; Mariana Cruzick de Souza Magaldi

    2012-01-01

    O objetivo desse trabalho foi identificar genótipos de feijoeiro-comum com alta adaptabilidade e estabilidade de produção e verificar a ocorrência de interação genótipos x ambientes (GxA) para diferentes caracteres em algumas regiões de cerrado com baixa altitude no Estado do Mato Grosso. Foram realizados 12 ensaios em blocos casualizados, com três repetições, em épocas de semeadura da seca e do inverno, no Estado do Mato Grosso, em 2008 e 2009. Os ensaios foram compostos por 19 genótipos com...

  17. NUEVAS FORMAS DE PRODUCCIÓN URBANA: EMPRENDIMIENTOS CERRADOS METEPEC, ESTADO DE MÉXICO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Estela Orozco Hernández

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available En la perspectiva de los habitantes de los emprendimientos cerrados de alto nivel económico, las bardas perimetrales, la vigilancia y el confort, son los garantes de la seguridad y la exclusividad ante los riesgos que provienen del exterior. En Metepec, las inmobiliarias en alianza con el sector público han capitalizado estás necesidades para producir novedosas formas urbanas insertas en un proceso mercantil selectivo, el cual se manifi esta en la conformación de variados estilos de vida, basados en la individualidad y en la distancia social.

  18. Nota: sobre la compacidad de los intervalo cerrados de numeros reales

    OpenAIRE

    Charris C., Jairo

    2012-01-01

    La intención de esta nota es proponer una demostración de la Compacidad de los Intervalos Cerrados [∞ ᵝ] de Números Reales (R), pa la topología usual de tales números (Topología de los intervalos (∞ ,ᵝ) abiertos). Tal resultado es bien conocido de todos los matemáticos y generalmente enunciado con el nombre de teorema de Borel- Lebesgue. El lector conocerá entonces indudablemente muchas demostraciones de tal teorema y la que sigue será apenas una más

  19. Zinc and Liming Effects on the Development of Cerrado Forest Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casagrande, J. C.; Soares, M. R.; Moraes, M. I. M.

    2012-04-01

    The Brazilian Cerrado is considered priority area for conservation of biodiversity. The biome has covered approximately 33% of the territory of the State of São Paulo, but, currently, there are isolated fragments of Cerrado that correspond to less than 7% of its original area. One of the consequences of the natural vegetation removal and soil degradation is the loss of fertility, reduction the nutrient content. There is limited knowledge of the nutritional requirements of native forest species from Cerrado, especially about micronutrients. The aims of this work are: (i) verify the influence of four levels of Zn in soil and three levels of liming on development of six forest species native to the Cerrado biome; (ii) assess Zn deficiency symptoms in native species of Savannah. The treatments were four levels of Zn (0.0; 2.0; 4.0;-1 6.0 kg ha of Zn) and three levels of base saturation (V% = natural, V% = 50% and V% = 70%), cultivated in green house. The forest species studied have different responses to soil correction and fertilization, and were not observed responses regarding biometric parameters (growth in height and dry matter) with respect to the correction of base saturation and soil fertilization with Zn, for seedlings of Tabebuia aurea, Eugenia dysenterica and Astronium graveolens, showing that these species are highly adapted to the conditions of low fertility and showing efficient physiology for Zn absorption, since there was satisfactory growth in conditions of low base saturation (36%), very low content of Zn in soil (0.3 mg dm-3 ) and ideal supply of other nutrients. The species Andira cuyabensis and Anacardium giganteum responded well to fertilization and soil remediation. The omission of Zn resulted in visual symptoms of nutritional deficiency only for the species Tabebuia aurea, Astronium graveolens and Anacardium giganteum. The content of Zn presented significance interaction between Zn doses and V% for species Hymenaea courbaril, Tabebuia aurea and

  20. Un ciclo cerrado: el patrimonio nobiliario construido en la ciudad de Murcia

    OpenAIRE

    Calvo García-Tornel, Francisco

    2011-01-01

    La presencia en el tejido urbano de la ciudad de Murcia de las viviendas o palacios de la nobleza, está directamente relacionado con la evolución patrimonial de este grupo social. Cerrado el ciclo en el que el poder social nobiliario fue decisivo en la vida regional, su memoria se conserva básicamente a través de sus casas-palacio, un patrimonio histórico y, en buena medida, también artístico que ha sufrido una suerte muy desigual hasta el presente.

  1. Interactions between soil moisture and Atmospheric Boundary Layer at the Brazilian savana-type vegetation Cerrado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinheiro, L. R.; Siqueira, M. B.

    2013-05-01

    Before the large people influx and development of the central part of Brazil in the sixties, due to new capital Brasília, Cerrado, a typical Brazilian savanna-type vegetation, used to occupy about 2 million km2, going all the way from the Amazon tropical forest, in the north of the country, to the edges of what used to be of the Atlantic forest in the southeast. Today, somewhat 50% of this area has given place to agriculture, pasture and managed forests. It is forecasted that, at the current rate of this vegetation displacement, Cerrado will be gone by 2030. Understanding how Cerrado interacts with the atmosphere and how this interaction will be modified with this land-use change is a crucial step towards improving predictions of future climate-change scenarios. Cerrado is a vegetation adapted to a climate characterized by two very distinct seasons, a wet season (Nov-Mar) and dry season (May-Ago), with April and October being transitions between seasons. Typically, based on measurements in a weather station located in Brasilia, 75% of precipitation happens in the wet-season months and only 5% during dry-season. Under these circumstances, it is clear that the vegetation will have to cope with long periods of water stress. In this work we studied using numerical simulations, the interactions between soil-moisture, responsible for the water stress, with the Atmospheric Boundary Layer (ABL). The numerical model comprises of a Soil-Vegetation-Atmosphere model where the biophysical processes are represented with a big-leaf approach. Soil water is estimated with a simple logistic model and with water-stress effects on stomatal conductance are parameterized from local measurements of simultaneous latent-heat fluxes and soil moisture. ABL evolution is calculate with a slab model that considers independently surface and entrainment fluxes of sensible- and latent- heat. Temperature tropospheric lapse-rate is taken from soundings at local airport. Simulations of 30-day dry

  2. Diseño de un dispositivo difusor de aromas para espacios comerciales cerrados

    OpenAIRE

    Mejía Franco, Santiago; Lema Suárez, Daniel

    2008-01-01

    El proyecto presenta el desarrollo de diseño de un producto flexible a mercados emergentes, con el fin de brindar a las empresas un medio innovador para entrar en la mente de los consumidores y quedar plasmado dentro de estas, de manera positiva y permanente -- Este proyecto está establecido por el desarrollo y el diseño de un difusor de aromas, para ambientar espacios comerciales cerrados, con el cual se pretende conquistar nichos de mercado con muy poca oferta, así como crear una herramient...

  3. Roadkill hotspots in a protected area of Cerrado in Brazil: planning actions to conservation

    OpenAIRE

    Bruno H Saranholi; Mariano M Bergel; Paulo HP Ruffino; Karen G Rodríguez-C; Lucas A Ramazzotto; de Freitas, Patrícia D.; Pedro M Galetti Jr

    2016-01-01

    Objective. Here we aimed to identify the main points of animal death by roadkill in the view of helping mitigation plans and reducing the impact over the local fauna of a protected area. Materials and methods. We surveyed the roads around a protected area of Cerrado (São Paulo, Brazil) from May 2012 to August 2013. We recorded the local of roadkills, biometric and morphologic data of the animals, and collected samples of tissue for molecular species confirmation. Results. Thirty-one roadkille...

  4. Compostos fenólicos totais e taninos condensados em frutas nativas do cerrado

    OpenAIRE

    Wesley Silveira Rocha; Renata Miranda Lopes; Dijalma Barbosa da Silva; Roberto Fontes Vieira; Joseane Padilha da Silva; Tânia da Silveira Agostini-Costa

    2011-01-01

    As frutas nativas do cerrado têm despertado ultimamente interesse crescente, devido às suas propriedades nutricionais e funcionais aliadas ao potencial para agregar valor e conservar a biodiversidade deste bioma. Muitos compostos fenólicos apresentam capacidade antioxidante de neutralizar a atividade de radicais livres gerados no organismo, que estão associados a diversas doenças crônico-degenerativas. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a eficiência de três soluções extratoras (acetona a 7...

  5. Técnicas de coleta de besouros copronecrófagos no Cerrado

    OpenAIRE

    Milhomem Michelle Silva; Mello Fernando Zagury Vaz de; Diniz Ivone Rezende

    2003-01-01

    Métodos de coleta passiva, com o uso de armadilhas, têm sido utilizados na coleta de besouros da família Scarabaeidae. No Cerrado existem poucos estudos sobre estes insetos, apesar da sua importância para o ecossistema e para o controle biológico de pragas do gado bovino. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar técnicas de coleta de besouros copronecrófagos (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae sensu stricto) com armadilha de interceptação de vôo e armadilha de queda com fezes e com carcaça. O experimento ...

  6. Cultivo de cachama blanca en altas densidades y en dos sistemas cerrados

    OpenAIRE

    Germán Poleo; José Vicente Aranbarrio; Lismen Mendoza; Oneida Romero

    2011-01-01

    El objetivo de este trabajo fue evaluar la tolerancia de la cachama blanca, Piaractus brachypomus, a cultivos en altas densidades en sistemas cerrados. Novecientos alevines de 44,3±26 g de peso, se distribuyeron en seis tanques de concreto, con 4,8 m³ de agua. Tres tanques presentaron cero recambio de agua (SCR), y en otros tres, el agua se hizo circular a través de un bioclarificador (SRA). Ambos tratamientos presentaron fuerte aireación para mantener los sólidos en suspensión y suministrar ...

  7. Composição de carotenoides em passifloras do cerrado

    OpenAIRE

    Daniele Cristina Wondracek; Fábio Gelape Faleiro; Sueli Matiko Sano; Roberto Fontes Vieira; Tânia da Silveira Agostini-Costa

    2011-01-01

    O objetivo foi avaliar, por HPLC, a composição qualitativa e quantitativa de carotenoides em maracujás do cerrado. Frutos procedentes de acessos nativos de quatro espécies (Passiflora cincinnata, P. nitida, P. setacea e P. edulis) foram analisados, utilizando, como referência, o maracujá-amarelo comercial (P. edulis). As polpas de maracujá apresentaram neoxantina, violaxantina, cis-violaxantina, anteraxantina, luteína, zeaxantina, β-criptoxantina, poli-cis-caroteno, prolicopeno, cis-ζ-caroten...

  8. A new species of Calomys Waterhouse (Rodentia, Sigmodontinaefrom the Cerrado of Central Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cibele R. Bonvicino

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available A new Brazilian Calomys Waterhouse, 1837 species is described based on morphologic and karyologic data. This species is endemic to the Cerrado of Central Brazil and allopatric with all other species of the genus Calomys. Its chromosome complement (2n = 46, AN = 66 is different from those described in other Calomys species. Morphometric analysis significantly distinguished this new species from other Calomys of the Brazilian fauna like C. callosus (Renger, 1830, C. expulsus (Lund, 1841 and C. tener (Winge, 1887 and placed it among the large-sized Calomys.

  9. Vertical and horizontal distribution of pollination systems in cerrado fragments of central Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Quintas Martins

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available In fragments of the cerrado, we determined the frequency of pollination systems and analyzed their spatial distribution. We placed 38 transects, sampling 2,280 individuals and 121 species. As expected in Neotropical regions, bee-pollination was the most frequent pollination system. We found a decrease in the frequency of plants pollinated by beetles towards the fragment interior. Similarly, we found significant variation in relation to height just for the bats; there was an increase in the frequency of plants pollinated by bats towards the higher heights. In general, we found no horizontal and vertical variation in the pollination systems, probably as consequence of the more open physiognomy of the cerrado vegetation.As principais pressões seletivas nas estratégias de polinização originam principalmente do ambiente em que plantas ocorrem, como subdossel, dossel, borda ou interior de um fragmento. Diferentes condições ambientais aumentam as diferenças entre os nichos ecológicos e podem implicar diferenças nas proporções dos sistemas de polinização. Em fragmentos de cerrado, determinamos a freqüência dos sistemas de polinização e analisamos sua distribuição espacial. Lançamos 38 transecções aleatoriamente, amostrando 2.280 indivíduos e 121 espécies. Como esperado para regiões neotropicais, a polinização por abelhas foi o sistema de polinização mais freqüente. Encontramos uma diminuição na freqüência de plantas polinizadas por besouros em direção ao interior do fragmento. De modo similar, encontramos uma variação significativa em relação à altura somente para os morcegos, havendo um aumento na freqüência de plantas em direção a alturas mais altas. Em geral, não encontramos variações horizontais e verticais nos sistemas de polinização, provavelmente, como conseqüência da fisionomia mais aberta de cerrado.

  10. Random amplified polymorphic DNA analysis of effective Rhizobium sp. associated with beans cultivated in brazilian cerrado soils Caracterização, via RAPD, de estirpes efetivas de Rhizobium sp associadas ao feijoeiro cultivado em solos de cerrado no Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isnia Aparecida de Oliveira

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available Efficient bean nodulating Rhizobium strains, isolated from different Brazilian cerrado soils, were characterized by RAPD. This study showed great genetic heterogeneity among R. tropici and R. leguminosarum bv. phaseoli strains and allowed the constitution of genetic clusters, besides indicating the most suitable primers for this characterization. The groups of genetically distinct strains can be used in competitiveness studies to select appropriate Rhizobium strains for bean inoculation in cerrado soils.Estirpes de Rhizobium eficientes na nodulação do feijoeiro, isoladas de diferentes solos da região do cultivo dessa leguminosa nos cerrados brasileiros, foram caracterizadas via RAPD. Esse estudo mostrou grande heterogeneidade genética entre as estirpes de R. tropici e R. leguminosarum bv. phaseoli testadas e permitiu a definição de grupos genéticos, além de indicar os "primers" mais adequados para essa caracterização. Os grupos de estirpes geneticamente distintas podem ser usados em estudos de competitividade, importantes para obtenção de resultados positivos na inoculação dessa leguminosa em solos de cerrado.

  11. Parasitism of ectoparasitic flies on bats in the northern Brazilian cerrado.

    Science.gov (United States)

    dos Santos, Ciro Líbio Caldas; Pereira, Agostinho Cardoso Nascimento; Bastos, Vagner de Jesus Carneiro; Graciolli, Gustavo; Rebêlo, José Manuel Macário

    2013-06-01

    In this work we record the highest number of bat flies species among those already performed in the Brazilian cerrado and discuss the associations and patterns of parasitism of these species and their hosts. A total of 1,390 ectoparasitic flies were collected, belonging to 24 species of Streblidae and one of Nycteribiidae, parasitizing 227 bats of 15 species. Among the species found, the presence of Trichobius sp. on Lonchophylla mordax and the first occurrence of Hershkovitzia sp. on Thyroptera devivoi are highlighted. Lophostoma species presented the highest proportion of individuals with infracommunities and the highest values of parasitological indexes. The high number of bat fly species and hosts, as well as the high values for rates of parasitism and infracommunities, suggests that this area of cerrado has good shelter conditions for these species. The abundance of species and high rates of parasitism detracts from the hypothesis that a higher mean intensity of ectoparasites results from lower competition among flies for hosts in areas with lower ectoparasite species richness. Biogeographical and historical factors of host populations, besides the number of host species and individuals sampled, may contribute to species number and intensity of parasitism. PMID:23666657

  12. Radionuclides and heavy metal contents in phosphogypsum samples in comparison to cerrado soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phosphogypsum (PG) or agricultural gypsum, a solid waste from the phosphate fertilizer industry, is used as soil amendment, especially on soils in the Cerrado region, in Brazil. This material may however contain natural radionuclides and metals which can be transferred to soils, plants and water sources. This paper presents and discusses the results of physical and chemical analyses that characterized samples of PG and compares them to the results found in two typical soils of the Cerrado, a clayey and sandy one. These analyses included: solid waste classification, evaluation of organic matter content and of P, K, Ca, Mg, and Al concentrations and of the mineralogical composition. Natural radionuclides and metal concentrations in PG and soil samples were also measured. Phosphogypsum was classified as Class II A - not dangerous, not inert, not corrosive and not reactive. The organic matter content in the soil samples was low and potential acidity high. In the mean, the specific 226Ra activity in the phosphogypsum samples (252 Bq kg-1) was below the maximum level recommended by USEPA, which is 370 Bq kg-1 for agricultural use. In addition, this study verified that natural radionuclides and metals concentrations in PG were lower than in the clayey Oxisol of Sete Lagoas, Minas Gerais, Brazil. These results indicated that the application of phosphogypsum as soil amendment in agriculture would not cause a significant impact on the environment. (author)

  13. Functional Process Zones Characterizing Aquatic Insect Communities in Streams of the Brazilian Cerrado.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godoy, B S; Simião-Ferreira, J; Lodi, S; Oliveira, L G

    2016-04-01

    Stream ecology studies see to understand ecological dynamics in lotic systems. The characterization of streams into Functional Process Zones (FPZ) has been currently debated in stream ecology because aquatic communities respond to functional processes of river segments. Therefore, we tested if different functional process zones have different number of genera and trophic structure using the aquatic insect community of Neotropical streams. We also assessed whether using physical and chemical variables may complement the approach of using FPZ to model communities of aquatic insects in Cerrado streams. This study was conducted in 101 streams or rivers from the central region of the state of Goiás, Brazil. We grouped the streams into six FPZ associated to size of the river system, presence of riparian forest, and riverbed heterogeneity. We used Bayesian models to compare number of genera and relative frequency of the feeding groups between FPZs. Streams classified in different FPZs had a different number of genera, and the largest and best preserved rivers had an average of four additional genera. Trophic structure exhibited low variability among FPZs, with little difference both in the number of genera and in abundance. Using functional process zones in Cerrado streams yielded good results for Ephemeroptera, Plecoptera, and Trichoptera communities. Thus, species distribution and community structure in the river basin account for functional processes and not necessarily for the position of the community along a longitudinal dimension of the lotic system. PMID:26830433

  14. Heavy-metal-contaminated industrial soil: Uptake assessment in native plant species from Brazilian Cerrado.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Sylvia Therese; Castro, Samuel Rodrigues; Fernandes, Marcus Manoel; Soares, Aylton Carlos; de Souza Freitas, Guilherme Augusto; Ribeiro, Edvan

    2016-08-01

    Plants of the Cerrado have shown some potential for restoration and/or phytoremediation projects due to their ability to grow in and tolerate acidic soils rich in metals. The aim of this study is to evaluate the tolerance and accumulation of metals (Cd, Cu, Pb, and Zn) in five native tree species of the Brazilian Cerrado (Copaifera langsdorffii, Eugenia dysenterica, Inga laurina, Cedrela fissilis, Handroanthus impetiginosus) subjected to three experiments with contaminated soils obtained from a zinc processing industry (S1, S2, S3) and control soil (S0). The experimental design was completely randomized (factorial 5 × 4 × 3) and conducted in a greenhouse environment during a 90-day experimentation time. The plant species behavior was assessed by visual symptoms of toxicity, tolerance index (TI), translocation factor (TF), and bioaccumulation factor (BF). C. fissilis has performed as a Zn accumulator by the higher BFs obtained in the experiments, equal to 3.72, 0.88, and 0.41 for S1, S2, and S3 respectively. This species had some ability of uptake control as a defense mechanism in high stress conditions with the best behavior for phytoremediation and high tolerance to contamination. With economical and technical benefits, this study may support a preliminary analysis necessary for using native tree species in environmental projects. PMID:26852633

  15. Smoke and fire characteristics for cerrado and deforestation burns in Brazil - BASE-B experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, D. E.; Susott, R. A.; Kauffman, J. B.; Babbitt, R. E.; Cummings, D. L.; Dias, B.; Holben, B. N.; Kaufman, Y. J.; Rasmussen, R. A.; Setzer, A. W.

    1992-01-01

    Five test fires were performed during August and September 1990 in the cerrado (savannalike region) in central Brazil (three fires) and tropical moist forest (two fires) in the eastern Amazon. This paper details the gases released, the ratios of the gases to each other and to particulate matter, fuel loads, and the fraction consumed (combustion factors), and the fire behavior associated with biomass consumption. Models are presented for evaluating emission factors for CH4, CO2, CO, H2, and particles less than 2.5 micron diam (PM2.5) as a function of combustion efficiency. The ratio of carbon released as CO2 (combustion efficiency) for the cerrado fires averaged 0.94 and for the deforestation fires it decreased from 0.88 for the flaming phase to less than 0.80 during the smoldering phase of combustion. For tropical ecosystems, emissions of most products of incomplete combustion are projected to be lower than previous estimates for savanna ecosystems and somewhat higher for fires used for deforestation purposes.

  16. Radionuclides and heavy metal contents in phosphogypsum samples in comparison to cerrado soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacomino, Vanusa Maria Feliciano; Oliveira, Kerley Alberto Pereira de, E-mail: vmfj@cdtn.b, E-mail: kapo@cdtn.b [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Taddei, Maria Helena Tirollo; Nascimento, Marcos Roberto Lopes, E-mail: mhtaddei@cnen.gov.b, E-mail: pmarcos@cnen.gov.b [Laboratorio de Pocos de Caldas (LAPOC/CNEN-MG), MG (Brazil); Siqueira, Maria Celia, E-mail: mc.ufscar@gmail.co [Universidade Federal de Sao Carlos (UFSCar), SP (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica; Carneiro, Maria Eleonora Deschamps Pires, E-mail: eleonora.deschamps@meioambiente.mg.gov.b [Fundacao Estadual do Meio Ambiente (FEAM), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Gestao de Residuos Solidos; Silva, David Faria da; Mello, Jaime Wilson Vargas de, E-mail: davidf.agro@hotmail.co, E-mail: jwvmello@ufv.b [Universidade Federal de Vicosa (UFV), MG (Brazil). Dept. de Solos

    2009-09-15

    Phosphogypsum (PG) or agricultural gypsum, a solid waste from the phosphate fertilizer industry, is used as soil amendment, especially on soils in the Cerrado region, in Brazil. This material may however contain natural radionuclides and metals which can be transferred to soils, plants and water sources. This paper presents and discusses the results of physical and chemical analyses that characterized samples of PG and compares them to the results found in two typical soils of the Cerrado, a clayey and sandy one. These analyses included: solid waste classification, evaluation of organic matter content and of P, K, Ca, Mg, and Al concentrations and of the mineralogical composition. Natural radionuclides and metal concentrations in PG and soil samples were also measured. Phosphogypsum was classified as Class II A - not dangerous, not inert, not corrosive and not reactive. The organic matter content in the soil samples was low and potential acidity high. In the mean, the specific {sup 226}Ra activity in the phosphogypsum samples (252 Bq kg{sup -1}) was below the maximum level recommended by USEPA, which is 370 Bq kg{sup -1} for agricultural use. In addition, this study verified that natural radionuclides and metals concentrations in PG were lower than in the clayey Oxisol of Sete Lagoas, Minas Gerais, Brazil. These results indicated that the application of phosphogypsum as soil amendment in agriculture would not cause a significant impact on the environment. (author)

  17. Wood quality of five species from cerrado for production of charcoal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tattiane Gomes Costa

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to evaluate the quality of wood and charcoal of some species from cerrado mineiro aiming the production of bioenergy and use in steel industry. Five wood species from cerrado located in Minas Gerais state were used. Basic density and lignin, total extractives, holocellulose and ash contents were evaluated. Charcoal and fixed carbon yields, contents of fixed carbon, volatile materials and ashes, higher heating value and apparent relative density were evaluated. An entirely randomized design with four repetitions was used in the evaluation of the experiment. Moreover, multivariate analysis of principle components was used. The species Casearia sylvestris and Luehea divaricata had the highest gravimetric yield of charcoal and fixed carbon, as much as high lignin contents in the wood. Charcoal made from Trema micrantha presented high heating value, but the lowest apparent relative density. The species Guazuma ulmifolia stood out due to high fixed carbon content and great potential for use in the steel industry, together with the specie Casearia sylvestris.

  18. Effect of brushwood transposition on the leaf litter arthropod fauna in a cerrado area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Cristina Benetton Vergílio

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The results of ecological restoration techniques can be monitored through biological indicators of soil quality such as the leaf litter arthropod fauna. This study aimed to determine the immediate effect of brushwood transposition transferred from an area of native vegetation to a disturbed area, on the leaf litter arthropod fauna in a degraded cerrado area. The arthropod fauna of four areas was compared: a degraded area with signal grass, two experimental brushwood transposition areas, with and without castor oil plants, and an area of native cerrado. In total, 7,660 individuals belonging to 23 taxa were sampled. Acari and Collembola were the most abundant taxa in all studied areas, followed by Coleoptera, Diptera, Hemiptera, Hymenoptera, and Symphyla. The brushwood transposition area without castor oil plants had the lowest abundance and dominance and the highest diversity of all areas, providing evidence of changes in the soil community. Conversely, the results showed that the presence of castor oil plants hampered early succession, negatively affecting ecological restoration in this area.

  19. Anatomical and morphological modifications in response to flooding by six Cerrado tree species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adilson Serafim de Oliveira

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Wetlands are common in the Cerrado (Brazilian savannas biome, however flooding of these wetlands impairs growth and development of most plants. We evaluated flood tolerance of typical Cerrado trees. Seedlings of Aspidosperma macrocarpon (Apocynaceae, Tabebuia rosea (Bignoniaceae, Handroanthus chrysotrichus (Bignoniaceae, Myracrodruon urundeuva (Anacardiaceae, Kielmeyera coriacea (Calophyllaceae and Copaifera langsdorffii (Fabaceae were flooded up to the stem base for 30 days. Stems with cortical cracks, secondary aerenchyma and hypertrophic lenticels were observed in flooded plants of M. urundeuva,H. chrysotrichus and T. rosea while adventitious roots were formed in flooded plants of T. rosea and H. chrysotrichus. However, only T. rosea developed aerenchyma in the root cortex. K. coriacea and A. macrocarpon were the most sensitive to flooding, showing a decrease in survival and necrosis of the leaves and roots. C. langsdorffii and M. urundeuva were less sensitive to flooding, although reductions in root biomass and symptoms of necrosis of the roots were noticeable in flooded seedlings. Flooded M. urundeuva seedlings also had a decrease in total leaf area, leaf biomass, total biomass and in stem growth. Flooding affected root development and reduced stem growth of H. chrysotrichus with symptoms of necrosis of the leaves and roots. T. rosea was the only species where symptoms of injury from flooding were not evident.

  20. In vitro and in vivo antioxidant activity of the pulp of Jatobá-do-cerrado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Granja ARAKAKI

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Oxygen metabolism in cells causes the production of free radicals, which produce damage, including changes in cell structure and function. Antioxidants are substances that, at low concentrations, slow down or prevent oxidation. Fruits and vegetables contribute to the dietary supply of these compounds. The flora of the Cerrado in Brazil has shown to have high levels of bioactive compounds. This study aimed to characterize the antioxidant activity of the pulp of jatobá-do-cerrado in vitro and in vivo.In vitro antioxidant activity of the aqueous, ethanol and aqueous acetone extracts was evaluated by the DPPH method. We determined total phenols by the Folin-Ciocalteu assay and tannins by the Folin-Denis method.In vivo antioxidant potential of the aqueous acetone extract was evaluated by the TBARS technique. The aqueous acetone extract had the highest antioxidant capacity, followed by the aqueous and ethanol extracts. The same pattern occurred in the extraction of phenols and in the extraction of tannins. In vivo administration of the aqueous acetone extract inhibited lipid peroxidation compared to the control group. The inhibition of peroxidation has increased by elevating the dosage concentration of the extracts, demonstrating a significant antioxidant potential in vivo as well as in vitro.

  1. [Association of Constrictotermes cyphergaster Silvestri (Isoptera: Termitidae) with trees in the Brazilian Cerrado].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima-Ribeiro, Matheus de S; Pinto, Míriam P; Costa, Shirley S; Nabout, João C; Rangel, Thiago F L V B; de Melo, Tatiana L; de Moura, Iona'i O

    2006-01-01

    Termites usually build nests differently shaped and characterized according to each species, to protect and keep society cohesion. Some species build nests in the ground, some prefer tree thunks or branches as support, whereas other dig galleries in the wood. The purpose of this study is to analyze the relationship between the occurrence of arboreal termites Constrictotermes cyphergaster Silvestri and tree species that support the nest of this species, in a Cerrado sensu strictu of the Serra de Caldas Novas, GO. Data suggest a association relationship between C. Cyphergaster and the tree species Qualea grandiflora Mart., Annona crassiflora Mart., Caryocar brasiliense Camb. and Plathymenia reticulata Benth., shown by high Qui-squared values (chi2 = 214.986, gl. = 20, P < 0.001). This relationship may be found among other termites and tree species, including Cerrado biome, and may be due to several factors, such as natural competitors and predators, toxin production by other tree species or benefits between associated species (facultative mutualism or facilitation). PMID:17352068

  2. Chemical composition and antioxidant activity of jatobá-do-cerrado (Hymenaea stigonocarpa Mart. flour

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    Cintia Pereira Da Silva

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The Brazilian Savannah, known as "Cerrado," has an extensive biodiversity, but it is under explored. Among the native vegetables is the jatobá-do-cerrado (Hymenaea stigonocarpa Mart., a legume with great potential for exploration for its content of dietary fiber. Legumes are an important source of nutrient compounds, such as phenolic compounds and vitamins that have antioxidant properties. This study aimed at determining the chemical composition and antioxidant activity of the jatobá flour. The jatobá flour showed high fiber content (insoluble and soluble fiber 47.8 and 12.8 g.100 g- 1, respectively, significant amounts of carotenoids such as beta-carotene and lutein, and some minerals such as calcium: 145 mg.100 g- 1, magnesium: 125 mg.100 g- 1, and potassium: 1352 mg.100 g- 1. The jatobá flour extracted with different solvents (water, methanol, and acetone exhibited antioxidant activity by the DPPH, FRAP, and ORAC methods. The solvent used in the extraction affected the total phenolic content and antioxidant activity. Acetone extraction produced the best results. Therefore, the jatobá flour is an ingredient that can be used to develop new products with properties that promote health.

  3. Effects of Different Treatments of Pasture Restoration on Soil Trace Gas Emissions in the Cerrados of Central Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Planted pastures ( mainly Brachiaria spp) are the most extensive land use in the cerrado (savannas of central Brazil) with an area of approximately 50 x 10(6) ha. The objective of the study was to assess the effects of pasture restoration on the N dynamics ( net N mineralization/...

  4. Effect of water content on the persistence of 14C-DDT in a soil under cerrado

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The influence of moisture on persistence and degradation of 14C-DDT in a soil under 'cerrado' is studied under laboratory conditions. The persistence of DDT in the Dark Red Latosol medium texture after one year, in spite of a tendency to be more persistente at 1/3 field capacity and less persistent at higher levels of moisture, is related. (Author)

  5. Terrestrial Carbon Sinks in the Brazilian Amazon and Cerrado Region Predicted from MODIS Satellite Data and Ecosystem Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    A simulation model based on satellite observations of monthly vegetation cover from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) was used to estimate monthly carbon fluxes in terrestrial ecosystems of Brazilian Amazon and Cerrado regions over the period 2000-2004. Pr...

  6. Measures based on informational entropy applied to analysis of textural and spectral patterns of Brazilian Cerrado physiognomies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leme de Matos, S. V.; Vicente, L. E.; Siqueira, J. R.; Filho, A. P.

    2011-12-01

    Brazilian Cerrado is a biodiversity hotspot characterized by different physiognomies distributed along a vegetational gradient. Cerrado physiognomies are distinguished by their spatial patterns. The objective of this research has been to evaluate the complexity (in the sense of heterogeneity) of textural and spectral patterns of Cerrado phytophysiognomies with the purpose of verifying which properties related to organization and dynamics those patterns could show. For that, images from Aster multispectral sensor were used to study Cerrado areas in conservation reserves at State of São Paulo (southeastern Brazil). Two complexity measures based on informational entropy - H/Hmax and LMC measures - were applied to physiognomy images and to the corresponding spectral response curves. H/Hmax is a measure which considers that high complexity value means that the system has more disorder. It hence enables identifying if a system is close to order or to disorder. The LMC measure provides a different interpretation considering that the highest complexity is situated between order and disorder, that is, maximum entropy is found in a state of intermediary heterogeneity. This assumption could be mathematically represented by a convex function of entropy. Results pointed out that both measures were very efficient in assigning greater values of complexity to more heterogeneous physiognomies. There was also a strong tendency that each physiognomy presents the same values of complexity at different localities, attributing a typical range of values for each one, regardless of its location.

  7. The seasonal carbon and water balances of the Cerrado environment of Brazil: Past, present, and future influences of land cover and land use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arantes, Arielle Elias; Ferreira, Laerte G.; Coe, Michael T.

    2016-07-01

    The Brazilian savanna (known as Cerrado) is an upland biome made up of various vegetation types from herbaceous to arboreal. In this paper, MODIS remote sensing vegetation greenness from the Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI) and evapotranspiration (ET) data for the 2000-2012 period were analyzed to understand the differences in the net primary productivity (NPP-proxy), carbon, and the evaporative flux of the major Cerrado natural and anthropic landscapes. The understanding of the carbon and evaporative fluxes of the main natural and anthropic vegetation types is of fundamental importance in studies regarding the impacts of land cover and land use changes in the regional and global climate. The seasonal dynamics of EVI and ET of the main natural and anthropic vegetation types of the Cerrado biome were analyzed using a total of 35 satellite-based samples distributed over representative Cerrado landscapes. Carbon and water fluxes were estimated for different scenarios, such as, a hypothetical unconverted Cerrado, 2002 and 2050 scenarios based on values derived from literature and on the PROBIO land cover and land use map for the Cerrado. The total growing season biomass for 2002 in the Cerrado region was estimated to be 28 gigatons of carbon and the evapotranspiration was 1336 gigatons of water. The mean estimated growing season evapotranspiration and biomass for 2002 was 576 Gt of water and 12 Gt of carbon for pasture and croplands compared to 760 Gt of water and 15 Gt of carbon for the Cerrado natural vegetation. In a modeled future scenario for the year 2050, the ET flux from natural Cerrado vegetation was 394 Gt less than in 2002 and 991 Gt less than in an unconverted scenario, with only natural vegetation, while the carbon was 8 Gt less than in 2002 and 21 Gt less than in this hypothetical pre-conversion Cerrado. On the other hand, the sum of the pasture and cropland ET flux increased by 405 Gt in 2050 relative to 2002 and the carbon by 11 Gt of carbon. Given the

  8. Adubação nitrogenada suplementar tardia em soja cultivada em latossolos do Cerrado Late supplemental nitrogen fertilization on soybean cropped in Cerrado Oxisols

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    Iêda de Carvalho Mendes

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar se a adubação nitrogenada, nos estádios de pré-florescimento (R1 e início do enchimento de grãos (R5, interfere na produtividade e na nodulação da soja. O estudo foi realizado por sete anos, em Latossolo Vermelho-Amarelo argiloso e, por quatro anos, em Latossolo Vermelho argiloso, ambos com populações estabelecidas de Bradyrhizobium. Foram conduzidos 15 ensaios, em plantio direto ou convencional, com os seguintes tratamentos: inoculação-padrão (IP com B. japonicum; IP + 200 kg ha-1 de N (uréia parcelados em 50% na semeadura e 50% em R1; IP + 50 kg ha-1 de N (nitrato de amônio em R1; IP + 50 kg ha-1 de N (sulfato de amônio em R1; IP + 50 kg ha-1 de N (nitrato de amônio em R5; e IP + 50 kg ha-1 de N (sulfato de amônio em R5. A aplicação de 200 kg ha-1 de N prejudicou a nodulação. Em apenas dois ensaios, houve resposta à aplicação de N, no entanto, sem retorno econômico ao produtor. A adubação nitrogenada tardia, no cultivo da soja com inoculação, em latossolos do Cerrado, não se justifica economicamente, em nenhum dos sistemas de cultivo avaliados, independentemente da fonte de N utilizada.The objective of this work was to evaluate the effects of nitrogen fertilization at the pre-flowering (R1 and seed filling (R5 stages, on the nodulation and yield of soybean grown in Cerrado Oxisols. The study was performed for seven years in a clayey Typic Haplustox, and for four years in a clayey Rhodic Haplustox, both with established populations of Bradyrhizobium. Fifteen experiments were carried out under conventional and no tillage management systems and the treatments were: standard inoculation (SI with B. japonicum; SI + 200 kg ha-1 N (urea, split-applied 50% at sowing and 50% at the R1 stage; SI + 50 kg ha-1 N (ammonium nitrate in R1; SI + 50 kg ha-1 N (ammonium sulfate in R1; SI + 50 kg ha-1 N (ammonium nitrate in R5; and SI + 50 kg ha-1 N (ammonium sulfate in R5. The application of

  9. Sistemas de cultivo no cerrado e dinâmica de populações de plantas daninhas Tillage systems in the cerrado and dinamics of weed populations

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    F.A.R. Pereira

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available O trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar os efeitos de sistemas de plantio direto, utilizando diferentes programas de rotação de culturas, de preparo convencional e de cultivo mínimo sobre a dinâmica de populações de plantas daninhas nas condições edafoclimáticas do cerrado. Utilizou-se o delineamento experimental de blocos ao acaso, com quatro repetições e cinco tratamentos, sendo dois de plantio direto que constaram de programas de rotação constituídos por culturas de verão e de outono/inverno e dois em monocultivo, nos sistemas de preparo convencional e cultivo mínimo respectivamente. Avaliou-se a dinâmica das populações de plantas daninhas. A maior eficiência de controle cultural da comunidade infestante foi obtida com o sistema de plantio direto, por meio dos seguintes programas de rotação: (sorgo/soja - crotalária/milho - milheto/soja - milho safrinha/soja; (milho safrinha/soja - girassol/milho - sorgo/soja - girassol/milho e (guandu/soja - milheto/soja - milho safrinha/milho - girassol/soja.This research aimed to evaluate the effects of no-tillage systems using crop rotation variations, conventional tillage, and minimum tillage on the dynamics of weed populations in the cerrado region in Brazil. The experiment was arranged in a randomized block design, four replications and five treatments, (two no tillage treatments consisting of summer and fall/winter crop rotations and two single crop treatments under conventional tillage and minimum tillage. Weed population dynamics was evaluated. The results showed that the no-tillage system was the most efficient for weed control with the following programs: soybean/sorghum - Crotalaria/corn - millet/soybean, winter corn/soybean; (winter corn/soybean - sunflower/corn - sorghum/soybean - sunflower/corn and (Pigeon/pea/soybean - millet/soybean - winter corn/corn - sunflower/soybean .

  10. Eficiência simbiótica de estirpes de Bradyrhizobium isoladas de solo do Cerrado em caupi Symbiotic efficiency of cowpea Bradyrhizobium strains in Cerrado soils

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    Jerri Édson Zilli

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar as relações filogenéticas de estirpes de Bradyrhizobium e a contribuição destas estirpes para a fixação biológica de nitrogênio em caupi, em solos do Cerrado. Na avaliação da relação filogenética, o gene 16S rDNA de cada uma das estirpes foi amplificado e seqüenciado, e para a análise da eficiência simbiótica, determinou-se: N total, matéria seca das plantas, massa de nódulos e redução de acetileno, em casa de vegetação, e ocupação nodular, em experimento de campo. A maioria das estirpes estudadas pertence a B. elkanii e, pelo menos dez das estirpes, independentemente da espécie, apresentaram bom desempenho quanto à fixação biológica de N2. As estirpes BR3262, BR3280 (caracterizadas como B. elkanii e BR3267, BR3287 e BR3288 (Bradyrhizobium sp. mostram-se como inoculantes potenciais para o caupi, em razão do bom desempenho tanto na eficiência simbiótica quanto na ocupação nodular.The obejctive of this study was to evaluate the phylogenetic relationships of Bradyrhizobium strains, and the contribution of these strains to cowpea biological nitrogen fixation in Cerrado soils. To elucidate the phylogenetic relationships among strains, their 16S rDNA gene was extracted, amplified and sequenced. In order to evaluate the symbiotic efficiency, total N, plant dry matter, nodular mass and acetylene reduction in a greenhouse experiment, and nodular occupation, in a field experiment, were determined. Most part of the strains belonge to B. elkanii, and at least ten of the analyzed strains, independently of the species, presented high capacity to fix N2. The strains BR3262, BR3280 (characterized as B. elkanii, BR3267, BR3287 and BR3288 (Bradyrhizobium sp. exhibit a potential as inoculant for cowpea, due to their high biological nitrogen fixation.

  11. Análise microclimática em duas fitofisionomias do cerrado no Alto Vale do Jequitinhonha, Minas Gerais

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    André Rodrigues da Cunha Gianotti

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available O clima e o solo tem uma estreita relação com a vegetação de uma determinada localidade. Visando entender melhor essa dinâmica no ambiente do cerrado, este estudo teve como objetivo avaliar na região de Diamantina, Vale do Jequitinhonha, MG, a interação dos elementos climáticos entre fitofisionomias de Campo Rupestre e Cerrado Rupestre, assim como relacionar as características edáficas, e florísticas com o clima. Os elementos climáticos utilizados para caracterizar os ambientes de cerrado foram a temperatura, a umidade relativa do ar, a pressão real e de saturação do vapor de água, o déficit de pressão do vapor do ar, a velocidade e a direção do vento, a precipitação, a radiação solar global e a amplitude térmica. Utilizaram-se para tanto os dados obtidos em duas estações meteorológicas automáticas localizadas próximas aos dois ambientes. O ambiente de Campo Rupestre se distingue do Cerrado Rupestre, principalmente pela maior velocidade do vento, menor umidade relativa do ar máxima, menor pressão real e de saturação do vapor de água, menor temperatura máxima e média e menor amplitude térmica. O efeito em conjunto das variáveis climáticas, somado ao embasamento geológico aparente, discutidos neste estudo, justifica a diferença fitofisionômica observada entre o Cerrado Rupestre e o Campo Rupestre.

  12. Padrões espaciais e conservação da diversidade de serpentes do bioma cerrado - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v29i1.145 Spatial patterns and biodiversity conservation of snakes from Cerrado biome

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    Levi Carina Terribile

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Em geral, as tentativas para estabelecer áreas prioritárias para conservação no Cerrado têm sido baseadas em critérios subjetivos. No presente trabalho, foram utilizados dados macroecológicos de distribuição de 129 espécies de serpentes distribuídas em 181 células com 1o de latitude/longitude do Cerrado para analisar padrões espaciais na riqueza e propor uma estratégia de conservação para essas espécies. Verificou-se que as cinco variáveis ambientais analisadas explicaram apenas 34,65% da variação na riqueza de serpentes do Cerrado. Para seleção de áreas prioritárias utilizando-se procedimentos de otimização, estabeleceu-se que 14 células são necessárias para representar todas as espécies pelo menos uma vez. Também foram incorporados ao modelo os padrões de ocupação humana no Cerrado, visando minimizar conflitos entre desenvolvimento e conservação, e neste caso as células concentram-se principalmente no sudoeste do bioma. Em função da falta geral de conhecimento sobre os padrões mais locais de distribuição de espécies no Cerrado, esses resultados devem ser considerados preliminares. De qualquer modo, o presente estudo, em escala biogeográfica, importante para estabelecer estratégias metodológicas e para fornecer uma visão ampla dos padrões de diversidade e de que regiões seriam mais importantes para sua conservação.Until recently, the conservation of Cerrado has been neglected and attempts to establish conservation priorities were usually based on subjective criteria. In this paper, macroecological data of distribution of 129 species of snakes in the Cerrado were used to evaluate spatial patterns in species richness and to establish a system of potential areas that preserves all snake species in the region. The five environment variables used as predictors explained only 34.65% of the variance in species richness. In order to establish conservation priorities, optimization procedures were used

  13. Nitrogênio da biomassa microbiana em solo cultivado com soja, sob diferentes sistemas de manejo, nos Cerrados Microbial biomass nitrogen in soil cultivated with soybean, under different management systems, in the Cerrado

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    Kátia Sueli Sivek Perez

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi quantificar o nitrogênio da biomassa microbiana do solo (NBMS, em diferentes manejos: semeadura direta (SD, uma gradagem (GR, subsolagem e duas gradagens (SG, comparado com solo sob cerrado nativo, em um Latossolo Vermelho-Amarelo argiloso, no Distrito Federal. Avaliaram-se os solos em cinco profundidades, 0-5, 5-10, 10-20, 20-30 e 30-40 cm; e em quatro épocas: antes do preparo do solo, 30 dias após a germinação (30 DAG, floração e após colheita da soja. O nitrogênio da biomassa microbiana em solo não perturbado, apresentou maiores valores em todas as épocas estudadas comparadas com os solos em diferentes manejos. Houve diferença significativa nas camadas 0-5, 5-10 e 10-20 cm, exceto aos 30 dias após a germinação. A razão porcentual no Cerrado Nmic:Ntotal foi 2,5 vezes maior que a GR, três vezes maior que a SD e cinco vezes maior que a SG. A distribuição do Ntotal foi decrescente no solo de Cerrado e nos manejos ao longo do perfil. Os teores de Ntotal reduziram-se de acordo com a profundidade em todas as épocas avaliadas. Houve correlação positiva entre os nutrientes e o nitrogênio microbiano nos diferentes manejos e solo de cerrado sob vegetação nativa.The aim of this work was to quantify soil nitrogen microbial biomassa (SNMB under different soil management systems: no-tillage (NT; one harrowing (OH; one subsoiling with two harrowings (SH. These systems were compared with native Cerrado, on a Red Yellow Latossol clay, in Federal District. Soils were studied at five depths, 0-5, 5-10, 10-20, 20-30 and 30-40 cm, over four periods: before soil preparation; 30 days after germination (DAG; flowering stage and after harvesting soybean plants. The native Cerrado showed the highest values of SNMB in all periods and management systems. Significant differences were found between 0-5, 5-10 and 10-20 cm soil layers, except at 30 DAG. The Nmic:Ntotal percentual ratio in cerrado soil was 2.5 times

  14. Allelopathic evidence in Brachiaria decumbens and its potential to invade the Brazilian Cerrados

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    Elizabeth Gorgone Barbosa

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to look for evidence of allelochemicals in B. decumbens, in parts of the plant from where they could easily be released to the environment. The germination inhibition of Phalaris canariensis, Lactuca sativa (standard species and Melinis minutiflora, another invasive African grass, was tested using B. decumbens germinating seeds and aqueous leachates of the roots, green and senescent leaves, at 5, 10 and 20% w/v. Both the germinating seeds and the aqueous leachates of B. decumbens reduced the germination of the species tested; the effectiveness of the aqueous leachates increased according to concentration. Apparently, the competitive advantage of B. decumbens in the cerrados could be amplified via allelopathy.Invasão biológica é uma das maiores causas atuais da perda de biodiversidade. Várias espécies que se tornam invasoras produzem substâncias fitotóxicas que aumentam sua capacidade competitiva; assim, a alelopatia é uma estratégia capaz de potencializar o sucesso de invasão. Brachiaria decumbens, uma gramínea africana, invadiu os cerrados brasileiros e representa, atualmente, uma séria ameaça à biota regional. Neste ensaio, verificamos a presença de aleloquímicos em partes de B. decumbens das quais poderiam ser facilmente liberados para o ambiente. Testamos a inibição da germinação de Phalaris canariensis, Lactuca sativa (espécies padrão e Melinis minutiflora (outra gramínea africana invasora usando sementes de B. decumbens e soluções aquosas lixiviadas de suas raízes, folhas verdes e folhas senescentes, a 5, 10 e 20% de peso do material por volume de água. Tanto as sementes como as soluções lixiviadas de decumbens reduziram a germinação das outras espécies; a eficiência dos lixiviados aumentou de acordo com a concentração da solução. Acreditamos que a grande vantagem competitiva de B. decumbens no cerrado possa ser amplificada pela alelopatia.

  15. Gated communities in Latin American cities Barrios cerrados en ciudades latinoamericanas

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    Lucía Demajo Meseguer

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Urban space in many Latin American cities is proliferating these last decades in a gated community form, being defined as enclosed housing developments, with controlled access and security devices. The search for security, the contact with nature and exclusivity are some common features of these urbanizations. These features are usually presented by advertising agencies as vital needs for this modern society. Development of gated communities entails consequences associated with urban space fragmentation, privatization of public space, social segregation and lack of a community belonging sense; hence the need to question these types of developments and to intervene to modify them. Interventions, both aimed to redirect the emerging urban model and to carry out specific actions in the already existing gated communities, should bet on following traditional neighborhood models. This article pretends to analyze the gated communities’ phenomenon occurring in Latin America, detecting it consequences and proposing possible intervention measures.

    El espacio urbano de algunas ciudades latinoamericanas está proliferando, en las últimas décadas, en forma de barrios cerrados; entendidos como áreas de viviendas cerradas, con acceso controlado y dispositivos de seguridad. La búsqueda de la seguridad, el contacto con la naturaleza y la exclusividad son algunos rasgos comunes de estos barrios que, en muchos casos, la publicidad trata de convertir en necesidades vitales para la sociedad. Los barrios cerrados llevan consigo consecuencias relacionadas con la fragmentación del espacio urbano, la privatización del espacio público, la segregación social y el sentimiento de comunidad; de ahí, la necesidad de cuestionarse este tipo de emprendimientos y de intervenir sobre ellos. Las intervenciones, ya sean dirigidas a redireccionar el modelo urbano emergente, como actuaciones puntuales en BC ya existentes, deberían apostar por seguir modelos de barrio

  16. Compostos fenólicos totais e taninos condensados em frutas nativas do cerrado

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    Wesley Silveira Rocha

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available As frutas nativas do cerrado têm despertado ultimamente interesse crescente, devido às suas propriedades nutricionais e funcionais aliadas ao potencial para agregar valor e conservar a biodiversidade deste bioma. Muitos compostos fenólicos apresentam capacidade antioxidante de neutralizar a atividade de radicais livres gerados no organismo, que estão associados a diversas doenças crônico-degenerativas. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a eficiência de três soluções extratoras (acetona a 70 %, etanol a 95 % e metanol a 99,8 % e determinar os teores de compostos fenólicos em 10 espécies de frutas nativas do cerrado, utilizando o método de Folin-Ciocalteou para compostos fenólicos totais e o método da vanilina para taninos condensados. A acetona a 70 % mostrou-se como o melhor solvente extrator de compostos fenólicos totais e taninos condensados em frutos de Pouteria gardneriana, Eugenia dysenterica, E. klostzchiana, E. punicifolia, Plinia edulis, Campomanesia sp., fenólicos totais de Brosimium gaudichaudii e taninos condensados de Jaracatia spinosa. O etanol a 95 % foi mais eficiente na extração de fenólicos totais de Jaracatia spinosa e taninos condensados de Brosimium gaudichaudii; o metanol a 99,8 % foi mais eficiente na extração de taninos condensados de Eugenia dysenterica. Os teores de compostos fenólicos totais variaram entre 90 e 327 mg de ácido gálico equivalente por 100g de polpa para as espécies E. dysenterica e E. punicifolia, respectivamente. Os teores de taninos condensados variaram entre 4 e 291 mg de catequina equivalente por 100 g de polpa para as espécies E. dysenterica e E. calcyna, respectivamente. As espécies de frutas do cerrado, avaliadas neste estudo, podem ser consideradas boas fontes de compostos fenólicos totais, sendo que a natureza específica dos diferentes tipos deve ser avaliada em estudos futuros.

  17. Influence of cerrado fragments in the distribution of mites in rubber tree crop; Influencia de fragmentos de cerrado na distribuicao de acaros em seringal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Demite, Peterson R. [UNESP, Sao Jose do Rio Preto, SP (Brazil). Programa de Pos-graduacao em Biologia Animal; Plantacoes E. Michelin Ltda., Itiquira, MT (Brazil)]. E-mail: peterson_demite@yahoo.com.br; Feres, Reinaldo J.F. [UNESP, Sao Jose do Rio Preto, SP (Brazil). Dept. de Zoologia e Botanica]. E-mail: reinaldo@ibilce.unesp.br

    2008-03-15

    The aim of this study was to verify whether fragments of cerrado influence the composition of the mite fauna on rubber trees. Five transects distant 50 m, being the first in the edge near the native areas and the last 200 m inside the crop, were established in each rubber tree crop in southern State of Mato Grosso. In each transect five plants were chosen, and seven leaves were collected from each plant. During one year, 25 quantitative samplings were conducted in two rubber tree crops. The lowest number of phytophagous mites occurred in the transect closer to the native vegetation, and the highest number, in the most distant from the native vegetation. The largest diversity was also observed in the transect closer to the neighboring vegetation. Ten species of predatory mites were also registered in neighboring native areas. These data suggest the movement of predatory mites from the native areas to the mono culture. These natural areas can possibly supply alternative food and habitat for natural enemies of phytophagous mites in the period of food scarceness in the rubber tree crop. The presence of native areas close to culture areas should be taken into account in the elaboration of programs of ecological management of pests. (author)

  18. Qualidade física de um Latossolo Vermelho sob sistemas de integração lavoura-pecuária no Cerrado Soil physical quality under crop-livestock management systems in a Cerrado Oxisol

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    Robélio Leandro Marchão

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o impacto de sistemas de integração lavoura-pecuária sobre atributos físico-hídricos do solo e avaliar o potencial uso desses atributos como indicadores da qualidade física de um Latossolo. As amostras de solo foram coletadas nas camadas 0-5, 10-15, 20-25 e 40-45 cm. Todos os sistemas de uso e manejo do solo alteraram significativamente a densidade, umidade volumétrica, resistência à penetração, porosidade total, macroporosidade, microporosidade efetiva e água prontamente disponível do solo. Foram observados incrementos na resistência à penetração e na densidade do solo em todos os sistemas em comparação ao cerrado nativo. A compactação resultante do pisoteio animal durante quatro anos da fase pastagem, nos sistemas de integração lavoura-pecuária, não atingiu valores críticos, que pudessem limitar cultivos anuais subseqüentes. A porosidade total e a macroporosidade foram maiores no cerrado e nos sistemas em plantio direto em relação aos em preparo convencional. Os atributos avaliados são indicadores confiáveis da qualidade físico-hídrica do solo.The objective of this work was to analyze the effect of integrated crop-livestock systems on soil hydraulic properties, and test the potential use of these properties as physical quality indicators of a Cerrado Oxisol. The field study was conducted at Embrapa Cerrados, Planaltina, DF, Brazil, considering soil layers of: 0-5, 10-15, 20-25 and 40-45 cm. Crop-livestock systems caused significant changes in soil bulk density, volumetric soil-water content, soil penetration resistance, total porosity, macroporosity, effective microporosity, unsaturated pores and available water. An increase was observed in both soil resistance and bulk density for all systems in comparison to the cerrado. However, higher soil resistance did not appear as a limiting factor for annual crops growth in a rotation sequence. Total porosity and macroporosity were

  19. Sarchophagid flies (Insecta, Diptera) from pig carcasses in Minas Gerais, Brazil, with nine new records from the Cerrado, a threatened Neotropical biome

    OpenAIRE

    Cátia A. Mello-Patiu; Maria Lígia Paseto; Lucas S. de Faria; Júlio Mendes; Arício X Linhares

    2014-01-01

    Sarchophagid flies (Insecta, Diptera) from pig carcasses in Minas Gerais, Brazil, with nine new records from the Cerrado, a threatened Neotropical biome. The diversity of the Sarcophagidae fauna of the Cerrado biome, also know as the Brazilian Savanna, is still underestimated. In this research we collected flies in the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil, during a Forensic Entomology experiment. Samples were collected throughout the decomposition process of domestic pig (Sus scrofa Linnaeus) carcas...

  20. Soil Acidobacterial 16S rRNA Gene Sequences Reveal Subgroup Level Differences between Savanna-Like Cerrado and Atlantic Forest Brazilian Biomes

    OpenAIRE

    Catão, Elisa C. P.; Lopes, Fabyano A. C.; Janaína F. Araújo; Alinne P. de Castro; Barreto, Cristine C.; Mercedes M.C. Bustamante; Betania F. Quirino; Krüger, Ricardo H.

    2014-01-01

    16S rRNA sequences from the phylum Acidobacteria have been commonly reported from soil microbial communities, including those from the Brazilian Savanna (Cerrado) and the Atlantic Forest biomes, two biomes that present contrasting characteristics of soil and vegetation. Using 16S rRNA sequences, the present work aimed to study acidobacterial diversity and distribution in soils of Cerrado savanna and two Atlantic forest sites. PCA and phylogenetic reconstruction showed that the acidobacterial ...

  1. DIAMETER DISTRIBUTION OF ONE SEMIDECIDUOUS SEASONAL FOREST STAND OF CERRADO ECOMUSEUM AREA

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    José Imaña-Encinas

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available A stand of a semideciduous forest of the Raio de Sol s farm (15º 45 54 S and 49º 04 03 W with 10 ha was studied.It is inserted into the bioregion of the Cerrado Ecomuseum, Goiás state. For the phytosociological inventory, ten sample plots of 20 x20 m each were systematically laid out. In these plots all living trees with DBH above 5 cm were measured. 742 individuals belongingto 83 species, 67 genera and 36 families were registered. The diameter distribuition shows a tendency of a J inverse model. Ninetysix percent of the individuals are situated in the three first diameter classes. Studied vegetal community was balanced observedthrough the Liocourt quotient.

  2. Reproductive biology and food habits of Pseudoboa nigra (Serpentes: Dipsadidae from the Brazilian cerrado

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    Renata de Paula Orofino

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Herein we provide data on body size, sexual size dimorphism,reproductive cycle, and food habits of the pseudoboini snake Pseudoboa nigra, which is distributed mainly in central South America throughout the Cerrado domain. Based on dissections of 147 preserved specimens, it is shown that females attain, and mature at,larger body sizes than males. There is no significant sexual dimorphism in head length, but males have longer tails relative to their body sizes. Vitellogenesis, egg-laying, and sperm production occur throughout the year, but males do not exhibit long-term sperm storage. The main prey of P. nigra is lizards; there is no evidence of ontogenetic change or sex differences in the diet of this species.

  3. The use of phosphogysum in crops cultivated at the Cerrado Region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phosphogysum is a byproduct of the chemical reaction called the 'wet process', whereby sulfuric acid is reacted with phosphate rock to produce the phosphoric acid needed for fertilizer production. The Brazilian production of this material is around 4.5 millions of tons per year, which is stacked in piles at the same place where it is produced. Researches accomplished in several countries around the world have demonstrated the potential use of this product as an agricultural source of calcium and sulfur, and as a conditioner for soils that contain high levels of sodium. In Brazil, these studies are focused mainly in the application of phosphogysum in the Cerrado region, the main agriculture front line of the country. Taking into account the presence of natural radionuclides in this material and the fact that the mobility and bioaccumulation of these elements can vary significantly with changes in climate, a research project has been conducted by a partnership of the Brazilian Commission of Nuclear Energy (CNEN) and the Agriculture Department of Federal University of Vicosa in order to investigate the radiological impact of the use phosphogysum in crops cultivated at the Cerrado region. For this purpose a set green house experiments have been conducting in two types of soil (one with clay and the other with sandy loam in texture) to determine the transfer factor of natural radionuclides (238U, 232Th, 226Ra e 228Ra) from soil to two forage crops (soy beams and lettuce). The present paper presents the preliminary results of this study, including the organic matter content, granulometric distribution and P, K, Ca, Mg and Al concentration in soil samples, the mineralogical characterization and radioactivity concentration in both, phosphogysum and soils samples. The measurement of 232Th concentration has been carried out by neutron activation analysis, 238U by delayed neutron counting technique, 226Ra and 228Ra by the method of radiochemical separation. (author)

  4. The use of phosphogypsum in crops cultivated at the Cerrado Region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phosphogypsum is a byproduct of the chemical reaction called the 'wet process', whereby sulfuric acid is reacted with phosphate rock to produce the phosphoric acid needed for fertilizer production. The Brazilian production of this material is around 4.5 millions of tons per year, which is stacked in piles at the same place where it is produced. Researches accomplished in several countries around the world have demonstrated the potential use of this product as an agricultural source of calcium and sulfur, and as a conditioner for soils that contain high levels of sodium. In Brazil, these studies are focused mainly in the application of phosphogypsum in the Cerrado region, the main agriculture front line of the country. Taking into account the presence of natural radionuclides in this material and the fact that the mobility and bioaccumulation of these elements can vary significantly with changes in climate, a research project has been conducted by a partnership of the Brazilian Commission of Nuclear Energy (CNEN) and the Agriculture Department of Federal University of Vicosa in order to investigate the radiological impact of the use phosphogypsum in crops cultivated at the Cerrado region. For this purpose a set green house experiments have been conducting in two types of soil (one with clay and the other with sandy loam in texture) to determine the transfer factor of natural radionuclides (238U, 232Th, 226Ra e 228Ra) from soil to two forage crops (soy beams and lettuce). The present paper presents the preliminary results of this study, including the organic matter content, granulometric distribution and P, K, Ca, Mg and Al concentration in soil samples, the mineralogical characterization and radioactivity concentration in both, phosphogypsum and soils samples. The measurement of 232Th concentration has been carried out by neutron activation analysis, 238U by delayed neutron counting technique, 226Ra and 228Ra by the method of radiochemical separation. (author)

  5. Influência do ambiente em cultivares de feijoeiro-comum em cerrado com baixa altitude

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    Helton Santos Pereira

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo desse trabalho foi identificar genótipos de feijoeiro-comum com alta adaptabilidade e estabilidade de produção e verificar a ocorrência de interação genótipos x ambientes (GxA para diferentes caracteres em algumas regiões de cerrado com baixa altitude no Estado do Mato Grosso. Foram realizados 12 ensaios em blocos casualizados, com três repetições, em épocas de semeadura da seca e do inverno, no Estado do Mato Grosso, em 2008 e 2009. Os ensaios foram compostos por 19 genótipos com seis diferentes tipos de grãos. Foram obtidos dados de produtividade de grãos, reação à mancha angular, ciclo, tolerância ao acamamento e massa de cem grãos, e realizadas as análises de variância. Os dados de produtividade foram analisados quanto à estabilidade e adaptabilidade pelo método proposto por Annicchiarico. Foi observada interação GxA para todas as características avaliadas. A correlação entre a produtividade dos genótipos nas duas épocas de semeadura foi intermediária (0,48 (p<0,0375, mostrando que o desempenho dos genótipos nessas épocas é razoavelmente coincidente. As cultivares BRS Estilo, de grãos carioca e BRS Esplendor e BRS Campeiro, de grãos pretos, reúnem alta adaptabilidade, estabilidade e produtividade de grãos nas épocas de semeadura da seca e do inverno em regiões de cerrado de baixa altitude no Estado do Mato Grosso.

  6. Cultivo de cachama blanca en altas densidades y en dos sistemas cerrados

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    Germán Poleo

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este trabajo fue evaluar la tolerancia de la cachama blanca, Piaractus brachypomus, a cultivos en altas densidades en sistemas cerrados. Novecientos alevines de 44,3±26 g de peso, se distribuyeron en seis tanques de concreto, con 4,8 m³ de agua. Tres tanques presentaron cero recambio de agua (SCR, y en otros tres, el agua se hizo circular a través de un bioclarificador (SRA. Ambos tratamientos presentaron fuerte aireación para mantener los sólidos en suspensión y suministrar aire. Los peces se alimentaron a saciedad con pienso comercial por 192 días. Los parámetros de calidad de agua como: oxígeno disuelto, amonio total, nitritos, nitratos, alcalinidad, dureza, temperatura y pH, se midieron semanalmente. Los peces en el SCR crecieron a una tasa de 2,34±0,05 g por día, y tuvieron conversión alimenticia de 1,5±0,06, densidad final de 12,96±0,53 kg m-3, y peso final de 449,5±99 g. En el SRA, los peces crecieron 2,33±0,03 g por día, con conversión alimenticia de 1,6±0,07, densidad final de 12,13±1,12 kg m-3, y peso final de 446,5±10 g. La cachama blanca puede ser cultivada en sistemas cerrados con cero recambio de agua en altas densidades.

  7. Composição de carotenoides em passifloras do cerrado

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    Daniele Cristina Wondracek

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo foi avaliar, por HPLC, a composição qualitativa e quantitativa de carotenoides em maracujás do cerrado. Frutos procedentes de acessos nativos de quatro espécies (Passiflora cincinnata, P. nitida, P. setacea e P. edulis foram analisados, utilizando, como referência, o maracujá-amarelo comercial (P. edulis. As polpas de maracujá apresentaram neoxantina, violaxantina, cis-violaxantina, anteraxantina, luteína, zeaxantina, β-criptoxantina, poli-cis-caroteno, prolicopeno, cis-ζ-caroteno, trans-ζ-caroteno, trans-β-caroteno, 13-cis-β-caroteno e fitoflueno. Em geral, os teores de carotenoides entre as espécies e entre os acessos da mesma espécie foram significativamente diferentes. A espécie P. edulis apresentou o maior número de carotenoides, com diferença entre os acessos. Em um acesso de P. edulis comercial, foi encontrado o trans-β-caroteno como o carotenoide principal (7,8±0,8 µg g-1 e no outro o trans-ζ-caroteno (11,4±0,4 µg g-1. Dois acessos de P. edulis nativos do Cerrado apresentaram cis-ζ-caroteno como carotenoide majoritário (6,28±0,15 µg g-1 e 12,1±0,7 µg g-1, casca amarela e roxa, respectivamente. O perfil de carotenoides em frutos de espécies de maracujá apresentou diversidade de composição, com potencial de uso para melhoramento genético para agregar maior valor ao produto e estimular o seu consumo.

  8. Diferenças florísticas e estruturais entre fitofisionomias do cerrado em Assis, SP, Brasil

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    Eduardo da Silva Pinheiro

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available A classificação das fitofisionomias tem-se constituído em desafio entre os pesquisadores da vegetação de cerrado, seja por não haver critérios florísticos ou quantitativos claros para sua separação, seja pelas alterações que sofrem ao longo do tempo. O objetivo deste estudo foi caracterizar três tipos fitofisionômicos de cerrado na Estação Ecológica de Assis, bem como verificar se são florística e, ou, estruturalmente distintos, buscando-se as melhores variáveis para caracterizá-los. A área amostral compreendeu 30 parcelas permanentes de 20 x 50 m, sendo 10 parcelas para cada um dos tipos fisionômicos: cerrado típico, cerrado denso e cerradão, em que foram identificadas e medidas as árvores com diâmetro à altura do peito > 5 cm. As três fitofisionomias de cerradoestudadas mostraram-se estruturalmente distintas em classes de área basal, cobertura de copas e altura das maiores árvores. O melhor descritor para classificar as fitofisionomias, por ser facilmente mensurável e pouco variável com o critério de inclusão, é a área basal (m² ha-1. Floristicamente, as fitofisionomias savânicas (cerradotípico e cerrado denso não se diferenciam, quer seja analisando apenas a presença e ausência das espécies, quer seja analisando a importância relativa das espécies na comunidade (fitossociologia. Em síntese, há três fitofisionomias distintas, mas a flora se diferencia apenas entre o cerradão e as fitofisionomias savânicas. A análise das espécies exclusivas de cada fitofisionomia quanto à tolerância à sombra, com base na literatura, indicou que a baixa disponibilidade de luz sob as copas no cerradão pode ter sido o fator condicionante da diferenciação entre esta e as demais fitofisionomias do cerrado lato sensu.

  9. New apiaceous hosts of Sclerotinia sclerotiorum in the Cerrado region of Brazil Novas hospedeiras de Sclerotinia sclerotiorum na família Apiaceae na região do Cerrado do Brasil

    OpenAIRE

    A. Reis; WM Nascimento

    2011-01-01

    This paper reports for the first time in the Cerrado region of Brazil the occurrence of white mold caused by Sclerotinia sclerotiorum in coriander (Coriandum sativum), parsley (Petroselinum crispum) and Peruvian carrot (Arracacia xanthorrhiza). The disease was observed on coriander, in Cristalina, Goiás State, on parsley in Gama, the Federal District and on Peruvian carrot in Ibiá, Minas Gerais State. Pathogenicity tests demonstrated that the fungus S. sclerotiorum is the causal agent of the ...

  10. Antifungal activity of extracts from Brazilian Cerrado plants on Colletotrichum gloeosporioides and Corynespora cassiicola Atividade antifúngica de extratos de plantas do Cerrado brasileiro sobre Colletotrichum gloeosporioides e Corynespora cassiicola

    OpenAIRE

    E.S. Naruzawa; M.F.S. Papa

    2011-01-01

    This study aimed to determine the antifungal activity of leaf aqueous and hydroethanolic extracts of 10 plants from the Brazilian Cerrado on Colletotrichum gloeosporioides and Corynespora cassiicola. Antifungal activity was measured through the incorporation of each extract in a culture media or spore suspension, at 50% concentration relative to the volume, determining respectively the mycelial growth and the spore germination. Then, the percentages of mycelial growth inhibition and spore ger...

  11. Relationship between macrofauna, mineralogy and exchangeable calcium and magnesium in Cerrado Oxisols under pasture Relações entre macrofauna, mineralogia, cálcio e magnésio trocáveis em Latossolos do Cerrado sob pastagem

    OpenAIRE

    Pedro Rodolfo Siqueira Vendrame; Robélio Leandro Marchão; Osmar Rodrigues Brito; Maria de Fátima Guimarães; Thierry Becquer

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this work was to assess the relationship between macrofauna, mineralogy and exchangeable calcium and magnesium in Cerrado Oxisols under pasture. Twelve collection points were chosen in the Distrito Federal and in Formosa municipality, Goiás state, Brazil, representing four soil groups with varied levels of calcium + magnesium and kaolinite/(kaolinite + gibbsite) ratios. Soil macrofauna was collected in triplicate at each collection point, and identified at the level of taxono...

  12. Resposta de arroz de terras altas à correção de acidez em solo de cerrado Upland rice response to soil acidity in cerrado soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NAND KUMAR FAGERIA

    2000-11-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito do pH do solo sobre a produção, seus componentes e sobre a absorção de nutrientes por três cultivares/linhagens de arroz de terras altas em um Latossolo Vermelho-Escuro, textura franco-argiloso de cerrado. O experimento foi conduzido sob condições de casa de vegetação, na Embrapa-Centro Nacional de Pesquisa de Arroz e Feijão, em Santo Antônio de Goiás, GO. Os níveis de pH criados, pela aplicação de calcário, foram: 4,6, 5,7, 6,2, 6,4, 6,6 e 6,8. Testaram-se as cultivares/linhagens de arroz de terras altas CNA 7460, Araguaia e CNA 7449. A produção de matéria seca e de grãos, os componentes de produção e a absorção de nutrientes foram significativamente influenciados pelo pH do solo. A faixa com pH adequado para a produção e para os componentes de produção variou entre 5 e 5,4. Da mesma maneira, para absorção de nutrientes, a variação foi de 4,6 a 5,5, indicando que as cultivaresde arroz de terras altas avaliadas são bastante tolerantes à acidez do solo, produzindo satisfatoriamente sob pH entre 5 e 5,5.The objective of this work was to evaluate the effects of soil pH on yield and its components and nutrients uptake by three upland rice cultivars/lines in a Dark-Red Latosol,clay loam texture of Cerrado region. A greenhouse experiment was conducted at the Embrapa-Centro Nacional de Pesquisa de Arroz e Feijão, Santo Antônio de Goiás, GO, Brazil. Soil pH levels created by application of lime were 4.6, 5.7, 6.2, 6.4, 6.6, and 6.8 and cultivars/lines tested were CNA 7460, Araguaia and CNA 7449. Dry matter and grain yield and yield components and nutrient absorption were significantly affected with soil pH. Adequate soil pH for yield and yield components was in the range of 5 to 5.4 and for the nutrients 4.6 to 5.5. These results suggest that rice cultivars tested were quite tolerant to soil acidity and it is possible to produce satisfactory crop in the pH range of 5 to

  13. Florística e estrutura de comunidades arbóreas em cerrados de Rondônia,Brasil Flora and structure of tree communities in dry savannas in Rodônia, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Izildinha Souza Miranda; Samuel Soares Almeida; Paulo Jorge Dantas

    2006-01-01

    O cerrado constitui o segundo maior e mais diverso bioma brasileiro, configurando um heterogêneo mosaico fisionômico e florístico. Mais de seis mil espécies de fanerógamas são reportadas para o cerrado do Brasil Central. Este trabalho teve o objetivo de descrever e analisar a flora e a estrutura de quatro comunidades de árvores dos cerrados sensu latu do município de Vilhena, Rondônia, Brasil. As áreas estudadas foram: cerradão (Área 1), campo sujo (Área 2) e duas comunidades do cerrado sensu...

  14. Occurrence of white-winged vampire bat, Diaemus youngi (Mammalia, Chiroptera, in the Cerrado of Distrito Federal, Brazil Ocorrência de Diaemus youngi (Mammalia, Chiroptera no Cerrado do Distrito Federal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ludmilla M. de S. Aguiar

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Authors cite Diaemus youngi (Jentik, 1893 as occurring in all the Brazilian territory. In spite of that, there are no reports of capture sites for D. youngi in the literature for Distrito Federal or Cerrado of Central Brazil. Here we report the first precise record of this species for Central Brazil, rural area of Distrito Federal, and provide information on its biology, conservation and distribution in Brazil, according to our data and information from the literature.A espécie Diaemus youngi (Jentik, 1893 é considerada por alguns autores como ocorrendo para todo o Brasil incluindo o bioma Cerrado e área rural do Distrito Federal. No entanto não há na literatura nenhum registro do local de coleta dessa espécie para essas regiões. Reportamos aqui o primeiro registro no Cerrado do Brasil Central, área rural do Distrito Federal, e alguns dados sobre a biologia, conservação e distribuição geográfica da espécie no Brasil, de acordo com dados desse trabalho e da literatura.

  15. EFEITO DE NÍVEIS DE ZINCO SOBRE A CULTURA DO ARROZ EM SOLO DE CERRADO EFFECT OF ZINC LEVELS FOR RICE IN A CERRADO SOIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Augusto Ribeiro

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available

    No presente trabalho, estudou-se o efeito de doses crescentes de sulfato de zinco sobre a produtividade e ocorrência de sintomas de deficiência de zinco na cultura do arroz de sequeiro em solo sob cerrado. O delineamento experimental foi o de blocos casualizados com 6 tratamentos e 4 repetições. Os níveis de sulfato de zinco testados foram 5, 10, 20 e 40 kg/ha, os quais foram comparados com a testemunha e com um tratamento que recebeu além da adubação básica e calagem, uma aplicação de sulfato de amônia (40 kg/ha em cobertura. O experimento foi instalado em latossolo vermelho, limo-argiloso, sob formação edáfica típica de campo-cerrado. O cultivar usado foi o IAC—12/46, tendo sido as sementes desinfectadas com Neantina Seco a 0,3%. Na aferição dos resultados computou-se a produção de grãos e a intensidade de ocorrência dos sintomas de bronzeamento nas folhas. A análise dos dados revela que os tratamentos com sulfato de zinco, nas dosagens de 5, 10, 20 e 40 kg/ha, equivaleram-se estatisticamente e foram superiores à testemunha e à cobertura com sulfato de amônia. Concluiu-se que a aplicação de sulfato de zinco no sulco de plantio, na dosagem de 5 kg/ha, é suficiente para impedir a ocorrência de deficiência de zinco em intensidade capaz de provocar decréscimos notáveis na produtividade da cultura do arroz. A aplicação de sulfato de amônia em cobertura, na dosagem de 40 kg/ha, por si só, não impediu a manifestação drástica da ocorrência de deficiência de zinco nas plantas.

    In the present experiment, the effect of increasing doses of zinc sulphate on productivity and on the occurrence of symptoms of zinc deficiency was studied in upland rice grown in ‘cerrado’ soil. The experimental design was randomized blocks with six (6 treatments and four (4 repetitions. The zinc

  16. EFFECT OF MICRONUTRIENTS AND LIME IN RICE IN CERRADO SOILS EFEITO DE MICRONUTRIENTES E CALCÁRIO NA CULTURA DO ARROZ EM SOLO DE CERRADO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yvo de Carvalho

    2007-09-01

    statistically superior to the others. The analysis of variance showed a significant difference among the treatments at the 5% level. The Duncan test indicated that, in rela-tion to grain yield, the treatments fell into two categories. The T1 and T3 treatments gave low yields, and the T2, T4, T5 and T6, produ-ced higher yields. With regard to the intensity of leaf symptoms, the treatments fell into two groups. In the T1 and T3 treatments, the manifestations ware more intense than in the T2, T4 , T5, and T6 treatments. Though there was no significant difference, lime seems to ag-gravate the intensity of the leaf symptom. In the plots that received lime and did not receive zinc, grain yield was significantly lower.

    Desde o ano agrícola de 1966/67, nos arrozais cultivados em solos de cerrado de diversas regiões do Estado de Goiás, vem se observando a ocorrência de anormalidades caracterizadas pela cor marrom no limbo foliar, que se acentuam com o decorrer do ciclo vegetativo, permanecendo a coloração verde apenas na nervura principal e bordos. Geralmente os sintomas aparecem mais intensamente em "reboleiras", onde as plantas se apresentam com porte reduzido, podendo morrer, resultando em sensível queda de produção. Quando as plantas não perecem, o ciclo vegetativo é retardado. Observou-se que as manifestações aparecem frequentemente em arrozais que receberam calcário. No presente trabalho procurou-se estudar a causa de tais sintomas, através da observação do efeito de micronutrientes e calcário, adicionados ao solo. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi o de blocos casualizados, com quatro repetições. O experimento foi instalado em latossolo vermelho, com cobertura típica de campo cerrado, próximo a Goiânia. O cultivar usado foi o IAC 12/46, tendo sido as sementes desinfectadas com Neantina seco a 0,3%. A adubação foi feita no sulco de plantio, exceto a calagem que foi a lanço. Na

  17. Yeasts from native Brazilian Cerrado plants: Occurrence, diversity and use in the biocontrol of citrus green mould.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sperandio, Eugenio Miranda; do Vale, Helson Mario Martins; Moreira, Geisianny Augusta Monteiro

    2015-11-01

    Yeasts are some of the most important postharvest biocontrol agents. Postharvest oranges frequently deteriorate due to green mould (Penicillium digitatum), which causes significant losses. The aims of this study were to determine the composition and diversity of yeasts on plants of the Brazilian Cerrado and to explore their potential for inhibiting citrus green mould. Leaves and fruit of Byrsonima crassifolia and Eugenia dysenterica were collected from Cerrado conservation areas, and thirty-five yeasts were isolated and identified by sequencing the D1-D2 domain of the rDNA large subunit (26S). The isolates represented the Aureobasidium, Meyerozyma, Candida, and Pichia genera. Three isolates identified as Aureobasidium pullulans exhibited potential for the control of P. digitatum in both in vitro and in vivo tests; these isolates reduced the incidence of disease and increased the storage time of fruit. Aureobasidium. pullulans has immense potential for the biological control of filamentous fungi. PMID:26466874

  18. Temporal and spatial variation of the limnological characteristics of a lotic ecosystem in the Cerrado of Mato Grosso.

    OpenAIRE

    Amintas Nazareth Rossete; Carlos José da Silva; Monica Elisa Bleich

    2009-01-01

    This study aimed to characterize a stream in the area of Cerrado of Mato Grosso according to limnological characteristics during an annual cycle and to assess its relationship with the hydrological regime and anthropogenic changes of the adjacent land system. Two collection points in the stream were selected which passed through the Parque do Bacaba in addition to two other in areas of anthropogenic influence, mainly cattle-raising activity. Data collection was performed bimonthly in downstre...

  19. Content and carbon stocks in labile and recalcitrant organic matter of the soil under crop-livestock integration in Cerrado

    OpenAIRE

    Itaynara Batista; Marcos Gervasio Pereira; Maria Elizabeth Fernandes Correia; Wanderlei Bieluczyk; Jolimar Antônio Schiavo; Janaína Ribeiro Costa Rows

    2013-01-01

    The study of organic matter and its compartments and their relationship with management, aims to develop strategies for increasing their levels in soils and better understanding of its dynamics. This work aimed to evaluate the fractions of soil organic matter and their carbon stocks in different soil cover system in crop-livestock integration and native Cerrado vegetation. The study was conducted at the farm Cabeceira, Maracajú – MS, sample area have the following history: soybean/corn + brac...

  20. Briófitas de uma área de cerrado no município de Alagoinhas, Bahia, Brasil

    OpenAIRE

    Bôas-Bastos, Silvana B. Vilas; Bastos, Cid José Passos

    1998-01-01

    In a taxonomic survey carried out in cerrado vegetation from Alagoinhas county, State of Bahia, 15 species of Bryophyta, were identified distributed into 12 genera and 9 families, and 12 species of Hepatophyta distributed in 7 genera and 2 families. Cheilolejeunea rigidula (Mont. ) Schust., Diplasiolejeunea cobrensis Gott. ex Steph., Diplasiolejeunea rudolphiana Steph., Frullanoides corticalis (Lehm. & Lindenb.) van Slag., Frullania neesii Lindenb., Lejeunea glaucescens Gott. and Leucolejeune...

  1. Antimicrobial activity of some medicinal plants from the cerrado of the central-western region of Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Ivana Maria Póvoa Violante; Lidilhone Hamerski; Walmir Silva Garcez; Ana Lucia Batista; Marilene Rodrigues Chang; Vali Joana Pott; Fernanda Rodrigues Garcez

    2012-01-01

    Ethanol extracts from six selected species from the Cerrado of the Central-Western region of Brazil, which are used in traditional medicine for the treatment of infectious diseases and other medical conditions, namely Erythroxylum suberosum St. Hil. (Erythroxylaceae), Hyptis crenata Pohl. ex Benth. (Lamiaceae), Roupala brasiliensis Klotz. (Proteaceae), Simarouba versicolor St. Hil. (Simaroubaceae), Guazuma ulmifolia Lam. (Sterculiaceae) and Protium heptaphyllum (Aubl.) March. (Burseraceae), a...

  2. Infestation of thornbird nests (Passeriformes: Furnariidae) by Psammolestes tertius (Hemiptera: Reduviidae) across Brazilian Cerrado and Caatinga ecoregions

    OpenAIRE

    Rodrigo Gurgel-Gonçalves; César Augusto Cuba Cuba

    2011-01-01

    Psammolestes tertius Lent & Jurberg, 1965 is a sylvatic triatomine bug species that occurs in thornbird nests in Brazil. We studied infestation of 527 nests of Phacellodomus rufifrons Wied, 1821 and Phacellodomus ruber Vieillot, 1817 by P. tertius in eight Brazilian states across the Cerrado and Caatinga ecoregions. Psammolestes tertius occurred in 44% of the nests, mainly in those of P. ruber. Overall, 3,261 specimens (52% nymphs) were captured, with an average of 14 bugs per infested nest (...

  3. Transcriptional profile of Paracoccidioides induced by oenothein B, a potential antifungal agent from the Brazilian Cerrado plant Eugenia uniflora

    OpenAIRE

    Zambuzzi-Carvalho, Patrícia Fernanda; Tomazett, Patrícia Kott; Santos, Suzana Costa; Ferri, Pedro Henrique; Borges, Clayton Luiz; Martins, Wellington Santos; De Almeida Soares, Célia Maria; Pereira, Maristela

    2013-01-01

    Background The compound oenothein B (OenB), which is isolated from the leaves of Eugenia uniflora, a Brazilian Cerrado plant, interferes with Paracoccidioides yeast cell morphology and inhibits 1,3-β-D-glucan synthase (PbFKS1) transcript accumulation, which is involved in cell wall synthesis. In this work we examined the gene expression changes in Paracoccidioides yeast cells following OenB treatment in order to investigate the adaptive cellular responses to drug stress. Results We constructe...

  4. Temporal and spatial variation of Stenoma cathosiota Meyrick (Lepidoptera: Elachistidae) caterpillar abundance in the cerrado of Brasilia, Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morais, Helena C.; Mangabeira, Jacimary A. [Universidade Federal de Brasilia (UnB), DF (Brazil). Inst. de Ciencias Biologicas. Dept. de Ecologia]. E-mail: morais@unb.br; Cabral, Berites C.; Diniz, Ivone R. [Universidade Federal de Brasilia (UnB), DF (Brazil). Inst. de Ciencias Biologicas. Dept. de Zoologia]. E-mail: irdiniz@unb.br

    2007-11-15

    The caterpillars of Stenoma cathosiota Meyrick feed on Roupala montana Aubl. (Proteaceae) in the cerrado of the Distrito Federal, Brazil. They construct shelters by joining leaves of the plant where they feed and pupate. The caterpillars are parasitized by a wasp (Hymenoptera: Brachonidae), which emerges from the pupae. Caterpillar abundance and parasitism frequency were associated in an area of frequently burned cerrado (biennial fire) and in another area that burns sporadically (1987 and 1994). For S. cathosiota, the variation among years in a single area, with sporadic fires, was greater than the variation among areas with different fire regimes. Caterpillar abundance among years was significantly different in the area that burns sporadically (c{sup 2} = 24.06; df. = 1; P = 0.000). However, there were no significant differences on caterpillar abundance between areas for the same period (c{sup 2} 3.45; df. = 1; P = 0.063). Parasitism frequency was high, reaching 29% of the collected caterpillars, and did not differ among areas. The great temporal variation in abundance of lepidopteran caterpillars in the cerrado makes it difficult to determine the effects that fire exerts over this fauna. (author)

  5. Temporal and spatial variation of Stenoma cathosiota Meyrick (Lepidoptera: Elachistidae) caterpillar abundance in the cerrado of Brasilia, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The caterpillars of Stenoma cathosiota Meyrick feed on Roupala montana Aubl. (Proteaceae) in the cerrado of the Distrito Federal, Brazil. They construct shelters by joining leaves of the plant where they feed and pupate. The caterpillars are parasitized by a wasp (Hymenoptera: Brachonidae), which emerges from the pupae. Caterpillar abundance and parasitism frequency were associated in an area of frequently burned cerrado (biennial fire) and in another area that burns sporadically (1987 and 1994). For S. cathosiota, the variation among years in a single area, with sporadic fires, was greater than the variation among areas with different fire regimes. Caterpillar abundance among years was significantly different in the area that burns sporadically (c2 = 24.06; df. = 1; P = 0.000). However, there were no significant differences on caterpillar abundance between areas for the same period (c2 3.45; df. = 1; P = 0.063). Parasitism frequency was high, reaching 29% of the collected caterpillars, and did not differ among areas. The great temporal variation in abundance of lepidopteran caterpillars in the cerrado makes it difficult to determine the effects that fire exerts over this fauna. (author)

  6. Evidence of limited carbon sequestration in soils under no-tillage systems in the Cerrado of Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corbeels, Marc; Marchão, Robelio Leandro; Neto, Marcos Siqueira; Ferreira, Eliann Garcia; Madari, Beata Emöke; Scopel, Eric; Brito, Osmar Rodrigues

    2016-01-01

    The Brazilian government aims at augmenting the area cropped under no-tillage (NT) from 32 to 40 million ha by 2020 as a means to mitigate CO2 emissions. We estimated soil carbon (C) sequestration under continuous NT systems in two municipalities in the Goiás state that are representative of the Cerrado. A chronosequence of NT fields of different age since conversion from conventional tillage (CT) was sampled in 2003 and 2011. Soil C levels of native Cerrado and pasture were measured for comparison. After about 11 to 14 years, soil C stocks under NT were highest and at the levels of those under natural Cerrado. Average annual rates of soil C sequestration estimated using the chronosequence approach were respectively 1.61 and 1.48 Mg C ha(-1) yr(-1) for the 2003 and 2011 sampling, and were higher than those observed using repeated sampling after eight years. The diachronic sampling revealed that the younger NT fields tended to show higher increases in soil C stocks than the older fields. Converting an extra 8 million ha of cropland from CT to NT represents an estimated soil C storage of about 8 Tg C yr(-1) during 10 to 15 years. PMID:26907731

  7. Sistemas agroflorestais e seus efeitos sobre os atributos químicos em Argissolo Vermelho-Amarelo do Cerrado piauiense Agroforestry systems and its effects on chemical attributes of an Ultisol in the 'Cerrado' of Piaui state, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruna de F. Iwata

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se, com este trabalho, quantificar os efeitos dos Sistemas Agroflorestais com diferentes tempos de adoção e a agricultura de corte e queima sobre os atributos químicos de um Argissolo Vermelho-Amarelo em áreas de cerrado do estado do Piauí. Em duas épocas climáticas foram estudados quatro sistemas: sistemas agroflorestais com seis e treze anos de adoção, agricultura de corte e queima e uma floresta nativa do cerrado. As amostras de solo foram coletadas em quatro profundidades para determinação dos atributos químicos. No solo sob os Sistemas Agroflorestais foram observados, em todas as camadas avaliadas, redução dos teores de Al3+ e H++Al3+ e aumento do pH, dos teores dos nutrientes e do carbono orgânico total em relação aos demais sistemas. No solo sob agricultura de corte e queima, verificou-se que apenas nas camadas superficiais a cinza depositada sobre o solo promoveu aumento dos nutrientes, exceto para o P, que foi maior em todas as camadas. Nos demais sistemas houve diminuição dos teores dos nutrientes no período chuvoso. Os sistemas agroflorestais promoveram aumento dos teores de nutrientes do solo e garantiram melhoria da qualidade química do solo em áreas de cerrado no estado do Piauí.This study aimed to quantify the effects of agroforestry systems (AFS, with different periods of adoption, and slash and burn agriculture (SB on the chemical attributes of an Ultisol in the 'Cerrado' of Piaui State, Brazil. In two distinct climatic seasons (dry and rainy four systems were studied: AFS with six (AFS6 and thirteen years (AFS13 of adoption, an area under SB and a native forest (NF, as a reference. In the AFS, in all depths, higher reduction in the Al3+ and H+ + Al3+ contents were observed as well as an increase of pH value and contents of nutrients (N, P, Ca, Mg and K and organic carbon in soil. In the soil under SB, only in superficial layers, the ash deposited on the soil caused an increase in contents of

  8. Radiological impact associated to the use of phosphogypsum in crops cultivated at the Cerrado region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phosphogypsum (PG) is a by-product of the 'wet process', whereby sulfuric acid is reacted with phosphate rock to produce phosphoric acid. The Brazilian production of this material is around 12 million of tons per year which is stacked in piles at the same place where it is produced. Researches accomplished in several countries worldwide have demonstrated the potential use of PG in agriculture not only as a source for calcium and sulfur, but also as a conditioner for soils that contain high levels of aluminum. In Brazil, these studies are mainly focused on the application of phosphogypsum to the Cerrado region, the main agriculture region of the country. Taking into account the presence of natural radionuclides in this material and the fact that the mobility and bioaccumulation of these elements can vary significantly with changes in climate, a research project has been conducted in a partnership with the Brazilian Nuclear Energy Commission (CNEN) and the Soil Department of Vicosa Federal University in order to investigate the radiological impact of using phosphogypsum in crops cultivated in Cerrado soils. For this purpose a set of greenhouse experiments have been conducted in two types of soil (one clayey and other sandy loam textured) to determine the transfer factor of natural radionuclides (238U, 232Th, 226Ra, 228Ra and 210Pb) from soil to crops (lettuce, corn and soybean) and drainage waters. This paper aims to report preliminary results of the study, including the chemical, physical and mineralogical characterization of the soil samples, and radioactivity concentration in both the applied PG and soil samples. The measurement of 232Th concentration has been carried out by neutron activation analysis, 238U by delayed neutron counting technique, 226Ra, 228Ra and 210Pb by the method of radiochemical separation. The mean activity concentrations of 226Ra (240 Bq.kg-1) and 228Ra (224 Bq.kg-1) in PG were below the maximum level recommended by CNEN which is 1000 Bq

  9. Spatial and temporal patterns of burned area over Brazilian Cerrado from 2005 to 2015 using remote sensing data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Libonati, Renata; DaCamara, Carlos; Setzer, Alberto

    2016-04-01

    Although Cerrado is a fire-dependent biome, current agriculture practices have significantly modified the native fire regime. Moreover, over the last decades, climate conditions, such as intensive droughts, have contributed to enhance the effects of anthropogenic activities, and consequently fire, over the region. For instance, during the 2010 extreme drought there was an increase of 100% in the number of fire pixels detected by just one polar orbiting satellite (information online at http://www.cptec.inpe.br/queimadas). A better characterization of spatial and temporal fire patterns over Cerrado is therefore crucial to uncover both climate and anthropogenic influences in this ecosystem. Additionally, information about the extent, location and time of burned areas (BA) over Cerrado is especially useful to a wide range of users, from government agencies, research groups and ecologists, to fire managers and NGOs. Instruments on-board satellites are the only available operational means to collect BA data at appropriated spatial and temporal scales and in a cost-effective way. Several global BA products derived from remote sensed information have been developed over the last years using a variety of techniques based on different spatial, spectral and temporal resolutions. Although presenting similar inter-annual variability, there are marked differences among the products both in magnitude and location of the area burnt. The development of regional algorithms which take into account local characteristics such as vegetation type, soil and climate is therefore an added value to the existing information. We present a monthly BA product (AQM) for Brazil based on information from MODIS 1km. The algorithm was specifically designed for ecosystems in Brazil and the procedure represents the first initiative of an automated method for BA monitoring using remote sensing information in the country. The product relies on an algorithm that takes advantage of the ability of MIR

  10. Impactos do agrupamento do bambu Actinocladum verticillatum (Nees McClure ex Soderstr. (POACEAE sobre a vegetação lenhosa de duas fitofisionomias de Cerrado na transição Cerrado-Floresta Amazônica Impact of Actinocladum verticillatum (Nees McClure ex Soderstr. (POACEAE clumps on the woody vegetation in two Cerrado physiognomies in transition Cerrado & Floresta Amazônica, east of Mato Grosso, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Divino Vicente Silvério

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo analisou os efeitos do agrupamento de uma espécie de bambu nativa do Cerrado (Actinocladum verticillatum sobre a composição florística, diversidade e estrutura da vegetação lenhosa de um cerradão e de um cerrado típico adjacentes no Parque Municipal do Bacaba, Nova Xavantina-MT. Foram instaladas 60 parcelas de 10x10 m, sendo 30 no cerradão e 30 no cerrado típico. Em cada fitofisionomia, foram instaladas 15 parcelas em um sítio sem bambu (SB e 15 em um sítio com cobertura estimada de folhagem de bambu superior a 90% (CB. Foram amostrados todos os indivíduos arbustivo-arbóreos com diâmetro a 30 centímetros do solo (DAS ≥ 3 cm. Foi avaliada a riqueza, a diversidade de espécies, a similaridade florística, a distribuição de diâmetros e alturas e o índice de valor de importância das espécies (VI. De forma geral, os sítios CB das duas fitofisionomias apresentaram menores valores quanto ao número de indivíduos, espécies, gêneros, famílias, densidades e áreas basais em relação aos sítios SB, com redução mais acentuada nestes parâmetros no cerrado típico em relação ao cerradão. Os resultados sugerem que a ocupação do espaço e a redução da incidência luminosa causada pelas touceiras do bambu dificultam a germinação das sementes e o estabelecimento das plântulas de espécies arbustivo-arbóreas, selecionando as espécies mais tolerantes ao sombreamento modificando a composição florística e a estrutura da vegetação.This study evaluated the effects of a Cerrado native bamboo species (Actinocladum verticillatum clumps on the floristic composition, diversity and structure of the woody vegetation in two adjacent areas of “cerradão” and typical “cerrado” in the Bacaba Municipal Park, Nova Xavantina, state of Mato Grosso, Brazil. Sixty plots of 10 x 10 m were established, 30 in each forest physiognomy. In each physiognomy, 15 plots were placed in a bamboo-free site (SB and 15 in a site

  11. Tucum-Do-Cerrado (Bactris setosa Mart.) Consumption Modulates Iron Homeostasis and Prevents Iron-Induced Oxidative Stress in the Rat Liver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fustinoni-Reis, Adriana M; Arruda, Sandra F; Dourado, Lívia P S; da Cunha, Marcela S B; Siqueira, Egle M A

    2016-02-01

    This study investigated the effect of tucum-do-cerrado consumption in the oxidative status of iron-supplemented rats. Four groups of rats were treated: Control (AIN-93G), Tuc (AIN-93G added of tucum-do-cerrado), Fe (AIN-93G iron-enriched), or TucFe (AIN-93G with tucum-do-cerrado and iron-enriched) diet, for 30 days. Iron-enriched diet increased serum, liver, spleen, and intestine iron levels; transferrin saturation; liver lipid oxidation; mRNA levels of hepatic Hamp and Bmp6, and Nrf2 in the intestine. Tucum-do-cerrado consumption reduced spleen lipid and protein oxidation; mRNA levels of hepatic Hamp and Ftl, and increased serum antioxidant capacity and hepatic mRNA levels of Bmp6, Hmox1, Nqo1, and Nrf2. TucFe diet consumption abrogated the liver Hamp iron-induced up-regulation, prevented intestinal iron accumulation; hepatic lipid peroxidation; splenic protein damage, and the increase of catalase, glutathione reductase, and glutathione peroxidase activity in some tissues. These results suggest that tucum-do-cerrado protects tissues against oxidative damage, by reducing iron availability in liver and consequently inhibiting liver Hamp expression. PMID:26901220

  12. Association patterns of ticks (Acari: Ixodida: Ixodidae, Argasidae) of small mammals in Cerrado fragments, western Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sponchiado, Jonas; Melo, Geruza L; Martins, Thiago F; Krawczak, Felipe S; Labruna, Marcelo B; Cáceres, Nilton C

    2015-03-01

    The present study describes ticks associated with small mammals and analyzes the aggregation patterns according to seasonal and host variations in the Cerrado biome, central-western Brazil. Small mammals were systematically captured in 54 woodland fragments from February 2012 to July 2013. A total of 1,040 animals belonging to eight marsupial and 12 rodent species were captured; 265 animals were parasitized by eight tick species (in decreasing order of abundance): Ornithodoros mimon, Amblyomma coelebs, Amblyomma sculptum, Amblyomma ovale, Amblyomma parvum, Amblyomma dubitatum, Amblyomma parkeri, and Ixodes amarali. With few exceptions, collected ticks were larvae and nymphs. Among the more abundant animals, the marsupial Didelphis albiventris showed the highest tick prevalence (84.4 %), mean abundance (19.2), mean intensity (22.8), richness of ticks species (n = 7), and total abundance of ticks (n = 2,457). Amblyomma sculptum and O. mimon were the most generalist species, collected on four host species. Fifteen new tick-host associations are reported for the first time. Most ticks showed higher prevalence and mean intensity in the dry season, regardless of host species. Overall, tick prevalence and mean intensity of infestation were significantly associated with host gender. Finally, the importance of the large number of records of the argasid O. mimon is discussed. PMID:25633262

  13. Uso do solo e cultivares de arroz consorciados com braquiária no Cerrado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priscila de Oliveira

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available A avaliação dos novos cultivares de arroz, em consórcio com o capim marandu (Urochloa brizantha cv. Marandu, no sistema de semeadura direta, poderá possibilitar a identificação de materiais mais adaptados a esse sistema, sem redução da produtividade de grãos da cultura. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a produtividade de cultivares de arroz de terras altas, em sistemas de cultivo solteiro e consorciado com capim marandu (Urochloa brizantha cv. Marandu, em dois sistemas de manejo do solo (convencional, PC, e sistema semeadura direta, SSD. O delineamento experimental foi em blocos ao acaso, no esquema fatorial 2 (sistemas de cultivo x 2 (sistemas de manejo do solo x 5 (cultivares. O experimento foi conduzido na região de Cerrado, no município de Ipameri-GO. O consórcio de cultivares de arroz de terras altas Primavera, BRSMG Curinga, Caiapó e BRS Bonança com capim marandu não afetou a produtividade de grãos da cultura. Os cultivares de arroz Primavera, BRSMG Curinga e Caiapó podem ser cultivados, tanto no SSD quanto no PC sem afetar a produtividade de grãos da cultura. A produção de biomassa seca do capim marandu foi afetada pelo consórcio com cultivares de arroz de terras altas.

  14. Phenolic composition and antiparasitic activity of plants from the Brazilian Northeast "Cerrado".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calixto Júnior, João Tavares; de Morais, Selene Maia; Gomez, Celeste Vega; Molas, Cathia Coronel; Rolon, Miriam; Boligon, Aline Augusti; Athayde, Margareth Linde; de Morais Oliveira, Cícera Datiane; Tintino, Saulo Relison; Henrique Douglas, Melo Coutinho

    2016-05-01

    This work describes the antiparasitic and cytotoxic activities of three plant species from the Cerrado biome, Northeastern Brazil. Significant antiparasitic inhibition was observed against Trypanosoma cruzi (63.86%), Leishmania brasiliensis (92.20%) and Leishmania infantum (95.23%) when using ethanol extract from leaves of Guazuma ulmifolia Lam. (Malvaceae), at a concentration of 500 μg/mL. However, low levels of inhibition were observed when assessing leishmanicidal and trypanocidal (Clone CL-B5) activities of crude ethanol extracts from leaves and bast tissue of Luehea paniculata (Malvaceae) and leaves and bark of Prockia crucis (Salicaceae) at a concentration of 500 μg/mL. The extracts revealed the presence of phenolic acids such as gallic acid, chlorogenic acid, caffeic acid and rosmarinic acid, as well as flavonoids such as rutin, luteolin, apigenin and quercetin - the latter detected only in G. ulmifolia. G. ulmifolia extract displayed higher leishmanicidal activity probably due to the presence of quercetin, a potent known leishmanicidal compound. A cytotoxicity test indicated values over 50% at the highest concentration (1000 μg/mL) for all natural products, which were considered cytotoxic. This points out the need for further tests to enable future in vivo trials, including antineoplastic activity on human tumor cells. PMID:27081371

  15. Influence of cerrado fragments in the distribution of mites in rubber tree crop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this study was to verify whether fragments of cerrado influence the composition of the mite fauna on rubber trees. Five transects distant 50 m, being the first in the edge near the native areas and the last 200 m inside the crop, were established in each rubber tree crop in southern State of Mato Grosso. In each transect five plants were chosen, and seven leaves were collected from each plant. During one year, 25 quantitative samplings were conducted in two rubber tree crops. The lowest number of phytophagous mites occurred in the transect closer to the native vegetation, and the highest number, in the most distant from the native vegetation. The largest diversity was also observed in the transect closer to the neighboring vegetation. Ten species of predatory mites were also registered in neighboring native areas. These data suggest the movement of predatory mites from the native areas to the mono culture. These natural areas can possibly supply alternative food and habitat for natural enemies of phytophagous mites in the period of food scarceness in the rubber tree crop. The presence of native areas close to culture areas should be taken into account in the elaboration of programs of ecological management of pests. (author)

  16. Land-use in Amazonia and the Cerrado of Brazil: State of Knowledge and GIS Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nepstad, Daniel C.

    1997-01-01

    We have assembled datasets to strengthen the LargeScale Biosphere Atmosphere Experiment in Amazonia (LBA). These datasets can now be accessed through the Woods Hole Research Center homepage (www.whrc.org), and will soon be linked to the Pre-LBA homepages of the Brazilian Space Research Institute's Center for Weather and Climate Prediction (Instituto de Pesquisas Espaciais, Centro de Previsao de Tempo e Estudos Climaticos, INPE/CPTEC) and through the Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Distributed Active Archive Center (ORNL/DMC). Some of the datasets that we are making available involved new field research and/or the digitization of data available in Brazilian government agencies. For example, during the grant period we conducted interviews at 1,100 sawmills across Amazonia to determine their production of sawn timber, and their harvest intensities. These data provide the basis for the first quantitative assessment of the area of forest affected each year by selective logging (Nepstad et al, submitted to Nature). We digitized the locations of all of the rural households in the State of Para that have been mapped by the Brazilian malaria combat agency (SUCAM). We also mapped and digitized areas of deforestation in the state of Tocantins, which is comprised largely of savanna (cerrado), an ecosystem that has been routinely excluded from deforestation mapping exercises.

  17. Element analysis by PIXE of environmental samples of the Brazilian Cerrado

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A vast region in the Brazilian central plateau is characterized by a flora denominated Cerrado and a somewhat peculiar fauna. An area of about 13 km2 in this region is maintained as an ecological reserve. A number of scientists, including biologists, chemists, geologists, botanists and physicists are involved in several research projects in this ecological reserve. The present paper deals only with the contribution to the study of soil and particulate matter suspended in natural springs and rainwater of the area, by using the PIXE technique as an analytical tool to determine the metal concentrations in these materials. The concentrations of titanium, zinc, chromium, copper and calcium in relation to iron have been determined in samples of soil and suspended materials in springwater to serve as a basis for future comparisons with similar samples from several origins. Variations in the concentrations of potassium, calcium, titanium, chromium, nickel, copper and zinc in relation to iron have been monitored in the suspended matter found in rainwater collected within the area

  18. Nut density and removal in Syagrus loefgrenii Glassman (Arecaceae) in the Brazilian Cerrado.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ragusa-Netto, J

    2016-04-19

    In this study, I tested the effect of Syagrus loefgrenii nut number on the removal intensity by rodents across seasons. Also, I assessed both S. loefgrenii fruit production, and dispersion pattern to analyze the relationship between these parameters and nut removal. Trials were performed (autumn, winter, spring, and summer), in which endocarps were placed inside trays (5, 15, and 40 endocarps) in the Cerrado (Brazilian savanna). Syagrus loefgrenii exhibited clumped distribution, although its local density had no correlation with endocarp removal rate. Despite of variations, S. loefgrenii fruit production had no seasonal difference, although, high proportions of endocarps were year round removed. This mostly results from nearly complete endocarp loss in depots of 5 and 15, while the opposite occurred in those of 40. Hence, the intensity of removal consistently decreases with endocarp number, so that endocarp removal conformed to negative distance-dependence. As this palm exhibit clumped distribution and, in principle, fruit asynchronously, if, at least, a group of neighboring stems bore fruits simultaneously, an enhanced number of nuts might be available at a given site. Therefore, seeds within a dense S. loefgrenii fruit patch might experience high survival rates due to satiation of post dispersal seed predators. PMID:27097083

  19. SOIL ORGANIC MATTER FRACTIONS IN PRESERVED AND DISTURBED WETLANDS OF THE CERRADO BIOME

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Fernandes de Sousa

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Veredas are humid tropical ecosystems, generally associated to hydromorphic soils and a shallow water table. The soils of these ecosystems are affected by the use of the areas around these veredas. The objective of this study was to determine soil organic matter (SOM fractions in veredas adjacent to preserved (native savanna and disturbed environments (agricultural areas and pastures in the Cerrado biome. Soil samples were collected from the 0-10 and 10-20 cm layers along reference lines drawn along the relief following the upper, middle and lower positions of one of the slopes, in the direction of the draining line of the vereda. The soil analysis determined: total soil OC, total nitrogen and C:N ratio; C and N contents and C:N ratio in particulate and mineral-associated fractions (of SOM; fulvic acids, humic acids and humin fractions and ratio between humic and fulvic acids. The agricultural use around the veredas induced changes in the SOM fractions, more pronounced in the lower part of the slope. In the soil surface of this part, the OC levels in the humic substances and the particulate fraction of SOM, as well as total soil OC were reduced in the vereda next to crop fields.

  20. The role of Pteridium arachnoideum(Kaulf) on the seed bank of the endangered Brazilian Cerrado.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xavier, R O; Alday, J G; Marrs, R H; Matos, D M S

    2016-02-01

    The native bracken (Pteridium arachnoideum) often occurs in mono-specific stands in the Brazilian Cerrado, and this dominance can impact on both the above-ground vegetation and soil seed bank. This study investigated how invasion by this species over a 20-year period changed the seed bank and the relationship between the seed bank and litter mass. We extracted soil samples from three replicated invaded and uninvaded sites, and followed seedling emergence for six months. We collected the above-ground biomass and litter of P. arachnoideum in ten 1m2 plots from three invaded sites. There was no difference between invaded and uninvaded areas in seed bank richness, diversity or overall abundance. The most abundant family was the Melastomataceae, followed by the Poaceae. The Melastomataceae was more abundant in uninvaded sites, but the most common species of this family (Tibouchinastenocarpa) was not affected. The grasses were more common in invaded sites in the rainy season and were affected by heterogeneity in the litter layer. The seed bank could play a role in the recovery of these invaded areas, but the presence of weeds and invasive grasses could constrain their use as a management strategy. PMID:26871749

  1. Determinação do potencial antioxidante in vitro de frutos do Cerrado brasileiro

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    Mônica Lopes Morais

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Extratos em metanol e acetona de diferentes espécies do Cerrado, semente de Solanum lycocarpum A. St.-Hil (Lobeira, polpa de Byrsonima verbascifolia (L. DC. (Murici, epicarpo e mesocarpo de Caryocar brasiliense Cambess (Pequi e pendúculo de Cipocereus minensis F. Ritter (Quiabo-da-lapa foram submetidos a ensaios antioxidantes in vitro para avaliar a capacidade de sequestrar os radicais orgânicos DPPH e ABTS.+, reduzir o ferro (FRAP e/ ou inibir a peroxidação lipídica (β-caroteno. Todas as amostras apresentaram considerável atividade antioxidante, embora em diferentes proporções, destacando-se o mesocarpo de Caryocar brasiliense como o responsável pela maior atividade antioxidante por captura de radicais livres (DPPH e ABTS e poder de redução do metal (FRAP e o pendúnculo de Cipocereus minensis frente à inibição da peroxidação lipídica (B-caroteno. Os frutos estudados podem ser considerados fontes potenciais de antioxidantes naturais e podem ser explorados como aditivos alimentares promissores para a prevenção de doenças, bem como para a manutenção da saúde.

  2. Potential use of zeolites in attenuation water deficit in cerrado latosol

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    Samara Martins Barbosa

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The improvements of hydro-physical conditions of the Cerrado Biome soils are extremely important in the view point of agricultural limitations in seasons of poor rainfall distribution and drought period. Against this background, we emphasize the potential use zeolites as soil conditioners, because they are minerals that have large interconnected voids that give them a high degree of hydration with ease to retain and release water. This study aimed to characterize the water retention in dystroferric Red Latosol, as well as the mineral zeolite, beyond their mixtures in order to investigate about ability of this mineral increasing the water availability range of Latosol for plants. The completely randomized experiment consisted of treatments based on mixtures of zeolite:Latosol in the proportion 2,5: 97,5%; 5:95%; 10:90% and 20:80%, respectively. In order to determination of water retention curve was established the water content in the following potential matric: -1, -2, -4, -6, -10 kPa suction units and -33, -100 kPa in chambers Richards and -500 the -1500 kPa in thermocouple psychrometer WP4-T in soil samples. Was fitted the van Genuchten model by nonlinear regression procedures of software SWRC, to experimental data. The addition of zeolite promoted changes in pore intermediates distribution of Latosol, enhancing water release for plants.

  3. Assessment of toxic potential of Cerrado fruit seeds using Artemia salina bioassay

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    Raíza Cavalcante Fonseca

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Artemia salina bioassay was used to assess toxicity of seeds and kernels of Brazilian fruits from cerrado (central high plains region and other inner regions of the country. Water extracts of the kernels were filtered and added to Artemia cultures containing ten individuals per mL. Dose - response curves were constructed, and LD50 values were calculated. Pure potassium cyanide standard was used to draw a calibration curve for comparison to detect the presence of cyanide in the samples tested. Extracts of the seeds of araticum, mangaba, cagaita, jatobá, and tucumã were found toxic to Artemia salina, and some of the dose - response curves were very similar in shape to those obtained with pure potassium cyanide standards, while the samples of baru, cajá-manga, siriguela, trauma, and veludo showed no toxicity at all. The Guignard test, specific for cyanide detection, showed negative results in all toxic samples, suggesting the presence of other toxic compounds rather than cyanide. The comparison of araticum dose - response curve with those of other annonaceous fruits suggests the presence acetogenins as the main toxic compounds in the seeds. These results could be useful to prevent poisoning by industrial derivatives of the fruits studied.

  4. Antimicrobial activity of some medicinal plants from the cerrado of the centralwestern region of Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Violante, Ivana Maria Póvoa; Hamerski, Lidilhone; Garcez, Walmir Silva; Batista, Ana Lucia; Chang, Marilene Rodrigues; Pott, Vali Joana; Garcez, Fernanda Rodrigues

    2012-10-01

    Ethanol extracts from six selected species from the Cerrado of the Central-Western region of Brazil, which are used in traditional medicine for the treatment of infectious diseases and other medical conditions, namely Erythroxylum suberosum St. Hil. (Erythroxylaceae), Hyptis crenata Pohl. ex Benth. (Lamiaceae), Roupala brasiliensis Klotz. (Proteaceae), Simarouba versicolor St. Hil. (Simaroubaceae), Guazuma ulmifolia Lam. (Sterculiaceae) and Protium heptaphyllum (Aubl.) March. (Burseraceae), as well as fractions resulting from partition of these crude extracts, were screened in vitro for their antifungal and antibacterial properties. The antimicrobial activities were assessed by the broth microdilution assay against six control fungal strains, Candida albicans, C. glabrata, C. krusei, C. parapsilosis, C. tropicalis and Cryptococcus neoformans, and five control Gram-positive and negative bacterial strains, Escherichia coli, Enterococcus faecalis, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus. Toxicity of the extracts and fractions against Artemia salina was also evaluated in this work. All plants investigated showed antimicrobial properties against at least one microorganism and two species were also significantly toxic to brine shrimp larvae. The results tend to support the traditional use of these plants for the treatment of respiratory and gastrointestinal disorders and/or skin diseases, opening the possibility of finding new antimicrobial agents from these natural sources. Among the species investigated, Hyptis crenata, Erythroxylum suberosum and Roupala brasiliensis were considered the most promising candidates for developing of future bioactivity-guided phytochemical investigations. PMID:24031956

  5. Roadkill hotspots in a protected area of Cerrado in Brazil: planning actions to conservation

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    Bruno H Saranholi

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Here we aimed to identify the main points of animal death by roadkill in the view of helping mitigation plans and reducing the impact over the local fauna of a protected area. Materials and methods. We surveyed the roads around a protected area of Cerrado (São Paulo, Brazil from May 2012 to August 2013. We recorded the local of roadkills, biometric and morphologic data of the animals, and collected samples of tissue for molecular species confirmation. Results. Thirty-one roadkilled animals were registered, including threatened species: Leopardus pardalis; Cuniculus paca and Chrysocyon brachyurus. Most roadkills were represented by mammals (54.8% and reptiles (38.7%, and the mortality rate was 1.46 animals/km/year. Three roadkill hotspots were detected, suggesting that they were important points of animal crossing, probably because of the existence of natural remnant vegetation and intersection of roads by riparian vegetation. Conclusions. This work provided strong evidence of the most critical points where mitigation strategies should be immediately implemented and highlighted the importance of detecting roadkill hotspots and the species or taxonomic groups more affected, helping to elaborate effective actions that can improve fauna conservation.

  6. Radiochemical Characterization of Phosphogypsum for its Use in Agriculture in Cerrado, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study involved phosphogypsum (PG), a NORM by-product from the so-called 'wet process' for the manufacture of phosphate fertilizer. Since it contains U and Th series radionuclides, P2O5 and trace metals, it is necessary to understand the mechanisms of radionuclide transfer and to evaluate whether PG in soil contributes significantly to human exposure to natural sources. In greenhouse experiments, PG, soil, soil treated with PG (for lettuce, corn and soya bean cultivation), as well as leached water samples, were analysed for key radionuclides (238U, 232Th, 226Ra, 228Ra, 210Pb and 210Po). The average 226Ra activity in PG (0.252 ± 0.026 Bq/g) was below the limit of the US Environmental Protection Agency. The values of 228Ra, 210Pb, and 210Po were within an order of magnitude of the 226Ra value. Transfer factors varied from 0.00094 to 0.34. In general, the radionuclide mobility in soil was low and demonstrated the viability of PG as a soil amendment in the agriculture of the Cerrado region. (author)

  7. Feeding ecology of Ara ararauna (Aves, Psittacidae at firebreaks in western Cerrado, Brazil

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    Dárius Pukenis Tubelis

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to identify food items of the Blue-and-yellow Macaw (Ara ararauna flocks foraging at firebreaks in western Cerrado, Brazil. Also, I discuss ecological aspects of macaw feeding activities at firebreaks. Two 3,500ha portions of Emas National Park were selected for observations. The sites were mosaics of woodland savanna and shrubby grassland, crossed and bordered by firebreaks and adjacent unsealed roads. A total of 76 foraging flocks of macaws were recorded at firebreaks between September 2006 and February 2007. Seven plant species were identified as food items. Seeds of a shrub species (Anacardium humile were the most often consumed resource. Parts of other plant species were sometimes consumed. Macaws perched in tree canopies to consume their young apical parts, young leaves, flowers and parts of branches. The frequency of consumption of parts of shrubs was significantly higher than that of trees. At Emas National Park, numerous Blue-and-yellow Macaw flocks are attracted to firebreaks mainly by fruiting A. humile patches. Their foraging activities often damage reproductive and young parts of shrubs and trees.

  8. Antioxidant properties of species from the Brazilian cerrado by different assays

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    K.S. Farias

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to screen the antioxidant activity of medicinal plant extracts from the Brazilian cerrado, through other methods than the total phenolic content and its correlation with the antioxidant activity. Ethanolic extracts of ten species were evaluated through three antioxidant assays, in vitro, including 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH, total antioxidant activity and reducing power; and by using the Folin-Ciocalteu method the total phenolic content was determined. Ethanolic extracts of Stryphnodendron obovatum, Cecropia pachystachya and Duguetia furfuraceae showed strong antioxidant activity (IC50<5 µg mL-1 in the DPPH free radical scavenging assay; the species Vernonia phosphorea, Hymenaea stignocarpa and Jacaranda ulei may also be highlighted. These results were confirmed in the assays of total antioxidant capacity and reducing power. The extracts of S. obovatum and V. phosphorea showed an abundant phenolic content; therefore, the phenolic content may play a role in the antioxidant activity. These two species, traditionally used in Brazil, showed great power in these assay systems and may be a promising source for the development of natural antioxidants and future candidates for phytochemical and pharmacological studies in related diseases.

  9. Yield and quality of elephant grass biomass produced in the cerrados region for bioenergy Produção e qualidade da biomassa de capim-elefante produzido em ambiente dos cerrados para fins energéticos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rilner A. Flores

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the performance of two genotypes of elephant grass, fertilized with and without N, for biomass production for energy use under the edaphoclimatic conditions of the Cerrado. The genotypes Roxo and Paraíso, grown in a field experiment in a Latosol in the Cerrado region were evaluated for biomass yield, nitrogen accumulation, C:N and stem:leaf ratios, fibre, ash and P and K contents and calorific value. The accumulated dry biomass ranged from 30 to 42 Mg ha-1 and showed no response to nitrogen fertilization with the lowest biomass obtained by the genotype Paraíso and the highest by Roxo. The total N accumulation followed the same pattern as for dry matter, ranging from 347 to 539 kg N ha-1. C:N and stem:leaf ratio of the biomass produced did not vary with treatments. The fibre contents were higher in genotype Paraíso and the highest levels of ash in the genotype Roxo. The K content in the biomass was higher in genotype Roxo and P did not vary between genotypes. The calorific value averaged 18 MJ kg-1 of dry matter and did not vary with the levels of N in leaves and stems of the plant. Both genotypes, independent of N fertilization, produced over 30 Mg ha-1 of biomass under Cerrado conditions.O presente trabalho objetivou avaliar o desempenho de dois genótipos de capim‑elefante para produção de biomassa para uso energético, em condições edafoclimáticas do Cerrado, fertilizados, ou não, com N. Avaliaram-se os rendimentos de biomassa, o acúmulo de nitrogênio, as relações C/N e colmo/folha, os teores de fibra, as cinzas da biomassa, os teores de K e P da biomassa e poder calorífico dos genótipos Paraíso e Roxo, cultivados em Latossolo, na região de Cerrado. A biomassa seca acumulada variou de 30 a 42 Mg ha-1, não havendo resposta à fertilização nitrogenada, sendo os menores obtidos com o genótipo Paraíso, e os maiores, com o Roxo. A acumulação total de N seguiu o mesmo

  10. Riqueza de espécies de emberizídeos e conflitos iqueza de conservação no Cerrado brasileiro = Emberizidae species richness and conservation conflicts in the Brazilian Cerrado

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    Bruno de Souza Barreto

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Diferentes variáveis têm sido utilizadas para indicar conflitos entre interesses socioeconômicos e conservação da biodiversidade. Neste contexto, esforços para amenizar a crescente perda de diversidade estão sendo baseados nas análises dos conflitos entre conservação e desenvolvimento humano, uma vez que existem, cada vez mais, evidências de que as áreas de maior importância para a conservação podem também apresentar elevadas densidades populacionais humanas. Contudo, para o Cerrado, isso pode não ser verdade em decorrência dos avanços tecnológicos associados à ocupação humana. Assim, o objetivodeste trabalho foi verificar se a densidade populacional humana (H revela conflitos de conservação no Cerrado. Utilizou-se, como medida de biodiversidade, a riqueza de espécies de emberizídeos (aves: Passeriformes, divida em três grupos distintos, de acordo com aextensão de ocorrência das espécies e variáveis ligadas ao modo de ocupação do bioma. Verificou-se, por meio de regressões múltiplas, que a densidade humana não foi o melhor indicador de conflitos de conservação. Índices ligados à agricultura moderna e à pecuáriaforam melhores indicadores para os três grupos de espécies. Deste modo, a partir da riqueza de emberizídeos, a utilização de H, em modelos de seleção de unidades de conservação pode ser equivocada. Para o Cerrado, variáveis ligadas à agricultura moderna e à pecuária devem ser consideradas durante o planejamento sistemático de conservação.Several variables have been used to indicate conflicts betweensocioeconomic interests and biodiversity conservation. Thus, efforts to minimize biodiversity losses are being based on the analysis of such conflicts, since there is more and more evidence that important sites to conservation could support high population densitiesand their impacts. However, in the Cerrado this might not be true due to the technological progress associated with human

  11. Construção coletiva de uma trilha ecológica no cerrado: pesquisa participativa em educação ambiental Collective construction of an ecological track in cerrado: participative research in environmental education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Lacorte Cazoto

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Dentre os muitos temas ambientais que podem ser problematizados pela Educação Ambiental encontra-se a proteção aos ecossistemas. Definiu-se como tema, num projeto de Educação Ambiental, o Cerrado, bioma amplamente degradado por ações antrópicas e que faz parte do ambiente natural de Botucatu, interior de São Paulo. Com o objetivo de despertar um olhar crítico-ambiental, visando a integração do ambiente natural e urbano, o projeto, realizado com alunos da 8ª série do Ensino Fundamental, teve como eixo a construção de uma Trilha Ecológica no Cerrado. Todo o processo de planejamento, realização e avaliação da trilha foi participativo: os participantes estudaram as características do Cerrado; identificaram, na área, as espécies remanescentes; discutiram as condições de conservação da área, e tomaram decisões sobre a construção da trilha como recurso educativo. Problematizaram, coletivamente, a interação comunidade-ambiente, articulando consciência ambiental e ação educativa, concluindo sobre o potencial desencadeador deste recurso para reflexões sobre temas socioambientais. O grupo teve a oportunidade de vivenciar um trabalho educativo com crianças da educação infantil, concretizando a trilha como recurso didático-pedagógico na aproximação "visitantes-educandos-ambiente".Among many subjects that could be debated by environmental education, we could mention the preservation of natural resources. We define the Cerrado, which is a biome largely degraded by human actions and part of the natural environment of Botucatu SP, as theme for an environmental education project. With the intention of creating special ecological attention that aims at the integration of natural and urban environments, this project, that was done with students from the 8 grade of Fundamental School, was concerned with the creation of an Ecological Track in the Cerrado. All the processes of planning, realization and analysis of the

  12. Dieta e comportamento de forrageamento de Suiriri affinis e S. islerorum (Aves, Tyrannidae em um cerrado do Brasil central Diet and foraging behavior of Suiriri affinis and S. islerorum (Aves, Tyrannidae in a central Brazilian cerrado

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    Leonardo E. Lopes

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Foi estudado o comportamento de forrageamento de Suiriri affinis (suiriri-do-cerrado e S. islerorum (suiriri-da-chapada, duas espécies de Tyrannidae que ocorrem em sintopia nos cerrados do Brasil central. Durante o ano de 2003 foram registradas 188 observações de forrageamento para S. affinis e 150 para S. islerorum. Foram encontradas diferenças significativas entre as duas espécies em relação à altura e substrato de forrageamento, fitofisionomia utilizada e densidade da folhagem no local do ataque. O comportamento e a direção do ataque, a espécie de planta e a distância de vôo não diferiram entre as espécies. A análise de 26 conteúdos estomacais de membros do gênero revelou o consumo exclusivo de artrópodes. A baixa porcentagem de observações de forrageamento direcionadas a frutos (apenas 7% e 9%, respectivamente confirmou o caráter insetívoro do gênero.The foraging behavior of Suiriri affinis (Campo Suiriri and S. islerorum (Chapada Flycatcher, two sintopic Tyrant Flycatchers in the Central Brazilian Cerrado (tropical savanna was studied. During 2003, 188 feeding bouts of S. affinis and 150 of S. islerorum were registered. Differences between the two species in the feeding height, foraging substrate, phytophysiognomy used, and foliage density at the point of foraging observation were found. The attack methods, attack direction, distance of flight, and plant species used did not differ between both species. The analysis of 26 stomach contents of members of this genus revealed only arthropods. The low percentage of feeding bouts directed to fruits (only 7% and 9%, respectively confirmed the insectivorous character of this genus.

  13. NATURAL SUPPRESSIVENESS TO Rhizoctonia solani OF DIFFERENT SOILS ON CERRADOS FROM THE STATE OF GOIÁS SUPRESSIVIDADE DE DIFERENTES SOLOS A Rhizoctonia solani, NOS CERRADOS DO ESTADO DE GOIÁS

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    Gilmarcos de Carvalho Corrêa

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available

    This study was carried out at greenhouse in order to evaluate the occurrence of natural suppressiveness to Rhizoctonia solani of soils on cerrados. A complete randomized experimental design was used with ten soils and three replications for treatment, evaluating final stand, sick plantets percentage and disease severity in common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.. Results indicated suppressiveness to R. solani in soils from Goianésia growed with sugar cane and two soils from Orizona with natural vegetation and pasture respectively.

    KEY-WORDS: Supressive soils; Phaseolus vulgaris.

    O presente trabalho foi conduzido nas instalações da Embrapa Arroz e Feijão, no município de Santo Antônio de Goiás (GO, com o objetivo de se comparar solos provenientes de diferentes localidades quanto à supressividade a um isolado de Rhizoctonia solani. O delineamento experimental adotado foi inteiramente casualizado, com dez tratamentos (solos de diferentes origens e três repetições. O experimento foi conduzido em casa de vegetação e foram avaliados stand final, porcentagem de plântulas doentes e severidade da doença. Os resultados indicam que os solos provenientes de Goianésia (GO, cultivados com cana-de-açúcar, e dois dos solos provenientes de Orizona (GO, sendo um de cerrado natural e outro cultivado com pastagem, apresentaram características de supressividade à R. solani, agente causal da podridão radicular do feijoeiro.

    PALAVRAS-CHAVE: Cerrados; solos supressivos; feijoeiro.

  14. Transfer function-noise modeling and spatial interpolation to evaluate the risk of extreme (shallow) water-table levels in the Brazilian Cerrados

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manzione, Rodrigo L.; Knotters, Martin; Heuvelink, Gerard B. M.; von Asmuth, Jos R.; Camara, Gilberto

    2010-12-01

    Water regimes in the Brazilian Cerrados are sensitive to climatological disturbances and human intervention. The risk that critical water-table levels are exceeded over long periods of time can be estimated by applying stochastic methods in modeling the dynamic relationship between water levels and driving forces such as precipitation and evapotranspiration. In this study, a transfer function-noise model, the so called PIRFICT-model, is applied to estimate the dynamic relationship between water-table depth and precipitation surplus/deficit in a watershed with a groundwater monitoring scheme in the Brazilian Cerrados. Critical limits were defined for a period in the Cerrados agricultural calendar, the end of the rainy season, when extremely shallow levels (attention with respect to water-management and land-use planning.

  15. Phosphorus in chronosequence of burnt sugar cane in Brazilian cerrado: humic acid analysis by {sup 31}P NMR; Fosforo em cronossequencia de cana-de-acucar queimada no cerrado goiano: analise de acidos humicos por RMN de {sup 31}P

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rossi, Celeste Q.; Pereira, Marcos G.; Garcia, Andreas C., E-mail: mgervasiopereira@gmail.com [Universidade Federal Rural do Rio de Janeiro (UFRRJ), Seropedica, RJ (Brazil). Dept. de Solos; Perin, Adriano; Gazolla, Paulo R. [Instituto Federal de Educacao, Ciencia e Tecnologia Goiano, Rio Verde, GO (Brazil); Gonzalez, Antonio P. [Universidade de Coruna, ES (Spain). Faculdad de Ciencias

    2013-10-01

    The aim of this study was to identify, with the use of {sup 31}P NMR spectroscopy, organic P species in humic acids (HA) in samples from Oxisol cultivated in chronosequence with sugar cane, pasture and Cerrado. The main forms of P-type found were orthophosphate, monoester-P (phosphate sugars) and P-diester (orthophosphate). The {sup 31}P NMR technique proved capable of identifying changes in the areas studied as a function of sugar cane burning time. In areas with 1 and 5 years of burnt cane, a decrease in recalcitrant organic P in humic acids indicated the need for use of P-humic substances for plant nutrition (author)

  16. Breeding biology and distyly in Palicourea rigida H. B. & K. (Rubiaceae) in the Cerrados of Central Brazil Biologia reprodutiva e distilia em Palicourea rigida H. B. & K. (Rubiaceae) em Cerrados do Brasil Central

    OpenAIRE

    Adriana de Oliveira Machado; Ana Palmira Silva; Helder Consolaro; Mariluza A. Granja e Barros; Paulo Eugênio Oliveira

    2010-01-01

    Distyly is a floral polymorphism more common among the Rubiaceae than in any other angiosperm group. Palicourea rigida is a typically distylous species of the Rubiaceae widely distributed in the Brazilian Cerrados. This work aimed to study the floral biology and breeding system of P. rigida in order to verify if there wasasymmetry between floral morphs. The work was carried out at Fazenda Água Limpa, Brasília-DF, from 1993 to 1995; and at Serra Caldas Novas State Park-Goias and in Clube Caça ...

  17. Diet of two sympatric insectivores bats (Chiroptera: Vespertilionidae) in the Cerrado of Central Brazil Dieta de duas espécies simpátricas de morcegos insetívoros no Cerrado do Brasil Central

    OpenAIRE

    Ludmilla M. de S. Aguiar; Yasmine Antonini

    2008-01-01

    We examined food habits of Vespertilionidae bats Myotis nigricans (Schinz, 1821) and Eptesicus furinalis (d'Orbigny, 1847) by fecal analysis in cerrado sensu stricto and gallery forests, within APA - Gama-Cabeça-de-Veado, Brasília, Distrito Federal, Brazil. Out of 20 fecal samples collected, seven were of Eptesicus furinalis and 13 of Myotis nigricans. The diet of E. furinalis included six orders of insects: Coleoptera (5/7 by items presence), Lepidoptera and Hymenoptera (3/7), Diptera, Hemip...

  18. ESTABILIDADE DE ÁCIDO ASCÓRBICO EM PSEUDOFRUTOS DE CAJU-DO-CERRADO REFRIGERADOS E CONGELADOS STABILITY OF ASCORBIC ACID IN REFRIGERATED AND FROZEN CERRADO CASHEW APPLE

    OpenAIRE

    Jeanne Oliveira; Jeanne Silva Oliveira; Maria Sebastiana Silva; Mara Reis Silva

    2007-01-01

    O trabalho teve por objetivo determinar a estabilidade da vitamina C em pseudofruto de caju-do-cerrado, refrigerado e congelado, em diferentes tempos de armazenamento e embalagens. Os pseudofrutos foram provenientes de dois locais (lotes 1 e 2), tendo sido acondicionados em embalagens de polietileno opacas e transparentes. O lote 1 foi subdivido em duas porções, sendo que uma porção foi refrigerada (4°C) e a outra c...

  19. Que as águas voltem a minar nas minas (dos) gerais: os cerrados pedem socorro! May the water mine again in the mines of Minas Gerais: the cerrado ask for help!

    OpenAIRE

    Marcos Nicolau Santos da Silva

    2013-01-01

    Este trabalho objetiva analisar os impactos sociais e ambientais nos Cerrados do Alto Vale Jequitinhonha e do Norte de Minas Gerais, causados pelos projetos e empreendimentos capitalistas implantados a partir da segunda metade do século XX. Busca-se avaliar, de forma breve, como se deu o processo de modernização com a entrada de capital nesses territórios mineiros, especificamente em algumas comunidades rurais dos municípios de Minas Novas, Campo Azul e Japonvar. Para isso, a metodologia de p...

  20. Efeito de extratos de plantas do Cerrado em Dipetalogaster maxima (Uhler (Hemiptera, Reduviidae Effect of Cerrado plant extracts on Dipetalogaster maxima (Uhler (Hemiptera, Reduviidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André A. M. Coelho

    2009-01-01

    triatomines. Thus, the insecticidal activity of 83 Cerrado plant extracts belonging to 35 species were assayed on first instar nymphs of Dipetalogaster maxima (Uhler, 1894 (Hemiptera, Reduviidae, species found in Mexico. For the extract application on triatomines, 50 μg of the extract were topically applied in duplicate on dorsal tergites of ten insects. Insects topically treated with acetone, ethanol, as well as insects with no treatment were used as controls. Triatomines were observed over a 28-day period. The extracts showed no insect mortality, however, fruit hexane and stem bark ethanolic extracts of Simarouba versicolor (Simaroubaceae inhibited the rate of ecdysis in D. maxima (40% and 25%, respectively. These preliminary data suggest that this extracts should be chemically investigated and monitored through biological assays in order to determine the components, so that it may be used as a molecular model or as biorational compounds for use in insect control programmes.

  1. Phosphogypsum applications in the cerrado agriculture and his radiological implications; Aplicacao do fosfogesso na agricultura do cerrado e suas implicacoes radiologicas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Kerley Alberto Pereira de

    2008-07-01

    phosphogypsum was classified as Class II A - Not Dangerous, Not Inert, Not Corrosive and Not Reactive. The soil samples analyzed as were acids, with low content of organic matter and high potential acidity. The average of specific activity for {sup 226}Ra in phosphogypsum samples (252 Bq.kg{sup -1}) was below of the maximum level recommended by USEPA, which is 370 Bq.kg{sup -1} for agricultural use. Although the most of the results of mean specific activity of radionuclides present in samples of lettuce present values below the Minimum Detectable Activity (MDA), the Transfer Factors were estimated for those conditions in which the mean specific activity proved to be superior to MDA. The values ranges from 1.8 10{sup -3} to 2.3 10{sup -2} for {sup 232}Th; 3.5 10{sup -2} to 4.1 10{sup -2} for {sup 226}Ra, 2.4 10{sup -1} to 3.2 10{sup -1} for {sup 228}Ra and 3.5 10{sup -2} to 8.5 10{sup -2} for {sup 210}Po, depending on the type of soil used in the planting of the vegetables. In general, the results obtained in the present study indicated that the mobility of radionuclides in both studied soils was low. The effective doses committed calculated well below the limit of 1 mSv.year{sup -1} established by ICRP, for the public in general (4,3 10{sup -3} mSv for the experiments in loamy soil and 7,5 10{sup -3} mSv for the experiments in sandy soil). It is possible to conclude that from the point of view of the radiological protection, the data obtained in this work demonstrated the viability of the use of phosphogypsum in agriculture of the Cerrado, Brazil. (author)

  2. Phenotypic plasticity to light of two congeneric trees from contrasting habitats: Brazilian Atlantic Forest versus cerrado (savanna).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barros, F de V; Goulart, M F; Telles, S B Sá; Lovato, M B; Valladares, F; de Lemos-Filho, J P

    2012-01-01

    The Brazilian Atlantic Forest is a typically multi-layer tropical forest, while cerrado (savanna) is a patchy habitat with different physiognomy. Despite these differences, both habitats have high light heterogeneity. Functional traits of Dalbergia nigra and D. miscolobium from the Atlantic Forest and cerrado, respectively, were evaluated under shade (25% of full sunlight) and full sunlight in a nursery experiment. We hypothesised that both species should benefit from high phenotypic plasticity in relation to light. Plasticity was estimated using the relative distance phenotypic index (RDPI). D. miscolobium had lower shoot growth under both light conditions, suggesting it has low competitive capacity in the forest environment, which could explain its limited ability to expand over areas of Atlantic Forest. The studied species exhibited photoprotection strategies under high light and improved light capture under low light. Stomatal conductance, ETR(max) (maximum electron transport rate), PPFD(sat) (saturating photosynthetically active photon flux density), chlorophyll and carotenoid content had higher RDPI than stem morphological traits. Although both species showed considerable phenotypic plasticity, D. miscolobium had higher RDPI for eight of 11 evaluated traits. This high plasticity could be one of the factors that explain the occurrence of this species in a wide range of environmental conditions, from open grassland to dense woodlands, and it could also reflect its adaptation to high light. D. nigra also had considerable plasticity and good growth performance in both shade and full sunlight, but its absence in areas of cerrado suggests that factors other than light limit its occurrence in these habitats. PMID:21972934

  3. Parametrização do modelo 3-PG para eucalipto na região do cerrado de Minas Gerais

    OpenAIRE

    Jarbas Silva Borges; Júlio César Lima Neves; Helton Maycon Lourenço; Nairam Félix de Barros; Sharlles Cristhian Moreira Dias

    2012-01-01

    http://dx.doi.org/10.5902/198050986623O modelo 3-PG é uma ferramenta eficaz para determinação do potencial produtivo de florestas de eucalipto. No entanto, as parametrizações deste modelo, hoje disponíveis, produzem resultados subestimados quando aplicadas à região do Cerrado de Minas Gerais. Dessa forma, o objetivo deste trabalho foi parametrizar o modelo 3-PG para plantios de eucalipto localizados na região do Cerrado de Minas Gerais. Para isso, foram utilizados dados de povoamentos de híbr...

  4. Enraizamento in vitro de catuaba (Anemopaegma arvense (Vell.) Stell. ex de Souza), uma planta medicinal do Cerrado

    OpenAIRE

    A.V.V. SOUZA; F.J.V. OLIVEIRA; B.W. Bertoni; S.C. França; A.M.S. Pereira

    2015-01-01

    Este trabalho foi realizado com o objetivo de otimizar o protocolo para enraizamento in vitro de Anemopaegma arvense, planta medicinal do Cerrado em risco de extinção e conhecida popularmente como catuaba, a qual é amplamente utilizada na medicina popular. Brotações cultivadas in vitro foram inoculadas em meio de cultura MS/2 liquido e MS sólido suplementado com diferentes concentrações de auxinas, poliaminas ou dithiothreitol (DTT). As avaliações foram realizadas quanto à porcentagem de enra...

  5. AVALIAÇÃO DA GERMINAÇÃO DE SEMENTES DE CAGAITA (Eugenia dysenterica DC) NATIVA DO CERRADO BRASILEIRO

    OpenAIRE

    Santos, Ícaro Gonçalves; Previero, Conceição Aparecida; Parente, Hugo Victor Meneses; Campelo, Pedro Henrique

    2013-01-01

    Estudos relacionados à desenvoltura de germinação e produção de espécies nativas são essenciais, uma vez que garantem a preservação delas, consequentemente alavancam as questões socioambientais e culturais das comunidades. É nesse intuito que este presente estudo teve como proposta avaliar a germinação de sementes da cagaita (Eugenia dysenterica DC.), espécie frutífera, nativa do Cerrado brasileiro, apreciada pela população, por se tratar de um fruto com potencial diverso. Por ser uma espécie...

  6. Variabilidade genética de cajuzinho-do-cerrado (Anacardium humile St. Hill. por meio de marcadores rapd

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel dos Santos Carvalho

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Nativo do Cerrado brasileiro e com alta variabilidade morfológica, o cajuzinho-do-cerrado (Anacardium humile St. Hill. apresenta frutos de grande aceitação pelas populações locais, os quais atraem por suas características peculiares, como tamanho, sabor único e potencial para uso sustentável por produtores e pela indústria. A produção de sementes limitada, acarretada pela baixa polinização e pela alta predação por animais e insetos, dificulta a propagação da espécie. O conhecimento da variabilidade genética do cajuzinho-do-cerrado é importante para maximizar o uso de seus recursos genéticos para futuros programas de melhoramento e de conservação da espécie. No presente trabalho, a variabilidade genética de 122 acessos de A. humile procedentes de 11 municípios (procedências do Cerrado de Goiás e Mato Grosso, foi estimada por meio de marcadores RAPD. As similaridades genéticas foram estimadas a partir da matriz binária, tendo sido processadas análises de agrupamento e de dispersão gráfica a partir da matriz de distâncias. Os iniciadores com maior expressão foram OPA11 e 08. Os dez iniciadores utilizados geraram 157 bandas, sendo 156 polimórficas (99 %, com média de 15,6 bandas/ iniciadores. Grande variabilidade dentro de municípios foi detectada, sendo o polimorfismo superior a 90 %, exceto da procedência de Jataí-GO. A distância entre acessos variou de 0,138 a 0,561, com média de 0,370, sendo os menores valores registrados entre os acessos de Mineiros-GO, e Serranópolis-GO. Os acessos de Caiapônia-GO, e Santo Antônio do Descoberto-GO, foram os mais distantes geneticamente. A dissimilaridade total entre acessos variou de 0,103 a 0,796, com médias de 0,390. Os acessos 87 e 114 de Serranópolis-GO, e Santo Antônio do Descoberto-GO, respectivamente, foram os mais distantes geneticamente, demonstrando a importância dessas procedências no enriquecendo do banco de germoplasma da espécie.

  7. Predation on artificial nests by marmosets of the genus Callithrix (Primates, Platyrrhini) in a Cerrado fragment in Southeastern Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Marcos Vinícius de Almeida; Anderson da Silva Lucindo; Thiago Vernaschi Vieira da Costa; Hugo Medeiros Garrido de Paula

    2013-01-01

    Although the causes of decline in bird populations in forest fragments are not well known, nest predation seems to play a major role in these events. A way to estimate the relative importance of predation for the reproduction of native birds is the use of artificial nests. Here, there is a report on the high rates of predation on artificial nests by two marmoset species from the genus Callithrix, C. pennicillata and C. jacchus, as well as their hybrid derivatives, in a Cerrado fragment in the...

  8. Circumstantial evidences for mimicry of scorpions by the neotropical gecko Coleodactylus brachystoma (Squamata, Gekkonidae in the Cerrados of central Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reuber Albuquerque Brandão

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available There are few records of invertebrates mimicry by reptiles. In the Cerrados of central Brazil, the small Coleodactylus brachystoma is an endemic species common in the islands and margins of the Serra da Mesa hydroelectric dam reservoir. When cornered, this lizard folds the tail over the body exposing the pale-orange ventral surface. Lizard behavior, tail length and color pattern confer to this lizard a strong resemblance with syntopic buthid scorpions Rhopalurus agamenon, Tytius matogrossensis, and Anantheris balzani. Lizards and scorpions share the same tail color, size, and shape. Ecologically, they use the same microhabitats, are exposed to the same potential predators, and present similar behaviors when threatened.

  9. Phosphorus in chronosequence of burnt sugar cane in Brazilian cerrado: humic acid analysis by 31P NMR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this study was to identify, with the use of 31P NMR spectroscopy, organic P species in humic acids (HA) in samples from Oxisol cultivated in chronosequence with sugar cane, pasture and Cerrado. The main forms of P-type found were orthophosphate, monoester-P (phosphate sugars) and P-diester (orthophosphate). The 31P NMR technique proved capable of identifying changes in the areas studied as a function of sugar cane burning time. In areas with 1 and 5 years of burnt cane, a decrease in recalcitrant organic P in humic acids indicated the need for use of P-humic substances for plant nutrition (author)

  10. Host plants of insect-induced galls in areas of cerrado in the state of Goiás, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Walter Santos de Araújo; Isadora Portes Abraham Silva; Benedito Baptista dos Santos; Vera Lúcia Gomes-Klein

    2013-01-01

    Most studies of the interactions between plants and gall-inducing (galling) insects have focused on the entomological aspects, few having addressed the diversity of galls in relation to the characteristics of the host plants. The objective of this study was to analyze the richness and composition of the community of host plants of galls in areas of cerrado (savanna) in the state of Goiás, Brazil. To that end, we inventoried the galls in different regions of the state and within various types ...

  11. ABELHAS EUGLOSSINA (HYMENOPTERA: APIDAE ASSOCIADAS À MONOCULTURA DE EUCALIPTO NO CERRADO MATO-GROSSENSE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silva do Nascimento

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar a composição de abelhas Euglossina em três áreas distintas, com monocultura de eucalipto de diferentes idades, utilizando a vegetação nativa como controle, com base nos aspectos de riqueza e abundância. O trabalho foi realizado em três propriedades particulares, localizadas na região Sudoeste de Mato Grosso, em monocultura de eucaliptos de diferentes idades e vegetação nativa (Cerrado. As coletas foram realizadas mensalmente, de dezembro de 2011 a março de 2012, utilizando-se seis essências: eugenol, eucaliptol, vanilina, benzoato de benzila, salicitato de metila e acetato de benzila, das 8 às 16 h. Foram coletados 430 espécimes, de quatro gêneros e 18 espécies. Eulaema nigrita Lepeletier, 1841, Euglossa melanotricha Moure, 1967 e Eulaema cingulata Fabricius, 1804 foram as espécies mais abundantes e comuns a todas as áreas estudadas. A área com maior abundância de abelhas foi ApS (166 indivíduos e com maior riqueza, a Tol (14 espécies. A composição de espécies foi semelhante nas áreas analisadas, e a abundância apresentou dissimilaridade entre a Tol e as áreas SanR e ApS. A área AC (área-controle apresentou maior abundância (147 e riqueza (n = 15 em relação à monocultura de eucalipto.

  12. Environmental flow in the River Ondas basin in Bahia, Brazilian Cerrado.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza Castro, Elis Regina Rodrigues; Moreira, Michel Castro; da Silva, Demetrius David

    2016-01-01

    This paper aimed to estimate the environmental flow of a water basin located in the Brazilian Cerrado using the bidimensional model River2D. The study was carried out in a stretch of the lower portion of the River Ondas in the western part of the state of Bahia, Brazil. To carry out the ecohydrological modeling, the following were used: topobathymetry, hydraulic characterization, the streamflows with the probability of non-exceedances (Q50, Q60, Q70, Q80, Q90, and Q95), and the Habitat Suitability Index for species of the genus Hypostomus. In the River2D, the weighted usable areas (WUAs) pertaining to the streamflows associated with different non-exceedances were simulated for the later construction of optimization and identification matrices of the streamflows that maximize the habitat area throughout the year. For juvenile Hypostomus, WUA increased as streamflow increased, with higher values associated with Q50. For adult specimens, lower WUA values were observed associated with Q50, while higher values were associated with Q95, which shows a preference for lower streamflows. The environmental flows found for the stretch of the River Ondas varied over the course of the year. The lowest environmental flows were observed in September (30.31 m(3) s(-1)) and October (29.98 m(3) s(-1)), while the highest were observed in February (44.22 m(3) s(-1)) and March (43.16 m(3) s(-1)). The environmental flow regime obtained restricts the water availability in the basin, for the purpose of water capture, which shows the importance of ecohydrological studies in forming a basis for water resource management actions. PMID:26718949

  13. Elevated CO2 Atmosphere Minimizes the Effect of Drought on the Cerrado Species Chrysolaena obovata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Vanessa F; Silva, Emerson A; Carvalho, Maria A M

    2016-01-01

    Chrysolaena obovata stores inulin in the rhizophores, associated with drought tolerance. While crop plants are widely studied concerning the interactive effects of high [CO2] and drought, few studies reported these effects in native species. Here, we evaluated the combined effects of these factors on water status and fructan metabolism in C. obovata, a native Cerrado species. Two lots of plants were kept at 380 and 760 ppm CO2 in open-top chambers. In each, [CO2] plants were divided into four groups and cultivated under different water availability: irrigation with 100 (control), 75 (low), 50 (medium), and 25% (severe drought) of the water evapotranspirated in the last 48 h. In each, water treatment plants were collected at 0, 9, 18, and 27 days. On day 27, all plants were re-watered to field capacity and, after 5 days, a new sampling was made. Water restriction caused a decrease in plant moisture, photosynthesis, and in enzymes of fructan metabolism. These changes were generally more pronounced in 25% plants under ambient [CO2]. In the later, increases in the proportion of hexoses and consequent modification of the fructan chain sizes were more marked than under high [CO2]. The results indicate that under elevated [CO2], the negative effects of water restriction on physiological processes were minimized, including the maintenance of rhizophore water potential, increase in water use efficiency, maintenance of photosynthesis and fructan reserves for a longer period, conditions that shall favor the conservation of this species in the predicted climate change scenarios. PMID:27379114

  14. Resource selection and its implications for wide-ranging mammals of the brazilian cerrado.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carly Vynne

    Full Text Available Conserving animals beyond protected areas is critical because even the largest reserves may be too small to maintain viable populations for many wide-ranging species. Identification of landscape features that will promote persistence of a diverse array of species is a high priority, particularly, for protected areas that reside in regions of otherwise extensive habitat loss. This is the case for Emas National Park, a small but important protected area located in the Brazilian Cerrado, the world's most biologically diverse savanna. Emas Park is a large-mammal global conservation priority area but is too small to protect wide-ranging mammals for the long-term and conserving these populations will depend on the landscape surrounding the park. We employed novel, noninvasive methods to determine the relative importance of resources found within the park, as well as identify landscape features that promote persistence of wide-ranging mammals outside reserve borders. We used scat detection dogs to survey for five large mammals of conservation concern: giant armadillo (Priodontes maximus, giant anteater (Myrmecophaga tridactyla, maned wolf (Chrysocyon brachyurus, jaguar (Panthera onca, and puma (Puma concolor. We estimated resource selection probability functions for each species from 1,572 scat locations and 434 giant armadillo burrow locations. Results indicate that giant armadillos and jaguars are highly selective of natural habitats, which makes both species sensitive to landscape change from agricultural development. Due to the high amount of such development outside of the Emas Park boundary, the park provides rare resource conditions that are particularly important for these two species. We also reveal that both woodland and forest vegetation remnants enable use of the agricultural landscape as a whole for maned wolves, pumas, and giant anteaters. We identify those features and their landscape compositions that should be prioritized for

  15. Resource selection and its implications for wide-ranging mammals of the brazilian cerrado.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vynne, Carly; Keim, Jonah L; Machado, Ricardo B; Marinho-Filho, Jader; Silveira, Leandro; Groom, Martha J; Wasser, Samuel K

    2011-01-01

    Conserving animals beyond protected areas is critical because even the largest reserves may be too small to maintain viable populations for many wide-ranging species. Identification of landscape features that will promote persistence of a diverse array of species is a high priority, particularly, for protected areas that reside in regions of otherwise extensive habitat loss. This is the case for Emas National Park, a small but important protected area located in the Brazilian Cerrado, the world's most biologically diverse savanna. Emas Park is a large-mammal global conservation priority area but is too small to protect wide-ranging mammals for the long-term and conserving these populations will depend on the landscape surrounding the park. We employed novel, noninvasive methods to determine the relative importance of resources found within the park, as well as identify landscape features that promote persistence of wide-ranging mammals outside reserve borders. We used scat detection dogs to survey for five large mammals of conservation concern: giant armadillo (Priodontes maximus), giant anteater (Myrmecophaga tridactyla), maned wolf (Chrysocyon brachyurus), jaguar (Panthera onca), and puma (Puma concolor). We estimated resource selection probability functions for each species from 1,572 scat locations and 434 giant armadillo burrow locations. Results indicate that giant armadillos and jaguars are highly selective of natural habitats, which makes both species sensitive to landscape change from agricultural development. Due to the high amount of such development outside of the Emas Park boundary, the park provides rare resource conditions that are particularly important for these two species. We also reveal that both woodland and forest vegetation remnants enable use of the agricultural landscape as a whole for maned wolves, pumas, and giant anteaters. We identify those features and their landscape compositions that should be prioritized for conservation, arguing

  16. Physical-chemical and microbiological changes in Cerrado Soil under differing sugarcane harvest management systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachid Caio TCC

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sugarcane cultivation plays an important role in Brazilian economy, and it is expanding fast, mainly due to the increasing demand for ethanol production. In order to understand the impact of sugarcane cultivation and management, we studied sugarcane under different management regimes (pre-harvest burn and mechanical, unburnt harvest, or green cane, next to a control treatment with native vegetation. The soil bacterial community structure (including an evaluation of the diversity of the ammonia oxidizing (amoA and denitrifying (nirK genes, greenhouse gas flow and several soil physicochemical properties were evaluated. Results Our results indicate that sugarcane cultivation in this region resulted in changes in several soil properties. Moreover, such changes are reflected in the soil microbiota. No significant influence of soil management on greenhouse gas fluxes was found. However, we did find a relationship between the biological changes and the dynamics of soil nutrients. In particular, the burnt cane and green cane treatments had distinct modifications. There were significant differences in the structure of the total bacterial, the ammonia oxidizing and the denitrifying bacterial communities, being that these groups responded differently to the changes in the soil. A combination of physical and chemical factors was correlated to the changes in the structures of the total bacterial communities of the soil. The changes in the structures of the functional groups follow a different pattern than the physicochemical variables. The latter might indicate a strong influence of interactions among different bacterial groups in the N cycle, emphasizing the importance of biological factors in the structuring of these communities. Conclusion Sugarcane land use significantly impacted the structure of total selected soil bacterial communities and ammonia oxidizing and denitrifier gene diversities in a Cerrado field site in Central Brazil

  17. In vitro schistosomicidal activity of some brazilian cerrado species and their isolated compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunha, Nayanne Larissa; Uchôa, Camila Jacintho de Mendonça; Cintra, Lucas Silva; de Souza, Herbert Cristian; Peixoto, Juliana Andrade; Silva, Claudia Peres; Magalhães, Lizandra Guidi; Gimenez, Valéria Maria Meleiro; Groppo, Milton; Rodrigues, Vanderlei; da Silva Filho, Ademar Alves; Andrade E Silva, Márcio Luís; Cunha, Wilson Roberto; Pauletti, Patrícia Mendonça; Januário, Ana Helena

    2012-01-01

    Miconia langsdorffii Cogn. (Melastomataceae), Roupala montana Aubl. (Proteaceae), Struthanthus syringifolius (Mart.) (Loranthaceae), and Schefflera vinosa (Cham. & Schltdl.) Frodin (Araliaceae) are plant species from the Brazilian Cerrado whose schistosomicidal potential has not yet been described. The crude extracts, fractions, the triterpenes betulin, oleanolic acid, ursolic acid and the flavonoids quercetin 3-O-β-D-rhamnoside, quercetin 3-O-β-D-glucoside, quercetin 3-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl-(1-2)-α-L-rhamnopyranoside and isorhamnetin 3-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl-(1-2)-α-L-rhamnopyranoside were evaluated in vitro against Schistosoma mansoni adult worms and the bioactive n-hexane fractions of the mentioned species were also analyzed by GC-MS. Betulin was able to cause worm death percentage values of 25% after 120 h (at 100 μM), and 25% and 50% after 24 and 120 h (at 200 μM), respectively; besides the flavonoid quercetin 3-O-β-D-rhamnoside promoted 25% of death of the parasites at 100 μM. Farther the flavonoids quercetin 3-O-β-D-glucoside and quercetin 3-O-β-D-rhamnoside at 100 μM exhibited significantly reduction in motor activity, 75% and 87.5%, respectively. Biological results indicated that crude extracts of R. montana, S. vinosa, and M. langsdorffii and some n-hexane and EtOAc fractions of this species were able to induce worm death to some extent. The results suggest that lupane-type triterpenes and flavonoid monoglycosides should be considered for further antiparasites studies. PMID:22924053

  18. In Vitro Schistosomicidal Activity of Some Brazilian Cerrado Species and Their Isolated Compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunha, Nayanne Larissa; Uchôa, Camila Jacintho de Mendonça; Cintra, Lucas Silva; de Souza, Herbert Cristian; Peixoto, Juliana Andrade; Silva, Claudia Peres; Magalhães, Lizandra Guidi; Gimenez, Valéria Maria Meleiro; Groppo, Milton; Rodrigues, Vanderlei; da Silva Filho, Ademar Alves; Andrade e Silva, Márcio Luís; Cunha, Wilson Roberto; Pauletti, Patrícia Mendonça; Januário, Ana Helena

    2012-01-01

    Miconia langsdorffii Cogn. (Melastomataceae), Roupala montana Aubl. (Proteaceae), Struthanthus syringifolius (Mart.) (Loranthaceae), and Schefflera vinosa (Cham. & Schltdl.) Frodin (Araliaceae) are plant species from the Brazilian Cerrado whose schistosomicidal potential has not yet been described. The crude extracts, fractions, the triterpenes betulin, oleanolic acid, ursolic acid and the flavonoids quercetin 3-O-β-D-rhamnoside, quercetin 3-O-β-D-glucoside, quercetin 3-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl-(1-2)-α-L-rhamnopyranoside and isorhamnetin 3-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl-(1-2)-α-L-rhamnopyranoside were evaluated in vitro against Schistosoma mansoni adult worms and the bioactive n-hexane fractions of the mentioned species were also analyzed by GC-MS. Betulin was able to cause worm death percentage values of 25% after 120 h (at 100 μM), and 25% and 50% after 24 and 120 h (at 200 μM), respectively; besides the flavonoid quercetin 3-O-β-D-rhamnoside promoted 25% of death of the parasites at 100 μM. Farther the flavonoids quercetin 3-O-β-D-glucoside and quercetin 3-O-β-D-rhamnoside at 100 μM exhibited significantly reduction in motor activity, 75% and 87.5%, respectively. Biological results indicated that crude extracts of R. montana, S. vinosa, and M. langsdorffii and some n-hexane and EtOAc fractions of this species were able to induce worm death to some extent. The results suggest that lupane-type triterpenes and flavonoid monoglycosides should be considered for further antiparasites studies. PMID:22924053

  19. In Vitro Schistosomicidal Activity of Some Brazilian Cerrado Species and Their Isolated Compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nayanne Larissa Cunha

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Miconia langsdorffii Cogn. (Melastomataceae, Roupala montana Aubl. (Proteaceae, Struthanthus syringifolius (Mart. (Loranthaceae, and Schefflera vinosa (Cham. & Schltdl. Frodin (Araliaceae are plant species from the Brazilian Cerrado whose schistosomicidal potential has not yet been described. The crude extracts, fractions, the triterpenes betulin, oleanolic acid, ursolic acid and the flavonoids quercetin 3-O-β-D-rhamnoside, quercetin 3-O-β-D-glucoside, quercetin 3-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl-(1-2-α-L-rhamnopyranoside and isorhamnetin 3-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl-(1-2-α-L-rhamnopyranoside were evaluated in vitro against Schistosoma mansoni adult worms and the bioactive n-hexane fractions of the mentioned species were also analyzed by GC-MS. Betulin was able to cause worm death percentage values of 25% after 120 h (at 100 μM, and 25% and 50% after 24 and 120 h (at 200 μM, respectively; besides the flavonoid quercetin 3-O-β-D-rhamnoside promoted 25% of death of the parasites at 100 μM. Farther the flavonoids quercetin 3-O-β-D-glucoside and quercetin 3-O-β-D-rhamnoside at 100 μM exhibited significantly reduction in motor activity, 75% and 87.5%, respectively. Biological results indicated that crude extracts of R. montana, S. vinosa, and M. langsdorffii and some n-hexane and EtOAc fractions of this species were able to induce worm death to some extent. The results suggest that lupane-type triterpenes and flavonoid monoglycosides should be considered for further antiparasites studies.

  20. Elevated CO2 Atmosphere Minimizes the Effect of Drought on the Cerrado Species Chrysolaena obovata

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Vanessa F.; Silva, Emerson A.; Carvalho, Maria A. M.

    2016-01-01

    Chrysolaena obovata stores inulin in the rhizophores, associated with drought tolerance. While crop plants are widely studied concerning the interactive effects of high [CO2] and drought, few studies reported these effects in native species. Here, we evaluated the combined effects of these factors on water status and fructan metabolism in C. obovata, a native Cerrado species. Two lots of plants were kept at 380 and 760 ppm CO2 in open-top chambers. In each, [CO2] plants were divided into four groups and cultivated under different water availability: irrigation with 100 (control), 75 (low), 50 (medium), and 25% (severe drought) of the water evapotranspirated in the last 48 h. In each, water treatment plants were collected at 0, 9, 18, and 27 days. On day 27, all plants were re-watered to field capacity and, after 5 days, a new sampling was made. Water restriction caused a decrease in plant moisture, photosynthesis, and in enzymes of fructan metabolism. These changes were generally more pronounced in 25% plants under ambient [CO2]. In the later, increases in the proportion of hexoses and consequent modification of the fructan chain sizes were more marked than under high [CO2]. The results indicate that under elevated [CO2], the negative effects of water restriction on physiological processes were minimized, including the maintenance of rhizophore water potential, increase in water use efficiency, maintenance of photosynthesis and fructan reserves for a longer period, conditions that shall favor the conservation of this species in the predicted climate change scenarios. PMID:27379114

  1. Bradyrhizobium ingae sp. nov., isolated from effective nodules of Inga laurina grown in Cerrado soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Krisle; De Meyer, Sofie E; Rouws, Luc F M; Farias, Eliane N C; dos Santos, Marco A O; O'Hara, Graham; Ardley, Julie K; Willems, Anne; Pitard, Rosa Maria; Zilli, Jerri E

    2014-10-01

    Root-nodule bacteria were isolated from Inga laurina (Sw.) Willd. growing in the Cerrado Amazon region, State of Roraima, Brazil. The 16S rRNA gene sequences of six strains (BR 10250(T), BR 10248, BR 10249, BR 10251, BR 10252 and BR 10253) showed low similarities with currently described species of the genus Bradyrhizobium. Phylogenetic analyses of sequences of five housekeeping genes (dnaK, glnII, gyrB, recA and rpoB) revealed Bradyrhizobium iriomotense EK05(T) to be the closest type strain (97.4% sequence similarity or less). Chemotaxonomic data, including fatty acid profiles [with the major components C16:0 and summed feature 8 (C18:1ω6c/C18:1ω7c)], the slow growth rate and carbon compound utilization patterns supported the assignment of our strains to the genus Bradyrhizobium. Results from DNA-DNA hybridizations and physiological traits differentiated our strains from the closest related species of the genus Bradyrhizobium with validly published names. Sequences of symbiosis-related genes for nodulation (nodC) and nitrogen fixation (nifH) grouped together with those of B. iriomotense EK05(T) and Bradyrhizobium sp. strains BR 6610 (used as a commercial inoculant for Inga marginata in Brazil) and TUXTLAS-10 (previously observed in Central America). Based on these data, the six strains represent a novel species, for which the name Bradyrhizobium ingae sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is BR 10250(T) ( = HAMBI 3600(T)). PMID:25013231

  2. Biomass Burning Emissions in the Cerrado of Brazil Computed with Remote Sensing Data and GIS

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    Guild, Liane S.; Brass, James A.; Chatfield, Robert B.; Hlavka, Christine A.; Riggan, Philip J.; Setzer, Alberto; Pereira, Joao A. Raposo; Peterson, David L. (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    Biomass burnin is a common force in much of the developing tropical world where it has wide-ranging environmental impacts. Fire is a component of tropical deforestation and is 0 p often used to clear broad expanses of land for shifting agriculture and cattle ranching. Frequent burning in the tropical savannas is a distinct problem from that of primary forest. In Brazil, most of the burning occurs in the cerrado which occupies approximately 1,800,000 km2, primarily on the great plateau in central Brazil. Wildland and agricultural fires are dramatic sources of regional air pollution in central Brazil. Biomass burning is an important source of a large number of trace gases including greenhouse gases and other chemically active species. Knowledge of trace gas emissions from biomass burning in Brazil is limited by a number of factors, most notably relative emission factors for gases from specific fire types/fuels and accurate estimates of temporal and spatial distribution and extent of fire activity. Estimates of trace gas emissions during September 1992 will be presented that incorporates a digital map of vegetation classes, pyrogenic emission factors calculated from ground and aircraft missions, and Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE) fire products derived from Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) data. The regional emissions calculated from National Oceanographic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) AVHRR estimates of fire activity will provide an independent estimate for comparison with results obtained by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Transport and Atmospheric Chemistry Near the Equator - Atlantic (TRACE-A) experiments.

  3. Mancha foliar em capim-elefante no Cerrado do Brasil Central causada por Bipolaris maydi Leaf spot in elephantgrass in the Cerrado Region of Central Brazil caused by Bipolaris maydis

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    Maria José d´Avila Charchar

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Bipolaris maydis (Y. Nisik. & C. Miyake Shoemaker foi consistentemente isolado de plantas de Pennisetum purpureum Schum., com sintomas de manchas foliares, no Cerrado, em 2005 e 2006. Testes de patogenicidade em mudas sadias de capim-elefante, em casa de vegetação, e o subseqüente reisolamento do fungo confirmaram que B. maydis era o agente causal das lesões foliares observadas. Os primeiros sintomas apareceram dois dias após a inoculação. Onze outras espécies de gramíneas foram suscetíveis ao fungo.Bipolaris maydis (Y. Nisik. & C. Miyake Shoemaker was consistently isolated from elephantgrass (Pennisetum purpureum Schum. showing leaf spot symptoms in the Cerrado of Central Brazil in 2005 and 2006. Pathogenicity tests, under greenhouse conditions, and subsequent re-isolation of B. maydis from artificially infected elephant grass seedlings confirmed that this fungus was the causal agent of the disease. First symptoms of leaf spot appeared two days after inoculation. Eleven other grass species proved to be susceptible to the fungus.

  4. Dry biomass distribution in a cerrado sensu stricto site in Brazil central Distribuição de biomassa seca em um sítio de cerrado sensu stricto no Brasil central

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    Ailton Teixeira do Vale

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available The Cerrado has been the main source of firewood and charcoal in Brazil, but despite being one of the hot spots for conservation of the world's biodiversity, neither plantations of native species nor sustainable management has been adopted in the region. The aim of this work was to investigate the biomass distribution and the potential for energy production of the cerrado species. The study was conducted in a cerrado sensu stricto site at the Água Limpa Farm (15º 56'14'' S and 47º 46'08'' W in the Cerrado Biosphere Reserve. An area of 63.54ha was divided in 20 x 50m plots and, a random sample consisting of ten of these plots, representing 1.56% of the study-site, was assessed. All woody individuals from 5 cm diameter at 30 cm above ground level were identified and measured. Each individual was felled, the twigs thinner than 3cm were discarded while the larger branches and the trunks, both with bark, were weighted separately. After that, 2.5cm transverse sections of the trunk with bark were taken at 0, 25, 50, 75 and 100% of the length. A similar sample was also taken at the base of each branch. A total of 47 species in 35 genera and 24 families were found, with an average density of 673 individuals per ha. The diameter distribution showed a reversed-J shape with 67% of the individuals up to 13cm, while the maximum diameter was 32.30cm. Seven species represented 72% of the total biomass. In general, the species with higher production per tree were among those with higher production per ha. This content was distributed by diameter classes, reaching a maximum of 2.5ton/ha between 9 to 13cm and then, decreasing to 0.96 ton/ha between 29 to 33cm diameter. Carbon sequestering was 6.2ton/ha (until the actual stage of cerrado based on an average 50% carbon content in the dry matter. The heat combustion of the wood varied from 18,903kj/kg to 20,888kj/kg with an average of 19,942kj/kg. The smaller diameter classes fix more carbon due to the large

  5. Arthropods associated with pig carrion in two vegetation profiles of Cerrado in the State of Minas Gerais, Brazil

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    Thiago Augusto Rosa

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Forensic Entomology research has been concentrated in only a few localities of the "Cerrado" vegetation, the Brazilian Savannah. The present study had, as its objective, an examination of the diversity of arthropod fauna associated with the carcasses of Sus scrofa (Linnaeus in this biome. The study was conducted during the dry and humid periods in two Cerrado vegetation profiles of the State of Minas Gerais. The decaying process was slower and greater quantities of arthropods were collected during the dry period. Insects represented 99% of 161,116 arthropods collected. The majority of these were Diptera (80.2% and Coleoptera (8.8%. The entomofauna belong to 85 families and at least 212 species. Diptera were represented by 31 families and at least 132 species. Sarcophagidae (Diptera and Scarabaeidae (Coleoptera were the richest groups. Oxysarcodexia (Sarcophagidae presented the largest number of attracted species, however none of these species bred in the carcasses. The Coleoptera collected belong to at least 50 species of 21 families. Among these species, Dermestes maculatus and Necrobia rufipes were observed breeding in the carcasses. This study showed species with potential importance for estimating the postmortem interval (PMI, indicative of seasonal and environmental type located.

  6. Cover plants and mineral nitrogen: effects on organic matter fractions in an oxisol under no-tillage in the cerrado

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    Isis Lima dos Santos

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Cover plants are essential for the sustainability of no-tillage systems in tropical regions. However, information on the effects of these plants and N fertilization on soil organic matter fractions is still scarce. This study evaluated the effect of cover crops with different chemical composition and of N topdressing on the labile and humified organic matter fractions of an Oxisol of the Cerrado (savanna-like vegetation. The study in a randomized complete block design was arranged in split-plots with three replications. Four cover species were tested in the plots and the presence or absence of N topdressing in the subplot. The following cover species were planted in succession to corn for eight years: Urochloa ruziziensis; Canavalia brasiliensis M. ex Benth; Cajanus cajan (L. Millsp; and Sorghum bicolor (L. Moench. In general, the cultivation of U. ruziziensis increased soil C levels, particularly of C in the humic acid and particulate organic C fractions, which are quality indicators of soil organic matter. The C in humic substances and mineral organic C accounted for the highest proportions of total organic C, demonstrating the strong interaction between organic matter, Fe and Al oxides and kaolinite, which are predominant in these weathered soils of the Cerrado.

  7. CHEMICAL COMPOSITION OF JATOBÁ-DO-CERRADO (HYMENAEA STIGONOCARPA Mart. FLOUR AND ITS EFFECT ON GROWTH OF RATS

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    Ângela Giovana BATISTA

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the chemical composition of jatobá-do-cerrado fl our and its effects on rat´s growth. The chemical composition of the fl our was determined according to AOAC. The PER, NPR, food effi ciency ratio (FER, food conversion ratio (FCR, dry matter digestibility (DMD and fecal output were evaluated by an assay in which animals were fed according the AIN- 93 diet: casein (CAS diet and another having 50% of its protein source from jatobá fl our (JAT. Chemical analysis showed signifi cant amounts of crude fi bre and minerals (potassium, magnesium, calcium and zinc in the fl our. The CAS group ate more and gained more weight than JAT group (p0.05. Faeces moisture and dried weight for JAT were higher, which corroborated its lower DMD (p<0.05. Although JAT group had to intake more diet to promote weight gain, the protein utilization was acceptable. Therefore, further studies are necessary for better understand nutrient and phytochemical composition, their bioavailability, and metabolic effects of jatobá-do-cerrado fl our.

  8. Enzymatic and antagonistic potential of bacteria isolated from typical fruit of Cerrado in Minas Gerais State, Brazil

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    Cristina Ferreira Silva

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Brazil has great biodiversity, which is observed in the Cerrado biome of the tropical Brazilian savanna. The objectives of this study were to isolate and identify bacteria from Psychotria hoffmannseggiana with potential cellulase and pectinase production and with antagonistic activity against Aspergillus carbonarius, an Ochratoxin A (OTA producer. Ripe fruit were collected in the region of Passos City in the preserved Cerrado area in Minas Gerais State, Brazil. Serial dilutions were performed, and the bacteria isolated were biochemically characterized and identified by sequencing. To analyze the production of enzymes, the bacteria were cultivated in CMC and pectinase media. The better enzyme producers were optimized for production. Assays on the antagonistic activity for growth and sporulation were carried out in co-culture (bacteria and filamentous fungi. TLC was performed to verify the mycotoxin production. The predominant microbiota were Gram-negative bacteria belonging to the Enterobacteriaceae family. Some isolates showed potential for enzymatic and antagonistic activity, especially the isolate identified as Lysinibacillus fusiformis. This species was a better producer of cellulases (maximum activity: 103.1 mg glucose min.-1 mg-1 protein. In conclusion, the bacteria isolated from Psychotria hoffmannseggiana showed biotechnological potential for agro-industry and the environmental aspect.

  9. Estimating of gross primary production in an Amazon-Cerrado transitional forest using MODIS and Landsat imagery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danelichen, Victor H M; Biudes, Marcelo S; Velasque, Maísa C S; Machado, Nadja G; Gomes, Raphael S R; Vourlitis, George L; Nogueira, José S

    2015-09-01

    The acceleration of the anthropogenic activity has increased the atmospheric carbon concentration, which causes changes in regional climate. The Gross Primary Production (GPP) is an important variable in the global carbon cycle studies, since it defines the atmospheric carbon extraction rate from terrestrial ecosystems. The objective of this study was to estimate the GPP of the Amazon-Cerrado Transitional Forest by the Vegetation Photosynthesis Model (VPM) using local meteorological data and remote sensing data from MODIS and Landsat 5 TM reflectance from 2005 to 2008. The GPP was estimated using Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) and Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI) calculated by MODIS and Landsat 5 TM images. The GPP estimates were compared with measurements in a flux tower by eddy covariance. The GPP measured in the tower was consistent with higher values during the wet season and there was a trend to increase from 2005 to 2008. The GPP estimated by VPM showed the same increasing trend observed in measured GPP and had high correlation and Willmott's coefficient and low error metrics in comparison to measured GPP. These results indicated high potential of the Landsat 5 TM images to estimate the GPP of Amazon-Cerrado Transitional Forest by VPM. PMID:26221990

  10. Uma nova espécie do gênero Atractus wagler, 1928 (Colubridae: Dipsadinae do Cerrado do Brasil Central

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    Nelson Jorge da Silva Jr

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Atractus edioi sp. n. é descrita para a região da usina hidrelétrica Cana Brava, localizada no extremo norte do Estado de Goiás, município de Minaçu, dentro dos limites do ecossistema Cerrado no Brasil Central. Esta espécie se distingue das outras espécies de Atractus pela combinação da fórmula temporal 1+1, 5 supralabiais, supralabiais 2-3 margeando a órbita, 6 infralabiais, infralabiais 1-3 em contato com as gulares anteriores, 15 escamas nas fileiras dorsais e um padrão de coloração dorsal de manchas escuras sobre um fundo marrom-claro.Atractus edioi sp. n. is described from the region of the Cana Brava hydroelectric power plant, located on the extreme northern state of Goiás, municipality of Minaçu, within the limits of the Cerrado ecosystem of Central Brazil. It can be distinguished from other Atractus by the combination of a temporal formula 1+1, 5 supralabials, supralabials 2-3 bordering the orbit, 6 infralabials, infralabials 1-3 in contact with the anterior genials, 15 dorsal scales rows and a color pattern of dark colored spots on a ground color of the body.

  11. Terrestrial Carbon Sinks in the Brazilian Amazon and Cerrado Region Predicted from MODIS Satellite Data and Ecosystem Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potter, C.; Klooster, S.; Huete, A.; Genovese, V.; Bustamante, M.; Ferreira, L. Guimaraes; deOliveira, R. C., Jr.; Zepp, R.

    2009-01-01

    A simulation model based on satellite observations of monthly vegetation cover from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) was used to estimate monthly carbon fluxes in terrestrial ecosystems of Brazilian Amazon and Cerrado regions over the period 2000-2004. Net ecosystem production (NEP) flux for atmospheric CO2 in the region for these years was estimated. Consistently high carbon sink fluxes in terrestrial ecosystems on a yearly basis were found in the western portions of the states of Acre and Rondonia and the northern portions of the state of Par a. These areas were not significantly impacted by the 2002-2003 El Nino event in terms of net annual carbon gains. Areas of the region that show periodically high carbon source fluxes from terrestrial ecosystems to the atmosphere on yearly basis were found throughout the state of Maranhao and the southern portions of the state of Amazonas. As demonstrated though tower site comparisons, NEP modeled with monthly MODIS Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI) inputs closely resembles the measured seasonal carbon fluxes at the LBA Tapajos tower site. Modeling results suggest that the capacity for use of MODIS Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI) data to predict seasonal uptake rates of CO2 in Amazon forests and Cerrado woodlands is strong.

  12. Viabilidade de escleródios de Sclerotinia sclerotiorum e incidência de fungos antagonistas em solo de Cerrado

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    Leila de Castro Louback Ferraz

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available A viabilidade de escleródios de Sclerotinia sclerotiorum foi avaliada durante oito meses em três solos de Cerrado cultivados. Escleródios produzidos "in vitro", mantidos em invólucros de náilon perfurados, foram enterrados a 5 cm de profundidade, em solos previamente fumigados ou não fumigados com brometo de metila. Após 10 dias de incubação, os escleródios foram examinados quanto à viabilidade e a presença de fungos antagônicos. A viabilidade foi estimada através do número de escleródios germinados 7 dias após plaqueamento em meio semi seletivo Neon-S. A viabilidade dos escleródios variou com o solo de Cerrado. Escleródios incubados em solos não fumigados com brometo de metila apresentaram menor viabilidade e maior presença de fungos antagônicos, indicando que estes solos contêm elementos supressivos de origem biológica. A viabilidade dos escleródios foi relacionada negativamente com a população de alguns microorganismos de solo. Nos tratamentos de maior incidência de Trichoderma spp. observou-se menor viabilidade de escleródios e solos fumigados suprimiram fortemente a ocorrência deste antagonista.

  13. Host plants of insect-induced galls in areas of cerrado in the state of Goiás, Brazil

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    Walter Santos de Araújo

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Most studies of the interactions between plants and gall-inducing (galling insects have focused on the entomological aspects, few having addressed the diversity of galls in relation to the characteristics of the host plants. The objective of this study was to analyze the richness and composition of the community of host plants of galls in areas of cerrado (savanna in the state of Goiás, Brazil. To that end, we inventoried the galls in different regions of the state and within various types of vegetation formations, between 2005 and 2007. We registered 80 gall morphotypes in 58 species of host plants (30 families and 47 genera. The host family with highest diversity of galls was Fabaceae, with 17 morphotypes, followed by Styracaceae, with seven. In the cerrado, Fabaceae is the plant family with the highest number of species. Our results show that the composition of a plant community is a determinant of the distribution of galling insects. At the family or genus level, the presence of certain taxa increases the species richness of the population of galling insects.

  14. Qualidade física de Latossolos Amarelos sob plantio direto na região do Cerrado piauiense

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    Rossanna Barbosa Pragana

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available O Cerrado vem sendo alvo de exploração sem a devida preocupação com a manutenção dos recursos naturais, e os sistemas de produção têm se caracterizado pelo uso intensivo do solo. O objetivo desta pesquisa foi avaliar o efeito do plantio direto na alteração das características físicas de Latossolos Amarelos cultivados com soja. A pesquisa foi realizada na Serra do Quilombo, localizada no cerrado piauiense. Foram verificadas as alterações nos atributos do solo em decorrência da utilização agrícola, que foi iniciada com plantio convencional (PC, posteriormente substituído pelo sistema de plantio direto (PD. Foram amostrados solos com diferentes históricos de uso: PC7/PD8: sete anos de plantio convencional e oito de plantio direto; PC5/PD4: cinco anos de plantio convencional e quatro de plantio direto; PC3/PD3: três anos de plantio convencional e três de plantio direto; e CN: solo com cerrado nativo. As propriedades avaliadas foram: distribuição das frações granulométricas, argila dispersa em água, grau de floculação, relação silte/argila, densidade do solo e das partículas, porosidade total, macro e microporosidade. Os resultados foram submetidos à análise de variância e, como análise complementar, utilizaram-se técnicas multivariadas. Para identificação das características físicas semelhantes do solo, utilizou-se a técnica de análise multivariada denominada análise fatorial. Maiores valores de densidade do solo e de microporosidade foram observados nos sistemas PD, e de macroporosidade e porosidade total, no CN. Os resultados mostraram que a implementação do sistema plantio direto alterou o volume total de poros e a macroporosidade, porém estes apresentaram valores dentro da faixa considerada não restritiva. A análise fatorial possibilitou a visualização conjunta dos atributos do solo, sendo as propriedades densidade do solo, porosidade total e macroporosidade as que mais sofreram variação nos

  15. Crescimento inicial de Dimorphandra wilsonii (Fabaceae - Caesalpinioideae em diferentes condições de fertilidade em solo de cerrado Early development of Dimorphandra wilsonii (Fabaceae - Caesalpinioideae in Cerrado under different soil fertility conditions

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    Márcia Bacelar Fonseca

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Dimorphandra wilsonii Rizz. é uma espécie arbórea criticamente ameaçada de extinção. Foi descrita para áreas de maior fertilidade no Domínio do cerrado; entretanto, atualmente ocorre em áreas isoladas e de baixa fertilidade natural. Com o objetivo de avaliar a adaptação desta espécie a condições de oligotrofia, plantas foram cultivadas em casa de vegetação em solo destas áreas oligotróficas, mas com diferentes níveis de fertilidade. A partir da análise de fertilidade do solo foram definidas as doses de macronutrientes (NPK e a dose de calcário a serem utilizadas nos tratamentos que se constituíram de dois níveis de calagem e três níveis de adubação. Após 220 dias do plantio, os tratamentos que aumentaram significativamente o crescimento foram aqueles que receberam adubação com a dose indicada de NPK em solo não corrigido pela calagem e aquele que teve o solo calado e adubado com duas vezes a dose indicada de NPK. A calagem por si só não promoveu maior crescimento, mas propiciou respostas crescentes de crescimento a níveis crescentes de disponibilidade de nutrientes. Foram encontrados nódulos radiculares em todos os tratamentos, e os resultados permitiram concluir que a espécie apresenta requerimento nutricional coerente com sua área de origem no Domínio do Cerrado. Também foi possível ressaltar a fixação biológica de nitrogênio, incomum em Caesalpinioideae, como estratégia adaptativa para crescimento em áreas com baixa oferta de nutrientes.Dimorphandra wilsonii Rizz. is a critically endangered tree species. It has been described for sites of higher soil fertility in the Cerrado Domain. However, it occurs nowadays in isolated areas of low natural fertility. To study species adaptation to oligotrophic conditions, plants were grown in a greenhouse in soils from oligotrophic sites but with different levels of fertility. After soil fertility analysis, the macronutrients (NPK and lime doses to be used in

  16. Conversion of cerrado into agricultural land in the south-western Amazon: carbon stocks and soil fertility Conversão do cerrado em agricultura no sudoeste da Amazônia: estoques de carbono e fertilidade do solo

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    João Luís Nunes Carvalho

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Land use change and land management practices can modify soil carbon (C dynamics and soil fertility. This study evaluated the effect of tillage systems (no-tillage - NT and conventional tillage - CT on soil C and nutrient stocks in an Oxisol from an Amazonian cerrado following land use change. The study also identified relationships between these stocks and other soil attributes. Carbon, P, K, Ca and Mg stocks, adjusted to the equivalent soil mass in the cerrado (CE, were higher under NT. After adoption of all but one of the NT treatments, C stocks were higher than they were in the other areas we considered. Correlations between C and nutrient stocks showed positive correlations with Ca and Mg under NT due to continuous liming, higher crop residue inputs and lack of soil disturbance, associated with positive correlations with cation exchange capacity (CEC, base saturation and pH. The positive correlation (r = 0.91, p Mudanças de uso da terra e práticas de manejo modificam a dinâmica do C e a fertilidade do solo. Este estudo avaliou as implicações dos sistemas de cultivo (NT e CT nos estoques de C e de nutrientes e identificou inter-relações entre estes estoques e outros atributos da fertilidade do solo em Latossolo após a mudança do uso da terra no cerrado amazônico. Os estoques de C e de nutrientes (P, K, Ca e Mg ajustados pela massa equivalente do solo sob cerrado (CE, foram maiores principalmente sob NT. Após a adoção do NT, exceto em 2NT, os estoques de C foram maiores em relação às demais áreas avaliadas. Correlações entre estoques de C e de nutrientes revelaram algumas correlações positivas com Ca e Mg nas áreas sob NT, devido ao uso continuo de calcário, à maior quantidade de resíduos culturais e ao não revolvimento do solo, associado à correlações positivas com CTC, saturação por bases e pH. A correlação positiva (r = 0,91, p < 0,05 entre estoques de C e CTC em CE indica a importante contribuição da MOS

  17. Threats to the Cerrado remnants of the state of São Paulo, Brazil Ameaças a fragmentos de Cerrado no estado de São Paulo, Brasil

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    Giselda Durigan

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Patches of natural vegetation remaining in landscapes occupied by man are continuously under threat due to the edge effects and also to land use types around these remnants. The most frequent threats and land use types in the vicinity of 81 Cerrado (tropical savanna type fragments in the State of São Paulo, Brazil, were analyzed in order to verify if the frequency of every type of disturbance to the natural ecosystem depends on the neighboring land use. The hypothesis of the study assumes that environmental threats are correlated with land use around protected areas. From the 81 areas, the most frequent human-induced land cover types around the Cerrado remnants were: pasture (recorded in 78% of the areas, sugarcane plantations (26%, roads (19%, annual crops and reforestation (14% each. The most frequent sources of threats were invasive grasses (35% of the areas partially or totally invaded and cattle (observed in 32% of the areas, followed by deforestation (21%, and fire (21%. The chi-square analysis revealed that, with the exception of deforestation, which does not depend on land use, all other threats are influenced by the neighboring land use. The occurrence of invasive grasses and fires are strongly favored by the presence of roads and urban areas. Sugarcane, reforestation, and permanent crops were the less impacting land use types found in the study area, when only considering impact frequency. These land use types have fire and weed control, and also exclude cattle, indirectly protecting natural ecosystems.Fragmentos remanescentes de vegetação natural em paisagens antropizadas sofrem ameaças permanentes, devido aos efeitos de borda e às atividades antrópicas nas áreas limítrofes. Para verificar a hipótese de que o tipo de ameaça ao ecossistema e a sua freqüência dependem do uso da terra no seu entorno, foram analisados 81 fragmentos de Cerrado no estado de São Paulo. Para cada fragmento foram registrados os tipos de perturba

  18. Carbono da biomassa microbiana em solo cultivado com soja sob diferentes sistemas de manejo nos Cerrados Microbial biomass carbon in soil cultivated with soybean, under different management systems in Cerrado

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    Kátia Sueli Sivek Perez

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi quantificar o carbono da biomassa microbina de solo, cultivado com soja em diferentes sistemas de manejo. Os sistemas de manejo foram semeadura direta, uma gradagem, subsolagem e duas gradagens, realizadas num Latossolo Vermelho-Amarelo argiloso. As amostras de solo foram coletadas em cinco profundidades (0-5, 5-10, 10-20, 20-30 e 30-40 cm e em quatro épocas (antes do preparo do solo, 30 dias após a germinação, floração e após a colheita da soja. Foram coletadas, também, amostras de solo na mesma profundidade e na mesma época, em uma área de vegetação nativa (Cerrado sensu strictu, adjacente ao experimento. A subsolagem apresentou os maiores valores de carbono aos 30 dias após a germinação (865,7 mg kg-1 de solo. Este valor foi reduzido para 80,3 mg kg-1 de solo na floração. Os valores de carbono na semeadura direta mantiveram-se mais estáveis, principalmente na camada de 0-20 cm. As camadas de 0-5 e 5-10 cm apresentaram diferença na maioria das épocas estudadas e das demais camadas. A subsolagem mostrou o menor valor do carbono orgânico do solo, após a colheita da soja. Não houve correlação entre a relação carbono da biomassa microbiana/carbono orgânico e os nutrientes do solo na subsolagemThe aim of this study was to quantify soil microbial biomass carbon in a soybean crop under different soil management systems no-tillage, single harrowing, subsoiling and two harrowing, on a clay Red-Yellow Latossol in the Cerrado region. Soils were studied at five depths 0-5, 5-10, 10-20, 20-30 and 30-40 cm. Four periods were observed before soil preparation; 30 days after germination; flowering stage and after harvesting soybean plants. The same measurements were taken under the same conditions in an area of native cerrado vegetation, adjacent to the experiment (Cerrado sensu strictu. Subsoiling showed highest carbon values 30 days after germination (865.7 mg kg-1 of soil. This was reduced to less

  19. Radionuclides and heavy metal contents in phosphogypsum samples in comparison to cerrado soils Conteúdo de radionuclídeos e metais pesados em amostras de fosfogesso, comparativamente ao de solos de cerrado

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    Vanusa Maria Feliciano Jacomino

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Phosphogysum (PG or agricultural gypsum, a solid waste from the phosphate fertilizer industry, is used as soil amendment, especially on soils in the Cerrado region, in Brazil. This material may however contain natural radionuclides and metals which can be transferred to soils, plants and water sources. This paper presents and discusses the results of physical and chemical analyses that characterized samples of PG and compares them to the results found in two typical soils of the Cerrado, a clayey and sandy one. These analyses included: solid waste classification, evaluation of organic matter content and of P, K, Ca, Mg, and Al concentrations and of the mineralogical composition. Natural radionuclides and metal concentrations in PG and soil samples were also measured. Phosphogypsum was classified as Class II A - Not Dangerous, Not Inert, Not Corrosive and Not Reactive. The organic matter content in the soil samples was low and potential acidity high. In the mean, the specific 226Ra activity in the phosphogypsum samples (252 Bq kg-1 was below the maximum level recommended by USEPA, which is 370 Bq kg-1 for agricultural use. In addition, this study verified that natural radionuclides and metals concentrations in PG were lower than in the clayey Oxisol of Sete Lagoas, Minas Gerais, Brazil. These results indicated that the application of phosphogypsum as soil amendment in agriculture would not cause a significant impact on the environment.O fosfogesso ou "gesso agrícola" - um resíduo sólido da indústria de produção de fertilizantes fosfatados - é usado como condicionador de solos, em especial do solo da região do Cerrado, Brasil. Entretanto, esse material contém radionuclídeos naturais e metais que podem ser transferidos para o solo, as plantas e o lençol freático. Neste trabalho são apresentados e discutidos os resultados de análises químicas e físicas para caracterização do fosfogesso e compara seus resultados com aqueles

  20. Soil macrofauna under integrated crop-livestock systems in a Brazilian Cerrado Ferralsol Macrofauna edáfica em sistemas de integração lavoura-pecuária num Latossolo Vermelho do Cerrado

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    Robélio Leandro Marchão

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to assess the effects of integrated crop-livestock systems, associated with two tillage and two fertilization regimes, on the abundance and diversity of the soil macrofauna. Four different management systems were studied: continuous pasture (mixed grass; continuous crop; two crop-livestock rotations (crop/pasture and pasture/crop; and native Cerrado as a control. Macrofauna was sampled using a modified Tropical Soil Biology and Fertility method, and all individuals were counted and identified at the morphospecies level for each plot. A total of 194 morphospecies were found, distributed among 30 groups, and the most representative in decreasing order of density were: Isoptera, Coleoptera larvae, Formicidae, Oligochaeta, Coleoptera adult, Diplopoda, Hemiptera, Diptera larvae, Arachnida, Chilopoda, Lepidoptera, Gasteropoda, Blattodea and Orthoptera. Soil management systems and tillage regimes affected the structure of soil macrofauna, and integrated crop-livestock systems, associated with no-tillage, especially with grass/legume species associations, had more favorable conditions for the development of "soil engineers" compared with continuous pasture or arable crops. Soil macrofauna density and diversity, assessed at morphospecies level, are effective data to measure the impact of land use in Cerrado soils.O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar os efeitos de sistemas de integração lavoura-pecuária, associados a dois tipos de preparo e de fertilização do solo, sobre a abundância e a diversidade da macrofauna edáfica. Quatro sistemas de manejo foram estudados: pastagem contínua de gramíneas; lavoura contínua de culturas anuais; dois sistemas integrados lavoura-pecuária (lavoura/pastagem e pastagem/lavoura; e Cerrado nativo (controle. A macrofauna foi avaliada pelo método "Tropical Soil Biology and Fertility" modificado e todos os indivíduos coletados nas parcelas foram contados e identificados ao nível de

  1. Adubação da batata-doce com nitrogênio, fósforo e potássio em terrenos de "cerrado" Effect of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium on sweet potatoes cultivated on "cerrado" soils

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    José Breda Filho

    1966-01-01

    Full Text Available Em um esquema fatorial com os níveis 0, 40, 80 kg/ha de N e 0, 60, 120 kg/ha de P2O5 ou K2O, foram conduzidas, no Estado de São Paulo, seis experiências de adubação da batata-doce (Ipomoea batatas Lam. em áreas que tiveram vegetação de cerrado e haviam sido, ou não, adubadas nos anos anteriores. O nitrogênio só aumentou significativamente a produção em uma experiência. O efeito do fósforo foi muito pequeno nas duas localizadas em áreas já adubadas, mas em média das outras quatro, conduzidas em solos ainda não adubados, as respostas às doses 1 e 2 atingiram, respectivamente, + 33 e +51%. Em todos os casos, o potássio aumentou significativamente a produção, tendo as respostas médias às doses 1 e 2 correspondido a, respectivamente, + 25 e +30%.Six experiments were conducted in different regions of the State of São Paulo to study the effect of N, P and K on the yield of sweet potatoes (Ipomoea batatasLam. grown on poor "cerrado" soils. Two of these experiments were localized on areas cropped for some years and fertilized with NPK in the previous crops; the others, on areas never fertilized. Potassium increased significantly the yields in all of the experiments. The effect of phosphorus was low in the two experiments conducted on areas previously fertilized but high in the other four localities. Nitrogen increased the yield in only one locality.

  2. Dinâmica de rizóbios em solo do cerrado de Roraima durante o período de estiagem Dynamic of rhizobia in the soil during the dry season in cerrado of Roraima

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    Jerri Édson Zilli

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available A fixação biológica de nitrogênio que ocorre em leguminosas é realizada por um grupo de bactérias conhecidas como rizóbios. A sobrevivência destas bactérias no solo é influenciada por diversos fatores como a temperatura, umidade e fertilidade do solo. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a dinâmica da população de rizóbios em solo após o cultivo de soja, durante o período de estiagem no cerrado de Roraima. Foram amostradas três áreas: i cerrado nativo como referência; ii área cultivada uma vez com soja inoculada com rizóbio; iii e área cultivada duas vezes com soja inoculada com rizóbio em anos consecutivos. O solo foi coletado na profundidade de 0-10 cm em cinco períodos a partir do inicio da estiagem no mês de setembro de 2006 coincidindo com a época de colheita da soja e prolongando-se até março de 2007 (0, 45, 90, 135 e 180 dias. A população de rizóbios no solo foi avaliada pela técnica do número mais provável (NMP utilizando plantas de soja e de feijão-caupi como espécies isca. Foi observado que na área nativa praticamente não existiam bactérias nodulantes de soja, mas havia uma população capaz de nodular o feijão-caupi de até algumas centenas de rizóbios por gramas de solo. O cultivo da soja utilizando sementes inoculadas elevou a população de rizóbios no solo que foi constatada por ambas às espécies de plantas isca. Nas áreas cultivadas, constatou-se uma intensa redução da população de rizóbios no solo, em especial logo após a colheita da soja, continuando o decréscimo até o último período de avaliação. Conclui-se que o cultivo da soja inoculada com rizóbio eleva a densidade de rizóbios em solo do cerrado, mas durante a estiagem ocorre uma drástica redução dessa população, que pode chegar a mais de 99% considerando o início e final do período.The biological nitrogen fixation in legumes is performed by a group of bacteria known as rhizobia. The survival of these

  3. Morphological analysis of thermoplastic starch films and montmorillonite (TPS/MMT) using vegetable oils of Brazilian Cerrado as plasticizers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biopolymers can be used where petrochemical plastics have applications with short life. The excellent degradation of starch and its low cost make it an alternative for obtaining biodegradable plastics. To obtain thermoplastic starch (TPS) is necessary mechanical shake, high temperature and plasticizers. In this work, TPS were produced using three different vegetable oils from Brazilian's cerrado as plasticizers: buriti, macauba or pequi. Materials are also produced with montmorillonite (MMT). All the materials were analyzed by scanning electronic microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The starch micrographs revealed irregular delaminate with a predominance of starch and 'holes' for the oils. In nanocomposites the clusters of clay are dispersed without a defined standard. It was understood that the plasticizers and processing completely changed the structure of starch causing a decrease in their crystallinity degree. Almost all nanocomposites presented exfoliate structure, only one presented intercalated structure. (author)

  4. Qualidade dos méis produzidos por Melipona fasciculata Smith da região do cerrado maranhense

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    Carlos Alexandre Holanda

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The honey of Melipona fasciculata is few known in terms of composition, and therefore generally associated with the characteristics of the honey of Apis mellifera. This study contributes to the knowledge of the physico-chemical characteristics of honey of M. fasciculata of the municipalities of Barra do Corda, Jenipapo dos Vieiras, Fernando Falcão, Carolina and Riachão, in cerrado region from Maranhão. The parameters studied were: moisture, pH, acidity, reducing sugars, apparent sucrose, hydroxymethylfurfural, diastase activity, insoluble solids, ash and color. Some of the observed patterns may conform to the established for A. mellifera, but others must be accompanied by a specific legislation.

  5. Predation on artificial nests by marmosets of the genus Callithrix (Primates, Platyrrhini in a Cerrado fragment in Southeastern Brazil

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    Marcos Vinícius de Almeida

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Although the causes of decline in bird populations in forest fragments are not well known, nest predation seems to play a major role in these events. A way to estimate the relative importance of predation for the reproduction of native birds is the use of artificial nests. Here, there is a report on the high rates of predation on artificial nests by two marmoset species from the genus Callithrix, C. pennicillata and C. jacchus, as well as their hybrid derivatives, in a Cerrado fragment in the state of Sao Paulo, Brazil. By means of artificial nests and quail eggs filled with paraffin, it was possible to identify the marmosets as predators through the bite pattern left on the paraffin. The results suggest a possible occurrence of predation on natural nests. Further studies involving the monitoring of natural nests will be able to confirm the role of marmosets in the decline of bird populations in the study area.

  6. Terrestrial Carbon Fluxes from Deforestation in the Brazilian Amazon and Cerrado Regions Predicted from MODIS Satellite Data and Ecosystem Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klooster, S.; Potter, C.; Genovese, V.

    2008-12-01

    The NASA-CASA (Carnegie Ames Stanford Approach) simulation model based on satellite observations of monthly vegetation cover from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) was used to estimate tropical forest and savanna (Cerrado) carbon pools for the Brazilian Amazon region over the period 2000-2004. Adjustments for mean age of forest stands were carried out across the region, resulting in a new mapping of aboveground biomass pools based on MODIS satellite data. Yearly maps of newly deforested lands from the Brazilian PRODES (Programa de calculo do desflorestamento da Amazonia ) project were combined with these NASA-CASA biomass predictions to generate seasonal budgets of potential carbon and nitrogen trace gas losses from biomass burning events. Simulations of plant residue and soil carbon decomposition were conducted in the NASA-CASA model during and following deforestation events to track the fate of aboveground biomass pools that were cut and burned each year across the region.

  7. In-Vitro Antiviral Activities of Extracts of Plants of The Brazilian Cerrado against the Avian Metapneumovirus (aMPV

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    LK Kohn

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTAvian metapneumovirus (aMPV is a negative-sense single-stranded RNA enveloped virus of the Metapneumovirus genus belonging to theParamyxoviridae family. This virus may cause significant economic losses to the poultry industry, despite vaccination, which is the main tool for controlling and preventing aMPV. The aim of this study was to evaluate the antiviral activity of extracts of four different native plants of the Brazilian Cerrado against aMPV. The antiviral activity against aMPV was determined by titration. This technique measures the ability of plant extract dilutions (25 to 2.5 µg mL-1 to inhibit the cytopathic effect (CPE of the virus, expressed as inhibition percentage (IP. The maximum nontoxic concentration (MNTC of the extracts used in antiviral assay was 25 µg mL-1for Aspidosperma tomentosumand Gaylussacia brasiliensis, and 2.5 µg mL-1for Arrabidaea chicaand Virola sebifera. Twelve different extracts derived from four plant species collected from the Brazilian Cerrado were screened for antiviral activity against aMPV. G. brasiliensis, A. chica,and V. sebifera extracts presented inhibition rates of 99% in the early viral replication stages, suggesting that these extracts act during the adsorption phase. On the other hand, A. tomentosum inhibited 99% virus replication after the virus entered the cell. The biomonitored fractioning of extracts active against aMPV may be a tool to identify the active compounds of plant extracts and to determine their precise mode of action.

  8. Structure and composition of bacterial and fungal community in soil under soybean monoculture in the Brazilian Cerrado

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    J.D Bresolin

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Soybean is the most important oilseed cultivated in the world and Brazil is the second major producer. Expansion of soybean cultivation has direct and indirect impacts on natural habitats of high conservation value, such as the Brazilian savannas (Cerrado. In addition to deforestation, land conversion includes the use of fertilizers and pesticides and can lead to changes in the soil microbial communities. This study evaluated the soil bacterial and fungal communities and the microbial biomass C in a native Cerrado and in a similar no-tillage soybean monoculture area using PCR-DGGE and sequencing of bands. Compared to the native area, microbial biomass C was lower in the soybean area and cluster analysis indicated that the structure of soil microbial communities differed. 16S and 18S rDNA dendrograms analysis did not show differences between row and inter-row samples, but microbial biomass C values were higher in inter-rows during soybean fructification and harvest. The study pointed to different responses and alterations in bacterial and fungal communities due to soil cover changes (fallow x growth period and crop development. These changes might be related to differences in the pattern of root exudates affecting the soil microbial community. Among the bands chosen for sequencing there was a predominance of actinobacteria, y-proteobacteria and ascomycetous divisions. Even under no-tillage management methods, the soil microbial community was affected due to changes in the soil cover and crop development, hence warning of the impacts caused by changes in land use.

  9. Effect of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and phosphate fertilization on initial growth of six arboreal species of cerrado

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    Kenia Alves Pereira Lacerda

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the benefit of inoculation with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi, Glomus clarum, for the initial growth of some native arboreal species of the Cerrado biome, namely gabiroba (Campomanesia cambessedeana, baru (Dipterix alata, jatobá (Hymenaea courbaril, ingá (Inga laurina, caroba (Jacaranda cuspidifolia and chichá (Sterculia striata, in unsterilized soil with low (0.02 mg L‑1 and high (0.2 mg L‑1 concentrations of P in the soil solution. Experiments were conducted in a greenhouse, using 1.5 kg vases, for up to 120 days. The experimental design for each arboreal species was completely randomized, with ten replicates in a 2x2 factorial design (inoculated and noninoculated seedlings, and two levels of phosphorus (P in the soil solution. Arboreal plants of the Cerrado biome showed increased mycorrhizal colonization from inoculation with Glomus clarum, except chichá, as this species showed a high indigenous colonization, not differing from the colonization promoted by inoculated fungi. Inoculation promoted increased growth in baru, gabiroba, ingá, caroba and chichá, increasing shoot dry matter (MSPA and root dry matter (MSR. In caroba, this effect was synergistic with application of P to the soil. Baru and jatobá showed increased dry matter with application of P to the soil only. The mycotrophy (mycorrhizal dependence of species and their response to inoculation and to phosphorus are discussed. In order to produce quality seedlings of caroba, gabiroba, chichá and ingá, combining inoculation with Glomus clarum and phosphate fertilization of the soil is recommended, while for jatobá and baru only the application of P to the soil is recommended.

  10. Phosphorus fractions in an agricultural chronosequence under tillage regimes in the Cerrado area in Goiás, Brazil

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    Roni Fernandes Guareschi

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The increase in the amount and quantity of soil organic matter (SOM, as well as the use of phosphorus-based fertilizers in the superficial soil layer in areas under tillage regimes (TR, may affect phosphorus (P dynamics in the soil. Therefore, the aims of the present work were as follows: to evaluate the inorganic and organic fractions of P and its lability levels (labile, moderately labile, and moderately resistant in a Distroferric Red Latosol under tillage regimes (TR 3, 15, and 20 years after implementation, and to compare them with those of areas of native Cerrado and pastures. We also focus on analyzing the correlations of the P fractions in these areas with other soil attributes, such as total carbon and nitrogen levels, light organic matter (LOM, chemical and physical granulometric fractions of the SOM, maximum phosphate adsorption capacity (MPAC, and the remaining phosphorus (Prem. In each of these areas, samples were collected from the 0.0-0.05 and 0.05-0.10 m soil layers. An entirely randomized experimental design was used. After TR implementation, the constant use of phosphorus-based fertilizers as well as the incremental addition of SOM resulted in an increase in the levels of labile, moderate labile, and moderately resistant organic and inorganic P, with a tendency for total P accumulation to be mostly in the inorganic, moderately labile form. The native Cerrado soil presented high levels of labile and moderately labile inorganic P. Pasture areas presented the lowest levels of labile organic and inorganic P, as well as moderately labile and moderately resistant organic P. By principal component analysis (PCA, it was possible to observe alterations in all soil attributes and P levels of the fractions analyzed.

  11. Genetic structure and diversity of Copaifera langsdorffii Desf. in Cerrado fragments of the São Paulo State, Brazil

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    Lia Maris Orth Ritter Antiqueira

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The loss of large areas of Cerrado (Brazilian savanna in Brazil can lead to reduced biodiversity and to the extinction of species. Therefore, the present study aimed to investigate the genetic fragility of populations of Copaifera langsdorffii Desf exposed to different anthropic conditions in fragments of Cerrado in the state of São Paulo. The study was carried out in two Experimental Stations operated by the Forest Institute (Assis and Itirapina, in one fully protected conservation unit (Pedregulho and in one private property (Brotas. Analyses were conducted using leaf samples from 353 adult specimens and eight pairs of microsatellite loci. The number of alleles per locus ranged from 13 to 15 in all populations, but the mean number of effective alleles was approximately half this value (7.2 to 9-1. Observed heterozygosity was significant and lower than the expected in all populations. Consequently, all populations deviated from Hardy-Weinberg expected frequencies. Fixation indexes were significant for all populations, with the Pedregulho population having the lowest value (0.189 and Itirapina having the highest (0.283. The analysis of spatial genetic structure detected family structures at distance classes of 20 to 65 m in the populations studied. No clones were detected in the populations. Estimates of effective population size were low, but the area occupied by each population studied was large enough for conservation, medium and long term. Recent reductions or bottlenecks were detected in all four populations. Mean Gst’ (genetic divergence indicated that most of the variation was within populations. Cluster structure analysis based on the genotypes detected K= 4 clusters with distinct allele frequencies patterns. The genetic differentiation observed among populations is consistent with the hypothesis of genetic and geographic isolation. Therefore, it is essential to adopt conservation strategies that raise the gene flow between fragments.

  12. Produção de fitomassa e acúmulo de nutrientes por plantas de cobertura no cerrado piauiense

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    Leandro Pereira Pacheco

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o potencial de plantas de cobertura semeadas em diferentes sistemas de cultivo quanto à produção de fitomassa e acúmulo de nutrientes, no cerrado piauiense. O experimento foi instalado no ano agrícola 2010/2011, na Serra do Quilombo, município de Bom Jesus (Piauí. O arranjo utilizado foi em parcelas subdivididas, com os seguintes sistemas de manejo do solo: preparo convencional e plantio direto avaliados nas parcelas e, nas subparcelas, os sistemas de produção: S1 - Soja no verão em monocultura; S2 - Soja no verão e Penissetum glaucum na safrinha; S3 - P. glaucum pré-soja de verão e sobressemeadura de Urochloa ruziziensis na soja no estádio R5.5; S4 - Soja de verão e sobressemeadura de P. glaucum na soja no estádio R5.5; S5 - Milho verão + U. ruziziensis simultâneo. Utilizou-se o delineamento em blocos casualizados, com quatro repetições. Os sistemas com a sobressemeadura do P. glaucum e do U. ruziziensis na soja e o consórcio de milho + U. ruziziensis destacaram-se na produção de fitomassa seca, cobertura do solo e acúmulo de nutrientes durante a entressafra no cerrado piauiense. Os nutrientes com maior taxa de acúmulo pelas plantas de cobertura foram o nitrogênio e o potássio.

  13. PADRÕES DE DISTRIBUIÇÕES ESPACIAIS E TEMPORAIS DE TEMPERATURAS ASSOCIADOS AO BIOMA CERRADO

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    Nicali Bleyer Ferreira dos Santos

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available La presencia de vegetación es un factor importante en el mantenimiento de los procesos biogeoquímicos de la naturaleza. En el Cerrado, la conversión de la vegetación natural en las áreas de la agricultura y de pastoreo induce cambios en las variables biofísicas tales como la temperatura de superficie, altamente sensible a los cambios en la cubierta terrestre. Así, con el fin de contribuir a la comprensión de la dinámica de causa y efecto del uso y ocupación de la región del Cerrado en variables biofísicas, este estudio pretende analizar, a partir de informaciones procedentes del sensor orbital (producto MOD11 - Land Surface Temperature, la correlación entre la ocupación de la tierra y la variabilidad térmica de la superfície. El estúdio fue hecho para el año 2003 en los meses de mayo y septiembre (principio y fin de la sequía. Con este fin, su investigación ha vinculado las diversas formas de ocupación (expresadas por las categorías de uso del suelo con la temperatura de superficie. El análisis de los datos mostro diferencias térmicas significtivas entre las classes naturales e antropizadas y revelo las dependências espaciales de la temperatura de la superfície, com uma fuerte influencia de la estacionalidad.

  14. Aspectos geomorfológicos de veredas: um ecossistema do bioma do cerrado, Brasil.

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    Cristina Helena Ribeiro Rocha Augustin

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available As veredas constituem ecossistemas bem definidos que ocorrem no bioma do cerrado brasileiro, e são caracterizadas pela presença do buriti em condições de drenagem pobre. As Veredas também podem ser consideradas feições geomorfológicas, porque elas somente ocorrem ao longo de vales pouco profundos, com baixa energia hidráulica e que alcançam dezenas de quilômetros, interligados aos sistemas de drenagem regionais do centro e de parte do sudeste brasileiros. Embora objeto de várias pesquisas, a complexidade desses geo-ecossistemas ainda não é plenamente entendida. Este estudo foi realizado em uma vereda com o objetivo de contribuir para um melhor entendimento da estrutura e da dinâmica entre as condições superficiais e subsuperficiais e a ocorrência e manutenção da água desses ecossistemas na superfície. A vereda encontra-se localizada em uma superfície de erosão, formada por solos arenosos desenvolvidos sobre arenitos cretáceos, em área com médias anuais de 1.145mm. Amostras foram coletadas em três perfis de solo, abertos em cada lado do vale e no fundo do canal, ao longo de quatro transectos transversais, posicionados antes do início da cabeceira, no início da cabeceira propriamente dita, no meio curso e a cerca de 400m abaixo deste último. Foram realizados radargramas ao longo desses transectos com o auxílio do Georadar (Ground Penetrating Radar-GPR e abertos três perfis de solo: um em cada lado das bordas, e outro no fundo do vale. Os radargramas indicam a existência de importante sistema de fraturas nos arenitos, indicando que a retenção da água na vereda provavelmente não é advinda da exposição do nível freático regional. Observações de campo e análise dos dados do solo atestam que a presença de umidade do fundo do canal pode estar associada à presença de argila-orgânica, que aparentemente funciona como uma camada tampão, criando condições para a retenção da água na superfície por um

  15. FROM THE GREEN TO THE ASHES: ANALYSIS OF THE JURIDICAL - ENVIRONMENTAL NORMS THAT REGULATE THE EXPLOITATION OF CERRADO WOODS FOR COAL PRODUCTION = DO VERDE ÀS CINZAS: ANÁLISE DAS NORMAS JURÍDICO-AMBIENTAIS QUE REGULAMENTAM A EXPLORAÇÃO DE MADEIRA DO BIOMA CERRADO PARA A PRODUÇÃO DE CARVÃO

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    Aloisio Calsoni Bozzini

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The present work is a research of juridical-environmental norms of"Cerrado" wood exploitation for vegetable coal production. The place of study was the northwest region of Minas Gerais State - Brazil, where the exploitation of the "Cerrado" is very intense due to vegetable coal production used by siderurgic plants. This area isconsidered the largest producer and consumer of vegetable coal from brazilian natural forests. = O presente trabalho é uma pesquisa das normas jurídico-ambientais da exploração de madeira em Cerrado para produção de carvão vegetal. O local de estudo foi a região Noroeste do Estado de Minas Gerais onde a exploração do Cerrado é intensapor causa da produção de carvão vegetal utilizado nas siderúrgicas. Essa região é considerada a maior produtora e consumidora de carvão vegetal de matas nativas do Brasil.

  16. C-14 dating and C-13/C-12 isotopic ratio in soils covered by natural vegetation of cerrado-floresta ecosystem at Humaita (AM)/Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The most recent evidences show that in the Amazon region significant climatic changes occurred in the Quaternary, with emphasis to the dry periods during the Pleistocene and increased precipitation in the Holocene. In this region are found areas with characteristics of cerrado, surrounded by tropical rain forest. The evaluations of soil, vegetation and climate interactions for the formation of these areas are important. Carbon isotopes (12 C, 13 C, 14 C) have been applied in soil organic matter (SOM) of Humaita region, southern Amazon, to evaluate changes in vegetation communities during the Holocene. Isotopic composition of SOM in the deeper part of the soil profiles, shows that probably in the early Holocene the forest has been in the area today occupied by the cerrado vegetation. The results of SOM in the shallow part of soil profiles characterize perfectly the three types of actual vegetation communities. (author)

  17. Organização comunitária de um encrave de cerrado sensu stricto no bioma Caatinga, chapada do Araripe, Barbalha, Ceará Community organization of cerrado sensu stricto within the Caatinga Biome, Araripe plateau, Barbalha Municipality, Ceará

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Itayguara Ribeiro da Costa

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho visou caracterizar a organização comunitária de uma área de cerrado s.s. no semi-árido do nordeste brasileiro, situada no topo da chapada do Araripe, município de Barbalha, Ceará. Foi realizado o levantamento fitossociológico através de 200 pontos-quadrante nos quais foram medidos a altura e o diâmetro no nível do solo (DNS das plantas com no mínimo 3 cm de diâmetro. Foram calculados os parâmetros relativos: densidade, dominância e valor de cobertura (VC. Foi realizada uma análise comparativa dos parâmetros obtidos com outras áreas de cerrado no Brasil. A densidade encontrada foi de 2.224 ind. ha-1 e área basal 19,2 m² ha-1, sendo inferiores aos já obtidos em outros levantamentos. Foram amostradas 43 espécies e 28 famílias. As populações com maior densidade foram as de Miconia albicans, Vismia guianensis e Casearia grandiflora, que foram representadas por arbustos finos e baixos. Entre as populações de maior VC, Byrsonima sericea e Qualea parviflora são espécies consideradas amplamente representadas no bioma cerrado, independente do aumento da aridez, como é o caso da chapada do Araripe A diversidade de Shannon (H' foi de 2,88 nats. ind.¹ e a equabilidade (J' de 0,77, ambos inferiores aos de outros levantamentos em áreas de cerrado s.s. pertencentes à área core do Cerrado no planalto Central. A disparidade entre os critérios de inclusão dificulta uma análise comparativa mais acurada e é aqui discutida.This paper describes the community organization of a cerrado area within the Caatinga Biome, semiarid Northeast Brazil, on the Araripe plateau, Barbalha Municipality, Ceará State. The phytosociological survey was carried out using the point-centered quarter method (200 points and included plants with a minimum stem diameter of 3 cm at ground level. Relative parameters of density, dominance and cover (VC were calculated. These data were compared with other brazilian cerrado areas. The cerrado area

  18. The carbon isotope record in soils along a forest-cerrado ecosystem transect : implications for vegetation changes in the Rondonia state, Southwestern Brazilian Amazon region

    OpenAIRE

    Pessenda, L.C.R.; Gomes, B.M.; Aravena, R.; Ribeiro, A.S.; Boulet, René; Gouveia, S.E.M.

    1998-01-01

    This paper presents carbon isotope data on soil organic matter (SOM) collected along an ecosystem transect that includes a wooded savanah (cerrado), a tropical semideciduous forest (cerradao), a forest transition type and a tropical forest. The study area is located in the Rondonia state, southwestern Brazilian Amazon region. 14C data of total soil organic matter and charcoal indicate that the organic matter in these soils is a least Holocene in age. The forest and forest transition sites are...

  19. The snake assemblage (Squamata: Serpentes) of a Cerrado-Caatinga transition area in Castelo do Piauí, state of Piauí, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Francílio da Silva Rodrigues; Ana Lúcia da Costa Prudente

    2011-01-01

    This study records and analyzes the diversity and structure of a snake assemblage in a transition area between Cerrado and Caatinga, in the municipality of Castelo do Piauí, state of Piauí, comparing the distribution and similarity of the species composition with other open localities already studied in Brazil. We used three complementary sampling methods: time constrained search (TCS), pitfall traps with drift fences (PFT), and incidental encounters (IE). During the TCS and PFT, 912 hours/ob...

  20. Emissions of Nitrous Oxide and Nitric Oxide from Soils of Native and Exotic Ecosystems of the Amazon and Cerrado Regions of Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Davidson, Eric A.; Bustamante, Mercedes M. C.; Alexandre de Siqueira Pinto

    2001-01-01

    This paper reviews reports of nitrous oxide (N2O) and nitric oxide (NO) emissions from soils of the Amazon and Cerrado regions of Brazil. N2O is a stable greenhouse gas in the troposphere and participates in ozone-destroying reactions in the stratosphere, whereas NO participates in tropospheric photochemical reactions that produce ozone. Tropical forests and savannas are important sources of atmospheric N2O and NO, but rapid land use change could be affecting these ...

  1. Integrating vegetation index time series and meteorological data to understand the effect of the land use/land cover (LULC) in the climatic seasonality of the Brazilian Cerrado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lins, D. B.; Zullo, J.; Friedel, M. J.

    2013-12-01

    The Cerrado (savanna ecosystem) of São Paulo state (Brazil) represent a complex mosaic of different typologies of uses, actors and biophysical and social restrictions. Originally, 14% of the state of São Paulo area was covered by the diversity of Cerrado phytophysiognomies. Currently, only 1% of this original composition remains fragmented into numerous relicts of biodiversity, mainly concentrated in the central-eastern of the state. A relevant part of the fragments are found in areas of intense coverage change by human activities, whereas the greatest pressure comes from sugar cane cultivation, either by direct replacement of Cerrado vegetation or occupying pasture areas in the fragments edges. As a result, new local level dynamics has been introduced, directly or indirectly, affecting the established of processes in climate systems. In this study, the main goal is analyzing the relationship between the Cerrado landscape changing and the climate dynamics in regional and local areas. The multi-temporal MODIS 250 m Vegetation Index (VI) datasets (period of 2000 to 2012) are integrated with precipitation data of the correspondent period (http://www.agritempo.gov.br/),one of the most important variable of the spatial phytophysiognomies distribution. The integration of meteorological data enable the development of an integrated approach to understand the relationship between climatic seasonality and the changes in the spatial patterns. A procedure to congregated diverse dynamics information is the Self Organizing Map (SOM, Kohonen, 2001), a technique that relies on unsupervised competitive learning (Kohonen and Somervuo 2002) to recognize patterns. In this approach, high-dimensional data are represented on two dimensions, making possible to obtain patterns that takes into account information from different natures. Observed advances will contribute to bring machine-learning techniques as a valid tool to provide improve in land use/land cover (LULC) analyzes at

  2. Matéria orgânica e textura do solo em veredas conservadas e antropizadas no bioma Cerrado Organic matter and texture of the soil in conserved and altered wetlands in the Cerrado biome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo F. de Sousa

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available As veredas são ecossistemas úmidos, geralmente associados a solos hidromórficos e ao afloramento do lençol freático, ocorrendo com frequência nas proximidades das nascentes e cursos d'água da região do Cerrado. Este trabalho objetivou estudar os solos de veredas situadas no bioma Cerrado, em ambientes conservados e antropizados (em áreas agrícolas e de pecuária, por meio da determinação da textura e da matéria orgânica do solo. Três veredas foram selecionadas para amostragem de solo, sendo: uma conservada, circundada por vegetação natural; uma área antropizada, com pastagem em seu entorno e uma outra, também antropizada, com culturas anuais (agricultura em seu entorno. As amostras de solo foram coletadas em diferentes profundidades, ao longo de linhas de referência dispostas segundo sua posição no relevo, nos terços superior, médio e inferior de uma das vertentes, acompanhando de modo aproximado o sentido da linha de drenagem da vereda. Verificou-se que os teores de argila na região inferior do relevo são maiores em ambientes antropizados e os teores de silte são maiores na vereda adjacente à área agrícola. No terço inferior das vertentes os teores de matéria orgânica são menores em veredas adjacentes às áreas com pastagens e agricultura.Veredas (a type of wetland are humid ecosystems, generally associated to hydromorphic soils and shallow water table, which occur frequently in the neighborhood of the springs and watercourses in the Cerrado region. The objective of this work was to study wetland soils located in undisturbed (native forest and disturbed (agriculture and pasture environments by means of determination of the soil texture and organic matter contents. Three wetlands were selected for this study: undisturbed wetland, surrounded by natural vegetation; disturbed wetland, surrounded by pasture areas; and disturbed wetland, surrounded by cultivated areas. Soil samples were collected at three different

  3. Efeito das condições da desidratação osmótica na qualidade de passas de caju-do-cerrado Effect of dehydration osmotic conditions on the quality of cashew apple from cerrado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mayra Conceição Peixoto Martins

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available A metodologia de superfície de resposta foi usada para determinar as melhores condições de processamento de acordo com a máxima perda de peso e de umidade, baixo valor de atividade de água e incorporação de sólidos e maior concentração de vitamina C na elaboração de passas de caju-do-cerrado, utilizando-se a desidratação osmótica como pré-tratamento. O tempo de tratamento osmótico (2 a 4 horas, a temperatura (30 a 50 °C e a concentração da solução osmótica (40 a 60 °Brix foram as variáveis investigadas para as respostas: perda de peso, perda de umidade, incorporação de sólidos, atividade de água e teor de vitamina C no produto final. Os experimentos foram conduzidos conforme Delineamento Central Composto Rotacional com 19 tratamentos, incluindo pontos axiais e centrais. Para cada resposta, modelos de segunda ordem polinomial foram desenvolvidos usando-se análise de regressão múltipla linear. Foi realizado teste sensorial com 33 provadores para observar a aceitação dos produtos com qualidades tecnológicas e nutricionais adequadas, sendo que a passa de caju-do-cerrado processada com solução osmótica de 40 °Brix, 50 °C, durante quatro horas, apresentou os melhores resultados.Response surface methodology was used to determine the best conditions for maximum weight and moisture loss, low water activity and solid gain value, and the highest vitamin C content cashew apple from Cerrado (vast tropical savanna ecoregion of Brazil, using osmotic dehydration as a pre-treatment. The processing time (2-4 hours, temperature (30-50 °C, and sucrose concentration (40-60 °Brix were investigated to explain weight loss, moisture loss, solid gain, water activity, and vitamin C content in the final products. The experiments were designed according to Central Composite Rotatable Design with 19 treatments including central and axial points. For each response, second order polynomial models were developed using multiple linear

  4. Avaliação in vitro da atividade fotoprotetora de extratos vegetais do cerrado de Mato Grosso In vitro sunscreen activity evaluation of plants extracts from Mato Grosso cerrado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivana M. P. Violante

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available O cerrado brasileiro é um bioma detentor de grande diversidade biológica. No entanto, são escassas as pesquisas de espécies vegetais, especialmente do cerrado mato-grossense, com potencial para serem utilizadas como filtros solares naturais. O objetivo desta pesquisa foi estudar o potencial fotoprotetor de espécies de diferentes famílias (Apocynaceae, Lythraceae, Oxalidaceae do cerrado da região do Rio Manso, Chapada dos Guimarães - MT. A absorbância dos extratos etanólicos secos foram medidas em diferentes concentrações entre os comprimentos de onda de 260 a 400nm para verificar a absorção nas regiões ultravioleta A e B (UVA e UVB. As plantas que apresentaram absorbância na região estudada foram submetidas a uma análise fitoquímica qualitativa preliminar para determinar a presença de polifenóis e alcalóides, constituintes característicos de plantas que absorvem a radiação UV. Os extratos etanólicos secos que apresentaram absorção em UVB foram submetidos ao teste de determinação in vitro do Fator de Proteção Solar (FPS desenvolvido por Mansur. M. Velame apresentou absorção na região UVB com absorbância máxima em 318nm, enquanto que a L. pacari e O. hirsutissima apresentaram absorbância na região UVA. Na concentração utilizada e padronizada, nenhuma das espécies apresentou FPS >2, sendo assim não podem ser consideradas plantas com potencial fotoprotetor.The Brazilian savanna is a holding biome of large biological diversity. However, the researches of plants species are scarce, especially at the Mato Grosso's savanna; which have potential to be used as natural sunscreen. The objective of this research was to study the photoprotector potential of several species (Apocynaceae, Lythraceae, Oxalidaceae from the savanna's region at the Manso River, Chapada dos Guimarães - MT. The absorbance of dry ethanolic extracts were measured in different concentrations, between waves from 260nm until 400 nm in length

  5. Parametrização do modelo 3-PG para eucalipto na região do cerrado de Minas Gerais

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    Jarbas Silva Borges

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5902/198050986623O modelo 3-PG é uma ferramenta eficaz para determinação do potencial produtivo de florestas de eucalipto. No entanto, as parametrizações deste modelo, hoje disponíveis, produzem resultados subestimados quando aplicadas à região do Cerrado de Minas Gerais. Dessa forma, o objetivo deste trabalho foi parametrizar o modelo 3-PG para plantios de eucalipto localizados na região do Cerrado de Minas Gerais. Para isso, foram utilizados dados de povoamentos de híbridos clonais de Eucalyptus grandis x Eucalyptus urophylla, com idades entre 3 e 84 meses, localizados nas regiões de Curvelo e Itacambira  – MG. As estimativas de crescimento obtidas pelo modelo 3-PG foram comparadas com dados de crescimento de povoamentos florestais medidos nas duas regiões, até a idade de 84 meses. O conjunto de valores de parâmetros e variáveis obtidos neste trabalho permitiu simular com acurácia, em termos das variáveis produzidas pelo modelo, os padrões de crescimento de povoamentos florestais presentes na região do Cerrado mineiro. Dessa forma, conclui-se que a parametrização promoveu melhorias no desempenho do modelo que resultaram em estimativas acuradas de crescimento.

  6. Sarchophagid flies (Insecta, Diptera from pig carcasses in Minas Gerais, Brazil, with nine new records from the Cerrado, a threatened Neotropical biome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cátia A. Mello-Patiu

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Sarchophagid flies (Insecta, Diptera from pig carcasses in Minas Gerais, Brazil, with nine new records from the Cerrado, a threatened Neotropical biome. The diversity of the Sarcophagidae fauna of the Cerrado biome, also know as the Brazilian Savanna, is still underestimated. In this research we collected flies in the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil, during a Forensic Entomology experiment. Samples were collected throughout the decomposition process of domestic pig (Sus scrofa Linnaeus carcasses, and the experiments were conducted in areas of pasture and semideciduous forest. A total of 85,694 adult flesh flies belonging to 57 species were collected from all carcasses. New records for nine species of Sarcophaginae are provided, including the first record of Blaesoxipha (Acridiophaga caridei (Brèthes, 1906 to Brazil, and new occurrences of the following species for the Cerrado and/or for the state of Minas Gerais: Blaesoxipha (Acanthodotheca acridiophagoides (Lopes & Downs, 1951, Malacophagomyia filamenta (Dodge, 1964, Nephochaetopteryx orbitalis (Curran & Walley, 1934, Nephochaetopteryx cyaneiventris Lopes, 1936, Nephochaetopteryx pallidiventris Townsend, 1934, Oxysarcodexia occulta Lopes, 1946, Ravinia effrenata (Walker, 1861 and Sarcophaga (Neobellieria polistensis (Hall, 1933.

  7. Estabilidade e adaptabilidade do algodoeiro herbáceo no Cerrado do Mato Grosso e Mato Grosso do Sul Stability and adaptability of herbaceum cotton in the Cerrado of Mato Grosso and Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adalgisa Aranha de Souza

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi analisar a estabilidade e a adaptabilidade, e agrupar ambientes de cultivo, com dados de produtividade de oito genótipos do algodoeiro, avaliados em 16 ambientes localizados no Cerrado de Mato Grosso e Mato Grosso do Sul, na safra 1998/1999. O delineamento utilizado foi em quadrado latino 8x8. As análises individual e conjunta foram realizadas, considerando-se os efeitos de genótipos e ambientes fixos. Os parâmetros foram avaliados pelo método da ecovalência e pelo modelo AMMI. A linhagem CNPA 94773 foi a mais estável e adaptada às condições ambientais. Houve adaptabilidade específica e interação positiva de genótipos a grupos de ambientes: ITA 90 (Campo Novo dos Parecis, Chapadão do Sul, Sorriso, Itiquira e Sapezal; ITA 96, FMT Fetagri e FMT Saturno (Rondonópolis e Pedra Preta; BRS 197 (Nova Mutum, Primavera do Leste e Campo Verde; BRS FACUAL (Quatro Marcos e Campo Verde; CNPA 94773 (Ponta Porã, Sapezal, Alto Taquari e Lucas do Rio Verde e BRS Antares (Ponta Porã, Alto Taquari e Lucas do Rio Verde.The objective of this work was to analyze stability and adaptability, and to group environments with productivity data of eight cotton genotypes in 16 environments of Cerrado of Mato Grosso and Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil, in 1998/1999 harvest. Statistical model used was the simple square 8x8. The individual and combined statistical analysis were performed by considering genotype and environment effects fixed. Parameters of the cultivars or lines were evaluated by the covalence, method and by the AMMI procedure. The lineage CNPA 94773 was the stablest and most adapted to environmental conditions. There was a positive specific adaptability and interaction of the genotypes with the environments: CNPA ITA 90 cultivar (Campo Novo dos Parecis, Chapadão do Sul, Sorriso, Itiquira and Sapezal; ITA 96, FMT Fetagri and FMT Saturno (Rondonópolis and Pedra Preta; BRS 197 (Nova Mutum, Primavera do Leste and Campo

  8. New apiaceous hosts of Sclerotinia sclerotiorum in the Cerrado region of Brazil Novas hospedeiras de Sclerotinia sclerotiorum na família Apiaceae na região do Cerrado do Brasil

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    A Reis

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports for the first time in the Cerrado region of Brazil the occurrence of white mold caused by Sclerotinia sclerotiorum in coriander (Coriandum sativum, parsley (Petroselinum crispum and Peruvian carrot (Arracacia xanthorrhiza. The disease was observed on coriander, in Cristalina, Goiás State, on parsley in Gama, the Federal District and on Peruvian carrot in Ibiá, Minas Gerais State. Pathogenicity tests demonstrated that the fungus S. sclerotiorum is the causal agent of the observed symptoms in these plants. The three isolates obtained from naturally infected plants were inoculated in coriander (cv. Verdão, parsley (cv. Lisa Gigante, Peruvian carrot (cv. Amarela de Senador Amaral and carrot (cv. Forto Nantes and they were pathogenic to these hosts. The fungus isolates were re-isolated from inoculated plants fulfilling Koch´s postulates and also confirming that S. sclerotiorum is a polyphagous pathogen.Nesta publicação relata-se, pela primeira vez, na região de cerrado do Brasil, a ocorrência de mofo-branco, causado por Sclerotinia sclerotiorum em coentro (Coriandum sativum, salsa (Petroselinum crispum e mandioquinha salsa (Arracacia xanthorrhiza, três espécies de hortaliças pertencentes à família Apiaceae. A doença foi detectada em coentro no município de Cristalina-GO, em salsa na cidade satélite do Gama-DF e em mandioquinha salsa no município de Ibiá-MG. Os testes de patogenicidade foram realizados em coentro, salsa e em mandioquinha salsa e o fungo foi reisolado das plantas inoculadas, completando-se assim os postulados de Koch. Quando os três isolados foram inoculados nas três espécies de plantas e também em cenoura (cv. Forto Nantes, todos os três isolados foram patogênicos, demonstrando a falta de especificidade por hospedeira de S. sclerotiorum.

  9. Diet of two sympatric insectivores bats (Chiroptera: Vespertilionidae in the Cerrado of Central Brazil Dieta de duas espécies simpátricas de morcegos insetívoros no Cerrado do Brasil Central

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ludmilla M. S. Aguiar

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available We examined food habits of Vespertilionidae bats Myotis nigricans (Schinz, 1821 and Eptesicus furinalis (d'Orbigny, 1847 by fecal analysis in cerrado sensu stricto and gallery forests, within APA - Gama-Cabeça-de-Veado, Brasília, Distrito Federal, Brazil. Out of 20 fecal samples collected, seven were of Eptesicus furinalis and 13 of Myotis nigricans. The diet of E. furinalis included six orders of insects: Coleoptera (5/7 by items presence, Lepidoptera and Hymenoptera (3/7, Diptera, Hemiptera and Homoptera (1/7. The diet of M. nigricans included all the main orders consumed by E. furinalis (6/13, 4/13, 4/13, 3/13, 1/13, and 4/13 respectively and one other order: Orthoptera (1/13. Homoptera, Diptera and Orthoptera were collected only in bats captured in gallery forest. There is 80% of overlap in the diet of these two species. Predation on species of Scarabeidae, Hesperiidae, Sphingidae and Saturniidae families confirms bats potential as biological control agents of pests in agricultural ecosystems.Foi examinado o hábito alimentar das espécies de Vespertilionidae Myotis nigricans (Schinz, 1821 e Eptesicus furinalis (d'Orbigny, 1847 por meio de análise de amostras fecais coletadas em animais capturados em área de cerrado sensu stricto e matas de galeria, na APA - Gama-Cabeça-de-Veado, Brasília, Distrito Federal, Brasil. Um total de 20 amostras fecais foi analisado, sendo sete de E. furinalis e 13 de M. nigricans. A dieta de E. furinalis incluiu seis ordens de insetos: Coleoptera (5/7 (presença na amostra total, Lepidoptera e Hymenoptera (3/7, Diptera, Hemiptera e Homoptera (1/7. A dieta de M. nigricans incluiu todas as ordens consumidas por E. furinalis (6/13, 4/13, 4/13, 3/13, 1/13, and 4/13 respectively e uma ordem a mais: Orthoptera (1/13. Homoptera, Diptera e Orthoptera só foram amostrados para morcegos capturados em mata de galeria. Há 80% de sobreposição na dieta destas duas espécies. A predação sobre espécies das fam

  10. Antifungal activity of extracts from Brazilian Cerrado plants on Colletotrichum gloeosporioides and Corynespora cassiicola Atividade antifúngica de extratos de plantas do Cerrado brasileiro sobre Colletotrichum gloeosporioides e Corynespora cassiicola

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    E.S. Naruzawa

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to determine the antifungal activity of leaf aqueous and hydroethanolic extracts of 10 plants from the Brazilian Cerrado on Colletotrichum gloeosporioides and Corynespora cassiicola. Antifungal activity was measured through the incorporation of each extract in a culture media or spore suspension, at 50% concentration relative to the volume, determining respectively the mycelial growth and the spore germination. Then, the percentages of mycelial growth inhibition and spore germination inhibition were obtained based on the comparison with the control. The extracts had a variable action on the phytopathogens, from mycelial growth stimulation for Aristolochia esperanzae and Byrsonima verbascifolia extracts to complete inhibition of mycelial growth and spore germination for Myracrodruon urundeuva and Lafoensia pacari extracts. M. urundeuva, L. pacari and Caryocar brasiliense leaf extracts had antifungal activity against Colletotrichum gloeosporioides and Corynespora cassiicola; the hydroethanolic extracts presented more antifungal activity than the aqueous extracts, and spore germination of both phytopathogens was more affected than their mycelial growth.O objetivo deste trabalho foi determinar a atividade antifúngica de extratos aquosos e extratos hidroetanólicos de folhas de 10 plantas do Cerrado brasileiro sobre Colletotrichum gloeosporioides e Corynespora cassiicola. A determinação da atividade antifúngica foi realizada pela incorporação do extrato em meio de cultura ou na suspensão de esporos, na concentração de 50% em relação ao volume, determinando-se, respectivamente, o crescimento micelial e a germinação de esporos. Em seguida, pela comparação com a testemunha, foram obtidas as percentagens de inibição do crescimento micelial e da germinação dos esporos. Foi constatado comportamento variável dos extratos sobre os fitopatógenos, desde o estímulo no crescimento micelial para os extratos de Aristolochia

  11. Efeito do cultivo da soja na dinâmica da população bacteriana, em solos de cerrado Effects of soybean cultivation on the bacterial population dynamics in cerrado soils

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    JOÃO CARLOS PEREIRA

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve por objetivo avaliar a influência do cultivo da soja sobre a dinâmica da população bacteriana, em dois solos de Cerrado do Estado de São Paulo, originalmente cobertos com Paspalum notatum (em Barretos e Brachiaria decumbens (em S��o Carlos. Nesses solos, a densidade da população de bactérias em geral variou de 398,1 x 10³ a 467,7 x 10³ e de 123 x 10³ a 218,8 x 10³ ufc (unidades formadoras de colônias/g de solo seco, respectivamente. O cultivo da soja, em ambos os solos, resultou em incrementos variados nos números de ufc/g de solo seco da população de bactérias em geral, das resistentes aos antibióticos estreptomicina e cloranfenicol, e de actinomicetos. A população de actinomicetos ocorreu no solo principalmente como esporos, e as variações das relações esporos/hifas entre os solos não-rizosférico e rizosférico não foram significativas. Os resultados evidenciam que o cultivo da soja influenciou de forma diferenciada a população desses solos.The effect of soybean cultivation on the population dynamics of the bacterial community was evaluated in two "Cerrado" soils of São Paulo State, Brazil. The experimental areas, in the vicinities of the cities of São Carlos and Barretos, were previously cultivated, respectively, with Paspalum notatum and Brachiaria decumbens. The bacterial population densities in these soils varied from 398.1 x 10³ to 467.7 x 10³ cfu (colony forming units and from 123 x 10³ to 218.8 x 10³ cfu/g of dried soil, respectively, in São Carlos and Barretos soils. Soybean cultivation in both soils resulted in increments in the total bacterial population density, in the actinomycetes population, and in the bacterial population resistant to the antibiotics streptomycin and chloramphenicol. Actinomycetes were present in these soils mainly as spores. Soybean cultivation did not alter the actinomycetes spores/hyphae ratio when comparing rhizospheric and non-rhizospheric soils

  12. Atributos químicos e estabilidade de agregados sob diferentes culturas de cobertura em Latossolo do cerrado Chemical properties and aggregate stability under different cover crops in cerrado Oxisol

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    Glenio G. Santos

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se, com este trabalho, avaliar o efeito de diferentes culturas de cobertura sobre os atributos químicos e a estabilidade de agregados de um Latossolo do cerrado, sob plantio direto. O estudo foi conduzido em área experimental na Embrapa Arroz e Feijão, em Santo Antônio de Goiás, GO. As culturas de cobertura avaliadas foram: braquiária, milho em consórcio com braquiária (integração lavoura-pecuária, guandu anão, milheto, capim mombaça, sorgo granífero, estilosantes e crotalária. As amostras foram coletadas em abril de 2005 e 2006. O delineamento experimental foi o de blocos completos ao acaso com quatro repetições e os tratamentos arranjados em esquema fatorial 8 x 2, sendo oito culturas de cobertura e duas profundidades de amostragem do solo: 0-0,10 e 0,10-0,20 m. As culturas de cobertura influenciam, de forma diferenciada, os valores de pH e os teores de cálcio, magnésio, alumínio, fósforo, potássio, cobre, zinco e ferro do solo. O tratamento estilosantes tem maior poder em acidificar o solo. A agregação do solo varia com as culturas de cobertura e com a profundidade.The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of different cover crops on chemical properties and aggregate stability in a cerrado Oxisol under no-tillage. The study was carried out in Embrapa Rice and Beans, in Santo Antônio de Goiás, GO, Brazil. The cover crops evaluated were: Urochloa brizantha, Urochloa brizantha and corn in association (crop-livestock integrated, Cajanus cajan, Pennisetum glaucum, Panicum maximum, Sorghum bicolor, Stylosanthes guianensis and Crotalaria juncea. The soil samples were collected in April and September 2005 and April 2006. The experimental design was in completely randomized blocks with four replications and treatments arranged in factorial scheme 8 x 2, eight cover crops and two soil sampling depths, 0-0.10 and 0.10-0.20 m. The different cover crops affect pH values and calcium, magnesium, aluminum

  13. Severidade da mancha-de-alternária em cultivares de girassol na região do Cerrado do Distrito Federal Severity of alternaria in sunflower crop in the Cerrado region of Federal District, Brazil

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    Renato Fernando Amabile

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se a severidade da mancha-de-alternária (Alternaria helianthi em cinco genótipos de girassol (Helianthus annuus L., em duas densidades populacionais e duas épocas de semeadura. Os experimentos foram conduzidos no campo experimental da Embrapa-Centro de Pesquisa Agropecuária dos Cerrados, em Planaltina, DF, no ano agrícola de 1998/1999, num Latossolo areno-argiloso. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi o de blocos ao acaso, num esquema fatorial de 5 x 2, com três repetições. A porcentagem de plantas com sintomas da mancha foi estimada por meio de observações semanais, empregandose notas de 0 a 5 nos terços inferior, médio e superior da planta. A população de plantas não influenciou na incidência de alternária. Todas as cultivares estudadas foram suscetíveis à doença. As condições climáticas transcorridas em cada época de semeadura modificaram a severidade da doença.Severity of alternaria leaf spot was evaluated in five genotypes of sunflower as a result of two densities of population and two sowing dates. The experiments were conducted in the Embrapa-Centro de Pesquisa Agropecuária dos Cerrados experimental field, at Planaltina, DF, Brazil, on the crop season of 1998/1999 on an Oxisol soil. The experimental design was in randomized blocks in a 5 x 2 factorial with three replicates. The percentage of infected plants was estimated based on weekly observations considering scores from 0 to 5 in lower, middle and upper parts of the plant. The occurrence of alternaria was not influenced by density of population of 42,000 or 49,000 plants/ha. All cultivars were susceptible to the disease. The climatic conditions for each sowing date changed the disease severity.

  14. Modeling of Carbon Sequestration on Eucalyptus Plantation in Brazililian Cerrado Region for Better Characterization of Net Primary Productivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Echeverri, J. D.; Siqueira, M. B.

    2013-05-01

    Managed Forests have important roles in climate change due to their contribution to CO2 sequestration stored in their biomass, soils and products therefrom. Terrestrial net primary production (NPP, kgC/m2), equal to gross primary production minus autotrophic respiration, represents the carbon available for plant allocation to leaves, stems, roots, defensive compounds, and reproduction and is the basic measure of biological productivity. Tree growth, food production, fossil fuel production, and atmospheric CO2 levels are all strongly controlled by NPP. Accurate quantification of NPP at local to global scales is therefore central topic for carbon cycle researchers, foresters, land and resource managers, and politicians. For recent or current NPP estimates, satellite remote sensing can be used but for future climate scenarios, simulation models are required. There is an increasing trend to displace natural Brazilian Cerrado to Eucalyptus for paper mills and energy conversion from biomass. The objective of this research exercise is to characterize NPP from managed Eucalyptus plantation in the Brazilian Cerrado. The models selected for this study were the 3-PG and Biome-BGC. The selection of these models aims to cover a range of complexity that allow the evaluation of the processes modeled as to its relevance to a best estimate of productivity in eucalyptus forests. 3-PG model is the simplest of the models chosen for this exercise. Its main purpose is to estimate productivity of forests in timber production. The model uses the relationship of quantum efficiency in the transformation of light energy into biomass for vegetative growth calculations in steps in time of one month. Adverse weather conditions are treated with reduction factors applied in the top efficiency. The second model is the Biome-BGC that uses biology and geochemistry principles to estimate leaf-level photosynthesis based on limiting factors such as availability of light and nutrient constraints. The

  15. Nutrição mineral do mangarito num Latossolo Vermelho Amarelo Mineral nutrition of Xanthosoma mafaffa under cerrado soil

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    Candido A da Costa

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de caracterizar as limitações nutricionais para a produção de matéria seca do mangarito [(Xanthosoma mafaffa (L. Schott], conduziu-se um experimento em casa de vegetação com amostras da camada de 0-20 cm de um Latossolo Vermelho Amarelo sob vegetação de cerrado, coletado no município de Montes Claros, MG. O cultivo foi realizado em vasos de 3 L de capacidade. O delineamento experimental foi inteiramente casualizado, em treze tratamentos, com três repetições. Os tratamentos foram baseados na técnica do elemento faltante (em que se omite a calagem e cada um dos macronutrientes e micronutrientes. A ordem decrescente dos tratamentos que mais afetaram a produção de matéria seca da parte aérea foi: -Calagem> -P > -S > testemunha > -B > -Calagem+Ca+Mg > -N > -K. A omissão de Ca, Mg, Zn e Cu não afetaram a produção de matéria seca da parte aérea. A ordem decrescente dos tratamentos que mais afetaram a produção de matéria seca de raízes foi: -B > -Mg > -Calagem+Ca+Mg > -K > -N > -Zn > -Calagem > -S > -Cu > -Ca > -Cu > -Ca > testemunha > -P.The aim of this work was to characterize the nutritional limitations for dry matter production of Xanthosoma mafaffa (L. Schott. The experiment was carried out in a greenhouse with 0-20 cm samples of a Oxisol under cerrado vegetation, collected at Montes Claros, Minas Gerais State, Brazil. The cultivation was conducted in 3 L pots. The experimental design was totally randomized with 13 treatments and three replications. Treatments were based on the missing element technique (with omission of liming and each one of the macro and micronutrients. The decreasing order of treatments that more influenced the aerial dry matter production was: -liming> -P > -S > test > -B > -liming+Ca+Mg > -N > -K. The omission of Ca, Mg, Zn and Cu did not influence the aerial dry matter production. The decreasing order of treatments that influenced the root dry matter production was: -B > - Mg

  16. Comparação de métodos para a observação de fungos micorrízicos arbusculares e endofíticos do tipo dark septate em espécies nativas de Cerrado Comparision of methods to visualise arbuscular mycorrhizal and dark septate endophytic fungi in native Cerrado species

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    Kelly da Silva Coutinho Detmann

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available As espécies vegetais de Cerrado sensu stricto apresentam estratégias adaptativas às condições edáficas e climáticas de altos investimentos em fotoassimilados, nutrientes e água para sua estruturação. A simbiose entre fungos e raízes de plantas é uma importante adaptação radicular que auxilia as plantas na absorção de nutrientes e água do solo, sendo determinantes para a sobrevivência no Cerrado. Com o objetivo de estudar fungos micorrízicos arbusculares (FMAs e fungos endofíticos do tipo dark septate (DSEFs nas raízes de algumas espécies arbóreas e herbáceas, nativas do Cerrado sensu stricto, foram testados diferentes métodos para melhor observação das estruturas fúngicas em simbiose. O melhor método de clarificação foi observado quando as raízes foram autoclavadas a 121 °C em KOH 2 %, por 20 min, e com a subseqüente transferência para solução nova de KOH 2 %, por 24 h, em temperatura ambiente. Este procedimento foi repetido e, em seguida, essas amostras foram imersas em H2O2 2 % por 2 h. Os arbúsculos foram observados com maiores detalhes após a inclusão em resina, seccionamento e coloração com azul-de-toluidina. Todas as espécies avaliadas encontravam-se colonizadas por FMAs, e apenas em Xylopia aromatica não se observaram os DSEFs. As espécies herbáceas apresentaram maiores freqüências de colonização micorrízica do que as arbóreas. O caráter generalista dos FMAs e DSEFs observado nas espécies vegetais do Cerrado sensu stricto sugere a importância dessas simbioses como mecanismo adaptativo às condições de Cerrado.Plant species in sensu stricto Cerrado have adaptive strategies to soil and climatic adversities that require high investment of nutrients, water and photoassimilates. The mutualistic fungi - plant root symbiosis is an important adaptation by which plants can improve soil nutrients and water acquisition and it can be determinant for plant survival in Cerrado conditions. The aim

  17. Dispersão e predação de sementes de araticum no Cerrado de Mato Grosso, Brasil Dispersal and predation of araticum seeds in the Cerrado of Mato Grosso, Brazil

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    Vanessa Golin

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo objetivou caracterizar plantas e frutos de araticum (Annona crassiflora, avaliar a frequência de consumo, predação e dispersão de suas sementes por animais e seus efeitos na germinação, em área de Cerrado, entre fevereiro de 2007 a junho de 2008. Baseado em armadilhas de pegadas, registrou-se a frequência de visitação (FV e o consumo de frutos por animais, além da ação de insetos em frutos caídos no solo, sob as plantas. Estrumes de antas, Tapirus terrestris, foram amostrados para verificar a frequência de ocorrência (FO e os danos causados por elas e por insetos. Para analisar a dispersão por antas, foram inseridas miçangas coloridas em frutos maduros caídos sob plantas-mãe. Posteriormente, foi medida a distância entre o local das fezes com miçanga até a planta-mãe da cor específica da miçanga. Realizou-se teste de germinação com sementes de amostras fecais e de frutos intactos. Dentre os animais que se alimentaram dos frutos, antas contribuíram com maior frequência de visitação e consumo de frutos de araticum, o qual representou 54% de frequência de ocorrência nas amostras fecais e as sementes não foram significativamente danificadas. Besouros (Scarabaeidae se alimentaram da polpa de frutos e enterraram sementes de araticum próximo da planta-mãe. Insetos curculionídeos e euritomídeos predaram as sementes de araticum nos frutos. Os danos causados nas sementes por esses insetos foram significativamente maiores que aqueles provocados pelas antas. Foram encontradas duas fezes com miçangas distantes 1,7km e 1,8km das plantas-mãe, respectivamente. A germinação das sementes foi baixa neste período de estudo, no entanto, as antas podem proteger as sementes de insetos predadores, defecando-as intactas para longas distâncias. Assim, T. terrestris é um possível dispersor, enquanto que curculionídeos e euritomídeos são possíveis predadores de sementes de araticum. Essas rela

  18. Bioecologia da broca-do-café, Hypothenemus hampei (Ferrari, 1867 (Coleoptera: Scolytidae, no agroecossistema cafeeiro do cerrado de Minas Gerais Bioecology of the coffee berry borer Hypothenemus hampei (Ferrari, 1867 (Coleoptera: Scolytidae in a cerrado agrossistem of Cerrado in Minas Gerais State

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    Antônio José Ferreira

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se com este trabalho estudar aspectos da bioecologia da broca-do-café nas condições de cerrado do estado de Minas Gerais. Os levantamentos foram realizados em três propriedades cafeeiras nos municípios de Patrocínio e Carmo do Paranaíba, MG. Coletaram-se, mensalmente, no período de abril de 1999 a dezembro de 2000, amostras de frutos de café (três litros/amostra em um lote experimental de aproximadamente 0,3 ha em cada propriedade. Esses frutos foram levados ao laboratório, onde foram dissecados para determinação do índice de infestação e contagens quanto às diferentes fases do ciclo biológico da broca-do-café e de seus parasitóides. Durante o período da safra, os frutos foram coletados nas plantas e, na entressafra, foram coletados frutos residuais, após a colheita, nas plantas e no solo. Mesmo com as condições climáticas predominantemente secas no período de abril a outubro de 1999, a broca-do-café encontrou condições favoráveis à sua sobrevivência. Isso contribuiu para que se observassem no final da safra de 2000 (julho/2000 populações elevadas da praga que resultaram em infestações que variaram de 15,8 a 48,4% de frutos broqueados. Não foram encontrados parasitóides da broca-do-café nas amostras de frutos coletadas nas propriedades no período avaliado. De acordo com os índices populacionais registrados em todas as fases de seu ciclo biológico, nas áreas estudadas, foi verificado que a broca-do-café encontra ambiente favorável para sua multiplicação no cerrado, requerendo, portanto, medidas para o seu controle.This research focused to study the bioecology of the coffee berry borer and its parasitoids in an area of "Cerrado" in Minas Gerais State. Monitoring was carried out in three coffee fields in the counties of Patrocínio and Carmo do Paranaíba, MG. Samples of coffee fruits (three liters/sample were collected monthly, from April 1999 to December 2000 in an area of approximately 0

  19. Short Communication Validation of EST-derived microsatellite markers for two Cerrado-endemic Campomanesia (Myrtaceae) species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, E A G C; Boaventura-Novaes, C R D; Braga, R S; Reis, E F; Pinto, J F N; Telles, M P C

    2016-01-01

    We assessed the transferability of 120 EST-derived Eucalyptus microsatellite primers to Campomanesia adamantium and C. pubescens. Both species are berry trees native to the Brazilian Cerrado, and population genetic information is poor. Twelve markers were used to analyze the genetic variability of four sampled populations. Regarding DNA extraction, we sampled leaf tissues from two populations of each species (80 individuals). Of the 120 primers evaluated, 87 did not amplify any PCR products, and 21 rendered nonspecific amplification. Twelve primers were successfully transferred, providing a low combined probability of genetic identity for both species (5.718 x 10(-10) for C. adamantium; 1.182 x 10(-11) for C. pubescens) and a high probability of paternity exclusion (0.99939 for C. adamantium; 0.99982 for C. pubescens). The average number of alleles in the polymorphic loci was 6.8 for C. adamantium and 7.8 for C. pubescens, ranging from 2 to 16 alleles per locus. The observed heterozygosity values for C. adamantium and C. pubescens were 0.504 and 0.503, respectively, and the expected heterozygosity values for C. adamantium and C. pubescens were 0.517 and 0.579, respectively. The populations exhibited structured genetic variability with qP values of 0.105 for C. adamantium and 0.249 for C. pubescens. Thus, we concluded that these 12 microsatellite markers, transferred from Eucalyptus, were efficient for population genetic studies of C. adamantium and C. pubescens. PMID:26985928

  20. Plants of the Cerrado naturally selected by grazing sheep may have potential for inhibiting development of Haemonchus contortus larva.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morais-Costa, Franciellen; Soares, Ana Cláudia Maia; Bastos, Gabriela Almeida; Nunes, Yule Roberta Ferreira; Geraseev, Luciana Castro; Braga, Fernão Castro; Dos Santos Lima, Walter; Duarte, Eduardo Robson

    2015-10-01

    Plant species naturally selected by sheep grazing in the Cerrado region of Brazil were assessed in vitro for activity against Haemonchus contortus. One year of observations showed the plant families in the region exhibiting greatest richness to be Fabaceae, Rubiaceae, Malpighiaceae, Bignoniaceae, Myrtaceae, and Annonaceae. Nine species commonly selected by grazing sheep showed variation in the selectivity index with respect to the dry and rainy seasons. Coproculture was conducted in five replicates of 11 treatments: ivermectin, distilled water, or dehydrated leaves of nine selected plant species administered at 333.3 mg g(-1) fecal culture. The dried powder of Piptadenia viridiflora and Ximenia americana leaves significantly reduced the number of infective larvae compared to the distilled water control. These species showed efficacy of over 85 % despite low concentrations of proanthocyanidin. High-performance liquid chromatography analyses of extracts of these plants showed major peaks of UV spectra characteristic of flavonoids. Those naturally selected plant species with high antihelminthic efficacy show promise for use in diet as an alternative control of H. contortus in sheep. PMID:26085457

  1. Down-modulation of nitric oxide production in murine macrophages treated with crude plant extracts from the Brazilian Cerrado.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Napolitano, D R; Mineo, J R; de Souza, M A; de Paula, J E; Espindola, L S; Espindola, F S

    2005-05-13

    Several plant species from the Cerrado biome in Brazil are popularly used as herbal medicines for its reputed analgesic, anti-acid, anti-microbial, anti-inflammatory and anti-tumoral properties, among others. It has been reported that some plant extracts interfere in the production of nitric oxide (NO), an important inflammatory mediator. In the present study, we investigated the effect of hexanic and ethanolic extracts from three plant species on NO production by LPS/IFN-gamma-activated J774 macrophages based on traditional use. The cytotoxic effect of the crude extracts was determined by the thiazolyl blue test (MTT) to measure cell viability. Serjania lethalis stem extracts and Cupania vernalis leaf extracts significantly inhibited NO production, while extracts from Casearia sylvestris var. lingua were inactive or showed low activity on NO production, or were very cytotoxic. The ethanolic stem bark and leaf extracts of Serjania lethalis and Cupania vernalis, respectively, almost completely inhibited the production of NO by J774 macrophages. It can be concluded that the selected extracts are potential sources of active compounds that might be used as anti-inflammatory agents. PMID:15848017

  2. Temporal and spatial variation of the limnological characteristics of a lotic ecosystem in the Cerrado of Mato Grosso.

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    Amintas Nazareth Rossete

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to characterize a stream in the area of Cerrado of Mato Grosso according to limnological characteristics during an annual cycle and to assess its relationship with the hydrological regime and anthropogenic changes of the adjacent land system. Two collection points in the stream were selected which passed through the Parque do Bacaba in addition to two other in areas of anthropogenic influence, mainly cattle-raising activity. Data collection was performed bimonthly in downstream order, from September 2001 to August 2002. At the sampling sites, the water temperature, depth, water transparency, dissolved oxygen, pH, electric conductivity, suspended material and total stream discharge were verified. The spatial variations were more obvious than the temporal changes. The values of water transparency, suspended material, electric conductivity and dissolved oxygen showed the greatest variations. The lowest concentrations of dissolved oxygen in the stream were recorded in the dry period. Among the sampling sites, only the pH did not present any significant differences, and the other variables differed significantly between at least two sampling sites. Between the dry and rainy periods, only the depth of the water column and total stream discharge differed significantly.

  3. Seed predation and fruit damage of Solanum lycocarpum (Solanaceae) by rodents in the cerrado of central Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briani and, Denis C., Jr.; Guimarães, Paulo R.

    2007-01-01

    Although neotropical savannas and grasslands, collectively referred to as cerrado, are rich in seed-eating species of rodents, little is known about seed predation and its determinants in this habitat. In this study, we investigated seed predation and damage to fruits of the widespread shrub Solanum lycocarpum. In addition, the influence of two possible determinants (distance from the parental plant and total crop size) on the feeding behaviour of Oryzomys scotti (Rodentia, Sigmodontinae) was also examined. O. scotti were captured more frequently close to the shrubs or on shrub crops, indicating that these rodents were attracted to the shrubs and that seed predation was probably distance-dependent. Moreover, the proportion of damaged fruit on the plant decreased as the total crop size increased; consequently, more productive plants were attacked proportionally less by rodents. This pattern of fruit damage may reflect predator satiation caused by the consumption of a large amount of pulp. Alternatively, secondary metabolites in S. lycocarpum fruits may reduce the pulp consumption per feeding event, thereby limiting the number of fruits damaged.

  4. The stimulated recall method as a research tool on the school visit in the Cerrado Biodiversity Museum

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    Lidiane Martins de Oliveira

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Along with modernization and scientific and technological development presents new requirements of education and knowledge to integrate the world of work, of science communication, and citizenship. Museums represent this integrative space, relating to the communication dimension to the educational project, and the audience becomes the focus of the study, with special focus on relationships that these spaces provide. So this paper presents a theoretical and methodological study to highlight aspects that were significant to the visitors during the visit to the Cerrado Biodiversity Museum (MBC located in Uberlândia- MG- Brazil. The study followed the procedures and tools Souvenir methodology stimulated Falcão and Gilbert (2005. We conclude that the knowledge in the museum take place through free interaction student-exposure and studentstudent; that the relationship between science and the visit to the MBC occurs through the relationship that the teacher can establish in their classes and the Remembrance Method Stimulated corresponded as a methodological tool to rescue concepts and recall important moments of the visit to MBC

  5. Acetone extract from Streptoverticillium sp., a bacterium isolated from Brazilian Cerrado soil, induces anti-inflammatory activity in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Da Cruz, Rodrigo B; Galdino, Pablinny M; Penna, Karlla G B D; Hoffmann, Karen; Costa, Elson A; Bataus, Luiz A M

    2013-01-01

    The Streptoverticillium sp. Z1 is an actinomycete isolated from the soil under Cerrado vegetation, the extract of this strain was investigated in nociceptive and inflammatory models. The Streptoverticillium extract (ExS) 50 and 100 mg/kg (s.c.) produced a significant inhibition of acetic acid-induced abdominal writhings thereby demonstrating an anti-nociceptive effect. In the tail flick test the ExS (s.c.) was inactive. This result implited that ExS does not contain opioid-like compounds with central analgesic properties. In the inflammatory models, ExS 100 and 200 mg/kg (s.c.) were able to inhibit the croton oil-induced ear edema and, ExS 200 and 500 mg/kg (s.c.) inhibited the leukocyte migration on the carrageenan-induced peritonitis. The phospholipase A2 enzymatic assay showed that the anti-inflammatory activity of ExS was not due to direct effect on phospholipase A2 activity. These data suggest that Streptoverticillium sp. produces metabolites with anti-inflammatory effect and that these metabolites are unable to directly inhibit phospholipase A2 enzyme. PMID:23828355

  6. High levels of genetic differentiation and selfing in the Brazilian cerrado fruit tree Dipteryx alata Vog. (Fabaceae

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    Roberto Tarazi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Dipteryx alata is a native fruit tree species of the cerrado (Brazilian savanna that has great economic potential because of its multiple uses. Knowledge of how the genetic variability of this species is organized within and among populations would be useful for genetic conservation and breeding programs. We used nine simple sequence repeat (SSR primers developed for Dipteryx odorata to evaluate the genetic structure of three populations of D. alata located in central Brazil based on a leaf sample analysis from 101 adults. The outcrossing rate was evaluated using 300 open-pollinated offspring from 25 seed-trees. Pollen dispersal was measured by parentage analysis. We used spatial genetic structure (SGS to test the minimal distance for harvesting seeds in conservation and breeding programs. Our data indicate that the populations studied had a high degree of genetic diversity and population structure, as suggested by the high level of divergence among populations . The estimated outcrossing rate suggested a mixed mating system, and the intrapopulation fixation index was influenced by SGS. We conclude that seed harvesting for genetic conservation and breeding programs requires a minimum distance between trees of 196 m to avoid collecting seeds from related seed-trees.

  7. Antimicrobial activity of some medicinal plants from the cerrado of the central-western region of Brazil

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    Ivana Maria Póvoa Violante

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Ethanol extracts from six selected species from the Cerrado of the Central-Western region of Brazil, which are used in traditional medicine for the treatment of infectious diseases and other medical conditions, namely Erythroxylum suberosum St. Hil. (Erythroxylaceae, Hyptis crenata Pohl. ex Benth. (Lamiaceae, Roupala brasiliensis Klotz. (Proteaceae, Simarouba versicolor St. Hil. (Simaroubaceae, Guazuma ulmifolia Lam. (Sterculiaceae and Protium heptaphyllum (Aubl. March. (Burseraceae, as well as fractions resulting from partition of these crude extracts, were screened in vitro for their antifungal and antibacterial properties. The antimicrobial activities were assessed by the broth microdilution assay against six control fungal strains, Candida albicans, C. glabrata, C. krusei, C. parapsilosis, C. tropicalis and Cryptococcus neoformans, and five control Gram-positive and negative bacterial strains, Escherichia coli, Enterococcus faecalis, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus. Toxicity of the extracts and fractions against Artemia salina was also evaluated in this work. All plants investigated showed antimicrobial properties against at least one microorganism and two species were also significantly toxic to brine shrimp larvae. The results tend to support the traditional use of these plants for the treatment of respiratory and gastrointestinal disorders and/or skin diseases, opening the possibility of finding new antimicrobial agents from these natural sources.Among the species investigated, Hyptis crenata, Erythroxylum suberosum and Roupala brasiliensis were considered the most promising candidates for developing of future bioactivity-guided phytochemical investigations.

  8. Distribuição da brioflora em diferentes fisionomias de cerrado da Reserva Biológica e Estação Experimental de Mogi-Guaçu, SP, Brasil Distribution of the brioflora in the different cerrado physiognomies of the Biological Reserve and of the Experimental Station of Mogi-Guaçu, SP, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Sandra Regina Visnadi

    2004-01-01

    O trabalho refere-se à distribuição da brioflora ocorrente no cerrado Reserva Biológica e Estação Experimental de MogiGuaçu. Este bioma apresenta fisionomias que variam de florestas a campos. As coletas foram realizadas entre 1993 e 1995, na casca de 15 espécies de forófitos arbustivo-arbóreos, ao longo de um transecto, passando por cinco fisionomias diferentes de cerrado. Estudaramse 1.345 exsicatas de 49 gêneros e 92 espécies de briófitas. A brioflora está relacionada às fisionomias de cerr...

  9. Características estomáticas de pares congenéricos de cerrado e mata de galeria crescendo numa região transicional no Brasil central Stomatal traits of cerrado and gallery forest congeneric pairs growing in a transitional region in central Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Davi Rodrigo Rossatto; William Arthur Hoffmann; Augusto César Franco

    2009-01-01

    Em áreas protegidas do fogo, espécies arbóreas predominantemente florestais conseguem se estabelecer no cerrado e crescer lado a lado com espécies do mesmo gênero que são características destas formações savânicas. Devido às condições ambientais diferenciadas encontradas nas formações de cerrado e de mata, estas espécies congenéricas podem se comportar como grupos funcionais distintos. Neste trabalho foi realizado um estudo comparativo da anatomia dos estômatos e da condutância estomática e t...

  10. Patterns of diversity and abundance of fungus-growing ants (Formicidae: Attini) in areas of the Brazilian Cerrado Padrões de diversidade e abundância de formigas cultivadoras de fungo (Formicidade: Attini) em áreas do Cerrado Brasileiro

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    Heraldo L. Vasconcelos; Bruna B. Araújo; Antonio J. Mayhé-Nunes

    2008-01-01

    Fungus-growing ants (tribe Attini) are characteristic elements of the New World fauna. However, there is little information on the patterns of diversity, abundance, and distribution of attine species in their native ecosystems, especially for the so-called "lower" genera of the tribe. A survey of attine ant nests (excluding Atta Fabricus, 1804 and Acromyrmex Mayr, 1865) was conducted in a variety of savanna and forest habitats of the Cerrado biome near Uberlândia, Brazil. In total, 314 nests ...

  11. Sexual ratio and floral biology of the dioecious Neea theifera Oerst. (Nyctaginaceae) in a cerrado rupestre of central Brazil Razão sexual e biologia floral de Neea theifera Oerst. (Nyctaginaceae), uma espécie dióica na vegetação de um cerrado rupestre no Brasil Central

    OpenAIRE

    Felipe Wanderley Amorim; Clesnan Mendes-Rodrigues; Pietro Kiyoshi Maruyama; Paulo Eugênio Oliveira

    2011-01-01

    Dioecy is characterized by a complete separation of sexual functions on male and female plants. It has evolved many times in flowering plants and is widespread among distinct Angiosperm families. It is viewed as a reproductive strategy to reduce endogamy, and to promote optimal resource allocation between male and female sexual functions. Neea theifera is a common species in Cerrado, neotropical savannas in Brazil, but information regarding its reproductive biology is still incomplete. In ord...

  12. Variações fenológicas das espécies do cerrado em Emas - Pirassununga, SP Phenological variations of the cerrado species in Emas (Pirassununga, SP

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    Marco Antonio Batalha

    1997-07-01

    Full Text Available Foi estudada a flora vascular de uma área de cerrado, situada no distrito de Emas, município de Pirassununga, Estado de São Paulo (aproximadamente, 22º02'S e 47º30'W. Entre abril de 1994 e abril de 1995, realizou-se um levantamento florístico, em que foram amostradas 358 espécies. A partir dos dados deste levantamento, estudaram-se as variações fenológicas das espécies, procurando analisá-las como estratégias adaptativas. Os componentes herbáceo-subarbustivo e arbustivoarbóreo comportaram-se de maneira distinta. As espécies arbustivo-arbóreas floresceram principalmente no início da estação chuvosa, enquanto que as herbáceo-subarbustivas produziram flores, de modo geral, apenas no final da estação úmida, após período de acúmulo de carboidratos. As espécies do componente herbáceo-subarbustivo tiveram pico de frutificação no final da estação chuvosa, qualquer que fosse a síndrome de dispersão de seus diásporos. Já as espécies do componente arbustivo-arbóreo apresentaram comportamentos distintos, conforme a síndrome de dispersão. As espécies zoocóricas frutificaram ao longo de toda estação úmida, enquanto que as anemocóricas e autocóricas produziram frutos, principalmente no início da estação seca.The vascular flora of the cerrado in Emas district, Pirassununga municipality, São Paulo State (approximately 22º02'S and 47º30'W was studied. Between April 1994 and April 1995 a floristic survey was carried out, when 358 species, representing 227 genera and 78 families, were found. During this survey, the phenologycal variations were observed and analysed as adaptive strategies. The woody and herbaceous components had distinct behaviours. The woody species flowered mainly at the beginning of the rainy season, while the herbaceous ones produced flowers generally at the end of that season, after a period of carbohydrate accumulation. The herbaceous species produced fruits specially at the end of the

  13. Macroinvertebrates under stochastic hydrological disturbance in Cerrado streams of Central Brazil Macroivertebrados sob perturbações hidrológicas estocásticas em riachos de Cerrado do Brasil Central

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    Victor S. Saito

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In the Cerrado vegetation, where the seasonal is well defined, rainfall has an important role in controlling the flow of streams and consequently on the structure of macroinvertebrates community. Despite the effects of rainfall associated with seasonality are well studied, little is known about the effects of stochastic rains on the community. In the present study we evaluated the structure and faunal composition of four first-order streams in Central Brazil during the dry season in two years, with and without stochastic rains. Community sampling was done by colonization of boards of high density polyethylene (HDPE, removed after one month submerged in streams. Analysis of Variance (ANOVA performed indicated no difference in rarefied richness between the two periods, different from numeric density of organisms that was higher in the period without disturbance; moreover, the Detrended Correspondence Analysis (DCA revealed differences in faunal composition between the two periods. Our results indicate that stochastic rainfall is an important factor in structuring the macroinvertebrates community in studied region.No Cerrado, onde o regime pluviométrico é bem definido, as chuvas tem um importante papel no controle da vazão dos riachos e, por consequência, sobre a estruturação da fauna de macroinvertebrados. Apesar dos efeitos das chuvas associados à sazonalidade serem bem estudados, pouco se sabe a respeito dos efeitos de chuvas estocásticas sobre a comunidade. No presente estudo nós avaliamos a estrutura e a composição faunística de quatro riachos de primeira ordem no Brasil Central na estação seca em dois anos, com e sem chuvas estocásticas. A amostragem da comunidade foi feita através da colonização de placas de polietileno de alta densidade (PEAD, removidas após um mês submersas nos riachos. A Análise de Variância (ANOVA realizada não indicou diferença da riqueza rarefeita entre os dois períodos coletados, diferente da

  14. Comunidade de Formigas Arborícolas Associadas ao Pequizeiro (Caryocar brasiliense em Fragmento de Cerrado Goiano Arboreal Ants Community Associated with the Pequizeiro (Caryocar brasiliense in the Remnant of Cerrado Goiano

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    Camila Alves Rodrigues

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available

    Comunidade de formigas arborícolas associada a pequizeiros (Caryocar brasiliense Camb. situados em fragmento de cerrado goiano (Goiás, Brasil foi amostrada em tronco dessas plantas, usando iscas à base de sardinha e óleo de soja. No decorrer de um ano, nas quatro estações climáticas, coletas consecutivas de formigas foram realizadas. Um total de 32 espécies foi coletado durante o período de estudo. Myrmicinae e Formicinae foram as subfamílias mais freqüentemente encontradas. Foi verificada diferença significativa na composição da comunidade de formigas arborícolas ao longo das estações climáticas investigadas. Não foi verificada correlação significativa entre a altura e o diâmetro da copa das árvores e a riqueza de espécies de formigas arborícolas associadas ao

  15. The effect of the land use on phytoplankton assemblages of a Cerrado stream (Brazil Os efeitos do uso do solo sobre as assembleias fitoplanctônicas de um riacho de Cerrado (Brasil

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    Mateus Ferrareze

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available AIM: Our aim was to investigate whether land use from the adjacent terrestrial environment influences phytoplankton assemblage structure (composition, richness, diversity, and abundance and biomass (chlorophyll-a in a Cerrado stream during different periods of the year. METHOD: The fieldwork was carried out at each 3 months during two years. RESULTS: The physical and chemical variables that better indicated differences in water condition were conductivity, dissolved oxygen, and transparency. There was also a noticeable increase in the concentration of nitrogen, phosphorus, and suspended matter in the water during summer due to the direct effects of rainfall. The phytoplankton assemblages were composed by 64 species. Cryptophyceae was the most abundant group, followed by Bacillariophyceae. For both years, richness and diversity were higher during spring and autumn, while phytoplankton abundance and chlorophyll-a concentration were greater during autumn and summer. The cluster and the canonic correspondence analyses evidenced that seasonality and land use are important factors in structuring phytoplankton communities along the year. Alterations in phytoplankton assemblages registered herein were probably a consequence of variations on intensity and frequency of water mixing, along with the input of nutrients from the adjacent terrestrial system. CONCLUSION: Overall phytoplankton assemblage structure showed to be highly influenced by land use, corroborating our initial hypothesis.OBJETIVO: Nosso objetivo foi investigar se o uso do solo do ambiente terrestre adjacente influencia a estrutura das assembleias fitoplanctônicas (composição, riqueza, diversidade e abundância e biomassa (clorofila-a em um riacho de Cerrado durante diferentes períodos do ano. MÉTODOS: Os trabalhos de campo foram realizados trimestralmente durante dois anos. RESULTADOS: As variáveis físico-químicas que melhor indicaram as diferenças nas condições da água foram

  16. Genetic variability in natural populations of Zeyheria montana mart. from the Brazilian Cerrado Variabilidade genética entre e dentro de populações naturais de Zeyheria montana mart. do Cerrado brasileiro

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    Bianca Waléria Bertoni

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Zeyheria montana, an endemic species of the Bignoniaceae family from the Brazilian Cerrado's known for its anti-cancer properties, is widely used as imuno stimulant in the popular medicine and its therapeutic activity must be validated by scientific data. The objective of this work was to evaluate the genetic variability of eight plant populations collected within the state of São Paulo, Brazil, via Random Amplification of Polymorphic DNA (RAPD used as molecular markers. After an optimized protocol for the amplification reaction, nine selected primers generated 105 reproducible bands, indicating up to 60% polymorphism. Analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA revealed higher genetic variation within populations (84.03% than among populations (15.97%. The variation values estimated by phiST (0.160 indicated moderate to high inter population structuration. Levels of similarity inter plants with genetic and geographical distances, estimated by the unweighted pair-group method analysis (UPGMA clustering and non-metric multidimensional scaling (NMDS ordination methods and by the Mantel test (-0.2345 p = 0.118 denoted that the structure found follows the island model, which assumes that a single population of infinite size may have initiated the existing populations of Zeyheria montana, with no spatial position correlation. Based on the obtained data, a germplasm bank from individuals representing the species variability was established. Furthermore the information here reported can be of importance to develop strategies for the conservation of Z. montana.Zeyheria montana, planta arbustiva da família Bignoniaceae, é uma espécie endêmica do Cerrado e possui atividade anti-câncer, sendo utilizada como estimulante na medicina popular. O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar a variabilidade genética de oito populações localizadas no estado de São Paulo, utilizando marcadores moleculares de Polimorfismo de DNA Amplificado ao Acaso (RAPD. Após a otimiza

  17. Dinâmica do potássio nos resíduos vegetais de plantas de cobertura no Cerrado Potassium dynamics in crop residues of cover plants in Cerrado

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    José Luiz Rodrigues Torres

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available A produção de biomassa, a manutenção dos resíduos vegetais sobre o solo e sua posterior decomposição são fatores de grande importância no estudo da ciclagem de nutrientes. Este estudo foi desenvolvido na área experimental do CEFET-Uberaba-MG, onde foram avaliados oito tipos de coberturas vegetais: milheto (Pennisetum americanum sin. tiphoydes, braquiária (Brachiaria brizantha, sorgo-forrageiro (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench, guandu (Cajanus cajan (L. Mill sp., crotalária (Crotalarea juncea, aveia-preta (Avena strigosa Schreb, pousio e área em preparo convencional de solo (testemunha em área de Cerrado, na região do Triângulo Mineiro. Avaliaram-se a fitomassa seca (FS, a decomposição dos resíduos em bolsas de decomposição, e a liberação de K. Utilizou-se um modelo matemático para descrever a decomposição dos resíduos e a liberação de K, e calcularam-se a constante de decomposição (k e o tempo de meia-vida (T½. O milheto, o sorgo e a crotalária foram as coberturas que apresentaram maiores produções de matéria seca. O maior acúmulo de K ocorreu em gramíneas e a maior liberação de K ocorreu no milheto, aveia, braquiária e crotalária nos primeiros 42 dias após manejo, nos dois períodos avaliados. A braquiária apresentou o menor T½ vida e a maior taxa de liberação de K.Crop residue production, plant residue maintenance and their decomposition are important factors in the understanding of nutrient recycling process. To evaluate K accumulation and release a study with eight cover crops types was developed: pearl millet (Pennisetum americanum sin. tiphoydes, brachiaria grass (Brachiaria brizantha, sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench, pigeonpea (Cajanus cajan (L. Millsp, sunn hemp (Crotalarea juncea and black oats (Avena strigosa Schreb, fallow land and conventional culture (control in the experimental area of CEFET-Uberaba-MG, in a Cerrado area. The dry mass production, crop residue decomposition in litter bags

  18. Resposta de arroz de terras altas, feijão, milho e soja à saturação por base em solo de cerrado Response of upland rice, dry bean, corn and soybean to base saturation in cerrado soil

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    Nand K. Fageria

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available Foi conduzido um experimento de campo, quatro anos consecutivos (1995/96 a 1998/99 para avaliar a resposta das culturas de arroz de terras altas, feijão, milho e soja à saturação por base em Latossolo Vermelho-Escuro distrófico (LEd (Oxissolo cultivados em sistema de sucessão. Os valores de saturação por base criados pela aplicação de calcário, foram: 40, 44, 51, 53, 56 e 66%. Ocorreu aumento significativo na produção de grãos de feijão, milho e soja com a saturação por base; entretanto, a produção de arroz não foi influenciada significativamente pelos tratamentos. Mas, com base de equação de regressão, as saturações por base adequadas para a produção dos três, foram estabelecidas em 53, 60 e 63% respectivamente, e, para a cultura de arroz, o nível adequado de saturação por base encontrado foi de 40%. A acumulação de nutrientes na parte aérea e nos grãos foi influenciada significativamente pelos tratamentos e pela idade da planta nas quatro culturas estudadas. Os níveis adequados das propriedades químicas do solo, como pH, teor de Ca, teor de Mg, relações Ca/Mg, Ca/K, Mg/K, saturações por Ca, Mg e K, foram estabelecidos para as culturas de arroz, feijão, milho e soja, cultivados em solo de cerrado.A field experiments was conducted during four consecutive years (1995/96 to 1998/99 to evaluate responses of upland rice, dry bean, corn, and soybean grown in sequence to base saturation on a Dark Red Latosol (Oxisol. Mean base saturation levels determined after harvest of each crop were: 40, 44, 51, 53, 56, and 66%. Grain yield of dry bean, corn, and soybean were significantly affected with base saturation. Upland rice yield, however, was not influenced with base saturation treatments. Based on the quadratic response, optimum base saturation for maximum grain yield of dry bean was 53%, for corn 60% and for soybean 63%. For upland rice the base saturation under no lime treatment was 40%, which is considered

  19. Desempenho agronômico e qualidade de sementes de cultivares de feijão-caupi na região do cerrado Agronomic performance and quality of seeds of cowpea cultivar in the brazilian "cerrado" region

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    Itamar Rosa Teixeira

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available As produções de feijão-caupi, atualmente, no Brasil, são baixas em função, especialmente, do uso de materiais de baixa capacidade produtiva, associado à utilização de sementes de baixa qualidade. Assim, objetivou-se com este trabalho avaliar as características agronômicas e qualidade fisiológica de sementes de diferentes cultivares de caupi nas condições edafoclimáticas do cerrado goiano. Empregou-se o delineamento de blocos casualizados com quatro repetições. Os tratamentos foram constituídos por oito cultivares de caupi (BRS Guariba, BRS 17 Gurguéia, BRS Rouxinol, BRS Marataoã, Patativa, BRS Tracuateua, BRS Milênio e CE 315, recomendados para as regiões Norte e Nordeste do Brasil. O efeito dos tratamentos foram significativos para todos os caracteres avaliados. As cultivares BRS Guariba, BRS 17 Gurguéia e BRS Marataoã apresentaram menores problemas com oídio. Os genótipos de caupi mais produtivos foram BRS Guariba e BRS Gurguéia, com 2.211 e 2.196 kg ha-1 de grãos, respectivamente. A qualidade fisiológica de sementes de caupi foi influenciada pelas cultivares testadas. As cultivares de tegumento colorido caupi CE 315, BRS Gurguéia, BRS Rouxinol, BRS Marataoã e Patativa produziram sementes de melhor qualidade fisiológica, comparativamente, com as cultivares de tegumento branco BRS Tracuateua, BRS Milênio e BRS Guariba.The productivities of cowpea are low, depending on the use of low productivity capacity cultivar planted, associated with the use of low-quality seeds. The objective of this work was to evaluate the agronomic characteristics and physiological quality in seed lots of different cultivar of cowpea in the "Cerrado", Goiás State, Brazil. The experimental design was a complete block with four replicates. The treatments were eight cultivar of cowpea (BRS Guariba, BRS 17 Gurguéia, BRS Rouxinol, BRS Marataoã, Patativa, BRS Tracuateua, BRS Milênio e CE 315, recommended for the North and Northeast regions

  20. Atributos de fertilidade e frações húmicas de um Latossolo Vermelho no Cerrado Fertility properties and humic fractions in a Rhodic Ferralsol in Brazilian Cerrado

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    Ademir Fontana

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar os atributos de fertilidade e as frações de matéria orgânica, ácido fúlvico, ácido húmico e humina, em um Latossolo Vermelho distroférrico, sob diferentes sistemas de cultivo no Cerrado. Os experimentos foram conduzidos no período de 1993 a 2003. Os tratamentos foram divididos em quatro grupos: lavoura (1 e 7, rotação lavoura/pastagem (3 e 5, rotação pastagem/lavoura (4 e 6 e pastagem contínua (2 e 8, todos em plantio direto. A avaliação do solo foi feita após dez anos de cultivo, com análises químicas de amostras da profundidade de 0-20 cm. Foi observado que os teores de Ca2+ variaram de 4,6 cmol c kg-1 (lavoura a 6,20 cmol c kg-1 (pastagem contínua, e os de P disponível, de 1 a 6 mg kg-1. Os teores de Mg2+ variaram de 3 cmol c kg-1, sob lavoura/pastagem, a 3,8 cmol c kg-1 em pastagem contínua, e os de K+, de 0,28 cmol c kg-1 sob pastagem contínua, a 1,10 cmol c kg-1 em lavoura/pastagem. Os teores de C orgânico variaram de 16,6 g kg-1 na lavoura a 28,0 g kg-1 sob lavoura/pastagem. A fração humina apresenta os maiores valores entre as frações da matéria orgânica.The objective of this study was to evaluate fertility attributes and the fractions of organic matter, fulvic acid, humic acid, and humina, in a Rhodic Ferralsol, under different cultivation systems in Brazilian Cerrado. The experiments were carried out from 1993 to 2003. The treatments were divided in four groups: tillage (1 and 7, rotation tillage/pasture (3 and 5, rotation pasture/tillage (4 and 6, and continuous pasture (2 and 8, all in no-tillage system. Chemical analyses of soil samples were made for the depth of 0-20 cm, after ten years of cultivation. It was observed that Ca2+ content varied from 4.6 cmol c kg-1 (tillage to 6.20 cmol c kg-1 (continuous pasture, and available P from 1 to 6 mg kg-1. The Mg2+ content varied from 3 cmol c kg-1, under tillage/pasture, to 3.8 cmol c kg-1 in continuous pasture, and K

  1. Que as águas voltem a minar nas minas (dos gerais: os cerrados pedem socorro! May the water mine again in the mines of Minas Gerais: the cerrado ask for help!

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    Marcos Nicolau Santos da Silva

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho objetiva analisar os impactos sociais e ambientais nos Cerrados do Alto Vale Jequitinhonha e do Norte de Minas Gerais, causados pelos projetos e empreendimentos capitalistas implantados a partir da segunda metade do século XX. Busca-se avaliar, de forma breve, como se deu o processo de modernização com a entrada de capital nesses territórios mineiros, especificamente em algumas comunidades rurais dos municípios de Minas Novas, Campo Azul e Japonvar. Para isso, a metodologia de pesquisa é basicamente a mesma da dissertação de mestrado, sendo que, para fins deste artigo, utilizou-se apenas algumas referências bibliográficas e a abordagem qualitativa. A coleta dos dados foi realizada através do uso de formulários de entrevistas semiestruturadas e com o auxílio da gravação e transcrição de fontes orais para obter-se uma maior riqueza de informações.This work analyze the social and environmental impacts in the savannah Vale do Jequitinhonha and the North of Minas Gerais, caused by capitalist enterprises and projects implemented from the second half of the twentieth century. It also shows how there the process of modernization with capital inflows in these mineiros territories, especially in some rural communities of the municipalities of Minas Novas, Campo Azul and Japonvar. For this, the research methodology is basically the same as the dissertation of master, but, for this article, it used only a few bibliographic references and a qualitative approach. Data were collected through the use of semi-structured interviews and with the recording and transcription of oral sources to obtain a greater wealth of information.

  2. IMPORTÂNCIA E A CONTRIBUIÇÃO DE VON MARTIUS PARA O CONHECIMENTO DA FLORA ARBÓREA DO CERRADO

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    Ramon Cleomar de Jesus Freitas

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Os naturalistas viajantes podem ser definidos como pessoas que durante os séculos XVIII e XIX dedicavam seu tempo ao estudo da história natural. Partindo deste pressuposto, o presente trabalho tem como objetivo analisar as contribuições do naturalista alemão Carl Friederich Philipp von Martius para a flora arbórea do Cerrado. Martius veio ao Brasil no ano de 1817 acompanhado do zoólogo Johann Baptiste von Spix. Os dois cientistas passaram três anos viajando pelo Brasil e percorreram territórios dos futuros estados de São Paulo, Minas Gerais, Goiás, Bahia, Pernambuco, Piauí, Maranhão, Pará e Amazonas. Nesse contexto, Martius teve contato com várias fisionomias naturais presentes nos diversos ecossistemas brasileiros, percorreu e estudou territórios do Cerrado e suas contribuições foram importantes para a flora deste Bioma. O trabalho de Martius é diverso e de acordo com a APG III 161 espécies arbóreas foram descritas por ele ou contou com a sua colaboração, distribuídas em 39 famílias e 92 gêneros. Martius, ao longo de sua viagem, descreveu várias espécies arbóreas típicas do cerrado, a saber: Araticum (Annona crassiflora, Guatambu (Aspidosperma macrocarpon, A. tomentosum, Ingá (Inga edulis e Pau Terra (Qualea grandiflora, Q. multiflora, Q. parviflora, além de tantas outras ainda pouco conhecidas pela população, mas que do ponto de vista ecológico são extremamente importantes para o funcionamento dos ecossistemas.

  3. Ecological aspects of black-pincelled marmoset (Callithrix penicillata) in the cerradão and dense cerrado of the Brazilian Central Plateau

    OpenAIRE

    Miranda, G. H. B. de; FARIA D. S. de

    2001-01-01

    Ecological data about three free-ranging groups of C. penicillata (black-pincelled marmoset) were observed between March and December 1996, in one cerradão patch (in the Ecological Reserve of Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics, RECOR) and two patches of dense cerrado (one in the Recor and another in the Botanical Garden of Brasília, JBB), situated in the APA (area of environmental protection) of the Gama/Cabeça-de-Veado, Distrito Federal. Each area was visited weekly during three...

  4. Técnicas OCDMA con códigos ópticos aleatorios para redes de telecontrol / telemetría en entornos cerrados

    OpenAIRE

    Poves Valdés, Enrique

    2010-01-01

    Los sistemas ópticos inalámbricos presentan numerosas ventajas que los hacen interesantes candidatos para las comunicaciones en entornos cerrados. En estos entornos la implantación de redes de telecontrol y telemetría impone requisitos particulares que permitan la comunicación de todos los nodos sin afectar la velocidad de transmisión y las condiciones de trabajo. Los sistemas basados en OCDMA suponen una buena alternativa para estos entornos por sus especiales características. En este trabaj...

  5. Adaptabilidade e estabilidade de cultivares de soja em cinco épocas de plantio no cerrado de Rondônia

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    Prado Eloi Elias do; Hiromoto Dario Minoru; Godinho Vicente de Paulo Campos; Utumi Marley Marico; Ramalho André Rostand

    2001-01-01

    Este trabalho teve o objetivo de avaliar o desempenho, a estabilidade e a adaptabilidade de 21 cultivares de soja (Glycine max (L.) Merrill), em cinco épocas de plantio no cerrado de Rondônia. O delineamento experimental foi blocos ao acaso, com três repetições. Os ensaios foram conduzidos no ano de 1996/97 pelo Centro de Pesquisa Agroflorestal de Rondônia, no Campo Experimental de Vilhena em Rondônia, RO. Os métodos utilizados apresentaram concordância entre os resultados alcançados, sendo q...

  6. Contribuição da vegetação rasteira na evapotranspiração total em diferentes ecossistemas do bioma cerrado, Distrito Federal.

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    Otacílio Antunes Santana; Geraldine Cuniat; José Imaña-Encinas

    2010-01-01

    Os objetivos deste trabalho foram: (a) quantificar sazonalmente a evapotranspiração da vegetação rasteira (ET rasteira), (b) quantificar a influencia da ET rasteira para a evapotranspiração total (ET total), e (c) relacionar a ET rasteira com o índice de área foliar da vegetação rasteira (IAF rasteira), abertura de dossel e potencial hídrico do solo; em quatro diferentes paisagens: Cerrado stricu sensu, Mata de Galeria, pastagem e reflorestamento, situados na APA Gama-Cabeça de Veado, Distrit...

  7. Diseño de alojamientos en la explotación porcina de ciclo cerrado "Lurbaiz" sita en el término municipal de Ollo (Navarra)

    OpenAIRE

    Pagola Azkarate, Aitziber

    2014-01-01

    Mediante el presente proyecto fin de grado se realiza el diseño de los alojamientos de una explotación con una futura actividad ganadera porcina de ciclo cerrado. Se sitúa en la parcela 206 del polígono 9 del municipio de Ollo, Navarra. También se desarrollan a lo largo de los distintos anejos los diferentes procesos productivos y las necesidades en instalaciones para un correcto funcionamiento de la explotación conforme a la normativa existente y haciendo especial hincapié en ...

  8. Aspectos Bionômicos de Spodoptera eridania (Cramer: Uma Praga em Expansão na Cultura da Soja na Região do Cerrado Brasileiro

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    Bruno Sardinha de Souza

    2014-08-01

    Abstract. Soybean, Glycine max (L. Merril, represents one of the major economically important crops to Brazil, and is considered a national commodity because of its high yield and participation in international trade exportations. Among the insect pests that cause damage to this crop, Spodoptera eridania (Cramer larvae highlighted in the last agricultural seasons by feeding on leaves and pods of soybean plants, and hence causing economical losses to soybean growers, especially in the Cerrado areas located in the Midwest region of the country. We aimed with this review to provide information about bionomical aspects of S. eridania in order to give subsides for further researches on the management of this pest.

  9. Abejas de orquídeas (Apidae: Euglossini) en un fragmento de bosque en el ecótone Cerrado-Selva Amazónica, Brasil

    OpenAIRE

    José Max Barbosa OLIVEIRA-JUNIOR; Sara Miranda ALMEIDA; Lucirene RODRIGUES; Ailton Jacinto SILVÉRIO JÚNIOR; Evandson José ANJOS-SILVA

    2015-01-01

    En este trabajo se presenta información sobre la riqueza de especies y abundancia de Euglossini en la zona de transición entre el Cerrado y la selva amazónica, en la cuenca del río Xingu. Las muestras se recogieron en un fragmento de bosque en el municipio de Ribeirão Cascalheira, Mato Grosso, Brasil, entre el 1 y 5 de noviembre de 2011. Las sustancias puras de benzoato de bencilo, 1,8 cineol, eugenol y la vainillina se utilizaron en la colección activa, mientras que el salicilato de metilo s...

  10. Anatomia ecológica do lenho stryphnodendron adstringens (mart.) Coville (leguminosae), barbatimao, no Parque Estadual do Cerrado - Jaguariaíva-PR

    OpenAIRE

    Montefusco, Ana Raquel Gomes

    2013-01-01

    A anatomia ecológica identifica a influência de fatores ambientais expressos nas características anatômicas e morfológicas das plantas, sendo definida como a relação entre a estrutura da planta e o ambiente. Nesse trabalho, objetivou-se estudar a anatomia ecológica da espécie Stryphnodendron adstringens (Mart.) Coville, Leg. No Parque Estadual do Cerrado, ao longo de uma topossequência, caracterizando e comparando os elementos anatômicos da estrutura do lenho (diâmetro tangencial dos vasos, c...

  11. Nicho ecológico e aspectos da história natural de Phyllomedusa azurea (Anura: Hylidae, Phyllomedusinae) no Cerrado do Brasil Central

    OpenAIRE

    Freitas, Evellyn Borges de; De-Carvalho, Crizanto Brito; Faria, Renato Gomes; Batista, Renato de Carvalho; Batista, Cássio de Carvalho; Coelho, Welington Araújo; Bocchiglieri, Adriana

    2008-01-01

    Aspectos da ecologia e da história natural de Phyllomedusa azurea foram estudados em uma área de cerrado do Brasil Central, entre abril de 2006 e fevereiro de 2007. As observações foram realizadas entre as 18:00 e 5:00 h. Os aspectos investigados são referentes aos nichos espacial, temporal e trófico, morfometria e reprodução. A maioria dos animais vocalizou em locais com predominância do estrato herbáceo e de dossel aberto. Os principais substratos utilizados foram arbustos e árvores. Com re...

  12. SWEET SORGHUM PERFORMANCE AFFECTED BY SOIL COMPACTION AND SOWING TIME AS A SECOND CROP IN THE BRAZILIAN CERRADO

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    Wellingthon da Silva Guimarães Júnnyor

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Increasing attention has recently been given to sweet sorghum as a renewable raw material for ethanol production, mainly because its cultivation can be fully mechanized. However, the intensive use of agricultural machinery causes soil structural degradation, especially when performed under inadequate conditions of soil moisture. The aims of this study were to evaluate the physical quality of aLatossolo Vermelho Distroférrico (Oxisol under compaction and its components on sweet sorghum yield forsecond cropsowing in the Brazilian Cerrado (Brazilian tropical savanna. The experiment was conducted in a randomized block design, in a split plot arrangement, with four replications. Five levels of soil compaction were tested from the passing of a tractor at the following traffic intensities: 0 (absence of additional compaction, 1, 2, 7, and 15 passes over the same spot. The subplots consisted of three different sowing times of sweet sorghum during the off-season of 2013 (20/01, 17/02, and 16/03. Soil physical quality was measured through the least limiting water range (LLWR and soil water limitation; crop yield and technological parameters were also measured. Monitoring of soil water contents indicated a reduction in the frequency of water content in the soil within the limits of the LLWR (Fwithin as agricultural traffic increased (T0 = T1 = T2>T7>T15, and crop yield is directly associated with soil water content. The crop sown in January had higher industrial quality; however, there was stalk yield reduction when bulk density was greater than 1.26 Mg m-3, with a maximum yield of 50 Mg ha-1 in this sowing time. Cultivation of sweet sorghum as a second crop is a promising alternative, but care should be taken in cultivation under conditions of pronounced climatic risks, due to low stalk yield.

  13. Caracterização agronômica de amaranto para cultivo na entressafra no Cerrado

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    Teixeira Danielly Leite

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi caracterizar e avaliar 48 acessos de três espécies de amaranto (Amaranthus caudatus L., A. cruentus L.,e A. hypochondriacus L. para cultivo na entressafra no Cerrado. Realizou-se seleção preliminar para sete descritores, em casa de vegetação, e os acessos com genótipos promissores foram selecionados para serem testados no campo. O delineamento experimental usado foi o de blocos casualizados, com três repetições. O material utilizado foi o que apresentou características agronômicas desejáveis, tais como ausência de espinhos, hábito ereto e presença de inflorescência. Os ensaios foram realizados em Planaltina, DF, na entressafra, com irrigação, por dois anos. Em geral, os acessos floresceram 45 dias após a emergência e as plantas foram colhidas entre 90 e 100 dias. Pela análise de componentes principais, verificou-se que os dois primeiros componentes representam 92,18% da variação. Foram estabelecidos três grupos de similaridade, pelo método dos vizinhos mais próximos, que explicaram 86% da variação total. O amaranto se adapta às condições climáticas e edafológicas do Brasil Central, apresenta características agronômicas desejáveis e tem potencial para se tornar uma opção de cultivo na entressafra.

  14. Retención de aroma durante el secado de extracto de café en un sistema cerrado

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    J.F. Vílchez

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Durante el secado de alimentos líquidos, componentes volátiles presentes en baja concentración que contribuyen al aroma y sabor del producto final son removidos junto con el agua. En consecuencia la calidad del producto final es considerablemente afectada por la cantidad de substancias volátiles que son retenidas durante el proceso de secado. En el extracto de café, por ejemplo, existen cientos de tales compuestos, la mayoría de ellos altamente volátiles por lo que se pierden cuando el extracto es transformado en polvo seco. Independientemente del método utilizado, parece ser imposible evitar completamente la perdida de compuestos volátiles durante el secado. Un método potencial para mejorar la retención del aroma durante el secado es utilizar un sistema que trabaje a ciclo cerrado. Con el propósito de estudiar este proceso una planta piloto que consiste de un secador por aspersión, un secador de lecho fluidizado vibratorio, un sistema de recuperación de vapores e intercambiadores de calor para recalentar el aire reciclado ha sido diseñada y esta en la fase final de instalación en la Facultad de Ingeniería Química de la Universidad Nacional de Ingeniería, en Managua, para hacer un estudio del método potencial de recuperación de aroma del extracto de café. Este estudio tendrá como resultado no solo un café soluble de mejor calidad sino que además un método capaz de mejorar el procesamiento de muchos otros alimentos líquidos.

  15. Enraizamento in vitro de catuaba (Anemopaegma arvense (Vell. Stell. ex de Souza, uma planta medicinal do Cerrado

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    A.V.V. SOUZA

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho foi realizado com o objetivo de otimizar o protocolo para enraizamento in vitro de Anemopaegma arvense, planta medicinal do Cerrado em risco de extinção e conhecida popularmente como catuaba, a qual é amplamente utilizada na medicina popular. Brotações cultivadas in vitro foram inoculadas em meio de cultura MS/2 liquido e MS sólido suplementado com diferentes concentrações de auxinas, poliaminas ou dithiothreitol (DTT. As avaliações foram realizadas quanto à porcentagem de enraizamento, número e comprimento das raízes. A presença de NAA (Ácido naftaleno acético no meio de cultura foi essencial para promover a indução de raízes adventícias nas brotações. A maior porcentagem de enraizamento, 50%, foi obtida no tratamento 2 mg L-1 de NAA com tempo de permanência de 15 dias nesta auxina. No experimento com poliaminas o melhor tratamento foi MS/2 + 5 mg L-1 de putrescina, com 27% de brotações enraizadas. Na presença de DTT (Dithiothreitol, 23% das brotações enraizaram em 0,10 mg L-1 de DTT. A presença da auxina NAA e a alternância no tempo de permanência foi a melhor condição para promover o enraizamento in vitro da de A. arvense.

  16. PHYTOSOCIOLOGY AND FLORISTIC DIVERSITY IN A CERRADO AREA UNDER DIFFERENT ANTROPIZATION LEVELS, RIO PARDO DE MINAS, MG

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    Wanderson Henrique do Couto

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the study was to evaluate diversity and floristic similarity of Cerrado environments, under different levels of anthropization for agricultural usage and extractivism, and to generate a database to subsidize sustainable development proposals for the North region of Minas Gerais State, and traditional agriculture systems. Four areas with different levels of anthropization were sampled, in the following environments: “Areião, Areiãozinho, Chapada de Latossolo and Tabuleiro”, whose identifications had been made from key informers in the Água Boa Community, in Rio Pardo de Minas (MG, Brazil. The sampled units were distributed in 8 parcels of 20 x 50 m, with 5 subplots. The trees with circumference at ground level of 15 cm or bigger were measured. For analysis of the phytosociology indexes the following parameters were calculated for each environment: density, dominance, frequency, basal area, and importance value. For the floristic diversity the Shannon (H' was calculated, and for the analysis of similarity the index of Jaccard index (Sij. In all the environments, it was found a total of 477 individuals, distributed in 21 families, with 48 botanical species identified, and 27 individuals not identified. The five most important (importance value families was Fabaceae/Papilionoideae, Apocynaceae, Vochysiaceae, Sapotaceae and Fabaceae/Caesalpinoideae. And the ten most important species was Pouteria ramiflora, Dalbergia miscolobium, Hancornia speciosa, Macherium opacum, Sclerolobium paniculatum var. subvelutinum, Qualea grandiflora, Aspidosperma tomentosum, Byrsonima pachyphylla, Vochysia thyrsoidea and Hymenaea stigonocarpa. The H' index was of 3.01; 2.72; 2.48 and 2.09 for “Areião, Areiãozinho, Chapada de Latossolo and Tabuleiro”, respectively. The Sij index indicated a small floristic similarity for all the combinations between the environments.

  17. The relevance of ants as seed rescuers of a primarily bird-dispersed tree in the Neotropical cerrado savanna.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christianini, Alexander V; Oliveira, Paulo S

    2009-07-01

    The scale at which seed dispersal operates has many implications for the spatial patterns of plant recruitment and diversity. We investigated the effect of short- (ants) and long-distance (birds) seed dispersal of the fleshy-fruited melastome, Miconia rubiginosa, in the Brazilian savanna. We estimated the contribution of dispersal vectors to the removal of the fruit crop from the canopy (birds), and once seeds have reached the cerrado floor (ants) over two fruiting seasons. Birds (13 species) removed up to 23.7% of the fruit crop from the crown, but dropped a substantial proportion of fruits beneath the parent plant. Birds removed a greater proportion of fruits from trees producing large fruit crops, as predicted by the fruit crop size hypothesis. However, up to 18.9% of the fruit crop fell beneath the parent plant as ripe fruit. Most fallen fruits were removed by ants (seven genera), which are likely to play a relatively important role in terms of the quantity of seeds dispersed, especially for plants producing small fruit crops (a conceptual model is presented). Birds and ants did not influence seed germination, but they differ in terms of the spatial scale of dispersal and deposition patterns. Ants probably play an important role in the local population dynamics of Miconia, whereas birds are responsible for long-distance dispersal associated with the colonization of new patches and metapopulation dynamics. By removing seeds from bird droppings, ants may also reshape at a finer scale the seed rain generated by primary dispersers. Indeed, seedlings and saplings of Miconia are more frequently found around leaf-cutter ant nests than in control areas away from ant nests or around large Miconia trees. The quantitative component of dispersal effectiveness by ants acting as "rescuers" of seeds that fail to be dispersed, or fall under parent trees, is probably more important than currently recognized in other systems. PMID:19399521

  18. Content and carbon stocks in labile and recalcitrant organic matter of the soil under crop-livestock integration in Cerrado

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    Itaynara Batista

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The study of organic matter and its compartments and their relationship with management, aims to develop strategies for increasing their levels in soils and better understanding of its dynamics. This work aimed to evaluate the fractions of soil organic matter and their carbon stocks in different soil cover system in crop-livestock integration and native Cerrado vegetation. The study was conducted at the farm Cabeceira, Maracajú – MS, sample area have the following history: soybean/corn + brachiaria/cotton/oat + pasture/soybean/formation of pasture/grazing, sampling was carried out in two seasons, dry (May/2009 and rainy (March 2010, in the dry season, crops present were: pasture, corn and cotton + brachiaria and in the rainy season were corn, cotton and soybeans, so the areas in the two evaluation periods were: pasture / maize + brachiaria / cotton, cotton / soybean area and a native of Savanna. Was performed to determine the exchangeable cations, particle size analysis, bulk density, organic carbon, particle size fractionation of organic matter of the soil with the quantification of particulate organic carbon (POC and organic carbon associated with minerals (OCam. Was also quantified the carbon stock and size fractions. The area of pasture / maize showed higher carbon stock in the particulate fraction in the topsoil. The area of cotton / soy due to its lower clay, showed the greatest loss of carbon. Because of the areas have the same history, the stock of more recalcitrant fraction was not sensitive to variations in coverage. The POC fraction appears more sensitive to different soil covers and seasonality.

  19. Outro lado da fronteira agrícola: breve história sobre a origem e declínio da agricultura autóctone no cerrado The other side of agricultural frontier: a brief history on origin and decline of cerrado's ndian agriculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Feltran-Barbieri

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available A tese de frederic Jakson turner, para quem a conquista das fronteiras forjou o caráter americano, convergindo à ascensão da vida privada com o desenvolvimento da democracia e economia, não vingou na América latina porque aqui a realidade mostrou o outro lado da fronteira: um espaço para onde os conflitos sociais dos centros dinâmicos eram expurgados e exacerbados, como muito bem descreveu otávio velho. nesse processo recorrente os primeiros confrontos não ocorriam entre a população migrante e os trabalhadores contratados pelo latifundiário ausente, mas entre todos contra os indígenas. muito se tem escrito sobre esses conflitos, mas o enfoque é sempre o daquele mais drástico e urgente: o genocídio. Pouco, entretanto, se discorre sobre o declínio subsidiário, ou seja, o dos processos agrícolas. Isso é ainda mais verdadeiro quando se trata do Domínio do Cerrado. o presente artigo pretende oferecer uma brevíssima história da origem e declínio da agricultura dos índios no Cerrado.Turner's thesis that frontier had forged convergence between democracy and individual economic ascension did not inspire Latin American critical studies because here the reality showed the other side of the frontier: a space where the social conflicts of the dynamic centers were purged and exacerbated. In this process, the first conflicts did not occur among the migrant population and workers hired by the absent landowner, but among everyone else against the Indians. Much has been discussed about it but very few have focused on the other side of frontiers: the indigenous agriculture. This is clearer when one considers the Cerrado Region. In the past 10 years only 5 articles, including national and international journals, analyzed the Indian Agriculture History and Practices in Cerrado. The goal of this paper is to offer a brief history of Indians agrarian systems, from their origin to decline, in Brazilian Cerrados.

  20. Fitomassa e acúmulo de nitrogênio, em espécies vegetais de cobertura do solo para um Latossolo Vermelho distroférrico de Cerrado = Biomass and nitrogen accumulation in cover crops species used in Brazilian Cerrado

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    Edicarlos Damacena de Souza

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Espécies vegetais com alta produção de fitomassa são de fundamentalimportância para o desenvolvimento sustentável do plantio direto no cerrado. Objetivou-se avaliar a produção de fitomassa e o acúmulo de nitrogênio em 17 espécies vegetais em um Latossolo Vermelho distroférrico da região do Cerrado. O trabalho foi realizado no campoexperimental da Universidade Federal de Goiás, localizado no Centro de Ciências Agrárias e Biológicas no Campus de Jataí – Estado de Goiás. O delineamento experimental adotado foi o de blocos ao acaso, com cinco repetições. Foram utilizadas as espécies: Aveia pretacomum, Aveia preta IAPAR61, Braquiaria brizantha, Braquiaria decumbens, Capim-pé-degalinha, Milheto BN2, Milheto BRS 1501, Milheto MT, Crotalaria spectabilis, Crotalaria juncea, Guandu normal, Guandu super N, Girassol selvagem, Kenaf 1, Kenaf 2, Nabo forrageiro e Niger. O milheto BRS 1501 obteve a maior fitomassa entre as gramíneas, a C. spectabilis, entre as leguminosas e o nabo forrageiro, entre as outras famílias. O milheto BRS1501, C. spectabilis e nabo forrageiro também obtiveram o maior acúmulo de N na parte aérea. As espécies nabo forrageiro, kenaf 1 e milheto BRS 1501 são as mais recomendadas como cobertura do solo para a região do cerrado goiano.Plant species that have high biomass production are of fundamentalimportance to the sustainable development of no-tillage systems in the cerrado region. This experiment had the objective of evaluating the biomass production and nitrogen accumulation in 17 plant species in a Oxisol of the cerrado region. This experiment was conducted in an experimental field of the Federal University of Goiás, located in the Agricultural and Biological Cientific Center of Jataí - State of Goiás. The experimental layout was a randomized block with 5 replicates. The following species were used: two species of Avena strigosa, Brachiaria brizantha, Brachiaria decumbens, Eleusine indica, three

  1. Management and conservation of acid soils in the savannahs of Latin America: Lessons from the agricultural development of the Brazilian cerrados

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Acid-soil savannahs represent most of the remaining land suitable for agricultural development in the world. Considered as marginal lands, they are of low inherent productivity for agriculture, and susceptible to rapid degradation. The vast Brazilian 'cerrados' were opened up some 30 years ago, and today they supply a considerable portion of the country's agricultural commodities. Monocultures of grain crops and pastures are proving to be unsustainable under today's conditions, and alternative production systems are being developed and implemented that incorporate improved production technologies and conservation of the natural resources. No-till, minimum tillage and integrated crop-livestock systems are proving to be successful in terms of farmer adoption. However, there is a need to elucidate the principles and functioning of these systems in order to assess their suitability for long-term sustainability of marginal savannah lands. The challenges that remain to ensure that these lands are developed in a sustainable manner include social, cultural and economic aspects, a favourable policy environment and a clearer understanding of sustainability and its measurement. In this article we review the lessons learned from the cerrados experience. Future research should include the development of new crop options with tolerance of acid soils, a better understanding of water and nutrient cycles, the development of principles of soil organic matter and crop-residue management, and the biological management of soil fertility. (author)

  2. Emissions of nitrous oxide and nitric oxide from soils of native and exotic ecosystems of the Amazon and Cerrado regions of Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, E A; Bustamante, M M; de Siqueira Pinto, A

    2001-11-21

    This paper reviews reports of nitrous oxide (N2O) and nitric oxide (NO) emissions from soils of the Amazon and Cerrado regions of Brazil. N2O is a stable greenhouse gas in the troposphere and participates in ozone-destroying reactions in the stratosphere, whereas NO participates in tropospheric photochemical reactions that produce ozone. Tropical forests and savannas are important sources of atmospheric N2O and NO, but rapid land use change could be affecting these soil emissions of N oxide gases. The five published estimates for annual emissions of N2O from soils of mature Amazonian forests are remarkably consistent, ranging from 1.4 to 2.4 kg N ha(-1) year(-1), with a mean of 2.0 kg N ha(-1) year(-1). Estimates of annual emissions of NO from Amazonian forests are also remarkably similar, ranging from 1.4 to 1.7 kg N ha(-1) year(-1), with a mean of 1.5 kg N ha(-1) year(-1). Although a doubling or tripling of N2O has been observed in some young (cattle pastures relative to mature forests, most Amazonian pastures have lower emissions than the forests that they replace, indicating that forest-to-pasture conversion has, on balance, probably reduced regional emissions slightly (Amazon region, far too few data exist for the Cerrado region to assess the impact of land use changes on N oxide emissions. PMID:12805795

  3. Serosurvey for selected viral infections in free-ranging jaguars (Panthera onca) and domestic carnivores in Brazilian Cerrado, Pantanal, and Amazon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furtado, Mariana Malzoni; de Ramos Filho, José Domingues; Scheffer, Karin Corrêa; Coelho, Claudio José; Cruz, Paula Sônia; Ikuta, Cassia Yumi; Jácomo, Anah Tereza de Almeida; Porfírio, Grasiela Edith de Oliveira; Silveira, Leandro; Sollmann, Rahel; Tôrres, Natália Mundim; Ferreira Neto, José Soares

    2013-07-01

    We investigated the exposure of jaguar (Panthera onca) populations and domestic carnivores to selected viral infections in the Cerrado, Amazon, and Pantanal biomes of Brazil. Between February 2000 and January 2010, we collected serum samples from 31 jaguars, 174 dogs (Canis lupus familiaris), and 35 domestic cats (Felis catus). Serologic analyses for antibodies to rabies virus, canine distemper virus (CDV), feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV), and for feline leukemia virus (FeLV) antigen were conducted. The jaguars from Cerrado and Pantantal were exposed to rabies virus, while the jaguars from the Pantanal and the dogs from all three areas were exposed to CDV. Two cats from the Amazonian site were antigen-positive for FeLV, but no jaguars had FeLV antigen or FIV antibody. Canine distemper and rabies viruses should be carefully monitored and considered potential threats to these jaguar populations. Currently FIV and FeLV do not appear to represent a health threat for jaguar populations in this area. Domestic dogs and cats in these areas should be vaccinated, and the movement of domestic animals around protected areas should be restricted. PMID:23778599

  4. The snake assemblage (Squamata: Serpentes of a Cerrado-Caatinga transition area in Castelo do Piauí, state of Piauí, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francílio da Silva Rodrigues

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available This study records and analyzes the diversity and structure of a snake assemblage in a transition area between Cerrado and Caatinga, in the municipality of Castelo do Piauí, state of Piauí, comparing the distribution and similarity of the species composition with other open localities already studied in Brazil. We used three complementary sampling methods: time constrained search (TCS, pitfall traps with drift fences (PFT, and incidental encounters (IE. During the TCS and PFT, 912 hours/observer and 6,468 days/trap were used, respectively. We estimated 23 species of snakes for the locality, although only 19 species were recorded. Philodryas nattereri Steindachner, 1870 (n = 10, Liophis poecilogyrus (Schlegel, 1837 (n = 9, Liophis viridis Günther, 1862 (n = 8 and Thamnodynastes sp. (n = 8 were the most abundant species. Terrestrial, cryptozoic, and diurnal snakes predominated in the assemblage (Boidae = 2 species, Dipsadidae = 12, Colubridae = 2, Elapidae = 1, Viperidae = 2. The results indicate that the fauna of the locality is similar with that of other open formations, especially the Caatinga, corroborating previous floristic studies. Comparisons between snake assemblages analyzed by different authors suggest structural differences between the assemblages of the Cerrado and the Caatinga, contradicting the hypothesis of mixed composition of fauna in these biomes.

  5. Introdução e avaliação de gladíolos em ambiente de cerrado no Estado de Roraima. = The introduction and evaluation of gladiolus under Savannah (Cerrado conditions in The State of Roraima.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rejane Lanius Boyle

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available As plantas ornamentais de corte comercializadas no Estado de Roraima são importadas de outros Estados do Brasil ou do exterior, como por exemplo: rosas, gladíolos, crisântemos, antúrios, violetas e gérberas. Considerando a potencialidade do Estado de Roraima para o cultivo de plantas ornamentais, objetivou com este trabalho introduzir e avaliar o comportamento de três acessos de gladíolos em condições de casa de vegetação no ambiente de cerrado do Estado deRoraima. O experimento foi instalado entre os meses de setembro a novembro de 2007. O delineamento experimental foi o de blocos inteiramente casualizados, com três tratamentos e nove repetições. Os tratamentos foram três acessos de gladíolos, sendo: 1- Trader Horn; 2- White Friendship e 3- Peter Pears. As variáveis avaliadas foram: índice de germinação, altura da planta, número de dias entre a germinação e a emissão da inflorescência, número de flores por espiga e número de flores abertas por espiga para fins de corte. Os acessos Trader Horn, White Friendship e Peter Pears desenvolveram-se até a floração, tendo apresentado um ciclo comercial médio de 73 dias e oito flores por inflorescência, apresentando características de padrão comercial. = The ornamental plants of cutting marketed in the state of Roraima are imported from other states in Brazil orcountries, for example: roses, gladiolus, chrysanthemums, anthuriums, gerberas and violets. Considering the potential of thestate of Roraima to the cultivation of ornamental plants, this work objectived to introduce and evaluate the performance of threeacesses of gladiolus overhead covered in Savannah the State of Roraima. The experiment was conducted between September and November 2007. The experimental design was of randomized blocks with three treatments and nine replications. The treatments were three species of gladioli, which: 1- Trader Horn; 2 - White Friendship and 3 - Peter Pears. The variables were

  6. Caracterização química de frutos nativos do cerrado Chemical characterization of native species of fruits from savanna ecosystem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mara Reis Silva

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Diversos frutos do cerrado com potencial econômico são consumidos in natura ou processados pela população local. Entretanto, existem poucos trabalhos científicos a respeito de suas características químicas e do valor nutritivo. O objetivo do presente trabalho foi avaliar a composição centesimal, o valor energético total e o conteúdo de cálcio, ferro e zinco em alguns frutos nativos do cerrado: macaúba, caju-do-cerrado, araticum, murici, gabiroba, cagaita; mangaba, puçá, araçá, chichá e pitomba. As análises de umidade, proteína, lipídios totais, fibra alimentar total e resíduo mineral fixo foram realizadas utilizando-se metodologias consagradas na literatura especializada. Cálcio, ferro e zinco foram quantificados analiticamente e o valor energético total dos frutos in natura foi estimado conforme os valores de conversão de Atwater. A concentração de proteínas, lipídios e carboidratos dos frutos foi relativamente baixa, com exceção do chichá e da macaúba. O teor de fibra alimentar variou de 1,04 a 11,14g 100g-1, sendo os maiores valores encontrados em araçá, chichá, macaúba e murici. Quanto aos minerais, araticum, chichá, macaúba e mangaba apresentaram valores consideráveis de cálcio, ferro e zinco. Os frutos do cerrado investigados podem ser fontes alternativas de nutrientes. Dessa forma, sugere-se sua utilização em cardápios regionais e cardápios da merenda escolar.Various fruits of the savanna ecosystem with economic potential are consumed raw or processed by the natives. However, there are a few scientific studies on their chemical composition and nutritional values. The aim of this research was to evaluate proximate composition, caloric values, calcium, iron and zinc content from fruits found in the savanna ecosystem: macaúba; caju-do-cerrado; araticum; murici; gabiroba; cagaita; mangaba; puçá; araçá; chichá and pitomba. Moisture, protein, total fat, dietary fiber and ash were carried out by

  7. Survey of vegetation and its diametric distribution in an area of cerrado sensu stricto and riparian forest fragment at Dois Irmãos stream in the Area of Environmental Protection (APA of Cafuringa, Federal District, Brazil.

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    José Elias de Paula

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available All individual trees with a diameter at breast height (DBH of over 5cm, as well as the natural succession, were identified in 2,500m2 of the savannah (cerrado sensu stricto area and in 5,000m2 of the “Dois Irmãos” riparian forest vegetation (15º30’19”S and 48º06’18”W. The floristic composition of the cerrado sensu stricto was composed by 100 trees distributed in 25 species, and the riparian forest consisted of 155 trees distributed in 55 species. The natural regeneration was formed with 211 and 287 individuals in the cerrado sensu stricto and riparian forest distributed into 38 and 55 species respectively. The basal areas of the trees occupied 3.40m2.ha-1 in the cerrado sensu stricto and 5.08m2.ha-1 in the riparian forest. The diametric distribution curves for both plant communities, adjusted by the Meyers equation, demonstrated a typical tendency of reversed-J shape with strongly antropic action in the 11 to 17cm diametric classes.

  8. Breeding biology and distyly in Palicourea rigida H. B. & K. (Rubiaceae in the Cerrados of Central Brazil Biologia reprodutiva e distilia em Palicourea rigida H. B. & K. (Rubiaceae em Cerrados do Brasil Central

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    Adriana de Oliveira Machado

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Distyly is a floral polymorphism more common among the Rubiaceae than in any other angiosperm group. Palicourea rigida is a typically distylous species of the Rubiaceae widely distributed in the Brazilian Cerrados. This work aimed to study the floral biology and breeding system of P. rigida in order to verify if there wasasymmetry between floral morphs. The work was carried out at Fazenda Água Limpa, Brasília-DF, from 1993 to 1995; and at Serra Caldas Novas State Park-Goias and in Clube Caça e Pesca Itororó de Uberlândia-Minas Gerais in 2005 and 2006. Density, height and pin/thrum ratio were assessed for flowering individuals in all areas. Plants were investigated for differences in floral morphology, nectar production, reproductive success and site of self incompatibility reactions. Blooming period was long and concentrated during the rains. Flowers were clearly distylous and with reciprocal herkogamy. They produced nectar and lasted for a single day. In spite of differences in density and height, populations were mostly isoplethic. Nectar production varied in volume and concentration but the differences could not be associated with floral morphs. The species is self-incompatible but reproductive success was always high and independent of floral morphs. There were differences in the site of incompatibility barriers between floral morphs, which were similar to those observed for other Rubiaceae. The main floral visitors and pollinators were the hummingbirds Colibri serrirostris and Eupetomena macroura. High fruit-set indicates that the pollinators transported enough compatible pollen grains between floral morphs, despite their territorial behavior.A distilia é um polimorfismo floral mais freqüente entre as espécies de Rubiaceae do que em qualquer outro grupo das Angiospermas. Palicourea rigida é uma espécie de Rubiaceae, amplamente distribuída nos cerrados brasileiros e em outras áreas de savanas neotropicais. O presente trabalho

  9. Nitrogen utilization from urea and green manure residues by corn grown under no till in Southern Cerrado, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Field experiments were carried out in Selviria, Mato Grosso do Sul state in the Brazilian southern Cerrado, during 2 consecutive years, to evaluate the N use efficiency from the urea fertilizer and green manures (millet and crotalaria) by corn grown in a red Latosol under no tillage system. The experimental design was completely randomized blocks with 24 treatments (incomplete factorial 5x3x2): 5 fertilizer N rates (0, 30, 80, 130 and 180 kg N ha-1), 3 fallow systems: natural and green manure (millet and crotalaria) and 2 split application times of fertilizer N (at seeding and topdressing at 4 or 8 leaves stage). The green manures and urea were labeled with 15N. The highest grain productivity were obtained in the crotalaria-corn sequence during both years followed by natural fallow-corn and millet-corn, the fallow systems differing statistically in the first year, and only when N was applied at the 8 leaves stage in the second year. The crotalaria provided more N to corn than fallow and millet in both years and the corn grain yield response to N rates was fitted to a quadratic function. The fertilizer N application at 4 leaves stage resulted in higher grain productivity in all three fallow systems in the first year, and significant differences were found for natural fallow-corn and millet-corn systems when N was topdressed at 8 leaves stage. The grain productivity data were fitted to quadratic functions with regard to the fertilizer N application rates. The maximum technical efficiency for grain productivity was estimated to be achieved at the N rates of 148, 117 and 161 kg N ha-1 and 171, 160 and 174 kg N ha-1 for the natural fallow-corn, crotalaria-corn and millet-corn during the first and second year respectively. The FNUE was, on the average of 2 years, 53%, 49% and 44% for the corn grown as succeeding crop to crotalaria, fallow and millet, respectively. The application of increasing fertilizer N rates resulted in a quadratic response of the utilization by corn

  10. Spatially-Explicit Estimates of Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Fire and Land-Use Change in the Brazilian Cerrado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galford, G. L.; Spera, S. A.; Coe, M. T.; Costa, C., Jr.

    2014-12-01

    Understanding the multiple types of land-use changes that can occur within an ecosystem provides a comprehensive picture of the human's impact on natural systems. We use the Cerrado (savanna) of Brazil to examine the primary and secondary impacts of land-use change on greenhouse gas emissions. The primary land-use changes include fires for land-clearing, conversions to pasture and row-crop agriculture, and shifting management practices of agricultural lands. Secondary land-use changes include savanna degradation due to fires that escape from intended burn areas. These escape fires typically have a lower combustion completion coefficient than clearing fires, so it is important to distinguish them to correctly estimate the regional greenhouse gas budget. We have created a first-order spatio-temporal model of greenhouse gas emissions that can be easily modified for other savanna regions using globally available data products as inputs. Our data inputs are derived from publically available remote sensing imagery. Initial biomass is estimated by Baccini et al. 2012, which is derived from LiDAR and MODIS imagery. All other input data sets give annual estimates. Clearing of the savanna is documented by LAPIG of Universidade Federal de Goias using MODIS (MOD13Q1), LANDSAT and CBERS images. MODIS burned area products delineate annual fires; in combination with the savanna clearing database we determine primary and escape fires. Pastures and row-crop agriculture are documented by LAPIG and Spera et al. 2014, respectively. The row-crop agriculture dataset enables us to estimate greenhouse gas emissions associated with specific crops (e.g., soy or maize) and management (e.g., fertilizer use). Recent contributions to the literature have provided many in situ measurements from the land-use changes of interest needed to estimate a regional greenhouse gas budget, including combustion coefficients of savanna sub-types, carbon emission soil stocks, nitrogen emissions from fertilizer

  11. Karyotype characterization and nucleolar organizer regions of marsupial species (Didelphidae from areas of Cerrado and Atlantic Forest in Brazil

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    Núbia P. Pereira

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The karyotypes of 23 specimens belonging to 16 species from nine genera of Brazilian marsupials (family Didelphidae were studied. The animals were collected in eight localities of Cerrado or Atlantic Forest biomes in the states of Goiás, Tocantins and São Paulo. The karyotypes were analyzed after conventional Giemsa staining and silver staining of the nucleolus organizer regions (Ag-NORs. New karyotypic data were obtained for Gracilinanus microtarsus (2n = 14, FN = 24, Marmosops paulensis (2n = 14, FN = 24 , Micoreus paraguayanus (2n = 14, FN = 20 and Monodelphis rubida (2n = 18, FN = 32 and are discussed in detail. The karyotypes of G. microtarsus , M. paulensis and M. paraguayanus include three large pairs of submetacentrics (pairs 1, 2 and 3 and a medium-sized metacentric or submetacentric pair 4. Pairs 5 and 6 are small submetacentrics in G. microtarsus and M. paulensis and acrocentrics in M. paraguayanus . M. paulensis presented a single Ag-NOR in pair 6 (6p6p, while M. paraguayanus exhibited multiple Ag-NORs in pairs 5 and 6 (5pq5pq6p6p. There was variation in size and morphology of the sex chromosomes among these species. Monodelphis rubida presented a karyotype with 2n = 18 and FN = 32 composed of a large submetacentric pair 1, a medium-sized metacentric pair 2 and six pairs of submetacentrics (pairs 3 through 8. The X was a small acrocentric and the Y was dot-like. A single Ag-NOR bearing pair (5p5p characterized M. rubida. Relevant karyotypic information was obtained for 19 specimens belonging to 12 species collected in areas sampled for the first time [ Caluromys lanatus and C. philander (2n = 14, FN = 20, Gracilinanus emiliae (2n = 14, FN = 24, Marmosa murina , Metachirus nudicaudatus and Micoureus demerarae (2n = 14, FN = 20, Monodelphis americana (2n = 18, FN = 32 and M. domestica (2n = 18, FN = 20, and Didelphis marsupialis, Philander frenata, P. opossum and P. sp (2n = 22, FN = 20]. Although the karyotypes were relatively

  12. Regeneração natural de cerrado sob plantio de Eucalyptus camaldulensis Dehn. no norte de Minas Gerais, Brasil

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    Michellia Pereira Soares

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available A formação de paisagens homogêneas tornou-se um problema na biologia da conservação, já que essas plantações interferem diretamente na dinâmica das comunidades. Sendo assim, o objetivo deste trabalho foi determinar a composição florística e a estrutura da regeneração natural de cerrado, no sub-bosque de um plantio de Eucalyptus camaldulensis, e verificar se essa regeneração se diferencia, dependendo da distância em relação às bordas do talhão. O estudo foi realizado no município de Montes Claros, MG. Para o levantamento, foram demarcados dois blocos, cada um subdividido em nove parcelas de 10 m x 10 m, utilizando-se, como critério de inclusão, a altura > 0,30 m. Foram registrados 2.413 indivíduos. No bloco 1, foram amostrados 914 indivíduos, pertencentes a 63 espécies e 26 famílias, sendo Eugenia dysenterica, Hymenaea stigonogocarpa, Calliandra sp. e Duguetia furfuracea as espécies mais importantes, segundo o Valor de Importância (VI. No bloco 2, foram registrados 1.499 indivíduos, distribuídos em 71 espécies e 30 famílias, sendo os maiores VIs alcançados por Cupania vernalis, Chamaecrista desvauxii, Pouteria ramiflora . Senna rugosa. A distribuição em classes de altura e de diâmetro mostrou a maioria dos indivíduos nas menores classes, demonstrando que a área ainda reflete um evento de regeneração recente. Entretanto, os resultados deste estudo indicam que existem comunidades distintas no local, estando o bloco 2 em estádio mais avançado de regeneração do que o primeiro. Esse fato foi confirmado pela análise de agrupamento entre as parcelas e as diferenças de diversidade e desenvolvimento estrutural da vegetação de cada bloco.

  13. Distribuição vertical dos sistemas de polinização bióticos em áreas de cerrado sentido restrito no Triângulo Mineiro, MG, Brasil Vertical distribution of biotic pollination systems in cerrado sensu stricto in the Triângulo Mineiro, MG, Brazil

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    Cláudia Inês da Silva

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Alguns fatores podem influenciar a distribuição dos recursos florais e sistemas de polinização bióticos nos ecossistemas, como por exemplo, o clima, a altitude, a região geográfica, fragmentação de áreas naturais e as diferenças na composição florística na estratificação vertical. Este estudo teve por objetivo avaliar a distribuição dos sistemas de polinização bióticos na estratificação vertical em fragmentos de cerrado sentido restrito no Triângulo Mineiro. Não houve diferença significativa (χ²0,05,9 =14,17; p = 0,12 na riqueza florística geral entre os fragmentos, nem quando comparada em separado para cada estrato (arbóreo, arbustivo, herbáceo e liana, estando o estrato arbustivo mais bem representado. Da mesma forma, não houve diferenças significativas entre fragmentos quanto aos sistemas de polinização (χ²0,05,21 =13,80; p = 0,8778, sendo a polinização por abelhas mais comum, correspondendo ao menos 85% das espécies de plantas em cada fragmento. Em termos relativos, as plantas polinizadas por abelhas foram dominantes em todos os estratos, chegando a 100% das lianas e herbáceas em alguns fragmentos. Neste estudo, com base na composição florística e distribuição dos sistemas de polinização na estratificação vertical, podemos caracterizar um mosaico vertical no cerrado sentido restrito, que tem implicações na sustentabilidade das comunidades no cerrado, assim como os mosaicos horizontais de fitofisionomias.Several factors can influence the distribution of floral resources and pollination systems in ecosystems, such as climate, altitude, geographic region, fragmentation of natural areas and differences in floristic composition along the vertical stratification. This study aimed to evaluate the distribution of the vertical stratification of biotic pollination systems in cerrado (sensu stricto fragments in the Triângulo Mineiro. There was no significant difference (χ²0.05,9=14.17; P = 0.12 in

  14. Species richness, relative abundance, and habitat of reproduction of terrestrial frogs in the Triângulo Mineiro region, Cerrado biome, southeastern Brazil Riqueza, abundância relativa e hábitat de reprodução de espécies de anuros terrestres na região do Triângulo Mineiro, bioma Cerrado, sudeste do Brasil

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    Ariovaldo A. Giaretta

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Based on field observations and pitfall sampling, we determined the species richness, relative abundance, and reproductive habitat of terrestrial frogs in three municipalities in the Triângulo Mineiro region, south Cerrado biome, in southeastern Brazil. We found thirty-two species of terrestrial frogs, belonging to the families Brachycephalidae, Bufonidae, Cycloramphidae, Dendrobatidae, Leiuperidae, Leptodactylidae and Microhylidae. Most of the species were found in open areas and reproduced in human-generated environments, such as artificial lakes (10 species and ponds (14 species. Dominance was high, with Physalaemus cuvieri Fitzinger, 1826 (Leiuperidae representing 48% of sampled frogs. A larger number of individuals was captured in the wet season, when most of the species were reproducing. Compared to other areas of Cerrado biome, the Triângulo Mineiro sites presented a larger number of species, which may be attributed to the larger sampled area and greater sampling effort, lower altitude and presence of human generated habitats. The richness of terrestrial frogs was also larger than that in some forested localities in southeastern Brazil, indicating that the number of species cannot be explained only by precipitation and type of vegetation cover. The greater abundance of individuals during the wet season may be related to a greater movement of adults to breeding sites and to juvenile recruitment/dispersion. The heterogeneity of environments in the Cerrado biome, including its several isolated highlands, contributes to its high (local and regional diversity of frogs.Neste estudo foram determinados a riqueza, abundância relativa e hábitat de reprodução de anuros terrestres em três municípios do Triângulo Mineiro, sul do Bioma Cerrado, sudeste do Brasil, baseados em observações de campo e armadilhas de interceptação e queda. Foram encontradas 32 espécies pertencentes às famílias Brachycephalidae, Bufonidae, Cycloramphidae

  15. Management and conservation of acid soils in the Savannahs of Latin America: Lessons from the agricultural development of the Brazilian cerrados

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Acid-soil savannahs represent most of the remaining land suitable for agricultural development in the world. They are considered to be marginal lands as they have low inherent productivity for agriculture and are susceptible to rapid degradation. In Latin America the majority of these lands are found in the Brazilian 'cerrados' or savannahs. They were opened up for agriculture some 30 years ago and today they supply a considerable portion of the country's agricultural produce. The development pathway in the cerrados has shifted from extensive grazing on native grasslands to improved pastures and annual monocrops. More recently no-tillage systems have been introduced along with perennial crops and integrated crop-pasture systems. Monocultures of either grain crops or pastures have proved to be unsustainable under today's conditions and alternative production systems are being developed and implemented that incorporate improved production technologies and conservation of the natural resources. No-till, minimum till and integrated crop-livestock systems are proving to be successful in terms of farmer adoption. A number of variations in no-till systems have been developed mainly by farmers in response to climate and/or soil conditions. No-till systems are more productive and economical and are perceived to be more sustainable. However there is a need to elucidate the principles and functioning of these systems in order to assess their suitability for long-term sustainability of the marginal savannah lands. The challenges that remain to ensure that these lands are developed in a more sustainable manner include social, cultural and economic aspects, a favourable policy environment and a clearer understanding of sustainability, its measurement and how farmers perceive this concept. In this article we review the lessons learned from the 'cerrados' experience including the scientific breakthroughs made. The relevance of these lessons to other tropical acid soil

  16. Forms of carbon in an oxisol under no-tillage and crop-livestock integration systems in the cerrado, Goias State, Brazil

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    Régis Pinheiro Martins Bezerra

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The no-tillage system (NTS and more recently, the crop-livestock integration (CLI are very used for grain production in the Cerrado biome. This, the soil organic matter (SOM is one of the main components responsible for maintaining the quality of tropical soils. This study aimed to quantify the levels of total organic carbon (TOC, total nitrogen (total N, water soluble carbon (WSC and carbon of humic fractions in areas with different land use systems in the Cerrado of Goias. The farming systems were used: CLI (brachiaria + corn/beans/cotton/soybean and NTS (sunflower/millet/soybean/corn andas a reference, area native Cerrado vegetation (Cerradão. We collected soil samples at 0-10, 10- 20, 20-30 and 30-40 cm. The contents of TOC, total N, WSC, humin fraction carbon (C-HUM, humic acid fraction (C-HAF and fulvic acid fraction (C-FAF. The area of Cerradão had the highest TOC, total N, C-HUM and C-FAH in the surface layer (0-10 cm. The levels of WSC and humic fractions of SOM showed significant differences between the systems of land use and sampling depths. The highest levels of C-HAF were found in the area of CLI, at 0-10 and 20-30 cm. The CLI systems and NTS did not differ for the TOC and total N except for N in layer 20-30 cm. The system CLI favors the formation of C-HUM compared to the NTS. The CLI system leads to lower levels of WSC and higher C-FAF compared with the NTS, which has higher levels of WSC and C-FAH. The use of WSC and carbon of humic fractions was more efficient to identify differences from the land use systems evaluated (NTS, CLI and Cerradão when compared to the TOC for the climatic conditions of this study.

  17. Atributos físico-hídricos de um Latossolo após a aplicação de lodo de esgoto em área degradada do Cerrado Hydro-physical attributes of an Oxisol after sewage sludge application on a Cerrado degraded area

    OpenAIRE

    Fabiana da Silva de Campos; Marlene Cristina Alves; Zigomar Menezes de Souza; Gener Tadeu Pereira

    2011-01-01

    Os solos cultivados intensivamente e inadequadamente são degradados, assim como a construção de obras civis no meio rural executada sem atender à legislação. O trabalho objetivou definir a interferência do lodo de esgoto na recuperação de atributos de um Latossolo Vermelho. O experimento foi implantado em 2004, em Selviria (MS). Os tratamentos utilizados foram: T1-vegetação de cerrado; T2-solo exposto sem tratamento para recuperação; T3-solo cultivado com eucalipto e braquiária sem o uso do l...

  18. Produção primária líquida em área queimada e não queimada de campo sujo de cerrado (Planaltina - DF Net primary production in burnt and unburnt area of campo sujo de cerrado (Planaltina - DF

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    Maria Lúcia Meirelles

    1992-12-01

    Full Text Available Foi estimada a produção primária liquida aérea de duas áreas de campo sujo de cerrado em Planaltina (DF, sendo uma preservada e outra queimada no inicio do experimento. A produção foi estimada através das diferenças entre o peso seco da fitomassa herbácea aérea coletada quinzenalmente. O estudo foi realizado de outubro de 1980 a abril de 1981, que corresponde ao período das chuvas no DF. A produção primária líquida aérea do estrato herbáceo da área queimada (176 ± 33 g m-2 foi maior que a observada na área que não sofreu queima (108 ± 26 g m-2. A eficiência da conversão de energia solar para matéria seca foi de 0,19 ± 0,04% para a área queimada e 0,12 ± 0,03% na área preservada. A produção quinzenal apresentou correlação significativa com a precipitação e água no solo, demonstrando ser a água um fator limitante da produtividade do estrato herbáceo em área de campo sujo de cerrado.The above-ground net primary production was estimated for two areas of campo sujo of cerrado, one unburnt and the other initially burnt. Production was estimated by using diferences in the above-ground biomass which was sampled at quarterly intervals. The study was planned to coincide with the wet season, between october 1980 and april 1981. The above-ground net primary production of the herbaceous layer in the burnt area (176 ± 33 g m-2 was higher than in the unburnt area (108 ± 26 g m-2. The efficiency of the conversion of solar energy into dry matter was 0,12 ± 0,0,03% for the unburnt campo sujo and 0,19 ± 0,04% for the burnt campo sujo. The quartely production figures had significative correlation with precipitation and soil water, showing that the water is a limiting factor to the herbaceous layer primary production in campo sujo of cerrado.

  19. Effects of global climate changes on geographical distribution patterns of economically important plant species in cerrado Efeitos das mudanças climáticas globais sobre os padrões de distribuição geográfica das espécies de plantas economicamente importantes no cerrado

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    Lorena Mendes Simon

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Different climate models, modeling methods and carbon emission scenarios were used in this paper to evaluate the effects of future climate changes on geographical distribution of species of economic and cultural importance across the Cerrado biome. As the results of several studies have shown, there are still many uncertainties associated with these projections, although bioclimatic models are still widely used and effective method to evaluate the consequences for biodiversity of these climate changes. In this article, it was found that 90% of these uncertainties are related to methods of modeling, although, regardless of the uncertainties, the results revealed that the studied species will reduce about 78% of their geographic distribution in Cerrado. For an effective work on the conservation of these species, many studies still need to be carried out, although it is already possible to observe that climate change will have a strong influence on the pattern of distribution of these species.Neste trabalho, diferentes modelos climáticos, métodos de modelagem e cenários de emissão de carbono foram utilizados para avaliar os efeitos das mudanças climáticas sobre a distribuição geográfica de espécies de importância econômica e cultural das regiões abrangidas pelo bioma Cerrado. Assim como os resultados de vários trabalhos têm evidenciado ao longo dos anos, ainda há muitas incertezas relacionadas a essas projeções, apesar de os modelos bioclimáticos ainda serem a metodologia mais utilizada e eficaz para avaliar as consequências dessas mudanças climáticas para a biodiversidade. Neste artigo, foi possível observar que 90% dessas incertezas estão relacionadas aos métodos de modelagem. Contudo, independente disso, os resultados revelaram que as espécies estudadas reduzirão, em média, 78% de sua distribuição geográfica no Cerrado. Para que haja trabalho eficaz sobre a conservação dessas espécies, muitos estudos ainda

  20. COMPARISON BETWEEN THE SMP AND CALCIUM ACETATE METHODS FOR CERRADO SOILS POTENTIAL ACIDITY DETERMINATION COMPARAÇÃO ENTRE O MÉTODO SMP E O DO ACETATO DE CÁLCIO PARA DETRMINAÇÃO DA ACIDEZ POTENCIAL DE SOLOS DE CERRADO

    OpenAIRE

    Juarez Patrício de Oliveira Júnior; José Xavier de Almeida Neto; Huberto José Kliemann; Orlando Cavalcante de Castro

    2007-01-01

    In order to establish the correlation between soil potential acidity and SMP solution pH, 472 soil samples from the Goiás State cerrado area were studied. Soils were analyzed for H + Al by the calcium acetate at pH 7.0, SMP solution pH, and water pH methods. Data showed a correlation between SMP solution pH and soil H + Al content (r²=0.82), allowing the potential acidity det...

  1. Controle de plantas daninhas na cultura do algodoeiro (Gossypium hirsutum L. em solo anteriormente ocupado por vegetação de Cerrado Weed control on the cotton crop (Gossypium hirsutum L. in a soil previously occuped by Cerrado vegetation

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    J.G. Machado Neto

    1991-01-01

    by cerrado vegetation, at Selviria, MS, Brazil. The experimental design used was randomized block with 12 treatments and four repetitions. The treatments, dosis at kg a.i./ha, were: alachlor at 2.15 and 2.58 and diuron at 1.6 on preemergence application, trifluralin at 0.96 on preplant incorporated isolated or combined with MSMA at 1.89, or bentazon at 0.72 or diuron at 1.2 on postemergence applications; MSMA at 2.52, linuron at 1.0 and diuron at 1.6 on postemergence application and checks with or without hoeing. The treatments alachlor, diuron on preemergence application and trifluralin combined with diuron controlled Digitaria sanguinalis (L. Scop and Amaranthus viridis (L. during 90 days after the sowing of cotton, decreased 80% or more of dry matter of weeds. The herbicides did not caused phytotoxicity on crop. The weed competition reduced 58.9% of cotton yield.

  2. Caracterização florística de uma área de contato entre Cerrado e Mata Atlântica na região sudoeste do Estado de São Paulo.

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    Nicole da Silva PINTO

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Remanescentes de vegetação nativa em áreas de contato florístico e fitogeográfico têm especial importância na conservação da biodiversidade. A EstaçãoExperimental de Itapeva – EExI apresenta os referidos atributos, pois, abriga remanescentes de Floresta Estacional Semidecidual e de Cerrado. A EExI está localizada na BaciaHidrográfica do Alto Paranapanema – BHAP, na região sudoeste do Estado de São Paulo, considerada altamente degradada e prioritária para estudos de flora e fauna. Os objetivos deste trabalho foram: inventariar e caracterizar a vegetação e a flora vascular da EExI; ampliar o conhecimento sobre a biodiversidade da BHAP e subsidiar propostas de manejo. Realizou-se a caracterização fisionômica e florística considerando todos os hábitos, com coletas mensais de material botânico, de maio de 2009 a dezembro de 2010. Nas duas formações presentes na EExI, Mata Atlântica (Floresta Estacional Semidecidual – FES e Cerrado (campo rupestre, campo sujo úmido, campo sujo, cerrado ralo e cerrado denso, foram registradas 605 espécies. As famílias mais ricasna FES foram: Fabaceae, Myrtaceae, Rubiaceae, Asteraceae e Lauraceae, e no Cerrado:Asteraceae, Fabaceae, Myrtaceae, Melastomataceae e Bignoniaceae. Na FES predominaramas espécies arbóreas com 54,1% do total, ao contrário do Cerrado, onde predominaram as espécies não arbóreas (67,5%. Entre as espécies levantadas, 14 estão ameaçadas de extinção, mas apenas Araucaria angustifolia é citada nas listas estadual, nacional e mundial. Considerando o mosaico de FES e fisionomias de Cerrado, a alta diversidade de espécies e a presença de espécies ameaçadas de extinção, os remanescentes de vegetação da EExI são de extrema importância para a conservação e o estudo da biodiversidade regional.Remnants of native vegetation in areas of floristic and phytogeographical contact have special importance in biodiversity conservation. The Itapeva Experimental

  3. Leyes que prohíben fumar en espacios cerrados en México Laws that ban smoking in indoor places in Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Raydel Valdés-Salgado; Érika Ávila-Tang; Stillman, Frances A.; Heather Wipfli; Jonathan M. Samet

    2008-01-01

    Recientemente México aprobó una ley federal y otra en la capital del país que prohíben fumar en espacios cerrados. Estas medidas legislativas están en plena concordancia con las acciones propuestas en el Artículo 8 del Convenio Marco para el Control del Tabaco de la Organización Mundial de la Salud, que México ratificó en 2004. En este ensayo se revisa la evidencia científica que demuestra que la exposición al humo de tabaco causa enfermedades crónicas y agudas en niños y adultos no fumadores...

  4. Determination of rare earth elements in Solanum lycocarpum in 'Cerrado de Emas'- Pirassununga, State of Sao Paulo, Brazil, by neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the present work, the rare earth elements concentration (REE) in plant leaves of the species Solanum lycocarpum from 'Cerrado de Emas', Pirassununga, Sao Paulo, and the soil where they have grown up, was determined by using instrumental neutron activation analysis. The obtained values for most of the light REE (La, Ce, Nd) were higher than the reference values for REE in plants. These results suggest that the light REE are more available in the soil than the heavy REE. The concentration of REE in the plant and the soil were normalized to chondrite contents, showing in the soil diagram a negative anomaly for the concentration of Eu and a positive anomaly for the concentration of Ce, which were not observed in the plant diagram. (author). 11 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs

  5. Espécies de Uromyces em leguminosas do Cerrado com descrição de U. galactiae sp. nov.

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    Rezende Denise V.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Foram estudadas cinco espécies de Uromyces sobre Bauhinia spp. e uma espécie nova em Galactia peduncularis. Uromyces bauhiniae foi encontrada pela primeira vez sobre B. holophylla, onde somente Uromyces floralis havia sido descrita. Uromyces floralis foi estudada sobre B. curvula, hospedeiro inédito no Brasil para esta espécie. Uromyces foveolatus, comum em B. acuruana var. nitida, no cerrado do Mato Grosso e U. goyazensis sobre B. dumosa var. viscidula foram encontradas somente na fase telial em todas as exsicatas examinadas. Uromyces viegasii foi estudada em B. forficata. Uromyces galactiae sp. nov. é o primeiro fungo fitopatogênico associado ao gênero Galactia.

  6. Espécies de Melastomataceae Juss. com potencial para restauração ecológica de mata ripária no cerrado

    OpenAIRE

    Lidiamar Albuquerque; Fabiana Aquino; Leila Costa; Zenilton Miranda; Simone Sousa

    2015-01-01

    Melastomataceae Juss. é a sexta família em importância no bioma Cerrado, sendo comuns em vegetação secundária. As espé-cies desta família apresentam estratégias de vida e adaptações como grande produção de sementes, dispersão efi ciente de propágulos, altas taxas de germinação e crescimento rápido que podem propiciar a ativação dos processos ecológicos envolvidos na rege-neração natural de habitats perturbados. O objetivo foi caracterizar as espécies de Melastomataceae em vegetação secundária...

  7. MODERNIZATION OF AGRICULTURE AND USE OF TERRITORY: THE DIALETIC BETWEEN NEW AND OLD, INTERNAL AND EXTERNAL, MARKET AND STATE IN AREAS OD CERRADO

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    Samuel Frederico

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes the expansion and consolidation of the modern agricultural frontier in the cerrado. In the second half of the XX century, Brazilian agriculture has had two periods of modernization: the first, in the 1970s, characterized by the Green Revolution paradigm, the formation of the agroindustrial complex and State regulation; and the second, in the 1990s, characterized by the emergence of globalized scientific agricultural, i.e. the use of new information technologies and the regulation of the crops produced by big companies. The new paradigms of agriculture have changed the relationship between the country and the city and especially that between the agricultural regions and the world economy.

  8. Dinâmica demográfica e uso da terra no cerrado brasileiro: reflexões a partir da experiência do Padap

    OpenAIRE

    Mauro Augusto dos Santos; Alisson Flávio Barbieri; Gilvan Ramalho Guedes; Carla Jorge Machado; José Alberto Magno de Carvalho

    2012-01-01

    Com base nas teorias de desenvolvimento da fronteira e nas abordagens de estratégias de sobrevivência, este artigo ilustra o processo de colonização e dinâmica de uso do solo do Cerrado brasileiro, destacando a importância da migração, das associações agrícolas e do governo em contribuir para o sucesso de uma área de assentamento voltada para a intensificação de capital. Para ilustrar este processo com um estudo de caso, foi realizada uma pesquisa com os pioneiros na região do Programa de Ass...

  9. Diversity of shrub tree layer, leaf litter decomposition and N release in a Brazilian Cerrado under N, P and N plus P additions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khan Baiocchi Jacobson, Tamiel, E-mail: tamiel@unb.br [Departamento de Ecologia, Universidade de Brasilia, Brasilia-DF 70919-970 (Brazil); Cunha Bustamante, Mercedes Maria da, E-mail: mercedes@unb.br [Departamento de Ecologia, Universidade de Brasilia, Brasilia-DF 70919-970 (Brazil); Rodrigues Kozovits, Alessandra, E-mail: kozovits@icep.ufop.br [Departamento de Ecologia, Universidade de Brasilia, Brasilia-DF 70919-970 (Brazil)

    2011-10-15

    This study investigated changes in diversity of shrub-tree layer, leaf decomposition rates, nutrient release and soil NO fluxes of a Brazilian savanna (cerrado sensu stricto) under N, P and N plus P additions. Simultaneous addition of N and P affected density, dominance, richness and diversity patterns more significantly than addition of N or P separately. Leaf litter decomposition rates increased in P and NP plots but did not differ in N plots in comparison to control plots. N addition increased N mass loss, while the combined addition of N and P resulted in an immobilization of N in leaf litter. Soil NO emissions were also higher when N was applied without P. The results indicate that if the availability of P is not increased proportionally to the availability of N, the losses of N are intensified. - Highlights: > Simultaneous addition of N and P affected richness and diversity of the shrub-tree layer of a Brazilian savanna more significantly than addition of N or P separately. > Leaf litter decomposition rates increased in P and NP plots but did not differ in N plots in comparison to control plots. N addition increased N mass loss, while the combined addition of N and P resulted in an immobilization of N in leaf litter. Soil NO emissions were also higher when N was applied without P. > The results indicated that if increases in N deposition in Cerrado ecosystems are not accompanied by P additions, higher N losses through leaching and gas emissions can occur with other ecosystem impacts. - Shrub-tree diversity and functioning of Brazilian savanna are affected by increasing nutrient availability.

  10. Diversity of shrub tree layer, leaf litter decomposition and N release in a Brazilian Cerrado under N, P and N plus P additions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study investigated changes in diversity of shrub-tree layer, leaf decomposition rates, nutrient release and soil NO fluxes of a Brazilian savanna (cerrado sensu stricto) under N, P and N plus P additions. Simultaneous addition of N and P affected density, dominance, richness and diversity patterns more significantly than addition of N or P separately. Leaf litter decomposition rates increased in P and NP plots but did not differ in N plots in comparison to control plots. N addition increased N mass loss, while the combined addition of N and P resulted in an immobilization of N in leaf litter. Soil NO emissions were also higher when N was applied without P. The results indicate that if the availability of P is not increased proportionally to the availability of N, the losses of N are intensified. - Highlights: → Simultaneous addition of N and P affected richness and diversity of the shrub-tree layer of a Brazilian savanna more significantly than addition of N or P separately. → Leaf litter decomposition rates increased in P and NP plots but did not differ in N plots in comparison to control plots. N addition increased N mass loss, while the combined addition of N and P resulted in an immobilization of N in leaf litter. Soil NO emissions were also higher when N was applied without P. → The results indicated that if increases in N deposition in Cerrado ecosystems are not accompanied by P additions, higher N losses through leaching and gas emissions can occur with other ecosystem impacts. - Shrub-tree diversity and functioning of Brazilian savanna are affected by increasing nutrient availability.

  11. Fruit flies (Diptera, Tephritidae and their parasitoids on cultivated and wild hosts in the Cerrado-Pantanal ecotone in Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil

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    Tiago Ledesma Taira

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Fruit flies (Diptera, Tephritidae and their parasitoids on cultivated and wild hosts in the Cerrado-Pantanal ecotone in Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil. Information on frugivorous flies in cultivated or wild host plants and their parasitoids in the Cerrado-Pantanal ecotone in Aquidauana, Mato Grosso do Sul is presented and discussed. Fruit fly samples were collected weekly in specific fruit trees, and McPhail® traps were installed in the same trees for a period of two years. The fruit flies infested ripe and unripe fruits of Averrhoa carambola L., Schoepfia sp., Psidium guajava L. and Pouteria torta (Mart. Radlk and mature fruits of Anacardium occidentale L. and Inga laurina (Sw. Willd. Nineteen fruit fly species were obtained with the combination of sampling methods (collecting fruits and trapping, nine of them obtained with both methods, five found only in fruits and five only in traps. This is the first record of Anastrepha striata Schiner in a species of Sapotaceae, as well as for A. castanea Norrbom and A. daciformes Bezzi in Schoepfia sp. (Olacaceae, and for A. distincta Greene in fruits of P. guajava in the state of Mato Grosso do Sul. Fruit collections simultaneously associated with capture of fruit flies by McPhail traps in the same host plants are essential to understand the diversity of fruit flies and their relationship with hosts and parasitoids. Species of Braconidae and Pteromalidae were recovered, where Doryctobracon areolatus (Szépligeti was the most abundant parasitoid in larvae of tephritids infesting both cultivated and wild host fruits.

  12. Comparison of the ability of different plant species and corn hybrids to access poorly-available soil phosphorus in an oxisol of the Cerrado region, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The soils of the Cerrado region in Brazil have severe limitations for plant growth and crop production due to their high acidity and low natural fertility, in particular low phosphorus (P) availability. A series of experiments was carried out to make a comparative assessment of a large number of plant genotypes and identify the best adapted to these acid soils. In this paper the studies reported are related to the evaluation of a) twenty two (22) plant species and b) thirty (30) of the most recommended corn (Zea mays L.) hybrids for the Cerrado region with regard to their ability to absorb poorly-available soil phosphorus using the 32P isotopic dilution technique. Two soils (Typic Dystrarox) of this region with contrasting management were employed: one soil was cultivated (and fertilized) for 20 years and another (natural) was kept under native vegetation. In the first experiment, species such as crotalaria, cowpea, soybean, stylosanthes, sunflower, peanut, millet and sorghum showed to have inefficient P uptake ability, while cotton, eucalyptus, rice, white lupin and pigeon pea were found to be highly P-efficient species. Black oat, corn, brachiaria, common bean, wheat, mucuna, tomato, triticale and barley were intermediate. In the second experiment significant differences in P uptake ability were also observed among corn hybrids in the cultivated soil. Seven genotypes were ranked as efficient, sixteen as intermediate and another seven as inefficient. Plant growth and P concentration of all corn hybrids grown in the natural soil with low fertility status were lower than those in the cultivated soil. (author)

  13. Eficiência relativa de fertilizantes fosfatados no crescimento inicial de eucalipto cultivado em solos do cerrado

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    J.L. Gava

    1997-09-01

    Full Text Available Tendo como objetivo avaliar a eficiência relativa do superfosfato simples (SS, fosfato parcialmente acidulado (FAPS e termofosfato magnesiano (TERM como fonte de P e outros nutrientes para o cultivo de plantações de eucalipto, em dois solos da região dos Cerrados, uma areia quartzosa (50 g kg-1 de argila álica e um latossolo vermelho-escuro (230 g kg-1 de argila álico, foi realizado este experimento, sob condições de casa de vegetação, na ESALQ/USP, Piracicaba (SP, em 1993. Subamostras do AQ receberam 0, 75, 150 e 300 mg kg-1 de P e, do LE, 0, 125, 250 e 500 mg kg-1 de P no solo. As doses de P foram estimadas com base na solubilidade dos adubos; SS e FAPS, em citrato de amônio, e TERM, em ácido cítrico 20 g L-1. Em cada vaso (5 kg de solo, deixou-se uma planta de Eucalyptus grandis por 90 dias após a emergência e desbaste das plântulas. Paralelamente ao experimento em casa de vegetação, subamostras de todos os tratamentos, com 2 kg de solo, foram incubadas no interior de sacos plásticos por 0, 10, 20, 40, 60 e 80 dias. Ao término de cada período de incubação, os solos eram amostrados e analisados. Mediante o cálculo de índices de eficiência relativa entre os adubos, verificou-se que o TERM foi superior 64% ao SS e 57% ao FAPS no solo AQ. No LE, o SS foi superior 55% ao TERM e 34% ao FAPS. O TERM foi a fonte de P que promoveu os maiores acréscimos do nível de fertilidade dos solos, com expressiva elevação do pH do solo, redução das concentrações de Al e aumento daquelas de Ca e Mg. Os ganhos de produção das mudas de eucalipto foram altamente correlacionados com a absorção de P, K, Ca, Mg e Zn. O TERM proporcionou as maiores absorções desses nutrientes no solo AQ e, as menores, de P, Ca e Zn no LE. As distintas respostas de crescimento para os adubos avaliados, em ambos os solos, sobretudo para TERM e SS, foram atribuídas, em grande parte, aos efeitos secundários das fontes de P sobre a fertilidade dos

  14. Caracterização de plantas e de frutos de araticunzeiro (Annona crassiflora Mart. nativos no Cerrado Matogrossense

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    Alex Caetano Pimenta

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available O araticunzeiro (Annona crassiflora Mart - Annonaceae é uma frutífera nativa do cerrado brasileiro que necessita de estudos visando à geração de dados para subsidiar pesquisas relativas à sua domesticação. Com o presente trabalho, objetivou-se estudar uma população de araticunzeiro em relação ao diâmetro do caule e altura das plantas, à produção e às características físicas e químicas de frutos. Nas plantas, mensuraram-se diâmetro do caule, altura e produção de frutos. Nos frutos, analisaram-se os diâmetros longitudinal (DL e transversal (DT, a relação DL/DT, as massas do fruto, da casca, da semente e da polpa, e calculou-se o rendimento de polpa. Na polpa, efetuaram-se as determinações de sólidos solúveis (SS, acidez titulável (AT, relação SS/AT, pH e umidade. As árvores possuem diâmetro do caule de 10,4±3,1 cm e altura de 3,7±0,7m com produção média de 6,0±3,6 frutos por planta. Em média, os frutos possuem DL de 14,2±1,4, DT de 15,2±2,2 e relação DL/DT de 0,9±0,1; possuem massa média de 1.565,5±508,5g, tendo as massas da casca, das sementes e da polpa médias de 662,2±198,2g, 179,8±66,2g e 723,5±276,7g, respectivamente, com rendimento médio de polpa igual a 45,9±4,7% do fruto. Na polpa, constataram-se médias de SS de 17,60±1,86 ºBrix, AT de 0,37±0,11% de ácido málico, relação SS/AT de 52,23±17,64, pH de 4,45±0,23 e umidade média igual a 74,3±2,86%. O araticunzeiro possui características físicas e químicas que o tornam uma alternativa para a fruticultura nativa brasileira.

  15. Efeito de adubos fosfatados e calcário na produção de forragem de soja perene (Glycine javanica L. em "terra de cerrado" The effect of liming and the use of different sources of phosphates in the production of forage crop of soja perene (Glicine javanica L. in a poor type of soil known as "cerrado"

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    N. A. Neme

    1967-01-01

    Full Text Available São relatados os resultados de um ensaio instalado em "terra de cerrado", na Estação Experimental Central de Campinas, para o estudo dos efeitos do calcário e de adubos fosfatados, aplicados isoladamente e em combinação, na produção de forragem de soja perene. A adubação fosfatada e a calagem provocaram grandes aumentos na produção, e os efeitos residuais foram observados durante os sete anos em que durou o ensaio. A calagem elevou consideràvelmente o índice pH, ao mesmo tempo que reduziu o teor de A1+ + + trocável do solo.In this paper are discussed the effects of the use of liming and phosphate fertilizers which were applied independently or in combination with each other. The experiment was installed in a poor type of soil known as "Cerrado". Liming and phosphate fertilizers increased the production of forage of "Soja perene" (Glycine javanica L.. The chemical soil analysis showed an increase in thepH value, whereas the phosphates utilized did not increase the phosphorus content of soil. With the exception of natural phosphates the effect of phosphorous fertilizers was better than that of liming.

  16. Registro de Peckia (Squamatodes trivittata (Curran (Diptera, Sarcophagidae parasitada por Gnathopleura semirufa (Brullé (Hymenoptera, Braconidae, Alysiinae no cerrado de Brasília, DF Record of Peckia (Squamatodes trivittata (Curran (Diptera, Sarcophagidae parasited by Gnathopleura semirufa (Brullé (Hymenoptera, Braconidae, Alysiinae in the cerrado of Brasília, DF

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    Rodrigo Meneses de Barros

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Em Julho de 2004, foram observados adultos de G. semirufa atacando larvas de Peckia Robineau-Desvoidy, 1830 enquanto estas se alimentavam de carcaça de porco Sus scrofa em área de cerrado. Em Dezembro do mesmo ano, no mesmo local, larvas de terceiro instar de P. trivittata foram coletadas em outra carcaça de porco e levadas ao laboratório. As larvas foram criadas em condições naturais. Das 31 pupas obtidas, emergiram 19 adultos de G. semirufa e seis adultos de P. trivittata, correspondendo a uma prevalência de 61% de parasitismo.In July 2004, adults of G. semirufa were observed attacking maggots of Peckia Robineau-Desvoidy, 1830 while feeding on a Sus scrofa carcass in a cerrado area. In December of the same year, in the same location, third instar maggots of P. trivittata were collected from another pig carcass and taken to laboratory. They were reared in natural conditions. 19 adults of G. semirufa and six adults of P. trivittata emerged from the 31 pupae we had obtained previously, corresponding to 61% of parasitic prevalence.

  17. Contribuição de fungos micorrízicos arbusculares autóctones no crescimento de Guazuma ulmifolia em solo de cerrado degradado Contribution of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi to the growth of Guazuma ulmifolia in degraded 'cerrado' soil

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    Sueli da Silva Aquino

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available Ensaios foram conduzidos, em casa de vegetação, com solos de pastagem degradada reflorestada e cerrado preservado (controle visando avaliar a contribuição de fungos micorrízicos arbusculares (FMA autóctones no crescimento de mutambo (Guazuma ulmifolia Lamb.. As mudas foram transplantadas para sacos de plástico (2 kg com substratos esterilizados na proporção 4:1 (solo:areia, e o tratamento inoculado recebeu 300 esporos de FMA por saco. A inoculação não proporcionou aumento significativo na produção da matéria seca da parte aérea, matéria fresca das raízes e altura da planta, sugerindo que a G. ulmifolia não é responsiva à micorrização.Experiments were carried out in a greenhouse, using reforested degraded pasture and preserved 'cerrado' (control soil with the objective to evaluate the contribution of autoctone arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF on the Guazuma ulmifolia Lamb. growth. Seedlings were transplanted to plastic bags with 2 kg of sterilized soil: sand substrate (4:1. Plants were inoculated with ca. 300 spores of AMF per replication; noninoculated plants served as control. AMF did not improve significantly canopy dry matter, root fresh matter and plant height. G. ulmifolia showed no response to mycorrhizae.

  18. A dinâmica institucional de uso comunitário dos produtos nativos do cerrado no município de japonvar (Minas Gerais The institutional dynamics of the community use of cerrado's native products in the municipality of Japonvar (Minas Gerais state

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    Aldemir Inácio de Azevedo

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Este texto estuda um arranjo comunitário que administra o acesso e uso do pequi (Caryocar brasiliense e outros frutos nativos do cerrado por grupos sociais que combinam agricultura familiar e coleta vegetal. O local do estudo fica em Japonvar, município do norte de Minas Gerais. Fundamenta-se na teoria dos bens e recursos de uso comum de Elinor Ostrom e adota uma perspectiva analítica institucionalista. Identifica e descreve cada componente social que exerce alguma influência sobre a experiência de uso comum do pequi e que configura a moldura institucional do funcionamento deste sistema coletivo.This article examines a social arrangement that allows community access and use of the pequi (Caryocar brasiliense and other native fruit species of the Brazilian savanna (cerrado by groups that combine family farming with plant collection. The study is focused on Japonvar, a municipality located in the north of the Brazilian state of Minas Gerais. It is grounded of the theory of common use of goods and resources developed by Elinor Ostrom and adopts an institutionalist perspective. It identifies and describes each social component that exerts influence on the common use experience of the pequi and is an operational part of the institutional framework of this collective system.

  19. Malha rodoviária e conflitos de conservação alha no cerrado: um estudo para a preservação de anfíbios - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.171 Road network and conservation conflicts in cerrado: a study for amphibian preservation- DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.171

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    Guilherme Oliveira

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available A criação de unidades de conservação tem sido uma importante ferramenta para minimizar a perda de biodiversidade. Entretanto, a alocação destas unidades deve ser otimizada de forma que possam preservar o maior número de espécies sob uma série de restrições sócio-econômicas, as quais incluem o efeito da malha rodoviária sobre a biodiversidade. Utilizando um conjunto de dados sobre a distribuição de 131 espécies de anfíbios Anuros no bioma Cerrado, distribuídos em 181 células (1º de latitude e 1º de longitude, um processo de otimização foi feito através do algoritmo “simulated annealing”, disponível no programa SITES 1.0. O presente estudo apresenta duas redes de unidades de conservação para o Cerrado, uma baseada no conceito de complementaridade e a outra na distribuição de rodovias. Elas indicam, respectivamente, as localidades mais importantes para a criação de unidades de conservação e os locais onde deve existir uma unidade de conservação para que todas as espécies de anuros com ocorrência neste Bioma sejam preservadas, levando em consideração a extensão rodoviária. Estes resultados sugerem a utilização de ambas as redes para que haja sinergismo entre projetos de conservação e desenvolvimento humano, medido através da malha viária.Building conservation units has been an important tool to minimize the loss of biodiversity. However, the allocation of these units need to be optimized to preserve the greatest number of species, under a series of socioeconomics restrictions that include the road network effect on biodiversity. An optimization process was made by using the “simulated annealing” algorithm, available on program SITES 1.0, to model a set of data on the distribution of 131 species of anuran amphibians occuring in Cerrado, distributed in 181 cells with 1º of spatial resolution. This study shows a couple of conservation units networks in Brazilian Cerrado, one of them based on the

  20. Malha rodoviária e conflitos de conservação alha no cerrado: um estudo para a preservação de anfíbios = Road network and conservation conflicts in cerrado: a study for amphibian preservation

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    Rodrigo de Jesus Silva

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available A criação de unidades de conservação tem sido uma importante ferramenta para minimizar a perda de biodiversidade. Entretanto, a alocação destas unidades deve ser otimizada de forma que possam preservar o maior número de espécies sob uma série de restrições sócio-econômicas, as quais incluem o efeito da malha rodoviária sobre a biodiversidade. Utilizando um conjunto de dados sobre a distribuição de 131 espécies de anfíbios Anuros no bioma Cerrado, distribuídos em 181 células (1º de latitude e 1º de longitude, um processo de otimização foi feito através do algoritmo “simulated annealing”, disponível no programa SITES 1.0. O presente estudo apresenta duas redes de unidades de conservação para o Cerrado, uma baseada no conceito de complementaridade e a outra na distribuição de rodovias. Elas indicam, respectivamente, as localidades mais importantes para a criação de unidades de conservação e os locais onde deve existir uma unidade de conservação para que todas as espécies de anuros com ocorrência neste Bioma sejam preservadas, levando em consideração a extensão rodoviária. Estes resultados sugerem a utilização de ambas as redes para que haja sinergismo entre projetos de conservação e desenvolvimento humano, medido através da malha viária.Building conservation units has been an important tool to minimize the loss of biodiversity. However, the allocation of these units need to be optimized to preserve the greatest number of species, under a series of socioeconomics restrictions that include the road network effect on biodiversity. An optimization process was made by using the “simulated annealing” algorithm, available on program SITES 1.0, tomodel a set of data on the distribution of 131 species of anuran amphibians occuring in Cerrado, distributed in 181 cells with 1º of spatial resolution. This study shows a couple of conservation units networks in Brazilian Cerrado, one of them based on the

  1. Potencial invasor de duas cultivares de Melinis minutiflora no cerrado brasileiro - características de sementes e estabelecimento de plântulas Invasion potential of two cultivars of Melinis minutiflora in the brazilian cerrado - seed characteristics and seedling establishment

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    Carlos Romero Martins

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available A invasão biológica por espécies exóticas é considerada uma das principais ameaças para a conservação da biodiversidade em áreas protegidas. Devido à sua agressividade, Melinis minutiflora P. Beauv. (capim-gordura é a gramínea que tem causado o maior impacto sobre a flora nativa no Cerrado brasileiro. Este estudo objetivou avaliar características de sementes e de estabelecimento de plântulas que podem afetar o potencial invasor de duas cultivares do Melinis minutiflora em uma área de Cerrado sensu stricto dentro de uma Unidade de Conservação. As avaliações de campo e laboratório mostram que a produção de sementes foi de 192 kg/ha (71.946 sementes viáveis/m² e 171 kg/ha (81.690 sementes viáveis/m² pelas cultivares Cabelo-de-Negro e Roxo, respectivamente, e as sementes recém-colhidas apresentaram alta viabilidade e alta dormência. No tocante à dinâmica de colonização, o enterrio de sementes reduz a emergência de plântulas, mas não impede a emergência de plântulas até a profundidade de 3 cm, entretanto a partir da profundidade de 4 cm as plântulas não conseguem emergir. A emergência de plântulas ocorre entre dezembro e março. Fatores adversos como sombreamento, competição intra e interespecífica, baixa fertilidade do solo e estresse hídrico não eliminam totalmente os indivíduos que se estabeleceram no período chuvoso. As cultivares de Melinis minutiflora mostraram comportamento reprodutivo bastante similar, e os fatores estudados ajudaram a explicar parcialmente o sucesso apresentado por essa gramínea em colonizar ambientes naturais no Cerrado brasileiro.Biological invasion by exotic species is considered one of the main threats to biodiversity conservation in protected areas. Due to its aggressiveness, Melinis minutiflora P. Beauv (molasses grass is considered as the grass that has caused the highest impact on the native flora of the Brazilian Cerrado. The objective of the present study was to

  2. Arthropods associated with pig carrion in two vegetation profiles of Cerrado in the State of Minas Gerais, Brazil Artrópodes associados a carcaças de suínos em dois perfis de vegetação de Cerrado no Estado de Minas Gerais, Brasil

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    Thiago Augusto Rosa

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Forensic Entomology research has been concentrated in only a few localities of the "Cerrado" vegetation, the Brazilian Savannah. The present study had, as its objective, an examination of the diversity of arthropod fauna associated with the carcasses of Sus scrofa (Linnaeus in this biome. The study was conducted during the dry and humid periods in two Cerrado vegetation profiles of the State of Minas Gerais. The decaying process was slower and greater quantities of arthropods were collected during the dry period. Insects represented 99% of 161,116 arthropods collected. The majority of these were Diptera (80.2% and Coleoptera (8.8%. The entomofauna belong to 85 families and at least 212 species. Diptera were represented by 31 families and at least 132 species. Sarcophagidae (Diptera and Scarabaeidae (Coleoptera were the richest groups. Oxysarcodexia (Sarcophagidae presented the largest number of attracted species, however none of these species bred in the carcasses. The Coleoptera collected belong to at least 50 species of 21 families. Among these species, Dermestes maculatus and Necrobia rufipes were observed breeding in the carcasses. This study showed species with potential importance for estimating the postmortem interval (PMI, indicative of seasonal and environmental type located.Estudos de entomologia forense em área de Cerrado ainda são escassos no Brasil. Este trabalho teve como objetivo estudar a riqueza da artropodofauna associada a carcaças de suínos domésticos em decomposição. O estudo foi conduzido em dois perfis de Cerrado, Cerrado senso stricto e Campo sujo, durante dois períodos do ano, seco e úmido, em Uberlândia, MG, Brasil. Insetos representaram 99% dos 161.116 artrópodes coletados, sendo representados majoritariamente por dípteros (80,2% e coleópteros (8,8%. A entomofauna era pertencente a 85 famílias e pelo menos 212 espécies. Os dípteros foram representados por 31 famílias e pelo menos 132 espécies. Os

  3. Avaliação agro-económica da adopção da agricultura de precisão e da integração lavoura-pecuária no Cerrado brasileiro

    OpenAIRE

    Lazarini, Denis Silveira

    2008-01-01

    Mestrado em Economia Agrária e Sociologia Rural - Instituto Superior de Agronomia Intending to evaluate the adoption of the technology of precision agriculture agronomically and economically as well as the system of the agrarian and cattle production on the Brazilian "Cerrado"(Scrubland), it was used an irrigated area through a central pivot of 100 ha. It was cultivated beans (Phascoulus vulgaris L.) FROM 2003 TO 2006 INTERCHANGED WITH CATTLE BREEDING in 2004 and 2005.The precision agricul...

  4. Two myrmecophilous scale insects, Cryptostigma urichi (Cockerell (Hemiptera, Coccidae and Farinococcus multispinosus Morrison (Hemiptera, Pseudococcidae, cohabiting inside branches of Anadenanthera falcata (Benth. Speg. (Fabales, Fabaceae in the Cerrado area of São Paulo State, Brazil

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    André R. Nascimento

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The soft scale Cryptostigma urichi (Cockerell, 1894 and the mealybug Farinococcus multispinosus Morrison, 1922 are reported cohabiting inside branches of Anadenanthera falcata (Benth. Speg. (Angico-preto, both tended by the ant Azteca oecocordia Longino, 2007 (Hymenoptera, Formicidae. This interaction was observed in the Cerrado region sensu stricto, at the Federal University of São Carlos, UFSCar, Brazil. A. oecocordia is recorded for the first time in Brazil.

  5. Two myrmecophilous scale insects, Cryptostigma urichi (Cockerell (Hemiptera, Coccidae and Farinococcus multispinosus Morrison (Hemiptera, Pseudococcidae, cohabiting inside branches of Anadenanthera falcata (Benth. Speg. (Fabales, Fabaceae in the Cerrado area of São Paulo State, Brazil Duas cochonilhas mirmecófilas, Cryptostigma urichi (Cockerell (Hemiptera, Coccidae e Farinococcus multispinosus Morrison (Hemiptera, Pseudococcidae, coabitando no interior de ramos de Anadenanthera falcata (Benth. Speg. (Fabales, Fabaceae em área de Cerrado do Estado de São Paulo, Brasil

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    André R. Nascimento

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The soft scale Cryptostigma urichi (Cockerell, 1894 and the mealybug Farinococcus multispinosus Morrison, 1922 are reported cohabiting inside branches of Anadenanthera falcata (Benth. Speg. (Angico-preto, both tended by the ant Azteca oecocordia Longino, 2007 (Hymenoptera, Formicidae. This interaction was observed in the Cerrado region sensu stricto, at the Federal University of São Carlos, UFSCar, Brazil. A. oecocordia is recorded for the first time in Brazil.O coccídeo Cryptostigma urichi (Cockerell, 1894 e o pseudococcídeo Farinococcus multispinosus Morrison, 1922 são registrados coabitando no interior de galhos de Anadenanthera falcata (Benth. Speg. (Angico-preto, ambos atendidos pela formiga Azteca oecocordia Longino, 2007 (Hymenoptera, Formicidae. Essa interação foi observada em uma região de Cerrado sensu stricto, na Universidade Federal de São Carlos, UFSCar, Brasil. A. oecocordia é registrada pela primeira vez para o Brasil.

  6. Impactos da substituição da vegetação original do Cerrado brasileiro em sistemas agrícolas: alteração do carbono orgânico do solo e d13C

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    Vania Rosolen

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The Brazilian savannah (cerrado is an area of expansion of agribusiness. Among the various environmental changes related to deforestation of the savannah stand out impacts related to soil organic matter such as the imbalances in stocks and the changing nature of soil organic carbon. The objective of these study was to evaluate changes in nature (δ13C and quantity (C% of soil carbon after conversion of the dense savannah vegetation in areas under different lan duses (pasture, soybeans, corn / soybean rotation, management (conventional and zero tillage developed in soils with different textural characteristics. The results showed that the average data set of non-managed grazing was the most distanced from the value obtained in cerrado soil. Another factor that determined the lowest concentrations of organic carbon was the presence of sandy soil. The results showed that the carbon C4 grasses in areas occupied by pastures, with or without management, replaced the original C3 carbon originated by cerrado. In the areas of conventional tillage, and no-tillage soybean, and consortium soybean/corn, no clear trend of impoverishment or enrichment of carbon and the carbon substitution as well as the incorporation of different nature of the carbon could be found.

  7. Plantio Direto ou Plantio Convencional? Um Estudo sobre a Valoração Econômica dos Impactos Ambientais da Produção de Soja nos Cerrados Brasileiros

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    Waldecy Rodrigues

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Na década de 90, com o aumento do preço da soja no mercado internacional e a ocupação de áreas produtoras tradicionais, outras glebas nos Cerrados foram intensivamente incorporadas para a produção de soja, com destaque para Luís Eduardo Magalhães – BA, Balsas – MA e Pedro Afonso – TO. Essa expansão pode significar a ampliação de impactos ambientais nos solos, nos recursos hídricos, na biodiversidade e nas condições de equilíbrio ecológico dos Cerrados. O estudo valora economicamente, através do Método Custo-Reposição (MCR, os impactos ambientais de tecnologias de plantio de soja em região de expansão recente nos Cerrados, tendo como estudo de caso o município de Pedro Afonso - TO. Os custos ambientais anuais com erosão dos solos e assoreamento de recursos hídricos podem ser reduzidos em até 91,6% com a adoção plena do plantio direto.

  8. Geoecological drivers of cerrado heterogeneity and 13C natural abundance in oxisols after land-use change Fatores geoecológicos das diferentes formações de cerrados - uma hipótese baseada em abundância natural de 13C e fotografia aérea

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    Henry Neufeldt

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available The 13C natural abundance technique was applied to study C dynamics after land-use change from native savanna to Brachiaria, Pinus, and Eucalyptus in differently textured Cerrado Oxisols. But due to differences in the d13C signatures of subsoils under native savanna and under introduced species, C substitution could only be calculated based on results of cultivated soils nearby. It was estimated that after 20 years, Pinus C had replaced only 5 % of the native C in the 0-1.2 m layer, in which substitution was restricted to the top 0.4 m. Conversely, after 12 years, Brachiaria had replaced 21 % of Cerrado C to a depth of 1.2 m, where substitution decreased only slightly throughout the entire profile. The high d13C values in the subsoils of the cultivated sites led to the hypothesis that the natural vegetation there had been grassland rather than Cerrado sensu stricto, in spite of the comparable soil and site characteristics and the proximity of the studied sites. The hypothesis was tested using aerial photographs of 1964, which showed that the cultivated sites were located on a desiccated runoff head. The vegetation shift to a grass-dominated savanna formation might therefore have occurred in response to waterlogging and reduced soil aeration. A simple model was developed thereof, which ascribes the different Cerrado formations mainly to the plant-available water content and soil aeration. Soil fertility is considered of minor significance only, since at the studied native savanna sites tree density was independent of soil texture or nutrient status.A abundância natural de 13C foi utilizada para estudar a dinâmica de carbono em latossolos de textura média e argilosa após plantação de pastagens (Brachiaria decumbens e reflorestamentos (Pinus caribaea e Eucalyptus citriodora. Considerando as diferenças de d13C nos subsolos das savanas nativas e das espécies introduzidas, pôde-se calcular a substituição de carbono somente para os solos

  9. Associação micorízica em espécies arbóreas, atividade microbiana e fertilidade do solo em áreas degradadas de cerrado

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    Márcia Helena Scabora

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available A recuperação de áreas de obras das barragens, em especial de "áreas de empréstimos", é difícil e consiste em um processo lento, visto que toda a vegetação e a camada fértil do solo foram removidas. Intervenções nessas áreas poderiam acelerar o processo de revegetação. O presente trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar a associação de fungos micorrízicos arbusculares (FMA em espécies arbóreas, atividade microbiana pela respiração basal e fertilidade em áreas degradadas de cerrado. Utilizou-se solo de duas áreas, solo de pastagem e subsolo exposto. Adubações orgânica e mineral, além da calagem, foram efetuadas nas covas, visando a um melhor crescimento inicial das mudas, assim como, 50 mL de solo de cerrado preservado como inoculante de microrganismos. Mudas de 11 espécies arbóreas foram plantadas ou seja: Anadenanthera falcata (Benth. Speg. (angico-preto, Acacia polyphylla D.C. (monjoleiro, Stryphnodendron adstringens (Mart. Coville (barbatimão, Dimorphandra mollis Benth (faveiro, Hymenaea stigonocarpa Mart. ex Hayne (jatobá-de-cerrado, Dipteryx alata Vog. (baru, Machaerium acutifolium Vogel (jacarandá-do-campo, Schinus terebinthifolia Raddi (aroeira-pimenteira, Magonia pubescens St. Hil. (tingui, Lafoensia pacari St. Hil. (dedaleira e Tabebuia aurea (Manso Benth. & Hook. (ipê-amarelo. Doze meses após a instalação do experimento, amostras de raízes foram coletadas na camada de 0-0,10 m para as avaliações. O subsolo, em relação ao solo de pastagem, continuou pobre em matéria orgânica e com menor atividade microbiana. As maiores porcentagens de colonização micorrízica por FMA foram observados nas espécies Acacia polyphylla D.C. (monjoleiro, Magonia pubescens St. Hil. (tingui, Hymenaea stigonocarpa Mart. ex Hayne (jatobá-de-cerrado e Schinus terebinthifolia Raddi (aroeira-pimenteira. Tais espécies podem ser indicadas para projetos de revegetação em áreas degradadas de cerrado. As plantas das duas

  10. Use of nuclear techniques in the study of the behavior of rare earth elements on the use of phosphogypsum in cerrado agriculture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Kerley A.P.; Sperling, Eduardo von, E-mail: kerley@ufmg.b, E-mail: eduardo@desa.ufmg.b [Federal University of Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Menezes, Maria A.B.C.; Brito, Walter; Jacomino, Vanusa M.F., E-mail: menezes@cdtn.b, E-mail: britol@cdtn.b, E-mail: vmfj@cdtn.b [Nuclear Technology Development Centre (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    Phosphogypsum (PG) is a by-product of the 'wet process', whereby sulfuric acid reacts with phosphate rock to produce phosphoric acid. The Brazilian production of this material is around 12 million tons per year which is stacked in piles at the same place where it is produced. Researches carried out in several countries worldwide have demonstrated the potential use of PG in agriculture not only as a source for calcium and sulphur, but also as a conditioner for soils that contain high levels of aluminum. In Brazil, these studies are mainly focused on the application of phosphogypsum to the Cerrado region, the main agriculture region of the country. Taking into account the presence of natural radionuclides and rare earth elements (REE) in this material and the fact that the mobility and bioaccumulation of these elements can vary significantly with changes in climate, a research project has been conducted in partnership with the Brazilian Nuclear Energy Commission (CNEN) and Department of Sanitary and Environmental Engineering of Federal University of Minas Gerais in order to investigate the impact of using phosphogypsum in crops cultivated in Cerrado soils. For this purpose a set of greenhouse experiments have been conducted in two types of soil (one clayey and other sandy loam textured) to determine the transfer factor of rare earth elements from soil to crops (lettuce, corn and soybean). This paper aims to report preliminary results of the study, including the characterization of mineralogical phases and the determination of REE (La, Ce, Nd, Sm, Eu, Tb, Ho and Yb) concentration in PG samples. The characterization of mineralogical phases has been carried out by X-ray diffraction analyses and determination of REE concentration in PG samples has been conducted by neutron activation analysis (k{sub 0}-standardization method). The REE most present in PG samples was Ce (1730 ppm), followed by La (936 ppm) and Nd (791 ppm). Sm (85 ppm), Eu (29 ppm) and Yb (5 ppm

  11. Use of nuclear techniques in the study of the behavior of rare earth elements on the use of phosphogypsum in cerrado agriculture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phosphogypsum (PG) is a by-product of the 'wet process', whereby sulfuric acid reacts with phosphate rock to produce phosphoric acid. The Brazilian production of this material is around 12 million tons per year which is stacked in piles at the same place where it is produced. Researches carried out in several countries worldwide have demonstrated the potential use of PG in agriculture not only as a source for calcium and sulphur, but also as a conditioner for soils that contain high levels of aluminum. In Brazil, these studies are mainly focused on the application of phosphogypsum to the Cerrado region, the main agriculture region of the country. Taking into account the presence of natural radionuclides and rare earth elements (REE) in this material and the fact that the mobility and bioaccumulation of these elements can vary significantly with changes in climate, a research project has been conducted in partnership with the Brazilian Nuclear Energy Commission (CNEN) and Department of Sanitary and Environmental Engineering of Federal University of Minas Gerais in order to investigate the impact of using phosphogypsum in crops cultivated in Cerrado soils. For this purpose a set of greenhouse experiments have been conducted in two types of soil (one clayey and other sandy loam textured) to determine the transfer factor of rare earth elements from soil to crops (lettuce, corn and soybean). This paper aims to report preliminary results of the study, including the characterization of mineralogical phases and the determination of REE (La, Ce, Nd, Sm, Eu, Tb, Ho and Yb) concentration in PG samples. The characterization of mineralogical phases has been carried out by X-ray diffraction analyses and determination of REE concentration in PG samples has been conducted by neutron activation analysis (k0-standardization method). The REE most present in PG samples was Ce (1730 ppm), followed by La (936 ppm) and Nd (791 ppm). Sm (85 ppm), Eu (29 ppm) and Yb (5 ppm) appear in

  12. Estrutura do componente arbóreo em áreas de cerrado no município de São Tomé das Letras, MG

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    Renata de Melo Ferreira Lopes

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available O município de São Tomé das Letras localiza-se ao sul de Minas Gerais, na bacia do rio Grande, em área de transição entre a Floresta Atlântica e o Cerrado, onde se distinguem também campos rupestres. Possui economia baseada em extrativismo mineral, agropecuária e turismo. Este trabalho teve como objetivo determinar a estrutura fitossociológica de três áreas de cerrado no município. Foram amostrados 60 pontos-quadrantes por área, tomando-se medidas de altura das árvores e circunferência de tronco (≥ 10 cm à altura do solo. Foram calculados para cada ambiente: densidade de indivíduos, dominância, frequência, área basal, Valor de Importância (VI e diversidade florística (Índice de Shannon, H'. Ao todo, foram identificadas 27 famílias, 36 gêneros e 56 espécies. Eremanthus erythropappus (candeia, Asteraceae foi a espécie de maior Valor de Importância (VI encontrada nas áreas Candeias e Vale das Borboletas e Stryphnodendron adstringens (barbatimão, Fabaceae e Piptocarpha rotundifolia (coração-de-negro, Asteraceae as espécies que se destacaram em VI na área Carrapatos. A altura média variou de 2,0 ± 1,2 a 2,3 ± 1,3m. O diâmetro médio variou de 6,5 ± 4,4 a 7,3 ± 4,8 cm. A densidade média foi de 2315 indiv.ha-1 e área basal média de 13,4 m².ha-1. O índice de diversidade de Shannon (H' para espécies variou de 2,67 a 2,96 nats/ind. Foi observada baixa similaridade de espécies entre as três áreas. Considerando as pressões antrópicas que os ambientes naturais da região vêm sofrendo, os dados obtidos poderão subsidiar projetos locais de recomposição da vegetação, principalmente do componente arbóreo.

  13. Sobrevivência e crescimento inicial de espécies arbóreas nativas do Cerrado em consórcio com mandioca

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    Fernando Martinotto

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a sobrevivência e o crescimento inicial de seis espécies arbóreas do Cerrado em consórcio com mandioca (Manihot esculenta, com ou sem adubação fosfatada. Utilizou-se o delineamento experimental de blocos ao acaso, em arranjo fatorial 6x2x2, com quatro repetições. As variáveis consideradas foram as espécies: Anadenanthera colubrina var. cebil (angico-vermelho, Anacardium occidentale (caju, Dipteryx alata (cumbaru, Hymenaea stigonocarpa (jatobá, Hancornia speciosa (mangaba e Sclerolobium paniculatum var. rubiginosum (taxi-branco, em monocultivo ou em consórcio com mandioca, com ou sem adubação fosfatada. Uma distância fixa de 3x3 m foi usada para as espécies arbóreas e de 1,00x0,60 m para a mandioca. Até a idade de 20 meses, as espécies arbóreas foram avaliadas quatro vezes quanto à altura e ao diâmetro do coleto. A produção de biomassa da mandioca foi avaliada aos 20 meses. A taxa média de sobrevivência das espécies arbóreas foi crescente na seguinte ordem: cumbaru (79%, taxi-branco (86%, jatobá (95%, mangaba (98%, angico (99% e caju (100%. O taxi-branco apresentou maiores taxas de crescimento relativo em diâmetro e altura, enquanto jatobá e cumbaru apresentaram os menores valores. A adubação fosfatada favoreceu apenas ao taxi-branco. A produtividade de mandioca não foi afetada pelo consórcio. Caju, angico-vermelho e taxi-branco são as espécies mais indicadas para o consórcio com mandioca no Cerrado.

  14. Caracterização genética de uma coleção de germoplasma de cagaiteira, uma espécie nativa do cerrado

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    Edivaldo Barbosa de Almeida Júnior

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available A cagaiteira é uma espécie frutífera comum no bioma Cerrado. A planta produz um fruto do tipo baga que é consumido in natura ou processado de várias formas. Em função do potencial produtivo da espécie, existe interesse na sua domesticação, para produção em larga escala. Para atender esse objetivo, a avaliação da variabilidade genética é fundamental para subsidiar programas de melhoramento e domesticação da espécie. Nesse sentido, o objetivo do trabalho foi estimar parâmetros genéticos quantitativos da coleção de germoplasma de Eugenia dysenterica DC., para disponibilizar informações que possam ser úteis em programas de melhoramento da espécie. O experimento foi montado no ano de 1998 em delineamento experimental de blocos completos ao acaso com 110 tratamentos e quatro repetições. Foram avaliadas as variáveis das plantas que incluem a altura (AP, altura da primeira bifurcação (AB, circunferência do caule a 10 cm do solo (CC, projeção média da copa (DC e variáveis das folhas, que incluem o comprimento do limbo (CL, largura do limbo (LL, formato das folhas (FF e comprimento do pecíolo (CP. Os coeficientes de herdabilidade ao nível das médias variaram entre 87,66% e 25,16% e os coeficientes de variação genética, entre 45% e 7%, valores próximos aos obtidos para outras espécies silvestres do Cerrado. As estimativas dos parâmetros sugerem respostas modestas à seleção para as variáveis das plantas e respostas expressivas para as variáveis das folhas.

  15. Valoração econômica dos impactos ambientais de tecnologias de plantio em região de Cerrados

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    Waldecy Rodrigues

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available A expansão da fronteira agrícola nos Cerrados com a produção agropecuária em larga escala amplia os custos ambientais, porém sua intensidade depende essencialmente da técnica de plantio adotada. O estudo valora economicamente, através do Método Custo-Reposição (MCR, os impactos ambientais de tecnologias de plantio de soja e milho em região de Cerrados. No caso da soja a adoção do plantio direto eleva o custo de produção em 0,47%, mas provoca uma redução de (- 81,22% no custo ambiental. No cultivo do milho, os custos de produção do plantio direto são (- 5,92% menores do que os referentes ao plantio convencional e provoca uma redução no custo ambiental em (- 29,43%. Na região específica do estudo os danos ambientais anuais causados pelo plantio convencional foram estimados em R$ 317.213,39 e no plantio direto de R$ 81.375,76. A adoção do plantio direto nas culturas de soja e milho demonstra sua maior eficácia social pela redução do processo erosivo dos solos e do assoreamento de recursos hídricos.The expansion of the agricultural border in Brazilian savannahs with the farming production in wide scale extends the environmental costs; however it essentially depends on the adopted technique of plantation. The study evaluates economically by Replacement Cost Method the environmental impacts of technologies of soy and corn plantation. In the case of soy the no-tillage raises the cost of production by 0,47%, but it causes a reduction of (- 81,22% in the environmental cost. As to corn, the costs of no-tillage are (- 5,92% lower than conventional tillage and cause a reduction in the environmental cost by (- 29,43%. In the specific region of the study the annual environmental damages caused by conventional tillage had been estimated at R$ 317,213.39 and no-tillage of R$ 81.375,76. The adoption of no-tillage in the plantation of soy and corn demonstrates its bigger social effectiveness for the reduction of the erosive process

  16. Atributos biológicos e dinâmica da matéria orgânica em Latossolos Amarelos na região do Cerrado piauiense sob sistema plantio direto

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    Rossanna Barbosa Pragana

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available A utilização do solo sob Cerrado tem acarretado modificações nas suas propriedades, bem como no comportamento e qualidade da sua matéria orgânica. O Cerrado piauiense vem sendo alvo de exploração sem a devida preocupação com a manutenção dos recursos naturais, onde os sistemas de produção têm se caracterizado pelo uso intensivo do solo. O objetivo desta pesquisa foi avaliar o efeito da utilização agrícola na alteração dos atributos biológicos e na dinâmica da matéria orgânica em Latossolos Amarelos distróficos típicos, cultivados com soja. O trabalho foi realizado na Serra do Quilombo, localizada no Cerrado piauiense. Foram verificadas as alterações nos atributos do solo em decorrência da utilização agrícola, que foi iniciada com plantio convencional, posteriormente substituído pelo sistema plantio direto. Foram amostrados solos com diferentes históricos de uso: PC7/PD8 - sete anos de plantio convencional e oito de plantio direto; PC5/PD4 - cinco anos de plantio convencional e quatro de plantio direto; PC3/PD3 - três anos de plantio convencional e três de plantio direto; e CN - solo com Cerrado nativo. Os atributos avaliados foram: respiração basal do solo, carbono da biomassa microbiana, quociente metabólico, quociente microbiano, carbono orgânico total e nitrogênio total. Para avaliar a dinâmica da matéria orgânica, foi feito o fracionamento físico. Os dados foram submetidos à análise de variância. Os resultados indicaram que o manejo imposto ao solo com cultivo convencional e posterior implantação do sistema plantio direto contribuiu para alterar as propriedades biológicas do solo, em comparação com o Cerrado nativo. A substituição do Cerrado nativo por culturas anuais sob o sistema plantio direto reduz os teores de carbono da biomassa microbiana e de nitrogênio total e eleva a respiração basal nos tratamentos com três e quatro anos de implantação do plantio direto, indicando que

  17. Florística e estrutura de comunidades arbóreas em cerrados de Rondônia,Brasil Flora and structure of tree communities in dry savannas in Rodônia, Brazil

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    Izildinha Souza Miranda

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available O cerrado constitui o segundo maior e mais diverso bioma brasileiro, configurando um heterogêneo mosaico fisionômico e florístico. Mais de seis mil espécies de fanerógamas são reportadas para o cerrado do Brasil Central. Este trabalho teve o objetivo de descrever e analisar a flora e a estrutura de quatro comunidades de árvores dos cerrados sensu latu do município de Vilhena, Rondônia, Brasil. As áreas estudadas foram: cerradão (Área 1, campo sujo (Área 2 e duas comunidades do cerrado sensu stricto (Áreas 3 e 4. Em cada área foi posicionado aleatoriamente um transecto de 10 x 1000 m (1 ha, dividido em 100 parcelas de 10 X 10 m. Todas as plantas vivas e mortas com circunferência do tronco e" 10 cm ao nível do solo foram registradas. O cerradão apresentou a maior riqueza específica, estrutura de tamanho e área basal. As percentagens de árvores mortas foram mais altas nas áreas de cerradão e campo sujo, com ocorrência de fogo recente. As famílias mais importantes foram Vochysiaceae, Ochnaceae, Clusiaceae, Malpighiaceae e Melastomataceae. As espécies mais importantes foram Qualea multiflora, Byrsonima crassifolia (área 1, Eugenia sp., Miconia sp.1 (área 2, Ouratea hexasperma, Caraipa savannarum (área 3, Ouratea hexasperma, Pouteria sp.3 (área 4. A maioria das espécies ocorre somente em uma área, sugerindo que a priorização de áreas para conservação deve envolver todo o mosaico de cerrados existentes. A mortalidade associada ao fogo é diferenciada entre as áreas, talvez induzida pelo grau de flamabilidade, recorrência do fogo e de fatores históricos do uso da terra.The Neotropical savannas, locally called "cerrado", are Brazil's second largest and diverse biome, constituting a heterogeneous physiognomic and floristic mosaic from which more than 6,000 species have been reported to date. This study describes and analyzes the floras and structures of four tree communities from dry savannas in the municipality of

  18. Fitossociologia e similaridade florística entre trechos de Cerrado sentido restrito em interflúvio e em vale no Jardim Botânico de Brasília, DF Phytossociology and floristic similarity between plateau and valley `Cerrado` woody vegetation in the Brasília Botanic Gardens, Federal District, Brazil

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    Mônica Souza da Fonseca

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo teve como objetivo verificar a composição florística, densidade e área basal do componente lenhoso do cerrado sentido restrito em duas situações num gradiente topográfico, designadas interflúvio (I e vale (V, no Jardim Botânico de Brasília, DF. Foram alocadas em cada área 10 parcelas permanentes de 20x50m para amostragem de todos os indivíduos com diâmetro basal DB(30cm> 5cm. A classificação por UPGMA (Índices de Sørensen e Morisita foi usada para a avaliação da similaridade entre parcelas. A análise da fitossociologia mostrou que as espécies mais importantes no interflúvio foram: Ouratea hexasperma (A. St.Hil Baill., Miconia ferruginata DC. e Dalbergia miscolobium Benth., enquanto que no vale foram: Eriotheca pubescens (Mart. & Zucc. Schott & Endl., Ouratea hexasperma (A. St.-Hil. Baill. e Schefflera macrocarpa (Seem D.C. Frodin. Os índices de similaridade variaram entre 0,26 a 0,81 (Sørensen e 0,06 a 0,92 (Morisita. A classificação por UPGMA indicou dois grupos principais, que coincidiram com as posições no relevo: interflúvio e vale. Os resultados salientaram a topografia como forte determinante na distribuição de algumas das populações e comunidades lenhosas, por meio de sua influência na variação da profundidade do lençol freático, que afetou a composição florística, a densidade (I/V=1.219/956 ind.ha-1 e a área basal (I/V=8,56/5,64m².ha-1 nos Cerrados sentido restrito de interflúvio (I e vale (V estudados.This study aims to check differences in the floristic composition and structure of the woody vegetation of the cerrado (sensu stricto in two distinct topographic positions, Interfluve (I and Valley Slope (V area in the Brasília Botanic Gardens, Federal District, Brazil. In each area ten 20x50m permanent plots were located to survey individuals, basal diameter BD(30cm > 5cm. UPGMA classification (Sørensen and Morisita similarity indices was used to assess similarity among plots

  19. Avaliação dos atributos físicos do solo em consórcio de forrageiras e milho em sucessão com soja em região de cerrados Evaluation of soil physical properties in a forage-corn intercropping in succession with soybean in the cerrado region

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    Veridiana Zocoler de Mendonça

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available O uso intensivo de áreas do Cerrado para produção agropecuária aliado ao manejo inadequado tem causado degradação dos solos. Nesse sentido há necessidade da incorporação de sistemas sustentáveis como plantio direto e a integração lavoura-pecuária. Este trabalho objetivou identificar o efeito da sucessão de milho+forrageiras e soja nos atributos físicos do solo. Para tanto foi realizado, em área experimental da Unesp, campus de Ilha Solteira, um ensaio composto do consórcio de milho com quatro forrageiras (Brachiaria brizantha,B. ruziziensis, Panicum maximum cv. Tanzânia e P. maximum cv. Áries semeadas em três modalidades (na linha de semeadura do milho misturada ao adubo, a lanço simultânea à semeadura do milho e a lanço no estádio V4 do milho e o milho sem consorciação (testemunha. A soja de verão foi implantada sobre os restos culturais dos tratamentos anteriores. Foram realizadas coletas para determinar a macro e microporosidade, porosidade total e densidade do solo em duas épocas de amostragem, após as colheitas do milho e da soja. Pelos resultados, pôde-se concluir que, em regiões de cerrados, a sucessão de culturas utilizada promoveu a melhoria da macroporosidade, porosidade total e densidade do solo, independentemente da utilização de forrageiras em consórcio com milho.The intensive use of Cerrado soils for agricultural production coupled with an inadequate management has resulted in soil degradation. This created the need for the introduction of more sustainable systems such as no-tillage and crop-livestock integration. This study analyzed the effect of succession of corn+forage and soybean on soil physical properties. For this purpose, four forages (Brachiaria brizantha, B. ruziziensis, Panicum maximum cv. Tanzânia, and P. maximum cv. Áries, were sown in an intercropping trial with maize in three modalities (in the corn row mixed with fertilizer; broadcast at corn sowing; and broadcast in corn stage

  20. Aspectos do ciclo silvestre do Trypanosoma cruzi em regiões de cerrado (Município de Formosa, Estado de Goiás) Aspects of the sylvatic cycle of Trypanosoma cruzi in the region of cerrado (Formosa municipality, State of Goias)

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    D.A. Mello

    1981-01-01

    Neste trabalho estão apresentados resultados de estudos sobre roedores, marsupiais e triatomíneos do norte do municipio de Formosa,Estado de Goiás, e sua importância no ciclo silvestre do T.cruzi. A região estudada esta localizada do ponto de vista geográfico, na "Provincia do Cerrado". Foram coletados 963 roedores, 11 marsupiais e 766 triatomíneos silvestres. O índice de infecção pelo T. cruzi entre os roedores foi de 0,1% e entre os marsupiais 36,3%, enquanto todos os triatomíneos estavam n...

  1. Patterns of diversity and abundance of fungus-growing ants (Formicidae: Attini in areas of the Brazilian Cerrado Padrões de diversidade e abundância de formigas cultivadoras de fungo (Formicidade: Attini em áreas do Cerrado Brasileiro

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    Heraldo L. Vasconcelos

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Fungus-growing ants (tribe Attini are characteristic elements of the New World fauna. However, there is little information on the patterns of diversity, abundance, and distribution of attine species in their native ecosystems, especially for the so-called "lower" genera of the tribe. A survey of attine ant nests (excluding Atta Fabricus, 1804 and Acromyrmex Mayr, 1865 was conducted in a variety of savanna and forest habitats of the Cerrado biome near Uberlândia, Brazil. In total, 314 nests from 21 species of nine genera were found. Trachymyrmex Forel, 1893 was the most diverse genus with 10 species. Eighteen species were found in the savannas, including Mycetagroicus cerradensis Brandão & Mayhé-Nunes, 2001, a species from a recently-described genus of Attini, whereas in the forests only 12 species were found. Forest and savannas support relatively distinct faunas, each with a number of unique species; the species present in the forest habitats did not represent a nested subset of the species found in the savannas. Furthermore, although many species were common to both types of vegetation, their abundances were quite different. The density of attine nests is relatively high at some sites, exceeding an estimated 4,000 nests per hectare. In this sense, attine ants can be regarded as prevalent invertebrate taxa in the Brazilian Cerrado.As formigas cultivadoras de fungos (tribo Attini são exclusivas da fauna do Novo Mundo. Entretanto, existem poucas informações sobre os padrões de diversidade, abundância e distribuição das espécies de Attini em seus ecossistemas nativos, em especial para os gêneros menos derivados desta tribo. Um levantamento de ninhos de Attini (excluindo Atta Fabricius, 1804 e Acromyrmex Mayr, 1865 foi realizado em diversos ambientes savânicos e de floresta do bioma Cerrado próximos à Uberlândia, Brasil. Encontramos 314 ninhos de 21 espécies pertencentes a nove gêneros da tribo. Trachymyrmex Forel, 1893 foi o g

  2. COMPARAÇÃO ENTRE O MÉTODO SMP E O DO ACETATO DE CÁLCIO PARA DETRMINAÇÃO DA ACIDEZ POTENCIAL DE SOLOS DE CERRADO COMPARISON BETWEEN THE SMP AND CALCIUM ACETATE METHODS FOR CERRADO SOILS POTENTIAL ACIDITY DETERMINATION

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    Huberto José Kliemann; José Xavier de Almeida Neto; Juarez Patrício de Oliveira Júnior; Orlando Cavalcante de Castro

    2007-01-01

    Para se estabelecer uma curva de correlação entre a acidez potencial do solo e o pH SMP, foram estudadas 472 amostras de solos do cerrado goiano, as quais foram submetidas a análises laboratoriais para se determinarem os teores de H + Al pelo método do acetato de cálcio a pH 7,0 e o pH SMP e pH em água. A curva encontrada mostrou existir coeficiente de determinação do modelo, ...

  3. Regeneração de espécies nativas lenhosas sob plantio de Eucalyptus em área de Cerrado na Floresta Nacional de Paraopeba, MG, Brasil Regeneration of wood natives species under Eucalyptus stand of Cerrado area in the Floresta Nacional of Paraopeba, Minas Gerais, Brazil

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    Andreza Viana Neri

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available A regeneração de sub-bosques em plantios homogêneos tem estreita dependência de florestas vizinhas. Outros fatores exercem influência, como a ecologia da dispersão da espécie, os efeitos de borda e clareiras. Diante disto, procurou-se conhecer a florística e a estrutura da vegetação lenhosa de espécies nativas sob plantio de Eucalyptus em área de Cerrado na Floresta Nacional de Paraopeba, MG, e verificar a variação da riqueza, da densidade e de indivíduos zoocóricos e anemocóricos da borda para o interior do talhão. Para tal, foram alocadas cinco parcelas de 5×40 m, subdivididas em parcelas 5×10 m. Foram encontradas 47 espécies e destas as que se destacaram foram Magonia pubescens A. St.-Hil.e Miconia albicans (Sw. Triana, principalmente quanto à alta densidade. Das espécies amostradas 53% possuem dispersão zoocórica e 43% anemocórica. Verificou-se também a diminuição da riqueza, da densidade e da percentagem de indivíduos anemocóricos da borda para interior. Porém a percentagem de indivíduos zoocóricos aumentou no interior do talhão. A maior riqueza e densidade na borda dá-se pela dificuldade da dispersão de diásporos no interior do fragmento. O índice de diversidade (H'= 2,49 encontrado para este estudo foi próximo aos valores observados em estudos em regeneração sob Eucalyptus em áreas de Cerrado.The regeneration of understory in homogeneous stands is closely dependent of neighbour forests. Others factures also have influency such as the species dispersion ecology, the border effects and clearings. Therefore, the objective of this work were to study the floristic and structure of native woody plant species growing under stands of Eucalyptus in the Cerrado area in the Flona (Floresta Nacional - National Forest of Paraopeba, Minas Gerais, Brazil, and to determine the variations in richness, density and the zoochorous and anemochorous individual dispersions from the borders into the stand. To carry out

  4. Avaliação da concentração de alguns íons metálicos em diferentes espécies de líquens do cerrado Sul-Mato-Grossense Evaluation of concentration of some metal ions in different lichen species of the Sul-Mato-Grossensse cerrado

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    Jorge Luiz Raposo Junior

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Concentrations of Fe, Mn, Co, Cr, Zn and Cu were determinated using flame atomic absorption spectrometry in nine lichen species of the Sul-Mato-Grossense cerrado. The average metal ion concentrations varied in the following ranges: Fe, 248.41-1568.01; Mn, 98.50-397.33; Co, 10.08-24.81; Cr, 18.24-44.26; Zn, 14.62-34.79 and Cu, 3.23-7.57 mg kg-1. Statistical analysis (Pearson and Cluster applied to the metal ion concentrations indicated that the accumulation of these ions can be due to several anthropogenic sources including agricultural activities, mineral exploration, biomass burning, soil mineral composition and leather tanning processes by chromium.

  5. Alteração estrutural de uma área de cerrado explorada sob regime de manejo no município de João Pinheiro-Minas Gerais-Brasil Structural changes in a cerrado area of explored under a management regime in the municipality of João Pinheiro-Minas Gerais-Brasil

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    Maria Auxiliadora Pereira Figueiredo

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Os planos de manejo em execução na atualidade são, em sua maioria, uma exploração florestal realizada com o título de plano de manejo. Para subsidiar a diferenciação dessas duas modalidades de exploração, foi realizado o presente trabalho, que teve como objetivo verificar a sustentabilidade do plano de manejo de cerrado executado na fazenda Santa Cecília, no município de João Pinheiro, estado de Minas Gerais, por meio da análise estrutural da vegetação, identificando alguns de seus impactos, em relação a uma área de cerrado não explorada. A avaliação foi realizada por meio de parcelas, que foram lançadas na área explorada em 1994/95 e na área ainda não-explorada. Os resultados da análise da estrutura horizontal demonstraram que houve diferença significativa na Densidade Absoluta e Volume Total e na Dominância Absoluta entre as áreas estudadas. Os resultados da estrutura diamétrica demonstraram diferença significativa para a distribuição da densidade e entre a distribuição da área basal e do volume total. Esses resultados indicaram que a exploração foi realizada além dos limites que permitissem a recuperação da vegetação para um novo corte, ao final do ciclo de corte.The management plans presently being carried out are, in the majority, a forest exploitation done with as if it were a management plan. This work was carried out in order to help differentiate these two types of exploitations. It was aimed at verifying the sustainability of the Cerrado management plan carried out on Santa Cecília farm, in the municipality of João Pinheiro, in the State of Minas Gerais, Brazil, through the structural analysis of the vegetation, identifying some of its impacts in relation to a non exploited cerrado area. The evaluation was made by plots that were established in the explored area in 1994/95 and in the non explored area. The results of the horizontal structure analysis showed that there were significant

  6. Nodulação e micorrização em Anadenanthera peregrina var. falcata em solo de cerrado autoclavado e não autoclavado Nodulation and mycorrhizal infection in Anadenanthera peregrina Var. falcata on autoclaved and non-autoclaved cerrado soil

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    E. Gross

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available Anadenanthera peregrina var. falcata (angico-do-cerrado, uma leguminosa arbórea, forma associações simbióticas com bactérias fixadoras de nitrogênio (rizóbios e com fungos micorrízicos arbusculares. Com o objetivo de avaliar a eficiência da inoculação de fungos micorrízicos e rizóbios no crescimento inicial de plantas de angico-do-cerrado, crescidas em solo autoclavado e em solo não autoclavado com e sem inoculação, foi desenvolvido um experimento em casa de vegetação, utilizando raízes micorrizadas de milho e uma mistura de isolados de rizóbios como inoculantes. O crescimento das plantas foi influenciado positivamente pela concomitante inoculação do fungo micorrízico e do rizóbio, tendo as plantas desse tratamento apresentado biomassa cerca de 60 % maior do que o controle no décimo mês. A inoculação de apenas um dos microssimbiontes, entretanto, não provocou diferença na produção de biomassa das plantas. A percentagem de colonização micorrízica foi significativamente mais alta e o número de nódulos maior nas raízes das plantas crescidas no solo não autoclavado, ocasionados pela população de fungos e rizóbios nativos. Nesse tratamento, houve pequeno acúmulo de matéria no xilopódio, provavelmente em virtude do dreno fotossintético por parte dos microssimbiontes, e a concentração de P na parte aérea e xilopódio dessas plantas foi cerca de 1,2 e 8 vezes maior, respectivamente, por causa da colonização micorrízica.The leguminous tree Anadenanthera peregrina var. falcata (angico-do-cerrado forms symbiotic associations with nitrogen fixing bacteria (rhizobia and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi. The aim of this study was the evaluation of the influence of rhizobial and arbuscular mycorrhizal inoculation on the initial growth of angico-do-cerrado plants, in autoclaved and non-autoclaved soil with and without inoculations. The experiment was carried out in a greenhouse using mycorrhized roots of maize and

  7. Influência da época de produção e dos estádios de maturação nos maracujás doce e ácido nas condições de cerrado Influence of harvest season and maturation stage on fragant granadille and acid passion fruit in cerrado conditions

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    MURILO CARLOS MUNIZ VERAS; ALBERTO CARLOS QUEIROZ PINTO; JOSIVAN BARBOSA DE MENESES

    2000-01-01

    Este trabalho objetivou avaliar a qualidade dos frutos do maracujazeiro doce e ácido nas condições de cerrado de Brasília, DF, por meio de características físico-químicas, de acordo com a época de produção e do estádio de maturação dos frutos. Adotou-se o delineamento inteiramente casualizado em esquema fatorial 2x2x2, com cinco repetições e três subamostras dentro de cada repetição. Foram feitas avaliações de acidez total titulável, sólidos solúveis totais açúcares totais, açúcares redutores...

  8. Aspectos do ciclo silvestre do Trypanosoma cruzi em regiões de cerrado (Município de Formosa, Estado de Goiás Aspects of the sylvatic cycle of Trypanosoma cruzi in the region of cerrado (Formosa municipality, State of Goias

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    D. A. Mello

    1981-09-01

    Full Text Available Neste trabalho estão apresentados resultados de estudos sobre roedores, marsupiais e triatomíneos do norte do municipio de Formosa,Estado de Goiás, e sua importância no ciclo silvestre do T.cruzi. A região estudada esta localizada do ponto de vista geográfico, na "Provincia do Cerrado". Foram coletados 963 roedores, 11 marsupiais e 766 triatomíneos silvestres. O índice de infecção pelo T. cruzi entre os roedores foi de 0,1% e entre os marsupiais 36,3%, enquanto todos os triatomíneos estavam negativos. Face aos aspectos ecológicos estudados, discute-se o papel desempenhado por roedores e marsupiais na manutenção e circulação do T. cruzi em ambiente silvestre. Alguns aspectos epidemiológicos no ambiente doméstico foram também abordados.Studies were carried out on the role of rodents, marsupials and triatoma bugs in the wild cycle of Trypanosoma cruzi. The area studied, located in the county of formosa, State of Goiás, Brasil, belongs to the "Província do Cerrado". The following animals were collected and examined: 963 rodents, 11 marsupials and 766 wild triatomid bugs. The infection rates for T. cruzi were as follow: 36.3% for the marsupials, 0.1% for the rodents, while all the triatomids were negative. The role of the collected mammals in the maintenance and circulation of T. cruzi in the wild environment is discussed. In addition, some epidemiological aspects of the domestic environment were also studied.

  9. Decomposição e liberação de nitrogênio de resíduos culturais de plantas de cobertura em um solo de cerrado Cover crops residue decomposition and nitrogen release in a cerrado soil

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    José Luiz Rodrigues Torres

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available A produção de massa seca, a taxa de decomposição e a liberação de nitrogênio (N foram avaliadas em um experimento com sete tipos de cobertura vegetal: milheto pérola (Pennisetum americanum sin. tiphoydes, braquiária (Brachiaria brizantha, sorgo forrageiro (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench, guandu (Cajanus cajan (L. Millsp, crotalária juncea (Crotalarea juncea e aveia-preta (Avena strigosa Schreb, em pousio e em área de cultivo convencional (testemunha, em solo de cerrado, em Uberaba, região do Triângulo Mineiro. Dentre as coberturas avaliadas, o milheto e a crotalária foram as que apresentaram a maior produção de massa seca, maior acúmulo e a maior liberação de N. A braquiária foi a cobertura que apresentou a maior taxa de decomposição. Todas as coberturas apresentaram a maior taxa de liberação de N até 42 dias após dessecação.Dry mass production, decomposition rate and nitrogen (N release were evaluated in a field experiment under seven cover crop types: pearl millet (Pennisetum americanum sin. typhoides, brachiaria grass (Brachiaria brizantha, sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench, pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan (L. Mill sp, sunn hemp (Crotalaria juncea and black oat (Avena strigosa Schreb, compared to a fallow and a traditional cropping system (control in a cerrado soil (Uberaba-MG, Brazil. Among the tested cover crops, pearl millet and sunn hemp presented higher dry mass yield and nitrogen accumulation and release. Brachiaria grass had the highest decomposition rate and shortest half-life time. All crops reached the highest N liberation rate 42 days after desiccation.

  10. Procedimiento para la determinación de la carga circulante en circuitos cerrados de trituración y molienda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfredo L. Coello-Velázquez

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Con el propósito de disminuir los errores (residuos que tienen lugar en la determinación de la carga circulante en los circuitos cerrados de molienda o trituración, aplicando los métodos de los mínimos cuadrados y de los multiplicadores de Lagrange a las ecuaciones de balance, se desarrolla un procedimiento que minimiza las desviaciones e incongruencias en el balance de distribución de las clases granulométricas de los productos del esquema. Tomando como punto de partida los datos experimentales obtenidos por Coello (1993, se realiza la validación del procedimiento propuesto. Los resultados muestran que el procedimiento aplicado, permite el mejor ajuste cálculo de la carga circulante y a partir de sus valores, se recalculan los contenidos de las clases granulométricas de los productos del esquema que eliminan las incongruencias y errores de la distribución del contenido de las clases granulométricas generados en la toma y procesamiento general de las muestras.

  11. Screening of the odour-activity and bioactivity of the essential oils of leaves and flowers of Hyptis Passerina Mart. from the Brazilian Cerrado

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The chemical profile of the essential oils obtained from the leaves and flowers of Hyptis passerina Mart., a rare species of the Brazilian Cerrado, has been determined for the first time. Analyses by GC-MS showed sesquiterpenes as major compounds. β-epi-acorenol (35.7% and 32.8%, respectively from leaf and flower essential oils), was isolated and identified by 1D and 2D NMR. The flower-derived oil presented a higher concentration of hydrocarbon and oxygenated monoterpenes, while the leaf-oil was richer in diterpenes. The global odour impressions of both oils were given by direct analysis and GC-MS-O and were characterized as herbaceous with tea notes, and green, cooked and woody impressions for leaf-oil; herbaceous, with spicy, woody and minty notes for flower-oil. β-epi-acorenol, spathulenol, β-caryophyllene, and caryophyllene oxide were relevant for the odour-activity of both oils, as well as minor constituents, such as linalool. The antimicrobial activity was investigated by means of agar diffusion disc method and contact bioautography, against Gram-positive and negative bacteria and yeast. Both oils presented to be bioactive against the tested microorganisms with significant inhibition level. (author)

  12. Adaptabilidade e estabilidade de cultivares de soja em cinco épocas de plantio no cerrado de Rondônia

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    Prado Eloi Elias do

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve o objetivo de avaliar o desempenho, a estabilidade e a adaptabilidade de 21 cultivares de soja (Glycine max (L. Merrill, em cinco épocas de plantio no cerrado de Rondônia. O delineamento experimental foi blocos ao acaso, com três repetições. Os ensaios foram conduzidos no ano de 1996/97 pelo Centro de Pesquisa Agroflorestal de Rondônia, no Campo Experimental de Vilhena em Rondônia, RO. Os métodos utilizados apresentaram concordância entre os resultados alcançados, sendo que o comportamento das cultivares nas diferentes épocas de semeadura pode ser representado por um modelo linear. O coeficiente de resposta linear beta1i não apresentou diferença significativa (P<0,05 da unidade pelo teste t (beta1i = 1 em todas as cultivares testadas. As cultivares que apresentaram desvios de regressão sigma²(d i significativos (P<0,05 foram MT/BR50 e EMBRAPA 31, com R² = 58,56% e 74,43%, respectivamente. As demais cultivares não apresentaram desvios de regressão significativos.

  13. Screening of the odour-activity and bioactivity of the essential oils of leaves and flowers of Hyptis Passerina Mart. from the Brazilian Cerrado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zellner, Barbara D.; Amorim, Ana Carolina L.; Rezende, Claudia M. [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Centro de Tecnologia. Inst. de Quimica]. E-mail: crezende@iq.ufrj.br; Miranda, Ana Luisa P. de [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Faculdade de Farmacia; Alves, Ruy J.V. [Museu Nacional, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Dept. de Botanica. Herbario; Barbosa, Jussara P.; Costa, Gisela L. da [Instituto Oswaldo Cruz (FIOCRUZ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Lab. de Taxonomia, Bioquimica e Bioprospeccao de Fungos

    2009-07-01

    The chemical profile of the essential oils obtained from the leaves and flowers of Hyptis passerina Mart., a rare species of the Brazilian Cerrado, has been determined for the first time. Analyses by GC-MS showed sesquiterpenes as major compounds. {beta}-epi-acorenol (35.7% and 32.8%, respectively from leaf and flower essential oils), was isolated and identified by 1D and 2D NMR. The flower-derived oil presented a higher concentration of hydrocarbon and oxygenated monoterpenes, while the leaf-oil was richer in diterpenes. The global odour impressions of both oils were given by direct analysis and GC-MS-O and were characterized as herbaceous with tea notes, and green, cooked and woody impressions for leaf-oil; herbaceous, with spicy, woody and minty notes for flower-oil. {beta}-epi-acorenol, spathulenol, {beta}-caryophyllene, and caryophyllene oxide were relevant for the odour-activity of both oils, as well as minor constituents, such as linalool. The antimicrobial activity was investigated by means of agar diffusion disc method and contact bioautography, against Gram-positive and negative bacteria and yeast. Both oils presented to be bioactive against the tested microorganisms with significant inhibition level. (author)

  14. Larval endoparasitoids (Hymenoptera of frugivorous flies (Diptera, Tephritoidea reared from fruits of the cerrado of the State of Mato Grosso do Sul , Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manoel A. Uchôa-Fernandes

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a five years survey of endoparasitoids obtained from the larvae of frugivorous Tephritidae and Lonchaeidae flies. The insects were reared from cultivated and wild fruits collected in areas of the cerrado in the State of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil. The flies obtained from 14 host fruit species were eight Anastrepha species, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann, 1824 (Tephritidae; Dasiops sp. and Neosilba spp. (Lonchaeidae. Eleven parasitoid species were collected: Braconidae - Asobara anastrephae (Muesebek, 1958, Doryctobracon areolatus (Szépligeti, 1911, D. fluminensis (Costa Lima, 1938, Opius bellus Gahan, 1930 and Utetes anastrephae (Viereck, 1913; Figitidae - Aganaspis nordlanderi Wharton, 1998, Lopheucoila anastrephae (Rhower, 1919, Odontosema anastrephae (Borgmeier, 1935 and Trybliographa infuscata Gallardo, Díaz & Uchôa-Fernandes, 2000 and, Pteromalidae - Spalangia gemina Boucek, 1963 and S. endius Walker, 1839. In all cases only one parasitoid emerged per puparium. D. areolatus was the most abundant and frequent parasitoid of fruit fly species, as was L. anastrephae in Neosilba spp. larvae. This is the first record of A. nordlanderi in the midwestern Brazilian region.

  15. Distribuição de Heteroptera Aquáticos (Insecta em Diferentes Tipos de Substratos de Córregos do Cerrado Matogrossense

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    Karina Dias-Silva

    2013-07-01

    Abstract. The Heteroptera community of Cerrado streams in east of Mato Grosso was analyzed to determine the types of substrate that contemplate the largest variation in species composition. Samples were performed in the leaf litter substrates from rapids and backwaters, root, gravel, stone (boulder, sand and on the water surface (surface tension layer of springs, mean stretches and mouths of the Santo Antônio and Colher streams on December/2004 and July/2005, with six subsamples each substrate. Were collected 333 specimens distributed in 11 families, 20 genus and 30 morphospecies (17 Nepomorpha and 13 Gerromorpha, being Gerromorpha the most abundant (172 specimens. The estimated richness of Gerromorpha in the substrates was higher in samples from water surface, while Nepomorpha showed higher richness in root, followed by gravel and leaf litter from rapids. The inorganic substrates (stone and sand showed lower richness of Heteroptera. Among Gerromorpha, Limnogonus aduncus aduncus Drake & Harris, Rhagovelia elegans Uhler, Neogerris lubricus White and Brachymetra sp.1 were associated to surface samples and Stridulivelia anta Polhemus & Spangler to root substrate. In Nepomorpha, Martarega chinai Hynes was associated to surface samples, while Ambrysus sp. 1 showed association to leaf litter from rapids, backwaters, root and surface. The results suggest that studies which aim for rapid surveys of Heteroptera community should prioritize surface samples for Gerromorpha and root samples for Nepomorpha, because these substrates shelter the greatest richness of each infra-order, contemplating 83% and 64% of species richness in these groups respectively.

  16. O Efeito do Fogo sobre a Comunidade de Abelhas Euglossini (Hymenoptera: Apidae em Floresta de Transição Cerrado-Amazônia (Mato Grosso, Brasil

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    Nubia Giehl

    2013-12-01

    Abstract. We evaluated the effects of induced burned on Euglossini bee assemblages (Hymenoptera: Apidae in a transitional area between Cerrado and Amazonia, eastern Mato Grosso, Brazil. We determinate abundances, richness and composition of Euglossini in three plots: control plot (unburned, plot burned each year since 2004 (intermediate degradation, plot burned each three years since 2004 (high degradation. We tested the hypothesis that two burned plots present lower male abundances, less species richness and different species composition in comparison with the control plot. We collected male bees actively and passively by using six pure fragrances: β-ionona, benzoato de benzila, geraniol, fenil-etil-acetato, salicilato de metila e vanilina. We collected seven species with no differences in male abundances among three plots (F (2, 12= 0.150; p= 0.8. Estimated richness species in control the plot was higher than the plot burned each three years (12 ± 3.8; 4± 2, respectively, while plot burned each year showed intermediate richness (8 ± 4.35 and higher than plot burned each three years. Cluster Analysis (UPGMA revealed significant differences in species composition of the triennial fire area to the other two areas. Our results suggest that fire occurring with different frequencies in transitional forest promote decreases in richness of species and modifications in species composition. These modifications were clearer in plot more degraded (burned each three years and induce deleterious effects on orchid bee assemblage.

  17. Identificación paramétrica en lazo cerrado de sistema de accionamiento neumático para cilindro de doble efecto

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    Oscar Caldas Flautero

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Los modelos matemáticos que permiten comprender un sistema y predecir o simular su comportamiento suelen presentar inconvenientes cuando se cuenta con poca información a priori o se desconocen los parámetros físicos. Por esa razón, en este trabajo se presenta la identificación de sistemas como estrategia para abordar la construcción de modelos dinámicos complejos, proponiendo soluciones para tratar el comportamiento no-lineal de un sistema neumático, representado por un actuador de doble efecto y un par de válvulas proporcionales para el control de la presión de alimentación y el caudal. Se presenta una aproximación almodelomatemático para determinar el orden del sistema, la identificación en lazo abierto y lazo cerrado y la comparación entre modelos de procesosARX yARMAX, con diferente orden, para concluir con simulaciones comparativas entre la respuesta del sistema real y la del identificado.

  18. A taxonomic synopsis of South American Cyanogomphini Carle with description of Cyanogomphus angelomachadoi sp. nov. from the Cerrado of Brazil (Odonata: Gomphidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, Ângelo Parise; Almeida, Marcus Vinícius Oliveira De

    2016-01-01

    A synopsis of Cyanogomphini Carle, 1986 (sensu Belle 1996), including all species currently under the genera Cyanogomphus Selys, 1873, and Tibiagomphus Belle, 1992, is provided. Cyanogomphus angelomachadoi sp. nov. (Holotype ♂ deposited in DZRJ: Brazil, Minas Gerais State, Jaboticatubas municipality, Parque Nacional da Serra do Cipó, collecting site "Córrego das Pedras" 19°22'17"S, 43°36'03"W, 766 m a.s.l., 12.XII.2011, A.P.M. Santos & D.M. Takiya leg.) is described and illustrated based on four males and two females from Minas Gerais and São Paulo States, southeastern Brazil. The new species is most similar to C. waltheri Selys, 1873, from which it can be distinguished by its smaller size; larger pale areas on mesepisternum; pale dorsal surface of metathoracic tibia; larger distal concavity on epiproct, with laterodistal projection, in lateral view forefinger-shaped; and occurrence in Cerrado province. Five species are recognized in Cyanogomphini, and for each one a synonymy, diagnoses, identification key and maps of distribution are presented. The status of sibling taxa Tibiagomphus uncatus (Fraser, 1947) and T. noval (Rodrigues Capítulo, 1985), as well as the Agriogomphus-complex of genera are also discussed. PMID:27395962

  19. Propriedades químicas de um Neossolo Quartzarênico sob diferentes sistemas de manejo no Cerrado mato-grossense Soil chemical properties in a Typic Quartzipisamment under different management systems in Brazilian savanna in Mato Grosso State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leidivan Almeida Frazão

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito de diferentes usos da terra e sistemas de manejo do solo, nas características químicas de um Neossolo Quartzarênico, no Cerrado de Mato Grosso. Os tratamentos estudados foram: cerrado nativo; uma pastagem de baixa produtividade com 22 anos de implantação; plantio convencional com 1 e 4 anos de uso e diferentes sucessões de culturas; e plantio direto com 5 anos de implantação. Foram determinados os teores de carbono e nitrogênio, pH, acidez potencial, capacidade de troca de cátions (CTC, fósforo disponível, bases trocáveis e saturação por bases do solo. Os valores mais baixos de pH, fósforo disponível, potássio, cálcio e magnésio foram observados nas áreas sob cerrado e pastagem, e a menor concentração de carbono no solo sob pastagem refletiu menor CTC do solo. A aplicação do calcário nos tratamentos com plantio convencional e direto favorece o aumento das concentrações de cálcio e magnésio no solo. Nesses sistemas, a saturação por bases (V% do solo é mais elevada nas áreas com maior tempo de implantação (4 e 5 anos. Embora o Neossolo Quartzarênico possua limitações para o cultivo, em razão de sua baixa fertilidade natural, se adequadamente manejado, este solo apresenta potencial para o cultivo agrícola.The objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of different land uses and soil management systems, on chemical characteristics of a Typic Quartzipisamment in the savanna (Cerrado of Mato Grosso State, Brazil. The treatments studied were: native cerrado; pasture with low productivity for 22 years; conventional tillage with one and four years and different crop successions; and no-tillage for five years. Soil carbon and nitrogen, pH, potential acidity, cation exchange capacity (CEC, available phosphorus, exchangeable bases and base saturation were determined. The cerrado and pasture treatments had the lowest pH, available phosphorus, calcium and magnesium

  20. Caracterização físico-química de amostras de méis produzidas por Apis mellifera L. em fragmento de cerrado no município de Itirapina, São Paulo Physicochemical characterization of honey samples produced by Apis mellifera L. in a fragment of savannah area in Itirapina county, São Paulo State, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Kiára Mendonça; Luís Carlos Marchini; Bruno de Almeida Souza; Daniela de Almeida-Anacleto; Augusta Carolina de Camargo Carmello Moreti

    2008-01-01

    A fisionomia vegetal mais representativa do país, depois da floresta amazônica, é o cerrado, que ocupa atualmente dois milhões de km² do território brasileiro. Este trabalho teve como objetivo determinar as características físico-químicas de amostras de mel produzidas por Apis mellifera em um fragmento de cerrado, localizado em Itirapina, SP (22°14'S e 47°49'W). As amostras foram coletadas mensalmente, em cinco colméias, entre fevereiro e outubro de 2005 e as características avaliadas...

  1. BALANÇO DE ENERGIA E FLUXO DE CO2: ANÁLISE DOS DADOS COLETADOS NO CERRADO DA FLORESTA ESTADUAL DE ASSIS, ESTADO DE SÃO PAULO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edson Xavier Fernandes

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Based on climatological data and energy flow, this paper analyzes the behavior observed in microclimatic an important remnant of cerrado in the São Paulo State. The seasonal climate is well marked, in the study area, with two climatic periods (one dry and one wet. The vegetation presents physiology as a function of water availability and the local thermal conditions and can be seen marked changes in the landscape due to the more or less presence of solar radiation. It’s important to understand the ecosystems behave in the context of global change. It has gained the attention of many researchers in the world.

  2. Reflexos da fertilização mineral de boro na estrutura anatômica, no crescimento e na seca-de-ponteiro de Eucalyptus citriodora Hook, e Eucalyptus camaldulensis Dehnh. no cerrado de Minas Gerais, Brasil

    OpenAIRE

    Pinheiro, Antonio Lelis

    2013-01-01

    Este trabalho teve por objetivo avaliar o efeito da aplicação de doses crescentes de boro no crescimento e na produção volumétrica, na intensidade de seca-de-ponteiro e na estrutura anatômica das folhas de Eucalyptus citriodora Hook. e Eucalyptus camaldulensis Dehnh., em dois tipos de solos no cerrado de Minas Gerais, Brasil. Ambas as espécies são extremamente importantes em reflorestamentos no País para produção de madeira. Foram coletadas amostras de folhas para análise química foliar e est...

  3. ESPÉCIES DE CUPINS (ISOPTERA) EM CULTURA DE EUCALIPTO SOB DIFERENTES SISTEMAS DE MANEJO DE IRRIGAÇÃO, EM REGIÃO DE TRANSIÇÃO CERRADO-PANTANAL DE MATO GROSSO DO SUL, BRASIL

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    O eucalipto sofre severos danos por cupins durante a implantação das mudas no campo, sendo considerada praga importante da cultura. No ecótono Cerrado/Pantanal não existem estudos anteriores sobre a ocorrência de cupins em plantações de eucalipto. O objetivo foi conhecer a riqueza de cupins, sua distribuição nos tratamentos e a influência do ambiente nas populações de cupins, nos híbridos de eucalipto Eucalyptus grandis x E. camaldulensis e Eucalyptus urophylla x E. grandis com fertirrigação ...

  4. Características físico-químicas, polifenóis e flavonoides amarelos em frutos de espécies de pitaias comerciais e nativas do Cerrado

    OpenAIRE

    Cristiane Andréa de Lima; Fábio Gelape Faleiro; Nilton Tadeu Vilela Junqueira; Kelly de Oliveira Cohen; Tadeu Graciolli Guimarães

    2013-01-01

    Apesar do grande potencial comercial da pitaia, ainda são escassos os estudos de caracterização físico-química de frutos da pitaia, principalmente considerando espécies nativas do Cerrado. Neste trabalho, objetivou-se analisar a caracterização físico-química, polifenóis e flavonoides amarelos totais de frutos de espécies de pitaia Hylocereus costaricensis, Hylocereus undatus, Selenicereus setaceus e Selenicereus megalanthus. Para as avaliações físico-químicas, foram realizadas as análises de ...

  5. Prospecção fitoquímica preliminar de plantas nativas do cerrado de uso popular medicinal pela comunidade rural do assentamento vale verde - Tocantins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.G.F.de Bessa

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo objetivou caracterizar qualitativamente grupos de metabólitos secundários e alguns constituintes de 9 espécies de plantas medicinais nativas do cerrado utilizadas pela comunidade rural do Assentamento Vale Verde, identificando potencialidades biológicas e farmacológicas. As informações referentes às plantas de uso medicinal foram obtidas por meio de estudos etnobotânicos e etnofarmacológicos, realizados no período de 2010 a 2012. O material botânico coletado foi identificado e depositado no Herbário da Universidade Federal do Tocantins, Porto Nacional (TO. O extrato etanólico e metanólico foi obtido a partir do material seco em estufa, filtrado e concentrado em evaporador rotatório sob pressão reduzida, pesados e novamente colocados em estufa por 24h a 50ºC, obtendo o rendimento (m/m resultante da relação entre a massa de extrato concentrado e após seco. A análise fitoquímica das plantas selecionadas foi feita usando a metodologia da Prospecção Preliminar, realizando testes para detecção de alguns constituintes importantes e dos principais grupos de metabólitos: saponinas, fenóis e taninos, catequinas, esteróides e triterpenóides, cumarinas, antraquinonas e flavonóides. Os testes foram considerados positivos através de reações de precipitados com colorações, formações de espumas e manchas coloridas. Os testes fitoquímicos realizados nos extratos revelarem a presença de constituintes do metabolismo secundário das plantas que podem contribuir para a identificação de marcadores químicos para as espécies estudadas, sendo estes indispensáveis para os testes de qualidade e integridade de fitoterápicos e uso popular mais seguro das plantas medicinais, possibilitando melhor controle farmacognóstico dessas espécies e direcionamento dos seus usos e aplicações na pesquisa pela bioatividade preliminarmente conhecida. Neste caso, especialmente devido às atividades antimicrobianas, antioxidantes

  6. Enhancing the agronomic effectiveness of a low reactive local phosphate rock to improve agricultural productivity in a low P status oxisol of the Central Cerrado, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A series of studies was carried out to investigate technologies to enhance the agronomic effectiveness of the locally available Patos phosphate rock (PR) for direct application to corn, a major food crop and Eucalyptus, a tree commonly grown for timber and paper mill production in the Cerrado region. The specific objectives of this research were to evaluate the effects of a water-soluble phosphatic fertilizer such as triple superphosphate (TSP) when applied mixed with the low reactive Patos PR on PR-phosphorus utilization by corn and Eucalyptus, in a tropical Typic Dystrarox soil of the Cerrado region using 32P isotopic techniques. Technologies studied included a physical means by mixing the local Patos PR with TSP in different proportions and a biological one by inoculating the plants with endomycorrhizae. Granular TSP, finely powdered Patos PR and TSP + PR (both finely powdered and mixed with slight humidity) were applied to plastic pots containing 1.5 kg soil, previously labeled with 10 MBq 32P carrier-free/pot. Additional treatments with 32P labeled TSP were included. In the first experiment with corn the treatments were: TSP (0, 50, 100 mg P kg-1 soil), Patos PR (200, 400 and 800 mg P kg-1 soil) and TSP + PR (50 + 200 mg P kg-1 soil, 50 + 400 mg P kg-1 soil, 50 + 800 mg P kg-1 soil, and 100 + 400 mg P kg-1 soil). The treatments of second corn experiment were: TSP (0, 30, 60, 90, 120 and 150 mg P kg-1 soil); Patos PR (400 mg P kg-1 soil); TSP + PR (30, 60, 90, 120 and 150 mg P kg-1 soil, 1:1 ratio) and some treatments were inoculated with mycorrhiza. Corn plants were grown and harvested 40 days after seeding for total P and 32P activity analysis. The combined application of TSP with Patos PR increased slightly the utilization of P from PR by the corn plants (0.49 to 1.71%). This slight increase in attributed to the low reactivity of Patos PR as a source of P for corn even when it was mixed with TSP. Increasing TSP proportion in the TSP + Patos PR mixture (1

  7. Phylogenetic relationships of a new species of Apostolepis from Brazilian Cerrado with notes on the assimilis group (Serpentes: Colubridae: Xenodontinae: Elapomorphini

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hebert Ferrarezzi

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The assimilis species group is one of the several assemblages that can be distinguished within the genus Apostolepis. The group is characterized by a uniform red dorsal pattern, broad nucho-cervical collars, enlarged light snout blotch, dark ventral head, and entirely black terminal shield. A new species is here recognized as a member of the assimilis group and its phylogenetic relationships to A. assimilis and A. cearensis is inferred by means of cladistic analysis. Apostolepis ammodites sp. nov. can be easily diagnosed from all congeners by many autapomorphies and an exclusive combination of features. Comparative data are presented on scalation, coloration, dentition, osteology, and geographic distribution, with some notes on feeding and reproductive biology. The new species occurs through central Brazilian Cerrado, filling a gap between the areas occupied by A. assimilis and A. cearensis. Although superficially resembling A. assimilis, parsimony analysis based on morphological data indicates its phylogenetic relationships closest to A. cearensis. Systematic analysis shows that two recently described species, A. freitasi and A. tertulianobeui, must be relegated as junior synonymies of A. cearensis and A. assimilis, respectively.As espécies do grupo assimilis se caracterizam por um padrão dorsal vermelho uniforme, colares nuco-cervicais largos, mancha clara do focinho larga, região ventral da cabeça densamente pigmentada e escudo terminal completamente preto, é um dos vários grupos que podem ser distintos dentro do gênero Apostolepis. Uma nova espécie é aqui reconhecida como membro do grupo assimilis e suas relações filogenéticas para A. assimilis e A. cearensis são inferidas por meio de uma análise cladística. A. ammodites sp. nov. pode ser diagnosticada facilmente de todos os congeneres por muitas autapomorfias e uma combinação exclusiva de caracteres. Dados comparativos são apresentados sobre escutelação, colora

  8. EFICIÊNCIA DE FOSFATOS NATURAIS RELACIONADA À PRODUTIVIDADE DE MILHETO EM SOLOS DE CERRADO AGRONOMIC EFFICIENCY OF ROCK PHOSPHATES ON MILLET YIELD IN SAVANNAH SOILS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huberto José Kliemann

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available

    Um experimento em estufa foi realizado para avaliar a eficiência agronômica de três fosfatos naturais, em cinco solos da região dos cerrados. Construíram-se curvas de resposta padrão (0 kg ha-1, 100 kg ha-1, 200 kg ha-1, 400 kg ha-1 e 800 kg ha-1 de P2O5 com superfosfato triplo (ST, incluindo duas doses (200 kg ha-1 e 800 kg ha-1 de P2O5 das fontes de fosfatos alternativos (fosforita de Arad - Israel, fosfato de alumínio e cálcio - Senegal, e apatita de Araxá - Brazil. Usou-se o milheto (Pennisetum thyphoides como planta-teste. A ordem de eficiência dos fosfatos naturais aplicados aos solos utilizados neste estudo fo a seguintei: fosforita > fosfato de alumínio e cálcio > apatita. O extrator Mehlich-1 solubilizou os fosfatos apatíticos, super-estimando o fósforo (P disponível nos solos. Os níveis críticos para os extratores Mehlich-1 e resina, aos quais foram adicionados dados do fósforo (P disponível nos tratamentos com fosfatos naturais, diferiram entre si, mas, foram mais altos do que os obtidos com o superfosfato triplo isoladamente. Os dois extratores comportaram-se de modo similar, com respeito à extração de P disponível no solo.

    PALAVRAS-CHAVE: Fosfatos naturais; desempenho; cerrado; milheto.

    A greenhouse experiment was undertaken to assess the agronomic efficiency of rock phosphates in five savannah soils. Standard response curves (0 kg ha-1, 100 kg ha-1, 200 kg ha-1, 400 kg ha-1, and 800 kg ha-1 of P2O5 with triple superphosphate (TSP were used, including two rates (200 kg ha-1 and 800 kg ha-1 of P2O5 of alternative phosphate sources (Arad phosphorite - Israel, phosphoric bauxite - Senegal, and Araxá apatite - Brazil. Millet (Pennisetum thyphoides was used as test crop. Data show the following ranking for agronomic efficiency: phosphorite

  9. Quantificação e caracterização energética da madeira e casca de espécies do cerrado

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    Ailton Vale Teixera do

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this work was to study the production of energy in an area of sensu stricto cerrado located on the Á gua Limpa Farm, University of Brasilia - Brazil. Aerial biomass and the characteristics of the wood and bark of the species found in the total area of 63.56 ha were determined. In ten 20 m x 50 m plots, the total height and diameter, of all the trees whose diameters were either equal to or greater than 5 cm, at 30 cm from the ground, were measured. Seven diameter classes were pre -determined. Then, three trees of each species were cut down at random and classified according to its diameter class. The green biomass of the stem and branches of each species was measured in the field. In laboratory, humidity, the wood/bark ratio, specific gravity, heat combustion, the content of fixed carbon, volatile material and ash of the wood and bark were obtained from cross-sections. It was also possible to estimate the dry mass of the wood and branches per tree, species and hectare as well as the amount of heat generated by this cerrado community. Forty-seven species were identified. The dry biomass of the community comprised 71% of wood and 29% of bark and trees had an average 53% of branches and 47% of stem. The mean production of total dry biomass in the area was 12.38 t/ha. Mean tree production was 18.39 kg. The specific gravity of the wood ranged from 0.2 g/cm3 to 0.78 g/cm3, and the bark from 0.17 g/cm3 to 0.67 g/cm3. The heat combustion of the woods varied from 4,516 kcal/kg to 4,989 kcal/kg, whereas that of the bark ranged from 17,526 kJ/kg to 24,019 kJ/kg. The mean heat combustion of the wood was 19,937 kJ/kg. The mean fixed carbon content was 20.73% in the wood and 25.19% in the bark. Vochysia thyrsoidea presented a great energy production (1,643 MJ/tree, 20 trees/ha e 32,859.00 MJ/ha due to a great biomass production, but with specific gravity low (0.49 g/cm3 and heat combustion low (19,728 kJ/kg. Acosmium dasycarpum showing wood

  10. Fungos micorrízicos arbusculares em campos de murundus após a conversão para sistemas agrícolas no cerrado

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    Paula Camylla Ramos Assis

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Os campos de murundus são fitofisionomias de ocorrência no bioma Cerrado com funções ecológicas importantes para a manutenção da sustentabilidade do solo; e a conversão para sistemas agrícolas pode provocar alterações nos atributos físicos, químicos e biológicos do solo ainda não avaliados, como a redução da biodiversidade de fungos micorrízicos arbusculares. O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar como a conversão dos campos de murundus em áreas de sistema agrícola altera a comunidade de fungos micorrízicos arbusculares (FMAs. Os tratamentos constituíram-se de três áreas agrícolas submetidas ao mesmo manejo e uso agrícola em uma cronossequência (7, 11 e 14 anos e duas na área referência [campo de murundus, em topo (TM e entre os murundus (EM]. Os esporos de FMAs foram extraídos, contados, e as espécies de FMAs identificadas pelas características morfológicas. O total de FMAs recuperado foi de 27 espécies, sendo nove espécies da família Acaulosporaceae, uma Ambisporaceae, sete Glomeraceae, duas Claroideoglomeraceae e oito Gigasporaceae. Desse total, as espécies Acaulospora scrobiculata, Glomus macrocarpum, e Gigaspora sp. ocorreram em todas as áreas nos dois anos estudados. As espécies Acaulospora mellea, Acaulospora cavernata, Acaulospora colombiana, Glomus diaphanum, Scutellospora reticulata e Scutellospora sp. só foram encontradas nos campos de murundus. A conversão de campos de murundus em área agrícola modificou a ocorrência e composição da comunidade de FMAs; as espécies Acaulospora scrobiculata, Glomus macrocarpum, Claroideoglomus etunicatus e Gigaspora sp ocorreram em todas as áreas e a não ocorrência de algumas espécies nas áreas de cultivo, como as espécies Acaulospora cavernata, Acaulospora colombiana, Rhizophagus diaphanus, Scutellospora reticulata e Scutellospora sp. representa perda de diversidade desses fungos. Portanto, este estudo tratou-se do primeiro relato da ocorrência e da

  11. Aspectos agronômicos de leguminosas para adubação verde no Cerrado do Alto Vale do Jequitinhonha

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    Ricardo Borges Teodoro

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available O uso intensivo e inadequado dos solos acelera sua degradação, sendo necessária a intervenção por meio de práticas conservacionistas para restaurar a capacidade produtiva dos mesmos. O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar o comportamento e desenvolvimento de diferentes leguminosas utilizadas como adubos verdes em solos de Cerrado, Alto Vale do Jequitinhonha, em Turmalina, MG. O delineamento experimental adotado foi em blocos ao acaso, com sete tratamentos e quatro repetições, sendo os tratamentos constituídos pelas leguminosas: mucuna-cinza (Mucuna nivea, mucuna-preta (Mucuna aterrima, lablabe (Dolichos lablab, feijão-de-porco (Canavalia ensiformis, Crotalaria juncea, Crotalaria spectabilis e guandu-anão (Cajanus cajan. O ciclo precoce de C . juncea, C. spectabilis e feijão-de-porco favorece a inserção destes nos sistemas de cultivo. Aos 40 dias, o feijão-de-porco e mucuna-cinza já cobriam o solo, com 67 e 63 %; já o guandu-anão e C. juncea apresentaram os maiores desenvolvimentos, nesse período. Os teores de N, P e K tendem a diminuir nas avaliações realizadas nas diferentes fases vegetativas, o que contribui para melhor escolha da época de manejo das leguminosas. Crotalaria juncea, mucuna-cinza, feijão-de-porco e mucuna-preta foram as leguminosas que se destacaram na produção de matéria seca, o que torna essas espécies promissoras para adubação verde na região. As leguminosas, em sua maioria, apresentam potencial para reciclagem dos macronutrientes e aporte de N aos sistemas de produção.

  12. Dinâmica demográfica e uso da terra no cerrado brasileiro: reflexões a partir da experiência do Padap

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    Mauro Augusto dos Santos

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Com base nas teorias de desenvolvimento da fronteira e nas abordagens de estratégias de sobrevivência, este artigo ilustra o processo de colonização e dinâmica de uso do solo do Cerrado brasileiro, destacando a importância da migração, das associações agrícolas e do governo em contribuir para o sucesso de uma área de assentamento voltada para a intensificação de capital. Para ilustrar este processo com um estudo de caso, foi realizada uma pesquisa com os pioneiros na região do Programa de Assentamento Dirigido do Alto Paranaíba (PADAP durante 2008 e 2009. Nossos resultados sugerem que a segunda geração procura emprego urbano e educação, com a migração rural-urbana se tornando uma componente chave da dinâmica de fronteira recente. O esvaziamento da fronteira, induzido pela emigração da segunda geração, parece funcionar como um incentivo, ao invés de uma restrição ao trabalho. Com uma combinação bem sucedida de provisão governamental de assistência técnica e crédito subsidiado pela Cooperativa Agrícola de Cotia, os pequenos agricultores foram capazes de adotar tecnologias de capital intensivo e experimentar novas culturas mais rentáveis, gerando maiores retornos agrícolas. Seguindo outros estudos que trabalham com a dinâmica de fronteira em outros lugares, este artigo contribui para a literatura através da combinação de teorias da economia e da geografia espacial, juntamente com quadros de desenvolvimento de fronteira, para compreender a dinâmica de uso do solo no Padap.

  13. Espécies de Melastomataceae Juss. com potencial para restauração ecológica de mata ripária no cerrado

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    Lidiamar Albuquerque

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Melastomataceae Juss. é a sexta família em importância no bioma Cerrado, sendo comuns em vegetação secundária. As espé-cies desta família apresentam estratégias de vida e adaptações como grande produção de sementes, dispersão efi ciente de propágulos, altas taxas de germinação e crescimento rápido que podem propiciar a ativação dos processos ecológicos envolvidos na rege-neração natural de habitats perturbados. O objetivo foi caracterizar as espécies de Melastomataceae em vegetação secundária e avaliar seu potencial para uso na restauração ecológica de áreas degradadas de matas ripárias. Este estudo foi realizado na área experimental da Embrapa Cerrados, à margem direita do córrego Sarandi, Distrito Federal, Brasil, em uma área de um hectare, onde foram instadas parcelas e transectos para avaliação dos parâmetros: caracterís-ticas botânicas, ecológicas e reprodutivas, síndromes de polinização e de dispersão de sementes, reprodução vegetativa, riqueza de espécies, abundância, cobertura, fenofases de floração e frutificação. A partir da análise destes parâmetros definiuse os critérios para avaliar o potencial de uso das espécies na restauração ecológica. Entre as 14 espécies da família de Melastomataceae registradas,Miconia chamissoisNaud. (35.42% e 42.53%,Ossaea congestiflora(Naud. Cong. (23.6% e 13.29%,Macairea radulaDC (19.66% e 17.22% eTococa formicariaMart. (6.78% e 3.87% apresentaram maior abundância e cobertura, respectivamente. As espécies estudadas apresentaram, em sua maioria, grande oferta de recursos ali-mentares ao longo do ano, que, associadas a outras características permitiram identifi car o potencial de restaurabilidade de cada espécie avaliada. O potencial para uso na res-tauração ecológica foi alto para as espécies:Miconia chamissois,Miconia ibaguensis,Miconia albicans,Miconia theaezanse Tococa formicaria. Estas espécies podem atuar como nucleadoras

  14. SEED GERMINATION AND SEEDLING EMERGENCE OF Anadenanthera colubrina (Vell. Brenan var. cebil (Griseb. Altschut, FABACEAE, ESTABLISHED IN FOREST FRAGMENTS OF CERRADO, MINAS GERAIS STATE

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    Marieta Caixeta Dorneles

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5902/1980509810541 The seed germination strategy is important for the survival of species, allowing their maintenance and regeneration in the environment. Seed germination and seedling emergence of Anadenanthera colubrina were studied to examine the reproductive efficiency of this species, typical of Cerrado biome. The fruits were collected in ‘Vale do Rio Araguari’, in MG state. The water content at 105 °C, the germination in controlled laboratory conditions and seedling emergence in semi-open greenhouse were analyzed. The seeds had low water content between 6.7 to 10.7%. The germinating ability and the emergence percentage were high for almost all studied individuals, being registered 68 for seeds of individual number 2 and 85 - 94% for the others; 38% (individual number 2 and 78 - 91% (for the others, respectively. The speed of the processes was high, with the end of germination within 12.8 days and emergence within 18.8 days. The processes were heterogeneous, with values of coefficient of variation of the germination or emergence time above 28.5%; asynchronous, with values of uncertainty above 1.5 bits and synchrony below 0.3812. The seeds of this species were efficient in both processes and the heterogeneity and asynchrony may indicate the effects of environmental fluctuations during the seed formation, besides the genetic variability, intrinsic to each individual of the population. The speed and the high potential of seed germination of this species may also facilitate the programs of reforestation with the production of large numbers of seedlings in short time.  

  15. Abejas de orquídeas (Apidae: Euglossini en un fragmento de bosque en el ecótone Cerrado-Selva Amazónica, Brasil

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    José Max Barbosa OLIVEIRA-JUNIOR

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo se presenta información sobre la riqueza de especies y abundancia de Euglossini en la zona de transición entre el Cerrado y la selva amazónica, en la cuenca del río Xingu. Las muestras se recogieron en un fragmento de bosque en el municipio de Ribeirão Cascalheira, Mato Grosso, Brasil, entre el 1 y 5 de noviembre de 2011. Las sustancias puras de benzoato de bencilo, 1,8 cineol, eugenol y la vainillina se utilizaron en la colección activa, mientras que el salicilato de metilo se utilizó en trampas pasiva. Un total de 168 machos pertenecientes a los cuatro géneros fueron registrados, distribuidos en 19 especies. La mayor riqueza de especies se registró en Euglossa, con Eulaema nigrita, la especie más abundante en la comunidad. La riqueza de especies varió entre el borde y el primer punto dentro del fragmento. Los machos de Euglossini eran más activos entre 10:00-11:00 h, y el 1,8 cineol fue la sustancia pura más atractiva. El fragmento estudiado contenía un alto grado de riqueza de especies de Euglossini en una región de la heterogeneidad ambiental extensa, que sigue siendo en gran parte desconocido con relación a su fauna de insectos y merece la atención para la elaboración de nuevos inventarios.

  16. Atributos físico-hídricos de um Latossolo após a aplicação de lodo de esgoto em área degradada do Cerrado Hydro-physical attributes of an Oxisol after sewage sludge application on a Cerrado degraded area

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    Fabiana da Silva de Campos

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Os solos cultivados intensivamente e inadequadamente são degradados, assim como a construção de obras civis no meio rural executada sem atender à legislação. O trabalho objetivou definir a interferência do lodo de esgoto na recuperação de atributos de um Latossolo Vermelho. O experimento foi implantado em 2004, em Selviria (MS. Os tratamentos utilizados foram: T1-vegetação de cerrado; T2-solo exposto sem tratamento para recuperação; T3-solo cultivado com eucalipto e braquiária sem o uso do lodo de esgoto e adubação mineral; T4-solo cultivado com eucalipto e braquiária com adubação mineral; T5-solo cultivado com eucalipto e braquiária com uso de 30Mg ha-1 de lodo de esgoto e; T6-solo cultivado com eucalipto e braquiária com uso de 60Mg ha-1 de lodo de esgoto. Nas camadas do solo de 0,00-0,05; 0,05-0,10; 0,10-0,20 e de 0,20-0,30m, foram avaliados os atributos físico-hídricos e teor de matéria orgânica. Os tratamentos com adubação mineral e orgânica estão agindo de forma semelhante para a recuperação dos atributos físico-hídricos e do teor de matéria orgânica. Em solos degradados pela construção de obras civis a aplicação de 30 a 60mg de lodo de esgoto ha-1 recupera as suas propriedades físico-hídricas.Intensively and inadequately managed soils and the civil construction industry in the rural area that are unconcerned with specific legislation, result in several problems in the environment. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the influence of sewage sludge on the recovery of hydro-physical properties of an Oxisol. The experiment was implanted in 2004, in Selvíria, Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil. The six experimental treatments were arranged according to a randomized complete-block design with four replications. The experimental treatments were: 1 - Native Cerrado vegetation; 2 - degraded soil without treatment for soil recovery; 3 - Eucalyptus citriodora planting and Brachiaria decumbens sowing

  17. AGRONOMIC EFFICIENCY OF NATURAL PHOSPHATES AND THEIR INFLUENCE ON SOIL AVAILABLE PHOSPHORUS ON TWO CERRADO SOILS EFICIÊNCIA AGRONÔMICA DE FOSFATOS NATURAIS E SUA INFLUÊNCIA NO FÓSFORO DISPONÍVEL EM DOIS SOLOS DE CERRADO

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    Huberto José Kliemann

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available

    To evaluate the agronomic efficiency of natural phosphates soybean was grown in two oxisols under cerrado vegetation, using apatites (Araxá, Patos de Minas, Tapira, Abaeté, and Catalão, phosphoric bauxites (Pirocaua and Phospal, Gafsa hyperphosphate, nd IPT thermophosphate, using triple superphosphate as a control. he agronomic efficiency indexes found were: a apatites - Araxá nd Abaeté, 27%; Patos de Minas, 13%; Tapira, 5%, and Catalão, %; b phosphoric bauxites - Pirocaua, 41% and Phospal, 50%; c hermophosphate IPT, 97% and hyperphosphate of Gafsa, 102%. he acid extractor Mehclich-1 overestimates available P when nsoluble apatites are applied to soils. Bray-1 and Bray-2 extractors referably solubilize the aluminum phosphates from phosphoric auxites. Critical levels of soil available phosphorus are suitably stimated by Bray-1 extractant when apatitic phosphates and by ehlich-1 extractant phosphoric bauxites are applied.

    KEY-WORDS: Oxisols; soybeans; phosphates sources; chemical extractors; soybean.

    Conduziram-se experimentos de avaliação de fosfatos naturais em latossolo vermelho-escuro distrófico (textura média e latossolo roxo distrófico (textura argilosa, fase cerrado, no Estado de Goiás. Usaram-se a soja como planta-teste, curvas de resposta com superfosfato triplo (SFT como padrão e como fontes de fósforo as apatitas de Araxá, Patos de Minas, Tapira, Abaeté e Catalão, as bauxitas fosfóricas de Pirocaua (Maranhão e Phospal (Senegal, o hiperfosfato de Gafsa e o termofosfato IPT. Obtiveram-se os seguintes índices de eficiência agronômica (IEA: a apatitas – Abaeté e Araxá: 27%; Patos de Minas: 13%; Tapira: 5%; e Catalão: 2%; b termofosfato IPT: 97% e o hiperfosfato reativo de Gafsa, 102%; c bauxitas de Pirocaua, 41% e Phospal: 50%. Os extratores Mehlich-1, Bray-1

  18. Relação entre solo, vegetação e topografia em área de cerrado (Parque Estadual de Vassununga, SP: como se expressa em mapeamentos? The relationship among soil, vegetation and topography in a cerrado area (Vassununga State Park, SP: how well is it expressed in maps ?

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    Patricia Guidão Cruz Ruggiero

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Foram investigadas as relações entre mapas de fitofisionomias, solos e topografia, na Gleba Pé-de-Gigante (21º37'30''S; 47º37'30''W, SP. A área estudada constitui a planície de inundação do córrego Paulicéia e colinas no entorno, onde predominam fisionomias de cerrado, havendo também manchas de floresta estacional, floresta ripária e campo úmido, sobre solos predominantemente arenosos. As cartas temáticas analisadas compreenderam: a mapa pré-existente de fisionomias de vegetação, b mapa hipsométrico, baseado em curvas de nível de 5 em 5 m e c mapa de solos, feito a partir de dados químicos e físicos do solo (amostras coletadas em 54 pontos, nas profundidades: 0-5, 5-25, 40-60 e 80-100 cm e fotografias aéreas (1988, 1:40.000. Os mapas foram re-classificados, para se obter diferentes níveis de detalhamento, e cruzados, em sistema de informação geográfica. Nas tabelas de contingência, geradas a partir dos cruzamentos, foi aplicado o teste de Qui-quadrado e obtido o valor de correlação de Cramér, para investigar a relação entre os mapeamentos. A floresta estacional semidecídua se mostrou fortemente associada à classe geral de Latossolos, e o campo cerrado às altitudes de 620-650 m, provavelmente associado à dinâmica sub-superficial da água. O detalhamento da informação mapeada nos temas analisados não garantiu melhores resultados à interpretação de suas relações, pois as classes fitofisionômicas não respondem diretamente, nem isoladamente, à topografia ou à classificação usual dos solos.Relationships among vegetation, soil and topography maps were investigated in the Pé-de-Gigante Reserve (21º37'30''S; 47º37'30''W, SP. The studied area is the Paulicéia river basin, where soils are predominantly sandy and the vegetation includes a gradient of savanna physiognomies and patches of semideciduous forest, wet fields, and riparian forest. The cartographic material included: a pre-existent vegetation

  19. The influence of fire regime on microscale structural variation and patchiness in Cerrado vegetation. A influência do regime de fogo na variação estrutural em microescala e o mosaico da vegetação de Cerrado.

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    Giselda DURIGAN

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available O fogo é um dos principais condicionantes do mosaico fisionômico da vegetação do Cerrado, em diferentes escalas. O objetivo do presente estudo foi explorar o mosaico estrutural da vegetação do Cerrado em microescala, em áreas com diferentes regimes de fogo, no mosaico formado pelas unidades de conservação Estação Ecológica e Floresta Estadual de Assis, SP. Analisamos a vegetação em quatrotransectos com 80 m de extensão, divididos em 20 subamostras de 4 m de comprimento. Para estimar a cobertura de todas as espécies do estrato herbáceo, utilizamos o método de intercepção de linhas em três diferentes faixas de altura: 0-50 cm, 50-100 cm e 100-150 cm. Medimos e identificamos todas as árvores e arbustos presentes nas subparcelas de 4 m x 4 m e coletamos amostras de solo compostas em cada transecto para caracterização ambiental. Comparamos os valores médios de cobertura e densidade da vegetação nos diferentes estratose efetuamos análises multivariadas para explicar as diferenças florísticas entre as comunidades. Os resultados indicam que o fogo induz aumento na heterogeneidade, especialmente nos estratos inferiores da vegetação. No entanto, não há diferenciação florística que possaser explicada pelos diferentes regimes de incêndios ou diferenças edáficas. Palavras chave: savana; influência do fogo; estrutura da comunidade;mosaico vegetacional.Fire can produce a hierarchical pattern of vegetation patchiness, from the large, landscape scale to the microscale, the dynamic nature of which changes over time. The aim of this study was to explore the microscale structural patchiness of Brazilian savanna vegetation (cerrado in areas with different fire regimes at the mosaic formed by Assis Ecological Station, and Assis State Forest,SãoPauloState.Vegetation was analysed in 80 m transects divided into twenty 4 m length plots that were established in four areas of savanna. The line-intercept method was used to estimate

  20. STRUCTURE AND SPATIAL DISTRIBUTION OF A Stryphnodendron adstringens (Mart.) Coville POPULATION IN THE CERRADO OF THE BIOLOGICAL RESERVE AND EXPERIMENTAL STATION OF MOGI GUAÇU, SÃO PAULO STATE, BRAZIL = ESTRUTURA E DISTRIBUIÇÃO ESPACIAL DE UMA POPULAÇÃO DE Stryphnodendron adstringens (Mart.) Coville EM CERRADO DA RESERVA BIOLÓGICA E ESTAÇÃO EXPERIMENTAL DE MOGI GUAÇU, ESTADO DE SÃO PAULO, BRASIL

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    Vera Lúcia Souza; Osvaldo Aulino da Silva

    2006-01-01

    The structure and spatial distribution of a Stryphnodendron adstringens (Mart.) Coville (Leguminosae) population, were studied using a sampling area of 0.50 hectares, divided into 50 plots of 10m x 10m, located inside the cerrado of the Biological Reservation and Experimental Center of Mogi Guaçu, São Paulo State, Brazil (22º15’-16’S, 47º08’-12W). The population was inventoried during three surveys. The total number of plants measured and mapped were 250 (census 1), 297 (census 2) and 287 (ce...

  1. PHYSICAL CARACTERIZATION OF BARU FRUITS (Dipteryx alata VOG. IN THREE POPULATIONS IN CERRADOS FROM THE GOIÁS STATE CARACTERIZAÇÃO FÍSICA DE FRUTOS DE BARU (Dipteryx alata Vog. EM TRÊS POPULAÇÕES NOS CERRADOS DO ESTADO DE GOIÁS

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    Lincoln Fonseca Zica

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available

    This study was carried out with 150 plants of baru (Dipteryx alata Vog. from three regions of Goiás State. It had 50 plants per region, and it were randomizes choiced at 1995. The purpose was to verify the occurrence and distribution of genetic variation among tested populations. Fruits were analysed about morphollogical characters. The experiment was planted as hierarchal model with regions level, plants within regions and fruits within plants. There was variation to all morphollogical characters in fruits at regions and plants within regions levels. The most variation proportion was founded at plants within regions level with high levels of transmission to all characters.

    KEY-WORDS: Baru; cerrados; population.

    O estudo foi conduzido com 150 plantas de baru (Dipteryx alata Vog., originárias de três regiões do Estado de Goiás, num total de 50 plantas por região, escolhidas, aleatoriamente, no ano de 1995. O objetivo foi verificar a ocorrência e distribuição da variabilidade genética das populações amostradas, através da avaliação dos caracteres morfológicos de frutos. Adotou-se, para o experimento, o modelo hierárquico com os níveis de regiões plantas dentro de regiões, e frutos dentro de plantas. Houve variação para todas as variáveis morfológicas de frutos, entre plantas de diferentes regiões e entre plantas dentro de regiões. Não houve variação entre frutos dentro de plantas para nenhuma das variáveis avaliadas. Maior proporção da variabilidade foi observada entre plantas dentro de regiões, com altos níveis de herdabilidade, no sentido amplo, para todas as variáveis estudadas.

    PALAVRAS-CHAVE: Baru; cerrados; população.

  2. Impacto do manejo nos atributos físicohídricos de um Latossolo Vermelho sob cerrado, no município de Selvíria, Estado do Mato Grosso do Sul = The impact of management on the physical and hydrological attributes of a darkred latosol under cerrado in Selviria, State of Mato Grosso do Sul

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    Monica Martins da Silva

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Verificou se a influência da semeadura direta, convencional e quatro plantas de cobertura na condutividade hidráulica saturada, infiltração, retenção, armazenamento de água e potencial mátrico em um Latossolo Vermelho de cerrado cultivado com milho, na Unesp deIlha Solteira, Estado de São Paulo. Utilizouse o delineamento experimental de blocos casualizados, no esquema em faixas com parcelas subdivididas, com 4 blocos. As parcelas foram constituídas pelas plantas de cobertura: Mucuna aterrima, Pennisetum americanum,Crotalaria juncea e Cajanus cajan e área de pousio, e as subparcelas pelos sistemas de semeadura direta (SD e convencional (SC. Nas camadas de 0,00,10 e 0,100,20 m nas tensões entre 6 e 100 kPa, a SC obteve maior armazenamento de água no solo; apesar da SC (0 0,20m apresentar maior armazenamento de água, comparado à SD, o mesmo foi menos eficiente em disponibilizar água às plantas; a SD apresentou maior uniformidade de distribuição de água no perfil do solo.This research work studied the influence of notillage, conventional tillage and four ground cover plants on the saturated hydraulic conductivity, infiltration, retention, storage of water and matricpotential in a DARKRED LATOSOL under cerrado, cultivated with maize. The study was conducted at Unesp of Ilha Solteira, State of São Paulo. A completely randomized design was used with subdivided parcels (randomized block design, with five treatments and fourrepetitions. The parcels were constituted of the following ground cover plants: Mucuna aterrima, Pennisetum americanum, Crotalaria juncea, Cajanus cajan and an area of spontaneous vegetation. As for the parcels subdivisions, the systems of soil management implemented were notillage (NT and conventional tillage (CT. In the layers of 0.00.10 and 0.100.20 m, for tensions between 6 and 100 kPa, the CT system made the soil achieve greater water storage. Although CT (0 – 0.20 m presented greater water storage compared

  3. A EXPANSÃO DA CANA-DE-AÇÚCAR NO CERRADO E NO ESTADO DE GOIÁS: ELEMENTOS PARA UMA ANÁLISE ESPACIAL DO PROCESSO

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    Selma Simões de Castro

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available No bioma cerrado, em particular nos estados de Goiás e Mato Grosso do Sul, vem ocorrendo a expansão dasáreas de monocultura da cana-de-açúcar, desde o final do século passado, mas intensificada a partir de 2007. Oobjetivo deste artigo é avaliar a área de expansão da cultura, destacando o estado de Goiás, através de estudosde mudanças de uso do solo, focalizando a substituição de áreas de cultivo, sobretudo de grãos e de pastagem.Destaca-se a região Sul Goiano e suas microrregiões Meia Ponte e Quirinópolis, como foco principal desseprocesso no período considerado. Conclui-se que a expansão vem percorrendo a mesma direção da expansãoda fronteira agrícola do cerrado nos anos 70 do século passado e que os impactos ambientais diretos e indiretosdessa expansão não estão sendo devidamente considerados em escalas mais detalhadas.

  4. Valoração econômica dos efeitos internos da erosão: impactos da produção de soja no cerrado piauiense

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    Kerle Pereira Dantas

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se mensurar economicamente os custos internos da área de produção de soja no cerrado piauiense, sob os sistemas de plantio direto e convencional, causados pelo processo de erosão, nas safras de 2000/2001 e de 2007/2008. O procedimento metodológico centrou-se no levantamento bibliográfico e estatístico de dados secundários e na aplicação do método do custo de reposição de nutrientes, no intuito de verificar qual o impacto econômico da degradação do solo na região. Por meio da pesquisa constatou-se que, em ambos os períodos de safras e sistemas de plantios analisados, os custos de reposição foram expressivos, representando, em média, 2,9% do valor total da produção de soja. Na safra 2000/2001, os custos por hectare foram de R$ 22,96 e R$ 21,93 para os plantios convencional e direto, respectivamente. Para a safra 2007/2008, os custos foram de R$ 22,40 e R$ 21,20, respectivamente. Portanto, esta configuração explicitou a relativa estabilidade do valor da perda de solo no período de análise, haja vista apresentar reduzido decréscimo na safra 2007/2008. Logo, inferiu-se que o uso do sistema de plantio direto no cultivo de soja no cerrado piauiense não somente proporcionou vantagens econômicas, mas, sobretudo, contribuiu para a sustentabilidade do agroecossistema.The present article aimed to measure the economic costs of the domestic production soybean area in the cerrado (one type of vegetation in Brazil of Piauí, in the systems of conventional and tillage, caused by the process of erosion in the 2000/2001 and 2007/2008 seasons. It analyzes the historical process of international integration of the Brazilian economy through the primary-exporting model, emphasizing the intensive use of natural resources as factor of competitiveness, characterized by the occupation and use of Brazilian cerrado and based on the soybean production and examined the consequences and risks to the biome arising from that process. The

  5. Oxidizable carbon and humic substances in rotation systems with brachiaria/livestock and pearl millet/no livestock in the Brazilian Cerrado

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    A. Loss

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The crop-livestock integration system significantly increases the carbon content in chemical fractions of soil organic matter (SOM. This study aimed to evaluate chemical indicators of SOM attributes for sites under brachiaria/livestock and pearl millet/no livestock in Goias, Brazil. A third area covered with natural Cerrado vegetation (Cerradão served as reference. Soil was randomly sampled at 0-5, 5-10, 10-20 and 20-40 cm. Total organic carbon stocks (TOC, oxidizable carbon fractions (OCF (F1>F2>F3>F4, carbon content in the humin (C-HUM, humic acid (C-HAF and fulvic acid (C-FAF fractions were evaluated. F1/F4, F1+F2/F3+F4, C-HAF/C-FAF and (C-HAF+C-FAF/C-HUM indices were calculated, as well as stocks chemical SOM fractions. Brachiaria/livestock produced greater TOC stocks than pearl millet/no livestock (0-5, 5-10 and 10-20 cm. In terms of OCF, brachiaria/livestock generally exhibited higher levels in F1, F2, F4 and F1/F4 than pearl millet/no livestock. C-HUM (0-10 cm and C-HAF (0-20 cm stocks were larger in brachiaria/livestock than pearl millet/no livestock. Compared to the Cerradão, brachiaria/livestock locations displayed higher values for TOC (5-10 and 10-20 cm, C-HAF and C-HAF/C-FAF (5-10 cm stocks. TOC, C-HAF stock and OCF show that land management with brachiaria/livestock was more efficient in increasing SOM than pearl millet/no livestock. Moreover, when compared with pearl millet/no livestock, brachiaria/livestock provided a more balanced distribution of very labile (F1 and recalcitrant (F4 carbon throughout soil layers, greater SOM humification. Brachiaria/livestock leads to higher values of F1 and F4 in depth when compared to pearl millet/livestock and provides a more homogeneous distribution of C-FAF and C-HAF in depth compared to Cerradão.

  6. VALOR NUTRICIONAL, CARACTERIZAÇÃO FÍSICA E FÍSICO-QUÍMICA DE JENIPAPO (GENIPA AMERICANA L. DO CERRADO DE MINAS GERAIS

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    Fabiana Rossi HAMACEK

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available O presente estudo analisou o valor nutricional e realizou a caracterização física e físico-química de jenipapo, espécie frutífera encontrada no Cerrado de Minas Gerais. Os frutos foram selecionados e caracterizados fisicamente quanto ao comprimento, diâmetro, massa e rendimento. Foram investigados os conteúdos de acidez total titulável (ATT, sólidos solúveis totais (SST, relação SST/ ATT, pH, umidade, cinzas, proteínas, lipídios, fibra alimentar total (FAT, carboidratos na polpa in natura. Utilizou- -se o delineamento inteiramente casualizado, com três repetições. Os frutos apresentaram formato oval, com casca fina, rugosa e murcha, polpa marrom clara com sementes pardas, peso médio de 283,42 g e rendimento de polpa de 48,00%. A polpa do fruto apresentou ATT igual a 3,33 g ácido cítrico/100g, SST de 11,40 0 Brix, relação SST/ATT de 3,43, pH igual a 3,87, umidade de 80,42%, 1,59g/100g de proteínas, 1,60g/100g de lipídios, 0,74g/100g de cinzas, 1,09g/100g de FAT, 14,57g/100g de carboidratos e valor energético total de 76,92kcal/100g. A polpa apresentou teor reduzido de SST e elevado conteúdo de ATT e pH, o que pode contribuir para uma menor aceitação do seu consumo in natura. O percentual de umidade foi elevado e juntamente com sua casca frágil, pode contribuir na deterioração do fruto. O jenipapo não se destacou quanto ao valor nutricional, considerando sua composição em macronutrientes. No entanto, apesar de pouco apreciado em sua forma in natura, o jenipapo pode ser processado, consumido e comercializado contribuindo para o aumento de renda e para o aporte nutricional das populações nativas.

  7. Estabelecimento e desenvolvimento de Dalbergia miscolobium Benth. em duas fitofisionomias típicas dos cerrados do Brasil Central Establishment and development of Dalbergia miscolobium Benth. in two typical savanna physiognomies of Central Brazil

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    Vívian S. Braz

    2000-04-01

    Full Text Available As formações savânicas do Brasil Central caracterizam-se por uma camada rasteira contínua, em que predominam gramíneas, entrecortada por uma camada de arbustos e árvores de densidade variável. Dalbergia miscolobium Benth. é uma leguminosa arbórea típica dos cerrados do Planalto Central. Este estudo examinou os efeitos da seca, disponibilidade de luz, herbivoria e fogo no estabelecimento e crescimento dessa espécie no campo sujo (estrato herbáceo contínuo com árvores e arbustos esparsos e no cerrado sensu stricto, onde a vegetação arbustivoarbórea é mais densa. Mudas foram transplantadas nas duas fitofisionomias, sendo acompanhadas mensalmente as variações na altura, produção de folhas e percentagem da área foliar removida por herbivoria, ao longo de cinco anos (1993-1998. A mortalidade ocorreu principalmente durante a época chuvosa. A seca sazonal não foi um importante fator de mortalidade. Número maior de mudas sobreviveu no campo sujo. Estas mudas não foram mortas por uma queimada ao final da seca de 1994, enquanto várias morreram no cerrado. O crescimento da parte aérea foi lento, em torno de 2,2cm/ano no campo sujo e 3,1cm/ano no cerrado, ocorrido principalmente na estação chuvosa. A maioria das mudas apresentou lesões necróticas de cor preta nas folhas, causada pelo ataque do fungo Phoma sp. A queda das folhas ocorreu durante a estação seca e o número máximo de folhas foi alcançado do meio para o final da época chuvosa, sempre seguido por um pico na herbivoria. Dados de disponibilidade de luz sugerem que plantas com folhas horizontais a 5cm do solo, atingiriam em média apenas 32% da capacidade máxima de assimilação de CO2, devido ao sombreamento. Entretanto, aumento da altura da planta de 5 para 50cm, onde não há mais sombreamento do estrato herbáceo, dobraria os valores estimados de assimilação de CO2 Assim sendo, o desenvolvimento desta espécie seria limitado pela disponibilidade de água e

  8. Gafanhotos (Orthoptera, Acridoidea em áreas de cerrados e lavouras na Chapada dos Parecis, Estado de Mato Grosso, Brasil Grasshoppers (Orthoptera, Acridoidea in native savanna and crop areas in Chapada dos Parecis, Mato Grosso State, Brazil

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    Wanderlei Dias Guerra

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Gafanhotos (Orthoptera, Acridoidea em áreas de cerrados e lavouras na Chapada dos Parecis, Estado de Mato Grosso, Brasil. Foi determinada a composição e abundância de espécies de gafanhotos usando amostragem com rede entomológica durante 3 anos de estudo na Chapada dos Parecis, estado de Mato Grosso. O levantamento foi feito em áreas de lavouras e com vegetação ainda nativa (cerrados com, respectivamente, 56 e 59 locais inventariados em cada ambiente. Foram coletados 3.031 indivíduos de gafanhotos de 64 espécies distribuídas entre as famílias e subfamílias: Acrididae (49: Gomphocerinae (21, Ommatolampinae (10, Melanoplinae (6, Acridinae (4 Leptysminae (3, Copiocerinae (3, Proctolabinae (1 e Cyrtacanthacridinae (1; Romaleidae (1: Romaleinae (13 e Ommexechidae (1: Ommexechinae (2, além de 1550 ninfas. A diversidade de espécies foi maior no cerrado (61 do que nas lavouras (16, ocorrendo o inverso com relação à abundância onde as espécies Baeacris punctulatus (Thunberg, 1824 e Orphulella punctata (De Geer, 1773 predominaram representando 49,5% do total de indivíduos coletados em toda a Chapada dos Parecis e, juntas, somam 78,8% da abundância registrada nas áreas de lavouras e tem potencial de se tornarem pragas.Grasshoppers (Orthoptera, Acridoidea in native savanna and crop areas in Chapada dos Parecis, Mato Grosso State, Brazil. We determined the composition and abundance of grasshoppers using sweep net sampling during three years at the Parecis Plateau, State of Mato Grosso, Brazil. The survey was done in areas with crops and native vegetation (savanna with, respectively, 56 and 59 sites available in each environment. 3.031 individuals of grasshoppers were collected from 64 species distributed among the following families and subfamilies: Acrididae (49: Gomphocerinae (21, Ommatolampinae (10, Melanoplinae (6, Acridinae (4 Leptysminae (3, Copiocerinae (3, Proctolabinae (1 and Cyrtacanthacridinae (1; Romaleidae (1: Romaleinae

  9. Importance of land use update during the calibration period and simulation of water balance response to land use change in the upper Rio das Mortes Catchment (Cerrado Biome, Central-Western Brazil)

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    Lamparter, Gabriele; Kovacs, Kristof; Nobrega, Rodolfo; Gerold, Gerhard

    2015-04-01

    Changes in the hydrological balance and following degradation of the water ecosystem services due to large scale land use changes are reported from agricultural frontiers all over the world. Traditionally, hydrological models including vegetation and land use as a part of the hydrological cycle use a fixed distribution of land use for the calibration period. We believe that a meaningful calibration - especially when investigating the effects of land use change on hydrology - demands the inclusion of land use change during the calibration period into the calibration procedure. The SWAT (Soil and Water Assessment Tool) model is a process-based, semi-distributed model calculating the different components of the water balance. The model bases on the definition of hydrological response units (HRUs) which are based on soil, vegetation and slope distribution. It specifically emphasises the role of land use and land management on the water balance. The Central-Western region of Brazil is one of the leading agricultural frontiers, which experienced rapid and radical deforestation and agricultural intensification in the last 40 years (from natural Cerrado savannah to cattle grazing to intensive corn and soya cropland). The land use history of the upper Rio das Mortes catchment (with 17500 km²) is reasonably well documented since the 1970th. At the same time there are almost continuous climate and runoff data available for the period between 1988 and 2011. Therefore, the work presented here shows the model calibration and validation of the SWAT model with the land use update function for three different periods (1988 to 1998, 1998 to 2007 and 2007 to 2011) in comparison with the same calibration periods using a steady state land use distribution. The use of the land use update function allows a clearer identification which changes in the discharge are due to climatic variability and which are due to changes in the vegetation cover. With land use update included into the

  10. Absorção de fósforo por híbridos de milho cultivados em solo de cerrado Phosphorus absorption by of corn hybrids grown in savana soils

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    Cristiano Fernandes

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available Nos últimos anos, a região do cerrado tem sido uma das principais áreas de expansão agrícola, porém seus solos apresentam grandes limitações à produção agrícola devido à sua elevada acidez e baixa fertilidade natural, principalmente quanto à disponibilidade de fósforo para as plantas. Este trabalho teve como objetivo comparar 30 híbridos de milho (Zea mays L., recomendados para a região do cerrado, quando a eficiência na absorção do P pouco disponível em solos pobres neste nutriente, através da técnica da Diluição Isotópica de 32P. Foi utilizado um Latossolo Vermelho-Amarelo distrófico sob duas condições de manejo, um cultivado a 20 anos e outro sob vegetação natural. Houve diferença na absorção de P entre os híbridos avaliados em ambos os solos, sendo que no solo natural o acúmulo de P e o desenvolvimento das plantas foi bastante reduzido devido à sua baixa fertilidade. Quanto à eficiência na utilização de P, houve diferença entre os híbridos, sendo que dos 30 híbridos avaliados, 7 foram classificados como eficientes, 16 como medianamente eficientes e 7 ineficientes, quando plantados no solo cultivado há 20 anos.In the past years the savana region has been one of the main agricultural expansion areas, however their soils present high limitation for plant growth due their high acidity, low natural fertility, and low phosphorus availability. The objective of this work was to compare 30 of the main recommended maize (Zea mays L. hybrids for the cerrado region in relation to their ability to absorb poorly-available soil phosphorus through the 32P isotopic dilution technique, using a Typic Dystrarox cultivated for 20 years and another under natural vegetation. Differences in absorption ability were observed among hybrids, seven classified as efficient, sixteen mildly efficient and seven inefficient, for the case of soil cultivated for 20 years. The plant growth and phosphorus concentration in the natural

  11. Indicadores biológicos associados ao ciclo do fósforo em solos de Cerrado sob plantio direto e plantio convencional Soil biological indicators associated to the phosphorus cycle in a Cerrado soil under no-till and conventional tillage systems

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    Roberto Guimarães Carneiro

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a influência do plantio direto, do preparo convencional do solo e de plantas de cobertura sobre indicadores biológicos associados ao ciclo do fósforo (P. O trabalho foi realizado em três áreas adjacentes, num Latossolo Vermelho-Amarelo, distribuídas da seguinte maneira: área I, dois anos de experimentação, comparando esses sistemas de plantio; área II, seis anos de experimentação e área III, Cerrado nativo. Em julho/1998 e janeiro/1999, avaliaram-se: o P da biomassa, populações de fungos e bactérias totais e solubilizadores de fosfato e a atividade da fosfatase ácida, nas profundidades de 0-5 e de 5-20 cm. A atividade da fosfatase e a ocorrência de fungos e bactérias solubilizadoras nas áreas com plantio direto foram significativamente superiores às das áreas com plantio convencional, na profundidade de 0-5 cm. O tempo de implantação acentuou as diferenças entre plantio direto e convencional quanto aos indicadores avaliados. O P da biomassa diminuiu no tratamento plantio direto com nabo forrageiro (Raphanus sativus da área II. Os fungos solubilizadores aumentaram na presença de guandu (Cajanus cajan e nabo forrageiro, e as bactérias solubilizadoras aumentaram na presença de guandu. O solo sob vegetação nativa apresentou maior atividade da fosfatase em relação ao das áreas cultivadas, evidenciando a importância da mineralização do P orgânico nesse ecossis