WorldWideScience

Sample records for cernua characeae chlorophyta

  1. Lycopodium alkaloids from Palhinhaea cernua

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Fu-Wei [Graduate University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing (China); Luo, Ji-Feng; Wang, Yue-Hu, E-mail: wangyuehu@mail.kib.ac.cn [Key Laboratory of Economic Plants and Biotechnology, Kunming Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences (China); Sun, Qian-Yun; Yang, Fu-Mei [Key Laboratory of Chemistry for Natural Products, Guizhou Province and Chinese Academy of Sciences (China); Liu, Fang [College of Landscape and Horticulture, Yunnan Agricultural University (China); Long, Chun-Lin, E-mail: long@mail.kib.ac.cn [College of Life and Environmental Sciences, Minzu University of China, Beijing, (China)

    2012-07-01

    Two new Lycopodium alkaloids, acetyllycoposerramine M and palcernine A were isolated from whole plant extracts of Palhinhaea cernua L. together with ten previously identified compounds. The structures of the new compounds were elucidated by spectroscopic methods and single-crystal X-ray diffraction analyses using the Flack parameter. (author)

  2. Distribution of antiherbivory compounds in Flourensia cernua

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flourensia cernua is serving as a shrub model to study the influence of terpenes on intake by livestock at this location. Two studies (n=20 plants per study) were conducted to examine within plant distribution of volatile compounds to improve sampling protocol. Leaves from 3 positions (outer canopy,...

  3. Nootropic activity of extracts from wild and cultivated Alfredia cernua.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mustafin, R N; Shilova, I V; Suslov, N I; Kuvacheva, N V; Amelchenko, V P

    2011-01-01

    Antihypoxic and nootropic activities of extracts from aerial parts of wild and cultivated Alfredia cernua (L.) Cass. were studied on the models of pressure chamber hypoxia, open field test, and passive avoidance conditioning. The extracts of Alfredia cernua promoted retention of the orientation reflex and passive avoidance conditioned response and normalized orientation and exploratory activities disordered as a result of hypoxic injury. The efficiency of the extracts was superior to that of piracetam by the effect on retention of passive avoidance response throughout the greater part of the experiment. Nootropic activity of cultivated Alfredia cernua was not inferior to that of the wild plant.

  4. Effect of decreasing electrical resistance in Characeae cell membranes caused by the flow of alternating current

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edward Śpiewla

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available By means of the techniques of external electrodes and microelectrodes, it was found that evanescent flow of an alternating current through plasmalemma of Characeae cells neutralises oscillatory change in their electrical resistance and reversibly diminishes its value. This effect is particularly significant in the case of "high resistance cells", but it weakens with increasing temperature. The value of the estimated activation energy indicates that, after flow of the alternating current through the membrane, a rapid increase in the conductivity may be caused by an increase in conductivity of potassium channels. This result seems to support the hypothesis of electroconformational feedback.

  5. Broomrape (Orobanche cernua) control before attachment to host through chemically or biologically manipulating seed germination.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dhanapal, G.N.; Struik, P.C.

    1996-01-01

    Seven series of laboratory and glasshouse experiments were conducted to investigate different methods of testing and studying the effect of several chemicals, root exudates of germinating crop seeds, and their interactions on Orobanche cernua. Compared to experiments in an incubator, better results

  6. Within-plant distribution of volatile compounds on the leaf surface of Flourensia cernua

    Science.gov (United States)

    We are using Flourensia cernua as a shrub model to study the role of terpenes on intake by livestock. Two experiments were conducted to examine distribution of volatile chemicals within a plant in an effort to minimize sample variability. In Exp. 1, leaves (current year's growth) were collected from...

  7. Caribbean fresh and brackish water Chlorophyta

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoek, van den C.

    1959-01-01

    During his zoological collecting trips to the Antilles Dr. P. Wagenaar Hummelinck also gathered several samples of fresh and brackish water algae, which have been presented to the Rijksherbarium, Leiden. The present paper deals with the Chlorophyta of that collection, with the exception of Enteromor

  8. Palhicerines A-F, Lycopodium alkaloids from the club moss Palhinhaea cernua.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Yu; Xiong, Juan; Zou, Yike; Zhang, Hai-Yan; Hu, Jin-Feng

    2016-11-01

    Four fawcettimine-type (palhicerines A-D, resp.) and two lycopodine-type (palhicerines E and F) Lycopodium alkaloids together with twenty known ones were isolated from the whole plant of Palhinhaea cernua. The structures and absolute configurations of the palhicerines A-F were determined by extensive spectroscopic methods, single-crystal X-ray diffraction analyses, chemical transformation, and electronic circular dichroism (ECD) calculations or induced electronic circular dichroism (IECD) spectra. Among the isolates, the new C/D-ring of the palhicerines A-C (trans-fused fawcettimine-type alkaloids) are rare, and each possesses a β-oriented C-16 methyl group and a distinctive tertiary methoxy group at C-13. Chemotaxonomy for differentiating species in the genus Palhinhaea is briefly discussed.

  9. Fermented Flourensia cernua Extracts and Their in vitro Assay Against Penicillium expansum and Fusarium oxysporum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Jasso-Cantu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The antioxidant activity and efficiency of aqueous extracts of fermented tarbush (Fluorensia cernua DC in the inhibition of two phytopathogenic fungi, Penicillium expansum and Fusarium oxysporum, have been evaluated. A solid-state fermentation of tarbush leaves by Aspergillus niger GH1 was performed to enhance the biological activities of the obtained extracts. Fungal culture conditions were: initial moisture of 60 %, pH=5.5 and temperature of 30 °C during 96 h. Aqueous extracts were obtained every 12 hours during the culture time. Antioxidant activity was evaluated by DPPH method. The aqueous extract of fermented tarbush had the highest antioxidant activity at 12 h, which was 63 % higher than the control (unfermented material. Fermentation enhanced the fungicidal effect against both phytopathogenic microorganisms at a concentration of 0.5 g/L. This study demonstrated that fungal fermentation of tarbush increased the biological activities of the aqueous extracts.

  10. Phelipanche cernua Pomel (Orobanchaceae, a prioritary name for the western mediterranean species recently redescribed as Ph. inexpectata [Phelipanche cernua Pomel (Orobanchaceae, un nombre prioritario para la especie del Mediterráneo Occidental recientemente descrita como Ph. inexspectata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Carlón Ruiz

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: The specific parasite of Lactuca (Compositae described in 2005 from the Iberian Peninsula as Phelipanche inexspectata (Orobanchaceae and known so far in northeastern Spain and southern France, is shown to also occur in mountain areas of northern Africa, where it had been previously described under the neglected name Phelipanche cernua. Given the recent proposal to consider the aforementioned Lactuca parasite a mere variant of Phelipanche schultzii, we stress the neat differences between both species. RESUMEN: Phelipanche cernua Pomel (Orobanchaceae, un nombre prioritario para la especie del Mediterráneo Occidental recientemente descrita como Ph. inexspectata. Se dan pruebas de que la parásita específica de Lactuca (Compositae descrita en 2005 de la Península Ibérica como Phelipanche inexspectata (Orobanchaceae, y conocida hasta ahora del noreste de España y el sur de Francia, alcanza las montañas del norte de África, de las que ya había sido descrita bajo el nombre Phelipanche cernua. Dada la reciente afirmación de que dicha parásita de Lactuca es una mera variante de Phelipanche schultzii, recalcamos las netas diferencias entre ambas especies.

  11. Tuluweckelia cernua, a new genus and species of stygobiont amphipod crustacean (Hadziidae) from anchialine caves on the Yucatan Peninsula in Mexico

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Holsinger, John R.

    1990-01-01

    Tuluweckelia cernua, a new genus and species of stygobiont amphipod is described from six anchialine caves near the northeastern coast of the state of Quintana Roo on the Yucatan Peninsula in Mexico. The new genus is closely allied morphologically with Mayaweckelia Holsinger, which is also recorded

  12. Flourensia cernua: Hexane Extracts a Very Active Mycobactericidal Fraction from an Inactive Leaf Decoction against Pansensitive and Panresistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gloria María Molina-Salinas

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The efficacy of decoction in extracting mycobactericidal compounds from Flourensia cernua (Hojasé leaves and fractionation with solvents having ascending polarity was compared with that of (i ethanol extraction by still maceration, extraction with a Soxhlet device, shake-assisted maceration, or ultrasound-assisted maceration, followed by fractionation with n-hexane, ethyl acetate, and n-butanol; (ii sequential extraction with n-hexane, ethyl acetate, and n-butanol, by still maceration, using a Soxhlet device, shake-assisted maceration, or ultrasound-assisted maceration. The in vitro mycobactericidal activity of each preparation was measured against drug-sensitive (SMtb and drug-resistant (RMtb Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains. The results of which were expressed as absolute mycobactericidal activity (AMA. These data were normalized to the ΣAMA of the decoction fraction set. Although decoction was inactive, the anti-RMtb normalized ΣAMA (NAMA of its fractions was comparable with the anti-RMtb NAMA of the still maceration extracts and significantly higher than the anti-SMtb and anti-RMtb NAMAs of every other ethanol extract and serial extract and fraction. Hexane extracted, from decoction, material having 55.17% and 92.62% of antituberculosis activity against SMtb and RMtb, respectively. Although the mycobactericidal activity of decoction is undetectable; its efficacy in extracting F. cernua active metabolites against M. tuberculosis is substantially greater than almost all pharmacognostic methods.

  13. Kinetics and molecular docking studies of cholinesterase inhibitors derived from water layer of Lycopodiella cernua (L.) Pic. Serm. (II).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, Tran Manh; Lee, Joo Sang; Chuong, Nguyen Ngoc; Kim, Jeong Ah; Oh, Sang Ho; Woo, Mi Hee; Choi, Jae Sue; Min, Byung Sun

    2015-10-05

    Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitors increase the availability of acetylcholine in central cholinergic synapses and are the most promising drugs currently available for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Our screening study indicated that the water fraction of the methanolic extract of Lycopodiella cernua (L.) Pic. Serm. significantly inhibited AChE in vitro. Bioassay-guided fractionation led to the isolation of a new lignan glycoside, lycocernuaside A (12), and fourteen known compounds (1-11 and 13-15). Compound 7 exhibited the most potent AChE inhibitory activity with an IC50 value of 0.23 μM. Compound 15 had the most potent inhibitory activity against BChE and BACE1 with IC50 values of 0.62 and 2.16 μM, respectively. Compounds 4 and 7 showed mixed- and competitive-type AChE inhibition. Compound 7 noncompetitively inhibited BChE whereas 15 showed competitive and 8, 13, and 14 showed mixed-type inhibition. The docking results for complexes with AChE or BChE revealed that inhibitors 4, 7, and 15 stably positioned themselves in several pocket/catalytic domains of the AChE and BChE residues.

  14. Anti-amnesic effect of alkaloid fraction from Lycopodiella cernua (L.) Pic. Serm. on scopolamine-induced memory impairment in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuong, Nguyen Ngoc; Trung, Bui Huu; Luan, Tran Cong; Hung, Tran Manh; Dang, Nguyen Hai; Dat, Nguyen Tien

    2014-07-11

    Lycopodiella cernua (L.) Pic. Serm. (Licopodiaceae) has been used in Vietnamese folk medicine for treating central nervous system conditions. In this study, the alkaloid fraction from the methanol extract of this plant (VLC) was evaluated for in vitro acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitory activity in cognition-relevant brain areas of mice. In in vivo study, the cognitive-enhancing effect of VLC on amnesic mice induced by scopolamine was investigated by assessing a passive avoidance and a Morris water maze test. VLC inhibited AChE activity in mouse frontal cortex, hippocampus and striatum with IC50 values of 26.7, 32.2 and 25.7μg/mL, respectively. Administration of VLC (10, 20, 50 and 100mg/kg, p.o.) significantly reversed cognitive impairments in mice by passive avoidance test. Treating with VLC (50mg/kg) reduced escape latencies in training trials and prolonged swimming times in the target quadrant during the probe trial in the water maze task (P<0.05). These results indicated that L. cernua originated from Vietnam has anti-cholinesterase activity and might be useful for the treatment of cognitive impairment.

  15. Surveying Caulerpa (Chlorophyta species along the shores of the eastern Mediterranean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. UKABI

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Caulerpa (Chlorophyta species inhabiting intertidal and shallow subtidal areas along the Israeli Mediterranean shores were surveyed (i.e. presence/absence on a seasonal basis from 2007-2009. We recorded the presence of three speciesC. prolifera, C. mexicana, and C. scalpelliformis. These species were noticeable in autumn and inconspicuous during winter, thus, revealing seasonality and population dynamics. There were no indications of well-known invasive species such as Caulerpa racemosa var.cylindracea and Caulerpa taxifolia. This study is the first of a kind that assesses the geographical distribution and seasonality of the genus Caulerpa along the Israeli shores.

  16. Culturing Selenastrum capricornutum (Chlorophyta) in a synthetic algal nutrient medium with defined mineral particulates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuwabara, J.S.; Davis, J.A.; Chang, Cecily C.Y.

    1985-01-01

    Algal nutrient studies in chemically-defined media typically employ a synthetic chelator to prevent iron hydroxide precipitation. Micronutrient-particulate interactions may, however, significantly affect chemical speciation and hence biovailability of these nutrients in natural waters. A technique is described by which Selenastrum capricornutum Printz (Chlorophyta) may be cultured in a medium where trace metal speciation (except iron) is controlled, not by organic chelation, but by sorption onto titanium dioxide. Application of this culturing protocol in conjunction with results from sorption studies of nutrient ions on mineral particles provides a means of studying biological impacts of sorptive processes in aquatic environments. ?? 1985 Dr W. Junk Publishers.

  17. Surveying Caulerpa (Chlorophyta species along the shores of the eastern Mediterranean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. UKABI

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Caulerpa (Chlorophyta species inhabiting intertidal and shallow subtidal areas along the Israeli Mediterranean shores were surveyed (i.e. presence/absence on a seasonal basis from 2007-2009. We recorded the presence of three speciesC. prolifera, C. mexicana, and C. scalpelliformis. These species were noticeable in autumn and inconspicuous during winter, thus, revealing seasonality and population dynamics. There were no indications of well-known invasive species such as Caulerpa racemosa var.cylindracea and Caulerpa taxifolia. This study is the first of a kind that assesses the geographical distribution and seasonality of the genus Caulerpa along the Israeli shores.

  18. A new record from China of epiphytic marine algae,Acrochaete leptochaete (Chaetophoraceae, Chlorophyta)with its primary experimental biology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DENG Yunyan; TANG Xiaorong; DING Lanping; LIAN Shaoxing

    2011-01-01

    Acrochaete leptochaete, a species in Chaetophoraceae (Chlorophyta), was observed during our recent laboratory culture of the macroalgae Chaetomorpha that was originally collected from an intertidal pool in gongcheng, Shandong Province, China. This is the first record of this species in China. Its morphology, taxonomy, and distribution were introduced and discussed in detail. Isolated culture experiments at different temperatures (9-29℃) and light intensities knowledge of growth morphology and general biology of the species.

  19. Copper mine tailing disposal in northern Chile rocky shores: Enteromorpha compressa (Chlorophyta) as a sentinel species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castilla, J C

    1996-04-01

    The study assesses the ecological impact caused by the El Salvador untreated (1975-1990) and treated (1991-1994) copper mine tailings on rocky intertidal communities in and around the dumping site at Caleta Palito, northern Chile. Ecological changes are monitored for 16 years in polluted and unpolluted sites within a geographical area of 90 km. Copper concentration levels in water and the intertidal Chlorophyta E. compressa are presented. The results confirm a notorious reduction in the number of species and significant differences between polluted and unpolluted intertidal communities. At polluted sites, following the initiation of the disposal, all species of invertebrates and algae disappeared and primary space (rock) was partially or completely dominated by E. compressa along more than a decade. Its persistence in these sites supports the view that this taxon is a sentinel species resisting high levels of copper pollution. During the past four years, following the steps given to treat the tailings, at polluted sites there are preliminary indications showing increases in the number of species of algae and invertebrate. The need for future monitoring to elucidate ecosystem restoration processes is discussed.

  20. Molecular identification and culture observation on Acrochaete leptochaete (Chaetophoraceae, Chlorophyta) from China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Yunyan; Tang, Xiaorong; Huang, Bingxin; Teng, Linhong; Ding, Lanping

    2012-05-01

    Acrochaete leptochaete (Huber) Nielsen (Chaetophoraceae, Chlorophyta) was isolated from the macroalgae Chaetomorpha collected from intertidal pools in Rongcheng, Shandong, China. 18S rDNA combined with ITS regions were used to ascertain the morphological identification of the isolated material. Based on the unialgal culture, asexual reproduction and growth characteristics of A. leptochaete were investigated over wide ranges of temperature and irradiance. Results revealed that asexual reproduction of A. leptochaete could be realized by biflagellate zoospores. The zoospores germinated directly to give self-replicating generations. Zoospore germination was bipolar. A temperature range from 13-21°C and a lower irradiance of 36 μmol/(m2·s) were most favorable for the growth of A. leptochaete. Thallus organization, an important taxonomic criterion for the genus Acrochaete, was affected markedly by temperature and irradiance. Our results extend the knowledge about the species' general biology and its morphological plasticity. For classification and identification of a simple microphytic algae like A. leptochaete, which are traditionally placed in the class Chaetophoraceae, we propose that molecular tools associated with culture observations are applied.

  1. Three novel species of coccoid green algae within the Watanabea clade (Trebouxiophyceae, Chlorophyta).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Huiyin; Hu, Yuxin; Zhu, Huan; Wang, Qinghua; Liu, Guoxiang; Hu, Zhengyu

    2016-12-01

    Coccoid green algae are extremely diverse despite their simple coccoid phenotype, a phenotype that may be the result of convergent evolution. In this study, we used a polyphasic approach combining molecular phylogenetic analyses, morphology and ultrastructure to investigate isolated coccoid strains from China, and our results reveal three new lineages of Trebouxiophyceae: the novel genus and species Mysteriochloris nanningensis gen. et sp. nov., and the two novel species Phyllosiphon coccidium sp. nov. and Desertella yichangensis sp. nov. (Trebouxiophyceae, Chlorophyta). We provide a detailed characterization of the novel microalgae which they are autosporic coccoid unicells and have parietal chloroplasts. In phylogenies based on 18S rDNA sequences and the chloroplast ribulose-bisphosphate carboxylase gene (rbcL), these three algae are nested within the Watanabea clade and are different from any known algae. M. nanningensis FACHB-1787 is not really close to any known algae within the Watanabea clade. Phyllosiphoncoccidium FACHB-2212 is within the Phyllosiphon lineages. D. yichangensis FACHB-1793 is closely related to Desertella californica and described as a representative of a novel species of the genus Desertella.

  2. Detection of Genetic Variations in Marine Algae Ulva lactuca (Chlorophyta Induced by Heavy Metal Pollutants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Basel Saleh

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Ulva lactuca (Chlorophyta green macroalgae has been successfully used as bioindicator for heavy metals pollution in ecosystems. Random amplified microsatellite polymorphism (RAMP marker was employed to investigate genetic DNA pattern variability in green U. lactuca 5 days after exposure to Cu, Pb, Cd and Zn heavy metals stress. Genomic template stability (GTS% value was employed as a qualitative DNA changes measurement based on RAMP technique. In this respect, estimated GTS% value was recorded to be 65.215, 64.630, 59.835 and 59.250% for Pb, Cu, Cd and Zn treatment, respectively. Moreover, genetic similarity (GS induced by the above heavy metals was also evaluated to measure genetic distance between algae treated plants and their respective control. In this respect, estimated GS values generated by RAMP marker ranged between 0.576 (between control and Zn treatment - 0.969 (for both case; between Pb and Cu and between Cd and Zn treatment with an average of 0.842. Based upon data presented herein based on variant bands number (VB, GTS% and GS values; the present study could be suggested that Pb and Cu followed similar tendency at genomic DNA changes. Similar finding was also observed with Cd and Zn ions. Thereby, RAMP marker successfully highlighted DNA change patterns induced by heavy metals stress.

  3. Desiccation induces accumulations of antheraxanthin and zeaxanthin in intertidal macro-alga Ulva pertusa (Chlorophyta.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiujun Xie

    Full Text Available For plants and algae, exposure to high light levels is deleterious to their photosynthetic machineries. It also can accelerate water evaporation and thus potentially lead to drought stress. Most photosynthetic organisms protect themselves against high light caused photodamages by xanthophyll cycle-dependent thermal energy dissipation. It is generally accepted that high light activates xanthophyll cycle. However, the relationship between xanthophyll cycle and drought stress remains ambiguous. Herein, Ulva pertusa (Chlorophyta, a representative perennial intertidal macro-algae species with high drought-tolerant capabilities and simple structures, was used to investigate the operation of xanthophyll cycle during desiccation in air. The results indicate that desiccation under dim light induced accumulation of antheraxanthin (Ax and zeaxanthin (Zx at the expense of violaxanthin (Vx. This accumulation could be arrested by dithiothreitol completely and by uncoupler (carbonyl cyanide p-trifluoromethoxyphenylhydrazone partially, implying the participation of Vx de-epoxidase in conversion of Vx to Ax and Zx. Treatment with inhibitors of electron transport along thylakoid membrane, e.g. DCMU, PG and DBMIB, did not significantly arrest desiccation-induced accumulation of Ax and Zx. We propose that for U. pertusa, besides excess light, desiccation itself could also induce accumulation of Ax and Zx. This accumulation could proceed without electron transport along thylakoid membrane, and is possibly resulting from the reduction of thylakoid lumen volume during desiccation. Considering the pleiotropic effects of Ax and Zx, accumulated Ax and Zx may function in protecting thylakoid membrane and enhancing thermal quenching during emersion in air.

  4. Molecular identification and culture observation on Acrochaete leptochaete (Chaetophoraceae, Chlorophyta)from China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DENG Yunyan; TANG Xiaorong; HUANG Bingxin; TENG Linhong; DING Lanping

    2012-01-01

    Acrochaete leptochaete (Huber) Nielsen (Chaetophoraceae,Chlorophyta) was isolated from the macroalgae Chaetomorpha collected from intertidal pools in Rongcheng,Shandong,China.18S rDNA combined with ITS regions were used to ascertain the morphological identification of the isolated material.Based on the unialgal culture,asexual reproduction and growth characteristics of A.leptochaete were investigated over wide ranges of temperature and irradiance.Results revealed that asexual reproduction of A.leptochaete could be realized by biflagellate zoospores.The zoospores germinated directly to give selfreplicating generations.Zoospore germination was bipolar.A temperature range from 1 3-21 ℃ and a lower irradiance of 36 μmol/(m2·s) were most favorable for the growth ofA.leptochaete.Thallus organization,an important taxonomic criterion for the genus Acrochaete,was affected markedly by temperature and irradiance.Our results extend the knowledge about the species' general biology and its morphological plasticity.For classification and identification of a simple microphytic algae like A.leptochaete,which are traditionally placed in the class Chaetophoraceae,we propose that molecular tools associated with culture observations are applied.

  5. Gene arrangement convergence, diverse intron content, and genetic code modifications in mitochondrial genomes of sphaeropleales (chlorophyta).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fučíková, Karolina; Lewis, Paul O; González-Halphen, Diego; Lewis, Louise A

    2014-08-08

    The majority of our knowledge about mitochondrial genomes of Viridiplantae comes from land plants, but much less is known about their green algal relatives. In the green algal order Sphaeropleales (Chlorophyta), only one representative mitochondrial genome is currently available-that of Acutodesmus obliquus. Our study adds nine completely sequenced and three partially sequenced mitochondrial genomes spanning the phylogenetic diversity of Sphaeropleales. We show not only a size range of 25-53 kb and variation in intron content (0-11) and gene order but also conservation of 13 core respiratory genes and fragmented ribosomal RNA genes. We also report an unusual case of gene arrangement convergence in Neochloris aquatica, where the two rns fragments were secondarily placed in close proximity. Finally, we report the unprecedented usage of UCG as stop codon in Pseudomuriella schumacherensis. In addition, phylogenetic analyses of the mitochondrial protein-coding genes yield a fully resolved, well-supported phylogeny, showing promise for addressing systematic challenges in green algae. © The Author(s) 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution.

  6. First record of Caulerpa cylindracea (Caulerpaceae, Chlorophyta in Andalusia (Southern Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Altamirano, María

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Three different species of Caulerpa (Caulerpaceae, Chlorophyta co-occur in the Mediterranean Sea: two of them are found at the central-eastern basin and are typically considered non aggressive components of the Lessepsian flora [(C. chemnitzia(Esper J.V. Lamouroux and C. racemosa var. lamourouxii (Turner Weber-van Bosse f. requienii(Montagne Weber van Bosse]; a third taxon, C. cylindracea Sonder has aggressively expanded its range since its first observation in 1990, and it is nowadays reported from nearly all the Mediterranean countries. We report a population of C. cylindracea from Almería (Andalusia, Southern Iberian Peninsula at −30 m depth as to be the westernmost record of the invasive variety on the Mediterranean European coast. Therefore, we made use of morphological description and molecular phylogenetics to provide a complete identification of this invasive seaweed in Southern Spain. Our findings are discussed in light of the composition of the receptor communities, such as maërl bed, edges of Posidonia oceanica (Linnaeus Delile, and their ecology. Our results confirmed the suggested directionality of the invasive pathway to be westward to the Strait of Gibraltar, mainly supported by sea currents and vectors of anthropogenic origin.En el Mar Mediterráneo se encuentran tres especies diferentes de Caulerpa (Caulerpaceae, Chlorophyta: dos de ellas se localizan en la cuenca centro oriental y se consideran componentes no agresivos de la flora Lessepsiana (C. chemnitzia(Esper J.V. Lamouroux and C. racemosa var. lamourouxii (Turner Weber-van Bosse f. requienii(Montagne Weber van Bosse; un tercer taxon, C. cylindracea Sonder ha expandido de manera agresiva su rango de distribución desde su primera observación en 1990, y actualmente se registra en casi todos los países de la cuenca mediterránea. En este trabajo se informa sobre una población de C. cylindracea en Almería (Andalucía, Sur de España, a −30 m de profundidad, que

  7. DEEP DIVISION IN THE CHLOROPHYCEAE (CHLOROPHYTA) REVEALED BY CHLOROPLAST PHYLOGENOMIC ANALYSES(1).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turmel, Monique; Brouard, Jean-Simon; Gagnon, Cédric; Otis, Christian; Lemieux, Claude

    2008-06-01

    The Chlorophyceae (sensu Mattox and Stewart) is a morphologically diverse class of the Chlorophyta displaying biflagellate and quadriflagellate motile cells with varying configurations of the flagellar apparatus. Phylogenetic analyses of 18S rDNA data and combined 18S and 26S rDNA data from a broad range of chlorophycean taxa uncovered five major monophyletic groups (Chlamydomonadales, Sphaeropleales, Oedogoniales, Chaetophorales, and Chaetopeltidales) but could not resolve their branching order. To gain insight into the interrelationships of these groups, we analyzed multiple genes encoded by the chloroplast genomes of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii P. A. Dang. and Chlamydomonas moewusii Gerloff (Chlamydomonadales), Scenedesmus obliquus (Turpin) Kütz. (Sphaeropleales), Oedogonium cardiacum Wittr. (Oedogoniales), Stigeoclonium helveticum Vischer (Chaetophorales), and Floydiella terrestris (Groover et Hofstetter) Friedl et O'Kelly (Chaetopeltidales). The C. moewusii, Oedogonium, and Floydiella chloroplast DNAs were partly sequenced using a random strategy. Trees were reconstructed from nucleotide and amino acid data sets derived from 44 protein-coding genes of 11 chlorophytes and nine streptophytes as well as from 57 protein-coding genes of the six chlorophycean taxa. All best trees identified two robustly supported major lineages within the Chlorophyceae: a clade uniting the Chlamydomonadales and Sphaeropleales, and a clade uniting the Oedogoniales, Chaetophorales, and Chaetopeltidales (OCC clade). This dichotomy is independently supported by molecular signatures in chloroplast genes, such as insertions/deletions and the distribution of trans-spliced group II introns. Within the OCC clade, the sister relationship observed for the Chaetophorales and Chaetopeltidales is also strengthened by independent data. Character state reconstruction of basal body orientation allowed us to refine hypotheses regarding the evolution of the flagellar apparatus.

  8. Chloroplast gene arrangement variation within a closely related group of green algae (Trebouxiophyceae, Chlorophyta).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Letsch, Molly R; Lewis, Louise A

    2012-09-01

    The 22 published chloroplast genomes of green algae, representing sparse taxonomic sampling of diverse lineages that span over one billion years of evolution, each possess a unique gene arrangement. In contrast, many of the >190 published embryophyte (land plant) chloroplast genomes have relatively conserved architectures. To determine the phylogenetic depth at which chloroplast gene rearrangements occur in green algae, a 1.5-4 kb segment of the chloroplast genome was compared across nine species in three closely related genera of Trebouxiophyceae (Chlorophyta). In total, four distinct gene arrangements were obtained for the three genera Elliptochloris, Hemichloris, and Coccomyxa. In Elliptochloris, three distinct chloroplast gene arrangements were detected, one of which is shared with members of its sister genus Hemichloris. Both species of Coccomyxa examined share the fourth arrangement of this genome region, one characterized by very long spacers. Next, the order of genes found in this segment of the chloroplast genome was compared across green algae and land plants. As taxonomic ranks are not equivalent among different groups of organisms, the maximum molecular divergence among taxa sharing a common gene arrangement in this genome segment was compared. Well-supported clades possessing a single gene order had similar phylogenetic depth in green algae and embryophytes. When the dominant gene order of this chloroplast segment in embryophytes was assumed to be ancestral for land plants, the maximum molecular divergence was found to be over two times greater in embryophytes than in trebouxiophyte green algae. This study greatly expands information about chloroplast genome variation in green algae, is the first to demonstrate such variation among congeneric green algae, and further illustrates the fluidity of green algal chloroplast genome architecture in comparison to that of many embryophytes.

  9. Copper-induced synthesis of ascorbate, glutathione and phytochelatins in the marine alga Ulva compressa (Chlorophyta).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mellado, Macarena; Contreras, Rodrigo A; González, Alberto; Dennett, Geraldine; Moenne, Alejandra

    2012-02-01

    In order to analyze the synthesis of antioxidant and heavy metal-chelating compounds in response to copper stress, the marine alga Ulva compressa (Chlorophyta) was exposed to 10 μM copper for 7 days and treated with inhibitors of ASC synthesis, lycorine, and GSH synthesis, buthionine sulfoximine (BSO). The levels of ascorbate, in its reduced (ASC) and oxidized (DHA) forms, glutathione, in its reduced (GSH) and oxidized (GSSG) forms, and phytochelatins (PCs) were determined as well as activities of enzymes involved in ASC synthesis, L-galactose dehydrogenase (GDH) and L-galactono 1,4 lactone dehydrogenase (GLDH), and in GSH synthesis, γ-glutamylcysteine synthase (γ-GCS) and glutathione synthase (GS). The level of ASC rapidly decreased to reach a minimum at day 1 that remained low until day 7, DHA decreased until day 1 but slowly increased up to day 7 and its accumulation was inhibited by lycorine. In addition, GSH level increased to reach a maximal level at day 5 and GSSG increased up to day 7 and their accumulation was inhibited by BSO. Activities of GDH and GLDH increased until day 7 and GLDH was inhibited by lycorine. Moreover, activities of γ-GCS and GS increased until day 7 and γ-GCS was inhibited by BSO. Furthermore, PC2, PC3 and PC4, increased until day 7 and their accumulation was inhibited by BSO. Thus, copper induced the synthesis of ascorbate, glutathione and PCs in U. compressa suggesting that these compounds are involved in copper tolerance. Interestingly, U. compressa is, until now, the only ulvophyte showing ASC, GSH and PCs synthesis in response to copper excess.

  10. Effect of Nutrient Starvation under High Irradiance on Lipid and Starch Accumulation in Chlorella fusca (Chlorophyta).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jerez, Celia G; Malapascua, José R; Sergejevová, Magda; Figueroa, Félix L; Masojídek

    2016-02-01

    The effect of nitrogen and sulphur limitation under high irradiance (PAR) was studied in the green microalga Chlorella fusca (Chlorophyta) in order to follow lipid and/or starch accumulation. Growth, biomass composition and the changes in photosynthetic activity (in vivo chlorophyll a fluorescence) were followed in the trials. The full nutrient culture showed high biomass production and starch accumulation at Day 1, when photosynthetic activity was high. Gradual deprivation (no nutrients added) became evident when photosynthesis was significantly suppressed (Day 3 onwards), which entailed a decrease of maximum relative electron transport rate (rETRmax) and increase of non-photochemical quenching (NPQ), accompanied by the onset of lipid accumulation and decline in starch content. In N- and S-starved cultures, rETRmax significantly decreased by Day 3, which caused a substantial drop in biomass production, cell number, biovolume and induction of lipid and starch accumulation. High starch content (45-50 % of DW) was found at the initial stage in full nutrient culture and at the stationary phase in nutrient-starved cultures. By the end of the trial, all treatments showed high lipid content (~30 % of DW). The full nutrient culture had higher biomass yield than starved treatments although starch (~0.2 g L(-1) day(-1)) and lipid (~0.15 g L(-1) day(-1) productivities were fairly similar in all the cultures. Our results showed that we could enrich biomass of C. fusca (% DW) in lipids using a two-stage strategy (a nutrient replete stage followed by gradual nutrient limitation) while under either procedure, N- or S-starvation, both high lipid and starch contents could be achieved.

  11. The complete chloroplast and mitochondrial genomes of the green macroalga Ulva sp. UNA00071828 (Ulvophyceae, Chlorophyta.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James T Melton

    Full Text Available Sequencing mitochondrial and chloroplast genomes has become an integral part in understanding the genomic machinery and the phylogenetic histories of green algae. Previously, only three chloroplast genomes (Oltmannsiellopsis viridis, Pseudendoclonium akinetum, and Bryopsis hypnoides and two mitochondrial genomes (O. viridis and P. akinetum from the class Ulvophyceae have been published. Here, we present the first chloroplast and mitochondrial genomes from the ecologically and economically important marine, green algal genus Ulva. The chloroplast genome of Ulva sp. was 99,983 bp in a circular-mapping molecule that lacked inverted repeats, and thus far, was the smallest ulvophycean plastid genome. This cpDNA was a highly compact, AT-rich genome that contained a total of 102 identified genes (71 protein-coding genes, 28 tRNA genes, and three ribosomal RNA genes. Additionally, five introns were annotated in four genes: atpA (1, petB (1, psbB (2, and rrl (1. The circular-mapping mitochondrial genome of Ulva sp. was 73,493 bp and follows the expanded pattern also seen in other ulvophyceans and trebouxiophyceans. The Ulva sp. mtDNA contained 29 protein-coding genes, 25 tRNA genes, and two rRNA genes for a total of 56 identifiable genes. Ten introns were annotated in this mtDNA: cox1 (4, atp1 (1, nad3 (1, nad5 (1, and rrs (3. Double-cut-and-join (DCJ values showed that organellar genomes across Chlorophyta are highly rearranged, in contrast to the highly conserved organellar genomes of the red algae (Rhodophyta. A phylogenomic investigation of 51 plastid protein-coding genes showed that Ulvophyceae is not monophyletic, and also placed Oltmannsiellopsis (Oltmannsiellopsidales and Tetraselmis (Chlorodendrophyceae closely to Ulva (Ulvales and Pseudendoclonium (Ulothrichales.

  12. Responses of the Microalga Chlorophyta sp. to Bacterial Quorum Sensing Molecules (N-Acylhomoserine Lactones): Aromatic Protein-Induced Self-Aggregation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Dandan; Zhang, Chaofan; Fu, Liang; Xu, Liang; Cui, Xiaochun; Li, Qingcheng; Crittenden, John C

    2017-03-21

    Bacteria and microalgae often coexist during the recycling of microalgal bioresources in wastewater treatment processes. Although the bacteria may compete with the microalgae for nutrients, they could also facilitate microalgal harvesting by forming algal-bacterial aggregates. However, very little is known about interspecies interactions between bacteria and microalgae. In this study, we investigated the responses of a model microalga, Chlorophyta sp., to the typical quorum sensing (QS) molecules N-acylhomoserine lactones (AHLs) extracted from activated sludge bacteria. Chlorophyta sp. self-aggregated in 200 μm bioflocs by secreting 460-1000 kDa aromatic proteins upon interacting with AHLs, and the settling efficiency of Chlorophyta sp. reached as high as 41%. However, Chlorophyta sp. cells were essentially in a free suspension in the absence of AHLs. Fluorescence intensity of the aromatic proteins had significant (P microalga. Transcriptome results further revealed up-regulation of synthesis pathways for aromatic proteins from tyrosine and phenylalanine that was assisted by anthranilate accumulation. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to confirm that eukaryotic microorganisms can sense and respond to prokaryotic QS molecules.

  13. CHARACTERIZATION OF CELL WALL POLYSACCHARIDES OF THE COENCOCYTIC GREEN SEAWEED BRYOPSIS PLUMOSA (BRYOPSIDACEAE, CHLOROPHYTA) FROM THE ARGENTINE COAST(1).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciancia, Marina; Alberghina, Josefina; Arata, Paula Ximena; Benavides, Hugo; Leliaert, Frederik; Verbruggen, Heroen; Estevez, Jose Manuel

    2012-04-01

    Bryopsis sp. from a restricted area of the rocky shore of Mar del Plata (Argentina) on the Atlantic coast was identified as Bryopsis plumosa (Hudson) C. Agardh (Bryopsidales, Chlorophyta) based on morphological characters and rbcL and tufA DNA barcodes. To analyze the cell wall polysaccharides of this seaweed, the major room temperature (B1) and 90°C (X1) water extracts were studied. By linkage analysis and NMR spectroscopy, the structure of a sulfated galactan was determined, and putative sulfated rhamnan structures and furanosidic nonsulfated arabinan structures were also found. By anion exchange chromatography of X1, a fraction (F4), comprising a sulfated galactan as major structure was isolated. Structural analysis showed a linear backbone constituted of 3-linked β-d-galactose units, partially sulfated on C-6 and partially substituted with pyruvic acid forming an acetal linked to O-4 and O-6. This galactan has common structural features with those of green seaweeds of the genus Codium (Bryopsidales, Chlorophyta), but some important differences were also found. This is the first report about the structure of the water-soluble polysaccharides biosynthesized by seaweeds of the genus Bryopsis. These sulfated galactans and rhamnans were in situ localized mostly in two layers, one close to the plasma membrane and the other close to the apoplast, leaving a middle amorphous, unstained cell wall zone. In addition, fibrillar polysaccharides, comprising (1→3)-β-d-xylans and cellulose, were obtained by treatment of the residue from the water extractions with an LiCl/DMSO solution at high temperature. These polymers were also localized in a bilayer arrangement.

  14. New records of the Chlorophyta from South Africa, with the emphasis on the marine benthic flora of KwaZulu-Natal

    OpenAIRE

    Leliaert, F.; O. De Clerck; Bolton, J. J.; Coppejans, E.

    2001-01-01

    Eleven species of marine Chlorophyta that have not previously been reported for South Africa have been found on the coast of Kwazulu-Natal: Avrainvillea cf. riukiuensis Yamada; Boodleopsis pusilia (Collins) W.R. Taylor, Joly & Bernatowicz; Bornetelia nitida Sonder; Caulerpa serrulata (Forsskál) J. Aqardh; C. taxifolia (Vabi) C.Aqardh; Chaetomorpha spiralis Okamura; Cladopharopsis sundanensis Reinhold; Halimeda gracilis Harvey ex J. Agardh; Neomeris annulata Dickie; Neomeris bilimbata Koster; ...

  15. Atividade antioxidante in vitro de extratos de algumas algas verdes (Chlorophyta do litoral catarinense (Brasil Antioxidant in vitro activity of extracts of some green seaweed (Chlorophyta from southern Brazilian coast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa dos Santos Raymundo

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available O efeito antioxidante de quatro espécies de algas marinhas do filo Chlorophyta (Codium decorticatum, Enteromorpha intestinalis, Ulva fasciata e Chaetomorpha anteninna foi avaliado através da inibição da peroxidação do ácido linoléico em emulsão. Os extratos etéreos e metanólicos, na concentração de 0,01%, foram obtidos por extração seqüencial das biomassas secas. As espécies mais efetivas sobre a peroxidação lipídica foram Enteromorpha intestinalis e Chaetomorpha anteninna, com porcentagens de inibição acima de 70%. A habilidade dos extratos metanólicos para seqüestrar o peróxido de hidrogênio foi avaliada, obtendo-se valores médios para porcentagens de captura entre 1,26% e 20,01%. Além disto, quantificaram-se os teores de clorofila a, carotenóides totais e compostos fenólicos totais nas biomassas algais. Os resultados indicam que as algas verdes estudadas são uma fonte promissora de compostos biologicamente ativos com propriedades antioxidantes.The antioxidant activity of four species of green seaweeds of the phylo Chlorophyta (Codium decorticatum, Enteromorpha intestinalis, Ulva fasciata and Chaetomorpha anteninna collected at the seacoast of the State of Santa Catarina, Brazil, was evaluated by means of the inhibition of peroxidation of linoleic acid converted into emulsion. Both ethereal and methanolic extracts were obtained from dried biomasses by sequential extraction procedures in concentrations of 0.01%. The most efficient species towards lipid peroxidation were E. intestinalis and C. anteninna with inhibition yields above 70% .The capacity of methanolic extracts to quench hydrogen peroxide was also estimated. Mean values varied from 1.26 to 20.01%. Chlorophylls a, total carotenoids and phenolic compounds were also quantified in the biomasses. Results indicated that studied green seaweeds are a very promising source of biologically active compounds with antioxidant properties.

  16. The appearance of Ulva laetevirens (Ulvophyceae, Chlorophyta) in the northeast coast of the United States of America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Yunxiang; Kim, Jang Kyun; Wilson, Roderick; Yarish, Charles

    2014-10-01

    Introduced species may outcompete or hybridize with native species, resulting in the loss of native biodiversity or even alteration of ecosystem processes. In this study, we reported an alien distromatic Ulva species, which was found in an embayment (Holly Pond) connected with Long Island Sound, USA. The morphological and anatomical observations in combination with molecular data were used for its identification to species. Anatomy of collected specimens showed that the cell shape in rhizoidal and basal regions was round and the marginal teeth along the basal and median region were not found. These characteristics were primarily identical to the diagnostic characteristics of Ulva laetevirens Areschoug (Chlorophyta). The plastid-encoding tufA and nucleusencoding ITS1 were used for its molecular identification. Phylogenetic analysis for the tufA gene placed the specimens from Holly Pond in a well-supported clade along with published sequences of U. laetevirens identified early without any sequence divergence. In ITS tree, the sample also formed well-supported clades with the sequences of U. laetevirens with an estimated sequence divergence among the taxa in these clades as low as 1%. These findings confirmed the morpho-anatomical conclusion. Native to Australia, this species was reported in several countries along the Mediterranean coast after the late of 1990s. This is the first time that U. laetevirens is found in the northeast coast of United States and the second record for Atlantic North America.

  17. Prevalence and mechanism of polyunsaturated aldehydes production in the green tide forming macroalgal genus Ulva (Ulvales, Chlorophyta).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsufyani, Taghreed; Engelen, Aschwin H; Diekmann, Onno E; Kuegler, Stefan; Wichard, Thomas

    2014-10-01

    Lipoxygenase/hydroperoxide lyase mediated transformations convert polyunsaturated fatty acids into various oxylipins. First, lipoxygenases catalyze fatty acid oxidation to fatty acid hydroperoxides. Subsequently, breakdown reactions result in a wide array of metabolites with multiple physiological and ecological functions. These fatty acid transformations are highly diverse in marine algae and play a crucial rule in e.g., signaling, chemical defense, and stress response often mediated through polyunsaturated aldehydes (PUAs). In this study, green tide-forming macroalgae of the genius Ulva (Chlorophyta) were collected at various sampling sites in the lagoon of the Ria Formosa (Portugal) and were surveyed for PUAs. We demonstrated that sea-lettuce like but not tube-like morphotypes produce elevated amounts of volatile C10-polyunsaturated aldehydes (2,4,7-decatrienal and 2,4-decadienal) upon tissue damage. Moreover, morphogenetic and phylogenetic analyses of the collected Ulva species revealed chemotaxonomic significance of the perspective biosynthetic pathways. The aldehydes are derived from omega-3 and omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) with 20 or 18 carbon atoms including eicosapentaenoic acid (C20:5 n-3), arachidonic acid (C20:4 n-6), stearidonic acid (C18:4 n-3), and γ-linolenic acid (C18:3 n-6). We present first evidences that lipoxygenase-mediated (11-LOX and 9-LOX) eicosanoid and octadecanoid pathways catalyze the transformation of C20- and C18-polyunsaturated fatty acids into PUAs and concomitantly into short chain hydroxylated fatty acids.

  18. [Benthic flora and reproduction of Batophora spp. algae (Chlorophyta: Dasycladaceae) in a polluted coastal lagoon (Chetumal Bay, Mexico)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quan-Young, L I; Jiménez-Flores, S G; Espinoza-Avalos, J

    2006-06-01

    The benthic flora, and the vegetative and reproductive characters of the algae Batophora oerstedii and B. occidentalis (Chlorophyta) were recorded from five sites of Chetumal Bay, Quintana Roo, Mexico. A sewage gradient has been reported along those sites. Plants were sampled in May and October 1999, which corresponded to dry and rainy seasons, respectively. Forty taxa were found, 11 are new records for the Chetumal Bay, and 6 are new records for the Mexican Caribbean. Enteromorpha species were present in sites known as rich in organic matter (both from anthropogenic and natural sources). Batophora spp. is the dominant algae in all Chetumal Bay. However, it was absent next to sewage outfalls. The morphological characters of B. oerstedii and B. occidentalis did not change significantly along the sites reported as polluted. The length and width of gametophores, as well as the diameter of the gametangia were clearly different for both species. Different reproductive strategies may help B. oerstedii and B. occidentalis to closely coexist in the Chetumal Bay.

  19. Extra and intracelular activities of carbonic anhydrase of the marine microalga Tetraselmis gracilis (Chlorophyta Atividade extra e intracelular da Anidrase Carbônica na microalga marinha Tetraselmis gracilis (Chlorophyta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marilda Rigobello-Masini

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available The activities of extra and intracellular carbonic anhydrases (CA were studied in the microalgae Tetraselmis gracilis (Kylin Butcher (Chlorophyta, Prasinophyceae growing in laboratory cultivation. During ten days of batch cultivation, daily determinations of pH, cell number, enzymatic activity, and total dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC, as well as its main species, CO2 and HCO3-, were performed. Enzymatic activity increased as the growing cell population depleted inorganic carbon from the medium. Carbon dioxide concentration decreased quickly, especially in the third day of cultivation, when a significant increase of the intracellular enzymatic activity was observed. Bicarbonate concentration had its largest decrease in the cultivation medium in the fourth day, when the activity of the extracellular enzyme had its largest increase, suggesting its use by the alga through CA activity. After the fourth cultivation day, half of the cultures were aerated with CO2-free atmospheric air, which caused an increase in the total and external activity of the enzyme, although, in this condition, the stationary growth phase began earlier than in cultures aerated with atmospheric air. The pH of the media was measured daily, increasing from the first to the fourth day, and remaining almost constant until the end of the cultivation. Algal material transferred to the dark lost all enzymatic activity.As atividades da Anidrase Carbônica (AC extra e intracelular foram estudadas na microalga marinha Tetraselmis gracilis (Kylin Butcher (Chlorophyta, Prasinophyceae crescendo em cultivos laboratoriais. Durante dez dias de cultivo, determinações diárias do pH, número de células, atividades enzimáticas, carbono inorgânico total dissolvido (CID e suas principais espécies CO2 e HCO3- foram feitas. A atividade enzimática aumentou na medida em que a população celular em crescimento retirava carbono inorgânico do meio de cultivo. A concentração de dióxido de

  20. Componentes químicos y biomasa de Ulva fasciata (Chlorophyta) en la costa Norte de la Ciudad de La Habana, Cuba

    OpenAIRE

    Mercedes Cano Mallo; Jhoana Díaz Larrea; Olga Valdés Iglesias; Isabel Bustio

    2007-01-01

    El objetivo de este trabajo fue determinar el porcentaje de los componentes químicos (proteínas, carbohidratos, fibra, lípidos, cenizas y la relación proteína:carbohidratos) y la biomasa de Ulva fasciata Delile (Chlorophyta), en un sector de la costa Norte de la Ciudad de La Habana entre los ríos Quibú y Jaimanitas. Se evaluó la variación espacial y temporal de los componentes entre mayo de 1998 y julio de 1999 y la biomasa entre febrero de 1999 y enero del 2001. Se escogieron para realizar l...

  1. 中国气生绿藻的新纪录属——细链藻属(Leptosira)%Leptosira, A Newly Recorded Genus of Aerial Chlorophyta in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘耘彤; 尤庆敏; 王全喜

    2011-01-01

    During the study of epiphytic algae on a tree in Shanghai,Leptosira Borzi 1883,a new recorded genus of aerial Chlorophyta in China was observed. Taxonomic characters and habitat features of this genus and species are described.%在对上海市树附生藻类的调查中,发现了我国一气生绿藻新纪录属——细链藻属Leptosira Borzi 1883.对该属及该属的一个新纪录种的主要形态学特征及生境特征进行了详细描述.

  2. Lineage-specific fragmentation and nuclear relocation of the mitochondrial cox2 gene in chlorophycean green algae (Chlorophyta).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Salinas, Elizabeth; Riveros-Rosas, Héctor; Li, Zhongkui; Fucíková, Karolina; Brand, Jerry J; Lewis, Louise A; González-Halphen, Diego

    2012-07-01

    In most eukaryotes the subunit 2 of cytochrome c oxidase (COX2) is encoded in intact mitochondrial genes. Some green algae, however, exhibit split cox2 genes (cox2a and cox2b) encoding two polypeptides (COX2A and COX2B) that form a heterodimeric COX2 subunit. Here, we analyzed the distribution of intact and split cox2 gene sequences in 39 phylogenetically diverse green algae in phylum Chlorophyta obtained from databases (28 sequences from 22 taxa) and from new cox2 data generated in this work (23 sequences from 18 taxa). Our results support previous observations based on a smaller number of taxa, indicating that algae in classes Prasinophyceae, Ulvophyceae, and Trebouxiophyceae contain orthodox, intact mitochondrial cox2 genes. In contrast, all of the algae in Chlorophyceae that we examined exhibited split cox2 genes, and could be separated into two groups: one that has a mitochondrion-localized cox2a gene and a nucleus-localized cox2b gene ("Scenedesmus-like"), and another that has both cox2a and cox2b genes in the nucleus ("Chlamydomonas-like"). The location of the split cox2a and cox2b genes was inferred using five different criteria: differences in amino acid sequences, codon usage (mitochondrial vs. nuclear), codon preference (third position frequencies), presence of nucleotide sequences encoding mitochondrial targeting sequences and presence of spliceosomal introns. Distinct green algae could be grouped according to the form of cox2 gene they contain: intact or fragmented, mitochondrion- or nucleus-localized, and intron-containing or intron-less. We present a model describing the events that led to mitochondrial cox2 gene fragmentation and the independent and sequential migration of cox2a and cox2b genes to the nucleus in chlorophycean green algae. We also suggest that the distribution of the different forms of the cox2 gene provides important insights into the phylogenetic relationships among major groups of Chlorophyceae.

  3. Purification and photobiochemical profile of photosystem 1 from a high-salt tolerant, oleaginous Chlorella (Trebouxiophycaea, Chlorophyta).

    Science.gov (United States)

    McConnell, Michael D; Lowry, David; Rowan, Troy N; van Dijk, Karin; Redding, Kevin E

    2015-06-01

    The eukaryotic green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii has been studied extensively within the biofuel industry as a model organism, as researchers look towards algae to provide chemical feedstocks (i.e., lipids) for the production of liquid transportation fuels. C. reinhardtii, however, is unsuitable for high-level production of such precursors due to its relatively poor lipid accumulation and fresh-water demand. In this study we offer insight into the primary light harvesting and electron transfer reactions that occur during phototropic growth in a high-salt tolerant strain of Chlorella (a novel strain introduced here as NE1401), a single-celled eukaryotic algae also in the phylum Chlorophyta. Under nutrient starvation many eukaryotic algae increase dramatically the amount of lipids stored in lipid bodies within their cell interiors. Microscopy and lipid analyses indicate that Chlorella sp. NE1401 may become a superior candidate for algal biofuels production. We have purified highly active Photosystem 1 (PS1) complexes to study in vitro, so that we may understand further the photobiochemisty of this promising biofuel producer and how its characteristics compare and contrast with that of the better understood C. reinhardtii. Our findings suggest that the PS1 complex from Chlorella sp. NE1401 demonstrates similar characteristics to that of C. reinhardtii with respect to light-harvesting and electron transfer reactions. We also illustrate that the relative extent of the light state transition performed by Chlorella sp. NE1401 is smaller compared to C. reinhardtii, although they are triggered by the same dynamic light stresses.

  4. A close-up view on ITS2 evolution and speciation - a case study in the Ulvophyceae (Chlorophyta, Viridiplantae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caisová Lenka

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The second Internal Transcriber Spacer (ITS2 is a fast evolving part of the nuclear-encoded rRNA operon located between the 5.8S and 28S rRNA genes. Based on crossing experiments it has been proposed that even a single Compensatory Base Change (CBC in helices 2 and 3 of the ITS2 indicates sexual incompatibility and thus separates biological species. Taxa without any CBC in these ITS2 regions were designated as a 'CBC clade'. However, in depth comparative analyses of ITS2 secondary structures, ITS2 phylogeny, the origin of CBCs, and their relationship to biological species have rarely been performed. To gain 'close-up' insights into ITS2 evolution, (1 86 sequences of ITS2 including secondary structures have been investigated in the green algal order Ulvales (Chlorophyta, Viridiplantae, (2 after recording all existing substitutions, CBCs and hemi-CBCs (hCBCs were mapped upon the ITS2 phylogeny, rather than merely comparing ITS2 characters among pairs of taxa, and (3 the relation between CBCs, hCBCs, CBC clades, and the taxonomic level of organisms was investigated in detail. Results High sequence and length conservation allowed the generation of an ITS2 consensus secondary structure, and introduction of a novel numbering system of ITS2 nucleotides and base pairs. Alignments and analyses were based on this structural information, leading to the following results: (1 in the Ulvales, the presence of a CBC is not linked to any particular taxonomic level, (2 most CBC 'clades' sensu Coleman are paraphyletic, and should rather be termed CBC grades. (3 the phenetic approach of pairwise comparison of sequences can be misleading, and thus, CBCs/hCBCs must be investigated in their evolutionary context, including homoplasy events (4 CBCs and hCBCs in ITS2 helices evolved independently, and we found no evidence for a CBC that originated via a two-fold hCBC substitution. Conclusions Our case study revealed several discrepancies between ITS2

  5. Morphological variability of oospores of Chara baueri A. Braun (Characeae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrzej Hutorowicz

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The shape and size of present-day specimens of Chara baueri are described. C. baueri is believed to have practically died out in Europe. Oospores of specimens of C. baueri collected in Kazachstan were subjected to morpholgical analysis. Data recorded included oospore length, oospore diameter, the ratio of length to diameter, the number of lateral convolutions, ridge width, the width of the fossules at the equator, and the diameter of the basal pore. Variation in oospore length and the number of convolutions was higher than had been previously reported in the literature, whereas variation in oospore width was identical to previous reports.

  6. Time Course Exo-Metabolomic Profiling in the Green Marine Macroalga Ulva (Chlorophyta for Identification of Growth Phase-Dependent Biomarkers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taghreed Alsufyani

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The marine green macroalga Ulva (Chlorophyta lives in a mutualistic symbiosis with bacteria that influence growth, development, and morphogenesis. We surveyed changes in Ulva’s chemosphere, which was defined as a space where organisms interact with each other via compounds, such as infochemicals, nutrients, morphogens, and defense compounds. Thereby, Ulva mutabilis cooperates with bacteria, in particular, Roseovarius sp. strain MS2 and Maribacter sp. strain MS6 (formerly identified as Roseobacter sp. strain MS2 and Cytophaga sp. strain MS6. Without this accompanying microbial flora, U. mutabilis forms only callus-like colonies. However, upon addition of the two bacteria species, in effect forming a tripartite community, morphogenesis can be completely restored. Under this strictly standardized condition, bioactive and eco-physiologically-relevant marine natural products can be discovered. Solid phase extracted waterborne metabolites were analyzed using a metabolomics platform, facilitating gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS analysis, combined with the necessary acquisition of biological metadata. Multivariate statistics of the GC-MS and LC-MS data revealed strong differences between Ulva’s growth phases, as well as between the axenic Ulva cultures and the tripartite community. Waterborne biomarkers, including glycerol, were identified as potential indicators for algal carbon source and bacterial-algal interactions. Furthermore, it was demonstrated that U. mutabilis releases glycerol that can be utilized for growth by Roseovarius sp. MS2.

  7. Time Course Exo-Metabolomic Profiling in the Green Marine Macroalga Ulva (Chlorophyta) for Identification of Growth Phase-Dependent Biomarkers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsufyani, Taghreed; Weiss, Anne; Wichard, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    The marine green macroalga Ulva (Chlorophyta) lives in a mutualistic symbiosis with bacteria that influence growth, development, and morphogenesis. We surveyed changes in Ulva’s chemosphere, which was defined as a space where organisms interact with each other via compounds, such as infochemicals, nutrients, morphogens, and defense compounds. Thereby, Ulva mutabilis cooperates with bacteria, in particular, Roseovarius sp. strain MS2 and Maribacter sp. strain MS6 (formerly identified as Roseobacter sp. strain MS2 and Cytophaga sp. strain MS6). Without this accompanying microbial flora, U. mutabilis forms only callus-like colonies. However, upon addition of the two bacteria species, in effect forming a tripartite community, morphogenesis can be completely restored. Under this strictly standardized condition, bioactive and eco-physiologically-relevant marine natural products can be discovered. Solid phase extracted waterborne metabolites were analyzed using a metabolomics platform, facilitating gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) analysis, combined with the necessary acquisition of biological metadata. Multivariate statistics of the GC-MS and LC-MS data revealed strong differences between Ulva’s growth phases, as well as between the axenic Ulva cultures and the tripartite community. Waterborne biomarkers, including glycerol, were identified as potential indicators for algal carbon source and bacterial-algal interactions. Furthermore, it was demonstrated that U. mutabilis releases glycerol that can be utilized for growth by Roseovarius sp. MS2. PMID:28075408

  8. Preliminary Study on the Responses of Three Marine Algae,Ulva pertusa ( Chlorophyta),Gelidium amansii (Rhodophyta)and Sargassum enerve (Phaeophyta), to Nitrogen Source and Its Availability

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Dongyan; Amy Pickering; SUN Jun

    2004-01-01

    An experiment was designed to select economically valuable macroalga species with high nutrient uptake rates.Such species cultured on a large scale could be a potential solution to eutrophication. Three macroalgae species, Ulva pertusa (Chlorophyta), Gelidium amansii (Rhodophyta) and Sargassum enerve (Phaeophyta), were chosen for the experiment because of their economic values and availability. Control and four nitrogen concentrations were achieved by adding NH4 and NO3. The results indicate that the fresh weights of all species increase faster than that of control after 5 d culture. The fresh weight of Ulva pertusa increases fastest among the 3 species. However, different species show different responses to nitrogen source and its availability. They also show the advantage of using NH+4 than using NO-3 . U. Pertusa grows best and shows higher capability of removing nitrogen at 200 μmol L-1, but it has lower economical value. G. Amansii has higher economical value but lower capability of removing nitrogen at 200μmolL-1. The capability of nitrogen assimilation of S. Enerve is higher than that of G. Amansii at 200μmolL-1, but the former's increase of fresh weight is lower than those of other two species.Then present preliminary study demonstrates that it is possible to use macroalgae as biofilters and further development of this approach could provide biologically valuable information on the source, fate, and transport of N in marine ecosystems. Caution is needed should we extrapolate these findings to natural environments.

  9. Flora béntica y reproducción de las algas Batophora spp. (Chlorophyta: Dasycladaceae) de una laguna costera contaminada (Bahía de Chetumal, México)

    OpenAIRE

    L.I Quan-Young; Jiménez-Flores, S. G.; J Espinoza-Ávalos

    2014-01-01

    Los componentes de la flora béntica, y mediciones de partes vegetativas y reproductivas de Batophora oerstedii y B. occidentalis (Chlorophyta) se registraron en cinco sitios de la costa Oeste de la Bahía de Chetumal, donde se ha registrado la existencia de un gradiente de contaminación orgánica. La colecta de flora se realizó en mayo y Octubre de 1999, meses incluidos en las épocas climáticas de secas y lluvias, respectivamente. Se registraron 40 taxa de vegetación béntica, de los cuales 11 r...

  10. Flora béntica y reproducción de las algas Batophora spp. (Chlorophyta: Dasycladaceae de una laguna costera contaminada (Bahía de Chetumal, México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.I Quan-Young

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Los componentes de la flora béntica, y mediciones de partes vegetativas y reproductivas de Batophora oerstedii y B. occidentalis (Chlorophyta se registraron en cinco sitios de la costa Oeste de la Bahía de Chetumal, donde se ha registrado la existencia de un gradiente de contaminación orgánica. La colecta de flora se realizó en mayo y Octubre de 1999, meses incluidos en las épocas climáticas de secas y lluvias, respectivamente. Se registraron 40 taxa de vegetación béntica, de los cuales 11 representan nuevos registros para la Bahía de Chetumal, y 6 para el Caribe Mexicano. Especies de Enteromorpha estuvieron presentes en ambientes ricos en materia orgánica, tanto de origen urbano, como natural. En los desagües de la Bahía de Chetumal existen especies indicadoras de contaminación, pero la ausencia de Batophora spp., dominante en esta laguna costera. Los caracteres morfológicos de B. occidentalis y B. oerstedii a lo largo de los cinco sitios de muestreo no reflejaron la presencia de contaminantes. Ambas especies presentaron diferencias significativas en su largo y ancho de gametóforos, y en el diámetro de gametangios. Las diferencias en estrategias reproductivas probablemente ayudan a que B. oerstedii y B. occidentalis puedan coexistir cercanamente en la Bahía de Chetumal.Benthic flora and reproduction of Batophora spp. algae (Chlorophyta: Dasycladaceae in a polluted coastal lagoon (Chetumal Bay, Mexico. The benthic flora, and the vegetative and reproductive characters of the algae Batophora oerstedii and B. occidentalis (Chlorophyta were recorded from five sites of Chetumal Bay, Quintana Roo, Mexico. A sewage gradient has been reported along those sites. Plants were sampled in May and October 1999, which corresponded to dry and rainy seasons, respectively. Forty taxa were found, 11 are new records for the Chetumal Bay, and 6 are new records for the Mexican Caribbean. Enteromorpha species were present in sites known as rich in

  11. Management of broomrape (Orobanche cernua) in tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dhanapal, G.N.

    1996-01-01


    Tobacco is an important commercial crop in India. India is the third largest tobacco producing country in the world. Tobacco is cultivated in an area of 0.428 million ha. Non- Virginia tobaccos such as bidi tobacco constitute about 65% of the total tobacco area in the

  12. Management of broomrape (Orobanche cernua) in tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum).

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dhanapal, G.N.

    1996-01-01

    Tobacco is an important commercial crop in India. India is the third largest tobacco producing country in the world. Tobacco is cultivated in an area of 0.428 million ha. Non- Virginia tobaccos such as bidi tobacco constitute about 65% of the total tobacco area in the country.Broomrape (Orobanche ce

  13. Enzymatic regulation of photosynthetic and light-independent carbon fixation in Laminaria setchellii (Phaeophyta, Ulva lactuca (Chlorophyta and Iridaea cordata (Rhodophyta Regulación enzimática de la fotosíntesis y la fijación de carbono en obscuridad por Laminaria setchellii (Phaeophyta, Ulva lactuca (Chlorophyta e Iridaea cordata (Rhodophyta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ALEJANDRO CABELLO-PASINI

    2001-06-01

    carboxikinasa (PEPCK y fosfoenolpiruvato carboxilasa (PEPC en la Phaeophyta Laminaria setchellii, la Chlorophyta Ulva lactuca y la Rhodophyta Iridaea cordata. Los niveles de clorofila-a no variaron en U. lactuca e I. cordata. Sin embargo, los niveles de pigmentos fueron significativamente menores en la región meristemática de L. setchellii probablemente debido a una falta de diferenciación de los cloroplastos de esta región. De una manera similar, la fotosíntesis neta no varió en el talo de U. lactuca e I. cordata, mientras que se incrementó desde el estipe y el meristemo hacia la lámina de L. setchellii. En contraste con la fotosíntesis, la fijación de carbono en oscuridad fue significantemente mayor en la zona meristemática de L. setchellii sugiriendo un mecanismo para la compensación de la incorporación de carbono en tejido fotosintéticamente limitado. La actividad enzimática de RUBISCO y PEPCK se comportó de una manera similar a los procesos carboxilantes in vivo, indicando que la fotosíntesis y la fijación de carbono en oscuridad son reguladas por la actividad de las enzimas carboxilantes a lo largo del talo de L. setchellii

  14. Studies on the Dasycladales (Chlorophyta) of China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Meiling; Tseng, C. K.

    1985-06-01

    A review of the previous reports on species of Dasycladales in China shows there are to data eleven species. In the present report four more unrecorded species are added to the Chinese marine flora, making a total of fifteen species belonging to three genera in two families. Most of these species are confined to the Hainan Island and Xisha Islands, only a few species extending northward to the southern coast of Guangdong and Guangxi Provinces and southern Taiwan. Descriptions of these species together with a working key are presented in this paper.

  15. Silica gel matrix immobilized Chlorophyta hydrodictyon africanum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aghomotsegin

    2015-08-05

    Aug 5, 2015 ... African Journal of Biotechnology. Full Length ... substances from industrial effluent has encountered both ... sodium silicate solution (v/v) and 25 mL of distilled water. ..... Sargassum muticum: an invasive macroalga in Europe.

  16. MECHANOPHYSIOLOGICAL PROPERTIES OF THE SUPRAORBITAL LATERAL-LINE CANAL IN RUFFE (ACERINA-CERNUA L)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Netten, S.M.; VANMAARSEVEEN, JTPW

    1994-01-01

    In vivo measurements of the motion of the skin covering the supraorbital lateral line canal of the ruffe are presented. Stimulation of the lateral line with local oscillatory water motion evokes displacement of the skin which exhibits a characteristic node-antinode pattern along the length of the ca

  17. Effects of herbicide on the kidneys of two Venezuelan cultured fish: Caquetaia kraussii and Colossoma macropomum (Pisces: Ciclidae and Characeae)

    OpenAIRE

    Segnini de Bravo, M. I.; Medina, J.; Marcano, S.; Finol, H. J.; Boada-Sucre, A.

    2016-01-01

    The use of chemical pesticides and herbicides has increased environmental pollution and affected ichthyofauna in the watersheds where they are used. We studied the effect of an herbicide, triazine, on the kidneys of two species (Caquetaia kraussii and Colossoma macropomum) widely found in Caribbean and South American rivers. In Venezuela, these species are abundant and have a high aquaculture potential because they may be cultured and reproduced in captivity. Four kidney samples from juvenile...

  18. 嘉陵江出口段三类水体蓝绿硅藻优势种变化机理%The changes and mechanisms in dominant algae of Cyanophyta,Chlorophyta and Bacillariophyta during the eutrophication vulnerable period in the outlet area of Jialing River in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭蔚华; 李楠; 张智; 曾晓岚

    2009-01-01

    三峡水库的河流型、过渡型、湖泊型水体中后两者为富营养化敏感水体,为认识富营养化敏感时期嘉陵江出口段三类水体蓝藻(Cyanophyta)、绿藻(Chlorophyta)、硅藻(Bacillariophyta)优势种变化及机理,2007年9月至2008年8月进行了三种藻类的现场调查分析.结果表明,在3~7月份,总藻种数为52种,占全年种数的66.5%,平均密度43.76×104个-L-1,为全年中最高,因此3-7月为富营养化敏感期;优势藻种类变化为河流型蓝、绿、硅藻分别为6、4、9种,过渡型的蓝、绿、硅藻分别为4、5、4种,湖泊型的蓝、绿、硅藻分别为6、5、3种;蓝、绿、硅各优势藻的平均优势度在2.5m·s-1为0.11,2.0 m·s-1为0.11,1.5 m·s-1为0.10,0.05~0.2 m·s-1为0.07,<0.05 m·s-1为0.06.分析认为,蓝、绿、硅优藻种数变化与流速有关,优势硅藻种数与流速正相关,优势蓝、绿藻数与流速反相关;具有硅壳的硅藻需要借助流速浮动进行光合作用,适宜0.05~2.5 m·s-1水体;大型硅藻可能通过进化中的硅壳薄化来适应一定流速的水体;蓝藻、绿藻沉降系数小,有的具有气囊或鞭毛,因而易浮动进行光合作用,适宜0.2 m·s-1以下的水体;优势蓝、绿、硅藻的平均优势度与优势藻多样性负相关.随着嘉陵江出口段采样点的流速逐渐减小,优势蓝、绿、硅藻的平均优势度逐渐变小,而优势藻多样性逐渐增大.

  19. FIRST RECORDING OF THE SPECIES Acerina cernua Linnaeus, 1758 IN THE WATERS OF THE REPUBLIC OF MACEDONIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simo Georgiev

    1998-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the general importance of this fish species and deals with its first registration in the waters of Macedonia in 1997. Its basic ichthyological parameters are presented, as well as the ichthyofauna of the reservoir where it was found. Based on available data it was tried to trace the origin of this species in Macedonia.

  20. Analysis of expressed sequence tags from the Ulva prolifera (Chlorophyta)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    牛建峰; 胡海岩; 胡松年; 王广策; 彭光; 孙松

    2010-01-01

    In 2008,a green tide broke out before the sailing competition of the 29th Olympic Games in Qingdao.The causative species was determined to be Enteromorpha prolifera (Ulva prolifera O.F.Müller),a familiar green macroalga along the coastline of China.Rapid accumulation of a large biomass of floating U.prolifera prompted research on different aspects of this species.In this study,we constructed a nonnormalized cDNA library from the thalli of U.prolifera and acquired 10 072 high-quality expressed sequence tags ...

  1. Occurrence of genus Monostroma (Ulvales, Chlorophyta) from Ratnagiri (Maharashtra)

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Untawale, A.G.; Agadi, V.V.; Dhargalkar, V.K.

    The occurrence of a genus Monostroma has been recorded from the Shirgaon creek at Ratnagiri along the central west coast of India. The Monostroma sp. was found in the brackish water environment with low salinity, high nutrients and thick mangrove...

  2. Carbon partitioning in green algae (chlorophyta) and the enolase enzyme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polle, Jürgen E W; Neofotis, Peter; Huang, Andy; Chang, William; Sury, Kiran; Wiech, Eliza M

    2014-08-04

    The exact mechanisms underlying the distribution of fixed carbon within photoautotrophic cells, also referred to as carbon partitioning, and the subcellular localization of many enzymes involved in carbon metabolism are still unknown. In contrast to the majority of investigated green algae, higher plants have multiple isoforms of the glycolytic enolase enzyme, which are differentially regulated in higher plants. Here we report on the number of gene copies coding for the enolase in several genomes of species spanning the major classes of green algae. Our genomic analysis of several green algae revealed the presence of only one gene coding for a glycolytic enolase [EC 4.2.1.11]. Our predicted cytosolic localization would require export of organic carbon from the plastid to provide substrate for the enolase and subsequent re-import of organic carbon back into the plastids. Further, our comparative sequence study of the enolase and its 3D-structure prediction may suggest that the N-terminal extension found in green algal enolases could be involved in regulation of the enolase activity. In summary, we propose that the enolase represents one of the crucial regulatory bottlenecks in carbon partitioning in green algae.

  3. Caulerpa (Chlorophyta, Caulerpales) from the Kenyan coast

    OpenAIRE

    Coppejans, E.; Beeckman, T.

    1990-01-01

    In view of preparing a Flora of the Seaweeds from Kenya, material is collected yearly by the authors since 1985. Twelve species of Caulerpa have been collected so far, some including several varieties: C. brachypus, C. cupressoides, C. elongata, C. fastigiata, C. lentillifera, C. mexicana, C. racemosa (with several var.), C. scalpelliformis, C. serrulata, C. sertularioides, C. taxifolia, C. verticillata. An identification key is provided, the different species are described and illustrated (e...

  4. Mixotrophy in the terrestrial green alga Apatococcus lobatus (Trebouxiophyceae, Chlorophyta).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gustavs, Lydia; Schumann, Rhena; Karsten, Ulf; Lorenz, Maike

    2016-04-01

    The green microalga Apatococcus lobatus is widely distributed in terrestrial habitats throughout many climatic zones. It dominates green biofilms on natural and artificial substrata in temperate latitudes and is regarded as a key genus of obligate terrestrial consortia. Until now, its isolation, cultivation and application as a terrestrial model organism has been hampered by slow growth rates and low growth capacities. A mixotrophic culturing approach clearly enhanced the accumulation of biomass, thereby permitting the future application of A. lobatus in different types of bio-assays necessary for material and biofilm research. The ability of A. lobatus to grow mixotrophically is assumed as a competitive advantage in terrestrial habitats.

  5. Ankistrodesmus gracilis (Chlorophyta fertilized in swine manure in the laboratory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lúcia Helena Sipaúba-Tavares

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present work was to investigate the influence of swine manure media on the growth, total length, dry weight, and nutritional value of Ankistrodesmus gracilis microalgae. Two media were measured: “in natura” and biodigested. The growth rate peak for A. gracilis was highest with biodigester treatment (6.2 x 107 cells.mL-1 on the 5th day, at a volume of 2L. The highest percentage of lipids was verifi ed for “in natura” media. Protein was highest (p > 0.05 for the biodigested media at 2L. Biovolume, ash rate, and total length were different (p 0.05. Light demand was also different between media, with lesser intensity being required for biodigested media (13.5μE.cm-2.s-1. In fact, the biodigested media proved to be cheaper in terms of cost and benefit. Generally, the medium containing swine manure, both “in natura” and biodigested, showed better results in A. gracilis development, with water quality adequate for culture systems. Swine manure in both forms may also be used in high-density cultures in the laboratory.

  6. Pseudoderbesia, nuevo género de algas marinas (Bryopsidaceae, Chlorophyta Pseudoderbesia, nuevo género de algas marinas (Bryopsidaceae, Chlorophyta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Calderon Eduardo

    1991-06-01

    Full Text Available Se aislaron cuatro clones de Pseudoderbesia y se mantuvieron como cultivos unialgales: dos provenientes de la Costa Colombiana del Caribe (P. arbuscula y dos de las Islas Canarias en el Océano Atlántico (Pseudoderbesia sp.. Aunque se conoce solo la fase gametofítica, hay razones suficientes para el establecimiento de un nuevo género. Se describe y discute el crecimiento, variabilidad, producción bajo condiciones de cultivo. Se sugiere la posibilidad que ciertas especies de Derbesia que poseen ramificación dicotómica y filamentos gradualmente atenuados, como D. fastigiata, D. attenuata y D. padinae, sean realmente miembros de Pseudoderbesia. Pseudoderbesia is described as a new genus within the Bryopsidaceae. Four clones of Pseudoderbesia were isolated and kept as unialgal cultures: two from the Caribbean coast of Colombia (P. arbuscula and two from the Canary Islands, Atlantic Ocean (Pseudoderbesia sp.. Although only the gametophytic phase is known, it is distinct enough for the establishement of a new genus. Growth, variability and swarmer production, under culture conditions, are described and discussed. It is suggested, that some little known species of Derbesia with dichotomous branching and gradually attenuated filaments, like D. fastigiata, D. attenuata and D. padinae, could actually be members of Pseudoderbesia.

  7. A Characeae Cells Plasma Membrane as a Model for Selection of Bioactive Compounds and Drugs: Interaction of HAMLET-Like Complexes with Ion Channels of Chara corallina Cells Plasmalemma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kataev, Anatoly; Zherelova, Olga; Grishchenko, Valery

    2016-12-01

    Interaction of a HAMLET-like La-OA cytotoxic complex (human α-lactalbumin-oleic acid) and its constituents with the excitable plasmalemma of giant Chara corallina cells was investigated. The voltage-clamp technique was used to study Ca(2+) and Cl(-) transient currents in the plasmalemma of intact cells. The action of the complex and OA on the target cell membrane has a dose-dependent character. It was found that the La-OA complex has an inhibiting effect on Ca(2+) current across the plasmalemma, while α-lactalbumin alone does not affect the electrophysiological characteristics of the cellular membrane. However, oleic acid blocks Ca(2+) current across the plasmalemma. This is accompanied by the induction of a non-selective conductivity in the cellular membrane, a decrease in the resting potential and plasma membrane resistance of algal cells. We propose that the cytotoxicity of La-OA and other HAMLET-like complexes is determined by oleic acid acting as a blocker of potential-dependent Ca(2+) channels in the plasma membrane of target cells. The presented results show that the study model of green algae C. corallina cells plasmalemma is a convenient tool for the investigation of ion channels in many animal cells.

  8. Meiotic genes and sexual reproduction in the green algal class Trebouxiophyceae (Chlorophyta)

    KAUST Repository

    Fučíková, Karolina

    2015-04-06

    © 2015 Phycological Society of America. Sexual reproduction is widespread in eukaryotes and is well documented in chlorophytan green algae. In this lineage, however, the Trebouxiophyceae represent a striking exception: in contrast to its relatives Chlorophyceae and Ulvophyceae this group appears to be mostly asexual, as fertilization has been rarely observed. Assessments of sexual reproduction in the Trebouxiophyceae have been based on microscopic observation of gametes fusing. New genomic data offer now the opportunity to check for the presence of meiotic genes, which represent an indirect evidence of a sexual life cycle. Using genomic and transcriptomic data for 12 taxa spanning the phylogenetic breadth of the class, we tried to clarify whether genuine asexuality or cryptic sexuality is the most likely case for the numerous putatively asexual trebouxiophytes. On the basis of these data and a bibliographic review, we conclude that the view of trebouxiophytes as primarily asexual is incorrect. In contrast to the limited number of reports of fertilization, meiotic genes were found in all genomes and transcriptomes examined, even in species presumed asexual. In the taxa examined the totality or majority of the genes were present, Helicosporidium and Auxenochlorella being the only partial exceptions (only four genes present). The evidence of sex provided by the meiotic genes is phylogenetically widespread in the class and indicates that sexual reproduction is not associated with any particular morphological or ecological trait. On the basis of the results, we expect that the existence of the meiotic genes will be documented in all trebouxiophycean genomes that will become available in the future.

  9. Micronutrient Requirements for Growth and Hydrocarbon Production in the Oil Producing Green Alga Botryococcus braunii (Chlorophyta)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Liang; Qin, Jian G.; Su, Shengqi; Xu, Jianhe; Clarke, Stephen; Shan, Yichu

    2012-01-01

    The requirements of micronutrients for biomass and hydrocarbon production in Botryococcus braunii UTEX 572 were studied using response surface methodology. The concentrations of four micronutrients (iron, manganese, molybdenum, and nickel) were manipulated to achieve the best performance of B. braunii in laboratory conditions. The responses of algal biomass and hydrocarbon to the concentration variations of the four micronutrients were estimated by a second order quadratic regression model. Genetic algorithm calculations showed that the optimal level of micronutrients for algal biomass were 0.266 µM iron, 0.707 µM manganese, 0.624 µM molybdenum and 3.38 µM nickel. The maximum hydrocarbon content could be achieved when the culture media contained 10.43 µM iron, 6.53 µM manganese, 0.012 µM molybdenum and 1.73 µM nickel. The validation through an independent test in a photobioreactor suggests that the modified media with optimised concentrations of trace elements can increase algal biomass by 34.5% and hydrocarbon by 27.4%. This study indicates that micronutrients play significant roles in regulating algal growth and hydrocarbon production, and the response surface methodology can be used to optimise the composition of culture medium in algal culture. PMID:22848502

  10. Effects of strontium-induced stress on marine microalgae Platymonas subcordiformis (Chlorophyta: Volvocales)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Strontium-induced stress in growth and chlorophyll contents ofPlatymonas subcordiformis was investigated under laboratory condition. The results showed that strontium exposure had little influences in general on growth and chlorophyll contents of the algae except for very high Sr concentrations.The maximum biosorption capacity of strontium ranged from 69.62 to 269.18 mg Sr2+/gdry weight. The algal biomass exhibited high uptake capacity of strontium. Total superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity and the content of lipid peroxidation products malondialdehyde (MDA) were significantly different in different treatments. SOD activity reached the highest level at 0.09 mmol/L that was about 55.8 % higher than that in the control. The MDA content increased significantly at 0.36 mmol/L, which was 2.15 times higher than that in the control, indicating a state of oxidative stress. With the increase of strontium concentration,the amount of fatty acids decreased.

  11. FRESH-WATER GREEN ALGAE (CHLOROPHYTA AS A NATURAL PIGMENT FOR MOJOSARI DUCKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Indarsih

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available An experiment in a completely randomize design was undertaken to study the use of fresh-watergreen algae as a yolk coloring agent in Mojosari ducks during a laying period on productiveperformance and egg quality from 36 to 44 wk of age. A total of 80 thirty-six wk–old laying ducks weredivided into four dietary treatments and each of four replicates with 5 birds. Diets were formulated witha commercial concentrate, rice bran and yellow corn (2:4:4 according to a commercial standard diet asa control, and three other dietary treatments with 2, 4 or 8% of green algae were included. Fresh watergreen algae had a significant effect on the feed uptake, egg production, and feed conversion ratio (FCR(p<0.05. Egg production and FCR improved at added 2 and 4% green algae. No differences wereobserved in egg yolk index, albumen index, Haugh Unit, and egg shell thickness (P>0.05 except eggyolk color. The yolk color increased within 7 days after feeding with the test diets. The present studyindicated that fresh-water green algae could be used as a natural coloring agent in laying ducks and at8% of green algae showed the highest score of (Roche Yellow Color-15.

  12. Carbonate sediment production in the equatorial continental shelf of South America: Quantifying Halimeda incrassata (Chlorophyta) contributions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carneiro, Pedro Bastos de Macêdo; Morais, Jader Onofre de

    2016-12-01

    The middle and outer continental shelves of eastern equatorial South America (ESA) are characterized by intense production of carbonate sediments. Qualitative analyses of sediment deposits suggest that the calcareous green alga Halimeda incrassata is among the top CaCO3 producers. Nevertheless, no study so far has quantified its real contributions. To better understand the sediment dynamic in this area, we measured biomass, growth rates and calcium carbonate production by this alga. The species exhibited high growth rates (3.38 segments.individual-1.day-1), coverage (174 individuals.m-2) and biomass (214.02 g.m-2). Substitution of segments may allow a sedimentation rate of 1.53 mm.yr-1 and a complete turnover of the population every 60.2 days. The rapid growth indicates that this alga can produce as much CaCO3 (1.19 kg CaCO3.m-2.year-1) as other tropical organisms, such as corals and rhodoliths. In a conservative estimate, 773.500 tonnes of CaCO3 are produced per year in a 5000 km2 area off the northern coast of Brazil. Sedimentation rate seems to be higher than that promoted by continental inputs in middle and outer continental shelf. On the other hand, population turnover is twice as slow as in other H. incrassata assemblages, suggesting that South American populations are sensible to physical disturbances. New studies are necessary to accurately estimate H. incrassata coverage along the Brazilian coast and to integrate data on other CaCO3 producers, such as foraminifera and coralline algae. This would allow a better understanding of the role of South American continental shelf on the global carbon budget. Furthermore, analysis on the health of these organisms is urgent, since a decline in their populations could negatively affect ecosystems functioning and services.

  13. Growth rate and calcium carbonate accumulation of Halimeda macrolobaDecaisne (Chlorophyta: Halimedaceae in Thai waters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaruwan Mayakun

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Halimeda macroloba Decaisne can utilize the CO2 used for carbon fixation in photosynthesis and use bicarbonate as the main carbon source for calcification. Although Halimeda has been recognized as a carbon sink species, the calcium accumulation of Halimeda species in Thai waters remain poorly understood. In this study, the highest density of H. macroloba was 26 thalli/m2 and Halimeda quickly produced 1-2 new segments/thallus/day or 20.1 mg dry weight/thallus/day. Its calcium carbonate accumulation rate was 16.6 mg CaCO3 /thallus/day, or 82.46 % per thallus. In Thailand, however, only three scientific papers of growth rate and CaCO3 accumulation rate of H. macroloba have been found and collected. Of these records, the mean density was 26-104 thalli/m2 . The growth rate of H. macroloba was around 1-2 mg dry weight/day and the CaCO3 accumulation rate varied around 41-91%. Thus, Halimeda has a great potential to decrease the carbon dioxide concentration in the ocean.

  14. Tetraselmis indica (Chlorodendrophyceae, Chlorophyta), a new species isolated from salt pans in Goa, India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Mani, A.; Anil, A.C.; Leliaert, F.; Delany, J.; Mesbahi, E.

    A new species of Tetraselmis, T. indica Arora & Anil, was isolated from nanoplankton collected from salt pans in Goa (India) and is described based on morphological, ultrastructural, 18S rRNA gene sequence and genome size data. The species...

  15. 18S RDNA AND EVOLUTION IN THE DASYCLADALES (CHLOROPHYTA) - MODERN LIVING FOSSILS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    OLSEN, JL; STAM, WT; BERGER, S; MENZEL, D

    Phylogenetic relationships were inferred from parsimony and distance analyses of nuclear small-subunit ribosomal DNA sequences taken from 14 species representing 8 Of the 11 extant genera in the Dasycladales. Of 1733 aligned positions, 412 (23.8%) were variable and 251 (61%) of those were

  16. Accurate and robust phylogeny estimation based on profile distances: a study of the Chlorophyceae (Chlorophyta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahmann Sven

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In phylogenetic analysis we face the problem that several subclade topologies are known or easily inferred and well supported by bootstrap analysis, but basal branching patterns cannot be unambiguously estimated by the usual methods (maximum parsimony (MP, neighbor-joining (NJ, or maximum likelihood (ML, nor are they well supported. We represent each subclade by a sequence profile and estimate evolutionary distances between profiles to obtain a matrix of distances between subclades. Results Our estimator of profile distances generalizes the maximum likelihood estimator of sequence distances. The basal branching pattern can be estimated by any distance-based method, such as neighbor-joining. Our method (profile neighbor-joining, PNJ then inherits the accuracy and robustness of profiles and the time efficiency of neighbor-joining. Conclusions Phylogenetic analysis of Chlorophyceae with traditional methods (MP, NJ, ML and MrBayes reveals seven well supported subclades, but the methods disagree on the basal branching pattern. The tree reconstructed by our method is better supported and can be confirmed by known morphological characters. Moreover the accuracy is significantly improved as shown by parametric bootstrap.

  17. First and second line mechanisms of cadmium detoxification in the lichen photobiont Trebouxia impressa (Chlorophyta)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanita di Toppi, L. [Dipartimento di Biologia Evolutiva e Funzionale, viale G.P. Usberti 11/A, Universita di Parma, 43100 Parma (Italy)], E-mail: luigi.sanitaditoppi@unipr.it; Pawlik-Skowronska, B. [Centre for Ecological Research, Polish Academy of Sciences, Experimental Station, Niecala 18/3, 20080 Lublin (Poland); Vurro, E. [Dipartimento di Biologia Evolutiva e Funzionale, viale G.P. Usberti 11/A, Universita di Parma, 43100 Parma (Italy); Vattuone, Z. [Dipartimento di Biologia Evolutiva e Funzionale, viale G.P. Usberti 11/A, Universita di Parma, 43100 Parma (Italy); Centre for Ecological Research, Polish Academy of Sciences, Experimental Station, Niecala 18/3, 20080 Lublin (Poland); Kalinowska, R. [Centre for Ecological Research, Polish Academy of Sciences, Experimental Station, Niecala 18/3, 20080 Lublin (Poland); Restivo, F.M. [Dipartimento di Genetica, Biologia dei Microrganismi, Antropologia, Evoluzione, viale G.P. Usberti 11/A, Universita di Parma, 43100 Parma (Italy); Musetti, R. [Dipartimento di Biologia Applicata alla Difesa delle Piante, via delle Scienze 208, Universita di Udine, 33100 Udine (Italy); Skowronski, T. [Centre for Ecological Research, Polish Academy of Sciences, Experimental Station, Niecala 18/3, 20080 Lublin (Poland)

    2008-01-15

    'First line' defence mechanisms, such as phytochelatin biosynthesis, and 'second line' mechanisms, such as stress protein induction, were investigated in cadmium-exposed cells of Trebouxia impressa Ahmadjian, a green microalgal species that is a common photobiont of the lichen Physcia adscendens (Fr.) H. Olivier. When T. impressa cells were exposed to 0, 9 and 18 {mu}M Cd for 6, 18 and 48 h, glutathione and phytochelatins efficiently protected the cells against Cd damage. By contrast, the highest Cd concentration (36 {mu}M) at the longest exposure-time (48 h) caused marked drops in glutathione and phytochelatin content, several types of ultrastructural damage, and decreases in cell density and total chlorophyll concentration. In this case, induction of stress proteins was observed, but only long after the induction of phytochelatins. Thus, stress proteins could represent a 'second line' mechanism to counteract Cd stress, activated when there is a decline in the 'first line' mechanism of Cd detoxification given by phytochelatins. - Trebouxia impressa photobionts protect themselves against cadmium stress by means of phytochelatins and stress proteins.

  18. Checklist and Bibliography of Benthic Marine Macroalgae Recorded from Northern Australia. III. Chlorophyta,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-05-01

    polynesischen Formen dieser Famille." Beh. bot. Zbl., 18, 165-193, pls 5,6. Chapman, v.J. (1977). "Marine algae of Norfolk Island and Cook Island." Botanica ... botanica altera. Sistens generwn plantarum. Suppl. 3, Vienna, 111 pp. 7E;bank, L. (1946). "Hawaiian representatives of the genus Caulerpa. - Univ...vicinity of Townsville, Queensland." Atoll Res. Bull., 237, 1-29. Nizamuddin, m. (1967). "Caulerpa from Karachi Coast. II." Botanica rnar., 10, 158-166

  19. DNA taxonomy in morphologically plastic taxa: algorithmic species delimitation in the Boodlea complex (Chlorophyta: Cladophorales).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leliaert, Frederik; Verbruggen, Heroen; Wysor, Brian; De Clerck, Olivier

    2009-10-01

    DNA-based taxonomy provides a convenient and reliable tool for species delimitation, especially in organisms in which morphological discrimination is difficult or impossible, such as many algal taxa. A group with a long history of confusing species circumscriptions is the morphologically plastic Boodlea complex, comprising the marine green algal genera Boodlea, Cladophoropsis, Phyllodictyon and Struveopsis. In this study, we elucidate species boundaries in the Boodlea complex by analysing nrDNA internal transcribed spacer sequences from 175 specimens collected from a wide geographical range. Algorithmic methods of sequence-based species delineation were applied, including statistical parsimony network analysis, and a maximum likelihood approach that uses a mixed Yule-coalescent model and detects species boundaries based on differences in branching rates at the level of species and populations. Sequence analyses resulted in the recognition of 13 phylogenetic species, although we failed to detect sharp species boundaries, possibly as a result of incomplete reproductive isolation. We found considerable conflict between traditional and phylogenetic species definitions. Identical morphological forms were distributed in different clades (cryptic diversity), and at the same time most of the phylogenetic species contained a mixture of different morphologies (indicating intraspecific morphological variation). Sampling outside the morphological range of the Boodlea complex revealed that the enigmatic, sponge-associated Cladophoropsis (Spongocladia) vaucheriiformis, also falls within the Boodlea complex. Given the observed evolutionary complexity and nomenclatural problems associated with establishing a Linnaean taxonomy for this group, we propose to discard provisionally the misleading morphospecies and genus names, and refer to clade numbers within a single genus, Boodlea.

  20. Altered seawater salinity levels affected growth and photosynthesis ofUlva fasciata (Ulvales, Chlorophyta) germlings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Binbin; ZOU Dinghui

    2015-01-01

    Seawater salinity is greatly influenced by tide, evaporation and rain falls. In this study, we investigated the growth and photosynthetic responses of zygote-derivedUlva fasciata Delile germlings to short-term (minutes) and prolonged (days) exposure to different salinity gradients, to evaluate the effect of salinity variation on the early stage of life history in this seaweed. The results showed that, the maximum net photosynthetic rates (NPRm) ofU. fasciata germlings was observably decreased in desalted (25 and 15) and high (45) salinity seawater in short-term exposure tests (in minutes). However, after 30 min, the photosynthesis activity in medium salinity (25) was maintained at a relative high level (above 70%). After 8 d prolonged culture, the photosynthesis and mean relative growth rate (RGR) of germlings were all markedly lowered, whereas the malondialdehyde (MDA) contents increased as the salinity desalted from 34 to 15. The salinity decrease from 34 to 25 had no significant effect on the RGR, but obviously influenced the morphology of the germlings. High salinity level (45) significantly depressed theRGR and photosynthesis ofU. fasciata germlings, while it notably increased the MDA contents. The results showed that the salinity elevation had more detrimental effects onUlva fasciata germlings than salinity decrease did. The germlings grown at the salinity seawater levels from 25 to 34, performed preferable photosynthetic acclimation both in temporary and prolonged culture. Broad salinity tolerance from 25 to 34 inU. fasciata germlings may have partly evolved as a response to regular diurnal tides.

  1. New and rare species of Volvocaceae (Chlorophyta in the Polish phycoflora

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewa A. Dembowska

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Seven species of Volvocaceae were recorded in the lower Vistula River and its oxbow lakes, including Pleodorina californica for the first time in Poland. Three species – Eudorina cylindrica, E. illinoisensis and E. unicocca – were found in the Polish Vistula River in the 1960s and 1970s, as well as at present. They are rare species in the Polish aquatic ecosystems. Three species are common both in the oxbow lakes and in the Vistula River: Eudorina elegans, Pandorina morum and Volvox aureus. New and rare Volvocaceae species were described in terms of morphology and ecology; also photographic documentation (light microscope microphotographs was completed.

  2. The Cladophora complex (Chlorophyta): new views based on 18S rRNA gene sequences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, F.T.; Olsen, J.L.; Stam, W.T.; Hoek, van den J.

    1994-01-01

    Evolutionary relationships among species traditionally ascribed to the Siphonocladales/Cladophorales have remained unclear due to a lack of phylogenetically informative characters and extensive morphological plasticity resulting in morphological convergence. This study explores some of the diversity

  3. THE CLADOPHORA COMPLEX (CHLOROPHYTA) - NEW VIEWS BASED ON 18S RIBOSOMAL-RNA GENE-SEQUENCES

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    BAKKER, FT; OLSEN, JL; STAM, WT; VANDENHOEK, C

    1994-01-01

    Evolutionary relationships among species traditionally ascribed to the Siphonocladales/Cladophorales have remained unclear due to a lack of phylogenetically informative characters and extensive morphological plasticity resulting in morphological convergence. This study explores some of the diversity

  4. A note on Rhipilia nigrescens Coppejans & Prud’homme van Reine (Chlorophyta)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coppejans, E.; Prud’homme van Reine, W.F.

    1990-01-01

    In our paper on seaweeds of the Snellius-II expedition (Coppejans & Prud’homme van Reine, 1989) we suggested that the new species Rhipilia nigrescens had been described in Phycologia. Due to regulations of that journal and corroborated by the short spell between acceptance and publication in Blumea,

  5. In vitro exposure of Ulva lactuca Linnaeus (Chlorophyta) to gasoline - Biochemical and morphological alterations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilatti, Fernanda Kokowicz; Ramlov, Fernanda; Schmidt, Eder Carlos; Kreusch, Marianne; Pereira, Débora Tomazi; Costa, Christopher; de Oliveira, Eva Regina; Bauer, Cláudia M; Rocha, Miguel; Bouzon, Zenilda Laurita; Maraschin, Marcelo

    2016-08-01

    Refined fuels have considerable share of pollution of marine ecosystems. Gasoline is one of the most consumed fuel worldwide, but its effects on marine benthic primary producers are poorly investigated. In this study, Ulva lactuca was chosen as a biological model due to its cosmopolitan nature and tolerance to high levels and wide range of xenobiotics and our goal was to evaluate the effects of gasoline on ultrastructure and metabolism of that seaweed. The experimental design consisted of in vitro exposure of U. lactuca to four concentrations of gasoline (0.001%, 0.01%, 0.1%, and 1.0%, v/v) over 30 min, 1 h, 12 h, and 24 h, followed by cytochemical, SEM, and biochemical analysis. Increase in the number of cytoplasmic granules, loss of cell turgor, cytoplasmic shrinkage, and alterations in the mucilage were some of the ultrastructural alterations observed in thalli exposed to gasoline. Decrease in carotenoid and polyphenol contents, as well as increase of soluble sugars and starch contents were associated with the time of exposure to the xenobiotic. In combination, the results revealed important morphological and biochemical alterations in the phenotype of U. lactuca upon acute exposure to gasoline. This seaweed contain certain metabolites assigned as candidates to biomarkers of the environmental stress investigated and it is thought to be a promise species for usage in coastal ecosystems perturbation monitoring system. In addition, the findings suggest that U. lactuca is able to metabolize gasoline hydrocarbons and use them as energy source, acting as bioremediator of marine waters contaminated by petroleum derivatives.

  6. Hylodesmus singaporensis gen. et sp. nov., a new autosporic subaerial green alga (Scenedesmaceae, Chlorophyta) from Singapore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eliás, Marek; Nemcová, Yvonne; Skaloud, Pavel; Neustupa, Jirí; Kaufnerová, Veronika; Sejnohová, Lenka

    2010-05-01

    The algal flora of subaerial habitats in the tropics remains largely unexplored, despite the fact that it potentially encompasses a wealth of new evolutionary diversity. Here we present a detailed morphological and molecular characterization of an autosporic coccoid green alga isolated from decaying wood in a natural forest in Singapore. Depending on culture conditions, this alga formed globular to irregularly oval solitary cells. Autosporulation was the only mode of reproduction observed. The cell periphery was filled with numerous vacuoles, and a single parietal chloroplast contained a conspicuous pyrenoid surrounded by a bipartite starch envelope. The cell wall was composed of a thick inner layer and a thin trilaminar outer layer, and the cell surface was ornamented with a few delicate ribs. Phylogenetic analyses of 18S rRNA gene sequences placed our strain in the family Scenedesmaceae (Sphaeropleales, Chlorophyceae) as a strongly supported sister branch of the genus Desmodesmus. Analyses of an alternative phylogenetic marker widely used for the Scenedesmaceae, the ITS2 region, confirmed that the strain is distinct from any scenedesmacean alga sequenced to date, but is related to the genus Desmodesmus, despite lacking the defining phenotypic features of Desmodesmus (cell wall with four sporopolleninic layers ornamented with peculiar submicroscopic structures). Collectively, our results establish that we identified a novel, previously undocumented, evolutionary lineage of scenedesmacean algae necessitating its description as a new species in a new genus. We propose it be named Hylodesmus singaporensis gen. et sp. nov. A cryopreserved holotype specimen has been deposited into the Culture Collection of Algae of Charles University in Prague, Czech Republic (CAUP) as CAUP C-H8001.

  7. The combined effect of anthracene and cadmium on photosynthetic activity of three Desmodesmus (Chlorophyta) species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pokora, Wojciech; Tukaj, Zbigniew

    2010-09-01

    Individual toxicity of heavy metals (HM) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) to plants living in water bodies is well-documented. In view of frequent joint occurrence of these compounds in the environment, plants are subjected to damage from their combined action. Cadmium and anthracene can generate production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). We have recently detected elevated activity of Fe- and Mn-SOD isoforms, indicating chloroplast and mitochondrion as the main sites of combined toxicity of HM and PAH. In the present paper, short-term (1-24 h) experiments on the mechanism of combined toxicity of anthracene and cadmium to the photosynthesis of three Desmodesmus species are reported. Inhibition, stimulation or no effect on the oxygen evolution was observed following the treatment with the contaminants when applied either separately or jointly. The response pattern was both strongly species- and time-dependent. In contrast, the photosynthetic activity of cells, expressed by chlorophyll fluorescence parameters, was substantially unaffected, since no effect or, in several cases, a slight stimulation of PS II quantum efficiency (Phi PS II) were noted. A characteristic relationship between the SOD activity and the qN values was observed. The treatment of Desmodesmus cells with anthracene or cadmium had either no effect or slightly enhanced either the SOD activity or the qN value, whereas the mixture of the contaminants resulted in a multifold increase in both the SOD activity and the qN values. The results suggest that chloroplasts of algae are well protected against the combined action of the two contaminants the toxicity of which should be attributed to nucleocytoplasmic compartments and reproductive processes of the cell cycle.

  8. Photosynthetic responses of thalli and isolated protoplasts of Bryopsis hypnoides (Bryopsidales,Chlorophyta) during dehydration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LU Fang; WANG Guangce; JIN Haochen

    2011-01-01

    Bryopsis hypnoides Lamouroux is a unique intertidal siphonous green alga whose extruded protoplasm can aggregate spontaneously in seawater to form numerous new cells that can develop into mature algal thalli. In this study, the photosynthetic responses during dehydration of both the thalli and protoplasts isolated from B. hypnoides were measured using a DuaI-PAM (pulse amplitude modulation)-100 fluorometer. The results show that the photosynthetic rates of B. hypnoides thalli were maintained for an initial period, beyond which continued desiccation resulted in reduced rates of PSI and PSII. However, the photosynthetic performances of the isolated protoplasts dehydrated in air (CO2 concentration 600-700 mg/L) showed a slight increase of Y(Ⅱ) at 20% water loss, but the rates decreased thereafter with declining water content. When protoplasts were dehydrated in CO2 deficient conditions (CO2 concentration 40-80 mg/L), the values of Y(Ⅱ)declined steadily with increased dehydration without an initial rise. These results indicated that the thalli and isolated protoplasts of this alga can utilize CO2 in ambient air effectively, and the photosynthetic performances of the isolated protoplasts were significantly different from that of the thalli during dehydration. Thus the protoplasts may be an excellent system for the study of stress tolerance.

  9. Who is in there? Exploration of endophytic bacteria within the siphonous green seaweed Bryopsis (Bryopsidales, Chlorophyta.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joke Hollants

    Full Text Available Associations between marine seaweeds and bacteria are widespread, with endobiotic bacterial-algal interactions being described for over 40 years. Also within the siphonous marine green alga Bryopsis, intracellular bacteria have been visualized by electron microscopy in the early '70s, but were up to now never molecularly analyzed. To study this partnership, we examined the presence and phylogenetic diversity of microbial communities within the cytoplasm of two Bryopsis species by combining fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH, denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE and 16S rRNA gene clone libraries. Sequencing results revealed the presence of Arcobacter, Bacteroidetes, Flavobacteriaceae, Mycoplasma, Labrenzia, Phyllobacteriaceae and Xanthomonadaceae species. Although the total diversity of the endobiotic communities was unique to each Bryopsis culture, Bacteroidetes, Mycoplasma, Phyllobacteriaceae, and in particular Flavobacteriaceae bacteria, were detected in several Bryopsis samples collected hundreds of kilometres apart. This suggests that Bryopsis closely associates with well-defined endophytic bacterial communities of which some members possibly maintain an endosymbiotic relationship with the algal host.

  10. Vegetative Cell Division and Nuclear Translocation in Three Algae Species of Netrium (Zygnematales, Chlorophyta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DIAN HENDRAYANTI

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Three species of Netrium oblongum, N. digitus v. latum, and N. interruptum were studied for their mode in the vegetative cell division and nuclear translocation during mitosis using light and fluorescence microscopy. The process of cell division in the three species began with the prominent constriction at the chloroplast in both semicells about half way from the apex. The constriction of chloroplast was mostly visible in N. digitus v. latum. Soon after nucleus divided, septum was formed across the cell and cytokinesis occurred. Observation with fluorescence microscope showed that the movement of nucleus moved back into the center of daughter cells was not always synchronous. Division of chloroplast in N. oblongum and N. digitus v. latum were different with that of N. interruptum. Chloroplast division in two former species occured following the movement of the nucleus down semicell. However, in N. interruptum, chloroplast divided later after nucleus occupied the position at the center of the daughter cells. Cell restoration started after the completion of mitosis and cytokinesis.

  11. CELL WALL CARBOHYDRATE EPITOPES IN THE GREEN ALGA OEDOGONIUM BHARUCHAE F. MINOR (OEDOGONIALES, CHLOROPHYTA)(1).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estevez, José M; Leonardi, Patricia I; Alberghina, Josefina S

    2008-10-01

    Cell wall changes in vegetative and suffultory cells (SCs) and in oogonial structures from Oedogonium bharuchae N. D. Kamat f. minor Vélez were characterized using monoclonal antibodies against several carbohydrate epitopes. Vegetative cells and SCs develop only a primary cell wall (PCW), whereas mature oogonial cells secrete a second wall, the oogonium cell wall (OCW). Based on histochemical and immunolabeling results, (1→4)-β-glucans in the form of crystalline cellulose together with a variable degree of Me-esterified homogalacturonans (HGs) and hydroxyproline-rich glycoprotein (HRGP) epitopes were detected in the PCW. The OCW showed arabinosides of the extensin type and low levels of arabinogalactan-protein (AGP) glycans but lacked cellulose, at least in its crystalline form. Surprisingly, strong colabeling in the cytoplasm of mature oogonia cells with three different antibodies (LM-5, LM-6, and CCRC-M2) was found, suggesting the presence of rhamnogalacturonan I (RG-I)-like structures. Our results are discussed relating the possible functions of these cell wall epitopes with polysaccharides and O-glycoproteins during oogonium differentiation. This study represents the first attempt to characterize these two types of cell walls in O. bharuchae, comparing their similarities and differences with those from other green algae and land plants. This work represents a contribution to the understanding of how cell walls have evolved from simple few-celled to complex multicelled organisms.

  12. Enhanced Antitumoral Activity of Extracts Derived from Cultured Udotea flabellum (Chlorophyta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa Moo-Puc

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Very few studies have been performed to evaluate the effect of culture conditions on the production or activity of active metabolites in algae. Previous studies suggest that the synthesis of bioactive compounds is strongly influenced by irradiance level. To investigate whether the antiproliferative activity of Udotea flabellum extracts is modified after cultivation, this green alga was cultured under four photon flux densities (PFD for 30 days. After 10, 20, and 30 days, algae were extracted with dichloromethane: methanol and screened for antiproliferative activity against four human cancer cell lines (laryngeal—Hep-2, cervix—HeLa, cervix squamous—SiHa and nasopharynx—KB by SRB assay. Lipid and phenol content were evaluated by standardized methods on algae organic extracts. After 10 days of cultivation, organic U. flabellum extracts showed a significant increase in antiproliferative activity on Hela and SiHa cells when compared to noncultured algae extracts. Extracts obtained after 10 and 20 days of culture were active on KB and Hep-2 cells. Total phenol and polyunsaturated fatty acid content in organic extracts changed with cultivation time but not by irradiance treatment. Extracts from U. flabellum obtained after 10 and 20 days of culture have been selected for fractionation and isolation of active compounds.

  13. A MOLECULAR PHYLOGENY OF ACROCHAETE AND OTHER ENDOPHYTIC GREEN ALGAE (ULVALES, CHLOROPHYTA)(1).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rinkel, Barbara E; Hayes, Paul; Gueidan, Cécile; Brodie, Juliet

    2012-08-01

    A molecular phylogeny was reconstructed from a culture collection of >150 isolates of epi-endophytic and endophytic green algae, based on nucleotide sequences of the plastid tufA and nuclear ITS2 loci. The cultures were isolated from a variety of algal hosts, notably the red algae Chondrus crispus, Mastocarpus stellatus, and Osmundea species, and the brown algae Chorda filum and Fucus serratus. The phylogeny revealed that in the Ulvales the majority of isolates fell into Acrochaete (Ulvellaceae), Ulva (Ulvaceae), Bolbocoleon (Bolbocoleaceae), and at least two unknown genera provisionally assigned to the Kornmanniaceae. Acrochaete was monophyletic. The genus was also more specious than previously described with 12 species, including up to six new species awaiting formal description. Isolates identified as Acrochaete repens, the type species of the genus, were polyphyletic. The remainder of the isolates were placed in the Ulotrichales. The results confirm that the endophytic habit supports a broad diversity of algal taxa and suggest that blade formation is a relatively recent innovation within the green algae.

  14. Caulerpa section Sedoideae (Chlorophyta, Caulerpales) from the Kenyan coast

    OpenAIRE

    Coppejans, E.; Beeckman, T.

    1989-01-01

    The Caulerpa's with spherical, clavate, turbinate or peltate branchlets collected by the authors along the Kenyan coast from 1985 to 1988 are described and illustrated. They include Caulerpa lentillifera as well as several "varieties" of C. racemosa: var. clavifera, var. laetevirens, var. lamourouxii, var. occidentalis, var. peltata, var. turbinata. Their variability is discussed and an identification key is provided.

  15. Spatial and Temporal Variation of Carotenoids in Four Species of Trentepohlia (Trentepohliales, Chlorophyta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Kharkongor

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Trentepohlia Martius, a dominant green subaerial alga, grows abundantly in Shillong and imparts the yellow, red, and orange colours to most of the tree barks, walls, rocks, and electric poles because of high accumulation of carotenoids in their filaments. This study emphasised the seasonal changes in carotenoid content amongst four different species of Trentepohlia, that is, T. diffracta, T. arborum, T. umbrina, and T. abietina, collected from four different substrata, that is, wall, rock, electric pole, and three types of tree bark (smooth, fissured, and rough. Quantitative estimation of different carotenoids, namely, β-cryptoxanthin, lutein, and β-carotene, from HPLC chromatogram peak showed a significant seasonal variation in all of the four species and β-carotene was threefold more in winter compared to summer. Amongst the selected species, T. diffracta collected from wall contained the highest amount of β-carotene both in summer and in winter, followed by T. arborum from rock and T. abietina from bark, and least amount was in T. umbrina collected from electric pole. Comparing the carotenoid content in Trentepohlia abietina growing in different types of barks, sample from smooth bark had the highest amount of carotenoids both in summer and in winter, followed by the sample from rough bark, and lowest amount was noted in fissured bark.

  16. ASPECTS OF IRON NUTRITION IN MACROALGAE ULVA PERTUSA(CHLOROPHYTA) UNDER IRON STRESS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘静雯; 董双林; 刘晓云

    2002-01-01

    Fe, Chlorophyll (Chl) and total nitrogen (TN) content in tissues were measured in Fe-deficient cultures of Ulva. pertusa over a period of 60 days. Photosynthetic carbon fixation rates were studied at the start of and 30 days after Fe-deficiency culture, when the effects of Fe-deficiency on the ultrastructure were also analyzed. The iron content in tissue decreased exponentially during Fe-deficiency (from 726.7 to 31.6 μg/gdw) and simultaneously Chl and TN content declined to 4.35% and 59.9% of their original levels respectively. Maximumcarbon fixation rate (50-250 μmol/m2 s) under Fe-deficiency decreased significantly compared with the control (p<0.01) and was 13.6 to 0.365 μg C /cm2 h. Photosynthesis in Fe-deficient cells became light-saturated at lower irradiance than that in control. Ultrastructural observations of Fe-deficient cells showed reductions in chloroplast number, some degeneration of lamellar organization, an increase in vacuolar area, a decrease in mitochondrial matrix density, and variation in accumulation body number and morphology. During Fe-deficiency, the algae growth rate continued to decline and after 6 weeks of iron deficiency, no furthergrowth was detectable. These suggested that the lower growth rate of Ulva. pertusa under Fe-deficiency could be due mainly to nitrogen utilization and inhibition of photosynthesis.``

  17. Phosphorus-zinc interactive effects on growth by Selenastrum capricornutum (chlorophyta)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuwabara, J.S.

    1985-01-01

    Culturing experiments in chemically defined growth media were conducted to observe possible Zn and P interactions on Selenastrum capricornutum Printz growth indexes. Elevated Zn concentrations (7.5 ?? 10-8 and 1.5 ?? 10-7 M [Zn2+]) were highly detrimental to algal growth, affecting lag, exponential, and stationary growth phases. P behaved as a yield-limiting nutrient with maximum cell densities increasing linearly with total P. This yield limitation was intensified at elevated Zn concentrations. Although calculated cellular phosphorus concentrations increased markedly with Zn ion activity, elevated Zn concentrations had no apparent effect on rates of phosphorus uptake estimated for Selenastrum during exponential growth. Results indicated that P-Zn interactions were significant in describing Selenastrum cell yield results and are consistent with previous Zn studies on chlorophytes. These P-Zn interactions and the observed inhibitory growth effects of submicromolar Zn concentrations suggest that in nature an apparent P yield-limiting condition may result from elevated Zn concentrations.

  18. PHYSIOLOGICAL INHIBITORY EFFECT OF OCS IN ARACHIDONIC ACID-RICH PARIETOCHLORIS INCISA (TREBOUXIOPHYCEAE,CHLOROPHYTA)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Parietochloris incisa is an arachidonic acid-rich snow green alga. The main phy siological profiles, such as ash free dry weight (AFDW), chlorophyll, carotenoid , protein and total fatty acids (TFA), in this alga exposed to old culture super natant (OCS) at the decline phase or its crude ethyl acetate extracts (CEAE) wer e investigated by using tubular photobioreactors of different diameters. Results showed that both OCS and CEAE had strong inhibitory effect on the above physiol ogical parameters. The longer the culture was exposed to OCS and the more CEAE w ere added into the algal culture, the more the above physiological properties we re inhibited. Arachidonic acid (AA), the dominant component of fatty acids in th is alga, was also seriously inhibited with respect to total TFA, AFDW of cell ma ss, or culture volume, due to a probable reduction of enzymes activities catalyz ing chain elongation from C18:1ω9 to AA. These results incontestably evidenced t hat some CEAE dissolving substances existing in OCS, like auto-inhibitors, inhi bited P. incisa growth through feedback. Hence, any efficient removal of aut o-i nhibitors from algal culture to decrease their bioactivity could be good for max imal production of desired products like AA.

  19. Physiological inhibitory effect of ocs in arachidonic acid-rich Parietochloris incisa (trebouxiophyceae, chlorophyta)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jian-Guo; Zhang, Cheng-Wu; Cohen, Zvi; Richmond, Amos

    2002-09-01

    Parietochloris incisa is an arachidonic acid-rich snow green alga. The main physiological profiles, such as ash free dry weight (AFDW), chlorophyll, carotenoid, protein and total fatty acids (TFA), in this alga exposed to old culture supernatant (OCS) at the decline phase or its crude ethyl acetate extracts (CEAE) were investigated by using tubular photobioreactors of different diameters. Results showed that both OCS and CEAE had strong inhibitory effect on the above physiological parameters. The longer the culture was exposed to OCS and the more CEAE were added into the algal culture, the more the above physiological properties were inhibited. Arachidonic acid (AA), the dominant component of fatty acids in this alga, was also seriously inhibited with respect to total TFA, AFDW of cell mass, or culture volume, due to a probable reduction of enzymes activities catalyzing chain elongation from C18; 1ω9 to AA. These results incontestably evidenced that some CEAE dissolving substances existing in OCS. like auto-inhibitors, inhibited P. incisa growth through feedback. Hence, any efficient removal of auto-inhibitors from algal culture to decrease their bioactivity could be good for maximal production of desired products like AA.

  20. On the enigmatic origin of the Mediterranean invasive Caulerpa racemosa (Caulerpales, Chlorophyta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. PANAYOTIDIS

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The successful sexual reproduction of the Mediterranean invasive species Caulerpa racemosa could explain not only its rapid expansion during the last decade of the 20th century, but also its origin, through hybridation and genetic recombination of preexisting varieties. This paper argues on the cryptogenic origin of the Mediterranean invasive Caulerpa racemosa.

  1. Variability in the ecophysiology of Halimeda spp. (Chlorophyta, Bryopsidales) on Conch Reef, Florida Keys, USA

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beach, K; Walters, L; Vroom, P; Coyer, J; Hunter, C

    2003-01-01

    The photosynthetic performance, pigmentation, and growth of a Halimeda community were studied over a depth gradient on Conch Reef, Florida Keys, USA during summer-fall periods of 5 consecutive years. The physiology and growth of H. tuna (Ellis & Solander) Lamouroux and H. opuntia (L.) Lamouroux on t

  2. Assembly of the Protoplasm of Codium fragile (Bryopsidales, Chlorophyta) into New Protoplasts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Demao Li; Fang Lü; Guangce Wang; Baicheng Zhou

    2008-01-01

    The cell organelles of the coenocytic alga Codium fragile (Sun) Hariot aggregated rapidly and protoplasts were formed when its protoplasm was extruded out in seawater. Continuous observation showed that there were long and gelatinous threads connecting the cell organelles. The threads contracted, and thus the cell organelles aggregated into protoplasmic masses. The enzyme digestion experiments and Coomassie Brilliant Blue and Anthrone stainings showed that the long and gelatinous threads involved in the formation of the protoplasts might Include protein and saccharides as structure components. Nile Red staining Indicated that the protoplast primary envelope was non-lipid at first, and then lipid materials Integrated Into its surface gradually. The fluorescent brightener staining Indicated that the cell wall did not regenerate in the newly formed protoplasts and they all disintegrated within 72 h after formation. Transmission electron microscopy of the cell wall of wild C. fragile showed electron-dense material embedded in the whole cell wall at regular intervals. The experiments indicated that C. fragile would be a suitable model alga for studying the formation of protoplasts.

  3. Patterns of asexual reproduction in Nannochloris bacillaris and Marvania geminata (Chlorophyta, Trebouxiophyceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Maki; Nishikawa, Toshikazu; Kajitani, Hiroyuki; Kawano, Shigeyuki

    2007-09-01

    Non-flagellated vegetative green algae of the Trebouxiophyceae propagate mainly by autosporulation. In this manner, the mother cell wall is shed following division of the protoplast in each round of cell division. Binary fission type Nannochloris and budding type Marvania are also included in the Trebouxiophyceae. Phylogenetic trees based on the actin sequences of Trebouxiophyceae members revealed that the binary fission type Nannochloris bacillaris and the budding type Marvania geminata are closely related in a distal monophyletic group. Our results suggest that autosporulation is the ancestral mode of cell division in Trebouxiophyceae. To elucidate how non-autosporulative mechanisms such as binary fission and budding evolved, we focused on the cleavage of the mother cell wall. Cell wall development was analyzed using a cell wall-specific fluorescent dye, Fluostain I. Exfoliation of the mother cell wall was not observed in either N. bacillaris or M. geminata. We then compared the two algae by transmission electron microscopy with rapid freeze fixation and freeze substitution; in both algae, the mother cell wall was cleaved at the site of cell division, but remained adhered to the daughter cell wall. In N. bacillaris, the cleaved mother cell wall gradually degenerated and was not observed in the next cell cycle. In contrast, M. geminata daughter cells entered the growth phase of the next cell cycle bearing the mother and grandmother cell walls, causing the uncovered portion of the plane of division to bulge outward. Such a delay in the degeneration and shedding of the mother cell wall probably led to the development of binary fission and budding.

  4. Photosynthetic responses of thalli and isolated protoplasts of Bryopsis hypnoides (Bryopsidales, Chlorophyta) during dehydration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lü, Fang; Wang, Guangce; Jin, Haochen

    2011-03-01

    Bryopsis hypnoides Lamouroux is a unique intertidal siphonous green alga whose extruded protoplasm can aggregate spontaneously in seawater to form numerous new cells that can develop into mature algal thalli. In this study, the photosynthetic responses during dehydration of both the thalli and protoplasts isolated from B. hypnoides were measured using a Dual-PAM (pulse amplitude modulation)-100 fluorometer. The results show that the photosynthetic rates of B. hypnoides thalli were maintained for an initial period, beyond which continued desiccation resulted in reduced rates of PSI and PSII. However, the photosynthetic performances of the isolated protoplasts dehydrated in air (CO2 concentration 600-700 mg/L) showed a slight increase of Y(II) at 20% water loss, but the rates decreased thereafter with declining water content. When protoplasts were dehydrated in CO2 deficient conditions (CO2 concentration 40-80 mg/L), the values of Y(II) declined steadily with increased dehydration without an initial rise. These results indicated that the thalli and isolated protoplasts of this alga can utilize CO2 in ambient air effectively, and the photosynthetic performances of the isolated protoplasts were significantly different from that of the thalli during dehydration. Thus the protoplasts may be an excellent system for the study of stress tolerance.

  5. Desiccation tolerance and lichenization: a case study with the aeroterrestrial microalga Trebouxia sp. (Chlorophyta).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Candotto Carniel, Fabio; Zanelli, Davide; Bertuzzi, Stefano; Tretiach, Mauro

    2015-08-01

    A comparative study of isolated vs. lichenized Trebouxia sp. showed that lichenization does not influence the survival capability of the alga to the photo-oxidative stress derived from prolonged desiccation. Coccoid algae in the Trebouxia genus are the most common photobionts of chlorolichens but are only sporadically found in soil or bark outside of a lichen. They all appear to be desiccation tolerant, i.e. they can survive drying to water contents of below 10%. However, little is known about their longevity in the dry state and to which extent lichenization can influence it. Here, we studied the longevity in the dry state of the lichenized alga (LT) Trebouxia sp. in the lichen Parmotrema perlatum, in comparison with axenically grown cultures (CT) isolated from the same lichen. We report on chlorophyll fluorescence emission and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production before desiccation, after 15-45 days in the dry state under different combinations of light and air humidity and after recovery for 1 or 3 days in fully hydrated conditions. Both the CT and the LT were able to withstand desiccation under high light (120 µmol photons m(-2) s(-1) for 14 h per day), but upon recovery after 45 days in the dry state the performance of the CT was better than that of the LT. By contrast, the quenching of excess light energy was more efficient in the LT, at high relative humidities especially. ROS production in the LT was influenced mostly by light exposure, whereas the CT showed an oxidative burst independent of the light conditions. Although lichenization provides benefits that are essential for the survival of the photobiont in high-light habitats, Trebouxia sp. can withstand protracted periods of photo-oxidative stress even outside of a lichen thallus.

  6. Growth and survival of Escherichia coli and enterococci populations in the macro-alga Cladophora (Chlorophyta)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byappanahalli, M.N.; Shively, D.A.; Nevers, M.B.; Sadowsky, M.J.; Whitman, R.L.

    2003-01-01

    The macro-alga Cladophora glomerata is found in streams and lakes worldwide. High concentrations of Escherichia coli and enterococci have been reported in Cladophora along the Lake Michigan shore. The objective of this study was to determine if Cladophora supported growth of these indicator bacteria. Algal leachate readily supported in vitro multiplication of E. coli and enterococci, suggesting that leachates contain necessary growth-promoting substances. Growth was directly related to the concentration of algal leachate. E. coli survived for over 6 months in dried Cladophora stored at 4°C; residual E. coli grew after mat rehydration, reaching a carrying capacity of 8 log CFU g-1 in 48 h. Results of this study also show that the E. coli strains associated with Cladophora are highly related; in most instances they are genetically different from each other, suggesting that the relationship between E. coli and Cladophora may be casual. These findings indicate that Cladophora provides a suitable environment for indicator bacteria to persist for extended periods and to grow under natural conditions.

  7. Mechanisms of metal tolerance in marine macroalgae, with emphasis on copper tolerance in Chlorophyta and Rhodophyta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moenne, Alejandra; González, Alberto; Sáez, Claudio A

    2016-07-01

    Green and red macroalgae are closely related organisms, and with terrestrial plants, and constitute the base of marine food webs in coastal ecosystems. Green and red seaweeds, as all living organisms, require essential metals, such as copper, iron, zinc, which can act as co-factors for several proteins and enzymes; however, these metals in excess can induce stress and impair cell viability. Most important negative effects of metal excess are related to the induction of an oxidative stress condition, characterized by the over-accumulation of Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS). In this respect, copper, abundant in wastewaters disposed to coastal environments from domestic and industrial activities, has been one of the most studied metals. Different investigations have provided evidence that green and red macroalgae display several defenses against copper excess to prevent, or at least reduce, stress and damage, among which are cellular exclusion mechanisms, synthesis of metal-chelating compounds, and the activation of the antioxidant system. Most important defense mechanisms identified in green and red seaweed involve: metal-binding to cell wall and epibionts; syntheses of metallothioneins and phytochelatins that accumulate in the cytoplasm; and the increase in the activity of antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismutase, ascorbate peroxidase, glutathione peroxidase and catalase, and greater production of antioxidant metabolites as glutathione and ascorbate in organelles and the cytoplasm. In this review, we go through historical records, latest advances, and pending tasks aiming to expand our current knowledge on defense mechanisms to copper excess in green and red macroalgae, with emphasis on biochemical and molecular aspects.

  8. Chemical Characteristics and Anticoagulant Activities of Two Sulfated Polysaccharides from Enteromorpha linza(Chlorophyta)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QI Xiaohui; MAO Wenjun; CHEN Yin; CHEN Yanli; ZHAO Chunqi; LI Na; WANG Chunyan

    2013-01-01

    Two sulfated polysaccharides,designated MP and SP,were extracted from the marine green alga Enteromorpha linza using hot water and then purified using ion-exchange and size-exclusion chromatography.The anticoagulant activities of MP and SP were examined by determination of their activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT),thrombin time (TT) and prothrombin time (PT) using human plasma.Results showed that MP and SP were composed of abundant rhamnose with small amounts of xylose and glucuronic acid,whereas SP also contained a small amount of galactose.Approximate molecular weights of MP and SP were 535 and 502kDa,respectively.As compared with SP,MP had higher contents of sulfate ester (19.0%) and uronic acid (14.9%).The MP mainly consisted of (1→4)-linked rhamnose residues with partially sulfated groups at the C-3 position,and small amounts of (1→3,4)-linked rhamnose,(1→2,4)-linked rhamnose,(1→4)-linked glucuronic acid and (1→4)-linked xylose residues.The SP contained abundant (1→4)-linked rhamnose with minor amounts of (1→3)-linked rhamnose,(1→3,4)-linked rhamnose,(1→2,4)-linked rhamnose,(1→4)-linked glucuronic acid,(1→4)-linked xylose,and (1→3)-linked galactose residues.The sulfate groups were mainly located at C-3 of (1→4)-linked rhamnose residues.Both MP and SP,in particular the former,effectively prolonged APTT and TT.This work demonstrates that MP and SP have unique structural characteristics distinct from those of other sulfated polysaccharides from Enteromorpha.The MP is a potential source of anticoagulant,and the difference in anticoagulant activities of the two sulfated polysaccharides is directly linked to the discrepancy of their chemical features.

  9. 18S RDNA AND EVOLUTION IN THE DASYCLADALES (CHLOROPHYTA) - MODERN LIVING FOSSILS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    OLSEN, JL; STAM, WT; BERGER, S; MENZEL, D

    1994-01-01

    Phylogenetic relationships were inferred from parsimony and distance analyses of nuclear small-subunit ribosomal DNA sequences taken from 14 species representing 8 Of the 11 extant genera in the Dasycladales. Of 1733 aligned positions, 412 (23.8%) were variable and 251 (61%) of those were phylogenet

  10. Morphological and ultrastructural studies on Ulva flexuosa subsp. pilifera (Chlorophyta from Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beata Messyasz

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Ulva flexuosa subsp. pilifera (Kütz. M. J. Wynne 2005 (= Enteromorpha pilifera Kützing 1845 was previously found in Argentina, the Czech Republic, Germany, Hungary, Romania, Slovakia and Sweden, recently also in Poland. The genus Ulva was first time described as Enteromorpha. Interestingly, Enteromorpha is used nowadays as a synonym for Ulva, a development which is based on molecular data. The morphologies of both young and mature specimens were studied, and most life cycle stages could be observed. Further, the formation of calcium carbonate crystals on the surface of Ulva thalli seems to influence the arrangement of the cells. A detailed ultrastructural (TEM analysis of cell walls is presented. The TEM reveals in great details highly complex, irregular structures with stratification lines.

  11. Chemometric analysis of fatty acids profile of bream (Abramis brama, ruffe (Gymnocephalus cernua and perch (Perca fluviatilis meat from Lake Gopło and Włocławski Dam Reservoir

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogumila Kupcewicz

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The 18 fatty acid profiles have been determined in 63 samples of muscles from three freshwater fish species: bream, ruffe and perch by gas chromatography method. The fish were collected in natural condition from two reservoirs located in central Poland: Lake Gopło and Włocławski Reservoir. A chemometric study with the use of hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA, principal component (PCA and stepwise linear discrimination analysis (LDA was applied to characterize, classify and differentiate collected samples. The chemometric techniques by using fatty acids content as descriptors allow clearly distinguish 6 groups according to fish species and their geographical origin.

  12. La familia Valoniaceae (Chlorophyta en el estado de Bahía, Brasil: aspectos morfológicos y de distribución The family Valoniaceae (Chlorophyta in the state of Bahia, Brazil: morphological aspects and geographical distribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aigara Miranda Alves

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available El trabajo contempla el estudio morfológico y de distribución de las especies de Valoniaceae presentes en la costa del Estado de Bahía, Brasil. Se analizaron en el estudio especímenes de herbario y muestras recolectadas entre 1994 y 2010 en un total de 29 localidades. Se recolectaron cuatro especies: Valonia aegagropila, V. macrophysa, V. ventricosay Ernodesmis verticillata, siendo esta última una nueva adición a la flora de macroalgas del Estado. Para la costa brasileña se documenta por la primera vez talos fértiles de E. verticillata y la presencia de cristales de sílice y carbonato de calcio en las células de los taxones estudiados. Se presentan descripciones, ilustraciones y datos de distribución geográfica para cada especie a lo largo de la costa brasileña, asi como comentarios de otras especies relacionadas. Valonia aegagropila presentó una amplia distribución a lo largo de la costa, V. macrophysa y V. ventricosa, se registraron desde la Bahía de Todos los Santos hasta las Islas Abrolhos, mientras que E. verticillata ocurrió aisladamente en las Islas de Itaparica y Madre de Deus, ambas en la Bahía de Todos los Santos.The present paper included morphological and geographical distribution aspects of the Valoniaceae species occurring in the littoral of Bahía , Brazil. Specimens from vouchers of herbaria and material collected at 29 sites between 1994 and 2010 were analyzed. Four species were identified: Valonia aegagropila, V. macrophysa, V. ventricosa and Ernodesmis verticillata, the latter is a new record for the marine algae of Bahía state. Fertile thalli of E. verticillata and the presence of silica and calcium carbonate crystals into their cells were documented for the first time for the Brazilian coast. Detailed descriptions, illustrations and geographical distribution data for each species through the brazilian coast, as well as, discussion with related taxa are presented. Valonia aegagropila showed a wide distribution, being recorded all along the coast of Bahía, V. macrophysa and V. ventricosa, were recorded from the Todos los Santos Bay to the Abrolhos Archipelago and E. verticillata occurred only on the Itaparica and Madre de Deus Islands, both located in the Todos los Santos Bay.

  13. A dichotomous species of Codium (Bryopsidales, Chlorophyta is colonizing northern Chile Una especie dicotómica de Codium (Bryopsidales, Chlorophyta está colonizando el norte de Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ALEJANDRA GONZÁLEZ

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available In late 2001 and early 2002, a dichotomous species of Codium appeared colonizing the low intertidal and shallow subtidal bottoms of Caldera Bay, northern Chile (27° 03’ S, 70° 51’ W. Due to the ecological and economic impact the species is having in Caldera Bay and its potential spread along the Chilean coastline, we studied the taxonomic identity of the species and examined its relationships with other dichotomous species of Codium reported for temperate Pacific South America. Morphological analyses suggest that the seaweeds from Caldera Bay belong to Codium fragile (Suringar Hariot. Not only is there strong agreement in internal and external morphological characters, but among all the species reported for Peru and Chile, this is the only one exhibiting utricles with rounded, apiculate tip terminating in a mucron. This species has a broad geographic distribution in temperate waters. In Chile it was known only from the coasts of Valdivia to the Straits of Magellan (39° 48’ S, 73° 26’ W to 53° 10’ S, 73° 49’ W. This is the first record of C. fragile in northern Chile, and this study discusses several alternative hypotheses for the presence of the species into this area. The morphological characteristics of the material collected in Caldera partially agree with diagnostic characters known for C. fragile subspecies tasmanicum and C. fragile subspecies tomentosoides. However, the rapid population spread of the species in northern Chile, and recent molecular analysis support the identification of this form as the invasive C. fragile subspecies tomentosoidesA fines de 2001 y principio de 2002, apareció en el norte de Chile una especie del género Codium, de morfología dicotómica, colonizando los niveles intermareales y submareales de la Bahía de Caldera (27° 03’ S, 70° 51’ O. Debido al impacto ecológico y económico que ha provocado esta especie en la Bahía de Caldera y a su dispersión potencial a lo largo de la costa de Chile, estudiamos la identidad taxonómica de la especie, examinando su relación con las especies de Codium de hábito erecto descritas para la costa temperada del Pacífico Sudamericano. El análisis morfológico sugiere que el alga encontrada en la Bahía de Caldera corresponde a la especie Codium fragile (Suringar Hariot. Tanto los caracteres morfológicos internos como externos del alga, son concordantes con la descripción de la especie, incluyendo utrículos de ápices redondeados apiculados terminados en un mucron puntiagudo. Esta especie posee una amplia distribución geográfica en aguas temperadas. En Chile, es conocida sólo para las costas entre Valdivia y Magallanes (39° 48’ S, 73° 26’ O a 53° 10’ S, 73° 49’ O. Este es el primer registro de C. fragile en el norte de Chile y además, este estudio discute diversas hipótesis alternativas de introducción de la especie en el área. Las características morfológicas de los materiales colectados en Caldera concuerdan parcialmente con los caracteres diagnósticos conocidos para C. fragile subespecies tasmanicum y C. fragile subespecies tomentosoides. Sin embargo, la expansión poblacional rápida que la especie está mostrando en Chile norte junto con análisis moleculares recientes apoyan la identificación de estas poblaciones como pertenecientes a la subespecie tomentosoides

  14. Culture observation and molecular phylogenetic analysis on the blooming green alga Chaetomorpha valida (Cladophorales, Chlorophyta) from China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Yunyan; Tang, Xiaorong; Zhan, Zifeng; Teng, Linhong; Ding, Lanping; Huang, Bingxin

    2013-05-01

    The marine green alga Chaetomorpha valida fouls aquaculture ponds along the coastal cities of Dalian and Rongcheng, China. Unialgal cultures were observed under a microscope to determine the developmental morphological characters of C. valida. Results reveal that gametophytic filaments often produce lateral branches under laboratory culture conditions, suggesting an atypical heteromorphic life cycle of C. valida between unbranched sporophytes and branched gametophytes, which differs from typical isomorphic alternation of Chaetomorpha species. The shape of the basal attachment cell, an important taxonomic character within the genus, was found variable depending on environmental conditions. The 18S rDNA and 28S rDNA regions were used to explore the phylogenetic affinity of the taxa. Inferred trees from 18S rDNA sequences revealed a close relationship between C. valida and Chaetomorpha moniligera. These results would enrich information in general biology and morphological plasticity of C. valida and provided a basis for future identification of green tide forming algae.

  15. Differences in acclimation potential of photosynthesis in seven isolates of the tropical to warm temperate macrophyte Valonia utricularis (Chlorophyta)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eggert, Anja; Visser, Ronald J. W.; Van Hasselt, Philip R.; Breeman, Anneke M.

    2006-01-01

    The potential to acclimate photosynthesis to sub- and supra-optimal temperatures was investigated in seven isolates of Valonia utricularis (Roth) C. Agardh, a green macrophyte with a tropical to warm-temperate distribution. Photosynthesis-light response curves were obtained by measuring chlorophyll

  16. Ecophysiology, secondary pigments and ultrastructure of Chlainomonas sp. (Chlorophyta) from the European Alps compared with Chlamydomonas nivalis forming red snow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remias, Daniel; Pichrtová, Martina; Pangratz, Marion; Lütz, Cornelius; Holzinger, Andreas

    2016-04-01

    Red snow is a well-known phenomenon caused by microalgae thriving in alpine and polar regions during the melting season. The ecology and biodiversity of these organisms, which are adapted to low temperatures, high irradiance and freeze-thaw events, are still poorly understood. We compared two different snow habitats containing two different green algal genera in the European Alps, namely algae blooming in seasonal rock-based snowfields (Chlamydomonas nivalis) and algae dominating waterlogged snow bedded over ice (Chlainomonassp.). Despite the morphological similarity of the red spores found at the snow surface, we found differences in intracellular organization investigated by light and transmission electron microscopy and in secondary pigments investigated by chromatographic analysis in combination with mass spectrometry. Spores ofChlainomonassp. show clear differences fromChlamydomonas nivalisin cell wall arrangement and plastid organization. Active photosynthesis at ambient temperatures indicates a high physiological activity, despite no cell division being present. Lipid bodies containing the carotenoid astaxanthin, which produces the red color, dominate cells of both species, but are modified differently. While inChlainomonassp. astaxanthin is mainly esterified with two fatty acids and is more apolar, inChamydomonas nivalis, in contrast, less apolar monoesters prevail.

  17. Use of lanthanides to alleviate the effects of metal ion-deficiency in Desmodesmus quadricauda (Sphaeropleales, Chlorophyta.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franz eGoecke

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Lanthanides are biologically non-essential elements with wide applications in technology and industry. Their concentration as environmental contaminants is, therefore, increasing. Although non-essential, lanthanides have been proposed (and even used to produce beneficial effects in plants, even though their mechanisms of action are unclear. Recently, it was suggested that they may replace essential elements. We tested the effect of low concentrations of lanthanides on the common freshwater microalga Desmodesmus quadricauda, grown under conditions of metal ion-deficiency (lower calcium or manganese concentrations. Our goal was to test if lanthanides can replace essential metals in their functions. Physiological stress was recorded by studying growth and photosynthetic activity using a pulse amplitude modulation (PAM fluorimeter. We found that nutrient stress reduced parameters of growth and chlorophyll fluorescence, such as maximal quantum yield, relative electron transport rate, photon capturing efficiency and light saturation irradiance. After adding low concentrations of five lanthanides, we confirmed that they can produce a stimulatory effect on microalgae, depending on the nutrient (metal deprivation. In the case of a calcium deficit, the addition of lanthanides partly alleviated the effects, probably by a partial substitution of the element. In contrast, with manganese deprivation (and at even lower concentrations, lanthanides enhanced the toxic effect and severely inhibited growth. These results show that lanthanides can replace essential elements, but their effects on microalgae depend on stress and the physiological state of the microalgae, raising the possibility of environmental impacts at even low concentrations.

  18. Cloning and characterization of the phytoene desaturase ( pds) gene — a key enzyme for carotenoids synthesis in Dunaliella (Chlorophyta)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Guohua; Sui, Zhenghong; Zhang, Xuecheng

    2008-08-01

    The unicellular green alga Dunaliella is outstanding for its ability of massive accumulation of carotenoids. To elucidate the carotenoids synthesis pathway in this alga, phytoene desaturase ( pds) gene cDNA together with its DNA sequences were isolated and their structures and functions analyzed. The full-length pds cDNA of 2290 bp (GenBank Accession No. DQ243892) was deduced from RACE results, including untranslated 21 bp 5'-and 520 bp 3'-flanking regions and an open reading frame of 582 amino acids, coding a protein of 64.196 kDa. The DNA sequence of 2908 bp (GenBank Accession No. DQ845248) including five introns was obtained. The fifth intron was uncompleted and complex, including two bases’ perfect repeats (GT)10 and large different-sized repeats within the last 400 bp. The Southern blot hybridization result demonstrated that this gene occurred as a single copy in this species, and the quantitative RT-PCR result showed that the transcription of this gene was constitutive. The evolutional significance of pds was discussed.

  19. A METHOD FOR OBTAINING AXENIC ALGAL CULTURES USING THE ANTIBIOTIC CEFOTAXIME WITH EMPHASIS ON CLADOPHOROPSIS-MEMBRANACEA (CHLOROPHYTA)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    KOOISTRA, WHCF; BOELEBOS, SA; STAM, WT

    1991-01-01

    Axenic cultures of the tropical green seaweed Cladophoropsis membranacea (C. Agardh) Boergesen were obtained by cutting 2-mm apical tips from fast-growing unialgal filaments and incubating them in 1/2PES containing 100-mu-g.mL-1 cefotaxime. After 1 week, apical tips were cut from the newly grown pla

  20. Differential toxic effects of Ulva lactuca (Chlorophyta) on the herbivorous gastropods, Littorina littorea and L. obtusata (Mollusca).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peckol, Paulette; Putnam, Alysha B

    2017-04-01

    Members of the genus Ulva are widespread and abundant in intertidal and shallow subtidal areas but there are conflicting data regarding susceptibility to herbivory. While some studies have documented that Ulva spp. were favored by a diversity of marine herbivores, other work has revealed herbivore deterrence. We investigated grazing and growth rates of the littorinid species, Littorina littorea and L. obtusata, when offered Fucus vesiculosus, Ascophyllum nodosum, Ulva lactuca, and Chondrus crispus, highlighting distinctive vulnerabilities to toxic effects of U. lactuca. Ulva lactuca was the preferred food of L. littorea, while L. obtusata showed no grazing on this ephemeral algal species. In contrast, F. vesiculosus was highly preferred by L. obtusata. Although L. littorea demonstrated a grazing preference for U. lactuca, growth rate of this gastropod species was nearly 3× greater when fed F. vesiculosus, suggesting a non-lethal, negative effect of U. lactuca on L. littorea with long-term exposure. Mortality of L. obtusata ranged from 0% to 100% when held in the presence of various Ulva densities for 1 week, and Ulva exudate depressed herbivory of this gastropod. We conclude that the water-soluble, toxic exudate produced by U. lactuca in response to herbivory had allelochemical properties, and may contain a cleavage product (acrylic acid) of dimethylsulfoniopropionate or reactive oxygen species (i.e., H2 O2 ). Observed differences in susceptibility to Ulva toxicity by the littorinid species may be related to generalist versus specialist feeding and habitat strategies. © 2016 Phycological Society of America.

  1. The influence of photoperiod and light intensity on the growth and photosynthesis of Dunaliella salina (chlorophyta) CCAP 19/30.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yanan; Ibrahim, Iskander M; Harvey, Patricia J

    2016-09-01

    The green microalga Dunaliella salina survives in a wide range of salinities via mechanisms involving glycerol synthesis and degradation and is exploited for large amounts of nutraceutical carotenoids produced under stressed conditions. In this study, D. salina CCAP 19/30 was cultured in varying photoperiods and light intensities to study the relationship of light with different growth measurement parameters, with cellular contents of glycerol, starch and carotenoids, and with photosynthesis and respiration. Results show CCAP 19/30 regulated cell volume when growing under light/dark cycles: cell volume increased in the light and decreased in the dark, and these changes corresponded to changes in cellular glycerol content. The decrease in cell volume in the dark was independent of cell division and biological clock and was regulated by the photoperiod of the light/dark cycle. When the light intensity was increased to above 1000 μmol photons m(-2) s(-1), cells displayed evidence of photodamage. However, these cells also maintained the maximum level of photosynthesis efficiency and respiration possible, and the growth rate increased as light intensity increased. Significantly, the intracellular glycerol content also increased, >2-fold compared to the content in light intensity of 500 μmol photons m(-2) s(-1), but there was no commensurate increase in the pool size of carotenoids. These data suggest that in CCAP 19/30 glycerol stabilized the photosynthetic apparatus for maximum performance in high light intensities, a role normally attributed to carotenoids.

  2. Unraveling the Photoprotective Response of Lichenized and Free-Living Green Algae (Trebouxiophyceae, Chlorophyta to Photochilling Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fátima Míguez

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Lichens and free-living terrestrial algae are widespread across many habitats and develop successfully in ecosystems where a cold winter limits survival. With the goal of comparing photoprotective responses in free-living and lichenized algae, the physiological responses to chilling and photochilling conditions were studied in three lichens and their isolated algal photobionts together as well as in a fourth free-living algal species. We specifically addressed the following questions: (i Are there general patterns of acclimation in green algae under chilling and photochilling stresses? (ii Do free-living algae exhibit a similar pattern of responses as their lichenized counterparts? (iii Are these responses influenced by the selection pressure of environmental conditions or by the phylogenetic position of each species? To answer these questions, photosynthetic fluorescence measurements as well as pigment and low molecular weight carbohydrate pool analyses were performed under controlled laboratory conditions. In general, photochemical efficiency in all free-living algae decreased with increasing duration of the stress, while the majority of lichens maintained an unchanged photochemical activity. Nevertheless, these patterns cannot be generalized because the alga Trebouxia arboricola and the lichen Ramalina pollinaria (associated with Trebouxia photobionts both showed a similar decrease in photochemical efficiency. In contrast, in the couple Elliptochloris bilobata-Baeomyces rufus, only the algal partner exhibited a broad physiological performance under stress. This study also highlights the importance of the xanthophyll cycle in response to the studied lichens and algae to photochilling stress, while the accumulation of sugars was not related to cold acclimation, except in the alga E. bilobata. The differences in response patterns detected among species can be mainly explained by their geographic origin, although the phylogenetic position should also be considered, especially in some species.

  3. Evolution of temperature responses in the Cladophora vagabunda complex and the C-albida/sericea complex (Chlorophyta)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Breeman, AM; Oh, YS; Hwang, MS; Van den Hoek, C

    2002-01-01

    Differentiation in temperature responses (survival and growth) was investigated among isolates of two tropical to temperate green algal lineages: the Cladophora vagabunda complex and the C. albida/sericea complex. The results were analysed in relation to published data on 18S rRNA and ITS sequence d

  4. Toxicity of titanium dioxide nanoparticles to Chlorella vulgaris Beyerinck (Beijerinck) 1890 (Trebouxiophyceae, Chlorophyta) under changing nitrogen conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dauda, Suleiman; Chia, Mathias Ahii; Bako, Sunday Paul

    2017-06-01

    The broad application of titanium dioxide nanoparticles (n-TiO2) in many consumer products has resulted in the release of substantial quantities into aquatic systems. While n-TiO2 have been shown to induce some unexpected toxic effects on aquatic organisms such as microalgae, the influence of changing nutrient conditions on the toxicity of the metal has not been investigated. We evaluated the toxicity of n-TiO2 to Chlorella vulgaris under varying nitrogen conditions. Limited nitrogen (2.2μM) decreased growth and biomass (dry weight and pigment content), while lipid peroxidation (malondialdehyde content), glutathione S-transferase activity (GST) and peroxidase (POD) activity were increased. Similarly, exposure to n-TiO2 under replete nitrogen condition resulted in a general decrease in growth and biomass, while GST and POD activities were significantly increased. The combination of limited nitrogen with n-TiO2 exposure further decreased growth and biomass, and increased GST and POD activities of the microalga. These results suggest that in addition to the individual effects of each investigated condition, nitrogen limitation makes C. vulgaris more susceptible to the effects of n-TiO2 with regard to some physiological parameters. This implies that the exposure of C. vulgaris and possibly other green algae to this nanoparticle under limited or low nitrogen conditions may negatively affect their contribution to primary production in oligotrophic aquatic ecosystems. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Optimization of cell disruption methods for efficient recovery of bioactive metabolites via NMR of three freshwater microalgae (chlorophyta).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Nyuk Ling; Teh, Kit Yinn; Lam, Su Shiung; Kaben, Anne Marie; Cha, Thye San

    2015-08-01

    This study demonstrates the use of NMR techniques coupled with chemometric analysis as a high throughput data mining method to identify and examine the efficiency of different disruption techniques tested on microalgae (Chlorella variabilis, Scenedesmus regularis and Ankistrodesmus gracilis). The yield and chemical diversity from the disruptions together with the effects of pre-oven and pre-freeze drying prior to disruption techniques were discussed. HCl extraction showed the highest recovery of oil compounds from the disrupted microalgae (up to 90%). In contrast, NMR analysis showed the highest intensity of bioactive metabolites obtained for homogenized extracts pre-treated with freeze-drying, indicating that homogenizing is a more favorable approach to recover bioactive substances from the disrupted microalgae. The results show the potential of NMR as a useful metabolic fingerprinting tool for assessing compound diversity in complex microalgae extracts. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Effects of elevated pCO2 on physiological performance of marine microalgae Dunaliella salina (Chlorophyta, Chlorophyceae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Shunxin; Wang, You; Wang, Ying; Zhao, Yan; Zhang, Xinxin; Zhang, Yongsheng; Jiang, Ming; Tang, Xuexi

    2017-06-01

    The present study was conducted to determine the effects of elevated pCO2 on growth, photosynthesis, dark respiration and inorganic carbon acquisition in the marine microalga Dunaliella salina. To accomplish this, D. salina was incubated in semi-continuous cultures under present-day CO2 levels (390 μatm, pHNBS: 8.10), predicted year 2100 CO2 levels (1 000 μatm, pHNBS: 7.78) and predicted year 2300 CO2 levels (2 000 μatm, pHNBS: 7.49). Elevated pCO2 significantly enhanced photosynthesis (in terms of gross photosynthetic O2 evolution, effective quantum yield (ΔF/F' m ), photosynthetic efficiency (α), maximum relative electron transport rate (rETRmax) and ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (Rubisco) activity) and dark respiration of D. salina, but had insignificant effects on growth. The photosynthetic O2 evolution of D. salina was significantly inhibited by the inhibitors acetazolamide (AZ), ethoxyzolamide (EZ) and 4,4'-diisothiocyanostilbene-2,2'-disulfonate (DIDS), indicating that D. salina is capable of acquiring HCO3 - via extracellular carbonic anhydrase and anion-exchange proteins. Furthermore, the lower inhibition of the photosynthetic O2 evolution at high pCO2 levels by AZ, EZ and DIDS and the decreased carbonic anhydrase showed that carbon concentrating mechanisms were down-regulated at high pCO2. In conclusion, our results show that photosynthesis, dark respiration and CCMs will be affected by the increased pCO2/low pH conditions predicted for the future, but that the responses of D. salina to high pCO2/low pH might be modulated by other environmental factors such as light, nutrients and temperature. Therefore, further studies are needed to determine the interactive effects of pCO2, temperature, light and nutrients on marine microalgae.

  7. Use of lanthanides to alleviate the effects of metal ion-deficiency in Desmodesmus quadricauda (Sphaeropleales, Chlorophyta).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goecke, Franz; Jerez, Celia G; Zachleder, Vilém; Figueroa, Félix L; Bišová, Kateřina; Řezanka, Tomáš; Vítová, Milada

    2015-01-01

    Lanthanides are biologically non-essential elements with wide applications in technology and industry. Their concentration as environmental contaminants is, therefore, increasing. Although non-essential, lanthanides have been proposed (and even used) to produce beneficial effects in plants, even though their mechanisms of action are unclear. Recently, it was suggested that they may replace essential elements. We tested the effect of low concentrations of lanthanides on the common freshwater microalga Desmodesmus quadricauda, grown under conditions of metal ion-deficiency (lower calcium or manganese concentrations). Our goal was to test if lanthanides can replace essential metals in their functions. Physiological stress was recorded by studying growth and photosynthetic activity using a pulse amplitude modulation (PAM) fluorimeter. We found that nutrient stress reduced parameters of growth and photosynthesis, such as maximal quantum yield, relative electron transport rate, photon capturing efficiency and light saturation irradiance. After adding low concentrations of five lanthanides, we confirmed that they can produce a stimulatory effect on microalgae, depending on the nutrient (metal) deprivation. In the case of a calcium deficit, the addition of lanthanides partly alleviated the adverse effects, probably by a partial substitution of the element. In contrast, with manganese deprivation (and at even lower concentrations), lanthanides enhanced the deleterious effect on cellular growth and photosynthetic competence. These results show that lanthanides can replace essential elements, but their effects on microalgae depend on stress and the nutritional state of the microalgae, raising the possibility of environmental impacts at even low concentrations.

  8. Use of lanthanides to alleviate the effects of metal ion-deficiency in Desmodesmus quadricauda (Sphaeropleales, Chlorophyta)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goecke, Franz; Jerez, Celia G.; Zachleder, Vilém; Figueroa, Félix L.; Bišová, Kateřina; Řezanka, Tomáš; Vítová, Milada

    2015-01-01

    Lanthanides are biologically non-essential elements with wide applications in technology and industry. Their concentration as environmental contaminants is, therefore, increasing. Although non-essential, lanthanides have been proposed (and even used) to produce beneficial effects in plants, even though their mechanisms of action are unclear. Recently, it was suggested that they may replace essential elements. We tested the effect of low concentrations of lanthanides on the common freshwater microalga Desmodesmus quadricauda, grown under conditions of metal ion-deficiency (lower calcium or manganese concentrations). Our goal was to test if lanthanides can replace essential metals in their functions. Physiological stress was recorded by studying growth and photosynthetic activity using a pulse amplitude modulation (PAM) fluorimeter. We found that nutrient stress reduced parameters of growth and photosynthesis, such as maximal quantum yield, relative electron transport rate, photon capturing efficiency and light saturation irradiance. After adding low concentrations of five lanthanides, we confirmed that they can produce a stimulatory effect on microalgae, depending on the nutrient (metal) deprivation. In the case of a calcium deficit, the addition of lanthanides partly alleviated the adverse effects, probably by a partial substitution of the element. In contrast, with manganese deprivation (and at even lower concentrations), lanthanides enhanced the deleterious effect on cellular growth and photosynthetic competence. These results show that lanthanides can replace essential elements, but their effects on microalgae depend on stress and the nutritional state of the microalgae, raising the possibility of environmental impacts at even low concentrations. PMID:25674079

  9. The contribution of haploids, diploids and clones to fine-scale population structure in the seaweed Cladophoropsis membranacea (Chlorophyta)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Strate, H. J.; van de Zande, L.; Stam, W.T.; Olsen, J.L.

    2002-01-01

    Local populations of Cladophoropsis membranacea exist as mats of coalesced thalli composed of free-living haploid and diploid plants including clonally reproduced plants of either phase. None of the phases are morphologically distinguishable. We used eight microsatellite loci to explore clonality an

  10. Contribución al conocimiento del género "Oedogonium" (Oedogoniales, Chlorophyta) en España II

    OpenAIRE

    Cambra Sánchez, Jaume

    1992-01-01

    Se presentan los resultados de un estudio florístico sobre el género Oedogonium en España. En total se han estudiado 13 localidades en las que se han identificado 14 táxones, entre los cuales cabe destacar la presencia de Oedogonium khannae f. minus, Oedogonium lopesianum y Oedogonium pratense, que constituyen tres nuevas citas para la flora algológica española. Se describen la mayoría de los táxones, así como se realizan comentarios sobre su distribución y posición taxonómica.

  11. New data on distribution, morphology and ecology of Oedogonium capillare Kützing ex Hirn (Oedogoniales, Chlorophyta in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Pikosz

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Algological investigations were focused on taxonomy, chorology and ecology of threatened filamentous green alga species in Poland. Studies on Oedogonium capillare Kützing ex Hirn growing in large quantities in association with Cladophora rivularis (Linnaeus Hoek in pond were conducted. The aim of these studies was to describe the distribution, ecology and morphology of O. capillare as part of a more comprehensive study of this filamentous green alga. It is the eighth record in Poland for O. capillare. Filaments of O. capillare were grown over a wide pH range (7.3-9.6 and in high variability of nutrients. Vegetative cells, oogonia and antheridia were observed, which allowed taxonomic identification. O. capillare occurs in eutrophic waters which requires protection of its habitat.

  12. Cloning and Characterization of the Phytoene Desaturase(pds) Gene-a Key Enzyme for Carotenoids Synthesis in Dunaliella (Chlorophyta)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN Guohua; SUI Zhenghong; ZHANG Xuecheng

    2008-01-01

    The unicellular green alga Dunaliella is outstanding for its ability of massive accumulation of carotenoids. To elucidate the carotenoids synthesis pathway in this alga, phytoene desaturase (pals) gene cDNA together with its DNA sequences were isolated and their structures and functions analyzed. The full-length pds cDNA of 2290 bp (GenBank Accession No. DQ243892) was de- duced from RACE results, including untranslated 21 bp 5'- and 520 bp 3'- flanking regions and an open reading frame of 582 amino acids, coding a protein of 64.196 kDa. The DNA sequence of 2908 bp (GenBank Accession No. DQ845248) including five introns was obtained. The fifth intron was uncompleted and complex, including two bases' perfect repeats (GT)10 and large different-sized repeats within the last 400 bp. The Southern blot hybridization result demonstrated that this gene occurred as a single copy in this species, and the quantitative RT-PCR result showed that the transcription of this gene was constitutive. The evolutional significance ofpds was discussed.

  13. Culture observation and molecular phylogenetic analysis on the blooming green alga Chaetomorpha valida (Cladophorales, Chlorophyta) from China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DENG Yunyan; TANG Xiaorong; ZHAN Zifeng; TENG Linhong; DING Lanping; HUANG Bingxin

    2013-01-01

    The marine green alga Chaetomorpha valida fouls aquaculture ponds along the coastal cities of Dalian and Rongcheng,China.Unialgal cultures were observed under a microscope to determine the developmental morphological characters of C.valida.Results reveal that gametophytic filaments often produce lateral branches under laboratory culture conditions,suggesting an atypical heteromorphic life cycle of C.valida between unbranched sporophytes and branched gametophytes,which differs from typical isomorphic alternation of Chaetomorpha species.The shape of the basal attachment cell,an important taxonomic character within the genus,was found variable depending on environmental conditions.The 18S rDNA and 28S rDNA regions were used to explore the phylogenetic affinity of the taxa.Inferred trees from 18S rDNA sequences revealed a close relationship between C.valida and Chaetomorpha moniligera.These results would enrich information in general biology and morphological plasticity of C.valida and provided a basis for future identification of green tide forming algae.

  14. DNA barcoding of a new record of epi-endophytic green algae Ulvella leptochaete (Ulvellaceae, Chlorophyta) in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bast, Felix; Bhushan, Satej; John, Aijaz Ahmad

    2014-09-01

    Epi-endophytic green algae comprise one of the most diverse and phylogenetically primitive groups of green algae and are considered to be ubiquitous in the world's oceans; however, no reports of these algae exist from India. Here we report the serendipitous discovery of Ulvella growing on intertidal green algae Cladophora glomerata and benthic red algae Laurencia obtusa collected from India. DNA barcodes at nuclear ribosomal DNA Internal Transcriber Spacer (nrDNA ITS) 1 and 2 regions for Indian isolates from the west and east coasts have been generated for the first time. Based on morphology and DNA barcoding, isolates were identified as Ulvella leptochaete. Phylogenetic reconstruction of concatenated dataset using Maximum Likelihood method differentiated Indian isolates from other accessions of this alga available in Genbank, albeit with low bootstrap support. Monophyly of Ulvella leptochaete was obvious in both of our phylogenetic analyses. With this first report of epi-endophytic algae from Indian territorial waters, the dire need to catalogue its cryptic diversity is highlighted and avenues of future research are discussed.

  15. Taxonomic revision and species delimitation of coccoid green algae currently assigned to the genus Dictyochloropsis (Trebouxiophyceae, Chlorophyta).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Škaloud, Pavel; Friedl, Thomas; Hallmann, Christine; Beck, Andreas; Dal Grande, Francesco

    2016-08-01

    Coccoid green algae traditionally classified in Dictyochloropsis have a complex, reticulate chloroplast, when mature, without a pyrenoid. They occupy remarkably diverse ecological niches as free-living organisms or in association with lichen-forming fungi and were recently shown to form two distinct lineages within Trebouxiophyceae. We used a polyphasic approach to revise the taxonomy of the genus. Based on phylogenetic analysis of the 18S rRNA gene, and detailed morphological investigation using comparative conventional light and confocal microscopy, we have assigned these lineages to two genera, Dictyochloropsis and Symbiochloris gen. nov. We have reconsidered the diagnostic generic features as follows: Dictyochloropsis comprises only free-living algae with a reticulate chloroplast, forming lobes in a parallel arrangement at some ontogenetic stages, and which reproduce only by means of autospores. This agrees with Geitler's original diagnosis of Dictyochloropsis, but not with the later emendation by Tschermak-Woess. Consequently, the species of Dictyochloropsis sensu Tschermak-Woess are assigned to Symbiochloris, with new combinations proposed. Symbiochloris encompasses free-living and/or lichenized algae with lobed chloroplasts and that reproduce by forming zoospores characterized by two subapical isokont flagella that emerge symmetrically near the flattened apex. In addition, using coalescent-based approaches, morphological characters and secondary structure of ITS transcripts, we inferred species boundaries and taxonomic relationships within the newly proposed genera. Two species of Dictyochloropsis and nine species of Symbiochloris are delimited, including the newly described species D. asterochloroides, S. handae, S. tropica, and S. tschermakiae. Our results further support the non-monophyly of autosporine taxa within Trebouxiophyceae.

  16. Seaweeds of the Snellius-II Expedition (E. Indonesia): the genus Caulerpa (Chlorophyta-Caulerpales)

    OpenAIRE

    Coppejans, E.; Prud'homme van Reine, W.F.

    1992-01-01

    The representatives of the genus Caulerpa, collected during the Snellius-II Expedition (1984) in the Banda, Sawu and Flores Seas (Indonesia) are described and illustrated. Twelve species have been individualized, some including several growth forms (resulting in 26 entities): C. brachypus (2 ecads), C. cupressoides (6 ecads), C. elongata, C. fergusonii, C. lentillifera, C. lessonii, C. microphysa, C. racemosa (7ecads), C. serrulata (2 ecads), C. sertularioides, C. taxifolia (2 ecads), C. vert...

  17. Response of two terrestrial green microalgae (Chlorophyta, Trebouxiophyceae) isolated from Cu-rich and unpolluted soils to copper stress

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kalinowska, Renata, E-mail: renata_kalinowska@tlen.p [Centre for Ecological Research, Polish Academy of Sciences, Experimental Station, Niecala18/3, 20-080 Lublin (Poland); Pawlik-Skowronska, Barbara, E-mail: pawlik@poczta.umcs.lublin.p [Centre for Ecological Research, Polish Academy of Sciences, Experimental Station, Niecala18/3, 20-080 Lublin (Poland)

    2010-08-15

    Some algae inhabit Cu-polluted soils. Intracellular Cu-accumulation and production of non-protein thiols in response to copper stress were compared in Stichococcus minor and Geminella terricola isolated from Cu-polluted and unpolluted soils, respectively. Cu-exposed (0.5 {mu}M) S. minor accumulated lower amounts of copper (0.38 mM) than G. terricola (4.20 mM) and maintained 8.5-fold higher level of glutathione (GSH) than G. terricola. The ratio GSH/0.5 GSSG in the Cu-treated S. minor (7.21) was 7-times higher than in G. terricola. Reduced and oxidized forms of phytochelatins were found in both algae. Under copper stress (5 {mu}M) the ratio -SH{sub total}/Cu{sub intracellular} in S. minor ranged from 2.3 to 6.2, while it was lower than 1.0 in G. terricola. Low intracellular Cu-accumulation and maintenance of high GSH level concomitant with PCs production seem to be responsible for a higher Cu-resistance of S. minor than G. terricola. - Low intracellular Cu-accumulation and high GSH level are responsible for copper resistance of the alga inhabiting Cu-polluted soil.

  18. Regulation of gametogenesis and zoosporogenesis in Ulva linza (Chlorophyta: comparison with Ulva mutabilis and potential for laboratory culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleanor Fay Vesty

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Green Ulvophyte macroalgae represent attractive model systems for understanding growth, development and evolution. They are untapped resources for food, fuel and high-value compounds, but can also form nuisance blooms. To fully analyse green seaweed morphogenesis, controlled laboratory-based culture of these organisms is required. To date, only a single Ulvophyte species, Ulva mutabilis Føyn, has been manipulated to complete its whole life cycle in laboratory culture and to grow continuously under axenic conditions. Such cultures are essential to address multiple key questions in Ulva development and in algal-bacterial interactions. Here we show that another Ulva species, U. linza, with a broad geographical distribution, has the potential to be grown in axenic culture similarly to U. mutabilis. Ulva linza can be reliably induced to sporulate (form gametes and zoospores in the laboratory, by cutting the relevant thallus tissue into small pieces and removing extracellular inhibitors (sporulation and swarming inhibitors. The germ cells work as an ideal feed stock for standardized algae cultures.The requirement of U. linza for bacterial signals to induce its normal morphology (particularly of the rhizoids appears to have a species-specific component. The axenic cultures of these two species pave the way for future comparative studies of algal-microbial interactions.

  19. Field biology of Halimeda tuna (Bryopsidales, Chlorophyta) across a depth gradient : comparative growth, survivorship, recruitment, and reproduction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vroom, P.S.; Smith, C.M.; Coyer, J.A.; Walters, L.; Hunter, C.L.; Beach, K.S.; Smith, J.E.

    2003-01-01

    Growth, survivorship, recruitment, and reproduction of Halimeda tuna, a dominant green alga in many reef systems of the Florida Keys, were monitored at a shallow back reef ( 4 - 7m) and deep reef slope ( 15 - 22 m) on Conch Reef. Despite lower light intensities and similar grazing pressures, amphipo

  20. Resolving phenotypic plasticity and species designation in the morphologically challenging Caulerpa racemosa-peltata complex (Chlorophyta, Caulerpaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belton, Gareth S; van Reine, Willem F Prud'homme; Huisman, John M; Draisma, Stefano G A; D Gurgel, Carlos Frederico

    2014-02-01

    Although recent molecular studies have indicated the presence of a number of distinct species within the Caulerpa racemosa-peltata complex, due to the difficulties presented by high levels of phenotypic plasticity and the large number of synonyms, infra-specific taxa, and names of uncertain affinity, taxonomic proposals are yet to be made. In this study, we aimed to resolve the taxonomy of the complex and provide an example of how historical nomenclature can best be integrated into molecular based taxonomies. We accomplished this by first determining the number of genetic species within our globally sampled data set through a combination of phylogenetic and species-delimitation approaches of partial elongation factor TU and RUBISCO large subunit gene sequences. Guided by these results, comparative morphological examinations were then undertaken to gauge the extent of phenotypic plasticity within each species, as well as any morphological overlap between them. Our results revealed the presence of 11 distinct species within the complex, five of which showed high levels of phenotypic plasticity and partial overlap with other species. On the basis of observations of a large number of specimens, including type specimens/descriptions, and geographic inferences, we were able to confidently designate names for the lineages. Caulerpa peltata, C. imbricata and C. racemosa vars. laetevirens, occidentalis and turbinata were found to represent environmentally induced forms of a single species, for which the earlier-described C. chemnitzia, previously regarded as a synonym of C. racemosa var. turbinata, is reinstated. C. cylindracea, C. lamourouxii, C. macrodisca, C. nummularia and C. oligophylla are also reinstated and two new species, C. macra stat. nov. and C. megadisca sp. nov., are proposed.

  1. Genetic transformation of Platymonas (Tetraselmis)subcordiformis (Prasinophyceae, Chlorophyta) using particle bombardment and glass-bead agitation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CUI Yulin; JIANG Peng; WANG Jinfeng; LI Fuchao; CHEN Yingjie; ZHENG Guoting; QIN Song

    2012-01-01

    Platyronas (Tetraselmis) subcordiforris is a unicellular marine green alga.It was found to be very sensitive to the herbicide Basta through a sensitivity test indicating it could be employed as a selective agent.The bar gene is a practicable and selectable marker gene.The vector containing the expression cassette of the bar gene was transferred to P.subcordiformis by both particle bombardment and glass-bead agitation and transformants were then selected using Basta.Finally,Southern blotting analysis indicated that the bar gene had been successfully integrated into the nuclear genome of P.subcordiformis using both of the transgenic techniques,with the transformation efficiency of the glass-bead method being slightly higher than that of particle bombardment.This is the first report on stable transformation ofP.subcordiformis,and will improve fundamental research and enlarge application of this alga.

  2. Asexual propagation in the coral reef macroalga Halimeda (Chlorophyta, Bryopsidales) : production, dispersal and attachment of small fragments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Walters, LJ; Coyer, JA; Hunter, CL; Beach, KS; Vroom, PS

    2002-01-01

    Siphonous, green macroalgae of the genus Halimeda are ubiquitous and ecologically important in tropical and subtropical marine environments. It has been hypothesized that the abundance of Halimeda on coral reefs is in part due to the ability of this genus to propagate asexually via vegetative fragme

  3. Morphological, molecular, and biochemical characterization of astaxanthin-producing green microalga Haematococcus sp. KORDI03 (Haematococcaceae, Chlorophyta) isolated from Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ji Hyung; Affan, Abu; Jang, Jiyi; Kang, Mee-Hye; Ko, Ah-Ra; Jeon, Seon-Mi; Oh, Chulhong; Heo, Soo-Jin; Lee, Youn-Ho; Ju, Se-Jong; Kang, Do-Hyung

    2015-02-01

    A unicellular red microalga was isolated from environmental freshwater in Korea, and its morphological, molecular, and biochemical properties were characterized. Morphological analysis revealed that the isolate was a unicellular biflagellated green microalga that formed a non-motile, thick-walled palmelloid or red aplanospore. To determine the taxonomical position of the isolate, its 18S rRNA and rbcL genes were sequenced and phylogenetic analysis was performed. We found that the isolate was clustered together with other related Haematococcus strains showing differences in the rbcL gene. Therefore, the isolated microalga was classified into the genus Haematococcus, and finally designated Haematococcus sp. KORDI03. The microalga could be cultivated in various culture media under a broad range of pH and temperature conditions. Compositions of the microalgal cellular components were analyzed, and its protein, carbohydrate, and lipid compositions were estimated to be 21.1 ± 0.2%, 48.8 ± 1.8%, and 22.2 ± 0.9%, respectively. In addition, D-glucose and D-mannose were the dominant monosaccharides in the isolate, and its amino acids were composed mainly of aspartic acid, glutamic acid, alanine, and leucine. Moreover, several polyunsaturated fatty acids accounted for about 80% of the total fatty acids in Haematococcus sp. KORDI03, and the astaxanthin content in the red aplanospores was estimated to be 1.8% of the dry cell weight. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of an Haematococcus sp. isolated from Korea, which may be used for bioresource production in the microalgal industry.

  4. Massive Trentepohlia-bloom in a glacier valley of Mt. Gongga, China, and a new variety of Trentepohlia (Chlorophyta).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Guoxiang; Zhang, Qi; Zhu, Huan; Hu, Zhengyu

    2012-01-01

    Trentepohlia is a genus of subaerial green algae which is widespread in tropical, subtropical, and also temperate regions with humid climates. For many years, small-scale Trentepohlia coverage had been found on the rocks of some glacier valleys on the northern slopes of Mt. Gongga, China. However, since 2005, in the Yajiageng river valley, most of the rocks are covered with deep red coloured algal carpets, which now form a spectacular sight and a tourist attraction known as 'Red-Stone-Valley'. Based on morphology and molecular data, we have named this alga as a new variety: Trentepohlia jolithus var. yajiagengensis var. nov., it differs from the type variety in that its end cells of the main filament are often rhizoid, unilateral branches. This new variety only grows on the native rock, both global warming and human activity have provided massive areas of suitable substrata: the rocks surfaces of the Yajiageng river valley floodplain were re-exposed because of heavy debris flows in the summer of 2005; plus human activities such as tourism and road-building have also created a lot of exposed rock! In summer, the glaciers of the northern slopes of Mt. Gongga have brought to the valleys wet and foggy air, ideal for Trentepohlia growth. The cells of the new variety are rich in secondary carotenoids (astaxanthin?), which helps the algal cells resistance to strong ultraviolet radiation at high altitudes (they are only found on rock surfaces at alt. 1900-3900 m); the cells are also rich in oils, which gives them high resistance to cold dry winters.

  5. Massive Trentepohlia-bloom in a glacier valley of Mt. Gongga, China, and a new variety of Trentepohlia (Chlorophyta.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guoxiang Liu

    Full Text Available Trentepohlia is a genus of subaerial green algae which is widespread in tropical, subtropical, and also temperate regions with humid climates. For many years, small-scale Trentepohlia coverage had been found on the rocks of some glacier valleys on the northern slopes of Mt. Gongga, China. However, since 2005, in the Yajiageng river valley, most of the rocks are covered with deep red coloured algal carpets, which now form a spectacular sight and a tourist attraction known as 'Red-Stone-Valley'. Based on morphology and molecular data, we have named this alga as a new variety: Trentepohlia jolithus var. yajiagengensis var. nov., it differs from the type variety in that its end cells of the main filament are often rhizoid, unilateral branches. This new variety only grows on the native rock, both global warming and human activity have provided massive areas of suitable substrata: the rocks surfaces of the Yajiageng river valley floodplain were re-exposed because of heavy debris flows in the summer of 2005; plus human activities such as tourism and road-building have also created a lot of exposed rock! In summer, the glaciers of the northern slopes of Mt. Gongga have brought to the valleys wet and foggy air, ideal for Trentepohlia growth. The cells of the new variety are rich in secondary carotenoids (astaxanthin?, which helps the algal cells resistance to strong ultraviolet radiation at high altitudes (they are only found on rock surfaces at alt. 1900-3900 m; the cells are also rich in oils, which gives them high resistance to cold dry winters.

  6. DNA barcoding of a new record of epi-endophytic green algae Ulvella leptochaete (Ulvellaceae, Chlorophyta) in India

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Felix Bast; Satej Bhushan; Aijaz Ahmad John

    2014-09-01

    Epi-endophytic green algae comprise one of the most diverse and phylogenetically primitive groups of green algae and are considered to be ubiquitous in the world’s oceans; however, no reports of these algae exist from India. Here we report the serendipitous discovery of Ulvella growing on intertidal green algae Cladophora glomerata and benthic red algae Laurencia obtusa collected from India. DNA barcodes at nuclear ribosomal DNA Internal Transcriber Spacer (nrDNA ITS) 1 and 2 regions for Indian isolates from the west and east coasts have been generated for the first time. Based on morphology and DNA barcoding, isolates were identified as Ulvella leptochaete. Phylogenetic reconstruction of concatenated dataset using Maximum Likelihood method differentiated Indian isolates from other accessions of this alga available in Genbank, albeit with low bootstrap support. Monophyly of Ulvella leptochaete was obvious in both of our phylogenetic analyses. With this first report of epi-endophytic algae from Indian territorial waters, the dire need to catalogue its cryptic diversity is highlighted and avenues of future research are discussed.

  7. Nuevos registros y lista actualizada de las algas verdes (Chlorophyta) del litoral de Veracruz, México

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Deisy Y García-López; Luz Elena Mateo-Cid; A Catalina Mendoza-González

    2017-01-01

    .... Of the 93 taxa, 19 are new records for littoral of Veracruz, with Ulva profunda, Chaetomorpha vieillardii and Stigeoclonium tenue being new records for the occidental coast of the Atlantic of Mexico...

  8. High levels of intra- and inter-individual polymorphism in the rDNA ITS1 of Caulerpa racemosa (Chlorophyta)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fama, P; Olsen, JL; Stam, WT; Procaccini, G

    2000-01-01

    The coenocytic green alga Caulerpa racemosa colonized the Mediterranean some time after the opening of the Suez Canal in 1869. For most of the past century it has remained confined to the southeastern Mediterranean, but over the past several years the species has been reported in abundance along the

  9. Regeneration and maturation of daughter cell walls in the autospore-forming green alga Chlorella vulgaris (Chlorophyta, Trebouxiophyceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Maki; Fujishita, Mariko; Hirata, Aiko; Kawano, Shigeyuki

    2004-08-01

    Cell-wall synthesis in Chlorella vulgaris, an autospore-forming alga, was observed using the cell wall-specific fluorescent dye Fluostain I. The observation suggested two clearly distinguishable stages in cell-wall synthesis: moderate synthesis during the cell-growth process and rapid synthesis at the cell-division stage. We used electron microscopy to examine the structural changes that occurred with growth in the premature daughter cell wall during the cell-growth and cell-division phases. The cell began to synthesize a new daughter cell wall shortly after its release from the autosporangium. A very thin daughter cell wall, with a thickness of about 2 nm, was formed inside the mother cell wall and completely enveloped the outer surface of the plasma membrane of the cell. The daughter cell wall gradually increased in thickness from 2 to 3.8 nm. During the protoplast-division phase in the cell-division stage, the daughter cell wall expanded on the surface of the invaginating plasma membrane of the cleavage furrow, accompanied by active synthesis of the cell wall, which increased in thickness from 3.8 to 6.1 nm. The daughter cell matured into an autospore while completely enclosed by its own thickening (from 6.1 to 17 nm) wall. Finally, the released daughter cell was enclosed by its own cell wall after the mother cell wall burst. The daughter cell with mature wall thickness (17-21 nm) emerged as a small, but complete, autospore.

  10. Chemical compositions of the marine algae Gracilaria salicornia (Rhodophyta) and Ulva lactuca (Chlorophyta) as a potential food source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabarsa, Mehdi; Rezaei, Masoud; Ramezanpour, Zohreh; Waaland, Joseph Robert

    2012-09-01

    The nutritional compositions of two edible red (Gracilaria salicornia) and green (Ulva lactuca) seaweeds were determined to evaluate their possible uses as potential food ingredients. In general, these species contained limited amounts of lipids ranging between 0.99 and 2.00 g 100 g(-1) dry weight) and considerably high amount of minerals, especially in G. salicornia (38.91 g 100 g(-1) d.w.). The crude protein values varied between 9.58 and 10.69 g 100 g(-1) d.w. Amounts for total amino acids were 889.78 ± 22.64 mg g(-1) protein d.w. in G. salicornia and 543.3 ± 15.14 mg g(-1) protein d.w. in U. lactuca. The most abundant fatty acids were C12:0, C16:0, C20:4 ω6 and C22:5 ω3, in addition to C18:1 in G. salicornia. Both seaweed species were balanced sources of ω3 and ω6 fatty acids with a ratio of ω6/ω3 that varied between 1.2 and 1.17. Between the seaweeds investigated, high levels of K (2414.02-11 380.06 mg 100 g(-1) d.w.) were observed and the amounts of Ca, Na and Fe were higher than those reported for land plants. Thus, G. salicornia and U. lactuca may be utilised as value-added products for human nutrition purposes. Copyright © 2012 Society of Chemical Industry.

  11. Karyotypic differences and evolutionary tendencies of some species from the subgenus Obliquodesmus Mlad. of genus Scenedesmus Meyen (Chlorophyta, Chlorococcales)

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Balik Dzhambazov; Rumen Mladenov; Ivanka Teneva; Detelina Belkinova

    2006-04-01

    Karyotype structures of Scenedesmus acuminatus (Lagerch.) Chod. and Scenedesmus pectinatus Meyen are compared. The karyotype of S. acuminatus ($n = 5$) is described for the first time. It reveals four large metacentric and one large submetacentric chromosomes (4M + 1SM). The established karyotype differences have been helpful in clarifying the taxonomic position of these two species. The cytological analyses of other related clonal cultures suggest an evolutionary transition from S. pectinatus towards S. regularis through S. pectinatus f. regularis, which correlates with the morphological data about their variability. These results are discussed from the cytogenetic, morphological and evolutionary point of view. On the basis of the karyotypic analysis, it was confirmed that from a taxonomic point of view S. pectinatus, S. acuminatus and S. regularis are separate biological species.

  12. Basicladia chelonum (Collins) W.E. Hoffmann et Tilden (Chlorophyta, Cladophorophyceae) from Cuba (Caribbean): new observation of the ultrastructure of its vegetative cells

    OpenAIRE

    Joanna Czerwik-Marcinkowska; Teresa Mrozińska; Maria Webb-Janich

    2011-01-01

    Basicladia chelonum (Collins) W.E. Hoffmann and Tilden (1930) principally known from North America and Hawaii was recently (2004) found in Cuba (Caribbean) from artificial pool growing on shells of musk turtles (Trachemys decussata Gray). Specimens collected in Cuba were subjected to detailed examinations also using a transmission electron microscope. On one hand, these studies confirmed many features of this species previously described by earlier authors in the specimens from Texas. On the ...

  13. Basicladia chelonum (Collins W.E. Hoffmann et Tilden (Chlorophyta, Cladophorophyceae from Cuba (Caribbean: new observation of the ultrastructure of its vegetative cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Czerwik-Marcinkowska

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Basicladia chelonum (Collins W.E. Hoffmann and Tilden (1930 principally known from North America and Hawaii was recently (2004 found in Cuba (Caribbean from artificial pool growing on shells of musk turtles (Trachemys decussata Gray. Specimens collected in Cuba were subjected to detailed examinations also using a transmission electron microscope. On one hand, these studies confirmed many features of this species previously described by earlier authors in the specimens from Texas. On the other hand, the present studies revealed structures unknown so far (pyrenoid structure, which allowed for new analysis of this species. These investigations also have shown that Basicladia chelonum exhibits close similarity to the genus Cladophora and other representatives of the class Cladophorophyceae. The similarities include : siphonocladous level of organization of thallus, numerous chloroplasts forming a network and other structures. Conversely, the pyrenoid in vegetative cells of Basicladia chelonum distinguishes it markedly from representatives of the genus Cladophora, which have bilenticular pyrenoids divided into two hemispheres by a single thylakoids and each hemisphere is covered by a bowlshaped starch grain (Van Hoek et al. 1995. Since in Cladophora the ultrastructure of the pyrenoid is highly constant and characteristic, this contrasts with the genus Basicladia and, therefore, more firmly establishes position of the latter as an independent unit within Cladophorophyceae.

  14. Combining and Comparing Coalescent, Distance and Character-Based Approaches for Barcoding Microalgaes: A Test with Chlorella-Like Species (Chlorophyta.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shanmei Zou

    Full Text Available Several different barcoding methods of distinguishing species have been advanced, but which method is the best is still controversial. Chlorella is becoming particularly promising in the development of second-generation biofuels. However, the taxonomy of Chlorella-like organisms is easily confused. Here we report a comprehensive barcoding analysis of Chlorella-like species from Chlorella, Chloroidium, Dictyosphaerium and Actinastrum based on rbcL, ITS, tufA and 16S sequences to test the efficiency of traditional barcoding, GMYC, ABGD, PTP, P ID and character-based barcoding methods. First of all, the barcoding results gave new insights into the taxonomic assessment of Chlorella-like organisms studied, including the clear species discrimination and resolution of potentially cryptic species complexes in C. sorokiniana, D. ehrenbergianum and C. Vulgaris. The tufA proved to be the most efficient barcoding locus, which thus could be as potential "specific barcode" for Chlorella-like species. The 16S failed in discriminating most closely related species. The resolution of GMYC, PTP, P ID, ABGD and character-based barcoding methods were variable among rbcL, ITS and tufA genes. The best resolution for species differentiation appeared in tufA analysis where GMYC, PTP, ABGD and character-based approaches produced consistent groups while the PTP method over-split the taxa. The character analysis of rbcL, ITS and tufA sequences could clearly distinguish all taxonomic groups respectively, including the potentially cryptic lineages, with many character attributes. Thus, the character-based barcoding provides an attractive complement to coalescent and distance-based barcoding. Our study represents the test that proves the efficiency of multiple DNA barcoding in species discrimination of microalgaes.

  15. Photosystem I shows a higher tolerance to sorbitol-induced osmotic stress than photosystem II in the intertidal macro-algae Ulva prolifera (Chlorophyta).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Shan; Zheng, Zhenbing; Gu, Wenhui; Xie, Xiujun; Huan, Li; Pan, Guanghua; Wang, Guangce

    2014-10-01

    The photosynthetic performance of the desiccation-tolerant, intertidal macro-algae Ulva prolifera was significantly affected by sorbitol-induced osmotic stress. Our results showed that photosynthetic activity decreased significantly with increases in sorbitol concentration. Although the partial activity of both photosystem I (PS I) and photosystem II (PS II) was able to recover after 30 min of rehydration, the activity of PS II decreased more rapidly than PS I. At 4 M sorbitol concentration, the activity of PS II was almost 0 while that of PS I was still at about one third of normal levels. Following prolonged treatment with 1 and 2 M sorbitol, the activity of PS I and PS II decreased slowly, suggesting that the effects of moderate concentrations of sorbitol on PS I and PS II were gradual. Interestingly, an increase in non-photochemical quenching occurred under these conditions in response to moderate osmotic stress, whereas it declined significantly under severe osmotic stress. These results suggest that photoprotection in U. prolifera could also be induced by moderate osmotic stress. In addition, the oxidation of PS I was significantly affected by osmotic stress. P700(+) in the thalli treated with high concentrations of sorbitol could still be reduced, as PS II was inhibited by 3-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)-1,1-dimethylurea (DCMU), but it could not be fully oxidized. This observation may be caused by the higher quantum yield of non-photochemical energy dissipation in PS I due to acceptor-side limitation (Y(NA)) during rehydration in seawater containing DCMU.

  16. Prototheca zopfii (Chlorophyta capaz de utilizar “gas oil”, registrada por primera vez en aguas contaminadas de Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María S. Vigna

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Prototheca zopfii es una alga cocoide, incolora que hemos aislado del río Reconquista en septiembre del 2000 (Argentina, Prov. de Buenos Aires, Pdo. Tigre. Para la correcta identificación de la especie se llevaron a cabo estudios morfológicos y fisiológicos (asimilación de fuentes carbonadas. La capacidad de utilizar “gas oil” de P. zopfii se evaluó por su capacidad de crecimiento en medios de cultivo conteniendo “gas oil” hasta el 10% (v/v como única fuente de carbono y energía

  17. DNA-Based Taxonomy in Ecologically Versatile Microalgae: A Re-Evaluation of the Species Concept within the Coccoid Green Algal Genus Coccomyxa (Trebouxiophyceae, Chlorophyta).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malavasi, Veronica; Škaloud, Pavel; Rindi, Fabio; Tempesta, Sabrina; Paoletti, Michela; Pasqualetti, Marcella

    2016-01-01

    Coccomyxa is a genus of unicellular green algae of the class Trebouxiophyceae, well known for its cosmopolitan distribution and great ecological amplitude. The taxonomy of this genus has long been problematic, due to reliance on badly-defined and environmentally variable morphological characters. In this study, based on the discovery of a new species from an extreme habitat, we reassess species circumscription in Coccomyxa, a unicellular genus of the class Trebouxiophyceae, using a combination of ecological and DNA sequence data (analyzed with three different methods of algorithmic species delineation). Our results are compared with those of a recent integrative study of Darienko and colleagues that reassessed the taxonomy of Coccomyxa, recognizing 7 species in the genus. Expanding the dataset from 43 to 61 sequences (SSU + ITS rDNA) resulted in a different delimitation, supporting the recognition of a higher number of species (24 to 27 depending on the analysis used, with the 27-species scenario receiving the strongest support). Among these, C. melkonianii sp. nov. is described from material isolated from a river highly polluted by heavy metals (Rio Irvi, Sardinia, Italy). Analyses performed on ecological characters detected a significant phylogenetic signal in six different characters. We conclude that the 27-species scenario is presently the most realistic for Coccomyxa and we suggest that well-supported lineages distinguishable by ecological preferences should be recognized as different species in this genus. We also recommend that for microbial lineages in which the overall diversity is unknown and taxon sampling is sparse, as is often the case for green microalgae, the results of analyses for algorithmic DNA-based species delimitation should be interpreted with extreme caution.

  18. MOLECULAR PHYLOGENY, ULTRASTRUCTURE, AND TAXONOMIC REVISION OF CHLOROGONIUM (CHLOROPHYTA): EMENDATION OF CHLOROGONIUM AND DESCRIPTION OF GUNGNIR GEN. NOV. AND RUSALKA GEN. NOV.(1).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakada, Takashi; Nozaki, Hisayoshi; Pröschold, Thomas

    2008-06-01

    We examined the molecular phylogeny and ultrastructure of Chlorogonium and related species to establish the natural taxonomy at the generic level. Phylogenetic analyses of 18S rRNA and RUBISCO LSU (rbcL) gene sequences revealed two separate clades of Chlorogonium from which Chlorogonium (Cg.) fusiforme Matv. was robustly separated. One clade comprised Cg. neglectum Pascher and Cg. kasakii Nozaki, whereas the other clade included the type species Cg. euchlorum (Ehrenb.) Ehrenb., Cg. elongatum (P. A. Dang.) Francé, and Cg. capillatum Nozaki, M. Watanabe et Aizawa. On the basis of unique ultrastructural characteristics, we described Gungnir Nakada gen. nov. comprising three species: G. neglectum (Pascher) Nakada comb. nov., G. mantoniae (H. Ettl) Nakada comb. nov., and G. kasakii (Nozaki) Nakada comb. nov. We also emended Chlorogonium as a monophyletic genus composed of Cg. euchlorum, Cg. elongatum, and Cg. capillatum. Because Cg. fusiforme was distinguished from the redefined Chlorogonium and Gungnir by the structure of its starch plate, which is associated with pyrenoids, we reclassified this species as Rusalka fusiformis (Matv.) Nakada gen. et comb. nov.

  19. Evaluating the Species Boundaries of Green Microalgae (Coccomyxa, Trebouxiophyceae, Chlorophyta Using Integrative Taxonomy and DNA Barcoding with Further Implications for the Species Identification in Environmental Samples.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatyana Darienko

    Full Text Available Integrative taxonomy is an approach for defining species and genera by taking phylogenetic, morphological, physiological, and ecological data into account. This approach is appropriate for microalgae, where morphological convergence and high levels of morphological plasticity complicate the application of the traditional classification. Although DNA barcode markers are well-established for animals, fungi, and higher plants, there is an ongoing discussion about suitable markers for microalgae and protists because these organisms are genetically more diverse compared to the former groups. To solve these problems, we assess the usage of a polyphasic approach combining phenotypic and genetic parameters for species and generic characterization. The application of barcode markers for database queries further allows conclusions about the 'coverage' of culture-based approaches in biodiversity studies and integrates additional aspects into modern taxonomic concepts. Although the culture-dependent approach revealed three new lineages, which are described as new species in this paper, the culture-independent analyses discovered additional putative new species. We evaluated three barcode markers (V4, V9 and ITS-2 regions, nuclear ribosomal operon and studied the morphological and physiological plasticity of Coccomyxa, which became a model organism because its whole genome sequence has been published. In addition, several biotechnological patents have been registered for Coccomyxa. Coccomyxa representatives are distributed worldwide, are free-living or in symbioses, and colonize terrestrial and aquatic habitats. We investigated more than 40 strains and reviewed the biodiversity and biogeographical distribution of Coccomyxa species using DNA barcoding. The genus Coccomyxa formed a monophyletic group within the Trebouxiophyceae separated into seven independent phylogenetic lineages representing species. Summarizing, the combination of different characteristics in an integrative approach helps to evaluate environmental data and clearly identifies microalgae at generic and species levels.

  20. Time spans and spacers : Molecular phylogenetic explorations in the Cladophora complex (Chlorophyta) from the perspective of rDNA gene and spacer sequences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, Frederik Theodoor

    1995-01-01

    In this study, phylogenetic relationships among genera, species and biogeographic representatives of single Cladophora species within the Cladophorales were analyzed using rDNA gene and spacer sequences. Based on phylogenetic analysis of 18S rRNA gene sequences, the Cladophora complex is shown to be

  1. Spread of the invasive alga Caulerpa racemosa var. cylindracea (Caulerpales, Chlorophyta along the Mediterranean Coast of the Murcia region (SE Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruiz, J. M.

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper was to document the appearance and spread of the green alga Caulerpa racemosa along the coast of Murcia in south-eastern Spain. It was found for the first time in the area in 2005 and over the next two years the number of new sightings increased almost exponentially. In the period 2005-2007 the total surface area colonised by the alga in the region was estimated to be at least 265 ha. Benthic assemblages colonised by the alga were rocky bottoms with photophilic algae, dead P. oceanica rhizomes, infralittoral and circalittoral soft bottoms and maerl beds. No penetration of the alga was observed in P. oceanica meadows, except in one locality. Biometric analysis indicated high vegetative development in the established colonies in comparison to those described in other Mediterranean areas. Rapid spreading dynamics observed in the Murcia region is a potential threat for native benthic communities.

  2. FATTY ACIDS PROFILE IN A HIGH CELL DENSITY CULTURE OF ARACHIDONIC ACID-RICH PARIETOCHLORIS INCISA (TREBOUXIOPHYCEAE,CHLOROPHYTA) EXPOSED TO HIGH PFD

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The changes in arachidonic acid (AA) and fatty acids profiles along the growth curve of Parietochloris incisa, a coccoid snow green alga, were studied in a 2.8 cm light-path flat photobioreactor, exposed to strong photon flux density [PFD, 2400 μEmol/(m2*s)]. Sixteen fatty acids were identified by gas chromatography showing that AA was the dominant fatty acid (33%-41%) followedby linoleic acid (17%-21%). AA content was closely investigated with respect tototal fatty acids (TFA), ash free dry weight (AFDW) of cell mass as well as total culture content. These parameters were influenced significantly in a similar manner by culture growth phase, i.e., slightly decreasing in the lag period, gradually increasing in the logarithmic phase, becoming maximal at the early stationary phase, starting to decrease at the late stationary phase, sharply dropping at the decline phase. The increase in AA per culture volume during the logarithmic phase was not only associated with the increase in AFDW but also connected with a corresponding increase in AA/TFA, TFA/AFDW as well as AA/AFDW. The sharp decrease in AA content of the culture during the decline phase was mainly due to the decrease in AA/TFA, TFA/AFDW and AA/AFDW, although AFDW declined only a smallextent. Maximal AA concentration, obtained at the early stationary phase, was 900 mg/L culture volume, and the average daily net increase of AA during 9 days logarithmic growth was 1.7 g/(m2*day). Therefore, harvesting prior to the declinephase in a batch culture, or at steady state in continuous culture mode seems best for high AA production. The latter possibility was also further confirmed bycontinuous culture with 5 gradients of harvesting rate. ``

  3. Role of cold resistance and burial for winter survival and spring initiation of an Ulva spp. (Chlorophyta) bloom in a eutrophic lagoon (Veerse Meer lagoon, The Netherlands)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kamermans, P.; Malta, E.J.; Verschuure, J.M.; Lentz, L.F.; Schrijvers, L.

    1998-01-01

    In the eutrophic Veerse Meer lagoon (The Netherlands) large amounts of free-floating thalli from Ulva spp. are present from May to October. In winter however, no algae seem to occur in the lagoon. Sexual reproduction appears to be negligible, as spore formation and germling growth are observed only

  4. A forensic and phylogenetic survey of Caulerpa species (Caulerpales, Chlorophyta) from the Florida coast, local aquarium shops, and e-commerce : Establishing a proactive baseline for early detection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stam, Wytze T.; Olsen, Jeanine L.; Zaleski, Susan Frisch; Murray, Steven N.; Brown, Katherine R.; Walters, Linda J.

    2006-01-01

    Baseline genotypes were established for 256 individuals of Caulerpa collected from 27 field locations in Florida (including the Keys), the Bahamas, US Virgin Islands, and Honduras, nearly doubling the number of available GenBank sequences. On the basis of sequences from the nuclear rDNA-ITS 1+2 and

  5. Reconstructing the Phylogeny of Capsosiphon fulvescens (Ulotrichales, Chlorophyta from Korea Based on rbcL and 18S rDNA Sequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sang-Mi Sun

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Capsosiphon fulvescens is a filamentous green algae in the class Ulvophyceae. It has been consumed as food with unique flavor and soft texture to treat stomach disorders and hangovers, and its economic value justifies studying its nutritional and potential therapeutic effects. In contrast to these applications, only a few taxonomic studies have been conducted on C. fulvescens. In particular, classification and phylogenetic relationships of the C. fulvescens below the order level are controversial. To determine its phylogenetic position in the class, we used rbcL and 18S rDNA sequences as molecular markers to construct phylogenetic trees. The amplified rbcL and 18S rDNA sequences from 4 C. fulvescens isolates (Jindo, Jangheung, Wando, and Koheung, Korea were used for phylogenetic analysis by employing three different phylogenetic methods: neighbor joining (NJ, maximum parsimony (MP, and maximum likelihood (ML. The rbcL phylogenetic tree showed that all taxa in the order Ulvales were clustered as a monophyletic group and resolved the phylogenetic position of C. fulvescens in the order Ulotrichales. The significance of our study is that the 18S rDNA phylogenetic tree shows the detailed taxonomic position of C. fulvescens. In our result, C. fulvescens is inferred as a member of Ulotrichaceae, along with Urospora and Acrosiphonia.

  6. Toxicity and Removal of Zinc in the Three Species (Acutodesmus obliquus, Desmodesmus subspicatus and Desmodesmus armatus) Belonging to the Family, Scenedesmaceae (Chlorophyta)

    OpenAIRE

    Güçlü, Zekiye; Ömer Osman ERTAN

    2014-01-01

    In this study, the effects of zinc upon growth of three green microalgal species, Acutodesmus obliquus (Turpin) Hegewald & Hanagata, Desmodesmus subspicatus (Chodat) Hegewald & Schmidt and Desmodesmus armatus (Chodat) Hegewald, and the capability of these green algae for removal of zinc were investigated. Growth inhibition of the microalgal cells was determined following exposure for 96 h to five initial concentrations of zinc. The growth of the alga decreased wit h increa...

  7. Within-island differentiation and between-island homogeneity : Non-equilibrium population structure in the seaweed Cladophoropsis membranacea (Chlorophyta) in the Canary Islands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Strate, HJ; van de Zande, L; Stam, WT; Haroun, RJ; Olsen, JL

    2003-01-01

    The seaweed Cladophoropsis membranacea forms extensive mats of coalesced thalli on coral reefs and along rocky coastlines throughout the tropics and subtropics. In a previous study on Gran Canaria, small-scale dispersal distances were found to be limited to <5 m and significant differentiation (F-ST

  8. Chloropyrula uraliensis gen.et sp.nov.(Trebouxiophyceae,Chlorophyta), a new green coccoid alga with a unique ultrastructure, isolated from soil in South Urals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lira GAYSINA; Yvonne N(E)MCOV(A); Pavel (S)KALOUD; Tereza (S)EV(CI)KOV(A); Marek ELI(AS)

    2013-01-01

    Soil hosts diverse communities of photosynthetic eukaryotes (algae) that have not yet been fully explored.Here we describe an interesting coccoid green alga isolated from a soil sample from a forest-steppe in South Urals (Bashkortostan,Russia) that,based on a phylogenetic analysis of 18S rRNA gene sequence,appears to represent a new phylogenetic lineage related to the genus Leptosira within the class Trebouxiophyceae.This new alga is characterized by uninucleate cells with a shape ranging from spherical to ellipsoid or egg-like,occurring solitary or more often grouped in irregular masses or colonies.Remarkably,cells with a characteristic pyriform shape are encountered in cultures grown on a solid medium.The cells harbour a single pyrenoid-lacking parietal chloroplast with the margin undulated or forming finger-like projections; in mature cells the chloroplast becomes divided by deep incisions into more or less separate lobes.Transmission electron microscopy of vegetative cells revealed an unprecedented structure in the form of a cluster of microfibrils located in the cytoplasm near the plasma membrane,often appressed to the chloroplast.Reproduction takes place via autospores or biflagellated zoospores.The unique suite of characters of our isolate distinguishes it from previously described coccoid green algae and suggests that it should be classified as a new species in a new genus; we propose it be named Chloropyrula uraliensis.

  9. Metabolomics of Ulva lactuca Linnaeus (Chlorophyta) exposed to oil fuels: Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and multivariate analysis as tools for metabolic fingerprint.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilatti, Fernanda Kokowicz; Ramlov, Fernanda; Schmidt, Eder Carlos; Costa, Christopher; Oliveira, Eva Regina de; Bauer, Claudia M; Rocha, Miguel; Bouzon, Zenilda Laurita; Maraschin, Marcelo

    2017-01-30

    Fossil fuels, e.g. gasoline and diesel oil, account for substantial share of the pollution that affects marine ecosystems. Environmental metabolomics is an emerging field that may help unravel the effect of these xenobiotics on seaweeds and provide methodologies for biomonitoring coastal ecosystems. In the present study, FTIR and multivariate analysis were used to discriminate metabolic profiles of Ulva lactuca after in vitro exposure to diesel oil and gasoline, in combinations of concentrations (0.001%, 0.01%, 0.1%, and 1.0% - v/v) and times of exposure (30min, 1h, 12h, and 24h). PCA and HCA performed on entire mid-infrared spectral window were able to discriminate diesel oil-exposed thalli from the gasoline-exposed ones. HCA performed on spectral window related to the protein absorbance (1700-1500cm(-1)) enabled the best discrimination between gasoline-exposed samples regarding the time of exposure, and between diesel oil-exposed samples according to the concentration. The results indicate that the combination of FTIR with multivariate analysis is a simple and efficient methodology for metabolic profiling with potential use for biomonitoring strategies.

  10. Molecular evidence for a diverse green algal community growing in the hair of sloths and a specific association with Trichophilus welckeri (Chlorophyta, Ulvophyceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiarello Adriano G

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sloths are slow-moving arboreal mammals inhabiting tropical rainforests in Central and South America. The six living species of sloths are occasionally reported to display a greenish discoloration of their pelage. Trichophilus welckeri, a green algal species first described more than a century ago, is widely believed to discolor the animals fur and provide the sloth with effective camouflage. However, this phenomenon has not been explored in any detail and there is little evidence to substantiate this widely held opinion. Results Here we investigate the genetic diversity of the eukaryotic community present in fur of all six extant species of sloth. Analysis of 71 sloth hair samples yielding 426 partial 18S rRNA gene sequences demonstrates a diverse eukaryotic microbial assemblage. Phylogenetic analysis reveals that sloth fur hosts a number of green algal species and suggests that acquisition of these organisms from the surrounding rainforest plays an important role in the discoloration of sloth fur. However, an alga corresponding to the morphological description of Trichophilus welckeri was found to be frequent and abundant on sloth fur. Phylogenetic analysis demonstrated the retention of this alga on the fur of sloths independent of geographic location. Conclusions These results demonstrate a unique diverse microbial eukaryotic community in the fur of sloths from Central and South America. Our analysis streghtens the case for symbiosis between sloths and Trichophilus welckeri.

  11. Physical factors contributing to the benthic dominance of the alga Caulerpa sertularioides (Caulerpaceae, Chlorophyta in the upwelling Bahía Culebra, north Pacific of Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cindy Fernández-García

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Caulerpa sertularioides has been spreading in Bahía Culebra, a seasonal upwelling bay in the north Pacific of Costa Rica, since 2001. The survey was carried out from December 2003 to March 2005, in several locations around Bahía Culebra, located inside the Gulf of Papagayo. This study investigated spatial and temporal patterns, percent coverage, monthly growth rate, reproductive adaptations, and morphological variations of frond length and stolon diameter of Caulerpa sertularioides, at different environmental physical and chemical factors at the bay. The alga extended to depths of 23 m on a variety of substrates. The stolons extended quickly, with a maximum growth rate of 31.2 cm month-1. This alga grows mainly by fragmentation of its fronds and stolons; nevertheless it can also reproduce sexually by releasing gametes in the water column. These two modes of spreading promote the adaptation of this opportunistic species to environmental, chemical, and physical changes at this bay. At the same time the alga showed variations in the length of its fronds and stolons, adapting to conditions such as depth and season. Average percent cover and frond density increased during the dry season when the upwelling of nutrients and cold water occurs. In the rainy season the average percent cover and frond density decreased; however there was a peak in September, when high precipitation resulted in runoff into the bay of nutrient-rich waters. The morphological and physiological plasticity of C. sertularioides, in synergy with its predominant clonal propagation and sexual reproduction provided this species with a great adaptability to changes in temperature and nutrient concentration at Bahía Culebra.Desde el 2001 se ha observado una propagación del alga verde Caulerpa sertularioides en Bahía Culebra, zona de afloramiento costero, en el Pacífico norte de Costa Rica. El muestreo se llevó acabo entre Diciembre 2003 a marzo 2005, en varias localidades de Bahía Culebra. En este estudio se presentan los patrones de distribución, cobertura, tasa mensual de crecimiento, adaptaciones reproductivas y variaciones morfológicas del largo de la fronda y diámetro del estolón de Caulerpa sertularioides, a diferentes factores ambientales físico-químicos en Bahía Culebra. Esta alga se extiende hasta profundidades de 23 m, en una gran variedad de sustratos. Los estolones se extienden rápidamente, con un crecimiento máximo de 31.2 cm mes-1. Esta alga se propaga principalmente por la fragmentación de sus frondas y estolones, así mismo se reproduce sexualmente liberando gametos a la columna de agua. Estos modos de reproducción promueven la adaptación de esta especie oportunista, a los cambios ambientales, tanto químicos, como físicos, de la bahía. Al mismo tiempo esta alga presenta variaciones en el largo de sus frondas y el diámetro del rizoma, adaptándose a diferentes profundidades y condiciones de la época del año. El porcentaje de cobertura y densidad de frondas aumentan durante la época seca, cuando emergen aguas frías y nutrientes por el afloramiento costero. Por otro lado, en la época lluviosa estas medidas decrecen, sin embargo se presenta un pico en setiembre, cuando la precipitación aumenta y llega una carga extra de nutrientes a la bahía por escorrentía. La plasticidad morfológica y fisiológica de C. sertularioides, en sinergia con su propagación clonal, proveen a esta alga con una gran adaptabilidad a los cambios en temperatura y nutrientes de Bahía Culebra.

  12. Physical factors contributing to the benthic dominance of the alga Caulerpa sertularioides (Caulerpaceae, Chlorophyta in the upwelling Bahía Culebra, north Pacific of Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cindy Fernández-García

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Caulerpa sertularioides has been spreading in Bahía Culebra, a seasonal upwelling bay in the north Pacific of Costa Rica, since 2001. The survey was carried out from December 2003 to March 2005, in several locations around Bahía Culebra, located inside the Gulf of Papagayo. This study investigated spatial and temporal patterns, percent coverage, monthly growth rate, reproductive adaptations, and morphological variations of frond length and stolon diameter of Caulerpa sertularioides, at different environmental physical and chemical factors at the bay. The alga extended to depths of 23 m on a variety of substrates. The stolons extended quickly, with a maximum growth rate of 31.2 cm month-1. This alga grows mainly by fragmentation of its fronds and stolons; nevertheless it can also reproduce sexually by releasing gametes in the water column. These two modes of spreading promote the adaptation of this opportunistic species to environmental, chemical, and physical changes at this bay. At the same time the alga showed variations in the length of its fronds and stolons, adapting to conditions such as depth and season. Average percent cover and frond density increased during the dry season when the upwelling of nutrients and cold water occurs. In the rainy season the average percent cover and frond density decreased; however there was a peak in September, when high precipitation resulted in runoff into the bay of nutrient-rich waters. The morphological and physiological plasticity of C. sertularioides, in synergy with its predominant clonal propagation and sexual reproduction provided this species with a great adaptability to changes in temperature and nutrient concentration at Bahía Culebra.

  13. Comparative studies on utilizing nitrogen capacity between two macroalgae Gracilaria tenuistipitata var. liui (rhodophyta) and Ulva pertusa ( chlorophyta )I. Nitrogen storage under nitrogen enrichment and starvation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    This paper deals with the N storage of Gracilaria tenuistipitata var. liui and Ulva pertusa under ammonium enrichment and starvation. After 10 days of ammonium enrichment, ammonium NH4+, free amino acid (FAA), protein (pro), chlorophyll (Chl),phycoerythrin (PE) and total dissolved nitrogen (TDN) of the two macroalgae increased significantly. Total nitrogen (TN) increased significantly from 3.65% to 5.78% dry weight of G. tenuistipitata var. liui and 2.82% to 5.07% dw of U. pertusa, respectively. Protein and FAA were the most important N storage pools in the macroalgae. During N-starvation period, individual N pools of the two species were depleted at exponential rates. Each N pool in U. pertusa decreased more rapidly than in G. tenuistipitata, var. liui and the latter was able to sustain fast growth for more time (> 20 days) than U. pertusa. N demands for supporting growth were different between the two species,U. pertusa grew more rapidly and had higher N demands than G. tenuistipitata var. liui did.

  14. Combining and Comparing Coalescent, Distance and Character-Based Approaches for Barcoding Microalgaes: A Test with Chlorella-Like Species (Chlorophyta).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Shanmei; Fei, Cong; Song, Jiameng; Bao, Yachao; He, Meilin; Wang, Changhai

    2016-01-01

    Several different barcoding methods of distinguishing species have been advanced, but which method is the best is still controversial. Chlorella is becoming particularly promising in the development of second-generation biofuels. However, the taxonomy of Chlorella-like organisms is easily confused. Here we report a comprehensive barcoding analysis of Chlorella-like species from Chlorella, Chloroidium, Dictyosphaerium and Actinastrum based on rbcL, ITS, tufA and 16S sequences to test the efficiency of traditional barcoding, GMYC, ABGD, PTP, P ID and character-based barcoding methods. First of all, the barcoding results gave new insights into the taxonomic assessment of Chlorella-like organisms studied, including the clear species discrimination and resolution of potentially cryptic species complexes in C. sorokiniana, D. ehrenbergianum and C. Vulgaris. The tufA proved to be the most efficient barcoding locus, which thus could be as potential "specific barcode" for Chlorella-like species. The 16S failed in discriminating most closely related species. The resolution of GMYC, PTP, P ID, ABGD and character-based barcoding methods were variable among rbcL, ITS and tufA genes. The best resolution for species differentiation appeared in tufA analysis where GMYC, PTP, ABGD and character-based approaches produced consistent groups while the PTP method over-split the taxa. The character analysis of rbcL, ITS and tufA sequences could clearly distinguish all taxonomic groups respectively, including the potentially cryptic lineages, with many character attributes. Thus, the character-based barcoding provides an attractive complement to coalescent and distance-based barcoding. Our study represents the test that proves the efficiency of multiple DNA barcoding in species discrimination of microalgaes.

  15. Morfología vegetativa y reproducción asexual de Draparnaldia mutabilis (Chaetophoraceae, Chlorophyta), primer registro fundamentado para Argentina

    OpenAIRE

    Karina M. Michetti; Leonardi, Patricia I.; Eduardo J. Cáceres

    2007-01-01

    Draparnaldia mutabilis posee un talo compuesto por un sistema rizoidal postrado reducido y un sistema erguido que muestra una marcada diferenciación entre filamentos axiales y laterales, estos últimos agrupados en fascículos densos, altamente ramificados. La reproducción asexual ocurre por medio de zoósporas que poseen un patrón de germinación erguido. El registro de esta especie constituye la primera cita cierta para la República Argentina. Se presenta además, una clave con las e...

  16. Effects of three macroalgae, Ulva linza (Chlorophyta), Corallina pilulifera (Rhodophyta) and Sargassum thunbergii (Phaeophyta) on the growth of the red tide microalga Prorocentrum donghaiense under laboratory conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Renjun; Xiao, Hui; Wang, You; Zhou, Wenli; Tang, Xuexi

    2007-10-01

    Allelopathic effects of several concentrations of fresh tissue and dry powder of three macroalgae, Ulva linza, Corallina pilulifera and Sargassum thunbergii, on the red tide microalga Prorocentrum donghaiense were evaluated in microcosms. Preliminary studies on the algicidal effects of one aqueous and four organic solvent extracts from the macroalgae on the microalga were carried out to confirm the existence of allelochemicals in the tissues of the macroalgae. The effects of macroalgal culture medium filtrate on P. donghaiense were investigated using initial or semi-continuous filtrate addition. Furthermore, the potential effects of the microalga on these three macroalgae were also tested. The results of the microcosm assay showed that the growth of P. donghaiense was strongly inhibited by using fresh tissues and dry powder of the three macroalgae. Both aqueous and methanol extracts of the macroalgae had strong growth inhibitory effects on P. donghaiense, while the other three organic solvent extracts (acetone, ether and chloroform) had no apparent effect on its growth; this suggested that the allelochemicals from these three macroalga had relatively high polarities. The three macroalgal culture medium filtrates exhibited apparent growth inhibitory effect on the microalgae under initial or semi-continuous addition, which suggested that the cells of P. donghaiense are sensitive to the allelochemicals. In contrast, P. donghaiense had no apparent effect on the growth of the macroalgae in coexistence experiment.

  17. Coccomyxa actinabiotis sp. nov. (Trebouxiophyceae, Chlorophyta), a new green microalga living in the spent fuel cooling pool of a nuclear reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivasseau, Corinne; Farhi, Emmanuel; Compagnon, Estelle; de Gouvion Saint Cyr, Diane; van Lis, Robert; Falconet, Denis; Kuntz, Marcel; Atteia, Ariane; Couté, Alain

    2016-10-01

    Life can thrive in extreme environments where inhospitable conditions prevail. Organisms which resist, for example, acidity, pressure, low or high temperature, have been found in harsh environments. Most of them are bacteria and archaea. The bacterium Deinococcus radiodurans is considered to be a champion among all living organisms, surviving extreme ionizing radiation levels. We have discovered a new extremophile eukaryotic organism that possesses a resistance to ionizing radiations similar to that of D. radiodurans. This microorganism, an autotrophic freshwater green microalga, lives in a peculiar environment, namely the cooling pool of a nuclear reactor containing spent nuclear fuels, where it is continuously submitted to nutritive, metallic, and radiative stress. We investigated its morphology and its ultrastructure by light, fluorescence and electron microscopy as well as its biochemical properties. Its resistance to UV and gamma radiation was assessed. When submitted to different dose rates of the order of some tens of mGy · h(-1) to several thousands of Gy · h(-1) , the microalga revealed to be able to survive intense gamma-rays irradiation, up to 2,000 times the dose lethal to human. The nuclear genome region spanning the genes for small subunit ribosomal RNA-Internal Transcribed Spacer (ITS) 1-5.8S rRNA-ITS2-28S rRNA (beginning) was sequenced (4,065 bp). The phylogenetic position of the microalga was inferred from the 18S rRNA gene. All the revealed characteristics make the alga a new species of the genus Coccomyxa in the class Trebouxiophyceae, which we name Coccomyxa actinabiotis sp. nov.

  18. Supply chain and marketing of sea grapes, Caulerpa racemosa (Forsskål) J. Agardh (Chlorophyta: Caulerpaceae) in Fiji, Samoa and Tonga.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, C; Bala, S; South, G R; Lako, J; Lober, M; Simos, T

    2014-01-01

    This report describes for the first time the supply chain of Caulerpa racemosa in three Pacific Island countries. The harvesting and marketing of C. racemosa are important subsistence activities for villagers in Fiji and Samoa, less so in Tonga. At least 150 harvesters are involved in Fiji, some 100 in Samoa and only a handful in Tonga. The annual combined crop is of some 123 t valued at around US$266,492. In Fiji, it is projected that supply does not meet local demand and there is a potential export market that is currently operating at a pilot project level. In Samoa, the supply is considered adequate for the current market. In Tonga, harvesting is carried out by a few families and supplies a niche market in that country. The possibilities of field cultivation of Caulerpa have been explored but, at present, with only limited success in Samoa. The supply chain is simple in all three countries, and only in Fiji are middlemen involved in the distribution process. The limitations for marketing include the fact that only a few sites supply most of the crop in all the three countries, that all sites need to be conserved through sustainable harvesting methods, the short shelf life of the crop and a lack of information on the carrying capacity of harvest sites. Caulerpa remains a crop that fulfils a niche market but has the potential to be scaled up for additional livelihood development in the future.

  19. Pengaruh Aerasi dan Sumber Nutrien terhadap Kemampuan Alga Filum Chlorophyta dalam Menyerap Karbon (Carbon Sink untuk Mengurangi Emisi CO2 di Kawasan Perkotaan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lancur Setoaji

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Penelitian terkait mitigasi pemanasan global, khususnya dalam penyerapan karbon dioksida (CO2, menjadi fokus utama di kalangan ilmuwan dunia. Secara alamiah, karbon dioksida dapat diserap oleh tumbuhan hijau, laut, karbonasi batuan kapur, dan alga. Pigmen hijau dalam alga atau klorofil dapat menyerap karbon dioksida dalam proses fotosintesis. Alga memiliki pertumbuhan yang sangat cepat sehingga cocok digunakan sebagai carbon sink. Penelitian terkait carbon sink ini bertujuan untuk menentukan kemampuan rata-rata serapan CO2 oleh alga di kawasan perkotaan dan menentukan pengaruh aerasi dan variasi sumber N terhadap pertumbuhan dan perkembangan alga. Penelitian ini dilakukan dalam skala laboratorium menggunakan reaktor dengan proses batch. Sampel alga yang digunakan didapatkan dari hasil pengembangbiakan yang bersumber dari perairan di kawasan perkotaan. Penelitian ini menggunakan dua variabel uji, yaitu aerasi dan sumber nutrien. Jumlah karbon dioksida yang diserap didapatkan dari perbandingan stoikiometri pada reaksi fotosintesis.  Berdasarkan perbandingan stoikiometri tersebut diketahui bahwa 1 gram sel alga yang terbentuk sebanding dengan 1,92 gram CO2 yang diserap. Dari hasil penelitian, alga dengan penambahan pupuk urea dapat menyerap 4,87 mg CO2/hari dalam kondisi tanpa aerasi atau 3,84 mg CO2/hari dengan aerasi. Sedangkan alga dengan penambahan pupuk NPK dapat menyerap 3,61 mg CO2/hari dalam kondisi tanpa aerasi atau 3,01 mg CO2/hari dengan aerasi.

  20. Effect of treated sewage on growth of marine algae

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Dhargalkar, V.K.

    Eight algal species belonging to Chlorophyta, Rhodophyta and Phaeophyta were used to assess the effect of different concentrations of secondary treated sewage on their growth. Chlorophyta and Rhodophyta members. Ulva fasciata and Gracilaria...

  1. Total phenolic content,in vitro antioxidant activity and chemical composition of plant extracts from semiarid Mexican region

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jorge E Wong-Paz; Juan C Contreras-Esquivel; Ral Rodrguez-Herrera; Mara L Carrillo-Inungaray; Lluvia I Lpez; Guadalupe V Nevrez-Moorilln; Cristbal N Aguilar

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To determine the extraction suitable conditions of total phenolic content(TPC) by heat-reflux system, antioxidant activities andHPLC characterization of the aqueous-ethanolic extracts ofJatropha dioica (J. dioica)(Dragon’s blood),Flourensia cernua (F. cernua)(Tar bush), Eucalyptus camaldulensis(E. camaldulensis)(Eucalyptus) and Turnera diffusa (T. diffusa) (Damiana).Methods:TPC was evaluated by the well-known colorimetric assay usingFolin-Ciocalteu reagent.The antioxidant activities were assayed by three methods based on scavenging ofDPPH,ABTS and by lipid oxidation inhibition.The chemical composition of the extracts obtained was subject toHPLC analysis.Results:TPC in the plant extracts ranged from2.3 to 14.12 mg gallic acid equivalents/g for J. dioica and E. camaldulensis, respectively.The plant extracts ofF. cernua,E. camaldulensis andT. diffusa showed similar strong antioxidant activities on scavenging ofDPPH and lipid oxidation inhibition.In contrast,J. dioica extracts had lowest potential antioxidant in three assays used.HPLC assay showed the presence of several phenolic compounds in the extracts used.Conclusions:The results obtained suggest thatF. cernua, E. camaldulensis andT. diffusa are potential sources to obtain bioactive phenolic compounds with high antioxidant properties which can be used in the factories as antioxidant agents or for treatments in diseases.

  2. Nederlandse Kranswieren 1. Sterkranswier [Nitellopsis obtusa (Desv.) J. Groves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Raam, van J.C.; Maier, E.X.

    1989-01-01

    As the first in a series on the stoneworts (Characeae) of the Netherlands a treatise is given of Nitellopsis obtusa. Data on distribution, taxonomy, ecology and phytosociology are presented and possibilities for the protection of this endangered species in the Netherlands are discussed.

  3. Comparative studies on utilizing nitrogen capacity between two macroalgae Gracilaria tenuistipitata var. liui ( rhodophyta ) and Ulva pertusa (chlorophyta)Ⅱ.Feedback controls of intracellular nitrogen pools on nitrogen uptake

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The potential feedback by intracellular nitrogen pools on maximum N uptake (NH4+) rate were determined for Gracilaria tenuistipitata var. liui and Ulva pertusa. The results of correlation matrix analyzing showed that the surge uptake of ammonium seemed related to rapid changes in small intracellular pools of inorganic nitrogen or small peptide and amino acids rather than to changes in TN content of the macroalgae. The assimilation rates of nitrogen of U. pertusa and G. tenuistipitata increased slowly during N starvation and were mainly regulated by amino acids and some incorporation of amino acids into macromolecules. From ecological point of view, the fast-growing and uptaking nutrient U. pertusa is more suitable to improve water quality in integrated shrimp culture ponds in which external nutrient supplies are usually high and constant during the culture period, while G. tenuistipitata var. liui is more suitable to be polycultured in a waters with intermittence supply of nutrients.

  4. Structural features and inactivation of coagulation proteases of a sulfated polysaccharidic fraction from Caulerpa cupressoides var. lycopodium (Caulerpaceae, Chlorophyta - doi: 10.4025/actascitechnol.v35i4.16709

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Ariévilo Gurgel Rodrigues

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Studies on biopolymers from macroalgae suggested sulfated polysaccharides (SPs as research agents to investigate events related to haemostasis. Caulerpa cupressoides var. lycopodium is a marine green alga containing three SPs fractions (SP1, SP2 and SP3. SP2 had anticoagulant (in vitro and anti- and prothrombotic (in vivo actions; however, its effect on the coagulation system is not fully understood. This study aimed to determine the infrared (IR spectroscopy, chemical composition (CC, elemental microanalysis (EM, molecular weight (MW and the effect on coagulation proteases of SP2. The presence of sulfate ester, galactose-6-sulfate, uronic acid and glycoside linkages for IR spectrum; contents of sulfate (28%, total sugars (40% and uronic acids (7.18% for CC; and content of carbon (21.98%, sulfate (4.27%, nitrogen (1.3% and hydrogen (4.86% for EM were obtained. The average molecular weights of four different SPs (SP-1, SP-2, SP-3 and SP-4 subfractions from the SP2 ranged from ~ 8 to >100 kDa. SP2 was tested on coagulation proteases (thrombin and factor Xa in the presence of antithrombin (AT and heparin cofactor II (HCII using human plasma, being both thrombin and factor Xa target proteases inhibited, but requiring a concentration of about 2.5-fold higher of HCII than the thrombin inactivation by AT.   

  5. Understanding the Role of Typhoons, Fire, and Climate on the Vegetation Dynamics of Tropical Dry Forests: Looking to the Past to Develop Future Management Solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    Gleichenia, Palhinhaea cernua, Cyperaceae , and possibly an increase in spore production by tree ferns with removal of canopy trees. In addition, pollen...rates. Eventually this progression would lead to a lack of forest and the pollen recorded will be dominated by grass, sedge , fewer understory ferns

  6. Levenscyclus en systematiek van drie nauw verwante

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heessen, H.J.L.

    1972-01-01

    Acerina cernua, collected in December 1971 and January 1972 from the IJsselmeer, was infected with Tetracotyle ovata (body cavity and pericardial cavity) and T. percaefluviatilis (air-bladder), Osmerus eperlanus, from the same lake, was infected with Tetracotyle

  7. A New Metabolite with a unique 4-pyranone-ylactam-1,4-thiazine moiety from a Hawaiian-plant associated fungus

    Science.gov (United States)

    An endophytic fungus Paraphaeosphaeria neglecta FT462 isolated from the Hawaiian-plant Lycopodiella cernua (L.) Pic. Serm produced one unusual compound (1, paraphaeosphaeride A) with the 4-pyranone-'-lactam-1,4-thiazine moiety, along with two new compounds (2 and 3, paraphaeosphaerides B and C, resp...

  8. Características populacionais de Microphrys bicornutus (Brachyura, Mithracidae no fital Halimeda opuntia (Chlorophyta, Halimedaceae, em área recifal submetida à visitação humana, em João Pessoa, Paraíba Population characteristics of Microphrys bicornutus (Brachyura, Mithracidae on the phytal Halimeda opuntia (Chlorophyta, Halimedaceae, on reef area submitted to human visitation, in João Pessoa, Paraíba, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jefferson B. Batista

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve como objetivos caracterizar e comparar a estrutura e a dinâmica populacional de Microphrys bicornutus Latreille, 1825 no fital Halimeda opuntia (Halimedaceae coletado nas formações recifais de Picãozinho (submetida à visitação turística e São Gonçalo (área controle, na costa de João Pessoa (Nordeste do Brasil, sob influência de fatores ambientais e do número de visitantes. Nas duas áreas de estudo as populações analisadas estiveram compostas por fêmeas e machos maduros e imaturos com significativa predominância de machos e de animais imaturos, freqüência de tamanho e períodos reprodutivos similares. O tamanho máximo dos exemplares, a freqüência de distribuição de tamanho e a razão sexual diferiram dos resultados obtidos para a espécie em outras latitudes e habitats. Dados de razão sexual evidenciam que independentemente do estágio de maturação, os machos apresentam predominância significativa (RS>1,0, e que a proporção de fêmeas diminui com o amadurecimento sexual. Sem sofrer influência da biomassa da alga, e da salinidade e temperatura da água, variações populacionais significativas foram associadas ao aumento de juvenis durante períodos chuvosos. A baixa densidade populacional e a maior desproporção da relação macho: fêmea em subárea de Picãozinho com maior fluxo de pessoas sugerem que estas variações podem ter sido induzidas pelo pisoteio das algas.The aim of this study was to characterize and compare the population structure and dynamic of Microphrys bicornutus Latreille, 1825 on the phytal Halimeda opuntia (Halimedaceae collected on the reef areas of Picãozinho (visited by tourists and São Gonçalo (control area, in João Pessoa coast (Northeastern of Brazil, under the influence of environmental conditions and visitant numbers. In both study areas the populations analyzed were composed similarly of mature and immature males and females, with predominance of males and immature animals, and similar size frequency and reproductive period. Sex-ratio, size frequency distribution, and size of the biggest specimens differed from those estimated in others latitudes and habitats for this species. Sex ratio estimation has made evident that independently of maturation stage, males tended to predominate significantly and the proportion of females to decrease with sexual maturation. Without exhibiting influence of the alga biomass, and of the salinity and temperature of the water, significant population variations were associated to the increase of juvenile during rainy periods. The low population density and the largest disproportion of the relationship male: female in Picãozinho subarea with larger flow of people, are suggestive that the trampling of the alga might have induced this population variation.

  9. Method of producing purified carotenoid compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eggink, Laura (Inventor)

    2007-01-01

    A method of producing a carotenoid in solid form includes culturing a strain of Chlorophyta algae cells in a minimal inorganic medium and separating the algae comprising a solid form of carotenoid. In one embodiment f the invention, the strain of Chlorophyta algae cells includes a strain f Chlamydomonas algae cells.

  10. Interactions of Radiofrequency Radiation with NITELLA: Electrical Excitation and Perturbation of the Control of Cytoplasmic Streaming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-03-01

    107. Halliday , D. and R. Resnick . 1978. Physics, third edition, parts i and 2. Wiley and Sons, Canada. Harvey, E.N. 1942. Hydrostatic pressure and...an action potential is elicited in the characeae (Findlay, 1959; Hope and Walker , 1975), and Straus 1. 2. suggested that a microwave specific...long) and smaller multicellular nodes (Fig. la). Isolated cells are known to survive for several weeks or months in the laboratory (Hope and Walker

  11. [Textual research on the origin and producing area of Baitouweng (Radix Pulsatillae)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, W H; Zhan, Z L; Peng, H S; Yang, J; Qian, J P

    2017-01-28

    Baitouweng (Pulsatilla Root), a commonly used traditional Chinese medicine, was first recorded in Shen nong ben cao jing (Shennong's Classic of Materia Medica) . Pulsatilla chinensis (Bunge) Regel from Ranunculaceae had become the authentic source for the Baitouweng since the Song Dynasty, which was consistent with the Radix Pulsatillae collected in the Chinese Pharmacopoeia. Chuzhou, Anhui province, being regarded as the main producing area in ancient times, had been its genuine producing area since the period of Republic of China. From the Tang Dynasty to Ming Dynasty, the origin of Baitouweng recorded in the works of Chinese materia medica could also include P. cernua, P. dahurica and P. ambigua. Therefore, P. chinensis in Chuzhou, with large quantity and high quality, is a superior resource that need to increase its protection and further studies, whereas P. cernua, P. dahurica and P. ambigua have better to be used as local drugs.

  12. Orobanchaceae in the

    OpenAIRE

    Foley, Michael J.Y

    2000-01-01

    Two new Orobanche taxa are described: O. austrohispanica MJ.Y. Foley, and O. crinita Viv. var. occidentalis MJ.Y. Foley. Thirty-one species or subspecies of Orobanche and one species of Cistanche have been confirmed as being present within the Flora iberica área but some others previously recorded appear to have been so erroneously. In addition, Lathraea phelypaea L. {Cistanche phelypaea (L.) Cout.] and nine species of Orobanche (O. caryophyllacea Sm., O. cernua Loefl., O. elatior Sutton, O. ...

  13. General Classification Handbook for Floodplain Vegetation in Large River Systems. Chapter 1 of Book 2, Collection of Environmental Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    tuberculatus WM Amorpha A. fruiticosa WMS Betula B. nigra FF, LF Bidens B. cernua, B. frondosa SMA Carex C. spp.1 SM Carya C. cordiformis, C. illinoensis LF...include pecan ( Carya ), hickory ( Carya ), river birch (Betula), sycamore (Platanus), and red/black oak (Quercus). This general class is most com- mon...near the edge of the floodplain, or out of the floodplain. This general class typi- cally consists of red or white oak (Quercus), hickory ( Carya

  14. Interactive Digital Image Processing Investigation. Phase II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-04-01

    Larrea tridentata (11) 0.7JGrass-Flourensia...11.3 Shrubland 58.2 Larrea tridentata (20) 9.6 Larrea tridentata -Grass (21) 4.6j Larrea tridentata -Grass-Parthenium incanum.(22)06 Larrea tridentata -Prosopis...glan- dulosa-Grass (23) 4.1 Larrea tridentata -Fourensia cernua-Grass (25) 2.4 Acacia constricta-Grass (30) 1.2 Acacia constricta-Latirrea

  15. Analysis of Desert Shrubs along First-Order Channels on the Desert Piedmonts: Possible Indicators of Ecosystem Health and Historic Variation - (SEED Project)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    The pavement-covered soils are largely devoid of vegetation. Vegetation along channels mainly consists of Larrea tridentata (creosotebush...Corvallis, Oregon). Water potential data was collected on cresostebush ( Larrea tridentata ), ironwood (Olneya tesota), and blue paloverde (Cercidium...L.H., R.P. Gibbens, and J.M. Lenz. 1998. Soil-induced variability in root systems of creosotebush ( Larrea tridentata ) and tarbush (Flourensia cernua

  16. Occurrence of green alga Ernodesmisverticillata (Kuetzing) Boergesen at Malvan (Maharashtra coast)

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Untawale, A.G.; Agadi, V.V.

    The occurrence of Ernodesmis verticillata belonging to Chlorophyta has been recorded for the first time from Malvan, along the Maharashtra Coast. The general distribution, habit and habitat of this species are given. During the recent survey...

  17. Additions to the marine algal flora of Curaçao, Netherlands Antilles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stegenga, H.; Vroman, M.

    1988-01-01

    Nine species of benthic marine algae are reported from the Caribbean island of Curaçao for the first time: Chlorophyta: Derbesia marina and Trichosolen longipedicellata; Phaeophyta: Ectocarpus rhodochortonoides, Feldmannia elachistaeformis, Hecatonema floridanum, Herponema tortugense and Sphacelaria

  18. Ecology of intertidal benthic algae of Northern Karnataka coast

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Untawale, A.G.; Reddy, C.R.K.; Deshmukhe, G.V.

    The intertidal benthic marine algal flora has been studied for distribution, phenology, biomass and zonation along with the environmental conditions. About 65 species belonging to 42 genera of Chlorophyta, Phaeophyta have been recorded. Rhodophyta...

  19. Dynamics of biomass composition and growth during recovery of nitrogen-starved Chromochloris zofingiensis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mulders, K.J.M.; Lamers, P.P.; Wijffels, R.H.; Martens, D.E.

    2015-01-01

    The effect of nitrogen replenishment on the kinetics of secondary carotenoids, triacylglycerol (TAG) and primary cell components was studied in nitrogen-starved Chromochloris zofingiensis (Chlorophyta), an oleaginous and carotenogenic microalga. Nitrogen resupplied after a period of starvation was i

  20. Flora of Beyt Shankhodar in the Gul of Kuchchh

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Untawale, A.G.; Ambiye, V.

    nature and scanty due to the extreme climatological conditions. About 33 species of angiosperms have been recorded from this island. Qualitative distribution of the intertidal marine algae of this island indicated 120 spp. belonging to chlorophyta (18...

  1. Inducible colony formation within the Scenedesmaceae: adaptive responses to infochemicals from two different herbivore taxa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verschoor, A.M.; Van der Stap, I.; Helmsing, N.R.; Lürling, M.; Van Donk, E.

    2004-01-01

    We studied the occurrence of colony formation within 40 different strains of Scenedesmaceae (Chlorococcales, Chlorophyta) in response to grazing-released infochemicals from the herbivorous zooplankters Brachionus calyciflorus Pallas (Rotifera) and Daphnia magna Strauss (Cladocera). With the exceptio

  2. Inducible colony formation within the Scenedesmaceae: Adaptive responses to infochemicals from two different herbivore taxa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verschoor, A.M.; Stap, I.; Helmsing, N.R.; Lürling, M.F.L.L.W.; Donk, van E.

    2004-01-01

    We studied the occurrence of colony formation within 40 different strains of Scenedesmaceae (Chlorococcales, Chlorophyta) in response to grazing-released infochemicals from the herbivorous zooplankters Brachionus calyciflorus Pallas (Rotifera) and Daphnia magna Strauss (Cladocera). With the exceptio

  3. Marine algal flora of submerged Angria Bank (Arabian Sea)

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Untawale, A.G.; Reddy, C.R.K.; Ambiye, V.

    Submerged Angria Bank was surveyed for the deep water marine algal flora. About 57 species were reported from this bank for the first time. Rhodophyta dominated (30 species) followed by Chlorophyta (18 species) and Phaeophyta (9 species). A few...

  4. Dynamics of biomass composition and growth during recovery of nitrogen-starved Chromochloris zofingiensis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mulders, K.J.M.; Lamers, P.P.; Wijffels, R.H.; Martens, D.E.

    2015-01-01

    The effect of nitrogen replenishment on the kinetics of secondary carotenoids, triacylglycerol (TAG) and primary cell components was studied in nitrogen-starved Chromochloris zofingiensis (Chlorophyta), an oleaginous and carotenogenic microalga. Nitrogen resupplied after a period of starvation was

  5. Productivity and biochemical composition of Tetradesmus obliquus and Phaeodactylum tricornutum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buono, Silvia; Colucci, Antonella; Angelini, Antonella; Langellotti, Antonio Luca; Massa, Marina; Martello, Anna; Fogliano, Vincenzo; Dibenedetto, Angela

    2016-01-01

    The present work evaluated biomass productivity, carbon dioxide fixation rate, and biochemical composition of two microalgal species, Phaeodactylum tricornutum (Bacillariophyta) and Tetradesmus obliquus (Chlorophyta), cultivated indoors in high-technology photobioreactors (HT-PBR) and outdoors

  6. Production and characterization of antimicrobial active substance ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Elshobary

    2013-12-04

    Dec 4, 2013 ... subjected to a steam of high energy of electrons at elevated tem- perature up to 100°C. ..... Arunachalam (2008) who reported that green algae. (Chlorophyta) were the .... Marine algae of California Stanford. University press.

  7. Aquatic macro algae of a region under Almirante Alvaro Alberto nuclear power plant influence. I. Taxonomic composition; Macroalgas marinhas da regiao sob influencia da Central Nuclear Almirante Alvaro Alberto, Angra dos Reis, RJ, Brasil. I. Composicao taxonomica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pedrini, A.G. [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria (IRD), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)]|[Universidade Santa Ursula, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Ciencias Biologicas; Cassano, V.; Coelho, L.G.; Labronici, G.J. [Universidade do Estado, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Biologia

    1994-12-31

    A total of 134 taxa were found: 32 Chlorophyta, 29 Phaeophyta and 74 Rhodophyta. The Caulerpales (Chlorophyta) had the highest number of taxa (37,5%) followed by the Dictyotales (Phaeophyta - 43%) and Ceramiales (Rhodophyta - 53%). The benthic flora shows some affinity to that of Ilha Grande (part), Sepetiba Bay and Paraty (Sorensen`s Index - 0,62, 0,61 and 0,58 respectively. (author). 22 refs, 1 fig, 1 tab.

  8. THE EFFECT OF HIGH CO2 CONCENTRATIONS AND UVR ON GROWTH AND PHOTOCHEMICAL EFFICIENCY IN AMPHIROA SP. (RHDOPHYTA) AND CLADOPHORA SP. (CHLOROPHYTA)%高CO2和UVR对叉节藻和刚毛藻生长及光化学效率的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李平; 苏海虹; 关万春

    2014-01-01

    Human behaviors contribute to global changes of enhanced solar ultraviolet radiation (UVR, 280-400 nm) and ocean acidification. Macroalgae plays an important role in global carbon cycle as primary producers;however, the effects of ocean acidification and UVR on macroalgae are uncertain. To investigate the combined effects of ocean acidi-fication and UVR on growth and photochemical efficiency, the calcified Amphiroa sp. and non-calcified Cladophora sp. were utilized in the present study. The results showed that increasing CO2 concentration from 360 ppmv (the current CO2 concentration in the air) to 1000 ppmv inhibited the growth of Amphiroa sp. by 40.01%, but stimulated the growth of Cladophora sp. by 40.08%. We also observed that UVR sensitivity was increased with acidification, and that acidifi-cation amplified the effects of elevated CO2 concentration in regulating the growth of algae. This suggested that ocean acidification may increase the negative effect of UVR to algae. These results indicated species-dependent effects of ocean acidification and UVR.%为研究高 CO2及 UVR 对大型海藻耦合效应的影响,实验选择红藻门可进行钙化的叉节藻(Amphiroa sp.)与绿藻门不具钙化能力的刚毛藻(Cladophora sp.)进行对比,探讨了高 CO2与 UVR 对这两种藻生长及光化学效率的影响,并分析高CO2和UVR的耦合效应。结果表明, CO2浓度由360µmol/mol当前空气中CO2浓度)提高到1000µmol/mol培养73d后,叉节藻的生长下降了40.01%,而刚毛藻却增加了40.08%, UVR对叉节藻的光华学效率造成的抑制率增加了77.76%,对刚毛藻的抑制率增加了17.02%,这说明高CO2引起的海水酸化加剧了UVR对藻体的负面效应,且对具有钙化能力的叉节藻影响更显著。而叉节藻和刚毛藻之间的差异体现了藻体对海水酸化和UVR响应的种间特异性。

  9. 延边地区稻田抗药性杂草的研究%Study on resistant weeds in rice fields in Yanbian Area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴明根; 曹凤秋; 杜小军; 崔锡花

    2005-01-01

    延边地区及其周围稻田大量发生外来杂草狼巴草(Bidens tripartita L.)、大狼巴草(Bidens frondosa L.)和柳叶鬼针草(Bidens cernua L.).长期连续使用农得时,稻田杂草雨久花(Monochoria korsakowii kegel et Maack.)、野慈姑(Sagittaria trifolia L.)对磺酰脲类除草剂表现出很强的抗性,初步认为这些杂草为抗磺酰脲类除草剂的生态型.

  10. Chlorococcales nuevas para el embalse Paso de las Piedras (Buenos Aires, Argentina New Chlorococcales for Paso de las Piedras Reservoir (Buenos Aires, Argentine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Fernández

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available En el presente trabajo se citan e ilustran 22 especies pertenecientes al orden Chlorococcales (Chlorophyceae, Chlorophyta halladas en el embalse Paso de las Piedras que representan nuevas citas para este ambiente. Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata, Tetraedron hemisphaericum y Scenedesmus semipulcher constituyen nuevas citas para la República Argentina.In this paper, we record and illustrate 22 species of Chlorococcales (Chlorophyceae, Chlorophyta found in Paso de las Piedras Reservoir, which are new records for this area. Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata, Tetraedron hemisphaericum and Scenedesmus semipulcher are new for Argentina.

  11. Microhabitat distribution of two Florida scrub endemic plants in comparison to their habitat-generalist congeners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maliakal-Witt, Satya; Menges, Eric S; Denslow, J S

    2005-03-01

    Habitat-specialist species may be restricted to a narrower range of microhabitats than habitat-generalist species. We addressed this hypothesis by comparing microhabitats of two pairs of congeners that differ in habitat specificity and co-occur in one distinct habitat type, Florida rosemary scrub. We characterized microhabitats of rosemary scrub specialists, Polygonella basiramia and Lechea cernua, their habitat-generalist congeners, Polygonella robusta and Lechea deckertii, and random points in the rosemary scrub habitat. Plants of both habitat specialists occurred in microhabitats with significantly more bare sand than plants of habitat-generalist species and random points. Plants of all four species occurred in microhabitats that were farther from dominant shrubs, Ceratiola and Quercus spp., than random points. Seedlings of both habitat specialists grew larger in bare sand microhabitats, whereas ground lichens and litter did not affect seedling growth of the habitat generalists. As the time since fire increases, bare sand cover decreases, Ceratiola density increases, Quercus density remains constant, and shrubs become taller. Physical characteristics, such as soil temperature, soil carbon, and soil moisture, differ slightly with respect to microhabitat. Our results suggest that P. basiramia and L. cernua are specialized on bare sand microhabitats that characterize their preferred habitat, rosemary scrub. Microhabitat specialization may limit the distribution of these rare species.

  12. The Middle Eocene flora of Csordakút (N Hungary)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdei, Boglárka; Rákosi, László

    2009-02-01

    The Middle Eocene fossil plant assemblage from Csordakút (N Hungary) comprises plant remains preserved exclusively as impressions. Algae are represented by abundant remains of Characeae, including both vegetative fragments and gyrogonites. Remains of angiosperms comprise Lauraceae (Daphnogene sp.), Fagaceae (cf. Eotrigonobalanus furcinervis), Ulmaceae (Cedrelospermum div. sp.), Myricaceae (Myrica sp., Comptonia div. sp.), Leguminosae (leaves and fruit), Rhamnaceae (?Zizyphus zizyphoides), Elaeocarpaceae (Sloanea nimrodi, Sloanea sp. fruit), Smilacaceae (Smilax div. sp.). The absence of gymnosperms is indicative of a floristic similarity to the coeval floras of Tatabánya (N Hungary) and Girbou in Romania. Sloanea nimrodi (Ettingshausen) Kvaček & Hably, a new element for the Hungarian fossil record indicates a floristic relation to the Late Eocene flora of Kučlin (Bohemia).

  13. Charophytes, indicators for low salinity phases in North African sebkhet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soulié-Märsche, Ingeborg

    2008-05-01

    Among water plants of lakes and ponds, the charophytes are useful for palaeolimnology because they provide autochthonous fossils in the form of their calcified fructifications, termed gyrogonites. Particular species of the Characeae are adapted to brackish water and serve as a modern analogue to infer the salinity of salt lake sediments. Here we focus on Lamprothamnium papulosum whose significance in terms of palaeo-salinity is reviewed with particular attention to the ecological requirements for calcification. New data describe the finding of L. papulosum from Holocene sediments at Sebkha Mellala, Algeria. Previous Quaternary records of this species from North Africa (Mauritania, Libya (Fezzan), Sudan, Mali and Morocco) are discussed in terms of their significance for palaeolimnology. The present paper highlights the potential of fossil charophyte gyrogonites as indicators of former low salinity phases in present-day hypersaline environments.

  14. [Interaction of melittin with ion channels of excitable membranes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zherelova, O M; Kabanova, N V; Kazachenko, V N; Chaĭlakhian, L M

    2007-01-01

    The effect of the neurotoxin melittin on the activation of ion channels of excitable membrane, the plasmalemma of Characeae algae cells, isolated membrane patches of neurons of mollusc L. stagnalis and Vero cells was studied by the method of intracellular perfusion and the patch-clamp technique in inside-out configuration. It was shown that melittin disturbs the conductivity of plasmalemma and modifieds Ca(2+)-channels of plant membrane. The leakage current that appears by the action of melittin can be restored by substituting calmodulin for melittin. Melittin modifies K(+)-channels of animal cell membrane by disrupting the phospholipid matrix and forms conductive structures in the membrane by interacting with channel proteins, which is evidenced by the appearance of additional ion channels.

  15. Effect of biomass concentration on secondary carotenoids and triacylglycerol (TAG) accumulation in nitrogen-depleted Chlorella zofingiensis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mulders, K.J.M.; Janssen, J.H.; Martens, D.E.; Wijffels, R.H.; Lamers, P.P.

    2014-01-01

    The effect of biomass-specific photon absorption rate on triacylglycerol (TAG) and secondary carotenoid yield was studied. Chlorella zofingiensis (Chlorophyta) was cultivated batch-wise with sufficient initial nitrogen to produce 2.5, 3.4 and 4.1 g L-1 prior to nitrogen depletion, which resulted in

  16. Nitrogen-depleted Chlorella zofingiensis produces astaxanthin, ketolutein and their fatty acid esters: a carotenoid metabolism study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mulders, K.J.M.; Weesepoel, Y.J.A.; Bodenes, C.; Lamers, P.P.; Vincken, J.P.; Martens, D.E.; Gruppen, H.; Wijffels, R.H.

    2015-01-01

    Natural carotenoids such as astaxanthin, ß,ß-carotene and lutein are pigments with a high market value. We studied the effects of nitrogen depletion on the carotenoid metabolism of Chlorella zofingiensis (Chlorophyta) and the subsequent treatment with diphenylamine (DPA), an inhibitor of the biosynt

  17. Cloning, molecular characterization, and phylogeny of two evolutionary distinct glutamine synthetase isoforms in the green microalga Haematococcus pluvialis (Chlorophyceae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reinecke, Diana L.; Zarka, Aliza; Leu, Stefan; Boussiba, Sammy

    2016-01-01

    Haematococcus pluvialis (Chlorophyta) is a widely used microalga of great economic potential, yet its molecular genetics and evolution are largely unknown. We present new detailed molecular and phylogenetic analysis of two glutamine synthetase (GS) enzymes and genes (gln) under the Astaxanthin-induc

  18. Bionomics of the Primary Malaria Vector, Anopheles pseudopunctipennis, in the Tapachula Foothill Area of Southern Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-02-04

    mostly species of Spyrogira and Oedogonium (Prescot~ 103 1978), were found in 46.2% of all wet season habitats and 59.0% of the habitats that were...pseudopunctipennis larvae also contained filamentous algae and other aquatic plants. Filamentous algae of the genera Spirogyra and Oedogonium (Chlorophyta) were

  19. Classification, Naming and Evolutionary History of Glycosyltransferases from Sequenced Green and Red Algal Genomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ulvskov, Peter; Paiva, Dionisio Soares; Domozych, David

    2013-01-01

    ) cell wall biosynthesis, where the land plants have unique cell wall related polymers not found in green and red algae, and (4) O-linked glycosylation where comprehensive orthology was observed in glycosylation between the Chlorophyta and land plants but not between the target proteins....

  20. Seaweeds of the Spermonde Archipelago, SW Sulawesi, Indonesia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verheij, E.; Prud’homme van Reine, W.F.

    1993-01-01

    Seaweeds are important components of tropical reef systems. The present paper deals with the Chlorophyta, Phaeophyta and noncoralline Rhodophyta collected by the first author in the Spermonde Archipelago, SW Sulawesi, Indonesia, during the Buginesia-III project (November 1988-November 1990). Additio

  1. 8 Periphyton Associated with Nymphaea lotus Linn.cdr

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    Different Types of Freshwater Bodies in Southern Ghana ... Institute for Environment and Sanitation Studies, P. O. Box LG 209, Legon ... fishing. Odaw stream. The Odaw river is a small river and takes its source from the Akwapim .... The two sampling sites exhibited taxonomic diversity. In the Odaw stream, Chlorophyta.

  2. Nitrogen-depleted Chlorella zofingiensis produces astaxanthin, ketolutein and their fatty acid esters: a carotenoid metabolism study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mulders, K.J.M.; Weesepoel, Y.J.A.; Bodenes, C.; Lamers, P.P.; Vincken, J.P.; Martens, D.E.; Gruppen, H.; Wijffels, R.H.

    2015-01-01

    Natural carotenoids such as astaxanthin, ß,ß-carotene and lutein are pigments with a high market value. We studied the effects of nitrogen depletion on the carotenoid metabolism of Chlorella zofingiensis (Chlorophyta) and the subsequent treatment with diphenylamine (DPA), an inhibitor of the

  3. Contributions to the study of the marine algae inhabiting Umluj Seashore, Red Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibraheem Borie Mohammad Ibraheem

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The marine algal flora of the Umluj city received no attention about the marine macroalgae. In this paper a total of 19 species are reported for the first time as occurring in the Umluj coast of Saudi Arabia. These species related to Chlorophyta (1, Phaeophyceae (6 and Rhodophyceae (12.

  4. Cloning, molecular characterization, and phylogeny of two evolutionary distinct glutamine synthetase isoforms in the green microalga Haematococcus pluvialis (Chlorophyceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinecke, Diana L; Zarka, Aliza; Leu, Stefan; Boussiba, Sammy

    2016-12-01

    Haematococcus pluvialis (Chlorophyta) is a widely used microalga of great economic potential, yet its molecular genetics and evolution are largely unknown. We present new detailed molecular and phylogenetic analysis of two glutamine synthetase (GS) enzymes and genes (gln) under the Astaxanthin-inducing conditions of light- and nitrogen-stress. Structure analysis identified key residues and confirmed two decameric GS2 holoenzymes, a cytoplasmic enzyme, termed GS2c , and a plastidic form, termed GS2p , due to chloroplast-transit peptides at its N-terminus. Gene expression analysis showed dissociation of mRNA, protein, and enzyme activity levels for both GS2 under different growth conditions, indicating the strong post-transcriptional regulation. Data-mining identified novel and specified published gln genes from Prasinophyceae, Chlorophyta, Trebouxiophyceae, Charophyceae, Bryophyta, Lycopodiophyta, Spermatophyta, and Rhodophyta. Phylogenetic analysis found homologues to the cytosolic GS2c of H. pluvialis in all other photo- and non-photosynthetic Eukaryota. The chloroplastic GS2p was restricted to Chlorophyta, Bryophyta, some Proteobacteria and Fungii; no homologues were identified in Spermatophyta or other Eukaryota. This indicates two independent prokaryotic donors for these two gln genes in H. pluvialis. Combined phylogenetic analysis of GS, chl-b synthase, elongation factor, and light harvesting complex homologues project a newly refined model of Viridiplantae evolution. Herein, a GS1 evolved into the cytosolic GS2c and was passed on to all Eukaryota. Later, the chloroplastic GS2p entered the Archaeplastida lineage via a horizontal gene transfer at the divergence of Chlorophyta and Rhodophyta lineages. GS2p persisted in Chlorophyta and Bryophyta, but was lost during Spermatophyta evolution. These data suggest the revision of GS classification and nomenclature, and extend our understanding of the photosynthetic Eukaryota evolution.

  5. Epidemiological studies on Fasciola hepatica in Gafsa oases (South West of Tunisia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hammami H.

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Epidemiological investigations on Fasciola hepatica fasciolasis were carried out from July 2004 to June 2005 in the Gafsa oases (Tunisia after the detection of a human case. Three habitats were studied: one in El Gsar and two in Ain Soltan. The prevalence of human infection was 6.6 %. The presence of the parasite was detected through serology in 14.3 % of cattle, 35 % of sheep and 68.4 % of goats. The plants Apium nodiflorum, Oxalis cernua and Sonchus maritimus were suspected to be at the origin of animal contamination and Apium nodiflorum was incriminated in human infection. The prevalence of the infection of the intermediate host Galba truncatula (G. truncatula was 19.2 % from July 2004 to June 2005. Gafsa oases constitute a new location for the development of fasciolasis in the southern west of Tunisia.

  6. Epidemiological studies on Fasciola hepatica in Gafsa Oases (south west of Tunisia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammami, H; Hamed, N; Ayadi, A

    2007-09-01

    Epidemiological investigations on Fasciola hepatica fasciolasis were carried out from July 2004 to June 2005 in the Gafsa oases (Tunisia) after the detection of a human case. Three habitats were studied: one in El Gsar and two in Ain Soltan. The prevalence of human infection was 6.6%. The presence of the parasite was detected through serology in 14.3% of cattle, 35% of sheep and 68.4% of goats. The plants Apium nodiflorum, Oxalis cernua and Sonchus maritimus were suspected to be at the origin of animal contamination and Apium nodiflorum was incriminated in human infection. The prevalence of the infection of the intermediate host Galba truncatula (G. truncatula) was 19.2% from July 2004 to June 2005. Gafsa oases constitute a new location for the development of fasciolasis in the southern west of Tunisia.

  7. Experimental protocol for the recovery and evaluation of bioactive compounds of tarbush against postharvest fruit fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De León-Zapata, Miguel A; Pastrana-Castro, Lorenzo; Rua-Rodríguez, María Luisa; Alvarez-Pérez, Olga Berenice; Rodríguez-Herrera, Raul; Aguilar, Cristóbal N

    2016-05-01

    The aim of this study was to recover and evaluate in vitro the antifungal activity of bioactive compounds of tarbush Flourensia cernua against fruit postharvest fungi and their antioxidant capacity. A yield of 15% of bioactive compounds of tarbush was obtained by infusion method and heating using water as solvent. A concentration of 4000 mg/L showed a higher antioxidant activity against the ABTS radical (3.21 μMol/g) in comparison with the DPPH radical (7.62 μMol/g); however the DPPH radical showed a better correlation with the content of tannins. The BCT showed values of IC50 between 1519 and 3310 mg/L against Rhizopus stolonifer, Botrytis cinerea, Fusarium oxysporum and Colletotrichum gloeosporioides. Antifungal activity is attributable mainly to gallic acid and flavonoids identified by infrared and HPLC analysis. In this study, the BCT have shown to be a possible natural alternative of antioxidant and antifungal compounds for use against postharvest fruit fungi.

  8. THE BIOLOGICAL CYCLE OF SUNFLOWER BROOMRAPE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DUCA Maria

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Orobanchaceae is a dicot family, which consists of annual and perennial plants distributing from tropical to subarctic regions, predominately in temperate regions. Broomrape (Orobanche cumana Wallr. = Orobanche cernua Loefl. is a parasitic angiosperm that has been causing a great deal of damage to sunflower production in many countries, including Republic of Moldova. This parasitic angiosperm depends entirely on the host for its supply of water and nutrients. A thorough understanding of its biology, including detailed knowledge of the specific mechanisms of parasitism, is needed in order to develop novel control methods. Some main developmental steps are described for the root parasites: seed conditioning and germination, haustorium formation, penetration into host tissues, maturation of the parasite plant, and seed production. All these stages were studied in artificial and natural conditions.

  9. Molecular identification of broomrape species from a single seed by High Resolution Melting analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathieu Rolland

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Broomrapes are holoparasitic plants spreading through seeds. Each plant produces hundreds of thousands of seeds which remain viable in the soils for decades. To limit their spread, drastic measures are being taken and the contamination of a commercial seed lot by a single broomrape seed can lead to its rejection. Considering that broomrapes species identification from a single seed is extremely difficult even for trained botanists and that among all the described species, only a few are really noxious for the crops, numerous seed lots are rejected because of the contamination by seeds of non-noxious broomrape species. The aim of this study was to develop and evaluate a High Resolution Melting assay identifying the eight most noxious and common broomrape species (P. aegyptiaca, O. cernua, O. crenata, O. cumana, O. foetida, O. hederae, O. minor, and P. ramosa from a single seed. Based on trnL and rbcL plastidial genes amplification, the designed assay successfully identifies O. cumana, O. cernua, O. crenata, O. minor, O. hederae, and O. foetida; P. ramosa and P. aegyptiaca can be differentiated from other species but not from each other. Tested on 50 seed lots, obtained results perfectly matched identifications performed by sequencing. Through the analysis of common seed lots by different analysts, the reproducibility of the assay was evaluated at 90 %. Despite an original sample preparation process it was not possible to extract enough DNA from some seeds (10% of the samples. The described assay fulfils its objectives and allows an accurate identification of the targeted broomrape species. It can be used to identify contaminants in commercial seed lots or for any other purpose. The assay might be extended to vegetative material.

  10. An annotated list of species of the Proteocephalus Weinland, 1858 aggregate sensu de Chambrier et al. (2004) (Cestoda: Proteocephalidea), parasites of fishes in the Palaearctic Region, their phylogenetic relationships and a key to their identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholz, Tomás; Hanzelová, Vladimíra; Skeríková, Andrea; Shimazu, Takeshi; Rolbiecki, Leszek

    2007-06-01

    A list and key to the identification of valid species of tapeworms of the Proteocephalus Weinland, 1858 aggregate sensu de Chambrier et al. (2004), i.e. species of the genus occurring in fresh- and brackish-water fishes in the Palaearctic Region, are provided, with data on their hosts and geographical distribution. Instead of 32 taxa listed by Schmidt (1986) and subsequent authors, only the following 14 species are considered to be valid: P. ambiguus (Dujardin, 1845) (type-species); P. cernuae (Gmelin, 1790); P. filicollis (Rudolphi, 1802); P. fluviatilis Bangham, 1925; P. gobiorum Dogiel & Bychowsky, 1939; P. longicollis (Zeder, 1800); P. macrocephalus (Creplin, 1825); P. midoriensis Shimazu, 1990; P. percae (Müller, 1780); P. plecoglossi Yamaguti, 1934; P. sagittus (Grimm, 1872); P. tetrastomus (Rudolphi, 1810); P. thymalli (Annenkova-Chlopina, 1923); and P. torulosus (Batsch, 1786). An analysis of sequences of the nuclear genes (ITS2 and V4 region of 18S rDNA) revealed the following phylogenetic relationships for these taxa: P. torulosus ((P. midoriensis, P. sagittus) (P. fluviatilis (P. filicollis, P. gobiorum, P. macrocephalus)) (P. cernuae, P. plecoglossi, P. tetrastomus ((P. longicollis, P. percae) (P. ambiguus, P. thymalli)))). P. pronini Rusinek, 2001 from grayling Thymallus arcticus nigrescens is synonymised with P. thymalli. P. esocis La Rue, 1911 is apparently invalid but its conspecificity with either P. percae or P. longicollis could not be confirmed due to the absence of the scolex in the holotype and the unavailability of other material for morphological and molecular studies. P. osculatus (Goeze, 1782) has recently been transferred to Glanitaenia de Chambrier, Mariaux, Vaucher & Zehnder, 2004. The validity of the genus is supported by the position of G. osculata within the Proteocephalidea, based on molecular data, as well as its morphology and nature of the definitive host (the European wels Silurus glanis). P. hemispherous Rahemo & Al

  11. An ecologic and taxonomic study on phytoplankton of a shallow lake, Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tas, Beyhan; Gonulol, Arif

    2007-04-01

    The middle Black sea region has quite large wetlands, including lakes, rivers, ponds, marshs and large reservoirs. Lake Cernek is one of the most valuable wetlands in Kizilirmak Delta. The lake and its environment have a high biodiversity due to species richness and natural habitats. Therefore, it has been recognized as a Ramsar site. The phytoplankton of lake Cemek consisted of 104 taxa belonging to Cyanobacteria, Bacillariophyta, Chlorophyta, Cryptophyta, Dinophyta, Euglenophyta and Xanthophyta divisions. Chlorophyta (46%) and Bacillariophyta (23%) members were dominant species. These were followed by Cyanobacteria (16%) and Euglenophyta (11%) members. Chlorella, Monoraphidium, Oocystis, Pediastrum and Scenedesmus from Chlorophyceae and also Anabaena, Chroococcus and Microcystis species from Cyanophyceae sometimes made water blooms. Blue green algae constituted algal communities in the surface of the lake in summer months. Algal community and its important species were grouped in terms of bray curtis similarity index, by taking into consideration the phytoplankton dynamics and months.

  12. Periphyton communities in a pristine mountain stream above and below heavy metal mining operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deniseger, J.; Austin, A.; Lucey, W.P.

    1986-04-01

    Changes in species composition of the periphyton on introduced substrates were determined in an oligotrophic mountain stream subject to long-term heavy metal contamination. At the upstream control site, the numerically most abundant taxa were Bacillariophyta (Achnanthes minutissima, Achnanthes microcephala and Achnanthes linearis) as well as, in summer, the Chlorophyta (Mougeotia spp. and Ulothrix subtilissima). At the downstream contaminated site the periphyton community was totally dominated by Bacillariophyta throughout the sampling period. A. minutissima and A. microcephala were co-dominants during spring. Seasonal succession patterns did not parallel those at the upstream site. Chlorophyta were virtually absent and A. minutissima comprised 94% of the community during summer. Species diversity, species evenness and dissimilarity index were utilized to detect differences in species composition, abundance and number. Slight differences were found in spring samples while summer samples indicated major differences between sampling sites.

  13. Into the deep: new discoveries at the base of the green plant phylogeny.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leliaert, Frederik; Verbruggen, Heroen; Zechman, Frederick W

    2011-09-01

    Recent data have provided evidence for an unrecognised ancient lineage of green plants that persists in marine deep-water environments. The green plants are a major group of photosynthetic eukaryotes that have played a prominent role in the global ecosystem for millions of years. A schism early in their evolution gave rise to two major lineages, one of which diversified in the world's oceans and gave rise to a large diversity of marine and freshwater green algae (Chlorophyta) while the other gave rise to a diverse array of freshwater green algae and the land plants (Streptophyta). It is generally believed that the earliest-diverging Chlorophyta were motile planktonic unicellular organisms, but the discovery of an ancient group of deep-water seaweeds has challenged our understanding of the basal branches of the green plant phylogeny. In this review, we discuss current insights into the origin and diversification of the green plant lineage. Copyright © 2011 WILEY Periodicals, Inc.

  14. New Mediterranean Biodiversity Records (June 2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. NICOLAIDOU

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The present work reports on the extended distribution of nineteen species in the Mediterranean. These are: Upeneus pori(Fish:Turkey, Bursatella leachii (Mollusca, Opisthobranchia: eastern coast of Spain, Sparisoma cretense (Fish: Ionian coastof Greece, Pseudobryopsis myura (Chlorophyta: Turkey, Aplysia dactylomela (Mollusca, Opisthobranchia: Karpathos island,and Kyklades Archipelago, Greece, Asparagopsis armata and Botryocladia madagascariensis (Rhodophyta: South Peloponnesos,Greece, Oxynotus centrina (Fish: Greece, Caulerpa racemosa var. cylindracea (Chlorophyta , Stypopodium schimperi(Phaeophyta Siganus luridus and Stephanolepis diaspros (Fish Percnon gibbesi (Decapoda, Brachyura (Kyklades Archipelago,Greece, Cerithium scabridum (Mollusca, Prosobranchia: Anavissos: Greece and Cerithium renovatum (Mollusca, Prosobranchia:N. Κriti, Cassiopea andromeda (Scyphomedusa: Rhodos Island, Greece, Abra tenuis (Mollusca Bivalvia: VouliagmeniLake, Greece Lagocephalus lagocephalus (Fish: Calabrian coast, Italy and Plocamopherus ocellatus (Mollusca, Opisthobranchia:İskenderun Bay, Turkey.

  15. Antibacterial activity of extracts of six macroalgae from the northeastern brazilian coast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lima-Filho José Vitor M.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Hexane, chloroform and ethanol extracts of six marine macroalgae (Rhodophyta and Chlorophyta from North Ceará coast (Northeast Brazil were evaluated for antibacterial activity by the single disk method. Best results were shown by the hexane extracts of Amansia multifida against enteric Gram-negative strains such as Enterobacter aerogenes, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella typhi, S. cholerae-suis, Serratia marcescens, Vibrio cholerae and the Gram-positive bacteria Bacillus subtilis and Staphylococcus aureus.

  16. Phytoplankton composition of the water and gastrointestinal tract of the mussel Diplodon enno (Ortmann, 1921) from São Francisco river (Bahia, Brazil).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, T; Lima, P; Lima, G M S; Cunha, M C C; Ferreira, S; Domingues, B; Machado, J

    2016-06-01

    The knowledge on diet composition of the freshwater mussel Diplodon enno (Ortmann) would aid in its culture and propagation allowing, this way, the replacement of natural endangered populations in Brazil. Microalgae are the main food source for captive mussels and unionids have displayed an ability to sort algae based on the cellular characteristics prior to ingestion. The main objective of the present work is to analyze the phytoplankton composition of the water from and of the gastrointestinal contents of the mussel D. enno, as an initial step for development of a suitable rearing diet. Therefore, water samples and bivalve specimens were collected from S. Francisco River, city of Paulo Afonso, Bahia, Brazil. The microalgal composition found in water and stomach/gut content samples was very diverse being represented by the following divisions: Cyanophyta, Chlorophyta, Dinophyta and Heterokontophyta (Diatoms). Concerning the relative abundance of microalgae divisions, it is possible to state, for the water and gastrointestinal contents, that Cyanophyta represents 15% and 14%, Chlorophyta 54% in both, Heterokontophyta 31% and 27% and Dinophyta 0% and 5%, respectively. According to the Brazilian CETESB criteria for phytoplankton species classification, 50% of Cyanophyta and 15% of Chlorophyta species observed in the water samples were classified as "very frequent", as were 68% of Heterokontophyta and 33% of Chlorophyta species in the gut/stomach tract samples. Focusing at a species level, although in the water only Coelastrum sp. and Chroococcus sp. were observed in 100% and 75% of the samples, respectively, in the gastrointestinal tract the species Staurastrum sp., Aulacoseira sp., Scenedesmus sp. and Fragilaria crotonensis occurred in 80% to 100% of the samples. The present results showed that D. enno feeds not only on small chlorophytes microalgae, due to their convenient size that facilitates higher feeding rates, but also on large size diatoms, due to a possible

  17. [Phytoplankton community structure and assessment of water quality in the middle and lower reaches of Fenhe River].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ai-Ai; Feng, Jia; Xie, Shu-Lian

    2014-03-01

    To understand the distribution of phytoplankton and the water quality in the middle and lower reaches of Fenhe River, 18 sampling sites were selected for specimen collection, species identification and data analysis. The results showed that: (1) There were 298 species of phytoplankton under the membership of 8 divisions and 96 genera, among which, Bacillariophyta was the dominant division, with a total of 127 species of 27 genera, followed by Chlorophyta, with 104 species of 41 genera, and Cyanophyta, with 45 species of 20 genera. Only 22 species of 8 genera belonged to Euglenophyta, Cryptophyta, Pyrrophyta, Chrysophyta and Xanthophyta. The number of species in wet season was higher than that in dry season at all sites. Dominant species included Cyclotella meneghiniana, Synedra acus, Navicula cryptocephala, Nitzschia palea of Bacillariophyta, Chlorella vulgaris of Chlorophyta, Oscillatoria tenuis, O. amphibia of Cyanophyta, most of which were indicator species of alpha- and beta-mesosaprobic type. Cell density was higher in wet season and lower in dry season. (2) Shannon-Wieaver species diversity index ranged from 1 to 3 basically. Margalef species richness index ranged from 0.5 to 2. Pielou evenness index ranged 0.3-0.8. (3) During the wet season, most dominant species of Chlorophyta and Euglenophyta had higher correlation with chemical oxygen demand (COD), conductivity and ammonia nitrogen. The dominant species of Cyanophyta were greatly influenced by the contents of water temperature and chromium (Cr). The distribution of dominant species of Bacillariophyta was complicatedly related with environmental factors. During the dry season, there was a higher correlation between the members of Cyanophyta and ammonia nitrogen, total phosphorus, COD. The species of Chlorophyta and Euglenophyta were mainly influenced by the dissolved oxygen and total phosphorus. The bacillariophytes were mainly related with total phosphorus, dissolved oxygen, pH and cadmium (Cd). In

  18. Screening of antibacterial activity in marine green and brown macroalgae from the coast of Morocco

    OpenAIRE

    Ibtissam, Chiheb; Hassane, Riadi; Mart??nez L??pez, Jos??; Dom??nguez Seglar, Jos?? Francisco; G??mez Vidal, Jos?? Antonio; Hassan, Bouziane; Mohamed, Kadiri

    2009-01-01

    Antibacterial activity of methanolic extracts from 32 macroalgae (13 Chlorophyta and 19 Phaeophyta) from the Atlantic and Mediterranean coast of Morocco were evaluated for the production of antibacterial compounds against Escherichia coliATCC 25922, Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923, Enterococcus faecalis ATCC 29212, Klebsiella pnomeuniae ATCC 700603 and E. faecalis ATCC 29213. Our results indicate that these species of seaweed collected from the Atlantic and Mediterranean coast of Morocco pre...

  19. Soil algae and mesofauna communities in biotopes of forest rehabilitation in zhovti vody (Dnipropetrovsk region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Posrednikova

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available The variety of soil algae was studied on areas of revegetation and without it in the Zhovti Vody. The systematic and ecological structure of algal flora and algae dominant species were indicated. We counted 28 species of soil algae on the dumps of uranium mining: Chlorophyta – 11 species (39.5 %, Cyanophyta – 11 (39.5 %, Xanthophyta – 2 (7 %, Bacillariophyta – 2 (7 %, Eustigmatohyta – 2 (7 %.

  20. Response of growth, protein and fatty acid content of Desmodesmus cuneatus to the repletion and depletion of nitrogen

    OpenAIRE

    mehdi naderi farsani; saeed meshkiniy; Ramin manaffar; zahra Asal pishe

    2015-01-01

      Introduction : Biomass and biochemical composition content (particular fatty acid profile, protein, Pigment) play an important role in commercial scale production of microorganisms. Nitrogen concentration is the most effective factor in biochemical composition and growth rate changes.   Materials and method s: The unicellular fresh water microalgae, Desmodesmus cuneatus ( Scenedesmaceae , Chlorophyta), was grown on BM medium under various concentration of nitrogen at 25°C and pH 7.0in a per...

  1. Inventory of Rare or Endangered Non-Vascular Plants and Ferns Occurring in the Floodplain of the Mississippi River between Cairo, Illinois, and St. Paul, Minnesota, and in the Floodplain of the Illinois River between Grafton, Illinois, and Chicago,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-02-03

    Floodplain woods. On wet logs; shaded banks. Occasional. 48 Family Frullaniaceae Frullania eboracensis Gottache Lowland woods . On bark. Common. Frullania...in the floodplains, the term "and elsewhere" is used . A statement of habitat is given for each species, as well as an indi- cation of abundance...based on the investigator’s personal observation. Nomenclature essentially follows Prescott (1962). Division Chlorophyta Family Polyblepharidaceae

  2. Marine algae and seagrasses of Tekirdag (Black Sea,Turkey)*

    OpenAIRE

    AYSEL, Veysel; Erdugan, Hüseyin; Dural, Berrin; SükranOkudan, E.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract In this study, marine algae and seagrasses in the upper infralittoral zone of the Black Sea coast of Tekirdag (Turkey) were investigated. A total 156 taxon (153 algae and 3 seagrasses) in species or inferior to the species category were determined. 15 of them belong to blue-green bacteria (Cyanophyta), 84 to red algae (Rhodophyta), 26 to brown algae (Heterokontophyta), 28 to green algae (Chlorophyta) and 3 to marineflowering plants (Magnoliophyta).

  3. Marine algae and seagrasses of Tekirdag (Black Sea,Turkey)*

    OpenAIRE

    AYSEL, Veysel; Erdugan, Hüseyin; Dural, Berrin; SükranOkudan, E.

    2006-01-01

    Abstract In this study, marine algae and seagrasses in the upper infralittoral zone of the Black Sea coast of Tekirdag (Turkey) were investigated. A total 156 taxon (153 algae and 3 seagrasses) in species or inferior to the species category were determined. 15 of them belong to blue-green bacteria (Cyanophyta), 84 to red algae (Rhodophyta), 26 to brown algae (Heterokontophyta), 28 to green algae (Chlorophyta) and 3 to marineflowering plants (Magnoliophyta).

  4. Variación espacial y temporal de las macroalgas del mesolitoral rocoso en Aguadores-Baconao, Cuba I: composición

    OpenAIRE

    Jover Capote, A.; Reyes de Armas, L. M.; Gómez Luna, L. M.; Suárez, A M

    2012-01-01

    Se presenta una caracterización de la variación espacial y temporal de las macroalgas del mesolitoral rocoso del sector Aguadores-Baconao, determinándose 47 especies, 33 géneros y 16 familias. Del total de especies, 19 pertenecen a Rhodophyta, 11 a Heterokontophyta y 17 a Chlorophyta; consignándose por primera vez las especies Amphiroa beauvoisii, Centroceras clavulatum, Ceramiun brasiliense, Yuzurua poiteaui, Ceratodictyon intricatum, Gracilaria damaecornis, Laurencia obtusa,...

  5. Phytoplankton composition of Sazlidere Dam lake, Istanbul, Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nese Yilmaz

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The phytoplankton composition of Sazlidere Dam lake was studied at 5 sampling sites between December 2003 - November 2005. A total of 67 taxa were recorded, representing Bacillariophyta (31, Chlorophyta (18, Cyanophyta (9, Chrysophyta (1, Cryptophyta (1, Dinophyta (3 and Euglenophyta (4. Bacillariophyta members constituted the dominant phytoplankton group in terms of species number. Nygaard’s compound index value and composition of phytoplankton indicate that the trophic state of Sazlidere Dam lake was changing from oligotrophic to mesotrophic.

  6. Fisheries and Limnological Studies on West Point Reservoir, Alabama-Georgia. Phase V.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-12-01

    Usually blue-green algal communities are dominated by Oscillatoria angustissima in West Point Lake. However, this year a different alga , Spirulina ...different alga , Spirulina laxa, dominated samples at several stations during the summer (Table 7). Chlorophyll 60. Chlorophyll values measured on a volume... algae divisions; Chrysophyta, Chlorophyta and cyanophyta. The increase in photoplankton density should have a positive effect on the fishery since many of

  7. Plankton and Macrobiota Composition and Diversity of Three Tropical Freshwaters Rivers in Ogun and Ondo States, Southwest Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Three different rivers in Ogun and Ondo states were investigated for both micro and macro-biota of the water bodies. Several physical and chemical properties of these rivers were determined. The pH value of the studied water bodies was essentially neutral with salinity values between 0.02 - 4.0‰. Microalgae communities were represented by three divisions: Cyanophyta, Bacillariophyta and Chlorophyta at Oluwa and Ifara Rivers (Ondo state), while at Ibefun River (Ogun state), five divisions: Cya...

  8. Holocene evolution of Lake Shkodra: Multidisciplinary evidence for diachronic landscape change in northern Albania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzini, Ilaria; Gliozzi, Elsa; Galaty, Michael; Bejko, Lorenc; Sadori, Laura; Soulié-Märsche, Ingeborg; Koçi, Rexhep; Van Welden, Aurelien; Bushati, Salvatore

    2016-03-01

    A multidisciplinary micro-paleontological study of a sediment core (SK19) drilled in the coastal area of Lake Shkodra, northern Albania, integrated with archaeological data from the Projekti Arkeologjikë i Shkodrës (PASH), provides compelling evidence for a long-term relationship between Shkodra's natural environment and its inhabitants. Charophyte and ostracod data recovered from SK19 combined with those already studied from the distal core SK13 (Mazzini et al., 2015), reveal important information concerning the changing characteristics of the water body through time. In particular, the ostracod fauna display a truly Balkanic character with eight taxa endemic to the area. Palaeoenvironmental analysis of the two cores indicates that a wide marshland extended towards the present eastern coast of the lake, fed discontinuously both by surface- and ground-water, beginning sometime before 12,140 cal yrs BP. For about 7000 years ostracods do not record any significant changes, whereas the Characeae record in the proximal zone displays important variations. Those variations do not match any of the climatic oscillations revealed in previous studies by δ18O or pollen data, thereby implicating human activities. Ostracods and charophytes indicate that permanent shallow waters occurred in the Shkodra basin only around 5800 cal yrs BP. Historical sources of the Roman Empire indicate a swamp (the Palus labeatis), crossed by the River Morača, which flowed into the River Buna. Evidence for local fires, whether natural or anthropogenic, is recorded in SK13, scattered between 4400 and 1200 yrs BP. From 4400 to 2000 yrs BP, during the Bronze and Iron Age, hill forts ringed the marsh and burial mounds marked its edges. But around 2000 cal yrs BP, a dramatic change in the water body occurred: the disappearance of Characeae. Possibly fires were used for the elimination of natural vegetation and the subsequent cultivation of olive and walnut trees, causing an increase on organic

  9. Preliminary Checklist of Phytoplankton and Periphyton in River Okhuo, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fidelia Okosisi Alika

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This study presents the phytoplankton and periphyton diversity of River Okhuo, Edo State, Nigeria from July-December, 2002. Phytoplankton samples were collected using a 55 μm mesh net while periphyton were collected by scrapping wood, stones, leaves and branches and both were preserved separately in 4% formalin. Camera Lucida drawings were taken and a total of 106 species, with more periphyton than phytoplankton were identified using monographs and research publications. The phytoplankton assemblages comprised of Bacillariophyta (43.94% > Chlorophyta (42.42% > Cyanophyta (6.06% ≥ Euglenophyta (6.06% > Rhodophyta (1.49% while for the periphyton, distribution of species were: Chlorophyta (57.83 % > Bacillariophyta (25.30% > Cyanobacteria (10.84% > Euglenophyta (4.82% > Rhodophyta (1.21%. Chlorophyta was dominated by desmids, which were largely represented by species of Cosmarium and Closterium. The Bacillariophyta was represented by two (2 orders: Centrales and Pennales. Cyanobacteria was grouped into five families: Chroococcaceae, Nostocaceae, Rivulariaceae, Scytonemaceae and Oscillatoriaceae. Euglena (5 and Phacus (2 of Euglenophyta were recorded while Batrachospermum vagum was the only representative of the Rhodophyta.

  10. Phytoplankton diversity in relation to different weather conditions in two urban made lakes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Munay Abdulqadir Omar

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Many scientists have reported that global warming have significant impact on phytoplankton community, however, the impact of global warming on phytoplankton communities in suburban made lake is less understood. Therefor the objective of this study are to observe the effect of variable weather conditions on the diversity and succession of phytoplankton in mesotrophic lake (Seri Serdang and oligotrophic lake (Engineering Faculty Lake. Samples were collected from surface water and species diversity (Shannon Weaver Diversity Index was calculated. Daily weather and rain fall were recorded. A total of 65 species from five divisions (Chlorophyta, Euglenophyta, Cyanophyta, Bacillariophyta and Dinophyta and 52 species belonging to six divisions (Chlorophyta, Cyanophyta, Bacillariophyta, Euglenophyta, Cryptophyta & Charophyta were recorded from Engineering Faculty Lake and Seri Serdang Lake respectively. Division of Chlorophyta was found most dominant in both lakes during all the weeks (67%. The most dominant species in Faculty Engineering Lake was Microcystis aeruginosa during all weather conditions. Whereas, the most dominant species in Seri Serdang Lake during all weather conditions were Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, Planktothrix agardhii. The phytoplankton density was low during dry weather conditions for both lakes. The present finding suggested noticeable correlation between weather changes to the alteration of population density of phytoplankton.

  11. Effects of diets on growth and survival rate for larvae of Natica tigrina%饵料对斑玉螺浮游幼虫存活与生长的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    叶兆弘; 钟幼平; 贤锋

    2001-01-01

    Larvae of Natica tigrina (Roding)are divided into 3 groups, feeding on Isochrysis galbana, lsochrysis galbana and "Yunweizao"(Chlorophyta) ," Yunweizao"( Chlorophyta), respectively to investigate the shell's width and survival rates every day. After 10d, experimental results show that survival rates and growth rates of the larvae feeding on lsochrysis galbana or Isochrysis galbana and "Yunweizao" (Chlorophyta). are higher, and Isochrysis galbana is fit for fodder of the larvae of Natica tigrina.%采用金藻、金藻和云微藻、云微藻三组饵料分别投喂斑玉螺浮游幼虫,每天测定壳宽和存活率.结果表明,10d后,投有金藻的两组存活率较高,生长较快,作者认为,金藻是斑玉螺浮游幼虫的适合饵料.

  12. Codon Usage Bias and Determining Forces in Green Plant Mitochondrial Genomes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bin Wang; Jing Yuan; Jing Liu; Liang Jin; Jian-Qun Chen

    2011-01-01

    The phenomenon of codon usage bias has been observed in a wide range of organisms. As organisms evolve, how their codon usage pattern change is still an intriguing question. In this article, we focused on the green plant mitochondrial genomes to analyze the codon usage patterns in different lineages,and more importantly, to investigate the possible change of determining forces during the plant evolution. Two patterns were observed between the separate lineages of green plants: Chlorophyta and Streptophyta. In Chlorophyta lineages, their codon usages showed substantial variation (from strongly A, T-biased to strongly G, C-biased); while in Streptophyta lineages, especially in the land plants, the overall codon usages are interestingly stable. Further, based on the Nc-GC3s plots and Akashi's scaled XZ-tests, we found that lineages within Chlorophyta exhibit much stronger evidence of deviating from neutrality; while lineages within Streptophyta rarely do so. Such differences, together with previous reports based on the chloroplast data, suggests that after plants colonized the land, their codon usages in organellar genomes are more reluctant to be shaped by selection force.

  13. Las macrófitas de algunos lagos alto-andinos del Ecuador y su bajo potencial como bioindicadores de eutrofización

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin Kiersch

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Se estudió la presencia de macrófitas en tres lagos de altoandinos en Ecuador,Lago San Pablo,Laguna La Mica y Lago Cuicocha.Los primeros dos son eutróficos, mientras que el último es un lago de caldera extremadamente oligotrófico.Las especies dominantes en los lagos eutróficos son:Ceratophyllum demersum , Myriophyllum quitense ,Potamogeton illinoensis ,P. striatus y Elodea matthewsii .En el lago oligotrófico están presentes P.pectinatus,P.illinoensi s,y las Characeae Chara rusbyabana ,Ch.globularis y Nitella acuminata .La máxima profundidad para la presencia de macrófitas puede ser usada como un indicador del estado de eutroficación,la cual va desde 5 m en la Laguna Mica a 35 m en el Lago Cuicocha.El valor de la bioindicación de las especies de macrófitas en estos lagos altoandinos es bajo,debido a que solo unas pocas especies están presentes,y algunas de ellas no son específicas para las condiciones ambientales.Macrophytes from some high Andean lakes of Ecuador and their low potential as bioindicators of eutrophication .The occurrence of macrophyte in three high Andean lakes of Ecuador,Lago San Pablo, Laguna La Mica and Lago Cuicocha was recorded in 5-9 transects per lake.The first two lakes are eutrophic, the third is an extremely oligotrophic caldera lake.The dominant species in eutrophic lakes are Ceratophyllum demersum ,Myriophyllum quitense ,Potamogeton illinoensis ,P.striatus and Elodea matthewsii .In the oligotrophic lake P.pectinatus,P.illinoensi s,and the Characeae Chara rusbyana ,Ch.globularis and Nitella acuminata occur.The maximum depth of the macrophyte ’s presence can be used as an indicator of the trophic state,ranging from about 5 m in Mica to 35 m in Cuicocha.The bioindication value of the macrophyte species in these high Andean lakes is low,because few species occur and because some of them are not specific to environmental conditions.Rev.Biol.Trop.52(4:829-837.Epub 2005 Jun 24.

  14. Checklist das macrófitas aquáticas do Pantanal, Brasil Checklist of the aquatic macrophytes of the Pantanal, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vali Joana Pott

    1997-12-01

    Full Text Available O Pantanal, por ser alagável, é ambiente favorável ao desenvolvimento de muitas plantas aquáticas. Para atender demandas de levantamentos florísticos regionais, fez-se a listagem das macrófitas aquáticas do Pantanal, com base em coletas depositadas nos Herbários CPAP (EMBRAPA, COR (Universidade Federal de Mato Grosso do Sul, CH (Universidade Federal de Mato Grosso e K (Kew. Até o momento, foram levantadas 242 espécies, distribuídas em 106 gêneros e 54 famílias. As famílias mais numerosas são Poaceae (22 espécies, Cyperaceae(17, Leguminosae e Scrophulariaceae(14, Alismataceae e Onagraceae(13, Pontederiaceae(11, Lentibulariaceae(10, Characeae(9, emnaceae, Malvaceae e Nymphaeaceae(8. A maioria das demais famílias apresentam uma ou duas espécies cada. Quanto à forma biológica, 39% são plantas emergentes, 28% anfíbias, 11,5% flutuantes fixas, 8% flutuantes livres, 8% submersas fixas, 3,8% submersas livres e 1,7% epífítas. Os principais gêneros em número de espécies são Nymphaea, Utricularia, Echinodorus, Ludwigia, Polygonum, Aeschynomene, Cyperus, Eleocharis e Bacopa.The Pantanal, being a wetland, is a favorable environment for the development of many aquatic plants. This list of aquatic macrophytes of the Pantanal was made based on field collections, deposited at Herbarium CPAP (EMBRAPA, COR (Universidade Federal de Mato Grosso do Sul, CH (Universidade Federal de Mato Grosso and K (Kew, to support regional floristic surveys. Until present, 242 species were listed, distributed within 106 genera and 54 families. The most numerous families were Poaceae (22 species Cyperaceae(17, Leguminosae and Scrophulariaceae(14, Alismataceae and Onagraceae(13, Pontederiaceae (11, Lentibulariaceae(10, Characeae(9, Lemnaceae, Malvaceae andNymphaeaceae(8. The majority of other families has one or two species each. The life form spectrum includes 39% emergent plants, 28% amphibious, 11,5% rooted floating, 8% free floating, 8% rooted submerged

  15. The sedimentary sequence from the Lake Ķūži outcrop, central Latvia: implications for late glacial stratigraphy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiiu Koff

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Sediment samples from an outcrop in the near-shore area of Lake Ķūži (Vidzeme Heights, Central Latvia were investigated using palaeobotanical (pollen and macrofossil analysis and lithological (grain-size analysis methods and accelerator mass spectrometry 14C dating. A dark, organic-rich sediment layer was found below 1.7 m of sandy layers approximately 30 cm above the present lake level. Radiocarbon dating of a wood sample from the lowermost layer (11 050 ± 60 14C BP, 13 107–12 721 cal BP shows that the layer is of late glacial age. The composition of the pollen spectra is characterized by Betula nana, Cyperaceae pollen and spores of Equisetum, confirming that the lowermost sediments were formed during the late glacial. Fossils of obligate aquatic organisms in the upper layer, which include oospores of Characeae and seeds of Potamogeton, indicate an open water environment. Pollen of Myriophyllum and Potamogeton and non-pollen palynomorphs, such as algal Botryococcus and Pediastrum cf. boryanum, confirm this conclusion. The pollen assemblage from the greyish loam layer following this lacustrine phase shows a pattern characteristic of the Younger Dryas vegetation before the start of the real expansion of birch forests at the beginning of the Holocene.

  16. Phylogeny and evolution of charophytic algae and land plants%轮藻和陆地植物系统发育及其进化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    仇寅龙

    2008-01-01

    Charophytic algae and land plants together make up a monophyletic group, streptophytes, which represents one of the main lineages of multicellular eukaryotes and has contributed greatly to the change of the environment on earth in the Phanerozoic Eon. Significant progress has been made to understand phylogenetic relationships among members of this group by phylogenetic studies of morphological and molecular data over the last twenty-five years. Mesostigma viride is now regarded as among the earliest diverging unicellular organisms in streptophytes. Characeae are the sister group to land plants. Liverworts represent the first diverging lineage of land plants. Hornworts and lycophytes are extant representatives of bryophytes and vascular plants, respectively, when early land plants changed from gametophyte to sporophyte as the dominant generation in the life cycle. Equisetum, Psilotaceae, and ferns constitute the monophyletic group of monilophytes, which are sister to seed plants. Gnetales are related to conifers, not to angiosperms as previously thought. Amborella, Nymphaeales, Hydatellaceae, Illiciales, Trimeniaceae, and Austrobaileya represent the earliest diverging lineages of extant angiosperms. These phylogenetic results, together with recent progress on elucidating genetic and developmental aspects of the plant life cycle, multicellularity, and gravitropism, will facilitate evolutionary developmental studies of these key traits, which will help us to gain mechanistic understanding on how plants adapted to environmental challenges when they colonized the land during one of the major transitions in evolution of life.

  17. Geophysical characterization of stratigraphical surfaces: Basin floor and sedimentological architectural elements of Las Tablas de Daimiel (Quaternary of southern-central Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rey, Javier; Martínez, Julián; Mediavilla, Rosa; Santisteban, Juan I.; Castaño, Silvino; de la Losa, Almudena

    2017-01-01

    In this paper we analyse and compare the efficiency of electrical resistivity imaging (ERI) and ground-penetrating radar (GPR) as tools for stratigraphic and sedimentological studies. To this end, we carried out borehole drilling and geophysical survey campaigns in two locations in Las Tablas de Daimiel area (Ciudad Real, Spain). In this region, the Quaternary record is build up by siliciclastic deposits (gravel, sand and silt) of fluvial origin and organic matter-rich sediments (peat, clay and silty clay rich in organic matter) and carbonates (biogenic deposits mainly made up of Characeae) deposited in fluvial wetland environments that rest on Ordovician quartzites and Pliocene karstified carbonates. Electrical resistivity imaging (ERI) supported by surface and subsurface (boreholes) lithological information allow to identify the geometry of the basement-Quaternary boundary in two areas. The morphology of this boundary is controlled by fractures and the karstification of the top of the Pliocene limestones. Thirteen GPR profiles (100 and 250 MHz antenna) provide information about the morphology and internal structure of the sedimentary units, down to 4 m below the surface. The observed features include: onlap of the sediments on the edge of the basin, fossilization of small paleo-reliefs by lacustrine deposits and channel fills in the Holocene deposits, and the sinking-collapse structures in the Neogene substratum.

  18. Mapping of submerged aquatic vegetation with a physically based process chain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heege, Thomas; Bogner, Anke; Pinnel, Nicole

    2004-02-01

    Mapping the submerse vegetation is of prime importance for the ecological evaluation of an entire lake. Remote sensing techniques are efficient for such mapping tasks, if the retrieval algorithms and processing methods are robust and mostly independent from additional ground truth measurements. The Modular Inversion Program (MIP) follows this concept. It is a processing tool designed for the recovery of hydro-biological parameters from multi- and hyper-spectral remote sensing data. The architecture of the program consists of physical inversion schemes that derive bio-physical parameters from the measured radiance signal at the sensor. Program modules exist for the retrieval of aerosols, sun glitter correction, atmospheric corrections, retrieval of water constituents among others. For the purpose of mapping the bottom coverage in optically shallow waters, two modules have been added to MIP. The first module calculates the bottom reflectance using the subsurface reflectance, the depth and an approximation of the water constituent concentrations as input. The second module fractionalizes the bottom reflectance to three endmembers of specific reflectance spectra by linear unmixing. The three endmembers are specific reflectance spectra of bottom sediments, small growing macrophytes (Characeae) and tall macrophytes such as Potamogeton perfoliatus & P. pectinatus. The processing system has been tested with data collected from the multi-spectral airborne scanner Daedalus AADS1268 at Lake Constance, Germany, for multi- temporal analysis.

  19. Chironomid communities as indicators of local and global changes in an oligotrophic high mountain lake (Enol Lake, Northwestern Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pol Tarrats

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The benthos of the high mountain Enol Lake (Picos de Europa National Park, Spain was analyzed in order to understand the spatiotemporal factors and patterns controlling its current Chironomidae community. In total, more than 14,000 chironomid larvae were identified, belonging to 27 taxa. The results have pointed out the presence of 3 main chironomid assemblages in the lake: i littoral community, which is mainly controlled by temperature and oxygen seasonal changes, ii Chara-dominant community, which is mainly controlled by the presence and abundance of Characeae in the lake, and iii profundal community, which is affected by low oxygen levels caused by sediment and organic matter discharge to the lake due to human pressures in the lake basin. We provide valuable insights for the managers to understand the current ecological status of Enol Lake and to evaluate which measures should be implemented to preserve or improve it. Moreover, our results constitute an essential step forward to improve the interpretation of the past changes of the lake by means of the subfossil chironomid community. 

  20. Cytoplasmic streaming in plant cells emerges naturally by microfilament self-organization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodhouse, Francis G; Goldstein, Raymond E

    2013-08-27

    Many cells exhibit large-scale active circulation of their entire fluid contents, a process termed cytoplasmic streaming. This phenomenon is particularly prevalent in plant cells, often presenting strikingly regimented flow patterns. The driving mechanism in such cells is known: myosin-coated organelles entrain cytoplasm as they process along actin filament bundles fixed at the periphery. Still unknown, however, is the developmental process that constructs the well-ordered actin configurations required for coherent cell-scale flow. Previous experimental works on streaming regeneration in cells of Characean algae, whose longitudinal flow is perhaps the most regimented of all, hint at an autonomous process of microfilament self-organization driving the formation of streaming patterns during morphogenesis. Working from first principles, we propose a robust model of streaming emergence that combines motor dynamics with both microscopic and macroscopic hydrodynamics to explain how several independent processes, each ineffectual on its own, can reinforce to ultimately develop the patterns of streaming observed in the Characeae and other streaming species.

  1. Epiphytic dinoflagellates associated with ciguatera in the northwestern coast of Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilma Delgado

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available The spatial and temporal abundance of epiphytic dinoflagellates associated with ciguatera was studied over two annual cycles (March 1999 to March 2000 and March 2001 to March 2002 in the northwestern coast of Cuba. From 14 species of macroalgae (Phaeophyta, Chlorophyta, and Rhodophyta, 1340 samples were obtained identifying seven species as potentially noxious; five of them are new reports for Cuba’s phytobenthos: Prorocentrum belizeanum Faust, P. concavum Fukuyo, P. mexicanum Tafall, Coolia monotis Meunier, and Ostreopsis lenticularis Fukuyo. ANOVA/MANOVA analysis showed significant spatial differences: lower cell abundance near the shoreline adjacent to a river inlet and higher cell abundance in the deepest area. Prorocentrum lima (Ehrenberg Dodge 1975 was found mainly on Phaeophyta followed by Chlorophyta and Rhodophyta. Gambierdiscus toxicus was found mainly on Phaeophyta followed by Rhodophyta and Chlorophyta. All the species reported in the study area were mainly on Padina spp. (Phaeophyta. Acanthophora spicifera (Rhodophyta did not host dinoflagellate species. Environmental conditions in summer (higher temperature, more nutrients, greater water transparency, and low wind intensity are suitable for macroalgae development, which serves as a substrate for potentially harmful dinoflagellates, and possibly the main vector for spreading ciguatera along the coast of Cuba. Rev. Biol. Trop. 54(2: 299-310. Epub 2006 Jun 01.Se estudió la abundancia espacial y temporal de dinoflagelados epífitos asociados a la ciguatera durante dos ciclos anuales (marzo 1999 a marzo 2000, y marzo 2001 a marzo 2002 en la costa del noroeste de Cuba. Recolectamos 14 especies de macroalgas (Phaeophyta, Chlorophyta y Rhodophyta y obtuvimos 1340 muestras. Identificamos siete especies de dinoflagelados potencialmente nocivas, cinco de ellas nuevos registros para el fitobentos cubano: Prorocentrum belizeanum Faust, P. concavum Fukuyo, P. mexicanum Tafall, Coolia monotis

  2. Composition, abundance and ecology of phytoplankton communities of Loktak Lake, Manipur, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B.K. Sharma

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Phytoplankton communities of Loktak Lake (a Ramsar site, studied during November 2002-October 2004, reveal the occurrence of 75 and 71 species, indicate monthly richness ranging between 47� plus or minus 6 and 49� plus or minus 3 species and record 50.0-83.2 and 64.5-84.0 % community similarities during two annual cycles respectively. Chlorophyta (33� plus or minus 5 and 35� plus or minus 5 species show qualitative dominance and importance of Closterium > Cosmarium > Staurastrum > Micrasterias > Gonatozygon species. Phytoplankton (206� plus or minus 58 and 220� plus or minus 53 n/l comprise between 45.1� plus or minus 6.5 and 42.9� plus or minus 5.8 % of net plankton abundance, indicate trimodal annual patterns and record peak abundance during winter. Chlorophyta (111� plus or minus 20 and 119� plus or minus 15 n/l, the dominant quantitative component, indicate winter peaks; Closterium > Staurastrum > Gonatozygon > Micrasterias species contribute significantly to their abundance. Ceratium hirudinella (43� plus or minus 52 and 39� plus or minus 37 n/l is the sole important individual species of phytoplankton. Dinophyta > Bacillariophyta are sub-dominant groups and Euglenophyta > Cyanophyta > Chrysophyta show very low densities. Phytoplankton communities are characterized by higher species diversity, higher evenness and lower dominance. Abiotic factors register limited influence on richness and abundance of phytoplankton and on abundance of constituent groups. Multiple regression indicates relatively lower influence of fifteen abiotic factors on richness of phytoplankton and higher cumulative influence on abundance of phytoplankton, Chlorophyta, Dinophyta and Bacillariophyta.

  3. Aquatic macro algae of a region under Almirante Alvaro Alberto nuclear power plant influence. I. Spatial seasonal evaluation; Macroalgas marinhas da regiao sob influencia da Central Nuclear Almirante Alvaro Alberto (CNAAA), Saco de Piraquara de Fora, Angra dos Reis, RJ, Brasil. I. Avaliacao espaco-temporal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pedrini, A.G. [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria (IRD), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)]|[Universidade Santa Ursula, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Ciencias Biologicas; Cassano, V.; Coelho, L.G.; Labronici, G.J. [Universidade do Estado, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Biologia

    1994-12-31

    Marine macro algae from the area which is under in fluence of the heated and chlorate liquid effluent to the CNAAA were observed (1981-1983) at 3 collection points: Pingo Dagua, Velho Beach, discharge point. A total of 121 taxa were found: 29 Chlorophyta, 26 Phaeophyta and 66 Rhodophyta. The spring season was the richest in taxa (78) while autumn was the poorest (85). Overall, the data suggest that the point A (Pingo Dagua) macro algae community (which is similar to the discharge point (0,80) is adequate for the control of the CNAAA effluent impact ad Piraquara de Fora. (author). 11 refs, 5 figs, 1 tab.

  4. SOIL ALGOLOGICAL SINUSIAE OF URBANIZED ECOSYSTEMS OF DONETSK PRIAZOVYE (THE CASE OF MARIUPOL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shekhovtseva O.G.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available During research of urboekosystem of Donetsk Priazovye 105 types and intraspecific algosoil taxons are revealed: Chlorophyta – 42, Cyanoprocaryota – 34, Xanthophyta – 19,Bacillariophyta – 8, Eustigmatophyta – 2. It is often met: Phormidium autumnale, Chlamydomonas elliptica, Chlamydomonas gloeogama, Palmellopsis gelatinosa, Chlorella minutissima, Сhlorella vulgaris, Stichococcus minor, Stichococcus bacillaris, Bracteacoccus minor, Botrydiopsis arhiza, Pleurochloris magna, Navicula mutica, Navicula pelliculosa, Hantzschia amphioxys. Ecological structure of algogroupping: Ch31 P27 X16 C11 H7 B7 СF3 M2 amph1 (105.

  5. Fitoplancton de un río del noroeste argentino contaminado por efluentes azucareros y cloacales Phytoplankton from an ArgentineanNorwestRiver contaminated by sewage and sugarcane effluents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Mirande

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available El río Gastona es uno de los tributarios más contaminados del embalse Río Hondo (Tucumán-Santiago del Estero. Presenta en épocas de zafra azucarera (junio-octubre condiciones de anoxia con alteraciones de los componentes nitrogenados y fosforado, entre otros factores. El objetivo de este trabajo fue caracterizar la calidad del agua de acuerdo a los grupos de especies fitoplanctónicas y sus densidades encontrados en 1998-1999. Se seleccionaron cinco sitios según la zona de descarga de los efluentes domésticos y fabriles, realizándose muestreos mensuales por el término de trece meses, a partir de marzo. Los índices bióticos empleados fueron: Compuesto, Déficit de Especies, Índice de Diatomeas Pampeano, Euglenal, Centrales/Pennales, Chlorophyta/Chrysophyta (diatomeas y Relaciones Abundancia-Especies. Los resultados obtenidos destacaron una mayor sensibilidad de las Chlorophyta a los efectos de la materia orgánica. Los cuatro primeros índices anteriormente nombrados fueron los más efectivos para diferenciar los períodos de no zafra y zafra.Gastona River is one of the tributaries more contaminated from Río Hondo Dam (Tucumán-Santiago del Estero. This river presents in sugarcane activity period (June-October anoxic conditions and alterations of nitrogen and phosphoric components, between others causes. The aim of this paper was to characterize the water quality in agreement to species groups and densities of phytoplankton found in 1998-1999. We were selected five sampling sites along the river in relation to sewage and industry effluents discharge areas. Sampling were realized monthly and during thirteen months. We began the sampling on March. Indices employed were: Composite; Species Deficit; Pampeano Diatom Index; Euglenal; Centrales/Pennales; Chlorophyta/Chrysophyta (diatoms and Density-Species Relations. The results obtained showed that Chlorophyta were the group most sensitive to organic mater effects. The four first indices

  6. Preliminary data on edaphic algae in the city of Piteşti (Romania)

    OpenAIRE

    Liliana Cristina SOARE; Codruţa Mihaela DOBRESCU

    2010-01-01

    In order to initiate the inventory of the edaphic algae in the city of Piteşti, soil samples were taken from Expo Park Lumina Park, the Ştrand Park, the bank of the river Argeş, Trivale forest, Trivale Park, the BCR Park, Bascov Park, Park in Prundu, Bucharest-Piteşti highway. A total of 27 genus/species were identified, out of which 22% belonging to phylum Cyanobacteria, 67% to phylum Ochrophyta, and 11% to phylum Chlorophyta. The prevalence of the ecobiomorph B was found, in proportion of 6...

  7. Checklist of the benthic marine and brackish Galician algae (NW Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bárbara, Ignacio

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available We present an annotated checklist of the benthic marine and brackish algae of the Galician coasts (Spain based on literature records and new collections. This checklist includes 618 species: 118 Cyanophyta, 296 Rhodophyta, 127 Ochrophyta, and 77 Chlorophyta. The number of specific, infraspecific taxa, and stages is 643: 121 Cyanophyta, 309 Rhodophyta, 135 Ochrophyta, and 79 Chlorophyta. Hyella caespitosa var. nitida, Calothrix fasciculata, Gracilariopsis longissima, Compsonema minutum, and Sphacelaria tribuloides are new records for Galicia, and there are also some new provincial records. We state the presence of each species for Lugo (Lu, A Coruña (Co, and Pontevedra (Po provinces. The number of species found in Galicia is high, since 85% of the species recorded for the warm-temperate NE Atlantic Ocean grow in Galicia. Biogeographical comments comparing the Galician data with the neighboring areas of Britain and Ireland, Basque coast, Portugal, southern Iberian Peninsula, Canary Islands and Atlantic coast of Morocco are given. Finally, we present lists of cold-temperate, warm-temperate, Lusitanic Province endemics, and alien species growing in Galicia.Se presenta una lista comentada de las especies de algas bentónicas marinas y salobres de la costa de Galicia (España basada en citas bibliográficas y nuevos datos de los autores. La lista contiene 618 especies: 118 Cyanophyta, 296 Rhodophyta, 127 Ochrophyta y 77 Chlorophyta. El número de taxa específicos e infraespecíficos asciende a 643: 121 Cyanophyta, 309 Rhodophyta, 135 Ochrophyta y 79 Chlorophyta. Hyella caespitosa var. nitida, Calothrix fasciculata, Gracilariopsis longissima, Compsonema minutum y Sphacelaria tribuloides son nuevas citas para Galicia, y algunas nuevas citas provinciales. Para cada especie se especifica su presencia en las provincias de Lugo (Lu, A Coruña (Co y Pontevedra (Po. El número de especies encontradas en Galicia es elevado, ya que se conocen el 85% de las

  8. Phytoplankton diversity of two floodplain lakes (pats) of Manipur, northeastern India

    OpenAIRE

    Sharma, B. K.

    2010-01-01

    Phytoplankton communities of Utra and Waithou pats (floodplain lakes) of Manipur, studied during November 2002 - October 2004, revealed 62 and 61 species, and indicated monthly richness between 27-45 (38 � plus or minus 4) and 32-46 (39 � plus or minus 4) species respectively with distinct qualitative importance of Chlorophyta (29 � plus or minus 4 and 28 � plus or minus 3 species). Phytoplankton (154 � plus or minus 31 n/l and 164 � plus or minus 34 n/l) comprised between 43.8 � plus or min...

  9. Gain and loss of polyadenylation signals during evolution of green algae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glöckner Gernot

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Viridiplantae (green algae and land plants consist of two monophyletic lineages: the Chlorophyta and the Streptophyta. Most green algae belong to the Chlorophyta, while the Streptophyta include all land plants and a small group of freshwater algae known as Charophyceae. Eukaryotes attach a poly-A tail to the 3' ends of most nuclear-encoded mRNAs. In embryophytes, animals and fungi, the signal for polyadenylation contains an A-rich sequence (often AAUAAA or related sequence 13 to 30 nucleotides upstream from the cleavage site, which is commonly referred to as the near upstream element (NUE. However, it has been reported that the pentanucleotide UGUAA is used as polyadenylation signal for some genes in volvocalean algae. Results We set out to investigate polyadenylation signal differences between streptophytes and chlorophytes that may have emerged shortly after the evolutionary split between Streptophyta and Chlorophyta. We therefore analyzed expressed genes (ESTs from three streptophyte algae, Mesostigma viride, Klebsormidium subtile and Coleochaete scutata, and from two early-branching chlorophytes, Pyramimonas parkeae and Scherffelia dubia. In addition, to extend the database, our analyses included ESTs from six other chlorophytes (Acetabularia acetabulum, Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, Helicosporidium sp. ex Simulium jonesii, Prototheca wickerhamii, Scenedesmus obliquus and Ulva linza and one streptophyte (Closterium peracerosum. Our results indicate that polyadenylation signals in green algae vary widely. The UGUAA motif is confined to late-branching Chlorophyta. Most streptophyte algae do not have an A-rich sequence motif like that in embryophytes, animals and fungi. We observed polyadenylation signals similar to those of Arabidopsis and other land plants only in Mesostigma. Conclusion Polyadenylation signals in green algae show considerable variation. A new NUE (UGUAA was invented in derived chlorophytes and replaced

  10. Phytoplankton composition of the water and gastrointestinal tract of the mussel Diplodon enno (Ortmann, 1921 from São Francisco river (Bahia, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Alves

    Full Text Available Abstract The knowledge on diet composition of the freshwater mussel Diplodon enno (Ortmann would aid in its culture and propagation allowing, this way, the replacement of natural endangered populations in Brazil. Microalgae are the main food source for captive mussels and unionids have displayed an ability to sort algae based on the cellular characteristics prior to ingestion. The main objective of the present work is to analyze the phytoplankton composition of the water from and of the gastrointestinal contents of the mussel D. enno, as an initial step for development of a suitable rearing diet. Therefore, water samples and bivalve specimens were collected from S. Francisco River, city of Paulo Afonso, Bahia, Brazil. The microalgal composition found in water and stomach/gut content samples was very diverse being represented by the following divisions: Cyanophyta, Chlorophyta, Dinophyta and Heterokontophyta (Diatoms. Concerning the relative abundance of microalgae divisions, it is possible to state, for the water and gastrointestinal contents, that Cyanophyta represents 15% and 14%, Chlorophyta 54% in both, Heterokontophyta 31% and 27% and Dinophyta 0% and 5%, respectively. According to the Brazilian CETESB criteria for phytoplankton species classification, 50% of Cyanophyta and 15% of Chlorophyta species observed in the water samples were classified as “very frequent”, as were 68% of Heterokontophyta and 33% of Chlorophyta species in the gut/stomach tract samples. Focusing at a species level, although in the water only Coelastrum sp. and Chroococcus sp. were observed in 100% and 75% of the samples, respectively, in the gastrointestinal tract the species Staurastrum sp., Aulacoseira sp., Scenedesmus sp. and Fragilaria crotonensis occurred in 80% to 100% of the samples. The present results showed that D. enno feeds not only on small chlorophytes microalgae, due to their convenient size that facilitates higher feeding rates, but also on large

  11. LAMPENFLORA OF NOVOAFONSKAYA CAVE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mazina S. E.

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Novoafonskaya cave is located in Abkhazia. It is equipped for visits in 1975. The cave has permanently installed lighting. In caves with artificial lighting, a vegetation of cyanobacteria and algae, bryophytes and ferns can be found around lamps. The development of lampenflora is a typical problem for cave management. We have identified 69 species of phototrophs in Novoafonskaya cave: Magnoliophyta 2 species, Pteridophyta 6 species, Bryophyta 11 species, Cyanobacteria 34 species, Bacillariophyta 9 species, Ochrophyta 2 species, Chlorophyta 5 species. The article considers main habitat of lampenflora and gives their characteristics. We have also revealed predominance of cyanobacteria in the cave

  12. Factors Controlling Bioindicators for Industrial Pollution Detection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GAMILA H. ALI; NAGLAA F. ABD El-SAIAM

    1999-01-01

    This study describes the use of algae as potential bioindlieators of pollution eontaining industrial metals. Phytoplanktonie algae varied with waste type and with enviromnental and growth conditions.In water samples containing ceramic waste Euglenophyta speeies and Cyclotella sp. (Bacillariophyta) were determined as potential indicator species of pollution, while in sample containing metallic waste, Cyclotella sp. Was most dominant. Under laboratory growth conditions, phytoplankton collected from a major stream of the Nile River were eultivated by using Algal Growth Bottle Test (EPA, 1972). This revealed that Scenedesmus sp., Actinastrum hantzschii (Chlorophyta), Oscillatoria limnetica (Cyanophyta) and Nitzschia linearis (Bacillariophyta) were also potential indicators of pollution.

  13. Spatial patterns of seaweed distribution in Malaysia using GIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lian, Du Hai; Sim, Jillian Ooi Lean; Fauzi, Rosmadi; Moi, Phang Siew

    2008-10-01

    The objective of this article is to represent spatial patterns of seaweed distribution in Malaysia. Seaweeds have been collected since 1984 along coastlines of 4675 km of peninsular Malaysia, Sabah, and Sarawak. However, there is no seaweed database and they cannot be displayed in a geographic view. Therefore, a database with 805 georeferenced observations was setup and GIS is used to analyze seaweed diversity based on this database. The highest number of observations is 94 which occur along east coastline of peninsular Malaysia. The highest number of species richness is 82 which are also along east coastline of peninsular Malaysia. Rhodophyta has the highest species richness while Chlorophyta has the least species richness.

  14. Ecological-floristic analysis of soil algae and cyanobacteria on the Tra-Tau and Yurak-Tau Mounts, Bashkiria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakieva, G. R.; Khaibullina, L. S.; Gaisina, L. A.; Kabirov, R. R.

    2012-09-01

    The species composition of the soil algae and cyanobacteria in the Tra-Tau and Yurak-Tau mountains is represented by 136 species belonging to five phyla: Cyanobacteria (56 species), Chlorophyta (52 species), Xanthophyta (13 species), Bacillariophyta (12 species), and Eustigmatophyta (3 species). Hantzschia amphioxys var. amphioxys, Hantzschia amphioxys var. constricta, Klebsormidium flaccidum, Leptolyngbya foveolarum, Luticola mutica, Navicula minima var. minima, Nostoc punctiforme, Phormidium jadinianum, Phormidium autumnale, and Pinnularia borealis were identified more often than other species. The composition of the algal flora depended on the soil properties; the higher plants also had a significant influence on the species composition of the soil algae.

  15. Influence of the shoot density of Halodule wrightii Ascherson from rocky and sandy habitats on associated macroalgal communities

    OpenAIRE

    Kcrishna Vilanova de Souza Barros; Caroline Feijão Ximenes; Pedro Bastos Macedo Carneiro; Cristina de Almeida Rocha-Barreira; Karine Matos Magalhães

    2013-01-01

    This study evaluated the influence of the shoot density of the shoal grass Halodule wrightii on the composition of the associated algal community, in rocky and sandy habitats on the coast of Ceará in northeastern Brazil. The phycological community included 18 species in 10 families, members of Rodophyta (72.2%), Chlorophyta (22.2%) and Phaeophyceae (5.5%). The largest proportion were epilithic (50%), followed by epiphytes on H. wrightii (38.4%), epipsammics (8%), and epiphytes on other algae ...

  16. 马蹄礁底栖海藻的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑柏林; 刘剑华; 杨毓英

    1985-01-01

    In this paper, the composition, distribution, seasonal variation and biomass of benthic algae of Qingdao Mati Reef were studied during the period from May of 1981 to April of 1982.The results of the investigation are as follows: 1. 83 species of benthic algae of Qingdao Mati Reef were found,and they are indentified as: 13 Chlorophyta, 16 Phaeophyta and 54 Rhodo-phyta.2. According to the flora of 83 species of benthic algae in Qingdao Mati Reef, it seems that they belong to warm temperate.3. The annual biomass and biomass variation of benthic algae in March were hightest of the west part of Qingdao Mati Reef.

  17. Lista sistemática de Algas y Fanerógamas de Playa Yuraguanal, Provincia Holguín, Cuba.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Vega Torres

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta la lista sistemática de algas y fanerógamas de Playa Yuraguanal, provincia Holguín. Los muestreos se realizaron durante el año 2005, en tres biotopos: seibadal, plano rocoso y arrecife trasero, en época de seca y lluvia. Se determinaron 79 especies de macroalgas y 3 fanerógamas. Entre las algas, 30 pertenecen al Phylum Rhodophyta, 18 a Ochrophyta y 31 a Chlorophyta. Las fanerógamas fueron Thalassia testudinum Banks & Solander, Syringodium filiforme Kutzing y Halodule wrightii den Hartog.

  18. [Epiphytic algae from Bajo Pepito, Isla Mujeres, Quintana Roo, Mexico].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quan-Young, L I; Díaz-Martín, M A; Espinoza-Avalos, J

    2006-06-01

    A total of 96 epiphytic algae species were identified from Bajo Pepito, Quintana Roo, México. 60.4% (58) belonged to the Rhodophyta, 19.79% (19) to the Phaeophyta, 16.6% (16) to the Chlorophyta and 3.1% (3) to the Cyanophyta; 49 species (50.5%) were found only in one month, while Heterosiphonia crispella was found in all of the sampled months. That species provided the largest contribution to the biomass of epiphytes. During January we registered the greater biommass and richness of epiphytes species, coincidently with high values of host species cover and rainfall.

  19. Non fu tutta colpa di padre Giacinto: spiegazioni troppo semplici e realtà (come sempre complesse nel cammino di Oxalis pes-caprae L. dal Sudafrica al Mediterraneo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Adele Signorini

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Oxalis pes-caprae L. (= Oxalis cernua Thunb. is a geophyte native to South Africa (Cape region that was introduced in Europe in the second half of the eighteenth century as a cultivated plant. It is currently widely naturalized in many regions with mild climates all over the world and in several countries it has become a very noxious weed, due to its impressive capability of spreading through bulbils. According to a theory reported also in Pignatti’s Flora of Italy, all populations currently growing in Europe and the Mediterranean basin originated from a single plant introduced in the island of Malta by an English lady, who gave the plant collected in South Africa as a present to padre Giacinto, a monk and a botanist who founded the Botanical Garden in La Valletta. Starting from Malta, Oxalis pes-caprae would have subsequently spread along Mediterranean coasts and later in the whole continent. According to this theory, all European and Mediterranean populations would be merely parts of the same clone, made up of individuals genetically identical to the one originally arrived in Malta. An investigation based on original data mainly taken from herbarium specimens and bibliographic sources, definitely contradicts this theory, in favor of a more articulated explanation: the species invasion in the area is most likely the result of several different arrivals – both intentional and unintentional – occurred in different times and different places.

  20. A new R package and web application for detecting bilateral asymmetry in parasitic infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wayland, Matthew T; Chubb, James C

    2016-11-10

    When parasites invade paired structures of their host non-randomly, the resulting asymmetry may have both pathological and ecological significance. To facilitate the detection and visualisation of asymmetric infections we have developed a free software tool, Analysis of Symmetry of Parasitic Infections (ASPI). This tool has been implemented as an R package (https://cran.r-project.org/package=aspi) and a web application (https://wayland.shinyapps.io/aspi). ASPI can detect both consistent bias towards one side, and inconsistent bias in which the left side is favoured in some hosts and the right in others. Application of ASPI is demonstrated using previously unpublished data on the distribution of metacercariae of species of Diplostomum von Nordmann, 1832 in the eyes of ruffe Gymnocephalus cernua (Linnaeus). Invasion of the lenses appeared to be random, with the proportion of metacercariae in the left and right lenses showing the pattern expected by chance. However, analysis of counts of metacercariae from the humors, choroid and retina revealed asymmetry between eyes in 38% of host fish.

  1. [Identification of the wild germplasm of Prunus mume based on AFLP markers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qingwei; Zhang, Qixiang; Chen, Junyu

    2012-08-01

    Mei (Prunus mume Sieb.et Zucc.) is traditionally not only a famous special ornamental plant but also a fruit tree origined in China. In order to conserve and ultilize scientifically the germplasm resources of wild mei, we identified and analysed the germplasm of mei flower in 65 samples collected from the habitat, using AFLP makers in combination with morphological anaylsis. This study amplified clearly 1 728 polymorphic bands, using the 8- pair-primer of Mse I -EcoR I screened totally from 64 -primer combination. According to the Nei' 72 distance coefficient clustering, all of the formas and varieties used in this study, including Prunus mume var. mume, P. mume, P. mume var. goethartiana, P. mume var. pallescens, P. mume var. microcarpa, P. mume var. cenrnus-sempervirens (newly recoeding variety), P. mume var. cernua, P. mume var. pallidus, P. mume var. taomei, were identified at the point of Nei' 72=0.26. Due to the genetic difference obviously among the formas and varieties, we suggested that wild germplasmtypes of all formas and varieties in P. mume should be conserved in their habitats in the furture.

  2. Genetic relationships among Orobanche species as revealed by RAPD analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Román, B; Alfaro, C; Torres, A M; Moreno, M T; Satovic, Z; Pujadas, A; Rubiales, D

    2003-05-01

    RAPD markers were used to study variation among 20 taxa in the genus OROBANCHE: O. alba, O. amethystea, O. arenaria, O. ballotae, O. cernua, O. clausonis, O. cumana, O. crenata, O. densiflora, O. foetida, O. foetida var. broteri, O. gracilis, O. haenseleri, O. hederae, O. latisquama, O. mutelii, O. nana, O. ramosa, O. rapum-genistae and O. santolinae. A total of 202 amplification products generated with five arbitrary RAPD primers was obtained and species-specific markers were identified. The estimated Jaccard's differences between the species varied between 0 and 0.864. The pattern of interspecific variation obtained is in general agreement with previous taxonomic studies based on morphology, and the partition into two different sections (Trionychon and Orobanche) is generally clear. However, the position in the dendrogram of O. clausonis did not fit this classification since it clustered with members of section TRIONYCHON: Within this section, O. arenaria was relatively isolated from the other members of the section: O. mutelii, O. nana and O. ramosa. Within section Orobanche, all O. ramosa populations showed a similar amplification pattern, whereas differences among O. crenata populations growing on different hosts were found. Orobanche foetida and O. densiflora clustered together, supporting the morphological and cytological similarities and the host preferences of these species.

  3. GROWTH OF PIKE (Esox lucius L. IN CROATIAN RESERVOIR KRUŠČICA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomislav Treer

    1998-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the data of pike (Esox lusius L. 1758 growth in the reservoir Kruščica. The reservoir is situated in the mountainous part of Croatia, where the winters are longer and chillier than in other parts of the country. Other fish species that inhabit this reservoir are roach (Rutilus rutilus, drub (Leuciscus cephalus, dace (Leuciscus leuciscus, bleak (Alburnus alburnus, tench (Tinca tinca, common carp (Cyprinus carpio, grasscarp (Ctenopharingodon idella, silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix, wells (Silurus glanis, ruffe (Crymnocephalus (Acerina cernua and pumpkinseed (Lepomis gibbosus. Based on total length, Von Bertalanffy's growth curve of pike in Kruščica appears to be: Lt=142 (1-e-0.14 (t-0.5 Compared to the growth pike attains in some other stagnant waters, the growth of pike in this reservoir appears to be fair, but in principle, it is higher than in many a river. Comparative growth index during the first ten life years of pike was 86.6% if compared to the standard growth curve published for the British isles. The overall growth performance (phi-prime is: Φ'=7.95. This value is almost the same as the one obtained from the British data (Φ '=7.90.

  4. Phytodiversity and conservation of Nithypooja Kona Sacred Grove of Nallamala Hill Range, Eastern Ghats, Andhra Pradesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SKM Basha

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Sacred groves are climax forests and are the only representatives of natural or near-natural vegetation. These are dedicated to deities or ancestral spirits worshipped by local tribes along with surrounding plants and trees. These are ecosystems by themselves and perform all the ecological functions. Phytodiversity constitute a large segment of the flora which provides raw materials for use by numerous Pharmaceutical industries. The present study will be useful for researchers in the field of Ethan botany, Ethnomedicine, Taxonomy, and Pharmacology for further studies. Nithyapoojakona Sacred grove is one of the important sacred groves in Kadapa district. The present paper deals with the phyto-diversity of the above grove used by local tribes. This paper deals with the 181 species of probable medicinal potential belonging to 138 genera and 71 families. Significant flora are Cycas beddomei, Pterocarpus santalinus, Drosera burmaptonni, Orabanche cernua, Neptunia oleracea, Hugonia mystax, Caralluma adsendens , Gloriosa superba, Limnophila spp, Centella sasiatica etc. Word famous Red sanders population of the study area is being destroyed unethically and it is to be protected. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3126/ije.v4i2.12648 International Journal of Environment Vol.4(2 2015: 271-288

  5. Meiotic studies in some selected angiosperms from the Kashmir Himalayas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Syed Mudassir JEELANI; Santosh KUMARI; Raghbir Chand GUPTA

    2012-01-01

    As a part of our program to explore and evaluate genetic diversity of flowering plants of the Kashmir Himalayas,meiotic studies have been carried out on 150 wild species.Of these,Caltha alba (2n =32),Delphinium roylei (2n =16),D.uncinatum (2n =16),Ranunculus palmatifidus (2n =28),and Sedum heterodontum (2n =14) have been cytologically worked out for the first time.New intraspecific diploid or polyploid cytotypes have been recorded for Alchemilla vulgaris (2n =34,96),Arabis amplexicaulis (2n =16),Impatiens amphorata (2n =14),Ⅰ.racemosa (2n =12),Ⅰ.sutcata (2n =16,12),Meconopsis latifolia (2n =14),Potentilla supina (2n =14),Saxifraga cernua (2n =16),Sium latijugam (2n =24),and Vicatia coniifolia (2n =44).Four species,Arabidopsis thaliana (2n =10),Berberis vulgaris (2n =28),Potentilla nubicola (2n =14),and P.sericea (2n =28),have been cytologically reported for the first time from India.A large number of meiotic abnormalities have been observed in most of these species,leading to a reduction in pollen fertility and production of heterogeneous-sized pollen grains.

  6. Longitudinal distribution and seasonality of macroalgae in a subtropical stream impacted by organic pollution Distribuição longitudinal e sazonalidade de macroalgas em um riacho subtropical impactado por poluição orgânica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cleto Kaveski Peres

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available AIM: This study was carried out to assess longitudinal and temporal distribution and the effects of organic pollution on macroalgal communities in a subtropical stream; METHODS: The occurrence and percent cover of stream macroalgae were investigated during seasonal period in four sampling sites along the course of the Cascavel Stream, in Paraná State, subtropical area of Brazil. Sampling sites were randomly chosen; however, their location in relation to urban organic pollution sources was taken into consideration. Besides, several stream variables usually related to organic pollution in aquatic ecosystems were measured; RESULTS: Eleven macroalgal taxa were found during the samplings. Chlorophyta was the prevailing division (4 species or 36.3% of the total richness, followed by Cyanophyta and Rhodophyta (3 or 27.3% and Heterokontophyta (1 or 9.1%. Analysis of variance (ANOVA showed no significant differences in species diversity, percent cover and diversity index among seasons or the sampling sites. In addition, species diversity was not correlated with any environmental variable in particular. On the other hand, the relative composition of the stream macroalgal communities showed wide spatial and temporal variation. Thus, Chlorophyta had higher values of richness and percent cover in sampling site with higher levels of organic pollution, while Rhodophyta was never found in this segment. Taking seasonality into consideration, Chlorophyta had higher values of percent cover in winter, but Rhodophyta and Cyanophyta in spring and fall, respectively; CONCLUSIONS: In general terms, in this study macroalgal community structures were slightly affected by organic pollution, mainly by increase in richness and percent cover of Chlorophyta associated with the absence of Rhodophyta in the most polluted sampling site. The analysis of the richness throughout the stretch of the stream showed that the highest values were found in the intermediate part, being

  7. ALIEN MARINE SPECIES OF LIBYA: FIRST INVENTORY AND NEW RECORDS IN EL-KOUF NATIONAL PARK (CYRENAICA AND THE NEIGHBOURING AREAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. BAZAIRI

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The presence of marine alien species in El-Kouf National Park and the neighbouring areas was assessed using a compilation of available information and observations, a field survey conducted on October 2010 in the framework of the MedMPAnet project and results of further monitoring during June and September 2012. A total of 9 alien species were reported: the Rhodophyta Asparagopsis taxiformis (Delile Trevisan de Saint-Léon, the Chlorophyta Caulerpa racemosa var. cylindracea (Sonder Verlaque, Huisman & Boudouresque, the crab Percnon gibbesi (H. Milne-Edwards, 1853 and the fishes Fistularia commersonii Rüppell, 1838, Siganus luridus (Rüppell, 1829, Siganus rivulatus Forsskål, 1775, Pempheris vanicolensis Cuvier, 1831, Lagocephalus sceleratus (Gmelin, 1789 and Sphyraena flavicauda Rüppell, 1838. Several of them were until now unknown for the National Park. The list of alien marine species of Libya is updated and discussed. Until now 63 marine aliens species were recorded along the Libyan coasts. These include 3 Foraminifera, 3 Ochrophyta, 5 Rhodophyta, 5 Chlorophyta, 1 Magnoliophyta, 11 Arthropoda, 13 Mollusca, 1 Echinodermata and 21 Chordata. Among these Non Indigenous Species, 43 are known as established along the Libyan coast including 8 invasive, 11 casual, 6 questionable, 3 cryptogenic and 1 unknown. An in-depth study of the marine organisms would substantially increase the number of alien species occurring in Libya. Monitoring of marine assemblages of MPAs is a valuable opportunity to go further into the knowledge of native and introduced species.

  8. Bacterial and eukaryotic biodiversity patterns in terrestrial and aquatic habitats in the Sør Rondane Mountains, Dronning Maud Land, East Antarctica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obbels, Dagmar; Verleyen, Elie; Mano, Marie-José; Namsaraev, Zorigto; Sweetlove, Maxime; Tytgat, Bjorn; Fernandez-Carazo, Rafael; De Wever, Aaike; D'hondt, Sofie; Ertz, Damien; Elster, Josef; Sabbe, Koen; Willems, Anne; Wilmotte, Annick; Vyverman, Wim

    2016-06-01

    The bacterial and microeukaryotic biodiversity were studied using pyrosequencing analysis on a 454 GS FLX+ platform of partial SSU rRNA genes in terrestrial and aquatic habitats of the Sør Rondane Mountains, including soils, on mosses, endolithic communities, cryoconite holes and supraglacial and subglacial meltwater lenses. This inventory was complemented with Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis targeting Chlorophyta and Cyanobacteria. OTUs belonging to the Rotifera, Chlorophyta, Tardigrada, Ciliophora, Cercozoa, Fungi, Bryophyta, Bacillariophyta, Collembola and Nematoda were present with a relative abundance of at least 0.1% in the eukaryotic communities. Cyanobacteria, Proteobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Acidobacteria, FBP and Actinobacteria were the most abundant bacterial phyla. Multivariate analyses of the pyrosequencing data revealed a general lack of differentiation of both eukaryotes and prokaryotes according to habitat type. However, the bacterial community structure in the aquatic habitats was dominated by the filamentous cyanobacteria Leptolyngbya and appeared to be significantly different compared with those in dry soils, on mosses, and in endolithic habitats. A striking feature in all datasets was the detection of a relatively large amount of sequences new to science, which underscores the need for additional biodiversity assessments in Antarctic inland locations.

  9. Preliminary data on edaphic algae in the city of Piteşti (Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliana Cristina SOARE

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available In order to initiate the inventory of the edaphic algae in the city of Piteşti, soil samples were taken from Expo Park Lumina Park, the Ştrand Park, the bank of the river Argeş, Trivale forest, Trivale Park, the BCR Park, Bascov Park, Park in Prundu, Bucharest-Piteşti highway. A total of 27 genus/species were identified, out of which 22% belonging to phylum Cyanobacteria, 67% to phylum Ochrophyta, and 11% to phylum Chlorophyta. The prevalence of the ecobiomorph B was found, in proportion of 68%, which was followed by ecobiomorphs Cf, Ch, N and P, each represented by 7%, and C, represented by 4%. In all samples analyzed the presence was identified of the species Hantzschia amphioxys, alongside Diatoma vulgare, in polluted soils. The presence was also noted of species Cylindrospermum sp., Nostoc sp., Nostoc commune, and nitrogen capturing Nostoc punctiforme. The rate of aridity, that is the ratio of the number of Cyanobacteria and Chlorophyta species, calculated for each sample, had high values of between 1 and 4, which confirms that urban soils are characterized by arid conditions.

  10. Asymmetric cell division and its role in cell fate determination in the green alga Tetraselmis indica

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Mani Arora; Arga Chandrashekar Anil; Karl Burgess; Jane Delany; Ehsan Mesbahi

    2015-12-01

    The prasinophytes (early diverging Chlorophyta), consisting of simple unicellular green algae, occupy a critical position at the base of the green algal tree of life, with some of its representatives viewed as the cell form most similar to the first green alga, the `ancestral green flagellate'. Relatively large-celled unicellular eukaryotic phytoflagellates (such as Tetraselmis and Scherffelia), traditionally placed in Prasinophyceae but now considered as members of Chlorodendrophyceae (core Chlorophyta), have retained some primitive characteristics of prasinophytes. These organisms share several ultrastructural features with the other core chlorophytes (Trebouxiophyceae, Ulvophyceae and Chlorophyceae). However, the role of Chlorodendrophycean algae as the evolutionary link between cellular individuality and cellular cooperation has been largely unstudied. Here, we show that clonal populations of a unicellular chlorophyte, Tetraselmis indica, consist of morphologically and ultrastructurally variant cells which arise through asymmetric cell division. These cells also differ in their physiological properties. The structural and physiological differences in the clonal cell population correlate to a certain extent with the longevity and function of cells.

  11. Codon Adaptation of Plastid Genes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Haruo; Morton, Brian R.

    2016-01-01

    Codon adaptation is codon usage bias that results from selective pressure to increase the translation efficiency of a gene. Codon adaptation has been studied across a wide range of genomes and some early analyses of plastids have shown evidence for codon adaptation in a limited set of highly expressed plastid genes. Here we study codon usage bias across all fully sequenced plastid genomes which includes representatives of the Rhodophyta, Alveolata, Cryptophyta, Euglenozoa, Glaucocystophyceae, Rhizaria, Stramenopiles and numerous lineages within the Viridiplantae, including Chlorophyta and Embryophyta. We show evidence that codon adaptation occurs in all genomes except for two, Theileria parva and Heicosporidium sp., both of which have highly reduced gene contents and no photosynthesis genes. We also show evidence that selection for codon adaptation increases the representation of the same set of codons, which we refer to as the adaptive codons, across this wide range of taxa, which is probably due to common features descended from the initial endosymbiont. We use various measures to estimate the relative strength of selection in the different lineages and show that it appears to be fairly strong in certain Stramenopiles and Chlorophyta lineages but relatively weak in many members of the Rhodophyta, Euglenozoa and Embryophyta. Given these results we propose that codon adaptation in plastids is widespread and displays the same general features as adaptation in eubacterial genomes. PMID:27196606

  12. Codon Adaptation of Plastid Genes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haruo Suzuki

    Full Text Available Codon adaptation is codon usage bias that results from selective pressure to increase the translation efficiency of a gene. Codon adaptation has been studied across a wide range of genomes and some early analyses of plastids have shown evidence for codon adaptation in a limited set of highly expressed plastid genes. Here we study codon usage bias across all fully sequenced plastid genomes which includes representatives of the Rhodophyta, Alveolata, Cryptophyta, Euglenozoa, Glaucocystophyceae, Rhizaria, Stramenopiles and numerous lineages within the Viridiplantae, including Chlorophyta and Embryophyta. We show evidence that codon adaptation occurs in all genomes except for two, Theileria parva and Heicosporidium sp., both of which have highly reduced gene contents and no photosynthesis genes. We also show evidence that selection for codon adaptation increases the representation of the same set of codons, which we refer to as the adaptive codons, across this wide range of taxa, which is probably due to common features descended from the initial endosymbiont. We use various measures to estimate the relative strength of selection in the different lineages and show that it appears to be fairly strong in certain Stramenopiles and Chlorophyta lineages but relatively weak in many members of the Rhodophyta, Euglenozoa and Embryophyta. Given these results we propose that codon adaptation in plastids is widespread and displays the same general features as adaptation in eubacterial genomes.

  13. The influence of key environmental variables on phytoplankton community structure in the estuary of tidal rivers around Luoyuan Bay, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Wenbin; Zheng, Peng; Liang, Yunyan; Cai, Yuanbin

    2017-10-01

    A total of 348 species belonging to 8 phyla and 125 genera were observed in seasonally sampled phytoplankton of tidal rivers from 13 sampling sites around Luoyuan Bay, and all field samplings were carried out in productive period (March/June/August/ December) at ebb tide. Bacillariophyta species were the most abundant species, followed by Chlorophyta, Cyanophytes, Euglenophyta, Cryptophyta, Dinophyta, Xanthophyta and Chrysophytas. Seasonal distribution index (SDI) value ranged from 0.63 to 0.86, which meant that species found at those sites in 4 seasons tended to be largely different. Phytoplankton individuals ranged from 5.939×104 ind L-1 in winter to 75.31×104 ind L-1 in autumn. Phytoplankton biomass ranged from 0.620 mg L-1 in summer to 2.373 mg L-1 in autumn. The grey correlation analysis (GCA) showed that the nutrient variables played an important role in the influence on phytoplankton community in every season. The canonical correspondence analysis (CCA) revealed impact of environmental variables on the different species, most of Bacillariophyta species were negative correlation with nutrients (TP and NH3-N) in the four seasons, Chlorophyta species and Cyanophyta species did not show obvious correlation with environment variables in every season. The combination of GRA analysis and CCA analysis provided a method to quantitatively reveal the correlation between phytoplankton community and environmental variables in water body of tidal rivers at this region.

  14. Significance of different microalgal species for growth of moon jellyfish ephyrae, Aurelia sp.1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Shan; Sun, Xiaoxia; Wang, Yantao; Sun, Song

    2015-10-01

    The scyphozoan Aurelia aurita (Linnaeus) sp. l., is a cosmopolitan species-complex which blooms seasonally in a variety of coastal and shelf sea environments around the world. The effects of different microalgal species on the growth of newly-released Aurelia sp.1 ephyrae were studied under laboratory conditions. We fed ephyrae with four different microalgal species (diatom, autotrophic dinoflagellate, heterotrophic dinoflagellate, and chlorophyta) plus Artemia nauplii for 12-24 d at 18°C. Results showed that the growth rate diverged significantly for Artemia nauplii compared to other food types. In addition, there was no significant variation between the growth rates for Skeletonema costatum and Prorocentrum donghaiense, and no significant variation was found in the growth rates for N. scintillans and P. subcordiformis. Artemia nauplii could support the energy requirement for the newly-released ephyrae to develop to meduase, and the ephyrae with Artemia nauplii showed a significant average growth rate of 25.85% d-1. Newly-released ephyrae could grow slightly with some species of microalgae in the earliest development stage. Chain diatom Skeletonema costatum and autotrophic dinoflagellate Prorocentrum donghaiense, could not support the growth of the ephyrae, while heterotrophic dinoflagellate Noctiluca scintillans and chlorophyta Platymonas subcordiformis could support the growth of the ephyrae. However, none of the ephyrae fed with the tested phytoplankton could mature to medusae.

  15. Antiviral activity of extracts from Brazilian seaweeds against herpes simplex virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angélica Ribeiro Soares

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Organic extracts of 36 species of marine algae (sixteen species of Rhodophyta, eight species of Ochrophyta and twelve species of Chlorophyta from seven locations on the Brazilian coast were evaluated for their anti-HSV-1 and anti-HSV-2 activity resistant to Acyclovir (ACV. Activity tests in crude extracts, followed by the identification of the major compounds present, were performed for all species. The chemical profiles of all crude extracts were obtained by ¹H-NMR and 13C-NMR spectroscopy. The percentage of extracts with antiviral activity was higher for HSV-1 (86.1% than for HSV-2 (55.5%. The green algae Ulva fasciata and Codium decorticatum both showed the highest activity (99.9% against HSV-1, with triacylglycerols and fatty acids as the major components. The red alga Laurencia dendroidea showed good activity against HSV-1 (97.5% and the halogenated sesquiterpenes obtusol and (--elatol were identified as the major components in the extract. Against HSV-2, the green alga Penicillus capitatus (Chlorophyta and Stypopodium zonale (Ochrophyta were the most active (96.0 and 95.8%. Atomaric acid, a meroditerpene, was identified as the major secondary metabolite in the S. zonale extract. These results reinforce the role of seaweeds as important sources of compounds with the potential to enter into the pipeline for development of new drugs against herpes simplex.

  16. ALIEN MARINE SPECIES OF LIBYA: FIRST INVENTORY AND NEW RECORDS IN EL-KOUF NATIONAL PARK (CYRENAICA AND THE NEIGHBOURING AREAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. BAZAIRI

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The presence of marine alien species in El-Kouf National Park and the neighbouring areas was assessed using a compilation of available information and observations, a field survey conducted on October 2010 in the framework of the MedMPAnet project and results of further monitoring during June and September 2012. A total of 9 alien species were reported: the Rhodophyta Asparagopsis taxiformis (Delile Trevisan de Saint-Léon, the Chlorophyta Caulerpa racemosa var. cylindracea (Sonder Verlaque, Huisman & Boudouresque, the crab Percnon gibbesi (H. Milne-Edwards, 1853 and the fishes Fistularia commersonii Rüppell, 1838, Siganus luridus (Rüppell, 1829, Siganus rivulatus Forsskål, 1775, Pempheris vanicolensis Cuvier, 1831, Lagocephalus sceleratus (Gmelin, 1789 and Sphyraena flavicauda Rüppell, 1838. Several of them were until now unknown for the National Park. The list of alien marine species of Libya is updated and discussed. Until now 63 marine aliens species were recorded along the Libyan coasts. These include 3 Foraminifera, 3 Ochrophyta, 5 Rhodophyta, 5 Chlorophyta, 1 Magnoliophyta, 11 Arthropoda, 13 Mollusca, 1 Echinodermata and 21 Chordata. Among these Non Indigenous Species, 43 are known as established along the Libyan coast including 8 invasive, 11 casual, 6 questionable, 3 cryptogenic and 1 unknown. An in-depth study of the marine organisms would substantially increase the number of alien species occurring in Libya. Monitoring of marine assemblages of MPAs is a valuable opportunity to go further into the knowledge of native and introduced species.

  17. Diet of Ctenogobius shufeldti (Jordan and Eigenmann, 1887 (Teleostei, Gobiidae in Guaratuba Bay, subtropical west Atlantic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Zanlorenzi

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The diet composition of the American freshwater goby, Ctenogobius shufeldti, was investigated in an estuarine area and two of its tributaries. 397 individuals, total length from 21 to 70mm, were sampled over a period of 12 months and their stomach contents were analysed by the Frequency of Occurrence and Number of Points methods. According to the Alimentary Index, diet was constituted mainly by Ostracoda (IA=50.51 and Tanaidacea (IA=40.85, and secondarily by Gastropoda (IA=1.21, Amphipoda (IA=0.10, Isopoda (IA=0.01, Cirripedia (IA=0.01, Decapoda larvae (IA=0.01, Insecta (IA=0.01, Chlorophyta (IA=2.15 and Rodophyta (IA=0.15 filamentous algae, and plants (IA=4.99. Diversity of diet was higher in rivers than in the Bay. Except for Decapoda larvae, items found in the two rivers were the same. In the Bay, Amphipoda and Cirripedia were not found. Previous to this research, the filamentous algae Chlorophyta and Rodophyta had not been noted in the diet of this species in estuaries close to Guaratuba. In view of this, and regarding the possible roles played by cryptobenthic fish species in aquatic communities (Depczynski and Bellwood, 2003, it is concluded that C. shufeldti takes part in trophic dynamics feeding on benthic organisms as well as on algae, a behaviour that can result from both marine and continental influences existing in the region.

  18. Maixi River estuary to the Baihua Reservoir in the Maotiao River catchment: phytoplankton community and environmental factors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Qiuhua; CHEN Lili; CHEN Fengfeng; GAO Tingjin; LI Xiaofeng; LIU Songping; LI Cunxiong

    2013-01-01

    Phytoplankton and environmental variables were measured monthly from July 2009 to August 2011 in the Maixi River from the estuary to Baihua Reservoir in the Maotiao River catchment,southwestern China,to understand phytoplankton community structure and environmental factors.The relationship between phytoplankton community structure and environmental factors including hydrological,meteorological,physical,and chemical variables were explored using multivariate analysis.A total of 81taxa of phytoplankton were identified,which were mainly composed of chlorophyta,bacillariophyta,and cyanobacteria.The phytoplankton community was dominated by Pseudanabaena limnetica during summer and fall and by Cyclotella meneghiniana during winter and spring.The abundance of phytoplankton ranged from 0.24×104 cells/L to 33.45×i06 cells/L,with the minimum occurring during February 2010 and the maximum during July 2009.The phytoplankton community was dominated mainly by cyanobacteria from April to September,and by bacillariophyta and pyrrophyta from October to March.Canonical correspondence analysis showed that temperature,pH values,and orthophosphate were the most important driving factors regulating the composition and dynamics of the phytoplankton community in the estuary.Cyanobacteria and euglenophyta abundance and biomass were affected mainly by temperature and pH values,while most chlorophyta and bacillariophyta were influenced by the concentrations of nutrients.

  19. Alkaline direct transesterification of different species of Stichococcus for bio-oil production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gargano, Immacolata; Marotta, Raffaele; Andreozzi, Roberto; Olivieri, Giuseppe; Marzocchella, Antonio; Spasiano, Danilo; Pinto, Gabriele; Pollio, Antonino

    2016-12-25

    The cost of bio-oil refining from microalgal biomass can be significantly reduced by combining extraction and transesterification. The characterisation and optimisation of the combined steps have been carried out on strains of Stichococcus bacillaris, focusing on catalyst type and concentration, reaction time and temperature, methanol/biomass ratio, pre-mixing time and water content in the biomass. The bio-oil yield has been referenced as production of fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs). The maximum yield (∼17%) was achieved using dried biomass with alkaline catalyst at 60°C and methanol/biomass weight ratio of 79:1. Alkaline catalyst conditions gave faster reaction rates and higher bio-oil yields than acid catalyst. Yield was also strongly affected by water content in the biomass. A mechanistic interpretation has been proposed to elucidate the effect of the different operating conditions. However, the structural characteristics of the Chlorophyta cell wall can be very different, leading to different bio-oil yields when the same protocol is applied. Therefore, the optimised protocol of direct transesterification for Stichococcus bacillaris strains was tested on other Stichococcus strains and several other Chlorophyta species characterised by a different cell wall structure. It was clearly demonstrated that different results for bio-oil yield were obtained within the same microalgal species and much more within different microalgal genera.

  20. Multi-Scale Characean Experimental System: From Electrophysiology of Membrane Transporters to Cell-to-Cell Connectivity, Cytoplasmic Streaming and Auxin Metabolism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beilby, Mary J.

    2016-01-01

    The morphology of characean algae could be mistaken for a higher plant: stem-like axes with leaf-like branchlets anchored in the soil by root-like rhizoids. However, all of these structures are made up of giant multinucleate cells separated by multicellular nodal complexes. The excised internodal cells survive long enough for the nodes to give rise to new thallus. The size of the internodes and their thick cytoplasmic layer minimize impalement injury and allow specific micro-electrode placement. The cell structure can be manipulated by centrifugation, perfusion of cell contents or creation of cytoplasmic droplets, allowing access to both vacuolar and cytoplasmic compartments and both sides of the cell membranes. Thousands of electrical measurements on intact or altered cells and cytoplasmic droplets laid down basis to modern plant electrophysiology. Furthermore, the giant internodal cells and whole thalli facilitate research into many other plant properties. As nutrients have to be transported from rhizoids to growing parts of the thallus and hormonal signals need to pass from cell to cell, Characeae possess very fast cytoplasmic streaming. The mechanism was resolved in the characean model. Plasmodesmata between the internodal cells and nodal complexes facilitate transport of ions, nutrients and photosynthates across the nodes. The internal structure was found to be similar to those of higher plants. Recent experiments suggest a strong circadian influence on metabolic pathways producing indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) and serotonin/melatonin. The review will discuss the impact of the characean models arising from fragments of cells, single cells, cell-to-cell transport or whole thalli on understanding of plant evolution and physiology. PMID:27504112

  1. Multi-scale characean experimental system: from electrophysiology of membrane transporters to cell-to-cell connectivity, cytoplasmic streaming and auxin metabolism.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary Jane Beilby

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The morphology of characean algae could be mistaken for a higher plant: stem-like axes with leaf-like branchlets anchored in the soil by root-like rhizoids. However, all of these structures are made up of giant multinucleate cells separated by multicellular nodal complexes. The excised internodal cells survive long enough for the nodes to give rise to new thallus. The size of the internodes and their thick cytoplasmic layer minimize impalement injury and allow specific micro-electrode placement. The cell structure can be manipulated by centrifugation, perfusion of cell contents or creation of cytoplasmic droplets, allowing access to both vacuolar and cytoplasmic compartments and both sides of the cell membranes. Thousands of electrical measurements on intact or altered cells and cytoplasmic droplets laid down basis to modern plant electrophysiology. Furthermore, the giant internodal cells and whole thalli facilitate research into many other plant properties. As nutrients have to be transported from rhizoids to growing parts of the thallus and hormonal signals need to pass from cell to cell, Characeae possess very fast cytoplasmic streaming. The mechanism was resolved in the characean model. Plasmodesmata between the internodal cells and nodal complexes facilitate transport of ions, nutrients and photosynthates across the nodes. The internal structure was found to be similar to those of higher plants. Recent experiments suggest a strong circadian influence on metabolic pathways producing indole-3-acetic acid (IAA and serotonin/melatonin. The review will discuss the impact of the characean models arising from fragments of cells, single cells, cell-to-cell transport or whole thalli on understanding of plant evolution and physiology.

  2. Multi-Scale Characean Experimental System: From Electrophysiology of Membrane Transporters to Cell-to-Cell Connectivity, Cytoplasmic Streaming and Auxin Metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beilby, Mary J

    2016-01-01

    The morphology of characean algae could be mistaken for a higher plant: stem-like axes with leaf-like branchlets anchored in the soil by root-like rhizoids. However, all of these structures are made up of giant multinucleate cells separated by multicellular nodal complexes. The excised internodal cells survive long enough for the nodes to give rise to new thallus. The size of the internodes and their thick cytoplasmic layer minimize impalement injury and allow specific micro-electrode placement. The cell structure can be manipulated by centrifugation, perfusion of cell contents or creation of cytoplasmic droplets, allowing access to both vacuolar and cytoplasmic compartments and both sides of the cell membranes. Thousands of electrical measurements on intact or altered cells and cytoplasmic droplets laid down basis to modern plant electrophysiology. Furthermore, the giant internodal cells and whole thalli facilitate research into many other plant properties. As nutrients have to be transported from rhizoids to growing parts of the thallus and hormonal signals need to pass from cell to cell, Characeae possess very fast cytoplasmic streaming. The mechanism was resolved in the characean model. Plasmodesmata between the internodal cells and nodal complexes facilitate transport of ions, nutrients and photosynthates across the nodes. The internal structure was found to be similar to those of higher plants. Recent experiments suggest a strong circadian influence on metabolic pathways producing indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) and serotonin/melatonin. The review will discuss the impact of the characean models arising from fragments of cells, single cells, cell-to-cell transport or whole thalli on understanding of plant evolution and physiology.

  3. 天宝岩不同类型泥炭沼泽物种多样性与地上生物量关系%Relationship between Species Diversity and Aboveground Biomass of Plant Community among Different Types of Peat Swamp in Tianbaoyan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈花丹; 何东进; 游巍斌; 张中瑞; 蔡昌棠; 刘进山; 肖石红; 邓滨

    2014-01-01

    Biomass of plant community,species diversity characteristics of each community and the relationship between aboveground biomass and species diversity among four different types of peat swamps were studied in Tianbaoyan National Nature Reserve. The results reveal that:the aboveground biomass of Sphagnum in community and biomass Sphagnum magellanicum were significantly higher than those of others ( P0. 05),while aboveground biomass of community Phyllostachys heteroclada-Sphagnum magellanicum was the lowest. Species diversity order among different types of peat swamp was as follows:community Palhinhaea cernua+Phyllostachys heteroclada-Sphagnum magellanicum >community Juncus effusu-Sphagnum magellanicum >commu-nity Phyllostachys heteroclada-Sphagnum magellanicum>community Sphagnum magellanicum. Correlation analysis showed that:relationship between species diversity and aboveground biomass of community among different types of Sphagnum mire in Tianbaoyan is not obvious,almost no correlation (r≈0),aboveground biomass of Sphagnum mire in subtropical zone were mainly determined by the dominant species, the species diversity was mainly decided by the non-dominant species, long-term flooding and cold weather caused spatial heterogeneity of resources and environment reduce,“Niche complementary” effect is not obvious.%以天宝岩国家级自然保护区为研究对象,研究4种不同类型泥炭沼泽群落生物量、物种多样性分布特征以及地上生物量与物种多样性间的关系.结果表明:泥炭藓群落( Comm. Sphagnum magellanicum)地上生物量和泥炭藓生物量均显著高于其他3类群落(P0.05),其中水竹-泥炭藓群落(Comm. Phyllostachys heteroclada-Sphagnum magellanicum)的地上生物量最低.不同泥炭沼泽类型群落物种多样性排序为垂穗石松+水竹-泥炭藓群落( Comm. Palhinhaea cernua+Phyllostachys heteroclada-Sphagnum magellanicum)>灯芯草-泥炭藓群落( Comm. Juncus effusu-Sphagnum magellanicum

  4. Algae community and trophic state of subtropical reservoirs in southeast Fujian, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jun; Yu, Xiaoqing; Liu, Lemian; Zhang, Wenjing; Guo, Peiyong

    2012-06-01

    Fujian reservoirs in southeast China are important water resources for economic and social sustainable development, although few have been studied previously. In recent years, growing population and increasing demands for water shifted the focus of many reservoirs from flood control and irrigation water to drinking water. However, most of them showed a rapid increase in the level of eutrophication, which is one of the most serious and challenging environmental problems. In this study, we investigated the algae community characteristics, trophic state, and eutrophication control strategies for typical subtropical reservoirs in southeast Fujian. Surface water samples were collected using polyvinyl chloride (PVC) plastic bottles from 11 Fujian reservoirs in summer 2010. Planktonic algae were investigated by optical microscopy. Water properties were determined according to the national standard methods. Shallow reservoirs generally have higher values of trophic state index (TSI) and appear to be more susceptible to anthropogenic disturbance than deeper reservoirs. A total of 129 taxa belonging to eight phyla (i.e., Bacillariophyta, Chlorophyta, Chrysophyta, Cryptophyta, Cyanophyta, Euglenophyta, Pyrrophyta, Xanthophyta) were observed and the most diverse groups were Chlorophyta (52 taxa), Cyanophyta (20 taxa), Euglenophyta (17 taxa), Chrysophyta (14 taxa). The dominant groups were Chlorophyta (40.58%), Cyanophyta (22.91%), Bacillariophyta (21.61%), Chrysophyta (6.91%). The species richness, abundance, diversity, and evenness of algae varied significantly between reservoirs. TSI results indicated that all 11 reservoirs were eutrophic, three of them were hypereutrophic, six were middle eutrophic, and two were light eutrophic. There was a strong positive correlation between algal diversity and TSI at P affecting the distribution of algae communities. The transparency and chlorophyll a were the strongest environmental factors in explaining the community data. Furthermore

  5. Molecular response of estuarine fish to hypoxia: a comparative study with ruffe and flounder from field and laboratory.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica Tiedke

    Full Text Available On a global scale, the frequencies and magnitudes of hypoxic events in coastal and estuarine waters have increased dramatically over the past 20 years. Fish populations are suitable indicators for the assessment of the quality of aquatic ecosystems, as they are omnipresent and often comprise a variety of different lifestyles and adaption strategies. We have investigated on the molecular level the impact of hypoxia on two fish species typical of European estuaries. We monitored the expression of eleven putatively hypoxia-responsive genes by means of quantitative real-time RT-PCR in brains, gills and hearts of the ruffe (Gymnocephalus cernua and the flounder (Platichthys flesus. We first investigated the effect of naturally occurring hypoxia in the Elbe estuary. In a second approach, expression changes in the response to hypoxia were monitored under controlled laboratory conditions. The genes that showed the strongest effect were two respiratory proteins, myoglobin and neuroglobin, as well as the apoptosis enzyme caspase 3. As previously observed in other fish, myoglobin, which was considered to be muscle-specific, was found in brain and gills as well. Comparison of field and laboratory studies showed that--with the exception of the heart of flounder--that mRNA levels of the selected genes were about the same, suggesting that laboratory conditions reflect natural conditions. Likewise, trends of gene expression changes under hypoxia were the same, although hypoxia response was more pronounced in the Elbe estuary. In general, the flounder displayed a stronger response to hypoxia than the ruffe, suggesting that the flounder is more susceptible to hypoxia. The most pronounced differences were found among tissues within a species, demonstrating that hypoxia response is largely tissue-specific. In summary, our data suggest that laboratory experiments essentially mimic field data, but additional environmental factors enhance hypoxia response in nature.

  6. 额尔齐斯河几种鱼类寄生三代虫种类鉴定及系统发育%THE SPECIES IDENTIFICATION AND PHYLOGENETIC OF GYRODACTYLUS IN ERGIS RIVER

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张薇; 党瑞; 王新; 郝翠兰; 焦丽; 番林·古丽; 岳城

    2016-01-01

    对采自额尔齐斯河的银鲫(Carassius auratus gibelio Bloch)、东方欧鳊(Abramis brama orientalis Berg)、黏鲈(Gymnocephalus cernua Linnaeus)、金鳟(Oncorhynchus mykiss Walbaum)感染的三代虫(Gyrodactylussp.)进行了研究,通过几丁质结构的形态测量与比较,初步鉴定寄生于银鲫的为细锚三代(G.sprostonae),寄生东方欧鳊的为秀丽三代虫(G.elegans),寄生黏鲈的为普氏三代虫(G.prostate),寄生金鳟的为细鳞鲑三代虫(G.brachymystacis).同时将测定的三代虫的ITS序列,与GenBank上三代虫序列进行比对分析,发现上述4种三代虫分别与细锚三代虫、秀丽三代虫、细鳞鲑三代虫、普氏三代虫的ITS同源性都在99.3%以上,进一步验证了形态学的鉴定结果.系统发育分析显示细鳞鲑三代虫和细锚三代虫位于G.(Limnonephrotus)亚属的一枝,秀丽三代虫和普氏三代虫位于G.(Gyrodactylus)亚属的一枝,而此两亚属亲缘关系较远.

  7. Evaluating the Hypoxia Response of Ruffe and Flounder Gills by a Combined Proteome and Transcriptome Approach.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica Tiedke

    Full Text Available Hypoxia has gained ecological importance during the last decades, and it is the most dramatically increasing environmental factor in coastal areas and estuaries. The gills of fish are the prime target of hypoxia and other stresses. Here we have studied the impact of the exposure to hypoxia (1.5 mg O2/l for 48 h on the protein expression of the gills of two estuarine fish species, the ruffe (Gymnocephalus cernua and the European flounder (Platichthys flesus. First, we obtained the transcriptomes of mixed tissues (gills, heart and brain from both species by Illumina next-generation sequencing. Then, the gill proteomes were investigated using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and mass spectrometry. Quantification of the normalized proteome maps resulted in a total of 148 spots in the ruffe, of which 28 (18.8% were significantly regulated (> 1.5-fold. In the flounder, 121 spots were found, of which 27 (22.3% proteins were significantly regulated. The transcriptomes were used for the identification of these proteins, which was successful for 15 proteins of the ruffe and 14 of the flounder. The ruffe transcriptome dataset comprised 87,169,850 reads, resulting in an assembly of 72,108 contigs (N50 = 1,828 bp. 20,860 contigs (26.93% had blastx hits with E < 1e-5 in the human sequences in the RefSeq database, representing 14,771 unique accession numbers. The flounder transcriptome with 78,943,030 reads assembled into 49,241 contigs (N50 = 2,106 bp. 20,127 contigs (40.87% had a hit with human proteins, corresponding to 14,455 unique accession numbers. The regulation of selected genes was confirmed by quantitative real-time RT-PCR. Most of the regulated proteins that were identified by this approach function in the energy metabolism, while others are involved in the immune response, cell signalling and the cytoskeleton.

  8. Nuevos registros de macroalgas para el Atlántico mexicano y riqueza florística del Caribe mexicano New records of macroalgae for the Mexican Atlantic and floristic richness of the Mexican Caribbean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neidy Pauline Cetz-Navarro

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Se revisaron muestras de macroalgas de un hábitat pocas veces analizado (colindante a la parte basal del tejido vivo de los corales Acropora palmata y Diploria strigosa y de una zona de México poco conocida florísticamente (parte Sur del Caribe mexicano, con base a lo cual se reporta a Corallophila verongiae (Rhodophyta, Derbesia fastigiata (Chlorophyta y Hincksia onslowensis (Phaeophyta como nuevos registros de macroalgas para la costa del Atlántico mexicano. Además, se reporta a Lophosiphonia obscura (Rhodophyta como nuevo registro para la parte costera continental del Atlántico mexicano, ya que sólo se había registrado hace más de 40 años para Arrecife Alacranes, sitio alejado aproximadamente 180 km al norte de Puerto Progreso, Yucatán. Aunque las especies de macroalgas no presentaron estructuras reproductoras, probablemente por tener crecimiento clonal y estar invadiendo tejido coralino, los caracteres morfológicos permitieron su identificación con certeza. Con excepción de la primera especie, las otras no se habían registrado creciendo sobre corales. Tomando en cuenta estos nuevos registros, el total de especies de macroalgas registradas hasta este estudio para el Caribe mexicano es de 546, incluyendo 307 Rhodophyta, 171 Chlorophyta y 68 Phaeophyta. Esta zona tropical y la costa templada de Baja California conforman las dos zonas florísticas marinas más ricas de México.Macroalgae samples from a habitat uncommonly analyzed (next to the basal part of live tissue of the corals Acropora palmata and Diploria strigosa, and from a Mexican zone barely known floristically (the southern part of the Mexican Caribbean were studied. Based on those samples, Corallophila verongiae (Rhodophyta, Derbesia fastigiata (Chlorophyta, and Hincksia onslowensis (Phaeophyta are recognized as new records for the Mexican Atlantic coast. Similarly, Lophosiphonia obscura (Rhodophyta is recognized as a new record for the continental coast of the Mexican

  9. Toward a better knowledge of the molecular evolution of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase by comparison of partial cDNA sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gehrig, H H; Heute, V; Kluge, M

    1998-01-01

    To get deeper insight into the evolution of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase we have identified PEPC fragments (about 1,100 bp) of another 12 plants species not yet investigated in this context. The selected plants include one Chlorophyta, two Bryophyta, four Pteridophyta, and five Spermatophyta species. The obtained phylogenetic trees on PEPC isoforms are the most complete ones up to now available. Independent of their manner of construction, the resulting dendrograms are very similar and fully consistent with the main topology as it is postulated for the evolution of the higher terrestrial plants. We found a distinct clustering of the PEPC sequences of the prokaryotes, the algae, and the spermatophytes. PEPC isoforms of the archegoniates are located in the phylogenetic trees between the algae and spermatophytes. Our results strengthen the view that the PEPC is a very useful molecular marker with which to visualize phylogenetic trends both on the metabolic and organismic levels.

  10. Cyanobacterial-algal cenoses in ordinary chernozems under the impact of different phytoameliorants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubovik, I. E.; Suyundukov, Ya. T.; Khasanova, R. F.; Shalygina, R. R.

    2016-04-01

    General ecological and taxonomic characteristics of cyanobacterial-algal cenoses in ordinary chernozems under different ameliorative plants (phytoameliorants) were studied in the Trans-Ural region of the Republic of Bashkortostan. A comparative analysis of the taxa of studied cenoses in the soils under leguminous herbs and grasses was performed. The phytoameliorative effect of different herbs and their relationships with cyanobacterial-algal cenoses were examined. Overall, 134 cyanoprokaryotic and algal species belonging to 70 genera, 36 families, 15 orders, and 9 classes were identified. Cyanobacterial-algal cenoses included the divisions of Chlorophyta, Cyanoprokaryota, Xanthophyta, Bacillariophyta, and Euglenophyta. Representatives of Ch-, X-, CF-, and P-forms were the leading ecobiomorphs in the studied cenoses.

  11. THE USE OF MICROALGAE AS BIOINDICATORS OF ORGANIC POLLUTION IN BRISAS OQUENDO, CALLAO, PERU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yucra, H.

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available A series of pools of stagnant water from Brisas de Oquendo neighborhood, Callao, Peru provides a great opportunity to study the composition algal from poluted environments. We characterized species from May to September 2005, collecting a series plankton and sediment samples. These was identified at the lowest rank taxonomy possible, to indicate the relative abundance and level of saprobity. A total of 22 species were identified: Bacillariophyta (14 species, followed by Cyanophyta (4 species, Chlorophyta (2 species and Euglenophyta (2 species. Dominant algae species were Chlamydomonas ehrenbergi and Euglena viridis, forming algal blooms throughout the sampling period. Subdominant species were: Nitzschia linearis, Nitzschia solita, Nitzschia fonticola, Oscillatoria tenuis and Lyngbya sp. The algal association suggests that these waters vary from â-mesosaprobic to polisaprobic, thus demonstrating the importance of the use of these organic pollution-tolerant species in water quality studies.

  12. Ancient Plant Glyoxylate/Succinic Semialdehyde Reductases: GLYR1s Are Cytosolic, Whereas GLYR2s Are Localized to Both Mitochondria and Plastids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barry J. Shelp

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Plant NADPH-dependent glyoxylate/succinic semialdehyde reductases 1 and 2 (GLYR1 and GLYR2 are considered to be involved in detoxifying harmful aldehydes, thereby preserving plant health during exposure to various abiotic stresses. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that the two GLYR isoforms appeared in the plant lineage prior to the divergence of the Chlorophyta and Streptophyta, which occurred approximately 750 million years ago. Green fluorescent protein fusions of apple (Malus x domestica Borkh., rice (Oryza sativa L. and Arabidopsis thaliana [L.] Heynh GLYRs were transiently expressed in tobacco (Nicotiana tabaccum L. suspension cells or Arabidopsis protoplasts, as well in methoxyfenozide-induced, stably transformed Arabidopsis seedlings. The localization of apple GLYR1 confirmed that this isoform is cytosolic, whereas apple, rice and Arabidopsis GLYR2s were localized to both mitochondria and plastids. These findings highlight the potential involvement of GLYRs within distinct compartments of the plant cell.

  13. Effects of pulp mill chlorate on Baltic Sea algae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosemarin, A; Lehtinen, K J; Notini, M; Mattson, J

    1994-01-01

    The long-term effects of pulp mill chlorate on different algal species of the Baltic Sea were studied in land-based model ecosystems simulating the littoral zone. Brown algae (Phaeophyta) exhibited an extraordinarily high sensitivity to chlorate and pulp mill effluents containing chlorate. All brown algal species ceased growth or showed major signs of toxicity at all concentrations tested, down to microgram per litre levels. EC50 levels for growth of Fucus vesiculosus were about 80-100 microg ClO3- litre(-1). Blue-green algae (Cyanophyta) were not deleteriously affected nor were green algae (Chlorophyta). The perennial and annual species of red algae (Rhodophyta) were also unaffected by the effluents. Diatoms did not show any sensitivity and phytoplankton (fresh- and brackish water) were particularly insensitive. A phanerogam, Zostera marina was also unaffected by the treatments.

  14. Characteristic carotenoids in some phytobenthos species in the coastal area of the Adriatic Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bazyli Czeczuga

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The author investigated the presence of various carotcnoids in some phytobenthos species (20 species representative of Chlorophytn, Phaeophyta and Rhodophyta from the coast of the Adriatic Sea. The presence of following carotenoids has been determined 1 in Chlorophyta lycopene, α-, β-, γ- , ε-carotene, β-cryptoxanthin, lutein, lutein epoxide, zeaxanthin, antheraxanthin, neoxanthin, violaxanthin, siphonein and astaxanthin esier; 2 in Phorophyta: α-, β-, γ- , ε- carotene, zeaxanthin, antheraxanthin, diataxanthin, fucoxanthin, fucoxanthol, neoxanthin, violaxanthin and rhodoxanthin-like: 3 in Rhodophyta α-, β-, γ-carotene,α-, β-,cryptoxanthin, lutein lutein epoxide, zeaxanthin, anthcraxanthin, mutatoxanthin, fucoxanthin neoxanthin and violaxanthin The total carotenoid content ranged from 1.197 ( Cystoseira corniculata to 16 748 mg g-1 dry weight (Chaetomorpha aerea.

  15. Does habitat complexity influence fish recruitment?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. CHEMINÉE

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Human activities facilitate coastal habitat transformation and homogenization. The spread of marine invasive species is one example. This in turn may influence fish recruitment and the subsequent replenishment of adult assemblages. We tested habitat complexity effect on fish (Teleostei recruitment by experimentally manipulating meadows of the habitat-forming invasive macroalga Caulerpa taxifolia (Chlorophyta. Among the fourteen fish species recorded during the experiment, only two labrids (Coris julis and Symphodus ocellatus settled in abundance among these meadows. Patterns in the abundance of these juveniles suggested that reduced tri-dimensional meadow complexity may reduce habitat quality and result in altered habitat choices and / or differential mortality of juveniles, therefore reducing fish recruitment and likely the abundance of adults.

  16. Algal Bio-Indication in Assessment of Hydrological Impact on Ecosystem in Wetlands of “Slavyansky Resort”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klymiuk Valentina

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Algal bio-indication is commonly used in water quality assessment but can also help in assessing the impact of hydrology on freshwater wetland ecosystems.We identified 350 species and infraspecific taxa of algae from nine taxonomic divisions (Cyanoprokaryota, Chrysophyta, Euglenophyta,Dinophyta,Xanthophyta,Cryptophyta,Bacillariophyta,Chlorophyta,Charophyta in 121 phytoplankton samples collected between 2007-2013 from seven lakes in the wetlands of the Regional Landscape Park “Slavyansky Resort”, Ukraine. The algal species richness and phytoplankton biomass decreased as water salinity increased. In turn the water salinity was influenced by the inflow of groundwater, karst fracture and by the alluvial water tributaries of a paleoriver that affects the formation processes of lake-spring sulphide mud from the resort, which is often used for therapeutic purposes.

  17. Biologia alimentar de Steindachnerina brevipinna (Characiformes, Curimatidae do rio Ibicuí-mirim, Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil Feeding biology of Steindachnerina brevipinna (Characiformes, Curimatidae in the Ibicuí-mirim river, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Júlia Giora

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available The feeding biology of Steindachnerina brevipinna (Eigenmann & Eigenmann, 1889 is described based on specimens collected in the Ibicuí-Mirim river, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, from April 2001 to March 2002. Diet description is based on the analysis of the frequency of occurrence and index of dietary importance of the ingested items. The monthly variation of stomach repletion, hepatosomatic and intestinal indexes was also analyzed. Major feeding activity occurred before (May, June and July 2001 the reproductive period, with the hepatosomatic index values showing similar variation along the year. Both the mean intestinal quotient and the analysis of the main ingested items (Bacillariophyta and Chlorophyta algae indicate a detritivorous diet.

  18. α-, β-caroteno e α-tocoferol em algas marinhas in natura α- and β-carotene, and α-tocopherol in fresh seaweeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcia Barbosa de Sousa

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o potencial de 32 espécies de algas marinhas das divisões Chlorophyta, Rhodophyta e Phaeophyta como fontes de α- e β-caroteno e α-tocoferol. Todas as clorofíceas analisadas apresentaram α- e β-caroteno. Os teores máximo e mínimo de α-caroteno foram detectados nas espécies do gênero Caulerpa e em Codium decorticatum, respectivamente; e β-caroteno foi mais baixo em Caulerpa mexicana e mais elevado em Ulva fasciata. Dentre as rodofíceas, 11 espécies apresentaram α-caroteno, com máximo em Botryocladia occidentalis. β-caroteno foi encontrado em todas as algas vermelhas analisadas com teores mínimo e máximo em Gracilaria caudata e Bryothamnion triquetrum, respectivamente. As feofíceas apresentaram apenas β-caroteno, com mínimo e máximo em Dictyopteris delicatula e Padina gymnospora, respectivamente. Na divisão Chlorophyta, α-tocoferol, foi máximo em Codium decorticatum e mínimo em Caulerpa prolifera. Na Rhodophyta, 12 espécies apresentaram α-tocoferol com teor máximo em Enantiocladia duperreyi. Na Phaeophyta, α-tocoferol foi encontrado com valores mínimo e máximo em Lobophora variegata e Dictyota dichotoma, respectivamente.The aim of this work was to evaluate the potential of 32 marine macro algae species, members of Chlorophyta, Rhodophyta and Phaeophyta, as sources of a-carotene, b-carotene and a-tocopherol. Both b-carotene and a-carotene were found in all species of green macroalgae analyzed. The maximum content of a-carotene was detected in algae belonging to Caulerpa genus and the minimum in Codium decorticatum. The amount of b-carotene found was minimum in Caulerpa mexicana and maximum in Ulva fasciata. Among the Rhodophyta species, eleven contain a-carotene, the maximum content was found in Botryocladia occidentalis. b-Carotene was found in all red macroalgae analyzed presenting the lowest and highest values in Gracilaria caudata and Bryothamnion triquetrum, respectively

  19. Bioprospecting for fast growing and biomass characterization of oleaginous microalgae from South-Eastern Buenos Aires, Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Do Nascimento, Mauro; Ortiz-Marquez, Juan Cesar Federico; Sanchez-Rizza, Lara; Echarte, María Mercedes; Curatti, Leonardo

    2012-12-01

    As part of pioneering efforts to assess the potential of native microalgae as biofuel feedstock in South-Eastern Buenos Aires, 34 monoalgal cultures (corresponding to the Phylum Chlorophyta) were established and 21 were selected for further growth and biomass composition characterization. Novel RNA sequences in the ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 region were identified. Some strains showed desirable traits as biodiesel feedstock such as (i) apparent maximal doubling times of 6h, (ii) lipids accumulation of up to 43% of their dry biomass, (iii) high ration of mono-unsaturated to poly-unsaturated fatty acids, (iv) high response to CO(2) supplementation, and (v) complete sedimentation in 4h. Data of the outdoors performance of some strains suggested they might represent valuable resources for future research towards the regional development of the technology for microalgae-based biofuels.

  20. Diversity of Phytoplankton of a sub-tropical reservoir of Mizoram, northeast India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhushan Kumar Sharma

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Phytoplankton of Khawiva reservoir of Mizoram, northeast India (NEI revealed a total of 55 species; nearly concurrent mean monthly richness and high community similarities (vide Sørensen index during two years affirmed homogeneity in its species composition. Phytoplankton comprised dominant component (61.1±14.3% of net plankton and recorded wider density variations. Chlorophyta influenced phytoplankton abundance with quantitative importance of Staurastrum spp. >Xanthidium spp. >Cosmarium spp. in particular. Bacillariophyta formed subdominant group; Cryptophyta and Cyanophyta showed limited importance; and Euglenophyta and Dinophyta recorded poor densities. Phytoplankton is characterized by moderate species diversity, high evenness and low dominance but with wide variations. Richness, abundance and species diversity followed no definite patterns of monthly variations during two years. Insignificant influence of individual abiotic factors on phytoplankton assemblages coupled with low cumulative influence of fifteen abiotic parameters (vide CCA yielded little insight on overall role of abiotic parameters.

  1. Check-list of the Basque coast benthic algae (North of Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gorostiaga, José M.

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available An annotated check-list of the marine benthic flora of the Spanish Basque coast, based on literature records and original data, is presented. According to the present taxonomy, the known list of algae totals 372 taxa (354 species and 18 infraspecific taxa, distributed as follows: 23 Cyanophyta, 221 Rhodophyta, 74 Heterokontophyta and 54 Chlorophyta. In addition, 16 taxa are considered as taxa inquirenda and 8 as taxa excludenda. For each taxon the vertical distribution, abundance estimation, and two first published records are given. Remarks on the most noteworthy features of the flora of the study area are included. The floristic character of Spanish Basque coast flora was compared with nearby regions applying Cheney’s ratio [(Rhodophyta+ Chlorophyta/Phaeophyta, or (R+C/P]. The resulting high value (4,09 indicates its warm-water character, which was already noted at the end of the XIX century. From a physionomical point of view, Basque benthic vegetation resembles more closely that of southern regions (S Portugal, Morocco. The warming process of waters off the Basque coast during summer up to 22 ºC is responsible for the absence or very rare occurrence of cold temperate species like large fucoids and kelps, which are common in Galicia and Brittany, and explains the abundance of numerous warm-temperate species as ceramiaceous algae.Se presenta un catálogo de la flora bentónica marina de la costa vasco-española basado en citas bibliográficas y algunos datos originales. De acuerdo con la taxonomía actual, la lista de algas conocidas asciende a 372 táxones (354 especies y 18 táxones infraespecíficos, que se distribuyen como sigue: 23 Cyanophyta, 221 Rhodophyta, 74 Heterokontophyta y 54 Chlorophyta. Además, 16 táxones se consideran como taxa inquirenda y 8 como taxa excludenda. Para cada taxon se ofrece información sobre su distribución vertical, una estima de su abundancia y las dos primeras citas publicadas. Se incluyen

  2. ANTIBACTERIAL ACTIVITY OF BENTHIC MARINE ALGAE EXTRACTS FROM THE MEDITERRANEAN COAST OF MOROCCO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanaâ Zbakh

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Marine organisms are potentially prolific sources of highly bioactive secondary metabolites that might represent useful leads in the development of new pharmaceutical agents. The Moroccan marine biodiversity including macroalgae remains partially unexplored in term of their potential bioactivities. Antibacterial activity of methanolic extracts from 20 species of macroalgae (9 Chlorophyta, 3 Phaeophyta and 8 Rhodophyta collected from Moroccan Mediterranean coasts was evaluated against Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and Enterococcus faecalis. The extracts of the studied Rhodophyceae inhibited considerably the growth of the three tested bacterial strains and gave inhibition zones between 20 and 24 mm. The results indicate that these species of seaweed present a significant capacity of antibacterial activities, which makes them interesting for screening for natural products.

  3. Preliminary observations on the benthic marine algae of the Gorringe seabank (northeast Atlantic Ocean)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tittley, Ian; da Silva Vaz Álvaro, Nuno Miguel; de Melo Azevedo Neto, Ana Isabel

    2014-06-01

    Examination of marine samples collected in 2006 from the Gettysburg and Ormonde seamounts on the Gorringe seabank southwest of Portugal has revealed 29 benthic Chlorophyta, Phaeophyceae (Ochrophyta), and Rhodophyta that were identified provisionally to genus and to species. Combining lists for the present and a previous expedition brings the total of algae thus far recorded to 48. The brown alga Zonaria tournefourtii and the red alga Cryptopleura ramosa were the most abundant species in the present collections. The kelp Laminaria ochroleuca was present only in the Gettysburg samples while Saccorhiza polyschides was observed only on the Ormonde seamount. Comparisons with the benthic marine algae recorded on seamounts in the mid-Atlantic Azores archipelago show features in common, notably kelp forests of L. ochroleuca at depths below 30 m and Z. tournefortii dominance in shallower waters.

  4. Ocorrência de Ulva spp., Polysiphonia sp., e Microcystis aeruginosa nas praias do Saco do Laranjal, Pelotas, RS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Correa da Rosa

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available O trabalho relata a ocorrência de algas indicadoras de processos de eutrofização no Saco do Laranjal (Lagoa dos Patos no período compreendido entre 2005 e 2012. A ocorrência de grandes quantidades da alga macroscópica verde Ulva L. (Chlorophyta, formando marés verde, foram registradas nos verão de 2008, 2009 e 2012. A cianofícea potencialmente tóxica, Microcystis aeruginosa (Kütz. Kütz. foi observada em quase todos os anos, nos meses de verão e, em floração massiva, no verão de 2010. São fornecidas ilustrações dos eventos de crescimento massivos observados. Os resultados sugerem que o Saco do Laranjal provavelmente apresenta-se em processo de eutrofização.

  5. Macroalgal diversity of Santa Cesarea-Castro (Salento Peninsula, southeastern Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonella Bottalico

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The benthic macroalgal flora from the eastern Ionian coastal area of the Peninsula Salentina is scarcely studied. This study gives a contribution to the knowledge on its biodiversity in this area, which also includes marine caves, and the geographical distribution of some interesting species. A total of 174 macroalgae (119 Rhodophyta, 27 Ochrophyta, and 28 Chlorophyta were identified. Six species are first records for the region, one of which, Liagora ceranoides, represents a new record for the Italian flora. The vegetation of most of the wave-exposed rocky substrata, as well as of the two sulphureous caves at Santa Cesarea Terme is characterised by extensive populations of Corallinales. The chorological spectrum of the flora shows a high occurrence of Indo-Pacific and Circumtropical elements, thus resulting more similar to that of floras of the Greek Ionian Sea.

  6. Activity of seaweed and cyanobacteria water extracts against Podosphaera xanthii on zucchini

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta Roberti

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research was to study the effects of water extracts of algae belonging to the phylum Rodophyta, Heterokontophya, Chlorophyta and of Cyanobacteria against Podosphaera xanthii on zucchini (Cucurbita pepo cotyledons. Each extract was sprayed on the upper surface of cotyledons at the concentration of 0.5 %, then cotyledons were inoculated with six 10-µl drops of a spore suspension of the pathogen (1×106 spores/ml, and incubated on water agar in Petri dishes. Depending on the species, the extracts showed inhibition, stimulation or no effect on the disease severity caused by P. xanthii and on the pathogen sporulation density. Extracts of Corallina sp., Halopithys sp., Sargassum sp. and Anabaena sp. showed significant inhibitory effect on both parameters. This study suggests that seaweed and cyanobacteria water extracts applied on zucchini cotyledons may be considered in further experiments on plants as a useful preventative tool for the disease management in sustainable agriculture.

  7. Microalgae: a novel ingredient in nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christaki, Efterpi; Florou-Paneri, Panagiota; Bonos, Eleftherios

    2011-12-01

    Microalgae are known for centuries, but their commercial large-scale production started a few decades ago. They can be grown in open-culture systems such as lakes or highly controlled close-culture systems, have higher productivity than the traditional crops and can be grown in climatic conditions and regions where other crops cannot be grown, such as desert and coastal areas. The edible microalgae are the green algae (chlorophyta) and the cyanobacteria. Microalgae contain substances of high biological value, such as polyunsaturated fatty acids, proteins, amino acids, pigments, antioxidants, vitamins and minerals. They are promising sources for novel products and applications and they can be used in the diet of humans and animals as natural foods with health benefits. Moreover, they can find use in the protection of the environment, as well as in pharmaceuticals, biofuel production and cosmetics.

  8. 沙溪竹洲水电站水体富营养化评价%Evaluation on Eutrophication of Zhuzhou Hydroelectri--Station in the Shaxi River

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王钦建

    2009-01-01

    对沙溪竹洲水电站水体的富营养化评价结论:水体总氮超出评价标准,库区具有藻类生长的营养条件,磷是藻类生长限制因子.3种评价方法结果基本一致,表明水体处于贫营养向中营养过渡类型,并现出向富营养化发展的趋势.库区浮游动物种类以轮虫(rotifera)和原生动物(protozoa)为主,浮游植物种类以绿藻门(Chlorophyta)和硅藻门(Bacilariophy-ta)为主,库区应属于中营养类型.

  9. Freshwater algae of the Nevada Test Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor, W.D.; Giles, K.R.

    1979-06-01

    Fifty-two species of freshwater algae were identified in samples collected from the eight known natural springs of the Nevada Test Site. Although several species were widespread, 29 species were site specific. Diatoms provided the greatest variety of species at each spring. Three-fifths of all algal species encountered were diatoms. Well-developed mats of filamentous green algae (Chlorophyta) were common in many of the water tanks associated with the springs and accounted for most of the algal biomass. Major nutrients were adequate, if not abundant, in most spring waters - growth being limited primarily by light and physical habitat. There was some evidence of cesium-137 bioconcentration by algae at several of the springs.

  10. Seaweed composition from Bintulu coast of Sarawak, Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zawawi, Mohd Hafizbillah; Idris, Mohd Hanafi; Kamal, Abu Hena Mustafa; King, Wong Sing

    2014-08-01

    Species composition of seaweed and distribution were investigated in the coastal waters of Bintulu, Sarawak. The seaweed samples were collected during low tide between May 2011 and May 2012 from the six different stations. In total 54 species of seaweeds were identified from study areas of Bintulu coastal waters. Among them, 23 species were from Rhodophyta with 11 families, 15 species were from Phaeophyta with 2 families and 16 species were from Chlorophyta with 10 families: Seventeen species of seaweeds were recorded from the Tanjung Batu, while 23 species from Pantai Telekom, 14 species from Golden Beach, 26 species from Kuala Similajau, 12 species from Kuala Nyalau and 21 species from Batu Mandi. Seaweeds abundance was high in rocky substrate and Rhodophyta (11 families and 23 species) was the common and highest group of seaweeds in this coastal areas. Present study recorded high diversified seaweed species at the rocky shore area compare to reef area.

  11. SCREENING FOR ANTIBACTERIAL AND ANTIFUNGAL ACTIVITIES IN SOME MARINE ALGAE FROM THE FUJIAN COAST OF CHINA WITH THREE DIFFERENT SOLVENTS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑怡; 陈寅山; 卢海声

    2001-01-01

    Three different solvents viz ethanol, acetone and methanol-toluene (3:1) were used to extract antibiotics from 23 species of marine algae belonging to the Chlorophyta, Phaeophyta and Rhodophyta. Their crude extracts were tested for antibacterial and antifungal activities. Among them, the ethanol extract showed the strongest activity against the bacteria and fungi tested. Four species of the Rhodophyta (Laurencia okamurai, Dasya scoparia, Grateloupia filicina and plocamium telfairiae ) showed a wide spectrum of antibacterial activity. Every solvent extract from the four species was active against all the bacteria tested. The test bacterium Pseudomonas solancearum and the fungus Penicilium citrinum were most sensitive to the extracts of marine algae. In general, the extracts of seaweeds inhibited bacteria more strongly than fungi and species of the Rhodophyta showed the greatest activity against the bacteria and fungi tested.

  12. THE BETAINES FROM CHINESE SEAWEEDS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩丽君; 范晓; 严小军

    2002-01-01

    Cation-exchange chromatography was selected to extract and separate betaines from marine algae. On the basis of the special chemical characteristics of the betaines and their analogues, Dragendorff's reagent (KBiI4) was used to test the existence of betaines and their analogues in marine algae. The total content of betaines from seven species was obtained by using the Reinkeate salt precipitation method. The results showed that the content of betaines in two species of Chlorophyta and two species of Rhodophyta were relatively high,and that the content of betaines in Enteromopha prolifera could even reach to 0.9%. The content in the three species of Phaeophyta was relatively low.

  13. Organic carbon, influent microbial diversity and temperature strongly influence algal diversity and biomass in raceway ponds treating raw municipal wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Dae-Hyun; Ramanan, Rishiram; Heo, Jina; Kang, Zion; Kim, Byung-Hyuk; Ahn, Chi-Yong; Oh, Hee-Mock; Kim, Hee-Sik

    2015-09-01

    Algae based wastewater treatment coupled to biofuel production has financial benefits and practical difficulties. This study evaluated the factors influencing diversity and growth of indigenous algal consortium cultivated on untreated municipal wastewater in a high rate algal pond (HRAP) for a period of 1 year using multivariate statistics. Diversity analyses revealed the presence of Chlorophyta, Cyanophyta and Bacillariophyta. Dominant microalgal genera by biovolume in various seasons were Scenedesmus sp., Microcystis sp., and Chlorella sp. Scenedesmus sp., persisted throughout the year but none of three strains co-dominated with the other. The most significant factors affecting genus dominance were temperature, inflow cyanophyta and organic carbon concentration. Cyanophyta concentration affected microalgal biomass and diversity, whereas temperature impacted biomass. Preferred diversity of microalgae is not sustained in wastewater systems but is obligatory for biofuel production. This study serves as a guideline to sustain desired microalgal consortium in wastewater treatment plants for biofuel production.

  14. Macroalgae and macrozoobenthos of the Pčinja river

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simić Vladica M.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available During autumn and spring periods of 1998, 1999 and 2000, 4 taxa of macroalgae (divisions of Cyanophyta, Rhodophyta, Chrysophyta and Chlorophyta and 78 taxa of macrozoobenthos were found in 10 localities of Pčinja River, in a part of its watercourse through Serbia. Macroalga Cladophora glomerata was the most numerous among representatives. The find of red alga Lemanea sp. which was recorded for the first time at this biotope in Serbia, is significant. From representatives of macrozoobenthos the greatest number of species was found in the groups of Epheromeroptera, Trichoptera and larvae of Diptera. Majority of species of macrozoobenthos have wide geographic distribution, and in relation to ecological factors they are mainly eurivalent forms.

  15. Succession and biodiversity indices in eutrophication process of static landscaping water body in northern China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CONG Ke-ming; LIU Shu-yu; MA Fang; Chein-chi Chang; REN Nan-qi

    2008-01-01

    Many biodiversity indices were used to indicate the biological contamination degree in studies of lake water or seawater.Some were studied on biodiversity comparison for different areas at the same time,or initial structure succession of some aerial lake water systems.The phytoplankton changed with the development of various dominant species.In this study,the dominant species at these stages were Chlorophyta in the beginning stage,Cyanophyta in the second stage,and Xanthophyta in the last stage.Seven of nine biodiversity indices (Margalef's,IE,Shannon-Wiener,Simpson's,McNaughton's,Species and Odds Measure of Diversity)showed their failure to represent the eutrophication trend,and the other two indices(Menhinick's and Monk)exhibited good efficiency to indicate the eutrophication trend for the static landscaping water body.

  16. Gravity, lignification, and land plant evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegel, S. M.; Siegel, B. Z.; Chen, J.

    1981-01-01

    Vascular plants began their occupation of the wetlands interfacing both terrestrial and marine environments at some point in early Paleozoic time. Chemical differences between green algae and vascular land plants are mainly related to an abundance of lignins in the land plants. Answers to questions relating to the phylogeny and adaptive significance of the lignins must depend on experiments and observations using contemporary plant material. A summary is provided of a series of such observations. It is found that the differences between modern Chlorophyta and vascular land plants cannot be explained in full on the basis of lignification alone. Nevertheless, the data point to the emergence of the primitive land populations into an oxygen-rich terrestrial world where the need for mechanical support and water conservation could be met by a single aerobic biochemical process connected to essential aromatic amino acids likely to be found in every cell

  17. Cloning and Characterization of the -Carotene Desaturase Gene from Chlorella protothecoides CS-41

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meiya Li

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available To elucidate the lutein biosynthesis pathway in the lutein-producing alga, Chlorella protothecoides CS-41, the -carotene desaturase gene (zds was isolated from Chlorella protothecoides using the approach of rapid amplification of cDNA ends. The full-length cDNA sequence was 2031 bp and contained 1755 bp putative open reading frame which encodes a 584 amino acid deduced polypeptide whose computed molecular weight was 63.7 kDa. Sequence homology research indicated that the nucleotide and putative protein had sequence identities of 72.5% and 69.5% with those of the green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, respectively. Phylogenetic analysis demonstrated that the ZDS from C. protothecoides CS-41 had a closer relationship with those of chlorophyta and higher plants than with those of other species. In addition, we also found that the zds gene expression was upregulated in response to light.

  18. [ISHAM-WG Symposium: Introduction of Medical Phycology, Retrospective Overview, and Prospective Aspect].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kano, Rui; Matsumoto, Tadahiko

    2015-01-01

    Protothecosis is an emerging infectious zoonotic disease caused by species of the genus Prototheca (Trebouxiophyceae, Chlorophyta), which are classified as achlorophyllous algae closely related to the green algal genus Chlorella. Prototheca lost the ability to photosynthesize and are widely distributed throughout the natural world in sewage, soil, lakes, and marshes. It is therefore necessary to build an interdisciplinary network connecting human medicine, veterinary medicine, microbiological taxonomy, clinical microbiology, and environmental microbiology to increase knowledge in this area. We have established the working group "Medical Phycology : Protothecosis and Chlorellosis" (approved on May 4, 2014) under the umbrella of the International Society for Human and Animal Mycology (ISHAM) to support all scientific aspects dealing with this topic. We report the current circumstances and future prospects of this working group for the group to become better known by scientists.

  19. Avaliação de extratos de macroalgas bênticas do litoral catarinense utilizando o teste de letalidade para Artemia salina Evaluation of macroalgae from Santa Catarina’s coast with the brine shrimp assay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cintia Lhullier

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Foram coletadas amostras de algas marinhas de 19 espécies (sendo 4 pertencentes ao filo Chlorophyta, 5 ao filo Phaeophyta e 10 ao filo Rhodophyta em dois locais do litoral catarinense. Os extratos etanólicos foram submetidos ao teste de letalidade para larvas de Artemia salina com objetivo de realizar uma triagem das espécies. Dos 26 extratos testados, 25 apresentaram toxicidade significativa em pelo menos uma das 3 concentrações testadas. O grupo de algas vermelhas (Rhodophyta foi o que obteve maior porcentagem de extratos com resultados estatisticamente significativos pelo método do qui-quadrado e também menores valores de CL50, com destaque para Acanthophora spicifera, Hypnea musciformis e Pterocladiella capillacea. Observaram-se diferenças entre as espécies de um mesmo gênero (Codium decorticatum e Codium isthmocladium e também a influência de fatores ambientais (Hypnea musciformis na toxicidade dos extratos.Samples of 19 macroalgae species (4 Chlorophyta, 5 Phaeophyta and 10 Rhodophyta have been collected from two points of Santa Catarina's coast. The ethanolic extracts were avaluated with the brine shrimp assay in order to perform a screening for potential toxicity. A total of 25 extracts presented significant results in one or more of the tested concentrations. The phylum Rhodophyta presented more statistically significant results with the chi-square test, as well as lower values of LC50. The extracts of Acanthophora spicifera (from Canasvieiras and Ilha do Francês, Hypnea musciformis and Pterocladiella capillacea (both from Ilha do Francês presented LC50 below 50 mg/mL. Differences between the species of same genus (Codium decorticatum and Codium isthmocladium and the influence of environmental factors (Hypnea musciformis were observed.

  20. [Community Structure Characteristics of Diatom in Reservoirs Located in the South of Jiangsu Province, China and Its Control Factors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Jie; Zhou, Tao; Zhu, Guang-wei; Jin, Ying-wei; Cui, Yang; Xu, Hai; Zhu, Meng-yuan; Xia, Ming-fang; Chen, Wei-min

    2016-05-15

    In order to understand the community structure characteristics of Bacillariophyta and its controlling factors in reservoirs located in the Southeast, China, in the geographic background of hills landscape and humid climate, 18 reservoirs were investigated in June, 2015, during the period with high risk of diatom bloom, covering water quality, and the community structures of phytoplankton. The correlations between Bacillariophyta and other planktons with nutrients, water depth, storage capacity, etc. were analyzed. The results showed that, 10 reservoirs reached the light extent of diatom bloom ( density between 100 x 10⁴-1,000 x 10⁴ cells · L⁻¹ reservoirs in this area were generally in mesotrophic or eutrophic state with considerably high total nitrogen concentrations; total phosphorus and trophic level index were both closely correlated with Bacillariophyta biomass. Phormidium in Cyanophyta was the dominating generus among phytoplankton in terms of density; with respect to biomass, Bacillariophyta, Chlorophyta and Cyanophyta were the top three phylum, and Bacillariophyta accounted for 46. 8% of the total phytoplankton biomass, becoming the most important one resulting in abnormal propagation of algae; Synedra (51.5%) and Cyclotella (21.4%) were the main dominating genera in Bacillariophyta, together with Achnanthes and Melosira. Deep water was favored by Bacillariophyta to dominate among different phyla. Larger ratio between catchment and reservoir storage capacity, on the other hand, caused the increase of trophic level and chlorophyll, and benefited the shift of dominating phytoplankton from Bacillariophyta to Chlorophyta and Cyanophyta, by which, the risk of algae bloom would be increased. It reveals that to alleviate the risk of algae bloom and protect drinking water resources, catchment management is crucial for the studied reservoirs. And the establishment of nutrient reduction strategies needs to consider the features of each individual reservoir, i

  1. Experimental studies on dimethylsulfide (DMS) and dimethylsulfoniopropionate (DMSP) production by four marine microalgae

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Chengxuan; YANG Guipeng; PAN Jinfen; ZHANG Honghai

    2010-01-01

    The production of dimethylsulfide(DMS)and dimethylsulfoniopropionate(DMSP)by marine microalgae was investigated to elucidate more on the role of marine phytoplankton in ocean-atmosphere interactions in the global biogeochemical sulfur cycle.Axenic laboratory cultures of four marine microalgae-Isochrysis galbana 8701,Pavlova viridis,Platymonas sp.and Chlorella were tested for DMSP production and conversion into DMS.Among these four microalgae,Isochrysis galbana 8701and Pavlova viridis are two species of Haptophyta,whine Chlorella and Platymonas sp.belong to Chlorophyta.The results demonstrate that the four algae can produce various amounts of DMS(P),and their DMS(P)production was species specific.With similar cell size,more DMS was released by Haptophyta than that by Chlorophyta.DMS and dissolved DMSP(DMSPd)concentrations in algal cultures varied significantly during their life cycles.The highest release of DMS appeared in the senescent period for all the four algae.Variations in DMSP concentrations were in strong compliance with variations in algal cell densities during the growing period.A highly significant correlation was observed between the DMS and DMSPd concentrations in algal cultures,and there was a time lag for the variation trend of the DMS concentrations as compared with that of the DMSPd.The consistency of variation patterns of DMS and DMSPd implies that the DMSPd produced by phytoplankton cells has a marked effect on the production of DMS.In the present study,the authors' results specify the significant contribution of the marine phytoplankton to DMS(P)production and the importance of biological control of DMS concentrations in oceanic water.

  2. Flora planctónica de laguna Lagartos, Quintana Roo Planktonic flora from Lagartos Lagoon, Quintana Roo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viridiana Margarita Nava-Ruiz

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta una lista de la flora planctónica de la laguna Lagartos, basada en la observación de muestras superficiales obtenidas entre noviembre de 2007 a septiembre de 2008. Las muestras se recolectaron con una botella Van Dorn de 2 litros en la parte central de la laguna; se registraron 67 taxa: 28 Bacillariophyta, 22 Cyanoprokaryota, 7 Chlorophyta, 6 Dinoflagellata, 2 Euglenophyta y 2 Cryptophyta. Las cianofitas dominaron durante todo el periodo de estudio, con una contribución mayor al 80% de la abundancia total del fitoplancton. Son nuevos registros para México 13 especies: Chroococcus pulcherrimus, Coelosphaerium confertum, Cyanodyction iac, Phormidium pachydermaticum, Planktolyngbya contorta, Rhodomonas minuta, Amphidinium massartii, Ensiculifera cf. loeblichii, Heterocapsa cf. pseudotriquetra, Prorocentrum cassubicum, Licmophora normaniana, Fistulifera saprophila y Amphora richardiana. Todos los taxa listados se ilustran con microfotografías.The planktonic flora from Lagartos Lagoon, Quintana Roo, was examined based on the observation of samples collected from November 2007 to September 2008. The superficial samples were collected with a Van Dorn bottle of 2 L, in the core part of the lagoon. A total of 67 taxa were identified: 28 Bacillariophyta, 22 Cyanoprokaryota, 7 Chlorophyta, 6 Dinoflagellata, 2 Euglenophyta and 2 Cryptophyta. Nevertheless, the blue green algae dominated during all study period, with more of 80% to the total abundance of the phytoplankton. The species Chroococcus pulcherrimus, Coelosphaerium confertum, Cyanodyction iac, Phormidium pachydermaticum, Planktolyngbya contorta, Rhodomonas minuta, Amphidinium massartii, Ensiculifera cf. loeblichii, Heterocapsa cf. pseudotriquetra, Prorocentrum cassubicum, Licmophora normaniana, Fistulifera saprophila and Amphora richardiana were recorded for the first time in Mexico. All the taxa are illustrated with microphotographs.

  3. 中华蟾蜍指名亚种蝌蚪和花姬蛙蝌蚪捕食藻类的效应%Predatory Effect of Tadpoles of Bufo gargarizans gargarizans and Microhyla pulchra on Algae

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏刚; 夏品华; 成刚; 王帅; 张景涿; 吕敬才; 徐宁

    2011-01-01

    Predatory effect of tadpoles of Bufo gargarizans gargarizans and Microhyla pulchra on algae was studied in laboratory to know the control effect of tadpoles on algae. The result showed that the predation number of tadpoles on Cyanophyta increased evidently, but the average predation number of individual tadpole decreased with the increase of their population density. The tadpoles of B. gargarizans gargarizans disliked preying on Chlorophyta, therefore Chlorophyta had high population density due to nutrient uptake and propagation with reduction of Cyanophyta. The paper also prospected some future study fields of tadpoles in water resources protection.%为摸清蝌蚪控制藻类生长的效果,用中华蟾蜍指名亚种蝌蚪和花姬蛙蝌蚪在实验室内用红枫湖水进行塑料盆养殖试验.结果表明,随着蝌蚪密度的增加,对蓝藻的总捕食量明显增加,但每只蝌蚪的平均捕食量随蝌蚪密度的增加而下降.中华蟾蜍指名亚种蝌蚪不喜食绿藻,蓝藻密度降低使绿藻获得较多的营养源而大量繁殖,导致绿藻密度增加.同时展望了蝌蚪在水资源环境保护中的研究方向.

  4. Effects of aeration on alga communities in eutrophic landscape water body%曝气对富营养化景观水体藻类群落结构的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王云中; 杨成建; 陈兴都; 王彬斌

    2011-01-01

    Tank microcosm was used to simulate effects of different aeration ways (aerating to sediment, aerating to water) on alga communities in eutrophic landscape water body, and their affecting factors were studied. The results showed that aerating to water could greatly enhance the alga growth and make DO increase in the eutrophication process of landscape water body, and the dominant alga in water body was rapidly changed from Chlorophyta to Xanthophyta. As aerating to sediment restrained the release of P from sediment and increased water turbidity which caused the extinction of Cyanophyta in water body, the alga growth was inhibited, and the dominant alga in water body was also changed from Chlorophyta to Bcillariophyta. Therefore, the aeration ways used in landscape water treatment must be aerating to sediment.%采用微宇宙培养法,模拟研究了不同曝气方式(底泥曝气、水曝气)对富营养化景观水体中浮游藻类群落结构的影响及影响因子.结果表明:水曝气使得水体溶解氧(DO)急剧增加,从而促进了水体藻类的生长,优势藻种由绿藻门急剧迁移到黄藻门的黄丝藻属;由于泥曝气对底泥中P释放的抑制作用,及浊度增加导致占藻类主要成分的蓝藻门藻类的不断消亡,而明显的抑制了藻类的生长,优势藻种也由绿藻门迁移到硅藻门.因此,在景观水处理技术中加入人工曝气时,应采用泥曝气的方式.

  5. PHYTOPLANKTON OF CASPIAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aysha Sharapatinovna Gasanova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. The composition of the species of the phytoplankton in the Russian sector of the Caspian Sea in conditions of transgression, anthropogenic and chemical contamination has been studied.Location.The Russian sector of the Caspian SeaMethods. The phytoplankton samples were collected at the depths of 8 – 50m by the use of the Nansen bathometer and subsequently were fixed in 4% formalin. The office processing was carried out in a box of Nozhotta type, which has the volume of 0.1 ml and the triplicate surface, under the light microscope of Biolam P15. The system of domestic diamotologists was used during the classification of Bacillariaphyta, as for the classification of Dinophyta, the Dodge scheme was applied. Cyanophyta algae were classified according to the system of A.A. Elenkina with the amendments adopted by A.I. Proshkin-Lavrenko and V.V. Makarova. The classification of the Chlorophyta division has been done according to the Smith system.Results, main conclusions. Presented the taxonomic structure and the lists of species of the phytoplankton community in the sea coastal shallow waters Russian sector of the Caspian Sea have been presented. A high floristic diversity and domination of small cell forms are characteristics of the modern structure of the coastal shoal waters of the Dagestan part of the Caspian Sea. The auttaclimatizant of 1934, Pseudosolenia calcaravis, has not been discovered in the plankton of the researched water area. The phytoplankton community has been represented by 58 species of six groups: Cyanophyta, Bacillariaphyta, Dinophyta, Euglenophyta, Chlorophyta and the small flagellate. Bacillariaphyta were the basis of both the taxonomic diversity and the biomass. Cyanophita prevailed in number.

  6. Structure and dynamics of the phytoplankton community within a maturation pond in a semiarid region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. A. Pastich

    Full Text Available Abstract In northeastern Brazil, stabilization ponds are very suitable for wastewater treatment because of the relative great land availability and environmental conditions (e.g., high temperature favorable for microorganism optimal development. However, blooms of potentially toxic cyanobacteria may affect the use of these treatment ponds due to resulting effluent poor quality. The objective of this study was to evaluate the dynamics of phytoplankton communities and the occurrence of cyanobacteria in a maturation pond located immediately after a series of two ponds. Temperature, dissolved oxygen, pH, BOD, N, and P were measured during a period of four months when samples were collected from the surface and the bottom of 7 sampling points distributed inside the pond. The phytoplankton of collected samples was also identified and classified using a conventional optical microscopy. Analysis of variance and Tukey test were used to evaluate the results. The three phytoplankton divisions found (Cyanophyta, Chlorophyta, and Euglenophyta did not change considerably through surface and bottom. However, they changed greatly over the sampled months; great dominance of Cyanophyta was found at April and October, while Chlorophyta dominated the lagoon in September. Low superficial organic loads (between 78 and 109 kg BOD.ha–1.d–1 and N:P ≤ 10 were the determinant factors that favored the predominance of Cyanophyta. The presence of two potentially toxic species of Cyanophyta, Oscillatoria sp. and Microcystis aeruginosa, indicates that caution is required when considering the final destination of treated effluent and suggests a need to assess the risks and benefits associated with the use of the treatment technology.

  7. Ecological impacts of fluridone and copper sulphate in catfish aquaculture ponds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacob, Annie P; Culver, David A; Lanno, Roman P; Voigt, Astrid

    2016-05-01

    Fluridone and copper sulphate are often used for controlling macrophytes and algae in aquaculture ponds. The present study examined the ecological effects of these chemicals on macrophyte, phytoplankton, and zooplankton biomass; plankton community structure; water quality parameters; and fish survival and yield in catfish culture ponds using a randomized complete block design. The estimated half-life of fluridone in the individual ponds ranged from 1.6 d to 10.8 d. Free copper ion activity in ponds treated with copper sulphate was dynamic, ranging from pCu of 7.7 to 8.9 after each application and decreasing to approximately 12 (1 × 10(-12)  M) within 1 wk after each application, approaching observed values in control ponds (pCu = 12.3-13.4). No difference in macrophyte biomass was observed among treatments. Fluridone and copper treatments elicited different responses within the phytoplankton community. Copper treatments reduced Cyanophyta biomass but increased biomass of more tolerant taxa among the Chlorophyta and Chrysophyta. Fluridone treatments reduced total phytoplankton biomass including Cyanophyta and increased the sensitivity of Chlorophyta and Chrysophyta to copper. Copper also affected zooplankton community composition as a result of direct toxic effects on sensitive zooplankton taxa (e.g., Cladocera), whereas Copepoda biomass in copper-treated ponds exceeded that in controls. Catfish survival and yield were not significantly different among treatments. The results of the present study suggest that fluridone and copper interact at realistic application rates, increasing the ability to control algae compared with treatments where they are applied alone.

  8. Integración florística de las algas marinas de la costa sur de Jalisco, México Floristic integration of the benthic marine algae from the southern coast of Jalisco, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Catalina Mendoza-González

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Se presentan los resultados obtenidos en un estudio sobre las algas marinas bentónicas en 7 localidades de la costa sur de Jalisco, México. Se determinó la presencia de 165 especies de algas marinas. Se identificaron 13 especies de Cyanophyta, 97 Rhodophyta, 28 Chlorophyta y 27 taxa de Heteroconthophyta. Cada especie se acompaña con datos sobre su distribución en el área de estudio, estado reproductivo, nivel de marea, hábitat, observaciones, epifitismo y número de herbario o de colecta. Se comparó la riqueza específica entre la estación climática de lluvias y la de secas, durante 1992,1993, 1997, 2000 y 2003. La división Rhodophyta dominó en términos de diversidad en relación con las 3 divisiones restantes. La ficoflora de la costa sur de Jalisco es de afinidad tropical y más diversa en la época de secas.We present results on the study on benthic marine algae in seven localities from the southern coast of Jalisco. We report 165 species: 13 Cyanophyta, 97 Rhodophyta, 28 Chlorophyta and 27 Heteroconthophyta. Each species includes data on its distribution, reproductive stages, tidal level, facies, epiphytism and herbarium's number. Species diversity was compared for 2 different climatic seasons during 1992, 1993, 1997, 2000 and 2003. The Rhodophyta are dominant in terms of diversity in relation to the other groups. The algal flora of the south coast of Jalisco is tropical and the greatest diversity was found during dry season.

  9. 黄渤海夏季微藻调查%Investigation of the microalgae inhabiting the summer seawater of Yellow Sea and Bohai Sea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    鹿琳; 杨官品; 朱葆华; 潘克厚

    2015-01-01

    catching, streak plating and serial diluting, alone or in combination. Molecular systematic analysis identified the isolated as 19 species including 9 bacillariophytas, 3 phaeophytas, 3 heterokontaes, 2 chlorophytas, 1 dinophytas and 1 haptophyte. The isolated species were mainly small in size, of them 9 in chlorophyta, phaeophyta, heterokonatae and haptophyte were in pico-size, and 10 in bacillariophyta and dinophyta were in nano-size. Among all isolated strains, those in genera Navicula, Phaeodactylum, Skeletonema, Pavlova and Nannochloropsis were expected to be important for EPA production due to their high EPA content; 7 chlorophytas may serve as the candidates for biodiesel production;and 8 Bicosoecales in heterokontae promised for high biomass production therough fermentation and further environ-mental pollution bioremediation. In spite of the abundance of microalgae in Yellow Sea and Bohai Sea, almost all spe-cies we fixed and identified by morphology were difficult to cultivate. Pseudo-nitzschia sp. and Navicula sp. (in nano-size) were the only two species observed in fixed seawater and survived laboratory culture. Although the algae in micro-size, Coscinodiscus sp., Ceratium fusus and Noctiluca scintillans, accounted for a large portion in fixed samples, they were unable to survive laboratory culture. Technical means need further optimization in order to get as many culti-vable microalgae as possible. We found that distribution of cultivable microalgae is wide in seawaters. Bacillariophytas spread the whole area, and centralized in Laizhou Bay; while the harmful Prorocentrum minimum was collected from Yellow River Estuary where was nutriments rich thus facing the risk of red tide. Chlorophytas and haptophyte were mainly collected from north Yellow Sea, a few chlorophytas also collected around Port of Tongxhan. Most phaeophytas were collected from the coasts of Shandong Peninsula and Liaodong Peninsula. Most heterokontaes were collected from north Yellow Sea. In

  10. Composition and conservation of Orchidaceae on an inselberg in the Brazilian Atlantic Forest and floristic relationships with areas of Eastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pessanha, Alexandre Soares; Menini Neto, Luiz; Forzza, Rafaela Campostrini; Nascimento, Marcelo Trindade

    2014-06-01

    The Brazilian Atlantic Forest presents high levels of richness and endemism of several taxonomic groups. Within this forest, the Orchidaceae may be highlighted as the richest family of Angiosperms found there, and is highly threatened due to collection and habitat destruction. The inselbergs of the Brazilian Atlantic Forest are mostly unknown regarding their floristic composition, but the available information points to occurrence of endemic species, with adaptations to survive to this dry environment. The objectives of this study were to conduct a floristic survey of the Orchidaceae species on the Maciço do Itaoca, an inselberg located in the Northern region of the State of Rio de Janeiro, make a comparative analysis with other sites in Eastern Brazil, and discuss the geographic distribution, floristic relationships and conservation status of the orchid species present on the inselbergs. The floristic composition of the study area was compared with 24 other locations in Eastern Brazil (of which 13 are inselbergs) and the influence of the types of surrounding vegetation on the composition of the Orchidaceae flora on the inselbergs. On Maciço do Itaoca we recorded 18 species from 17 genera: Brasiliorchis picta, Brassavola tuberculata, Campylocentrum robustum; C sellowii, Catasetum luridum, Cattleya guttata, Cyclopogon congestus, Cyrtopodium glutiniferum, Leptotes bicolor, Lophiaris pumila, Miltonia moreliana, Oeceoclades maculata, Phymatochilum brasiliense, Prescottia plantaginifolia, Pseudolaelia vellozicola, Sarcoglottis fasciculata, Sophronitis cernua. and Vanilla chamissonis. The highest floristic similarity was with the Pedra da Botelha (0.43), an inselberg located in the North of Espírito Santo. This result is probably due to the similarity in altitude and distance from the coast in both areas despite the geographical distance between them. Apparently, little influence is exerted by the types of surrounding vegetation on the composition of the flora of

  11. Modern state of the pelagic ecosystem of the Large Aral Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arashkevich, E. G.; Nikishina, A. B.; Soloviev, K. A.; Zhitina, L. S.; Sergeeva, V. M.

    2009-04-01

    During the last five decades, zooplankton of the Aral Sea has been undergoing dramatic changes. Mineralization in the western Large Aral increased from 10 ppt in 1960 to 116 ppt and 211 ppt in the western and eastern basins, correspondingly, in 2008. Concurrently the crucial changes have been occurring in zooplankton community manifesting in the disappearance of most native species and significant decline of biodiversity of the pelagic community. During this period, the number of phytoplankton species dropped more than in order of magnitude. In June 2008, only 29 species were identified in the western basin of Aral Sea, Bacillariophyta - 17 species, Chlorophyta - 5 species, Cryptophyta, Dinophyta, and Cyanophyta - 2 species of each division, and one species of Flagellatae. The average concentration of phytoplankton in terms of number was 2.3*106 cells l-1, in terms of biomass 231 µg C l-1. In the eastern basin, 14 species of Bacillariophyta were found; the dominant species were Amphora coffeaeformis, Fragilaria brevistriata, and Navicula spp. Chlorophyta was presented by only unidentified species. The total number of phytoplankton was 0.9*106 cells l-1, biomass was 93 µg C l-1. Composition of phytoplankton community changed depending on the site and depth. In the eastern basin, where mineralization reached 211 ppt, the community was dominated by diatoms and green algae while in the western basin, with mineralization of 119 ppt, all divisions of algae were presented. The vertical distribution of phytoplankton reflected the light and temperature preferences of the different groups. Bacillariophyta, Chlorophyta, and Cryptophyta peaked at the 20 m depth with the temperature of about of 2°C and low irradiation. Warm-water and light-requiring Cyanophyta inhabited mainly the upper 5-m layer. The number of zooplankton species decreased from 42 species in 1971 to 1 species, the brine shrimp Artemia parthenogenetica, in 2008. Artemia, a typical resident of hypersaline

  12. 湘江长沙段浮游植物区系组成及水质评价初步研究%Phytoplankton Flora Composition and Water Quality Evaluation of Xiangjiang River in Changsha

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张校; 肖玲; 刘应迪; 杜婷婷; 从义艳

    2012-01-01

    运用指示生物方法,通过调查湘江长沙段浮游植物区系组成,并结合总氮(TN)、总磷(TP)等理化指标分析,对湘江长沙段水质评价进行了初步研究.主要结果如下:湘江长沙段3个样点的水体中共鉴定出浮游植物6门43属61种.浮游植物在区系组成上以硅藻(Bacillariophyta)、绿藻(Chlorophyta)和裸藻(Euglenophyta)3个门为主,优势种类主要有硅藻门的直链藻(Melosira)、菱形藻(Nitzschia)和小环藻(Cyclotella),绿藻门的衣藻(Chamydomonas),裸藻门的绿色裸藻(Euglena)等.所有采样点的总氮、总磷质量浓度均超过富营养化指标.指示生物评价方面,藻商评价结果显示湘江整体上属富营养型;污染程度分带评价显示湘江长沙段整体达到α-中污和β-中污水平.此外在湘江各样点鉴定出多种耐有机污染和耐重金属污染藻类,显示江水受到有机物,很可能也受到重金属镉、锌和铜等的污染.研究结果表明运用指示生物方法来评价湘江水质具有一定的实际应用价值.%The phytoplankton flora composition of Xiangjiang River in Changsha was studied by using biological indicator method, and with the total nitrogen (TN) , total phosphorus (TP) and other physicochemical indexes. There were 43 genera and 61 species of phytoplankton belonging to 6 phyla in Xiangjiang River of Changsha; the dominant phyla are Bacillariophyta and Chlorophyta and Euglenophyta, and the dominant species are Melosira and Nitzschi and Cyclotella of Bacillariophyta, Chamydomonas and Pediastrun Meyen of Chlorophyta, Euglena of Euglenophyta . The total nitrogen ( TN) and total phosphorus (TP) of all sampling sites exceed the eutrophication index. By using biological indicator, the water quality evaluation results shows that the water of Xiangjiang River is eutrophic, and by using saprobic system, the pollution level of Xiangjiang River is α-mesosaprobic zone and β-me-sosaprobic zone. In addition, a variety of algae

  13. 马颊河与徒骇浮游植物群落特征及水质初步评价%Phytoplankton community characterization and preliminary evaluation on water quality of Majia and Tuhai River in Haihe River basin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋芬; 王卫民; 单保庆; 阎里清; 黎洁; 周洁

    2011-01-01

    The investigation of phytoplankton community characterization including species composition,population size, dominant species and saprobic indicators was conducted in order to evaluate the water quality of Majia and Tuhai River in Haihe River basin. The results revealed that 126 species of phytoplankton belonging to 7 phyla and 67 genera existed in Majia River, while 114 species of phytoplankton belonging to 7 phyla and 63 genera were found in Tuhai River. Chlorophyta was the richest algae in both rivers, followed by Bacillariophyta and Cyanophyta. Cyanophyta, Chlorophyta and Bacillariophyta were found in all the sampling sites (the frequency was 100%). Cyanophyta was absolute the majority in Majia River in population, which accounted for 53.59% ,while the Chlorophyta was predominant in Tuhai River,which accounted for 35. 73%. The average density of phytoplankton in Majia and Tuhai River were 22. 424 × 106 ind./L and 13. 950× 106 ind./L, respectively. The Shannon-Weaver index, Margalef index and Pielou index varied among 2. 48-4. 64,3. 62-9. 91 and 0. 47-0. 84 in Majia River, while 3.04-4.57,2. 94-10. 15 and 0. 63-0.82 in Tuhai River,respectively. The water quality of both rivers was preliminary evaluated based on above results. In conclusion water quality was good, can be labeled as mesotrophic, but had the potential to turn to eutrophication. So we should pay attention to protect the water quality and enhance the management of the both rivers.%对海河流域马颊河与徒骇河的浮游植物种类组成、种群数量、优势种、污染指示种等进行调查研究,结果表明马颊河浮游植物为126种,隶属7门67属;徒骇河浮游植物为114种,隶属7门63属.2条河流浮游植物种类组成均以绿藻为最多,其次是硅藻和蓝藻;各采样点蓝藻、绿藻和硅藻出现的频度均为100%.在种群数量上,马颊河蓝藻占绝对优势(占藻类数量的53.59%),而徒骇河绿藻占优势(占藻类数量的35.73%),马颊河

  14. Research on Phytoplankton Community of Dianchi Lake%滇池浮游藻类群落构成调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    施择; 李爱军; 张榆霞; 铁程; 赵琦林; 李颖; 金玉

    2014-01-01

    The species composition and temporal distribution of Dianchi phytoplankton was studied in May 2012 and December. A total of 159 algae species belonging to 66 genera, 8 phyla were identified. The dominant taxa were Chlorophyta and Cyanophyta, with the species number in the order of Chlorophyta > Cyanophyta. The average density of phytoplankton community reached 1�398 × 108 cell/L and 2�180 × 108 cell /L in May and December separately. Microcystis Kutz, Cyanophyta, was the highest cell proportion. The average density of phytoplankton community was higher in northern lake than that in southern lake in May, but this density was lower in northern lake than that in southern and middle lake in December. Algal biomass was significantly higher in outer lake than inner lake, but there was higher cell proportion of Chlorophyta in inner lake than outer lake. Algal biomass was significantly higher in December than in May. Compared with the phytoplankton investigation in Dianchi Lake from April 2006 to May 2007, few difference was found about the number of algae species, common species, dominant species and biomass levels in Dianchi Lake ( mostly outer lake of Dianchi) .%对滇池浮游藻类群落组成和空间分布开展了2次调查,鉴定出藻类8门66属159种及变种,绿藻种类最多,蓝藻次之。5、12月滇池全湖平均藻类密度分别为1�398×108、2�180×108个/升,蓝藻门微囊藻属为优势藻类。5月的调查中滇池外海藻类生物量呈北高南低的格局,而12月则呈现南部和中部高,北部低。外海的藻类生物量明显高于草海,草海藻类群落构成与外海明显不同,主要表现为绿藻门藻类所占比例较高。12月滇池外海及全湖藻类生物量都显著高于5月。与上一次(2006-2007年)滇池浮游藻类的系统调查相比,滇池(主要是外海)浮游藻类在物种数量、常见藻类、优势藻类及生物量水平方面与之接近。

  15. 黔中煤矿区矸石堆场周边土壤藻类群落变化及其影响因素%Changes of soil algal composition and their affecting factors in the periphery of gangue yard within a coal mining area in central Guizhou Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁春芳; 刘方; 卜通达; 凌邦元; 李婷婷

    2011-01-01

    Soil samples were collected from the periphery of gangue yard within the coal mining area in Maiping township of Huaxi District, Guiyang City to study the changes of soil algal composition, diversity, and biomass, and their correlations with soil factors. In un-contaminated soils, the observed algae consisted of five phyla and forty-three genera, with thirteen genera of Cyanophyta, seventeen genera of Chlorophyta, and seven genera of Bacillariophyta. After the contamination of coal gangue, the richness and individual density of soil algae decreased obviously. At seriously contaminated sites, Cyanophyta only had three genera, and Chlorophyta orly had four genera. The Shannon index of soil algae had significant correlations with soil available Fe,Mn, and P, while the species richness had significant correlations with soil pH and available P.The chlorophyll content of soil algae at seriously contaminated sites was decreased by 93. 1%,compared with that at un-contaminated sites. The algal biomass was significantly positively correlated with soil pH and negatively correlated with soil available Fe, suggesting that soil pH and available Fe were the important factors affecting the soil algal growth in the periphery of coal gangue yard.%通过对贵阳市花溪区麦坪乡煤矿区矸石堆场周边土壤进行采样分析,研究了煤矸石影响下土壤藻类群落组成和生物量的变化以及生物量、物种多样性指数与土壤因子之间的相关关系.结果表明:该区自然土壤藻类共计5门43属,其中蓝藻门(Cyanophyta)13个属、绿藻门(Chlorophyta)17个属、硅藻门(Bacillariophyta)7个属.受煤矸石污染后,土壤藻类的种类和数量明显减少,污染严重区域土壤藻类中蓝藻门仅有3个属、绿藻门4个属;香浓指数与有效铁、有效锰及速效磷含量之间存在极显著的相关性;物种丰富度与pH值和速效磷含量呈显著相关.污染严重区土壤藻类叶绿素8含量比对照区减少了93

  16. 西藏工布自然保护区藻类植物区系及分布特点%Distribution and Floristic Characteristics of Algae in the Gongbu Nature Reserve,Tibet

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李博; 冯佳; 谢树莲

    2012-01-01

    It was investigated the algae in the Gongbu Nature Reserve,Tibet. The results showed that 189 species (including varieties) were found. Bacillariophyta has most species,with 109 species of 18 genera in 9 families. Chlorophyta was the subdominant division,with 50 species of 20 genera in 9 families. Cyanophyta was ranked as the third dominant division,with 28 species of 10 genera in 8 families. They were belonging to 5 divisions,28 families,and 50 genera. Bacillariophyta and Chlorophyta dominated in species. Rhodophyta and Chrysophyta had the least species,with just only 1 species,which belonged to 1 family and 1 genus,respectively. There were 7 types of algal community in the Gongbu Nature Reserve,namely Osciilatoria community, Rivularia community, Nostoc community, Hydrurus foetidus community, Cymbeila community, Ulothrix community,and Zygnema-Muugeotia-Spirogyna community. Water quality was evaluated by indicator algae analysis. It represented that the overall water quality was good,and the water had not been polluted seriously. Most of the waterbodies were (3-mesosaprobic zones,and the others were oligosaprobic zones. The floristic characteristics in the Gongbu Nature Reserve are typical plateau cold water streams with fast flow. The species which represented the source of mountain stream could be observed obviously, and pollution-resistant algae were rarely found. This study could provide suggestion for water and algae diversity protection in this area.%基于对西藏工布自然保护区藻类植物的调查采集,共鉴定出189种(含变种),隶属5门,28科,50属.其中以硅藻门(Bacillariophyta)种类最多,有9科,18属,109种;绿藻门(Chlorophyta)为亚优势门类,有9科,20属,50种;蓝藻门(Cyanophyta)次之,为8科,10属,28种;红藻门(Rhodophyta)和金藻门(Chrysophyta)最少,各为1科,1属,1种.主要群落类型有7种,即颤藻群落、胶须藻群落、念珠藻群落、水树藻群落、桥弯藻群落、丝藻群落和双星藻-

  17. 青岛潮间带大型底栖海藻群落的研究%The Survey on the Community of Benthic Marine Macroalgae

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨震; 王悠; 董开升; 唐学玺; 赵星

    2009-01-01

    在青岛潮间带布设了显浪咀、太平角和石老人3个断面,进行了为期1 a(2006年8月~2007年11月)的大型底栖海藻资源调查研究.结果表明:1. 青岛潮间带大型底栖海藻群落的种类组成中红藻种类最多,其次是褐藻,绿藻最少.2. 群落中大型底栖海藻的生物量有明显的季节变化:春季>夏季>秋季>冬季;生物量在垂直分布上表现出中、低潮带均大于高潮带;在水平分布上无明显差异.3. 底栖藻类群落优势种无季节性变化,第一优势种为孔石莼.4. 采集到大型底栖海藻43种,其中红藻门22属24种,占55.8%;褐藻门9属11种,占25.6%;绿藻门6属8种,占18.6%.%Three cross sections at Xianlangzui, Taipingjiao and Shilaoren in the intertidal zone of Qingdao were set and the communities of benthic marine macroalgae were investigated from August 2006 to November 2007. Results showed that: 1. In the intertidal zone of Qingdao, species of Rhodophyta played a dominant role in the composition of the benthic marine macroalgae community, followed by Phaeophyta and then Chlorophyta. 2. The biomass of the community changed with the season too, and a seasonal variation of Spring>Summer>Autumn>Winter was obtained. In the vertical distribution the biomass in the low-intertidal zone or mid-intertidal zone was greater than that in the high intertidal zone, but no remarkable difference was found among the three cross sections in the horizonal distribution. 3. The dominant species had no seasonal variation, and the first dominant specie was Ulva. pertusa Kjell. 4. During the four surveys, 43 species of benthic marine macroalgae were collected, among which 24 species(belonging to 22 genera) were Rhodophyta , 11 species(belonging to 9 genera) were Phaeophyta and 8 species(belonging to 6 genera) were Chlorophyta.

  18. Distribution of stream macroalgal communities from the mid-western region of Paraná state, southern Brazil: importance of local scale variation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ciro Cesar Zanini Branco

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Twenty-two stream segments, representing the diverse types of environments in the mid-western region of the Paraná State, southern Brazil, were sampled for occurrence of macroalgal communities from May to October in 2002. Twenty-seven macroalgal taxa were found, with Chlorophyta as the dominant algal group, followed by Cyanobacteria, Rhodophyta and Chrysophyta. The most widespread species was Phormidium retzii. Distribution was patchy, with species number per sampling sites ranging from zero to six and correlated positively with the abundance. On the other hand, no significant correlation was found among the species number and abundance with environmental variables. Results indicated wide and random variation among the streams. Thus, it seemed that the distribution of macroalgal communities in the study area responded more closely to the local-scale variation than the regional characteristics.Durante o período de maio a outubro de 2002, vinte e dois segmentos de riachos, representando os diversos tipos de ambientes da região centro-oeste do estado do Paraná, sul do Brasil, foram amostrados quanto à comunidade de macroalgas. Foram encontradas vinte e sete macroalgas. A divisão Chlorophyta foi o grupo algal predominante, seguido por Cyanobacteria, Rhodophyta e Chrysophyta. A espécie com melhor distribuição foi Phormidium retzii. Foi observado um padrão de distribuição em mosaico. O número de espécies por ponto de amostragem variou de zero a seis e correlacionou-se positivamente com abundância de espécies. Por outro lado, nenhuma outra correlação significativa foi encontrada entre número de espécies e abundância com as variáveis ambientais. Os resultados, suportados por dados de literatura, indicaram uma variação ampla e aleatória entre os riachos, sugerindo que a distribuição da comunidade de macroalgas na área de estudos parece responder mais fortemente a variações nas condições em escala local do que em escalas

  19. Hydrochemistry and phytoplankton composition of two tidal creeks in South-Western Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taofikat Adesalu

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available As in other countries, the effects of human stressors on coastal areas and waters in Nigeria are increasing, and management strategies are urgent. In order to assess this, studies on phytoplankton composition in relation to physico- chemical characteristic of two tidal creeks in Lagos were conducted for six months (October 2007 to March 2008. Variations in some of the physical and chemical parameters such as rainfall, temperature, salinity, nitrate-nitrogen, phosphate- phosphorus, sulphate, salinity, biological oxygen demand and chemical oxygen demand influenced the phytoplankton abundance. Three major divisions were recorded for the two creeks: Bacillariophyta, Chlorophyta and Cyanophyta. Among these, diatoms were the most abundant group observed. Water quality characteristics reflected the effect of tidal influence and consequent salt water inflow, fresh water incursion and the pollution status of one of the creeks, as a result of industrial and commercial activities in the area. Rev. Biol. Trop. 58 (3: 827-840. Epub 2010 September 01.Como en otros países, los efectos de actividades antropogénicas en las zonas costeras y las aguas de Nigeria están aumentando, y las estrategias de gestión son urgentes. Durante seis meses (octubre 2007-marzo 2008 se estudió la composición del fitoplancton en relación con las características físico-químicas de dos canales en Lagos, Nigeria. Las variaciones en algunos de los parámetros físicos y químicos tales como precipitación, temperatura, salinidad, nitrato-nitrógeno, fosfato-fósforo, sulfato, salinidad, demanda biológica de oxígeno y demanda química de oxígeno; afectan la abundancia del fitoplancton. En los dos arroyos se registraron tres divisiones principales: Bacillariophyta, Chlorophyta y Cyanophyta, las diatomeas fueron el grupo más abundante observado. Características de calidad del agua reflejan el efecto de la influencia de las mareas y la consiguiente entrada de agua salada, la

  20. 大连地区仿刺参养殖池塘浮游植物种类组成季节演替和生物量的周年变化%Annual Change of Phytoplankton Biomass and Succession in Apostichopus japonicus Aquaculture Ponds in Dalian

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张旭峰; 徐康; 姜森灏; 杨大佐; 周一兵; 袁秀堂

    2013-01-01

      通过周年取样、种类鉴定和生物量统计分析,对黄海北部大连地区仿刺参养殖池塘浮游植物种类组成的季节演替和生物量周年变化进行了研究.结果表明:该地区仿刺参养殖池塘中浮游藻类组成依次为硅藻门、蓝藻门、绿藻门和甲藻门,硅藻门和绿藻门作为池塘主要优势种全年均有分布;实验池塘浮游藻类年平均生物量为20.91 mg/L,各池塘浮游植物生物量季节变化趋势相同,最大生物量出现于8月初,为46.18 mg/L,最小生物量出现在2月,为2.26 mg/L.分析表明,浮游植物生物量与水温、透明度成极显著的相关性,并受硝酸氮、磷酸盐、硅酸盐及硝酸氮与磷酸盐的交互作用影响.%Based on annual sampling, species identification and biomass analysis, the phytoplankton species composition and succession were studied in the sea cucumber aquaculture ponds in Dalian. It was found that the phytoplankton communities in the sea cucumber aquaculture ponds were mainly composed of Bacillariophyta, Cyanophyta, Chlorophyta and dinoflagellates. Bacillariophyta and Chlorophyta species dominated over the year. The biomass of phytoplankton was 20.91mg/L in three test ponds and the seasonal variation of phytoplankton biomass was same. The maximum biomass 46.18 mg / L occurred in early August, the minimum biomass 2.26 mg / L occurred in February. Statistical analysis showed that phytoplankton biomass was highly significantly correlated with the water temperature and transparency and it was affected by nitrate nitrogen, phosphate, silicate and the interaction of nitrate nitrogen and phosphate. The results could be used as the reference for the ecology of aquaculture ponds and manipulation on phytoplankton in the sea cucumber aquaculture ponds.

  1. Algas marinas bentónicas de la costa noroccidental de Guerrero, México Benthic marine algae of the west coast of Guerrero, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luz Elena Mateo-Cid

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Se presentan los resultados de un estudio sobre algas marinas bentónicas en 7 localidades de la costa noroccidental de Guerrero, México. Se determinó la presencia de 163 especies de algas marinas. Se identificaron 17 especies de Cyanobacteria, 93 Rhodophyta, 28 Chlorophyta y 25 de Heterokontophyta. Se citan 54 registros nuevos para el litoral de Guerrero, 2 también nuevos, Myrionema strangulans Greville y Acrochaete ramosa (N.L.Gardner O'Kelly para la costa del Pacífico. Cada especie se acompaña de datos sobre su distribución en el área de estudio, su estado reproductivo, nivel de marea, hábitat, observaciones, epifitismo y número de herbario o de recolección. Se comparó la riqueza específica entre la estación climática de lluvias y la de secas. La división Rhodophyta dominó en términos de diversidad en relación con las 3 divisiones restantes. La ficoflora de la costa noroccidental de Guerrero es de afinidad tropical y más diversa en la época de secas.We present results on the study on benthic marine algae in 7 localities from the west coast of Guerrero, Mexico. We report 163 species: 17 Cyanobacteria, 93 Rhodophyta, 28 Chlorophyta and 25 Heterokontophyta. Fifty four are new records for Guerrero; while Myrionema strangulans Greville and Acrochaete ramosa (N.L.Gardner O'Kelly are new to the Pacific coast of Mexico. Each species includes data on its distribution, reproductive stages, tidal level, facies, epiphytism and herbarium's number. Species diversity was compared for 2 different climatic seasons. The Rhodophyta are dominant in terms of diversity in relation to the other groups. The algal flora of the northwest coast of Guerrero is tropical and the greatest diversity was found during dry seasons.

  2. Efectos del enriquecimiento con N y P sobre la comunidad del fitoplancton en microcosmos de un embalse tropical (La Mariposa, Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernesto J. González

    1998-03-01

    Full Text Available Para evaluar el efecto del enriquecimiento con nutrientes sobre la comunidad del fitoplancton del embalse La Mariposa (Venezuela, se establecieron microcosmos "in situ" durante 6 días. Los microcosmos consistieron en bolsas de polietileno con 10 l de agua epilimnética filtrada del embalse, sometidos a diferentes combinaciones de enriquecimiento con fósforo y nitrógeno, para así simular un proceso de eutroficación. Se determinaron las concentraciones de clorofila 'a', la concentración de nitrógeno total y fósforo total y la proporción numérica de los diferentes grupos del fitoplancton. Como consecuencia del enriquecimiento de nutrientes, se produjo un aumento en la biomasa del fitoplancton, siendo las respuestas más pronunciadas en los tratamientos donde ambos nutrientes estaban presentes. Los grupos Cryptophyta, Euglenophyta y Pyrrophyta desaparecieron de los microcosmos fertilizados al finalizar el período de estudio, mientras que las Chlorophyta y las Cyanobacteria aumentaron sus proporciones relativas. Las diatomeas disminuyeron su proporción relativa a altas concentraciones de nitrógeno. Aunque la técnica del microcosmos tiene limitaciones en su significado ecológico, permite obtener una valiosa aproximación para entender lo que ocurre en las situaciones naturales.The effect of nutrient enrichment (N and P on the phytoplankton community of La Mariposa reservoir (Venezuela was studied. Polyethylene bags (microcosms were filled with 10 l of filtered epilimnetic water of the reservoir, and enriched with different nutrient proportions, simulating an eutrophication process. Chlorophyll 'a', total nitrogen, total phosphorus, and phytoplankton abundance were determined. There was an increase in phytoplankton abundance because of nutrient enrichment, specially when both nutrients were present. After the experiments, Cryptophyta, Euglenophyta, and Pyrrophyta dissappeared from the microcosms, whereas Chlorophyta and Cyanobacteria

  3. Structure of the phytoplankton in a water supply system in the State of Pernambuco - Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ariadne do Nascimento Moura

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to study the phytoplankton community composition at limnetic environment in Pernambuco, Brazil. Samplings were carried out from April/2001 to March/2002. Samples to analyses the biotic variables were taken using a recipient with a large overture, at the subsurface and with a Van Dorn bottle at the bottom. The rainfall data were recorded and the water transparency was used to calculate the light attenuation coefficient, photic zone and the determination of trophic state index. The concentrations of total phosphorus and total nitrogen were determined in a typical dry and rainy month. Equitability, also the, similarity and diversity indexes and the densities and correlation of total densities among depths were calculated. Forty-five taxa were identified in Chlorophyta (21spp, Cyanophyta (17spp and Bacillariophyta (7spp, while flagellates were quantified in groups without identification. Cyanophyta presented highest diversity at both the depths and Planktothrix agardhii was the highest density species. Significant differences were not observed between subsurface and bottom densities. Results showed that the reservoir was eutrophicated and presented high densities of Cyanophyta.O objetivo deste trabalho foi o estudo da comunidade fitoplanctônica em ambiente limnético de Pernambuco, Brasil. As amostras foram coletadas de abril/2001 a março/2002. As amostras para análises abióticas foram coletadas na superfície da água e destinadas às análises bióticas foram coletadas na subsuperfície e no fundo, sendo fixadas com solução de lugol e quantificadas usando microscópio invertido. Equitatividade, índices de similaridade e diversidade foram calculados, bem como correlação entre as profundidades. 45 táxons foram identificados, pertencentes as Chlorophyta (21spp, Cyanophyta (17spp e Bacillariophyta (7spp. Os flagelados foram apenas quantificados, mas não foram identificados. Cyanophyta apresentou a mais alta

  4. Structure and dynamics of phytoplankton community in the Botafogo reservoir-Pernambuco-Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giulliari Alan da Silva Tavares de Lira

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to investigate the structure and dynamics of the phytoplankton in the Botafogo reservoir-PE-Brazil. Phytoplankton assemblages were identified from current literature and density was estimated using an inverted microscope. Concurrently to the sampling of biotic variables, measurements of abiotic parameters, such as water temperature, dissolved oxygen and pH, were determined using field probes and transparency was determined with a Secchi disk. Total phosphorus and total nitrogen concentrations were determined in laboratory. A total of 24 taxa were identified. Chlorophyta presented the greatest number of species. Species diversity in the reservoir was low throughout the study period. Principal component analysis revealed that Trachelomonas volvocina, Chlorella vulgaris, Euglena sp. and Peridinium gatunense were directly correlated with oxygen, turbidity and total nitrogen; Planktosphaeria gelatinosa, P. gatunense and Euglena sp. were directed correlated with total nitrogen; rainfall explained the occurrence of Monoraphidium arcuatum and Chlorella vulgaris.O objetivo do presente estudo foi investigar a estrutura e dinâmica do fitoplâncton no reservatório de Botafogo-PE-Brasil. A comunidade fitoplanctônica foi identificada com literatura atualizada e a densidade estimada usando microscópio invertido. Concomitantemente as coletas das variáveis bióticas, foram medidos alguns parâmetros abióticos como temperatura da água, oxigênio dissolvido, condutividade e pH usando sondas de campo e transparência com disco de Secchi. Concentrações de fósforo total e nitrogênio total foram determinados em laboratório. Vinte e quatro táxons foram identificados tendo Chlorophyta apresentado maior número de espécie. A diversidade de espécie no reservatório foi baixa durante todo o período de estudo. A análise de componentes principais mostrou que Trachelomonas volvocina, Chlorella vulgaris, Euglena sp. e

  5. A clade uniting the green algae Mesostigma viride and Chlorokybus atmophyticus represents the deepest branch of the Streptophyta in chloroplast genome-based phylogenies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Turmel Monique

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Viridiplantae comprise two major phyla: the Streptophyta, containing the charophycean green algae and all land plants, and the Chlorophyta, containing the remaining green algae. Despite recent progress in unravelling phylogenetic relationships among major green plant lineages, problematic nodes still remain in the green tree of life. One of the major issues concerns the scaly biflagellate Mesostigma viride, which is either regarded as representing the earliest divergence of the Streptophyta or a separate lineage that diverged before the Chlorophyta and Streptophyta. Phylogenies based on chloroplast and mitochondrial genomes support the latter view. Because some green plant lineages are not represented in these phylogenies, sparse taxon sampling has been suspected to yield misleading topologies. Here, we describe the complete chloroplast DNA (cpDNA sequence of the early-diverging charophycean alga Chlorokybus atmophyticus and present chloroplast genome-based phylogenies with an expanded taxon sampling. Results The 152,254 bp Chlorokybus cpDNA closely resembles its Mesostigma homologue at the gene content and gene order levels. Using various methods of phylogenetic inference, we analyzed amino acid and nucleotide data sets that were derived from 45 protein-coding genes common to the cpDNAs of 37 green algal/land plant taxa and eight non-green algae. Unexpectedly, all best trees recovered a robust clade uniting Chlorokybus and Mesostigma. In protein trees, this clade was sister to all streptophytes and chlorophytes and this placement received moderate support. In contrast, gene trees provided unequivocal support to the notion that the Mesostigma + Chlorokybus clade represents the earliest-diverging branch of the Streptophyta. Independent analyses of structural data (gene content and/or gene order and of subsets of amino acid data progressively enriched in slow-evolving sites led us to conclude that the latter topology

  6. Phytoplankton and Biodiversity of Xiangxi Bay%香溪河库湾浮游植物调查及多样性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈洋; 刘德富; 杨正健; 纪道斌

    2012-01-01

    为了分析新生水库库湾藻类组成及演替规律,2010年对三峡水库香溪河库湾进行了跟踪监测,对监测结果用9种多样性指数进行多样性评价,用综合营养状态指数进行水质评价,并将9种评价指数分别与综合营养状态指数进行拟合分析,得出最适于评价香溪河水体污染程度的评价指数.结果表明春季优势藻种为硅藻、夏季为绿藻和蓝藻、秋季为硅藻和绿藻,冬季为甲藻.XX06秋季与冬季富营养化程度为贫营养级,春季与秋季主要为轻-中度富营养级.Menhinick index与综合营养状态指数的拟合度最大,最能反映水污染程度变化趋势.%Xiangxi Bay in Three Gorges Reservoir was tracked and monitored in 2010 to analyze new algae species composition and succession laws in reservoir bay, with 9 species diversity index for biodiversity assessment of monitoring results, and integrated nutrition state index for water quality evaluation. 9 evaluation indexes with nutritional state index were used for regression analysis to find the most suitable biodiversity index for evaluation of the extent of water pollution in Xiangxi Bay. Results indicated that Bacillariophyta in spring, Chlorophyta and Cyanobacteria in summer, Bacillariophyta and Chlorophyta in autumn, Dinophyta in winter were the dominant algae species. Eutrophication for low degree level of nutrition was mainly in autumn and winter and moderate-light eutrophication level in spring and summer. The maximum fitting degree is Menhinick index with comprehensive tropic state index, which can mostly reflect the change trend of water pollution degree.

  7. Phototrophic microorganisms in biofilm samples from Vernjika Cave, Serbia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popović, Slađana; Jovanović, Jelena; Predojević, Dragana; Trbojević, Ivana; Blagojević, Ana; Subakov Simić, Gordana

    2016-04-01

    Caves represent specific natural monuments in terms of structure, complexity and beauty which can be found worldwide. Even though they are considered extreme environments, they are still a unique habitat for a large number of organisms that grow and proliferate here. Often can be seen that the cave walls are differently coloured as a consequence of the biofilm development. Biofilms represent complex communities of microorganisms that can develop on different kind of surfaces, including various rock surfaces. Each microbe species play a different role in a community, but their development on stone surfaces can cause substantial damage to the substrates through different mechanisms of biodeterioration and degradation. There is an increased interest in the phototrophic component of biofilms (aerophytic cyanobacteria and algae), especially cyanobacteria, an ancient microorganisms capable to survive the most diverse extreme conditions. These phototrophs can easily be found at cave entrances illuminated by direct or indirect sunlight and areas near artificial lights. Cyanobacteria and algae were investigated in biofilm samples taken from the entrance of Vernjika Cave in Eastern Serbia. Cyanobacteria, Chlorophyta and Bacillariophyta were documented, with Cyanobacteria as a group with the highest number of recorded taxa. Chroococcalean species were the most diverse with the most frequently encountered species from the genus Gloeocapsa. Phormidium and Nostoc species were commonly recorded Oscillatoriales and Nostocles, respectively. Among Oscillatoriales species, it was noticed that one Phormidium species precipitates CaCO3 on it's sheats. Trebouxia sp. and Desmococcus olivaceus were frequently documented Chlorophyta, and representatives of Bacillariophyta were exclusively aerophytic taxa, mostly belonging to the genera Luticola and Humidophila. Measured ecological parameters, temperature and relative humidity, were influenced by the external climatic changes, while light

  8. A molecular timescale of eukaryote evolution and the rise of complex multicellular life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedges, S. Blair; Blair, Jaime E.; Venturi, Maria L.; Shoe, Jason L.

    2004-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The pattern and timing of the rise in complex multicellular life during Earth's history has not been established. Great disparity persists between the pattern suggested by the fossil record and that estimated by molecular clocks, especially for plants, animals, fungi, and the deepest branches of the eukaryote tree. Here, we used all available protein sequence data and molecular clock methods to place constraints on the increase in complexity through time. RESULTS: Our phylogenetic analyses revealed that (i) animals are more closely related to fungi than to plants, (ii) red algae are closer to plants than to animals or fungi, (iii) choanoflagellates are closer to animals than to fungi or plants, (iv) diplomonads, euglenozoans, and alveolates each are basal to plants+animals+fungi, and (v) diplomonads are basal to other eukaryotes (including alveolates and euglenozoans). Divergence times were estimated from global and local clock methods using 20-188 proteins per node, with data treated separately (multigene) and concatenated (supergene). Different time estimation methods yielded similar results (within 5%): vertebrate-arthropod (964 million years ago, Ma), Cnidaria-Bilateria (1,298 Ma), Porifera-Eumetozoa (1,351 Ma), Pyrenomycetes-Plectomycetes (551 Ma), Candida-Saccharomyces (723 Ma), Hemiascomycetes-filamentous Ascomycota (982 Ma), Basidiomycota-Ascomycota (968 Ma), Mucorales-Basidiomycota (947 Ma), Fungi-Animalia (1,513 Ma), mosses-vascular plants (707 Ma), Chlorophyta-Tracheophyta (968 Ma), Rhodophyta-Chlorophyta+Embryophyta (1,428 Ma), Plantae-Animalia (1,609 Ma), Alveolata-plants+animals+fungi (1,973 Ma), Euglenozoa-plants+animals+fungi (1,961 Ma), and Giardia-plants+animals+fungi (2,309 Ma). By extrapolation, mitochondria arose approximately 2300-1800 Ma and plastids arose 1600-1500 Ma. Estimates of the maximum number of cell types of common ancestors, combined with divergence times, showed an increase from two cell types at 2500 Ma to

  9. Macroalgas submareales de la bahía de Todos Santos, Baja California, México Submareal macroalgae of the Todos Santos Bay, Baja California, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raúl Aguilar-Rosas

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Con el fin de identificar y caracterizar la composición de especies de la zona submareal de la bahía de Todos Santos, Baja California, México; se realizaron muestreos de macroalgas marinas bentónicas en 7 sitios durante 1995-2000. Como resultado de 25 buceos Scuba entre 3 y 33 m de profundidad se encontraron 150 especies de macroalgas para el área de estudio; 10 son Chlorophyta, 26 Phaeophyta y 114 Rhodophyta. Del total, 47 son registros nuevos para el área de estudio y 2 de éstos, Faucheocolax attenuata Setchell y Minium parvum R.L. Moe, son nuevos para la flora marina del Pacífico de México. Se incluye una revisión de las investigaciones en las que se han considerado las macroalgas presentes en la bahía de Todos Santos y una discusión sobre la composición de las especies encontradas, su distribución vertical y reproducción, así como sobre las especies epífitas y parásitas del área.In order to identify and characterize the species composition of the subtidal zone of the Todos Santos Bay, Baja California, Mexico, benthic marine macroalgae were sampled at 7 sites from 1995 to 2000. As a result of 25 scuba at derds for the study area, of which Faucheocolax attenuata Setchell and R.L Moe Minium parvum are new to the marine flora of Pacific Mexico. We include a research that consider the macroalpths between 3 and 33 m we found a total of 150 species of macroalgae for the study area, of which 10 are Chlorophyta, 26 Phaeophyta and 114 Rhodophyta; 47 species represent new recogae in the Todos Santos Bay and a discussion on the composition of species found, its vertical distribution and reproduction, particularly the species epiphytes and parasites present in the study area.

  10. 北京翠湖湿地浮游植物群落特征%Characterization of the Phytoplankton Community in Cuihu Wetland in Beijing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王晓星

    2013-01-01

      2012年4月至11月,对翠湖湿地浮游植物的群落结构和物种多样性进行了初步研究,并结合水体理化指标进行分析讨论。结果显示,在翠湖湿地共鉴定出浮游植物8门73属154种,以绿藻门、硅藻门和蓝藻门种类数量最多,且8月份种类达到高峰。翠湖湿地浮游植物的平均密度为14243.62×104 cells/L,以绿藻门、蓝藻门和硅藻门的藻类密度最大,黄藻门和甲藻门藻类密度最小;浮游植物Shannon-wiener指数平均值为1.50,且浮游植物群落中的优势种群随季节变化而不同。翠湖湿地浮游植物的变化与水温、总氮浓度和叶绿素a 浓度密切相关,多项指标表明翠湖湿地水体呈富营养化状态,污染程度为中污染,水体中有机质含量较高。%From April to November, 2012, structure and species diversity of phytoplankton community in the Cuihu Wetland were studied in combination with physiochemical indicators of the water. Results showed that the total amount of the phytoplankton were of 8 phyla, 73 genera and 154 species, the largest number of species were of Chlorophyta, Bacillariophyta and Cyanophyta, when reached a peak in August. The average density of phytoplankton in Cuihu Wetland was 14243.62 ×104 cells/L, the density of algae, for instance, Chlorophyta, Cyanophyta and Bacillariophyta reached the maximum density, while such as Xanthophyta and Dinoflagellate reached the minimum density; the average value of Shannon-wiener index was 1.50, and the dominant species in phytoplankton varies among seasons. The changes of phytoplankton in the Cuihu wetland closely related to water temperature, total nitrogen concentration and chlorophyll-a concentration. A number of indicators showed that Cuihu Wetland was in a state of eutrophication, moderate level of pollution, and high content of organic matter in water.

  11. Investigation on Characteristics of Algae Population in Bantou Reservoir and Tingxi Reservoir%厦门市坂头水库和汀溪水库水中浮游藻类种群组成特征研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    秦加宁; 陈伟珠; 洪专; 骆和东; 自宏; 高亚辉

    2012-01-01

    2009年-2010年采集汀溪水库和坂头水库水样,制片,电子显微镜下观察,研究结果表明:汀溪水库藻类共有4门,其中,蓝藻门最多,其中的拟浮丝藻数量高达5.4X10^7个/L,其次是绿藻门,再次是硅藻门,甲藻门最少。坂头水库藻类共有4门,其中,硅藻门最多,其中的颗粒直链藻数量达到1.01×10^7个/L;绿藻门、甲藻门和蓝藻都非常少。根据指示藻类标准初步鉴定坂头水库和汀溪水库属于中一富营养化型(β-α-ms)水体。同时分析和讨论了藻类引起的潜在水质问题。%Water sample from Bantou reservoir and Tingxi reservoir during 2009 -2010 were collected and observed by elec- tron microscope. The investigation results indicated that there are four phylum in Tingxi reservoir. The largest communities were bacillariophy and planktothricoides was 5.4×107/L. The next largest community was chlorophyta. Bacillariophy was less and pyrrophyta was the least. There were 4 phylum in Bantou reservoir. The largest community was cyanophyta, and melosira granu- late was 1.01×10T/L, chlorophyta, pyrrophyta and cyanophyta were less. According to the identification standard of algae indi- cator, Tingxi reservoir and Bantou reservoir were meso - eutrophic. The potential causes for quality change by algae was analyzed and discussed.

  12. 元荡水域浮游植物的群落结构及水质评价%Phytoplankton Community Structure and Water Quality Assessment in Yuandang Lake Area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王忆; 钟俊生; 郁蔚文; 胡景; 陈立婧

    2016-01-01

    A preliminary survey was carried on phytoplankton community and species diversity of Yuandang Lake in 2013.It found a total of 111 species of phytoplankton belonging to 7 phyla and 72 genera, among which there are 35 genera and 48 species.43.24% of the total spe-cies were Chlorophyta.Phytoplankton biomass and density were 2.13 mg/L and 842.80 ×104 cells/L.Merismopedia.tenuissima, Oscillato-ria.amphbia, Oscillatoria splendida, Coelastrum microporum, Tribonema minus, etc.are the main dominant species.The dominant species of Cyanophyta appeared in spring, summer and autumn.The dominant species of Chlorophyta appeared in winter, and the Xanthophyta appeared in autumn and winter.Based on the analysis of statistics, the annual average values of Shannon-Wiener index, Margalef index, and Algae in-dex were 1.70, 1.13, 6.00 respectively, so this survey indicated that Yuandang Lake suffered from eutrophication.%2013年对元荡湖的浮游植物群落和物种多样性进行了初步调查研究,共发现浮游植物111种,隶属7门,72属,其中绿藻门为主要类群,35属48种,占浮游植物总物种的43.24%。浮游植物生物量和密度分别为2.13 mg/L和842.80×104 cells/L,主要优势种有微小平列藻(Merismopedia tenuissima)、两栖颤藻(Oscillatoria amphbia)、灿烂颤藻(Oscillatoria splendida)、小空心藻(Coelastrum microporum)、小型黄丝藻(Tribonema minus)等。蓝藻门的优势种出现在春、夏、秋季,绿藻门的优势种出现在冬季,黄藻门的优势种出现在秋冬季。Shannon-Wiener多样性指数全年均值为1.70,Margalef 丰富度指数全年均值为1.13,藻类综合指数全年均值为6.00,元荡湖水体呈富营养型。

  13. 湖泊水质模型SALMO在太湖梅梁湾的应用%Application of lake model SALMO to the Meiliang Bay of Taihu Lake

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭静; 陈求稳; 李伟峰

    2012-01-01

    The lake model SALMO (Simulation by Means of an Analytical Lake Model) was applied to simulate the water quality of the Meiliang Bay in Taihu Lake.The model includes 8 state variables:nitrate nitrogen,phosphate phosphorus,detritus,dissolved oxygen,biomass of three algae (Cyanophyta,Chlorophyta and Bacillariophyta) and zooplankton.Because SALMO was originally developed for non-shallow lakes (maximum depth 5 m),some improvements were made to SALMO before simulating the shallow Meiliang Bay.The data from the year 2005 were used for model calibration and the data from the year 2006 were used for model verification.The results showed that the modeled biomass of the three algae followed the observed seasonal patterns:Bacillariophyta and Chlorophyta were dominant from the end of winter to the beginning of spring,while Cyanophyta was dominant in summer and autumn.The modeled nutrient concentrations also showed a good agreement with the observations.This indicates that after improvement SALMO is applicable for Taihu Lake and can be used to study the mechanisms of algae bloom.%改进了湖泊水质模型SALMO,针对太湖梅梁湾,利用2005年实测数据进行模型参数率定,并模拟了2006年水质.结果发现,绿藻、蓝藻、硅藻3种藻类的模拟结果与藻类的实测年变化格局一致,反应了3种藻类的季节性演替,其中,硅藻、绿藻在冬末春初占优势,蓝藻在夏秋季占优势;溶解氧模拟结果与实测数据非常一致,年平均相对误差为14.3%;NO-3-N和PO3-4-P的变化趋势与实测结果基本一致.研究结果表明,SALMO能很好地模拟藻类和营养盐的浓度动态,并在一定程度上揭示水华机制.

  14. Study on the Community Structure of Phytoplankton and Environmental Impact Assessment in Summer in Harbin Section of Songhua River%松花江哈尔滨段夏季浮游植物群落结构与环境影响评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    阎齐; 于洪贤

    2011-01-01

    An investigation on the community structure of phytoplankton and environmental impact assessment was carried out in Harbin section of Songhua River in August,2008. The results showed that a total of 72 species 43 genera 7 phylums of phytoplankton were recorded, the community structure of which mainly belongs to Chlorophyta, Bacillariophyta and Cyanophyta. The dominant species are completely from Chlorophyta Cyanophyta and Cyclotella of Bacillariophyta.Based on the dominant species, abundance and biomass, pollution indicator community and physical-chemical indicators, the comprehensive assessment indicates that Harbin section of Songhua River was eutrophication in summer.The construction of Dadingzishan Navigation and Hydropower Project has been leading to raising the water level and reducing the flow rate in Harbin section of Songhua River, resulting the slow succession of phytoplankton community structure from blue and green algae to the diatom in this water in summer.And the water bloom will break out easily.%2008年8月,对松花江哈尔滨段浮游植物群落结构进行研究,同时对水域环境影响作出评价。结果显示:松花江哈尔滨段夏季共有浮游植物7门43属72种,含5个变种。种群结构以绿藻门、硅藻门和蓝藻门为主。优势种以蓝藻门、绿藻门及硅藻门的小环藻为主。基于优势种、丰度、生物量、污染指示群落和理化指标综合评价,松花江哈尔滨段夏季呈富营养状态。大顶子山航电枢纽工程的建设使松花江哈尔滨段的水位升高和流速降低,从而造成此水域夏季浮游植物群落结构由硅藻缓慢向蓝、绿藻演替,易发生水华。

  15. 青草沙水库浮游藻类的调查及控制%Investigation and Control of Phytoplankton in Qingcaosha Reservoir

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋增辉

    2012-01-01

    为预防和控制青草沙水库藻类大量增殖,在水库全面通水前(2011年1~6月)对浮游藻类进行调查,共检出8门80属,鉴定出124种/变种,出现频次较高的有梅尼小环藻、游丝藻、针晶蓝纤维藻、波吉卵囊藻、扁圆卵形藻等.水库进水中检出蓝藻9属、硅藻18属、绿藻14属、其他藻5属,水库内检出蓝藻14属、硅藻23属、绿藻27属、其他藻7属,库内种类比库外大幅增加.结果表明水库在发挥“避污蓄清”和“避咸蓄淡”功能时会导致库内水体流速减慢,有利于藻类增殖.并提出一系列藻类预警及监控措施.%To control and prevent the excessively proliferating of algae in Qingcaosha reservoir in Shanghai China, phytoplankton was investigated. A total of 8 phylum, 80 genera and 124 species (varieties) were identified. Among them, Cyclotella meneghiniana, Planctonema lauterbornii, Dactylococcopsis rhaphidioides, Oocystis borgei, Cocconeis placentula, etc, has higher frequency of occurrence. There were 9 genera of Cyanophyta, 18 genera of Bacillariophyta, 14 genera of Chlorophyta, 5 genera of other phylum identified in influent and 14 genera of Cyanophyta, 23 genera of Bacillariophyta, 27 genera of Chlorophyta, 5 genera of other phylum identified in the reservoir. The results show that while the function of avoiding saltwater and polluted water together with storing fresh and clean water is applied in the reservoir, reducing the flowing rate may promotes proliferating of algae. In addition, some special methods of monitoring, pre-warning, controlling of algae are put forward.

  16. SOIL ALGAE OF BLADE OF COIL IN DONETSK REGION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maltseva I.A.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available On territory of Donbass for more than 200 years the underground coal mining has produced, accompanied by the formation of the mine dumps. Finding ways to reduce their negative impact on the environment should be based on their comprehensive study. The soil algae are active participants in the syngenetic processes in industrial dumps of different origin. The purpose of this paper is to identify the species composition and dominant algae groups in dump mine SH/U5 “Western” in the western part of Donetsk.The test blade is covered with vegetation to the middle from all sides, and on the north side of 20-25 m to the top. The vegetation cover of the lower and middle tiers of all the exposures range in 70-80%. Projective vegetation cover of upper tiers of the northern, north-eastern and north-western exposures are in the range of 20-40%, other – 5-10%. We revealed some 38 algae species as a result of our research in southern, northern, western, and eastern slopes of the blade “Western”. The highest species diversity has Chlorophyta - 14 species (36.8% of the total number of species, then Cyanophyta - 9 (23,7%, Bacillariophyta - 7 (18,4%, Xantophyta - 5 (13.2%, and Eustigmatophyta - 3 (7.9%. The dominants are represented by Hantzschia amphyoxys (Ehrenberg Grunow in Cleve et Grunow, Bracteacoccus aerius, Klebsormidium flaccidum (Kützing Silva et al., Phormidium autumnale, Pinnularia borealis Ehrenberg, Planothidium lanceolatum (Brebisson in Kützing Bukhtiyarova, Xanthonema exile (Klebs Silva.It should be noted that the species composition of algae groups in different slopes of the blade was significantly different. Jacquard coefficient was calculated for algae communities varied in the range of 15,4-39,1%. The smallest number of algae species was observed on the southern slope of the blade (14 species, maximum was registered in the areas of north and west slopes. Differences in the species composition of algae were also observed in three

  17. Phycological biodiversity at the Natural Park Serra da Enciña da Lastra (Ourense, Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    López Rodríguez, M. del Carmen

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available We have studied the phycological diversity at the Natural Park of Serra da Enciña da Lastra (Ourense, Spain and present here the algae checklist of the Galir river, the only permanent fluvial course in the area. This geographical zone is a SCI (Site of Community Importance and is located within an European Nature Reserve belonging to the “Nature 2000” network. Despite its environmental importance there is no previous phycological survey to this study. We collected samples in three points along the river, and measured physical and chemical water parameters (pH, conductivity, temperature, and dissolved oxygen. The checklist includes 88 taxa: 6 Cyanophyta, 4 Rhodophyta, 60 Heterokontophyta (58 Bacillariophyceae, 2 Xantophyceae, 1 Dinophyta, 2 Euglenophyta, and 15 Chlorophyta. Within the Rhodophyta we highlight the presence of Lemanea condensata, as a new record to the Iberian Peninsula. In addition, we have identified 8 new records for Galicia and 14 for Ourense.Se ha estudiado la diversidad ficológica del río Galir, el único curso fluvial permanente del Parque Natural Serra da Enciña da Lastra (Orense, España. Es un Lugar de Importancia Comunitaria (LIC incluido en la red de espacios naturales “Natura 2000”. A pesar de su importancia ambiental, no hay ningún estudio ficológico previo al presente. El catálogo de la flora ficológica incluye táxones recogidos de tres puntos del río y se han tenido en cuenta algunos parámetros físico-químicos del agua: pH, conductividad, temperatura y oxígeno disuelto. El catálogo florístico incluye 88 táxones: 6 Cyanophyta, 4 Rhodophyta, 60 Heterokontophyta (58 Bacillariophyceae y 2 Xantophyceae, 1 Dinophyta, 2 Euglenophyta y 15 Chlorophyta. Entre las Rhodophyta destaca Lemanea condensata, por ser nueva cita para la Península Ibérica. Además, se han encontrado 8 nuevas citas para Galicia y 14 para la provincia de Orense.

  18. Biodiversity patterns of macrophyte and macroinvertebrate communities in two lagoons of Western Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fyttis, G.; Reizopoulou, S.; Papastergiadou, E.

    2012-04-01

    Aquatic macrophytes and benthic macroinvertebrates were studied seasonally (Spring, Autumn, Summer) between the years 2009 - 2011 in two coastal lagoons (Kotychi and Prokopos) located in Peloponnese, Greece, in order to investigate spatial and temporal biodiversity trends related to hydrological processes (degree of confinement, nitrates, phosphates, chl-a, total suspended materials, light irradiance, pH, salinity, temperature and dissolved oxygen). Kotychi lagoon presents a better communication with the sea, while Prokopos has a high degree of confinement. Both ecosystems seasonally receive freshwater input from streams. The submerged aquatic macrophytes constituted a major component of the ecosystems studied. In total, 22 taxa of aquatic macrophytes (angiosperms and macroalgae), 16 taxa for Kotychi (2 Rhodophyta, 8 Chlorophyta, 5 Magnoliophyta, 1 Streptophyta) and 14 taxa for Prokopos (1 Rhodophyta, 5 Chlorophyta, 5 Magnoliophyta, 3 Streptophyta) were found. Ruppia cirrhosa, and Potamogeton pectinatus were dominant in both lagoons. Kotychi lagoon was also dominated by Zostera noltii and Prokopos by Zannichellia pallustris ssp. pedicellata, while the biomass of aquatic species peaked during the summer periods, in both lagoons. The total number of macroinvertebrates found in the lagoons was 28 taxa for Kotychi and 19 for Prokopos. Chironomidae were dominant in both lagoons, while Kotychi was also dominated by Lekanesphaera monodi and Monocorophium insidiosum, and Prokopos by Ostracoda and Lekanesphaera monodi. Benthic diversity ranged from 1.33 to 2.57 in Kotychi and from 0.67 to 2.48 in Prokopos. Species richness, diversity, and abundance of benthic macroinvertebrates were strongly related to aquatic vegetation and to the degree of communication with the marine environment. Moreover, species richness and abundance of both macrophytes and macroinvertebrates were mainly dependent on depth, temperature, pH and concentration of total suspended materials (TSM). Results

  19. Plankton and Macrobiota Composition and Diversity of Three Tropical Freshwaters Rivers in Ogun and Ondo States, Southwest Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taofikat Abosede ADESALU

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Three different rivers in Ogun and Ondo states were investigated for both micro and macro-biota of the water bodies. Several physical and chemical properties of these rivers were determined. The pH value of the studied water bodies was essentially neutral with salinity values between 0.02 - 4.0‰. Microalgae communities were represented by three divisions: Cyanophyta, Bacillariophyta and Chlorophyta at Oluwa and Ifara Rivers (Ondo state, while at Ibefun River (Ogun state, five divisions: Cyanophyta, Bacillariophyta, Chlorophyta, Euglenophyta and Pyrrhophyta were identified. Diatoms dominated these water bodies, with Navicula radiosa Kutz. at Ifara River, Fragilaria sp. in Oluwa River, while out of 90 algal taxa identified in Ibefun river, 64 were diatoms species belonging to 26 genera, with Melosira sp. and Synedra sp. recording the highest numbers of cell count. Dinoflagellates recorded only Peridinium sp. while Phacus orbicularis Hubner and Trachelomonas sp. dominated the euglenoids. For the zooplankton composition at Ibefun, rotifers (75.95% were represented by Brachionus sp., which recorded 62.03%, and Gastropus sp. with 13.92% of the total zooplankton, thus dominated the spectrum, while the copepod recorded 22.78% of the total organisms, with Copilia sp. and Euchirella sp. having 8.86% each. The macrobenthic invertebrates were represented by 3 taxa, belonging to 3 groups, with the dominant group Insecta accounted for 57% of the total individuals (7 individuals/m2, while Oligochaeta and Hirudinea accounted for 29% and 14% respectively of the total individuals at Oluwa and Ifara Rivers. At Ibefun River, the macrobenthic invertebrates were represented by 5 taxa, belonging to 3 groups, Bivalves, Oligochaeta and Insecta, with bivalves being the dominant group (51.7% of the total individuals, as 64 individuals/m2, while Oligochaeta and Insecta accounted for 26.6% and 21.9% respectively of the total individuals. The dominant taxon, Macoma cumana

  20. A molecular timescale of eukaryote evolution and the rise of complex multicellular life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Venturi Maria L

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The pattern and timing of the rise in complex multicellular life during Earth's history has not been established. Great disparity persists between the pattern suggested by the fossil record and that estimated by molecular clocks, especially for plants, animals, fungi, and the deepest branches of the eukaryote tree. Here, we used all available protein sequence data and molecular clock methods to place constraints on the increase in complexity through time. Results Our phylogenetic analyses revealed that (i animals are more closely related to fungi than to plants, (ii red algae are closer to plants than to animals or fungi, (iii choanoflagellates are closer to animals than to fungi or plants, (iv diplomonads, euglenozoans, and alveolates each are basal to plants+animals+fungi, and (v diplomonads are basal to other eukaryotes (including alveolates and euglenozoans. Divergence times were estimated from global and local clock methods using 20–188 proteins per node, with data treated separately (multigene and concatenated (supergene. Different time estimation methods yielded similar results (within 5%: vertebrate-arthropod (964 million years ago, Ma, Cnidaria-Bilateria (1,298 Ma, Porifera-Eumetozoa (1,351 Ma, Pyrenomycetes-Plectomycetes (551 Ma, Candida-Saccharomyces (723 Ma, Hemiascomycetes-filamentous Ascomycota (982 Ma, Basidiomycota-Ascomycota (968 Ma, Mucorales-Basidiomycota (947 Ma, Fungi-Animalia (1,513 Ma, mosses-vascular plants (707 Ma, Chlorophyta-Tracheophyta (968 Ma, Rhodophyta-Chlorophyta+Embryophyta (1,428 Ma, Plantae-Animalia (1,609 Ma, Alveolata-plants+animals+fungi (1,973 Ma, Euglenozoa-plants+animals+fungi (1,961 Ma, and Giardia-plants+animals+fungi (2,309 Ma. By extrapolation, mitochondria arose approximately 2300-1800 Ma and plastids arose 1600-1500 Ma. Estimates of the maximum number of cell types of common ancestors, combined with divergence times, showed an increase from two cell types at 2500 Ma to ~10

  1. A molecular timescale of eukaryote evolution and the rise of complex multicellular life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedges, S. Blair; Blair, Jaime E.; Venturi, Maria L.; Shoe, Jason L.

    2004-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The pattern and timing of the rise in complex multicellular life during Earth's history has not been established. Great disparity persists between the pattern suggested by the fossil record and that estimated by molecular clocks, especially for plants, animals, fungi, and the deepest branches of the eukaryote tree. Here, we used all available protein sequence data and molecular clock methods to place constraints on the increase in complexity through time. RESULTS: Our phylogenetic analyses revealed that (i) animals are more closely related to fungi than to plants, (ii) red algae are closer to plants than to animals or fungi, (iii) choanoflagellates are closer to animals than to fungi or plants, (iv) diplomonads, euglenozoans, and alveolates each are basal to plants+animals+fungi, and (v) diplomonads are basal to other eukaryotes (including alveolates and euglenozoans). Divergence times were estimated from global and local clock methods using 20-188 proteins per node, with data treated separately (multigene) and concatenated (supergene). Different time estimation methods yielded similar results (within 5%): vertebrate-arthropod (964 million years ago, Ma), Cnidaria-Bilateria (1,298 Ma), Porifera-Eumetozoa (1,351 Ma), Pyrenomycetes-Plectomycetes (551 Ma), Candida-Saccharomyces (723 Ma), Hemiascomycetes-filamentous Ascomycota (982 Ma), Basidiomycota-Ascomycota (968 Ma), Mucorales-Basidiomycota (947 Ma), Fungi-Animalia (1,513 Ma), mosses-vascular plants (707 Ma), Chlorophyta-Tracheophyta (968 Ma), Rhodophyta-Chlorophyta+Embryophyta (1,428 Ma), Plantae-Animalia (1,609 Ma), Alveolata-plants+animals+fungi (1,973 Ma), Euglenozoa-plants+animals+fungi (1,961 Ma), and Giardia-plants+animals+fungi (2,309 Ma). By extrapolation, mitochondria arose approximately 2300-1800 Ma and plastids arose 1600-1500 Ma. Estimates of the maximum number of cell types of common ancestors, combined with divergence times, showed an increase from two cell types at 2500 Ma to

  2. Fitoplancton del río Tehuantepec, Oaxaca, México y algunas relaciones biogeográficas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José L Moreno-Ruiz

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available El fitoplancton recolectado en el río Tehuantepec con características limnéticas a eurihalinas se determinó, clasificó y comparó con información regional de México y Suramérica. Se incluyen valores indicadores y un código del listado florístico para facilitar el manejo de estas algas. Se determinó un total de 58 familias, 121 géneros, 273 especies, una subespecie, 75 variedades, 13 formas y un morfotipo, pertenecientes a las divisiones Bacillariophyta (42.0 %, Chlorophyta (29.0 %, Cyanoprocaryota (18.0 %, Euglenophyta (5.0 %, Dinophyta (3.0 %, Cryptophyta (2.0 % y Chrysophyta (1.0 %. Las familias mejor representadas fueron Scenedesmaceae (24 especies, Oocystaceae (22, Bacillariophyceae (21, Chaetocerotaceae (15 y Euglenaceae (14. Se establecen nuevos registros para México: cinco familias, ocho géneros, 72 especies, 45 variedades y ocho formas. En este río, que presenta una moderada calidad del agua, sobresalieron las especies Chroococcus turgidus, Microcystis flosaquae y Pseudanabaena limnetica (como productoras de mareas rojas.Phytoplankton from Tehuantepec River, Oaxaca, Mexico and some biogeographical relationships. Phytoplankton species collected from the limnetic to euryhaline sections of Tehuantepec River were identified, classified and compared with regional information from Mexico and South America. We collected 15 samples every three months from July 1997 through August 1998 with a 20 µm net and a van Dorn bottle. Indicator values and a code checklist are included. A total of 58 families, 121 genera, 273 species, one subspecies, 75 varieties, 13 forms and one morphotype were identified in the taxa Bacillariophyta (42.0 %, Chlorophyta (29.0 %, Cyanoprocaryota (18.0 %, Euglenophyta (5.0 %, Dinophyta (3.0 %, Cryptophyta (2.0 % and Chrysophyta (1.0 %. The predominant families were Scenedesmaceae (24 species, Oocystaceae (22, Bacillariophyceae (21, Chaetocerotaceae (15 and Euglenaceae (14. Five families, eight genera, 72

  3. ECOLOGICAL FEATURES OF ALGAE COMMUNITIES IN FOREST FLOOR OF PINE PLANTATIONS OF DIFFERENT TYPES OF LANDSCAPES IN STEPPE AREA OF UKRAINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maltsev Yevhen

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The steppe zone of Ukraine features a large variety of types of natural landscapes that together significantly differ in microclimatic, soil, hydrological and geobotanic conditions. Such a diversity of forest conditions affects not only the trees, but also on all biotic components of forest ecosystems including algae. Purpose of the study was establish systematic position of species, dominant and subdominant, leading families of algae for plantings in forest floor of pine plantations of the valley-terrace and inundable-terrace landscapes in steppe area of Ukraine. In general, in the forest floor of Samara pine forest marked 34 species of algae with 4 divisions, most of which related to green: Chlorophyta – 22 (65%, Xanthophyta – 8 (23%, Bacillariophyta – 2 (6% and Eustigmatophyta – 2 (6%. Among the leading families of the greatest number of species belonged to: Pleurochloridaceae (7 species, Chlorococcaceae (5, Chlamydomonadaceae (4. During all studied seasons in base of algae communities were species resistant to extreme values of all climatic conditions. Total in forest floor of pine forest in Altagir forest marked 42 species of algae with 5 divisions: Chlorophyta - 23 (55 %, Xanthophyta - 9 (21 %, Cyanophyta - 5 (12 %, Bacillariophyta - 3 (7% and Eustigmatophyta – 2 (5%. Systematic structure of list species determine three family, which have the number of species in excess of the average number (2: Pleurochloridaceae, Chlamydomonadaceae and Myrmeciaceae. The base of algae community are moisture-loving and shade-tolerant species, which may be the result of favorable moisture regime. In the forest floor of pine plantings in forest floor of pine plantations of the valley-terrace (Samara pine forest and inundable-terrace (Altagir forest landscapes found 64 species of algae with 5 divisions, which are dominated by green algae - 37 species (58%, that exceed xanthophytes - 15 (23%, blue-green 5 (8 %, eustigmatofites 4 (6% and diatoms 3 (5

  4. The ELSA-Vegetation-Stack: Reconstruction of Landscape Evolution Zones (LEZ) from laminated Eifel maar sediments of the last 60,000 years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirocko, F.; Knapp, H.; Dreher, F.; Förster, M. W.; Albert, J.; Brunck, H.; Veres, D.; Dietrich, S.; Zech, M.; Hambach, U.; Röhner, M.; Rudert, S.; Schwibus, K.; Adams, C.; Sigl, P.

    2016-07-01

    Laminated sediment records from several maar lakes and dry maar lakes of the Eifel (Germany) reveal the history of climate, weather, environment, vegetation, and land use in central Europe during the last 60,000 years. The time series of the last 30,000 years is based on a continuous varve counted chronology, the MIS3 section is tuned to the Greenland ice - both with independent age control from 14C dates. Total carbon, pollen and plant macrofossils are used to synthesize a vegetation-stack, which is used together with the stacks from seasonal varve formation, flood layers, eolian dust content and volcanic tephra layers to define Landscape Evolution Zones (LEZ). LEZ 1 encompasses the landscape dynamics of the last 6000 years with widespread human influence. The natural oak and hazel forests of the early Holocene back to 10,500 b2k define LEZ 2. LEZ 3, the late glacial between 10,500 and 14,700 b2k, shows the development of a boreal forest with abundant grass and shallow water biomass in the lakes. The maximum of the last glaciation (LEZ 4: 14,700-23,000 b2k) was characterized by sparse vegetation of moss and characeae. These sediments are generally devoid of clay and sand and reveal no indication of snow-meltwater events. Accordingly, the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) must have been extremely arid in central Europe. The sediments of the subsequent LEZ 5 from 23,000-28,500 b2k preserve distinct layers of clay and coarse sand, which indicates running water with clay in suspension and ephemeral coarse-grained fluvial sediment discharge. Abundant Ranunculaceae macroremains (used for 14C dating), insects, moss and fungi sclerotia reflect a tundra environment during a time of frequent strong snowmelt events. Total carbon content, Betula-Pinus pollen and diatoms reach increased concentrations during Marine Isotope Stage (MIS) 3 interstadials that occurred between 28,500 and 36,500 b2k (LEZ 6). The entire MIS3 interstadials are well documented in the organic carbon record

  5. Late-glacial to Early Holocene lake basin and river valley formation within Pomeranian moraine belt near Dobbertin (Mecklenburg-Vorpommern, NE Germany)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zawiska, Izabela; Lorenz, Sebastian; Börner, Andreas; Niessner, Dominique; Słowiński, Michał; Theuerkauf, Martin; Pieper, Hagen; Lampe, Reinhard

    2014-05-01

    In central Mecklenburg-Vorpommern vast areas between the terminal moraine belts of the Frankfurt (W1F) and Pomeranian Phase (W2) were covered by glaciolacustrine basins which were embedded in the outwash plains. With deglaciation of the Pomeranian Phase around 17-18 ka BP the basins north to the villages Dobbertin and Dobbin were part of a glaciofluvial river system in combination with ice-dammed lake basins. During the late-glacial after ~14 ka cal BP the melting of buried dead ice reshaped the lake basin morphology by new depressions, in- and outlets. We study late-glacial basin and landscape development using cores collected along a pipeline trench crossing the Dobbin-Dobbertin basin. Core analysis includes sedimentological (carbon content, grainsize distribution) and palaeoecological (pollen, plant macrofossils, Cladocera) proxies. Radiocarbon dates indicate that peat formation started soon after the start of the Weichselian late-glacial. High resolution analysis of a basal peat layer indicates that initial organic and lacustrine sedimentation started in shallow ponding mires, evolving from buried dead ice sinks in the glaciofluvial sequence, in which telmatic plants (Carex aquatilis, Schoenoplectus lacustris) dominated. Chydorus sphaericus, the only cladocera species recorded, is ubiquitous and can survive in almost all reservoir types in very harsh conditions. Findings of Characeae than point at the formation of shallow lakes. The expansion of rich fen communities, including Scorpidium scorpoides, and a decline in Cladocera diversity show that these lakes soon again terrestrialised with peat formation. The appearance of Alona costata points at a lowering of pH values in that process. A tree trunk of birch (14.2 ka cal. BP) shows that first trees established during this first telmatic period. At this position in the basin, the basal peat layer is covered by minerogenic sediments, which points at a period of higher water levels and fluvial dynamics, possibly

  6. Reconstruction of Landscape Evolution Zones (LEZ) from laminated Eifel maar sediments of the last 60 000 years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirocko, Frank

    2016-04-01

    Tephra, eolian dust, organic carbon, pollen and botanical macroremains from the dry maar lake structures auf Auel and Dehner are used to synthesize and define Landscape Evolution Zones (LEZ) for the Eifel during the last 60 000 years. LEZ 1-3 reiterate the established succession of vegetation during the Holocene and late glacial. The maximum of the last glaciation (LEZ 4: 14 700 - 23 000 b2k) was characterized by extremely sparse vegetation of some moss and characeae, however, characterized by annual activity of eolian dust. These sediments are generally devoid of clay and sand and reveal no indication of snow-meltwater events; accordingly, the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) must have been extremely arid in central Europe. The sediments of the subsequent LEZ 5 from 23 000 ‒ 28 500 b2k preserve however distinct layers of clay and coarse sand, which indicates running water with clay in suspension and ephemeral coarse grained fluvial sediment discharge; abundant Ranunculaceae macroremains (used for 14C dating), insects, moss and fungi sclerotia reflect a tundra environment during a time of frequent strong snow melt events. Total carbon content and Betula-Pinus pollen reach increased concentrations during all MIS 3 interstadials that occurred between 28 500 - 36 500 b2k (LEZ 6). Grass pollen and heliophytes indicate a steppe environment with scattered/patchy trees during the interstadials. The stadial phases of LEZ 6 reveal first activity of eolian dust deflation. The opening of the early MIS 3 forested landscape to a steppe occurred with the LEZ 7 - LEZ 6 transition at 36 500 b2k. This is the time when modern man arrived in central Europe; possibly because the vegetation change must have favoured the spread of horse, which was the favoured hunting prey of the modern humans. Accordingly, we postulate that the migration of the modern humans into central Europe could have been mainly driven by climate and vegetation change. The LEZ 7 encompassing the time interval from 36

  7. Colmenar limestone as a resource for built heritage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fort, Rafael; Álvarez de Buergo, Mónica; Varas-Muriel, MªJosé; Mercedes Pérez-Monserrat, Elena

    2013-04-01

    The Colmenar stone (or Colmenar limestone) has been used in the construction of significant builidings of the Central area of Spain, such as the Royal Palace of Aranjuez (16th -18th centuries) or the Royal Palace of Madrid (18th century). Nowadays this building stone is still widely used, both for new construction and restoration works, as well as for the indoor ornamentation of emblematic buildings such as the Royal Theater of Madrid (20th century). There are many quarries from where this stone was exploited, being the most prestigious ones those located in Colmenar de Oreja, at 50 km Southeast the city of Madrid. The high quality of the stone in these quarries, its whiteness and pureness, made this locality the most relevant in these stonés extractive activities, concentrating the most relevant exploitations and providing the stone the denomination of the municipality (Colmenar). It was an underground mining extraction until the 20th century in order to reach the highest quality level of the mine, the so called "Banco Gordo" (Thick Bank). Generically known as moorland limestone, this rock belongs to the fluvial-lacustrine carbonates of the Upper Miocene Unit of the Tertiary Madrid's Basin. Its tonality mainly ranges from white to cream and even light grey. Under a petrographic point of view, this limestone is constituted by 40% of bioclasts (characea, ostracods and gasteropods), 20-30% of micritic matrix and 30-40% of sparitic cement. Therefore, it can be classified as a biomicrite/biosparite limestone or as a bioclastic packstone. Some particularities of these limestones regarding their appearance are related to some karstic processes they underwent linked to some dissolution phenomena during the Pliocene. All of this resulted on an abundance of cavities with terra rossa fillings, a non-soluble clayey residue, iron enriched, which is the responsible for the reddish and pinkish color that the Colmenar stone sometimes shows. These petrographic characteristics

  8. Geochemical Analyses of Macrophytes (Potamogeton sp.) and ancient DNA from Lake Karakul, Tajikistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinecke, Liv; Epp, Laura S.; Mischke, Steffen; Reschke, Maria; Stoof-Leichsenring, Kathleen; Rajabov, Ilhomjon; Herzschuh, Ulrike

    2016-04-01

    universal plant primers) with subsequent Illumina sequencing was applied to characterize the plant community changes through the core. In total we identified 37 diverse plant taxa in the core sediments, of which 35 are of terrestrial origin. However, the DNA sequences were dominated by two aquatic plant taxa (Potamogeton sp. and Characeae). The sequences of the identified aquatic taxa were used for a semi-quantitative evaluation of aquatic plant composition and show a reversal in abundance between 20 and 13 cal kyrs BP. This is coherent with changes obtained by the biogeochemical analyses and thus both methods complement and verify each other and reflect shifts in the living environment at the lake bottom from the LGM to the Late Holocene. The obtained results enable a better understanding of ecological responses in the Pamir Mountains since the LGM.

  9. Phototrophic pigment production with microalgae: biological constraints and opportunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulders, Kim J M; Lamers, Packo P; Martens, Dirk E; Wijffels, René H

    2014-04-01

    There is increasing interest in naturally produced colorants, and microalgae represent a bio-technologically interesting source due to their wide range of colored pigments, including chlorophylls (green), carotenoids (red, orange and yellow), and phycobiliproteins (red and blue). However, the concentration of these pigments, under optimal growth conditions, is often too low to make microalgal-based pigment production economically feasible. In some Chlorophyta (green algae), specific process conditions such as oversaturating light intensities or a high salt concentration induce the overproduction of secondary carotenoids (β-carotene in Dunaliella salina (Dunal) Teodoresco and astaxanthin in Haematococcus pluvialis (Flotow)). Overproduction of all other pigments (including lutein, fucoxanthin, and phycocyanin) requires modification in gene expression or enzyme activity, most likely combined with the creation of storage space outside of the photosystems. The success of such modification strategies depends on an adequate understanding of the metabolic pathways and the functional roles of all the pigments involved. In this review, the distribution of commercially interesting pigments across the most common microalgal groups, the roles of these pigments in vivo and their biosynthesis routes are reviewed, and constraints and opportunities for overproduction of both primary and secondary pigments are presented.

  10. Resource Research and Application Perspective of Mac-roalgae of Beibu Gulf in China%北部湾大型海藻资源研究及应用展望

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁兰平; 王展; 黄冰心

    2014-01-01

    Combined with published literatures since 1995,the distribution of species,resource researches,present situation and industrial development of macroalgae along the coasts of Beibu Gulf,China were summarized and analysed.5 9 species of marine macroalgae were recorded in the area,including 2 9 in Pheaophyta,1 8 in Rhodophyta and 1 2 in Chlorophyta,respectively. Their regional distributions were briefly introduced.The present situation and difference of va-rious districts of macroalgae were analysed,which will provide a detailed reference for the sus-tainable development of marine economy of Beibu Gulf.%对北部湾大型海藻物种多样性、地理分布、资源研究成果、研究现状以及开发利用等进行总结和分析,发现北部湾在大型海藻资源调查、开发利用和生态修复等方面还有巨大的研究空间,提出大力发展海藻生态养殖业,加大对大型海藻科研的支持和投入,扶助海藻产业链建设的观点,以期为北部湾海洋经济持续发展提供参考。

  11. Epilithic algae from caves of the Krakowsko-Częstochowska Upland (Southern Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Czerwik-Marcinkowska

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the first study of algae assemblages in 20 caves in the Krakowsko-Częstochowska Upland (Southern Poland, in the period between 2005-2006. The investigations showed mostly on epilithic algae and their subaeric habitats (rock faces within caves and walls at cave entrances. The morphological and cytological variability of algae were studied in fresh samples, in cultures grown on agar plates and in SPURR preparations. A total of 43 algae species was identified, mostly epilithic species and tolerant of low light intensities. The largest group was formed by representatives of the division Chlorophyta (24 species, and then the division Chrysophyta (Heterokontophyta - 17 species, with 9 species belonging to the class Bacillariophyceae, 7 species - Xanthophyceae and 1 species representing the class Eustigmatophyceae. Dinophyta (2 species constituted the last and the smallest group. Among the collected algae, the following species deserve special attention: Thelesphaera alpina, Bracteacoccus minor, Trachychloron simplex, Tetracystis intermedia and T. cf. isobilateralis. The last species was not earlier found in Europe. Identification of species was greatly aided by examination of cell ultrastructure, which provided an array of further features, increasing chances of correct species identification. Furthermore, the studies focused that algae, although usually remaining under dominance of cyanobacteria, excellently differentiate this special area and even enrich it.

  12. Structure and dynamics of phytoplankton in an Amazon lake, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ise de Goreth Silva

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Natural lake systems represent important reservoirs for residential water supply, fish production, recreational activities and enjoyment of their natural beauty. Nevertheless, human impacts may affect their health status resulting in degradation and loss of biodiversity. The aim of the present study was to obtain data on the health status of a natural lake located in an indigenous reservation in the Brazilian Amazon, using the phytoplankton community changes along the rainy (June and dry (November seasons of 2006. We collected water (temperature, pH, Secchi depth and conductivity and phytoplankton samples from the subsurface, middle of the water column, and approximately 30cm above the bottom, over 24-hour sampling periods, from a central station in the lake. Samples taken from biotic and abiotic variables were correlated using canonical correspondence analysis (CCA. Results showed that the lake exhibited high temperatures in both seasons, and showed thermal stratification only during the rainy season. Dissolved oxygen exhibited a clinograde pattern in the rainy season and high oxygen in the hypolimnion in the dry season. In the rainy season, the water near the bottom was acidic, turbid and had a greater concentration of phosphorus. Dissolved oxygen, conductivity, pH, nitrite, total phosphorus and total dissolved phosphorus exhibited diel variations in the rainy season, whereas water temperature, dissolved oxygen, total nitrogen and total dissolved phosphorus exhibited significant differences between hours of the day in the dry season. The phytoplankton was represented by 39 taxa, and Chlorophyta showed the greatest species richness, totaling 25 taxa. Among Chlorophyta, desmids were the most diverse, accounting 52%. Bacillariophyta (nine species was the second most diverse group. Cyanophyta was represented by three species, including Merismopedia tenuissima, the most abundant taxon. Despite the occurrence of taxa that indicate organic pollution

  13. Las algas del canal olímpico de piragüismo de aguas tranquilas (Barcelona

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    García, Joan

    1997-12-01

    Full Text Available An investigation of the algal flora in the Olympic Calm Waters Canoeing Channel was performed during one year. A number of 90 laxa were identified (20 Cyanophyta, 25 Chlcrophyta, 1 Charophyta, 9 Euglenophyta, 31 Chrysophyta, 2 Cryptophyta and 2 Pirrophyta. Morphometric data, descriptions and light microscope photographs of some species are included. Also, scanning electron microscope photographs of diatoms are presented. The floristic composition changes observed during this study related to the improvement of the water quality are discussed. The changes in diatom populations concerning the increase in salinity concentrations are described.

    Se ha estudiado la flora algal del Canal de Piragüismo de Aguas Tranquilas durante un año. Se han identificado 90 taxa (20 Cyanophyta, 25 Chlorophyta , 1 Charophyta, 9 Euglenophyta, 31Chrysophyta, 2 Cryptophyta y 2 Pirrophyta. Se aportan datos morfométricos, descripciones y fotografías de microscopio óptico de algunas de las especies. También se incluyen fotografías de diatomeas realizadas al microscopio electrónico de barrido. Se comentan los cambios observados en la composición florística en relación con la mejora de la calidad del agua del canal. También se discute el efecto del progresivo incremento de salinidad del agua sobre las poblaciones de diatomeas.

  14. Apparent characteristics and taxonomic study of macroalgae in Pattani Bay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naruemol Pianthumdee

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available 2A survey on macroalgae in Pattani Bay was carried out to build up a database resource for the management of algae in the area. From February 2004 to March 2005, samples of macroalgae from 10 sites were randomly collected monthly. Macroalgae were found at 4 sites in the north of the bay, namely Laem Tachi, Lighthouse, Ban Bu Di and Ban Ta Lo Samilae; 3 sites in the east, namely Ban Da To, the Yaring River Mouth and Ban Bang Pu and only one site in the south at Ban Tanyong Lu Lo. Twelve species of 3 divisions of macroalgae were detected. They were Division Cyanophyta, Lyngbya majuscula (Dillwyn Harvey ex Gomont; Division Chlorophyta; Ulva intestinalis Linnaeus, U. pertusa Kjellman and U. reticulata Forsskal, Rhizoclonium riparium (Roth Harvey, R. tortuosum Kutzing, Chaetomorpha crassa (C. Agardh Kutzing and Cladophora sp.; and Division Rhodophyta, namely Gracilaria tenuistipitata Chang et Xia, G. fisheri (Xia et Abbott Abbott, Zhang et Xia, Hypnea spinella (C. Agardh Kutzing and Acanthophora spicifera (Vahl B∅rgesen. Among them, four species were new recordings at Pattani Bay: Lyngbya majuscula, Rhizoclonium riparium, R. tortuosum and Acanthophora spicifera. Most of these seaweeds were found at the east sites in the dry season from February to September 2004 and from January to March 2005. Only a few species could be found in the wet season from November to December 2004.

  15. [Effects of Ulva pertusa and Gracilaria lemaneiformis on growth of Heterosigma akashiwo (Raphidophyceae) in co-culture].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, You; Yu, Zhi-ming; Song, Xiu-xian; Zhang, Shan-dong

    2006-02-01

    We studied the effects of fresh tissue and culture medium filtrate of two species of macroalgae, Ulva pertusa (Chlorophyta) and Gracilaria lemaneiformis (Rhodophyta) on growth of Heterosigma akashiwo (Raphidophyceae) in co-culture. Both U. pertusa and G. lemaneiformis, and especially their fresh tissues, significantly impede the growth of H. akashiwo. Carbonate limitations and the presence of environment bacteria are not necessary for the negative effects of macroalgal on H. akashiwo. The simultaneous nutrient assays show that nitrate and phosphate are almost exhausted in the G. lemaneiformis co-culture system, but remain at acceptable levels in the U. pertusa system, when all cells of H. akashiwo are completely dead. When f/2 medium is supplied daily to G. lemaneiformis culture, the growth of H. akashiwo is greatly inhibited but not completely terminated. Furthermore, different amounts of fresh seaweed tissue, and culture medium filtrate prepared from different macroalgal concentrations are analyzed to determine their effects on the growth of H. akashiwo. The results show a positive correlation between the initial macroalgal concentration and the negative effects they exert on the co-cultured microalgae. Results suggest that the allelopathic effects of U. pertusa may be essential for negative effects on H. akashiwo; however, the combined roles of allelopathy and nutrient competition may be responsible for the negative effect of G. lemaneiformis the release of allelochemicals by U. pertusa.

  16. DGDG and Glycolipids in Plants and Algae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalisch, Barbara; Dörmann, Peter; Hölzl, Georg

    2016-01-01

    Photosynthetic organelles in plants and algae are characterized by the high abundance of glycolipids, including the galactolipids mono- and digalactosyldiacylglycerol (MGDG, DGDG) and the sulfolipid sulfoquinovosyldiacylglycerol (SQDG). Glycolipids are crucial to maintain an optimal efficiency of photosynthesis. During phosphate limitation, the amounts of DGDG and SQDG increase in the plastids of plants, and DGDG is exported to extraplastidial membranes to replace phospholipids. Algae often use betaine lipids as surrogate for phospholipids. Glucuronosyldiacylglycerol (GlcADG) is a further glycolipid that accumulates under phosphate deprived conditions. In contrast to plants, a number of eukaryotic algae contain very long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids of 20 or more carbon atoms in their glycolipids. The pathways and genes for galactolipid and sulfolipid synthesis are largely conserved between plants, Chlorophyta, Rhodophyta and algae with complex plastids derived from secondary or tertiary endosymbiosis. However, the relative contribution of the endoplasmic reticulum- and plastid-derived lipid pathways for glycolipid synthesis varies between plants and algae. The genes for glycolipid synthesis encode precursor proteins imported into the photosynthetic organelles. While most eukaryotic algae contain the plant-like galactolipid (MGD1, DGD1) and sulfolipid (SQD1, SQD2) synthases, the red alga Cyanidioschyzon harbors a cyanobacterium-type DGDG synthase (DgdA), and the amoeba Paulinella, derived from a more recent endosymbiosis event, contains cyanobacterium-type enzymes for MGDG and DGDG synthesis (MgdA, MgdE, DgdA).

  17. Biota acuática en la Amazonía Peruana: diversidad y usos como indicadores ambientales en el Bajo Urubamba (Cusco - Ucayali

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hernán Ortega

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available En el presente trabajo se aplican índices biológicos de calidad ambiental y conservación, basados en el monitoreo biológico realizado entre año 2003 y 2009, en cinco localidades del río Bajo Urubamba. Fueron estudiadas las comunidades del plancton, bentos y peces. La diversidad del plancton comprendió 170 especies, basadas principalmente en Chlorophyta y Bacillariophyta. El bentos incluyó 112 especies, principalmente larvas y adultos de Arthropoda (Insecta. La diversidad de peces, incluye 176 especies, representadas por 26 familias y seis órdenes. El Índice Ephemeroptera + Plecoptera + Trichoptera (%EPT, califico el área de estudio entre normal a muy buena calidad. El índice de Integridad Biológica (IBI que determina el estado de conservación de los ambientes acuáticos, dio los mayores valores en Miaría y Sepahua. La elevada diversidad de las comunidades estudiados estaría relacionada a la heterogeneidad de hábitats y mayores recursos observados en la parte baja del área de estudio.

  18. Effects of copper on composition species of periphyton in a Sierra Nevada, California, stream.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leland, H.V.; Carter, J.L.

    1984-01-01

    An oligotrophic stream was continuously dosed for 1 yr at 2.5, 5 and 10 mu g l-1 CuT; c12, 25 and 50 ng l-1 Cu2+. The numerically most abundant taxa were Bacillariophyceae (Achnanthes minutissima, Cocconeis placentula, Cymbella microcephala, C. sinuata, Fragilaria construens, F. crotonensis, Navicula spp., Synedra acus and S. rumpens), and the Cyanophyta Lyngbya spp., a co-dominant during spring and summer. Population densities of Lyngbya spp. were markedly reduced at all Cu concentrations. Population densities of the principal Chlorophyta (Spirogyra spp., Cladophora spp.) and the diatom Amphipleura pellucida were reduced at 5 mu g l-1 CuT. Of the 22 most abundant taxa, 16 were reduced in abundance by continuous exposure to 10 mu g l-1 CuT. There was no commensurate reduction in standing crop. Achnanthes minutissima was the primary replacement species. Other taxa more abundant at 5 mu g l-1 CuT than in the control were Ceratoneis arcus, Cocconeis placentula, Navicula spp. and Synedra rumpens. Only A. minutissima and Calothrix spp. were more abundant at 10 mu g l-1 than in the control. Three resemblance measures (Canberra metric, Bray-Curtis and Dice) and diversity (Brillouin's) were evaluated for detecting differences in species composition among stream sections. The Canberra metric, an index sensitive to proportional rather than absolute differences, was the most informative. -from Authors

  19. [Spatiotemporal variation of epilithic algae in Xiangxi River system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Xing-huan; Wu, Nai-cheng; Tang, Tao; Cai, Qing-hua

    2008-04-01

    Xiangxi River system is the greatest branch in the Hubei reservoir area of the Three Gorges reservoir. In this paper, the epilithic algae in the River and its three major tributaries were investigated from July 2005 to June 2006. A total of 218 taxa were identified, including 183 species of Bacillariophyta, 24 species of Chlorophyta, 10 species of Cyanophyta, and one species of Xanthophyta. The diatom Achnanthes linearis was the most predominant species. The richness and Shannon-Wiener diversity indices varied significantly (or almost significantly) over time and space, and the total average values were 32 and 1.54, respectively. The total averages of annual epilithic algal density and chlorophyll a concentration were 8.75 x 10(9) cells x m(-2) and 14.62 mg x m(-2), respectively. There were significant differences in the algal density and chlorophyll a concentration among different sampling sites, and the maximum values were observed in Gufu River tributary, which were one order of magnitude higher than the minimum ones in Jiuchong River tributary. The algal density and chlorophyll a concentration tended to be higher in winter and spring than in summer and autumn, but no significant differences were observed in various seasons. Epilithic algal density and chlorophyll a concentration were significantly negatively correlated with elevation and water current, but positively correlated with the total nitrogen concentration in water.

  20. [Community structure characteristics of phytoplankton and related affecting factors in Hengshan Reservoir, Zhejiang, China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Liang-Jie; Yu, Peng-Fei; Zhu, Jun-Quan; Xu, Zhen; Lü, Guang-Han; Jin, Chun-Hua

    2014-02-01

    In order to reveal the community structure characteristics of phytoplankton and the relationships with environmental factors in Hengshan Reservoir, the phytoplankton species composition, abundance, biomass and 12 environmental factors at 4 sampling sites were analyzed from March 2011 to February 2012. A total of 246 phytoplankton species were identified, which belong to 78 genera and 7 phyla. The dominant species were Melosira varians, M. granulate, Cyclotella meneghiniana, Asterianella formosa, Synedra acus, Achnanthes exigua, Ankistrodesmus falcatus, Oscillatoria lacustris, Cryptomonas erosa, Chroomonas acuta, Phormidium tenue and Microcystis aeruginosa, etc. Seasonal variations of species were obvious. The annual abundance and biomass of the phytoplankton were 0.51 x 10(5)-14.22 x 10(5) ind x L(-1) and 0.07-1.27 mg x L(-1), respectively. The values of the Margelef index, Pielou index and Shannon index of the phytoplankton community were 1.10-3.33, 0.26-0.81 and 0.51-2.38, respectively. The phytoplankton community structure was of Bacillariophyta-Cryptophyta type in spring and winter, of Chlorophyta-Cyanophyta type in summer, and of Bacillariophyta type in autumn. Canonical correlation analysis (CCA) showed that temperature, transparency, chemical oxygen demand and pH had the closest relationships with the phytoplankton community structure in the reservoir. Water quality evaluation showed that Hengshan Reservoir was in a secondary pollution with a meso-trophic level.

  1. Physicochemical conditions in affecting the distribution of spring phytoplankton community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Yuqiu; Liu, Haijiao; Zhang, Xiaodong; Xue, Bing; Munir, Sonia; Sun, Jun

    2017-03-01

    To better understand the physicochemical conditions in affecting regional distribution of phytoplankton community, one research cruise was carried out in the Bohai Sea and Yellow Sea during 3rd and 23th May, 2010. The phytoplankton community, including Bacillariophyta (105 taxa), Pyrrophyta (54 taxa), Chrysophyta (1 taxon) and Chlorophyta (2 taxa), had been identified and clearly described from six ecological provinces. And, the six ecological provinces were partitioned based on the top twenty dominant species related with notable physicochemical parameters. In general, the regional distributions of phytoplankton ecological provinces were predominantly influenced by the physicochemical properties induced by the variable water masses and circulations. The predominant diatoms in most of water samples showed well adaptability in turbulent and eutrophic conditions. However, several species of dinoflagellates e.g., Protoperidinium conicum, Protoperidinium triestinum, Protoperidinium sp. and Gymnodinium lohmanni preferred warmer, saltier and nutrient-poor environment. Moreover, the dinoflagellates with high frequency in the Yellow Sea might be transported from the Yellow Sea Warm Current. The horizontal distribution of phytoplankton was depicted by diatoms and controlled by phosphate concentration, while the vertical distribution was mainly supported by light and nutrients availability in the subsurface and bottom layers, respectively.

  2. Seasonal variation in biomass and species composition of seaweeds stranded along Port Okha, northwest coast of India

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Mukund C Thakur; C R K Reddy; Bhavanath Jha

    2008-06-01

    Port Okha coast,which is known for its luxuriant growth of a diverse assemblage of seaweeds on Saurashtra coast,is found to have abundant quantities of seaweeds being drifted and washed ashore every year.Studies conducted for quantifying the stranded seaweeds from May 2004 to April 2005 showed an average biomass value of 3.10 kg fresh wt/m2/month with maximum being 6.60 kg fresh wt/m2 in April.The stranded weeds constituted a total of 62 species during the entire study period.Of this,Rhodophyta ranked high with 26 species followed by Chlorophyta with 22 species and Phaeophyta with 14 species.The stranded seaweeds that were washed ashore provide valuable floristic information about the intertidal and near shore sub-tidal algae of the respective regions.Although natural senescence of seaweeds is one of the major factors,strong currents primarily forced by tides,also contribute to the uprooting and subsequent drifting of seaweeds on to the beach.This ultimately causes changes in floristic features of the existing algal beds.

  3. Seasonal variations in biomass and species composition of seaweeds along the northern coasts of Persian Gulf (Bushehr Province)

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A Dadolahi-Sohrab; M Garavand-Karimi; H Riahi; H Pashazanoosi

    2012-02-01

    This study was carried out to evaluate the seasonal variations of seaweed biomass and species composition at six different sites along the coastal areas in Bushehr Province. Sampling depths varied among sites, from 0.3 to 2.0 m below mean sea level. A total of 37 (i.e., 10 Chlorophyta, 12 Phaeophyta and 15 Rhodophyta) seaweed species were collected. Studies were conducted for quantifying the seaweeds during four seasons from October 2008 until July 2009. During present research, Ulva intestinalis and Cladophora nitellopsis of green, Polycladia myrica, Sirophysalia trinodis and Sargassum angustifolium of brown and Gracilaria canaliculata and Hypnea cervicornis of red seaweeds showed highest biomass in coastal areas of Bushehr Province. The Cheney’s ratio of 2.1 indicated a temperate algal flora to this area. All sites exhibited more than 50% similarity of algal species, indicating a relatively homogenous algal distribution. Total biomass showed the highest value of 3280.7 ± 537.8 g dry wt m−2 during summer and lowest value of 856.9 ± 92.0 g dry wt m−2 during winter. During this study, the highest and lowest seaweed biomass were recorded on the site 2 (2473.7 ± 311.0 g dry wt m−2) and site 5 (856.7 ± 96.8 g dry wt m−2), respectively.

  4. Life cycle, feeding and adaptive strategy implications on the co-occurrence of Argyrodiaptomus furcatus and Notodiaptomus iheringi in Lobo-Broa Reservoir (SP, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RIETZLER A. C.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The population dynamics, life cycle and feeding of Argyrodiaptomus furcatus and Notodiaptomus iheringi, were studied in Broa reservoir from August 1988 to August 1989, period when a replacement of A. furcatus by N. iheringi was observed. Some abiotic factors such as temperature, dissolved oxygen, pH and conductivity were measured to characterize the limnological conditions of the reservoir. Also, phytoplankton composition was analyzed and related to the feeding of the two species. Experimental data on developmental time and reproduction of A. furcatus and N. iheringi under different temperatures showed that lower temperatures were responsible for density decreasing of both populations in the reservoir during the dry season. Chlorophyta and Chrysophyta smaller than 20 mum were the most abundant phytoplankton groups in the reservoir as well as in the gut content of A. furcatus and N. iheringi, representing an important food source for both species. The temporary disappearance of Argyrodiaptomus furcatus, observed between 1988 and 1989 and its replacement by Notodiaptomus iheringi was related to mining activities upstream, modifying the water turbidity, pH and conductivity. However, the reappearance and maintenance of A. furcatus for another ten years and a recent replacement re-incidence indicates that these two calanoids do not coexist in this environment. Adaptive strategies of both species, related to changes in environmental conditions, are discussed. Probably, Argyrodiaptomus furcatus is an indicator of less eutrophic environments, while Notodiaptomus iheringi of more eutrophic systems.

  5. Community structure of phytoplankton and water quality assessment in Hanzhong section of Hanjiang river%汉江汉中段浮游植物群落结构与水质评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘智峰; 郑立柱; 李鹏

    2011-01-01

    2009年4~6月,用活体观察法和直接计数法对汉江汉中段水体浮游植物进行研究.共鉴定出浮游植物5门25属44种(包括2个未定名种).其中硅藻种类数最多,其次是绿藻、裸藻、甲藻,蓝藻最少.优势种为意大利直链藻(Melosiraitalica),克洛脆杆藻(Fragilaria crotornensis),尖针杆藻(Synedra acus),简单舟形藻(Navicula simplex).放射舟形藻(Ncvicula radiosa),小球衣藻(Chamydomonas microsphaera),环丝藻(Ulothrix zonata),刺鱼状裸藻(Euglena gasterosteus).浮游植物平均个体密度为8.74×105 Ind/L.从浮游植物备类群数量来看,硅藻门(Diatoms)数量最多,绿藻门(Chlorophyta)次之.甲藻门(Dinoflagellate)最少.运用污染指示种、污染指示群落和多样性指数对汉江汉中段水质进行评价,结果表明该水体水质为β-中污型.

  6. Molecular characterization of endolithic cyanobacteria inhabiting exposed dolomite in central Switzerland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigler, William V; Bachofen, Reinhard; Zeyer, Josef

    2003-07-01

    The phototrophic microbial community inhabiting exposed dolomite in the alpine Piora Valley (Switzerland) forms a distinct endolithic bilayer that features adjacent red dolomite (exterior) and green dolomite (interior) layers that are c. 0.5-1 mm below the rock surface. Characterization of the community, with an emphasis on cyanobacteria, was conducted with culture-dependent and -independent approaches. Direct microscopy of green dolomite revealed four distinct morphotypes consistent with Chlorophyta genera Chlorella and Stichococcus and the Cyanobacterial genera Nostoc and Calothrix, whereas only Stichococcus and Nostoc were observed in the red dolomite. Enrichment in BG-11 media resulted in the growth of Chlorella and Stichococcus. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) analysis of DNA extracted from the enrichment revealed two dominant phylotypes with sequence similarity to Chlorella osrokiniana chloroplast and the cyanobacteria genus Leptolyngbya. 16S rRNA gene-based DGGE analysis of DNA extracted directly from both layers indicated that although both layers harboured phylotypes most similar to the Cyanobacterial genera Nostoc, Chroococcidiopsis, and Microcoleus, and the Chlorophyte Stichococcus bacillaris, the two layers also harboured unique genera such as Scytonema, and Symploca (red, external layer of dolomite) and Chlorella (green, internal layer of dolomite). The unique community structure of each layer suggests a selection process directed by the pressures of the endolithic environment. We conclude that the overall composition of the phototrophic community closely resembles that of endolithic communities located in extreme habitats, suggesting that a cosmopolitan community inhabits this defined niche.

  7. Diversity of endolithic fungal communities in dolomite and limestone rocks from Nanjiang Canyon in Guizhou karst area, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Yuan; Lian, Bin

    2012-06-01

    The endolithic environment, the tiny pores and cracks in rocks, buffer microbial communities from a number of physical stresses, such as desiccation, rapid temperature variations, and UV radiation. Considerable knowledge has been acquired about the diversity of microorganisms in these ecosystems, but few culture-independent studies have been carried out on the diversity of fungi to date. Scanning electron microscopy of carbonate rock fragments has revealed that the rock samples contain certain kinds of filamentous fungi. We evaluated endolithic fungal communities from bare dolomite and limestone rocks collected from Nanjiang Canyon (a typical karst canyon in China) using culture-independent methods. Results showed that Ascomycota was absolutely dominant both in the dolomite and limestone fungal clone libraries. Basidiomycota and other eukaryotic groups (Bryophyta and Chlorophyta) were only detected occasionally or at low frequencies. The most common genus in the investigated carbonate rocks was Verrucaria. Some other lichen-forming fungi (e.g., Caloplaca, Exophiala, and Botryolepraria), Aspergillus, and Penicillium were also identified from the rock samples. The results provide a cross-section of the endolithic fungal communities in carbonate rocks and help us understand more about the role of microbes (fungi and other rock-inhabiting microorganisms) in rock weathering and pedogenesis.

  8. Microspatial variability in community structure and photophysiology of calcified macroalgal microbiomes revealed by coupling of hyperspectral and high-resolution fluorescence imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perkins, R G; Williamson, C J; Brodie, J; Barillé, L; Launeau, P; Lavaud, J; Yallop, M L; Jesus, B

    2016-02-29

    Calcifying coralline macroalgae provide biogenic habitats colonised by epiphytic microalgae that contribute significantly to community productivity. Georeferenced hyperspectral and high-resolution fluorescence imaging were coupled to microspatially mapped community composition and relative biomass of macroalgal host and epiphyte microalgal groups, and their weighted contributions to productivity within host fronds of Corallina officinalis on upper and lower zones of a rocky shore were determined. Lower shore epiphytes were dominated by filamentous diatoms (Bacillariophyta), confined to the apex of the frond structure, which were low light acclimated but retained a high capacity for photoprotective down regulation and contributed up to 51% of total community productivity. Upper shore epiphytes were dominated by green algae (Chlorophyta) and single-celled diatoms (principally Cocconeis spp.), which were high light acclimated but present at far lower relative biomass and contributed negligibly to productivity. The host, C. officinalis was the main primary producer. Variation in light environment resulting from differences in shore height and shading within the host macroalga, likely play a large role in determining patterns in epiphyte community structure, biomass and productivity observed. Additionally, microspatial gradients in photophysiological parameters along the host macroalga likely resulted from age-dependent variation in pigments as well as the gradient in light environment.

  9. Baseline Assessment of Mesophotic Reefs of the Vitória-Trindade Seamount Chain Based on Water Quality, Microbial Diversity, Benthic Cover and Fish Biomass Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meirelles, Pedro M.; Amado-Filho, Gilberto M.; Pereira-Filho, Guilherme H.; Pinheiro, Hudson T.; de Moura, Rodrigo L.; Joyeux, Jean-Christophe; Mazzei, Eric F.; Bastos, Alex C.; Edwards, Robert A.; Dinsdale, Elizabeth; Paranhos, Rodolfo; Santos, Eidy O.; Iida, Tetsuya; Gotoh, Kazuyoshi; Nakamura, Shota; Sawabe, Tomoo; Rezende, Carlos E.; Gadelha, Luiz M. R.; Francini-Filho, Ronaldo B.; Thompson, Cristiane; Thompson, Fabiano L.

    2015-01-01

    Seamounts are considered important sources of biodiversity and minerals. However, their biodiversity and health status are not well understood; therefore, potential conservation problems are unknown. The mesophotic reefs of the Vitória-Trindade Seamount Chain (VTC) were investigated via benthic community and fish surveys, metagenomic and water chemistry analyses, and water microbial abundance estimations. The VTC is a mosaic of reef systems and includes fleshy algae dominated rhodolith beds, crustose coralline algae (CCA) reefs, and turf algae dominated rocky reefs of varying health levels. Macro-carnivores and larger fish presented higher biomass at the CCA reefs (4.4 kg per frame) than in the rhodolith beds and rocky reefs (0.0 to 0.1 kg per frame). A larger number of metagenomic sequences identified as primary producers (e.g., Chlorophyta and Streptophyta) were found at the CCA reefs. However, the rocky reefs contained more diseased corals (>90%) than the CCA reefs (~40%) and rhodolith beds (~10%). Metagenomic analyses indicated a heterotrophic and fast-growing microbiome in rocky reef corals that may possibly lead to unhealthy conditions possibly enhanced by environmental features (e.g. light stress and high loads of labile dissolved organic carbon). VTC mounts represent important hotspots of biodiversity that deserve further conservation actions. PMID:26090804

  10. Identification of toxigenic Cyanobacteria of the genus Microcystis in the Curonian Lagoon (Baltic Sea)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belykh, O. I.; Dmitrieva, O. A.; Gladkikh, A. S.; Sorokovikova, E. G.

    2013-02-01

    In 2002-2008, seasonal (April-November) monitoring of the phytoplankton in the Russian part of the Curonian Lagoon at five fixed sites was performed. A total of 91 Cyanobacteria, 100 Bacillariophyta, 280 Chlorophyta, 21 Cryptophyta, and 24 Dinophyta species were found. Six potentially toxic species of cyanobacteria: Aphanizomenon flos-aquae, Anabaena sp., Microcystis aeruginosa, M. viridis, M. wesenbergii, and Planktothrix agardhii dominated the phytoplankton biomass and caused water blooms. The seasonal average phytoplankton biomass ranged from 30 to 137 g/m3. The cyanobacteria's biomass varied from 10 to 113 g/m3 forming 30-82% of the total with a mean of 50%. With the aid of genetic markers (microcystin ( mcy) and nodularin synthetases), six variants of the microcystin-producing gene mcyE from the genus Microcystis were identified. Due to the intensive and lengthy blooms of potentially toxic and toxigenic cyanobacteria, the environmental conditions in the Curonian Lagoon appear unfavorable. The water should be monitored for cyanotoxins with analytical methods in order to determine if the area is safe for recreational use.

  11. The spatial and temporal distribution of microalgae in the South China Sea:evidence from GIS-based analysis of 18S rDNA sequences

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to estimate the spatial and temporal variation of microalgae in the South China Sea and to demonstrate the environmental factors controlling the diversity of microalgae by GIS (geographic information system)-based analysis of 18S rDNA sequences. Six 18S rDNA libraries were constructed from environmental samples collected at different sites in the study area, and more than 600 18S rDNA sequences were determined. The rDNA sequence data were then analyzed by DIVA-GIS software to display the spatial and temporal variation of phytoplankton’s composition. It was shown that the autotrophic eukaryotic plankton dominated over the heterotrophic cells in most of our clone libraries, and the dominating phytoplankton was Dinophyceae except for Bacillariophyta at the Xiamen harbor. The percentages of these two groups were controlled by water temperature and salinity. Our results also revealed that the species composition of Chlorophyta showed a close relationship with latitude, changing from Prasinophyceae at the high latitude to Trebouxiophyceae at the low latitude. Several newly classified picoplankton lineages were first uncovered in the South China Sea, including the pico-sized green alga Ostreococcus sp. and Picochlorum eukaryotum, and picobiliphytes, which was just discovered in 2007 with unknown affinities to other eukaryotes. Their spatial and temporal variation were also analyzed and discussed.

  12. Baseline Assessment of Mesophotic Reefs of the Vitoria-Trindade Seamount Chain Based on Water Quality, Microbial Diversity, Benthic Cover and Fish Biomass Data.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro M Meirelles

    Full Text Available Seamounts are considered important sources of biodiversity and minerals. However, their biodiversity and health status are not well understood; therefore, potential conservation problems are unknown. The mesophotic reefs of the Vitória-Trindade Seamount Chain (VTC were investigated via benthic community and fish surveys, metagenomic and water chemistry analyses, and water microbial abundance estimations. The VTC is a mosaic of reef systems and includes fleshy algae dominated rhodolith beds, crustose coralline algae (CCA reefs, and turf algae dominated rocky reefs of varying health levels. Macro-carnivores and larger fish presented higher biomass at the CCA reefs (4.4 kg per frame than in the rhodolith beds and rocky reefs (0.0 to 0.1 kg per frame. A larger number of metagenomic sequences identified as primary producers (e.g., Chlorophyta and Streptophyta were found at the CCA reefs. However, the rocky reefs contained more diseased corals (>90% than the CCA reefs (~40% and rhodolith beds (~10%. Metagenomic analyses indicated a heterotrophic and fast-growing microbiome in rocky reef corals that may possibly lead to unhealthy conditions possibly enhanced by environmental features (e.g. light stress and high loads of labile dissolved organic carbon. VTC mounts represent important hotspots of biodiversity that deserve further conservation actions.

  13. Ocean acidification reduces transfer of essential biomolecules in a natural plankton community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bermúdez, J. Rafael; Riebesell, Ulf; Larsen, Aud; Winder, Monika

    2016-01-01

    Ocean acidification (OA), a process of increasing seawater acidity caused by the uptake of anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO2) by the ocean, is expected to change surface ocean pH to levels unprecedented for millions of years, affecting marine food web structures and trophic interactions. Using an in situ mesocosm approach we investigated effects of OA on community composition and trophic transfer of essential fatty acids (FA) in a natural plankton assemblage. Elevated pCO2 favored the smallest phytoplankton size class in terms of biomass, primarily picoeukaryotes, at the expense of chlorophyta and haptophyta in the nano-plankton size range. This shift in community composition and size structure was accompanied by a decline in the proportion of polyunsaturated FA (PUFA) to total FA content in the nano- and picophytoplankton size fractions. This decline was mirrored in a continuing reduction in the relative PUFA content of the dominant copepod, Calanus finmarchicus, which primarily fed on the nano-size class. Our results demonstrate that a shift in phytoplankton community composition and biochemical composition in response to rising CO2 can affect the transfer of essential compounds to higher trophic levels, which rely on their prey as a source for essential macromolecules. PMID:27324057

  14. Baseline Assessment of Mesophotic Reefs of the Vitória-Trindade Seamount Chain Based on Water Quality, Microbial Diversity, Benthic Cover and Fish Biomass Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meirelles, Pedro M; Amado-Filho, Gilberto M; Pereira-Filho, Guilherme H; Pinheiro, Hudson T; de Moura, Rodrigo L; Joyeux, Jean-Christophe; Mazzei, Eric F; Bastos, Alex C; Edwards, Robert A; Dinsdale, Elizabeth; Paranhos, Rodolfo; Santos, Eidy O; Iida, Tetsuya; Gotoh, Kazuyoshi; Nakamura, Shota; Sawabe, Tomoo; Rezende, Carlos E; Gadelha, Luiz M R; Francini-Filho, Ronaldo B; Thompson, Cristiane; Thompson, Fabiano L

    2015-01-01

    Seamounts are considered important sources of biodiversity and minerals. However, their biodiversity and health status are not well understood; therefore, potential conservation problems are unknown. The mesophotic reefs of the Vitória-Trindade Seamount Chain (VTC) were investigated via benthic community and fish surveys, metagenomic and water chemistry analyses, and water microbial abundance estimations. The VTC is a mosaic of reef systems and includes fleshy algae dominated rhodolith beds, crustose coralline algae (CCA) reefs, and turf algae dominated rocky reefs of varying health levels. Macro-carnivores and larger fish presented higher biomass at the CCA reefs (4.4 kg per frame) than in the rhodolith beds and rocky reefs (0.0 to 0.1 kg per frame). A larger number of metagenomic sequences identified as primary producers (e.g., Chlorophyta and Streptophyta) were found at the CCA reefs. However, the rocky reefs contained more diseased corals (>90%) than the CCA reefs (~40%) and rhodolith beds (~10%). Metagenomic analyses indicated a heterotrophic and fast-growing microbiome in rocky reef corals that may possibly lead to unhealthy conditions possibly enhanced by environmental features (e.g. light stress and high loads of labile dissolved organic carbon). VTC mounts represent important hotspots of biodiversity that deserve further conservation actions.

  15. Effect of lake water on algal biomass and microbial community structure in municipal wastewater-based lab-scale photobioreactors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krustok, I; Truu, J; Odlare, M; Truu, M; Ligi, T; Tiirik, K; Nehrenheim, E

    2015-08-01

    Photobioreactors are a novel environmental technology that can produce biofuels with the simultaneous removal of nutrients and pollutants from wastewaters. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of lake water inoculation on the production of algal biomass and phylogenetic and functional structure of the algal and bacterial communities in municipal wastewater-treating lab-scale photobioreactors. Inoculating the reactors with lake water had a significant benefit to the overall algal biomass growth and nutrient reduction in the reactors with wastewater and lake water (ratio 70/30 v/v). The metagenome-based survey showed that the most abundant algal phylum in these reactors was Chlorophyta with Scenedesmus being the most prominent genus. The most abundant bacterial phyla were Proteobacteria and Bacteroidetes with most dominant families being Sphingobacteriaceae, Cytophagaceae, Flavobacteriaceae, Comamonadaceae, Planctomycetaceae, Nocardiaceae and Nostocaceae. These photobioreactors were also effective in reducing the overall amount of pathogens in wastewater compared to reactors with wastewater/tap water mixture. Functional analysis of the photobioreactor metagenomes revealed an increase in relative abundance genes related to photosynthesis, synthesis of vitamins important for auxotrophic algae and decrease in virulence and nitrogen metabolism subsystems in lake water reactors. The results of the study indicate that adding lake water to the wastewater-based photobioreactor leads to an altered bacterial community phylogenetic and functional structure that could be linked to higher algal biomass production, as well as to enhanced nutrient and pathogen reduction in these reactors.

  16. DYNAMICS OF ALGAE NUMBER AND BIOMASS OF STEPPE BIOGEOCOENOSES AND AGROCOENOSES IN KHERSON REGION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shcherbina V.V.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Characteristics of daily dynamics of seaweeds abundance and biomass were determined for steppe biogeocoenosis and agrocoenosis of Biosphere reserve “Askaniya-Nova” in spring of 2011. Fluctuation ranges in seaweeds abundance and biomass have been registered.Analyzing the indices of total number and algae biomass in studied biogeocoenoses it should be noted that the maximal values of alga number in virgin soil steppe exceeded minimal in 3,3 times; biomasses - in 2,1. For virgin soil steppe of post-fire-induced development the relation between maximum and minimal value of total number of algae was up to 2,1; biomass - 2,4. For agrocoenosis we noted the largest ranges in variation of number and biomass. In conditions of dry-land arable land the maximum values of total number of alga exceeded minimal in 21,9 times; biomasses - in 8,7; for irrigated arable land - in 12,5 and 5,6 respectively.In soil samples, selected within the limits of virgin soil biogeocoenoses of biosphere reserve “Askania-Nova” and agrocoenosis of dry-land and irrigated arable land in biosphere reserve by direct count, the algae species of Bacillariophyta, Cyanophyta, Chlorophyta, Xanthophyta and Eustigmatophyta have been found. The largest contribution to number and biomass of algae belonged to Bacillariophyta. The number and biomass of agrocoenosis algae is more dynamic feature, than for algae of virgin soil biogeocoenoses.

  17. Bacterial communities associated with the lichen symbiosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bates, Scott T; Cropsey, Garrett W G; Caporaso, J Gregory; Knight, Rob; Fierer, Noah

    2011-02-01

    Lichens are commonly described as a mutualistic symbiosis between fungi and "algae" (Chlorophyta or Cyanobacteria); however, they also have internal bacterial communities. Recent research suggests that lichen-associated microbes are an integral component of lichen thalli and that the classical view of this symbiotic relationship should be expanded to include bacteria. However, we still have a limited understanding of the phylogenetic structure of these communities and their variability across lichen species. To address these knowledge gaps, we used bar-coded pyrosequencing to survey the bacterial communities associated with lichens. Bacterial sequences obtained from four lichen species at multiple locations on rock outcrops suggested that each lichen species harbored a distinct community and that all communities were dominated by Alphaproteobacteria. Across all samples, we recovered numerous bacterial phylotypes that were closely related to sequences isolated from lichens in prior investigations, including those from a lichen-associated Rhizobiales lineage (LAR1; putative N(2) fixers). LAR1-related phylotypes were relatively abundant and were found in all four lichen species, and many sequences closely related to other known N(2) fixers (e.g., Azospirillum, Bradyrhizobium, and Frankia) were recovered. Our findings confirm the presence of highly structured bacterial communities within lichens and provide additional evidence that these bacteria may serve distinct functional roles within lichen symbioses.

  18. Overview on biological activities and molecular characteristics of sulfated polysaccharides from marine green algae in recent years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lingchong; Wang, Xiangyu; Wu, Hao; Liu, Rui

    2014-09-25

    Among the three main divisions of marine macroalgae (Chlorophyta, Phaeophyta and Rhodophyta), marine green algae are valuable sources of structurally diverse bioactive compounds and remain largely unexploited in nutraceutical and pharmaceutical areas. Recently, a great deal of interest has been developed to isolate novel sulfated polysaccharides (SPs) from marine green algae because of their numerous health beneficial effects. Green seaweeds are known to synthesize large quantities of SPs and are well established sources of these particularly interesting molecules such as ulvans from Ulva and Enteromorpha, sulfated rhamnans from Monostroma, sulfated arabinogalactans from Codium, sulfated galacotans from Caulerpa, and some special sulfated mannans from different species. These SPs exhibit many beneficial biological activities such as anticoagulant, antiviral, antioxidative, antitumor, immunomodulating, antihyperlipidemic and antihepatotoxic activities. Therefore, marine algae derived SPs have great potential for further development as healthy food and medical products. The present review focuses on SPs derived from marine green algae and presents an overview of the recent progress of determinations of their structural types and biological activities, especially their potential health benefits.

  19. Screening of Dengue virus antiviral activity of marine seaweeds by an in situ enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Cristine Koishi

    Full Text Available Dengue is a significant public health problem worldwide. Despite the important social and clinical impact, there is no vaccine or specific antiviral therapy for prevention and treatment of dengue virus (DENV infection. Considering the above, drug discovery research for dengue is of utmost importance; in addition natural marine products provide diverse and novel chemical structures with potent biological activities that must be evaluated. In this study we propose a target-free approach for dengue drug discovery based on a novel, rapid, and economic in situ enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and the screening of a panel of marine seaweed extracts. The in situ ELISA was standardized and validated for Huh7.5 cell line infected with all four serotypes of DENV, among them clinical isolates and a laboratory strain. Statistical analysis showed an average S/B of 7.2 and Z-factor of 0.62, demonstrating assay consistency and reliability. A panel of fifteen seaweed extracts was then screened at the maximum non-toxic dose previously determined by the MTT and Neutral Red cytotoxic assays. Eight seaweed extracts were able to reduce DENV infection of at least one serotype tested. Four extracts (Phaeophyta: Canistrocarpus cervicornis, Padina gymnospora; Rhodophyta: Palisada perforate; Chlorophyta: Caulerpa racemosa were chosen for further evaluation, and time of addition studies point that they might act at an early stage of the viral infection cycle, such as binding or internalization.

  20. Use of in vivo chlorophyll fluorescence to estimate photosynthetic activity and biomass productivity in microalgae grown in different culture systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Félix L Figueroa

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available In vivo chlorophyll fluorescence associated to Photosystem II is being used to evaluate photosynthetic activity of microalgae grown in different types of photobioreactors; however, controversy on methodology is usual. Several recommendations on the use of chlorophyll fluorescence to estimate electron transport rate and productivity of microalgae grown in thin-layer cascade cultivators and methacrylate cylindrical vessels are included. Different methodologies related to the measure of photosynthetic activity in microalgae are discussed: (1 measurement of light absorption, (2 determination of electron transport rates versus irradiance and (3 use of simplified devices based on pulse amplitude modulated (PAM fluorescence as Junior PAM or Pocket PAM with optical fiber and optical head as measuring units, respectively. Data comparisons of in vivo chlorophyll fluorescence by using these devices and other PAM fluorometers as Water-PAM in the microalga Chlorella sp. (Chlorophyta are presented. Estimations of carbon production and productivity by transforming electron transport rate to gross photosynthetic rate (as oxygen evolution using reported oxygen produced per photons absorbed values and carbon photosynthetic yield based on reported oxygen/carbon ratio are also shown. The limitation of ETR as estimator of photosynthetic and biomass productivity is discussed. Low cost:quality PAMs can promote monitoring of chlorophyll fluorescence in algal biotechnology to estimate the photosynthetic activity and biomass productivity.

  1. Bibliographic checklist of the marine benthic algae of Central Polynesia in the Pacific Ocean (Excluding Hawai‘i and French Polynesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsuda, R.T.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The Polynesian algal bibliographic checklist is based on records from past references for American Samoa and Samoa (380 spp., Cook Islands (111 spp., Johnston Atoll (190 spp., Line Islands (250 spp., Niue (3 spp., Phoenix Islands (193 spp., Pitcairn Islands (23 spp., Tokelau (1 sp., Tonga (109 spp., Wake Atoll (121 spp. and Wallis and Futuna (191 spp. and consists of three sections. The first section (I. Classification provides a listing of classes, orders, and families of the 238 genera of Polynesian algae. The second section (II. Species-Reference Index provides an alphabetized listing of the 667 named algal species under the four Phyla, i.e., Cyanobacteria (68 species, Rhodophyta (373 species, Ochrophyta (59 species and Chlorophyta (167 species with the applicable reference citations for each island or atoll. Brief taxonomic or nomenclatural notes are provided, when appropriate, for selected species. The third section (III. Island-Reference Index provides a chronological listing of all published references for the respective island or atoll in each island group. The complete references for all citations in the text are provided in the Reference section.

  2. Modified extensive pond culture of Litopenaeus vannamei for sustainable shrimp culture in the Philippines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecilia J. Jaspe

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The shrimp culture industry provides huge revenues to most aquaculture producing countries,but it is also beset with problems that hamper its sustainability. In the present study, we described amodified extensive pond culture method for white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei in the Philippines duringthe wet and dry months. One hectare earthen ponds were prepared and added with organic and/orinorganic fertilizers to stimulate natural food production. The ponds were stocked with L. vannameipostlarvae (PL at a density of 4 PL m-2. A zero-water exchange system of pond management was doneduring the first two months of culture followed by a bi-weekly water exchange until harvest. No artificialfeeding was given during the culture period, instead, the ponds were applied with inorganic fertilizerevery month to ensure continuous supply of natural food. During the culture period, the shrimpsappeared healthy and no disease outbreaks were observed. All the physico-chemical parameters of thewater in the pond were within the optimum range required for shrimp farming and the phytoplanktonpopulation was predominantly green microalgae (Chlorophyta. The shrimps were harvested after 3 to3.5 months of culture or when they reached an average body weight of 13-15 g, with moderate to highsurvival rates depending on the prevailing climatic conditions.

  3. Structure of the Phytoplankton Community and Its Relationship to Water Quality in Donghu Lake, Wuhan, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    An-Ping LEI; Zhang-Li HU; Jian WANG; Zhi-Xin SHI; Fung-Yee Nora TAM

    2005-01-01

    The phytoplankton community structure, in terms of species composition, total standing crop,and abundance of the dominant algal species, at four stations in Donghu Lake, Wuhan, China, was investigated monthly from January 1994 to December 1996. A total of 260 taxa was observed, of which Chlorophyta (106 taxa) contributed the highest portion of the total number of taxa, followed by Bacillariophyta (82 taxa)and Cyanophyta (32 taxa). The total standing crop measured by means of chlorophyll a content, cell density,and cell biovolume, as well as the abundance of the dominant species, declined in the order of Station I to Station Ⅳ. Seasonal changes of the standing crop varied greatly among the four stations. Although the cell density at the four stations showed a single peak within a year, the peak density varied from July to November, dependent on the sampling year and the station. For chlorophyll a content and cell biovolume,multiple peaks were observed at Stations Ⅰ and Ⅱ, but a single peak was found at Stations Ⅲ and Ⅳ. The phytoplankton community structure indicated that the trophic status was the highest at Station Ⅰ (most eutrophic), followed by Station Ⅱ; Stations Ⅲ and Ⅳ were the least trophic areas. The long-term changes in phytoplankton community structure further suggested that changes in phytoplankton community structure were correlated with water quality, and eutrophication of Donghu Lake had been aggravated since the 1950s.

  4. 册田水库浮游生物资源调查%Investigation on the Plankton in Cetian Reservoir

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘小艳

    2012-01-01

    2011年5月—11月对册田水库浮游生物资源进行了全面调查。共检出浮游植物7门43种属,平均生物量50.37 mg/L,优势种群为蓝藻门、绿藻门和硅藻门。浮游动物4门26种,平均生物量为4.42 mg/L,优势种群为原生动物的板壳虫和轮虫。评价属重度富营养型水库。%The resource of Plankton in Cetian Reservoir was investigated from May to November in 2011.The results show:there are 43 species(genera)of Phytoplankton from 7 phyluns and its average biomass is 50.37 mg/L,and in which Cyanophyta,Chlorophyta and Bacillariophyta are the predominant species composition;there are 26 species Zooplankton from 4 phyluns and its average biomass is 4.42mg/L,among them Coleps and Rotiferas are dominant species.By assesment,Cetian Reservoir belong to heavy eutrophication level.

  5. Meteorological effects on variation of airborne algae in Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosas, Irma; Roy-Ocotla, Guadalupe; Mosiño, Pedro

    1989-09-01

    Sixteen species of algae were collected from 73.8 m3 of air. Eleven were obtained in Minatitlán and eleven in México City. The data show that similar diversity occurred between the two localities, in spite of the difference in altitude. This suggests that cosmopolitan airborne microorganisms might have been released from different sources. Three major algal divisions (Chlorophyta, Cyanophyta and Chrysophyta) formed the airborne algal group. Also, a large concentration of 2220 algae m-3 was found near sea-level, while lower amounts were recorded at the high altitude of México City. The genera Scenedesmus, Chlorella and Chlorococcum dominated. Striking relationships were noted between the concentration of airborne green and blue-green algae, and meteorological conditions such as rain, vapour pressure, temperature and winds for different altitudes. In Minatitlán a linear relationship was established between concentration of algae and both vapour pressure (mbar) and temperature (° C), while in México City the wind (m s-1) was associated with variations in the algal count.

  6. Mechanisms controlling the carbon stable isotope composition of phytoplankton in karst reservoirs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baoli Wang

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available In order to systematically understand the mechanisms controlling the carbon stable isotope composition of phytoplankton (δ13CPHYin freshwater ecosystems, seasonal changes in δ13CPHY and related environmental factors were determined in karst reservoirs from the Wujiang river basin, China. Substantial and systematic differences within seasons and reservoirs were observed for δ13CPHY, which ranged from -39.2‰ to -15.1‰. An increase in water temperature triggered fast growth of phytoplankton which assimilated more dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC, resulting in the increase of δ13CPHY, δ13CDIC and pH. When the concentration of dissolved carbon dioxide (CO2 was less than 10 mmol L–1, phytoplankton shifted to using HCO3– as a carbon source. This resulted in the sharp increase of δ13CPHY. The carbon stable isotope composition of phytoplankton tended to decrease with the increase of Bacillariophyta, which dominated in January and April, but tended to increase with the increase of Chlorophyta and Dinophyta, which dominated in July. Multiple regression equations suggested that the influence of biological factors such as taxonomic difference on δ13CPHY could be equal or more important than that of physical and chemical factors. Thus, the effect of taxonomic differences on δ13CPHY must be considered when explaining the δ13C of organic matter in lacustrine ecosystem.

  7. Biofilms on tuff stones at historical sites: identification and removal by nonthermal effects of radiofrequencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cennamo, P; Caputo, P; Giorgio, A; Moretti, A; Pasquino, N

    2013-10-01

    A methodology aiming at identifying and removing biofilms from cultural heritage was applied to stones from tuff walls in historical sites. Identification of phototrophic encrusting microorganisms was carried out by optical and electron microscopy, as well as by molecular techniques (DNA analyses and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE)). In all sites, the examination of microbial components of biofilms resulted in the identification of 17 species belonging to Cyanobacteria, Rhodophyta, Bacillariophyta and Chlorophyta, with Cyanobacteria being the dominant components in all biofilms. In order to remove the biofilms, an innovative technique based on the use of nonthermal effects of radiofrequencies was adopted. The source of the electromagnetic fields was a signal generator connected to a horn antenna through an amplifier to provide the power boost required to generate the target field amplitude. Seven days after exposure to radiofrequency electromagnetic field, about 50 % reduction of biofilm was observed; after 14 days, biofilm extension was reduced by about 90 %. DGGE analyses performed after 14 days confirmed these visual inspections. Also, DGGE analyses carried out before and 14 days after treatments showed that 12 out of 17 identified species disappeared. A complete visual disappearance of biofilms was observed a month after the beginning of treatments. DGGE repeated at this time confirmed the total disappearance of biofilm-forming species. Treated stones, when transferred back to their original sites, did not show any microorganism re-growing after 6 months. No alteration in the color and structural consistency of tuff substrata was observed after radiofrequency treatments.

  8. Screening microalgae isolated from urban storm- and wastewater systems as feedstock for biofuel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca Massimi

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Exploiting microalgae as feedstock for biofuel production is a growing field of research and application, but there remain challenges related to industrial viability and economic sustainability. A solution to the water requirements of industrial-scale production is the use of wastewater as a growth medium. Considering the variable quality and contaminant loads of wastewater, algal feedstock would need to have broad tolerance and resilience to fluctuating wastewater conditions during growth. As a first step in targeting strains for growth in wastewater, our study isolated microalgae from wastewater habitats, including urban stormwater-ponds and a municipal wastewater-treatment system, to assess growth, fatty acids and metal tolerance under standardized conditions. Stormwater ponds in particular have widely fluctuating conditions and metal loads, so microalgae from this type of environment may have desirable traits for growth in wastewater. Forty-three algal strains were isolated in total, including several strains from natural habitats. All strains, with the exception of one cyanobacterial strain, are members of the Chlorophyta, including several taxa commonly targeted for biofuel production. Isolates were identified using taxonomic and 18S rRNA sequence methods, and the fastest growing strains with ideal fatty acid profiles for biodiesel production included Scenedesmus and Desmodesmus species (Growth rate (d−1 > 1. All isolates in a small, but diverse taxonomic group of test-strains were tolerant of copper at wastewater-relevant concentrations. Overall, more than half of the isolated strains, particularly those from stormwater ponds, show promise as candidates for biofuel feedstock.

  9. Benthic algal vegetation in Isfjorden, Svalbard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stein Fredriksen

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Benthic algal vegetation was investigated at 10 sites in Isfjorden, Svalbard. Five sites were visited during summer 2010 and five during summer 2012. Both the littoral and sublittoral vegetation were sampled, the littoral by hand-picking and use of a throwable rake and the sublittoral using a triangular dredge. A total of 88 different taxa were registered, comprising 17 Chlorophyta, 40 Ochrophyta, 30 Rhodophyta and the Xantophyceae Vaucheria sp. The green algae Ulvaria splendens (Ruprecht Vinogradova was recorded in Svalbard for the first time. Most of the sites consisted of hard bottom substrate, but one site, Kapp Wijk, consisted of loose-lying calcareous red algae (rhodoliths and had species not recorded elsewhere. The sublittoral at the other sites was dominated by kelp. Molecular analysis confirmed the presence of the red alga Ceramium virgatum and a dwarf form of the brown alga Fucus vesiculosus. This study provides a baseline for future studies investigating changes in the vegetation due to environmental changes.

  10. A Combination of Soybean and Haematococcus Extract Alleviates Ultraviolet B-Induced Photoaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Jieun; Kim, Jong-Eun; Pak, Kum-Ju; Kang, Jung Il; Kim, Tae-Seok; Lee, Sang-Yoon; Yeo, Ik-Hyun; Park, Jung Han Yoon; Kim, Jong Hun; Kang, Nam Joo; Lee, Ki Won

    2017-01-01

    Soybean-derived isoflavones have been investigated for their preventative effects against UV-induced symptoms of skin damage including wrinkle formation and inflammation. Haematococcus pluvialis is a freshwater species of Chlorophyta that contains high concentrations of the natural carotenoid pigment astaxanthin. Astaxanthin is known to be involved in retinoic acid receptor (RAR) signaling and previously been associated with the inhibition of activator protein (AP)-1 dependent transcription. Based on previous studies, we hypothesized that a combination of soy extract (SE) and Haematococcus extract (HE) may prevent UVB-induced photoaging through specific signaling pathways, as measured by UVB-induced wrinkling on hairless mice skin and expression changes in human dermal fibroblasts (HDFs). The 1:2 ratio of SE and HE mixture (SHM) showed the optimal benefit in vivo. SHM was found to inhibit wrinkle formation via the downregulation of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-1 mRNA and protein expression. SHM also inhibited mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) phosphorylation and the transactivation of AP-1 which plays an important role in regulating MMP expression. These results highlight the potential for SHM to be developed as a therapeutic agent to prevent UVB-induced skin wrinkling. PMID:28327532

  11. Biomass and nutrient productivities of Tetraselmis chuii under mixotrophic culture conditions with various C:N ratios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Lin; Wang, Jun; Yang, Guanpin; Zhu, Baohua; Pan, Kehou

    2017-03-01

    Mass microalgal culture plays an irreplaceable role in aquaculture, but microalgal productivity is restricted by traditional autotrophic culture conditions. In the present study, a Tetraselmis chuii strain belonging to the phylum Chlorophyta was isolated from south Yellow Sea. The growth rate and biomass productivity of this strain was higher under mixotrophic conditions with different carbon:nitrogen (C:N) ratios than those under autotrophic conditions. When the C:N ratio was 16, the optical density and biomass productivity were 3.7- and 5-fold higher than their corresponding values under autotrophic culture conditions, respectively. Moreover, T. chuii synthesized more polysaccharides and total lipids under mixotrophic conditions. In addition, T. chuii cultured under mixotrophic conditions synthesized more types of fatty acids than autotrophic culture conditions. At a C:N ratio of 16, the percentage of C16:0 and C18:1 reached 30.08% and 24.65% of the total fatty acid (TFA) content, respectively. These findings may provide a basis for large-scale mixotrophic culture of T. chuii, as a potential bait-microalga.

  12. Isolation and Identification of Phototrophic Microorganisms from Rudkhan Castle as a Biodeteriorating Agent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parisa Mohammadi

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Phototrophic microorganisms are the first residents of different surfaces of ancient buildings’ walls. These organisms can expand to provide the colonization of other microorganisms and to form microbial biofilms. During biofilm growth, acids and metabolites production bore the substratum and cause surfaces damages. Rudkan Castle, the historic monument located in Gilan province, an area with a humid climate has an appropriate surfaces to grow these microorganisms. Materials and methods: In this study, morphological identification of algae and cyanobacteria which was isolated from different areas of the brick walls of Castle has been investigated. Samples were taken from 24 different areas of Castle walls and were aseptically cultured into Blue Green Medium (BGM and Bolds Basal Medium (BBM, and colonies were observed using light microscopy. Results: The dominant organisms which were isolated and identified, were Cladophora, Trentepohlia, Klebsormidium, Trebouxia, Pleurastrum, Chlorococcum as chlorophyta order and Scytonema, Tolypothrix, Leptolyngbya, Plectolyngbya, Phormidium, Gloeocapsa, Microcoleus, Nostoc as a cyanobacteria order. Discussion and conclusion: As expected, diversity of a large number of cyanobacteria and algae phototrophs was isolated. Diversity of organisms on the surface of monuments depends on many factors, including the weather condition such as moisture, the amount of radiation absorbed by the surface, temperature of area, the materials used in the monuments, the biological acceptance of surface and presence of variety of organisms in the soil surface and the air on. Study of destructive factors is the first step toward the protection and restoration of ancient monuments.

  13. An Improved DNA Extraction Method for Efficient and Quantitative Recovery of Phytoplankton Diversity in Natural Assemblages.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Yuan

    Full Text Available Marine phytoplankton are highly diverse with different species possessing different cell coverings, posing challenges for thoroughly breaking the cells in DNA extraction yet preserving DNA integrity. While quantitative molecular techniques have been increasingly used in phytoplankton research, an effective and simple method broadly applicable to different lineages and natural assemblages is still lacking. In this study, we developed a bead-beating protocol based on our previous experience and tested it against 9 species of phytoplankton representing different lineages and different cell covering rigidities. We found the bead-beating method enhanced the final yield of DNA (highest as 2 folds in comparison with the non-bead-beating method, while also preserving the DNA integrity. When our method was applied to a field sample collected at a subtropical bay located in Xiamen, China, the resultant ITS clone library revealed a highly diverse assemblage of phytoplankton and other micro-eukaryotes, including Archaea, Amoebozoa, Chlorophyta, Ciliphora, Bacillariophyta, Dinophyta, Fungi, Metazoa, etc. The appearance of thecate dinoflagellates, thin-walled phytoplankton and "naked" unicellular organisms indicates that our method could obtain the intact DNA of organisms with different cell coverings. All the results demonstrate that our method is useful for DNA extraction of phytoplankton and environmental surveys of their diversity and abundance.

  14. 武汉市饮用水中浮游藻类的调查%Survey on Algae in Drinking Water in Wuhan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    夏江; 施之新

    2005-01-01

    目的了解武汉市饮用水中浮游藻类的污染情况.方法分别于1999-2001年春、夏、秋、冬对武汉市不同水源供水区末梢水和同一地点水箱水进行4次采样,进行藻类形态学检测.结果生活饮用水中浮游藻类有蓝藻门(Cyanophyta)、隐藻门(Cryptohyta)、金藻门(Chrysophyta)、硅藻门(Bacillariophyta)、裸藻门(Euglenophyta)、绿藻门(Chlorophyta)等6个门,56个属、97个种藻类(其中67个鉴定到种,30个鉴定到属).城市末梢水中浮游藻类检出为89%,饮水水箱水中浮游藻类检出率为86%.同一地点水箱水中浮游藻类在种类和数量上比末梢水均分别增加37%和60%.结论武汉市饮用水受到浮游藻类不同程度的污染.

  15. Two Streptomyces species producing antibiotic, antitumor, and anti-inflammatory compounds are widespread among intertidal macroalgae and deep-sea coral reef invertebrates from the central Cantabrian Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braña, Alfredo F; Braña, Afredo F; Fiedler, Hans-Peter; Nava, Herminio; González, Verónica; Sarmiento-Vizcaíno, Aida; Molina, Axayacatl; Acuña, José L; García, Luis A; Blanco, Gloria

    2015-04-01

    Streptomycetes are widely distributed in the marine environment, although only a few studies on their associations to algae and coral ecosystems have been reported. Using a culture-dependent approach, we have isolated antibiotic-active Streptomyces species associated to diverse intertidal marine macroalgae (Phyllum Heterokontophyta, Rhodophyta, and Chlorophyta), from the central Cantabrian Sea. Two strains, with diverse antibiotic and cytotoxic activities, were found to inhabit these coastal environments, being widespread and persistent over a 3-year observation time frame. Based on 16S rRNA sequence analysis, the strains were identified as Streptomyces cyaneofuscatus M-27 and Streptomyces carnosus M-40. Similar isolates to these two strains were also associated to corals and other invertebrates from deep-sea coral reef ecosystem (Phyllum Cnidaria, Echinodermata, Arthropoda, Sipuncula, and Anelida) living up to 4.700-m depth in the submarine Avilés Canyon, thus revealing their barotolerant feature. These two strains were also found to colonize terrestrial lichens and have been repeatedly isolated from precipitations from tropospheric clouds. Compounds with antibiotic and cytotoxic activities produced by these strains were identified by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and database comparison. Antitumor compounds with antibacterial activities and members of the anthracycline family (daunomycin, cosmomycin B, galtamycin B), antifungals (maltophilins), anti-inflamatory molecules also with antituberculosis properties (lobophorins) were identified in this work. Many other compounds produced by the studied strains still remain unidentified, suggesting that Streptomyces associated to algae and coral ecosystems might represent an underexplored promising source for pharmaceutical drug discovery.

  16. Isolation of a euryhaline microalgal strain, Tetraselmis sp. CTP4, as a robust feedstock for biodiesel production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Hugo; Gangadhar, Katkam N.; Schulze, Peter S. C.; Santos, Tamára; de Sousa, Carolina Bruno; Schueler, Lisa M.; Custódio, Luísa; Malcata, F. Xavier; Gouveia, Luísa; Varela, João C. S.; Barreira, Luísa

    2016-01-01

    Bioprospecting for novel microalgal strains is key to improving the feasibility of microalgae-derived biodiesel production. Tetraselmis sp. CTP4 (Chlorophyta, Chlorodendrophyceae) was isolated using fluorescence activated cell sorting (FACS) in order to screen novel lipid-rich microalgae. CTP4 is a robust, euryhaline strain able to grow in seawater growth medium as well as in non-sterile urban wastewater. Because of its large cell size (9–22 μm), CTP4 settles down after a six-hour sedimentation step. This leads to a medium removal efficiency of 80%, allowing a significant decrease of biomass dewatering costs. Using a two-stage system, a 3-fold increase in lipid content (up to 33% of DW) and a 2-fold enhancement in lipid productivity (up to 52.1 mg L−1 d−1) were observed upon exposure to nutrient depletion for 7 days. The biodiesel synthesized from the lipids of CTP4 contained high levels of oleic acid (25.67% of total fatty acids content) and minor amounts of polyunsaturated fatty acids with ≥4 double bonds (<1%). As a result, this biofuel complies with most of the European (EN14214) and American (ASTM D6751) specifications, which commonly used microalgal feedstocks are usually unable to meet. In conclusion, Tetraselmis sp. CTP4 displays promising features as feedstock with lower downstream processing costs for biomass dewatering and biodiesel refining. PMID:27767051

  17. Las microalgas de Tillandsia multicaulis Steud. (Bromeliaceae de la Reserva Ecológica “La Martinica”, Veracruz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brisceida Hernández-Rodríguez

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Las bromelias tienen la capacidad de retener agua en las axilas de las hojas lo que es conocido como tanques o fitotelmata; mantienen cadenas tróficas complejas con todo tipo de organismos, desde bacterias hasta vertebrados pequeños. En este trabajo, presentamos la primera aproximación a las microalgas que viven en las cisternas de una especie de bromelia en la Reserva Ecológica “La Martinica” en Banderilla, Veracruz. Las recolecciones se estudiaron en material preservado y en cultivos. Se obtuvieron cerca de 60 algas pertenecientes a las Cyanoprokariota, Euglenophyta, Cryptophyta, Chlorophyta y Bacillariophyta, sin embargo, solo se lograron identificar 16 especies. Se concluye que los tanques de Tillandsia multicaulis brindan las condiciones adecuadas para el desarrollo de microalgas y que la ubicación y la morfología de la bromelia influyen en la distribución de este grupo biológico. La escasez de individuos en las muestras analizadas no permitió una identificación precisa de todas las especies. En los cultivos aparecieron especies no observadas en el material preservado, lo que indica una flora mucho más rica de la que puede observarse directamente.

  18. An Improved DNA Extraction Method for Efficient and Quantitative Recovery of Phytoplankton Diversity in Natural Assemblages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Jian; Li, Meizhen; Lin, Senjie

    2015-01-01

    Marine phytoplankton are highly diverse with different species possessing different cell coverings, posing challenges for thoroughly breaking the cells in DNA extraction yet preserving DNA integrity. While quantitative molecular techniques have been increasingly used in phytoplankton research, an effective and simple method broadly applicable to different lineages and natural assemblages is still lacking. In this study, we developed a bead-beating protocol based on our previous experience and tested it against 9 species of phytoplankton representing different lineages and different cell covering rigidities. We found the bead-beating method enhanced the final yield of DNA (highest as 2 folds) in comparison with the non-bead-beating method, while also preserving the DNA integrity. When our method was applied to a field sample collected at a subtropical bay located in Xiamen, China, the resultant ITS clone library revealed a highly diverse assemblage of phytoplankton and other micro-eukaryotes, including Archaea, Amoebozoa, Chlorophyta, Ciliphora, Bacillariophyta, Dinophyta, Fungi, Metazoa, etc. The appearance of thecate dinoflagellates, thin-walled phytoplankton and “naked” unicellular organisms indicates that our method could obtain the intact DNA of organisms with different cell coverings. All the results demonstrate that our method is useful for DNA extraction of phytoplankton and environmental surveys of their diversity and abundance. PMID:26218575

  19. Cenoses of phototrophic algae of ultrasaline lakes in the Kulunda steppe (Altai krai, Russian Federation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sapozhnikov, Ph. V.; Kalinina, O. Yu.; Nikitin, M. A.; Samylina, O. S.

    2016-01-01

    In 2012, expeditions of the Institute of Microbiology, Russian Academy of Sciences, delivered samples of algo-bacterial mats from Kulunda steppe alkaline lakes (Petukhovskoe alkaline lake, Tanatar VI, and Gorchina III). The filamentous alga Ctenocladus circinnatus (Chlorophyta) acted as an edificator of the mats. The composition of cenoses algocomponents also included chlorophytes Dunaliella viridis and Picocystis salinarum as well as diatoms Anomeoneis sphaerophora, Brachysira brebissonii, B. zellensis, Mastogloia pusilla var. subcapitata, Nitzschia amphibia, N. cf. communis, and Nitzschia sp. 1. The composition and structure of phototrophic algae cenoses (including diatom taxocenes) were described for the investigated lakes for the first time. For the period from 2011 to 2012, the total mineralization significantly increased in lakes. This involved sensible alterations of cenoses. B. zellensis was the most permanent component of diatom taxocenes in both seasons. In the summer of 2011, it was often accompanied by A. sphaerophora and B. brebissonii. In the summer of 2012, A. sphaerophora was found only singularly in Lake Gorchina III, and some biotopes of Lake Tanatar VI were massively inhabited by N. cf. communis, including colonies that had not been previously described for the species. The genetic analysis of three diatoms, which are markedly different from each other in their appearance and were sampled from different lakes but were all determined as Nitzschia cf. communis, showed their complete similarity to each other with the 18S rRNA gene fragment and the highest similarity of all the three diatoms with the species Nitzschia communis.

  20. Phylogenetic analyses of four species of Ulva and Monostroma grevillei using ITS, rbcL and 18S rDNA sequence data

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIN Zhongheng; SHEN Songdong; CHEN Weizhou; LI Huihui

    2013-01-01

    Chlorophyta species are common in the southern and northern coastal areas of China.In recent years,frequent green tide incidents in Chinese coastal waters have raised concerns and attracted the attention of scientists.In this paper,we sequenced the 18S rDNA genes,the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) regions and the rbcL genes in seven organisms and obtained 536-566 bp long ITS sequences,1 377-1 407 bp long rbcL sequences and 1 718-1 761 bp long partial 18S rDNA sequences.The GC base pair content was highest in the ITS regions and lowest in the rbcL genes.The sequencing results showed that the three Ulvaprolifera (or U.pertusa) gene sequences from Qingdao and Nan'ao Island were identical.The ITS,18S rDNA and rbcL genes in U.prolifera and U.pertusa from different sea areas in China were unchanged by geographic distance.U.flexuosa had the least evolutionary distance from U.californica in both the ITS regions (0.009) and the 18S rDNA (0.002).These data verified that Ulva and Enteromorpha are not separate genera.

  1. Protist community composition during early phytoplankton blooms in the naturally iron-fertilized Kerguelen area (Southern Ocean)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georges, C.; Monchy, S.; Genitsaris, S.; Christaki, U.

    2014-10-01

    Microbial eukaryotic community composition was examined by 18S rRNA gene tag pyrosequencing, during the early phase of spring phytoplankton blooms induced by natural iron fertilization, off Kerguelen Island in the Southern Ocean (KEOPS2 cruise). A total of 999 operational taxonomical units (OTUs), affiliated to 30 known high-level taxonomic groups, were retrieved from 16 samples collected in the upper 300 m water column. The alveolata group was the most abundant in terms of sequence number and diversity (696 OTUs). The majority of alveolata sequences were affiliated to Dinophyceae and to two major groups of marine alveolates (MALV-I and MALV-II). In the upper 180 m, only 13% of the OTUs were shared between of the fertilized stations and the reference site characterized by high-nutrient low-chlorophyll (HNLC) waters. Fungi and Cercozoa were present in iron-fertilized waters, but almost absent in the HNLC samples, while Haptophyta and Chlorophyta characterized the HNLC sample. Finally, the 300 m depth samples of all stations were differentiated by the presence of MALV-II and Radiolaria. Multivariate analysis, examining the level of similarity between different samples, showed that protistan assemblages differed significantly between the HNLC and iron-fertilized stations, but also between the diverse iron-fertilized blooms.

  2. Phylogenetic analyses of four species of Ulva and Monostroma grevillei using ITS, rbc L and 18S rDNA sequence data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Zhongheng; Shen, Songdong; Chen, Weizhou; Li, Huihui

    2013-01-01

    Chlorophyta species are common in the southern and northern coastal areas of China. In recent years, frequent green tide incidents in Chinese coastal waters have raised concerns and attracted the attention of scientists. In this paper, we sequenced the 18S rDNA genes, the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) regions and the rbc L genes in seven organisms and obtained 536-566 bp long ITS sequences, 1 377-1 407 bp long rbc L sequences and 1 718-1 761 bp long partial 18S rDNA sequences. The GC base pair content was highest in the ITS regions and lowest in the rbc L genes. The sequencing results showed that the three Ulva prolifera (or U. pertusa) gene sequences from Qingdao and Nan'ao Island were identical. The ITS, 18S rDNA and rbc L genes in U. prolifera and U. pertusa from different sea areas in China were unchanged by geographic distance. U. flexuosa had the least evolutionary distance from U. californica in both the ITS regions (0.009) and the 18S rDNA (0.002). These data verified that Ulva and Enteromorpha are not separate genera.

  3. Comparisons of the fungal and protistan communities among different marine sponge holobionts by pyrosequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Liming; Liu, Fang; Karuppiah, Valliappan; Ren, Yi; Li, Zhiyong

    2014-05-01

    To date, the knowledge of eukaryotic communities associated with sponges remains limited compared with prokaryotic communities. In a manner similar to prokaryotes, it could be hypothesized that sponge holobionts have phylogenetically diverse eukaryotic symbionts, and the eukaryotic community structures in different sponge holobionts were probably different. In order to test this hypothesis, the communities of eukaryota associated with 11 species of South China Sea sponges were compared with the V4 region of 18S ribosomal ribonucleic acid gene using 454 pyrosequencing. Consequently, 135 and 721 unique operational taxonomic units (OTUs) of fungi and protists were obtained at 97 % sequence similarity, respectively. These sequences were assigned to 2 phyla of fungi (Ascomycota and Basidiomycota) and 9 phyla of protists including 5 algal phyla (Chlorophyta, Haptophyta, Streptophyta, Rhodophyta, and Stramenopiles) and 4 protozoal phyla (Alveolata, Cercozoa, Haplosporidia, and Radiolaria) including 47 orders (12 fungi, 35 protists). Entorrhizales of fungi and 18 orders of protists were detected in marine sponges for the first time. Particularly, Tilletiales of fungi and Chlorocystidales of protists were detected for the first time in marine habitats. Though Ascomycota, Alveolata, and Radiolaria were detected in all the 11 sponge species, sponge holobionts have different fungi and protistan communities according to OTU comparison and principal component analysis at the order level. This study provided the first insights into the fungal and protistan communities associated with different marine sponge holobionts using pyrosequencing, thus further extending the knowledge on sponge-associated eukaryotic diversity.

  4. High genetic diversity and novelty in eukaryotic plankton assemblages inhabiting saline lakes in the Qaidam basin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jiali; Wang, Fang; Chu, Limin; Wang, Hao; Zhong, Zhiping; Liu, Zhipei; Gao, Jianyong; Duan, Hairong

    2014-01-01

    Saline lakes are intriguing ecosystems harboring extremely productive microbial communities in spite of their extreme environmental conditions. We performed a comprehensive analysis of the genetic diversity (18S rRNA gene) of the planktonic microbial eukaryotes (nano- and picoeukaryotes) in six different inland saline lakes located in the Qaidam Basin. The novelty level are high, with about 11.23% of the whole dataset showing 18S rRNA gene sequence reads obtained in investigated mesosaline lakes is closely related to Holozoa group (48.13%), whereas Stramenopiles (26.65%) and Alveolates (10.84%) are the next most common groups. Hypersaline lakes in the Qaidam Basin are also dominated by Holozoa group, accounting for 26.65% of the total number of sequence reads. Notably, Chlorophyta group are only found in high abundance in Lake Gasikule (28.00%), whereas less represented in other hypersaline lakes such as Gahai (0.50%) and Xiaochaidan (1.15%). Further analysis show that the compositions of planktonic eukaryotic assemblages are also most variable between different sampling sites in the same lake. Out of the parameters, four show significant correlation to this CCA: altitude, calcium, sodium and potassium concentrations. Overall, this study shows important gaps in the current knowledge about planktonic microbial eukaryotes inhabiting Qaidam Basin (hyper) saline water bodies. The identified diversity and novelty patterns among eukaryotic plankton assemblages in saline lake are of great importance for understanding and interpreting their ecology and evolution.

  5. Eukaryotic microbial diversity of phototrophic microbial mats in two Icelandic geothermalhot springs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilera, Angeles; Souza-Egipsy, Virginia; González-Toril, Elena; Rendueles, Olaya; Amils, Ricardo

    2010-03-01

    The composition of the eukaryotic community and the three-dimensional structure of diverse phototrophic microbial mats from two hot springs in Iceland (Seltun and Hveradalir geothermal areas) were explored by comparing eukaryotic assemblages from microbial mats. Samples were collected in July 2007 from 15 sampling stations along thermal and pH gradients following both hot springs. Physicochemical data revealed high variability in terms of pH (ranging from 2.8 to 7), with high concentrations of heavy metals, including up to 20 g Fe/l, 80 mg Zn/l, 117 mg Cu/l, and 39 mg Ni/l at the most acidic sampling points. Phylogenetic analysis of 18S rDNA genes revealed a diversity of sequences related to several taxa, including members of the Bacillariophyta, Chlorophyta, Rhodophyta, and Euglenophyta phyla as well as ciliates, amoebae, and stramenopiles. The closest relatives to some of the sequences detected came from acidophilic organisms, even when the samples were collected at circumneutral water locations. Electron microscopy showed that most of the microecosystems analyzed were organized as phototrophic microbial mats in which filamentous cyanobacteria usually appeared as a major component. Deposits of amorphous minerals rich in silica, iron, and aluminium around the filaments were frequently detected.

  6. Comparative assessment of bacterial diversity associated with co-occurring eukaryotic hosts of Palk Bay origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viszwapriya, Dharmaprakash; Aravindraja, Chairmandurai; Pandian, Shunmugiah Karutha

    2015-06-01

    Epibacterial communities of co-occurring eukaryotic hosts of Palk Bay origin (five seaweed species (Gracilaria sp, Padina sp, Enteromorpha sp, Sargassum sp, and Turbinaria sp) and one seagrass [Cymodaceae sp]) were analyzed for diversity and compared using 16S rRNA based Denaturant Gradient Gel Electrophoresis analysis. Diversity index revealed that Turbinaria sp hosts highest bacterial diversity while it was least in Gracilaria sp. The DGGE band profile showed that the epibacterial community differed considerably among the studied species. Statistical assessment using cluster analysis and Non-metric multidimensional scale analysis also authenticated the observed variability. Despite huge overlap, the composition of bacterial community structure differed significantly among the three closely related species namely Sargassum, Turbinaria and Padina. In addition, Enteromorpha and Sargassum, one being chlorophyta and the other phaeophyta showed about 80% similarity in bacterial composition. This differs from the general notion that epibacterial community composition will vary widely depending on the host phyla. The results extended the phenomenon of host specific epibacterial community irrespective of phylogeny and similarity in geographical location.

  7. Direct evaluation of macroalgal removal by herbivorous coral reef fishes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mantyka, C. S.; Bellwood, D. R.

    2007-06-01

    Few studies have examined the relative functional impacts of individual herbivorous fish species on coral reef ecosystem processes in the Indo-Pacific. This study assessed the potential grazing impact of individual species within an inshore herbivorous reef fish assemblage on the central Great Barrier Reef (GBR), by determining which fish species were able to remove particular macroalgal species. Transplanted multiple-choice algal assays and remote stationary underwater digital video cameras were used to quantify the impact of local herbivorous reef fish species on 12 species of macroalgae. Macroalgal removal by the fishes was rapid. Within 3 h of exposure to herbivorous reef fishes there was significant evidence of intense grazing. After 12 h of exposure, 10 of the 12 macroalgal species had decreased to less than 15% of their original mass. Chlorodesmis fastigiata (Chlorophyta) and Galaxaura sp. (Rhodophyta) showed significantly less susceptibility to herbivorous reef fish grazing than all other macroalgae, even after 24 h exposure. Six herbivorous and/or nominally herbivorous reef fish species were identified as the dominant grazers of macroalgae: Siganus doliatus, Siganus canaliculatus, Chlorurus microrhinos, Hipposcarus longiceps, Scarus rivulatus and Pomacanthus sexstriatus. The siganid S. doliatus fed heavily on Hypnea sp., while S. canaliculatus fed intensively on Sargassum sp. Variation in macroalgal susceptibility was not clearly correlated with morphological and/or chemical defenses that have been previously suggested as deterrents against herbivory. Nevertheless, the results stress the potential importance of individual herbivorous reef fish species in removing macroalgae from coral reefs.

  8. Seasonal variations in biomass and species composition of seaweeds along the northern coasts of Persian Gulf (Bushehr Province)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dadolahi-Sohrab, A.; Garavand-Karimi, M.; Riahi, H.; Pashazanoosi, H.

    2012-02-01

    This study was carried out to evaluate the seasonal variations of seaweed biomass and species composition at six different sites along the coastal areas in Bushehr Province. Sampling depths varied among sites, from 0.3 to 2.0 m below mean sea level. A total of 37 (i.e., 10 Chlorophyta, 12 Phaeophyta and 15 Rhodophyta) seaweed species were collected. Studies were conducted for quantifying the seaweeds during four seasons from October 2008 until July 2009. During present research, Ulva intestinalis and Cladophora nitellopsis of green, Polycladia myrica, Sirophysalia trinodis and Sargassum angustifolium of brown and Gracilaria canaliculata and Hypnea cervicornis of red seaweeds showed highest biomass in coastal areas of Bushehr Province. The Cheney`s ratio of 2.1 indicated a temperate algal flora to this area. All sites exhibited more than 50% similarity of algal species, indicating a relatively homogenous algal distribution. Total biomass showed the highest value of 3280.7 ± 537.8 g dry wt m - 2 during summer and lowest value of 856.9 ± 92.0 g dry wt m - 2 during winter. During this study, the highest and lowest seaweed biomass were recorded on the site 2 (2473.7 ± 311.0 g dry wt m - 2) and site 5 (856.7 ± 96.8 g dry wt m - 2), respectively.

  9. [Phytoplankton from Tehuantepec River, Oaxaca, Mexico and some biogeographical relationships].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno-Ruiz, José L; Tapia-García, Margarito; González-Macias, Ma Del Carmen; Figueroa-Torres, Ma Guadalupe

    2008-03-01

    Phytoplankton species collected from the limnetic to euryhaline sections of Tehuantepec River were identified, classified and compared with regional information from Mexico and South America. We collected 15 samples every three months from July 1997 through August 1998 with a 20 microm net and a Van Dorn bottle. Indicator values and a code checklist are included. A total of 58 families, 121 genera, 273 species, one subspecies, 75 varieties, 13 forms and one morphotype were identified in the taxa Bacillariophyta (42.0 %), Chlorophyta (29.0 %), Cyanoprocaryota (18.0 %), Euglenophyta (5.0 %), Dinophyta (3.0 %), Cryptophyta (2.0 %) and Chrysophyta (1.0 %). The predominant families were Scenedesmaceae (24 species), Oocystaceae (22), Bacillariophyceae (21), Chaetocerotaceae (15) and Euglenaceae (14). Five families, eight genera, 72 species, 45 varieties and eight forms are first records for Mexico. The species Chroococcus turgidus, Microcystis flosaquae and Pseudanabaena limnetica (which produce massive blooms or red tides) are important in this river of moderate water quality.

  10. Heavy metal concentrations in marine green, brown, and red seaweeds from coastal waters of Yemen, the Gulf of Aden

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Shwafi, Nabil A.; Rushdi, Ahmed I.

    2008-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the concentration levels of heavy metals in different species of the main three marine algal divisions from the Gulf of Aden coastal waters, Yemen. The divisions included Chlorophyta—green plants ( Halimeda tuna, Rhizoclonium kochiamum, Caldophora koiei, Enteromorpha compressa, and Caulerpa racemosa species), Phaeophyta—brown seaweeds ( Padina boryana, Turbinaria elatensis, Sargassum binderi, Cystoseira myrica, and Sargassum boveanum species), and Rhodophyta—red seaweeds ( Hypnea cornuta, Champia parvula, Galaxaura marginate, Laurencia paniculata, Gracilaria foliifere, and species). The heavy metals, which included cadmium (Cd), cobalt (Co), copper (Cu), chromium (Cr), Iron (Fe), manganese (Mn), nickel (Ni), lead (Pb), zinc (Zn), and vanadium (V) were measured by Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer (AAs). The concentrations of heavy metals in all algal species are in the order of Fe >> Cu > Mn > Cr > Zn > Ni > Pb > Cd > V > Co. The results also showed that the uptake of heavy metals by different marine algal divisions was in the order of Chlorophyta > Phaeophyta > Rhodophyta. These heavy metals were several order of magnitude higher than the concentrations of the same metals in seawater. This indicates that marine alga progressively uptake heavy metals from seawater.

  11. Structure and composition of the phytoplanktonic community in TRanca Grande Lagoo (Junín, Perú

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauro Mariano-Astocóndor

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The Tranca Grande lagoon is one of the systems where the truchiculture is realized, a productive activity which supports the lake since 1995. It is located in the Paramo floor or Tropical Montano in the Department of Junin, Province of Jauja to 4320 m of altitude (11º43’57?S and (75º13’18? W. The structure and composition of the superficial phytoplanktonic community was studied from monthly samples collected from January to December on 1996 in relation to 21 physical-chemical variables of water. The community showed 51 species belonging to Bacillariophyta, Chlorophyta, Cyanophyta, Euglenophyta, Chrysophyta and Pyrrophyta. The highest average values of density were from Gloeocystis gigas and Ulothrix sp. On the rainy months, the rain fall had a considerable influence on the dilution and sedimentation of the macronutrients responsible for the conductivity, alkalinity, hardness, calcium and magnesium which decrease their values, and likewise the values of the diversity and density decrease. In the period of low-water mark, the characteristics mentioned about rainy period appear on the inverse way. The quantity of species and their density on the phytoplankton were found with the Multiple Regression Analysis. a Species = 7,32+10,59 (The clearness of water - 0,1614 (hardness of calcium + 4,90 (nitrates. b Density = -1,00 + 4397,18 (pH - 223,6 (total alkalinity - 1,4 (phosphates

  12. Sequence and phylogenetic analyses of the chloroplast 16S rRNA, tufA, and rbcL genes from Bryopsis hypnoides

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    L(U) Fang; WANG Guangce

    2011-01-01

    Using shotgun sequencing data,the complete sequences of chloroplast 16S rRNA and tufA genes were acquired from native specimens of Bryopsis hypnoides (Qingdao,China).There are two group Ⅰ introns in the 16S rRNA gene,which is structurally similar to that of Caulerpa sertularioides (Bryopsidales,Chlorophyta).The chloroplast-encoded tufA gene sequence is 1230 bp long,very AT-rich (61.5%),and is similar to previously published 16S rRNA sequences of bryopsidinean algae.Phylogenetic analyses based on chloroplast 16S rRNA and tufA gene sequence data support previous hypotheses that the Bryopsidineae,Halimedineae,and Ostreobidineae are three distinct lineages.These results also confirmed the exclusion of Avrainvillea from the family Udoteaceae.Phylogenetic analyses inferred that the genus Bryopsis as sister to Derbesia; however,this clade lacked robust nodal support.Moreover,the phylogenetic tree inferred from rbcL GenBank sequences,combined with the geographical distributions of Bryopsis species,identified a strongly supportive clade for three differently distributed Asian Bryopsis species.The preliminary results suggesting that these organisms are of distinct regional endemism.

  13. BEBERAPA MARGA ALGA BENANG DAN HUBUNGANNYA DENGAN KEBERADAAN VEKTOR MALARIA DI BALI UTARA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. G. Seregeg

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available A study of filamentous algae and its relation to malaria vector control was conducted during the dry season in several lagoons at the north coast of Bali. Floating masses of these algae under the sunshine barricated the spread of solar-triton larvicide, reducing tremendously the effectiveness of the larvicide. Identification of the genera of these algae under the subphyllum of CYANOPHYTA (Blue Algae in the family of Cyanophyceae were Oscillatoria, Spirulina, Phormidium, Rivularia, Nostoc, and Anabaena; under the subphyllum of CHLOROPHYTA (Green Algae in the family of Chlorophyceae were Enteromorpha, Spirogyra, Mougeotia, Zygnema, and Oedogonium. The surface of water in between the floating masses of algae were an exellent breeding place of mosquitoes mainly Anopheles sundaicus. The density of Enteromorpha, the main attractant of An sundaicus compared to other filamantous algae, has no direct relation on the density of An. sundaicus larva. Hence Enteromorpha could only be considered as the indicator of the presence of larvae and not as the indicator of population densities of larvae Lagoons surrounded with mangrove plantations did not harbour filamentous algae and larvae of An. sundaicus were not found.

  14. The genome of the polar eukaryotic microalga Coccomyxa subellipsoidea reveals traits of cold adaptation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blanc, Guillaume; Agarkova, Irina; Grimwood, Jane; Kuo, Alan; Brueggeman, Andrew; Dunigan, David D.; Gurnon, James; Ladunga, Istvan; Lindquist, Erika; Lucas, Susan; Pangilinan, Jasmyn; Proschold, Thomas; Salamov, Asaf; Schmutz, Jeremy; Weeks, Donald; Tamada, Takashi; Lomsadze, Alexandre; Borodovsky, Mark; Claverie, Jean-Michel; Grigoriev, Igor V.; Van Etten, James L.

    2012-02-13

    Background Little is known about the mechanisms of adaptation of life to the extreme environmental conditions encountered in polar regions. Here we present the genome sequence of a unicellular green alga from the division chlorophyta, Coccomyxa subellipsoidea C-169, which we will hereafter refer to as C-169. This is the first eukaryotic microorganism from a polar environment to have its genome sequenced. Results The 48.8 Mb genome contained in 20 chromosomes exhibits significant synteny conservation with the chromosomes of its relatives Chlorella variabilis and Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. The order of the genes is highly reshuffled within synteny blocks, suggesting that intra-chromosomal rearrangements were more prevalent than inter-chromosomal rearrangements. Remarkably, Zepp retrotransposons occur in clusters of nested elements with strictly one cluster per chromosome probably residing at the centromere. Several protein families overrepresented in C. subellipsoidae include proteins involved in lipid metabolism, transporters, cellulose synthases and short alcohol dehydrogenases. Conversely, C-169 lacks proteins that exist in all other sequenced chlorophytes, including components of the glycosyl phosphatidyl inositol anchoring system, pyruvate phosphate dikinase and the photosystem 1 reaction center subunit N (PsaN). Conclusions We suggest that some of these gene losses and gains could have contributed to adaptation to low temperatures. Comparison of these genomic features with the adaptive strategies of psychrophilic microbes suggests that prokaryotes and eukaryotes followed comparable evolutionary routes to adapt to cold environments.

  15. Negative effects of Microcystis blooms on the crustacean plankton in an enclosure experiment in the subtropical China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Fei-zhou; XIE Ping; TANG Hui-juan; LIU Hong

    2005-01-01

    Effects of Microcystis blooms on the crustacean plankton were studied using enclosure experiments during July-September,2000. Eight enclosures were set in the hypereutrophic Donghu Lake. Different nutrient concentrations through additional nutrient and sediment in enclosures were expected to result in different abundance of Microcystis. From July to early August, the phytoplankton community was dominated by Chlorophyta, Cryptophyta, Bacillariophyta and Cyanophyta other than Microcystis aeruginosa. M. aeruginosa showed a rapid increase during early August in all enclosures and predominated. Crustacean plankton was dominated by the herbivorous Moina micrura, Diaphanosoma brachyurum and Ceriodaphnia cornuta, and the predaceous Mesocyclops sp. and Thermocyclops taihokuensis. During the pre-bloom period, the dynamics of M. micrura population appeared to be mainly affected by the predaceous cyclopoids. With the development of Microcystis blooms, such interaction between M. micrura and cyclopoids seemed weakened, especially when the Microcystis biomass was high. But there was no apparent influence on the interaction between Leptodora kindti and its zooplanktonic prey. The density of two cyclopoids decreased with the enhancement of Microcystis. The density decline of M. micrura was caused by both predation and inhibition by Microcystis. The low food availability of other edible phytoplankton during the blooms led to low densities of both C. comuta and D. brachyurum by late August. lt appears that dense Microcystis blooms exert strong negative effects on the herbivorous cladocerans and the predaceous cyclopoids.

  16. Prasinoxanthin-constaining Prasinophyceae Discovered in Jiaozhou Bay, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhi-Gang Yu; Chun-Mei Deng; Peng Yao; Yu Zhen; Shu-Ben Qian

    2007-01-01

    The class Prasinophyceae (Chlorophyta) contains some photosynthetic eukaryotlc ultraplankton species characterized by containing prasinoxanthin. The existence and abundance of these organisms can be estimated by the diagnostic pigment. We detected the unique pigments of prasinoxanthin-contalning Prasinophyceae in Jlaozhou Bay, China using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). This was the first finding of this kind in Chinese seas. Using the ratio of prasinoxanthin to chlorophyll a, the abundance of prasinoxanthin-containing Prasinophyceae has been calculated. The average contribution of prasinoxanthin-contalning Prasinophyceae to the chlorophyll a pool was 8.5% and 17.0% in May and August 2004 in Jiaozhou Bay, and the maximums were 25.9% and 36.3%. Size fractionated pigment analysis suggested that more than 80% of prasinoxanthin were in the fraction of 2-20 μm.According to the results of pigment and morphological analysis, the possible genera of prasinoxanthin-containing Prasinophyceae and the reasons for causing this high abundant phytoplankton in Jiaozhou Bay were discussed.This kind of phytoplankton can not be discovered in traditional biological investigation, but its contribution to the coastal ecosystem is significant enough to be studied further.

  17. Research on the discrimination methods of algae based on the fluorescence excitation spectra

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HU Xupeng; SU Rongguo; ZOU Weiming; REN Shijun; WANG Hongtao; CHAI Xiaoping; WANG Yiming

    2010-01-01

    The excitation spectra of chlorophyll(Chl)fluorescence can be used to differentiate phytoplankton populations at phylum level in vivo and in situ within a few minutes.The investigated phytoplankton divisions(Dinophyta,Bacillariophyta,Chrysophyta,Cyanophyta,Cryptophyta,Chlorophyta)are each characterized by a specific composition of photosynthetic antenna pigments and,consequently,by a specific excitation spectrum of the Chl fluorescence.Norm excitation spectra(emission of 680 nm and excitation of 400-600 nm)of every division were obtained from several species per division by a F4500 fluorescence spectrophotometer.Fisher's linear discriminant analysis of the norm spectra shows that the divisions could be discriminated.The discrimination method,established by multivariate linear regression and weighted least squares,was used to differentiate the phytoplankton samples cultured in the laboratory and samples collected from the Jiaozhao Bay at division level.The correctly discriminated samples were more than 94% for single algal species ones,more than 84% for simulatively mixed ones,more than 83% for real mixed ones and 100% for samples collected from the Jiaozhou Bay for the dominant species.The method for phytoplankton differentiation described here can be applied to routine checking by fluorescence spectrophotometer,and benefit the monitoring and supervision tasks related to phytoplankton populations in the marine environments.

  18. Reproducing stone monument photosynthetic-based colonization under laboratory conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Ana Zélia; Laiz, Leonila; Gonzalez, Juan Miguel; Dionísio, Amélia; Macedo, Maria Filomena; Saiz-Jimenez, Cesareo

    2008-11-01

    In order to understand the biodeterioration process occurring on stone monuments, we analyzed the microbial communities involved in these processes and studied their ability to colonize stones under controlled laboratory experiments. In this study, a natural green biofilm from a limestone monument was cultivated, inoculated on stone probes of the same lithotype and incubated in a laboratory chamber. This incubation system, which exposes stone samples to intermittently sprinkling water, allowed the development of photosynthetic biofilms similar to those occurring on stone monuments. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) analysis was used to evaluate the major microbial components of the laboratory biofilms. Cyanobacteria, green microalgae, bacteria and fungi were identified by DNA-based molecular analysis targeting the 16S and 18S ribosomal RNA genes. The natural green biofilm was mainly composed by the Chlorophyta Chlorella, Stichococcus, and Trebouxia, and by Cyanobacteria belonging to the genera Leptolyngbya and Pleurocapsa. A number of bacteria belonging to Alphaproteobacteria, Bacteroidetes and Verrucomicrobia were identified, as well as fungi from the Ascomycota. The laboratory colonization experiment on stone probes showed a colonization pattern similar to that occurring on stone monuments. The methodology described in this paper allowed to reproduce a colonization equivalent to the natural biodeteriorating process.

  19. Influence of the shoot density of Halodule wrightii Ascherson from rocky and sandy habitats on associated macroalgal communities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kcrishna Vilanova de Souza Barros

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the influence of the shoot density of the shoal grass Halodule wrightii on the composition of the associated algal community, in rocky and sandy habitats on the coast of Ceará in northeastern Brazil. The phycological community included 18 species in 10 families, members of Rodophyta (72.2%, Chlorophyta (22.2% and Phaeophyceae (5.5%. The largest proportion were epilithic (50%, followed by epiphytes on H. wrightii (38.4%, epipsammics (8%, and epiphytes on other algae (4%. Epiphytes on H. wrightii occurred mainly associated with rhizomes, but also tendrils of H. musciformis occurred attached to the leaves. The phycological community varied according to the density of H. wrightii, independently of particular characters of the meadows, although both habitat and other environmental variables seemed to influence the macroalgae composition and diversity. The rocky habitat was more diverse than the sandy habitat, but in the sandy habitat the shoal grass was important for algal settlement in areas where hard substrates were scarce or absent.

  20. The distribution of Elongation Factor-1 Alpha (EF-1alpha), Elongation Factor-Like (EFL), and a non-canonical genetic code in the ulvophyceae: discrete genetic characters support a consistent phylogenetic framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gile, Gillian H; Novis, Philip M; Cragg, David S; Zuccarello, Giuseppe C; Keeling, Patrick J

    2009-01-01

    The systematics of the green algal class Ulvophyceae have been difficult to resolve with ultrastructural and molecular phylogenetic analyses. Therefore, we investigated relationships among ulvophycean orders by determining the distribution of two discrete genetic characters previously identified only in the order Dasycladales. First, Acetabularia acetabulum uses the core translation GTPase Elongation Factor 1alpha (EF-1alpha) while most Chlorophyta instead possess the related GTPase Elongation Factor-Like (EFL). Second, the nuclear genomes of dasycladaleans A. acetabulum and Batophora oerstedii use a rare non-canonical genetic code in which the canonical termination codons TAA and TAG instead encode glutamine. Representatives of Ulvales and Ulotrichales were found to encode EFL, while Caulerpales, Dasycladales, Siphonocladales, and Ignatius tetrasporus were found to encode EF-1alpha, in congruence with the two major lineages previously proposed for the Ulvophyceae. The EF-1alpha of I. tetrasporus supports its relationship with Caulerpales/Dasycladales/Siphonocladales, in agreement with ultrastructural evidence, but contrary to certain small subunit rRNA analyses that place it with Ulvales/Ulotrichales. The same non-canonical genetic code previously described in A. acetabulum was observed in EF-1alpha sequences from Parvocaulis pusillus (Dasycladales), Chaetomorpha coliformis, and Cladophora cf. crinalis (Siphonocladales), whereas Caulerpales use the universal code. This supports a sister relationship between Siphonocladales and Dasycladales and further refines our understanding of ulvophycean phylogeny.

  1. Anticoagulant activity of a sulfated polysaccharide isolated from the green seaweed Caulerpa cupressoides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Ariévilo Gurgel Rodrigues

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate certain molecular characteristics of a sulfated polysaccharide (SPs with anticoagulant properties, isolated from Caulerpa cupressoides (Chlorophyta. Crude SPs were extracted by proteolytic digestion (papain, followed by ion-exchange chromatography on a DEAE-cellulose column. The fractions obtained were analyzed for molecular mass, 0.5% agarose gel electrophoresis and chemical composition. The activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT test was applied using normal human plasma and standard heparin (HEP (193 IU mg-1. The yield was ~ 3%, and the chromatography procedure separated the material into three different SP fractions (F I, F II and F III, eluted at the concentrations of 0.50, 0.75 and 1.00 M of NaCl, respectively. Only fraction F II was active (24.62 IU mg-1, with high sulfate content (23.79% and number of molecular mass peaks. Therefore, the APTT of a fraction isolated from C. cupressoides was less potent than HEP.

  2. Fatty acid profiling and molecular characterization of some freshwater microalgae from India with potential for biodiesel production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Simrat; Sarkar, Manas; Srivastava, Ravi B; Gogoi, Hemanta K; Kalita, Mohan C

    2012-02-15

    We determined the fatty acid compositions of six species of freshwater microalgae belonging to the Chlorophyta, which were isolated from freshwater bodies in Assam, India. All six microalgae -Desmodesmus sp. DRLMA7, Desmodesmus elegans DRLMA13, Scenedesmus sp. DRLMA5, Scenedesmus sp. DRLMA9 Chlorella sp. DRLMA3 and Chlorococcum macrostigmatum DRLMA12-showed similar fatty acid profiles 16:0, 16:4, 18:1, 18:2, and 18:3 as major components. We also compared fatty acid compositions during the late exponential and stationary growth phases of D. elegans DRLMA13 and Scenedesmus sp. DRLMA9 in BG11 medium. We observed enhanced percentages of total saturated and monounsaturated fatty acids with a concomitant decrease in polyunsaturated fatty acid content upon the prolonged cultivation of both microalgae. Distinct morphological features of microalgal isolates were determined by scanning electron microscopic (SEM) studies. An ornamented cell wall was found in D. elegans DRLMA13, which is characteristic of small spineless species of Desmodesmus. The isolated microalgae were further distinguished through analysis of internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS2) secondary structures and compensatory base changes (CBCs). Analysis of CBCs showed the relatedness of Chlorella sp. DRLMA3 with other Chlorella-like organisms, but it does not belong to the clade comprising Chlorella sensu stricto, which includes Chlorella vulgaris. The CBC count between Scenedesmus sp. DRLMA9 and other species of Scenedesmus provides evidence that this isolate represents a new species.

  3. Carotenoids, Phenolic Compounds and Tocopherols Contribute to the Antioxidative Properties of Some Microalgae Species Grown on Industrial Wastewater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamed Safafar

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed at investigating the potential of microalgae species grown on industrial waste water as a new source of natural antioxidants. Six microalgae from different classes, including Phaeodactylum sp. (Bacillariophyceae, Nannochloropsis sp. (Eustigmatophyceae, Chlorella sp., Dunaniella sp., and Desmodesmus sp. (Chlorophyta, were screened for their antioxidant properties using different in vitro assays. Natural antioxidants, including pigments, phenolics, and tocopherols, were measured in methanolic extracts of microalgae biomass. Highest and lowest concentrations of pigments, phenolic compounds, and tocopherols were found in Desmodesmus sp. and Phaeodactylum tricornuotom microalgae species, respectively. The results of each assay were correlated to the content of natural antioxidants in microalgae biomass. Phenolic compounds were found as major contributors to the antioxidant activity in all antioxidant tests while carotenoids were found to contribute to the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazil (DPPH radical scavenging activity, ferrous reduction power (FRAP, and ABTS-radical scavenging capacity activity. Desmodesmus sp. biomass represented a potentially rich source of natural antioxidants, such as carotenoids (lutein, tocopherols, and phenolic compounds when cultivated on industrial waste water as the main nutrient source.

  4. Screening microalgae isolated from urban storm- and wastewater systems as feedstock for biofuel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massimi, Rebecca; Kirkwood, Andrea E

    2016-01-01

    Exploiting microalgae as feedstock for biofuel production is a growing field of research and application, but there remain challenges related to industrial viability and economic sustainability. A solution to the water requirements of industrial-scale production is the use of wastewater as a growth medium. Considering the variable quality and contaminant loads of wastewater, algal feedstock would need to have broad tolerance and resilience to fluctuating wastewater conditions during growth. As a first step in targeting strains for growth in wastewater, our study isolated microalgae from wastewater habitats, including urban stormwater-ponds and a municipal wastewater-treatment system, to assess growth, fatty acids and metal tolerance under standardized conditions. Stormwater ponds in particular have widely fluctuating conditions and metal loads, so microalgae from this type of environment may have desirable traits for growth in wastewater. Forty-three algal strains were isolated in total, including several strains from natural habitats. All strains, with the exception of one cyanobacterial strain, are members of the Chlorophyta, including several taxa commonly targeted for biofuel production. Isolates were identified using taxonomic and 18S rRNA sequence methods, and the fastest growing strains with ideal fatty acid profiles for biodiesel production included Scenedesmus and Desmodesmus species (Growth rate (d(-1)) > 1). All isolates in a small, but diverse taxonomic group of test-strains were tolerant of copper at wastewater-relevant concentrations. Overall, more than half of the isolated strains, particularly those from stormwater ponds, show promise as candidates for biofuel feedstock.

  5. Larvicidal Activity against Aedes aegypti and Molluscicidal Activity against Biomphalaria glabrata of Brazilian Marine Algae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guedes, Elíca Amara Cecília; de Carvalho, Cenira M.; Ribeiro Junior, Karlos Antonio Lisboa; Lisboa Ribeiro, Thyago Fernando; de Barros, Lurdiana Dayse; de Lima, Maria Raquel Ferreira; Prado Moura, Flávia de Barros; Goulart Sant'Ana, Antônio Euzebio

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the biological activities of five benthic marine algae collected from Northeastern Region of Brazil. The tested activities included larvicidal activity against Aedes aegypti, molluscicidal activity against Biomphalaria glabrata, and toxicity against Artemia salina. Extracts of Ulva lactuca (Chlorophyta), Padina gymnospora, Sargassum vulgare (Phaeophyta), Hypnea musciformis, and Digenea simplex (Rhodophyta) were prepared using different solvents of increasing polarity, including dichloromethane, methanol, ethanol, and water. Of the extracts screened, the dichloromethane extracts of H. musciformis and P. gymnospora exhibited the highest activities and were subjected to bioassay-guided fractionation in hexane and chloroform. The chloroform fractions of the P. gymnospora and H. musciformis extracts showed molluscicidal activity at values below 40 μg·mL−1 (11.1460 μg·mL−1 and 25.8689 μg·mL−1, resp.), and the chloroform and hexane fractions of P. gymnospora showed larvicidal activity at values below 40 μg·mL−1 (29.018 μg·mL−1 and 17.230 μg·mL−1, resp.). The crude extracts were not toxic to A. salina, whereas the chloroform and hexane fractions of P. gymnospora (788.277 μg·mL−1 and 706.990 μg·mL−1) showed moderate toxicity, indicating that the toxic compounds present in these algae are nonpolar. PMID:24688787

  6. Carotenoids in Algae: Distributions, Biosyntheses and Functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shinichi Takaichi

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available For photosynthesis, phototrophic organisms necessarily synthesize not only chlorophylls but also carotenoids. Many kinds of carotenoids are found in algae and, recently, taxonomic studies of algae have been developed. In this review, the relationship between the distribution of carotenoids and the phylogeny of oxygenic phototrophs in sea and fresh water, including cyanobacteria, red algae, brown algae and green algae, is summarized. These phototrophs contain division- or class-specific carotenoids, such as fucoxanthin, peridinin and siphonaxanthin. The distribution of α-carotene and its derivatives, such as lutein, loroxanthin and siphonaxanthin, are limited to divisions of Rhodophyta (macrophytic type, Cryptophyta, Euglenophyta, Chlorarachniophyta and Chlorophyta. In addition, carotenogenesis pathways are discussed based on the chemical structures of carotenoids and known characteristics of carotenogenesis enzymes in other organisms; genes and enzymes for carotenogenesis in algae are not yet known. Most carotenoids bind to membrane-bound pigment-protein complexes, such as reaction center, light-harvesting and cytochrome b6f complexes. Water-soluble peridinin-chlorophyll a-protein (PCP and orange carotenoid protein (OCP are also established. Some functions of carotenoids in photosynthesis are also briefly summarized.

  7. Taxonomic assessment of seaweed community from the coastal areas of Bintulu, Sarawak, Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd Hafizbillah Zawawi

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Basic taxonomic information forms the important basis for the documentation, resource management and utilization of marine biodiversity such as seaweeds. A taxonomic assessment of seaweeds in the coastal areas of Bintulu, Sarawak, East Malaysia, was conducted monthly from May 2011 to May 2012. Species composition was recorded following NaGISA protocols, direct observation, and SCUBA and snorkeling techniques. A total of 54 species were identified, classified into Rhodophyta (23 species, Chlorophyta (16 species and Phaeophyta (15 species. The highest abundance was recorded at Kuala Similajau (25 species while the lowest was recorded at Kuala Nyalau (12 species. As the present study was conducted by examining species collected from both rocky shores and the reef area for the first time, a higher number of species was documented compared to previous studies conducted in the same general area but focusing only on particular habitats. Thirty species found in the current survey represent new records for the locality including some with economic potentials.

  8. RAPID ASSESMENT LIMNOLOGIS SEBAGAI INDIKATOR PENGELOLAAN (REGULASI DAN PEMANFAATAN PERAIRAN DI ZONA PENYANGGA LAHAN BASAH RESERVAT DANAU PANGGANG KABUPATEN HULU SUNGAI UTARA, KALIMANTAN SELATAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pathul Arifin

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Penurunan jumlah tangkapan di perairan reservat danau panggang kabupaten hulu sungai utara sebesar 2% pertahun dari 3145,1 ton (2010 menjadi 3.030,0 ton (2013 dan kehadiran ikan lais (Cryptopterus micronema < 1% setiap tahunnya disusul ikan baung (Mystus nemurus < 0,5% mengindikasikan penurunan kualitas air, produktivitas perairan dan lingkungan perairan secara keseluruhan sebagai sistem ekologi. Tujuan penelitian (a mengidentifikasi kondisi limnologis perairan di zona penyangga kawasan reservat danau panggang dengan analisis kualitas air dan biological indeks; (b menganalisis konfigurasi ruang dari aktivitas di lokasi dan nilai sumberdaya perairan dari karakter bioekologis; (c menilai kondisi keseluruhan atribut perairan di zona penyangga; (d memetakan profil zonasi untuk menjelaskan kondisi eksisting di lokasi penelitian. Metode analisis kualitas air dan biological indeks serta kuissioner disertai statistik deskriptif dan pemetaan. Konsentrasi bahan organik yang tinggi berasal dari limbah organik dan tingkat biodiversitas fitoplankton lebih dominan daripada zooplankton berupa kelompok Chlorophyta air tawar sebagai pakan alami bagi larva dan benih ikan. Struktur pemukiman di lokasi terhadap perairan 50-75%, pembudidaya dan nelayan sebagai profesi utama dengan 2-10 jenis ikan yang tertangkap serta 4 jenis yang kehadirannya rendah. Pemetaan faktor penyebab kerusakan zona penyangga berasal dari peningkatan pemukiman 30%, prilaku masyarakat, intensitas penangkapan dan illegal fishing

  9. The Potential Exploitation of the Mediterranean Invasive Alga Caulerpa cylindracea: Can the Invasion Be Transformed into a Gain?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loredana Stabili

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Recently, there is a growing interest towards the development of strategies for invasive seaweed control and exploitation as source of secondary metabolites. Here, we investigated the potential of exploitation in biotechnology and recycling options in eradication programs of the lipidic extract of the Mediterranean invasive seaweed Caulerpa cylindracea (Chlorophyta. The chemical characterization was carried out by means of multinuclear and multidimensional NMR spectroscopy. The fatty acid profile of C. cylindracea assessed the presence of several types of molecules known for antioxidant activity such as carotenoids, chlorophylls, pheophytins, and sterols. The NMR spectroscopy showed also the characteristic signals of saturated, unsaturated, and free fatty acids as well as other metabolites including the biopolymer polyhydroxybutyrate. The lipidic extract exerted an antioxidant activity corresponding to 552.14 ± 69.13 mmol Trolox equivalent/g (ORAC and to 70.3 ± 2.67 mmol Trolox equivalent/g (TEAC. The extract showed an antibacterial activity against several Vibrio species, suggesting its potential use in the control of diseases in mariculture. Our results show that C. cylindracea, representing a critical hazard in coastal areas, could be transformed into a gain supporting specific management actions to reduce the effects of human pressures.

  10. Biochemical activity of auxins in dependence of their structures in Wolffia arrhiza (L. Wimm.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romuald Czerpak

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Wolffia arrhiza (L. Wimm. (Lemnaceae as a mixotrophic plant reacts considerably weaker to used auxins with different chemical structures than typical photosynthetic vascular plants and algae especially from Chlorophyta. Among used auxin compounds, the highest stimulative activity on W. arrhiza growth and biochemical parameters which were analysed in biomass, can be attributed to phenylacetic acid (PAA, a somewhat smaller to indole-3-acetic acid (IAA and the smallest to 2-naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA used in optimal concentration of 10-6 M, in comparison with the control culture, devoid of exogenous auxins. The investigated auxins, especially PAA and IAA, were found to have the most powerful stimulative activity (prevailingly between the 10th and the 15th day of cultivation on the content of reducing sugars between 127 and 169%, chlorophyll a and b from 117 to 125%, total carotenoids from 115 to 132% and net photosynthetic rate from 127 to 144% in comparison with the control culture, which was treated as 100% for reference. However, the content of water-soluble proteins as well as nucleic acids (DNA and RNA in the biomass of W. arrhiza was less effectively stimulated, hardly from 110 to 116% when compared to the control culture (100%.

  11. Cultivation of Desmodesmus subspicatus in a tubular photobioreactor for bioremediation and microalgae oil production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gressler, Pablo Diego; Bjerk, Thiago Rodrigues; Schneider, Rosana de Cassia Souza; Souza, Maiara Priscilla; Lobo, Eduardo Alcayaga; Zappe, Ana Letícia; Corbellini, Valeriano Antônio; Moraes, Maria Silvana Aranda

    2014-01-01

    The microalgae Desmodesmus subspicatus (Chlorophyta) was cultivated in a tubular photobioreactor using effluent from the wastewater treatment plant of the University of Santa Cruz do Sul, Brazil to demonstrate the reactor's operation. The algae's ability to remove nutrients from wastewater and the oleaginous potential of the algae's biomass were also evaluated. Total phosphorus and ammonia nitrogen were measured. The photobioreactor consisted of a system of three acrylic tubes, a reservoir, connections and a CO2 supply. The gas supply was semicontinuous with CO2 added from a cylinder. The culture's growth was estimated from cell numbers counted on a daily basis. Lipid content in the biomass was analysed using gas chromatography. A maximum cell density of 9.11 x 10(6) cellsmL-1 and a dry weight of 234.00 mg L-1 were obtained during cultivation without CO2, and these values rose to 42.48 x 10(6) cells mL-1 and 1277.44 mg L-1, respectively, when CO2 was added to the cultivation. Differences in the quality of the effluent and the presence of CO2 did not result in different lipid profiles. The presence ofpalmitic acid and oleic acid was notable. The average extracted oil content was 18% and 12% for cultivation with and without the input of CO2, respectively.

  12. The spatial and temporal distribution of microalgae in the South China Sea: evidence from GIS-based analysis of 18S rDNA sequences

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI LvYan; HUANG QiaoJuan; WU ShuHui; LIN Duan; CHEN JiaHui; CHEN YueQin

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to estimate the spatial and temporal variation of microalgae in the South China Sea and to demonstrate the environmental factors controlling the diversity of microalgae by GIS (geographic information system)-based analysis of 18S rDNA sequences. Six 18S rDNA libraries were constructed from environmental samples collected at different sites in the study area, and more than 600 18S rDNA sequences were determined. The rDNA sequence data were then analyzed by DIVA-GIS software to display the spatial and temporal variation of phytoplankton's composition. It was shown that the autotrophic eukaryotic plankton dominated over the heterotrophic cells in most of our clone libraries, and the dominating phytoplankton was Dinophyceae except for Bacillariophyta at the Xiamen harbor. The percentages of these two groups were controlled by water temperature and salinity. Our results also revealed that the species composition of Chlorophyta showed a close relationship with latitude, changing from Prasinophyceae at the high latitude to Trebouxiophyceae at the low latitude. Several newly classified picoplankton lineages were first uncovered in the South China Sea, including the pico-sized green alga Ostreococcus sp. and Picochlorum eukaryotum, and picobiliphytes, which was just discovered in 2007 with unknown affinities to other eukaryotes. Their spatial and temporal variation were also analyzed and discussed.

  13. Main nutritional contents of 30 Dalian coastal microalgae species

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SU Xiurong; LIU Huihui; CHEIN Kwan Paul

    2004-01-01

    This paper reports results of study on the contents of proteins, amino acids, polysaccharose and uronic acids in 30 species of macroalgae from Shicao, Heishijiao, Shimiao, and Xiaofujiazhuang in the vicinity of Dalian City, N.E.China. The results showed that the protein contents of the 30 algae from highest (112.55μg/ml) to the lowest (0.24 μg/ml) was in the descending order of Dictyopteris ndalata, Gelidium vagum, Gymnogongrus japonican, Ectocarpus confervoides, Tinocladia crassa, Sargassum thunberii. In general, the protein content in red algae was higher than that in brown algae. The content of free amino acids showed no significent differences from 7.44 μg/ml-4.96 μg/ ml in all these algae, in the descending order of Gymnogongrus japonican, Sargassum confusum, Undoria pinnatifida, Laminaria japonica and Ectocarpus confervoides. The content of polysaccharose varied from 168.2 μg/ml-22.15 μg/ml in the descending order of Symphyocladia latiuscula, Scytosiphon lomentarius, Desmarestia viridis., Tinocladia crassa, Gracilaria asiatica and Porphyra yezoensis. The content of uronic acids is from 196.24 μg/ml-20.77 μg/ml in the descending order of Ulva lactuca, Symphyoclaldia latiuscula, Scytosiphon lomentarius, Ceramimum kondoi, Gracilaria vemucosa and Porphyra yezoensis. The fatty acids in 30 species of algae belong to Rhodophyta, Chlorophyta and Phaeophyta. Most phaeophytes have many (4-12) types of fatty acids.

  14. Structural analysis of a sulfated polysaccharidic fraction obtained from the coenocytic green seaweed Caulerpa cupressoides var. lycopodium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Ariévilo Gurgel Rodrigues

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Researches on structural chemistry of sulfated polysaccharides (SPs have been mainly focused on red and brown algae. Caulerpa cupressoides var. lycopodium (Chlorophyta contains three SPs fractions (Cc-SP1, Cc-SP2 and Cc-SP3. Cc-SP1 and Cc-SP2 had anticoagulant (in vitro and anti- and prothrombotic, antinociceptive and/or anti-inflammatory (in vivo effects. However, their structural features have not yet been investigated. This study analyzed the chemical composition, elemental microanalysis and structural features by infrared (IR and nuclear magnetic resonance (1H NMR spectroscopy of Cc-SPs. Fractionation of SPs by DEAE-cellulose yielded Cc-SP1, Cc-SP2 and CcSP3 containing differences among the relative proportions of sulfate (14.67-26.72%, total sugars (34.92-49.73% and uronic acid (7.15-7.22%. Carbon (21.76-29.62%, sulfate (2.16-4.55%, nitrogen (0.85-1.57% and hydrogen (4.57-5.86% contents were obtained using a CHN equipment. Data from IR indicated occurrence of sulfate ester, galactose-6-sulfate, uronic acid and glycoside linkages. For 1H NMR spectrum of the soluble Cc-SP1 fraction, it was mainly found β-galactopyranose residues and CH3 group. The results showed that Cc-SPs fractions have some structural features similar to others studied Caulerpaceae SPs.

  15. Water and Planktonic Quality of a Palm Oil Effluent Impacted River in Ondo State, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.A. Adedeji

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available -1. The dissolved oxygen content of water rarely went below 3.0 mg L-1 and rarely above 7.0 mg L-1 irrespective of sampling location. Quantitatively, the levels of Fe and Cu with a mean concentration ranging between 3.07?1.58 and 10.35?3.33 mg L-1 were the major elements in the water sample while Na, K, Ca, Mg with mean concentrations between 1.05?0.02 and 4.10?1.65 mg L-1 were the minor elements. Irrespective of the site of sample collection on the river, the concentrations of Cr, Ni, Pb and P (-1 occurred in trace amounts. The phytoplanktonic flora of River Oluwa showed an extensive overlap between the sites due to homogenous climatic and environmental conditions. The recorded taxa consists of ten chlorophytes, five species of diatoms, three cyanophycean species and one euglenophyte. The zooplanktonic fauna consists of six species of rotifers. Spirogyra fluviatilis and Ulothrix zonata were the dominant green algae (Chlorophyta irrespective of the location while Synedra sp. and Fragillaria crotonensis were the dominant diatoms (Bacillariophyta. Quantitatively, samples collected from the Oluagbo and Ebute-Ire locations had significantly higher (p

  16. Characterization of chasmoendolithic community in Miers Valley, McMurdo Dry Valleys, Antarctica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yung, Charmaine C M; Chan, Yuki; Lacap, Donnabella C; Pérez-Ortega, Sergio; de Los Rios-Murillo, Asuncion; Lee, Charles K; Cary, S Craig; Pointing, Stephen B

    2014-08-01

    The Antarctic Dry Valleys are unable to support higher plant and animal life and so microbial communities dominate biotic ecosystem processes. Soil communities are well characterized, but rocky surfaces have also emerged as a significant microbial habitat. Here, we identify extensive colonization of weathered granite on a landscape scale by chasmoendolithic microbial communities. A transect across north-facing and south-facing slopes plus valley floor moraines revealed 30-100 % of available substrate was colonized up to an altitude of 800 m. Communities were assessed at a multidomain level and were clearly distinct from those in surrounding soils and other rock-inhabiting cryptoendolithic and hypolithic communities. All colonized rocks were dominated by the cyanobacterial genus Leptolyngbya (Oscillatoriales), with heterotrophic bacteria, archaea, algae, and fungi also identified. Striking patterns in community distribution were evident with regard to microclimate as determined by aspect. Notably, a shift in cyanobacterial assemblages from Chroococcidiopsis-like phylotypes (Pleurocapsales) on colder-drier slopes, to Synechococcus-like phylotypes (Chroococcales) on warmer-wetter slopes. Greater relative abundance of known desiccation-tolerant bacterial taxa occurred on colder-drier slopes. Archaeal phylotypes indicated halotolerant taxa and also taxa possibly derived from nearby volcanic sources. Among the eukaryotes, the lichen photobiont Trebouxia (Chlorophyta) was ubiquitous, but known lichen-forming fungi were not recovered. Instead, fungal assemblages were dominated by ascomycetous yeasts. We conclude that chasmoendoliths likely constitute a significant geobiological phenomenon at lower elevations in granite-dominated Antarctic Dry Valley systems.

  17. Seasonal changes in the communities of microorganisms and algae in the litters of tree plantations in the steppe zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maltsev, Ye. I.; Didovich, S. V.; Maltseva, I. A.

    2017-08-01

    Specific structural and dynamic parameters of communities from various ecological and trophic groups of microorganisms and algae in the litter of artificial tree stands were studied using the example of the Staro-Berdyansky Forest in the steppe zone of Ukraine. The composition of the communities was shown to vary by seasons and depend on the forest-forming woody species. In spring, in all the litters, the maximal number of actinomycetes and aminotrophs was recorded; in the leaf litter, the number of phosphate-mobilizing organisms was also the largest. In summer, the development of cellulolytic organisms, ammonifiers, and nitrogen-fixers was intensified; in autumn, the number of micromycetes and oligotrophic organisms decreased. The composition of dominants, the species richness of algae and their abundance also varied by seasons. Representatives of the Chlorophyta division predominated. The highest species richness of algae was characteristic of the spring litter samples, and their number, for the spring and autumn ones. The positive correlation was established between the numbers of micromycetes and oligotrophs, micromycetes and algae. The negative correlation was found between the numbers of micromycetes and actinomycetes, cellulose-decompose bacteria and algae in the litters.

  18. Trade-off between taxon diversity and functional diversity in European lake ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossmann, Lars; Beisser, Daniela; Bock, Christina; Chatzinotas, Antonis; Jensen, Manfred; Preisfeld, Angelika; Psenner, Roland; Rahmann, Sven; Wodniok, Sabina; Boenigk, Jens

    2016-12-01

    Inferring ecosystem functioning and ecosystem services through inspections of the species inventory is a major aspect of ecological field studies. Ecosystem functions are often stable despite considerable species turnover. Using metatranscriptome analyses, we analyse a thus-far unparalleled freshwater data set which comprises 21 mainland European freshwater lakes from the Sierra Nevada (Spain) to the Carpathian Mountains (Romania) and from northern Germany to the Apennines (Italy) and covers an altitudinal range from 38 m above sea level (a.s.l) to 3110 m a.s.l. The dominant taxa were Chlorophyta and streptophytic algae, Ciliophora, Bacillariophyta and Chrysophyta. Metatranscriptomics provided insights into differences in community composition and into functional diversity via the relative share of taxa to the overall read abundance of distinct functional genes on the ecosystem level. The dominant metabolic pathways in terms of the fraction of expressed sequences in the cDNA libraries were affiliated with primary metabolism, specifically oxidative phosphorylation, photosynthesis and the TCA cycle. Our analyses indicate that community composition is a good first proxy for the analysis of ecosystem functions. However, differential gene regulation modifies the relative importance of taxa in distinct pathways. Whereas taxon composition varies considerably between lakes, the relative importance of distinct metabolic pathways is much more stable, indicating that ecosystem functioning is buffered against shifts in community composition through a functional redundancy of taxa.

  19. Bioremediation of a complex industrial effluent by biosorbents derived from freshwater macroalgae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kidgell, Joel T; de Nys, Rocky; Hu, Yi; Paul, Nicholas A; Roberts, David A

    2014-01-01

    Biosorption with macroalgae is a promising technology for the bioremediation of industrial effluents. However, the vast majority of research has been conducted on simple mock effluents with little data available on the performance of biosorbents in complex effluents. Here we evaluate the efficacy of dried biomass, biochar, and Fe-treated biomass and biochar to remediate 21 elements from a real-world industrial effluent from a coal-fired power station. The biosorbents were produced from the freshwater macroalga Oedogonium sp. (Chlorophyta) that is native to the industrial site from which the effluent was sourced, and which has been intensively cultivated to provide a feed stock for biosorbents. The effect of pH and exposure time on sorption was also assessed. These biosorbents showed specificity for different suites of elements, primarily differentiated by ionic charge. Overall, biochar and Fe-biochar were more successful biosorbents than their biomass counterparts. Fe-biochar adsorbed metalloids (As, Mo, and Se) at rates independent of effluent pH, while untreated biochar removed metals (Al, Cd, Ni and Zn) at rates dependent on pH. This study demonstrates that the biomass of Oedogonium is an effective substrate for the production of biosorbents to remediate both metals and metalloids from a complex industrial effluent.

  20. BEBERAPA MARGA ALGA BENANG DAN HUBUNGANNYA DENGAN KEBERADAAN VEKTOR MALARIA DI BALI UTARA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. G. Seregeg

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available A study of filamentous algae and its relation to malaria vector control was conducted during the dry season in several lagoons at the north coast of Bali. Floating masses of these algae under the sunshine barricated the spread of solar-triton larvicide, reducing tremendously the effectiveness of the larvicide. Identification of the genera of these algae under the subphyllum of CYANOPHYTA (Blue Algae in the family of Cyanophyceae were Oscillatoria, Spirulina, Phormidium, Rivularia, Nostoc, and Anabaena; under the subphyllum of CHLOROPHYTA (Green Algae in the family of Chlorophyceae were Enteromorpha, Spirogyra, Mougeotia, Zygnema, and Oedogonium. The surface of water in between the floating masses of algae were an exellent breeding place of mosquitoes mainly Anopheles sundaicus. The density of Enteromorpha, the main attractant of An sundaicus compared to other filamantous algae, has no direct relation on the density of An. sundaicus larva. Hence Enteromorpha could only be considered as the indicator of the presence of larvae and not as the indicator of population densities of larvae Lagoons surrounded with mangrove plantations did not harbour filamentous algae and larvae of An. sundaicus were not found.

  1. Macroalgae in a spring stream in Shanxi Province: composition and relation to physical and chemical variables

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Fourteen stream segments were investigated throughout the Xin'an Spring in Shanxi Province, China in 2004. The variation ranges in stream size, current velocity, discharge, dissolved oxygen, and specific conductance were large. Twenty-two macroalgae species were found in the stream.Major divisions in terms of species numbers were Chlorophyta (59.1%), Cyanophyta (22.8%),Xanthophyta (9.1%), Rhodophyta (4.5%) and Charophyta (4.5%). The most widespread species,Cladophora rivularis (50.0%), also Oedogonium sp. (42.9%) and Spirogyra sp. (42.9%) were well represented throughout the stream, whereas another 10 species were found in only one sampling site.Total percentage cover varied from <1% to 90%. Red algae Batrachospermum acuatum and the charophytes Chara vulgaris have the highest percentage cover. Among the parameters analyzed, the stream width, specific conductance and dissolved oxygen were the ones that more closely related to the species number and percentage cover of macroalgal communities. The species number of each site was negatively correlated with dissolved oxygen content. The total percentage cover of the macroalgae was negatively correlated with the stream width and the specific conductance.

  2. Macroalgae in a spring stream in Shanxi Province: composition and relation to physical and chemical variables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Bianfang; Xie, Shulian

    2007-07-01

    Fourteen stream segments were investigated throughout the Xin’an Spring in Shanxi Province, China in 2004. The variation ranges in stream size, current velocity, discharge, dissolved oxygen, and specific conductance were large. Twenty-two macroalgae species were found in the stream. Major divisions in terms of species numbers were Chlorophyta (59.1%), Cyanophyta (22.8%), Xanthophyta (9.1%), Rhodophyta (4.5%) and Charophyta (4.5%). The most widespread species, Cladophora rivularis (50.0%), also Oedogonium sp. (42.9%) and Spirogyra sp. (42.9%) were well represented throughout the stream, whereas another 10 species were found in only one sampling site. Total percentage cover varied from <1% to 90%. Red algae Batrachospermum acuatum and the charophytes Chara vulgaris have the highest percentage cover. Among the parameters analyzed, the stream width, specific conductance and dissolved oxygen were the ones that more closely related to the species number and percentage cover of macroalgal communities. The species number of each site was negatively correlated with dissolved oxygen content. The total percentage cover of the macroalgae was negatively correlated with the stream width and the specific conductance.

  3. Bioremediation of a complex industrial effluent by biosorbents derived from freshwater macroalgae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joel T Kidgell

    Full Text Available Biosorption with macroalgae is a promising technology for the bioremediation of industrial effluents. However, the vast majority of research has been conducted on simple mock effluents with little data available on the performance of biosorbents in complex effluents. Here we evaluate the efficacy of dried biomass, biochar, and Fe-treated biomass and biochar to remediate 21 elements from a real-world industrial effluent from a coal-fired power station. The biosorbents were produced from the freshwater macroalga Oedogonium sp. (Chlorophyta that is native to the industrial site from which the effluent was sourced, and which has been intensively cultivated to provide a feed stock for biosorbents. The effect of pH and exposure time on sorption was also assessed. These biosorbents showed specificity for different suites of elements, primarily differentiated by ionic charge. Overall, biochar and Fe-biochar were more successful biosorbents than their biomass counterparts. Fe-biochar adsorbed metalloids (As, Mo, and Se at rates independent of effluent pH, while untreated biochar removed metals (Al, Cd, Ni and Zn at rates dependent on pH. This study demonstrates that the biomass of Oedogonium is an effective substrate for the production of biosorbents to remediate both metals and metalloids from a complex industrial effluent.

  4. Cyanobacteria-/cyanotoxin-contaminations and eutrophication status before Wuxi Drinking Water Crisis in Lake Taihu, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yongmei Liu; Wei Chen; Dunhai Li; Zebo Huang; Yinwu Shen; Yongding Liu

    2011-01-01

    After the appalling “Wuxi Drinking Water Crisis”, increasing investigations concerning the contaminations of cyanobacterial blooms and their toxins in Lake Taihu have been performed and reported in the last two years.However, information regarding these issues before the crisis in 2007 remained insufficient.To provide some background data for further comparisons, the present study reported our investigations conducted in 2004, associated with the cyanotoxin contaminations as well as the eutrophication status in Lake Taihu.Results from the one-year-study near a drinking water resource for Wuxi City indicated that, unlike the status in recent two years, cyanobacteria and chlorophyta are the co-dominance species throughout the year.The highest toxin concentration (34.2 ng/mL)in water columns occurred in August.In bloom biomass, the peak value of intracellular toxin (0.59 μg/mg DW) was determined in October, which was lag behind that in water column.In addition, MC-RR was the major toxin variant throughout the year.During the study period, nutrients levels of total nitrogen and phosphorus were also recorded monthly.Results from the present study will lead to a better understanding of the eutrophication status and the potential risks before “Wuxi Drinking Water Crisis”.

  5. The Non-Photosynthetic Algae Helicosporidium spp.: Emergence of a Novel Group of Insect Pathogens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurélien Tartar

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Since the original description of Helicosporidium parasiticum in 1921, members of the genus Helicosporidium have been reported to infect a wide variety of invertebrates, but their characterization has remained dependent on occasional reports of infection. Recently, several new Helicosporidium isolates have been successfully maintained in axenic cultures. The ability to produce large quantity of biological material has led to very significant advances in the understanding of Helicosporidium biology and its interactions with insect hosts. In particular, the unique infectious process has been well documented; the highly characteristic cyst and its included filamentous cell have been shown to play a central role during host infection and have been the focus of detailed morphological and developmental studies. In addition, phylogenetic analyses inferred from a multitude of molecular sequences have demonstrated that Helicosporidium are highly specialized non-photosynthetic algae (Chlorophyta: Trebouxiophyceae, and represent the first described entomopathogenic algae. This review provides an overview of (i the morphology of Helicosporidium cell types, (ii the Helicosporidium life cycle, including the entire infectious sequence and its impact on insect hosts, (iii the phylogenetic analyses that have prompted the taxonomic classification of Helicosporidium as green algae, and (iv the documented host range for this novel group of entomopathogens.

  6. Floristic account of the marine benthic algae from Jarvis Island and Kingman Reef, Line Islands, Central Pacific

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vroom, P.S.

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The marine benthic algae from Jarvis Island and Kingman Reef were identified from collections obtained from the Whippoorwill Expedition in 1924, the Itasca Expedition in 1935, the U.S. Coast Guard Cutter Taney in 1938, the Smithsonian Institution’s Pacific Ocean Biological Survey Program in 1964 and the U.S. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration’s Reef Assessment and Monitoring Program (RAMP in 2000, 2001, 2002, 2004 and 2006. A total of 124 species, representing 8 Cyanobacteria (blue-green algae, 82 Rhodophyta (red algae, 6 Heterokontophyta (brown algae and 28 Chlorophyta (green algae, are reported from both islands. Seventy-nine and 95 species of marine benthic algae are recorded from Jarvis Island and Kingman Reef, respectively. Of the 124 species, 77 species or 62% (4 blue-green algae, 57 red algae, 2 brown algae and 14 green algae have never before been reported from the 11 remote reefs, atolls and low islands comprising the Line Islands in the Central Pacific.

  7. Characteristics and phylogeny of light-harvesting complex gene encoded proteins from marine red alga Griffithsia japonica

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Chenlin; HUANG Xiaohang; LEE Yookyung; LEE Hongkum; LI Guangyou

    2005-01-01

    Six genes encoding light-harvesting complex (LHC) protein have been characterized in the multicellular red alga Griffithsia japonica EST analysis. Three of them were full sequences while others were partial sequences with 3'-UTRs. The cleavage sites between signal peptide and mature LHC protein were analyzed on these three full sequences. The sequence characteristics, calculated molecular weights and isoelectric point (pI) values and hydrophobieity of the mature proteins were deduced and analyzed. Comparing the LHC sequences of G. japonica with higher plant, Chlorophyta, chromophytes and other red algae, the high conservation of the chlorophyll (Chl) binding site among chromophytes and red algae were revealed. Phylogenetic analysis on LHC proteins from higher plant, green algae, euglena, brown algae, diatom, cryptomonad, Raphidophyte and red algae reveals that (1) there are two distinct groups of Chl a/b and Chl a/c -binding LHC; (2) Chl a binding proteins of red algae share greater similarities with the Chl a/c-binding proteins of the chromophytes and dinoflagellate than with the Chl a/b - binding proteins of the green algae and higher plants; (3) chromophyte' s LHC is supposed to be evolved from red algae LHC.

  8. The Green Tetrahymena utriculariae n. sp. (Ciliophora, Oligohymenophorea) with Its Endosymbiotic Algae (Micractinium sp.), Living in Traps of a Carnivorous Aquatic Plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitsch, Gianna; Adamec, Lubomír; Dirren, Sebastian; Nitsche, Frank; Šimek, Karel; Sirová, Dagmara; Posch, Thomas

    2016-09-10

    The genus Tetrahymena (Ciliophora, Oligohymenophorea) probably represents the best studied ciliate genus. At present, more than forty species have been described. All are colorless, i.e. they do not harbor symbiotic algae, and as aerobes they need at least microaerobic habitats. Here, we present the morphological and molecular description of the first green representative, Tetrahymena utriculariae n. sp., living in symbiosis with endosymbiotic algae identified as Micractinium sp. (Chlorophyta). The full life cycle of the ciliate species is documented, including trophonts and theronts, conjugating cells, resting cysts and dividers. This species has been discovered in an exotic habitat, namely in traps of the carnivorous aquatic plant Utricularia reflexa (originating from Okavango Delta, Botswana). Green ciliates live as commensals of the plant in this anoxic habitat. Ciliates are bacterivorous, however, symbiosis with algae is needed to satisfy cell metabolism but also to gain oxygen from symbionts. When ciliates are cultivated outside their natural habitat under aerobic conditions and fed with saturating bacterial food, they gradually become aposymbiotic. Based on phylogenetic analyses of 18S rRNA and mitochondrial cox1 genes T. utriculariae forms a sister group to Tetrahymena thermophila.

  9. Cytoplasmic inheritance in green algae: patterns, mechanisms and relation to sex type.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyamura, Shinichi

    2010-03-01

    Cytological and genetic investigations of two major groups of green algae, chlorophyte and streptophyte green algae, show a predominance of uniparental inheritance of the plastid and mitochondrial genomes in most species. However, in some crosses of isogamous species of Ulva compressa, these genomes are transmitted from mt+, mt(-), and both parents. In species with uniparental organelle inheritance, various mechanisms can eliminate organelles and their DNA during male gametogenesis or after fertilization. Concerning plastid inheritance, two major mechanisms are widespread in green algae: (1) digestion of plastid DNA during male gametogenesis, during fertilization, or after fertilization; and (2) disintegration or fusion of the plastid in the zygote. The first mechanism also eliminates the mitochondrial DNA in anisogamous and oogamous species. These mechanisms would ensure the predominantly uniparental inheritance of organelle genomes in green algae. To trace the evolutionary history of cytoplasmic inheritance in green algae, the relations between uniparental inheritance and sex type were considered in isogamous, anisogamous, and oogamous species using sex-specific features that might be nearly universal among Chlorophyta.

  10. Reproduction Diversity of Enteromorpha prolifera

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Apeng Lin; Songdong Shen; Jianwei Wang; Binlun Yan

    2008-01-01

    Enteromorpha prolifera (Muell.) J. Agardh (Chlorophyta, Ulvophyceae), which is distributed widely in the Inter-tidal zone of the ocean, is one of the most common fouling green algae. However, the present understandings of the life history of E. prolifera have been insufficient to explain their seasonal abundances. Thus it is essential to investigate how many.reproductive strategies are likely to contribute to the successful colonization and flourishing of the green alga. In the present study the reproduction diversity of E. prolifera was observed and studied systematically by culturing chopped tissues. Our results showed that there are in total seven pathways of reproduction for E. prolifera including sexual, asexual and vegetative reproduction. It was Indicated that the variety of the reproductive ways and the large quantity of reproductive cells produced and released during the reproductive season are the two key factors that facilitate colonization of E. prolifera. The reproduction of the alga E. prolifera mainly depends on asexual methods. The results presented here contribute to increasing our understanding about how the opportunistic macroalgae successfully maintain colonization and excessive growth.

  11. 'Candidatus Megaira polyxenophila' gen. nov., sp. nov.: considerations on evolutionary history, host range and shift of early divergent rickettsiae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martina Schrallhammer

    Full Text Available "Neglected Rickettsiaceae" (i.e. those harboured by non-hematophagous eukaryotic hosts display greater phylogenetic variability and more widespread dispersal than pathogenic ones; yet, the knowledge about their actual host range and host shift mechanism is scarce. The present work reports the characterization following the full-cycle rRNA approach (SSU rRNA sequence, specific in situ hybridization, and ultrastructure of a novel rickettsial bacterium, herewith proposed as 'Candidatus Megaira polyxenophila' gen. nov., sp. nov. We found it in association with four different free-living ciliates (Diophrys oligothrix, Euplotes octocarinatus, Paramecium caudatum, and Spirostomum sp., all belonging to Alveolata, Ciliophora; furthermore it was recently observed as intracellular occurring in Carteria cerasiformis and Pleodorina japonica (Chlorophyceae, Chlorophyta. Phylogenetic analyses demonstrated the belonging of the candidate new genus to the family Rickettsiaceae (Alphaproteobacteria, Rickettsiales as a sister group of the genus Rickettsia. In situ observations revealed the ability of the candidate new species to colonize either nuclear or cytoplasmic compartments, depending on the host organism. The presence of the same bacterial species within different, evolutionary distant, hosts indicates that 'Candidatus Megaira polyxenophila' recently underwent several distinct host shifts, thus suggesting the existence of horizontal transmission pathways. We consider these findings as indicative of an unexpected spread of rickettsial infections in aquatic communities, possibly by means of trophic interactions, and hence propose a new interpretation of the origin and phylogenetic diversification of rickettsial bacteria.

  12. TiO2 as a photocatalyst for control of the aquatic invasive alga, Cladophora, under natural and artificial light

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peller, J.R.; Whitman, R.L.; Griffith, S.; Harris, P.; Peller, C.; Scalzitti, J.

    2007-01-01

    Cladophora, a nuisance and invasive, filamentous algae (Chlorophyta), massively accumulates along the shores of the lower Great Lakes each summer causing great economic damage and compromising recreational opportunity and perhaps public health. In vitro experiments showed that Cladophora samples were physically and biologically degraded when subjected to TiO2-mediated photocatalysis. For the most successful photocatalytic process, TiO2 was immobilized on a glass surface and used in combination with either sunlight or artificial UV light. The loss of vital algal pigments was monitored using UV–vis spectrophotometry, and cell structural changes were determined by microscopic observation. Cladophora, in the presence of TiO2-covered glass beads, experienced a loss of chloroplast pigments after 2 h of UV lamp light irradiation. In a separate experiment, sunlight exposure over 4 days (∼24 h) resulted in the complete oxidative degradation of the green chloroplast pigments, verified by the UV spectra of the algal extracts. These results suggest that TiO2, mobilized on sunlit silicates may be useful in controlling growth and survival of this alga in the Great Lakes, thus mitigating many of the economic, aesthetic ecological impacts of this invasive alga.

  13. Potential and limits of Raman spectroscopy for carotenoid detection in microorganisms: implications for astrobiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jehlička, Jan; Edwards, Howell G M; Osterrothová, Kateřina; Novotná, Julie; Nedbalová, Linda; Kopecký, Jiří; Němec, Ivan; Oren, Aharon

    2014-12-13

    In this paper, it is demonstrated how Raman spectroscopy can be used to detect different carotenoids as possible biomarkers in various groups of microorganisms. The question which arose from previous studies concerns the level of unambiguity of discriminating carotenoids using common Raman microspectrometers. A series of laboratory-grown microorganisms of different taxonomic affiliation was investigated, such as halophilic heterotrophic bacteria, cyanobacteria, the anoxygenic phototrophs, the non-halophilic heterotrophs as well as eukaryotes (Ochrophyta, Rhodophyta and Chlorophyta). The data presented show that Raman spectroscopy is a suitable tool to assess the presence of carotenoids of these organisms in cultures. Comparison is made with the high-performance liquid chromatography approach of analysing pigments in extracts. Direct measurements on cultures provide fast and reliable identification of the pigments. Some of the carotenoids studied are proposed as tracers for halophiles, in contrast with others which can be considered as biomarkers of other genera. The limits of application of Raman spectroscopy are discussed for a few cases where the current Raman spectroscopic approach does not allow discriminating structurally very similar carotenoids. The database reported can be used for applications in geobiology and exobiology for the detection of pigment signals in natural settings.

  14. dEMBF: A Comprehensive Database of Enzymes of Microalgal Biofuel Feedstock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misra, Namrata; Panda, Prasanna Kumar; Parida, Bikram Kumar; Mishra, Barada Kanta

    2016-01-01

    Microalgae have attracted wide attention as one of the most versatile renewable feedstocks for production of biofuel. To develop genetically engineered high lipid yielding algal strains, a thorough understanding of the lipid biosynthetic pathway and the underpinning enzymes is essential. In this work, we have systematically mined the genomes of fifteen diverse algal species belonging to Chlorophyta, Heterokontophyta, Rhodophyta, and Haptophyta, to identify and annotate the putative enzymes of lipid metabolic pathway. Consequently, we have also developed a database, dEMBF (Database of Enzymes of Microalgal Biofuel Feedstock), which catalogues the complete list of identified enzymes along with their computed annotation details including length, hydrophobicity, amino acid composition, subcellular location, gene ontology, KEGG pathway, orthologous group, Pfam domain, intron-exon organization, transmembrane topology, and secondary/tertiary structural data. Furthermore, to facilitate functional and evolutionary study of these enzymes, a collection of built-in applications for BLAST search, motif identification, sequence and phylogenetic analysis have been seamlessly integrated into the database. dEMBF is the first database that brings together all enzymes responsible for lipid synthesis from available algal genomes, and provides an integrative platform for enzyme inquiry and analysis. This database will be extremely useful for algal biofuel research. It can be accessed at http://bbprof.immt.res.in/embf.

  15. Utilization of macrophyte biofilter in effluent from aquaculture: I. Floating plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SIPAÚBA-TAVARES L. H.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to manufacture a low-cost biofilter, made of floating macrophyte (Eichhornia crassipes. Limnological studies were conducted 7 days after the macrophytes were placed in the biofilter, and continued over a period of 30 consecutive days. During rainy and dry seasons, and high production period, samples were taken three times a week. The lowest levels of nitrogen compounds were observed in the July/August period, which corresponded to lower fish production and low supply rattion in the culture ponds. During the experimental period, pH values ranged from acid to alkaline and did not oscillate with higher average values during April/May. Alkalinity and bicarbonate dominance in the medium were directly affected by pH. With respect to associated micro-fauna, among phyto-plankton Chlorophyta was the dominant group and among zooplankton, Rotifera. It is recommended that during production peaks, the aquatic plants should be replaced by small buds every 10 days.

  16. Life cycle, feeding and adaptive strategy implications on the co-occurrence of Argyrodiaptomus furcatus and Notodiaptomus iheringi in Lobo-Broa Reservoir (SP, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. C. RIETZLER

    Full Text Available The population dynamics, life cycle and feeding of Argyrodiaptomus furcatus and Notodiaptomus iheringi, were studied in Broa reservoir from August 1988 to August 1989, period when a replacement of A. furcatus by N. iheringi was observed. Some abiotic factors such as temperature, dissolved oxygen, pH and conductivity were measured to characterize the limnological conditions of the reservoir. Also, phytoplankton composition was analyzed and related to the feeding of the two species. Experimental data on developmental time and reproduction of A. furcatus and N. iheringi under different temperatures showed that lower temperatures were responsible for density decreasing of both populations in the reservoir during the dry season. Chlorophyta and Chrysophyta smaller than 20 mum were the most abundant phytoplankton groups in the reservoir as well as in the gut content of A. furcatus and N. iheringi, representing an important food source for both species. The temporary disappearance of Argyrodiaptomus furcatus, observed between 1988 and 1989 and its replacement by Notodiaptomus iheringi was related to mining activities upstream, modifying the water turbidity, pH and conductivity. However, the reappearance and maintenance of A. furcatus for another ten years and a recent replacement re-incidence indicates that these two calanoids do not coexist in this environment. Adaptive strategies of both species, related to changes in environmental conditions, are discussed. Probably, Argyrodiaptomus furcatus is an indicator of less eutrophic environments, while Notodiaptomus iheringi of more eutrophic systems.

  17. Diet of Agonostomus monticola (Pisces: Mugilidae in the Río Ayuquila, Sierra de Manantlán Biosphere Reserve, México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Isela Torres-Navarro

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available We quantified the diet of Agonostomus monticola during the wet and dry seasons of 1990 in a 15 km reach of the Río Ayuquila, a Pacific tributary of west-central México. The species consumed 32 animal and 9 plant families, with aquatic insects (mainly Diptera, Ephemeroptera, and Trichoptera and algae (mainly Chlorophyta as primary prey. Animal material dominated the diet in the wet season but was only slightly more important than plant material in the dry season. Animal material increased in importance with fish size for specimens 151-300 mm total length. Río Ayuquila A. monticola ate fewer shrimp, Odonate insects, fish, and fruit than other studied populations. The broad diet of A. monticola suggests that it is an opportunistic feeder.Se cuantificó la dieta del pez Agonostomus monticola en 1990 en México. La dieta es oportunista e incluyó 32 familias de animales y nueve de plantas, pero dominó el alimento de origen animal, especialmente en individuos de 151-300 mm de longitud

  18. Marine flora of the Iles Eparses (Scattered Islands): A longitudinal transect through the Mozambique Channel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattio, L.; Zubia, M.; Maneveldt, G. W.; Anderson, R. J.; Bolton, J. J.; de Gaillande, C.; De Clerck, O.; Payri, C. E.

    2016-04-01

    The diversity of marine macrophytes of small islands in the South Western Indian Ocean region has been poorly documented and little or no information is available for the Iles Eparses (or Scattered Islands) in the Mozambique Channel. We present the first species checklist for the three largest islands of the Iles Eparses: Europa, Juan de Nova and Glorioso. Overall, with a total of 321 marine macrophyte species recorded (incl. 56% Rhodophyta, 27% Chlorophyta, 15% Phaeophyceae and 2% Magnoliophyta; Europa: 134 spp., Juan de Nova: 157 spp. and Glorioso: 170 spp.) these islands harbour 23.5% of the total species recorded for the Mozambique Channel region. We report 36 new records for the Mozambique Channel including 29 undescribed new and cryptic species. Our results highlight a decrease in species richness southward in the Channel. Because of their longitudinal arrangement between the northern and the southern ends of the Channel and their central position, Europa, Juan de Nova and Glorioso Islands represent data points of particular biogeographical interest and could be critical 'stepping stones' for connectivity in the highly dynamic Mozambique Channel region.

  19. Re-cultivation of Neochloris oleoabundans in exhausted autotrophic and mixotrophic media: the potential role of polyamines and free fatty acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabia, Alessandra; Baldisserotto, Costanza; Biondi, Stefania; Marchesini, Roberta; Tedeschi, Paola; Maietti, Annalisa; Giovanardi, Martina; Ferroni, Lorenzo; Pancaldi, Simonetta

    2015-12-01

    Neochloris oleoabundans (Chlorophyta) is widely considered one of the most promising microalgae for biotechnological applications. However, the large-scale production of microalgae requires large amounts of water. In this perspective, the possibility of using exhausted growth media for the re-cultivation of N. oleoabundans was investigated in order to simultaneously make the cultivation more economically feasible and environmentally sustainable. Experiments were performed by testing the following media: autotrophic exhausted medium (E+) and mixotrophic exhausted medium after cultivation with glucose (EG+) of N. oleoabundans cells grown in a 20-L photobioreactor (PBR). Both exhausted media were replenished with the same amounts of nitrate and phosphate as the control brackish medium (C). Growth kinetics, nitrate and phosphate consumption, photosynthetic pigments content, photosynthetic efficiency, cell morphology, and lipid production were evaluated. Moreover, the free fatty acid (FFA) composition of exhausted media and the polyamine (PA) concentrations of both algae and media were analyzed in order to test if some molecules, released into the medium, could influence algal growth and metabolism. Results showed that N. oleoabundans can efficiently grow in both exhausted media, if appropriately replenished with the main nutrients (E+ and EG+), especially in E+ and to the same extent as in C medium. Growth promotion of N. oleoabundans was attributed to PAs and alteration of the photosynthetic apparatus to FFAs. Taken together, results show that recycling growth medium is a suitable solution to obtain good N. oleoabundans biomass concentrations, while providing a more sustainable ecological impact on water resources.

  20. Composition of Periphyton Community on Water Hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes: In Analysis of Environmental Characteristics at Ejirin Part of Epe Lagoon in Southwestern Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. I. Inyang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The composition of periphyton community on water hyacinth was investigated at Ejirin, part of Epe Lagoon, in relation to environmental characteristics from December 2012 to May 2013. A total of 14,536 individuals of 104 species belonging to five divisions were identified, with Bacillariophyta (82.69%, Cyanobacteria (10.43%, Chlorophyta (5.63%, and Euglenophyta (1.15%. The total species abundance observed showed a strong correlation with rainfall (r = 0.745 and strongly significant correlation with TDS (r=0.836*; P >0.05. Biochemical oxygen demand value remained (BOD ≤ 4.8 mg/L while Shannon-Wiener index value remained (Hs ≤ 1.47. The presence of the following organisms could be used as an indicator of environmentally stressed aquatic ecosystem: euglenoids, blue green algae, Nitzschia palea, Surirella sp., Pinnularia sp., Gomphonema parvulum, Mougeotia sp., Spirogyra sp., Trachelomonas affinis (Lemm., and T. ensifera Daday; T. gibberosa Playf. and Phormidium articulatum; Lyngbya intermedia; Cymbella ventricosa; Eunotia arcus; Surirella linearis and Closterium parvulum Nag.