WorldWideScience

Sample records for cerevisiae heterologously expressing

  1. Adaption of Saccharomyces cerevisiae expressing a heterologous protein

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krogh, Astrid Mørkeberg; Beck, Vibe; Højlund Christensen, Lars

    2008-01-01

    Production of the heterologous protein, bovine aprotinin, in Saccharomyces cerevisiae was shown to affect the metabolism of the host cell to various extent depending on the strain genotype. Strains with different genotypes, industrial and laboroatory, respectively, were investigated. The maximal...

  2. Functional expression and evaluation of heterologous phosphoketolases in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergman, Alexandra; Siewers, Verena; Nielsen, Jens

    2016-01-01

    Phosphoketolases catalyze an energy-and redox-independent cleavage of certain sugar phosphates. Hereby, the two-carbon (C2) compound acetyl-phosphate is formed, which enzymatically can be converted into acetyl-CoA-a key precursor in central carbon metabolism. Saccharomyces cerevisiae does...... not demonstrate efficient phosphoketolase activity naturally. In this study, we aimed to compare and identify efficient heterologous phosphoketolase enzyme candidates that in yeast have the potential to reduce carbon loss compared to the native acetyl-CoA producing pathway by redirecting carbon flux directly from...... C5 and C6 sugars towards C2-synthesis. Nine phosphoketolase candidates were expressed in S. cerevisiae of which seven produced significant amounts of acetyl-phosphate after provision of sugar phosphate substrates in vitro. The candidates showed differing substrate specificities, and some...

  3. Rationally designed, heterologous S. cerevisiae transcripts expose novel expression determinants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben-Yehezkel, Tuval; Atar, Shimshi; Zur, Hadas; Diament, Alon; Goz, Eli; Marx, Tzipy; Cohen, Rafael; Dana, Alexandra; Feldman, Anna; Shapiro, Ehud; Tuller, Tamir

    2015-01-01

    Deducing generic causal relations between RNA transcript features and protein expression profiles from endogenous gene expression data remains a major unsolved problem in biology. The analysis of gene expression from heterologous genes contributes significantly to solving this problem, but has been heavily biased toward the study of the effect of 5′ transcript regions and to prokaryotes. Here, we employ a synthetic biology driven approach that systematically differentiates the effect of different regions of the transcript on gene expression up to 240 nucleotides into the ORF. This enabled us to discover new causal effects between features in previously unexplored regions of transcripts, and gene expression in natural regimes. We rationally designed, constructed, and analyzed 383 gene variants of the viral HRSVgp04 gene ORF, with multiple synonymous mutations at key positions along the transcript in the eukaryote S. cerevisiae. Our results show that a few silent mutations at the 5′UTR can have a dramatic effect of up to 15 fold change on protein levels, and that even synonymous mutations in positions more than 120 nucleotides downstream from the ORF 5′end can modulate protein levels up to 160%–300%. We demonstrate that the correlation between protein levels and folding energy increases with the significance of the level of selection of the latter in endogenous genes, reinforcing the notion that selection for folding strength in different parts of the ORF is related to translation regulation. Our measured protein abundance correlates notably(correlation up to r = 0.62 (p=0.0013)) with mean relative codon decoding times, based on ribosomal densities (Ribo-Seq) in endogenous genes, supporting the conjecture that translation elongation and adaptation to the tRNA pool can modify protein levels in a causal/direct manner. This report provides an improved understanding of transcript evolution, design principles of gene expression regulation, and suggests simple

  4. Yield improvement of heterologous peptides expressed in yps1-disrupted Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egel-Mitani; Andersen; Diers; Hach; Thim; Hastrup; Vad

    2000-06-01

    Heterologous protein expression levels in Saccharomyces cerevisiae fermentations are highly dependent on the susceptibility to endogenous yeast proteases. Small peptides, such as glucagon and glucagon-like-peptides (GLP-1 and GLP-2), featuring an open structure are particularly accessible for proteolytic degradation during fermentation. Therefore, homogeneous products cannot be obtained. The most sensitive residues are found at basic amino acid residues in the peptide sequence. These heterologous peptides are degraded mainly by the YPS1-encoded aspartic protease, yapsin1, when produced in the yeast. In this article, distinct degradation products were analyzed by HPLC and mass spectrometry, and high yield of the heterologous peptide production has been achieved by the disruption of the YPS1 gene (previously called YAP3). By this technique, high yield continuous fermentation of glucagon in S. cerevisiae is now possible.

  5. [High-level expression of heterologous protein based on increased copy number in Saccharomyces cerevisiae].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xinjie; He, Peng; Tao, Yong; Yang, Yi

    2013-11-04

    High-level expression system of heterologous protein mediated by internal ribosome entry site (IRES) in Saccharomyces cerevisiae was constructed, which could be used for other applications of S. cerevisiae in metabolic engineering. We constructed co-expression cassette (promoter-mCherry-TIF4631 IRES-URA3) containing promoters Pilv5, Padh2 and Ptdh3 and recombined the co-expression cassette into the genome of W303-1B-A. The URA3+ transformants were selected. By comparing the difference in the mean florescence value of mCherry in transformants, the effect of three promoters was detected in the co-expression cassette. The copy numbers of the interested genes in the genome were determined by Real-Time PCR. We analyzed genetic stability by continuous subculturing transformants in the absence of selection pressure. To verify the application of co-expression cassette, the ORF of mCherry was replaced by beta-galactosidase (LACZ) and xylose reductase (XYL1). The enzyme activities and production of beta-galactosidase and xylose reductase were detected. mCherry has been expressed in the highest-level in transformants with co-expression cassette containing Pilv5 promoter. The highest copy number of DNA fragment integrating in the genome was 47 in transformants containing Pilv5. The engineering strains showed good genetic stability. Xylose reductase was successfully expressed in the co-expression cassette containing Pilv5 promoter and TIF4631 IRES. The highest enzyme activity was 0. 209 U/mg crude protein in the transformants WIX-10. Beta-galactosidase was also expressed successfully. The transformants that had the highest enzyme activity was WIL-1 and the enzyme activity was 12.58 U/mg crude protein. The system mediated by Pilv5 promoter and TIF4631 IRES could express heterologous protein efficiently in S. cerevisiae. This study offered a new strategy for expression of heterologous protein in S. cerevisiae and provided sufficient experimental evidence for metabolic engineering

  6. Functional expression of a heterologous nickel-dependent, ATP-independent urease in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Milne, N.; Luttik, M.A.H.; Cueto Rojas, H.F.; Wahl, A.; Van Maris, A.J.A.; Pronk, J.T.; Daran, J.G.

    2015-01-01

    In microbial processes for production of proteins, biomass and nitrogen-containing commodity chemicals, ATP requirements for nitrogen assimilation affect product yields on the energy producing substrate. In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, a current host for heterologous protein production and potential

  7. Functional expression of a heterologous nickel-dependent, ATP-independent urease in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milne, N; Luttik, M A H; Cueto Rojas, H F; Wahl, A; van Maris, A J A; Pronk, J T; Daran, J M

    2015-07-01

    In microbial processes for production of proteins, biomass and nitrogen-containing commodity chemicals, ATP requirements for nitrogen assimilation affect product yields on the energy producing substrate. In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, a current host for heterologous protein production and potential platform for production of nitrogen-containing chemicals, uptake and assimilation of ammonium requires 1 ATP per incorporated NH3. Urea assimilation by this yeast is more energy efficient but still requires 0.5 ATP per NH3 produced. To decrease ATP costs for nitrogen assimilation, the S. cerevisiae gene encoding ATP-dependent urease (DUR1,2) was replaced by a Schizosaccharomyces pombe gene encoding ATP-independent urease (ure2), along with its accessory genes ureD, ureF and ureG. Since S. pombe ure2 is a Ni(2+)-dependent enzyme and Saccharomyces cerevisiae does not express native Ni(2+)-dependent enzymes, the S. pombe high-affinity nickel-transporter gene (nic1) was also expressed. Expression of the S. pombe genes into dur1,2Δ S. cerevisiae yielded an in vitro ATP-independent urease activity of 0.44±0.01 µmol min(-1) mg protein(-1) and restored growth on urea as sole nitrogen source. Functional expression of the Nic1 transporter was essential for growth on urea at low Ni(2+) concentrations. The maximum specific growth rates of the engineered strain on urea and ammonium were lower than those of a DUR1,2 reference strain. In glucose-limited chemostat cultures with urea as nitrogen source, the engineered strain exhibited an increased release of ammonia and reduced nitrogen content of the biomass. Our results indicate a new strategy for improving yeast-based production of nitrogen-containing chemicals and demonstrate that Ni(2+)-dependent enzymes can be functionally expressed in S. cerevisiae. Copyright © 2015 International Metabolic Engineering Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Synthetic Promoters and Transcription Factors for Heterologous Protein Expression in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabian Machens

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Orthogonal systems for heterologous protein expression as well as for the engineering of synthetic gene regulatory circuits in hosts like Saccharomyces cerevisiae depend on synthetic transcription factors (synTFs and corresponding cis-regulatory binding sites. We have constructed and characterized a set of synTFs based on either transcription activator-like effectors or CRISPR/Cas9, and corresponding small synthetic promoters (synPs with minimal sequence identity to the host’s endogenous promoters. The resulting collection of functional synTF/synP pairs confers very low background expression under uninduced conditions, while expression output upon induction of the various synTFs covers a wide range and reaches induction factors of up to 400. The broad spectrum of expression strengths that is achieved will be useful for various experimental setups, e.g., the transcriptional balancing of expression levels within heterologous pathways or the construction of artificial regulatory networks. Furthermore, our analyses reveal simple rules that enable the tuning of synTF expression output, thereby allowing easy modification of a given synTF/synP pair. This will make it easier for researchers to construct tailored transcriptional control systems.

  9. Altered Phenotypes in Saccharomyces cerevisiae by Heterologous Expression of Basidiomycete Moniliophthora perniciosa SOD2 Gene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sônia C. Melo

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Heterologous expression of a putative manganese superoxide dismutase gene (SOD2 of the basidiomycete Moniliophthora perniciosa complemented the phenotypes of a Saccharomyces cerevisiae sod2Δ mutant. Sequence analysis of the cloned M. perniciosa cDNA revealed an open reading frame (ORF coding for a 176 amino acid polypeptide with the typical metal-binding motifs of a SOD2 gene, named MpSOD2. Phylogenetic comparison with known manganese superoxide dismutases (MnSODs located the protein of M. perniciosa (MpSod2p in a clade with the basidiomycete fungi Coprinopsis cinerea and Laccaria bicolor. Haploid wild-type yeast transformants containing a single copy of MpSOD2 showed increased resistance phenotypes against oxidative stress-inducing hydrogen peroxide and paraquat, but had unaltered phenotype against ultraviolet–C (UVC radiation. The same transformants exhibited high sensitivity against treatment with the pro-mutagen diethylnitrosamine (DEN that requires oxidation to become an active mutagen/carcinogen. Absence of MpSOD2 in the yeast sod2Δ mutant led to DEN hyper-resistance while introduction of a single copy of this gene restored the yeast wild-type phenotype. The haploid yeast wild-type transformant containing two SOD2 gene copies, one from M. perniciosa and one from its own, exhibited DEN super-sensitivity. This transformant also showed enhanced growth at 37 °C on the non-fermentable carbon source lactate, indicating functional expression of MpSod2p. The pro-mutagen dihydroethidium (DHE-based fluorescence assay monitored basal level of yeast cell oxidative stress. Compared to the wild type, the yeast sod2Δ mutant had a much higher level of intrinsic oxidative stress, which was reduced to wild type (WT level by introduction of one copy of the MpSOD2 gene. Taken together our data indicates functional expression of MpSod2 protein in the yeast S. cerevisiae.

  10. Heterologous expression of a tannic acid-inducible laccase3 of Cryphonectria parasitica in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim Dae-Hyuk

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A tannic acid-inducible and mycoviral-regulated laccase3 (lac3 from the chestnut blight fungus Cryphonectria parasitica has recently been identified, but further characterization was hampered because of the precipitation of protein products by tannic acid supplementation. The present study investigated the heterologous expression of the functional laccase3 using a yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Results Laccase activity in the culture broth of transformants measured using a laccase-specific substrate suggested that the lac3 gene was successfully expressed and the corresponding protein product secreted into the culture media. In addition, activity staining and Western blot analysis of a native gel revealed that the enzyme activity co-existed with the protein product specific to anti-laccase3 antibody, confirming that the cloned lac3 gene is responsible for the laccase activity. When transformants were grown on plates containing tannic acid-supplemented media, brown coloration was observed around transformed cells, indicating the oxidation of tannic acid. However, the enzymatic activity was measurable only in the selective ura- media and was negligible in nonselective nutrient-rich culture conditions. This was in part because of the increased plasmid instability in the nonselective media. Moreover, the protein product of lac3 appears to be sensitive to the cultured nonselective nutrient-rich broth, because a rapid decline in enzymatic activity was observed when the cultured broth of ura- media was mixed with that of nonselective nutrient-rich broth. In addition, constitutive expression of the lac3 gene resulted in a reduced cell number of the lac3 transformants compared to that of vector-only transformed control. However, the presence of recombinant vector without lac3 induction did not affect the growth of transformants. Conclusions The results suggest that expression of the lac3 gene has an inhibitory effect on the growth of

  11. Heterologous expression of the Crassostrea gigas (Pacific oyster) alternative oxidase in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Aaron; Schaltz, Kyle; Neimanis, Karina; Staples, James F; McDonald, Allison E

    2016-10-01

    Alternative oxidase (AOX) is a terminal oxidase within the inner mitochondrial membrane (IMM) present in many organisms where it functions in the electron transport system (ETS). AOX directly accepts electrons from ubiquinol and is therefore capable of bypassing ETS Complexes III and IV. The human genome does not contain a gene coding for AOX, so AOX expression has been suggested as a gene therapy for a range of human mitochondrial diseases caused by genetic mutations that render Complex III and/or IV dysfunctional. An effective means of screening mutations amenable to AOX treatment remains to be devised. We have generated such a tool by heterologously expressing AOX from the Pacific oyster (Crassostrea gigas) in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae under the control of a galactose promoter. Our results show that this animal AOX is monomeric and is correctly targeted to yeast mitochondria. Moreover, when expressed in yeast, Pacific oyster AOX is a functional quinol oxidase, conferring cyanide-resistant growth and myxothiazol-resistant oxygen consumption to yeast cells and isolated mitochondria. This system represents a high-throughput screening tool for determining which Complex III and IV genetic mutations in yeast will be amenable to AOX gene therapy. As many human genes are orthologous to those found in yeast, our invention represents an efficient and cost-effective way to evaluate viable research avenues. In addition, this system provides the opportunity to learn more about the localization, structure, and regulation of AOXs from animals that are not easily reared or manipulated in the lab.

  12. Heterologous Expression of Membrane and Soluble Proteins Derepresses GCN4 mRNA Translation in the Yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steffensen, L.; Pedersen, P. A.

    2006-01-01

    -ATPase also induced GCN4 translation. Derepression of GCN4 translation required phosphorylation of eIF-2 , the tRNA binding domain of Gcn2p, and the ribosome-associated proteins Gcn1p and Gcn20p. The increase in Gcn4p density in response to heterologous expression did not induce transcription from the HIS4...... promoter, a traditional Gcn4p target.......This paper describes the first physiological response at the translational level towards heterologous protein production in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. In yeast, the phosphorylation of eukaryotic initiation factor 2 (eIF-2 ) by Gcn2p protein kinase mediates derepression of GCN4 mRNA translation. Gcn4...

  13. Heterologous expression of a rice metallothionein isoform (OsMTI-1b in Saccharomyces cerevisiae enhances cadmium, hydrogen peroxide and ethanol tolerance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Ansarypour

    Full Text Available Abstract Metallothioneins are a superfamily of low-molecular-weight, cysteine (Cys-rich proteins that are believed to play important roles in protection against metal toxicity and oxidative stress. The main purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of heterologous expression of a rice metallothionein isoform (OsMTI-1b on the tolerance of Saccharomyces cerevisiae to Cd2+, H2O2 and ethanol stress. The gene encoding OsMTI-1b was cloned into p426GPD as a yeast expression vector. The new construct was transformed to competent cells of S. cerevisiae. After verification of heterologous expression of OsMTI-1b, the new strain and control were grown under stress conditions. In comparison to control strain, the transformed S. cerevisiae cells expressing OsMTI-1b showed more tolerance to Cd2+ and accumulated more Cd2+ ions when they were grown in the medium containing CdCl2. In addition, the heterologous expression of GST-OsMTI-1b conferred H2O2 and ethanol tolerance to S. cerevisiae cells. The results indicate that heterologous expression of plant MT isoforms can enhance the tolerance of S. cerevisiae to multiple stresses.

  14. Heat shock response improves heterologous protein secretion in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hou, Jin; Österlund, Tobias; Liu, Zihe

    2013-01-01

    The yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is a widely used platform for the production of heterologous proteins of medical or industrial interest. However, heterologous protein productivity is often low due to limitations of the host strain. Heat shock response (HSR) is an inducible, global, cellular...... stress response, which facilitates the cell recovery from many forms of stress, e.g., heat stress. In S. cerevisiae, HSR is regulated mainly by the transcription factor heat shock factor (Hsf1p) and many of its targets are genes coding for molecular chaperones that promote protein folding and prevent...... the accumulation of mis-folded or aggregated proteins. In this work, we over-expressed a mutant HSF1 gene HSF1-R206S which can constitutively activate HSR, so the heat shock response was induced at different levels, and we studied the impact of HSR on heterologous protein secretion. We found that moderate and high...

  15. Improving L-arabinose utilization of pentose fermenting Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells by heterologous expression of L-arabinose transporting sugar transporters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boles Eckhard

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hydrolysates of plant biomass used for the production of lignocellulosic biofuels typically contain sugar mixtures consisting mainly of D-glucose and D-xylose, and minor amounts of L-arabinose. The yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is the preferred microorganism for the fermentative production of ethanol but is not able to ferment pentose sugars. Although D-xylose and L-arabinose fermenting S. cerevisiae strains have been constructed recently, pentose uptake is still a limiting step in mixed sugar fermentations. Results Here we described the cloning and characterization of two sugar transporters, AraT from the yeast Scheffersomyces stipitis and Stp2 from the plant Arabidopsis thaliana, which mediate the uptake of L-arabinose but not of D-glucose into S. cerevisiae cells. A yeast strain lacking all of its endogenous hexose transporter genes and expressing a bacterial L-arabinose utilization pathway could no longer take up and grow with L-arabinose as the only carbon source. Expression of the heterologous transporters supported uptake and utilization of L-arabinose especially at low L-arabinose concentrations but did not, or only very weakly, support D-glucose uptake and utilization. In contrast, the S. cerevisiae D-galactose transporter, Gal2, mediated uptake of both L-arabinose and D-glucose, especially at high concentrations. Conclusions Using a newly developed screening system we have identified two heterologous sugar transporters from a yeast and a plant which can support uptake and utilization of L-arabinose in L-arabinose fermenting S. cerevisiae cells, especially at low L-arabinose concentrations.

  16. Synthesis of FAEEs from glycerol in engineered Saccharomyces cerevisiae using endogenously produced ethanol by heterologous expression of an unspecific bacterial acyltransferase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Kyung Ok; Jung, Ju; Kim, Seung Wook; Park, Chul Hwan; Han, Sung Ok

    2012-01-01

    The high price of petroleum-based diesel fuel has led to the development of alternative fuels, such as ethanol. Saccharomyces cerevisiae was metabolically engineered to utilize glycerol as a substrate for ethanol production. For the synthesis of fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEEs) by engineered S. cerevisiae that utilize glycerol as substrate, heterologous expression of an unspecific acyltransferase from Acinetobacter baylyi with glycerol utilizing genes was established. As a result, the engineered YPH499 (pGcyaDak, pGupWs-DgaTCas) strain produced 0.24 g/L FAEEs using endogenous ethanol produced from glycerol. And this study also demonstrated the possibility of increasing FAEE production by enhancing ethanol production by minimizing the synthesis of glycerol. The overall FAEE production in strain YPH499 fps1Δ gpd2Δ (pGcyaDak, pGupWs-DgaTCas) was 2.1-fold more than in YPH499 (pGcyaDak, pGupWs-DgaTCas), with approximately 0.52 g/L FAEEs produced, while nearly 17 g/L of glycerol was consumed. These results clearly indicated that FAEEs were synthesized in engineered S. cerevisiae by esterifying exogenous fatty acids with endogenously produced ethanol from glycerol. This microbial system acts as a platform in applying metabolic engineering that allows the production of FAEEs from cheap and abundant substrates specifically glycerol through the use of endogenous bioethanol. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Heterologous expression of MlcE in Saccharomyces cerevisiae provides resistance to natural and semi-synthetic statins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Ley

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Statins are inhibitors of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase, the key enzyme in cholesterol biosynthesis. Their extensive use in treatment and prevention of cardiovascular diseases placed statins among the best selling drugs. Construction of Saccharomyces cerevisiae cell factory for the production of high concentrations of natural statins will require establishment of a non-destructive self-resistance mechanism to overcome the undesirable growth inhibition effects of statins. To establish active export of statins from yeast, and thereby detoxification, we integrated a putative efflux pump-encoding gene mlcE from the mevastatin-producing Penicillium citrinum into the S. cerevisiae genome. The resulting strain showed increased resistance to both natural statins (mevastatin and lovastatin and semi-synthetic statin (simvastatin when compared to the wild type strain. Expression of RFP-tagged mlcE showed that MlcE is localized to the yeast plasma and vacuolar membranes. We provide a possible engineering strategy for improvement of future yeast based production of natural and semi-synthetic statins. Keywords: Polyketide, Statins, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Transport, Cell factory, Resistance

  18. Functional expression of rat VPAC1 receptor in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, M.K.; Tams, J.W.; Fahrenkrug, Jan

    1999-01-01

    G protein-coupled receptor; heterologous expression; membrane protein; Saccharomyces cerevisiae, vasoactive intestinal polypeptide; yeast mating factor-pre-pro *Ga-leader peptide......G protein-coupled receptor; heterologous expression; membrane protein; Saccharomyces cerevisiae, vasoactive intestinal polypeptide; yeast mating factor-pre-pro *Ga-leader peptide...

  19. Comparison of heterologous xylose transporters in recombinant Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hahn-Hägerdal Bärbel

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae has been engineered for xylose utilization to enable production of fuel ethanol from lignocellulose raw material. One unresolved challenge is that S. cerevisiae lacks a dedicated transport system for pentose sugars, which means that xylose is transported by non-specific Hxt transporters with comparatively low transport rate and affinity for xylose. Results In this study, we compared three heterologous xylose transporters that have recently been shown to improve xylose uptake under different experimental conditions. The transporters Gxf1, Sut1 and At5g59250 from Candida intermedia, Pichia stipitis and Arabidopsis thaliana, respectively, were expressed in isogenic strains of S. cerevisiae and the transport kinetics and utilization of xylose was evaluated. Expression of the Gxf1 and Sut1 transporters led to significantly increased affinity and transport rates of xylose. In batch cultivation at 4 g/L xylose concentration, improved transport kinetics led to a corresponding increase in xylose utilization, whereas no correlation could be demonstrated at xylose concentrations greater than 15 g/L. The relative contribution of native sugar transporters to the overall xylose transport capacity was also estimated during growth on glucose and xylose. Conclusions Kinetic characterization and aerobic batch cultivation of strains expressing the Gxf1, Sut1 and At5g59250 transporters showed a direct relationship between transport kinetics and xylose growth. The Gxf1 transporter had the highest transport capacity and the highest xylose growth rate, followed by the Sut1 transporter. The range in which transport controlled the growth rate was determined to between 0 and 15 g/L xylose. The role of catabolite repression in regulation of native transporters was also confirmed by the observation that xylose transport by native S. cerevisiae transporters increased significantly during cultivation in xylose and

  20. Heterologous expression of Fusarium oxysporum tomatinase in Saccharomyces cerevisiae increases its resistance to saponins and improves ethanol production during the fermentation of Agave tequilana Weber var. azul and Agave salmiana must.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cira, Luis Alberto; González, Gloria Angélica; Torres, Juan Carlos; Pelayo, Carlos; Gutiérrez, Melesio; Ramírez, Jesús

    2008-03-01

    This paper describes the effect of the heterologous expression of tomatinase from Fusarium oxysporum f. sp lycopersici in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The gene FoTom1 under the control of the S. cerevisiae phosphoglycerate kinase (PGK1) promoter was cloned into pYES2. S. cerevisiae strain Y45 was transformed with this vector and URA3 transformant strains were selected for resistance to alpha-tomatine. Two transformants were randomly selected for further study (designated Y45-1 and Y45-2). Control strain Y45 was inhibited at 50 muM alpha-tomatine, in contrast, transformants Y45-1 and Y45-2 did not show inhibition at 200 muM. Tomatinase activity was detected by HPLC monitoring tomatine disappearance and tomatidine appearance in the supernatants of culture medium. Maximum tomatinase activity was observed in the transformants after 6 h, remaining constant during the following 24 h. No tomatinase activity was detected in the parental strain. Moreover, the transformants were able to grow and produce ethanol in a mix of Agave tequilana Weber var. azul and Agave salmiana must, contrary to the Y45 strain which was unable to grow and ferment under these conditions.

  1. The heterologous expression strategies of antimicrobial peptides in microbial systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Ting; Ge, Haoran; He, Huahua; Liu, Yao; Zhai, Chao; Feng, Liang; Yi, Li

    2017-12-01

    Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) consist of molecules acting on the defense systems of numerous organisms toward tumor and multiple pathogens, such as bacteria, fungi, viruses, and parasites. Compared to traditional antibiotics, AMPs are more stable and have lower propensity for developing resistance through functioning in the innate immune system, thus having important applications in the fields of medicine, food and so on. However, despite of their high economic values, the low yield and the cumbersome extraction process in AMPs production are problems that limit their industrial application and scientific research. To conquer these obstacles, optimized heterologous expression technologies were developed that could provide effective ways to increase the yield of AMPs. In this review, the research progress on heterologous expression of AMPs using Escherichia coli, Bacillus subtilis, Pichia pastoris and Saccharomyces cerevisiae as host cells was mainly summarized, which might guide the expression strategies of AMPs in these cells. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Mitochondrial targeting increases specific activity of a heterologous valine assimilation pathway in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin V. Solomon

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Bio-based isobutantol is a sustainable ‘drop in’ substitute for petroleum-based fuels. However, well-studied production routes, such as the Ehrlich pathway, have yet to be commercialized despite more than a century of research. The more versatile bacterial valine catabolism may be a competitive alternate route producing not only an isobutanol precursor but several carboxylic acids with applications as biomonomers, and building blocks for other advanced biofuels. Here, we transfer the first two committed steps of the pathway from pathogenic Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 to yeast to evaluate their activity in a safer model organism. Genes encoding the heteroligomeric branched chain keto-acid dehydrogenase (BCKAD; bkdA1, bkdA2, bkdB, lpdV, and the homooligomeric acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (ACD; acd1 were tagged with fluorescence epitopes and targeted for expression in either the mitochondria or cytoplasm of S. cerevisiae. We verified the localization of our constructs with confocal fluorescence microscopy before measuring the activity of tag-free constructs. Despite reduced heterologous expression of mitochondria-targeted enzymes, their specific activities were significantly improved with total enzyme activities up to 138% greater than those of enzymes expressed in the cytoplasm. In total, our results demonstrate that the choice of protein localization in yeast has significant impact on heterologous activity, and suggests a new path forward for isobutanol production. Keywords: Pseudomonas, Isobutanol, Dehydrogenase, Mitochondria, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Metabolic engineering

  3. Heterologous transporter expression for improved fatty alcohol secretion in yeast

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hu, Yating; Zhu, Zhiwei; Nielsen, Jens

    2017-01-01

    The yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is an attractive host for industrial scale production of biofuels including fatty alcohols due to its robustness and tolerance towards harsh fermentation conditions. Many metabolic engineering strategies have been applied to generate high fatty alcohol production...... transporters tested, human FATP1 was shown to mediate fatty alcohol export in a high fatty alcohol production yeast strain. An approximately five-fold increase of fatty alcohol secretion was achieved. The results indicate that the overall cell fitness benefited from fatty alcohol secretion and that the acyl......-CoA synthase activity of FATP1 contributed to increased cell growth as well. This is the first study that enabled an increased cell fitness for fatty alcohol production by heterologous transporter expression in yeast, and this investigation indicates a new potential function of FATP1, which has been known...

  4. Three new shuttle vectors for heterologous expression in Zymomonas mobilis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qinghua Cao

    2016-01-01

    Conclusions: These results indicated that these expression vectors are useful tools for gene expression in Z. mobilis and this could provide a solid foundation for further studies of heterologous gene expression in Z. mobilis.

  5. Heterologous expression of cellobiohydrolases in filamentous fungi

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zoglowek, Marta; Lübeck, Peter S.; Ahring, Birgitte K.

    2015-01-01

    Cellobiohydrolases are among the most important enzymes functioning in the hydrolysis of crystalline cellulose, significantly contributing to the efficient biorefining of recalcitrant lignocellulosic biomass into biofuels and bio-based products. Filamentous fungi are recognized as both well...... into valuable products. However, due to low cellobiohydrolase activities, certain fungi might be deficient with regard to enzymes of value for cellulose conversion, and improving cellobiohydrolase expression in filamentous fungi has proven to be challenging. In this review, we examine the effects of altering...... promoters, signal peptides, culture conditions and host post-translational modifications. For heterologous cellobiohydrolase production in filamentous fungi to become an industrially feasible process, the construction of site-integrating plasmids, development of protease-deficient strains and glycosylation...

  6. Heterologous Expression of the Oxytetracycline Biosynthetic Pathway in Myxococcus xanthus▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, D. Cole; Henry, Michael R.; Murphy, Kimberly A.; Boddy, Christopher N.

    2010-01-01

    New natural products for drug discovery may be accessed by heterologous expression of bacterial biosynthetic pathways in metagenomic DNA libraries. However, a “universal” host is needed for this experiment. Herein, we show that Myxococcus xanthus is a potential “universal” host for heterologous expression of polyketide biosynthetic gene clusters. PMID:20208031

  7. Heterologous gene expression in filamentous fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Xiaoyun; Schmitz, George; Zhang, Meiling; Mackie, Roderick I; Cann, Isaac K O

    2012-01-01

    Filamentous fungi are critical to production of many commercial enzymes and organic compounds. Fungal-based systems have several advantages over bacterial-based systems for protein production because high-level secretion of enzymes is a common trait of their decomposer lifestyle. Furthermore, in the large-scale production of recombinant proteins of eukaryotic origin, the filamentous fungi become the vehicle of choice due to critical processes shared in gene expression with other eukaryotic organisms. The complexity and relative dearth of understanding of the physiology of filamentous fungi, compared to bacteria, have hindered rapid development of these organisms as highly efficient factories for the production of heterologous proteins. In this review, we highlight several of the known benefits and challenges in using filamentous fungi (particularly Aspergillus spp., Trichoderma reesei, and Neurospora crassa) for the production of proteins, especially heterologous, nonfungal enzymes. We review various techniques commonly employed in recombinant protein production in the filamentous fungi, including transformation methods, selection of gene regulatory elements such as promoters, protein secretion factors such as the signal peptide, and optimization of coding sequence. We provide insights into current models of host genomic defenses such as repeat-induced point mutation and quelling. Furthermore, we examine the regulatory effects of transcript sequences, including introns and untranslated regions, pre-mRNA (messenger RNA) processing, transcript transport, and mRNA stability. We anticipate that this review will become a resource for researchers who aim at advancing the use of these fascinating organisms as protein production factories, for both academic and industrial purposes, and also for scientists with general interest in the biology of the filamentous fungi. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Heterologous Protein Expression by Lactococcus lactis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Villatoro-Hernández, J.; Kuipers, O.P.; Saucedo-Cárdenas, O.; Montes-de-Oca-Luna, R.

    2012-01-01

    This chapter describes the use of Lactococcus lactis as a safe and efficient cell factory to produce heterologous proteins of medical interest. The relevance of the use of this lactic acid bacterium (LAB) is that it is a noncolonizing, nonpathogenic microorganism that can be delivered in vivo at a

  9. Heterologous Expression of the Carrot Hsp17.7 gene Increased Growth, Cell Viability, and Protein Solubility in Transformed Yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) under Heat, Cold, Acid, and Osmotic Stress Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Eunhye; Kim, Minhye; Park, Yunho; Ahn, Yeh-Jin

    2017-08-01

    In industrial fermentation of yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae), culture conditions are often modified from the optimal growth conditions of the cells to maintain large-scale cultures and/or to increase recombinant protein production. However, altered growth conditions can be stressful to yeast cells resulting in reduced cell growth and viability. In this study, a small heat shock protein gene from carrot (Daucus carota L.), Hsp17.7, was inserted into the yeast genome via homologous recombination to increase tolerance to stress conditions that can occur during industrial culture. A DNA construct, Translational elongation factor gene promoter-carrot Hsp17.7 gene-Phosphoribosyl-anthranilate isomerase gene (an auxotrophic marker), was generated by a series of PCRs and introduced into the chromosome IV of the yeast genome. Immunoblot analysis showed that carrot Hsp17.7 accumulated in the transformed yeast cell lines. Growth rates and cell viability of these cell lines were higher than control cell lines under heat, cold, acid, and hyperosmotic stress conditions. Soluble protein levels were higher in the transgenic cell lines than control cell lines under heat and cold conditions, suggesting the molecular chaperone function of the recombinant Hsp17.7. This study showed that a recombinant DNA construct containing a HSP gene from carrot was successfully expressed in yeast by homologous recombination and increased tolerances to abiotic stress conditions.

  10. Effect of heterologous expression of acyl-CoA-binding protein on acyl-CoA level and composition in yeast

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mandrup, S; Jepsen, R; Skøtt, H

    1993-01-01

    We have expressed a bovine synthetic acyl-CoA-binding protein (ACBP) gene in yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) under the control of the GAL1 promoter. The heterologously expressed bovine ACBP constituted up to 6.4% of total cellular protein and the processing was identical with that of native bovi...

  11. Hordeum vulgare cysteine protease heterologous expressed in yeast

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosenkilde, Anne Lind; Dionisio, Giuseppe; Holm, Preben Bach

    , (Hordeum vulgare) endoprotease B2 (HvEPB2) was cloned with and without the 5 amino acid C-terminal sequence into the Pichia pastoris expression vector pPICZ Aα and electrotransformed into Pichia pastoris strain SDM1163. Heterologous protein production was induced with 2% MeOH and the protein expression...

  12. Benchmarking two commonly used Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains for heterologous vanillin-β-glucoside production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomas Strucko

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is a widely used eukaryotic model organism and a key cell factory for production of biofuels and wide range of chemicals. From the broad palette of available yeast strains, the most popular are those derived from laboratory strain S288c and the industrially relevant CEN.PK strain series. Importantly, in recent years these two strains have been subjected to comparative “-omics” analyzes pointing out significant genotypic and phenotypic differences. It is therefore possible that the two strains differ significantly with respect to their potential as cell factories for production of specific compounds. To examine this possibility, we have reconstructed a de novo vanillin-β-glucoside pathway in an identical manner in S288c and CEN.PK strains. Characterization of the two resulting strains in two standard conditions revealed that the S288c background strain produced up to 10-fold higher amounts of vanillin-β-glucoside compared to CEN.PK. This study demonstrates that yeast strain background may play a major role in the outcome of newly developed cell factories for production of a given product. Keywords: Yeast, Cell factory, Strain choice, Heterologous production, Vanillin-glucoside, Shikimate pathway

  13. Heterologous expression of biologically active chicken granulocyte ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    After being screened by yeast peptone dextrose (YPD) containing high concentrations of Zeocin and direct PCR, the positive clone was cultured in flask with buffered minimal methanol (BMMY) and expression induced by methanol. Sodium dodecyl sulphate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and western blot ...

  14. Promiscuous activities of heterologous enzymes lead to unintended metabolic rerouting in Saccharomyces cerevisiae engineered to assimilate various sugars from renewable biomass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, Eun Ju; Oh, Eun Joong; Liu, Jing-Jing; Yu, Sora; Kim, Dong Hyun; Kwak, Suryang; Kim, Kyoung Heon; Jin, Yong-Su

    2018-01-01

    Understanding the global metabolic network, significantly perturbed upon promiscuous activities of foreign enzymes and different carbon sources, is crucial for systematic optimization of metabolic engineering of yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae . Here, we studied the effects of promiscuous activities of overexpressed enzymes encoded by foreign genes on rerouting of metabolic fluxes of an engineered yeast capable of assimilating sugars from renewable biomass by profiling intracellular and extracellular metabolites. Unbiased metabolite profiling of the engineered S. cerevisiae strain EJ4 revealed promiscuous enzymatic activities of xylose reductase and xylitol dehydrogenase on galactose and galactitol, respectively, resulting in accumulation of galactitol and tagatose during galactose fermentation. Moreover, during glucose fermentation, a trisaccharide consisting of glucose accumulated outside of the cells probably owing to the promiscuous and transglycosylation activity of β-glucosidase expressed for hydrolyzing cellobiose. Meanwhile, higher accumulation of fatty acids and secondary metabolites was observed during xylose and cellobiose fermentations, respectively. The heterologous enzymes functionally expressed in S. cerevisiae showed promiscuous activities that led to unintended metabolic rerouting in strain EJ4. Such metabolic rerouting could result in a low yield and productivity of a final product due to the formation of unexpected metabolites. Furthermore, the global metabolic network can be significantly regulated by carbon sources, thus yielding different patterns of metabolite production. This metabolomic study can provide useful information for yeast strain improvement and systematic optimization of yeast metabolism to manufacture bio-based products.

  15. Effects of gene orientation and use of multiple promoters on the expression of XYL1 and XYL2 in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ju Yun Bae; Jose Laplaza; Thomas W. Jeffries

    2008-01-01

    Orientation of adjacent genes has been reported to affect their expression in eukaryotic systems, and metabolic engineering also often makes repeated use of a few promoters to obtain high expression. To improve transcriptional control in heterologous expression, we examined how these factors affect gene expression and enzymatic activity in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. We...

  16. Heterologous expression of antigenic peptides in Bacillus subtilis biofilms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogt, Cédric M; Schraner, Elisabeth M; Aguilar, Claudio; Eichwald, Catherine

    2016-08-11

    Numerous strategies have been developed for the display of heterologous proteins in the surface of live bacterial carriers, which can be used as vaccines, immune-modulators, cancer therapy or bioremediation. Bacterial biofilms have emerged as an interesting approach for the expression of proteins of interest. Bacillus subtilis is a well-described, endospore-forming organism that is able to form biofilms and also used as a probiotic, thus making it a suitable candidate for the display of heterologous proteins within the biofilm. Here, we describe the use of TasA, an important structural component of the biofilms formed by B. subtilis, as a genetic tool for the display of heterologous proteins. We first engineered the fusion protein TasA-mCherry and showed that was widely deployed within the B. subtilis biofilms. A significant enhancement of the expression of TasA-mCherry within the biofilm was obtained when depleting both tasA and sinR genes. We subsequently engineered fusion proteins of TasA to antigenic peptides of the E. granulosus parasite, paramyosin and tropomyosin. Our results show that the antigens were well expressed within the biofilm as denoted by macrostructure complementation and by the detection of the fusion protein in both immunoblot and immunohistochemistry. In addition, we show that the recombinant endospores of B. subtilis preserve their biophysical and morphological properties. In this work we provide strong evidence pointing that TasA is a suitable candidate for the display of heterologous peptides, such as antigens, cytokines, enzymes or antibodies, in the B. subtilis biofilms. Finally, our data portray that the recombinant endospores preserve their morphological and biophysical properties and could be an excellent tool to facilitate the transport and the administration.

  17. Requirement of a Functional Flavin Mononucleotide Prenyltransferase for the Activity of a Bacterial Decarboxylase in a Heterologous Muconic Acid Pathway in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Heike E; Gottardi, Manuela; Brückner, Christine; Oreb, Mislav; Boles, Eckhard; Tripp, Joanna

    2017-05-15

    Biotechnological production of cis , cis -muconic acid from renewable feedstocks is an environmentally sustainable alternative to conventional, petroleum-based methods. Even though a heterologous production pathway for cis , cis -muconic acid has already been established in the host organism Saccharomyces cerevisiae , the generation of industrially relevant amounts of cis , cis -muconic acid is hampered by the low activity of the bacterial protocatechuic acid (PCA) decarboxylase AroY isomeric subunit C iso (AroY-C iso ), leading to secretion of large amounts of the intermediate PCA into the medium. In the present study, we show that the activity of AroY-C iso in S. cerevisiae strongly depends on the strain background. We could demonstrate that the strain dependency is caused by the presence or absence of an intact genomic copy of PAD1 , which encodes a mitochondrial enzyme responsible for the biosynthesis of a prenylated form of the cofactor flavin mononucleotide (prFMN). The inactivity of AroY-C iso in strain CEN.PK2-1 could be overcome by plasmid-borne expression of Pad1 or its bacterial homologue AroY subunit B (AroY-B). Our data reveal that the two enzymes perform the same function in decarboxylation of PCA by AroY-C iso , although coexpression of Pad1 led to higher decarboxylase activity. Conversely, AroY-B can replace Pad1 in its function in decarboxylation of phenylacrylic acids by ferulic acid decarboxylase Fdc1. Targeting of the majority of AroY-B to mitochondria by fusion to a heterologous mitochondrial targeting signal did not improve decarboxylase activity of AroY-C iso , suggesting that mitochondrial localization has no major impact on cofactor biosynthesis. IMPORTANCE In Saccharomyces cerevisiae , the decarboxylation of protocatechuic acid (PCA) to catechol is the bottleneck reaction in the heterologous biosynthetic pathway for production of cis , cis -muconic acid, a valuable precursor for the production of bulk chemicals. In our work, we demonstrate

  18. Phosphorylation of plant plasma membrane H+-ATPase by the heterologous host S. cerevisiae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rudashevskaya, Elena; Ye, Juanying; Young, Clifford

     It is known, that phosphorylation of both plant and yeast plasma membrane H+-ATPase results in enzyme activation or inhibition. Several sites at the regulatory C-terminus of the enzyme have been found to undergo phosphorylation in vivo in both plant and yeast. The C-termini of plant H...... of heterologous system of yeast cells, expressing plant proton pump. Therefore identification of possible regulatory effects by phosphorylation events in plant H+-ATPase in the system is significant. A number of putative phosphorylation sites at regulatory C-domain of H+-ATPase (AHA2) have been point...... functioning of the residues and suggests, that plant H+-ATPase could be regulated by phosphorylation at several sites being in yeast cells. Plant H+-ATPase purified from yeast cells by his-tag affinity chromatography was subjected to IMAC and TiO2 for enrichment of phosphopeptides. The phosphopeptides were...

  19. Heterologous expression of bovine lactoferricin in Pichia methanolica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Haikuan; Zhao, Xinhuai; Lu, Fuping

    2007-06-01

    According to the bias of codon utilization of Pichia methanolica, a fragment encoding bovine lactoferricin has been cloned and expressed in the P. methanolica under the control of the alcohol oxidase promoter, which was followed by the Saccharomyces cerevisiae alpha-factor signal peptide. The alpha-factor signal peptide efficiently directed the secretion of bovine lactoferricin from the recombinant yeast cell. The recombinant bovine lactoferricin appears to be successfully expressed, as it displays antibacterial activity (antibacterial assay). Moreover, the identity of the recombinant product was estimated by Tricine-SDS-PAGE.

  20. Heterologous expression of the methyl carbamate-degrading hydrolase MCD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naqvi, Tatheer; Cheesman, Matthew J; Williams, Michelle R; Campbell, Peter M; Ahmed, Safia; Russell, Robyn J; Scott, Colin; Oakeshott, John G

    2009-10-26

    The methyl carbamate-degrading hydrolase (MCD) of Achromobacter WM111 has considerable potential as a pesticide bioremediation agent. However this potential has been unrealisable until now because of an inability to express MCD in heterologous hosts such as Escherichia coli. Herein, we describe the first successful attempt to express appreciable quantities of MCD in active form in E. coli, and the subsequent characterisation of the heterologously expressed material. We find that the properties of this material closely match the previously reported properties of MCD produced from Achromobacter WM111. This includes the presence of two distinct forms of the enzyme that we show are most likely due to the presence of two functional translational start sites. The purified enzyme catalyses the hydrolysis of a carbamate (carbaryl), a carboxyl ester (alpha-naphthyl acetate) and a phophotriester (dimethyl umbelliferyl phosphate) and it is relatively resistant to thermal and solvent-mediated denaturation. The robust nature and catalytic promiscuity of MCD suggest that it could be exploited for various biotechnological applications.

  1. Expression of Heterologous Cellulases in Thermotoga sp. Strain RQ2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui Xu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The ability of Thermotoga spp. to degrade cellulose is limited due to a lack of exoglucanases. To address this deficiency, cellulase genes Csac_1076 (celA and Csac_1078 (celB from Caldicellulosiruptor saccharolyticus were cloned into T. sp. strain RQ2 for heterologous overexpression. Coding regions of Csac_1076 and Csac_1078 were fused to the signal peptide of TM1840 (amyA and TM0070 (xynB, resulting in three chimeric enzymes, namely, TM1840-Csac_1078, TM0070-Csac_1078, and TM0070-Csac_1076, which were carried by Thermotoga-E. coli shuttle vectors pHX02, pHX04, and pHX07, respectively. All three recombinant enzymes were successfully expressed in E. coli DH5α and T. sp. strain RQ2, rendering the hosts with increased endo- and/or exoglucanase activities. In E. coli, the recombinant enzymes were mainly bound to the bacterial cells, whereas in T. sp. strain RQ2, about half of the enzyme activities were observed in the culture supernatants. However, the cellulase activities were lost in T. sp. strain RQ2 after three consecutive transfers. Nevertheless, this is the first time heterologous genes bigger than 1 kb (up to 5.3 kb in this study have ever been expressed in Thermotoga, demonstrating the feasibility of using engineered Thermotoga spp. for efficient cellulose utilization.

  2. Heterologous expression of Gaeumannomyces graminis lipoxygenase in Aspergillus nidulans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heshof, Ruud; van Schayck, J Paul; Tamayo-Ramos, Juan Antonio; de Graaff, Leo H

    2014-01-01

    Aspergillus sp. contain ppo genes coding for Ppo enzymes that produce oxylipins from polyunsaturated fatty acids. These oxylipins function as signal molecules in sporulation and influence the asexual to sexual ratio of Aspergillus sp. Fungi like Aspergillus nidulans and Aspergillus niger contain just ppo genes where the human pathogenic Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus fumigatus contain ppo genes as well as lipoxygenases. Lipoxygenases catalyze the synthesis of oxylipins and are hypothesized to be involved in quorum-sensing abilities and invading plant tissue. In this study we used A. nidulans WG505 as an expression host to heterologously express Gaeumannomyces graminis lipoxygenase. The presence of the recombinant LOX induced phenotypic changes in A. nidulans transformants. Also, a proteomic analysis of an A. nidulans LOX producing strain indicated that the heterologous protein was degraded before its glycosylation in the secretory pathway. We observed that the presence of LOX induced the specific production of aminopeptidase Y that possibly degrades the G. graminis lipoxygenase intercellularly. Also the presence of the protein thioredoxin reductase suggests that the G. graminis lipoxygenase is actively repressed in A. nidulans.

  3. Saccharomyces cerevisiae engineered for xylose metabolism exhibits a respiratory response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yong-Su Jin; Jose M. Laplaza; Thomas W. Jeffries

    2004-01-01

    Native strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae do not assimilate xylose. S. cerevisiae engineered for D-xylose utilization through the heterologous expression of genes for aldose reductase ( XYL1), xylitol dehydrogenase (XYL2), and D-xylulokinase ( XYL3 or XKS1) produce only limited amounts of ethanol in xylose medium. In recombinant S. cerevisiae expressing XYL1, XYL2,...

  4. Heterologous stable expression of terpenoid biosynthetic genes using the moss Physcomitrella patens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bach, Søren Spanner; King, Brian Christopher; Zhan, Xin

    2014-01-01

    Heterologous and stable expression of genes encoding terpenoid biosynthetic enzymes in planta is an important tool for functional characterization and is an attractive alternative to expression in microbial hosts for biotechnological production. Despite improvements to the procedure, such as stre...

  5. Expression of an endoglucanase from Tribolium castaneum (TcEG1) in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirley, Derek; Oppert, Cris; Reynolds, Todd B; Miracle, Bethany; Oppert, Brenda; Klingeman, William E; Jurat-Fuentes, Juan Luis

    2014-10-01

    Insects are a largely unexploited resource in prospecting for novel cellulolytic enzymes to improve the production of ethanol fuel from lignocellulosic biomass. The cost of lignocellulosic ethanol production is expected to decrease by the combination of cellulose degradation (saccharification) and fermentation of the resulting glucose to ethanol in a single process, catalyzed by the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae transformed to express efficient cellulases. While S. cerevisiae is an established heterologous expression system, there are no available data on the functional expression of insect cellulolytic enzymes for this species. To address this knowledge gap, S. cerevisiae was transformed to express the full-length cDNA encoding an endoglucanase from the red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum (TcEG1), and evaluated the activity of the transgenic product (rTcEG1). Expression of the TcEG1 cDNA in S. cerevisiae was under control of the strong glyceraldehyde-3 phosphate dehydrogenase promoter. Cultured transformed yeast secreted rTcEG1 protein as a functional β-1,4-endoglucanase, which allowed transformants to survive on selective media containing cellulose as the only available carbon source. Evaluation of substrate specificity for secreted rTcEG1 demonstrated endoglucanase activity, although some activity was also detected against complex cellulose substrates. Potentially relevant to uses in biofuel production rTcEG1 activity increased with pH conditions, with the highest activity detected at pH 12. Our results demonstrate the potential for functional production of an insect cellulase in S. cerevisiae and confirm the stability of rTcEG1 activity in strong alkaline environments. © 2013 Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  6. Diversion of flux toward sesquiterpene production in Saccharomyces cerevisiae by fusion of host and heterologous enzymes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albertsen, Line; Chen, Yun; Bach, Lars Stougaard

    2011-01-01

    be limited by the inability of the heterologous enzymes to collaborate with the native yeast enzymes. This may cause loss of intermediates by diffusion or degradation or due to conversion of the intermediate through competitive pathways. To bypass this problem, we have pursued a strategy in which key enzymes...... increased the production of patchoulol, the main sesquiterpene produced by PTS, up to 2-fold. Moreover, we have demonstrated that the fusion strategy can be used in combination with traditional metabolic engineering to further increase the production of patchoulol. This simple test case of synthetic biology...

  7. Transcriptional analysis of heterologous gene expression using the endogenous sD promoter from Bacillus halodurans

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Crampton, Michael C

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available This presentation focused on the transcriptional analysis of heterologous gene expression using the endogenous sD promoter from Bacillus halodurans. It concludes to a successful implementation of a high throughput mRNA sandwich hybridisation...

  8. Cloning and heterologous expression of the plasmid- encoded shsp ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AMAJU

    2011-02-14

    Feb 14, 2011 ... In addition to strong heat and acid tolerance, recombinant E. ... ethanol stress, which is the first physiological function found to be linked to the S. thermophilus .... The transgenic Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells expres-.

  9. Use of heterologous expressed polyketide synthase and small molecule foldases to make aromatic and cyclic compounds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2016-01-01

    A method for producing individual or libraries of tri- to pentadecaketide-derived aromatic compounds of interest by heterologous expression of polyketide synthase and aromatase/cyclase in a recombinant host cell.......A method for producing individual or libraries of tri- to pentadecaketide-derived aromatic compounds of interest by heterologous expression of polyketide synthase and aromatase/cyclase in a recombinant host cell....

  10. Expression of monellin in a food-grade delivery system in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jun; Yan, Da-zhong; Zhao, Sheng-jun

    2015-10-01

    Genetically modified (GM) foods have caused much controversy. Construction of a food-grade delivery system is a desirable technique with presumptive impact on industrial applications from the perspective of bio-safety. The aim of this study was to construct a food-grade delivery system for Saccharomyces cerevisiae and to study the expression of monellin from the berries of the West African forest plant Dioscoreophyllum cumminsii in this system. A food-grade system for S. cerevisiae was constructed based on ribosomal DNA (rDNA)-mediated homologous recombination to enable high-copy-number integration of the expression cassette inserted into the rDNA locus. A copper resistance gene (CUP1) was used as the selection marker for yeast transformation. Because variants of transformants containing different copy numbers at the CUP1 locus can be readily selected after growth in the presence of elevated copper levels, we suggest that this system would prove useful in the generation of tandemly iterated gene clusters. Using this food-grade system, a single-chain monellin gene was heterologously expressed. The yield of monellin reached a maximum of 675 mg L(-1) . This system harbors exclusively S. cerevisiae DNA with no antibiotic resistance genes, and it should therefore be appropriate for safe use in the food industry. Monellin was shown to be expressed in this food-grade delivery system. To our knowledge, this is the first report so far on expression of monellin in a food-grade expression system in S. cerevisiae. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  11. Improved Production of a Heterologous Amylase in Saccharomyces cerevisiae by Inverse Metabolic Engineering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Zihe; Liu, Lifang; Osterlund, Tobias

    2014-01-01

    this modification alone, the amylase secretion could be improved by 35%. As a complement to the identification of genomic variants, transcriptome analysis was also performed in order to understand on a global level the transcriptional changes associated with the improved amylase production caused by UV mutagenesis.......The increasing demand for industrial enzymes and biopharmaceutical proteins relies on robust production hosts with high protein yield and productivity. Being one of the best-studied model organisms and capable of performing posttranslational modifications, the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae...... is widely used as a cell factory for recombinant protein production. However, many recombinant proteins are produced at only 1% (or less) of the theoretical capacity due to the complexity of the secretory pathway, which has not been fully exploited. In this study, we applied the concept of inverse metabolic...

  12. Iterative optimization of xylose catabolism in Saccharomyces cerevisiae using combinatorial expression tuning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latimer, Luke N; Dueber, John E

    2017-06-01

    A common challenge in metabolic engineering is rapidly identifying rate-controlling enzymes in heterologous pathways for subsequent production improvement. We demonstrate a workflow to address this challenge and apply it to improving xylose utilization in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. For eight reactions required for conversion of xylose to ethanol, we screened enzymes for functional expression in S. cerevisiae, followed by a combinatorial expression analysis to achieve pathway flux balancing and identification of limiting enzymatic activities. In the next round of strain engineering, we increased the copy number of these limiting enzymes and again tested the eight-enzyme combinatorial expression library in this new background. This workflow yielded a strain that has a ∼70% increase in biomass yield and ∼240% increase in xylose utilization. Finally, we chromosomally integrated the expression library. This library enriched for strains with multiple integrations of the pathway, which likely were the result of tandem integrations mediated by promoter homology. Biotechnol. Bioeng. 2017;114: 1301-1309. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Direct capture and heterologous expression of Salinispora natural product genes for the biosynthesis of enterocin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonet, Bailey; Teufel, Robin; Crüsemann, Max; Ziemert, Nadine; Moore, Bradley S

    2015-03-27

    Heterologous expression of secondary metabolic pathways is a promising approach for the discovery and characterization of bioactive natural products. Herein we report the first heterologous expression of a natural product from the model marine actinomycete genus Salinispora. Using the recently developed method of yeast-mediated transformation-associated recombination for natural product gene clusters, we captured a type II polyketide synthase pathway from Salinispora pacifica with high homology to the enterocin pathway from Streptomyces maritimus and successfully produced enterocin in two different Streptomyces host strains. This result paves the way for the systematic interrogation of Salinispora's promising secondary metabolome.

  14. MiYA, an efficient machine-learning workflow in conjunction with the YeastFab assembly strategy for combinatorial optimization of heterologous metabolic pathways in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yikang; Li, Gang; Dong, Junkai; Xing, Xin-Hui; Dai, Junbiao; Zhang, Chong

    2018-05-01

    Facing boosting ability to construct combinatorial metabolic pathways, how to search the metabolic sweet spot has become the rate-limiting step. We here reported an efficient Machine-learning workflow in conjunction with YeastFab Assembly strategy (MiYA) for combinatorial optimizing the large biosynthetic genotypic space of heterologous metabolic pathways in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Using β-carotene biosynthetic pathway as example, we first demonstrated that MiYA has the power to search only a small fraction (2-5%) of combinatorial space to precisely tune the expression level of each gene with a machine-learning algorithm of an artificial neural network (ANN) ensemble to avoid over-fitting problem when dealing with a small number of training samples. We then applied MiYA to improve the biosynthesis of violacein. Feed with initial data from a colorimetric plate-based, pre-screened pool of 24 strains producing violacein, MiYA successfully predicted, and verified experimentally, the existence of a strain that showed a 2.42-fold titer improvement in violacein production among 3125 possible designs. Furthermore, MiYA was able to largely avoid the branch pathway of violacein biosynthesis that makes deoxyviolacein, and produces very pure violacein. Together, MiYA combines the advantages of standardized building blocks and machine learning to accelerate the Design-Build-Test-Learn (DBTL) cycle for combinatorial optimization of metabolic pathways, which could significantly accelerate the development of microbial cell factories. Copyright © 2018 International Metabolic Engineering Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Heterologous expression of the Arabidopsis etr1-1 allele inhibits the senescence of carnation flowers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bovy, A.G.; Angenent, G.C.; Dons, H.J.M.; Altvorst, van A.

    1999-01-01

    The Arabidopsis thaliana etr1-1 allele, capable of conferring ethylene insensitivity in a heterologous host, was introduced into transgenic carnation plants. This gene was expressed under control of either its own promoter, the constitutive CaMV 35S promoter or the flower-specific petunia FBP1

  16. A new maltose-inducible high-performance heterologous expression system in Bacillus subtilis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yue, Jie; Fu, Gang; Zhang, Dawei; Wen, Jianping

    2017-08-01

    To improve heterologous proteins production, we constructed a maltose-inducible expression system in Bacillus subtilis. An expression system based on the promoter for maltose utilization constructed in B. subtilis. Successively, to improve the performance of the P malA -derived system, mutagenesis was employed by gradually shortening the length of P malA promoter and altering the spacing between the predicted MalR binding site and the -35 region. Furthermore, deletion of the maltose utilization genes (malL and yvdK) improved the P malA promoter activity. Finally, using this efficient maltose-inducible expression system, we enhanced the production of luciferase and D-aminoacylase, compared with the P hpaII system. A maltose-inducible expression system was constructed and evaluated. It could be used for high level expression of heterologous proteins production.

  17. Heterologous expression in Tritrichomonas foetus of functional Trichomonas vaginalis AP65 adhesin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alderete JF

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Trichomonosis, caused by Trichomonas vaginalis, is the number one, nonviral sexually transmitted infection that has adverse consequences for the health of women and children. The interaction of T. vaginalis with vaginal epithelial cells (VECs, a step preparatory to infection, is mediated in part by the prominent surface protein AP65. The bovine trichomonad, Tritrichomonas foetus, adheres poorly to human VECs. Thus, we established a transfection system for heterologous expression of the T. vaginalis AP65 in T. foetus, as an alternative approach to confirm adhesin function for this virulence factor. Results In this study, we show stable transfection and expression of the T. vaginalis ap65 gene in T. foetus from an episomal pBS-ap65-neo plasmid. Expression of the gene and protein was confirmed by RT-PCR and immunoblots, respectively. AP65 in transformed T. foetus bound to host cells. Specific mAbs revealed episomally-expressed AP65 targeted to the parasite surface and hydrogenosome organelles. Importantly, surface-expression of AP65 in T. foetus paralleled increased levels of adherence of transfected bovine trichomonads to human VECs. Conclusion The T. vaginalis AP65 adhesin was stably expressed in T. foetus, and the data obtained using this heterologous system strongly supports the role of AP65 as a prominent adhesin for T. vaginalis. In addition, the heterologous expression in T. foetus of a T. vaginalis gene offers an important, new approach for confirming and characterizing virulence factors.

  18. Secretory expression of a heterologous nattokinase in Lactococcus lactis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Xiaobo; Zhang, Lixin; Zhong, Jin; Huan, Liandong

    2007-05-01

    Nattokinase has been reported as an oral health product for the prevention of atherosclerosis. We developed a novel strategy to express a nattokinase from Bacillus subtilis in a live delivery vehicle, Lactococcus lactis. Promoter P( nisZ) and signal peptide SP(Usp) were used for inducible and secretory expression of nattokinase in L. lactis. Western blotting analysis demonstrated that nattokinase was successfully expressed, and about 94% of the enzyme was secreted to the culture. The recombinant nattokinase showed potent fibrinolytic activity, equivalent to 41.7 urokinase units per milliliter culture. Expression and delivery of such a fibrinolytic enzyme in the food-grade vehicle L. lactis would facilitate the widespread application of nattokinase in the control and prevention of thrombosis diseases.

  19. Heterologous expression of an algal hydrogenase in a heterocystous cyanobacterium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thorsten Heidorn; Peter Lindblad [Dept. of Physiological Botany, Uppsala University, Villavogen 6, SE-752 36 Uppsala, (Sweden)

    2006-07-01

    For the expression of an active algal [FeFe] hydrogenase in the heterocystous cyanobacterium Nostoc punctiforme A TCC 29133 the Chlamydomonas reinhardtii hydrogenase gene hydA1 and the accessory genes hydEF and hydG are to be introduced into the cyanobacteria cells. The genes were amplified by PCR from EST clones, cloned into the cloning vector pBluescript SK+ and sequenced. An expression vector for multi-cistronic cloning, based on pSCR202, was constructed and for a functional test GFP was inserted as a reporter gene. The GFP construct was transformed into Nostoc punctiforme A TCC 29133 by electroporation and expression of GFP was visualized by fluorescence microscopy. (authors)

  20. Heterologous expression of an algal hydrogenase in a heterocystous cyanobacterium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thorsten Heidorn; Peter Lindblad

    2006-01-01

    For the expression of an active algal [FeFe] hydrogenase in the heterocystous cyanobacterium Nostoc punctiforme A TCC 29133 the Chlamydomonas reinhardtii hydrogenase gene hydA1 and the accessory genes hydEF and hydG are to be introduced into the cyanobacteria cells. The genes were amplified by PCR from EST clones, cloned into the cloning vector pBluescript SK+ and sequenced. An expression vector for multi-cistronic cloning, based on pSCR202, was constructed and for a functional test GFP was inserted as a reporter gene. The GFP construct was transformed into Nostoc punctiforme A TCC 29133 by electroporation and expression of GFP was visualized by fluorescence microscopy. (authors)

  1. Heterologous expression of xylanase enzymes in lipogenic yeast Yarrowia lipolytica.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Wang

    Full Text Available To develop a direct microbial sugar conversion platform for the production of lipids, drop-in fuels and chemicals from cellulosic biomass substrate, we chose Yarrowia lipolytica as a viable demonstration strain. Y. lipolytica is known to accumulate lipids intracellularly and is capable of metabolizing sugars to produce lipids; however, it lacks the lignocellulose-degrading enzymes needed to break down biomass directly. While research is continuing on the development of a Y. lipolytica strain able to degrade cellulose, in this study, we present successful expression of several xylanases in Y. lipolytica. The XynII and XlnD expressing Yarrowia strains exhibited an ability to grow on xylan mineral plates. This was shown by Congo Red staining of halo zones on xylan mineral plates. Enzymatic activity tests further demonstrated active expression of XynII and XlnD in Y. lipolytica. Furthermore, synergistic action in converting xylan to xylose was observed when XlnD acted in concert with XynII. The successful expression of these xylanases in Yarrowia further advances us toward our goal to develop a direct microbial conversion process using this organism.

  2. Cloning and heterologous expression of a gene encoding lycopene ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This report describes the cloning and expression of a gene lycopene epsilon cyclase, (LCYE) from Camellia sinensis var assamica which is a precursor of the carotenoid lutein in tea. The 1982 bp cDNA sequence with 1599 bp open reading frame of LCYE was identified from an SSH library constructed for quality trait in tea.

  3. Heterologous expression of pikromycin biosynthetic gene cluster using Streptomyces artificial chromosome system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pyeon, Hye-Rim; Nah, Hee-Ju; Kang, Seung-Hoon; Choi, Si-Sun; Kim, Eung-Soo

    2017-05-31

    Heterologous expression of biosynthetic gene clusters of natural microbial products has become an essential strategy for titer improvement and pathway engineering of various potentially-valuable natural products. A Streptomyces artificial chromosomal conjugation vector, pSBAC, was previously successfully applied for precise cloning and tandem integration of a large polyketide tautomycetin (TMC) biosynthetic gene cluster (Nah et al. in Microb Cell Fact 14(1):1, 2015), implying that this strategy could be employed to develop a custom overexpression scheme of natural product pathway clusters present in actinomycetes. To validate the pSBAC system as a generally-applicable heterologous overexpression system for a large-sized polyketide biosynthetic gene cluster in Streptomyces, another model polyketide compound, the pikromycin biosynthetic gene cluster, was preciously cloned and heterologously expressed using the pSBAC system. A unique HindIII restriction site was precisely inserted at one of the border regions of the pikromycin biosynthetic gene cluster within the chromosome of Streptomyces venezuelae, followed by site-specific recombination of pSBAC into the flanking region of the pikromycin gene cluster. Unlike the previous cloning process, one HindIII site integration step was skipped through pSBAC modification. pPik001, a pSBAC containing the pikromycin biosynthetic gene cluster, was directly introduced into two heterologous hosts, Streptomyces lividans and Streptomyces coelicolor, resulting in the production of 10-deoxymethynolide, a major pikromycin derivative. When two entire pikromycin biosynthetic gene clusters were tandemly introduced into the S. lividans chromosome, overproduction of 10-deoxymethynolide and the presence of pikromycin, which was previously not detected, were both confirmed. Moreover, comparative qRT-PCR results confirmed that the transcription of pikromycin biosynthetic genes was significantly upregulated in S. lividans containing tandem

  4. Heterologous Expression of Three Plant Serpins with Distinct Inhibitory Specificities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl, Søren Weis; Rasmussen, Søren Kjærsgård; Hejgaard, Jørn

    1996-01-01

    For the first time, inhibitory plant serpins, including WSZ1 from wheat, BSZ4, and the previously unknown protein BSZx from barley, have been expressed in Escherichia coli, and a procedure for fast purification of native plant serpins has been developed, BSZx, BSZ4, and WSZ1 were assayed...... favorable P-2 Leu. BSZ4 inhibited cathepsin G (k(a) = 2.7 x 10(4) M(-1) s(-1)) at P-1 Met but was hydrolyzed by trypsin and chymotrypsin. The three plant serpins formed stable SDS-resistant complexes with the proteinases in accordance with the kinetic data....

  5. Heterologous expression of a deuterated membrane-integrated receptor and partial deuteration in methylotrophic yeasts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Massou, S.; Puech, V.; Talmont, F.; Demange, P.; Lindley, N.D.; Tropis, M.; Milon, A.

    1999-01-01

    Methylotrophic yeast has previously been shown to be an excellent system for the cost-effective production of perdeuterated biomass and for the heterologous expression of membrane receptors. A protocol for the expression of 85% deuterated, functional human μ-opiate receptor was established. For partially deuterated biomass, deuteration level and distribution were determined for fatty acids, amino acids and carbohydrates. It was shown that prior to biosynthesis of lipids and amino acids (and of carbohydrates, to a lower extent), exchange occurs between water and methanol hydrogen atoms, so that 80%-90% randomly deuterated biomass and over-expressed proteins may be obtained using only deuterated water

  6. Overexpression of pucC improves the heterologous protein expression level in a Rhodobacter sphaeroides expression system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, L; Chen, G; Ding, G; Zhao, Z; Dong, T; Hu, Z

    2015-04-27

    The Rhodobacter sphaeroides system has been used to express membrane proteins. However, its low yield has substantially limited its application. In order to promote the protein expression capability of this system, the pucC gene, which plays a crucial role in assembling the R. sphaeroides light-harvesting 2 complex (LH2), was overexpressed. To build a pucC overexpression strain, a pucC overexpression vector was constructed and transformed into R. sphaeroides CQU68. The overexpression efficiency was evaluated by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. A well-used reporter β-glucuronidase (GUS) was fusion-expressed with LH2 to evaluate the heterologous protein expression level. As a result, the cell culture and protein in the pucC overexpression strain showed much higher typical spectral absorption peaks at 800 and 850 nm compared with the non-overexpression strain, suggesting a higher expression level of LH2-GUS fusion protein in the pucC overexpression strain. This result was further confirmed by Western blot, which also showed a much higher level of heterologous protein expression in the pucC overexpression strain. We further compared GUS activity in pucC overexpression and non-overexpression strains, the results of which showed that GUS activity in the pucC overexpression strain was approximately ten-fold that in the non-overexpression strain. These results demonstrate that overexpressed pucC can promote heterologous protein expression levels in R. sphaeroides.

  7. Impact of High-Level Expression of Heterologous Protein on Lactococcus lactis Host.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Mina; Jin, Yerin; An, Hyun-Joo; Kim, Jaehan

    2017-07-28

    The impact of overproduction of a heterologous protein on the metabolic system of host Lactococcus lactis was investigated. The protein expression profiles of L. lactis IL1403 containing two near-identical plasmids that expressed high- and low-level of the green fluorescent protein (GFP) were examined via shotgun proteomics. Analysis of the two strains via high-throughput LC-MS/MS proteomics identified the expression of 294 proteins. The relative amount of each protein in the proteome of both strains was determined by label-free quantification using the spectral counting method. Although expression level of most proteins were similar, several significant alterations in metabolic network were identified in the high GFP-producing strain. These changes include alterations in the pyruvate fermentation pathway, oxidative pentose phosphate pathway, and de novo synthesis pathway for pyrimidine RNA. Expression of enzymes for the synthesis of dTDP-rhamnose and N -acetylglucosamine from glucose was suppressed in the high GFP strain. In addition, enzymes involved in the amino acid synthesis or interconversion pathway were downregulated. The most noticeable changes in the high GFP-producing strain were a 3.4-fold increase in the expression of stress response and chaperone proteins and increase of caseinolytic peptidase family proteins. Characterization of these host expression changes witnessed during overexpression of GFP was might suggested the metabolic requirements and networks that may limit protein expression, and will aid in the future development of lactococcal hosts to produce more heterologous protein.

  8. Functional expression and characterization of five wax ester synthases in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and their utility for biodiesel production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shi Shuobo

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Wax ester synthases (WSs can synthesize wax esters from alcohols and fatty acyl coenzyme A thioesters. The knowledge of the preferred substrates for each WS allows the use of yeast cells for the production of wax esters that are high-value materials and can be used in a variety of industrial applications. The products of WSs include fatty acid ethyl esters, which can be directly used as biodiesel. Results Here, heterologous WSs derived from five different organisms were successfully expressed and evaluated for their substrate preference in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. We investigated the potential of the different WSs for biodiesel (that is, fatty acid ethyl esters production in S. cerevisiae. All investigated WSs, from Acinetobacter baylyi ADP1, Marinobacter hydrocarbonoclasticus DSM 8798, Rhodococcus opacus PD630, Mus musculus C57BL/6 and Psychrobacter arcticus 273-4, have different substrate specificities, but they can all lead to the formation of biodiesel. The best biodiesel producing strain was found to be the one expressing WS from M. hydrocarbonoclasticus DSM 8798 that resulted in a biodiesel titer of 6.3 mg/L. To further enhance biodiesel production, acetyl coenzyme A carboxylase was up-regulated, which resulted in a 30% increase in biodiesel production. Conclusions Five WSs from different species were functionally expressed and their substrate preference characterized in S. cerevisiae, thus constructing cell factories for the production of specific kinds of wax ester. WS from M. hydrocarbonoclasticus showed the highest preference for ethanol compared to the other WSs, and could permit the engineered S. cerevisiae to produce biodiesel.

  9. The evolution of gene expression QTL in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Ronald

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the evolutionary forces that influence patterns of gene expression variation will provide insights into the mechanisms of evolutionary change and the molecular basis of phenotypic diversity. To date, studies of gene expression evolution have primarily been made by analyzing how gene expression levels vary within and between species. However, the fundamental unit of heritable variation in transcript abundance is the underlying regulatory allele, and as a result it is necessary to understand gene expression evolution at the level of DNA sequence variation. Here we describe the evolutionary forces shaping patterns of genetic variation for 1206 cis-regulatory QTL identified in a cross between two divergent strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. We demonstrate that purifying selection against mildly deleterious alleles is the dominant force governing cis-regulatory evolution in S. cerevisiae and estimate the strength of selection. We also find that essential genes and genes with larger codon bias are subject to slightly stronger cis-regulatory constraint and that positive selection has played a role in the evolution of major trans-acting QTL.

  10. A vaccine grade of yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae expressing mammalian myostatin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Tingting

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is a widely-used system for protein expression. We previously showed that heat-killed whole recombinant yeast vaccine expressing mammalian myostatin can modulate myostatin function in mice, resulting in increase of body weight and muscle composition in these animals. Foreign DNA introduced into yeast cells can be lost soon unless cells are continuously cultured in selection media, which usually contain antibiotics. For cost and safety concerns, it is essential to optimize conditions to produce quality food and pharmaceutical products. Results We developed a simple but effective method to engineer a yeast strain stably expressing mammalian myostatin. This method utilized high-copy-number integration of myostatin gene into the ribosomal DNA of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. In the final step, antibiotic selection marker was removed using the Cre-LoxP system to minimize any possible side-effects for animals. The resulting yeast strain can be maintained in rich culture media and stably express mammalian myostatin for two years. Oral administration of the recombinant yeast was able to induce immune response to myostatin and modulated the body weight of mice. Conclusions Establishment of such yeast strain is a step further toward transformation of yeast cells into edible vaccine to improve meat production in farm animals and treat human muscle-wasting diseases in the future.

  11. Heterologous Expression and Characterization of a Thermostable Exo-β-D-Glucosaminidase from Aspergillus oryzae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Dingxin; Wang, Linchun; Li, Yuwei; Zhao, Shumiao; Peng, Nan; Liang, Yunxiang

    2016-02-01

    An exo-β-D-glucosaminidase (AorCsxA) from Aspergillus oryzae FL402 was heterologously expressed and purified. The deduced amino acid sequence indicated that AorCsxA belonged to glycoside hydrolase family 2. AorCsxA digested colloid chitosan into glucosamine but not into chitosan oligosaccharides, demonstrating exo-β-D-glucosaminidase (CsxA) activity. AorCsxA exhibited optimal activity at pH 5.5 and 50°C; however, the enzyme expressed in Pichia pastoris (PpAorCsxA) showed much stronger thermostability at 50°C than that expressed in Escherichia coli (EcAorCsxA), which may be related to glycosylation. AorCsxA activity was inhibited by EDTA and most of the tested metal ions. A single amino acid mutation (F769W) in AorCsxA significantly enhanced the specific activity and hydrolysis velocity as revealed by comparison of Vmax and kcat values with those of the wild-type enzyme. The three-dimensional structure suggested the tightened pocket at the active site of F769W enabled efficient substrate binding. The AorCsxA gene was heterologously expressed in P. pastoris, and one transformant was found to produce 222 U/ml activity during the high-cell-density fermentation. This AorCsxA-overexpressing P. pastoris strain is feasible for large-scale production of AorCsxA.

  12. Protein expression of saccharomyces cerevisiae in response to uranium exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakamoto, Fuminori; Nankawa, Takuya; Kozai, Naofumi; Ohnuki, Toshihiko; Fujii, Tsutomu; Iefuji, Haruyuki; Francis, A.J.

    2007-01-01

    Protein expression of Saccharomyces cerevisiae grown in the medium containing 238 U (VI) and 233 U (VI) was examined by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. Saccharomyces cerevisiae of BY4743 was grown in yeast nitrogen base medium containing glucose and glycerol 2-phosphate and 238 U of 0, 2.0, and 5.0 x 10 -4 M or 233 U of 2.5 x 10 -6 M (radioactivity was higher by 350 times than 2.0 x 10 -4 M 238 U) and 5.0 x 10 -6 M for 112 h at 30 degC. The growth of Saccharomyces cerevisiae was monitored by measuring OD 600 at 112 h after the inoculation. Uranium concentrations in the media also were measured by radiometry using a liquid scintillation counter. The growths of the yeast grown in the above media were in the following order: control>2.5 x 10 -6 M 233 U>2.0 x 10 -4 M 238 U>5.0 x 10 -6 M 233 U>5.0 x 10 -4 M 238 U. This result indicated that not only radiological but also chemical effect of U reduced the growth of the yeast. The concentrations of U in the medium containing 238 U or 233 U decreased, suggesting U accumulation by the yeast cells. The 2-D gel electrophoresis analysis showed the appearance of several spots after exposure to 238 U or to 233 U but not in the control containing no uranium. These results show that the yeast cells exposed to U express several specific proteins. (author)

  13. Heterologous expression of plasmodial proteins for structural studies and functional annotation

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Birkholtz, LM

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Malaria Journal Open AcceReview Heterologous expression of plasmodial proteins for structural studies and functional annotation Lyn-Marie Birkholtz1, Gregory Blatch2, Theresa L Coetzer3, Heinrich C Hoppe1,4, Esmaré Human1, Elizabeth J Morris1,5, Zoleka Ngcete..., Kwadlangezwa, South Africa Email: Lyn-Marie Birkholtz - lbirkholtz@up.ac.za; Gregory Blatch - G.Blatch@ru.ac.za; Theresa L Coetzer - theresa.coetzer@nhls.ac.za; Heinrich C Hoppe - hhoppe@csir.co.za; Esmaré Human - esmare.human@up.ac.za; Elizabeth J Morris...

  14. Xenobiotic Compounds Degradation by Heterologous Expression of a Trametes sanguineus Laccase in Trichoderma atroviride.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edgar Balcázar-López

    Full Text Available Fungal laccases are enzymes that have been studied because of their ability to decolorize and detoxify effluents; they are also used in paper bleaching, synthesis of polymers, bioremediation, etc. In this work we were able to express a laccase from Trametes (Pycnoporus sanguineus in the filamentous fungus Trichoderma atroviride. For this purpose, a transformation vector was designed to integrate the gene of interest in an intergenic locus near the blu17 terminator region. Although monosporic selection was still necessary, stable integration at the desired locus was achieved. The native signal peptide from T. sanguineus laccase was successful to secrete the recombinant protein into the culture medium. The purified, heterologously expressed laccase maintained similar properties to those observed in the native enzyme (Km and kcat and kcat/km values for ABTS, thermostability, substrate range, pH optimum, etc. To determine the bioremediation potential of this modified strain, the laccase-overexpressing Trichoderma strain was used to remove xenobiotic compounds. Phenolic compounds present in industrial wastewater and bisphenol A (an endocrine disruptor from the culture medium were more efficiently removed by this modified strain than with the wild type. In addition, the heterologously expressed laccase was able to decolorize different dyes as well as remove benzo[α]pyrene and phenanthrene in vitro, showing its potential for xenobiotic compound degradation.

  15. Combined protein construct and synthetic gene engineering for heterologous protein expression and crystallization using Gene Composer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walchli John

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background With the goal of improving yield and success rates of heterologous protein production for structural studies we have developed the database and algorithm software package Gene Composer. This freely available electronic tool facilitates the information-rich design of protein constructs and their engineered synthetic gene sequences, as detailed in the accompanying manuscript. Results In this report, we compare heterologous protein expression levels from native sequences to that of codon engineered synthetic gene constructs designed by Gene Composer. A test set of proteins including a human kinase (P38α, viral polymerase (HCV NS5B, and bacterial structural protein (FtsZ were expressed in both E. coli and a cell-free wheat germ translation system. We also compare the protein expression levels in E. coli for a set of 11 different proteins with greatly varied G:C content and codon bias. Conclusion The results consistently demonstrate that protein yields from codon engineered Gene Composer designs are as good as or better than those achieved from the synonymous native genes. Moreover, structure guided N- and C-terminal deletion constructs designed with the aid of Gene Composer can lead to greater success in gene to structure work as exemplified by the X-ray crystallographic structure determination of FtsZ from Bacillus subtilis. These results validate the Gene Composer algorithms, and suggest that using a combination of synthetic gene and protein construct engineering tools can improve the economics of gene to structure research.

  16. Heterologous Expression of Tulip Petal Plasma Membrane Aquaporins in Pichia pastoris for Water Channel Analysis▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azad, Abul Kalam; Sawa, Yoshihiro; Ishikawa, Takahiro; Shibata, Hitoshi

    2009-01-01

    Water channels formed by aquaporins (AQPs) play an important role in the control of water homeostasis in individual cells and in multicellular organisms. Plasma membrane intrinsic proteins (PIPs) constitute a subclass of plant AQPs. TgPIP2;1 and TgPIP2;2 from tulip petals are members of the PIP family. In this study, we overexpressed TgPIP2;1 and TgPIP2;2 in Pichia pastoris and monitored their water channel activity (WCA) either by an in vivo spheroplast-bursting assay performed after hypo-osmotic shock or by growth assay. Osmolarity, pH, and inhibitors of AQPs, protein kinases (PKs), and protein phosphatases (PPs) affect the WCA of heterologous AQPs in this expression system. The WCA of TgPIP2;2-expressing spheroplasts was affected by inhibitors of PKs and PPs, which indicates that the water channel of this homologue is regulated by phosphorylation in P. pastoris. From the results reported herein, we suggest that P. pastoris can be employed as a heterologous expression system to assay the WCA of PIPs and to monitor the AQP-mediated channel gating mechanism, and it can be developed to screen inhibitors/effectors of PIPs. PMID:19251885

  17. Heterologous expression of tulip petal plasma membrane aquaporins in Pichia pastoris for water channel analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azad, Abul Kalam; Sawa, Yoshihiro; Ishikawa, Takahiro; Shibata, Hitoshi

    2009-05-01

    Water channels formed by aquaporins (AQPs) play an important role in the control of water homeostasis in individual cells and in multicellular organisms. Plasma membrane intrinsic proteins (PIPs) constitute a subclass of plant AQPs. TgPIP2;1 and TgPIP2;2 from tulip petals are members of the PIP family. In this study, we overexpressed TgPIP2;1 and TgPIP2;2 in Pichia pastoris and monitored their water channel activity (WCA) either by an in vivo spheroplast-bursting assay performed after hypo-osmotic shock or by growth assay. Osmolarity, pH, and inhibitors of AQPs, protein kinases (PKs), and protein phosphatases (PPs) affect the WCA of heterologous AQPs in this expression system. The WCA of TgPIP2;2-expressing spheroplasts was affected by inhibitors of PKs and PPs, which indicates that the water channel of this homologue is regulated by phosphorylation in P. pastoris. From the results reported herein, we suggest that P. pastoris can be employed as a heterologous expression system to assay the WCA of PIPs and to monitor the AQP-mediated channel gating mechanism, and it can be developed to screen inhibitors/effectors of PIPs.

  18. Developing a xylanase XYNZG from Plectosphaerella cucumerina for baking by heterologously expressed in Kluyveromyces lactis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhan, Fei Xiang; Wang, Qin Hong; Jiang, Si Jing; Zhou, Yu Ling; Zhang, Gui Min; Ma, Yan He

    2014-12-16

    Xylanase can replace chemical additives to improve the volume and sensory properties of bread in the baking. Suitable baking xylanase with improved yield will promote the application of xylanase in baking industry. The xylanase XYNZG from the Plectosphaerella cucumerina has been previously characterized by heterologous expression in Pichia pastoris. However, P. pastoris is not a suitable host for xylanase to be used in the baking process since P. pastoris does not have GRAS (Generally Regarded As Safe) status and requires large methanol supplement during the fermentation in most conditions, which is not allowed to be used in the food industry. Kluyveromyces lactis, as another yeast expression host, has a GRAS status, which has been successfully used in food and feed applications. No previous work has been reported concerning the heterologous expression of xylanase gene xynZG in K. lactis with an aim for application in baking. The xylanase gene xynZG from the P. cucumerina was heterologously expressed in K. lactis. The recombinant protein XYNZG in K. lactis presented an approximately 19 kDa band on SDS-PAGE and zymograms analysis. Transformant with the highest halo on the plate containing the RBB-xylan (Remazol Brilliant Blue-xylan) was selected for the flask fermentation in different media. The results indicated that the highest activity of 115 U/ml at 72 h was obtained with the YLPU medium. The mass spectrometry analysis suggested that the hydrolytic products of xylan by XYNZG were mainly xylobiose and xylotriose. The results of baking trials indicated that the addition of XYNZG could reduce the kneading time of dough, increase the volume of bread, improve the texture, and have more positive effects on the sensory properties of bread. Xylanase XYNZG is successfully expressed in K. lactis, which exhibits the highest activity among the published reports of the xylanase expression in K. lactis. The recombinant XYNZG can be used to improve the volume and sensory

  19. Heterologous expression of enterocin AS-48 in several strains of lactic acid bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández, M; Martínez-Bueno, M; Martín, M C; Valdivia, E; Maqueda, M

    2007-05-01

    Enterococcus faecalis produces a cationic and circular enterocin, AS-48, of 7149 Da, the genetic determinants of which are located within the pMB2 plasmid. We have compared enterocin AS-48 production by different enterococci species with that of other 'safe' lactic acid bacteris (LAB) (GRAS status) and looked into the subsequent application of this enterocin in food production. In an effort to exploit this system for the heterologous expression of enterocin AS-48, a number of vectors containing the as-48 cluster were constructed and used to transform several LAB strains (genera Enterococcus, Lactococcus and Lactobacillus) Heterologous production of enterocin AS-48 failed when bacteria other than those belonging to the genus Enterococcus were used as hosts, although expression of a partial level of resistance against AS-48 were always detected, ruling out the possibility of a lack of recognition of the enterococcal promoters. Our results reveal the special capacity of species from the genus Enterococcus to produce AS-48, an enterocin that requires a post-transcriptional modification to generate a circular peptide with a wide range of inhibitory activity against pathogenic and spoilage bacteria. Preliminary experiments in foodstuffs using nonvirulent enterococci with interesting functional properties reveal the possibility of a biotechnological application of these transformants.

  20. Heterologous Expression in Remodeled C. elegans: A Platform for Monoaminergic Agonist Identification and Anthelmintic Screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Law, Wenjing; Wuescher, Leah M; Ortega, Amanda; Hapiak, Vera M; Komuniecki, Patricia R; Komuniecki, Richard

    2015-04-01

    Monoamines, such as 5-HT and tyramine (TA), paralyze both free-living and parasitic nematodes when applied exogenously and serotonergic agonists have been used to clear Haemonchus contortus infections in vivo. Since nematode cell lines are not available and animal screening options are limited, we have developed a screening platform to identify monoamine receptor agonists. Key receptors were expressed heterologously in chimeric, genetically-engineered Caenorhabditis elegans, at sites likely to yield robust phenotypes upon agonist stimulation. This approach potentially preserves the unique pharmacologies of the receptors, while including nematode-specific accessory proteins and the nematode cuticle. Importantly, the sensitivity of monoamine-dependent paralysis could be increased dramatically by hypotonic incubation or the use of bus mutants with increased cuticular permeabilities. We have demonstrated that the monoamine-dependent inhibition of key interneurons, cholinergic motor neurons or body wall muscle inhibited locomotion and caused paralysis. Specifically, 5-HT paralyzed C. elegans 5-HT receptor null animals expressing either nematode, insect or human orthologues of a key Gαo-coupled 5-HT1-like receptor in the cholinergic motor neurons. Importantly, 8-OH-DPAT and PAPP, 5-HT receptor agonists, differentially paralyzed the transgenic animals, with 8-OH-DPAT paralyzing mutant animals expressing the human receptor at concentrations well below those affecting its C. elegans or insect orthologues. Similarly, 5-HT and TA paralyzed C. elegans 5-HT or TA receptor null animals, respectively, expressing either C. elegans or H. contortus 5-HT or TA-gated Cl- channels in either C. elegans cholinergic motor neurons or body wall muscles. Together, these data suggest that this heterologous, ectopic expression screening approach will be useful for the identification of agonists for key monoamine receptors from parasites and could have broad application for the identification

  1. Heterologous Expression in Remodeled C. elegans: A Platform for Monoaminergic Agonist Identification and Anthelmintic Screening.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenjing Law

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Monoamines, such as 5-HT and tyramine (TA, paralyze both free-living and parasitic nematodes when applied exogenously and serotonergic agonists have been used to clear Haemonchus contortus infections in vivo. Since nematode cell lines are not available and animal screening options are limited, we have developed a screening platform to identify monoamine receptor agonists. Key receptors were expressed heterologously in chimeric, genetically-engineered Caenorhabditis elegans, at sites likely to yield robust phenotypes upon agonist stimulation. This approach potentially preserves the unique pharmacologies of the receptors, while including nematode-specific accessory proteins and the nematode cuticle. Importantly, the sensitivity of monoamine-dependent paralysis could be increased dramatically by hypotonic incubation or the use of bus mutants with increased cuticular permeabilities. We have demonstrated that the monoamine-dependent inhibition of key interneurons, cholinergic motor neurons or body wall muscle inhibited locomotion and caused paralysis. Specifically, 5-HT paralyzed C. elegans 5-HT receptor null animals expressing either nematode, insect or human orthologues of a key Gαo-coupled 5-HT1-like receptor in the cholinergic motor neurons. Importantly, 8-OH-DPAT and PAPP, 5-HT receptor agonists, differentially paralyzed the transgenic animals, with 8-OH-DPAT paralyzing mutant animals expressing the human receptor at concentrations well below those affecting its C. elegans or insect orthologues. Similarly, 5-HT and TA paralyzed C. elegans 5-HT or TA receptor null animals, respectively, expressing either C. elegans or H. contortus 5-HT or TA-gated Cl- channels in either C. elegans cholinergic motor neurons or body wall muscles. Together, these data suggest that this heterologous, ectopic expression screening approach will be useful for the identification of agonists for key monoamine receptors from parasites and could have broad application for

  2. LCR/MEL: A versatile system for high-level expression of heterologous proteins in erythroid cells.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Needham; C. Gooding; K. Hudson; M. Antoniou (Michael); F.G. Grosveld (Frank); M. Hollis

    1992-01-01

    textabstractWe have used the human globin locus control region (LCR) to assemble an expression system capable of high-level, integration position-independent expression of heterologous genes and cDNAs in murine erythroleukaemia (MEL) cells. The cDNAs are inserted between the human beta-globin

  3. Cloning and heterologous expression of the antibiotic peptide (ABP) genes from Rhizopus oligosporus NBRC 8631.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Osamu; Sakamoto, Kazutoshi; Tominaga, Mihoko; Nakayama, Tasuku; Koseki, Takuya; Fujita, Akiko; Akita, Osamu

    2005-03-01

    We carried out protein sequencing of purified Antibiotic Peptide (ABP), and cloned two genes encoding this peptide as abp1 and abp2, from Rhizopus oligosporus NBRC 8631. Both genes contain an almost identical 231-bp segment, with only 3 nucleotide substitutions, encoding a 77 amino acid peptide. The abp gene product comprises a 28 amino acid signal sequence and a 49 amino acid mature peptide. Northern blot analysis showed that at least one of the abp genes is transcribed in R. oligosporus NBRC 8631. A truncated form of abp1 encoding only the mature peptide was fused with the alpha-factor signal peptide and engineered for expression in Pichia pastoris SMD1168H. Culture broth of the recombinant Pichia displayed ABP activity against Bacillus subtilis NBRC 3335 after induction of heterologous gene expression. This result indicates that mature ABP formed the active structure without the aid of other factors from R. oligosporus, and was secreted.

  4. Heterologous gene expression driven by carbonic anhydrase gene promoter in Dunaliella salina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yurong, Chai; Yumin, Lu; Tianyun, Wang; Weihong, Hou; Lexun, Xue

    2006-12-01

    Dunaliella salina, a halotolerant unicellular green alga without a rigid cell wall, can live in salinities ranging from 0.05 to 5 mol/L NaCl. These features of D. salina make it an ideal host for the production of antibodies, oral vaccine, and commercially valuable polypeptides. To produce high level of heterologous proteins from D. salina, highly efficient promoters are required to drive expression of target genes under controlled condition. In the present study, we cloned a 5' franking region of 1.4 kb from the carbonic anhydrase ( CAH) gene of D. salina by genomic walking and PCR. The fragment was ligated to the pMD18-T vector and characterized. Sequence analysis indicated that this region contained conserved motifs, including a TATA- like box and CAAT-box. Tandem (GT)n repeats that had a potential role of transcriptional control, were also found in this region. The transcription start site (TSS) of the CAH gene was determined by 5' RACE and nested PCR method. Transformation assays showed that the 1.4 kb fragment was able to drive expression of the selectable bar (bialaphos resistance) gene when the fusion was transformed into D. salina by biolistics. Northern blotting hybridizations showed that the bar transcript was most abundant in cells grown in 2 mol/L NaCl, and less abundant in 0.5 mol/L NaCl, indicating that expression of the bar gene was induced at high salinity. These results suggest the potential use of the CAH gene promoter to induce the expression of heterologous genes in D. salina under varied salt condition.

  5. Production of antibacterial peptide from bee venom via a new strategy for heterologous expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Chunsheng; Guo, Liqiong; Lin, Junfang; You, Linfeng; Wu, Wuhua

    2014-12-01

    Honey bee is important economic insect that not only pollinates fruits and crops but also provides products with various physiological activities. Bee venom is a functional agent that is widely applied in clinical treatment and pharmacy. Secapin is one of these agents that have a significant role in therapy. The functions of secapin from the bee venom have been documented, but little information is known about its heterologous expression under natural condition. Moreover, few scholars verified experimentally the functions of secapin from bee venom in vitro. In this study, we successfully constructed a heterologous expression vector, which is different from conventional expression system. A transgenic approach was established for transformation of secapin gene from the venom of Apis mellifera carnica (Ac-sec) into the edible fungi, Coprinus cinereus. Ac-sec was encoded by a 234 bp nucleotide that contained a signal peptide domain and two potential phosphorylation sites. The sequence exhibited highly homology with various secapins characterized from honey bee and related species. Southern blot data indicated that Ac-sec was present as single or multiple copy loci in the C. cinereus genome. By co-transformation and double-layer active assay, Ac-sec was expressed successfully in C. cinereus and the antibacterial activity of the recombinants was identified, showing notable antibacterial activities on different bacteria. Although Ac-sec is from the venom of Apidae, phylogenetic analysis demonstrated that Ac-sec was more closely related to that of Vespid than to bee species from Apidae. The molecular characteristics of Ac-sec and the potential roles of small peptides in biology were discussed.

  6. Ligand-selective activation of heterologously-expressed mammalian olfactory receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ukhanov, K; Bobkov, Y; Corey, E A; Ache, B W

    2014-10-01

    Mammalian olfactory receptors (ORs) appear to have the capacity to couple to multiple G protein-coupled signaling pathways in a ligand-dependent selective manner. To better understand the mechanisms and molecular range of such ligand selectivity, we expressed the mouse eugenol OR (mOR-EG) in HEK293T cells together with Gα15 to monitor activation of the phospholipase-C (PLC) signaling pathway and/or Gαolf to monitor activation of the adenylate cyclase (AC) signaling pathway, resulting in intracellular Ca(2+) release and/or Ca(2+) influx through a cyclic nucleotide-gated channel, respectively. PLC-dependent responses differed dynamically from AC-dependent responses, allowing them to be distinguished when Gα15 and Gαolf were co-expressed. The dynamic difference in readout was independent of the receptor, the heterologous expression system, and the ligand concentration. Of 17 reported mOR-EG ligands tested, including eugenol, its analogs, and structurally dissimilar compounds (mousse cristal, nootkatone, orivone), some equally activated both signaling pathways, some differentially activated both signaling pathways, and some had no noticeable effect even at 1-5mM. Our findings argue that mOR-EG, when heterologously expressed, can couple to two different signaling pathways in a ligand selective manner. The challenge now is to determine the potential of mOR-EG, and perhaps other ORs, to activate multiple signaling pathways in a ligand selective manner in native ORNs. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Heterologous expression of mlrA in a photoautotrophic host - Engineering cyanobacteria to degrade microcystins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dexter, Jason; Dziga, Dariusz; Lv, Jing; Zhu, Junqi; Strzalka, Wojciech; Maksylewicz, Anna; Maroszek, Magdalena; Marek, Sylwia; Fu, Pengcheng

    2018-06-01

    In this report, we establish proof-of-principle demonstrating for the first time genetic engineering of a photoautotrophic microorganism for bioremediation of naturally occurring cyanotoxins. In model cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 we have heterologously expressed Sphingopyxis sp. USTB-05 microcystinase (MlrA) bearing a 23 amino acid N-terminus secretion peptide from native Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 PilA (sll1694). The resultant whole cell biocatalyst displayed about 3 times higher activity against microcystin-LR compared to a native MlrA host (Sphingomonas sp. ACM 3962), normalized for optical density. In addition, MlrA activity was found to be almost entirely located in the cyanobacterial cytosolic fraction, despite the presence of the secretion tag, with crude cellular extracts showing MlrA activity comparable to extracts from MlrA expressing E. coli. Furthermore, despite approximately 9.4-fold higher initial MlrA activity of a whole cell E. coli biocatalyst, utilization of a photoautotrophic chassis resulted in prolonged stability of MlrA activity when cultured under semi-natural conditions (using lake water), with the heterologous MlrA biocatalytic activity of the E. coli culture disappearing after 4 days, while the cyanobacterial host displayed activity (3% of initial activity) after 9 days. In addition, the cyanobacterial cell density was maintained over the duration of this experiment while the cell density of the E. coli culture rapidly declined. Lastly, failure to establish a stable cyanobacterial isolate expressing native MlrA (without the N-terminus tag) via the strong cpcB560 promoter draws attention to the use of peptide tags to positively modulate expression of potentially toxic proteins. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. [Cloning, subcellular localization, and heterologous expression of ApNAC1 gene from Andrographis paniculata].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jian; Qi, Meng-Die; Guo, Juan; Shen, Ye; Lin, Hui-Xin; Huang, Lu-Qi

    2017-03-01

    Andrographis paniculata is widely used as medicinal herb in China for a long time and andrographolide is its main medicinal constituent. To investigate the underlying andrographolide biosynthesis mechanisms, RNA-seq for A. paniculata leaves with MeJA treatment was performed. In A. paniculata transcriptomic data, the expression pattern of one member of NAC transcription factor family (ApNAC1) matched with andrographolide accumulation. The coding sequence of ApNAC1 was cloned by RT-PCR, and GenBank accession number was KY196416. The analysis of bioinformatics showed that the gene encodes a peptide of 323 amino acids, with a predicted relative molecular weight of 35.9 kDa and isoelectric point of 6.14. To confirm the subcellular localization, ApNAC1-GFP was transiently expressed in A. paniculata protoplast. The results indicated that ApNAC1 is a nucleus-localized protein. The analysis of real-time quantitative PCR revealed that ApNAC1 gene predominantly expresses in leaves. Compared with control sample, its expression abundance sharply increased with methyl jasmonate treatment. Based on its expression pattern, ApNAC1 gene might involve in andrographolide biosynthesis. ApNAC1 was heterologously expressed in Escherichia coli and recombinant protein was purified by Ni-NTA agarose. Further study will help us to understand the function of ApNAC1 in andrographolide biosynthesis. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.

  9. The Role of Heterologous Chloroplast Sequence Elements in Transgene Integration and Expression1[W][OA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruhlman, Tracey; Verma, Dheeraj; Samson, Nalapalli; Daniell, Henry

    2010-01-01

    Heterologous regulatory elements and flanking sequences have been used in chloroplast transformation of several crop species, but their roles and mechanisms have not yet been investigated. Nucleotide sequence identity in the photosystem II protein D1 (psbA) upstream region is 59% across all taxa; similar variation was consistent across all genes and taxa examined. Secondary structure and predicted Gibbs free energy values of the psbA 5′ untranslated region (UTR) among different families reflected this variation. Therefore, chloroplast transformation vectors were made for tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) and lettuce (Lactuca sativa), with endogenous (Nt-Nt, Ls-Ls) or heterologous (Nt-Ls, Ls-Nt) psbA promoter, 5′ UTR and 3′ UTR, regulating expression of the anthrax protective antigen (PA) or human proinsulin (Pins) fused with the cholera toxin B-subunit (CTB). Unique lettuce flanking sequences were completely eliminated during homologous recombination in the transplastomic tobacco genomes but not unique tobacco sequences. Nt-Ls or Ls-Nt transplastomic lines showed reduction of 80% PA and 97% CTB-Pins expression when compared with endogenous psbA regulatory elements, which accumulated up to 29.6% total soluble protein PA and 72.0% total leaf protein CTB-Pins, 2-fold higher than Rubisco. Transgene transcripts were reduced by 84% in Ls-Nt-CTB-Pins and by 72% in Nt-Ls-PA lines. Transcripts containing endogenous 5′ UTR were stabilized in nonpolysomal fractions. Stromal RNA-binding proteins were preferentially associated with endogenous psbA 5′ UTR. A rapid and reproducible regeneration system was developed for lettuce commercial cultivars by optimizing plant growth regulators. These findings underscore the need for sequencing complete crop chloroplast genomes, utilization of endogenous regulatory elements and flanking sequences, as well as optimization of plant growth regulators for efficient chloroplast transformation. PMID:20130101

  10. The role of heterologous chloroplast sequence elements in transgene integration and expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruhlman, Tracey; Verma, Dheeraj; Samson, Nalapalli; Daniell, Henry

    2010-04-01

    Heterologous regulatory elements and flanking sequences have been used in chloroplast transformation of several crop species, but their roles and mechanisms have not yet been investigated. Nucleotide sequence identity in the photosystem II protein D1 (psbA) upstream region is 59% across all taxa; similar variation was consistent across all genes and taxa examined. Secondary structure and predicted Gibbs free energy values of the psbA 5' untranslated region (UTR) among different families reflected this variation. Therefore, chloroplast transformation vectors were made for tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) and lettuce (Lactuca sativa), with endogenous (Nt-Nt, Ls-Ls) or heterologous (Nt-Ls, Ls-Nt) psbA promoter, 5' UTR and 3' UTR, regulating expression of the anthrax protective antigen (PA) or human proinsulin (Pins) fused with the cholera toxin B-subunit (CTB). Unique lettuce flanking sequences were completely eliminated during homologous recombination in the transplastomic tobacco genomes but not unique tobacco sequences. Nt-Ls or Ls-Nt transplastomic lines showed reduction of 80% PA and 97% CTB-Pins expression when compared with endogenous psbA regulatory elements, which accumulated up to 29.6% total soluble protein PA and 72.0% total leaf protein CTB-Pins, 2-fold higher than Rubisco. Transgene transcripts were reduced by 84% in Ls-Nt-CTB-Pins and by 72% in Nt-Ls-PA lines. Transcripts containing endogenous 5' UTR were stabilized in nonpolysomal fractions. Stromal RNA-binding proteins were preferentially associated with endogenous psbA 5' UTR. A rapid and reproducible regeneration system was developed for lettuce commercial cultivars by optimizing plant growth regulators. These findings underscore the need for sequencing complete crop chloroplast genomes, utilization of endogenous regulatory elements and flanking sequences, as well as optimization of plant growth regulators for efficient chloroplast transformation.

  11. Drug resistance is conferred on the model yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae by expression of full-length melanoma-associated human ATP-binding cassette transporter ABCB5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keniya, Mikhail V; Holmes, Ann R; Niimi, Masakazu; Lamping, Erwin; Gillet, Jean-Pierre; Gottesman, Michael M; Cannon, Richard D

    2014-10-06

    ABCB5, an ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter, is highly expressed in melanoma cells, and may contribute to the extreme resistance of melanomas to chemotherapy by efflux of anti-cancer drugs. Our goal was to determine whether we could functionally express human ABCB5 in the model yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, in order to demonstrate an efflux function for ABCB5 in the absence of background pump activity from other human transporters. Heterologous expression would also facilitate drug discovery for this important target. DNAs encoding ABCB5 sequences were cloned into the chromosomal PDR5 locus of a S. cerevisiae strain in which seven endogenous ABC transporters have been deleted. Protein expression in the yeast cells was monitored by immunodetection using both a specific anti-ABCB5 antibody and a cross-reactive anti-ABCB1 antibody. ABCB5 function in recombinant yeast cells was measured by determining whether the cells possessed increased resistance to known pump substrates, compared to the host yeast strain, in assays of yeast growth. Three ABCB5 constructs were made in yeast. One was derived from the ABCB5-β mRNA, which is highly expressed in human tissues but is a truncation of a canonical full-size ABC transporter. Two constructs contained full-length ABCB5 sequences: either a native sequence from cDNA or a synthetic sequence codon-harmonized for S. cerevisiae. Expression of all three constructs in yeast was confirmed by immunodetection. Expression of the codon-harmonized full-length ABCB5 DNA conferred increased resistance, relative to the host yeast strain, to the putative substrates rhodamine 123, daunorubicin, tetramethylrhodamine, FK506, or clorgyline. We conclude that full-length ABCB5 can be functionally expressed in S. cerevisiae and confers drug resistance.

  12. Laccase Gene Family in Cerrena sp. HYB07: Sequences, Heterologous Expression and Transcriptional Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Yang

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Laccases are a class of multi-copper oxidases with industrial potential. In this study, eight laccases (Lac1–8 from Cerrena sp. strain HYB07, a white-rot fungus with high laccase yields, were analyzed. The laccases showed moderate identities to each other as well as with other fungal laccases and were predicted to have high redox potentials except for Lac6. Selected laccase isozymes were heterologously expressed in the yeast Pichia pastoris, and different enzymatic properties were observed. Transcription of the eight laccase genes was differentially regulated during submerged and solid state fermentation, as shown by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction and validated reference genes. During 6-day submerged fermentation, Lac7 and 2 were successively the predominantly expressed laccase gene, accounting for over 95% of all laccase transcripts. Interestingly, accompanying Lac7 downregulation, Lac2 transcription was drastically upregulated on days 3 and 5 to 9958-fold of the level on day 1. Consistent with high mRNA abundance, Lac2 and 7, but not other laccases, were identified in the fermentation broth by LC-MS/MS. In solid state fermentation, less dramatic differences in transcript abundance were observed, and Lac3, 7 and 8 were more highly expressed than other laccase genes. Elucidating the properties and expression profiles of the laccase gene family will facilitate understanding, production and commercialization of the fungal strain and its laccases.

  13. Heterologous Protein Expression in Pichia pastoris: Latest Research Progress and Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juturu, Veeresh; Wu, Jin Chuan

    2018-01-04

    Pichia pastoris is a well-known platform strain for heterologous protein expression. Over the past five years, different strategies to improve the efficiency of recombinant protein expression by this yeast strain have been developed; these include a patent-free protein expression kit, construction of the P. pastoris CBS7435Ku70 platform strain with its high efficiency in site-specific recombination of plasmid DNA into the genomic DNA, the design of synthetic promoters and their variants by combining different core promoters with multiple putative transcription factors, the generation of mutant GAP promoter variants with various promoter strengths, codon optimization, engineering the α-factor signal sequence by replacing the native glutamic acid at the Kex2 cleavage site with the other 19 natural amino acids and the addition of mammalian signal sequence to the yeast signal sequence, and the co-expression of single chaperones, multiple chaperones or helper proteins that aid in recombinant protein folding. Publically available high-quality genome data from multiple strains of P. pastoris GS115, DSMZ 70382, and CBS7435 and the continuous development of yeast expression kits have successfully promoted the metabolic engineering of this strain to produce carotenoids, xanthophylls, nootkatone, ricinoleic acid, dammarenediol-II, and hyaluronic acid. The cell-surface display of enzymes has obviously increased enzyme stability, and high-level intracellular expression of acyl-CoA and ethanol O-acyltransferase, lipase and d-amino acid oxidase has opened up applications in whole-cell biocatalysis for producing flavor molecules and biodiesel, as well as the deracemization of racemic amino acids. High-level expression of various food-grade enzymes, cellulases, and hemicellulases for applications in the food, feed and biorefinery industries is in its infancy and needs strengthening. © 2018 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. The pea SAD short-chain dehydrogenase/reductase: quinone reduction, tissue distribution, and heterologous expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scherbak, Nikolai; Ala-Häivälä, Anneli; Brosché, Mikael; Böwer, Nathalie; Strid, Hilja; Gittins, John R; Grahn, Elin; Eriksson, Leif A; Strid, Åke

    2011-04-01

    The pea (Pisum sativum) tetrameric short-chain alcohol dehydrogenase-like protein (SAD) family consists of at least three highly similar members (SAD-A, -B, and -C). According to mRNA data, environmental stimuli induce SAD expression. The aim of this study was to characterize the SAD proteins by examining their catalytic function, distribution in pea, and induction in different tissues. In enzyme activity assays using a range of potential substrates, the SAD-C enzyme was shown to reduce one- or two-ring-membered quinones lacking long hydrophobic hydrocarbon tails. Immunological assays using a specific antiserum against the protein demonstrated that different tissues and cell types contain small amounts of SAD protein that was predominantly located within epidermal or subepidermal cells and around vascular tissue. Particularly high local concentrations were observed in the protoderm of the seed cotyledonary axis. Two bow-shaped rows of cells in the ovary and the placental surface facing the ovule also exhibited considerable SAD staining. Ultraviolet-B irradiation led to increased staining in epidermal and subepidermal cells of leaves and stems. The different localization patterns of SAD suggest functions both in development and in responses to environmental stimuli. Finally, the pea SAD-C promoter was shown to confer heterologous wound-induced expression in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), which confirmed that the inducibility of its expression is regulated at the transcriptional level.

  15. Heterologous Expression of Plant Cell Wall Degrading Enzymes for Effective Production of Cellulosic Biofuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Sang-Kyu; Parisutham, Vinuselvi; Jeong, Seong Hun; Lee, Sung Kuk

    2012-01-01

    A major technical challenge in the cost-effective production of cellulosic biofuel is the need to lower the cost of plant cell wall degrading enzymes (PCDE), which is required for the production of sugars from biomass. Several competitive, low-cost technologies have been developed to produce PCDE in different host organisms such as Escherichia coli, Zymomonas mobilis, and plant. Selection of an ideal host organism is very important, because each host organism has its own unique features. Synthetic biology-aided tools enable heterologous expression of PCDE in recombinant E. coli or Z. mobilis and allow successful consolidated bioprocessing (CBP) in these microorganisms. In-planta expression provides an opportunity to simplify the process of enzyme production and plant biomass processing and leads to self-deconstruction of plant cell walls. Although the future of currently available technologies is difficult to predict, a complete and viable platform will most likely be available through the integration of the existing approaches with the development of breakthrough technologies. PMID:22911272

  16. Heterologous expression of Pycnoporus cinnabarinus cellobiose dehydrogenase in Pichia pastoris and involvement in saccharification processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bey Mathieu

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cellobiose dehydrogenase (CDH is an extracellular hemoflavoenzyme produced by lignocellulose-degrading fungi including Pycnoporus cinnabarinus. We investigated the cellulolytic system of P. cinnabarinus, focusing on the involvement of CDH in the deconstruction of lignocellulosic biomass. Results First, P. cinnabarinus growth conditions were optimized for CDH production. Following growth under cellulolytic conditions, the main components secreted were cellulases, xylanases and CDH. To investigate the contribution of P. cinnabarinus secretome in saccharification processes, the Trichoderma reesei enzymatic cocktail was supplemented with the P. cinnabarinus secretome. A significant enhancement of the degradation of wheat straw was observed with (i the production of a large amount of gluconic acid, (ii increased hemicellulose degradation, and (iii increased overall degradation of the lignocellulosic material. P. cinnabarinus CDH was heterologously expressed in Pichia pastoris to obtain large amounts of pure enzyme. In a bioreactor, the recombinant CDH (rCDH expression level reached 7800 U/L. rCDH exhibited values of biochemical parameters similar to those of the natural enzyme, and was able to bind cellulose despite the absence of a carbohydrate-binding module (CBM. Following supplementation of purified rCDH to T. reesei enzymatic cocktail, formation of gluconic acid and increased hemicellulose degradation were observed, thus confirming the previous results observed with P. cinnabarinus secretome. Conclusions We demonstrate that CDH offers an attractive tool for saccharification process enhancement due to gluconic acid production from raw lignocellulosic material.

  17. Improved cellulolytic efficacy in Penicilium decumbens via heterologous expression of Hypocrea jecorina endoglucanase II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qin Yuqi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Hypocrea jecorina endoglucanase II (Hjegl2 was heterologously expressed in Penicillium decumbens (yielding strain Pd::Hjegl2. After induction in cellulose containing media, strain Pd::Hjeg2 displayed increased carboxymethylcellulase activity (CMCase, 5.77 IU/ml, representing a 21% increase and cellulose degradation determined with a filter paper assay (FPA, 0.40 IU/ml, 67% increase, as compared to the parent strain. In media supplemented with glucose (2%, Pd::Hjegl2, displayed 51.2-fold and 3-fold higher CMCase and FPA activities, respectively, as compared to the parent strain. No changes in the expression levels of the four main native cellulase genes of P. decumbens (Pdegl1, Pdegl2, Pdcbh1, and Pdcbh2 were noted between the transformant and wild-type strains. These data support the idea that Hjegl2 cleaves both internal and terminal glycosidic residues, in a relatively random and processive manner. In situ polyacrylamide gelactivity staining of extracts derived from wild-type and Pd::Hjegl2 revealed two additional active fractions in the latter strain; one with a molecular mass ~50-65 KDa and another ~80-116 kDa.

  18. Heterologous expression and characterization of a new heme-catalase in Bacillus subtilis 168.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philibert, Tuyishime; Rao, Zhiming; Yang, Taowei; Zhou, Junping; Huang, Genshu; Irene, Komera; Samuel, Niyomukiza

    2016-06-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) is an inherent consequence to all aerobically living organisms that might lead to the cells being lethal and susceptible to oxidative stress. Bacillus pumilus is characterized by high-resistance oxidative stress that stimulated our interest to investigate the heterologous expression and characterization of heme-catalase as potential biocatalyst. Results indicated that recombinant enzyme significantly exhibited the high catalytic activity of 55,784 U/mg expressed in Bacillus subtilis 168 and 98.097 µmol/min/mg peroxidatic activity, the apparent K m of catalytic activity was 59.6 ± 13 mM with higher turnover rate (K cat = 322.651 × 10(3) s(-1)). The pH dependence of catalatic and peroxidatic activity was pH 7.0 and pH 4.5 respectively with temperature dependence of 40 °C and the recombinant heme-catalase exhibited a strong Fe(2+) preference. It was further revealed that catalase KatX2 improved the resistance oxidative stress of B. subtilis. These findings suggest that this B. pumilus heme-catalase can be considered among the industrially relevant biocatalysts due to its exceptional catalytic rate and high stability and it can be a potential candidate for the improvement of oxidative resistance of industrially produced strains.

  19. Induction of divalent cation permeability by heterologous expression of a voltage sensor domain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arima, Hiroki; Tsutsui, Hidekazu; Sakamoto, Ayako; Yoshida, Manabu; Okamura, Yasushi

    2018-01-06

    The voltage sensor domain (VSD) is a protein domain that confers sensitivity to membrane potential in voltage-gated ion channels as well as the voltage-sensing phosphatase. Although VSDs have long been considered to function as regulatory units acting on adjacent effectors, recent studies have revealed the existence of direct ion permeation paths in some mutated VSDs and in the voltage-gated proton channel. In this study, we show that calcium currents are evoked upon membrane hyperpolarization in cells expressing a VSD derived from an ascidian voltage-gated ion channel superfamily. Unlike the previously reported omega-pore in the Shaker K + channel and rNav1.4, mutations are not required. From electrophysiological experiments in heterologous expression systems, we found that the conductance is directly mediated by the VSD itself and is carried by both monovalent and divalent cations. This is the first report of divalent cation permeation through a VSD-like structure. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Phaseolin expression in tobacco chloroplast reveals an autoregulatory mechanism in heterologous protein translation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Marchis, Francesca; Bellucci, Michele; Pompa, Andrea

    2016-02-01

    Plastid DNA engineering is a well-established research area of plant biotechnology, and plastid transgenes often give high expression levels. However, it is still almost impossible to predict the accumulation rate of heterologous protein in transplastomic plants, and there are many cases of unsuccessful transgene expression. Chloroplasts regulate their proteome at the post-transcriptional level, mainly through translation control. One of the mechanisms to modulate the translation has been described in plant chloroplasts for the chloroplast-encoded subunits of multiprotein complexes, and the autoregulation of the translation initiation of these subunits depends on the availability of their assembly partners [control by epistasy of synthesis (CES)]. In Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, autoregulation of endogenous proteins recruited in the assembly of functional complexes has also been reported. In this study, we revealed a self-regulation mechanism triggered by the accumulation of a soluble recombinant protein, phaseolin, in the stroma of chloroplast-transformed tobacco plants. Immunoblotting experiments showed that phaseolin could avoid this self-regulation mechanism when targeted to the thylakoids in transplastomic plants. To inhibit the thylakoid-targeted phaseolin translation as well, this protein was expressed in the presence of a nuclear version of the phaseolin gene with a transit peptide. Pulse-chase and polysome analysis revealed that phaseolin mRNA translation on plastid ribosomes was repressed due to the accumulation in the stroma of the same soluble polypeptide imported from the cytosol. We suggest that translation autoregulation in chloroplast is not limited to heteromeric protein subunits but also involves at least some of the foreign soluble recombinant proteins, leading to the inhibition of plastome-encoded transgene expression in chloroplast. © 2015 Society for Experimental Biology, Association of Applied Biologists and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Three gene expression vector sets for concurrently expressing multiple genes in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishii, Jun; Kondo, Takashi; Makino, Harumi; Ogura, Akira; Matsuda, Fumio; Kondo, Akihiko

    2014-05-01

    Yeast has the potential to be used in bulk-scale fermentative production of fuels and chemicals due to its tolerance for low pH and robustness for autolysis. However, expression of multiple external genes in one host yeast strain is considerably labor-intensive due to the lack of polycistronic transcription. To promote the metabolic engineering of yeast, we generated systematic and convenient genetic engineering tools to express multiple genes in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. We constructed a series of multi-copy and integration vector sets for concurrently expressing two or three genes in S. cerevisiae by embedding three classical promoters. The comparative expression capabilities of the constructed vectors were monitored with green fluorescent protein, and the concurrent expression of genes was monitored with three different fluorescent proteins. Our multiple gene expression tool will be helpful to the advanced construction of genetically engineered yeast strains in a variety of research fields other than metabolic engineering. © 2014 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Identification and Heterologous Expression of Genes Involved in Anaerobic Dissimilatory Phosphite Oxidation by Desulfotignum phosphitoxidans▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simeonova, Diliana Dancheva; Wilson, Marlena Marie; Metcalf, William W.; Schink, Bernhard

    2010-01-01

    Desulfotignum phosphitoxidans is a strictly anaerobic, Gram-negative bacterium that utilizes phosphite as the sole electron source for homoacetogenic CO2 reduction or sulfate reduction. A genomic library of D. phosphitoxidans, constructed using the fosmid vector pJK050, was screened for clones harboring the genes involved in phosphite oxidation via PCR using primers developed based on the amino acid sequences of phosphite-induced proteins. Sequence analysis of two positive clones revealed a putative operon of seven genes predicted to be involved in phosphite oxidation. Four of these genes (ptxD-ptdFCG) were cloned and heterologously expressed in Desulfotignum balticum, a related strain that cannot use phosphite as either an electron donor or as a phosphorus source. The ptxD-ptdFCG gene cluster was sufficient to confer phosphite uptake and oxidation ability to the D. balticum host strain but did not allow use of phosphite as an electron donor for chemolithotrophic growth. Phosphite oxidation activity was measured in cell extracts of D. balticum transconjugants, suggesting that all genes required for phosphite oxidation were cloned. Genes of the phosphite gene cluster were assigned putative functions on the basis of sequence analysis and enzyme assays. PMID:20622064

  3. Identification and heterologous expression of genes involved in anaerobic dissimilatory phosphite oxidation by Desulfotignum phosphitoxidans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simeonova, Diliana Dancheva; Wilson, Marlena Marie; Metcalf, William W; Schink, Bernhard

    2010-10-01

    Desulfotignum phosphitoxidans is a strictly anaerobic, Gram-negative bacterium that utilizes phosphite as the sole electron source for homoacetogenic CO2 reduction or sulfate reduction. A genomic library of D. phosphitoxidans, constructed using the fosmid vector pJK050, was screened for clones harboring the genes involved in phosphite oxidation via PCR using primers developed based on the amino acid sequences of phosphite-induced proteins. Sequence analysis of two positive clones revealed a putative operon of seven genes predicted to be involved in phosphite oxidation. Four of these genes (ptxD-ptdFCG) were cloned and heterologously expressed in Desulfotignum balticum, a related strain that cannot use phosphite as either an electron donor or as a phosphorus source. The ptxD-ptdFCG gene cluster was sufficient to confer phosphite uptake and oxidation ability to the D. balticum host strain but did not allow use of phosphite as an electron donor for chemolithotrophic growth. Phosphite oxidation activity was measured in cell extracts of D. balticum transconjugants, suggesting that all genes required for phosphite oxidation were cloned. Genes of the phosphite gene cluster were assigned putative functions on the basis of sequence analysis and enzyme assays.

  4. Heterologous expression of the Halothiobacillus neapolitanus carboxysomal gene cluster in Corynebacterium glutamicum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumgart, Meike; Huber, Isabel; Abdollahzadeh, Iman; Gensch, Thomas; Frunzke, Julia

    2017-09-20

    Compartmentalization represents a ubiquitous principle used by living organisms to optimize metabolic flux and to avoid detrimental interactions within the cytoplasm. Proteinaceous bacterial microcompartments (BMCs) have therefore created strong interest for the encapsulation of heterologous pathways in microbial model organisms. However, attempts were so far mostly restricted to Escherichia coli. Here, we introduced the carboxysomal gene cluster of Halothiobacillus neapolitanus into the biotechnological platform species Corynebacterium gluta-micum. Transmission electron microscopy, fluorescence microscopy and single molecule localization microscopy suggested the formation of BMC-like structures in cells expressing the complete carboxysome operon or only the shell proteins. Purified carboxysomes consisted of the expected protein components as verified by mass spectrometry. Enzymatic assays revealed the functional production of RuBisCO in C. glutamicum both in the presence and absence of carboxysomal shell proteins. Furthermore, we could show that eYFP is targeted to the carboxysomes by fusion to the large RuBisCO subunit. Overall, this study represents the first transfer of an α-carboxysomal gene cluster into a Gram-positive model species supporting the modularity and orthogonality of these microcompartments, but also identified important challenges which need to be addressed on the way towards biotechnological application. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Heterologous Expression and Biochemical Characterization of Two Lipoxygenases in Oriental Melon, Cucumis melo var. makuwa Makino.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Songxiao Cao

    Full Text Available Lipoxygenases (LOXs are a class of non-heme iron-containing dioxygenases that catalyse oxidation of polyunsaturated fatty acids to produce hydroperoxidation that are in turn converted to oxylipins. Although multiple isoforms of LOXs have been detected in several plants, LOXs in oriental melon have not attracted much attention. Two full-length LOX cDNA clones, CmLOX10 and CmLOX13 which have been isolated from oriental melon (Cucumis melo var. makuwa Makino cultivar "Yumeiren", encode 902 and 906 amino acids, respectively. Bioinformatics analysis showed that CmLOX10 and CmLOX13 included all of the typical LOX domains and shared 58.11% identity at the amino acid level with each other. The phylogenetic analysis revealed that CmLOX10 and CmLOX13 were members of the type 2 13-LOX subgroup which are known to be involved in biotic and abiotic stress. Heterologous expression of the full-length CmLOX10 and truncated CmLOX13 in Escherichia coli revealed that the encoded exogenous proteins were identical to the predicted molecular weights and possessed the lipoxygenase activities. The purified CmLOX10 and CmLOX13 recombinant enzymes exhibited maximum activity at different temperature and pH and both had higher affinity for linoleic acid than linolenic acid. Chromatogram analysis of reaction products from the CmLOX10 and CmLOX13 enzyme reaction revealed that both enzymes produced 13S-hydroperoxides when linoleic acid was used as substrate. Furthermore, the subcellular localization analysis by transient expression of the two LOX fusion proteins in tobacco leaves showed that CmLOX10 and CmLOX13 proteins were located in plasma membrane and chloroplasts respectively. We propose that the two lipoxygenases may play different functions in oriental melon during plant growth and development.

  6. Expression of an Aspergillus niger Phytase Gene (phyA) in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    OpenAIRE

    Han, Yanming; Wilson, David B.; Lei, Xin gen

    1999-01-01

    Phytase improves the bioavailability of phytate phosphorus in plant foods to humans and animals and reduces phosphorus pollution of animal waste. Our objectives were to express an Aspergillus niger phytase gene (phyA) in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and to determine the effects of glycosylation on the phytase’s activity and thermostability. A 1.4-kb DNA fragment containing the coding region of the phyA gene was inserted into the expression vector pYES2 and was expressed in S. cerevisiae as an act...

  7. Reduced expression of Autographa californica nucleopolyhedrovirus ORF34, an essential gene, enhances heterologous gene expression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salem, Tamer Z.; Zhang, Fengrui; Thiem, Suzanne M.

    2013-01-01

    Autographa californica multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus ORF34 is part of a transcriptional unit that includes ORF32, encoding a viral fibroblast growth factor (FGF) and ORF33. We identified ORF34 as a candidate for deletion to improve protein expression in the baculovirus expression system based on enhanced reporter gene expression in an RNAi screen of virus genes. However, ORF34 was shown to be an essential gene. To explore ORF34 function, deletion (KO34) and rescue bacmids were constructed and characterized. Infection did not spread from primary KO34 transfected cells and supernatants from KO34 transfected cells could not infect fresh Sf21 cells whereas the supernatant from the rescue bacmids transfection could recover the infection. In addition, budded viruses were not observed in KO34 transfected cells by electron microscopy, nor were viral proteins detected from the transfection supernatants by western blots. These demonstrate that ORF34 is an essential gene with a possible role in infectious virus production.

  8. Reduced expression of Autographa californica nucleopolyhedrovirus ORF34, an essential gene, enhances heterologous gene expression

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salem, Tamer Z. [Department of Entomology, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States); Department of Microbial Molecular Biology, AGERI, Agricultural Research Center, Giza 12619 (Egypt); Division of Biomedical Sciences, Zewail University, Zewail City of Science and Technology, Giza 12588 (Egypt); Zhang, Fengrui [Department of Entomology, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States); Thiem, Suzanne M., E-mail: smthiem@msu.edu [Department of Entomology, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States); Department of Microbiology and Molecular Genetics, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States)

    2013-01-20

    Autographa californica multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus ORF34 is part of a transcriptional unit that includes ORF32, encoding a viral fibroblast growth factor (FGF) and ORF33. We identified ORF34 as a candidate for deletion to improve protein expression in the baculovirus expression system based on enhanced reporter gene expression in an RNAi screen of virus genes. However, ORF34 was shown to be an essential gene. To explore ORF34 function, deletion (KO34) and rescue bacmids were constructed and characterized. Infection did not spread from primary KO34 transfected cells and supernatants from KO34 transfected cells could not infect fresh Sf21 cells whereas the supernatant from the rescue bacmids transfection could recover the infection. In addition, budded viruses were not observed in KO34 transfected cells by electron microscopy, nor were viral proteins detected from the transfection supernatants by western blots. These demonstrate that ORF34 is an essential gene with a possible role in infectious virus production.

  9. Shewanella oneidensis: a new and efficient System for Expression and Maturation of heterologous [Fe-Fe] Hydrogenase from Chlamydomonas reinhardtii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sybirna Kateryna

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The eukaryotic green alga, Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, produces H2 under anaerobic conditions, in a reaction catalysed by a [Fe-Fe] hydrogenase HydA1. For further biochemical and biophysical studies a suitable expression system of this enzyme should be found to overcome its weak expression in the host organism. Two heterologous expression systems used up to now have several advantages. However they are not free from some drawbacks. In this work we use bacterium Shewanella oneidensis as a new and efficient system for expression and maturation of HydA1 from Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. Results Based on codon usage bias and hydrogenase maturation ability, the bacterium S. oneidensis, which possesses putative [Fe-Fe] and [Ni-Fe] hydrogenase operons, was selected as the best potential host for C. reinhardtii [Fe-Fe] hydrogenase expression. Hydrogen formation by S. oneidensis strain AS52 (ΔhydAΔhyaB transformed with a plasmid bearing CrHydA1 and grown in the presence of six different substrates for anaerobic respiration was determined. A significant increase in hydrogen evolution was observed for cells grown in the presence of trimethylamine oxide, dimethylsulfoxide and disodium thiosulfate, showing that the system of S. oneidensis is efficient for heterologous expression of algal [Fe-Fe] hydrogenase. Conclusion In the present work a new efficient system for heterologous expression and maturation of C. reinhardtii hydrogenase has been developed. HydA1 of C. reinhardtii was purified and shown to contain 6 Fe atoms/molecule of protein, as expected. Using DMSO, TMAO or thiosulfate as substrates for anaerobic respiration during the cell growth, 0.4 – 0.5 mg l-1(OD600 = 1 of catalytically active HydA1 was obtained with hydrogen evolution rate of ~700 μmol H2 mg-1 min-1.

  10. Heterologous expression and characterization of Bacillus coagulans L-arabinose isomerase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xingding; Wu, Jin Chuan

    2012-05-01

    Bacillus coagulans has been of great commercial interest over the past decade owing to its strong ability of producing optical pure L: -lactic acid from both hexose and pentose sugars including L: -arabinose with high yield, titer and productivity under thermophilic conditions. The L: -arabinose isomerase (L-AI) from Bacillus coagulans was heterologously over-expressed in Escherichia coli. The open reading frame of the L-AI has 1,422 nucleotides encoding a protein with 474 amino acid residues. The recombinant L-AI was purified to homogeneity by one-step His-tag affinity chromatography. The molecular mass of the enzyme was estimated to be 56 kDa by SDS-PAGE. The enzyme was most active at 70°C and pH 7.0. The metal ion Mn(2+) was shown to be the best activator for enzymatic activity and thermostability. The enzyme showed higher activity at acidic pH than at alkaline pH. The kinetic studies showed that the K (m), V (max) and k (cat)/K (m) for the conversion of L: -arabinose were 106 mM, 84 U/mg and 34.5 mM(-1)min(-1), respectively. The equilibrium ratio of L: -arabinose to L: -ribulose was 78:22 under optimal conditions. L: -ribulose (97 g/L) was obtained from 500 g/l of L: -arabinose catalyzed by the enzyme (8.3 U/mL) under the optimal conditions within 1.5 h, giving at a substrate conversion of 19.4% and a production rate of 65 g L(-1) h(-1).

  11. Structural Diversification of Lyngbyatoxin A by Host-Dependent Heterologous Expression of the tleABC Biosynthetic Gene Cluster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lihan; Hoshino, Shotaro; Awakawa, Takayoshi; Wakimoto, Toshiyuki; Abe, Ikuro

    2016-08-03

    Natural products have enormous structural diversity, yet little is known about how such diversity is achieved in nature. Here we report the structural diversification of a cyanotoxin-lyngbyatoxin A-and its biosynthetic intermediates by heterologous expression of the Streptomyces-derived tleABC biosynthetic gene cluster in three different Streptomyces hosts: S. lividans, S. albus, and S. avermitilis. Notably, the isolated lyngbyatoxin derivatives, including four new natural products, were biosynthesized by crosstalk between the heterologous tleABC gene cluster and the endogenous host enzymes. The simple strategy described here has expanded the structural diversity of lyngbyatoxin A and its biosynthetic intermediates, and provides opportunities for investigation of the currently underestimated hidden biosynthetic crosstalk. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. Vaccination with Recombinant Parainfluenza Virus 5 Expressing Neuraminidase Protects against Homologous and Heterologous Influenza Virus Challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mooney, Alaina J; Gabbard, Jon D; Li, Zhuo; Dlugolenski, Daniel A; Johnson, Scott K; Tripp, Ralph A; He, Biao; Tompkins, S Mark

    2017-12-01

    Seasonal human influenza virus continues to cause morbidity and mortality annually, and highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) viruses along with other emerging influenza viruses continue to pose pandemic threats. Vaccination is considered the most effective measure for controlling influenza; however, current strategies rely on a precise vaccine match with currently circulating virus strains for efficacy, requiring constant surveillance and regular development of matched vaccines. Current vaccines focus on eliciting specific antibody responses against the hemagglutinin (HA) surface glycoprotein; however, the diversity of HAs across species and antigenic drift of circulating strains enable the evasion of virus-inhibiting antibody responses, resulting in vaccine failure. The neuraminidase (NA) surface glycoprotein, while diverse, has a conserved enzymatic site and presents an appealing target for priming broadly effective antibody responses. Here we show that vaccination with parainfluenza virus 5 (PIV5), a promising live viral vector expressing NA from avian (H5N1) or pandemic (H1N1) influenza virus, elicited NA-specific antibody and T cell responses, which conferred protection against homologous and heterologous influenza virus challenges. Vaccination with PIV5-N1 NA provided cross-protection against challenge with a heterosubtypic (H3N2) virus. Experiments using antibody transfer indicate that antibodies to NA have an important role in protection. These findings indicate that PIV5 expressing NA may be effective as a broadly protective vaccine against seasonal influenza and emerging pandemic threats. IMPORTANCE Seasonal influenza viruses cause considerable morbidity and mortality annually, while emerging viruses pose potential pandemic threats. Currently licensed influenza virus vaccines rely on the antigenic match of hemagglutinin (HA) for vaccine strain selection, and most vaccines rely on HA inhibition titers to determine efficacy, despite the growing

  13. Construction of a Shuttle Vector for Heterologous Expression of a Novel Fungal α-Amylase Gene in Aspergillus oryzae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Yanchen; Mao, Youzhi; Yin, Xiaolie; Gao, Bei; Wei, Dongzhi

    2015-07-01

    The filamentous fungus Aspergillus oryzae is a well-known expression host used to express homologous and heterologous proteins in a number of industrial applications. To facilitate higher yields of proteins of interest, we constructed the pAsOP vector to express heterologous proteins in A. oryzae. pAsOP carries a selectable marker, pyrG, derived from Aspergillus nidulans, and a strong promoter and a terminator of the amyB gene derived from A. oryzae. pAsOP transformed A. oryzae efficiently via the PEG-CaCl2-mediated transformation method. As proof of concept, green fluorescent protein (GFP) was successfully expressed in A. oryzae transformed by pAsOP-GFP. Additionally, we identified a novel fungal α-amylase (PcAmy) gene from Penicillium sp. and cloned the gene into the vector. After transformation by pAsOPPcAmy, the α-amylase PcAmy from Penicillium sp. was successfully expressed in a heterologous host system for the first time. The α-amylase activity in the A. oryzae transformant was increased by 62.3% compared with the untransformed A. oryzae control. The PcAmy protein produced in the system had an optimum pH of 5.0 and optimum temperature of 30°C. As a cold-adapted enzyme, PcAmy shows potential value in industrial applications because of its high catalytic activity at low temperature. Furthermore, the expression vector reported in this study provides promising utility for further scientific research and biotechnological applications.

  14. CXCR4 Is Required by a Nonprimate Lentivirus: Heterologous Expression of Feline Immunodeficiency Virus in Human, Rodent, and Feline Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poeschla, Eric M.; Looney, David J.

    1998-01-01

    A heterologous feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) expression system permitted high-level expression of FIV proteins and efficient production of infectious FIV in human cells. These results identify the FIV U3 element as the sole restriction to the productive phase of replication in nonfeline cells. Heterologous FIV expression in a variety of human cell lines resulted in profuse syncytial lysis that was FIV env specific, CD4 independent, and restricted to cells that express CXCR4, the coreceptor for T-cell-line-adapted strains of human immunodeficiency virus. Stable expression of human CXCR4 in CXCR4-negative human and rodent cell lines resulted in extensive FIV Env-mediated, CXCR4-dependent cell fusion and infection. In feline cells, stable overexpression of human CXCR4 resulted in increased FIV infectivity and marked syncytium formation during FIV replication or after infection with FIV Env-expressing vectors. The use of CXCR4 is a fundamental feature of lentivirus biology independent of CD4 and a shared cellular link to infection and cytopathicity for distantly related lentiviruses that cause AIDS. Their conserved use implicates chemokine receptors as primordial lentivirus receptors. PMID:9658135

  15. A novel platform for heterologous gene expression in Trichoderma reesei (Teleomorph Hypocrea jecorina)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Mikael Skaanning; Skovlund, Dominique Aubert; Johannesen, Pia Francke

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: The industrially applied filamentous fungus Trichoderma reesei has received substantial interest due to its highly efficient synthesis apparatus of cellulytic enzymes. However, the production of heterologous enzymes in T. reesei still remains low mainly due to lack of tools...

  16. Comparison of secretory signal peptides for heterologous protein expression in microalgae: Expanding the secretion portfolio for Chlamydomonas reinhardtii.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Vitor Dutra Molino

    Full Text Available Efficient protein secretion is a desirable trait for any recombinant protein expression system, together with simple, low-cost, and defined media, such as the typical media used for photosynthetic cultures of microalgae. However, low titers of secreted heterologous proteins are usually obtained, even with the most extensively studied microalga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, preventing their industrial application. In this study, we aimed to expand and evaluate secretory signal peptides (SP for heterologous protein secretion in C. reinhardtii by comparing previously described SP with untested sequences. We compared the SPs from arylsulfatase 1 and carbonic anhydrase 1, with those of untried SPs from binding protein 1, an ice-binding protein, and six sequences identified in silico. We identified over 2000 unique SPs using the SignalP 4.0 software. mCherry fluorescence was used to compare the protein secretion of up to 96 colonies for each construct, non-secretion construct, and parental wild-type cc1690 cells. Supernatant fluorescence varied according to the SP used, with a 10-fold difference observed between the highest and lowest secretors. Moreover, two SPs identified in silico secreted the highest amount of mCherry. Our results demonstrate that the SP should be carefully selected and that efficient sequences can be coded in the C. reinhardtii genome. The SPs described here expand the portfolio available for research on heterologous protein secretion and for biomanufacturing applications.

  17. Expression of a Dianthus flavonoid glucosyltransferase in Saccharomyces cerevisiae for whole-cell biocatalysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werner, Sean R; Morgan, John A

    2009-07-15

    Glycosyltransferases are promising biocatalysts for the synthesis of small molecule glycosides. In this study, Saccharomyces cerevisiae expressing a flavonoid glucosyltransferase (GT) from Dianthus caryophyllus (carnation) was investigated as a whole-cell biocatalyst. Two yeast expression systems were compared using the flavonoid naringenin as a model substrate. Under in vitro conditions, naringenin-7-O-glucoside was formed and a higher specific glucosyl transfer activity was found using a galactose inducible expression system compared to a constitutive expression system. However, S. cerevisiae expressing the GT constitutively was significantly more productive than the galactose inducible system under in vivo conditions. Interestingly, the glycosides were recovered directly from the culture broth and did not accumulate intracellularly. A previously uncharacterized naringenin glycoside formed using the D. caryophyllus GT was identified as naringenin-4'-O-glucoside. It was found that S. cerevisiae cells hydrolyze naringenin-7-O-glucoside during whole-cell biocatalysis, resulting in a low final glycoside titer. When phloretin was added as a substrate to the yeast strain expressing the GT constitutively, the natural product phlorizin was formed. This study demonstrates S. cerevisiae is a promising whole-cell biocatalyst host for the production of valuable glycosides.

  18. Increasing cocoa butter-like lipid production of Saccharomyces cerevisiae by expression of selected cocoa genes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wei, Yongjun; Gossing, Michael; Bergenholm, David

    2017-01-01

    for CB biosynthesis from the cocoa genome using a phylogenetic analysis approach. By expressing the selected cocoa genes in S. cerevisiae, we successfully increased total fatty acid production, TAG production and CBL production in some S. cerevisiae strains. The relative CBL content in three yeast...... higher level of CBL compared with the control strain. In summary, CBL production by S. cerevisiae were increased through expressing selected cocoa genes potentially involved in CB biosynthesis.......Cocoa butter (CB) extracted from cocoa beans mainly consists of three different kinds of triacylglycerols (TAGs), 1,3-dipalmitoyl-2-oleoyl-glycerol (POP, C16:0-C18:1-C16:0), 1-palmitoyl-3-stearoyl-2-oleoyl-glycerol(POS,C16:0C18:1-C18:0) and 1,3-distearoyl-2-oleoyl-glycerol (SOS, C18:0-C18:1-C18...

  19. Heterologous Expression of the Cotton NBS-LRR Gene GbaNA1 Enhances Verticillium Wilt Resistance in Arabidopsis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nan-Yang Li

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Verticillium wilt caused by Verticillium dahliae results in severe losses in cotton, and is economically the most destructive disease of this crop. Improving genetic resistance is the cleanest and least expensive option to manage Verticillium wilt. Previously, we identified the island cotton NBS-LRR-encoding gene GbaNA1 that confers resistance to the highly virulent V. dahliae isolate Vd991. In this study, we expressed cotton GbaNA1 in the heterologous system of Arabidopsis thaliana and investigated the defense response mediated by GbaNA1 following inoculations with V. dahliae. Heterologous expression of GbaNA1 conferred Verticillium wilt resistance in A. thaliana. Moreover, overexpression of GbaNA1 enabled recovery of the resistance phenotype of A. thaliana mutants that had lost the function of GbaNA1 ortholog gene. Investigations of the defense response in A. thaliana showed that the reactive oxygen species (ROS production and the expression of genes associated with the ethylene signaling pathway were enhanced significantly following overexpression of GbaNA1. Intriguingly, overexpression of the GbaNA1 ortholog from Gossypium hirsutum (GhNA1 in A. thaliana did not induce the defense response of ROS production due to the premature termination of GhNA1, which lacks the encoded NB-ARC and LRR motifs. GbaNA1 therefore confers Verticillium wilt resistance in A. thaliana by the activation of ROS production and ethylene signaling. These results demonstrate the functional conservation of the NBS-LRR-encoding GbaNA1 in a heterologous system, and the mechanism of this resistance, both of which may prove valuable in incorporating GbaNA1-mediated resistance into other plant species.

  20. Recombinant vaccines against T. gondii: comparison between homologous and heterologous vaccination protocols using two viral vectors expressing SAG1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendes, Érica Araújo; Fonseca, Flavio G; Casério, Bárbara M; Colina, Janaína P; Gazzinelli, Ricardo Tostes; Caetano, Braulia C

    2013-01-01

    The use of recombinant viral vectors expressing T. gondii antigens is a safe and efficient approach to induce immune response against the parasite and a valuable tool for vaccine development. We have previously protected mice from toxoplasmosis by immunizing the animals with an adenovirus expressing the protein SAG1 (AdSAG1) of T. gondii. We are now looking for ways to improve the vaccination strategy and enhance protection. One limitation of homologous vaccinations (sequential doses of the same vector) is induction of anti-vector immune response that blocks cell transduction, restricts transgene expression and, consequently, compromises the overall outcome of vaccination. One way to avert the effects of anti-vector response is to use different viruses in prime and boost (heterologous vaccination). Bearing this in mind, we generated a modified Vaccinia Virus Ankara encoding SAG1 (MVASAG1), to be tested as boost agent after prime with AdSAG1. Although minor differences were observed in the magnitude of the anti-SAG1 immune response induced by each vaccination protocol, the heterologous immunization with AdSAG1 followed by MVASAG1 resulted in improved capacity to control brain cyst formation in a model of chronic toxoplasmosis in C57BL/6 mice.

  1. Recombinant vaccines against T. gondii: comparison between homologous and heterologous vaccination protocols using two viral vectors expressing SAG1.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Érica Araújo Mendes

    Full Text Available The use of recombinant viral vectors expressing T. gondii antigens is a safe and efficient approach to induce immune response against the parasite and a valuable tool for vaccine development. We have previously protected mice from toxoplasmosis by immunizing the animals with an adenovirus expressing the protein SAG1 (AdSAG1 of T. gondii. We are now looking for ways to improve the vaccination strategy and enhance protection. One limitation of homologous vaccinations (sequential doses of the same vector is induction of anti-vector immune response that blocks cell transduction, restricts transgene expression and, consequently, compromises the overall outcome of vaccination. One way to avert the effects of anti-vector response is to use different viruses in prime and boost (heterologous vaccination. Bearing this in mind, we generated a modified Vaccinia Virus Ankara encoding SAG1 (MVASAG1, to be tested as boost agent after prime with AdSAG1. Although minor differences were observed in the magnitude of the anti-SAG1 immune response induced by each vaccination protocol, the heterologous immunization with AdSAG1 followed by MVASAG1 resulted in improved capacity to control brain cyst formation in a model of chronic toxoplasmosis in C57BL/6 mice.

  2. Enhancement of crystallinity of cellulose produced by Escherichia coli through heterologous expression of bcsD gene from Gluconacetobacter xylinus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sajadi, Elaheh; Babaipour, Valiollah; Deldar, Ali Asghar; Yakhchali, Bagher; Fatemi, Seyed Safa-Ali

    2017-09-01

    To evaluate the crystallinity index of the cellulose produced by Escherichia coli Nissle 1917 after heterologous expression of the cellulose synthase subunit D (bcsD) gene of Gluconacetobacter xylinus BPR2001. The bcsD gene of G. xylinus BPR2001 was expressed in E. coli and its protein product was visualized using SDS-PAGE. FTIR analysis showed that the crystallinity index of the cellulose produced by the recombinants was 0.84, which is 17% more than that of the wild type strain. The increased crystallinity index was also confirmed by X-ray diffraction analysis. The cellulose content was not changed significantly after over-expressing the bcsD. The bcsD gene can improve the crystalline structure of the bacterial cellulose but there is not any significant difference between the amounts of cellulose produced by the recombinant and wild type E. coli Nissle 1917.

  3. Trichoderma virens β-glucosidase I (BGLI) gene; expression in Saccharomyces cerevisiae including docking and molecular dynamics studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wickramasinghe, Gammadde Hewa Ishan Maduka; Rathnayake, Pilimathalawe Panditharathna Attanayake Mudiyanselage Samith Indika; Chandrasekharan, Naduviladath Vishvanath; Weerasinghe, Mahindagoda Siril Samantha; Wijesundera, Ravindra Lakshman Chundananda; Wijesundera, Wijepurage Sandhya Sulochana

    2017-06-21

    Cellulose, a linear polymer of β 1-4, linked glucose, is the most abundant renewable fraction of plant biomass (lignocellulose). It is synergistically converted to glucose by endoglucanase (EG) cellobiohydrolase (CBH) and β-glucosidase (BGL) of the cellulase complex. BGL plays a major role in the conversion of randomly cleaved cellooligosaccharides into glucose. As it is well known, Saccharomyces cerevisiae can efficiently convert glucose into ethanol under anaerobic conditions. Therefore, S.cerevisiae was genetically modified with the objective of heterologous extracellular expression of the BGLI gene of Trichoderma virens making it capable of utilizing cellobiose to produce ethanol. The cDNA and a genomic sequence of the BGLI gene of Trichoderma virens was cloned in the yeast expression vector pGAPZα and separately transformed to Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The size of the BGLI cDNA clone was 1363 bp and the genomic DNA clone contained an additional 76 bp single intron following the first exon. The gene was 90% similar to the DNA sequence and 99% similar to the deduced amino acid sequence of 1,4-β-D-glucosidase of T. atroviride (AC237343.1). The BGLI activity expressed by the recombinant genomic clone was 3.4 times greater (1.7 x 10 -3  IU ml -1 ) than that observed for the cDNA clone (5 x 10 -4  IU ml -1 ). Furthermore, the activity was similar to the activity of locally isolated Trichoderma virens (1.5 x 10 -3  IU ml -1 ). The estimated size of the protein was 52 kDA. In fermentation studies, the maximum ethanol production by the genomic and the cDNA clones were 0.36 g and 0.06 g /g of cellobiose respectively. Molecular docking results indicated that the bare protein and cellobiose-protein complex behave in a similar manner with considerable stability in aqueous medium. The deduced binding site and the binding affinity of the constructed homology model appeared to be reasonable. Moreover, it was identified that the five hydrogen bonds formed

  4. Functional conservation between Schizosaccharomyces pombe ste8 and Saccharomyces cerevisiae STE11 protein kinases in yeast signal transduction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Styrkársdóttir, U; Egel, R; Nielsen, O

    1992-01-01

    in signal transduction in budding yeast. Expression of the S. cerevisiae STE11 gene in S. pombe ste8 mutants restores the ability to transcribe mat1-Pm in response to pheromone. Also, such cells become capable of conjugation and sporulation. When mat1-Pm is artifically expressed from a heterologous promoter...

  5. Expression of an Aspergillus niger Phytase Gene (phyA) in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Yanming; Wilson, David B.; Lei, Xin gen

    1999-01-01

    Phytase improves the bioavailability of phytate phosphorus in plant foods to humans and animals and reduces phosphorus pollution of animal waste. Our objectives were to express an Aspergillus niger phytase gene (phyA) in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and to determine the effects of glycosylation on the phytase’s activity and thermostability. A 1.4-kb DNA fragment containing the coding region of the phyA gene was inserted into the expression vector pYES2 and was expressed in S. cerevisiae as an active, extracellular phytase. The yield of total extracellular phytase activity was affected by the signal peptide and the medium composition. The expressed phytase had two pH optima (2 to 2.5 and 5 to 5.5) and a temperature optimum between 55 and 60°C, and it cross-reacted with a rabbit polyclonal antibody against the wild-type enzyme. Due to the heavy glycosylation, the expressed phytase had a molecular size of approximately 120 kDa and appeared to be more thermostable than the commercial enzyme. Deglycosylation of the phytase resulted in losses of 9% of its activity and 40% of its thermostability. The recombinant phytase was effective in hydrolyzing phytate phosphorus from corn or soybean meal in vitro. In conclusion, the phyA gene was expressed as an active, extracellular phytase in S. cerevisiae, and its thermostability was affected by glycosylation. PMID:10223979

  6. Improving methyl ketone production in Escherichia coli by heterologous expression of NADH-dependent FabG

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goh, Ee Been; Chen, Yan; Petzold, Christopher J.

    2018-01-01

    balance, as fatty acid-derived pathways face the systematic metabolic challenge of net NADPH consumption (in large part, resulting from the key fatty acid biosynthetic enzyme FabG [β-ketoacyl-ACP reductase]) and net NADH production. In this study, we attempted to mitigate cofactor imbalance...... by heterologously expressing NADH-dependent, rather than NADPH-dependent, versions of FabG identified in previous studies. Of the four NADH-dependent versions of FabG tested in our previously best-reported methyl ketone-producing strain (EGS1895), the version from Acholeplasma laidlawii (Al_FabG) showed...... for the base strain (EGS1895) under fermentation conditions optimized in this study. Shotgun proteomic data for strains EGS2920 and EGS1895 during fed-batch fermentation were consistent with the goal of alleviating NADPH limitation through expression of Al_FabG. For example, relative to strain EGS1895, strain...

  7. Cloning and heterologous expression of a novel insecticidal gene (tccC1) from Xenorhabdus nematophilus strain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joo Lee, Pom; Ahn, Ji-Young; Kim, Yang-Hoon; Wook Kim, Seung; Kim, Ji-Yeon; Park, Jae-Sung; Lee, Jeewon

    2004-01-01

    We have identified and cloned a novel toxin gene (tccC1/xptB1) from Xenorhabdus nematophilus strain isolated from Korea-specific entomophagous nematode Steinernema glaseri MK. The DNA sequence of cloned toxin gene (3048 bp) has an open reading frame encoding 1016 amino acids with a predicted molecular mass of 111058 Da. The toxin sequence shares 50-96% identical amino acid residues with the previously reported tccC1 cloned from X. nematophilus (AJ308438), Photorhabdus luminescens W14 (AF346499) P. luminescens TTO1 (BX571873), and Yersinia pestis CO92 (NC 0 03143). The toxin gene was successfully expressed in Escherichia coli, and the recombinant toxin protein caused a rapid cessation in mortality of Galleria mellonella larvae (80% death of larvae within 2 days). Conclusively, the heterologous expression of the novel gene tccC1 cloned into E. coli plasmid vector produced recombinant toxin with high insecticidal activity

  8. Heterologous expression of the yeast Tpo1p or Pdr5p membrane transporters in Arabidopsis confers plant xenobiotic tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remy, Estelle; Niño-González, María; Godinho, Cláudia P; Cabrito, Tânia R; Teixeira, Miguel C; Sá-Correia, Isabel; Duque, Paula

    2017-07-03

    Soil contamination is a major hindrance for plant growth and development. The lack of effective strategies to remove chemicals released into the environment has raised the need to increase plant resilience to soil pollutants. Here, we investigated the ability of two Saccharomyces cerevisiae plasma-membrane transporters, the Major Facilitator Superfamily (MFS) member Tpo1p and the ATP-Binding Cassette (ABC) protein Pdr5p, to confer Multiple Drug Resistance (MDR) in Arabidopsis thaliana. Transgenic plants expressing either of the yeast transporters were undistinguishable from the wild type under control conditions, but displayed tolerance when challenged with the herbicides 2,4-D and barban. Plants expressing ScTPO1 were also more resistant to the herbicides alachlor and metolachlor as well as to the fungicide mancozeb and the Co 2+ , Cu 2+ , Ni 2+ , Al 3+ and Cd 2+ cations, while ScPDR5-expressing plants exhibited tolerance to cycloheximide. Yeast mutants lacking Tpo1p or Pdr5p showed increased sensitivity to most of the agents tested in plants. Our results demonstrate that the S. cerevisiae Tpo1p and Pdr5p transporters are able to mediate resistance to a broad range of compounds of agricultural interest in yeast as well as in Arabidopsis, underscoring their potential in future biotechnological applications.

  9. Acid-sensing ion channel (ASIC) 4 predominantly localizes to an early endosome-related organelle upon heterologous expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Verena; Friedrich, Katharina; Polleichtner, Georg; Gründer, Stefan

    2015-12-15

    Acid-sensing ion channels (ASICs) are voltage-independent proton-gated amiloride sensitive sodium channels, belonging to the DEG/ENaC gene family. Six different ASICs have been identified (ASIC1a, ASIC1b, ASIC2a, ASIC2b, ASIC3, ASIC4) that are activated by a drop in extracellular pH, either as homo- or heteromers. An exception is ASIC4, which is not activated by protons as a homomer and which does not contribute to functional heteromeric ASICs. Insensitivity of ASIC4 to protons and its comparatively low sequence identity to other ASICs (45%) raises the question whether ASIC4 may have different functions than other ASICs. In this study, we therefore investigated the subcellular localization of ASIC4 in heterologous cell lines, which revealed a surprising accumulation of the channel in early endosome-related vacuoles. Moreover, we identified an unique amino-terminal motif as important for forward-trafficking from the ER/Golgi to the early endosome-related compartment. Collectively, our results show that heterologously expressed ASIC4 predominantly resides in an intracellular endosomal compartment.

  10. A moth pheromone brewery: production of (Z)-11-hexadecenol by heterologous co-expression of two biosynthetic genes from a noctuid moth in a yeast cell factory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagström, Åsa K; Wang, Hong-Lei; Liénard, Marjorie A; Lassance, Jean-Marc; Johansson, Tomas; Löfstedt, Christer

    2013-12-13

    Moths (Lepidoptera) are highly dependent on chemical communication to find a mate. Compared to conventional unselective insecticides, synthetic pheromones have successfully served to lure male moths as a specific and environmentally friendly way to control important pest species. However, the chemical synthesis and purification of the sex pheromone components in large amounts is a difficult and costly task. The repertoire of enzymes involved in moth pheromone biosynthesis in insecta can be seen as a library of specific catalysts that can be used to facilitate the synthesis of a particular chemical component. In this study, we present a novel approach to effectively aid in the preparation of semi-synthetic pheromone components using an engineered vector co-expressing two key biosynthetic enzymes in a simple yeast cell factory. We first identified and functionally characterized a ∆11 Fatty-Acyl Desaturase and a Fatty-Acyl Reductase from the Turnip moth, Agrotis segetum. The ∆11-desaturase produced predominantly Z11-16:acyl, a common pheromone component precursor, from the abundant yeast palmitic acid and the FAR transformed a series of saturated and unsaturated fatty acids into their corresponding alcohols which may serve as pheromone components in many moth species. Secondly, when we co-expressed the genes in the Brewer's yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, a set of long-chain fatty acids and alcohols that are not naturally occurring in yeast were produced from inherent yeast fatty acids, and the presence of (Z)-11-hexadecenol (Z11-16:OH), demonstrated that both heterologous enzymes were active in concert. A 100 ml batch yeast culture produced on average 19.5 μg Z11-16:OH. Finally, we demonstrated that oxidized extracts from the yeast cells containing (Z)-11-hexadecenal and other aldehyde pheromone compounds elicited specific electrophysiological activity from male antennae of the Tobacco budworm, Heliothis virescens, supporting the idea that genes from different

  11. Use of homologous and heterologous gene expression profiling tools to characterize transcription dynamics during apple fruit maturation and ripening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sansavini Silviero

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Fruit development, maturation and ripening consists of a complex series of biochemical and physiological changes that in climacteric fruits, including apple and tomato, are coordinated by the gaseous hormone ethylene. These changes lead to final fruit quality and understanding of the functional machinery underlying these processes is of both biological and practical importance. To date many reports have been made on the analysis of gene expression in apple. In this study we focused our investigation on the role of ethylene during apple maturation, specifically comparing transcriptomics of normal ripening with changes resulting from application of the hormone receptor competitor 1-Methylcyclopropene. Results To gain insight into the molecular process regulating ripening in apple, and to compare to tomato (model species for ripening studies, we utilized both homologous and heterologous (tomato microarray to profile transcriptome dynamics of genes involved in fruit development and ripening, emphasizing those which are ethylene regulated. The use of both types of microarrays facilitated transcriptome comparison between apple and tomato (for the later using data previously published and available at the TED: tomato expression database and highlighted genes conserved during ripening of both species, which in turn represent a foundation for further comparative genomic studies. The cross-species analysis had the secondary aim of examining the efficiency of heterologous (specifically tomato microarray hybridization for candidate gene identification as related to the ripening process. The resulting transcriptomics data revealed coordinated gene expression during fruit ripening of a subset of ripening-related and ethylene responsive genes, further facilitating the analysis of ethylene response during fruit maturation and ripening. Conclusion Our combined strategy based on microarray hybridization enabled transcriptome characterization

  12. Use of homologous and heterologous gene expression profiling tools to characterize transcription dynamics during apple fruit maturation and ripening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Fabrizio; Alba, Rob; Schouten, Henk; Soglio, Valeria; Gianfranceschi, Luca; Serra, Sara; Musacchi, Stefano; Sansavini, Silviero; Costa, Guglielmo; Fei, Zhangjun; Giovannoni, James

    2010-10-25

    Fruit development, maturation and ripening consists of a complex series of biochemical and physiological changes that in climacteric fruits, including apple and tomato, are coordinated by the gaseous hormone ethylene. These changes lead to final fruit quality and understanding of the functional machinery underlying these processes is of both biological and practical importance. To date many reports have been made on the analysis of gene expression in apple. In this study we focused our investigation on the role of ethylene during apple maturation, specifically comparing transcriptomics of normal ripening with changes resulting from application of the hormone receptor competitor 1-methylcyclopropene. To gain insight into the molecular process regulating ripening in apple, and to compare to tomato (model species for ripening studies), we utilized both homologous and heterologous (tomato) microarray to profile transcriptome dynamics of genes involved in fruit development and ripening, emphasizing those which are ethylene regulated.The use of both types of microarrays facilitated transcriptome comparison between apple and tomato (for the later using data previously published and available at the TED: tomato expression database) and highlighted genes conserved during ripening of both species, which in turn represent a foundation for further comparative genomic studies. The cross-species analysis had the secondary aim of examining the efficiency of heterologous (specifically tomato) microarray hybridization for candidate gene identification as related to the ripening process. The resulting transcriptomics data revealed coordinated gene expression during fruit ripening of a subset of ripening-related and ethylene responsive genes, further facilitating the analysis of ethylene response during fruit maturation and ripening. Our combined strategy based on microarray hybridization enabled transcriptome characterization during normal climacteric apple ripening, as well as

  13. The expression of glycerol facilitators from various yeast species improves growth on glycerol of Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathias Klein

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Glycerol is an abundant by-product during biodiesel production and additionally has several assets compared to sugars when used as a carbon source for growing microorganisms in the context of biotechnological applications. However, most strains of the platform production organism Saccharomyces cerevisiae grow poorly in synthetic glycerol medium. It has been hypothesized that the uptake of glycerol could be a major bottleneck for the utilization of glycerol in S. cerevisiae. This species exclusively relies on an active transport system for glycerol uptake. This work demonstrates that the expression of predicted glycerol facilitators (Fps1 homologues from superior glycerol-utilizing yeast species such as Pachysolen tannophilus, Komagataella pastoris, Yarrowia lipolytica and Cyberlindnera jadinii significantly improves the growth performance on glycerol of the previously selected glycerol-consuming S. cerevisiae wild-type strain (CBS 6412-13A. The maximum specific growth rate increased from 0.13 up to 0.18 h−1 and a biomass yield coefficient of 0.56 gDW/gglycerol was observed. These results pave the way for exploiting the assets of glycerol in the production of fuels, chemicals and pharmaceuticals based on baker's yeast. Keywords: Yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Glycerol, Transport, Glycerol facilitator, Fps1, Stl1

  14. Accurate, model-based tuning of synthetic gene expression using introns in S. cerevisiae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ido Yofe

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Introns are key regulators of eukaryotic gene expression and present a potentially powerful tool for the design of synthetic eukaryotic gene expression systems. However, intronic control over gene expression is governed by a multitude of complex, incompletely understood, regulatory mechanisms. Despite this lack of detailed mechanistic understanding, here we show how a relatively simple model enables accurate and predictable tuning of synthetic gene expression system in yeast using several predictive intron features such as transcript folding and sequence motifs. Using only natural Saccharomyces cerevisiae introns as regulators, we demonstrate fine and accurate control over gene expression spanning a 100 fold expression range. These results broaden the engineering toolbox of synthetic gene expression systems and provide a framework in which precise and robust tuning of gene expression is accomplished.

  15. Heterologous expression of Streptococcus mutans Cnm in Lactococcus lactis promotes intracellular invasion, adhesion to human cardiac tissues and virulence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freires, Irlan A; Avilés-Reyes, Alejandro; Kitten, Todd; Simpson-Haidaris, P J; Swartz, Michael; Knight, Peter A; Rosalen, Pedro L; Lemos, José A; Abranches, Jacqueline

    2017-01-02

    In S. mutans, the expression of the surface glycoprotein Cnm mediates binding to extracellular matrix proteins, endothelial cell invasion and virulence in the Galleria mellonella invertebrate model. To further characterize Cnm as a virulence factor, the cnm gene from S. mutans strain OMZ175 was expressed in the non-pathogenic Lactococcus lactis NZ9800 using a nisin-inducible system. Despite the absence of the machinery necessary for Cnm glycosylation, Western blot and immunofluorescence microscopy analyses demonstrated that Cnm was effectively expressed and translocated to the cell wall of L. lactis. Similar to S. mutans, expression of Cnm in L. lactis enabled robust binding to collagen and laminin, invasion of human coronary artery endothelial cells and increased virulence in G. mellonella. Using an ex vivo human heart tissue colonization model, we showed that Cnm-positive strains of either S. mutans or L. lactis outcompete their Cnm-negative counterparts for tissue colonization. Finally, Cnm expression facilitated L. lactis adhesion and colonization in a rabbit model of infective endocarditis. Collectively, our results provide unequivocal evidence that binding to extracellular matrices mediated by Cnm is an important virulence attribute of S. mutans and confirm the usefulness of the L. lactis heterologous system for further characterization of bacterial virulence factors.

  16. Production of a heterologous proteinase A by Saccharomyces kluyveri

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Kasper; Tidemand, L.D.; Winther, J.R.

    2001-01-01

    In order to evaluate the potential of Saccharomyces kluyveri for heterologous protein production, S. kluyveri Y159 was transformed with a S. cerevisiae-based multi-copy plasmid containing the S. cerevisiae PEP4 gene, which encodes proteinase A, under the control of its native promoter. As a refer......In order to evaluate the potential of Saccharomyces kluyveri for heterologous protein production, S. kluyveri Y159 was transformed with a S. cerevisiae-based multi-copy plasmid containing the S. cerevisiae PEP4 gene, which encodes proteinase A, under the control of its native promoter...

  17. Heterologous expression of VHb can improve the yield and quality of biocontrol fungus Paecilomyces lilacinus, during submerged fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shumeng; Wang, Jieping; Wei, Yale; Tang, Qing; Ali, Maria Kanwal; He, Jin

    2014-10-10

    Paecilomyces lilacinus is an egg-parasitic fungus which is effective against plant-parasitic nematodes and it has been successfully commercialized for the control of many plant-parasitic nematodes. However, during the large-scale industrial fermentation process of the filamentous fungus, the dissolved oxygen supply is a limiting factor, which influences yield, product quality and production cost. To solve this problem, we intended to heterologously express VHb in P. lilacinus ACSS. After optimizing the vgb gene, we fused it with a selection marker gene nptII, a promoter PgpdA and a terminator TtrpC. The complete expression cassette PgpdA-nptII-vgb-TtrpC was transferred into P. lilacinus ACSS by Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation. Consequently, we successfully screened an applicable fungus strain PNVT8 which efficiently expressed VHb. The submerged fermentation experiments demonstrated that the expression of VHb not only increased the production traits of P. lilacinus such as biomass and spore production, but also improved the beneficial product quality and application value, due to the secretion of more protease and chitinase. It can be speculated that the recombinant strain harboring vgb gene will have a growth advantage over the original strain under anaerobic conditions in soil and therefore will possess higher biocontrol efficiency against plant-parasitic nematodes. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Heterologous Expression of AtBBX21 Enhances the Rate of Photosynthesis and Alleviates Photoinhibition in Solanumtuberosum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crocco, Carlos D; Ocampo, Gabriel Gomez; Ploschuk, Edmundo L; Mantese, Anita; Botto, Javier F

    2018-05-01

    B-box (BBX) proteins are zinc-finger transcription factors containing one or two B-box motifs. BBX proteins act as key factors in the networks regulating growth and development. The relevance of BBX21 to light and abscisic acid signaling in seedling development is well established; however, its importance in adult plant development and agronomic species is poorly understood. Therefore, we studied the effect of heterologous expression of Arabidopsis ( Arabidopsis thaliana ) BBX21 in potato ( Solanum tuberosum ) var Spunta. Three independent AtBBX21- expressing lines and the wild-type control were cultivated under sunlight and at controlled temperatures in a greenhouse. By anatomical, physiological, biochemical, and gene expression analysis, we demonstrated that AtBBX21 -expressing plants were more robust and produced more tubers than wild-type plants. Interestingly, AtBBX21- expressing plants had higher rates of photosynthesis, with a significant increase in photosynthetic gene expression, and higher stomatal conductance, with increased size of the stomatal opening, without any associated decline in water use efficiency. Furthermore, AtBBX21 -expressing potato plants had reduced photoinhibition associated with higher production of anthocyanins and phenolic compounds, and higher expression of genes in the phenylpropanoid biosynthesis pathway. To gain insights into the mechanism of BBX21, we evaluated the molecular, morphological, metabolic, and photosynthetic behavior in adult BBX21- overexpressing Arabidopsis. We conclude that BBX21 overexpression improved morphological and physiological attributes, and photosynthetic rates in nonoptimal, high-irradiance conditions, without associated impairment of water use efficiency. These characteristics of BBX21 may be useful for increasing production of potatoes, and potentially of other crops. © 2018 American Society of Plant Biologists. All Rights Reserved.

  19. Genetic Approaches to Study Meiosis and Meiosis-Specific Gene Expression in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassir, Yona; Stuart, David T

    2017-01-01

    The budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae has a long history as a model organism for studies of meiosis and the cell cycle. The popularity of this yeast as a model is in large part due to the variety of genetic and cytological approaches that can be effectively performed with the cells. Cultures of the cells can be induced to synchronously progress through meiosis and sporulation allowing large-scale gene expression and biochemical studies to be performed. Additionally, the spore tetrads resulting from meiosis make it possible to characterize the haploid products of meiosis allowing investigation of meiotic recombination and chromosome segregation. Here we describe genetic methods for analysis progression of S. cerevisiae through meiosis and sporulation with an emphasis on strategies for the genetic analysis of regulators of meiosis-specific genes.

  20. Heterologous expression of the antimyotoxic protein DM64 in Pichia pastoris.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saulo Martins Vieira

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Snakebite envenomation is a neglected condition that constitutes a public health problem in tropical and subtropical countries, including Brazil. Interestingly, some animals are resistant to snake envenomation due to the presence of inhibitory glycoproteins in their serum that target toxic venom components. DM64 is an acidic glycoprotein isolated from Didelphis aurita (opossum serum that has been characterized as an inhibitor of the myotoxicity induced by bothropic toxins bearing phospholipase A2 (PLA2 structures. This antitoxic protein can serve as an excellent starting template for the design of novel therapeutics against snakebite envenomation, particularly venom-induced local tissue damage. Therefore, the aim of this work was to produce a recombinant DM64 (rDM64 in the methylotrophic yeast Pichia pastoris and to compare its biological properties with those of native DM64. Yeast fermentation in the presence of Pefabloc, a serine protease inhibitor, stimulated cell growth (~1.5-fold, increased the rDM64 production yield approximately 10-fold and significantly reduced the susceptibility of rDM64 to proteolytic degradation. P. pastoris fermentation products were identified by mass spectrometry and Western blotting. The heterologous protein was efficiently purified from the culture medium by affinity chromatography (with immobilized PLA2 myotoxin and/or an ion exchange column. Although both native and recombinant DM64 exhibit different glycosylation patterns, they show very similar electrophoretic mobilities after PNGase F treatment. rDM64 formed a noncovalent complex with myotoxin II (Lys49-PLA2 from Bothrops asper and displayed biological activity that was similar to that of native DM64, inhibiting the cytotoxicity of myotoxin II by 92% at a 1:1 molar ratio.

  1. Characterization of heterologously expressed transporter genes by patch- and voltage-clamp methods: Application to cyclic nucleotide-dependent responses

    KAUST Repository

    Lemtiri-Chlieh, Fouad; Ali, Rashid Ayesha

    2013-01-01

    The application of patch- and voltage-clamp methods to study ion transport can be limited by many hurdles: the size of the cells to be patched and/or stabbed, the subcellular localization of the molecule of interest, and its density of expression that could be too low even in their own native environment. Functional expression of genes using recombinant DNA technology not only overcomes those hurdles but also affords additional and elegant investigations such as single-point mutation studies and subunit associations/regulations. In this chapter, we give a step-by-step description of two electrophysiological methods, patch clamp and two-electrode voltage clamp (TEVC), that are routinely used in combination with heterologous gene expression to assist researchers interested in the identification and characterization of ion transporters. We describe how to (1) obtain and maintain the cells suitable for the use with each of the above-mentioned methods (i.e., HEK-293 cells and yeast spheroplasts to use with the patch-clamp methodology and Xenopus laevis oocytes with TEVC), (2) transfect/inject them with the gene of interest, and (3) record ion transport activities. © Springer Science+Business Media New York 2013.

  2. The Pea SAD Short-Chain Dehydrogenase/Reductase: Quinone Reduction, Tissue Distribution, and Heterologous Expression1[W][OA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scherbak, Nikolai; Ala-Häivälä, Anneli; Brosché, Mikael; Böwer, Nathalie; Strid, Hilja; Gittins, John R.; Grahn, Elin; Eriksson, Leif A.; Strid, Åke

    2011-01-01

    The pea (Pisum sativum) tetrameric short-chain alcohol dehydrogenase-like protein (SAD) family consists of at least three highly similar members (SAD-A, -B, and -C). According to mRNA data, environmental stimuli induce SAD expression. The aim of this study was to characterize the SAD proteins by examining their catalytic function, distribution in pea, and induction in different tissues. In enzyme activity assays using a range of potential substrates, the SAD-C enzyme was shown to reduce one- or two-ring-membered quinones lacking long hydrophobic hydrocarbon tails. Immunological assays using a specific antiserum against the protein demonstrated that different tissues and cell types contain small amounts of SAD protein that was predominantly located within epidermal or subepidermal cells and around vascular tissue. Particularly high local concentrations were observed in the protoderm of the seed cotyledonary axis. Two bow-shaped rows of cells in the ovary and the placental surface facing the ovule also exhibited considerable SAD staining. Ultraviolet-B irradiation led to increased staining in epidermal and subepidermal cells of leaves and stems. The different localization patterns of SAD suggest functions both in development and in responses to environmental stimuli. Finally, the pea SAD-C promoter was shown to confer heterologous wound-induced expression in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), which confirmed that the inducibility of its expression is regulated at the transcriptional level. PMID:21343423

  3. Characterization of heterologously expressed transporter genes by patch- and voltage-clamp methods: Application to cyclic nucleotide-dependent responses

    KAUST Repository

    Lemtiri-Chlieh, Fouad

    2013-09-03

    The application of patch- and voltage-clamp methods to study ion transport can be limited by many hurdles: the size of the cells to be patched and/or stabbed, the subcellular localization of the molecule of interest, and its density of expression that could be too low even in their own native environment. Functional expression of genes using recombinant DNA technology not only overcomes those hurdles but also affords additional and elegant investigations such as single-point mutation studies and subunit associations/regulations. In this chapter, we give a step-by-step description of two electrophysiological methods, patch clamp and two-electrode voltage clamp (TEVC), that are routinely used in combination with heterologous gene expression to assist researchers interested in the identification and characterization of ion transporters. We describe how to (1) obtain and maintain the cells suitable for the use with each of the above-mentioned methods (i.e., HEK-293 cells and yeast spheroplasts to use with the patch-clamp methodology and Xenopus laevis oocytes with TEVC), (2) transfect/inject them with the gene of interest, and (3) record ion transport activities. © Springer Science+Business Media New York 2013.

  4. A simple and accurate two-step long DNA sequences synthesis strategy to improve heterologous gene expression in pichia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiang-Ke Yang

    Full Text Available In vitro gene chemical synthesis is a powerful tool to improve the expression of gene in heterologous system. In this study, a two-step gene synthesis strategy that combines an assembly PCR and an overlap extension PCR (AOE was developed. In this strategy, the chemically synthesized oligonucleotides were assembled into several 200-500 bp fragments with 20-25 bp overlap at each end by assembly PCR, and then an overlap extension PCR was conducted to assemble all these fragments into a full length DNA sequence. Using this method, we de novo designed and optimized the codon of Rhizopus oryzae lipase gene ROL (810 bp and Aspergillus niger phytase gene phyA (1404 bp. Compared with the original ROL gene and phyA gene, the codon-optimized genes expressed at a significantly higher level in yeasts after methanol induction. We believe this AOE method to be of special interest as it is simple, accurate and has no limitation with respect to the size of the gene to be synthesized. Combined with de novo design, this method allows the rapid synthesis of a gene optimized for expression in the system of choice and production of sufficient biological material for molecular characterization and biotechnological application.

  5. Using heterologous expression systems to characterize potassium and sodium transport activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, Alonso; Benito, Begoña; Cagnac, Olivier

    2012-01-01

    The expression of plant transporters in simple well-characterized cell systems is an irreplaceable technique for gaining insights into the kinetic and energetic features of plant transporters. Among all the available expression systems, yeast cells offer the highest simplicity and have the capacity to mimic the in vivo properties of plant transporters. Here, we describe the use of yeast mutants to express K(+) and Na(+) plant transporters and discuss some experimental problems that can produce misleading results.

  6. Heterologous expression of oxytetracycline biosynthetic gene cluster in Streptomyces venezuelae WVR2006 to improve production level and to alter fermentation process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Shouliang; Li, Zilong; Wang, Xuefeng; Wang, Huizhuan; Jia, Xiaole; Ai, Guomin; Bai, Zishang; Shi, Mingxin; Yuan, Fang; Liu, Tiejun; Wang, Weishan; Yang, Keqian

    2016-12-01

    Heterologous expression is an important strategy to activate biosynthetic gene clusters of secondary metabolites. Here, it is employed to activate and manipulate the oxytetracycline (OTC) gene cluster and to alter OTC fermentation process. To achieve these goals, a fast-growing heterologous host Streptomyces venezuelae WVR2006 was rationally selected among several potential hosts. It shows rapid and dispersed growth and intrinsic high resistance to OTC. By manipulating the expression of two cluster-situated regulators (CSR) OtcR and OtrR and precursor supply, the OTC production level was significantly increased in this heterologous host from 75 to 431 mg/l only in 48 h, a level comparable to the native producer Streptomyces rimosus M4018 in 8 days. This work shows that S. venezuelae WVR2006 is a promising chassis for the production of secondary metabolites, and the engineered heterologous OTC producer has the potential to completely alter the fermentation process of OTC production.

  7. A tetO Toolkit To Alter Expression of Genes in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuperus, Josh T; Lo, Russell S; Shumaker, Lucia; Proctor, Julia; Fields, Stanley

    2015-07-17

    Strategies to optimize a metabolic pathway often involve building a large collection of strains, each containing different versions of sequences that regulate the expression of pathway genes. Here, we develop reagents and methods to carry out this process at high efficiency in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. We identify variants of the Escherichia coli tet operator (tetO) sequence that bind a TetR-VP16 activator with differential affinity and therefore result in different TetR-VP16 activator-driven expression. By recombining these variants upstream of the genes of a pathway, we generate unique combinations of expression levels. Here, we built a tetO toolkit, which includes the I-OnuI homing endonuclease to create double-strand breaks, which increases homologous recombination by 10(5); a plasmid carrying six variant tetO sequences flanked by I-OnuI sites, uncoupling transformation and recombination steps; an S. cerevisiae-optimized TetR-VP16 activator; and a vector to integrate constructs into the yeast genome. We introduce into the S. cerevisiae genome the three crt genes from Erwinia herbicola required for yeast to synthesize lycopene and carry out the recombination process to produce a population of cells with permutations of tetO variants regulating the three genes. We identify 0.7% of this population as making detectable lycopene, of which the vast majority have undergone recombination at all three crt genes. We estimate a rate of ∼20% recombination per targeted site, much higher than that obtained in other studies. Application of this toolkit to medically or industrially important end products could reduce the time and labor required to optimize the expression of a set of metabolic genes.

  8. Construction of heterologous gene expression cassettes for the development of recombinant Clostridium beijerinckii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Young Hoon; Eom, Gyeong Tae; Kang, Kyoung Hee; Joo, Jeong Chan; Jang, Young-Ah; Choi, Jae Woo; Song, Bong Keun; Lee, Seung Hwan; Park, Si Jae

    2016-04-01

    Gene-expression cassettes for the construction of recombinant Clostridium beijerinckii were developed as potential tools for metabolic engineering of C. beijerinckii. Gene expression cassettes containing ColE1 origin and pAMB origin along with the erythromycin resistance gene were constructed, in which promoters from Escherichia coli, Lactococcus lactis, Ralstonia eutropha, C. acetobutylicum, and C. beijerinckii are examined as potential promoters in C. beijerinckii. Zymogram analysis of the cell extracts and comparison of lipase activities of the recombinant C. beijerinckii strains expressing Pseudomonas fluorescens tliA gene suggested that the tliA gene was functionally expressed by all the examined promoters with different expression level. Also, recombinant C. beijerinckii expressing C. beijerinckii secondary alcohol dehydrogenase by the constructed expression cassettes successfully produced 2-propanol from glucose. The best promoter for TliA expression was the R. eutropha phaP promoter while that for 2-propanol production was the putative C. beijerinckii pta promoter. Gene expression cassettes developed in this study may be useful tools for the construction of recombinant C. beijerinckii strains as host strains for the valuable chemicals and fuels from renewable resources.

  9. Population genetic variation in gene expression is associated withphenotypic variation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fay, Justin C.; McCullough, Heather L.; Sniegowski, Paul D.; Eisen, Michael B.

    2004-02-25

    The relationship between genetic variation in gene expression and phenotypic variation observable in nature is not well understood. Identifying how many phenotypes are associated with differences in gene expression and how many gene-expression differences are associated with a phenotype is important to understanding the molecular basis and evolution of complex traits. Results: We compared levels of gene expression among nine natural isolates of Saccharomyces cerevisiae grown either in the presence or absence of copper sulfate. Of the nine strains, two show a reduced growth rate and two others are rust colored in the presence of copper sulfate. We identified 633 genes that show significant differences in expression among strains. Of these genes,20 were correlated with resistance to copper sulfate and 24 were correlated with rust coloration. The function of these genes in combination with their expression pattern suggests the presence of both correlative and causative expression differences. But the majority of differentially expressed genes were not correlated with either phenotype and showed the same expression pattern both in the presence and absence of copper sulfate. To determine whether these expression differences may contribute to phenotypic variation under other environmental conditions, we examined one phenotype, freeze tolerance, predicted by the differential expression of the aquaporin gene AQY2. We found freeze tolerance is associated with the expression of AQY2. Conclusions: Gene expression differences provide substantial insight into the molecular basis of naturally occurring traits and can be used to predict environment dependent phenotypic variation.

  10. Heterologous expression of Ralp3 in Streptococcus pyogenes M2 and M6 strains affects the virulence characteristics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolai Siemens

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Ralp3 is a transcriptional regulator present in a serotype specific fashion on the chromosome of the human pathogen Streptococcus pyogenes (group A streptococci, GAS. In serotypes harbouring the ralp3 gene either positive or negative effects on important metabolic and virulence genes involved in colonization and immune evasion in the human host were observed. A previous study revealed that deletion of ralp3 in a GAS M49 serotype significantly attenuated many virulence traits and caused metabolic disadvantages. This leads to two questions: (i which kind of consequences could Ralp3 expression have in GAS serotypes naturally lacking this gene, and (ii is Ralp3 actively lost during evolution in these serotypes. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We investigated the role of Ralp3 in GAS M2 and M6 pathogenesis. Both serotypes lack ralp3 on their chromosome. The heterologous expression of ralp3 in both serotypes resulted in reduced attachment to and internalization into the majority of tested epithelial cells. Both ralp3 expression strains showed a decreased ability to survive in human blood and exclusively M2::ralp3 showed decreased survival in human serum. Both mutants secreted more active SpeB in the supernatant, resulting in a higher activity compared to wild type strains. The respective M2 and M6 wild type strains outcompeted the ralp3 expression strains in direct metabolic competition assays. The phenotypic changes observed in the M2:ralp3 and M6:ralp3 were verified on the transcriptional level. Consistent with the virulence data, tested genes showed transcript level changes in the same direction. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Together these data suggest that Ralp3 can take over transcriptional control of virulence genes in serotypes lacking the ralp3 gene. Those serotypes most likely lost Ralp3 during evolution since obviously expression of this gene is disadvantageous for metabolism and pathogenesis.

  11. Heterologous expression of Ralp3 in Streptococcus pyogenes M2 and M6 strains affects the virulence characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siemens, Nikolai; Kreikemeyer, Bernd

    2013-01-01

    Ralp3 is a transcriptional regulator present in a serotype specific fashion on the chromosome of the human pathogen Streptococcus pyogenes (group A streptococci, GAS). In serotypes harbouring the ralp3 gene either positive or negative effects on important metabolic and virulence genes involved in colonization and immune evasion in the human host were observed. A previous study revealed that deletion of ralp3 in a GAS M49 serotype significantly attenuated many virulence traits and caused metabolic disadvantages. This leads to two questions: (i) which kind of consequences could Ralp3 expression have in GAS serotypes naturally lacking this gene, and (ii) is Ralp3 actively lost during evolution in these serotypes. We investigated the role of Ralp3 in GAS M2 and M6 pathogenesis. Both serotypes lack ralp3 on their chromosome. The heterologous expression of ralp3 in both serotypes resulted in reduced attachment to and internalization into the majority of tested epithelial cells. Both ralp3 expression strains showed a decreased ability to survive in human blood and exclusively M2::ralp3 showed decreased survival in human serum. Both mutants secreted more active SpeB in the supernatant, resulting in a higher activity compared to wild type strains. The respective M2 and M6 wild type strains outcompeted the ralp3 expression strains in direct metabolic competition assays. The phenotypic changes observed in the M2:ralp3 and M6:ralp3 were verified on the transcriptional level. Consistent with the virulence data, tested genes showed transcript level changes in the same direction. Together these data suggest that Ralp3 can take over transcriptional control of virulence genes in serotypes lacking the ralp3 gene. Those serotypes most likely lost Ralp3 during evolution since obviously expression of this gene is disadvantageous for metabolism and pathogenesis.

  12. Kluyveromyces marxianus as a host for heterologous protein synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gombert, Andreas K; Madeira, José Valdo; Cerdán, María-Esperanza; González-Siso, María-Isabel

    2016-07-01

    The preferentially respiring and thermotolerant yeast Kluyveromyces marxianus is an emerging host for heterologous protein synthesis, surpassing the traditional preferentially fermenting yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae in some important aspects: K . marxianus can grow at temperatures 10 °C higher than S. cerevisiae, which may result in decreased costs for cooling bioreactors and reduced contamination risk; has ability to metabolize a wider variety of sugars, such as lactose and xylose; is the fastest growing eukaryote described so far; and does not require special cultivation techniques (such as fed-batch) to avoid fermentative metabolism. All these advantages exist together with a high secretory capacity, performance of eukaryotic post-translational modifications, and with a generally regarded as safe (GRAS) status. In the last years, replication origins from several Kluyveromyces spp. have been used for the construction of episomal vectors, and also integrative strategies have been developed based on the tendency for non-homologous recombination displayed by K. marxianus. The recessive URA3 auxotrophic marker and the dominant Kan(R) are mostly used for selection of transformed cells, but other markers have been made available. Homologous and heterologous promoters and secretion signals have been characterized, with the K. marxianus INU1 expression and secretion system being of remarkable functionality. The efficient synthesis of roughly 50 heterologous proteins has been demonstrated, including one thermophilic enzyme. In this mini-review, we summarize the physiological characteristics of K. marxianus relevant for its use in the efficient synthesis of heterologous proteins, the efforts performed hitherto in the development of a molecular toolbox for this purpose, and some successful examples.

  13. Optimization of Agrobacterium-mediated transient expression of heterologous genes in spinach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cao, Dang Viet; Pamplona, Reniel S.; Kim, Jiwon

    2017-01-01

    The Agrobacterium-mediated transient assay is a relatively rapid technique and a promising approach for assessing the expression of a gene of interest. Despite the successful application of this transient expression system in several plant species, it is not well understood in spinach. In this st...

  14. Heterologous expression of plant cell wall glycosyltransferases in Pichia, pea and tobacco

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Bent Larsen; Damager, Iben; Faber, Kirsten

    Cell). In the present study, Flag-tagged (MDYKDDDD) RGXT2 was expressed in Pichia pastoris as secreted soluble protein, in pea (using the Pea early browning virus as expression vector) as soluble intra-cellular protein and in tobacco as full length membrane bound protein. The amount of expressed...... to participate in plant CW biosynthesis, has been achieved in only a few cases. We have previously reported the characterisation of two highly homologous plant-specific membrane-bound GTs, which when expressed as secreted tagged soluble proteins in the baculo virus system, catalysed the transfer of xylose from...... protein was estimated using anti Flag Ab and corresponding activity monitored. Pros and cons of using the various expression systems are discussed....

  15. Expression of salt-induced 2-Cys peroxiredoxin from Oryza sativa increases stress tolerance and fermentation capacity in genetically engineered yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Il-Sup; Kim, Young-Saeng; Yoon, Ho-Sung

    2013-04-01

    Peroxiredoxins (Prxs), also termed thioredoxin peroxidases (TPXs), are a family of thiol-specific antioxidant enzymes that are critically involved in cell defense and protect cells from oxidative damage. In this study, a putative chloroplastic 2-Cys thioredoxin peroxidase (OsTPX) was identified by proteome analysis from leaf tissue samples of rice (Oryza sativa) seedlings exposed to 0.1 M NaCl for 3 days. To investigate the relationship between the OsTPX gene and the stress response, OsTPX was cloned into the yeast expression vector p426GPD under the control of the glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GPD1) promoter, and the construct was transformed into Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells. OsTPX expression was confirmed by semi-quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and western blot analyses. OsTPX contained two highly conserved cysteine residues (Cys114 and Cys236) and an active site region (FTFVCPT), and it is structurally very similar to human 2-Cys Prx. Heterologous OsTPX expression increased the ability of the transgenic yeast cells to adapt and recover from reactive oxygen species (ROS)-induced oxidative stresses, such as a reduction of cellular hydroperoxide levels in the presence of hydrogen peroxide and menadione, by improving redox homeostasis. OsTPX expression also conferred enhanced tolerance to tert-butylhydroperoxide, heat shock, and high ethanol concentrations. Furthermore, high OsTPX expression improved the fermentation capacity of the yeast during glucose-based batch fermentation at a high temperature (40 °C) and at the general cultivation temperature (30 °C). The alcohol yield in OsTPX-expressing transgenic yeast increased by approximately 29 % (0.14 g g(-1)) and 21 % (0.12 g g(-1)) during fermentation at 40 and 30 °C, respectively, compared to the wild-type yeast. Accordingly, OsTPX-expressing transgenic yeast showed prolonged cell survival during the environmental stresses produced during fermentation. These

  16. The silencing suppressor (NSs) protein of the plant virus Tomato spotted wilt virus enhances heterologous protein expression and baculovirus pathogenicity in cells and lepidopteran insects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira, Virgínia Carla; da Silva Morgado, Fabricio; Ardisson-Araújo, Daniel Mendes Pereira; Resende, Renato Oliveira; Ribeiro, Bergmann Morais

    2015-11-01

    In this work, we showed that cell death induced by a recombinant (vAcNSs) Autographa californica multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus (AcMNPV) expressing the silencing suppressor (NSs) protein of Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV) was enhanced on permissive and semipermissive cell lines. The expression of a heterologous gene (firefly luciferase) during co-infection of insect cells with vAcNSs and a second recombinant baculovirus (vAgppolhfluc) was shown to increase when compared to single vAgppolhfluc infections. Furthermore, the vAcNSs mean time-to-death values were significantly lower than those for wild-type AcMNPV on larvae of Spodoptera frugiperda and Anticarsia gemmatalis. These results showed that the TSWV-NSs protein could efficiently increase heterologous protein expression in insect cells as well as baculovirus pathogenicity and virulence, probably by suppressing the gene-silencing machinery in insects.

  17. Heterologous expression of wheat VERNALIZATION 2 (TaVRN2 gene in Arabidopsis delays flowering and enhances freezing tolerance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amadou Diallo

    Full Text Available The vernalization gene 2 (VRN2, is a major flowering repressor in temperate cereals that is regulated by low temperature and photoperiod. Here we show that the gene from Triticum aestivum (TaVRN2 is also regulated by salt, heat shock, dehydration, wounding and abscissic acid. Promoter analysis indicates that TaVRN2 regulatory region possesses all the specific responsive elements to these stresses. This suggests pleiotropic effects of TaVRN2 in wheat development and adaptability to the environment. To test if TaVRN2 can act as a flowering repressor in species different from the temperate cereals, the gene was ectopically expressed in the model plant Arabidopsis. Transgenic plants showed no alteration in morphology, but their flowering time was significantly delayed compared to controls plants, indicating that TaVRN2, although having no ortholog in Brassicaceae, can act as a flowering repressor in these species. To identify the possible mechanism by which TaVRN2 gene delays flowering in Arabidopsis, the expression level of several genes involved in flowering time regulation was determined. The analysis indicates that the late flowering of the 35S::TaVRN2 plants was associated with a complex pattern of expression of the major flowering control genes, FCA, FLC, FT, FVE and SOC1. This suggests that heterologous expression of TaVRN2 in Arabidopsis can delay flowering by modulating several floral inductive pathways. Furthermore, transgenic plants showed higher freezing tolerance, likely due to the accumulation of CBF2, CBF3 and the COR genes. Overall, our data suggests that TaVRN2 gene could modulate a common regulator of the two interacting pathways that regulate flowering time and the induction of cold tolerance. The results also demonstrate that TaVRN2 could be used to manipulate flowering time and improve cold tolerance in other species.

  18. Electrophysiological and Pharmacological Analyses of Nav1.9 Voltage-Gated Sodium Channel by Establishing a Heterologous Expression System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xi Zhou

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Nav1. 9 voltage-gated sodium channel is preferentially expressed in peripheral nociceptive neurons. Recent progresses have proved its role in pain sensation, but our understanding of Nav1.9, in general, has lagged behind because of limitations in heterologous expression in mammal cells. In this work, functional expression of human Nav1.9 (hNav1.9 was achieved by fusing GFP to the C-terminal of hNav1.9 in ND7/23 cells, which has been proved to be a reliable method to the electrophysiological and pharmacological studies of hNav1.9. By using the hNav1.9 expression system, we investigated the electrophysiological properties of four mutations of hNav1.9 (K419N, A582T, A842P, and F1689L, whose electrophysiological functions have not been determined yet. The four mutations significantly caused positive shift of the steady-state fast inactivation and therefore increased hNav1.9 activity, consistent with the phenotype of painful peripheral neuropathy. Meanwhile, the effects of inflammatory mediators on hNav1.9 were also investigated. Impressively, histamine was found for the first time to enhance hNav1.9 activity, indicating its vital role in hNav1.9 modulating inflammatory pain. Taken together, our research provided a useful platform for hNav1.9 studies and new insight into mechanism of hNav1.9 linking to pain.

  19. Heterologous expression of an algal hydrogenase in a hetero-cystous cyanobacterium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thorsten Heidorn; Peter Lindblad [Dept. of Physiological Botany, Uppsala University, V illavagen 6, SE-752 36 Uppsala, (Sweden)

    2006-07-01

    For the expression of an active algal [FeFe] hydrogenase in the hetero-cystous cyanobacterium Nostoc punctiforme A TCC 29133 the Chlamydomonas reinhardtii hydrogenase gene hydA1 and the accessory genes hydEF and hydG are to be introduced into the cyano-bacterial cells. The genes were amplified by PCR from EST clones, cloned into the cloning vector pBluescript SK+ and sequenced. An expression vector for multi-cistronic cloning, based on pSCR202, was constructed and for a functional test GFP was inserted as a reporter gene. The GFP construct was transformed into Nostoc punctiforme A TCC 29133 by electroporation and expression of GFP was visualized by fluorescence microscopy. (authors)

  20. Heterologous expression of an algal hydrogenase in a hetero-cystous cyanobacterium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thorsten Heidorn; Peter Lindblad

    2006-01-01

    For the expression of an active algal [FeFe] hydrogenase in the hetero-cystous cyanobacterium Nostoc punctiforme A TCC 29133 the Chlamydomonas reinhardtii hydrogenase gene hydA1 and the accessory genes hydEF and hydG are to be introduced into the cyano-bacterial cells. The genes were amplified by PCR from EST clones, cloned into the cloning vector pBluescript SK+ and sequenced. An expression vector for multi-cistronic cloning, based on pSCR202, was constructed and for a functional test GFP was inserted as a reporter gene. The GFP construct was transformed into Nostoc punctiforme A TCC 29133 by electroporation and expression of GFP was visualized by fluorescence microscopy. (authors)

  1. Heterologous Secretory Expression and Characterization of Dimerized Bone Morphogenetic Protein 2 in Bacillus subtilis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Umair Hanif

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Recombinant human Bone Morphogenetic Protein 2 (rhBMP2 has important applications in the spine fusion and ortho/maxillofacial surgeries. Here we first report the secretory expression of biological active dimerized rhBMP2 from Bacillus subtilis system. The mature domain of BMP2 gene was amplified from pTz57R/BMP2 plasmid. By using pHT43 expression vector two constructs, pHT43-BMP2-M (single BMP2 gene and pHT43-BMP2-D (two BMP2 genes coupled with a linker to produce a dimer, were designed. After primary cloning (DH5α strain and sequence analysis, constructs were transformed into Bacillus subtilis for secretory expression. Expression conditions like media (2xYT and temperature (30°C were optimized. Maximum 35% and 25% secretory expression of monomer (~13 kDa and dimer (~25 kDa, respectively, were observed on SDS-PAGE in SCK6 strain. The expression and dimeric nature of rhBMP2 were confirmed by western blot and native PAGE analysis. For rhBMP2 purification, 200 ml culture supernatant was freeze dried to 10 ml and dialyzed (Tris-Cl, pH 8.5 and Fast Protein Liquid Chromatography (6 ml, Resource Q column was performed. The rhBMP2 monomer and dimer were eluted at 0.9 M and 0.6 M NaCl, respectively. The alkaline phosphatase assay of rhBMP2 (0, 50, 100, 200, and 400 ng/ml was analyzed on C2C12 cells and maximum 200 ng/ml activity was observed in dose dependent manner.

  2. Heterologous expression of trametes versicolor laccase in pichia pastoris and aspergillus niger

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Bohlin, C

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available primarily for screening purposes. With A. niger, high levels of laccase (2700 U/L) were produced using a min- imal medium containing sucrose and yeast extract. Recombinant laccase from A. niger harboring the lcc2 cDNA was purified to homogeneity...). Methods Microbial Strains and Recombinant DNA The lcc1 and lcc2 cDNA genes from T. (Coriolus, Polyporus) versicolor (9–11) were used in the construction of plasmids for expression of laccases in P. pastoris and A. niger. For the expression in P...

  3. Molecular cloning, heterologous expression and functional characterization of gamma tocopherol methyl transferase (γ-TMT) from Glycine max.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tewari, Kalpana; Dahuja, Anil; Sachdev, Archana; Kumar, Vaibhav; Ali, Kishwar; Kumar, Amresh; Kumari, Sweta

    2017-12-01

    γ-Tocopherol methyltransferase (γ-TMT) (EC 2.1.1.95) is the last enzyme in the tocopherol biosynthetic pathway and it catalyzes the conversion of γ-tocopherol into α-tocopherol, the nutritionally significant and most bioactive form of vitamin E. Although the γ-TMT gene has been successfully overexpressed in many crops to enhance their α-tocopherol content but still only few attempts have been made to uncover its structural, functional and regulation aspects at protein level. In this study, we have cloned the complete 909bp coding sequence of Glycine max γ-TMT (Gm γ-TMT) gene that encodes the corresponding protein comprising of 302 amino acid residues. The deduced Gm γ-TMT protein showed 74-87% sequence identity with other characterized plant γ-TMTs. Gm γ-TMT belongs to Class I Methyl Transferases that have a Rossmann-like fold which consists of a seven-stranded β sheet joined by α helices. Heterologous expression of Gm γ-TMT in pET29a expression vector under the control of bacteriophage T7 promoter produced a 37.9 kDa recombinant Gm γ-TMT protein with histidine hexamer tag at its C-terminus. The expression of recombinant Gm γ-TMT protein was confirmed by western blotting using anti-His antibody. The recombinant protein was purified by Ni 2+ -NTA column chromatography. The purified protein showed SAM dependent methyltransferase activity. The α-tocopherol produced in the in-vitro reaction catalyzed by the purified enzyme was detected using reverse phase HPLC. This study has laid the foundation to unveil the biochemical understanding of Gm γ-TMT enzyme which can be further explored by studying its kinetic behaviour, substrate specificity and its interaction with other biomolecules. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Heterologous expression of three Camellia sinensis small heat shock protein genes confers temperature stress tolerance in yeast and Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Mingle; Zou, Zhongwei; Li, Qinghui; Xin, Huahong; Zhu, Xujun; Chen, Xuan; Li, Xinghui

    2017-07-01

    CsHSP17.7, CsHSP18.1, and CsHSP21.8 expressions are induced by heat and cold stresses, and CsHSP overexpression confers tolerance to heat and cold stresses in transgenic Pichia pastoris and Arabidopsis thaliana. Small heat shock proteins (sHSPs) are crucial for protecting plants against biotic and abiotic stresses, especially heat stress. However, knowledge concerning the functions of Camellia sinensis sHSP in heat and cold stresses remains poorly understood. In this study, three C. sinensis sHSP genes (i.e., CsHSP17.7, CsHSP18.1, and CsHSP21.8) were isolated and characterized using suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) technology. The CsHSPs expression levels in C. sinensis leaves were significantly up-regulated by heat and cold stresses. Phylogenetic analyses revealed that CsHSP17.7, CsHSP18.1, and CsHSP21.8 belong to sHSP Classes I, II, and IV, respectively. Heterologous expression of the three CsHSP genes in Pichia pastoris cells enhanced heat and cold stress tolerance. When exposed to heat and cold treatments, transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana plants overexpressing CsHSP17.7, CsHSP18.1, and CsHSP21.8 had lower malondialdehyde contents, ion leakage, higher proline contents, and transcript levels of stress-related genes (e.g., AtPOD, AtAPX1, AtP5CS2, and AtProT1) compared with the control line. In addition, improved seed germination vigor was also observed in the CsHSP-overexpressing seeds under heat stress. Taken together, our results suggest that the three identified CsHSP genes play key roles in heat and cold tolerance.

  5. Expression of an engineered heterologous antimicrobial peptide in potato alters plant development and mitigates normal abiotic and biotic responses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravinder K Goyal

    Full Text Available Antimicrobial cationic peptides (AMPs are ubiquitous small proteins used by living cells to defend against a wide spectrum of pathogens. Their amphipathic property helps their interaction with negatively charged cellular membrane of the pathogen causing cell lysis and death. AMPs also modulate signaling pathway(s and cellular processes in animal models; however, little is known of cellular processes other than the pathogen-lysis phenomenon modulated by AMPs in plants. An engineered heterologous AMP, msrA3, expressed in potato was previously shown to cause resistance of the transgenic plants against selected fungal and bacterial pathogens. These lines together with the wild type were studied for growth habits, and for inducible defense responses during challenge with biotic (necrotroph Fusarium solani and abiotic stressors (dark-induced senescence, wounding and temperature stress. msrA3-expression not only conferred protection against F. solani but also delayed development of floral buds and prolonged vegetative phase. Analysis of select gene transcript profiles showed that the transgenic potato plants were suppressed in the hypersensitive (HR and reactive oxygen species (ROS responses to both biotic and abiotic stressors. Also, the transgenic leaves accumulated lesser amounts of the defense hormone jasmonic acid upon wounding with only a slight change in salicylic acid as compared to the wild type. Thus, normal host defense responses to the pathogen and abiotic stressors were mitigated by msrA3 expression suggesting MSRA3 regulates a common step(s of these response pathways. The stemming of the pathogen growth and mitigating stress response pathways likely contributes to resource reallocation for higher tuber yield.

  6. Cloning and heterologous expression of two aryl-aldehyde dehydrogenases from the white-rot basidiomycete Phanerochaete chrysosporium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakamura, Tomofumi [Faculty of Agriculture, Kyushu University, 6-10-1 Hakozaki, Higashi-ku, Fukuoka 812-8581 (Japan); Fukuoka Institute of Health and Environmental Sciences, 39 Mukaizano, Dazaifu-shi, Fukuoka 818-0135 (Japan); Ichinose, Hirofumi [Faculty of Agriculture, Kyushu University, 6-10-1 Hakozaki, Higashi-ku, Fukuoka 812-8581 (Japan); Wariishi, Hiroyuki, E-mail: hirowari@agr.kyushu-u.ac.jp [Faculty of Agriculture, Kyushu University, 6-10-1 Hakozaki, Higashi-ku, Fukuoka 812-8581 (Japan); Bio-Architecture Center, Kyushu University, 6-10-1 Hakozaki, Higashi-ku, Fukuoka 812-8581 (Japan); Innovation Center for Medical Redox Navigation, Kyushu University, 6-10-1 Hakozaki, Higashi-ku, Fukuoka 812-8581 (Japan)

    2010-04-09

    We identified two aryl-aldehyde dehydrogenase proteins (PcALDH1 and PcALDH2) from the white-rot basidiomycete Phanerochaete chrysosporium. Both PcALDHs were translationally up-regulated in response to exogenous addition of vanillin, one of the key aromatic compounds in the pathway of lignin degradation by basidiomycetes. To clarify the catalytic functions of PcALDHs, we isolated full-length cDNAs encoding these proteins and heterologously expressed the recombinant enzymes using a pET/Escherichia coli system. The open reading frames of both PcALDH1 and PcALDH2 consisted of 1503 nucleotides. The deduced amino acid sequences of both proteins showed high homologies with aryl-aldehyde dehydrogenases from other organisms and contained ten conserved domains of ALDHs. Moreover, a novel glycine-rich motif 'GxGxxxG' was located at the NAD{sup +}-binding site. The recombinant PcALDHs catalyzed dehydrogenation reactions of several aryl-aldehyde compounds, including vanillin, to their corresponding aromatic acids. These results strongly suggested that PcALDHs metabolize aryl-aldehyde compounds generated during fungal degradation of lignin and various aromatic xenobiotics.

  7. Definition of culture conditions for Arxula adeninivorans, a rational basis for studying heterologous gene expression in this dimorphic yeast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stöckmann, Christoph; Palmen, Thomas G; Schroer, Kirsten; Kunze, Gotthard; Gellissen, Gerd; Büchs, Jochen

    2014-06-01

    The yeast Arxula adeninivorans is considered to be a promising producer of recombinant proteins. However, growth characteristics are poorly investigated and no industrial process has been established yet. Though of vital interest for strain screening and production processes, rationally defined culture conditions remain to be developed. A cultivation system was evolved based on targeted sampling and mathematical analysis of rationally designed small-scale cultivations in shake flasks. The oxygen and carbon dioxide transfer rates were analyzed as conclusive online parameters. Oxygen limitation extended cultivation and led to ethanol formation in cultures supplied with glucose. Cultures were inhibited at pH-values below 2.8. The phosphorus demand was determined as 1.55 g phosphorus per 100 g cell dry weight. Synthetic SYN6 medium with 20 g glucose l(-1) was optimized for cultivation in shake flasks by buffering at pH 6.4 with 140 mmol MES l(-1). Optimized SYN6 medium and operating conditions provided non-limited cultivations without by-product formation. A maximal specific growth rate of 0.32 h(-1) and short fermentations of 15 h were achieved. A pH optimum curve was derived from the oxygen transfer rates of differently buffered cultures, showing maximal growth between pH 2.8 and 6.5. Furthermore, it was shown that the applied medium and cultivation conditions were also suitable for non-limiting growth and product formation of a genetically modified A. adeninivorans strain expressing a heterologous phytase.

  8. Cloning and heterologous expression of two aryl-aldehyde dehydrogenases from the white-rot basidiomycete Phanerochaete chrysosporium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakamura, Tomofumi; Ichinose, Hirofumi; Wariishi, Hiroyuki

    2010-01-01

    We identified two aryl-aldehyde dehydrogenase proteins (PcALDH1 and PcALDH2) from the white-rot basidiomycete Phanerochaete chrysosporium. Both PcALDHs were translationally up-regulated in response to exogenous addition of vanillin, one of the key aromatic compounds in the pathway of lignin degradation by basidiomycetes. To clarify the catalytic functions of PcALDHs, we isolated full-length cDNAs encoding these proteins and heterologously expressed the recombinant enzymes using a pET/Escherichia coli system. The open reading frames of both PcALDH1 and PcALDH2 consisted of 1503 nucleotides. The deduced amino acid sequences of both proteins showed high homologies with aryl-aldehyde dehydrogenases from other organisms and contained ten conserved domains of ALDHs. Moreover, a novel glycine-rich motif 'GxGxxxG' was located at the NAD + -binding site. The recombinant PcALDHs catalyzed dehydrogenation reactions of several aryl-aldehyde compounds, including vanillin, to their corresponding aromatic acids. These results strongly suggested that PcALDHs metabolize aryl-aldehyde compounds generated during fungal degradation of lignin and various aromatic xenobiotics.

  9. Heterologous expression, purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of Trichoderma reesei xylanase II and four variants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wan, Qun; Kovalevsky, Andrey; Zhang, Qiu; Hamilton-Brehm, Scott; Upton, Rosalynd; Weiss, Kevin L.; Mustyakimov, Marat; Graham, David; Coates, Leighton; Langan, Paul

    2013-01-01

    The wild-type protein and four active-site mutants of xylanase II from Trichoderma reesei that catalyzes the hydrolysis of glycosidic bonds in xylan have successfully been crystallized. The crystallization of several structures including ligand-free and protein ligand complexes containing the substrate (xylohexaose) or product (xylotriose) are detailed. Xylanase II from Trichoderma reesei catalyzes the hydrolysis of glycosidic bonds in xylan. Crystallographic studies of this commercially important enzyme have been initiated to investigate its reaction mechanism, substrate binding and dependence on basic pH conditions. The wild-type protein was heterologously expressed in an Escherichia coli host using the defined medium and four active-site amino acids were replaced to abolish its activity (E177Q and E86Q) or to change its pH optimum (N44D and N44H). Cation-exchange and size-exclusion chromatography were used to obtain >90% protein purity. The ligand-free proteins and variant complexes containing substrate (xylohexaose) or product (xylotriose) were crystallized in several different space groups and diffracted to high resolutions (from 1.07 to 1.55 Å)

  10. Molecular cloning of amphioxus uncoupling protein and assessment of its uncoupling activity using a yeast heterologous expression system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Kun [Jiangsu Diabetes Research Center, State Key Laboratory of Pharmaceutical Biotechnology, School of Life Sciences, Nanjing University, Nanjing, Jiangsu (China); Sun, Guoxun [Department of Hematology, Fourth Affiliated Hospital of Harbin Medical University, Harbin, Heilongjiang 150001 (China); Lv, Zhiyuan; Wang, Chen [Jiangsu Diabetes Research Center, State Key Laboratory of Pharmaceutical Biotechnology, School of Life Sciences, Nanjing University, Nanjing, Jiangsu (China); Jiang, Xueyuan, E-mail: xueyuanjiang@yahoo.com.cn [Jiangsu Diabetes Research Center, State Key Laboratory of Pharmaceutical Biotechnology, School of Life Sciences, Nanjing University, Nanjing, Jiangsu (China); Li, Donghai, E-mail: lidonghai@gmail.com [Jiangsu Diabetes Research Center, State Key Laboratory of Pharmaceutical Biotechnology, School of Life Sciences, Nanjing University, Nanjing, Jiangsu (China); Zhang, Chenyu, E-mail: cyzhang@nju.edu.cn [Jiangsu Diabetes Research Center, State Key Laboratory of Pharmaceutical Biotechnology, School of Life Sciences, Nanjing University, Nanjing, Jiangsu (China)

    2010-10-01

    Research highlights: {yields} Invertebrates, for example amphioxus, do express uncoupling proteins. {yields} Both the sequence and the uncoupling activity of amphioxus UCP resemble UCP2. {yields} UCP1 is the only UCP that can form dimer on yeast mitochondria. -- Abstract: The present study describes the molecular cloning of a novel cDNA fragment from amphioxus (Branchiostoma belcheri) encoding a 343-amino acid protein that is highly homologous to human uncoupling proteins (UCP), this protein is therefore named amphioxus UCP. This amphioxus UCP shares more homology with and is phylogenetically more related to mammalian UCP2 as compared with UCP1. To further assess the functional similarity of amphioxus UCP to mammalian UCP1 and -2, the amphioxus UCP, rat UCP1, and human UCP2 were separately expressed in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, and the recombinant yeast mitochondria were isolated and assayed for the state 4 respiration rate and proton leak, using pYES2 empty vector as the control. UCP1 increased the state 4 respiration rate by 2.8-fold, and the uncoupling activity was strongly inhibited by GDP, while UCP2 and amphioxus UCP only increased the state 4 respiration rate by 1.5-fold and 1.7-fold in a GDP-insensitive manner, moreover, the proton leak kinetics of amphioxus UCP was very similar to UCP2, but much different from UCP1. In conclusion, the amphioxus UCP has a mild, unregulated uncoupling activity in the yeast system, which resembles mammalian UCP2, but not UCP1.

  11. Molecular cloning of amphioxus uncoupling protein and assessment of its uncoupling activity using a yeast heterologous expression system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Kun; Sun, Guoxun; Lv, Zhiyuan; Wang, Chen; Jiang, Xueyuan; Li, Donghai; Zhang, Chenyu

    2010-01-01

    Research highlights: → Invertebrates, for example amphioxus, do express uncoupling proteins. → Both the sequence and the uncoupling activity of amphioxus UCP resemble UCP2. → UCP1 is the only UCP that can form dimer on yeast mitochondria. -- Abstract: The present study describes the molecular cloning of a novel cDNA fragment from amphioxus (Branchiostoma belcheri) encoding a 343-amino acid protein that is highly homologous to human uncoupling proteins (UCP), this protein is therefore named amphioxus UCP. This amphioxus UCP shares more homology with and is phylogenetically more related to mammalian UCP2 as compared with UCP1. To further assess the functional similarity of amphioxus UCP to mammalian UCP1 and -2, the amphioxus UCP, rat UCP1, and human UCP2 were separately expressed in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, and the recombinant yeast mitochondria were isolated and assayed for the state 4 respiration rate and proton leak, using pYES2 empty vector as the control. UCP1 increased the state 4 respiration rate by 2.8-fold, and the uncoupling activity was strongly inhibited by GDP, while UCP2 and amphioxus UCP only increased the state 4 respiration rate by 1.5-fold and 1.7-fold in a GDP-insensitive manner, moreover, the proton leak kinetics of amphioxus UCP was very similar to UCP2, but much different from UCP1. In conclusion, the amphioxus UCP has a mild, unregulated uncoupling activity in the yeast system, which resembles mammalian UCP2, but not UCP1.

  12. Characterization of cell lysis in Pseudomonas putida induced upon expression of heterologous killing genes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ronchel, M.C.; Molina, L.; Witte, A.

    1998-01-01

    Active biological containment systems are based on the controlled expression of killing genes. These systems are of interest for the Pseudomonadaceae because of the potential applications of these microbes as bioremediation agents and biopesticides, The physiological effects that lead to cell dea...... protein was the killing agent. In both cases, cell death occurred as a result of impaired respiration, altered membrane permeability, and the release of some cytoplasmic contents to the extracellular medium.......Active biological containment systems are based on the controlled expression of killing genes. These systems are of interest for the Pseudomonadaceae because of the potential applications of these microbes as bioremediation agents and biopesticides, The physiological effects that lead to cell death......, respectively. Expression of the killing genes is controlled by the LacI protein, whose expression is initiated from the XylS-dependent Pm promoter. Under induced conditions, killing of P. putida CMC12 cells mediated by phi X174 lysis protein E was faster than that observed for P. putida CMC4, for which the Gef...

  13. Cloning of a yeast alpha-amylase promoter and its regulated heterologous expression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Johnway [Richland, WA; Skeen, Rodney S [Pendleton, OR; Hooker, Brian S [Kennewick, WA; Anderson, Daniel B [Pasco, WA

    2003-04-01

    The present invention provides the promoter clone discovery of an alpha-amylase gene of a starch utilizing yeast strain Schwanniomyces castellii. The isolated alpha-amylase promoter is an inducible promoter, which can regulate strong gene expression in starch culture medium.

  14. Heterologously expressed bacterial and human multidrug resistance proteins confer cadmium resistance to Escherichia coli

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Achard-Joris, M; van Saparoea, HBV; Driessen, AJM; Bourdineaud, JP; Bourdineaud, Jean-Paul

    2005-01-01

    The human MDR1 gene is induced by cadmium exposure although no resistance to this metal is observed in human cells overexpressing hMDR1. To access the role of MDR proteins in cadmium resistance, human MDR1, Lactococcus lactis lmrA, and Oenococcus oeni omrA were expressed in an Escherichia coli tolC

  15. Vacuolar and cytosolic cytokinin dehydrogenases of Arabidopsis thaliana: heterologous expression, purification and properties

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kowalska, M.; Galuszka, Petr; Frébortová, Jitka; Šebela, M.; Béres, Tibor; Hluska, T.; Šmehilová, M.; Bilyeu, K. D.; Frébort, Ivo

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 71, č. 17 (2010), s. 1970-1978 ISSN 0031-9422 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA301/08/1649 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50380511 Keywords : Arabidopsis thaliana * Pichia pastoris expression system * Electron acceptor Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry Impact factor: 3.150, year: 2010

  16. Heterologous expression of chaetomium thermophilum xylanase 11-a (ctx 11-a) gene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wajid, S.; Shahid, S.; Mukhtar, Z.; Mansoor, S.

    2009-01-01

    Chaetomium has a potential source of xylanase and cellulase enzymes, both of which are required in the treatment of fibre in the poultry feed. The titre of the enzymes needs to be enhanced by using recombinant DNA technology for fulfilling the requirement of the industries. Efforts are made to construct prokaryotic and eukaryotic expression cassettes that can be cloned under specific strong promoters i.e., T7 and AOX1, respectively, and the enhancer elements to get the maximum gene expression. In the present study BL21 E. coli and GS115 Pichia pastoris strains are used as model organisms to express the CtX 11-A gene in the presence of 1 mM IPTG and 100% methanol upto final concentration of 0.5. In case of BL21 expression, the maximum xylanase activity was observed after 1.5 h in the presence of 1% xylose, which was 2.302 U/ml and after 7 h in the presence of 0.5% lactose, was 1.708 U/ml. However, in Pichia pastoris the maximum production of xylanase was 2.904 and 0.006 U/ml as compared to control 0.484 and 0.06 U/ml, respectively. (author)

  17. Functional heterologous protein expression by genetically engineered probiotic yeast Saccharomyces boulardii.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lauren E Hudson

    Full Text Available Recent studies have suggested the potential of probiotic organisms to be adapted for the synthesis and delivery of oral therapeutics. The probiotic yeast Saccharomyces boulardii would be especially well suited for this purpose due to its ability, in contrast to probiotic prokaryotes, to perform eukaryotic post translational modifications. This probiotic yeast thus has the potential to express a broad array of therapeutic proteins. Currently, however, use of wild type (WT S. boulardii relies on antibiotic resistance for the selection of transformed yeast. Here we report the creation of auxotrophic mutant strains of S. boulardii that can be selected without antibiotics and demonstrate that these yeast can express functional recombinant protein even when recovered from gastrointestinal immune tissues in mice. A UV mutagenesis approach was employed to generate three uracil auxotrophic S. boulardii mutants that show a low rate of reversion to wild type growth. These mutants can express recombinant protein and are resistant in vitro to low pH, bile acid salts, and anaerobic conditions. Critically, oral gavage experiments using C57BL/6 mice demonstrate that mutant S. boulardii survive and are taken up into gastrointestinal immune tissues on a similar level as WT S. boulardii. Mutant yeast recovered from gastrointestinal immune tissues furthermore retain expression of functional recombinant protein. These data show that auxotrophic mutant S. boulardii can safely express recombinant protein without antibiotic selection and can deliver recombinant protein to gastrointestinal immune tissues. These auxotrophic mutants of S. boulardii pave the way for future experiments to test the ability of S. boulardii to deliver therapeutics and mediate protection against gastrointestinal disorders.

  18. Functional heterologous protein expression by genetically engineered probiotic yeast Saccharomyces boulardii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudson, Lauren E; Fasken, Milo B; McDermott, Courtney D; McBride, Shonna M; Kuiper, Emily G; Guiliano, David B; Corbett, Anita H; Lamb, Tracey J

    2014-01-01

    Recent studies have suggested the potential of probiotic organisms to be adapted for the synthesis and delivery of oral therapeutics. The probiotic yeast Saccharomyces boulardii would be especially well suited for this purpose due to its ability, in contrast to probiotic prokaryotes, to perform eukaryotic post translational modifications. This probiotic yeast thus has the potential to express a broad array of therapeutic proteins. Currently, however, use of wild type (WT) S. boulardii relies on antibiotic resistance for the selection of transformed yeast. Here we report the creation of auxotrophic mutant strains of S. boulardii that can be selected without antibiotics and demonstrate that these yeast can express functional recombinant protein even when recovered from gastrointestinal immune tissues in mice. A UV mutagenesis approach was employed to generate three uracil auxotrophic S. boulardii mutants that show a low rate of reversion to wild type growth. These mutants can express recombinant protein and are resistant in vitro to low pH, bile acid salts, and anaerobic conditions. Critically, oral gavage experiments using C57BL/6 mice demonstrate that mutant S. boulardii survive and are taken up into gastrointestinal immune tissues on a similar level as WT S. boulardii. Mutant yeast recovered from gastrointestinal immune tissues furthermore retain expression of functional recombinant protein. These data show that auxotrophic mutant S. boulardii can safely express recombinant protein without antibiotic selection and can deliver recombinant protein to gastrointestinal immune tissues. These auxotrophic mutants of S. boulardii pave the way for future experiments to test the ability of S. boulardii to deliver therapeutics and mediate protection against gastrointestinal disorders.

  19. Heterologous expression of gentian MYB1R transcription factors suppresses anthocyanin pigmentation in tobacco flowers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakatsuka, Takashi; Yamada, Eri; Saito, Misa; Fujita, Kohei; Nishihara, Masahiro

    2013-12-01

    Single-repeat MYB transcription factors, GtMYB1R1 and GtMYB1R9 , were isolated from gentian. Overexpression of these genes reduced anthocyanin accumulation in tobacco flowers, demonstrating their applicability to modification of flower color. RNA interference (RNAi) has recently been used to successfully modify flower color intensity in several plant species. In most floricultural plants, this technique requires prior isolation of target flavonoid biosynthetic genes from the same or closely related species. To overcome this limitation, we developed a simple and efficient method for reducing floral anthocyanin accumulation based on genetic engineering using novel transcription factor genes isolated from Japanese gentians. We identified two single-repeat MYB genes--GtMYB1R and GtMYB1R9--predominantly expressed in gentian petals. Transgenic tobacco plants expressing these genes were produced, and their flowers were analyzed for flavonoid components and expression of flavonoid biosynthetic genes. Transgenic tobacco plants expressing GtMYB1R1 or GtMYB1R9 exhibited significant reductions in floral anthocyanin accumulation, resulting in white-flowered phenotypes. Expression levels of chalcone isomerase (CHI), dihydroflavonol 4-reductase (DFR), and anthocyanidin synthase (ANS) genes were preferentially suppressed in these transgenic tobacco flowers. A yeast two-hybrid assay demonstrated that both GtMYB1R1 and GtMYB1R9 proteins interacted with the GtbHLH1 protein, previously identified as an anthocyanin biosynthesis regulator in gentian flowers. In addition, a transient expression assay indicated that activation of the gentian GtDFR promoter by the GtMYB3-GtbHLH1 complex was partly canceled by addition of GtMYB1R1 or GtMYB1R9. These results suggest that GtMYB1R1 and GtMYB1R9 act as antagonistic transcription factors of anthocyanin biosynthesis in gentian flowers. These genes should consequently be useful for manipulating anthocyanin accumulation via genetic engineering in

  20. Enhanced succinic acid production in Aspergillus saccharolyticus by heterologous expression of fumarate reductase from Trypanosoma brucei

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Lei; Lübeck, Mette; Ahring, Birgitte K.

    2015-01-01

    production medium as well as the complete medium, but the measured enzyme activities were different depending on the media. Furthermore, a soluble NADH-dependent fumarate reductase gene (frd) from Trypanosoma brucei was inserted and expressed in A. saccharolyticus. The expression of the frd gene led......Aspergillus saccharolyticus exhibits great potential as a cell factory for industrial production of dicarboxylic acids. In the analysis of the organic acid profile, A. saccharolyticus was cultivated in an acid production medium using two different pH conditions. The specific activities...... of the enzymes, pyruvate carboxylase (PYC), malate dehydrogenase (MDH), and fumarase (FUM), involved in the reductive tricarboxylic acid (rTCA) branch, were examined and compared in cells harvested from the acid production medium and a complete medium. The results showed that ambient pH had a significant impact...

  1. Heterologous expression of two GPATs from Jatropha curcas alters seed oil levels in transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misra, Aparna; Khan, Kasim; Niranjan, Abhishek; Kumar, Vinod; Sane, Vidhu A

    2017-10-01

    Oils and fats are stored in endosperm during seed development in the form of triacylglycerols. Three acyltransferases: glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase (GPAT), lysophosphatidyl acyltransferase (LPAT) and diacylglycerol acyltransferase (DGAT) are involved in the storage lipid biosynthesis and catalyze the stepwise acylation of glycerol backbone. In this study two members of GPAT gene family (JcGPAT1 and JcGPAT2) from Jatropha seeds were identified and characterized. Sequence analysis suggested that JcGPAT1 and JcGPAT2 are homologous to Arabidopsis acyltransferase-1 (ATS1) and AtGPAT9 respectively. The sub-cellular localization studies of these two GPATs showed that JcGPAT1 localizes into plastid whereas JcGPAT2 localizes in to endoplasmic reticulum. JcGPAT1 and JcGPAT2 expressed throughout the seed development with higher expression in fully matured seed compared to immature seed. The transcript levels of JcGPAT2 were higher in comparison to JcGPAT1 in different developmental stages of seed. Over-expression of JcGPAT1 and JcGPAT2 under constitutive and seed specific promoters in Arabidopsis thaliana increased total oil content. Transgenic seeds of JcGPAT2-OE lines accumulated 43-60% more oil than control seeds whereas seeds of Arabidopsis lines over-expressing plastidial GPAT lead to only 13-20% increase in oil content. Functional characterization of GPAT homologues of Jatropha in Arabidopsis suggested that these are involved in oil biosynthesis but might have specific roles in Jatropha. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Heterologous Expression of Aldehyde Dehydrogenase in Lactococcus lactis for Acetaldehyde Detoxification at Low pH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyu, Yunbin; LaPointe, Gisèle; Zhong, Lei; Lu, Jing; Zhang, Chong; Lu, Zhaoxin

    2018-02-01

    Aldehyde dehydrogenase (E.C. 1.2.1.x) can catalyze detoxification of acetaldehydes. A novel acetaldehyde dehydrogenase (istALDH) from the non-Saccharomyces yeast Issatchenkia terricola strain XJ-2 has been previously characterized. In this work, Lactococcus lactis with the NIsin Controlled Expression (NICE) System was applied to express the aldehyde dehydrogenase gene (istALDH) in order to catalyze oxidation of acetaldehyde at low pH. A recombinant L. lactis NZ3900 was obtained and applied for the detoxification of acetaldehyde as whole-cell biocatalysts. The activity of IstALDH in L. lactis NZ3900 (pNZ8148-istALDH) reached 36.4 U mL -1 when the recombinant cells were induced with 50 ng mL -1 nisin at 20 °C for 2 h. The IstALDH activity of recombinant L. lactis cells showed higher stability at 37 °C and pH 4.0 compared with the crude enzyme. L. lactis NZ3900 (pNZ8148-istALDH) could convert acetaldehyde at pH 2.0 while the crude enzyme could not. Moreover, the resting cells of L. lactis NZ3900 (pNZ8148-istALDH) showed a 2.5-fold higher activity and better stability in catalyzing oxidation of acetaldehyde at pH 2.0 compared with that of Escherichia coli expressing the IstALDH. Taken together, the L. lactis cells expressing recombinant IstALDH are potential whole-cell biocatalysts that can be applied in the detoxification of aldehydes.

  3. Paramyosin from the parasitic mite Sarcoptes scabiei: cDNA cloning and heterologous expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattsson, J G; Ljunggren, E L; Bergström, K

    2001-05-01

    The burrowing mite Sarcoptes scabiei is the causative agent of the highly contagious disease sarcoptic mange or scabies. So far, there is no in vitro propagation system for S. scabiei available, and mites used for various purposes must be isolated from infected hosts. Lack of parasite-derived material has limited the possibilities to study several aspects of scabies, including pathogenesis and immunity. It has also hampered the development of high performance serological assays. We have now constructed an S. scabiei cDNA expression library with mRNA purified from mites isolated from red foxes. Immunoscreening of the library enabled us to clone a full-length cDNA coding for a 102.5 kDa protein. Sequence similarity searches identified the protein as a paramyosin. Recombinant S. scabiei paramyosin expressed in Escherichia coli was recognized by sera from dogs and swine infected with S. scabiei. We also designed a small paramyosin construct of about 17 kDa that included the N-terminal part, an evolutionary variable part of the helical core, and the C-terminal part of the molecule. The miniaturized protein was efficiently expressed in E. coli and was recognized by sera from immunized rabbits. These data demonstrate that the cDNA library can assist in the isolation of important S. scabiei antigens and that recombinant proteins can be useful for the study of scabies.

  4. Heterologous Expression, Purification and Characterization of an Oligopeptidase A from the Pathogen Leptospira interrogans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anu, Prasannan V; Madanan, Madathiparambil G; Nair, Ananthakrishnan J; Nair, Gangaprasad A; Nair, Govinda Pillai M; Sudhakaran, Perumana R; Satheeshkumar, Padikara K

    2018-04-01

    Oligopeptidases are enzymes involved in the degradation of short peptides (generally less than 30 amino acids in size) which help pathogens evade the host defence mechanisms. Leptospira is a zoonotic pathogen and causes leptospirosis in mammals. Proteome analysis of Leptospira revealed the presence of oligopeptidase A (OpdA) among other membrane proteins. To study the role of oligopeptidase in leptospirosis, the OpdA of L. interrogans was cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli with a histidine tag (His-tag). The protein showed maximum expression at 37 °C with 0.5 mM of IPTG after 2 h of induction. Recombinant OpdA protein was purified to homogeneity using Ni-affinity chromatography. The purified OpdA showed more than 80% inhibition with a serine protease inhibitor but the activity was reduced to 30% with the cysteine protease inhibitor. The peptidase activity was increased significantly in the presence of Zn 2+ at a neutral pH. Inhibitor assay indicate the presence of more than one active sites for peptidase activity as reported with the OpdA of E. coli and Salmonella. Over-expression of OpdA in E. coli BL21 (DE3) did not cause any negative effects on normal cell growth and viability. The role of OpdA as virulence factor in Leptospira and its potential as a therapeutic and diagnostic target in leptospirosis is yet to be identified.

  5. Heterologous expression and transcript analysis of gibberellin biosynthetic genes of grasses reveals novel functionality in the GA3ox family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearce, Stephen; Huttly, Alison K; Prosser, Ian M; Li, Yi-dan; Vaughan, Simon P; Gallova, Barbora; Patil, Archana; Coghill, Jane A; Dubcovsky, Jorge; Hedden, Peter; Phillips, Andrew L

    2015-06-05

    The gibberellin (GA) pathway plays a central role in the regulation of plant development, with the 2-oxoglutarate-dependent dioxygenases (2-ODDs: GA20ox, GA3ox, GA2ox) that catalyse the later steps in the biosynthetic pathway of particularly importance in regulating bioactive GA levels. Although GA has important impacts on crop yield and quality, our understanding of the regulation of GA biosynthesis during wheat and barley development remains limited. In this study we identified or assembled genes encoding the GA 2-ODDs of wheat, barley and Brachypodium distachyon and characterised the wheat genes by heterologous expression and transcript analysis. The wheat, barley and Brachypodium genomes each contain orthologous copies of the GA20ox, GA3ox and GA2ox genes identified in rice, with the exception of OsGA3ox1 and OsGA2ox5 which are absent in these species. Some additional paralogs of 2-ODD genes were identified: notably, a novel gene in the wheat B genome related to GA3ox2 was shown to encode a GA 1-oxidase, named as TaGA1ox-B1. This enzyme is likely to be responsible for the abundant 1β-hydroxylated GAs present in developing wheat grains. We also identified a related gene in barley, located in a syntenic position to TaGA1ox-B1, that encodes a GA 3,18-dihydroxylase which similarly accounts for the accumulation of unusual GAs in barley grains. Transcript analysis showed that some paralogs of the different classes of 2-ODD were expressed mainly in a single tissue or at specific developmental stages. In particular, TaGA20ox3, TaGA1ox1, TaGA3ox3 and TaGA2ox7 were predominantly expressed in developing grain. More detailed analysis of grain-specific gene expression showed that while the transcripts of biosynthetic genes were most abundant in the endosperm, genes encoding inactivation and signalling components were more highly expressed in the seed coat and pericarp. The comprehensive expression and functional characterisation of the multigene families encoding the 2-ODD

  6. Physiological relation between respiration activity and heterologous expression of selected benzoylformate decarboxylase variants in Escherichia coli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pohl Martina

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The benzoylformate decarboxylase (BFD from Pseudomonas putida is a biotechnologically interesting biocatalyst. It catalyses the formation of chiral 2-hydroxy ketones, which are important building blocks for stereoselective syntheses. To optimise the enzyme function often the amino acid composition is modified to improve the performance of the enzyme. So far it was assumed that a relatively small modification of the amino acid composition of a protein does not significantly influence the level of expression or media requirements. To determine, which effects these modifications might have on cultivation and product formation, six different BFD-variants with one or two altered amino acids and the wild type BFD were expressed in Escherichia coli SG13009 pKK233-2. The oxygen transfer rate (OTR as parameter for growth and metabolic activity of the different E. coli clones was monitored on-line in LB, TB and modified PanG mineral medium with the Respiratory Activity MOnitoring System (RAMOS. Results Although the E. coli clones were genetically nearly identical, the kinetics of their metabolic activity surprisingly differed in the standard media applied. Three different types of OTR curves could be distinguished. Whereas the first type (clones expressing Leu476Pro-Ser181Thr or Leu476Pro had typical OTR curves, the second type (clones expressing the wild type BFD, Ser181Thr or His281Ala showed an early drop of OTR in LB and TB medium and a drastically reduced maximum OTR in modified PanG mineral medium. The third type (clone expressing Leu476Gln behaved variable. Depending on the cultivation conditions, its OTR curve was similar to the first or the second type. It was shown, that the kinetics of the metabolic activity of the first type depended on the concentration of thiamine, which is a cofactor of BFD, in the medium. It was demonstrated that the cofactor binding strength of the different BFD-variants correlated with the differences

  7. Saccharomyces cerevisiae gene expression changes during rotating wall vessel suspension culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johanson, Kelly; Allen, Patricia L.; Lewis, Fawn; Cubano, Luis A.; Hyman, Linda E.; Hammond, Timothy G.

    2002-01-01

    This study utilizes Saccharomyces cerevisiae to study genetic responses to suspension culture. The suspension culture system used in this study is the high-aspect-ratio vessel, one type of the rotating wall vessel, that provides a high rate of gas exchange necessary for rapidly dividing cells. Cells were grown in the high-aspect-ratio vessel, and DNA microarray and metabolic analyses were used to determine the resulting changes in yeast gene expression. A significant number of genes were found to be up- or downregulated by at least twofold as a result of rotational growth. By using Gibbs promoter alignment, clusters of genes were examined for promoter elements mediating these genetic changes. Candidate binding motifs similar to the Rap1p binding site and the stress-responsive element were identified in the promoter regions of differentially regulated genes. This study shows that, as in higher order organisms, S. cerevisiae changes gene expression in response to rotational culture and also provides clues for investigations into the signaling pathways involved in gravitational response.

  8. Heterologous expression and characterisation of the Aspergillus aspartic protease involved in the hydrolysis and decolorisation of red-pigmented proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takenaka, Shinji; Umeda, Mayo; Senba, Hisanori; Koyama, Dai; Tanaka, Kosei; Yoshida, Ken-Ichi; Doi, Mikiharu

    2017-01-01

    Aspergillus repens strain MK82 produces an aspartic protease (PepA_MK82) that efficiently decolorises red-pigmented proteins during dried bonito fermentation. However, further expansion of the industrial applications of PepA_MK82 requires the high-level production and efficient preparation of the recombinant enzyme. The genomic DNA and cDNA fragments encoding the protease were cloned from strain MK82 and sequenced. Phylogenetic analysis of PepA_MK82 and comparisons with previously reported fungal aspartic proteases showed that PepA_MK 82 clusters with different groups of these enzymes. Heterologous expression of PepA_MK82 in Pichia pastoris yielded preparations of higher purity than obtained with an Escherichia coli expression system. Total protease activity in a 100-mL culture of the P. pastoris transformant was 14 times higher than that from an equivalent culture of A. repense MK82. The recombinant PepA_MK82 was easily obtained via acetone precipitation; the final recovery was 83%. PepA_MK82 and its recombinant had similar characteristics in terms of their optimal pH, thermostability, and decolorisation activity. The recombinant was also able to decolorise flaked, dried bonito and to bleach a blood-stained cloth. Given its ability to hydrolyse and decolorise red-pigmented proteins, recombinant PepA_MK8 can be exploited in the food industry and as a stain-removal agent in laundry applications. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  9. Heterologous expression of a Rauvolfia cDNA encoding strictosidine glucosidase, a biosynthetic key to over 2000 monoterpenoid indole alkaloids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerasimenko, Irina; Sheludko, Yuri; Ma, Xueyan; Stöckigt, Joachim

    2002-04-01

    Strictosidine glucosidase (SG) is an enzyme that catalyses the second step in the biosynthesis of various classes of monoterpenoid indole alkaloids. Based on the comparison of cDNA sequences of SG from Catharanthus roseus and raucaffricine glucosidase (RG) from Rauvolfia serpentina, primers for RT-PCR were designed and the cDNA encoding SG was cloned from R. serpentina cell suspension cultures. The active enzyme was expressed in Escherichia coli and purified to homogeneity. Analysis of its deduced amino-acid sequence assigned the SG from R. serpentina to family 1 of glycosyl hydrolases. In contrast to the SG from C. roseus, the enzyme from R. serpentina is predicted to lack an uncleavable N-terminal signal sequence, which is believed to direct proteins to the endoplasmic reticulum. The temperature and pH optimum, enzyme kinetic parameters and substrate specificity of the heterologously expressed SG were studied and compared to those of the C. roseus enzyme, revealing some differences between the two glucosidases. In vitro deglucosylation of strictosidine by R. serpentina SG proceeds by the same mechanism as has been shown for the C. roseus enzyme preparation. The reaction gives rise to the end product cathenamine and involves 4,21-dehydrocorynantheine aldehyde as an intermediate. The enzymatic hydrolysis of dolichantoside (Nbeta-methylstrictosidine) leads to several products. One of them was identified as a new compound, 3-isocorreantine A. From the data it can be concluded that the divergence of the biosynthetic pathways leading to different classes of indole alkaloids formed in R. serpentina and C. roseus cell suspension cultures occurs at a later stage than strictosidine deglucosylation.

  10. Heterologous expression of Spathaspora passalidarum xylose reductase and xylitol dehydrogenase genes improved xylose fermentation ability of Aureobasidium pullulans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Jian; Huang, Siyao; Chen, Yefu; Guo, Xuewu; Xiao, Dongguang

    2018-04-30

    Aureobasidium pullulans is a yeast-like fungus that can ferment xylose to generate high-value-added products, such as pullulan, heavy oil, and melanin. The combinatorial expression of two xylose reductase (XR) genes and two xylitol dehydrogenase (XDH) genes from Spathaspora passalidarum and the heterologous expression of the Piromyces sp. xylose isomerase (XI) gene were induced in A. pullulans to increase the consumption capability of A. pullulans on xylose. The overexpression of XYL1.2 (encoding XR) and XYL2.2 (encoding XDH) was the most beneficial for xylose utilization, resulting in a 17.76% increase in consumed xylose compared with the parent strain, whereas the introduction of the Piromyces sp. XI pathway failed to enhance xylose utilization efficiency. Mutants with superior xylose fermentation performance exhibited increased intracellular reducing equivalents. The fermentation performance of all recombinant strains was not affected when glucose or sucrose was utilized as the carbon source. The strain with overexpression of XYL1.2 and XYL2.2 exhibited excellent fermentation performance with mimicked hydrolysate, and pullulan production increased by 97.72% compared with that of the parent strain. The present work indicates that the P4 mutant (using the XR/XDH pathway) with overexpressed XYL1.2 and XYL2.2 exhibited the best xylose fermentation performance. The P4 strain showed the highest intracellular reducing equivalents and XR and XDH activity, with consequently improved pullulan productivity and reduced melanin production. This valuable development in aerobic fermentation by the P4 strain may provide guidance for the biotransformation of xylose to high-value products by A. pullulans through genetic approach.

  11. Heterologous Expression of Xylanase II from Aspergillus usamii in Pichia pastoris

    OpenAIRE

    Zhou, Chenyan; Wang, Yongtao; Wu, Minchen; Wang, Wu; Li, Dongfeng

    2009-01-01

    To efficiently produce xylanase for food processing industry, a gene encoding xylanase II (XynII) from Aspergillus usamii has been cloned into the vector pPIC9K and integrated into the genome of Pichia pastoris KM71 by electroporation. By means of minimal dextrose (MD) plates and PCR, the recombinant P. pastoris strains (His+Muts) have been obtained. Activity assay and SDS-PAGE demonstrate that XynII was extracellularly expressed in P. pastoris with the induction of methanol. In shake flask c...

  12. Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) cysteine proteases: heterologous expression, purification and characterization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosenkilde, Anne Lind; Dionisio, Giuseppe; Holm, Preben Bach

    2011-01-01

    During germination of barley seeds, mobilization of protein is essential and cysteine proteases accounts for more than 90 % of the total proteolytic activity in the degradation of barley seed storage proteins. Cysteine proteases exist as pro-enzyme and is activated through reduction of the active...... site cysteines and by removal of the pro-domain. The complement of cysteine proteases is comprehensive and for detailed studies of the individual components of this complement, a fast and efficient eukaryotic expression platform is highly desirable. A cDNA clone of the barley key cysteine endoprotease...

  13. Heterologous expression of mammalian Plk1 in Drosophila reveals divergence from Polo during late mitosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pearson, John; Godinho, Susana A.; Tavares, Alvaro; Glover, David M.

    2006-01-01

    Drosophila Polo kinase is the founder member of a conserved kinase family required for multiple stages of mitosis. We assessed the ability of mouse Polo-like kinase 1 (Plk1) to perform the multiple mitotic functions of Polo kinase, by expressing a Plk1-GFP fusion in Drosophila. Consistent with the previously reported localization of Polo kinase, Plk1-GFP was strongly localized to centrosomes and recruited to the centromeric regions of condensing chromosomes during early mitosis. However, in contrast to a functional Polo-GFP fusion, Plk1-GFP failed to localize to the central spindle midzone in both syncytial embryo mitosis and the conventional mitoses of cellularized embryos and S2 cells. Moreover, unlike endogenous Polo kinase and Polo-GFP, Plk1-GFP failed to associate with the contractile ring. Expression of Plk1-GFP enhanced the lethality of hypomorphic polo mutants and disrupted the organization of the actinomyosin cytoskeleton in a dominant-negative manner. Taken together, our results suggest that endogenous Polo kinase has specific roles in regulating actinomyosin rearrangements during Drosophila mitoses that its mammalian counterpart, Plk1, cannot fulfill. Consistent with this hypothesis, we observed defects in the cortical recruitment of myosin and myosin regulatory light chain in Polo deficient cells

  14. Heterologous Expression of Toxins from Bacterial Toxin-Antitoxin Systems in Eukaryotic Cells: Strategies and Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chew Chieng Yeo

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Toxin-antitoxin (TA systems are found in nearly all prokaryotic genomes and usually consist of a pair of co-transcribed genes, one of which encodes a stable toxin and the other, its cognate labile antitoxin. Certain environmental and physiological cues trigger the degradation of the antitoxin, causing activation of the toxin, leading either to the death or stasis of the host cell. TA systems have a variety of functions in the bacterial cell, including acting as mediators of programmed cell death, the induction of a dormant state known as persistence and the stable maintenance of plasmids and other mobile genetic elements. Some bacterial TA systems are functional when expressed in eukaryotic cells and this has led to several innovative applications, which are the subject of this review. Here, we look at how bacterial TA systems have been utilized for the genetic manipulation of yeasts and other eukaryotes, for the containment of genetically modified organisms, and for the engineering of high expression eukaryotic cell lines. We also examine how TA systems have been adopted as an important tool in developmental biology research for the ablation of specific cells and the potential for utility of TA systems in antiviral and anticancer gene therapies.

  15. Heterologous Expression of Toxins from Bacterial Toxin-Antitoxin Systems in Eukaryotic Cells: Strategies and Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeo, Chew Chieng; Abu Bakar, Fauziah; Chan, Wai Ting; Espinosa, Manuel; Harikrishna, Jennifer Ann

    2016-01-01

    Toxin-antitoxin (TA) systems are found in nearly all prokaryotic genomes and usually consist of a pair of co-transcribed genes, one of which encodes a stable toxin and the other, its cognate labile antitoxin. Certain environmental and physiological cues trigger the degradation of the antitoxin, causing activation of the toxin, leading either to the death or stasis of the host cell. TA systems have a variety of functions in the bacterial cell, including acting as mediators of programmed cell death, the induction of a dormant state known as persistence and the stable maintenance of plasmids and other mobile genetic elements. Some bacterial TA systems are functional when expressed in eukaryotic cells and this has led to several innovative applications, which are the subject of this review. Here, we look at how bacterial TA systems have been utilized for the genetic manipulation of yeasts and other eukaryotes, for the containment of genetically modified organisms, and for the engineering of high expression eukaryotic cell lines. We also examine how TA systems have been adopted as an important tool in developmental biology research for the ablation of specific cells and the potential for utility of TA systems in antiviral and anticancer gene therapies. PMID:26907343

  16. Signature pathway expression of xylose utilization in the genetically engineered industrial yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: The limited xylose utilizing ability of native Saccharomyces cerevisiae has been a major obstacle for efficient cellulosic ethanol production from lignocellulosic materials. Haploid laboratory strains of S. cerevisiae are commonly used for genetic engineering to enable its xylose utiliza...

  17. Purification, characterisation and expression in Saccharomyces cerevisiae of LipG7 an enantioselective, cold-adapted lipase from the Antarctic filamentous fungus Geomyces sp. P7 with unusual thermostability characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Florczak, Tomasz; Daroch, Maurycy; Wilkinson, Mark Charles; Białkowska, Aneta; Bates, Andrew Derek; Turkiewicz, Marianna; Iwanejko, Lesley Ann

    2013-06-10

    A lipase, LipG7, has been purified from the Antarctic filamentous fungus Geomyces sp. P7 which was found to be cold-adapted and able to retain/regain its activity after heat denaturation. The LipG7 exhibits 100% residual activity following 1h incubation at 100°C whilst simultaneously showing kinetic adaptations to cold temperatures. LipG7 was also found to have industrial potential as an enantioselective biocatalyst as it is able to effectively catalyse the enantioselective transesterification of a secondary alcohol. The LipG7 coding sequence has been identified and cloned using 454 pyrosequencing of the transcriptome and inverse PCR. The LipG7 protein has been heterologously expressed in Saccharomyces cerevisiae BJ5465 and shown to exhibit the same characteristics as the native protein. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Heterologous expression and characterization of a laccase from Laccaria bicolor in Pichia pastoris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Wang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Synthetic dyes are known to be highly toxic to mammalian cells and mutagenic and carcinogenic to humans and, therefore, should be detoxified and removed from industrial effluents. Different approaches for removal and detoxication are extensively sought. Biochemical methods are considered the most economical and effective method of dye decolourization. In this research, the laccase gene from Laccaria bicolor was modified and expressed in Pichia pastoris. The properties of the recombinant laccase and its ability to degrade synthetic dyes were studied. The laccase activity was optimal at pH 2.2 and 50 °C. Its Km value was 0.187 mmol/L for ABTS [2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulphonic acid]. The laccase obtained was shown to decolorize the synthetic dyes, malachite green, crystal violet and orange G, with ABTS as a mediator. These results indicated that the laccase obtained may be used to treat industrial effluents containing artificial dyes.

  19. Heterologous expression, purification and characterization of human β-1,2-N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase II using a silkworm-based Bombyx mori nucleopolyhedrovirus bacmid expression system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyazaki, Takatsugu; Kato, Tatsuya; Park, Enoch Y

    2018-02-03

    β-1,2-N-Acetylglucosaminyltransferase II (GnTII, EC 2.4.1.143) is a Golgi-localized type II transmembrane enzyme that catalyzes the transfer of N-acetylglucosamine to the 6-arm of the trimanosyl core of N-glycans, an essential step in the conversion of oligomannose-type to complex-type N-glycans. Despite its physiological importance, there have been only a few reports on the heterologous expression and structure-function relationship of this enzyme. Here, we constructed a silkworm-based Bombyx mori nucleopolyhedrovirus bacmid expression system and expressed human GnTII (hGnTII) lacking the N-terminal cytosolic tail and transmembrane region. The recombinant hGnTII was purified from silkworm larval hemolymph in two steps by using tandem affinity purification tags, with a yield of approximately 120 μg from 10 mL hemolymph, and exhibited glycosyltransferase activity and strict substrate specificity. The enzyme was found to be N-glycosylated by the enzymatic cleavage of glycans, while hGnTII expressed in insect cells had not been reported to be glycosylated. Although insects typically produce pauci-mannosidic-type glycans, the structure of N-glycans in the recombinant hGnTII was suggested to be of the complex type, and the removal of the glycans did not affect the enzymatic activity. Copyright © 2018 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Expression of cocoa genes in Saccharomyces cerevisiae improves cocoa butter production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wei, Yongjun; Bergenholm, David; Gossing, Michael

    2018-01-01

    Background: Cocoa butter (CB) extracted from cocoa beans (Theobroma cacao) is the main raw material for chocolate production, but CB supply is insufficient due to the increased chocolate demand and limited CB production. CB is mainly composed of three different kinds of triacylglycerols (TAGs), 1......), and it is essential to modulate the yeast TAG biosynthetic pathway for higher CBL production.Results: We cloned seven GPAT genes and three LPAT genes from cocoa cDNA, in order to screen for CBL biosynthetic gene candidates. By expressing these cloned cocoa genes and two synthesized cocoa DGAT genes in S. cerevisiae......, we successfully increased total fatty acid production, TAG production and CBL production in some of the strains. In the best producer, the potential CBL content was eightfold higher than the control strain, suggesting the cocoa genes expressed in this strain were functional and might be responsible...

  1. Functional expression of amine oxidase from Aspergillus niger (AO-I) in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolaríková, Katerina; Galuszka, Petr; Sedlárová, Iva; Sebela, Marek; Frébort, Ivo

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this work was to prepare recombinant amine oxidase from Aspergillus niger after overexpressing in yeast. The yeast expression vector pDR197 that includes a constitutive PMA1 promoter was used for the expression in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Recombinant amine oxidase was extracted from the growth medium of the yeast, purified to homogeneity and identified by activity assay and MALDI-TOF peptide mass fingerprinting. Similarity search in the newly published A. niger genome identified six genes coding for copper amine oxidase, two of them corresponding to the previously described enzymes AO-I a methylamine oxidase and three other genes coding for FAD amine oxidases. Thus, A. niger possesses an enormous metabolic gear to grow on amine compounds and thus support its saprophytic lifestyle.

  2. Heterologous Expression of Aspergillus Niger --beta--D-Xylosidase (XInD): Characterization on Lignocellulosic Substrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Selig, M. J.; Knoshaug, E. P.; Decker, S. R.; Baker, J. O.; Himmel, M. E.; Adney, W. S.

    2008-01-01

    The gene encoding a glycosyl hydrolase family 3 xylan 1,4-beta-xylosidase, xlnD, was successfully cloned from Aspergillus niger strain ATCC 10864. The recombinant product was expressed in Aspergillus awamori, purified by column chromatography, and verified by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization, tandem time of flight (MALDI-TOF/TOF) mass spectroscopy of tryptic digests. The T{sub max} was determined using differential scanning microcalorimetry (DSC) to be 78.2 C; the K{sub m} and k{sub cat} were found to be 255 {micro}M and 13.7 s{sup -1}, respectively, using {rho}NP-{Beta}-d-xylopyranoside as substrate. End-product inhibition by d-xylose was also verified and shown to be competitive; the K{sub i} for this inhibition was estimated to be 3.3 mM. XlnD was shown to efficiently hydrolyze small xylo-oligomers to monomeric xylose, making it a critical hydrolytic activity in cases where xylose is to be recovered from biomass conversion processes. In addition, the presence of the XlnD was shown to synergistically enhance the ability of an endoxylanase, XynA from Thermomyces lanuginosus, to convert xylan present in selected pretreated lignocellulosic substrates. Furthermore, the addition of the XynA/XlnD complex was effective in enhancing the ability of a simplified cellulase complex to convert glucan present in the substrates.

  3. Heterologous expression of Aspergillus niger beta-D-xylosidase (XlnD): characterization on lignocellulosic substrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selig, Michael J; Knoshaug, Eric P; Decker, Stephen R; Baker, John O; Himmel, Michael E; Adney, William S

    2008-03-01

    The gene encoding a glycosyl hydrolase family 3 xylan 1,4-beta-xylosidase, xlnD, was successfully cloned from Aspergillus niger strain ATCC 10864. The recombinant product was expressed in Aspergillus awamori, purified by column chromatography, and verified by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization, tandem time of flight (MALDI-TOF/TOF) mass spectroscopy of tryptic digests. The T (max) was determined using differential scanning microcalorimetry (DSC) to be 78.2 degrees C; the K (m) and k (cat) were found to be 255 microM and 13.7 s(-1), respectively, using pNP-beta-D-xylopyranoside as substrate. End-product inhibition by D-xylose was also verified and shown to be competitive; the K (i) for this inhibition was estimated to be 3.3 mM. XlnD was shown to efficiently hydrolyze small xylo-oligomers to monomeric xylose, making it a critical hydrolytic activity in cases where xylose is to be recovered from biomass conversion processes. In addition, the presence of the XlnD was shown to synergistically enhance the ability of an endoxylanase, XynA from Thermomyces lanuginosus, to convert xylan present in selected pretreated lignocellulosic substrates. Furthermore, the addition of the XynA/XlnD complex was effective in enhancing the ability of a simplified cellulase complex to convert glucan present in the substrates.

  4. Heterologous Expression of Aspergillus niger β-d-Xylosidase (XlnD): Characterization on Lignocellulosic Substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selig, Michael J.; Knoshaug, Eric P.; Decker, Stephen R.; Baker, John O.; Himmel, Michael E.; Adney, William S.

    The gene encoding a glycosyl hydrolase family 3 xylan 1,4-beta-xylosidase, xlnD, was successfully cloned from Aspergillus niger strain ATCC 10864. The recombinant product was expressed in Aspergillus awamori, purified by column chromatography, and verified by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization, tandem time of flight (MALDI-TOF/ TOF) mass spectroscopy of tryptic digests. The T max was determined using differential scanning microcalorimetry (DSC) to be 78.2 °C; the K m and k cat were found to be 255 μM and 13.7 s-1, respectively, using pNP-β-d-xylopyranoside as substrate. End-product inhibition by d-xylose was also verified and shown to be competitive; the K i for this inhibition was estimated to be 3.3 mM. XlnD was shown to efficiently hydrolyze small xylo-oligomers to monomeric xylose, making it a critical hydrolytic activity in cases where xylose is to be recovered from biomass conversion processes. In addition, the presence of the XlnD was shown to synergistically enhance the ability of an endoxylanase, XynA from Thermomyces lanuginosus, to convert xylan present in selected pretreated lignocellulosic substrates. Furthermore, the addition of the XynA/XlnD complex was effective in enhancing the ability of a simplified cellulase complex to convert glucan present in the substrates.

  5. Heterologous expression, purification and characterization of nitrilase from Aspergillus niger K10

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felsberg Jürgen

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Nitrilases attract increasing attention due to their utility in the mild hydrolysis of nitriles. According to activity and gene screening, filamentous fungi are a rich source of nitrilases distinct in evolution from their widely examined bacterial counterparts. However, fungal nitrilases have been less explored than the bacterial ones. Nitrilases are typically heterogeneous in their quaternary structures, forming short spirals and extended filaments, these features making their structural studies difficult. Results A nitrilase gene was amplified by PCR from the cDNA library of Aspergillus niger K10. The PCR product was ligated into expression vectors pET-30(+ and pRSET B to construct plasmids pOK101 and pOK102, respectively. The recombinant nitrilase (Nit-ANigRec expressed in Escherichia coli BL21-Gold(DE3(pOK101/pTf16 was purified with an about 2-fold increase in specific activity and 35% yield. The apparent subunit size was 42.7 kDa, which is approx. 4 kDa higher than that of the enzyme isolated from the native organism (Nit-ANigWT, indicating post-translational cleavage in the enzyme's native environment. Mass spectrometry analysis showed that a C-terminal peptide (Val327 - Asn356 was present in Nit-ANigRec but missing in Nit-ANigWT and Asp298-Val313 peptide was shortened to Asp298-Arg310 in Nit-ANigWT. The latter enzyme was thus truncated by 46 amino acids. Enzymes Nit-ANigRec and Nit-ANigWT differed in substrate specificity, acid/amide ratio, reaction optima and stability. Refolded recombinant enzyme stored for one month at 4°C was fractionated by gel filtration, and fractions were examined by electron microscopy. The late fractions were further analyzed by analytical centrifugation and dynamic light scattering, and shown to consist of a rather homogeneous protein species composed of 12-16 subunits. This hypothesis was consistent with electron microscopy and our modelling of the multimeric nitrilase, which supports an

  6. Heterologous Expression and Delivery of Biologically Active Exendin-4 by Lactobacillus paracasei L14.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhu Zeng

    Full Text Available Exendin-4, a glucagon-like protein-1 (GLP-1 receptor agonist, is an excellent therapeutic peptide drug for type 2 diabetes due to longer lasting biological activity compared to GLP-1. This study explored the feasibility of using probiotic Lactobacillus paracasei as an oral vector for recombinant exendin-4 peptide delivery, an alternative to costly chemical synthesis and inconvenient administration by injection. L. paracasei transformed with a plasmid encoding the exendin-4 gene (L. paracasei L14/pMG76e-exendin-4 with a constitutive promotor was successfully constructed and showed efficient secretion of exendin-4. The secreted exendin-4 significantly enhanced insulin secretion of INS-1 β-cells, along with an increment in their proliferation and inhibition of their apoptosis, corresponding to the effect of GLP-1 on these cells. The transcription level of the pancreatic duodenal homeobox-1 gene (PDX-1, a key transcription factor for cellular insulin synthesis and secretion, was upregulated by the treatment with secreted exendin-4, paralleling the upregulation of insulin gene expression. Caco-2 cell monolayer permeability assay showed a 34-fold increase in the transport of exendin-4 delivered by L. paracasei vs. that of free exendin-4 (control, suggesting effective facilitation of exendin-4 transport across the intestinal barrier by this delivery system. This study demonstrates that the probiotic Lactobacillus can be engineered to secrete bioactive exendin-4 and facilitate its transport through the intestinal barrier, providing a novel strategy for oral exendin-4 delivery using this lactic acid bacterium.

  7. Enhanced degradation of haloacid by heterologous expression in related Burkholderia species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Xianbin; Deng, Liyu; Kong, Ka Fai; Tsang, Jimmy S H

    2013-10-01

    Haloacids are environmental pollutant and can be transformed to non-toxic alkanoic acids by microbial dehalogenase. Bacterium Burkholderia species MBA4 was enriched from soil for its ability to bioremediate haloacids such as mono-chloroacetate (MCA), mono-bromoacetate (MBA), 2-mono-chloropropionate, and 2-mono-bromopropionate. MBA4 produces an inducible dehalogenase Deh4a that catalyzes the dehalogenation process. The growth of MBA4 on haloacid also relies on the presence of a haloacid-uptake system. Similar dehalogenase genes can be found in the genome of many related species. However, wildtype Burkholderia caribensis MWAP64, Burkholderia phymatum STM815, and Burkholderia xenovorans LB400 were not able to grow on MCA. When a plasmid containing the regulatory and structural gene of Deh4a was transformed to these species, they were able to grow on haloacid. The specific enzyme activities in these recombinants ranges from 2- to 30-fold that of MBA4 in similar condition. Reverse transcription-quantitative real-time PCR showed that the relative transcript levels in these recombinant strains ranges from 9 to over 1,600 times that of MBA4 in similar condition. A recombinant has produced nearly five times of dehalogenase that MBA4 could ever achieve. While the expressions of Deh4a were more relaxed in these phylogenetically related species, an MCA-uptake activity was found to be inducible. These metabolically engineered strains are better degraders than the haloacid-enriched MBA4. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Identification of a protein glycosylation operon from Campylobacter jejuni JCM 2013 and its heterologous expression in Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srichaisupakit, Akkaraphol; Ohashi, Takao; Fujiyama, Kazuhito

    2014-09-01

    Campylobacter jejuni is a human enteropathogenic bacterium possessing an N-glycosylation system. In this work, a protein glycosylation (pgl) operon conferring prokaryotic N-glycosylation in C. jejuni JCM 2013 was cloned and identified. Fourteen open reading frames (ORFs) were found in the pgl operon. The operon organization was similar to that of C. jejuni NCTC 11168, with 98% and 99% identities in overall nucleotide sequence and amino acid sequence, respectively. The pgl operon was heterologously co-expressed with model protein CmeA in the Escherichia coli BL21 ΔwaaL mutant. The immuno- and lectin-blotting analysis indicated the protein glycosylation on the recombinant CmeA. In addition, to analyze the glycan composition, the recombinant CmeA was purified and subjected to in-gel trypsin digestion followed by mass spectrometry analysis. The mass spectrometry analysis showed the presence of the N-acetylhexosamine residue at the reducing end but not the predicted di-N-acetylbacillosamine (diNAcBac) residue. Further glycan structural study using the conventional fluorophore-labeling method revealed the GalNAcα-GalNAcα-(Hex-)HexNAc-HexNAc-HexNAc-HexNAc structure. Transcriptional analysis showed that UDP-diNAcBac synthases and diNAcBac transferase are transcribed but might not function in the constructed system. In conclusion, a pgl operon from C. jejuni JCM 2013 successfully functioned in E. coli, resulting in the observed prokaryotic glycosylation. Copyright © 2014 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Expression of Human CTP Synthetase in Saccharomyces cerevisiae Reveals Phosphorylation by Protein Kinase A*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Gil-Soo; Sreenivas, Avula; Choi, Mal-Gi; Chang, Yu-Fang; Martin, Shelley S.; Baldwin, Enoch P.; Carman, George M.

    2005-01-01

    CTP synthetase (EC 6.3.4.2, UTP: ammonia ligase (ADP-forming)) is an essential enzyme in all organisms; it generates the CTP required for the synthesis of nucleic acids and membrane phospholipids. In this work we showed that the human CTP synthetase genes, CTPS1 and CTPS2, were functional in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and complemented the lethal phenotype of the ura7Δ ura8Δ mutant lacking CTP synthetase activity. The expression of the CTPS1-and CTPS2-encoded human CTP synthetase enzymes in the ura7Δ ura8Δ mutant was shown by immunoblot analysis of CTP synthetase proteins, the measurement of CTP synthetase activity, and the synthesis of CTP in vivo. Phosphoamino acid and phosphopeptide mapping analyses of human CTP synthetase 1 isolated from 32Pi-labeled cells revealed that the enzyme was phosphorylated on multiple serine residues in vivo. Activation of protein kinase A activity in yeast resulted in transient increases (2-fold) in the phosphorylation of human CTP synthetase 1 and the cellular level of CTP. Human CTP synthetase 1 was also phosphorylated by mammalian protein kinase A in vitro. Using human CTP synthetase 1 purified from Escherichia coli as a substrate, protein kinase A activity was dose- and time-dependent, and dependent on the concentrations of CTP synthetase1 and ATP. These studies showed that S. cerevisiae was useful for the analysis of human CTP synthetase phosphorylation. PMID:16179339

  10. Construction of a novel kind of expression plasmid by homologous recombination in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN; Xiangling

    2005-01-01

    [1]Brunelli, J. P., Pall, M. L., A series of yeast vectors for expression of cDNAs and other DNA sequences, Yeast, 1993, 9: 1299―1308.[2]Sikorski, R. S., Hieter, P., A system of shuttle vectors and yeast host strains designed for efficient manipulation of DNA in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Genetics, 1989, 122: 19―27.[3]Bonneaud, N., Ozier-Kalogerogoulos, O., Li, G. et al., A family of low and high copy replicative, integrative and single-stranded S. cerevisiae /E. coli shuttle vector, Yeast, 1991, 7: 609―615.[4]Huo, K. K., Yu, L. L., Chen, X. J., Li, Y. Y., A stable vector for high-level expression and secretion of human interferon alpha A in yeast, Science in China, Ser. B, 1993, 36(5): 557―567.[5]Zhou, Z. X., Yuan, H. Y., He, W. et al., Expression of the modified HBsAg gene SA-28 directed by a constitutive promoter, Journal of Fudan university (Natural Science), 2000, 39(3): 264―268.[6]Paques, F., Haber, J. E., Multiple pathways of recombination induces by double-strand breaks in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Microbiology and Molecular Biology Reviews, 1999, 63(2): 349―404.[7]Martin, K., Damage-induced recombination in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Mutation Research, 2000, 451: 91―105.[8]Alira, S., Tomoko, O., Homologous recombination and the roles of double-strand breaks, TIBS, 1995, 20: 387―391.[9]Patrick, S., Kelly, M. T., Stephen, V. K., Recombination factor of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Mutation Research, 2000, 451: 257―275.[10]Manivasakam, P., Weber, S. C., McElver, J., Schiestl, R. H., Micro-homology mediated PCR targeting in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Nucleic Acids Res., 1995, 23(14): 2799―2800.[11]Baudin, A., Lacroute, F., Cullin, C., A simple and efficient method for direct gene deletion in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Nucleic Acids Res., 1993, 21(14): 3329―3330.[12]Hua, S. B., Qiu, M., Chan, E., Zhu, L., Luo, Y., Minimum length of sequence homology required for in vivo cloning by homolo-gous recombination in yeast, Plasmid, 1997, 38

  11. Changing flux of xylose metabolites by altering expression of xylose reductase and xylitol dehydrogenase in recombinant Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yong-Su Jin; Thomas W. Jeffries

    2003-01-01

    We changed the fluxes of xylose metabolites in recombinant Saccharomyces cerevisiae by manipulating expression of Pichia stipitis genes(XYL1 and XYL2) coding for xylose reductase (XR) and xylitol dehydrogenase (XDH), respectively. XYL1 copy number was kept constant by integrating it into the chromosome. Copy numbers of XYL2 were varied either by integrating XYL2 into...

  12. Heterologous gene expression and functional analysis of a type III polyketide synthase from Aspergillus niger NRRL 328

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kirimura, Kohtaro, E-mail: kkohtaro@waseda.jp; Watanabe, Shotaro; Kobayashi, Keiichi

    2016-05-13

    Type III polyketide synthases (PKSs) catalyze the formation of pyrone- and resorcinol-types aromatic polyketides. The genomic analysis of the filamentous fungus Aspergillus niger NRRL 328 revealed that this strain has a putative gene (chr-8-2: 2978617–2979847) encoding a type III PKS, although its functions are unknown. In this study, for functional analysis of this putative type III PKS designated as An-CsyA, cloning and heterologous expression of the An-CsyA gene (An-csyA) in Escherichia coli were performed. Recombinant His-tagged An-CsyA was successfully expressed in E. coli BL21 (DE3), purified by Ni{sup 2+}-affinity chromatography, and used for in vitro assay. Tests on the substrate specificity of the His-tagged An-CsyA with myriad acyl-CoAs as starter substrates and malonyl-CoA as extender substrate showed that His-tagged An-CsyA accepted fatty acyl-CoAs (C2-C14) and produced triketide pyrones (C2-C14), tetraketide pyrones (C2-C10), and pentaketide resorcinols (C10-C14). Furthermore, acetoacetyl-CoA, malonyl-CoA, isobutyryl-CoA, and benzoyl-CoA were also accepted as starter substrates, and both of triketide pyrones and tetraketide pyrones were produced. It is noteworthy that the His-tagged An-CsyA produced polyketides from malonyl-CoA as starter and extender substrates and produced tetraketide pyrones from short-chain fatty acyl-CoAs as starter substrates. Therefore, this is the first report showing the functional properties of An-CsyA different from those of other fungal type III PKSs. -- Highlights: •Type III PKS from Aspergillus niger NRRL 328, An-CsyA, was cloned and characterized. •An-CsyA produced triketide pyrones, tetraketide pyrones and pentaketide resorcinols. •Functional properties of An-CsyA differs from those of other fungal type III PKSs.

  13. Heterologous gene expression and functional analysis of a type III polyketide synthase from Aspergillus niger NRRL 328

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirimura, Kohtaro; Watanabe, Shotaro; Kobayashi, Keiichi

    2016-01-01

    Type III polyketide synthases (PKSs) catalyze the formation of pyrone- and resorcinol-types aromatic polyketides. The genomic analysis of the filamentous fungus Aspergillus niger NRRL 328 revealed that this strain has a putative gene (chr-8-2: 2978617–2979847) encoding a type III PKS, although its functions are unknown. In this study, for functional analysis of this putative type III PKS designated as An-CsyA, cloning and heterologous expression of the An-CsyA gene (An-csyA) in Escherichia coli were performed. Recombinant His-tagged An-CsyA was successfully expressed in E. coli BL21 (DE3), purified by Ni"2"+-affinity chromatography, and used for in vitro assay. Tests on the substrate specificity of the His-tagged An-CsyA with myriad acyl-CoAs as starter substrates and malonyl-CoA as extender substrate showed that His-tagged An-CsyA accepted fatty acyl-CoAs (C2-C14) and produced triketide pyrones (C2-C14), tetraketide pyrones (C2-C10), and pentaketide resorcinols (C10-C14). Furthermore, acetoacetyl-CoA, malonyl-CoA, isobutyryl-CoA, and benzoyl-CoA were also accepted as starter substrates, and both of triketide pyrones and tetraketide pyrones were produced. It is noteworthy that the His-tagged An-CsyA produced polyketides from malonyl-CoA as starter and extender substrates and produced tetraketide pyrones from short-chain fatty acyl-CoAs as starter substrates. Therefore, this is the first report showing the functional properties of An-CsyA different from those of other fungal type III PKSs. -- Highlights: •Type III PKS from Aspergillus niger NRRL 328, An-CsyA, was cloned and characterized. •An-CsyA produced triketide pyrones, tetraketide pyrones and pentaketide resorcinols. •Functional properties of An-CsyA differs from those of other fungal type III PKSs.

  14. Introduction and expression of genes for metabolic engineering applications in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Da Silva, Nancy A; Srikrishnan, Sneha

    2012-03-01

    Metabolic pathway engineering in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae leads to improved production of a wide range of compounds, ranging from ethanol (from biomass) to natural products such as sesquiterpenes. The introduction of multienzyme pathways requires precise control over the level and timing of expression of the associated genes. Gene number and promoter strength/regulation are two critical control points, and multiple studies have focused on modulating these in yeast. This MiniReview focuses on methods for introducing genes and controlling their copy number and on the many promoters (both constitutive and inducible) that have been successfully employed. The advantages and disadvantages of the methods will be presented, and applications to pathway engineering will be highlighted. © 2011 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by Blackwell Publishing Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Heterologous expression of pathogen-specific genes ligA and ligB in the saprophyte Leptospira biflexa confers enhanced adhesion to cultured cells and fibronectin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueira, Cláudio Pereira; Croda, Julio; Choy, Henry A; Haake, David A; Reis, Mitermayer G; Ko, Albert I; Picardeau, Mathieu

    2011-06-09

    In comparison to other bacterial pathogens, our knowledge of the molecular basis of the pathogenesis of leptospirosis is extremely limited. An improved understanding of leptospiral pathogenetic mechanisms requires reliable tools for functional genetic analysis. Leptospiral immunoglobulin-like (Lig) proteins are surface proteins found in pathogenic Leptospira, but not in saprophytes. Here, we describe a system for heterologous expression of the Leptospira interrogans genes ligA and ligB in the saprophyte Leptospira biflexa serovar Patoc. The genes encoding LigA and LigB under the control of a constitutive spirochaetal promoter were inserted into the L. biflexa replicative plasmid. We were able to demonstrate expression and surface localization of LigA and LigB in L. biflexa. We found that the expression of the lig genes significantly enhanced the ability of transformed L. biflexa to adhere in vitro to extracellular matrix components and cultured cells, suggesting the involvement of Lig proteins in cell adhesion. This work reports a complete description of the system we have developed for heterologous expression of pathogen-specific proteins in the saprophytic L. biflexa. We show that expression of LigA and LigB proteins from the pathogen confers a virulence-associated phenotype on L. biflexa, namely adhesion to eukaryotic cells and fibronectin in vitro. This study indicates that L. biflexa can serve as a surrogate host to characterize the role of key virulence factors of the causative agent of leptospirosis.

  16. High-Throughput Screening to Identify Regulators of Meiosis-Specific Gene Expression in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassir, Yona

    2017-01-01

    Meiosis and gamete formation are processes that are essential for sexual reproduction in all eukaryotic organisms. Multiple intracellular and extracellular signals feed into pathways that converge on transcription factors that induce the expression of meiosis-specific genes. Once triggered the meiosis-specific gene expression program proceeds in a cascade that drives progress through the events of meiosis and gamete formation. Meiosis-specific gene expression is tightly controlled by a balance of positive and negative regulatory factors that respond to a plethora of signaling pathways. The budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae has proven to be an outstanding model for the dissection of gametogenesis owing to the sophisticated genetic manipulations that can be performed with the cells. It is possible to use a variety selection and screening methods to identify genes and their functions. High-throughput screening technology has been developed to allow an array of all viable yeast gene deletion mutants to be screened for phenotypes and for regulators of gene expression. This chapter describes a protocol that has been used to screen a library of homozygous diploid yeast deletion strains to identify regulators of the meiosis-specific IME1 gene.

  17. Plant-Derived Transcription Factors for Orthologous Regulation of Gene Expression in the Yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naseri, Gita; Balazadeh, Salma; Machens, Fabian; Kamranfar, Iman; Messerschmidt, Katrin; Mueller-Roeber, Bernd

    2017-09-15

    Control of gene expression by transcription factors (TFs) is central in many synthetic biology projects for which a tailored expression of one or multiple genes is often needed. As TFs from evolutionary distant organisms are unlikely to affect gene expression in a host of choice, they represent excellent candidates for establishing orthogonal control systems. To establish orthogonal regulators for use in yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae), we chose TFs from the plant Arabidopsis thaliana. We established a library of 106 different combinations of chromosomally integrated TFs, activation domains (yeast GAL4 AD, herpes simplex virus VP64, and plant EDLL) and synthetic promoters harboring cognate cis-regulatory motifs driving a yEGFP reporter. Transcriptional output of the different driver/reporter combinations varied over a wide spectrum, with EDLL being a considerably stronger transcription activation domain in yeast than the GAL4 activation domain, in particular when fused to Arabidopsis NAC TFs. Notably, the strength of several NAC-EDLL fusions exceeded that of the strong yeast TDH3 promoter by 6- to 10-fold. We furthermore show that plant TFs can be used to build regulatory systems encoded by centromeric or episomal plasmids. Our library of TF-DNA binding site combinations offers an excellent tool for diverse synthetic biology applications in yeast.

  18. Effects of NADH-preferring xylose reductase expression on ethanol production from xylose in xylose-metabolizing recombinant Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sung-Haeng; Kodaki, Tsutomu; Park, Yong-Cheol; Seo, Jin-Ho

    2012-04-30

    Efficient conversion of xylose to ethanol is an essential factor for commercialization of lignocellulosic ethanol. To minimize production of xylitol, a major by-product in xylose metabolism and concomitantly improve ethanol production, Saccharomyces cerevisiae D452-2 was engineered to overexpress NADH-preferable xylose reductase mutant (XR(MUT)) and NAD⁺-dependent xylitol dehydrogenase (XDH) from Pichia stipitis and endogenous xylulokinase (XK). In vitro enzyme assay confirmed the functional expression of XR(MUT), XDH and XK in recombinant S. cerevisiae strains. The change of wild type XR to XR(MUT) along with XK overexpression led to reduction of xylitol accumulation in microaerobic culture. More modulation of the xylose metabolism including overexpression of XR(MUT) and transaldolase, and disruption of the chromosomal ALD6 gene encoding aldehyde dehydrogenase (SX6(MUT)) improved the performance of ethanol production from xylose remarkably. Finally, oxygen-limited fermentation of S. cerevisiae SX6(MUT) resulted in 0.64 g l⁻¹ h⁻¹ xylose consumption rate, 0.25 g l⁻¹ h⁻¹ ethanol productivity and 39% ethanol yield based on the xylose consumed, which were 1.8, 4.2 and 2.2 times higher than the corresponding values of recombinant S. cerevisiae expressing XR(MUT), XDH and XK only. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Microarray data and gene expression statistics for Saccharomyces cerevisiae exposed to simulated asbestos mine drainage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heather E. Driscoll

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Here we describe microarray expression data (raw and normalized, experimental metadata, and gene-level data with expression statistics from Saccharomyces cerevisiae exposed to simulated asbestos mine drainage from the Vermont Asbestos Group (VAG Mine on Belvidere Mountain in northern Vermont, USA. For nearly 100 years (between the late 1890s and 1993, chrysotile asbestos fibers were extracted from serpentinized ultramafic rock at the VAG Mine for use in construction and manufacturing industries. Studies have shown that water courses and streambeds nearby have become contaminated with asbestos mine tailings runoff, including elevated levels of magnesium, nickel, chromium, and arsenic, elevated pH, and chrysotile asbestos-laden mine tailings, due to leaching and gradual erosion of massive piles of mine waste covering approximately 9 km2. We exposed yeast to simulated VAG Mine tailings leachate to help gain insight on how eukaryotic cells exposed to VAG Mine drainage may respond in the mine environment. Affymetrix GeneChip® Yeast Genome 2.0 Arrays were utilized to assess gene expression after 24-h exposure to simulated VAG Mine tailings runoff. The chemistry of mine-tailings leachate, mine-tailings leachate plus yeast extract peptone dextrose media, and control yeast extract peptone dextrose media is also reported. To our knowledge this is the first dataset to assess global gene expression patterns in a eukaryotic model system simulating asbestos mine tailings runoff exposure. Raw and normalized gene expression data are accessible through the National Center for Biotechnology Information Gene Expression Omnibus (NCBI GEO Database Series GSE89875 (https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/geo/query/acc.cgi?acc=GSE89875.

  20. Heterologous expression of a ketohexokinase in potato plants leads to inhibited rates of photosynthesis, severe growth retardation and abnormal leaf development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Geigenberger, P.; Regierer, B.; Lytovchenko, A.

    2004-01-01

    of ketohexokinase but did not accumulate fructose 1-phosphate. They were, however, characterised by a severe growth retardation and abnormal leaf development. Studies of (14)CO(2) assimilation and metabolism, and of the levels of photosynthetic pigments, revealed that these lines exhibited restricted photosynthesis......In the present paper we investigated the effect of heterologous expression of a rat liver ketohexokinase in potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) plants with the aim of investigating the role of fructose 1-phosphate in plant metabolism. Plants were generated that contained appreciable activity...

  1. Heterologous Expression of Panax ginseng PgTIP1 Confers Enhanced Salt Tolerance of Soybean Cotyledon Hairy Roots, Composite, and Whole Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing An

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The Panax ginseng TIP gene PgTIP1 was previously demonstrated to have high water channel activity by its heterologous expression in Xenopus laevis oocytes and in yeast; it also plays a significant role in growth of PgTIP1-transgenic Arabidopsis plants under favorable conditions and has enhanced tolerance toward salt and drought treatment. In this work, we first investigated the physiological effects of heterologous PgTIP1 expression in soybean cotyledon hairy roots or composite plants mediated by Agrobacterium rhizogenes toward enhanced salt tolerance. The PgTIP1-transgenic soybean plants mediated by the pollen tube pathway, represented by the lines N and J11, were analyzed at the physiological and molecular levels for enhanced salt tolerance. The results showed that in terms of root-specific heterologous expression, the PgTIP1-transformed soybean cotyledon hairy roots or composite plants displayed superior salt tolerance compared to the empty vector-transformed ones according to the mitigatory effects of hairy root growth reduction, drop in leaf RWC, and rise in REL under salt stress. Additionally, declines in K+ content, increases in Na+ content and Na+/K+ ratios in the hairy roots, stems, or leaves were effectively alleviated by PgTIP1-transformation, particularly the stems and leaves of composite soybean plants. At the whole plant level, PgTIP1-trasgenic soybean lines were found to possess stronger root vigor, reduced root and leaf cell membrane damage, increased SOD, POD, CAT, and APX activities, steadily increased leaf Tr, RWC, and Pn values, and smaller declines in chlorophyll and carotenoid content when exposed to salt stress compared to wild type. Moreover, the distribution patterns of Na+, K+, and Cl- in the roots, stems, and leaves of salt-stressed transgenic plants were readjusted, in that the absorbed Na+ and Cl- were mainly restricted to the roots to reduce their transport to the shoots, and the transport of root-absorbed K+ to the

  2. Heterologous expression, purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of raucaffricine glucosidase, a plant enzyme specifically involved in Rauvolfia alkaloid biosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruppert, Martin; Panjikar, Santosh; Barleben, Leif; Stöckigt, Joachim

    2006-03-01

    Raucaffricine glucosidase (RG) is an enzyme that is specifically involved in the biosynthesis of indole alkaloids from the plant Rauvolfia serpentina. After heterologous expression in Escherichia coli cells, crystals of RG were obtained by the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion technique at 293 K with 0.3 M ammonium sulfate, 0.1 M sodium acetate pH 4.6 buffer and 11% PEG 4000 as precipitant. Crystals belong to space group I222 and diffract to 2.30 A, with unit-cell parameters a = 102.8, b = 127.3, c = 215.8 A.

  3. Point mutation in calcium-binding domain of mouse polyomavirus VP1 protein does not prevent virus-like particle formation, but changes VP1 interactions with Saccharomyces cerevisiae cell structures

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Adamec, T.; Palková, Zdena; Velková, K.; Štokrová, Jitka; Forstová, J.

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 5, 4-5 (2005), s. 331-340 ISSN 1567-1356 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA204/03/0593 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5052915 Keywords : polyomavirus VP1 * Saccharomyces cerevisiae * heterologous expression Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 2.477, year: 2005

  4. Time-Course Analysis of Gene Expression During the Saccharomyces cerevisiae Hypoxic Response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasrine Bendjilali

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Many cells experience hypoxia, or low oxygen, and respond by dramatically altering gene expression. In the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, genes that respond are required for many oxygen-dependent cellular processes, such as respiration, biosynthesis, and redox regulation. To more fully characterize the global response to hypoxia, we exposed yeast to hypoxic conditions, extracted RNA at different times, and performed RNA sequencing (RNA-seq analysis. Time-course statistical analysis revealed hundreds of genes that changed expression by up to 550-fold. The genes responded with varying kinetics suggesting that multiple regulatory pathways are involved. We identified most known oxygen-regulated genes and also uncovered new regulated genes. Reverse transcription-quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR analysis confirmed that the lysine methyltransferase EFM6 and the recombinase DMC1, both conserved in humans, are indeed oxygen-responsive. Looking more broadly, oxygen-regulated genes participate in expected processes like respiration and lipid metabolism, but also in unexpected processes like amino acid and vitamin metabolism. Using principle component analysis, we discovered that the hypoxic response largely occurs during the first 2 hr and then a new steady-state expression state is achieved. Moreover, we show that the oxygen-dependent genes are not part of the previously described environmental stress response (ESR consisting of genes that respond to diverse types of stress. While hypoxia appears to cause a transient stress, the hypoxic response is mostly characterized by a transition to a new state of gene expression. In summary, our results reveal that hypoxia causes widespread and complex changes in gene expression to prepare the cell to function with little or no oxygen.

  5. Variance heterogeneity in Saccharomyces cerevisiae expression data: trans-regulation and epistasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Ronald M; Pettersson, Mats E; Li, Xidan; Carlborg, Örjan

    2013-01-01

    Here, we describe the results from the first variance heterogeneity Genome Wide Association Study (VGWAS) on yeast expression data. Using this forward genetics approach, we show that the genetic regulation of gene-expression in the budding yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, includes mechanisms that can lead to variance heterogeneity in the expression between genotypes. Additionally, we performed a mean effect association study (GWAS). Comparing the mean and variance heterogeneity analyses, we find that the mean expression level is under genetic regulation from a larger absolute number of loci but that a higher proportion of the variance controlling loci were trans-regulated. Both mean and variance regulating loci cluster in regulatory hotspots that affect a large number of phenotypes; a single variance-controlling locus, mapping close to DIA2, was found to be involved in more than 10% of the significant associations. It has been suggested in the literature that variance-heterogeneity between the genotypes might be due to genetic interactions. We therefore screened the multi-locus genotype-phenotype maps for several traits where multiple associations were found, for indications of epistasis. Several examples of two and three locus genetic interactions were found to involve variance-controlling loci, with reports from the literature corroborating the functional connections between the loci. By using a new analytical approach to re-analyze a powerful existing dataset, we are thus able to both provide novel insights to the genetic mechanisms involved in the regulation of gene-expression in budding yeast and experimentally validate epistasis as an important mechanism underlying genetic variance-heterogeneity between genotypes.

  6. Time-Course Analysis of Gene Expression During the Saccharomyces cerevisiae Hypoxic Response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bendjilali, Nasrine; MacLeon, Samuel; Kalra, Gurmannat; Willis, Stephen D; Hossian, A K M Nawshad; Avery, Erica; Wojtowicz, Olivia; Hickman, Mark J

    2017-01-05

    Many cells experience hypoxia, or low oxygen, and respond by dramatically altering gene expression. In the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, genes that respond are required for many oxygen-dependent cellular processes, such as respiration, biosynthesis, and redox regulation. To more fully characterize the global response to hypoxia, we exposed yeast to hypoxic conditions, extracted RNA at different times, and performed RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) analysis. Time-course statistical analysis revealed hundreds of genes that changed expression by up to 550-fold. The genes responded with varying kinetics suggesting that multiple regulatory pathways are involved. We identified most known oxygen-regulated genes and also uncovered new regulated genes. Reverse transcription-quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) analysis confirmed that the lysine methyltransferase EFM6 and the recombinase DMC1, both conserved in humans, are indeed oxygen-responsive. Looking more broadly, oxygen-regulated genes participate in expected processes like respiration and lipid metabolism, but also in unexpected processes like amino acid and vitamin metabolism. Using principle component analysis, we discovered that the hypoxic response largely occurs during the first 2 hr and then a new steady-state expression state is achieved. Moreover, we show that the oxygen-dependent genes are not part of the previously described environmental stress response (ESR) consisting of genes that respond to diverse types of stress. While hypoxia appears to cause a transient stress, the hypoxic response is mostly characterized by a transition to a new state of gene expression. In summary, our results reveal that hypoxia causes widespread and complex changes in gene expression to prepare the cell to function with little or no oxygen. Copyright © 2017 Bendjilali et al.

  7. Comprehensive reanalysis of transcription factor knockout expression data in Saccharomyces cerevisiae reveals many new targets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reimand, Jüri; Vaquerizas, Juan M; Todd, Annabel E; Vilo, Jaak; Luscombe, Nicholas M

    2010-08-01

    Transcription factor (TF) perturbation experiments give valuable insights into gene regulation. Genome-scale evidence from microarray measurements may be used to identify regulatory interactions between TFs and targets. Recently, Hu and colleagues published a comprehensive study covering 269 TF knockout mutants for the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. However, the information that can be extracted from this valuable dataset is limited by the method employed to process the microarray data. Here, we present a reanalysis of the original data using improved statistical techniques freely available from the BioConductor project. We identify over 100,000 differentially expressed genes-nine times the total reported by Hu et al. We validate the biological significance of these genes by assessing their functions, the occurrence of upstream TF-binding sites, and the prevalence of protein-protein interactions. The reanalysed dataset outperforms the original across all measures, indicating that we have uncovered a vastly expanded list of relevant targets. In summary, this work presents a high-quality reanalysis that maximizes the information contained in the Hu et al. compendium. The dataset is available from ArrayExpress (accession: E-MTAB-109) and it will be invaluable to any scientist interested in the yeast transcriptional regulatory system.

  8. Molecular cloning and expression in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Neurospora crassa of the invertase gene from Neurospora crassa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carú, M; Cifuentes, V; Pincheira, G; Jiménez, A

    1989-10-01

    A plasmid (named pCN2) carrying a 7.6 kb BamHI DNA insert was isolated from a Neurospora crassa genomic library raised in the yeast vector YRp7. Saccharomyces cerevisiae suco and N. crassa inv strains transformed with pNC2 were able to grow on sucrose-based media and expressed invertase activity. Saccharomyces cerevisiae suco (pNC2) expressed a product which immunoreacted with antibody raised against purified invertase from wild type N. crassa, although S. cerevisiae suc+ did not. The cloned DNA hybridized with a 7.6 kb DNA fragment from BamHI-restricted wild type N. crassa DNA. Plasmid pNC2 transformed N. crassa Inv- to Inv+ by integration either near to the endogenous inv locus (40% events) or at other genomic sites (60% events). It appears therefore that the cloned DNA piece encodes the N. crassa invertase enzyme. A 3.8 kb XhoI DNA fragment, derived from pNC2, inserted in YRp7, in both orientation, was able to express invertase activity in yeast, suggesting that it contains an intact invertase gene which is not expressed from a vector promoter.

  9. Targeted capture and heterologous expression of the Pseudoalteromonas alterochromide gene cluster in Escherichia coli represents a promising natural product exploratory platform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Avena C; Gulland, Lauren E S; Dorrestein, Pieter C; Moore, Bradley S

    2015-04-17

    Marine pseudoalteromonads represent a very promising source of biologically important natural product molecules. To access and exploit the full chemical capacity of these cosmopolitan Gram-(-) bacteria, we sought to apply universal synthetic biology tools to capture, refactor, and express biosynthetic gene clusters for the production of complex organic compounds in reliable host organisms. Here, we report a platform for the capture of proteobacterial gene clusters using a transformation-associated recombination (TAR) strategy coupled with direct pathway manipulation and expression in Escherichia coli. The ~34 kb pathway for production of alterochromide lipopeptides by Pseudoalteromonas piscicida JCM 20779 was captured and heterologously expressed in E. coli utilizing native and E. coli-based T7 promoter sequences. Our approach enabled both facile production of the alterochromides and in vivo interrogation of gene function associated with alterochromide's unusual brominated lipid side chain. This platform represents a simple but effective strategy for the discovery and biosynthetic characterization of natural products from marine proteobacteria.

  10. High-level intracellular expression of heterologous proteins in Brevibacillus choshinensis SP3 under the control of a xylose inducible promoter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D’Urzo Nunzia

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In past years research has focused on the development of alternative Gram positive bacterial expression systems to produce industrially relevant proteins. Brevibacillus choshinensis is an easy to handle non-sporulating bacterium, lacking extracellular proteases, that has been already shown to provide a high level of recombinant protein expression. One major drawback, limiting the applicability of the Brevibacillus expression system, is the absence of expression vectors based on inducible promoters. Here we used the PxylA inducible promoter, commonly employed in other Bacillae expression systems, in Brevibacillus. Results Using GFP, α-amylase and TcdA-GT as model proteins, high level of intracellular protein expression (up to 250 mg/L for the GFP was achieved in Brevibacillus, using the pHis1522 vector carrying the B. megaterium xylose-inducible promoter (PxylA. The GFP expression yields were more than 25 fold higher than those reported for B. megaterium carrying the same vector. All the tested proteins show significant increment in their expression levels (2-10 folds than those obtained using the available plasmids based on the P2 constitutive promoter. Conclusion Combining the components of two different commercially available Gram positive expression systems, such as Brevibacillus (from Takara Bio and B. megaterium (from Mobitec, we demonstrate that vectors based on the B. megaterium PxylA xylose inducible promoter can be successfully used to induce high level of intracellular expression of heterologous proteins in Brevibacillus.

  11. Cell surface expression system for the display of heterologous gene products using chimeric flagellin fusions of bacillus halodurans isolate

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Du Plessis, A

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available system for the display of heterologous gene products using chimeric flagellin fusions of a Bacillus halodurans isolate Slide 2 © CSIR 2006 www.csir.co.za Bacillus halodurans Alk 36 xrhombus Ability to over-produce cell... for functionality of the His-tag for metal binding. Slide 13 © CSIR 2006 www.csir.co.za PAGE gel showing over-production of chimeric poly-His flagellin proteins 66.2 kDa 45.0 kDa 31.0 kDa 1. LMW ladder 2. NC3 3. NHisC3 4. NC6 5...

  12. Markerless gene knockout and integration to express heterologous biosynthetic gene clusters in Pseudomonas putida

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Choi, Kyeong Rok; Cho, Jae Sung; Cho, In Jin

    2018-01-01

    Pseudomonas putida has gained much interest among metabolic engineers as a workhorse for producing valuable natural products. While a few gene knockout tools for P. putida have been reported, integration of heterologous genes into the chromosome of P. putida, an essential strategy to develop stable...... plasmid curing systems, generating final strains free of antibiotic markers and plasmids. This markerless recombineering system for efficient gene knockout and integration will expedite metabolic engineering of P. putida, a bacterial host strain of increasing academic and industrial interest....

  13. Multiple independent regulatory pathways control UBI4 expression after heat shock in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, J R; Treger, J M; McEntee, K

    1999-02-01

    Transcription of the polyubiquitin gene UBI4 of Saccharomyces cerevisiae is strongly induced by a variety of environmental stresses, such as heat shock, nutrient depletion and exposure to DNA-damaging agents. This transcriptional response of UBI4 is likely to be the primary mechanism for increasing the pool of ubiquitin for degradation of stress-damaged proteins. Deletion and promoter fusion studies of the 5' regulatory sequences indicated that two different elements, heat shock elements (HSEs) and stress response element (STREs), contributed independently to heat shock regulation of the UBI4 gene. In the absence of HSEs, STRE sequences localized to the intervals -264 to -238 and -215 to -183 were needed for stress control of transcription after heat shock. Site-directed mutagenesis of the STRE (AG4) at -252 to -248 abolished heat shock induction of UBI4 transcription. Northern analysis demonstrated that cells containing either a temperature-sensitive HSF or non-functional Msn2p/Msn4p transcription factors induced high levels of UBI4 transcripts after heat shock. In cells deficient in both heat stress pathways, heat-induced UBI4 transcript levels were considerably lower but not abolished, suggesting a role for another factor(s) in stress control of its expression.

  14. Ectopic expression of MPF2-like protein WSA206 leads to arrest in silique and seed development in heterologous host

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, M.R.

    2016-01-01

    MPF2-like genes belonging to STMADS11 clade of MADS-box transcription factors are mostly involved in calyx inflation, floral reversion and fertility. However their role in fertility remained enigmatic. In this study we transformed WSA206 gene paralog - originated through genome duplication in a Solanaceous plant Withaniasomnifera - ectopically in a heterologous host Arabidopsis thaliana. Interesting phenotypes in floral organs and fruits were observed. Overexpression of WSA206 leads to arrest in silique development. The siliques were compressed and size was drastically reduced from 34mm to 3mm. Along with siliques, the seed development was also suppressed as revealed by shriveling of seeds and reduction in seed number. In extreme cases the siliques were devoid of any seeds. In cases where seeds developed, these were impaired in viability. Besides, the transgenic Arabidopsis also exhibited exorbitant growth of calyx to an extent that it resembled inflated calyx in Solanaceae. The calyx remained persistent and encapsulated the under-developed siliques containing non-viable seeds inside. Thus, fertility and sepal development are tightly coupled traits that are controlled by WSA206 paralog in heterologous system. (author)

  15. Heterologous prime-boost vaccination with DNA and MVA vaccines, expressing HIV-1 subtype C mosaic Gag virus-like particles, is highly immunogenic in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ros Chapman

    Full Text Available In an effort to make affordable vaccines suitable for the regions most affected by HIV-1, we have constructed stable vaccines that express an HIV-1 subtype C mosaic Gag immunogen (BCG-GagM, MVA-GagM and DNA-GagM. Mosaic immunogens have been designed to address the tremendous diversity of this virus. Here we have shown that GagM buds from cells infected and transfected with MVA-GagM and DNA-GagM respectively and forms virus-like particles. Previously we showed that a BCG-GagM prime MVA-GagM boost generated strong cellular immune responses in mice. In this study immune responses to the DNA-GagM and MVA-GagM vaccines were evaluated in homologous and heterologous prime-boost vaccinations. The DNA homologous prime boost vaccination elicited predominantly CD8+ T cells while the homologous MVA vaccination induced predominantly CD4+ T cells. A heterologous DNA-GagM prime MVA-GagM boost induced strong, more balanced Gag CD8+ and CD4+ T cell responses and that were predominantly of an effector memory phenotype. The immunogenicity of the mosaic Gag (GagM was compared to a naturally occurring subtype C Gag (GagN using a DNA homologous vaccination regimen. DNA-GagN expresses a natural Gag with a sequence that was closest to the consensus sequence of subtype C viruses sampled in South Africa. DNA-GagM homologous vaccination induced cumulative HIV-1 Gag-specific IFN-γ ELISPOT responses that were 6.5-fold higher than those induced by the DNA-GagN vaccination. Similarly, DNA-GagM vaccination generated 7-fold higher levels of cytokine-positive CD8+ T cells than DNA-GagN, indicating that this subtype C mosaic Gag elicits far more potent immune responses than a consensus-type Gag. Cells transfected and infected with DNA-GagM and MVA-GagM respectively, expressed high levels of GagM and produced budding virus-like particles. Our data indicates that a heterologous prime boost regimen using DNA and MVA vaccines expressing HIV-1 subtype C mosaic Gag is highly

  16. Development of a gene cloning system in a fast-growing and moderately thermophilic Streptomyces species and heterologous expression of Streptomyces antibiotic biosynthetic gene clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Streptomyces species are a major source of antibiotics. They usually grow slowly at their optimal temperature and fermentation of industrial strains in a large scale often takes a long time, consuming more energy and materials than some other bacterial industrial strains (e.g., E. coli and Bacillus). Most thermophilic Streptomyces species grow fast, but no gene cloning systems have been developed in such strains. Results We report here the isolation of 41 fast-growing (about twice the rate of S. coelicolor), moderately thermophilic (growing at both 30°C and 50°C) Streptomyces strains, detection of one linear and three circular plasmids in them, and sequencing of a 6996-bp plasmid, pTSC1, from one of them. pTSC1-derived pCWH1 could replicate in both thermophilic and mesophilic Streptomyces strains. On the other hand, several Streptomyces replicons function in thermophilic Streptomyces species. By examining ten well-sporulating strains, we found two promising cloning hosts, 2C and 4F. A gene cloning system was established by using the two strains. The actinorhodin and anthramycin biosynthetic gene clusters from mesophilic S. coelicolor A3(2) and thermophilic S. refuineus were heterologously expressed in one of the hosts. Conclusions We have developed a gene cloning and expression system in a fast-growing and moderately thermophilic Streptomyces species. Although just a few plasmids and one antibiotic biosynthetic gene cluster from mesophilic Streptomyces were successfully expressed in thermophilic Streptomyces species, we expect that by utilizing thermophilic Streptomyces-specific promoters, more genes and especially antibiotic genes clusters of mesophilic Streptomyces should be heterologously expressed. PMID:22032628

  17. Functional Genome Mining for Metabolites Encoded by Large Gene Clusters through Heterologous Expression of a Whole-Genome Bacterial Artificial Chromosome Library in Streptomyces spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Min; Wang, Yemin; Zhao, Zhilong; Gao, Guixi; Huang, Sheng-Xiong; Kang, Qianjin; He, Xinyi; Lin, Shuangjun; Pang, Xiuhua; Deng, Zixin

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Genome sequencing projects in the last decade revealed numerous cryptic biosynthetic pathways for unknown secondary metabolites in microbes, revitalizing drug discovery from microbial metabolites by approaches called genome mining. In this work, we developed a heterologous expression and functional screening approach for genome mining from genomic bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) libraries in Streptomyces spp. We demonstrate mining from a strain of Streptomyces rochei, which is known to produce streptothricins and borrelidin, by expressing its BAC library in the surrogate host Streptomyces lividans SBT5, and screening for antimicrobial activity. In addition to the successful capture of the streptothricin and borrelidin biosynthetic gene clusters, we discovered two novel linear lipopeptides and their corresponding biosynthetic gene cluster, as well as a novel cryptic gene cluster for an unknown antibiotic from S. rochei. This high-throughput functional genome mining approach can be easily applied to other streptomycetes, and it is very suitable for the large-scale screening of genomic BAC libraries for bioactive natural products and the corresponding biosynthetic pathways. IMPORTANCE Microbial genomes encode numerous cryptic biosynthetic gene clusters for unknown small metabolites with potential biological activities. Several genome mining approaches have been developed to activate and bring these cryptic metabolites to biological tests for future drug discovery. Previous sequence-guided procedures relied on bioinformatic analysis to predict potentially interesting biosynthetic gene clusters. In this study, we describe an efficient approach based on heterologous expression and functional screening of a whole-genome library for the mining of bioactive metabolites from Streptomyces. The usefulness of this function-driven approach was demonstrated by the capture of four large biosynthetic gene clusters for metabolites of various chemical types, including

  18. Heterologous expression of Helicoverpa armigera cytochrome P450 CYP6B7 in Pichia pastoris and interactions of CYP6B7 with insecticides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Chunqing; Song, Genmiao; Duan, Hongxia; Tang, Tao; Wang, Chen; Qiu, Lihong

    2017-09-01

    Previous studies indicated that constitutive over-expression of cytochrome P450 CYP6B7 was involved in fenvalerate resistance in Helicoverpa armigera. In this study, the CYP6B7 gene from H. armigera (namely HaCYP6B7), was heterologously expressed in Pichia pastoris GS115. A vector pPICZA-HaCYP6B7 was constructed and transformed into P. pastoris GS115, the transformant of pPICZA-HaCYP6B7-GS115 was then cultured and induced by 1% (v/v) methanol and the heterologous expression of HaCYP6B7 protein in P. pastoris was confirmed by SDS-PAGE and western blot. Microsomes containing the expressed HaCYP6B7 showed activities against model substrate p-nitroanisole and 7-ethoxycoumarin, with p-nitroanisole O-demethylation (PNOD) and 7-ethoxycoumarin O-deethylation (ECOD) activities of 15.66- and 4.75-fold of the control, respectively. Moreover, it showed degradation activities against the insecticides bifenthrin, fenvalerate and chlorpyrifos, with clearance activities of 6.88-, 1.49- and 2.27-fold of the control, respectively. The interactions of HaCYP6B7 with insecticides were further confirmed by molecular docking in silico with binding scores of 5.450, 5.295 and 2.197 between putative HaCYP6B7 protein and bifenthrin, fenvalerate and chlorpyrifos, respectively. The results of present study provided more direct and important evidence on the role of HaCYP6B7 conferring pyrethroid resistance in H. armigera. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  19. Isolation of dihydroflavonol 4-reductase cDNA clones from Angelonia x angustifolia and heterologous expression as GST fusion protein in Escherichia coli.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Gosch

    Full Text Available Blue Angelonia × angustifolia flowers can show spontaneous mutations resulting in white/blue and white flower colourations. In such a white line, a loss of dihydroflavonol 4-reductase (DFR activity was observed whereas chalcone synthase and flavanone 3-hydroxylase activity remained unchanged. Thus, cloning and characterization of a DFR of Angelonia flowers was carried out for the first time. Two full length DFR cDNA clones, Ang.DFR1 and Ang.DFR2, were obtained from a diploid chimeral white/blue Angelonia × angustifolia which demonstrated a 99% identity in their translated amino acid sequence. In comparison to Ang.DFR2, Ang.DFR1 was shown to contain an extra proline in a proline-rich region at the N-terminus along with two exchanges at the amino acids 12 and 26 in the translated amino acid sequence. The recombinant Ang.DFR2 obtained by heterologous expression in yeast was functionally active catalyzing the NADPH dependent reduction of dihydroquercetin (DHQ and dihydromyricetin (DHM to leucocyanidin and leucomyricetin, respectively. Dihydrokaempferol (DHK in contrast was not accepted as a substrate despite the presence of asparagine in a position assumed to determine DHK acceptance. We show that substrate acceptance testing of DFRs provides biased results for DHM conversion if products are extracted with ethyl acetate. Recombinant Ang.DFR1 was inactive and functional activity could only be restored via exchanges of the amino acids in position 12 and 26 as well as the deletion of the extra proline. E. coli transformation of the pGEX-6P-1 vector harbouring the Ang.DFR2 and heterologous expression in E. coli resulted in functionally active enzymes before and after GST tag removal. Both the GST fusion protein and purified DFR minus the GST tag could be stored at -80°C for several months without loss of enzyme activity and demonstrated identical substrate specificity as the recombinant enzyme obtained from heterologous expression in yeast.

  20. Heterologous expression and purification of plantaricin NC8, a two-peptide bacteriocin against Salmonella spp. from Lactobacillus plantarum ZJ316.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Han; Li, Ping; Gu, Qing

    2016-11-01

    Bacteriocin, which is produced by lactic acid bacteria (LAB), has the potential to act as natural preservatives in the food industry. To develop strategies to overproduce such peptides, plantaricin NC8, a class IIb LAB bacteriocin that consists of two peptides, PLNC8α and PLNC8β, was successfully heterologously expressed in Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3). PLNC8α and PLNC8β peptides were expressed as His6-tag fusion proteins and were separated by Ni(2+) chelating affinity chromatography. To get the PLNC8α and PLNC8β peptides without extra amino acids in the N-terminus, the fusion proteins were cleaved by enterokinase and further purified using the Ni-NTA Sefinose™ Resin Kit. The molecular masses of peptides were checked using Tricine-SDS-PAGE and MALDI-TOF-MS. The yield of purified PLNC8α was around 2-2.5 mg/L, and the yield of PLNC8β was around 1.5-2 mg/L. The antimicrobial spectrum of cleaved peptides was detected and the synergistic action of PLNC8α and PLNC8β was preliminarily confirmed. It was found that E. coli was a suitable host for heterologous expression of plantaricin NC8 with a significant yield. Importantly, the bacteriocin appeared to be very active for controlling and inhibiting the food-borne pathogenic Gram-negative bacteria Salmonella spp., and might be useful as a natural preservative candidate. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Enhanced heterologous expression of biologically active human granulocyte colony stimulating factor in transgenic tobacco BY-2 cells by localization to endoplasmic reticulum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nair, Nisha R; Chidambareswaren, M; Manjula, S

    2014-09-01

    Tobacco Bright Yellow-2 (BY-2) cells, one of the best characterized cell lines is an attractive expression system for heterologous protein expression. However, the expression of foreign proteins is currently hampered by their low yield, which is partially the result of proteolytic degradation. Human granulocyte colony stimulating factor (hG-CSF) is a hematopoietic cytokine. Recombinant hG-CSF is successfully being used for the treatment of chemotherapy-induced neutropenia in cancer patients. Here, we describe a simple strategy for producing biologically active hG-CSF in tobacco BY-2 cells, localized in the apoplast of BY-2 cells, as well as targeted to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). ER targeting significantly enhanced recombinant production which scaled to 17.89 mg/l from 4.19 mg/l when expressed in the apoplasts. Southern blotting confirmed the stable integration of hG-CSF in the BY-2 nuclear genome, and the expression of hG-CSF was analysed by Western blotting. Total soluble protein containing hG-CSF isolated from positive calli showed proliferative potential when tested on HL-60 cell lines by MTT assay. We also report the potential of a Fluorescence-activated cell sorting approach for an efficient sorting of the hG-CSF-expressing cell lines, which will enable the generation of homogenous high-producing cell lines.

  2. Impact of cell type and epitope tagging on heterologous expression of G protein-coupled receptor: a systematic study on angiotensin type II receptor.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lili Jiang

    Full Text Available Despite heterologous expression of epitope-tagged GPCR is widely adopted for functional characterization, there is lacking of systematic analysis of the impact of expression host and epitope tag on GPCR expression. Angiotensin type II (AT2 receptor displays agonist-dependent and -independent activities, coupling to a spectrum of signaling molecules. However, consensus has not been reached on the subcellular distributions, signaling cascades and receptor-mediated actions. To examine the contributions of host cell and epitope tag on receptor expression and activity, epitope-tagged AT2 receptor variants were transiently or stably expressed in HEK293, CHO-K1 and PC12 cells. The epitope-tagged AT2 receptor variants were detected both on the cell membrane and in the perinuclear region. In transiently transfected HEK293 cells, Myc-AT2 existed predominantly as monomer. Additionally, a ladder of ubiquitinated AT2 receptor proteins was detected. By contrast, stably expressed epitope-tagged AT2 receptor variants existed as both monomer and high molecular weight complexes, and the latter was enriched in cell surface. Glycosylation promoted cell surface expression of Myc-AT2 but had no effect on AT2-GFP in HEK293 cells. In cells that stably expressed Myc-AT2, serum starvation induced apoptosis in CHO-K1 cells but not in HEK293 or PC12 cells. Instead, HEK293 and PC12 cells stably expressing Myc-AT2 exhibited partial cell cycle arrest with cells accumulating at G1 and S phases, respectively. Taken together, these results suggest that expression levels, subcellular distributions and ligand-independent constitutive activities of AT2 receptor were cell type-dependent while posttranslational processing of nascent AT2 receptor protein was modulated by epitope tag and mode of expression.

  3. Heterologous expression, purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of raucaffricine glucosidase, a plant enzyme specifically involved in Rauvolfia alkaloid biosynthesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruppert, Martin [Department of Pharmaceutical Biology, Institute of Pharmacy, Johannes Gutenberg-University Mainz, Staudinger Weg 5, D-55099 Mainz (Germany); Panjikar, Santosh [European Molecular Biology Laboratory Hamburg, Outstation Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron, Notkestrasse 85, D-22603 Hamburg (Germany); Barleben, Leif [Department of Pharmaceutical Biology, Institute of Pharmacy, Johannes Gutenberg-University Mainz, Staudinger Weg 5, D-55099 Mainz (Germany); Stöckigt, Joachim [Department of Pharmaceutical Biology, Institute of Pharmacy, Johannes Gutenberg-University Mainz, Staudinger Weg 5, D-55099 Mainz (Germany); College of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Zhejiang University, 353 Yan An Road, 310031 Hangzhou (China)

    2006-03-01

    Raucaffricine glucosidase, an enzyme involved in the biosynthesis of monoterpenoid indole alkaloids in the plant Rauvolfia serpentina, was crystallized by the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method using PEG4000 as precipitant. The crystals diffract to 2.3 Å resolution and belong to space group I222. Raucaffricine glucosidase (RG) is an enzyme that is specifically involved in the biosynthesis of indole alkaloids from the plant Rauvolfia serpentina. After heterologous expression in Escherichia coli cells, crystals of RG were obtained by the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion technique at 293 K with 0.3 M ammonium sulfate, 0.1 M sodium acetate pH 4.6 buffer and 11% PEG 4000 as precipitant. Crystals belong to space group I222 and diffract to 2.30 Å, with unit-cell parameters a = 102.8, b = 127.3, c = 215.8 Å.

  4. Heterologous expression, purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of raucaffricine glucosidase, a plant enzyme specifically involved in Rauvolfia alkaloid biosynthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruppert, Martin; Panjikar, Santosh; Barleben, Leif; Stöckigt, Joachim

    2006-01-01

    Raucaffricine glucosidase (RG) is an enzyme that is specifically involved in the biosynthesis of indole alkaloids from the plant Rauvolfia serpentina. After heterologous expression in Escherichia coli cells, crystals of RG were obtained by the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion technique at 293 K with 0.3 M ammonium sulfate, 0.1 M sodium acetate pH 4.6 buffer and 11% PEG 4000 as precipitant. Crystals belong to space group I222 and diffract to 2.30 Å, with unit-cell parameters a = 102.8, b = 127.3, c = 215.8 Å. PMID:16511316

  5. Heterologous expression, purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of raucaffricine glucosidase, a plant enzyme specifically involved in Rauvolfia alkaloid biosynthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruppert, Martin; Panjikar, Santosh; Barleben, Leif; Stöckigt, Joachim

    2006-01-01

    Raucaffricine glucosidase, an enzyme involved in the biosynthesis of monoterpenoid indole alkaloids in the plant Rauvolfia serpentina, was crystallized by the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method using PEG4000 as precipitant. The crystals diffract to 2.3 Å resolution and belong to space group I222. Raucaffricine glucosidase (RG) is an enzyme that is specifically involved in the biosynthesis of indole alkaloids from the plant Rauvolfia serpentina. After heterologous expression in Escherichia coli cells, crystals of RG were obtained by the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion technique at 293 K with 0.3 M ammonium sulfate, 0.1 M sodium acetate pH 4.6 buffer and 11% PEG 4000 as precipitant. Crystals belong to space group I222 and diffract to 2.30 Å, with unit-cell parameters a = 102.8, b = 127.3, c = 215.8 Å

  6. Heterologous expression of the wheat aquaporin gene TaTIP2;2 compromises the abiotic stress tolerance of Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunhui Xu

    Full Text Available Aquaporins are channel proteins which transport water across cell membranes. We show that the bread wheat aquaporin gene TaTIP2;2 maps to the long arm of chromosome 7b and that its product localizes to the endomembrane system. The gene is expressed constitutively in both the root and the leaf, and is down-regulated by salinity and drought stress. Salinity stress induced an increased level of C-methylation within the CNG trinucleotides in the TaTIP2;2 promoter region. The heterologous expression of TaTIP2;2 in Arabidopsis thaliana compromised its drought and salinity tolerance, suggesting that TaTIP2;2 may be a negative regulator of abiotic stress. The proline content of transgenic A. thaliana plants fell, consistent with the down-regulation of P5CS1, while the expression of SOS1, SOS2, SOS3, CBF3 and DREB2A, which are all stress tolerance-related genes acting in an ABA-independent fashion, was also down-regulated. The supply of exogenous ABA had little effect either on TaTIP2;2 expression in wheat or on the phenotype of transgenic A. thaliana. The expression level of the ABA signalling genes ABI1, ABI2 and ABF3 remained unaltered in the transgenic A. thaliana plants. Thus TaTIP2;2 probably regulates the response to stress via an ABA-independent pathway(s.

  7. Characterization and Heterologous Expression of the Genes Encoding Enterocin A Production, Immunity, and Regulation in Enterococcus faecium DPC1146

    Science.gov (United States)

    O’Keeffe, Triona; Hill, Colin; Ross, R. Paul

    1999-01-01

    Enterocin A is a small, heat-stable, antilisterial bacteriocin produced by Enterococcus faecium DPC1146. The sequence of a 10,879-bp chromosomal region containing at least 12 open reading frames (ORFs), 7 of which are predicted to play a role in enterocin biosynthesis, is presented. The genes entA, entI, and entF encode the enterocin A prepeptide, the putative immunity protein, and the induction factor prepeptide, respectively. The deduced proteins EntK and EntR resemble the histidine kinase and response regulator proteins of two-component signal transducing systems of the AgrC-AgrA type. The predicted proteins EntT and EntD are homologous to ABC (ATP-binding cassette) transporters and accessory factors, respectively, of several other bacteriocin systems and to proteins implicated in the signal-sequence-independent export of Escherichia coli hemolysin A. Immediately downstream of the entT and entD genes are two ORFs, the product of one of which, ORF4, is very similar to the product of the yteI gene of Bacillus subtilis and to E. coli protease IV, a signal peptide peptidase known to be involved in outer membrane lipoprotein export. Another potential bacteriocin is encoded in the opposite direction to the other genes in the enterocin cluster. This putative bacteriocin-like peptide is similar to LafX, one of the components of the lactacin F complex. A deletion which included one of two direct repeats upstream of the entA gene abolished enterocin A activity, immunity, and ability to induce bacteriocin production. Transposon insertion upstream of the entF gene also had the same effect, but this mutant could be complemented by exogenously supplied induction factor. The putative EntI peptide was shown to be involved in the immunity to enterocin A. Cloning of a 10.5-kb amplicon comprising all predicted ORFs and regulatory regions resulted in heterologous production of enterocin A and induction factor in Enterococcus faecalis, while a four-gene construct (entAITD) under the

  8. Control of Saccharomyces cerevisiae catalase T gene (CTT1) expression by nutrient supply via the RAS-cyclic AMP pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bissinger, P H; Wieser, R; Hamilton, B; Ruis, H

    1989-03-01

    In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, lack of nutrients triggers a pleiotropic response characterized by accumulation of storage carbohydrates, early G1 arrest, and sporulation of a/alpha diploids. This response is thought to be mediated by RAS proteins, adenylate cyclase, and cyclic AMP (cAMP)-dependent protein kinases. This study shows that expression of the S. cerevisiae gene coding for a cytoplasmic catalase T (CTT1) is controlled by this pathway: it is regulated by the availability of nutrients. Lack of a nitrogen, sulfur, or phosphorus source causes a high-level expression of the gene. Studies with strains with mutations in the RAS-cAMP pathway and supplementation of a rca1 mutant with cAMP show that CTT1 expression is under negative control by a cAMP-dependent protein kinase and that nutrient control of CTT1 gene expression is mediated by this pathway. Strains containing a CTT1-Escherichia coli lacZ fusion gene have been used to isolate mutants with mutations in the pathway. Mutants characterized in this investigation fall into five complementation groups. Both cdc25 and ras2 alleles were identified among these mutants.

  9. Expression of the human blood coagulation protein factor XIIIa in Saccharomyces cerevisiae: dependence of the expression levels from host-vector systems and medium conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bröker, M; Bäuml, O; Göttig, A; Ochs, J; Bodenbenner, M; Amann, E

    1991-03-01

    The human blood coagulation protein Factor XIIIa (FXIIIa) was expressed in Saccharomyces cerevisiae employing Escherichia coli-yeast shuttle vectors based on a 2-mu plasmid. Several factors affecting high production yield of recombinant FXIIIa were analysed. The use of the regulatable GAL-CYC1 hybrid promoter resulted in higher FXIIIa expression when compared with the constitutive ADCI promoter. Screening for suitable yeast strains for expression of FXIIIa under the transcriptional control of the GAL-CYC1 hybrid promoter revealed a broad spectrum of productivity. No obvious correlation between the expression rate and the genetic markers of the strains could be identified. The medium composition markedly influenced the FXIIIa expression rates. The expression of FXIIIa was strictly regulated by the carbon source. Glucose as the only sugar and energy source repressed the synthesis of FXIIIa, whereas addition of galactose induced FXIIIa expression. Special feeding schemes resulted in a productivity of up to 100 mg FXIIIa/l in shake flasks.

  10. Over-expression of COQ10 in Saccharomyces cerevisiae inhibits mitochondrial respiration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zampol, Mariana A.; Busso, Cleverson; Gomes, Fernando; Ferreira-Junior, Jose Ribamar; Tzagoloff, Alexander; Barros, Mario H.

    2010-01-01

    Research highlights: → COQ10 deletion elicits a defect in mitochondrial respiration correctable by addition of coenzyme Q 2 , a synthetic diffusible ubiquinone. → The significance that purified Coq10p contains bound Q 6 was examined by testing over-expression of Coq10p on respiration. → Inhibition of CoQ function due to Coq10p excess strength our hypothesis of Coq10p function in CoQ delivery. → Respiratory deficiency caused by more Coq10p was specific and restored by Q 2 in mitochondria or by Coq8p in cells. → Coq8p over-production on other coq mutants revealed a surprisingly higher stability of other Coq proteins. -- Abstract: COQ10 deletion in Saccharomyces cerevisiae elicits a defect in mitochondrial respiration correctable by addition of coenzyme Q 2 . Rescue of respiration by Q 2 is a characteristic of mutants blocked in coenzyme Q 6 synthesis. Unlike Q 6 deficient mutants, mitochondria of the coq10 null mutant have wild-type concentrations of Q 6 . The physiological significance of earlier observations that purified Coq10p contains bound Q 6 was examined in the present study by testing the in vivo effect of over-expression of Coq10p on respiration. Mitochondria with elevated levels of Coq10p display reduced respiration in the bc1 span of the electron transport chain, which can be restored with exogenous Q 2 . This suggests that in vivo binding of Q 6 by excess Coq10p reduces the pool of this redox carrier available for its normal function in providing electrons to the bc1 complex. This is confirmed by observing that extra Coq8p relieves the inhibitory effect of excess Coq10p. Coq8p is a putative kinase, and a high-copy suppressor of the coq10 null mutant. As shown here, when over-produced in coq mutants, Coq8p counteracts turnover of Coq3p and Coq4p subunits of the Q-biosynthetic complex. This can account for the observed rescue by COQ8 of the respiratory defect in strains over-producing Coq10p.

  11. Over-expression of COQ10 in Saccharomyces cerevisiae inhibits mitochondrial respiration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zampol, Mariana A.; Busso, Cleverson; Gomes, Fernando [Departamento de Microbiologia, Instituto de Ciencias Biomedicas, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo (Brazil); Ferreira-Junior, Jose Ribamar [Escola de Artes, Ciencias e Humanidades, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo (Brazil); Tzagoloff, Alexander [Department of Biological Sciences, Columbia University, NY (United States); Barros, Mario H., E-mail: mariohb@usp.br [Departamento de Microbiologia, Instituto de Ciencias Biomedicas, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo (Brazil)

    2010-11-05

    Research highlights: {yields} COQ10 deletion elicits a defect in mitochondrial respiration correctable by addition of coenzyme Q{sub 2}, a synthetic diffusible ubiquinone. {yields} The significance that purified Coq10p contains bound Q{sub 6} was examined by testing over-expression of Coq10p on respiration. {yields} Inhibition of CoQ function due to Coq10p excess strength our hypothesis of Coq10p function in CoQ delivery. {yields} Respiratory deficiency caused by more Coq10p was specific and restored by Q{sub 2} in mitochondria or by Coq8p in cells. {yields} Coq8p over-production on other coq mutants revealed a surprisingly higher stability of other Coq proteins. -- Abstract: COQ10 deletion in Saccharomyces cerevisiae elicits a defect in mitochondrial respiration correctable by addition of coenzyme Q{sub 2}. Rescue of respiration by Q{sub 2} is a characteristic of mutants blocked in coenzyme Q{sub 6} synthesis. Unlike Q{sub 6} deficient mutants, mitochondria of the coq10 null mutant have wild-type concentrations of Q{sub 6}. The physiological significance of earlier observations that purified Coq10p contains bound Q{sub 6} was examined in the present study by testing the in vivo effect of over-expression of Coq10p on respiration. Mitochondria with elevated levels of Coq10p display reduced respiration in the bc1 span of the electron transport chain, which can be restored with exogenous Q{sub 2}. This suggests that in vivo binding of Q{sub 6} by excess Coq10p reduces the pool of this redox carrier available for its normal function in providing electrons to the bc1 complex. This is confirmed by observing that extra Coq8p relieves the inhibitory effect of excess Coq10p. Coq8p is a putative kinase, and a high-copy suppressor of the coq10 null mutant. As shown here, when over-produced in coq mutants, Coq8p counteracts turnover of Coq3p and Coq4p subunits of the Q-biosynthetic complex. This can account for the observed rescue by COQ8 of the respiratory defect in strains

  12. Expression, receptor binding, and biophysical characterization of guinea pig insulin desB30

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engholm, Ebbe; Hansen, Thomas Hesselhøj; Johansson, Eva

    2015-01-01

    Here we report, for the first time, the heterologous expression of desB30 guinea pig insulin (GI desB30) in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The affinities of GI desB30 for the insulin receptor A and the IGF-I receptor were also quantified for the first time. Small-angle X-ray scattering...

  13. Molecular Characterization of Heterologous HIV-1gp120 Gene Expression Disruption in Mycobacterium bovis BCG Host Strain: A Critical Issue for Engineering Mycobacterial Based-Vaccine Vectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, Joan; Fernández-Lloris, Raquel; Pezzat, Elías; Saubi, Narcís; Cardona, Pere-Joan; Mothe, Beatriz; Gatell, Josep Maria

    2010-01-01

    Mycobacterium bovis Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) as a live vector of recombinant bacterial vaccine is a promising system to be used. In this study, we evaluate the disrupted expression of heterologous HIV-1gp120 gene in BCG Pasteur host strain using replicative vectors pMV261 and pJH222. pJH222 carries a lysine complementing gene in BCG lysine auxotrophs. The HIV-1 gp120 gene expression was regulated by BCG hsp60 promoter (in plasmid pMV261) and Mycobacteria spp. α-antigen promoter (in plasmid pJH222). Among 14 rBCG:HIV-1gp120 (pMV261) colonies screened, 12 showed a partial deletion and two showed a complete deletion. However, deletion was not observed in all 10 rBCG:HIV-1gp120 (pJH222) colonies screened. In this study, we demonstrated that E. coli/Mycobacterial expression vectors bearing a weak promoter and lysine complementing gene in a recombinant lysine auxotroph of BCG could prevent genetic rearrangements and disruption of HIV 1gp120 gene expression, a key issue for engineering Mycobacterial based vaccine vectors. PMID:20617151

  14. Molecular Characterization of Heterologous HIV-1gp120 Gene Expression Disruption in Mycobacterium bovis BCG Host Strain: A Critical Issue for Engineering Mycobacterial Based-Vaccine Vectors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joan Joseph

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Mycobacterium bovis Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG as a live vector of recombinant bacterial vaccine is a promising system to be used. In this study, we evaluate the disrupted expression of heterologous HIV-1gp120 gene in BCG Pasteur host strain using replicative vectors pMV261 and pJH222. pJH222 carries a lysine complementing gene in BCG lysine auxotrophs. The HIV-1 gp120 gene expression was regulated by BCG hsp60 promoter (in plasmid pMV261 and Mycobacteria spp. α-antigen promoter (in plasmid pJH222. Among 14 rBCG:HIV-1gp120 (pMV261 colonies screened, 12 showed a partial deletion and two showed a complete deletion. However, deletion was not observed in all 10 rBCG:HIV-1gp120 (pJH222 colonies screened. In this study, we demonstrated that E. coli/Mycobacterial expression vectors bearing a weak promoter and lysine complementing gene in a recombinant lysine auxotroph of BCG could prevent genetic rearrangements and disruption of HIV 1gp120 gene expression, a key issue for engineering Mycobacterial based vaccine vectors.

  15. Heterologous expression of Homo sapiens alpha-folate receptors in E. coli by fusion with a trigger factor for enhanced solubilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, Beatriz Nogueira Messias; Fotoran, Wesley Luzetti; Canduri, Fernanda; Souza, Dulce Helena Ferreira; Wunderlich, Gerhard; Carrilho, Emanuel

    2018-02-01

    The role of Alpha folate receptors (FRα) in folate metabolism and cancer development has been extensively studied. The reason for this is not only associated to its direct relation to disease development but also to its potential use as a highly sensitive and specific biomarker for cancers therapies. Over the recent years, the crystal structures of human FRα complexed with different ligands were described relying on an expensive and time-consuming production process. Here, we constructed an efficient system for the expression and purification of a human FRα in E. coli. Unlike a conventional expression method we used a specific protein fusion expressing the target protein together with a trigger factor (TF). This factor is a chaperone from E. coli that assists the correct folding of newly synthesized polypeptide chains. The activity of rTFFRα was comparable to glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI) anchored proteins extracted from HeLa tumor cells. Our work demonstrates a straightforward and versatile approach for the production of active human FRα by heterologous expression; this approach further enhances the development of inhibition studies and biotechnological applications. The purified product was then conjugated to liposomes, obtaining a 35% higher signal from densitometry measurement on the immunoblotting assay in the contruct containing the Ni-NTA tag, as a mimesis of an exosome, which is of vital importance to nanotherapeutic techniques associated to treatment and diagnosis of tumors. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Lipid Raft-Based Membrane Compartmentation of a Plant Transport Protein Expressed in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Grossmann, Q.; Opekarová, Miroslava; Nováková, L.; Stolz, J.; Tanner, W.

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 5, č. 6 (2006), s. 945-953 ISSN 1535-9778 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LC545 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50200510 Keywords : saccharomyces cerevisiae * plant transport protein * hup1 Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 3.707, year: 2006

  17. Growth rate-regulated expression of the hexose transporter HXT5 in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verwaal, René

    2003-01-01

    Glucose, which is the most preferred carbon source for the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, is transported across the plasma membrane into cells by hexose transporter (Hxt) proteins. The Hxt proteins are encoded by a multigene family consisting of 20 members. It was shown previously that HXT1-4 and

  18. Characterization of Magnaporthe oryzae chrysovirus 1 structural proteins and their expression in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urayama, Syunichi; Ohta, Tomoko; Onozuka, Nobuya; Sakoda, Hirofumi; Fukuhara, Toshiyuki; Arie, Tsutomu; Teraoka, Tohru; Moriyama, Hiromitsu

    2012-08-01

    Magnaporthe oryzae chrysovirus 1 (MoCV1), which is associated with an impaired growth phenotype of its host fungus, harbors four major proteins: P130 (130 kDa), P70 (70 kDa), P65 (65 kDa), and P58 (58 kDa). N-terminal sequence analysis of each protein revealed that P130 was encoded by double-stranded RNA1 (dsRNA1) (open reading frame 1 [ORF1] 1,127 amino acids [aa]), P70 by dsRNA4 (ORF4; 812 aa), and P58 by dsRNA3 (ORF3; 799 aa), although the molecular masses of P58 and P70 were significantly smaller than those deduced for ORF3 and ORF4, respectively. P65 was a degraded form of P70. Full-size proteins of ORF3 (84 kDa) and ORF4 (85 kDa) were produced in Escherichia coli. Antisera against these recombinant proteins detected full-size proteins encoded by ORF3 and ORF4 in mycelia cultured for 9, 15, and 28 days, and the antisera also detected smaller degraded proteins, namely, P58, P70, and P65, in mycelia cultured for 28 days. These full-size proteins and P58 and P70 were also components of viral particles, indicating that MoCV1 particles might have at least two forms during vegetative growth of the host fungus. Expression of the ORF4 protein in Saccharomyces cerevisiae resulted in cytological changes, with a large central vacuole associated with these growth defects. MoCV1 has five dsRNA segments, as do two Fusarium graminearum viruses (FgV-ch9 and FgV2), and forms a separate clade with FgV-ch9, FgV2, Aspergillus mycovirus 1816 (AsV1816), and Agaricus bisporus virus 1 (AbV1) in the Chrysoviridae family on the basis of their RdRp protein sequences.

  19. Hydrophobins in ectomycorrhizas: heterologous transcription of the Pisolithus HydPt-1 gene in yeast and Hebeloma cylindrosporum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D Tagu

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Hydrophobins are fungal cell wall proteins involved in aggregation of hyphae. Upon the development of the ectomycorrhizal symbiosis between tree roots and fungal hyphae, the transcripts of hydrophobin genes markedly accumulated. As the precise role of these proteins in symbiosis is not yet known, we develop heterologous expression system of the Pisolithus hydrophobin HYDPt-1. This gene has been introduced in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and in the ectomycorrhizal basidiomycete Hebeloma cylindrosporum. Introns were required for hydPt-1 transcript accumulation in the basidiomycete H. cylindrosporum. Heterologous transcript accumulation did not alter the phenotype of either species. The lack of altered phenotype resulted from the absence of HYDPt-1 polypeptide accumulation in transformed strains.

  20. Cloning strategies for heterologous expression of the bacteriocin enterocin A by Lactobacillus sakei Lb790, Lb. plantarum NC8 and Lb. casei CECT475.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez, Juan J; Diep, Dzung B; Borrero, Juan; Gútiez, Loreto; Arbulu, Sara; Nes, Ingolf F; Herranz, Carmen; Cintas, Luis M; Hernández, Pablo E

    2015-10-15

    Bacteriocins produced by lactic acid bacteria (LAB) attract considerable interest as natural and nontoxic food preservatives and as therapeutics whereas the bacteriocin-producing LAB are considered potential probiotics for food, human and veterinary applications, and in the animal production field. Within LAB the lactobacilli are increasingly used as starter cultures for food preservation and as probiotics. The lactobacilli are also natural inhabitants of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract and attractive vectors for delivery of therapeutic peptides and proteins, and for production of bioactive peptides. Research efforts for production of bacteriocins in heterologous hosts should be performed if the use of bacteriocins and the LAB bacteriocin-producers is ever to meet the high expectations deposited in these antimicrobial peptides. The recombinant production and functional expression of bacteriocins by lactobacilli would have an additive effect on their probiotic functionality. The heterologous production of the bacteriocin enterocin A (EntA) was evaluated in different Lactobacillus spp. after fusion of the versatile Sec-dependent signal peptide (SP usp45 ) to mature EntA plus the EntA immunity gene (entA + entiA) (fragment UAI), and their cloning into plasmid vectors that permitted their inducible (pSIP409 and pSIP411) or constitutive (pMG36c) production. The amount, antimicrobial activity (AA) and specific antimicrobial activity (SAA) of the EntA produced by Lactobacillus sakei Lb790, Lb. plantarum NC8 and Lb. casei CECT475 transformed with the recombinant plasmids pSIP409UAI, pSIP411UAI and pMGUAI varied depending of the expression vector and the host strain. The Lb. casei CECT475 recombinant strains produced the largest amounts of EntA, with the highest AA and SAA. Supernatants from Lb. casei CECT (pSIP411UAI) showed a 4.9-fold higher production of EntA with a 22.8-fold higher AA and 4.7-fold higher SAA than those from Enterococcus faecium T136, the natural

  1. Expression of protein engineered NADP{sup +}-dependent xylitol dehydrogenase increases ethanol production from xylose in recombinant Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsushika, Akinori; Inoue, Hiroyuki; Murakami, Katsuji; Takimura, Osamu; Sawayama, Shigeki [National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology, Hiroshima (Japan). Biomass Technology Research Center; Watanabe, Seiya; Kodaki, Tsutomu; Makino, Keisuke [Kyoto Univ. (Japan). Inst. of Advanced Energy

    2008-11-15

    A recombinant Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain transformed with xylose reductase (XR) and xylitol dehydrogenase (XDH) genes from Pichia stipitis has the ability to convert xylose to ethanol together with the unfavorable excretion of xylitol, which may be due to cofactor imbalance between NADPH-preferring XR and NAD{sup +}-dependent XDH. To reduce xylitol formation, we have already generated several XDH mutants with a reversal of coenzyme specificity toward NADP{sup +}. In this study, we constructed a set of recombinant S. cerevisiae strains with xylose-fermenting ability, including protein-engineered NADP{sup +}-dependent XDH-expressing strains. The most positive effect on xylose-to-ethanol fermentation was found by using a strain named MA-N5, constructed by chromosomal integration of the gene for NADP{sup +}-dependent XDH along with XR and endogenous xylulokinase genes. The MA-N5 strain had an increase in ethanol production and decrease in xylitol excretion compared with the reference strain expressing wild-type XDH when fermenting not only xylose but also mixed sugars containing glucose and xylose. Furthermore, the MA-N5 strain produced ethanol with a high yield of 0.49 g of ethanol/g of total consumed sugars in the nonsulfuric acid hydrolysate of wood chips. The results demonstrate that glucose and xylose present in the lignocellulosic hydrolysate can be efficiently fermented by this redox-engineered strain. (orig.)

  2. High hydrostatic pressure activates gene expression that leads to ethanol production enhancement in a Saccharomyces cerevisiae distillery strain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bravim, Fernanda; Lippman, Soyeon I.; da Silva, Lucas F.; Souza, Diego T.; Fernandes, A. Alberto R.; Masuda, Claudio A.; Broach, James R.

    2016-01-01

    High hydrostatic pressure (HHP) is a stress that exerts broad effects on microorganisms with characteristics similar to those of common environmental stresses. In this study, we aimed to identify genetic mechanisms that can enhance alcoholic fermentation of wild Saccharomyces cerevisiae isolated from Brazilian spirit fermentation vats. Accordingly, we performed a time course microarray analysis on a S. cerevisiae strain submitted to mild sublethal pressure treatment of 50 MPa for 30 min at room temperature, followed by incubation for 5, 10 and 15 min without pressure treatment. The obtained transcriptional profiles demonstrate the importance of post-pressurisation period on the activation of several genes related to cell recovery and stress tolerance. Based on these results, we over-expressed genes strongly induced by HHP in the same wild yeast strain and identified genes, particularly SYM1, whose over-expression results in enhanced ethanol production and stress tolerance upon fermentation. The present study validates the use of HHP as a biotechnological tool for the fermentative industries. PMID:22915193

  3. Assay and heterologous expression in Pichia pastoris of plant cell wall type-II membrane anchored glycosyltransferases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Bent; Egelund, Jack; Damager, Iben

    2009-01-01

    .011 to 0.013 U (1 U = 1 nmol conversion of substrate * min(-1) * microl medium(-1)) similar to those of RGXT1 and RGXT2 expressed in Baculovirus transfected insect Sf9 cells. In summary, the data presented suggest that Pichia is an attractive host candidate for expression of plant glycosyltransferases.......Two Arabidopsis xylosyltransferases, designated RGXT1 and RGXT2, were recently expressed in Baculovirus transfected insect cells and by use of the free sugar assay shown to catalyse transfer of D-xylose from UDP-alpha-D-xylose to L-fucose and derivatives hereof. We have now examined expression...

  4. Steroidogenesis and early response gene expression in MA-10 Leydig tumor cells following heterologous receptor down-regulation and cellular desensitization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsuey-Ming Chen

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The Leydig tumor cell line, MA-10, expresses the luteinizing hormone receptor, a G protein-coupled receptor that, when activated with luteinizing hormone or chorionic gonadotropin (CG, stimulates cAMP production and subsequent steroidogenesis, notably progesterone. These cells also respond to epidermal growth factor (EGF and phorbol esters with increased steroid biosynthesis. In order to probe the intracellular pathways along with heterologous receptor down-regulation and cellular desensitization, cells were preincubated with EGF or phorbol esters and then challenged with CG, EGF, dibutryl-cyclic AMP, and a phorbol ester. Relative receptor numbers, steroid biosynthesis, and expression of the early response genes, JUNB and c-FOS, were measured. It was found that in all cases but one receptor down-regulation and decreased progesterone production were closely coupled under the conditions used; the exception involved preincubation of the cells with EGF followed by addition of CG where the CG-mediated stimulation of steroidogenesis was considerably lower than the level of receptor down-regulation. In a number of instances JUNB and c-FOS expression paralleled the decreases in receptor number and progesterone production, while in some cases these early response genes were affected little if at all by the changes in receptor number. This finding may indicate that even low levels of activated signaling kinases, e.g. protein kinase A, protein kinase C, or receptor tyrosine kinase, may suffice to yield good expression of JUNB and c-FOS, or it may suggest alternative pathways for regulating expression of these two early response genes.

  5. Heterologous expression of Anabaena PCC 7120 all3940 (a Dps family gene) protects Escherichia coli from nutrient limitation and abiotic stresses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Narayan, Om Prakash; Kumari, Nidhi; Rai, Lal Chand

    2010-01-01

    This study presents first hand data on the cloning and heterologous expression of Anabaena PCC 7120 all3940 (a dps family gene) in combating nutrients limitation and multiple abiotic stresses. The Escherichia coli transformed with pGEX-5X-2-all3940 construct when subjected to iron, carbon, nitrogen, phosphorus limitation and carbofuron, copper, UV-B, heat, salt and cadmium stress registered significant increase in growth over the cells transformed with empty vector under iron (0%), carbon (0.05%), nitrogen (3.7 mM) and phosphorus (2 mM) limitation and carbofuron (0.025 mg ml -1 ), CuCl 2 (1 mM), UV-B (10 min), heat (47 o C), NaCl (6% w/v) and CdCl 2 (4 mM) stress. Enhanced expression of all3940 gene measured by semi-quantitative RT-PCR at different time points under above mentioned treatments clearly demonstrates its role in tolerance against aforesaid abiotic stresses. This study opens the gate for developing transgenic cyanobacteria capable of growing successfully under above mentioned stresses.

  6. Potential mechanisms underlying response to effects of the fungicide pyrimethanil from gene expression profiling in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gil, Fátima N; Becker, Jörg D; Viegas, Cristina A

    2014-06-11

    Pyrimethanil is a fungicide mostly applied in vineyards. When misused, residue levels detected in grape must or in the environment may be of concern. The present work aimed to analyze mechanisms underlying response to deleterious effects of pyrimethanil in the eukaryotic model Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Pyrimethanil concentration-dependent effects at phenotypic (inhibition of growth) and transcriptomic levels were examined. For transcriptional profiling, analysis focused on two sublethal exposure conditions that inhibited yeast growth by 20% or 50% compared with control cells not exposed to the fungicide. Gene expression modifications increased with the magnitude of growth inhibition, in numbers and fold-change of differentially expressed genes and in diversity of over-represented functional categories. These included mostly biosynthesis of arginine and sulfur amino acids metabolism, as well as energy conservation, antioxidant response, and multidrug transport. Several pyrimethanil-responsive genes encoded proteins sharing significant homology with proteins from phytopathogenic fungi and ecologically relevant higher eukaryotes.

  7. The Heterologous Expression of the p22 RNA Silencing Suppressor of the Crinivirus Tomato Chlorosis Virus from Tobacco Rattle Virus and Potato Virus X Enhances Disease Severity but Does Not Complement Suppressor-Defective Mutant Viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landeo-Ríos, Yazmín; Navas-Castillo, Jesús; Moriones, Enrique; Cañizares, M. Carmen

    2017-11-24

    To counteract host antiviral RNA silencing, plant viruses express suppressor proteins that function as pathogenicity enhancers. The genome of the Tomato chlorosis virus (ToCV) (genus Crinivirus , family Closteroviridae ) encodes an RNA silencing suppressor, the protein p22, that has been described as having one of the longest lasting local suppressor activities when assayed in Nicotiana benthamiana . Since suppression of RNA silencing and the ability to enhance disease severity are closely associated, we analyzed the effect of expressing p22 in heterologous viral contexts. Thus, we studied the effect of the expression of ToCV p22 from viral vectors Tobacco rattle virus (TRV) and Potato virus X (PVX), and from attenuated suppressor mutants in N. benthamiana plants. Our results show that although an exacerbation of disease symptoms leading to plant death was observed in the heterologous expression of ToCV p22 from both viruses, only in the case of TRV did increased viral accumulation occur. The heterologous expression of ToCV p22 could not complement suppressor-defective mutant viruses.

  8. Heterologous expression of C. elegans fat-1 decreases the n-6/n-3 fatty acid ratio and inhibits adipogenesis in 3T3-L1 cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An, Lei; Pang, Yun-Wei; Gao, Hong-Mei; Tao, Li; Miao, Kai; Wu, Zhong-Hong

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Expression of C. elegans fat-1 reduces the n-6/n-3 PUFA ratio in 3T3-L1 cells. ► fat-1 inhibits the proliferation and differentiation of 3T3-L1 preadipocytes. ► fat-1 reduces lipid deposition in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. ► The lower n-6/n-3 ratio induces apoptosis in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. -- Abstract: In general, a diet enriched in polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) inhibits the development of obesity and decreases adipose tissue. The specific impacts of n-3 and n-6 PUFAs on adipogenesis, however, have not been definitively determined. Traditional in vivo and in vitro supplementation studies have yielded inconsistent or even contradictory results, which likely reflect insufficiently controlled experimental systems. Caenorhabditiselegans fat-1 gene encodes an n-3 fatty acid desaturase, and its heterologous expression represents an effective method both for altering the n-6/n-3 PUFA ratio and for evaluating the biological effects of n-3 and n-6 PUFAs. We sought to determine whether a reduced n-6/n-3 ratio could influence adipogenesis in 3T3-L1 cells. Lentivirus-mediated introduction of the fat-1 gene into 3T3-L1 preadipocytes significantly reduced the n-6/n-3 ratio and inhibited preadipocyte proliferation and differentiation. In mature adipocytes, fat-1 expression reduced lipid deposition, as measured by Oil Red O staining, and induced apoptosis. Our results indicate that a reduced n-6/n-3 ratio inhibits adipogenesis through several mechanisms and that n-3 PUFAs more effectively inhibit adipogenesis (but not lipogenesis) than do n-6 PUFAs.

  9. Heterologous expression of C. elegans fat-1 decreases the n-6/n-3 fatty acid ratio and inhibits adipogenesis in 3T3-L1 cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    An, Lei, E-mail: anleim@yahoo.com.cn [Ministry of Agriculture Key Laboratory of Animal Genetics, Breeding and Reproduction, National Engineering Laboratory for Animal Breeding, College of Animal Science and Technology, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100193 (China); Pang, Yun-Wei, E-mail: yunweipang@126.com [Ministry of Agriculture Key Laboratory of Animal Genetics, Breeding and Reproduction, National Engineering Laboratory for Animal Breeding, College of Animal Science and Technology, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100193 (China); Gao, Hong-Mei, E-mail: Gaohongmei_123@yahoo.cn [Ministry of Agriculture Key Laboratory of Animal Genetics, Breeding and Reproduction, National Engineering Laboratory for Animal Breeding, College of Animal Science and Technology, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100193 (China); Research Unit for Animal Life Sciences, Animal Resource Science Center, Graduate School of Agricultural and Life Sciences, The University of Tokyo, Ibaraki-Iwama 319-0206 (Japan); Tao, Li, E-mail: Eunice8023@yahoo.cn [Ministry of Agriculture Key Laboratory of Animal Genetics, Breeding and Reproduction, National Engineering Laboratory for Animal Breeding, College of Animal Science and Technology, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100193 (China); College of Animal Science and Technology, Jilin Agricultural University, Changchun, Jilin 130118 (China); Miao, Kai, E-mail: miaokai7@163.com [Ministry of Agriculture Key Laboratory of Animal Genetics, Breeding and Reproduction, National Engineering Laboratory for Animal Breeding, College of Animal Science and Technology, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100193 (China); Wu, Zhong-Hong, E-mail: wuzhh@cau.edu.cn [Ministry of Agriculture Key Laboratory of Animal Genetics, Breeding and Reproduction, National Engineering Laboratory for Animal Breeding, College of Animal Science and Technology, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100193 (China); and others

    2012-11-23

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Expression of C. elegans fat-1 reduces the n-6/n-3 PUFA ratio in 3T3-L1 cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer fat-1 inhibits the proliferation and differentiation of 3T3-L1 preadipocytes. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer fat-1 reduces lipid deposition in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The lower n-6/n-3 ratio induces apoptosis in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. -- Abstract: In general, a diet enriched in polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) inhibits the development of obesity and decreases adipose tissue. The specific impacts of n-3 and n-6 PUFAs on adipogenesis, however, have not been definitively determined. Traditional in vivo and in vitro supplementation studies have yielded inconsistent or even contradictory results, which likely reflect insufficiently controlled experimental systems. Caenorhabditiselegans fat-1 gene encodes an n-3 fatty acid desaturase, and its heterologous expression represents an effective method both for altering the n-6/n-3 PUFA ratio and for evaluating the biological effects of n-3 and n-6 PUFAs. We sought to determine whether a reduced n-6/n-3 ratio could influence adipogenesis in 3T3-L1 cells. Lentivirus-mediated introduction of the fat-1 gene into 3T3-L1 preadipocytes significantly reduced the n-6/n-3 ratio and inhibited preadipocyte proliferation and differentiation. In mature adipocytes, fat-1 expression reduced lipid deposition, as measured by Oil Red O staining, and induced apoptosis. Our results indicate that a reduced n-6/n-3 ratio inhibits adipogenesis through several mechanisms and that n-3 PUFAs more effectively inhibit adipogenesis (but not lipogenesis) than do n-6 PUFAs.

  10. Cloning of the staurosporine biosynthetic gene cluster from Streptomyces sp. TP-A0274 and its heterologous expression in Streptomyces lividans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onaka, Hiroyasu; Taniguchi, Shin-ichi; Igarashi, Yasuhiro; Furumai, Tamotsu

    2002-12-01

    Staurosporine is a representative member of indolocarbazole antibiotics. The entire staurosporine biosynthetic and regulatory gene cluster spanning 20-kb was cloned from Streptomyces sp. TP-A0274 and sequenced. The gene cluster consists of 14 ORFs and the amino acid sequence homology search revealed that it contains three genes, staO, staD, and staP, coding for the enzymes involved in the indolocarbazole aglycone biosynthesis, two genes, staG and staN, for the bond formation between the aglycone and deoxysugar, eight genes, staA, staB, staE, staJ, staI, staK, staMA, and staMB, for the deoxysugar biosynthesis and one gene, staR is a transcriptional regulator. Heterologous gene expression of a 38-kb fragment containing a complete set of the biosynthetic genes for staurosporine cloned into pTOYAMAcos confirmed its role in staurosporine biosynthesis. Moreover, the distribution of the gene for chromopyrrolic acid synthase, the key enzyme for the biosynthesis of indolocarbazole aglycone, in actinomycetes was investigated, and rebD homologs were shown to exist only in the strains producing indolocarbazole antibiotics.

  11. A derepression system based on the Bacillus subtilis sporulation pathway offers dynamic control of heterologous gene expression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijland, Reindert; Veening, Jan-Willem; Kuipers, Oscar P.

    By rewiring the sporulation gene-regulatory network of Bacillus subtilis, we generated a novel expression system relying on derepression. The gene of interest is placed under the control of the abrB promoter, which is active only when Spo0A is absent, and Spo0A is controlled via an IPTG

  12. Heterologous expression of laccase cDNA from Ceriporiopsis subvermispora yields copper-activated apoprotein and complex isoform patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luis F. Larrondo; Marcela Avila; Loreto Salas; Dan Cullen; Rafael Vicuna

    2003-01-01

    Analysis of genomic clones encoding a putative laccase in homokaryon strains of Ceriporiopsis subvermispora led to the identification of an allelic variant of the previously described lcs-1 gene. A cDNA clone corresponding to this gene was expressed in Aspergillus nidulans and in Aspergillus niger. Enzyme assays and Western blots showed that both hosts secreted active...

  13. Expression of heterologous genes from an IRES translational cassette in replication-competent murine leukemia virus vectors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jespersen, T.; Duch, M.; Carrasco, M.L.

    1999-01-01

    of spliced env mRNA for the SL3-3 derived vector relative to the Akv derived vectors, seemingly contributing to its low replication capacity. The EGFP expressing Akv-MLV was genetically stable for multiple rounds of infection; marker-cassette deletion revertants appeared after several replication rounds...

  14. Heterologous expression and characterization of a putative glycoside hydrolase family 43 arabinofuranosidase from Clostridium thermocellum B8

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Camargo, de Brenda R.; Claassens, Nico J.; Quirino, Betania Ferraz; Noronha, Eliane F.; Kengen, Servé W.M.

    2018-01-01

    An extensive list of putative cellulosomal enzymes from C. thermocellum is now available in the public databanks, however, most of these remain unvalidated with regard to their activity and expression control mechanisms. This is particularly true of those enzymes putatively involved in hemicellulose

  15. Production of novel antioxidative phenolic amides through heterologous expression of the plant’s chlorogenic acid biosynthesis genes in yeast

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moglia, A.; Comino, C.; Lanteri, S.; Vos, de C.H.; Waard, de P.; Beek, van T.A.; Goitre, L.; Retta, S.F.; Beekwilder, M.J.

    2010-01-01

    Phenolic esters like chlorogenic acid play an important role in therapeutic properties of many plant extracts. We aimed to produce phenolic esters in baker’s yeast, by expressing tobacco 4CL and globe artichoke HCT. Indeed yeast produced phenolic esters. However, the primary product was identified

  16. A Lactococcus lactis expression vector set with multiple affinity tags to facilitate isolation and direct labeling of heterologous secreted proteins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pastrana, Francisco Romero; Neef, Jolanda; van Dijl, Jan Maarten; Buist, Girbe

    The gram-positive bacterium Lactococcus lactis is a useful host for extracellular protein production. A main advantage of L. lactis over other bacterial expression systems is that lactococcal cells display low levels of autolysis and proteolysis. Previously, we developed a set of vectors for

  17. Usage of the Heterologous Expression of the Antimicrobial Gene afp From Aspergillus giganteus for Increasing Fungal Resistance in Olive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narvaez, Isabel; Khayreddine, Titouh; Pliego, Clara; Cerezo, Sergio; Jiménez-Díaz, Rafael M.; Trapero-Casas, José L.; López-Herrera, Carlos; Arjona-Girona, Isabel; Martín, Carmen; Mercado, José A.; Pliego-Alfaro, Fernando

    2018-01-01

    The antifungal protein (AFP) produced by Aspergillus giganteus, encoded by the afp gene, has been used to confer resistance against a broad range of fungal pathogens in several crops. In this research, transgenic olive plants expressing the afp gene under the control of the constitutive promoter CaMV35S were generated and their disease response against two root infecting fungal pathogens, Verticillium dahliae and Rosellinia necatrix, was evaluated. Embryogenic cultures derived from a mature zygotic embryo of cv. ‘Picual’ were used for A. tumefaciens transformation. Five independent transgenic lines were obtained, showing a variable level of afp expression in leaves and roots. None of these transgenic lines showed enhanced resistance to Verticillium wilt. However, some of the lines displayed a degree of incomplete resistance to white root rot caused by R. necatrix compared with disease reaction of non-transformed plants or transgenic plants expressing only the GUS gene. The level of resistance to this pathogen correlated with that of the afp expression in root and leaves. Our results indicate that the afp gene can be useful for enhanced partial resistance to R. necatrix in olive, but this gene does not protect against V. dahliae. PMID:29875785

  18. Process for assembly and transformation into Saccharomyces cerevisiae of a synthetic yeast artificial chromosome containing a multigene cassette to express enzymes that enhance xylose utilization designed for an automated pla

    Science.gov (United States)

    A yeast artificial chromosome (YAC) containing a multigene cassette for expression of enzymes that enhance xylose utilization (xylose isomerase [XI] and xylulokinase [XKS]) was constructed and transformed into Saccharomyces cerevisiae to demonstrate feasibility as a stable protein expression system ...

  19. Molecular Characterization of Native and Recom­binant Ionotrophic Glutamate Receptors Expressed in Neurons and Heterologous Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Drasbek, Kim Ryun

    2005-01-01

    trafficking mediating the continuous replacement of synaptic receptors and is important for receptor tetramerization in the endoplasmatic reticulum. Given the many important properties of the GluR2 subunit, it was of great interest to investigate and compare synaptic properties in neuronal populations...... in synaptic currents of receptors from these neuronal preparations, miniature excitatory postsynaptic currents (mEPSCs) were recorded followed by single cell RT-PCR of the same neuron. Unfortunately, no population of GluR2 lacking neurons was detected by single cell RT-PCR, but a higher detection frequency...... expressing AMPARs with or without the GluR2 subunits. Earlier findings suggested that neurons cultured from spinal cord were devoid of GluR2 and expressed high amounts of GluR4. In contrast, GluR2 was detected in almost all cells from cortical cultures (Dai et al., 2001). To investigate differences...

  20. New insights into enterocin CRL35: mechanism of action and immunity revealed by heterologous expression in Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barraza, Daniela E; Ríos Colombo, Natalia S; Galván, Adriana E; Acuña, Leonardo; Minahk, Carlos J; Bellomio, Augusto; Chalón, Miriam C

    2017-09-01

    The role of the class IIa bacteriocin membrane receptor protein remains unclear, and the following two different mechanisms have been proposed: the bacteriocin could interact with the receptor changing it to an open conformation or the receptor might act as an anchor allowing subsequent bacteriocin insertion and membrane disruption. Bacteriocin-producing cells synthesize an immunity protein that forms an inactive bacteriocin-receptor-immunity complex. To better understand the molecular mechanism of enterocin CRL35, the peptide was expressed as the suicidal probe EtpM-enterocin CRL35 in Escherichia coli, a naturally insensitive microorganism since it does not express the receptor. When the bacteriocin is anchored to the periplasmic face of the plasma membrane through the bitopic membrane protein, EtpM , E. coli cells depolarize and die. Moreover, co-expression of the immunity protein prevents the deleterious effect of EtpM-enterocin CRL35. The binding and anchoring of the bacteriocin to the membrane has demonstrated to be a sufficient condition for its membrane insertion. The final step of membrane disruption by EtpM-enterocin CRL35 is independent from the receptor, which means that the mannose PTS might not be involved in the pore structure. In addition, the immunity protein can protect even in the absence of the receptor. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Kinetics of phosphomevalonate kinase from Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David E Garcia

    Full Text Available The mevalonate-based isoprenoid biosynthetic pathway is responsible for producing cholesterol in humans and is used commercially to produce drugs, chemicals, and fuels. Heterologous expression of this pathway in Escherichia coli has enabled high-level production of the antimalarial drug artemisinin and the proposed biofuel bisabolane. Understanding the kinetics of the enzymes in the biosynthetic pathway is critical to optimize the pathway for high flux. We have characterized the kinetic parameters of phosphomevalonate kinase (PMK, EC 2.7.4.2 from Saccharomyces cerevisiae, a previously unstudied enzyme. An E. coli codon-optimized version of the S. cerevisiae gene was cloned into pET-52b+, then the C-terminal 6X His-tagged protein was expressed in E. coli BL21(DE3 and purified on a Ni²⁺ column. The KM of the ATP binding site was determined to be 98.3 µM at 30°C, the optimal growth temperature for S. cerevisiae, and 74.3 µM at 37°C, the optimal growth temperature for E. coli. The K(M of the mevalonate-5-phosphate binding site was determined to be 885 µM at 30°C and 880 µM at 37°C. The V(max was determined to be 4.51 µmol/min/mg enzyme at 30°C and 5.33 µmol/min/mg enzyme at 37°C. PMK is Mg²⁺ dependent, with maximal activity achieved at concentrations of 10 mM or greater. Maximum activity was observed at pH = 7.2. PMK was not found to be substrate inhibited, nor feedback inhibited by FPP at concentrations up to 10 µM FPP.

  2. Improved production of biohydrogen in light-powered Escherichia coli by co-expression of proteorhodopsin and heterologous hydrogenase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim Jaoon YH

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Solar energy is the ultimate energy source on the Earth. The conversion of solar energy into fuels and energy sources can be an ideal solution to address energy problems. The recent discovery of proteorhodopsin in uncultured marine γ-proteobacteria has made it possible to construct recombinant Escherichia coli with the function of light-driven proton pumps. Protons that translocate across membranes by proteorhodopsin generate a proton motive force for ATP synthesis by ATPase. Excess protons can also be substrates for hydrogen (H2 production by hydrogenase in the periplasmic space. In the present work, we investigated the effect of the co-expression of proteorhodopsin and hydrogenase on H2 production yield under light conditions. Results Recombinant E. coli BL21(DE3 co-expressing proteorhodopsin and [NiFe]-hydrogenase from Hydrogenovibrio marinus produced ~1.3-fold more H2 in the presence of exogenous retinal than in the absence of retinal under light conditions (70 μmole photon/(m2·s. We also observed the synergistic effect of proteorhodopsin with endogenous retinal on H2 production (~1.3-fold more with a dual plasmid system compared to the strain with a single plasmid for the sole expression of hydrogenase. The increase of light intensity from 70 to 130 μmole photon/(m2·s led to an increase (~1.8-fold in H2 production from 287.3 to 525.7 mL H2/L-culture in the culture of recombinant E. coli co-expressing hydrogenase and proteorhodopsin in conjunction with endogenous retinal. The conversion efficiency of light energy to H2 achieved in this study was ~3.4%. Conclusion Here, we report for the first time the potential application of proteorhodopsin for the production of biohydrogen, a promising alternative fuel. We showed that H2 production was enhanced by the co-expression of proteorhodopsin and [NiFe]-hydrogenase in recombinant E. coli BL21(DE3 in a light intensity-dependent manner. These results demonstrate that E. coli

  3. Heterologous Expression of Secreted Bacterial BPP and HAP Phytases in Plants Stimulates Arabidopsis thaliana Growth on Phytate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lia R. Valeeva

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Phytases are specialized phosphatases capable of releasing inorganic phosphate from myo-inositol hexakisphosphate (phytate, which is highly abundant in many soils. As inorganic phosphorus reserves decrease over time in many agricultural soils, genetic manipulation of plants to enable secretion of potent phytases into the rhizosphere has been proposed as a promising approach to improve plant phosphorus nutrition. Several families of biotechnologically important phytases have been discovered and characterized, but little data are available on which phytase families can offer the most benefits toward improving plant phosphorus intake. We have developed transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana plants expressing bacterial phytases PaPhyC (HAP family of phytases and 168phyA (BPP family under the control of root-specific inducible promoter Pht1;2. The effects of each phytase expression on growth, morphology and inorganic phosphorus accumulation in plants grown on phytate hydroponically or in perlite as the only source of phosphorus were investigated. The most enzymatic activity for both phytases was detected in cell wall-bound fractions of roots, indicating that these enzymes were efficiently secreted. Expression of both bacterial phytases in roots improved plant growth on phytate and resulted in larger rosette leaf area and diameter, higher phosphorus content and increased shoot dry weight, implying that these plants were indeed capable of utilizing phytate as the source of phosphorus for growth and development. When grown on phytate the HAP-type phytase outperformed its BPP-type counterpart for plant biomass production, though this effect was only observed in hydroponic conditions and not in perlite. Furthermore, we found no evidence of adverse side effects of microbial phytase expression in A. thaliana on plant physiology and seed germination. Our data highlight important functional differences between these members of bacterial phytase families and indicate

  4. Heterologous Expression of Secreted Bacterial BPP and HAP Phytases in Plants Stimulates Arabidopsis thaliana Growth on Phytate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valeeva, Lia R; Nyamsuren, Chuluuntsetseg; Sharipova, Margarita R; Shakirov, Eugene V

    2018-01-01

    Phytases are specialized phosphatases capable of releasing inorganic phosphate from myo -inositol hexakisphosphate (phytate), which is highly abundant in many soils. As inorganic phosphorus reserves decrease over time in many agricultural soils, genetic manipulation of plants to enable secretion of potent phytases into the rhizosphere has been proposed as a promising approach to improve plant phosphorus nutrition. Several families of biotechnologically important phytases have been discovered and characterized, but little data are available on which phytase families can offer the most benefits toward improving plant phosphorus intake. We have developed transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana plants expressing bacterial phytases PaPhyC (HAP family of phytases) and 168phyA (BPP family) under the control of root-specific inducible promoter Pht1;2 . The effects of each phytase expression on growth, morphology and inorganic phosphorus accumulation in plants grown on phytate hydroponically or in perlite as the only source of phosphorus were investigated. The most enzymatic activity for both phytases was detected in cell wall-bound fractions of roots, indicating that these enzymes were efficiently secreted. Expression of both bacterial phytases in roots improved plant growth on phytate and resulted in larger rosette leaf area and diameter, higher phosphorus content and increased shoot dry weight, implying that these plants were indeed capable of utilizing phytate as the source of phosphorus for growth and development. When grown on phytate the HAP-type phytase outperformed its BPP-type counterpart for plant biomass production, though this effect was only observed in hydroponic conditions and not in perlite. Furthermore, we found no evidence of adverse side effects of microbial phytase expression in A. thaliana on plant physiology and seed germination. Our data highlight important functional differences between these members of bacterial phytase families and indicate that future

  5. Heterologous Expression of Secreted Bacterial BPP and HAP Phytases in Plants Stimulates Arabidopsis thaliana Growth on Phytate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valeeva, Lia R.; Nyamsuren, Chuluuntsetseg; Sharipova, Margarita R.; Shakirov, Eugene V.

    2018-01-01

    Phytases are specialized phosphatases capable of releasing inorganic phosphate from myo-inositol hexakisphosphate (phytate), which is highly abundant in many soils. As inorganic phosphorus reserves decrease over time in many agricultural soils, genetic manipulation of plants to enable secretion of potent phytases into the rhizosphere has been proposed as a promising approach to improve plant phosphorus nutrition. Several families of biotechnologically important phytases have been discovered and characterized, but little data are available on which phytase families can offer the most benefits toward improving plant phosphorus intake. We have developed transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana plants expressing bacterial phytases PaPhyC (HAP family of phytases) and 168phyA (BPP family) under the control of root-specific inducible promoter Pht1;2. The effects of each phytase expression on growth, morphology and inorganic phosphorus accumulation in plants grown on phytate hydroponically or in perlite as the only source of phosphorus were investigated. The most enzymatic activity for both phytases was detected in cell wall-bound fractions of roots, indicating that these enzymes were efficiently secreted. Expression of both bacterial phytases in roots improved plant growth on phytate and resulted in larger rosette leaf area and diameter, higher phosphorus content and increased shoot dry weight, implying that these plants were indeed capable of utilizing phytate as the source of phosphorus for growth and development. When grown on phytate the HAP-type phytase outperformed its BPP-type counterpart for plant biomass production, though this effect was only observed in hydroponic conditions and not in perlite. Furthermore, we found no evidence of adverse side effects of microbial phytase expression in A. thaliana on plant physiology and seed germination. Our data highlight important functional differences between these members of bacterial phytase families and indicate that future crop

  6. Aspergillus nidulans Synthesize Insect Juvenile Hormones upon Expression of a Heterologous Regulatory Protein and in Response to Grazing by Drosophila melanogaster Larvae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Morten Thrane; Klejnstrup, Marie Louise; Rohlfs, Marko

    2013-01-01

    , indicating that fungal secondary metabolites remain an underexplored resource of bioactive molecules. In this study, we combine heterologous expression of regulatory proteins in Aspergillus nidulans with systematic variation of growth conditions and observe induced synthesis of insect juvenile hormone......-III and methyl farnesoate. Both compounds are sesquiterpenes belonging to the juvenile hormone class. Juvenile hormones regulate developmental and metabolic processes in insects and crustaceans, but have not previously been reported as fungal metabolites. We found that feeding by Drosophila melanogaster larvae...

  7. Application of the relative activity factor approach in scaling from heterologously expressed cytochromes p450 to human liver microsomes: studies on amitriptyline as a model substrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkatakrishnan, K; von Moltke, L L; Greenblatt, D J

    2001-04-01

    The relative activity factor (RAF) approach is being increasingly used in the quantitative phenotyping of multienzyme drug biotransformations. Using lymphoblast-expressed cytochromes P450 (CYPs) and the tricyclic antidepressant amitriptyline as a model substrate, we have tested the hypothesis that the human liver microsomal rates of a biotransformation mediated by multiple CYP isoforms can be mathematically reconstructed from the rates of the biotransformation catalyzed by individual recombinant CYPs using the RAF approach, and that the RAF approach can be used for the in vitro-in vivo scaling of pharmacokinetic clearance from in vitro intrinsic clearance measurements in heterologous expression systems. In addition, we have compared the results of two widely used methods of quantitative reaction phenotyping, namely, chemical inhibition studies and the prediction of relative contributions of individual CYP isoforms using the RAF approach. For the pathways of N-demethylation (mediated by CYPs 1A2, 2B6, 2C8, 2C9, 2C19, 2D6, and 3A4) and E-10 hydroxylation (mediated by CYPs 2B6, 2D6, and 3A4), the model-predicted biotransformation rates in microsomes from a panel of 12 human livers determined from enzyme kinetic parameters of the recombinant CYPs were similar to, and correlated with the observed rates. The model-predicted clearance via N-demethylation was 53% lower than the previously reported in vivo pharmacokinetic estimates. Model-predicted relative contributions of individual CYP isoforms to the net biotransformation rate were similar to, and correlated with the fractional decrement in human liver microsomal reaction rates by chemical inhibitors of the respective CYPs, provided the chemical inhibitors used were specific to their target CYP isoforms.

  8. Sequence analysis and heterologous expression of the wool cuticle-degrading enzyme encoding genes in Fusarium oxysporum 26-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaya, Etsushi; Suzuki, Tohru; Karita, Shuichi; Hanya, Akira; Yoshino-Yasuda, Shoko; Kitamoto, Noriyuki

    2014-06-01

    Two protease-like proteins, KrtA and KrtC, were identified in Fusarium oxysporum 26-1. Genes coding these proteins, krtA and krtC, were isolated and characterized. Recombinant KrtA (rKrtA) and KrtC (rKrtC) were successfully expressed in Aspergillus oryzae and secreted. The combination of rKrtA and rKrtC completely removed the cuticle of wool fibers. Copyright © 2013 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Ethanol production from xylose by recombinant Saccharomyces cerevisiae expressing protein-engineered NADH-preferring xylose reductase from Pichia stipitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Seiya; Abu Saleh, Ahmed; Pack, Seung Pil; Annaluru, Narayana; Kodaki, Tsutomu; Makino, Keisuke

    2007-09-01

    A recombinant Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain transformed with xylose reductase (XR) and xylitol dehydrogenase (XDH) genes from Pichia stipitis (PsXR and PsXDH, respectively) has the ability to convert xylose to ethanol together with the unfavourable excretion of xylitol, which may be due to intercellular redox imbalance caused by the different coenzyme specificity between NADPH-preferring XR and NAD(+)-dependent XDH. In this study, we focused on the effect(s) of mutated NADH-preferring PsXR in fermentation. The R276H and K270R/N272D mutants were improved 52- and 146-fold, respectively, in the ratio of NADH/NADPH in catalytic efficiency [(k(cat)/K(m) with NADH)/(k(cat)/K(m) with NADPH)] compared with the wild-type (WT), which was due to decrease of k(cat) with NADPH in the R276H mutant and increase of K(m) with NADPH in the K270R/N272D mutant. Furthermore, R276H mutation led to significant thermostabilization in PsXR. The most positive effect on xylose fermentation to ethanol was found by using the Y-R276H strain, expressing PsXR R276H mutant and PsXDH WT: 20 % increase of ethanol production and 52 % decrease of xylitol excretion, compared with the Y-WT strain expressing PsXR WT and PsXDH WT. Measurement of intracellular coenzyme concentrations suggested that maintenance of the of NADPH/NADP(+) and NADH/NAD(+) ratios is important for efficient ethanol fermentation from xylose by recombinant S. cerevisiae.

  10. Heterologous expression of carcinoembryonic antigen in Lactococcus lactis via LcsB-mediated surface displaying system for oral vaccine development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaowei; Hu, Shumin; Du, Xue; Li, Tiejun; Han, Lanlan; Kong, Jian

    2016-12-01

    Carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) is an attractive target for immunotherapy because it is expressed minimally in normal tissue, but is overexpressed in a wide variety of malignant epithelial tissues. Lactic acid bacteria (LABs), widely used in food processes, are attractive candidates for oral vaccination. Thus, we examined whether LABs could be used as a live vaccine vector to deliver CEA antigen. CEA was cloned into an Escherichia coli/Lactococcus lactis shuttle vector pSEC:LEISS under the control of a nisin promoter. For displaying the CEA on the cell surface of the L. lactis strain, the anchor motif LcsB from the S-layer protein of Lactobacillus crispatus was fused with CEA. Intracellular and cell surface expression of the CEA-LcsB fusion was confirmed by western blot analysis. Significantly higher levels of CEA-specific secretory immunoglobulin A in the sera of mice were observed upon oral administration of strain cultures containing the CEA-LcsB fused protein. In addition, the CEA-LcsB antigen group showed a higher spleen index compared to the CEA antigen alone or negative control, demonstrating that surface-displayed CEA antigen could induce a higher immune response. These results provided the first evidence for displaying CEA antigen on the cell surfaces of LABs as oral vaccines against cancer or infectious diseases. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  11. Functional studies of TcRjl, a novel GTPase of Trypanosoma cruzi, reveals phenotypes related with MAPK activation during parasite differentiation and after heterologous expression in Drosophila model system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reis Monteiro dos-Santos, Guilherme Rodrigo [Laboratório de Parasitologia Molecular, Instituto de Biofísica Carlos Chagas Filho, CCS, UFRJ, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Fontenele, Marcio Ribeiro [Laboratório de Biologia Molecular do Desenvolvimento Instituto de Ciências Biomédicas, CCS, UFRJ, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Dias, Felipe de Almeida [Laboratório de Bioquímica de Artrópodes Hematófagos, Instituto de Bioquímica Médica, CCS, UFRJ, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Oliveira, Pedro Lagerblad de [Laboratório de Bioquímica de Artrópodes Hematófagos, Instituto de Bioquímica Médica, CCS, UFRJ, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Instituto Nacional de Ciência e Tecnologia em Entomologia Molecular (INCT-EM) (Brazil); Nepomuceno-Silva, José Luciano [Laboratório Integrado de Bioquímica Hatisaburo Masuda, NUPEM/UFRJ, Pólo Barreto, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Campus Macaé, Macaé (Brazil); and others

    2015-11-06

    The life cycle of the protozoan parasite Trypanosoma cruzi comprises rounds of proliferative cycles and differentiation in distinct host environments. Ras GTPases are molecular switches that play pivotal regulatory functions in cell fate. Rjl is a novel GTPase with unknown function. Herein we show that TcRjl blocks in vivo cell differentiation. The forced expression of TcRjl leads to changes in the overall tyrosine protein phosphorylation profile of parasites. TcRjl expressing parasites sustained DNA synthesis regardless the external stimuli for differentiation. Heterologous expression in the Drosophila melanogaster genetic system strongly suggests a role from TcRjl protein in RTK-dependent pathways and MAPK activation.

  12. Functional studies of TcRjl, a novel GTPase of Trypanosoma cruzi, reveals phenotypes related with MAPK activation during parasite differentiation and after heterologous expression in Drosophila model system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reis Monteiro dos-Santos, Guilherme Rodrigo; Fontenele, Marcio Ribeiro; Dias, Felipe de Almeida; Oliveira, Pedro Lagerblad de; Nepomuceno-Silva, José Luciano

    2015-01-01

    The life cycle of the protozoan parasite Trypanosoma cruzi comprises rounds of proliferative cycles and differentiation in distinct host environments. Ras GTPases are molecular switches that play pivotal regulatory functions in cell fate. Rjl is a novel GTPase with unknown function. Herein we show that TcRjl blocks in vivo cell differentiation. The forced expression of TcRjl leads to changes in the overall tyrosine protein phosphorylation profile of parasites. TcRjl expressing parasites sustained DNA synthesis regardless the external stimuli for differentiation. Heterologous expression in the Drosophila melanogaster genetic system strongly suggests a role from TcRjl protein in RTK-dependent pathways and MAPK activation.

  13. Expression of a codon-optimized β-glucosidase from Cellulomonas flavigena PR-22 in Saccharomyces cerevisiae for bioethanol production from cellobiose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ríos-Fránquez, Francisco Javier; González-Bautista, Enrique; Ponce-Noyola, Teresa; Ramos-Valdivia, Ana Carmela; Poggi-Varaldo, Héctor Mario; García-Mena, Jaime; Martinez, Alfredo

    2017-05-01

    Bioethanol is one of the main biofuels produced from the fermentation of saccharified agricultural waste; however, this technology needs to be optimized for profitability. Because the commonly used ethanologenic yeast strains are unable to assimilate cellobiose, several efforts have been made to express cellulose hydrolytic enzymes in these yeasts to produce ethanol from lignocellulose. The C. flavigenabglA gene encoding β-glucosidase catalytic subunit was optimized for preferential codon usage in S. cerevisiae. The optimized gene, cloned into the episomal vector pRGP-1, was expressed, which led to the secretion of an active β-glucosidase in transformants of the S. cerevisiae diploid strain 2-24D. The volumetric and specific extracellular enzymatic activities using pNPG as substrate were 155 IU L -1 and 222 IU g -1 , respectively, as detected in the supernatant of the cultures of the S. cerevisiae RP2-BGL transformant strain growing in cellobiose (20 g L -1 ) as the sole carbon source for 48 h. Ethanol production was 5 g L -1 after 96 h of culture, which represented a yield of 0.41 g g -1 of substrate consumed (12 g L -1 ), equivalent to 76% of the theoretical yield. The S. cerevisiae RP2-BGL strain expressed the β-glucosidase extracellularly and produced ethanol from cellobiose, which makes this microorganism suitable for application in ethanol production processes with saccharified lignocellulose.

  14. Improvement of Lead Tolerance of Saccharomyces cerevisiae by Random Mutagenesis of Transcription Regulator SPT3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Liying; Gao, Shan; Zhang, Hongman; Huang, He; Jiang, Ling

    2018-01-01

    Bioremediation of heavy metal pollution with biomaterials such as bacteria and fungi usually suffer from limitations because of microbial sensitivity to high concentration of heavy metals. Herein, we adopted a novel random mutagenesis technique called RAISE to manipulate the transcription regulator SPT3 of Saccharomyces cerevisiae to improve cell lead tolerance. The best strain Mutant VI was selected from the random mutagenesis libraries on account of the growth performance, with higher specific growth rate than the control strain (0.068 vs. 0.040 h -1 ) at lead concentration as high as 1.8 g/L. Combined with the transcriptome analysis of S. cerevisiae, expressing the SPT3 protein was performed to make better sense of the global regulatory effects of SPT3. The data analysis revealed that 57 of S. cerevisiae genes were induced and 113 genes were suppressed, ranging from those for trehalose synthesis, carbon metabolism, and nucleotide synthesis to lead resistance. Especially, the accumulation of intracellular trehalose in S. cerevisiae under certain conditions of stress is considered important to lead resistance. The above results represented that SPT3 was acted as global transcription regulator in the exponential phase of strain and accordingly improved heavy metal tolerance in the heterologous host S. cerevisiae. The present study provides a route to complex phenotypes that are not readily accessible by traditional methods.

  15. Heterologous expression of two Aspergillus niger feruloyl esterases in Trichoderma reesei for the production of ferulic acid from wheat bran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Liangkun; Zhao, Haoyuan; Ding, Dafan; Xu, Meijuan; Ding, Shaojun

    2018-05-01

    Feruloyl esterase (FAE)-encoding genes AnfaeA and AnfaeB were isolated from Aspergillus niger 0913. For overexpression of the two genes in Trichoderma reesei, constitutive and inductive expression plasmids were constructed based on parental plasmid pAg1-H3. The constructed plasmids contained AnfaeA or AnfaeB gene under the control of glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase A gene (gpdA) promoter (from A. nidulans) or cellobiohydrolases I (cbh I) gene promoter (from T. reesei), and cbh I terminator from T. reesei. The target plasmids were transferred into T. reesei D-86271 (Rut-C30) by Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation (ATMT), respectively. A high level of feruloyl esterase was produced by the recombinant fungal strains under solid-state fermentation, and the cbh I promoter was more efficient than the gpdA promoter in the expression of AnfaeA. The optimum temperatures and pH values were 50 °C and 5.0 for AnFAEA, and 35 °C and 6.0 for AnFAEB. The maximum production levels were 20.69 U/gsd for AnFAEA and 15.08 U/gsd for AnFAEB. The recombinant fungal enzyme systems could release 62.9% (for AnFAEA) and 52.2% (for AnFAEB) of total ferulic acids from de-starched wheat bran, which was higher than the 46.3% releasing efficiency of A. niger 0913. The supplement of xylanase from T. longibrachiatum in the enzymatic hydrolysis led to a small increment of the ferulic acids release.

  16. Biocatalytic Conversion of Avermectin to 4"-Oxo-Avermectin: Heterologous Expression of the ema1 Cytochrome P450 Monooxygenase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molnár, István; Hill, D. Steven; Zirkle, Ross; Hammer, Philip E.; Gross, Frank; Buckel, Thomas G.; Jungmann, Volker; Pachlatko, Johannes Paul; Ligon, James M.

    2005-01-01

    The cytochrome P450 monooxygenase Ema1 from Streptomyces tubercidicus R-922 and its homologs from closely related Streptomyces strains are able to catalyze the regioselective oxidation of avermectin into 4"-oxo-avermectin, a key intermediate in the manufacture of the agriculturally important insecticide emamectin benzoate (V. Jungmann, I. Molnár, P. E. Hammer, D. S. Hill, R. Zirkle, T. G. Buckel, D. Buckel, J. M. Ligon, and J. P. Pachlatko, Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 71:6968-6976, 2005). The gene for Ema1 has been expressed in Streptomyces lividans, Streptomyces avermitilis, and solvent-tolerant Pseudomonas putida strains using different promoters and vectors to provide biocatalytically competent cells. Replacing the extremely rare TTA codon with the more frequent CTG codon to encode Leu4 in Ema1 increased the biocatalytic activities of S. lividans strains producing this enzyme. Ferredoxins and ferredoxin reductases were also cloned from Streptomyces coelicolor and biocatalytic Streptomyces strains and tested in ema1 coexpression systems to optimize the electron transport towards Ema1. PMID:16269733

  17. Crystallization and preliminary characterization of three different crystal forms of human saposin C heterologously expressed in Pichia pastoris

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schultz-Heienbrok, Robert; Remmel, Natascha; Klingenstein, R.; Rossocha, Maksim; Sandhoff, Konrad; Saenger, Wolfram; Maier, Timm

    2006-01-01

    Three different crystal forms were obtained of human saposin C. The structures could not be determined by molecular replacement using known solution structures of the protein as search models, supporting the notion of a highly flexible protein. The amphiphilic saposin proteins (A, B, C and D) act at the lipid–water interface in lysosomes, mediating the hydrolysis of membrane building blocks by water-soluble exohydrolases. Human saposin C activates glucocerebrosidase and β-galactosylceramidase. The protein has been expressed in Pichia pastoris, purified and crystallized in three different crystal forms, diffracting to a maximum resolution of 2.5 Å. Hexagonal crystals grew from 2-propanol-containing solution and contain a single molecule in the asymmetric unit according to the Matthews coefficient. Orthorhombic and tetragonal crystals were both obtained with pentaerythritol ethoxylate and are predicted to contain two molecules in the asymmetric unit. Attempts to determine the respective crystal structures by molecular replacement using either the known NMR structure of human saposin C or a related crystal structure as search models have so far failed. The failure of the molecular-replacement method is attributed to conformational changes of the protein, which are known to be required for its biological activity. Crystal structures of human saposin C therefore might be the key to mapping out the conformational trajectory of saposin-like proteins

  18. Biodegradation of 1,2,3-trichloropropane through directed evolution and heterologous expression of a haloalkane dehalogenase gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosma, Tjibbe; Damborský, Jirí; Stucki, Gerhard; Janssen, Dick B

    2002-07-01

    Using a combined strategy of random mutagenesis of haloalkane dehalogenase and genetic engineering of a chloropropanol-utilizing bacterium, we constructed an organism that is capable of growth on 1,2,3-trichloropropane (TCP). This highly toxic and recalcitrant compound is a waste product generated from the manufacture of the industrial chemical epichlorohydrin. Attempts to select and enrich bacterial cultures that can degrade TCP from environmental samples have repeatedly been unsuccessful, prohibiting the development of a biological process for groundwater treatment. The critical step in the aerobic degradation of TCP is the initial dehalogenation to 2,3-dichloro-1-propanol. We used random mutagenesis and screening on eosin-methylene blue agar plates to improve the activity on TCP of the haloalkane dehalogenase from Rhodococcus sp. m15-3 (DhaA). A second-generation mutant containing two amino acid substitutions, Cys176Tyr and Tyr273Phe, was nearly eight times more efficient in dehalogenating TCP than wild-type dehalogenase. Molecular modeling of the mutant dehalogenase indicated that the Cys176Tyr mutation has a global effect on the active-site structure, allowing a more productive binding of TCP within the active site, which was further fine tuned by Tyr273Phe. The evolved haloalkane dehalogenase was expressed under control of a constitutive promoter in the 2,3-dichloro-1-propanol-utilizing bacterium Agrobacterium radiobacter AD1, and the resulting strain was able to utilize TCP as the sole carbon and energy source. These results demonstrated that directed evolution of a key catabolic enzyme and its subsequent recruitment by a suitable host organism can be used for the construction of bacteria for the degradation of a toxic and environmentally recalcitrant chemical.

  19. Heterologous Expression of Two Jatropha Aquaporins Imparts Drought and Salt Tolerance and Improves Seed Viability in Transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kasim Khan

    Full Text Available Drought and high salinity are environmental conditions that cause adverse effects on the growth and productivity of crops. Aquaporins are small integral membrane proteins that belong to the family of the major intrinsic proteins (MIPs, with members in animals, plants and microbes, where they facilitate the transport of water and/or small neutral solutes thereby affecting water balance. In this study we characterized two aquaporin genes namely, plasma membrane intrinsic protein (PIP2;7 and tonoplast intrinsic protein TIP1;3 from Jatropha curcas that are localised to the plasma membrane and vacuole respectively. Transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana lines over-expressing JcPIP2;7 and JcTIP1;3 under a constitutive promoter show improved germination under high salt and mannitol compared to control seeds. These transgenic plants also show increased root length under abiotic stress conditions compared to wild type Col-0 plants. Transgenic lines exposed to drought conditions by withholding water for 20 days, were able to withstand water stress and attained normal growth after re-watering unlike control plants which could not survive. Transgenic lines also had better seed yield than control under salt stress. Importantly, seed viability of transgenic plants grown under high salt concentration was 35%-45% compared to less than 5% for control seeds obtained from plants growing under salt stress. The effect of JcPIP2;7 and JcTIP1;3 on improving germination and seed viability in drought and salinity make these important candidates for genetic manipulation of plants for growth in saline soils.

  20. Heterologous expression of pyrroloquinoline quinone (pqq) gene cluster confers mineral phosphate solubilization ability to Herbaspirillum seropedicae Z67.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagh, Jitendra; Shah, Sonal; Bhandari, Praveena; Archana, G; Kumar, G Naresh

    2014-06-01

    Gluconic acid secretion mediated by the direct oxidation of glucose by pyrroloquinoline quinone (PQQ)-dependent glucose dehydrogenase (GDH) is responsible for mineral phosphate solubilization in Gram-negative bacteria. Herbaspirillum seropedicae Z67 (ATCC 35892) genome encodes GDH apoprotein but lacks genes for the biosynthesis of its cofactor PQQ. In this study, pqqE of Erwinia herbicola (in plasmid pJNK1) and pqq gene clusters of Pseudomonas fluorescens B16 (pOK53) and Acinetobacter calcoaceticus (pSS2) were over-expressed in H. seropedicae Z67. Transformants Hs (pSS2) and Hs (pOK53) secreted micromolar levels of PQQ and attained high GDH activity leading to secretion of 33.46 mM gluconic acid when grown on 50 mM glucose while Hs (pJNK1) was ineffective. Hs (pJNK1) failed to solubilize rock phosphate, while Hs (pSS2) and Hs (pOK53) liberated 125.47 μM and 168.07 μM P, respectively, in minimal medium containing 50 mM glucose under aerobic conditions. Moreover, under N-free minimal medium, Hs (pSS2) and Hs (pOK53) not only released significant P but also showed enhanced growth, biofilm formation, and exopolysaccharide (EPS) secretion. However, indole acetic acid (IAA) production was suppressed. Thus, the addition of the pqq gene cluster, but not pqqE alone, is sufficient for engineering phosphate solubilization in H. seropedicae Z67 without compromising growth under nitrogen-fixing conditions.

  1. Heterologous expression and characterization of a glucose-stimulated β-glucosidase from the termite Neotermes koshunensis in Aspergillus oryzae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uchima, Cristiane Akemi; Tokuda, Gaku; Watanabe, Hirofumi; Kitamoto, Katsuhiko; Arioka, Manabu

    2011-03-01

    Neotermes koshunensis is a lower termite that secretes endogenous β-glucosidase in the salivary glands. This β-glucosidase (G1NkBG) was successfully expressed in Aspergillus oryzae. G1NkBG was purified to homogeneity from the culture supernatant through ammonium sulfate precipitation and anion exchange, hydrophobic, and gel filtration chromatographies with a 48-fold increase in purity. The molecular mass of the native enzyme appeared as a single band at 60 kDa after gel filtration analysis, indicating that G1NkBG is a monomeric protein. Maximum activity was observed at 50 °C with an optimum pH at 5.0. G1NkBG retained 80% of its maximum activity at temperatures up to 45 °C and lost its activity at temperatures above 55 °C. The enzyme was stable from pH 5.0 to 9.0. G1NkBG was most active towards laminaribiose and p-nitrophenyl-β-D-fucopyranoside. Cellobiose, as well as cello-oligosaccharides, was also well hydrolyzed. The enzyme activity was slightly stimulated by Mn(2+) and glycerol. The K(m) and V(max) values were 0.77 mM and 16 U/mg, respectively, against p-nitrophenyl-β-D-glucopyranoside. An unusual finding was that G1NkBG was stimulated by 1.3-fold when glucose was present in the reaction mixture at a concentration of 200 mM. These characteristics, particularly the stimulation of enzyme activity by glucose, make G1NkBG of great interest for biotechnological applications, especially for bioethanol production.

  2. Identification of Glycyrrhiza as the rikkunshito constituent with the highest antagonistic potential on heterologously expressed 5HT3A receptors due to the action of flavonoids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robin eHerbrechter

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The traditional Japanese phytomedicine rikkunshito is traditionally used for the treatment of gastrointestinal motility disorders, cachexia and nausea. These effects indicate 5-HT3 receptor antagonism, due to the involvement of these receptors in such pathophysiological processes. E.g. setrons, specific 5-HT3 receptor antagonists are the strongest antiemetics, developed so far. Therefore, the antagonistic effects of the eight rikkunshito constituents at heterologously expressed 5-HT3A receptors were analyzed using the two-electrode voltage-clamp technique. The results indicate that tinctures from Aurantii, Ginseng, Zingiberis, Atractylodis and Glycyrrhiza inhibited the 5-HT3A receptor response, whereas the tinctures of Poria cocos, Jujubae and Pinellia exhibited no effect. Surprisingly, the strongest antagonism was found for Glycyrrhiza, whereas the Zingiberis tincture, which is considered to be primarily responsible for the effect of rikkunshito, exhibited the weakest antagonist of 5-HT3A receptors. Rikkunshito contains various vanilloids, ginsenosides and flavonoids, a portion of which show an antagonistic effect on 5-HT3 receptors. A screening of the established ingredients of the active rikkunshito constituents and related substances lead to the identification of new antagonists within the class of flavonoids. The flavonoids (--liquiritigenin, glabridin and licochalcone A from Glycyrrhiza species were found to be the most effective inhibitors of the 5-HT-induced currents in the screening. The flavonoids (--liquiritigenin and hesperetin from Aurantii inhibited the receptor response in a non-competitive manner, whereas glabridin and licochalcone A exhibited a potential competitive antagonism. Furthermore, licochalcone A acts as a partial antagonist of 5-HT3A receptors. Thus, this study reveals new 5-HT3A receptor antagonists with the aid of increasing the comprehension of the complex effects of rikkunshito.

  3. Efficient Production of γ-GABA Using Recombinant E. coli Expressing Glutamate Decarboxylase (GAD) Derived from Eukaryote Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Qiang; Xu, Zheng; Xu, Lu; Yao, Zhong; Li, Sha; Xu, Hong

    2017-12-01

    γ-Aminobutyric acid (γ-GABA) is a non-proteinogenic amino acid, which acts as a major regulator in the central nervous system. Glutamate decarboxylase (namely GAD, EC 4.1.1.15) is known to be an ideal enzyme for γ-GABA production using L-glutamic acid as substrate. In this study, we cloned and expressed GAD gene from eukaryote Saccharomyces cerevisiae (ScGAD) in E. coli BL21(DE3). This enzyme was further purified and its optimal reaction temperature and pH were 37 °C and pH 4.2, respectively. The cofactor of ScGAD was verified to be either pyridoxal 5'-phosphate (PLP) or pyridoxal hydrochloride. The optimal concentration of either cofactor was 50 mg/L. The optimal medium for E. coli-ScGAD cultivation and expression were 10 g/L lactose, 5 g/L glycerol, 20 g/L yeast extract, and 10 g/L sodium chloride, resulting in an activity of 55 U/mL medium, three times higher than that of using Luria-Bertani (LB) medium. The maximal concentration of γ-GABA was 245 g/L whereas L-glutamic acid was near completely converted. These findings provided us a good example for bio-production of γ-GABA using recombinant E. coli expressing a GAD enzyme derived from eukaryote.

  4. Expression of a mutated SPT15 gene in Saccharomyces cerevisiae enhances both cell growth and ethanol production in microaerobic batch, fed-batch, and simultaneous saccharification and fermentations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seong, Yeong-Je; Park, Haeseong; Yang, Jungwoo; Kim, Soo-Jung; Choi, Wonja; Kim, Kyoung Heon; Park, Yong-Cheol

    2017-05-01

    The SPT15 gene encodes a Saccharomyces cerevisiae TATA-binding protein, which is able to globally control the transcription levels of various metabolic and regulatory genes. In this study, a SPT15 gene mutant (S42N, S78R, S163P, and I212N) was expressed in S. cerevisiae BY4741 (BSPT15-M3), of which effects on fermentative yeast properties were evaluated in a series of culture types. By applying different nitrogen sources and air supply conditions in batch culture, organic nitrogen sources and microaerobic condition were decided to be more favorable for both cell growth and ethanol production of the BSPT15-M3 strain than the control S. cerevisiae BY4741 strain expressing the SPT15 gene (BSPT15wt). Microaerobic fed-batch cultures of BSPT15-M3 with glucose shock in the presence of high ethanol content resulted in a 9.5-13.4% higher glucose consumption rate and ethanol productivity than those for the BSPT15wt strain. In addition, BSPT15-M3 showed 4.5 and 3.9% increases in ethanol productivity from cassava hydrolysates and corn starch in simultaneous saccharification and fermentation processes, respectively. It was concluded that overexpression of the mutated SPT15 gene would be a potent strategy to develop robust S. cerevisiae strains with enhanced cell growth and ethanol production abilities.

  5. Recombinant vectors construction for cellobiohydrolase encoding gene constitutive expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leontina GURGU

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Cellobiohydrolases (EC 3.2.1.91 are important exo enzymes involved in cellulose hydrolysis alongside endoglucanases (EC 3.2.1.4 and β-glucosidases (EC 3.2.1.21. Heterologous cellobiohydrolase gene expression under constitutive promoter control using Saccharomyces cerevisiae as host system is of great importance for a successful SSF process. From this point of view, the main objective of the work was to use Yeplac181 expression vector as a recipient for cellobiohdrolase - cbhB encoding gene expression under the control of the actin promoter, in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Two hybridvectors, YEplac-Actp and YEplac-Actp-CbhB, were generated usingEscherichia coli XLI Blue for the cloning experiments. Constitutive cbhB gene expression was checked by proteine gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE after insertion of these constructs into Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

  6. Fast-acting and nearly gratuitous induction of gene expression and protein depletion in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIsaac, R. Scott; Silverman, Sanford J.; McClean, Megan N.; Gibney, Patrick A.; Macinskas, Joanna; Hickman, Mark J.; Petti, Allegra A.; Botstein, David

    2011-01-01

    We describe the development and characterization of a system that allows the rapid and specific induction of individual genes in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae without changes in nutrients or temperature. The system is based on the chimeric transcriptional activator Gal4dbd.ER.VP16 (GEV). Upon addition of the hormone β-estradiol, cytoplasmic GEV localizes to the nucleus and binds to promoters containing Gal4p consensus binding sequences to activate transcription. With galactokinase Gal1p and transcriptional activator Gal4p absent, the system is fast-acting, resulting in readily detectable transcription within 5 min after addition of the inducer. β-Estradiol is nearly a gratuitous inducer, as indicated by genome-wide profiling that shows unintended induction (by GEV) of only a few dozen genes. Response to inducer is graded: intermediate concentrations of inducer result in production of intermediate levels of product protein in all cells. We present data illustrating several applications of this system, including a modification of the regulated degron method, which allows rapid and specific degradation of a specific protein upon addition of β-estradiol. These gene induction and protein degradation systems provide important tools for studying the dynamics and functional relationships of genes and their respective regulatory networks. PMID:21965290

  7. Optimizing anaerobic growth rate and fermentation kinetics in Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains expressing Calvin-cycle enzymes for improved ethanol yield

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Papapetridis, I.; Goudriaan, M.; De Keijzer, Nikita A.; van den Broek, M.A.; van Maris, A.J.A.; Pronk, J.T.

    2018-01-01

    Background: Reduction or elimination of by-product formation is of immediate economic relevance in fermentation processes for industrial bioethanol production with the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Anaerobic cultures of wild-type S. cerevisiae require formation of glycerol to maintain the

  8. Evaluation of GO-based functional similarity measures using S. cerevisiae protein interaction and expression profile data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Du LinFang

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Researchers interested in analysing the expression patterns of functionally related genes usually hope to improve the accuracy of their results beyond the boundaries of currently available experimental data. Gene ontology (GO data provides a novel way to measure the functional relationship between gene products. Many approaches have been reported for calculating the similarities between two GO terms, known as semantic similarities. However, biologists are more interested in the relationship between gene products than in the scores linking the GO terms. To highlight the relationships among genes, recent studies have focused on functional similarities. Results In this study, we evaluated five functional similarity methods using both protein-protein interaction (PPI and expression data of S. cerevisiae. The receiver operating characteristics (ROC and correlation coefficient analysis of these methods showed that the maximum method outperformed the other methods. Statistical comparison of multiple- and single-term annotated proteins in biological process ontology indicated that genes with multiple GO terms may be more reliable for separating true positives from noise. Conclusion This study demonstrated the reliability of current approaches that elevate the similarity of GO terms to the similarity of proteins. Suggestions for further improvements in functional similarity analysis are also provided.

  9. Steady-state and dynamic gene expression programs in Saccharomyces cerevisiae in response to variation in environmental nitrogen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Airoldi, Edoardo M.; Miller, Darach; Athanasiadou, Rodoniki; Brandt, Nathan; Abdul-Rahman, Farah; Neymotin, Benjamin; Hashimoto, Tatsu; Bahmani, Tayebeh; Gresham, David

    2016-01-01

    Cell growth rate is regulated in response to the abundance and molecular form of essential nutrients. In Saccharomyces cerevisiae (budding yeast), the molecular form of environmental nitrogen is a major determinant of cell growth rate, supporting growth rates that vary at least threefold. Transcriptional control of nitrogen use is mediated in large part by nitrogen catabolite repression (NCR), which results in the repression of specific transcripts in the presence of a preferred nitrogen source that supports a fast growth rate, such as glutamine, that are otherwise expressed in the presence of a nonpreferred nitrogen source, such as proline, which supports a slower growth rate. Differential expression of the NCR regulon and additional nitrogen-responsive genes results in >500 transcripts that are differentially expressed in cells growing in the presence of different nitrogen sources in batch cultures. Here we find that in growth rate–controlled cultures using nitrogen-limited chemostats, gene expression programs are strikingly similar regardless of nitrogen source. NCR expression is derepressed in all nitrogen-limiting chemostat conditions regardless of nitrogen source, and in these conditions, only 34 transcripts exhibit nitrogen source–specific differential gene expression. Addition of either the preferred nitrogen source, glutamine, or the nonpreferred nitrogen source, proline, to cells growing in nitrogen-limited chemostats results in rapid, dose-dependent repression of the NCR regulon. Using a novel means of computational normalization to compare global gene expression programs in steady-state and dynamic conditions, we find evidence that the addition of nitrogen to nitrogen-limited cells results in the transient overproduction of transcripts required for protein translation. Simultaneously, we find that that accelerated mRNA degradation underlies the rapid clearing of a subset of transcripts, which is most pronounced for the highly expressed NCR

  10. Development of a plasmid-based expression system in Clostridium thermocellum and its use to screen heterologous expression of bifunctional alcohol dehydrogenases (adhEs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuen Hon

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Clostridium thermocellum is a promising candidate for ethanol production from cellulosic biomass, but requires metabolic engineering to improve ethanol yield. A key gene in the ethanol production pathway is the bifunctional aldehyde and alcohol dehydrogenase, adhE. To explore the effects of overexpressing wild-type, mutant, and exogenous adhEs, we developed a new expression plasmid, pDGO144, that exhibited improved transformation efficiency and better gene expression than its predecessor, pDGO-66. This new expression plasmid will allow for many other metabolic engineering and basic research efforts in C. thermocellum. As proof of concept, we used this plasmid to express 12 different adhE genes (both wild type and mutant from several organisms. Ethanol production varied between clones immediately after transformation, but tended to converge to a single value after several rounds of serial transfer. The previously described mutant C. thermocellum D494G adhE gave the best ethanol production, which is consistent with previously published results. Keywords: Clostridium Thermocellum, Plasmid, adhE, Structural stability, Gene expression

  11. Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bojsen, Rasmus K; Andersen, Kaj Scherz; Regenberg, Birgitte

    2012-01-01

    Microbial biofilms can be defined as multi-cellular aggregates adhering to a surface and embedded in an extracellular matrix (ECM). The nonpathogenic yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, follows the common traits of microbial biofilms with cell-cell and cell-surface adhesion. S. cerevisiae is shown t...

  12. Gene expression cross-profiling in genetically modified industrial Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains during high-temperature ethanol production from xylose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismail, Ku Syahidah Ku; Sakamoto, Takatoshi; Hatanaka, Haruyo; Hasunuma, Tomohisa; Kondo, Akihiko

    2013-01-10

    Production of ethanol from xylose at high temperature would be an economical approach since it reduces risk of contamination and allows both the saccharification and fermentation steps in SSF to be running at elevated temperature. Eight recombinant xylose-utilizing Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains developed from industrial strains were constructed and subjected to high-temperature fermentation at 38 °C. The best performing strain was sun049T, which produced up to 15.2 g/L ethanol (63% of the theoretical production), followed by sun048T and sun588T, both with 14.1 g/L ethanol produced. Via transcriptomic analysis, expression profiling of the top three best ethanol producing strains compared to a negative control strain, sun473T, led to the discovery of genes in common that were regulated in the same direction. Identification of the 20 most highly up-regulated and the 20 most highly down-regulated genes indicated that the cells regulate their central metabolism and maintain the integrity of the cell walls in response to high temperature. We also speculate that cross-protection in the cells occurs, allowing them to maintain ethanol production at higher concentration under heat stress than the negative controls. This report provides further transcriptomics information in the interest of producing a robust microorganism for high-temperature ethanol production utilizing xylose. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Development of a plasmid-based expression system in Clostridium thermocellum and its use to screen heterologous expression of bifunctional alcohol dehydrogenases (adhEs).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hon, Shuen; Lanahan, Anthony A; Tian, Liang; Giannone, Richard J; Hettich, Robert L; Olson, Daniel G; Lynd, Lee R

    2016-12-01

    Clostridium thermocellum is a promising candidate for ethanol production from cellulosic biomass, but requires metabolic engineering to improve ethanol yield. A key gene in the ethanol production pathway is the bifunctional aldehyde and alcohol dehydrogenase, adhE . To explore the effects of overexpressing wild-type, mutant, and exogenous adhE s, we developed a new expression plasmid, pDGO144, that exhibited improved transformation efficiency and better gene expression than its predecessor, pDGO-66. This new expression plasmid will allow for many other metabolic engineering and basic research efforts in C. thermocellum . As proof of concept, we used this plasmid to express 12 different adhE genes (both wild type and mutant) from several organisms. Ethanol production varied between clones immediately after transformation, but tended to converge to a single value after several rounds of serial transfer. The previously described mutant C. thermocellum D494G adhE gave the best ethanol production, which is consistent with previously published results.

  14. Advanced method for high-throughput expression of mutated eukaryotic membrane proteins in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ito, Keisuke; Sugawara, Taishi; Shiroishi, Mitsunori; Tokuda, Natsuko; Kurokawa, Azusa; Misaka, Takumi; Makyio, Hisayoshi; Yurugi-Kobayashi, Takami; Shimamura, Tatsuro; Nomura, Norimichi; Murata, Takeshi; Abe, Keiko; Iwata, So

    2008-01-01

    Crystallization of eukaryotic membrane proteins is a challenging, iterative process. The protein of interest is often modified in an attempt to improve crystallization and diffraction results. To accelerate this process, we took advantage of a GFP-fusion yeast expression system that uses PCR to direct homologous recombination and gene cloning. We explored the possibility of employing more than one PCR fragment to introduce various mutations in a single step, and found that when up to five PCR fragments were co-transformed into yeast, the recombination frequency was maintained as the number of fragments was increased. All transformants expressed the model membrane protein, while the resulting plasmid from each clone contained the designed mutations only. Thus, we have demonstrated a technique allowing the expression of mutant membrane proteins within 5 days, combining a GFP-fusion expression system and yeast homologous recombination

  15. The influence of cis-acting P1 protein and translational elements on the expression of Potato virus Y helper-component proteinase (HCPro) in heterologous systems and its suppression of silencing activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tena Fernández, Fátima; González, Inmaculada; Doblas, Paula; Rodríguez, César; Sahana, Nandita; Kaur, Harpreet; Tenllado, Francisco; Praveen, Shelly; Canto, Tomas

    2013-06-01

    In the Potyvirus genus, the P1 protein is the first N-terminal product processed from the viral polyprotein, followed by the helper-component proteinase (HCPro). In silencing suppression patch assays, we found that Potato virus Y (PVY) HCPro expressed from a P1-HCPro sequence increased the accumulation of a reporter gene, whereas protein expressed from an HCPro sequence did not, even with P1 supplied in trans. This enhancing effect of P1 has been noted in other potyviruses, but has remained unexplained. We analysed the accumulation of PVY HCPro in infiltrated tissues and found that it was higher when expressed from P1-HCPro than from HCPro sequences. Co-expression of heterologous suppressors increased the steady-state level of mRNA expressed from the HCPro sequence, but not that of protein. This suggests that, in the absence of P1 upstream, either HCPro acquires a conformation that affects negatively its activity or stability, or that its translation is reduced. To test these options, we purified HCPro expressed in the presence or absence of upstream P1, and found no difference in purification pattern and final soluble state. By contrast, alteration of the Kozak context in the HCPro mRNA sequence to favour translation increased partially suppressor accumulation and activity. Furthermore, protein activity was not lower than in protein expressed from P1-HCPro sequences. Thus, a direct role for P1 on HCPro suppressor activity or stability, by influencing its conformation during translation, can be excluded. However, P1 could still have an indirect effect favouring HCPro accumulation. Our data highlight the relevance of cis-acting translational elements in the heterologous expression of HCPro. © 2013 BSPP AND JOHN WILEY & SONS LTD.

  16. Prioritized expression of BTN2 of Saccharomyces cerevisiae under pronounced translation repression induced by severe ethanol stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yukina Yamauchi

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Severe ethanol stress (>9% ethanol, v/v as well as glucose deprivation rapidly induces a pronounced repression of overall protein synthesis in budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Therefore, transcriptional activation in yeast cells under severe ethanol stress does not always indicate the production of expected protein levels. Messenger RNAs of genes containing heat shock elements can be intensively translated under glucose deprivation, suggesting that some mRNAs are preferentially translated even under severe ethanol stress. In the present study, we tried to identify the mRNA that can be preferentially translated under severe ethanol stress. BTN2 encodes a v-SNARE binding protein, and its null mutant shows hypersensitivity to ethanol. We found that BTN2 mRNA was efficiently translated under severe ethanol stress but not under mild ethanol stress. Moreover, the increased Btn2 protein levels caused by severe ethanol stress were smoothly decreased with the elimination of ethanol stress. These findings suggested that severe ethanol stress extensively induced BTN2 expression. Further, the BTN2 promoter induced protein synthesis of non-native genes such as CUR1, GIC2, and YUR1 in the presence of high ethanol concentrations, indicating that this promoter overcame severe ethanol stress-induced translation repression. Thus, our findings provide an important clue about yeast response to severe ethanol stress and suggest that the BTN2 promoter can be used to improve the efficiency of ethanol production and stress tolerance of yeast cells by modifying gene expression in the presence of high ethanol concentration.

  17. Comparative proteomics analysis of engineered Saccharomyces cerevisiae with enhanced biofuel precursor production.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoling Tang

    Full Text Available The yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae was metabolically modified for enhanced biofuel precursor production by knocking out genes encoding mitochondrial isocitrate dehydrogenase and over-expression of a heterologous ATP-citrate lyase. A comparative iTRAQ-coupled 2D LC-MS/MS analysis was performed to obtain a global overview of ubiquitous protein expression changes in S. cerevisiae engineered strains. More than 300 proteins were identified. Among these proteins, 37 were found differentially expressed in engineered strains and they were classified into specific categories based on their enzyme functions. Most of the proteins involved in glycolytic and pyruvate branch-point pathways were found to be up-regulated and the proteins involved in respiration and glyoxylate pathway were however found to be down-regulated in engineered strains. Moreover, the metabolic modification of S. cerevisiae cells resulted in a number of up-regulated proteins involved in stress response and differentially expressed proteins involved in amino acid metabolism and protein biosynthesis pathways. These LC-MS/MS based proteomics analysis results not only offered extensive information in identifying potential protein-protein interactions, signal pathways and ubiquitous cellular changes elicited by the engineered pathways, but also provided a meaningful biological information platform serving further modification of yeast cells for enhanced biofuel production.

  18. Glucose-based microbial production of the hormone melatonin in yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Germann, Susanne Manuela; Jacobsen, Simo Abdessamad; Schneider, Konstantin

    2016-01-01

    performed by complex chemical synthesis. In this study, we demonstrate microbial production of melatonin and related compounds, such as serotonin and N-acetylserotonin. We generated Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains that comprise heterologous genes encoding one or more variants of an L-tryptophan hydroxylase...... accomplished increased product titers by altering expression levels of selected pathway enzymes and boosting co-factor supply. The final yeast strain produced melatonin at a titer of 14.50 ± 0.57 mg L−1 in a 76h fermentation using simulated fed-batch medium with glucose as sole carbon source. Our study lays...

  19. Heme regulates the expression in Saccharomyces cerevisiae of chimaeric genes containing 5'-flanking soybean leghemoglobin sequences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, E O; Marcker, K A; Villadsen, IS

    1986-01-01

    The TM1 yeast mutant was transformed with a 2 micron-derived plasmid (YEp24) which carries a chimaeric gene containing the Escherichia coli chloramphenicol acetyl transferase (CAT) gene fused to the 5'- and 3'-flanking regions of the soybean leghemoglobin (Lb) c3 gene. Expression of the chimaeric...

  20. Functional expression of human adenine nucleotide translocase 4 in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takashi Hamazaki

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The adenine nucleotide translocase (ANT mediates the exchange of ADP and ATP across the inner mitochondrial membrane. The human genome encodes multiple ANT isoforms that are expressed in a tissue-specific manner. Recently a novel germ cell-specific member of the ANT family, ANT4 (SLC25A31 was identified. Although it is known that targeted depletion of ANT4 in mice resulted in male infertility, the functional biochemical differences between ANT4 and other somatic ANT isoforms remain undetermined. To gain insight into ANT4, we expressed human ANT4 (hANT4 in yeast mitochondria. Unlike the somatic ANT proteins, expression of hANT4 failed to complement an AAC-deficient yeast strain for growth on media requiring mitochondrial respiration. Moreover, overexpression of hANT4 from a multi-copy plasmid interfered with optimal yeast growth. However, mutation of specific amino acids of hANT4 improved yeast mitochondrial expression and supported growth of the AAC-deficient yeast on non-fermentable carbon sources. The mutations affected amino acids predicted to interact with phospholipids, suggesting the importance of lipid interactions for function of this protein. Each mutant hANT4 and the somatic hANTs exhibited similar ADP/ATP exchange kinetics. These data define common and distinct biochemical characteristics of ANT4 in comparison to ANT1, 2 and 3 providing a basis for study of its unique adaptation to germ cells.

  1. Gln3p and Nil1p regulation of invertase activity and SUC2 expression in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Edna Maria Morais; Mansure, José João; Bon, Elba Pinto da Silva

    2005-04-01

    In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, sensing and signalling pathways regulate gene expression in response to quality of carbon and nitrogen sources. One such system, the target of rapamycin (Tor) proteins, senses nutrients and uses the GATA activators Gln3p and Nil1p to regulate translation in response to low-quality carbon and nitrogen. The signal transduction, triggered in response to nitrogen nutrition that is sensed by the Tor proteins, operates via a regulatory pathway involving the cytoplasmic factor Ure2p. When carbon and nitrogen are abundant, the phosphorylated Ure2p anchors the also phosphorylated Gln3p and Nil1p in the cytoplasm. Upon a shift from high- to low-quality nitrogen or treatment with rapamycin all three proteins are dephosphorylated, causing Gln3p and Nil1p to enter the nucleus and promote transcription. The genes that code for yeast periplasmic enzymes with nutritional roles would be obvious targets for regulation by the sensing and signalling pathways that respond to quality of carbon and nitrogen sources. Indeed, previous results from our laboratory had shown that the GATA factors Gln3p, Nil1p, Dal80p, Nil2p and also the protein Ure2 regulate the expression of asparaginase II, coded by ASP3. We also had observed that the activity levels of the also periplasmic invertase, coded by SUC2, were 6-fold lower in ure2 mutant cells in comparison to wild-type cells collected at stationary phase. These results suggested similarities between the signalling pathways regulating the expression of ASP3 and SUC2. In the present work we showed that invertase levels displayed by the single nil1 and gln3 and by the double gln3nil1 mutant cells, cultivated in a sucrose-ammonium medium and collected at the exponential phase, were 6-, 10- and 60-fold higher, respectively, in comparison to their wild-type counterparts. RT-PCR data of SUC2 expression in the double-mutant cells indicated a 10-fold increase in the mRNA(SUC2) levels.

  2. Development of new USER-based cloning vectors for multiple genes expression in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kildegaard, Kanchana Rueksomtawin; Jensen, Niels Bjerg; Maury, Jerome

    2013-01-01

    auxotrophic and dominant markers for convenience of use. Our vector set also contains both integrating and multicopy vectors for stability of protein expression and high expression level. We will make the new vector system available to the yeast community and provide a comprehensive protocol for cloning...... the production strain with the proper phenotype and product yield. However, the sequential number of metabolic engineering is time-consuming. Furthermore, the number of available selectable markers is also limiting the number of genetic modifications. To overcome these limitations, we have developed a new set...... of shuttle vectors for convenience of use for high-throughput cloning and selectable marker recycling. The new USER-based cloning vectors consist of a unique USER site and a CRE-loxP-mediated marker recycling system. The USER site allows insertion of genes of interest along with a bidirectional promoter...

  3. Saccharomyces cerevisiae FKBP12 binds Arabidopsis thaliana TOR and its expression in plants leads to rapamycin susceptibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sormani, Rodnay; Yao, Lei; Menand, Benoît; Ennar, Najla; Lecampion, Cécile; Meyer, Christian; Robaglia, Christophe

    2007-06-01

    The eukaryotic TOR pathway controls translation, growth and the cell cycle in response to environmental signals such as nutrients or growth-stimulating factors. The TOR protein kinase can be inactivated by the antibiotic rapamycin following the formation of a ternary complex between TOR, rapamycin and FKBP12 proteins. The TOR protein is also found in higher plants despite the fact that they are rapamycin insensitive. Previous findings using the yeast two hybrid system suggest that the FKBP12 plant homolog is unable to form a complex with rapamycin and TOR, while the FRB domain of plant TOR is still able to bind to heterologous FKBP12 in the presence of rapamycin. The resistance to rapamycin is therefore limiting the molecular dissection of the TOR pathway in higher plants. Here we show that none of the FKBPs from the model plant Arabidopsis (AtFKBPs) is able to form a ternary complex with the FRB domain of AtTOR in the presence of rapamycin in a two hybrid system. An antibody has been raised against the AtTOR protein and binding of recombinant yeast ScFKBP12 to native Arabidopsis TOR in the presence of rapamycin was demonstrated in pull-down experiments. Transgenic lines expressing ScFKBP12 were produced and were found to display a rapamycin-dependent reduction of the primary root growth and a lowered accumulation of high molecular weight polysomes. These results further strengthen the idea that plant resistance to rapamycin evolved as a consequence of mutations in plant FKBP proteins. The production of rapamycin-sensitive plants through the expression of the ScFKBP12 protein illustrates the conservation of the TOR pathway in eukaryotes. Since AtTOR null mutants were found to be embryo lethal 1, transgenic ScFKBP12 plants will provide an useful tool for the post-embryonic study of plant TOR functions. This work also establish for the first time a link between TOR activity and translation in plant cells.

  4. Saccharomyces cerevisiae FKBP12 binds Arabidopsis thaliana TOR and its expression in plants leads to rapamycin susceptibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meyer Christian

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The eukaryotic TOR pathway controls translation, growth and the cell cycle in response to environmental signals such as nutrients or growth-stimulating factors. The TOR protein kinase can be inactivated by the antibiotic rapamycin following the formation of a ternary complex between TOR, rapamycin and FKBP12 proteins. The TOR protein is also found in higher plants despite the fact that they are rapamycin insensitive. Previous findings using the yeast two hybrid system suggest that the FKBP12 plant homolog is unable to form a complex with rapamycin and TOR, while the FRB domain of plant TOR is still able to bind to heterologous FKBP12 in the presence of rapamycin. The resistance to rapamycin is therefore limiting the molecular dissection of the TOR pathway in higher plants. Results Here we show that none of the FKBPs from the model plant Arabidopsis (AtFKBPs is able to form a ternary complex with the FRB domain of AtTOR in the presence of rapamycin in a two hybrid system. An antibody has been raised against the AtTOR protein and binding of recombinant yeast ScFKBP12 to native Arabidopsis TOR in the presence of rapamycin was demonstrated in pull-down experiments. Transgenic lines expressing ScFKBP12 were produced and were found to display a rapamycin-dependent reduction of the primary root growth and a lowered accumulation of high molecular weight polysomes. Conclusion These results further strengthen the idea that plant resistance to rapamycin evolved as a consequence of mutations in plant FKBP proteins. The production of rapamycin-sensitive plants through the expression of the ScFKBP12 protein illustrates the conservation of the TOR pathway in eukaryotes. Since AtTOR null mutants were found to be embryo lethal 1, transgenic ScFKBP12 plants will provide an useful tool for the post-embryonic study of plant TOR functions. This work also establish for the first time a link between TOR activity and translation in plant cells

  5. A Salmonella typhimurium ghost vaccine induces cytokine expression in vitro and immune responses in vivo and protects rats against homologous and heterologous challenges.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nagarajan Vinod

    Full Text Available Salmonella enteritidis and Salmonella typhimurium are important food-borne bacterial pathogens, which are responsible for diarrhea and gastroenteritis in humans and animals. In this study, S. typhimurium bacterial ghost (STG was generated based on minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC of sodium hydroxide (NaOH. Experimental studies performed using in vitro and in vivo experimental model systems to characterize effects of STG as a vaccine candidate. When compared with murine macrophages (RAW 264.7 exposed to PBS buffer (98.1%, the macrophages exposed to formalin-killed inactivated cells (FKC, live wild-type bacterial cells and NaOH-induced STG at 1 × 108 CFU/mL showed 85.6%, 66.5% and 84.6% cell viability, respectively. It suggests that STG significantly reduces the cytotoxic effect of wild-type bacterial cells. Furthermore, STG is an excellent inducer for mRNAs of pro-inflammatory cytokine (TNF-α, IL-1β and factor (iNOS, anti-inflammatory cytokine (IL-10 and dual activities (IL-6 in the stimulated macrophage cells. In vivo, STG vaccine induced humoral and cellular immune responses and protection against homologous and heterologous challenges in rats. Furthermore, the immunogenicity and protective efficacy of STG vaccine were compared with those of FKC and non-vaccinated PBS control groups. The vaccinated rats from STG group exhibited higher levels of serum IgG antibody responses, serum bactericidal antibodies, and CD4+ and CD8+ T-cell populations than those of the FKC and PBS control groups. Most importantly, after challenge with homologous and heterologous strains, the bacterial loads in the STG group were markedly lower than the FKC and PBS control groups. In conclusion, these findings suggest that the STG vaccine induces protective immunity against homologous and heterologous challenges.

  6. Effects of acetoacetyl-CoA synthase expression on production of farnesene in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tippmann, Stefan; Ferreira, Raphael; Siewers, Verena

    2017-01-01

    to overcome the thermodynamic constraint imposed on the first reaction, in which acetoacetyl-CoA is produced from two moles of acetyl-CoA by acetoacetyl-CoA thiolase. Recently, a novel acetoacetyl-CoA synthase (nphT7) has been identified from Streptomyces sp. strain CL190, which catalyzes the irreversible...... functionality of the bypass was limited by the efficiency of acetoacetyl-CoA synthase (nphT7). Besides modulation of the expression level, which could be used as a means to partially restore the phenotype, nphT7 from Streptomyces glaucescens showed clearly higher efficiency compared to Streptomyces sp. strain...

  7. A Cas9-based toolkit to program gene expression in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Apel, Amanda Reider; d'Espaux, Leo; Wehrs, Maren

    2017-01-01

    of these parts via a web-based tool, that automates the generation of DNA fragments for integration. Our system builds upon existing gene editing methods in the thoroughness with which the parts are standardized and characterized, the types and number of parts available and the ease with which our methodology...... can be used to perform genetic edits in yeast. We demonstrated the applicability of this toolkit by optimizing the expression of a challenging but industrially important enzyme, taxadiene synthase (TXS). This approach enabled us to diagnose an issue with TXS solubility, the resolution of which yielded...

  8. Isolation and expression of a pea vicilin cDNA in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    OpenAIRE

    Watson, M D; Lambert, N; Delauney, A; Yarwood, J N; Croy, R R; Gatehouse, J A; Wright, D J; Boulter, D

    1988-01-01

    A cDNA clone containing the complete coding sequence for vicilin from pea (Pisum sativum L.) was isolated. It specifies a 50,000-Mr protein that in pea is neither post-translationally processed nor glycosylated. The cDNA clone was expressed in yeast from a 2 micron plasmid by using the yeast phosphoglycerate kinase promoter and initiator codon. The resultant fusion protein, which contains the first 16 amino acid residues of phosphoglycerate kinase in addition to the vicilin sequence, was puri...

  9. Lycopene overproduction in Saccharomyces cerevisiae through combining pathway engineering with host engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yan; Xiao, Wenhai; Wang, Ying; Liu, Hong; Li, Xia; Yuan, Yingjin

    2016-06-21

    Microbial production of lycopene, a commercially and medically important compound, has received increasing concern in recent years. Saccharomyces cerevisiae is regarded as a safer host for lycopene production than Escherichia coli. However, to date, the lycopene yield (mg/g DCW) in S. cerevisiae was lower than that in E. coli and did not facilitate downstream extraction process, which might be attributed to the incompatibility between host cell and heterologous pathway. Therefore, to achieve lycopene overproduction in S. cerevisiae, both host cell and heterologous pathway should be delicately engineered. In this study, lycopene biosynthesis pathway was constructed by integration of CrtE, CrtB and CrtI in S. cerevisiae CEN.PK2. When YPL062W, a distant genetic locus, was deleted, little acetate was accumulated and approximately 100 % increase in cytosolic acetyl-CoA pool was achieved relative to that in parental strain. Through screening CrtE, CrtB and CrtI from diverse species, an optimal carotenogenic enzyme combination was obtained, and CrtI from Blakeslea trispora (BtCrtI) was found to have excellent performance on lycopene production as well as lycopene proportion in carotenoid. Then, the expression level of BtCrtI was fine-tuned and the effect of cell mating types was also evaluated. Finally, potential distant genetic targets (YJL064W, ROX1, and DOS2) were deleted and a stress-responsive transcription factor INO2 was also up-regulated. Through the above modifications between host cell and carotenogenic pathway, lycopene yield was increased by approximately 22-fold (from 2.43 to 54.63 mg/g DCW). Eventually, in fed-batch fermentation, lycopene production reached 55.56 mg/g DCW, which is the highest reported yield in yeasts. Saccharomyces cerevisiae was engineered to produce lycopene in this study. Through combining host engineering (distant genetic loci and cell mating types) with pathway engineering (enzyme screening and gene fine-tuning), lycopene yield was

  10. Luciferase NanoLuc as a reporter for gene expression and protein levels in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masser, Anna E; Kandasamy, Ganapathi; Kaimal, Jayasankar Mohanakrishnan; Andréasson, Claes

    2016-05-01

    Reporter proteins are essential tools in the study of biological processes and are employed to monitor changes in gene expression and protein levels. Luciferases are reporter proteins that enable rapid and highly sensitive detection with an outstanding dynamic range. Here we evaluated the usefulness of the 19 kDa luciferase NanoLuc (Nluc), derived from the deep sea shrimp Oplophorus gracilirostris, as a reporter protein in yeast. Cassettes with codon-optimized genes expressing yeast Nluc (yNluc) or its destabilized derivative yNlucPEST have been assembled in the context of the dominant drug resistance marker kanMX. The reporter proteins do not impair the growth of yeast cells and exhibit half-lives of 40 and 5 min, respectively. The commercial substrate Nano-Glo® is compatible with detection of yNluc bioluminescence in yeast using standard commercial substrate. © 2016 The Authors. Yeast published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. © 2016 The Authors. Yeast published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Fluorescence-based optimization of human bitter taste receptor expression in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugawara, Taishi; Ito, Keisuke; Shiroishi, Mitsunori; Tokuda, Natsuko; Asada, Hidetsugu; Yurugi-Kobayashi, Takami; Shimamura, Tatsuro; Misaka, Takumi; Nomura, Norimichi; Murata, Takeshi; Abe, Keiko; Iwata, So

    2009-01-01

    Human TAS2 receptors (hTAS2Rs) perceive bitter tastants, but few studies have explored the structure-function relationships of these receptors. In this paper, we report our trials on the large-scale preparations of hTAS2Rs for structural analysis. Twenty-five hTAS2Rs were expressed using a GFP-fusion yeast system in which the constructs and the culture conditions (e.g., the signal sequence, incubation time and temperature after induction) were optimized by measuring GFP fluorescence. After optimization, five hTAS2Rs (hTAS2R7, hTAS2R8, hTAS2R16, hTAS2R41, and hTAS2R48) were expressed at levels greater than 1 mg protein/L of culture, which is a preferable level for purification and crystallization. Among these five bitter taste receptors, hTAS2R41 exhibited the highest detergent solubilization efficiency of 87.1% in n-dodecyl-β-D-maltopyranoside (DDM)/cholesteryl hemisuccinate (CHS). Fluorescence size-exclusion chromatography showed that hTAS2R41 exhibited monodispersity in DDM/CHS without aggregates, suggesting that hTAS2R41 is a good target for future crystallization trials.

  12. Microaerobic conversion of xylose to ethanol in recombinant Saccharomyces cerevisiae SX6(MUT) expressing cofactor-balanced xylose metabolic enzymes and deficient in ALD6.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jo, Sung-Eun; Seong, Yeong-Je; Lee, Hyun-Soo; Lee, Soo Min; Kim, Soo-Jung; Park, Kyungmoon; Park, Yong-Cheol

    2016-06-10

    Xylose is a major monosugar in cellulosic biomass and should be utilized for cost-effective ethanol production. In this study, xylose-converting ability of recombinant Saccharomyces cerevisiae SX6(MUT) expressing NADH-preferring xylose reductase mutant (R276H) and other xylose-metabolic enzymes, and deficient in aldehyde dehydrogenase 6 (Ald6p) were characterized at microaerobic conditions using various sugar mixtures. The reduction of air supply from 0.5vvm to 0.1vvm increased specific ethanol production rate by 75% and did not affect specific xylose consumption rate. In batch fermentations using various concentrations of xylose (50-104g/L), higher xylose concentration enhanced xylose consumption rate and ethanol productivity but reduced ethanol yield, owing to the accumulation of xylitol and glycerol from xylose. SX6(MUT) consumed monosugars in pitch pine hydrolysates and produced 23.1g/L ethanol from 58.7g/L sugars with 0.39g/g ethanol yield, which was 14% higher than the host strain of S. cerevisiae D452-2 without the xylose assimilating enzymes. In conclusion, S. cerevisiae SX6(MUT) was characterized to possess high xylose-consuming ability in microaerobic conditions and a potential for ethanol production from cellulosic biomass. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Saccharomyces cerevisiae ribosomal protein L37 is encoded by duplicate genes that are differentially expressed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tornow, J; Santangelo, G M

    1994-06-01

    A duplicate copy of the RPL37A gene (encoding ribosomal protein L37) was cloned and sequenced. The coding region of RPL37B is very similar to that of RPL37A, with only one conservative amino-acid difference. However, the intron and flanking sequences of the two genes are extremely dissimilar. Disruption experiments indicate that the two loci are not functionally equivalent: disruption of RPL37B was insignificant, but disruption of RPL37A severely impaired the growth rate of the cell. When both RPL37 loci are disrupted, the cell is unable to grow at all, indicating that rpL37 is an essential protein. The functional disparity between the two RPL37 loci could be explained by differential gene expression. The results of two experiments support this idea: gene fusion of RPL37A to a reporter gene resulted in six-fold higher mRNA levels than was generated by the same reporter gene fused to RPL37B, and a modest increase in gene dosage of RPL37B overcame the lack of a functional RPL37A gene.

  14. Dynamic control of gene expression in Saccharomyces cerevisiae engineered for the production of plant sesquitepene α-santalene in a fed-batch mode

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scalcinati, Gionata; Knuf, Christoph; Partow, Siavash

    2012-01-01

    -santalene, the precursor of a commercially interesting compound, was constructed through a rationally designed metabolic engineering approach. Optimal sesquiterpene production was obtained by modulating the expression of one of the key metabolic steps of the mevalonate (MVA) pathway, squalene synthase (Erg9). To couple......Microbial cells engineered for efficient production of plant sesquiterpenes may allow for sustainable and scalable production of these compounds that can be used as e.g. perfumes and pharmaceuticals. Here, for the first time a Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain capable of producing high levels of α...... ERG9 expression to glucose concentration its promoter was replaced by the HXT1 promoter. In a second approach, the HXT2 promoter was used to express an ERG9 antisense construct. Using the HXT1 promoter to control ERG9 expression, it was possible to divert the carbon flux from sterol synthesis towards...

  15. Co-expression of TAL1 and ADH1 in recombinant xylose-fermenting Saccharomyces cerevisiae improves ethanol production from lignocellulosic hydrolysates in the presence of furfural.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasunuma, Tomohisa; Ismail, Ku Syahidah Ku; Nambu, Yumiko; Kondo, Akihiko

    2014-02-01

    Lignocellulosic biomass dedicated to bioethanol production usually contains pentoses and inhibitory compounds such as furfural that are not well tolerated by Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Thus, S. cerevisiae strains with the capability of utilizing both glucose and xylose in the presence of inhibitors such as furfural are very important in industrial ethanol production. Under the synergistic conditions of transaldolase (TAL) and alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) overexpression, S. cerevisiae MT8-1X/TAL-ADH was able to produce 1.3-fold and 2.3-fold more ethanol in the presence of 70 mM furfural than a TAL-expressing strain and a control strain, respectively. We also tested the strains' ability by mimicking industrial ethanol production from hemicellulosic hydrolysate containing fermentation inhibitors, and ethanol production was further improved by 16% when using MT8-1X/TAL-ADH compared to the control strain. Transcript analysis further revealed that besides the pentose phosphate pathway genes TKL1 and TAL1, ADH7 was also upregulated in response to furfural stress, which resulted in higher ethanol production compared to the TAL-expressing strain. The improved capability of our modified strain was based on its capacity to more quickly reduce furfural in situ resulting in higher ethanol production. The co-expression of TAL/ADH genes is one crucial strategy to fully utilize undetoxified lignocellulosic hydrolysate, leading to cost-competitive ethanol production. Copyright © 2013 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. ISOLATION OF THE CANDIDA TROPICALIS GENE FOR P450 LANOSTEROL DEMETHYLASE AND ITS EXPRESSION IN SACCAROMYCES CEREVISIAE

    Science.gov (United States)

    We have isolated the gene for cytochrome P450 lanosterol 14-demethylase (14DM) from the yeast Candida tropicalis. This was accomplished by screening genomic libraries of strain ATCC750 in E. coli using a DNA fragment containing the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae 14DM gene. Identi...

  17. Exploring the potential of the glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase 2 (GPD2) promoter for recombinant gene expression in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Jan Dines; Johanson, Ted; Eliasson Lantz, Anna

    2015-01-01

    A control point for keeping redox homeostasis in Saccharomyces cerevisiae during fermentative growth is the dynamic regulation of transcription for the glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase 2 (GPD2) gene. In this study, the possibility to steer the activity of the GPD2 promoter was investigated by p...

  18. Engineering of aromatic amino acid metabolism in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vuralhan, Z.

    2006-01-01

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae is a popular industrial microorganism. It has since long been used in bread, beer and wine making. More recently it is also being applied for heterologous protein production and as a target organism for metabolic engineering. The work presented in this thesis describes how

  19. Improving monoterpene geraniol production through geranyl diphosphate synthesis regulation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jianzhi; Bao, Xiaoming; Li, Chen; Shen, Yu; Hou, Jin

    2016-05-01

    Monoterpenes have wide applications in the food, cosmetics, and medicine industries and have recently received increased attention as advanced biofuels. However, compared with sesquiterpenes, monoterpene production is still lagging in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. In this study, geraniol, a valuable acyclic monoterpene alcohol, was synthesized in S. cerevisiae. We evaluated three geraniol synthases in S. cerevisiae, and the geraniol synthase Valeriana officinalis (tVoGES), which lacked a plastid-targeting peptide, yielded the highest geraniol production. To improve geraniol production, synthesis of the precursor geranyl diphosphate (GPP) was regulated by comparing three specific GPP synthase genes derived from different plants and the endogenous farnesyl diphosphate synthase gene variants ERG20 (G) (ERG20 (K197G) ) and ERG20 (WW) (ERG20 (F96W-N127W) ), and controlling endogenous ERG20 expression, coupled with increasing the expression of the mevalonate pathway by co-overexpressing IDI1, tHMG1, and UPC2-1. The results showed that overexpressing ERG20 (WW) and strengthening the mevalonate pathway significantly improved geraniol production, while expressing heterologous GPP synthase genes or down-regulating endogenous ERG20 expression did not show positive effect. In addition, we constructed an Erg20p(F96W-N127W)-tVoGES fusion protein, and geraniol production reached 66.2 mg/L after optimizing the amino acid linker and the order of the proteins. The best strain yielded 293 mg/L geraniol in a fed-batch cultivation, a sevenfold improvement over the highest titer previously reported in an engineered S. cerevisiae strain. Finally, we showed that the toxicity of geraniol limited its production. The platform developed here can be readily used to synthesize other monoterpenes.

  20. Heterologous Expression of the Clostridium carboxidivorans CO Dehydrogenase Alone or Together with the Acetyl Coenzyme A Synthase Enables both Reduction of CO2 and Oxidation of CO by Clostridium acetobutylicum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, Ellinor D; Papoutsakis, Eleftherios T

    2017-08-15

    With recent advances in synthetic biology, CO 2 could be utilized as a carbon feedstock by native or engineered organisms, assuming the availability of electrons. Two key enzymes used in autotrophic CO 2 fixation are the CO dehydrogenase (CODH) and acetyl coenzyme A (acetyl-CoA) synthase (ACS), which form a bifunctional heterotetrameric complex. The CODH/ACS complex can reversibly catalyze CO 2 to CO, effectively enabling a biological water-gas shift reaction at ambient temperatures and pressures. The CODH/ACS complex is part of the Wood-Ljungdahl pathway (WLP) used by acetogens to fix CO 2 , and it has been well characterized in native hosts. So far, only a few recombinant CODH/ACS complexes have been expressed in heterologous hosts, none of which demonstrated in vivo CO 2 reduction. Here, functional expression of the Clostridium carboxidivorans CODH/ACS complex is demonstrated in the solventogen Clostridium acetobutylicum , which was engineered to express CODH alone or together with the ACS. Both strains exhibited CO 2 reduction and CO oxidation activities. The CODH reactions were interrogated using isotopic labeling, thus verifying that CO was a direct product of CO 2 reduction, and vice versa. CODH apparently uses a native C. acetobutylicum ferredoxin as an electron carrier for CO 2 reduction. Heterologous CODH activity depended on actively growing cells and required the addition of nickel, which is inserted into CODH without the need to express the native Ni insertase protein. Increasing CO concentrations in the gas phase inhibited CODH activity and altered the metabolite profile of the CODH-expressing cells. This work provides the foundation for engineering a complete and functional WLP in nonnative host organisms. IMPORTANCE Functional expression of CO dehydrogenase (CODH) from Clostridium carboxidivorans was demonstrated in C. acetobutylicum , which is natively incapable of CO 2 fixation. The expression of CODH, alone or together with the C. carboxidivorans

  1. Potential Mechanisms Underlying Response to Effects of the Fungicide Pyrimethanil from Gene Expression Profiling inSaccharomyces cerevisiae

    OpenAIRE

    Gil, Fátima N.; Becker, Jörg D.; Viegas, Cristina A.

    2014-01-01

    Pyrimethanil is a fungicide mostly applied in vineyards. When misused, residue levels detected in grape must or in the environment may be of concern. The present work aimed to analyze mechanisms underlying response to deleterious effects of pyrimethanil in the eukaryotic model Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Pyrimethanil concentration-dependent effects at phenotypic (inhibition of growth) and transcriptomic levels were examined. For transcriptional profiling, analysis focused on two sublethal expos...

  2. Biosynthesis of levan, a bacterial extracellular polysaccharide, in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franken, Jaco; Brandt, Bianca A; Tai, Siew L; Bauer, Florian F

    2013-01-01

    Levans are fructose polymers synthesized by a broad range of micro-organisms and a limited number of plant species as non-structural storage carbohydrates. In microbes, these polymers contribute to the formation of the extracellular polysaccharide (EPS) matrix and play a role in microbial biofilm formation. Levans belong to a larger group of commercially important polymers, referred to as fructans, which are used as a source of prebiotic fibre. For levan, specifically, this market remains untapped, since no viable production strategy has been established. Synthesis of levan is catalysed by a group of enzymes, referred to as levansucrases, using sucrose as substrate. Heterologous expression of levansucrases has been notoriously difficult to achieve in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. As a strategy, this study used an invertase (Δsuc2) null mutant and two separate, engineered, sucrose accumulating yeast strains as hosts for the expression of the levansucrase M1FT, previously cloned from Leuconostoc mesenteroides. Intracellular sucrose accumulation was achieved either by expression of a sucrose synthase (Susy) from potato or the spinach sucrose transporter (SUT). The data indicate that in both Δsuc2 and the sucrose accumulating strains, the M1FT was able to catalyse fructose polymerisation. In the absence of the predicted M1FT secretion signal, intracellular levan accumulation was significantly enhanced for both sucrose accumulation strains, when grown on minimal media. Interestingly, co-expression of M1FT and SUT resulted in hyper-production and extracellular build-up of levan when grown in rich medium containing sucrose. This study presents the first report of levan production in S. cerevisiae and opens potential avenues for the production of levan using this well established industrial microbe. Furthermore, the work provides interesting perspectives when considering the heterologous expression of sugar polymerizing enzymes in yeast.

  3. Enhanced isoprenoid production from xylose by engineered Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwak, Suryang; Kim, Soo Rin; Xu, Haiqing; Zhang, Guo-Chang; Lane, Stephan; Kim, Heejin; Jin, Yong-Su

    2017-11-01

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae has limited capabilities for producing fuels and chemicals derived from acetyl-CoA, such as isoprenoids, due to a rigid flux partition toward ethanol during glucose metabolism. Despite numerous efforts, xylose fermentation by engineered yeast harboring heterologous xylose metabolic pathways was not as efficient as glucose fermentation for producing ethanol. Therefore, we hypothesized that xylose metabolism by engineered yeast might be a better fit for producing non-ethanol metabolites. We indeed found that engineered S. cerevisiae on xylose showed higher expression levels of the enzymes involved in ethanol assimilation and cytosolic acetyl-CoA synthesis than on glucose. When genetic perturbations necessary for overproducing squalene and amorphadiene were introduced into engineered S. cerevisiae capable of fermenting xylose, we observed higher titers and yields of isoprenoids under xylose than glucose conditions. Specifically, co-overexpression of a truncated HMG1 (tHMG1) and ERG10 led to substantially higher squalene accumulation under xylose than glucose conditions. In contrast to glucose utilization producing massive amounts of ethanol regardless of aeration, xylose utilization allowed much less amounts of ethanol accumulation, indicating ethanol is simultaneously re-assimilated with xylose consumption and utilized for the biosynthesis of cytosolic acetyl-CoA. In addition, xylose utilization by engineered yeast with overexpression of tHMG1, ERG10, and ADS coding for amorphadiene synthase, and the down-regulation of ERG9 resulted in enhanced amorphadiene production as compared to glucose utilization. These results suggest that the problem of the rigid flux partition toward ethanol production in yeast during the production of isoprenoids and other acetyl-CoA derived chemicals can be bypassed by using xylose instead of glucose as a carbon source. Biotechnol. Bioeng. 2017;114: 2581-2591. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley

  4. Recombinant production of human Aquaporin-1 to an exceptional high membrane density in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julie Bomholt

    Full Text Available In the present paper we explored the capacity of yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae as host for heterologous expression of human Aquaporin-1. Aquaporin-1 cDNA was expressed from a galactose inducible promoter situated on a plasmid with an adjustable copy number. Human Aquaporin-1 was C-terminally tagged with yeast enhanced GFP for quantification of functional expression, determination of sub-cellular localization, estimation of in vivo folding efficiency and establishment of a purification protocol. Aquaporin-1 was found to constitute 8.5 percent of total membrane protein content after expression at 15°C in a yeast host over-producing the Gal4p transcriptional activator and growth in amino acid supplemented minimal medium. In-gel fluorescence combined with western blotting showed that low accumulation of correctly folded recombinant Aquaporin-1 at 30°C was due to in vivo mal-folding. Reduction of the expression temperature to 15°C almost completely prevented Aquaporin-1 mal-folding. Bioimaging of live yeast cells revealed that recombinant Aquaporin-1 accumulated in the yeast plasma membrane. A detergent screen for solubilization revealed that CYMAL-5 was superior in solubilizing recombinant Aquaporin-1 and generated a monodisperse protein preparation. A single Ni-affinity chromatography step was used to obtain almost pure Aquaporin-1. Recombinant Aquaporin-1 produced in S. cerevisiae was not N-glycosylated in contrast to the protein found in human erythrocytes.

  5. Enzymatic conversion of D-galactose to D-tagatose: heterologous expression and characterisation of a thermostable L-arabinose isomerase from Thermoanaerobacter mathranii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jørgensen, F; Hansen, O C; Stougaard, P

    2004-06-01

    The ability to convert D-galactose into D-tagatose was compared among a number of bacterial L-arabinose isomerases ( araA). One of the most efficient enzymes, from the anaerobic thermophilic bacterium Thermoanaerobacter mathranii, was produced heterologously in Escherichia coli and characterised. Amino acid sequence comparisons indicated that this enzyme is only distantly related to the group of previously known araA sequences in which the sequence similarity is evident. The substrate specificity and the Michaelis-Menten constants of the enzyme determined with L-arabinose, D-galactose and D-fucose also indicated that this enzyme is an unusual, versatile L-arabinose isomerase which is able to isomerise structurally related sugars. The enzyme was immobilised and used for production of D-tagatose at 65 degrees C. Starting from a 30% solution of D-galactose, the yield of D-tagatose was 42% and no sugars other than D-tagatose and D-galactose were detected. Direct conversion of lactose to D-tagatose in a single reactor was demonstrated using a thermostable beta-galactosidase together with the thermostable L-arabinose isomerase. The two enzymes were also successfully combined with a commercially available glucose isomerase for conversion of lactose into a sweetening mixture comprising lactose, glucose, galactose, fructose and tagatose.

  6. Engineering of Saccharomyces cerevisiae for production of resveratrol and its derivatives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Mingji

    were published in Applied and Environmental Microbiology (Jendresen et al., 2015). I then constructed the TAL pathway to resveratrol by expressing the two TAL genes in combination with 4-coumaryl-CoA ligase (4CL) from Arabidopsis thaliana and resveratrol synthase (VST) from Vitis vinifera in S...... carbon sources. I adopted rational metabolic engineering rational design strategies, synthetic biology techniques and system biology approaches to engineer and analyse yeast cell factories. There are two biosynthesis pathways of resveratrol, starting from tyrosine or phenylalanine, which in this thesis...... are defined as the TAL pathway and PAL pathway respectively. For the TAL pathway, I collaborated with Christian Bille Jendresen, Steen Gustav Stahlhut to screen fourteen diverse heterologous tyrosine ammonia lyases (TALs) for their activity in yeast and E. coli. I expressed the 14 TALs in S. cerevisiae...

  7. Characterization of vacuolar amino acid transporter from Fusarium oxysporum in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lunprom, Siriporn; Pongcharoen, Pongsanat; Sekito, Takayuki; Kawano-Kawada, Miyuki; Kakinuma, Yoshimi; Akiyama, Koichi

    2015-01-01

    Fusarium oxysporum causes wilt disease in many plant families, and many genes are involved in its development or growth in host plants. A recent study revealed that vacuolar amino acid transporters play an important role in spore formation in Schizosaccharomyces pombe and Saccharomyces cerevisiae. To investigate the role of vacuolar amino acid transporters of this phytopathogenic fungus, the FOXG_11334 (FoAVT3) gene from F. oxysporum was isolated and its function was characterized. Transcription of FoAVT3 was upregulated after rapamycin treatment. A green fluorescent protein fusion of FoAvt3p was localized to vacuolar membranes in both S. cerevisiae and F. oxysporum. Analysis of the amino acid content of the vacuolar fraction and amino acid transport activities using vacuolar membrane vesicles from S. cerevisiae cells heterologously expressing FoAVT3 revealed that FoAvt3p functions as a vacuolar amino acid transporter, exporting neutral amino acids. We conclude that the FoAVT3 gene encodes a vacuolar neutral amino acid transporter.

  8. Identification and characterization of antifungal compounds using a Saccharomyces cerevisiae reporter bioassay.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brad Tebbets

    Full Text Available New antifungal drugs are urgently needed due to the currently limited selection, the emergence of drug resistance, and the toxicity of several commonly used drugs. To identify drug leads, we screened small molecules using a Saccharomyces cerevisiae reporter bioassay in which S. cerevisiae heterologously expresses Hik1, a group III hybrid histidine kinase (HHK from Magnaporthe grisea. Group III HHKs are integral in fungal cell physiology, and highly conserved throughout this kingdom; they are absent in mammals, making them an attractive drug target. Our screen identified compounds 13 and 33, which showed robust activity against numerous fungal genera including Candida spp., Cryptococcus spp. and molds such as Aspergillus fumigatus and Rhizopus oryzae. Drug-resistant Candida albicans from patients were also highly susceptible to compounds 13 and 33. While the compounds do not act directly on HHKs, microarray analysis showed that compound 13 induced transcripts associated with oxidative stress, and compound 33, transcripts linked with heavy metal stress. Both compounds were highly active against C. albicans biofilm, in vitro and in vivo, and exerted synergy with fluconazole, which was inactive alone. Thus, we identified potent, broad-spectrum antifungal drug leads from a small molecule screen using a high-throughput, S. cerevisiae reporter bioassay.

  9. Optimization of CDT-1 and XYL1 Expression for Balanced Co-Production of Ethanol and Xylitol from Cellobiose and Xylose by Engineered Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zha, Jian; Li, Bing-Zhi; Shen, Ming-Hua; Hu, Meng-Long; Song, Hao; Yuan, Ying-Jin

    2013-01-01

    Production of ethanol and xylitol from lignocellulosic hydrolysates is an alternative to the traditional production of ethanol in utilizing biomass. However, the conversion efficiency of xylose to xylitol is restricted by glucose repression, causing a low xylitol titer. To this end, we cloned genes CDT-1 (encoding a cellodextrin transporter) and gh1-1 (encoding an intracellular β-glucosidase) from Neurospora crassa and XYL1 (encoding a xylose reductase that converts xylose into xylitol) from Scheffersomyces stipitis into Saccharomyces cerevisiae, enabling simultaneous production of ethanol and xylitol from a mixture of cellobiose and xylose (main components of lignocellulosic hydrolysates). We further optimized the expression levels of CDT-1 and XYL1 by manipulating their promoters and copy-numbers, and constructed an engineered S. cerevisiae strain (carrying one copy of PGK1p-CDT1 and two copies of TDH3p-XYL1), which showed an 85.7% increase in xylitol production from the mixture of cellobiose and xylose than that from the mixture of glucose and xylose. Thus, we achieved a balanced co-fermentation of cellobiose (0.165 g/L/h) and xylose (0.162 g/L/h) at similar rates to co-produce ethanol (0.36 g/g) and xylitol (1.00 g/g). PMID:23844185

  10. Optimization of CDT-1 and XYL1 expression for balanced co-production of ethanol and xylitol from cellobiose and xylose by engineered Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Zha

    Full Text Available Production of ethanol and xylitol from lignocellulosic hydrolysates is an alternative to the traditional production of ethanol in utilizing biomass. However, the conversion efficiency of xylose to xylitol is restricted by glucose repression, causing a low xylitol titer. To this end, we cloned genes CDT-1 (encoding a cellodextrin transporter and gh1-1 (encoding an intracellular β-glucosidase from Neurospora crassa and XYL1 (encoding a xylose reductase that converts xylose into xylitol from Scheffersomyces stipitis into Saccharomyces cerevisiae, enabling simultaneous production of ethanol and xylitol from a mixture of cellobiose and xylose (main components of lignocellulosic hydrolysates. We further optimized the expression levels of CDT-1 and XYL1 by manipulating their promoters and copy-numbers, and constructed an engineered S. cerevisiae strain (carrying one copy of PGK1p-CDT1 and two copies of TDH3p-XYL1, which showed an 85.7% increase in xylitol production from the mixture of cellobiose and xylose than that from the mixture of glucose and xylose. Thus, we achieved a balanced co-fermentation of cellobiose (0.165 g/L/h and xylose (0.162 g/L/h at similar rates to co-produce ethanol (0.36 g/g and xylitol (1.00 g/g.

  11. Co-expression of an Erwinia chrysanthemi pectate lyase-encoding gene (pelE) and an E. carotovora polygalacturonase-encoding gene (peh1) in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laing, E; Pretorius, I S

    1993-05-01

    A pectate lyase (PL)-encoding gene (pelE) from Erwinia chrysanthemi and a polygalacturonase (PG)-encoding gene (peh1) from E. carotovora were each inserted between a novel yeast expression-secretion cassette and a yeast gene terminator, and cloned separately into a yeast-centromeric shuttle vector (YCp50), generating recombinant plasmids pAMS12 and pAMS13. Transcription initiation signals present in the expression-secretion cassette were derived from the yeast alcohol dehydrogenase gene promoter (ADC1P), whereas the transcription termination signals were derived from the yeast tryptophan synthase gene terminator (TRP5T). Secretion of PL and PG was directed by the signal sequence of the yeast mating pheromone alpha-factor (MF alpha 1s). A pectinase cassette comprising ADC1P-MF alpha 1s-pelE-TRP5T and ADC1P-MF alpha 1s-peh1-TRP5T was subcloned into YCp50, generating plasmid pAMS14. Subsequently, the dominant selectable Geneticin G418-resistance (GtR) marker, APH1, inserted between the yeast uridine diphosphoglucose 4-epimerase gene promoter (GAL10P) and yeast orotidine-5'-phosphate carboxylase gene terminator (URA3T), was cloned into pAMS14, resulting in plasmid pAMS15. Plasmids pAMS12, pAMS13 and pAMS14 were transformed into a laboratory strain of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, whereas pAMS15 was stably introduced into two commercial wine yeast strains. DNA-DNA and DNA-RNA hybridization analyses revealed the presence of these plasmids, and the pelE and peh1 transcripts in the yeast transformants, respectively. A polypectate agarose assay indicated the extracellular production of biologically active PL and PG by the S. cerevisiae transformants and confirmed that co-expression of the pelE and peh1 genes synergistically enhanced pectate degradation.

  12. Heterooligomeric phosphoribosyl diphosphate synthase of Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hove-Jensen, Bjarne

    2004-01-01

    The yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae contains five phosphoribosyl diphosphate (PRPP) synthase-homologous genes (PRS1-5), which specify PRPP synthase subunits 1-5. Expression of the five S. cerevisiae PRS genes individually in an Escherichia coli PRPP-less strain (Deltaprs) showed that a single PRS...

  13. The impact of phosphate scarcity on pharmaceutical protein production in S. cerevisiae: linking transcriptomic insights to phenotypic responses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazemi Seresht Ali

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The adaptation of unicellular organisms like Saccharomyces cerevisiae to alternating nutrient availability is of great fundamental and applied interest, as understanding how eukaryotic cells respond to variations in their nutrient supply has implications spanning from physiological insights to biotechnological applications. Results The impact of a step-wise restricted supply of phosphate on the physiological state of S. cerevisiae cells producing human Insulin was studied. The focus was to determine the changes within the global gene expression of cells being cultured to an industrially relevant high cell density of 33 g/l cell dry weight and under six distinct phosphate concentrations, ranging from 33 mM (unlimited to 2.6 mM (limited. An increased flux through the secretory pathway, being induced by the PHO circuit during low Pi supplementation, proved to enhance the secretory production of the heterologous protein. The re-distribution of the carbon flux from biomass formation towards increased glycerol production under low phosphate led to increased transcript levels of the insulin gene, which was under the regulation of the TPI1 promoter. Conclusions Our study underlines the dynamic character of adaptive responses of cells towards a change in their nutrient access. The gradual decrease of the phosphate supply resulted in a step-wise modulated phenotypic response, thereby alternating the specific productivity and the secretory flux. Our work emphasizes the importance of reduced phosphate supply for improved secretory production of heterologous proteins.

  14. Multiway real-time PCR gene expression profiling in yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae reveals altered transcriptional response of ADH-genes to glucose stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ståhlberg, Anders; Elbing, Karin; Andrade-Garda, José Manuel; Sjögreen, Björn; Forootan, Amin; Kubista, Mikael

    2008-04-16

    The large sensitivity, high reproducibility and essentially unlimited dynamic range of real-time PCR to measure gene expression in complex samples provides the opportunity for powerful multivariate and multiway studies of biological phenomena. In multiway studies samples are characterized by their expression profiles to monitor changes over time, effect of treatment, drug dosage etc. Here we perform a multiway study of the temporal response of four yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains with different glucose uptake rates upon altered metabolic conditions. We measured the expression of 18 genes as function of time after addition of glucose to four strains of yeast grown in ethanol. The data are analyzed by matrix-augmented PCA, which is a generalization of PCA for 3-way data, and the results are confirmed by hierarchical clustering and clustering by Kohonen self-organizing map. Our approach identifies gene groups that respond similarly to the change of nutrient, and genes that behave differently in mutant strains. Of particular interest is our finding that ADH4 and ADH6 show a behavior typical of glucose-induced genes, while ADH3 and ADH5 are repressed after glucose addition. Multiway real-time PCR gene expression profiling is a powerful technique which can be utilized to characterize functions of new genes by, for example, comparing their temporal response after perturbation in different genetic variants of the studied subject. The technique also identifies genes that show perturbed expression in specific strains.

  15. Multiway real-time PCR gene expression profiling in yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae reveals altered transcriptional response of ADH-genes to glucose stimuli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrade-Garda José

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The large sensitivity, high reproducibility and essentially unlimited dynamic range of real-time PCR to measure gene expression in complex samples provides the opportunity for powerful multivariate and multiway studies of biological phenomena. In multiway studies samples are characterized by their expression profiles to monitor changes over time, effect of treatment, drug dosage etc. Here we perform a multiway study of the temporal response of four yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains with different glucose uptake rates upon altered metabolic conditions. Results We measured the expression of 18 genes as function of time after addition of glucose to four strains of yeast grown in ethanol. The data are analyzed by matrix-augmented PCA, which is a generalization of PCA for 3-way data, and the results are confirmed by hierarchical clustering and clustering by Kohonen self-organizing map. Our approach identifies gene groups that respond similarly to the change of nutrient, and genes that behave differently in mutant strains. Of particular interest is our finding that ADH4 and ADH6 show a behavior typical of glucose-induced genes, while ADH3 and ADH5 are repressed after glucose addition. Conclusion Multiway real-time PCR gene expression profiling is a powerful technique which can be utilized to characterize functions of new genes by, for example, comparing their temporal response after perturbation in different genetic variants of the studied subject. The technique also identifies genes that show perturbed expression in specific strains.

  16. Biochemical characterization of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis α-1,3-glucanase Agn1p, and its functionality by heterologous Expression in Schizosaccharomyces pombe.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Héctor Villalobos-Duno

    Full Text Available α-1,3-Glucan is present as the outermost layer of the cell wall in the pathogenic yeastlike (Y form of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis. Based on experimental evidence, this polysaccharide has been proposed as a fungal virulence factor. To degrade α-1,3-glucan and allow remodeling of the cell wall, α-1,3-glucanase is required. Therefore, the study of this enzyme, its encoding gene, and regulatory mechanisms, might be of interest to understand the morphogenesis and virulence process in this fungus. A single gene, orthologous to other fungal α-1,3-glucanase genes, was identified in the Paracoccidioides genome, and labeled AGN1. Transcriptional levels of AGN1 and AGS1 (α-1,3-glucan synthase-encoding gene increased sharply when the pathogenic Y phase was cultured in the presence of 5% horse serum, a reported booster for cell wall α-1,3-glucan synthesis in this fungus. To study the biochemical properties of P. brasiliensis Agn1p, the enzyme was heterologously overexpressed, purified, and its activity profile determined by means of the degradation of carboxymethyl α-1,3-glucan (SCMG, chemically modified from P. brasiliensis α-1,3-glucan, used as a soluble substrate for the enzymatic reaction. Inhibition assays, thin layer chromatography and enzymatic reactions with alternative substrates (dextran, starch, chitin, laminarin and cellulose, showed that Agn1p displays an endolytic cut pattern and high specificity for SCMG. Complementation of a Schizosaccharomyces pombe agn1Δ strain with the P. brasiliensis AGN1 gene restored the wild type phenotype, indicating functionality of the gene, suggesting a possible role of Agn1p in the remodeling of P. brasiliensis Y phase cell wall. Based on amino acid sequence, P. brasiliensis Agn1p, groups within the family 71 of fungal glycoside hydrolases (GH-71, showing similar biochemical characteristics to other members of this family. Also based on amino acid sequence alignments, we propose a subdivision of fungal

  17. Induction of homologous recombination in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, J R; Moore, P D

    1988-09-01

    We have investigated the effects of UV irradiation of Saccharomyces cerevisiae in order to distinguish whether UV-induced recombination results from the induction of enzymes required for homologous recombination, or the production of substrate sites for recombination containing regions of DNA damage. We utilized split-dose experiments to investigate the induction of proteins required for survival, gene conversion, and mutation in a diploid strain of S. cerevisiae. We demonstrate that inducing doses of UV irradiation followed by a 6 h period of incubation render the cells resistant to challenge doses of UV irradiation. The effects of inducing and challenge doses of UV irradiation upon interchromosomal gene conversion and mutation are strictly additive. Using the yeast URA3 gene cloned in non-replicating single- and double-stranded plasmid vectors that integrate into chromosomal genes upon transformation, we show that UV irradiation of haploid yeast cells and homologous plasmid DNA sequences each stimulate homologous recombination approximately two-fold, and that these effects are additive. Non-specific DNA damage has little effect on the stimulation of homologous recombination, as shown by studies in which UV-irradiated heterologous DNA was included in transformation/recombination experiments. We further demonstrate that the effect of competing single- and double-stranded heterologous DNA sequences differs in UV-irradiated and unirradiated cells, suggesting an induction of recombinational machinery in UV-irradiated S. cerevisiae cells.

  18. An in silico platform for the design of heterologous pathways in nonnative metabolite production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chatsurachai Sunisa

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Microorganisms are used as cell factories to produce valuable compounds in pharmaceuticals, biofuels, and other industrial processes. Incorporating heterologous metabolic pathways into well-characterized hosts is a major strategy for obtaining these target metabolites and improving productivity. However, selecting appropriate heterologous metabolic pathways for a host microorganism remains difficult owing to the complexity of metabolic networks. Hence, metabolic network design could benefit greatly from the availability of an in silico platform for heterologous pathway searching. Results We developed an algorithm for finding feasible heterologous pathways by which nonnative target metabolites are produced by host microorganisms, using Escherichia coli, Corynebacterium glutamicum, and Saccharomyces cerevisiae as templates. Using this algorithm, we screened heterologous pathways for the production of all possible nonnative target metabolites contained within databases. We then assessed the feasibility of the target productions using flux balance analysis, by which we could identify target metabolites associated with maximum cellular growth rate. Conclusions This in silico platform, designed for targeted searching of heterologous metabolic reactions, provides essential information for cell factory improvement.

  19. Studies of the expression of human poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and identification of PARP-1 substrates by yeast proteome microarray screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Zhihua; Gao, Peng; Liu, Hung-Wen

    2009-12-15

    Poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation of various nuclear proteins catalyzed by a family of NAD(+)-dependent enzymes, poly(ADP-ribose) polymerases (PARPs), is an important posttranslational modification reaction. PARP activity has been demonstrated in all types of eukaryotic cells with the exception of yeast, in which the expression of human PARP-1 was shown to lead to retarded cell growth. We investigated the yeast growth inhibition caused by human PARP-1 expression in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Flow cytometry analysis reveals that PARP-1-expressing yeast cells accumulate in the G(2)/M stage of the cell cycle. Confocal microscopy analysis shows that human PARP-1 is distributed throughout the nucleus of yeast cells but is enriched in the nucleolus. Utilizing yeast proteome microarray screening, we identified 33 putative PARP-1 substrates, six of which are known to be involved in ribosome biogenesis. The poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation of three of these yeast proteins, together with two human homologues, was confirmed by an in vitro PARP-1 assay. Finally, a polysome profile analysis using sucrose gradient ultracentrifugation demonstrated that the ribosome levels in yeast cells expressing PARP-1 are lower than those in control yeast cells. Overall, our data suggest that human PARP-1 may affect ribosome biogenesis by modifying certain nucleolar proteins in yeast. The artificial PARP-1 pathway in yeast may be used as a simple platform to identify substrates and verify function of this important enzyme.

  20. FLO11 expression and lipid biosynthesis are required for air-liquid biofilm formation in a Saccharomyces cerevisiae flor strain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zara, Giacomo; Goffrini, Paola; Lodi, Tiziana; Zara, Severino; Mannazzu, Ilaria; Budroni, Marilena

    2012-11-01

    Air-liquid biofilm formation is largely dependent on Flo11p and seems related to cell lipid content and composition. Here, it is shown that in the presence of cerulenin, a known inhibitor of the fatty acid synthase complex, biofilm formation is inhibited together with FLO11 transcription in a flor strain of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, while the administration of saturated fatty acids to cerulenin-containing medium restores biofilm formation and FLO11 transcription. It is also shown that, in biofilm cells, the FLO11 transcription is accompanied by the transcription of ACC1, ACS1 and INO1 key genes in lipid biosynthesis and that biofilm formation is affected by the lack of inositol in flor medium. These results are compatible with the hypothesis that the air-liquid biofilm formation depends on FLO11 transcription levels as well as on fatty acids biosynthesis. © 2012 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by Blackwell Publishing Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Yeast as a Heterologous Model System to Uncover Type III Effector Function.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Crina Popa

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Type III effectors (T3E are key virulence proteins that are injected by bacterial pathogens inside the cells of their host to subvert cellular processes and contribute to disease. The budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae represents an important heterologous system for the functional characterisation of T3E proteins in a eukaryotic environment. Importantly, yeast contains eukaryotic processes with low redundancy and are devoid of immunity mechanisms that counteract T3Es and mask their function. Expression in yeast of effectors from both plant and animal pathogens that perturb conserved cellular processes often resulted in robust phenotypes that were exploited to elucidate effector functions, biochemical properties, and host targets. The genetic tractability of yeast and its amenability for high-throughput functional studies contributed to the success of this system that, in recent years, has been used to study over 100 effectors. Here, we provide a critical view on this body of work and describe advantages and limitations inherent to the use of yeast in T3E research. "Favourite" targets of T3Es in yeast are cytoskeleton components and small GTPases of the Rho family. We describe how mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK signalling, vesicle trafficking, membrane structures, and programmed cell death are also often altered by T3Es in yeast and how this reflects their function in the natural host. We describe how effector structure-function studies and analysis of candidate targeted processes or pathways can be carried out in yeast. We critically analyse technologies that have been used in yeast to assign biochemical functions to T3Es, including transcriptomics and proteomics, as well as suppressor, gain-of-function, or synthetic lethality screens. We also describe how yeast can be used to select for molecules that block T3E function in search of new antibacterial drugs with medical applications. Finally, we provide our opinion on the limitations

  2. Photosynthetic fuel for heterologous enzymes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mellor, Silas Busck; Vavitsas, Konstantinos; Nielsen, Agnieszka Janina Zygadlo

    2017-01-01

    of reducing power. Recent work on the metabolic engineering of photosynthetic organisms has shown that the electron carriers such as ferredoxin and flavodoxin can be used to couple heterologous enzymes to photosynthetic reducing power. Because these proteins have a plethora of interaction partners and rely...... on electrostatically steered complex formation, they form productive electron transfer complexes with non-native enzymes. A handful of examples demonstrate channeling of photosynthetic electrons to drive the activity of heterologous enzymes, and these focus mainly on hydrogenases and cytochrome P450s. However......, competition from native pathways and inefficient electron transfer rates present major obstacles, which limit the productivity of heterologous reactions coupled to photosynthesis. We discuss specific approaches to address these bottlenecks and ensure high productivity of such enzymes in a photosynthetic...

  3. Construction and heterologous expression of a truncated Haemagglutinin (HA) protein from the avian influenza virus H5N1 in Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chee Wei, T; Nurul Wahida, A G; Shaharum, S

    2014-12-01

    Malaysia first reported H5N1 poultry case in 2004 and subsequently outbreak in poultry population in 2007. Here, a recombinant gene encoding of peptide epitopes, consisting fragments of HA1, HA2 and a polybasic cleavage site of H5N1 strain Malaysia, was amplified and cloned into pET-47b(+) bacterial expression vector. DNA sequencing and alignment analysis confirmed that the gene had no alteration and in-frame to the vector. Then, His-tagged truncated HA protein was expressed in Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3) under 1 mM IPTG induction. The protein expression was optimized under a time-course induction study and further purified using Ni-NTA agarose under reducing condition. Migration size of protein was detected at 15 kDa by Western blot using anti-His tag monoclonal antibody and demonstrated no discrepancy compared to its calculated molecular weight.

  4. Ethanol from lignocellulose - Fermentation inhibitors, detoxification and genetic engineering of Saccharomyces cerevisiae for enhanced resistance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larsson, Simona

    2000-07-01

    Ethanol can be produced from lignocellulose by first hydrolysing the material to sugars, and then fermenting the hydrolysate with the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Hydrolysis using dilute sulphuric acid has advantages over other methods, however, compounds which inhibit fermentation are generated during this kind of hydrolysis. The inhibitory effect of aliphatic acids, furans, and phenolic compounds was investigated. The generation of inhibitors during hydrolysis was studied using Norway spruce as raw material. It was concluded that the decrease in the fermentability coincided with increasing harshness of the hydrolysis conditions. The decrease in fermentability was not correlated solely to the content of aliphatic acids or furan derivatives. To increase the fermentability, detoxification is often employed. Twelve detoxification methods were compared with respect to the chemical composition of the hydrolysate and the fermentability after treatment. The most efficient detoxification methods were anion-exchange at pH 10.0, overliming and enzymatic detoxification with the phenol-oxidase laccase. Detailed analyses of ion exchange revealed that anion exchange and unspecific hydrophobic interactions greatly contributed to the detoxification effect, while cation exchange did not. The comparison of detoxification methods also showed that phenolic compounds are very important fermentation inhibitors, as their selective removal with laccase had a major positive effect on the fermentability. Selected compounds; aliphatic acids, furans and phenolic compounds, were characterised with respect to their inhibitory effect on ethanolic fermentation by S. cerevisiae. When aliphatic acids or furans were compared, the inhibitory effects were found to be in the same range, but the phenolic compounds displayed widely different inhibitory effects. The possibility of genetically engineering S. cerevisiae to achieve increased inhibitor resistance was explored by heterologous expression of

  5. Heterologous expression of the isopimaric acid pathway in Nicotiana benthamiana and the effect of N-terminal modifications of the involved cytochrome P450 enzyme

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gnanasekaran, Thiyagarajan; Vavitsas, Konstantinos; Andersen-Ranberg, Johan

    2015-01-01

    in the infiltrated leaves. Furthermore, we demonstrated that a modified membrane anchor is a prerequisite for a functional CYP720B4 enzyme when the chloroplast targeting peptide is added. We report the accumulation of 45-55 μg/g plant dry weight of isopimaric acid four days after the infiltration with the modified...... in the chloroplast and subsequently oxidized by a cytochrome P450, CYP720B4. RESULTS: We transiently expressed the isopimaric acid pathway in Nicotiana benthamiana leaves and enhanced its productivity by the expression of two rate-limiting steps in the pathway (providing the general precursor of diterpenes). This co...

  6. Ubiquitin fusion constructs allow the expression and purification of multi-KOW domain complexes of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae transcription elongation factor Spt4/5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blythe, Amanda; Gunasekara, Sanjika; Walshe, James; Mackay, Joel P; Hartzog, Grant A; Vrielink, Alice

    2014-08-01

    Spt4/5 is a hetero-dimeric transcription elongation factor that can both inhibit and promote transcription elongation by RNA polymerase II (RNAPII). However, Spt4/5's mechanism of action remains elusive. Spt5 is an essential protein and the only universally-conserved RNAP-associated transcription elongation factor. The protein contains multiple Kyrpides, Ouzounis and Woese (KOW) domains. These domains, in other proteins, are thought to bind RNA although there is little direct evidence in the literature to support such a function in Spt5. This could be due, at least in part, to difficulties in expressing and purifying recombinant Spt5. When expressed in Escherichia coli (E. coli), Spt5 is innately insoluble. Here we report a new approach for the successful expression and purification of milligram quantities of three different multi-KOW domain complexes of Saccharomyces cerevisiae Spt4/5 for use in future functional studies. Using the E. coli strain Rosetta2 (DE3) we have developed strategies for co-expression of Spt4 and multi-KOW domain Spt5 complexes from the bi-cistronic pET-Duet vector. In a second strategy, Spt4/5 was expressed via co-transformation of Spt4 in the vector pET-M11 with Spt5 ubiquitin fusion constructs in the vector pHUE. We characterized the multi-KOW domain Spt4/5 complexes by Western blot, limited proteolysis, circular dichroism, SDS-PAGE and size exclusion chromatography-multiangle light scattering and found that the proteins are folded with a Spt4:Spt5 hetero-dimeric stoichiometry of 1:1. These expression constructs encompass a larger region of Spt5 than has previously been reported, and will provide the opportunity to elucidate the biological function of the multi-KOW containing Spt5. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. The expression of heterologous MAM-7 in Lactobacillus rhamnosus reduces its intrinsic capacity to inhibit colonization of pathogen Vibrio parahaemolyticus in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beltran, Sebastian; Munoz-Bergmann, Cristian A; Elola-Lopez, Ana; Quintana, Javiera; Segovia, Cristopher; Trombert, Annette N

    2016-01-07

    Vibrio parahaemolyticus (V. parahaemolyticus) is a Gram-negative, halophilic bacterium recognized as one of the most important foodborne pathogen. When ingested, V. parahaemolyticus causes a self-limiting illness (Vibriosis), characterized mainly by watery diarrhoea. Treatment is usually oral rehydration and/or antibiotics in complicated cases. Since 1996, the pathogenic and pandemic V. parahaemolyticus O3:K6 serotype has spread worldwide, increasing the reported number of vibriosis cases. Thus, the design of new strategies for pathogen control and illness prevention is necessary. Lactobacillus sp. grouped Gram positive innocuous bacteria, part of normal intestinal microbiota and usually used as oral vaccines for several diarrheic diseases. Recombinants strains of Lactobacillus (RL) expressing pathogen antigens can be used as part of an anti-adhesion strategy where RL block the pathogen union sites in host cells. Thus, we aimed to express MAM-7 V. parahaemolyticus adhesion protein in Lactobacillus sp. to generate an RL that prevents pathogen colonization. We cloned the MAM-7 gene from V. parahaemolyticus RIMD 2210633 in Lactobacillus expression vectors. Recombinant strains (Lactobacillus rhamnosus pSEC-MAM7 and L. rhamnosus pCWA-MAM7) adhered to CaCo-2 cells and competed with the pathogen. However, the L. rhamnosus wild type strain showed the best capacity to inhibit pathogen colonization in vitro. In addition, LDH-assay showed that recombinant strains were cytotoxic compared with the wild type isogenic strain. MAM-7 expression in lactobacilli reduces the intrinsic inhibitory capacity of L. rhamnosus against V. parahaemolyticus.

  8. Heterologous expression of mannanase and developing a new Reporter gene system in Lactobacillus casei and Escherichia coli

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lin, Jinzhong; Zou, Yexia; Ma, Chengjie

    2015-01-01

    Reporter gene systems are useful for studying bacterial molecular biology, including the regulation of gene expression and the histochemical analysis of protein products. Here, two genes, β-1,4-mannanase (manB) from Bacillus pumilus and β-glucuronidase (gusA) from Escherichia coli K12, were clone....... casei and E.coli....

  9. The expression of heterologous MAM-7 in Lactobacillus rhamnosus reduces its intrinsic capacity to inhibit colonization of pathogen Vibrio parahaemolyticus in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian Beltran

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Vibrio parahaemolyticus (V. parahaemolyticus is a Gram-negative, halophilic bacterium recognized as one of the most important foodborne pathogen. When ingested, V. parahaemolyticus causes a self-limiting illness (Vibriosis, characterized mainly by watery diarrhoea. Treatment is usually oral rehydration and/or antibiotics in complicated cases. Since 1996, the pathogenic and pandemic V. parahaemolyticus O3:K6 serotype has spread worldwide, increasing the reported number of vibriosis cases. Thus, the design of new strategies for pathogen control and illness prevention is necessary. Lactobacillus sp. grouped Gram positive innocuous bacteria, part of normal intestinal microbiota and usually used as oral vaccines for several diarrheic diseases. Recombinants strains of Lactobacillus (RL expressing pathogen antigens can be used as part of an anti-adhesion strategy where RL block the pathogen union sites in host cells. Thus, we aimed to express MAM-7 V. parahaemolyticus adhesion protein in Lactobacillus sp. to generate an RL that prevents pathogen colonization RESULTS: We cloned the MAM-7 gene from V. parahaemolyticus RIMD 2210633 in Lactobacillus expression vectors. Recombinant strains (Lactobacillus rhamnosus pSEC-MAM7 and L. rhamnosus pCWA-MAM7 adhered to CaCo-2 cells and competed with the pathogen. However, the L. rhamnosus wild type strain showed the best capacity to inhibit pathogen colonization in vitro. In addition, LDH-assay showed that recombinant strains were cytotoxic compared with the wild type isogenic strain CONCLUSIONS: MAM-7 expression in lactobacilli reduces the intrinsic inhibitory capacity of L. rhamnosus against V. parahaemolyticus

  10. Cloning and heterologous expression of a hydrophobin gene Ltr.hyd from the tiger milk mushroom Lentinus tuber-regium in yeast-like cells of Tremella fuciformis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongmei Liu

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Hydrophobins are small proteins secreted by filamentous fungi, which show a highly surface activity. Because of the signally self-assembling abilities and surface activities, hydrophobins were considered as candidates in many aspects, for example, stabilizing foams and emulsions in food products. Lentinus tuber-regium, known as tiger milk mushroom, is both an edible and medicinal sclerotium-producing mushroom. Up to now, the hydrophobins of L. tuber-regium have not been identified. Results: In this paper, a Class I hydrophobin gene, Ltr.hyd, was cloned from L. tuber-regium and expressed in the yeast-like cells of Tremella fuciformis mediated by Agrobacterium tumefaciens. The expression vector pGEH-GH was under the control of T. fuciformis glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase gene (gpd promoter. The integration of Ltr.hyd into the genome of T. fuciformis was confirmed by PCR, Southern blot, fluorescence observation and quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR. Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE demonstrated that recombinant hydrophobin rLtr.HYD with an expected molecular mass of 13 kDa was extracted. The yield of rLtr.HYD was 0.66 mg/g dry weight. The emulsifying activity of rLtr.HYD was better than the typical food emulsifiers sodium caseinate and Tween 20. Conclusions: We evaluated the emulsifying property of hydrophobin Ltr.HYD, which can be potentially used as a food emulsifier. Keywords: Agrobacterium tumefaciens, Emulsifier, Expression vector, Filamentous fungi, Gel electrophoresis, Glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, Heterogenous expression, Hydrophobin, Quantitative real-time PCR, Southern blot, Surface activity

  11. Molecular Characterization of the Elaeis guineensis Medium-Chain Fatty Acid Diacylglycerol Acyltransferase DGAT1-1 by Heterologous Expression in Yarrowia lipolytica.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laure Aymé

    Full Text Available Diacylglycerol acyltransferases (DGAT are involved in the acylation of sn-1,2-diacylglycerol. Palm kernel oil, extracted from Elaeis guineensis (oil palm seeds, has a high content of medium-chain fatty acids mainly lauric acid (C12:0. A putative E. guineensis diacylglycerol acyltransferase gene (EgDGAT1-1 is expressed at the onset of lauric acid accumulation in the seed endosperm suggesting that it is a determinant of medium-chain triacylglycerol storage. To test this hypothesis, we thoroughly characterized EgDGAT1-1 activity through functional complementation of a Yarrowia lipolytica mutant strain devoid of neutral lipids. EgDGAT1-1 expression is sufficient to restore triacylglycerol accumulation in neosynthesized lipid droplets. A comparative functional study with Arabidopsis thaliana DGAT1 highlighted contrasting substrate specificities when the recombinant yeast was cultured in lauric acid supplemented medium. The EgDGAT1-1 expressing strain preferentially accumulated medium-chain triacylglycerols whereas AtDGAT1 expression induced long-chain triacylglycerol storage in Y. lipolytica. EgDGAT1-1 localized to the endoplasmic reticulum where TAG biosynthesis takes place. Reestablishing neutral lipid accumulation in the Y. lipolytica mutant strain did not induce major reorganization of the yeast microsomal proteome. Overall, our findings demonstrate that EgDGAT1-1 is an endoplasmic reticulum DGAT with preference for medium-chain fatty acid substrates, in line with its physiological role in palm kernel. The characterized EgDGAT1-1 could be used to promote medium-chain triacylglycerol accumulation in microbial-produced oil for industrial chemicals and cosmetics.

  12. Reconstruction of cytosolic fumaric acid biosynthetic pathways in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu Guoqiang

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Fumaric acid is a commercially important component of foodstuffs, pharmaceuticals and industrial materials, yet the current methods of production are unsustainable and ecologically destructive. Results In this study, the fumarate biosynthetic pathway involving reductive reactions of the tricarboxylic acid cycle was exogenously introduced in S. cerevisiae by a series of simple genetic modifications. First, the Rhizopus oryzae genes for malate dehydrogenase (RoMDH and fumarase (RoFUM1 were heterologously expressed. Then, expression of the endogenous pyruvate carboxylase (PYC2 was up-regulated. The resultant yeast strain, FMME-001 ↑PYC2 + ↑RoMDH, was capable of producing significantly higher yields of fumarate in the glucose medium (3.18 ± 0.15 g liter-1 than the control strain FMME-001 empty vector. Conclusions The results presented here provide a novel strategy for fumarate biosynthesis, which represents an important advancement in producing high yields of fumarate in a sustainable and ecologically-friendly manner.

  13. The Expression of Millettia pinnata Chalcone Isomerase in Saccharomyces cerevisiae Salt-Sensitive Mutants Enhances Salt-Tolerance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baiqu Huang

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The present study demonstrates a new Millettia pinnata chalcone isomerase (MpCHI whose transcription level in leaf was confirmed to be enhanced after being treated by seawater or NaCl (500 mM via transcriptome sequencing and Real-Time Quantitative Reverse Transcription PCR (QRT-PCR analyses. Its full length cDNA (666 bp was obtained by 3'-end and 5'-end Rapid Amplification of cDNA Ends (RACE. The analysis via NCBI BLAST indicates that both aminoacid sequence and nucleotide sequence of the MpCHI clone share high homology with other leguminous CHIs (73%–86%. Evolutionarily, the phylogenic analysis further revealed that the MpCHI is a close relative of leguminous CHIs. The MpCHI protein consists of 221 aminoacid (23.64 KDa, whose peptide length, amino acid residues of substrate-binding site and reactive site are very similar to other leguminous CHIs reported previously. Two pYES2-MpCHI transformed salt-sensitive Saccharomyces cerevisiae mutants (Δnha1 and Δnhx1 showed improved salt-tolerance significantly compared to pYES2-vector transformed yeast mutants, suggesting the MpCHI or the flavonoid biosynthesis pathway could regulate the resistance to salt stress in M. pinnata.

  14. The expression of Millettia pinnata chalcone isomerase in Saccharomyces cerevisiae salt-sensitive mutants enhances salt-tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hui; Hu, Tangjin; Huang, Jianzi; Lu, Xiang; Huang, Baiqu; Zheng, Yizhi

    2013-04-24

    The present study demonstrates a new Millettia pinnata chalcone isomerase (MpCHI) whose transcription level in leaf was confirmed to be enhanced after being treated by seawater or NaCl (500 mM) via transcriptome sequencing and Real-Time Quantitative Reverse Transcription PCR (QRT-PCR) analyses. Its full length cDNA (666 bp) was obtained by 3'-end and 5'-end Rapid Amplification of cDNA Ends (RACE). The analysis via NCBI BLAST indicates that both aminoacid sequence and nucleotide sequence of the MpCHI clone share high homology with other leguminous CHIs (73%-86%). Evolutionarily, the phylogenic analysis further revealed that the MpCHI is a close relative of leguminous CHIs. The MpCHI protein consists of 221 aminoacid (23.64 KDa), whose peptide length, amino acid residues of substrate-binding site and reactive site are very similar to other leguminous CHIs reported previously. Two pYES2-MpCHI transformed salt-sensitive Saccharomyces cerevisiae mutants (Δnha1 and Δnhx1) showed improved salt-tolerance significantly compared to pYES2-vector transformed yeast mutants, suggesting the MpCHI or the flavonoid biosynthesis pathway could regulate the resistance to salt stress in M. pinnata.

  15. Caenorhabditis elegans expressing the Saccharomyces cerevisiae NADH alternative dehydrogenase Ndi1p, as a tool to identify new genes involved in complex I related diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raynald eCossard

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Isolated complex I deficiencies are one of the most commonly observed biochemical features in patients suffering from mitochondrial disorders. In the majority of these clinical cases the molecular bases of the diseases remain unknown suggesting the involvement of unidentified factors that are critical for complex I function.The Saccharomyces cerevisiae NDI1 gene, encoding the mitochondrial internal NADH dehydrogenase was previously shown to complement a complex I deficient strain in Caenorhabitis elegans with notable improvements in reproduction, whole organism respiration. These features indicate that Ndi1p can functionally integrate the respiratory chain, allowing complex I deficiency complementation. Taking into account the Ndi1p ability to bypass complex I, we evaluate the possibility to extend the range of defects/mutations causing complex I deficiencies that can be alleviated by NDI1 expression.We report here that NDI1 expressing animals unexpectedly exhibit a slightly shortened lifespan, a reduction in the progeny and a depletion of the mitochondrial genome. However, Ndi1p is expressed and targeted to the mitochondria as a functional protein that confers rotenone resistance to those animals and without affecting their respiration rate and ATP content.We show that the severe embryonic lethality level caused by the RNAi knockdowns of complex I structural subunit encoding genes (e.g. NDUFV1, NDUFS1, NDUFS6, NDUFS8 or GRIM-19 human orthologs in wild type animals is significantly reduced in the Ndi1p expressing worm.All together these results open up the perspective to identify new genes involved in complex I function, assembly or regulation by screening an RNAi library of genes leading to embryonic lethality that should be rescued by NDI1 expression.

  16. A MultiSite GatewayTM vector set for the functional analysis of genes in the model Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nagels Durand Astrid

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recombinatorial cloning using the GatewayTM technology has been the method of choice for high-throughput omics projects, resulting in the availability of entire ORFeomes in GatewayTM compatible vectors. The MultiSite GatewayTM system allows combining multiple genetic fragments such as promoter, ORF and epitope tag in one single reaction. To date, this technology has not been accessible in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, one of the most widely used experimental systems in molecular biology, due to the lack of appropriate destination vectors. Results Here, we present a set of three-fragment MultiSite GatewayTM destination vectors that have been developed for gene expression in S. cerevisiae and that allow the assembly of any promoter, open reading frame, epitope tag arrangement in combination with any of four auxotrophic markers and three distinct replication mechanisms. As an example of its applicability, we used yeast three-hybrid to provide evidence for the assembly of a ternary complex of plant proteins involved in jasmonate signalling and consisting of the JAZ, NINJA and TOPLESS proteins. Conclusion Our vectors make MultiSite GatewayTM cloning accessible in S. cerevisiae and implement a fast and versatile cloning method for the high-throughput functional analysis of (heterologous proteins in one of the most widely used model organisms for molecular biology research.

  17. Biosynthetic pathway for γ-cyclic sarcinaxanthin in Micrococcus luteus: heterologous expression and evidence for diverse and multiple catalytic functions of C(50) carotenoid cyclases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Netzer, Roman; Stafsnes, Marit H; Andreassen, Trygve; Goksøyr, Audun; Bruheim, Per; Brautaset, Trygve

    2010-11-01

    We report the cloning and characterization of the biosynthetic gene cluster (crtE, crtB, crtI, crtE2, crtYg, crtYh, and crtX) of the γ-cyclic C(50) carotenoid sarcinaxanthin in Micrococcus luteus NCTC2665. Expression of the complete and partial gene cluster in Escherichia coli hosts revealed that sarcinaxanthin biosynthesis from the precursor molecule farnesyl pyrophosphate (FPP) proceeds via C(40) lycopene, C(45) nonaflavuxanthin, C(50) flavuxanthin, and C(50) sarcinaxanthin. Glucosylation of sarcinaxanthin was accomplished by the crtX gene product. This is the first report describing the biosynthetic pathway of a γ-cyclic C(50) carotenoid. Expression of the corresponding genes from the marine M. luteus isolate Otnes7 in a lycopene-producing E. coli host resulted in the production of up to 2.5 mg/g cell dry weight sarcinaxanthin in shake flasks. In an attempt to experimentally understand the specific difference between the biosynthetic pathways of sarcinaxanthin and the structurally related ε-cyclic decaprenoxanthin, we constructed a hybrid gene cluster with the γ-cyclic C(50) carotenoid cyclase genes crtYg and crtYh from M. luteus replaced with the analogous ε-cyclic C(50) carotenoid cyclase genes crtYe and crtYf from the natural decaprenoxanthin producer Corynebacterium glutamicum. Surprisingly, expression of this hybrid gene cluster in an E. coli host resulted in accumulation of not only decaprenoxanthin, but also sarcinaxanthin and the asymmetric ε- and γ-cyclic C(50) carotenoid sarprenoxanthin, described for the first time in this work. Together, these data contributed to new insight into the diverse and multiple functions of bacterial C(50) carotenoid cyclases as key catalysts for the synthesis of structurally different carotenoids.

  18. Heterologous production of peptides in plants: fusion proteins and beyond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viana, Juliane Flávia Cançado; Dias, Simoni Campos; Franco, Octávio Luiz; Lacorte, Cristiano

    2013-11-01

    Recombinant DNA technology has allowed the ectopic production of proteins and peptides of different organisms leading to biopharmaceutical production in large cultures of bacterial, yeasts and mammalian cells. Otherwise, the expression of recombinant proteins and peptides in plants is an attractive alternative presenting several advantages over the commonly used expression systems including reduced production costs, easy scale-up and reduced risks of pathogen contamination. Different types of proteins and peptides have been expressed in plants, including antibodies, antigens, and proteins and peptides of medical, veterinary and industrial applications. However, apart from providing a proof of concept, the use of plants as platforms for heterologous protein and peptide production still depends on key steps towards optimization including the enhancement of expression levels, manipulation of post-transcriptional modifications and improvements in purification methods. In this review, strategies to increase heterologous protein and peptide stability and accumulation are discussed, focusing on the expression of peptides through the use of gene fusions.

  19. Heterologous Expression of Phanerochaete chrysoporium Glyoxal Oxidase and its Application for the Coupled Reaction with Manganese Peroxidase to Decolorize Malachite Green

    Science.gov (United States)

    Son, Yu-Lim; Kim, Hyoun-Young; Thiyagarajan, Saravanakumar; Xu, Jing Jing

    2012-01-01

    cDNA of the glx1 gene encoding glyoxal oxidase (GLX) from Phanerochaete chrysosporium was isolated and expressed in Pichia pastoris. The recombinant GLX (rGLX) produces H2O2 over 7.0 nmol/min/mL using methyl glyoxal as a substrate. Use of rGLX as a generator of H2O2 improved the coupled reaction with recombinant manganese peroxidase resulting in decolorization of malachite green up to 150 µM within 90 min. PMID:23323052

  20. Systematic strain construction and process development: Xylitol production by Saccharomyces cerevisiae expressing Candida tenuis xylose reductase in wild-type or mutant form.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratter, S M; Eixelsberger, T; Nidetzky, B

    2015-12-01

    A novel Saccharomyces cerevisiae whole-cell biocatalyst for xylitol production based on Candida tenuis xylose reductase (CtXR) is presented. Six recombinant strains expressing wild-type CtXR or an NADH-specific mutant were constructed and evaluated regarding effects of expression mode, promoter strength, biocatalyst concentration and medium composition. Intracellular XR activities ranged from 0.09 U mgProt(-1) to 1.05 U mgProt(-1) but did not correlate with the strains' xylitol productivities, indicating that other factors limited xylose conversion in the high-activity strains. The CtXR mutant decreased the biocatalyst's performance, suggesting use of the NADPH-preferring wild-type enzyme when (semi-)aerobic conditions are applied. In a bioreactor process, the best-performing strain converted 40 g L(-1) xylose with an initial productivity of 1.16 g L(-1)h(-1) and a xylitol yield of 100%. The obtained results underline the potential of CtXR wild-type for xylose reduction and point out parameters to improve "green" xylitol production. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Development and evaluation of an efficient heterologous gene knock-in reporter system in Lactococcus lactis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yifei; Yan, Hongxiang; Deng, Jiezhong; Huang, Zhigang; Jin, Xurui; Yu, Yanlan; Hu, Qiwen; Hu, Fuquan; Wang, Jing

    2017-09-18

    Lactococcus lactis is a food grade probiotics and widely used to express heterologous proteins. Generally, target genes are knocked into the L. lactis genome through double-crossover recombination to express heterologous proteins stably. However, creating marker-less heterologous genes knocked-in clones is laborious. In this study, an efficient heterologous gene knock-in reporter system was developed in L. lactis NZ9000. Our knock-in reporter system consists of a temperature-sensitive plasmid pJW and a recombinant L. lactis strain named NZB. The pJW contains homologous arms, and was constructed to knock-in heterologous genes at a fixed locus of NZ9000 genome. lacZ (β-galactosidase) gene was knocked into the chromosome of NZ9000 as a counter-selective marker through the plasmid pJW to generate NZB. The engineered NZB strain formed blue colonies on X-Gal plate. The desired double-crossover mutants formed white colonies distinctive from the predominantly blue colonies (parental and plasmid-integrated clones) when the embedded lacZ was replaced with the target heterologous genes carried by pJW in NZB. By using the system, the heterologous gene knocked-in clones are screened by colony phenotype change rather than by checking colonies individually. Our new knock-in reporter system provides an efficient method to create heterologous genes knocked-in clones.

  2. Characterization of cycP gene expression in Achromobacter xylosoxidans NCIMB 11015 and high-level heterologous synthesis of cytochrome c' in Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Roger L; Barbieri, Sonia; Paraskevopoulos, Kostas; Murphy, Loretta M; Eady, Robert R; Hasnain, S Samar; Sawers, R Gary

    2010-01-01

    The cycP gene encoding a periplasmic cytochrome c' from the denitrifying beta-proteobacterium Achromobacter xylosoxidans was characterized. The genes flanking cycP encode components of a mobile genetic element characteristic of the beta-proteobacteria, suggesting that cycP has inserted within a transposon or insertion element. The gene therefore does not form part of a denitrification operon or gene cluster. The level of expression of the cycP gene and the level of synthesis of its corresponding gene product were found to increase by maximally 3-fold anaerobically. Expression of cycP appears to occur mainly by non-specific read-through transcription from portions of the insertion element. Conditions were developed for high-level overproduction of cytochrome c' in Escherichia coli, which resulted in signal peptide cleavage concomitant with secretion of the protein into the periplasm. Using a single-step purification, 20-30 mg of pure protein were isolated from a 1-litre culture. Based on UV-visible spectrophotometry the dimeric protein was shown to have a full complement of haem and to be indistinguishable from the native protein purified from A. xylosoxidans. This system provides an excellent platform to facilitate biochemical and structural dissection of the mechanism underlying the novel specificity of NO binding to the proximal face of the haem.

  3. Human Cytomegalovirus Nuclear Egress Proteins Ectopically Expressed in the Heterologous Environment of Plant Cells are Strictly Targeted to the Nuclear Envelope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamm, Christian E; Link, Katrin; Wagner, Sabrina; Milbradt, Jens; Marschall, Manfred; Sonnewald, Uwe

    2016-03-10

    In all eukaryotic cells, the nucleus forms a prominent cellular compartment containing the cell's nuclear genome. Although structurally similar, animal and plant nuclei differ substantially in details of their architecture. One example is the nuclear lamina, a layer of tightly interconnected filament proteins (lamins) underlying the nuclear envelope of metazoans. So far no orthologous lamin genes could be detected in plant genomes and putative lamin-like proteins are only poorly described in plants. To probe for potentially conserved features of metazoan and plant nuclear envelopes, we ectopically expressed the core nuclear egress proteins of human cytomegalovirus pUL50 and pUL53 in plant cells. pUL50 localizes to the inner envelope of metazoan nuclei and recruits the nuclear localized pUL53 to it, forming heterodimers. Upon expression in plant cells, a very similar localization pattern of both proteins could be determined. Notably, pUL50 is specifically targeted to the plant nuclear envelope in a rim-like fashion, a location to which coexpressed pUL53 becomes strictly corecruited from its initial nucleoplasmic distribution. Using pUL50 as bait in a yeast two-hybrid screening, the cytoplasmic re-initiation supporting protein RISP could be identified. Interaction of pUL50 and RISP could be confirmed by coexpression and coimmunoprecipitation in mammalian cells and by confocal laser scanning microscopy in plant cells, demonstrating partial pUL50-RISP colocalization in areas of the nuclear rim and other intracellular compartments. Thus, our study provides strong evidence for conserved structural features of plant and metazoan nuclear envelops and identifies RISP as a potential pUL50-interacting plant protein.

  4. Heterologous expression of a plastid EF-Tu reduces protein thermal aggregation and enhances CO2 fixation in wheat (Triticum aestivum) following heat stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Jianming; Momcilović, Ivana; Clemente, Thomas E; Nersesian, Natalya; Trick, Harold N; Ristic, Zoran

    2008-10-01

    Heat stress is a major constraint to wheat production and negatively impacts grain quality, causing tremendous economic losses, and may become a more troublesome factor due to global warming. At the cellular level, heat stress causes denaturation and aggregation of proteins and injury to membranes leading to alterations in metabolic fluxes. Protein aggregation is irreversible, and protection of proteins from thermal aggregation is a strategy a cell uses to tolerate heat stress. Here we report on the development of transgenic wheat (Triticum aestivum) events, expressing a maize gene coding for plastidal protein synthesis elongation factor (EF-Tu), which, compared to non-transgenic plants, display reduced thermal aggregation of leaf proteins, reduced heat injury to photosynthetic membranes (thylakoids), and enhanced rate of CO(2) fixation after exposure to heat stress. The results support the concept that EF-Tu ameliorates negative effects of heat stress by acting as a molecular chaperone. This is the first demonstration of the introduction of a plastidal EF-Tu in plants that leads to protection against heat injury and enhanced photosynthesis after heat stress. This is also the first demonstration that a gene other than HSP gene can be used for improvement of heat tolerance and that the improvement is possible in a species that has a complex genome, hexaploid wheat. The results strongly suggest that heat tolerance of wheat, and possibly other crop plants, can be improved by modulating expression of plastidal EF-Tu and/or by selection of genotypes with increased endogenous levels of this protein.

  5. Improvement of tolerance of Saccharomyces cerevisiae to hot-compressed water-treated cellulose by expression of ADH1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jayakody, Lahiru N.; Horie, Kenta; Kitagaki, Hiroshi [Saga Univ. (Japan). Dept. of Environmental Sciences; Hayashi, Nobuyuki [Saga Univ. (Japan). Dept. of Applied Biochemistry and Food Science

    2012-04-15

    Hot-compressed water treatment of cellulose and hemicellulose for subsequent bioethanol production is a novel, economically feasible, and nonhazardous method for recovering sugars. However, the hot-compressed water-treated cellulose and hemicellulose inhibit subsequent ethanol fermentation by the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. To overcome this problem, we engineered a yeast strain with improved tolerance to hot-compressed water-treated cellulose. We first determined that glycolaldehyde has a greater inhibitory effect than 5-HMF and furfural and a combinational effect with them. On the basis of the hypothesis that the reduction of glycolaldehyde to ethylene glycol should detoxify glycolaldehyde, we developed a strain overexpressing the alcohol dehydrogenase gene ADH1. The ADH1-overexpressing strain exhibits an improved fermentation profile in a glycolaldehyde-containing medium. The conversion ratio of glycolaldehyde to ethylene glycol is 30 {+-} 1.9% when the control strain is used; this ratio increases to 77 {+-} 3.6% in the case of the ADH1-overexpressing strain. A glycolaldehyde treatment and the overexpression of ADH1 cause changes in the fermentation products so as to balance the metabolic carbon flux and the redox status. Finally, the ADH1-overexpressing strain shows a statistically significantly improved fermentation profile in a hot-compressed water-treated cellulose-containing medium. The conversion ratio of glycolaldehyde to ethylene glycol is 33 {+-} 0.85% when the control strain is used but increases to 72 {+-} 1.7% in the case of the ADH1-overexpressing strain. These results show that the reduction of glycolaldehyde to ethylene glycol is a promising strategy to decrease the toxicity of hot-compressed water-treated cellulose. This is the first report on the improvement of yeast tolerance to hot-compressed water-treated cellulose and glycolaldehyde.

  6. Functional characterization of a heterologously expressed Brassica napus WRKY41-1 transcription factor in regulating anthocyanin biosynthesis in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Shaowei; Wang, Jianjun; Gao, Chenhao; Jin, Changyu; Li, Dong; Peng, Danshuai; Du, Guomei; Li, Yiqian; Chen, Mingxun

    2018-03-01

    Previous studies have shown that a plant WRKY transcription factor, WRKY41, has multiple functions, and regulates seed dormancy, hormone signaling pathways, and both biotic and abiotic stress responses. However, it is not known about the roles of AtWRKY41 from the model plant, Arabidopsis thaliana, and its ortholog, BnWRKY41, from the closely related and important oil-producing crop, Brassica napus, in the regulation of anthocyanin biosynthesis. Here, we found that the wrky41 mutation in A. thaliana resulted in a significant increase in anthocyanin levels in rosette leaves, indicating that AtWRKY41 acts as repressor of anthocyanin biosynthesis. RNA sequencing and quantitative real-time PCR analysis revealed increased expression of three regulatory genes AtMYB75, AtMYB111, and AtMYBD, and two structural genes, AT1G68440 and AtGSTF12, all of which contribute to anthocyanin biosynthesis, in the sixth rosette leaves of wrky41-2 plants at 20 days after germination. We cloned the full length complementary DNA of BnWRKY41-1 from the C2 subgenome of the B. napus genotype Westar and observed that, when overexpressed in tobacco leaves as a fusion protein with green fluorescent protein, BnWRKY41-1 is localized to the nucleus. We further showed that overexpression of BnWRKY41-1 in the A. thaliana wrky41-2 mutant rescued the higher anthocyanin content phenotype in rosette leaves of the mutant. Moreover, the elevated expression levels in wrky41-2 rosette leaves of several important regulatory and structural genes regulating anthocyanin biosynthesis were not observed in the BnWRKY41-1 overexpressing lines. These results reveal that BnWRKY41-1 has a similar role with AtWRKY41 in regulating anthocyanin biosynthesis when overexpressed in A. thaliana. This gene represents a promising target for genetically manipulating B. napus to increase the amounts of anthocyanins in rosette leaves. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Heterologous co-expression of accA, fabD, and thioesterase genes for improving long-chain fatty acid production in Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sunhee; Jeon, Eunyoung; Jung, Yeontae; Lee, Jinwon

    2012-05-01

    The goal of the present study was to increase the content of intracellular long-chain fatty acids in two bacterial strains, Pseudomonas aeruginosa PA14 and Escherichia coli K-12 MG1655, by co-overexpressing essential enzymes that are involved in the fatty acid synthesis metabolic pathway. Recently, microbial fatty acids and their derivatives have been receiving increasing attention as an alternative source of fuel. By introducing two genes (accA and fabD) of P. aeruginosa into the two bacterial strains and by co-expressing with them the fatty acyl-acyl carrier protein thioesterase gene of Streptococcus pyogenes (strain MGAS10270), we have engineered recombinant strains that are efficient producers of long-chain fatty acids (C16 and C18). The recombinant strains exhibit a 1.3-1.7-fold increase in the production of long-chain fatty acids over the wild-type strains. To enhance the production of total long-chain fatty acids, we researched the carbon sources for optimized culture conditions and results were used for post-culture incubation period. E. coli SGJS17 (containing the accA, fabD, and thioesterase genes) produced the highest content of intracellular total fatty acids; in particular, the unsaturated fatty acid content was about 20-fold higher than that in the wild-type E. coli.

  8. Heterologous expression, purification and characterization of three novel esterases secreted by the lignocellulolytic fungus Penicillium purpurogenum when grown on sugar beet pulp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oleas, Gabriela; Callegari, Eduardo; Sepúlveda, Romina; Eyzaguirre, Jaime

    2017-04-18

    The lignocellulolytic fungus, Penicillium purpurogenum, grows on a variety of natural carbon sources, among them sugar beet pulp. Culture supernatants of P. purpurogenum grown on sugar beet pulp were partially purified and the fractions obtained analyzed for esterase activity by zymograms. The bands with activity on methyl umbelliferyl acetate were subjected to mass spectrometry to identify peptides. The peptides obtained were probed against the proteins deduced from the genome sequence of P. purpurogenum. Eight putative esterases thus identified were chosen for future work. Their cDNAs were expressed in Pichia pastoris. The supernatants of the recombinant clones were assayed for esterase activity, and five of the proteins were active against one or more substrates: methyl umbelliferyl acetate, indoxyl acetate, methyl esterified pectin and fluorescein diacetate. Three of those enzymes were purified, further characterized and subjected to a BLAST search. Based on their amino acid sequence and properties, they were identified as follows: RAE1, pectin acetyl esterase (CAZy family CE 12); FAEA, feruloyl esterase (could not be assigned to a CAZy family) and EAN, acetyl esterase (former CAZy family CE 10). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Purification, molecular cloning and heterologous expression of a glutathione S-transferase involved in insecticide resistance from the rice brown planthopper, Nilaparvata lugens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vontas, John G; Small, Graham J; Nikou, Dimitra C; Ranson, Hilary; Hemingway, Janet

    2002-03-01

    A novel glutathione S-transferase (GST)-based pyrethroid resistance mechanism was recently identified in Nilaparvata lugens [Vontas, Small and Hemingway (2001) Biochem. J. 357, 65-72]. To determine the nature of GSTs involved in conferring this resistance, the GSTs from resistant and susceptible strains of N. lugens were partially purified by anion exchange and affinity chromatography. The majority of peroxidase activity, previously correlated with resistance, was confined to the fraction that bound to the affinity column, which was considerably elevated in the resistant insects. A cDNA clone encoding a GST (nlgst1-1) - the first reported GST sequence from Hemiptera with up to 54% deduced amino-acid identity with other insect class I GSTs - was isolated from a pyrethroid-resistant strain. Northern analysis showed that nlgst1-1 was overexpressed in resistant insects. nlgst1-1 was expressed in Escherichia coli, purified and characterized. The ability of the recombinant protein to bind to the S-hexylglutathione affinity matrix, its substrate specificities and its immunological properties confirmed that this GST was one from the elevated subset of N. lugens GSTs. Peroxidase activity of the recombinant nlgst1-1 indicated that it had a role in resistance, through detoxification of lipid peroxidation products induced by pyrethroids. Southern analysis of genomic DNA from the resistant and susceptible strains indicated that GST-based insecticide resistance may be associated with gene amplification in N. lugens.

  10. Heterologous expression of a truncated form of human recombinant vascular endothelial growth factor-A and its biological activity in wound healing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khaki, Mohsen; Salmanian, Ali Hatef; Mosayebi, Ghasem; Baazm, Maryam; Babaei, Saeed; Molaee, Neda; Abtahi, Hamid

    2017-07-01

    Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is one of the most effective proteins in angiogenesis, mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) differentiation and wound healing. These abilities are therapeutic potential of VEGF in diabetic retinopathy, nephropathy and other tissue damage circumstances. In this study, recombinant VEGF was produced in Escherichia coli ( E. coli ) system and then biological activity of this protein was evaluated in animal wound healing. E. coli BL21 (DE3) competent cells were transformed with pET32a-VEGF clone and induced by isopropyl-β-D-thio-galactoside (IPTG). The recombinant protein was purified by affinity chromatography. Recombinant VEGF-A-based ointment (VEGF/Vaseline 0.8 mg/100 w/w) was used for external wound (25×15mm thickness) healing in animal model. In vivo activity of ointment was evaluated by clinical evidences and cytological microscopic assessment. The recombinant protein with molecular weight of 45 kilodaltons (kDa) and concentration of 0.8 mg/ml was produced. Immunoblotting data showed that the antigenic region of VEGF can be expressed in E. coli and the recombinant protein has similar epitopes with close antigenic properties to the natural form. Macroscopic findings and microscopic data showed that the recombinant VEGF-A ointment was effective on excisional wound healing. Recombinant VEGF-A produced by pET32a in E. coli , possesses acceptable structure and has wound healing capability.

  11. Heterologous expression of a truncated form of human recombinant vascular endothelial growth factor-A and its biological activity in wound healing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohsen Khaki

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective(s: Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF is one of the most effective proteins in angiogenesis, mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs differentiation and wound healing. These abilities are therapeutic potential of VEGF in diabetic retinopathy, nephropathy and other tissue damage circumstances. In this study, recombinant VEGF was produced in Escherichia coli (E. coli system and then biological activity of this protein was evaluated in animal wound healing. Materials and Methods: E. coli BL21 (DE3 competent cells were transformed with pET32a-VEGF clone and induced by isopropyl-β-D-thio-galactoside (IPTG. The recombinant protein was purified byaffinity chromatography. Recombinant VEGF-A-based ointment (VEGF/Vaseline 0.8 mg/100 w/w was used for external wound (25×15mm thickness healing in animal model. In vivo activity of ointment was evaluated by clinical evidences and cytological microscopic assessment. Results: The recombinant protein with molecular weight of 45 kilodaltons (kDa and concentration of 0.8 mg/ml was produced.Immunoblotting data showed that the antigenic region of VEGF can be expressed in E. coli and the recombinant protein has similar epitopes with close antigenic properties to the natural form. Macroscopic findings and microscopic data showed that the recombinant VEGF-A ointment was effective on excisional wound healing. Conclusion: Recombinant VEGF-A produced by pET32a in E. coli, possesses acceptable structure and has wound healing capability.

  12. Glucose-based microbial production of the hormone melatonin in yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Germann, Susanne M; Baallal Jacobsen, Simo A; Schneider, Konstantin; Harrison, Scott J; Jensen, Niels B; Chen, Xiao; Stahlhut, Steen G; Borodina, Irina; Luo, Hao; Zhu, Jiangfeng; Maury, Jérôme; Forster, Jochen

    2016-05-01

    Melatonin is a natural mammalian hormone that plays an important role in regulating the circadian cycle in humans. It is a clinically effective drug exhibiting positive effects as a sleep aid and a powerful antioxidant used as a dietary supplement. Commercial melatonin production is predominantly performed by complex chemical synthesis. In this study, we demonstrate microbial production of melatonin and related compounds, such as serotonin and N-acetylserotonin. We generated Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains that comprise heterologous genes encoding one or more variants of an L-tryptophan hydroxylase, a 5-hydroxy-L-tryptophan decarboxylase, a serotonin acetyltransferase, an acetylserotonin O-methyltransferase, and means for providing the cofactor tetrahydrobiopterin via heterologous biosynthesis and recycling pathways. We thereby achieved de novo melatonin biosynthesis from glucose. We furthermore accomplished increased product titers by altering expression levels of selected pathway enzymes and boosting co-factor supply. The final yeast strain produced melatonin at a titer of 14.50 ± 0.57 mg L(-1) in a 76h fermentation using simulated fed-batch medium with glucose as sole carbon source. Our study lays the basis for further developing a yeast cell factory for biological production of melatonin. © 2015 The Authors. Biotechnology Journal published by WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. The splicing mutant of the human tumor suppressor protein DFNA5 induces programmed cell death when expressed in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Rossom, Sofie; Op de Beeck, Ken; Franssens, Vanessa; Swinnen, Erwin; Schepers, Anne; Ghillebert, Ruben; Caldara, Marina; Van Camp, Guy; Winderickx, Joris

    2012-01-01

    DFNA5 was first identified as a gene responsible for autosomal dominant deafness. Different mutations were found, but they all resulted in exon 8 skipping during splicing and premature termination of the protein. Later, it became clear that the protein also has a tumor suppression function and that it can induce apoptosis. Epigenetic silencing of the DFNA5 gene is associated with different types of cancers, including gastric and colorectal cancers as well as breast tumors. We introduced the wild-type and mutant DFNA5 allele in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The expression of the wild-type protein was well tolerated by the yeast cells, although the protein was subject of degradation and often deposited in distinct foci when cells entered the diauxic shift. In contrast, cells had problems to cope with mutant DFNA5 and despite an apparent compensatory reduction in expression levels, the mutant protein still triggered a marked growth defect, which in part can be ascribed to its interaction with mitochondria. Consistently, cells with mutant DFNA5 displayed significantly increased levels of ROS and signs of programmed cell death. The latter occurred independently of the yeast caspase, Mca1, but involved the mitochondrial fission protein, Fis1, the voltage-dependent anion channel protein, Por1 and the mitochondrial adenine nucleotide translocators, Aac1 and Aac3. Recent data proposed DFNA5 toxicity to be associated to a globular domain encoded by exon 2–6. We confirmed these data by showing that expression of solely this domain confers a strong growth phenotype. In addition, we identified a point mutant in this domain that completely abrogated its cytotoxicity in yeast as well as human Human Embryonic Kidney 293T cells (HEK293T). Combined, our data underscore that the yeast system offers a valuable tool to further dissect the apoptotic properties of DFNA5.

  14. The splicing mutant of the human tumor suppressor protein DFNA5 induces programmed cell death when expressed in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Rossom, Sofie [Department of Biology, Functional Biology, KU Leuven, Leuven-Heverlee (Belgium); Department of Biomedical Sciences, Center of Medical Genetics, University of Antwerp, Wilrijk-Antwerp (Belgium); Op de Beeck, Ken [Department of Biomedical Sciences, Center of Medical Genetics, University of Antwerp, Wilrijk-Antwerp (Belgium); Franssens, Vanessa; Swinnen, Erwin [Department of Biology, Functional Biology, KU Leuven, Leuven-Heverlee (Belgium); Schepers, Anne [Department of Biomedical Sciences, Center of Medical Genetics, University of Antwerp, Wilrijk-Antwerp (Belgium); Ghillebert, Ruben; Caldara, Marina [Department of Biology, Functional Biology, KU Leuven, Leuven-Heverlee (Belgium); Van Camp, Guy [Department of Biomedical Sciences, Center of Medical Genetics, University of Antwerp, Wilrijk-Antwerp (Belgium); Winderickx, Joris, E-mail: guy.vancamp@ua.ac.be, E-mail: joris.winderickx@bio.kuleuven.be [Department of Biology, Functional Biology, KU Leuven, Leuven-Heverlee (Belgium)

    2012-07-25

    DFNA5 was first identified as a gene responsible for autosomal dominant deafness. Different mutations were found, but they all resulted in exon 8 skipping during splicing and premature termination of the protein. Later, it became clear that the protein also has a tumor suppression function and that it can induce apoptosis. Epigenetic silencing of the DFNA5 gene is associated with different types of cancers, including gastric and colorectal cancers as well as breast tumors. We introduced the wild-type and mutant DFNA5 allele in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The expression of the wild-type protein was well tolerated by the yeast cells, although the protein was subject of degradation and often deposited in distinct foci when cells entered the diauxic shift. In contrast, cells had problems to cope with mutant DFNA5 and despite an apparent compensatory reduction in expression levels, the mutant protein still triggered a marked growth defect, which in part can be ascribed to its interaction with mitochondria. Consistently, cells with mutant DFNA5 displayed significantly increased levels of ROS and signs of programmed cell death. The latter occurred independently of the yeast caspase, Mca1, but involved the mitochondrial fission protein, Fis1, the voltage-dependent anion channel protein, Por1 and the mitochondrial adenine nucleotide translocators, Aac1 and Aac3. Recent data proposed DFNA5 toxicity to be associated to a globular domain encoded by exon 2–6. We confirmed these data by showing that expression of solely this domain confers a strong growth phenotype. In addition, we identified a point mutant in this domain that completely abrogated its cytotoxicity in yeast as well as human Human Embryonic Kidney 293T cells (HEK293T). Combined, our data underscore that the yeast system offers a valuable tool to further dissect the apoptotic properties of DFNA5.

  15. Consolidated ethanol production from Jerusalem artichoke tubers at elevated temperature by Saccharomyces cerevisiae engineered with inulinase expression through cell surface display.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khatun, M Mahfuza; Liu, Chen-Guang; Zhao, Xin-Qing; Yuan, Wen-Jie; Bai, Feng-Wu

    2017-02-01

    Ethanol fermentation from Jerusalem artichoke tubers was performed at elevated temperatures by the consolidated bioprocessing strategy using Saccharomyces cerevisiae MK01 expressing inulinase through cell surface display. No significant difference was observed in yeast growth when temperature was controlled at 38 and 40 °C, respectively, but inulinase activity with yeast cells was substantially enhanced at 40 °C. As a result, enzymatic hydrolysis of inulin was facilitated and ethanol production was improved with 89.3 g/L ethanol produced within 72 h from 198.2 g/L total inulin sugars consumed. Similar results were also observed in ethanol production from Jerusalem artichoke tubers with 85.2 g/L ethanol produced within 72 h from 185.7 g/L total sugars consumed. On the other hand, capital investment on cooling facilities and energy consumption for running the facilities would be saved, since regular cooling water instead of chill water could be used to cool down the fermentation system.

  16. Transcriptional Profiling of Saccharomyces cerevisiae Reveals the Impact of Variation of a Single Transcription Factor on Differential Gene Expression in 4NQO, Fermentable, and Nonfermentable Carbon Sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoqing Rong-Mullins

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Cellular metabolism can change the potency of a chemical’s tumorigenicity. 4-nitroquinoline-1-oxide (4NQO is a tumorigenic drug widely used on animal models for cancer research. Polymorphisms of the transcription factor Yrr1 confer different levels of resistance to 4NQO in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. To study how different Yrr1 alleles regulate gene expression leading to resistance, transcriptomes of three isogenic S. cerevisiae strains carrying different Yrr1 alleles were profiled via RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq and chromatin immunoprecipitation coupled with sequencing (ChIP-Seq in the presence and absence of 4NQO. In response to 4NQO, all alleles of Yrr1 drove the expression of SNQ2 (a multidrug transporter, which was highest in the presence of 4NQO resistance-conferring alleles, and overexpression of SNQ2 alone was sufficient to overcome 4NQO-sensitive growth. Using shape metrics to refine the ChIP-Seq peaks, Yrr1 strongly associated with three loci including SNQ2. In addition to a known Yrr1 target SNG1, Yrr1 also bound upstream of RPL35B; however, overexpression of these genes did not confer 4NQO resistance. RNA-Seq data also implicated nucleotide synthesis pathways including the de novo purine pathway, and the ribonuclease reductase pathways were downregulated in response to 4NQO. Conversion of a 4NQO-sensitive allele to a 4NQO-resistant allele by a single point mutation mimicked the 4NQO-resistant allele in phenotype, and while the 4NQO resistant allele increased the expression of the ADE genes in the de novo purine biosynthetic pathway, the mutant Yrr1 increased expression of ADE genes even in the absence of 4NQO. These same ADE genes were only increased in the wild-type alleles in the presence of 4NQO, indicating that the point mutation activated Yrr1 to upregulate a pathway normally only activated in response to stress. The various Yrr1 alleles also influenced growth on different carbon sources by altering the function of the mitochondria

  17. Signature gene expressions of cell wall integrity pathway concur with tolerance response of industrial yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae against biomass pretreatment inhibitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traditional industrial ethanologenic yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae has a robust performance under various environmental conditions and can be served as a candidate for the next-generation biocatalyst development for advanced biofuels production using lignocellulose mateials. Overcoming toxic compou...

  18. Prioritized Expression of BDH2 under Bulk Translational Repression and Its Contribution to Tolerance to Severe Vanillin Stress in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishida, Yoko; Nguyen, Trinh T M; Kitajima, Sakihito; Izawa, Shingo

    2016-01-01

    Vanillin is a potent fermentation inhibitor derived from the lignocellulosic biomass in biofuel production, and high concentrations of vanillin result in the pronounced repression of bulk translation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Studies on genes that are efficiently translated even in the presence of high concentrations of vanillin will be useful for improving yeast vanillin tolerance and fermentation efficiency. The BDH1 and BDH2 genes encode putative medium-chain alcohol dehydrogenase/reductases and their amino acid sequences are very similar to each other. Although BDH2 was previously suggested to be involved in vanillin tolerance, it has yet to be clarified whether Bdh1/Bdh2 actually contribute to vanillin tolerance and reductions in vanillin. Therefore, we herein investigated the effects of Bdh1 and Bdh2 on vanillin tolerance. bdh2Δ cells exhibited hypersensitivity to vanillin and slower reductions in vanillin than wild-type cells and bdh1Δ cells. Additionally, the overexpression of the BDH2 gene improved yeast tolerance to vanillin more efficiently than that of BDH1. Only BDH2 mRNA was efficiently translated under severe vanillin stress, however, both BDH genes were transcriptionally up-regulated. These results reveal the importance of Bdh2 in vanillin detoxification and confirm the preferential translation of the BDH2 gene in the presence of high concentrations of vanillin. The BDH2 promoter also enabled the expression of non-native genes under severe vanillin stress and furfural stress, suggesting its availability to improve of the efficiency of bioethanol production through modifications in gene expression in the presence of fermentation inhibitors.

  19. Global mRNA expression analysis in myosin II deficient strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae reveals an impairment of cell integrity functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rivera-Molina Félix E

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Saccharomyces cerevisiae MYO1 gene encodes the myosin II heavy chain (Myo1p, a protein required for normal cytokinesis in budding yeast. Myo1p deficiency in yeast (myo1Δ causes a cell separation defect characterized by the formation of attached cells, yet it also causes abnormal budding patterns, formation of enlarged and elongated cells, increased osmotic sensitivity, delocalized chitin deposition, increased chitin synthesis, and hypersensitivity to the chitin synthase III inhibitor Nikkomycin Z. To determine how differential expression of genes is related to these diverse cell wall phenotypes, we analyzed the global mRNA expression profile of myo1Δ strains. Results Global mRNA expression profiles of myo1Δ strains and their corresponding wild type controls were obtained by hybridization to yeast oligonucleotide microarrays. Results for selected genes were confirmed by real time RT-PCR. A total of 547 differentially expressed genes (p ≤ 0.01 were identified with 263 up regulated and 284 down regulated genes in the myo1Δ strains. Gene set enrichment analysis revealed the significant over-representation of genes in the protein biosynthesis and stress response categories. The SLT2/MPK1 gene was up regulated in the microarray, and a myo1Δslt2Δ double mutant was non-viable. Overexpression of ribosomal protein genes RPL30 and RPS31 suppressed the hypersensitivity to Nikkomycin Z and increased the levels of phosphorylated Slt2p in myo1Δ strains. Increased levels of phosphorylated Slt2p were also observed in wild type strains under these conditions. Conclusion Following this analysis of global mRNA expression in yeast myo1Δ strains, we conclude that 547 genes were differentially regulated in myo1Δ strains and that the stress response and protein biosynthesis gene categories were coordinately regulated in this mutant. The SLT2/MPK1 gene was confirmed to be essential for myo1Δ strain viability, supporting that the up

  20. Heterologous Gene Expression of N-Terminally Truncated Variants of LipPks1 Suggests a Functionally Critical Structural Motif in the N-terminus of Modular Polyketide Synthase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yuzawa, Satoshi; Bailey, Constance B.; Fujii, Tatsu A.

    2017-01-01

    Streptomyces-derived, Well-characterized modular, polyketide synthase (PKS). Using this enzyme as a model, we experimentally investigated the effects of alternative TSSs using a heterologous host, Streptomyces venezuelae. One of the TSSs employed boosted the protein level by 59-fold and the product yield by 23...

  1. Heterologous expression of biologically active chicken granulocyte ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    2012-02-07

    Feb 7, 2012 ... CD4+ T cells to enhance the ability of secreting antibody and also enhance the function of CD8+ T cells. (Papatriantafyllou, 2011; Tovey and Lallemand, 2010). GM-CSF also is a key regulator of IL-1beta production. Furthermore, It was reported that GM-CSF play a key role in the activation of Th1 and Th17 ...

  2. Heterologous Expression of Peroxidases : Chapter 12

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Christien Lokman; S. de Weert

    2010-01-01

    This monograph describes many applications of peroxidase-based biocatalysis in the biotechnology industry. The need for such a book emerges from the considerable amount of new data regarding the phylogeny, reaction mechanisms, thermodynamic characterization and structural features of fungal and

  3. Refolding and characterisation of a heterologous expressed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Owner

    and amount of induction agent, and the type of media) have been successfully used to .... A photo of a micro-titre exposed on a uv-transilluminator. The filled white spots ... and pH optimum studied with wild-type and mutant Trichoderma ... active soluble or inactive insoluble baker's yeast a-glucosidase PI in. Escherichia coli ...

  4. HETEROLOGOUS EXPRESSION AND PARTIAL PURIFICATION OF ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    bono

    2011-10-10

    Oct 10, 2011 ... and CYCLOPS in L. japonicus, has been identified ... CYCLOPS, which is phosphorylated in vitro by the CCaMK seems to be important for the infection process in both symbioses, but is dispensable for nodule organogenesis, suggesting ..... Lougnon G, Schornack S, Bono J-J, Cook D R, Ane JM (2007). A.

  5. Reconstruction of the High-Osmolarity Glycerol (HOG) Signaling Pathway from the Halophilic Fungus Wallemia ichthyophaga in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konte, Tilen; Terpitz, Ulrich; Plemenitaš, Ana

    2016-01-01

    The basidiomycetous fungus Wallemia ichthyophaga grows between 1.7 and 5.1 M NaCl and is the most halophilic eukaryote described to date. Like other fungi, W. ichthyophaga detects changes in environmental salinity mainly by the evolutionarily conserved high-osmolarity glycerol (HOG) signaling pathway. In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the HOG pathway has been extensively studied in connection to osmotic regulation, with a valuable knock-out strain collection established. In the present study, we reconstructed the architecture of the HOG pathway of W. ichthyophaga in suitable S. cerevisiae knock-out strains, through heterologous expression of the W. ichthyophaga HOG pathway proteins. Compared to S. cerevisiae, where the Pbs2 (ScPbs2) kinase of the HOG pathway is activated via the SHO1 and SLN1 branches, the interactions between the W. ichthyophaga Pbs2 (WiPbs2) kinase and the W. ichthyophaga SHO1 branch orthologs are not conserved: as well as evidence of poor interactions between the WiSho1 Src-homology 3 (SH3) domain and the WiPbs2 proline-rich motif, the absence of a considerable part of the osmosensing apparatus in the genome of W. ichthyophaga suggests that the SHO1 branch components are not involved in HOG signaling in this halophilic fungus. In contrast, the conserved activation of WiPbs2 by the S. cerevisiae ScSsk2/ScSsk22 kinase and the sensitivity of W. ichthyophaga cells to fludioxonil, emphasize the significance of two-component (SLN1-like) signaling via Group III histidine kinase. Combined with protein modeling data, our study reveals conserved and non-conserved protein interactions in the HOG signaling pathway of W. ichthyophaga and therefore significantly improves the knowledge of hyperosmotic signal processing in this halophilic fungus.

  6. Pichia pastoris versus Saccharomyces cerevisiae: a case study on the recombinant production of human granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Anh-Minh; Nguyen, Thanh-Thao; Nguyen, Cong-Thuan; Huynh-Thi, Xuan-Mai; Nguyen, Cao-Tri; Trinh, Minh-Thuong; Tran, Linh-Thuoc; Cartwright, Stephanie P; Bill, Roslyn M; Tran-Van, Hieu

    2017-04-04

    Recombinant human granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (rhGM-CSF) is a glycoprotein that has been approved by the FDA for the treatment of neutropenia and leukemia in combination with chemotherapies. Recombinant hGM-CSF is produced industrially using the baker's yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, by large-scale fermentation. The methylotrophic yeast, Pichia pastoris, has emerged as an alternative host cell system due to its shorter and less immunogenic glycosylation pattern together with higher cell density growth and higher secreted protein yield than S. cerevisiae. In this study, we compared the pipeline from gene to recombinant protein in these two yeasts. Codon optimization in silico for both yeast species showed no difference in frequent codon usage. However, rhGM-CSF expressed from S. cerevisiae BY4742 showed a significant discrepancy in molecular weight from those of P. pastoris X33. Analysis showed purified rhGM-CSF species with molecular weights ranging from 30 to more than 60 kDa. Fed-batch fermentation over 72 h showed that rhGM-CSF was more highly secreted from P. pastoris than S. cerevisiae (285 and 64 mg total secreted protein/L, respectively). Ion exchange chromatography gave higher purity and recovery than hydrophobic interaction chromatography. Purified rhGM-CSF from P. pastoris was 327 times more potent than rhGM-CSF from S. cerevisiae in terms of proliferative stimulating capacity on the hGM-CSF-dependent cell line, TF-1. Our data support a view that the methylotrophic yeast P. pastoris is an effective recombinant host for heterologous rhGM-CSF production.

  7. Expression of three topologically distinct membrane proteins elicits unique stress response pathways in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buck, Teresa M; Jordan, Rick; Lyons-Weiler, James; Adelman, Joshua L; Needham, Patrick G; Kleyman, Thomas R; Brodsky, Jeffrey L

    2015-06-01

    Misfolded membrane proteins are retained in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and are subject to ER-associated degradation, which clears the secretory pathway of potentially toxic species. While the transcriptional response to environmental stressors has been extensively studied, limited data exist describing the cellular response to misfolded membrane proteins. To this end, we expressed and then compared the transcriptional profiles elicited by the synthesis of three ER retained, misfolded ion channels: The α-subunit of the epithelial sodium channel, ENaC, the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator, CFTR, and an inwardly rectifying potassium channel, Kir2.1, which vary in their mass, membrane topologies, and quaternary structures. To examine transcriptional profiles in a null background, the proteins were expressed in yeast, which was previously used to examine the degradation requirements for each substrate. Surprisingly, the proteins failed to induce a canonical unfolded protein response or heat shock response, although messages encoding several cytosolic and ER lumenal protein folding factors rose when αENaC or CFTR was expressed. In contrast, the levels of these genes were unaltered by Kir2.1 expression; instead, the yeast iron regulon was activated. Nevertheless, a significant number of genes that respond to various environmental stressors were upregulated by all three substrates, and compared with previous microarray data we deduced the existence of a group of genes that reflect a novel misfolded membrane protein response. These data indicate that aberrant proteins in the ER elicit profound yet unique cellular responses. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  8. Establishing very long-chain fatty alcohol and wax ester biosynthesis in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wenning, Leonie; Yu, Tao; David, Florian; Nielsen, Jens; Siewers, Verena

    2017-05-01

    Wax esters (WEs) are neutral lipids and can be used for a broad range of commercial applications, including personal care products, lubricants, or coatings. They are synthesized by enzymatic reactions catalyzed by a fatty acyl reductase (FAR) and a wax ester synthase (WS). At present, commercially used WEs are mainly isolated from Simmondsia chinensis (jojoba), but the high extraction costs and limited harvest areas constrain their use. The use of FARs in combination with different WSs to achieve a synthesis of jojoba-like WEs in bacteria and yeast has been reported previously, but the products were restricted to C28-C36 WEs. These rather short WEs make up only a very small percentage of the total WEs in natural jojoba oil. The synthesis of longer chain WEs (up to C44) in Saccharomyces cerevisiae has so far only been achieved after substrate feeding. Here we identified new routes for producing very long-chain fatty alcohols (VLCFOHs) up to a chain length of C22 by heterologous expression of a FAR derived from Apis mellifera (AmFAR1) or Marinobacter aquaeolei VT8 (Maqu_2220) in S. cerevisiae and achieved maximum yields of 3.22 ± 0.36 mg/g cell dry weight (CDW) and 7.84 ± 3.09 mg/g CDW, respectively, after 48 h. Moreover, we enabled the synthesis of jojoba-like WEs up to a chain length of C42, catalyzed by a combination of Maqu_2220 together with the WS from S. chinensis (SciWS) and the S. cerevisiae elongase Elo2p, with a maximum yield of 12.24 ± 3.35 mg/g CDW after 48 h. Biotechnol. Bioeng. 2017;114: 1025-1035. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Nuclear import and export signals of human cohesins SA1/STAG1 and SA2/STAG2 expressed in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leszek J Tarnowski

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Human SA/STAG proteins, homologues of the yeast Irr1/Scc3 cohesin, are the least studied constituents of the sister chromatid cohesion complex crucial for proper chromosome segregation. The two SA paralogues, SA1 and SA2, show some specificity towards the chromosome region they stabilize, and SA2, but not SA1, has been shown to participate in transcriptional regulation as well. The molecular basis of this functional divergence is unknown. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In silico analysis indicates numerous putative nuclear localization (NLS and export (NES signals in the SA proteins, suggesting the possibility of their nucleocytoplasmic shuttling. We studied the functionality of those putative signals by expressing fluorescently tagged SA1 and SA2 in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Only the N-terminal NLS turned out to be functional in SA1. In contrast, the SA2 protein has at least two functional NLS and also two functional NES. Depending on the balance between these opposing signals, SA2 resides in the nucleus or is distributed throughout the cell. Validation of the above conclusions in HeLa cells confirmed that the same N-terminal NLS of SA1 is functional in those cells. In contrast, in SA2 the principal NLS functioning in HeLa cells is different from that identified in yeast and is localized to the C-terminus. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This is the first demonstration of the possibility of non-nuclear localization of an SA protein. The reported difference in the organization between the two SA homologues may also be relevant to their partially divergent functions. The mechanisms determining subcellular localization of cohesins are only partially conserved between yeast and human cells.

  10. Directed evolution of xylose isomerase for improved xylose catabolism and fermentation in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sun-Mi; Jellison, Taylor; Alper, Hal S

    2012-08-01

    The heterologous expression of a highly functional xylose isomerase pathway in Saccharomyces cerevisiae would have significant advantages for ethanol yield, since the pathway bypasses cofactor requirements found in the traditionally used oxidoreductase pathways. However, nearly all reported xylose isomerase-based pathways in S. cerevisiae suffer from poor ethanol productivity, low xylose consumption rates, and poor cell growth compared with an oxidoreductase pathway and, additionally, often require adaptive strain evolution. Here, we report on the directed evolution of the Piromyces sp. xylose isomerase (encoded by xylA) for use in yeast. After three rounds of mutagenesis and growth-based screening, we isolated a variant containing six mutations (E15D, E114G, E129D, T142S, A177T, and V433I) that exhibited a 77% increase in enzymatic activity. When expressed in a minimally engineered yeast host containing a gre3 knockout and tal1 and XKS1 overexpression, the strain expressing this mutant enzyme improved its aerobic growth rate by 61-fold and both ethanol production and xylose consumption rates by nearly 8-fold. Moreover, the mutant enzyme enabled ethanol production by these yeasts under oxygen-limited fermentation conditions, unlike the wild-type enzyme. Under microaerobic conditions, the ethanol production rates of the strain expressing the mutant xylose isomerase were considerably higher than previously reported values for yeast harboring a xylose isomerase pathway and were also comparable to those of the strains harboring an oxidoreductase pathway. Consequently, this study shows the potential to evolve a xylose isomerase pathway for more efficient xylose utilization.

  11. Production of β-ionone by combined expression of carotenogenic and plant CCD1 genes in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lopez, Javiera; Essus, Karen; Kim, Il-Kwon

    2015-01-01

    cells. The additional integration of the carotenoid cleavage dioxygenase gene from the plant Petunia hybrida (PhCCD1) let to the production of low amounts of beta-ionone (0.073 ± 0.01 mg/g DCW) and changed the color of the strain from orange to yellow. The expression of the crtYB gene from a high copy......, the carotenogenic crtYB, crtI genes and the plant PhCCD1 gene-the highest β-ionone concentration reported to date by a cell factory was achieved. This microbial cell factory represents a starting point for flavor production by a sustainable and efficient process that could replace current methods.......Background: Apocarotenoids, like the C13-norisoprenoids, are natural compounds that contribute to the flavor and/or aroma of flowers and foods. They are produced in aromatic plants-like raspberries and roses-by the enzymatic cleavage of carotenes. Due to their pleasant aroma and flavour...

  12. ESCRT-independent budding of HIV-1 gag virus-like particles from Saccharomyces cerevisiae spheroplasts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew P Norgan

    Full Text Available Heterologous expression of HIV-1 Gag in a variety of host cells results in its packaging into virus-like particles (VLPs that are subsequently released into the extracellular milieu. This phenomenon represents a useful tool for probing cellular factors required for viral budding and has contributed to the discovery of roles for ubiquitin ligases and the endosomal sorting complexes required for transport (ESCRTs in viral budding. These factors are highly conserved throughout eukaryotes and have been studied extensively in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, a model eukaryote previously utilized as a host for the production of VLPs. We used heterologous expression of HIV Gag in yeast spheroplasts to examine the role of ESCRTs and associated factors (Rsp5, a HECT ubiquitin ligase of the Nedd4 family; Bro1, a homolog of Alix; and Vps4, the AAA-ATPase required for ESCRT function in all contexts/organisms investigated in the generation of VLPs. Our data reveal: 1 characterized Gag-ESCRT interaction motifs (late domains are not required for VLP budding, 2 loss of function alleles of the essential HECT ubiquitin ligase Rsp5 do not display defects in VLP formation, and 3 ESCRT function is not required for VLP formation from spheroplasts. These results suggest that the egress of HIV Gag from yeast cells is distinct from the most commonly described mode of exit from mammalian cells, instead mimicking ESCRT-independent VLP formation observed in a subset of mammalian cells. As such, budding of Gag from yeast cells appears to represent ESCRT-independent budding relevant to viral replication in at least some situations. Thus the myriad of genetic and biochemical tools available in the yeast system may be of utility in the study of this aspect of viral budding.

  13. Method for determining heterologous biosynthesis pathways

    KAUST Repository

    Gao, Xin

    2017-08-10

    The present invention relates to a method and system for dynamically analyzing, determining, predicting and displaying ranked suitable heterologous biosynthesis pathways for a specified host. The present invention addresses the problem of finding suitable pathways for the endogenous metabolism of a host organism because the efficacy of heterologous biosynthesis is affected by competing endogenous pathways. The present invention is called MRE (Metabolic Route Explorer), and it was conceived and developed to systematically and dynamically search for, determine, analyze, and display promising heterologous pathways while considering competing endogenous reactions in a given host organism.

  14. Prioritized Expression of BDH2 under Bulk Translational Repression and Its Contribution to Tolerance to Severe Vanillin Stress in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    OpenAIRE

    Ishida, Yoko; Nguyen, Trinh T. M.; Kitajima, Sakihito; Izawa, Shingo

    2016-01-01

    Vanillin is a potent fermentation inhibitor derived from the lignocellulosic biomass in biofuel production, and high concentrations of vanillin result in the pronounced repression of bulk translation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Studies on genes that are efficiently translated even in the presence of high concentrations of vanillin will be useful for improving yeast vanillin tolerance and fermentation efficiency. The BDH1 and BDH2 genes encode putative medium-chain alcohol dehydrogenase/reduc...

  15. Expression and secretion of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens alpha-amylase by using the yeast pheromone alpha-factor promoter and leader sequence in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    OpenAIRE

    Southgate, V J; Steyn, A J; Pretorius, I S; Van Vuuren, H J

    1993-01-01

    Replacement of the regulatory and secretory signals of the alpha-amylase gene (AMY) from Bacillus amylolique-faciens with the complete yeast pheromone alpha-factor prepro region (MF alpha 1p) resulted in increased levels of extracellular alpha-amylase production in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. However, the removal of the (Glu-Ala)2 peptide from the MF alpha 1 spacer region (Lys-Arg-Glu-Ala-Glu-Ala) yielded decreased levels of extracellular alpha-amylase.

  16. Heterologous Expression of Moss Light-harvesting Complex Stress-related 1 (LHCSR1), the Chlorophyll a-Xanthophyll Pigment-protein Complex Catalyzing Non-photochemical Quenching, in Nicotiana sp.*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinnola, Alberta; Ghin, Leonardo; Gecchele, Elisa; Merlin, Matilde; Alboresi, Alessandro; Avesani, Linda; Pezzotti, Mario; Capaldi, Stefano; Cazzaniga, Stefano; Bassi, Roberto

    2015-01-01

    Oxygenic photosynthetic organisms evolved mechanisms for thermal dissipation of energy absorbed in excess to prevent formation of reactive oxygen species. The major and fastest component, called non-photochemical quenching, occurs within the photosystem II antenna system by the action of two essential light-harvesting complex (LHC)-like proteins, photosystem II subunit S (PSBS) in plants and light-harvesting complex stress-related (LHCSR) in green algae and diatoms. In the evolutionary intermediate Physcomitrella patens, a moss, both gene products are active. These proteins, which are present in low amounts, are difficult to purify, preventing structural and functional analysis. Here, we report on the overexpression of the LHCSR1 protein from P. patens in the heterologous systems Nicotiana benthamiana and Nicotiana tabacum using transient and stable nuclear transformation. We show that the protein accumulated in both heterologous systems is in its mature form, localizes in the chloroplast thylakoid membranes, and is correctly folded with chlorophyll a and xanthophylls but without chlorophyll b, an essential chromophore for plants and algal LHC proteins. Finally, we show that recombinant LHCSR1 is active in quenching in vivo, implying that the recombinant protein obtained is a good material for future structural and functional studies. PMID:26260788

  17. Method for determining heterologous biosynthesis pathways

    KAUST Repository

    Gao, Xin; Kuwahara, Hiroyuki; Alazmi, Meshari Saud; Cui, Xuefeng

    2017-01-01

    suitable pathways for the endogenous metabolism of a host organism because the efficacy of heterologous biosynthesis is affected by competing endogenous pathways. The present invention is called MRE (Metabolic Route Explorer), and it was conceived

  18. Nitrogen Catabolite Repression in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hofman-Bang, H Jacob Peider

    1999-01-01

    In Saccharomyces cerevisiae the expression of all known nitrogen catabolite pathways are regulated by four regulators known as Gln3, Gat1, Da180, and Deh1. This is known as nitrogen catabolite repression (NCR). They bind to motifs in the promoter region to the consensus sequence S' GATAA 3'. Gln3...

  19. Increasing NADH oxidation reduces overflow metabolism in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vemuri, Goutham; Eiteman, M.A; McEwen, J.E

    2007-01-01

    effect is due to limited respiratory capacity or is caused by glucose-mediated repression of respiration. When respiration in S. cerevisiae was increased by introducing a heterologous alternative oxidase, we observed reduced aerobic ethanol formation. In contrast, increasing nonrespiratory NADH oxidation...... Crabtree effect.’’ The yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae has served as an important model organism for studying the Crabtree effect. When subjected to increasing glycolytic fluxes under aerobic conditions, there is a threshold value of the glucose uptake rate at which the metabolism shifts from purely...... respiratory to mixed respiratory and fermentative. It is well known that glucose repression of respiratory pathways occurs at high glycolytic fluxes, resulting in a decrease in respiratory capacity. Despite many years of detailed studies on this subject, it is not known whether the onset of the Crabtree...

  20. Engineering of a mammalian O-glycosylation pathway in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae: production of O-fucosylated epidermal growth factor domains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chigira, Yuko; Oka, Takuji; Okajima, Tetsuya; Jigami, Yoshifumi

    2008-04-01

    Development of a heterologous system for the production of homogeneous sugar structures has the potential to elucidate structure-function relationships of glycoproteins. In the current study, we used an artificial O-glycosylation pathway to produce an O-fucosylated epidermal growth factor (EGF) domain in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The in vivo O-fucosylation system was constructed via expression of genes that encode protein O-fucosyltransferase 1 and the EGF domain, along with genes whose protein products convert cytoplasmic GDP-mannose to GDP-fucose. This system allowed identification of an endogenous ability of S. cerevisiae to transport GDP-fucose. Moreover, expression of EGF domain mutants in this system revealed the different contribution of three disulfide bonds to in vivo O-fucosylation. In addition, lectin blotting revealed differences in the ability of fucose-specific lectin to bind the O-fucosylated structure of EGF domains from human factors VII and IX. Further introduction of the human fringe gene into yeast equipped with the in vivo O-fucosylation system facilitated the addition of N-acetylglucosamine to the EGF domain from factor IX but not from factor VII. The results suggest that engineering of an O-fucosylation system in yeast provides a powerful tool for producing proteins with homogenous carbohydrate chains. Such proteins can be used for the analysis of substrate specificity and the production of antibodies that recognize O-glycosylated EGF domains.

  1. In vitro screening of probiotic properties of Saccharomyces cerevisiae var. boulardii and food-borne Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van der Aa Kuhle, Alis; Skovgaard, Kerstin; Jespersen, Lene

    2005-01-01

    .6-16.8%) recorded for two isolates from blue veined cheeses. Merely 25% of the S. cerevisiae var. boulardii strains displayed good adhesive properties (16.2-28.0%). The expression of the proinflammatory cytokine IL-1α decreased strikingly in IPEC-J2 cells exposed to a Shiga-like toxin 2e producing Escherichia coli...... strain when the cells were pre- and coincubated with S. cerevisiae var. boulardii even though this yeast strain was low adhesive (5.4%), suggesting that adhesion is not a mandatory prerequisite for such a probiotic effect. A strain of S. cerevisiae isolated from West African sorghum beer exerted similar......The probiotic potential of IS Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains used for production of foods or bevel-ages or isolated from such, and eight strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae var. boulardii, was investigated. All strains included were able to withstand pH 2.5 and 0.3% Ox-all. Adhesion...

  2. Genome-scale consequences of cofactor balancing in engineered pentose utilization pathways in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amit Ghosh

    Full Text Available Biofuels derived from lignocellulosic biomass offer promising alternative renewable energy sources for transportation fuels. Significant effort has been made to engineer Saccharomyces cerevisiae to efficiently ferment pentose sugars such as D-xylose and L-arabinose into biofuels such as ethanol through heterologous expression of the fungal D-xylose and L-arabinose pathways. However, one of the major bottlenecks in these fungal pathways is that the cofactors are not balanced, which contributes to inefficient utilization of pentose sugars. We utilized a genome-scale model of S. cerevisiae to predict the maximal achievable growth rate for cofactor balanced and imbalanced D-xylose and L-arabinose utilization pathways. Dynamic flux balance analysis (DFBA was used to simulate batch fermentation of glucose, D-xylose, and L-arabinose. The dynamic models and experimental results are in good agreement for the wild type and for the engineered D-xylose utilization pathway. Cofactor balancing the engineered D-xylose and L-arabinose utilization pathways simulated an increase in ethanol batch production of 24.7% while simultaneously reducing the predicted substrate utilization time by 70%. Furthermore, the effects of cofactor balancing the engineered pentose utilization pathways were evaluated throughout the genome-scale metabolic network. This work not only provides new insights to the global network effects of cofactor balancing but also provides useful guidelines for engineering a recombinant yeast strain with cofactor balanced engineered pathways that efficiently co-utilizes pentose and hexose sugars for biofuels production. Experimental switching of cofactor usage in enzymes has been demonstrated, but is a time-consuming effort. Therefore, systems biology models that can predict the likely outcome of such strain engineering efforts are highly useful for motivating which efforts are likely to be worth the significant time investment.

  3. In vivo myomaker-mediated heterologous fusion and nuclear reprogramming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitani, Yasuyuki; Vagnozzi, Ronald J; Millay, Douglas P

    2017-01-01

    Knowledge regarding cellular fusion and nuclear reprogramming may aid in cell therapy strategies for skeletal muscle diseases. An issue with cell therapy approaches to restore dystrophin expression in muscular dystrophy is obtaining a sufficient quantity of cells that normally fuse with muscle. Here we conferred fusogenic activity without transdifferentiation to multiple non-muscle cell types and tested dystrophin restoration in mouse models of muscular dystrophy. We previously demonstrated that myomaker, a skeletal muscle-specific transmembrane protein necessary for myoblast fusion, is sufficient to fuse 10T 1/2 fibroblasts to myoblasts in vitro. Whether myomaker-mediated heterologous fusion is functional in vivo and whether the newly introduced nonmuscle nuclei undergoes nuclear reprogramming has not been investigated. We showed that mesenchymal stromal cells, cortical bone stem cells, and tail-tip fibroblasts fuse to skeletal muscle when they express myomaker. These cells restored dystrophin expression in a fraction of dystrophin-deficient myotubes after fusion in vitro. However, dystrophin restoration was not detected in vivo although nuclear reprogramming of the muscle-specific myosin light chain promoter did occur. Despite the lack of detectable dystrophin reprogramming by immunostaining, this study indicated that myomaker could be used in nonmuscle cells to induce fusion with muscle in vivo, thereby providing a platform to deliver therapeutic material.-Mitani, Y., Vagnozzi, R. J., Millay, D. P. In vivo myomaker-mediated heterologous fusion and nuclear reprogramming. © FASEB.

  4. Hsf1p and Msn2/4p cooperate in the expression of Saccharomyces cerevisiae genes HSP26 and HSP104 in a gene- and stress type-dependent manner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amorós, M; Estruch, F

    2001-03-01

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae possesses several transcription factors involved in the transcriptional activation of stress-induced genes. Among them, the heat shock factor (Hsf1p) and the zinc finger proteins of the general stress response (Msn2p and Msn4p) have been shown to play a major role in stress protection. Some heat shock protein (HSP) genes contain both heat shock elements (HSEs) and stress response elements (STREs), suggesting the involvement of both transcription factors in their regulation. Analysis of the stress-induced expression of two of these genes, HSP26 and HSP104, reveals that the contribution of Hsf1p and Msn2/4p is different depending on the gene and the stress condition.

  5. Genes regulation encoding ADP/ATP carrier in yeasts Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Candida parapsilosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nebohacova, M.

    2000-01-01

    Genes encoding a mitochondrial ADP/ATP carrier (AAC) in yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Candida parapsilosis were investigated. AAC2 is coding for the major AAC isoform in S. cerevisiae. We suggest that AAC2 is a member of a syn-expression group of genes encoding oxidative phosphorylation proteins. Within our previous studies on the regulation of the AAC2 transcription an UAS (-393/-268) was identified that is essential for the expression of this gene. Two functional regulatory cis-elements are located within this UAS -binding sites for an ABFl factor and for HAP2/3/4/5 heteromeric complex. We examined relative contributions and mutual interactions of the ABFl and HAP2/3/4/5 factors in the activation of transcription from the UAS of the AAC2 gene. The whole UAS was dissected into smaller sub-fragments and tested for (i) the ability to form DNA-protein complexes with cellular proteins in vitro, (ii) the ability to confer heterologous expression using AAC3 gene lacking its own promoter, and (iii) the expression of AAC3-lacZ fusion instead of intact AAC3 gene. The obtained results demonstrated that: a) The whole UAS as well as sub-fragment containing only ABF1-binding site are able to form DNA-protein complexes with cellular proteins in oxygen- and heme- dependent manner. The experiments with antibody against the ABF1 showed that the ABF1 factor is one of the proteins binding to AAC2 promoter. We have been unsuccessful to prove the binding of cellular proteins to the HAP2/3/4/5-binding site. However, the presence of HAP2/3/4/5-binding site is necessary to drive a binding of cellular proteins to the ABF1-binding site in carbon source-dependent manner. b) The presence of both ABF1- and HAP2/3/4/5-binding sites and original spacing between them is necessary to confer the growth of Aaac2 mutant strain on non- fermentable carbon source when put in front of AAC3 gene introduced on centromeric vector to Aaac2 mutant strain. c) For the activation of AAC3-lacZ expression on

  6. Novel transporters from Kluyveromyces marxianus and Pichia guilliermondii expressed in Saccharomyces cerevisiae enable growth on L-arabinose and D-xylose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knoshaug, Eric P; Vidgren, Virve; Magalhães, Frederico; Jarvis, Eric E; Franden, Mary Ann; Zhang, Min; Singh, Arjun

    2015-10-01

    Genes encoding L-arabinose transporters in Kluyveromyces marxianus and Pichia guilliermondii were identified by functional complementation of Saccharomyces cerevisiae whose growth on L-arabinose was dependent on a functioning L-arabinose transporter, or by screening a differential display library, respectively. These transporters also transport D-xylose and were designated KmAXT1 (arabinose-xylose transporter) and PgAXT1, respectively. Transport assays using L-arabinose showed that KmAxt1p has K(m) 263 mM and V(max) 57 nM/mg/min, and PgAxt1p has K(m) 0.13 mM and V(max) 18 nM/mg/min. Glucose, galactose and xylose significantly inhibit L-arabinose transport by both transporters. Transport assays using D-xylose showed that KmAxt1p has K(m) 27 mM and V(max) 3.8 nM/mg/min, and PgAxt1p has K(m) 65 mM and V(max) 8.7 nM/mg/min. Neither transporter is capable of recovering growth on glucose or galactose in a S. cerevisiae strain deleted for hexose and galactose transporters. Transport kinetics of S. cerevisiae Gal2p showed K(m) 371 mM and V(max) 341 nM/mg/min for L-arabinose, and K(m) 25 mM and V(max) 76 nM/mg/min for galactose. Due to the ability of Gal2p and these two newly characterized transporters to transport both L-arabinose and D-xylose, one scenario for the complete usage of biomass-derived pentose sugars would require only the low-affinity, high-throughput transporter Gal2p and one additional high-affinity general pentose transporter, rather than dedicated D-xylose or L-arabinose transporters. Additionally, alignment of these transporters with other characterized pentose transporters provides potential targets for substrate recognition engineering. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  7. Improved xylose and arabinose utilization by an industrial recombinant Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain using evolutionary engineering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sanchez, R.G.; Karhumaa, Kaisa; Fonseca, C.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Cost-effective fermentation of lignocellulosic hydrolysate to ethanol by Saccharomyces cerevisiae requires efficient mixed sugar utilization. Notably, the rate and yield of xylose and arabinose co-fermentation to ethanol must be enhanced. Results: Evolutionary engineering was used...... to improve the simultaneous conversion of xylose and arabinose to ethanol in a recombinant industrial Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain carrying the heterologous genes for xylose and arabinose utilization pathways integrated in the genome. The evolved strain TMB3130 displayed an increased consumption rate...... of our knowledge, this is the first report that characterizes the molecular mechanisms for improved mixed-pentose utilization obtained by evolutionary engineering of a recombinant S. cerevisiae strain. Increased transport of pentoses and increased activities of xylose converting enzymes contributed...

  8. The Absence of the Transcription Factor Yrr1p, Identified from Comparative Genome Profiling, Increased Vanillin Tolerance Due to Enhancements of ABC Transporters Expressing, rRNA Processing and Ribosome Biogenesis in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xinning; Liang, Zhenzhen; Hou, Jin; Shen, Yu; Bao, Xiaoming

    2017-01-01

    Enhancing the tolerance of Saccharomyces cerevisiae to inhibitors derived from lignocellulose is conducive to producing biofuel and chemicals using abundant lignocellulosic materials. Vanillin is a major type of phenolic inhibitor in lignocellulose hydrolysates for S. cerevisiae . In the present work, the factors beneficial to vanillin resistance in yeast were identified from the vanillin-resistant strain EMV-8, which was derived from strain NAN-27 by adaptive evolution. We found 450 SNPs and 44 genes with InDels in the vanillin-tolerant strain EMV-8 by comparing the genome sequences of EMV-8 and NAN-27. To investigate the effects of InDels, InDels were deleted in BY4741, respectively. We demonstrated that the deletion of YRR1 improved vanillin tolerance of strain. In the presence of 6 mM vanillin, deleting YRR1 increase the maximum specific growth rate and the vanillin consumption rate by 142 and 51%, respectively. The subsequent transcriptome analysis revealed that deleting YRR1 resulted in changed expression of over 200 genes in the presence of 5 mM vanillin. The most marked changes were the significant up-regulation of the dehydrogenase ADH7 , several ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters, and dozens of genes involved in ribosome biogenesis and rRNA processing. Coincidently, the crude enzyme solution of BY4741( yrr1 Δ) exhibited higher NADPH-dependent vanillin reduction activity than control. In addition, overexpressing the ABC transporter genes PDR5, YOR1 , and SNQ2 , as well as the RNA helicase gene DBP2 , increased the vanillin tolerance of strain. Interestingly, unlike the marked changes we mentioned above, under vanillin-free conditions, there are only limited transcriptional differences between wildtype and yrr1 Δ. This indicated that vanillin might act as an effector in Yrr1p-related regulatory processes. The new findings of the relationship between YRR1 and vanillin tolerance, as well as the contribution of rRNA processing and ribosome biogenesis to

  9. Heterologous Production and Yield Improvement of Epothilones in Burkholderiales Strain DSM 7029.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bian, Xiaoying; Tang, Biao; Yu, Yucong; Tu, Qiang; Gross, Frank; Wang, Hailong; Li, Aiying; Fu, Jun; Shen, Yuemao; Li, Yue-Zhong; Stewart, A Francis; Zhao, Guoping; Ding, Xiaoming; Müller, Rolf; Zhang, Youming

    2017-07-21

    The cloning of microbial natural product biosynthetic gene clusters and their heterologous expression in a suitable host have proven to be a feasible approach to improve the yield of valuable natural products and to begin mining cryptic natural products in microorganisms. Myxobacteria are a prolific source of novel bioactive natural products with only limited choices of heterologous hosts that have been exploited. Here, we describe the use of Burkholderiales strain DSM 7029 as a potential heterologous host for the functional expression of myxobacterial secondary metabolites. Using a newly established electroporation procedure, the 56 kb epothilone biosynthetic gene cluster from the myxobacterium Sorangium cellulosum was introduced into the chromosome of strain DSM 7029 by transposition. Production of epothilones A, B, C, and D was detected despite their yields being low. Optimization of the medium, introduction of the exogenous methylmalonyl-CoA biosynthetic pathway, and overexpression of rare tRNA genes resulted in an approximately 75-fold increase in the total yields of epothilones to 307 μg L -1 . These results show that strain DSM 7029 has the potential to produce epothilones with reasonable titers and might be a broadly applicable host for the heterologous expression of other myxobacterial polyketide synthases and nonribosomal peptide synthetases, expediting the process of genome mining.

  10. In vitro screening of probiotic properties of Saccharomyces cerevisiae var. boulardii and food-borne Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Aa Kühle, Alis; Skovgaard, Kerstin; Jespersen, Lene

    2005-05-01

    The probiotic potential of 18 Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains used for production of foods or beverages or isolated from such, and eight strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae var. boulardii, was investigated. All strains included were able to withstand pH 2.5 and 0.3% Oxgall. Adhesion to the nontumorigenic porcine jejunal epithelial cell line (IPEC-J2) was investigated by incorporation of 3H-methionine into the yeast cells and use of liquid scintillation counting. Only few of the food-borne S. cerevisiae strains exhibited noteworthy adhesiveness with the strongest levels of adhesion (13.6-16.8%) recorded for two isolates from blue veined cheeses. Merely 25% of the S. cerevisiae var. boulardii strains displayed good adhesive properties (16.2-28.0%). The expression of the proinflammatory cytokine IL-1alpha decreased strikingly in IPEC-J2 cells exposed to a Shiga-like toxin 2e producing Escherichia coli strain when the cells were pre- and coincubated with S. cerevisiae var. boulardii even though this yeast strain was low adhesive (5.4%), suggesting that adhesion is not a mandatory prerequisite for such a probiotic effect. A strain of S. cerevisiae isolated from West African sorghum beer exerted similar effects hence indicating that food-borne strains of S. cerevisiae may possess probiotic properties in spite of low adhesiveness.

  11. [Saccharomyces cerevisiae infections].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza Goebel, Cristine; de Mattos Oliveira, Flávio; Severo, Luiz Carlos

    2013-01-01

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae is an ubiquitous yeast widely used in industry and it is also a common colonizer of the human mucosae. However, the incidence of invasive infection by these fungi has significantly increased in the last decades. To evaluate the infection by S. cerevisiae in a hospital in southern Brazil during a period of 10 years (2000-2010). Review of medical records of patients infected by this fungus. In this period, 6 patients were found to be infected by S. cerevisiae. The age range of the patients was from 10 years to 84. Urine, blood, ascitic fluid, peritoneal dialysis fluid, and esophageal biopsy samples were analyzed. The predisposing factors were cancer, transplant, surgical procedures, renal failure, use of venous catheters, mechanical ventilation, hospitalization in Intensive Care Unit, diabetes mellitus, chemotherapy, corticosteroid use, and parenteral nutrition. Amphotericin B and fluconazole were the treatments of choice. Three of the patients died and the other 3 were discharged from hospital. We must take special precautions in emerging infections, especially when there are predisposing conditions such as immunosuppression or patients with serious illnesses. The rapid and specific diagnosis of S. cerevisiae infections is important for therapeutic decision. Furthermore, epidemiological and efficacy studies of antifungal agents are necessary for a better therapeutic approach. Copyright © 2012 Revista Iberoamericana de Micología. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  12. Expression of three Trichoderma reesei cellulase genes in Saccharomyces pastorianus for the development of a two-step process of hydrolysis and fermentation of cellulose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzpatrick, J; Kricka, W; James, T C; Bond, U

    2014-07-01

    To compare the production of recombinant cellulase enzymes in two Saccharomyces species so as to ascertain the most suitable heterologous host for the degradation of cellulose-based biomass and its conversion into bioethanol. cDNA copies of genes representing the three major classes of cellulases (Endoglucanases, Cellobiohydrolases and β-glucosidases) from Trichoderma reesei were expressed in Saccharomyces pastorianus and Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The recombinant enzymes were secreted by the yeast hosts into the medium and were shown to act in synergy to hydrolyse cellulose. The conditions required to achieve maximum release of glucose from cellulose by the recombinant enzymes were defined and the activity of the recombinant enzymes was compared to a commercial cocktail of T. reesei cellulases. We demonstrate that significantly higher levels of cellulase activity were achieved by expression of the genes in S. pastorianus compared to S. cerevisiae. Hydrolysis of cellulose by the combined activity of the recombinant enzymes was significantly better at 50°C than at 30°C, the temperature used for mesophilic yeast fermentations, reflecting the known temperature profiles of the native enzymes. The results demonstrate that host choice is important for the heterologous production of cellulases. On the basis of the low activity of the T. reesei recombinant enzymes at fermentation temperatures, we propose a two-step process for the hydrolysis of cellulose and its fermentation into alcohol using cellulases produced in situ. © 2014 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  13. Prior mucosal exposure to heterologous cells alters the pathogenesis of cell-associated mucosal feline immunodeficiency virus challenge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leavell Sarah

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Several lines of research suggest that exposure to cellular material can alter the susceptibility to infection by HIV-1. Because sexual contact often includes exposure to cellular material, we hypothesized that repeated mucosal exposure to heterologous cells would induce an immune response that would alter the susceptibility to mucosal infection. Using the feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV model of HIV-1 mucosal transmission, the cervicovaginal mucosa was exposed once weekly for 12 weeks to 5,000 heterologous cells or media (control and then cats were vaginally challenged with cell-associated or cell-free FIV. Results Exposure to heterologous cells decreased the percentage of lymphocytes in the mucosal and systemic lymph nodes (LN expressing L-selectin as well as the percentage of CD4+ CD25+ T cells. These shifts were associated with enhanced ex-vivo proliferative responses to heterologous cells. Following mucosal challenge with cell-associated, but not cell-free, FIV, proviral burden was reduced by 64% in cats previously exposed to heterologous cells as compared to media exposed controls. Conclusions The pathogenesis and/or the threshold for mucosal infection by infected cells (but not cell-free virus can be modulated by mucosal exposure to uninfected heterologous cells.

  14. Rational and evolutionary engineering approaches uncover a small set of genetic changes efficient for rapid xylose fermentation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soo Rin Kim

    Full Text Available Economic bioconversion of plant cell wall hydrolysates into fuels and chemicals has been hampered mainly due to the inability of microorganisms to efficiently co-ferment pentose and hexose sugars, especially glucose and xylose, which are the most abundant sugars in cellulosic hydrolysates. Saccharomyces cerevisiae cannot metabolize xylose due to a lack of xylose-metabolizing enzymes. We developed a rapid and efficient xylose-fermenting S. cerevisiae through rational and inverse metabolic engineering strategies, comprising the optimization of a heterologous xylose-assimilating pathway and evolutionary engineering. Strong and balanced expression levels of the XYL1, XYL2, and XYL3 genes constituting the xylose-assimilating pathway increased ethanol yields and the xylose consumption rates from a mixture of glucose and xylose with little xylitol accumulation. The engineered strain, however, still exhibited a long lag time when metabolizing xylose above 10 g/l as a sole carbon source, defined here as xylose toxicity. Through serial-subcultures on xylose, we isolated evolved strains which exhibited a shorter lag time and improved xylose-fermenting capabilities than the parental strain. Genome sequencing of the evolved strains revealed that mutations in PHO13 causing loss of the Pho13p function are associated with the improved phenotypes of the evolved strains. Crude extracts of a PHO13-overexpressing strain showed a higher phosphatase activity on xylulose-5-phosphate (X-5-P, suggesting that the dephosphorylation of X-5-P by Pho13p might generate a futile cycle with xylulokinase overexpression. While xylose consumption rates by the evolved strains improved substantially as compared to the parental strain, xylose metabolism was interrupted by accumulated acetate. Deletion of ALD6 coding for acetaldehyde dehydrogenase not only prevented acetate accumulation, but also enabled complete and efficient fermentation of xylose as well as a mixture of glucose and

  15. Physiological impact and context dependency of transcriptional responses : A chemostat study in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tai, S.L.

    2007-01-01

    This thesis is a compilation of a four-year PhD project on bakers' yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae). Since the entire S. cerevisiae genome sequence became available in 1996, DNA-microarray analysis has become a popular high-information-density tool for analyzing gene expression in this important

  16. Creation of a synthetic xylose-inducible promoter for Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae is currently used to produce ethanol from glucose, but it cannot utilize five-carbon sugars contained in the hemicellulose component of biomass feedstocks. S. cerevisiae strains engineered for xylose fermentation have been made using constitutive promoters to express the req...

  17. SUMO expression shortens the lag phase of Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast growth caused by complex interactive effects of major mixed fermentation inhibitors found in hot-compressed water-treated lignocellulosic hydrolysate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayakody, Lahiru N; Kadowaki, Masafumi; Tsuge, Keisuke; Horie, Kenta; Suzuki, Akihiro; Hayashi, Nobuyuki; Kitagaki, Hiroshi

    2015-01-01

    The complex inhibitory effects of inhibitors present in lignocellulose hydrolysate suppress the ethanol fermentation of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Although the interactive inhibitory effects play important roles in the actual hydrolysate, few studies have investigated glycolaldehyde, the key inhibitor of hot-compressed water-treated lignocellulose hydrolysate. Given this challenge, we investigated the interactive effects of mixed fermentation inhibitors, including glycolaldehyde. First, we confirmed that glycolaldehyde was the most potent inhibitor in the hydrolysate and exerted interactive inhibitory effects in combination with major inhibitors. Next, through genome-wide analysis and megavariate data modeling, we identified SUMOylation as a novel potential mechanism to overcome the combinational inhibitory effects of fermentation inhibitors. Indeed, overall SUMOylation was increased and Pgk1, which produces an ATP molecule in glycolysis by substrate-level phosphorylation, was SUMOylated and degraded in response to glycolaldehyde. Augmenting the SUMO-dependent ubiquitin system in the ADH1-expressing strain significantly shortened the lag phase of growth, released cells from G2/M arrest, and improved energy status and glucose uptake in the inhibitor-containing medium. In summary, our study was the first to establish SUMOylation as a novel platform for regulating the lag phase caused by complex fermentation inhibitors.

  18. CaZF, a plant transcription factor functions through and parallel to HOG and calcineurin pathways in Saccharomyces cerevisiae to provide osmotolerance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepti Jain

    Full Text Available Salt-sensitive yeast mutants were deployed to characterize a gene encoding a C2H2 zinc finger protein (CaZF that is differentially expressed in a drought-tolerant variety of chickpea (Cicer arietinum and provides salinity-tolerance in transgenic tobacco. In Saccharomyces cerevisiae most of the cellular responses to hyper-osmotic stress is regulated by two interconnected pathways involving high osmolarity glycerol mitogen-activated protein kinase (Hog1p and Calcineurin (CAN, a Ca(2+/calmodulin-regulated protein phosphatase 2B. In this study, we report that heterologous expression of CaZF provides osmotolerance in S. cerevisiae through Hog1p and Calcineurin dependent as well as independent pathways. CaZF partially suppresses salt-hypersensitive phenotypes of hog1, can and hog1can mutants and in conjunction, stimulates HOG and CAN pathway genes with subsequent accumulation of glycerol in absence of Hog1p and CAN. CaZF directly binds to stress response element (STRE to activate STRE-containing promoter in yeast. Transactivation and salt tolerance assays of CaZF deletion mutants showed that other than the transactivation domain a C-terminal domain composed of acidic and basic amino acids is also required for its function. Altogether, results from this study suggests that CaZF is a potential plant salt-tolerance determinant and also provide evidence that in budding yeast expression of HOG and CAN pathway genes can be stimulated in absence of their regulatory enzymes to provide osmotolerance.

  19. Modulating Endoplasmic Reticulum-Golgi Cargo Receptors for Improving Secretion of Carrier-Fused Heterologous Proteins in the Filamentous Fungus Aspergillus oryzae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoang, Huy-Dung; Maruyama, Jun-ichi

    2014-01-01

    Filamentous fungi are excellent hosts for industrial protein production due to their superior secretory capacity; however, the yield of heterologous eukaryotic proteins is generally lower than that of fungal or endogenous proteins. Although activating protein folding machinery in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) improves the yield, the importance of intracellular transport machinery for heterologous protein secretion is poorly understood. Here, using Aspergillus oryzae as a model filamentous fungus, we studied the involvement of two putative lectin-like cargo receptors, A. oryzae Vip36 (AoVip36) and AoEmp47, in the secretion of heterologous proteins expressed in fusion with the endogenous enzyme α-amylase as the carrier. Fluorescence microscopy revealed that mDsRed-tagged AoVip36 localized in the Golgi compartment, whereas AoEmp47 showed localization in both the ER and the Golgi compartment. Deletion of AoVip36 and AoEmp47 improved heterologous protein secretion, but only AoVip36 deletion had a negative effect on the secretion of α-amylase. Analysis of ER-enriched cell fractions revealed that AoVip36 and AoEmp47 were involved in the retention of heterologous proteins in the ER. However, the overexpression of each cargo receptor had a different effect on heterologous protein secretion: AoVip36 enhanced the secretion, whereas AoEmp47 promoted the intracellular retention. Taken together, our data suggest that AoVip36 and AoEmp47 hinder the secretion of heterologous proteins by promoting their retention in the ER but that AoVip36 also promotes the secretion of heterologous proteins. Moreover, we found that genetic deletion of these putative ER-Golgi cargo receptors significantly improves heterologous protein production. The present study is the first to propose that ER-Golgi transport is a bottleneck for heterologous protein production in filamentous fungi. PMID:25362068

  20. Heterologous production of non-ribosomal peptide LLD-ACV in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Siewers, Verena; Chen, Xiao; Huang, Le

    2009-01-01

    production of ACV was observed. To improve ACV synthesis, several factors were investigated. Codon optimization of the 5′ end of pcbAB did not significantly increase ACV production. However, a 30-fold enhancement was achieved by lowering the cultivation temperature from 30 to 20 °C. When ACVS and PPTase...... encoding genes were integrated into the yeast genome, a 6-fold decrease in ACV production was observed indicating that gene copy number was one of the rate-limiting factors for ACV production in yeast....

  1. Improving heterologous protein secretion at aerobic conditions by activating hypoxia-induced genes in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Lifang; Zhang, Yiming; Liu, Zihe

    2015-01-01

    Oxygen is important for normal aerobic metabolism, as well as for protein production where it is needed for oxidative protein folding. However, several studies have reported that anaerobic conditions seem to be more favorable in terms of recombinant protein production. We were interested in incre......Oxygen is important for normal aerobic metabolism, as well as for protein production where it is needed for oxidative protein folding. However, several studies have reported that anaerobic conditions seem to be more favorable in terms of recombinant protein production. We were interested...... in increasing recombinant protein production under aerobic conditions so we focused on Rox1p regulation. Rox1p is a transcriptional regulator, which in oxidative conditions represses genes induced in hypoxia. We deleted ROX1 and studied the effects on the production of recombinant proteins in Saccharomyces...

  2. Correlation of cell growth and heterologous protein production by Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Zihe; Hou, Jin; Martinez Ruiz, José Luis

    2013-01-01

    .g., metabolic and cellular stresses have a strong impact on recombinant protein production. In this work, we investigated the effect of the specific growth rate on the production of two different recombinant proteins. Our results show that human insulin precursor is produced in a growth-associated manner...... turnover, cell cycle, and global stress response. We also found that there is a shift at a specific growth rate of 0.1 h−1 that influences protein production. Thus, for lower specific growth rates, the α-amylase and insulin precursor-producing strains present similar cell responses and phenotypes, whereas......With the increasing demand for biopharmaceutical proteins and industrial enzymes, it is necessary to optimize the production by microbial fermentation or cell cultures. Yeasts are well established for the production of a wide range of recombinant proteins, but there are also some limitations; e...

  3. Benchmarking two commonly used Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains for heterologous vanillin-β-glucoside production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strucko, Tomas; Magdenoska, Olivera; Mortensen, Uffe Hasbro

    2015-01-01

    factories for production of specific compounds. To examine this possibility, we have reconstructed a de novo vanillin-β-glucoside pathway in an identical manner in S288c and CEN.PK strains. Characterization of the two resulting strains in two standard conditions revealed that the S288c background strain...... produced up to 10-fold higher amounts of vanillin-β-glucoside compared to CEN.PK. This study demonstrates that yeast strain background may play a major role in the outcome of newly developed cell factories for production of a given product....

  4. Molecular cloning and characterization of a KCS gene from Cardamine graeca and its heterologous expression in Brassica oilseeds to engineer high nervonic acid oils for potential medical and industrial use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, David C; Francis, Tammy; Guo, Yiming; Brost, Jennifer M; Katavic, Vesna; Mietkiewska, Elzbieta; Michael Giblin, E; Lozinsky, Sharla; Hoffman, Travis

    2009-12-01

    Nervonic acid 24:1 Delta15 (cis-tetracos-15-enoic acid) is a very long-chain monounsaturated fatty acid and exists in nature as an elongation product of oleic acid. There is an increasing interest in production of high nervonic acid oils for pharmaceutical, nutraceutical and industrial applications. Using a polymerase chain reaction approach, we have isolated a gene from Cardamine graeca L., which encodes a 3-ketoacyl-CoA synthase (KCS), the first component of the elongation complex involved in synthesis of nervonic acid. Expression of the Cardamine KCS in yeast resulted in biosynthesis of nervonic acid, which is not normally present in yeast cells. We transformed Arabidopsis and Brassica carinata with the Cardamine KCS under the control of the seed-specific promoter, napin. The T(3) generations of transgenic Arabidopsis and B. carinata plants expressing the Cardamine KCS showed that seed-specific expression resulted in relatively large comparative increases in nervonic acid proportions in Arabidopsis seed oil, and 15-fold increase in nervonic acid proportions in B. carinata seed oil. The highest nervonic acid level in transgenic B. carinata lines reached 44%, with only 6% of residual erucic acid. In contrast, similar transgenic expression of the Cardamine KCS in high erucic B. napus resulted in 30% nervonic acid but with 20% residual erucic acid. Experiments using the Lunaria KCS gene gave results similar to the latter. In both cases, the erucic acid content is too high for human or animal consumption. Thus, the Cardamine KCS: B. carinata high nervonic/highly reduced erucic transgenic seed oils will be the most suitable for testing in pharmaceutical/nutraceutical applications to improve human and animal health.

  5. Heterologous expression of enterocin A, a bacteriocin from Enterococcus faecium, fused to a cellulose-binding domain in Escherichia coli results in a functional protein with inhibitory activity against Listeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klocke, Michael; Mundt, Kerstin; Idler, Frank; Jung, Sabrina; Backhausen, Jan E

    2005-06-01

    The genes for the bacteriocins enterocin A and B were isolated from Enterococcus faecium ATB 197a. Using the pET37b(+) vector, the enterocin genes were fused to an Escherichia coli specific export signal sequence, a cellulose-binding domain (CBD(cenA)) and a S-tag under the control of a T7lac promotor. The constructs were subsequently cloned into E. coli host cells. The expression of the recombinant enterocins had different effects on both the host cells and other Gram-positive bacteria. The expression of entA in Esc. coli led to the synthesis and secretion of functional active enterocin A fusion proteins, which were active against some Gram-positive indicator bacteria, but did not influence the viability of the host cells. In contrast, the expression of enterocin B fusion proteins led to a reduced viability of the host cells, indicating a misfolding of the protein or interference with the cellular metabolism of Esc. coli. Indicator strains of Gram-positive bacteria were not inhibited by purified enterocin B fusion proteins. However, recombinant enterocin B displayed inhibitory activity after the proteolytic cleavage of the fused peptides.

  6. Single Cell Synchrotron FT-IR Microspectroscopy Reveals a Link between Neutral Lipid and Storage Carbohydrate Fluxes in S. cerevisiae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamme, Frédéric; Vindigni, Jean-David; Méchin, Valérie; Cherifi, Tamazight; Chardot, Thierry; Froissard, Marine

    2013-01-01

    In most organisms, storage lipids are packaged into specialized structures called lipid droplets. These contain a core of neutral lipids surrounded by a monolayer of phospholipids, and various proteins which vary depending on the species. Hydrophobic structural proteins stabilize the interface between the lipid core and aqueous cellular environment (perilipin family of proteins, apolipoproteins, oleosins). We developed a genetic approach using heterologous expression in Saccharomyces cerevisiae of the Arabidopsis thaliana lipid droplet oleosin and caleosin proteins AtOle1 and AtClo1. These transformed yeasts overaccumulate lipid droplets, leading to a specific increase in storage lipids. The phenotype of these cells was explored using synchrotron FT-IR microspectroscopy to investigate the dynamics of lipid storage and cellular carbon fluxes reflected as changes in spectral fingerprints. Multivariate statistical analysis of the data showed a clear effect on storage carbohydrates and more specifically, a decrease in glycogen in our modified strains. These observations were confirmed by biochemical quantification of the storage carbohydrates glycogen and trehalose. Our results demonstrate that neutral lipid and storage carbohydrate fluxes are tightly connected and co-regulated. PMID:24040242

  7. Single cell synchrotron FT-IR microspectroscopy reveals a link between neutral lipid and storage carbohydrate fluxes in S. cerevisiae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frédéric Jamme

    Full Text Available In most organisms, storage lipids are packaged into specialized structures called lipid droplets. These contain a core of neutral lipids surrounded by a monolayer of phospholipids, and various proteins which vary depending on the species. Hydrophobic structural proteins stabilize the interface between the lipid core and aqueous cellular environment (perilipin family of proteins, apolipoproteins, oleosins. We developed a genetic approach using heterologous expression in Saccharomyces cerevisiae of the Arabidopsis thaliana lipid droplet oleosin and caleosin proteins AtOle1 and AtClo1. These transformed yeasts overaccumulate lipid droplets, leading to a specific increase in storage lipids. The phenotype of these cells was explored using synchrotron FT-IR microspectroscopy to investigate the dynamics of lipid storage and cellular carbon fluxes reflected as changes in spectral fingerprints. Multivariate statistical analysis of the data showed a clear effect on storage carbohydrates and more specifically, a decrease in glycogen in our modified strains. These observations were confirmed by biochemical quantification of the storage carbohydrates glycogen and trehalose. Our results demonstrate that neutral lipid and storage carbohydrate fluxes are tightly connected and co-regulated.

  8. Revisiting overexpression of a heterologous β-glucosidase in Trichoderma reesei: fusion expression of the Neosartorya fischeri Bgl3A to cbh1 enhances the overall as well as individual cellulase activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Xianli; Wu, Yilan; Qin, Xing; Ma, Rui; Luo, Huiying; Su, Xiaoyun; Yao, Bin

    2016-07-11

    The filamentous fungus Trichoderma reesei has the capacity to secret large amounts of cellulase and is widely used in a variety of industries. However, the T. reesei cellulase is weak in β-glucosidase activity, which results in accumulation of cellobiose inhibiting the endo- and exo-cellulases. By expressing an exogenous β-glucosidase gene, the recombinant T. reesei cellulase is expected to degrade cellulose into glucose more efficiently. The thermophilic β-glucosidase NfBgl3A from Neosartorya fischeri is chosen for overexpression in T. reesei due to its robust activity. In vitro, the Pichia pastoris-expressed NfBgl3A aided the T. reesei cellulase in releasing much more glucose with significantly lower amounts of cellobiose from crystalline cellulose. The NfBgl3A gene was hence fused to the cbh1 structural gene and assembled between the strong cbh1 promoter and cbh1 terminator to obtain pRS-NfBgl3A by using the DNA assembler method. pRS-NfBgl3A was transformed into the T. reesei uridine auxotroph strain TU-6. Six positive transformants showed β-glucosidase activities of 2.3-69.7 U/mL (up to 175-fold higher than that of wild-type). The largely different β-glucosidase activities in the transformants may be ascribed to the gene copy numbers of NfBgl3A or its integration loci. The T. reesei-expressed NfBgl3A showed highly similar biochemical properties to that expressed in P. pastoris. As expected, overexpression of NfBgl3A enhanced the overall cellulase activity of T. reesei. The CBHI activity in all transformants increased, possibly due to the extra copies of cbh1 gene introduced, while the endoglucanase activity in three transformants also largely increased, which was not observed in any other studies overexpressing a β-glucosidase. NfBgl3A had significant transglycosylation activity, generating sophorose, a potent cellulase inducer, and other oligosaccharides from glucose and cellobiose. We report herein the successful overexpression of a thermophilic N

  9. Secretory Overexpression of Bacillus thermocatenulatus Lipase in Saccharomyces cerevisiae Using Combinatorial Library Strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kajiwara, Shota; Yamada, Ryosuke; Ogino, Hiroyasu

    2018-04-10

    Simple and cost-effective lipase expression host microorganisms are highly desirable. A combinatorial library strategy is used to improve the secretory expression of lipase from Bacillus thermocatenulatus (BTL2) in the culture supernatant of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. A plasmid library including expression cassettes composed of sequences encoding one of each 15 promoters, 15 secretion signals, and 15 terminators derived from yeast species, S. cerevisiae, Pichia pastoris, and Hansenula polymorpha, is constructed. The S. cerevisiae transformant YPH499/D4, comprising H. polymorpha GAP promoter, S. cerevisiae SAG1 secretion signal, and P. pastoris AOX1 terminator, is selected by high-throughput screening. This transformant expresses BTL2 extra-cellularly with a 130-fold higher than the control strain, comprising S. cerevisiae PGK1 promoter, S. cerevisiae α-factor secretion signal, and S. cerevisiae PGK1 terminator, after cultivation for 72 h. This combinatorial library strategy holds promising potential for application in the optimization of the secretory expression of proteins in yeast. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. Multiway real-time PCR gene expression profiling in yeast. Saccharomyces cerevisiae reveals altered transcriptional response of ADH-genes to glucose stimuli

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Stahlberg, A.; Elbing, K.; Andrade-Garda, J.M.; Sjögreen, B.; Forootan, A.; Kubista, Mikael

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 9, č. 170 (2008), s. 1-41 ISSN 1471-2164 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50520701 Keywords : Expression Profiling * Real-time PCR * Yeast Subject RIV: EI - Biotechnology ; Bionics Impact factor: 3.926, year: 2008

  11. Functional pyruvate formate lyase pathway expressed with two different electron donors in Saccharomyces cerevisiae at aerobic growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Yiming; Dai, Zongjie; Krivoruchko, Anastasia

    2015-01-01

    pyruvate decarboxylase and having a reduced glucose uptake rate due to a mutation in the transcriptional regulator Mth1, IMI076 (Pdc-MTH1-ΔT ura3-52). PFL was expressed with two different electron donors, reduced ferredoxin or reduced flavodoxin, respectively, and it was found that the coexpression...

  12. Production and characterization of glucoamylase from fungus Aspergillus awamori expressed in yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae using different carbon sources Produção e caracterização da glucoamilase do fungo Aspergillus awamori expressa em levedura Saccharomyces cerevisiae usando diferentes fontes de carbono

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiana Carina Pavezzi

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Glucoamylase is widely used in the food industry to produce high glucose syrup, and also in fermentation processes for production beer and ethanol. In this work the productivity of the glucoamylase of Aspergillus awamori expressed by the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, produced in submerged fermentation using different starches, was evaluated and characterized physico-chemically. The enzyme presented high specific activity, 13.8 U/mgprotein or 2.9 U/mgbiomass, after 48 h of fermentation using soluble starch as substrate. Glucoamylase presented optimum activity at temperature of 55ºC, and, in the substratum absence, the thermostability was for 1h at 50ºC. The optimum pH of activity was pH 3.5 - 4.0 and the pH stability between 5.0 and 7.0. The half life at 65ºC was at 30.2 min, and the thermal energy of denaturation was 234.3 KJ mol-1. The hydrolysis of different substrate showed the enzyme's preference for the substrate with a larger polymerization degree. The gelatinized corn starch was the substratum most susceptible to the enzymatic action.A glucoamilase é amplamente utilizada na indústria de alimentos no processamento do amido para a produção de xarope com alto teor de glicose e também muito empregada nos processos de fermentação para produção de cerveja e etanol. Neste trabalho a glucoamilase de Aspergillus awamori expressa em Saccharomyces cerevisiae produzida sob fermentação líquida foi avaliada quanto à produtividade em diferentes amidos e caracterizada físico-quimicamente. A enzima apresentou alta atividade específica de 13,8 U/mg proteína e de 2,9 U/mg biomassa ao final de 48 h de fermentação em meio contendo amido solúvel. A glucoamilase apresentou temperatura ótima de atividade a 55ºC, e temperatura de desnaturação térmica na ausência de substrato por 1h a 50ºC. O pH ótimo de atividade foi na faixa de 3,5 - 4,0 e a estabilidade ao pH entre os valores 5,0 e 7,0. A meia vida a 65ºC foi 30,2 min., e a

  13. Construction of a system for heterologous production of carbonic anhydrase from Plasmodium falciparum in Pichia pastoris

    OpenAIRE

    Gullberg, Erik

    2008-01-01

    Malaria is one of the biggest current global health problems, and with the increasing occurance of drug resistant Plasmodium falciparum strains, there is an urgent need for new antimalarial drugs. Given the important role of carbonic anhydrase in Plasmodium falciparum (PfCA), it is a potential novel drug target. Heterologous expression of malaria proteins is problematic due to the unusual codon usage of the Plasmodium genome, so to overcome this problem a synthetic PfCA gene was designed, opt...

  14. Heterologous overexpression of Glomerella cingulata FAD-dependent glucose dehydrogenase in Escherichia coli and Pichia pastoris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sygmund Christoph

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background FAD dependent glucose dehydrogenase (GDH currently raises enormous interest in the field of glucose biosensors. Due to its superior properties such as high turnover rate, substrate specificity and oxygen independence, GDH makes its way into glucose biosensing. The recently discovered GDH from the ascomycete Glomerella cingulata is a novel candidate for such an electrochemical application, but also of interest to study the plant-pathogen interaction of a family of wide-spread, crop destroying fungi. Heterologous expression is a necessity to facilitate the production of GDH for biotechnological applications and to study its physiological role in the outbreak of anthracnose caused by Glomerella (anamorph Colletotrichum spp. Results Heterologous expression of active G. cingulata GDH has been achieved in both Escherichia coli and Pichia pastoris, however, the expressed volumetric activity was about 4800-fold higher in P. pastoris. Expression in E. coli resulted mainly in the formation of inclusion bodies and only after co-expression with molecular chaperones enzymatic activity was detected. The fed-batch cultivation of a P. pastoris transformant resulted in an expression of 48,000 U L-1 of GDH activity (57 mg L-1. Recombinant GDH was purified by a two-step purification procedure with a yield of 71%. Comparative characterization of molecular and catalytic properties shows identical features for the GDH expressed in P. pastoris and the wild-type enzyme from its natural fungal source. Conclusions The heterologous expression of active GDH was greatly favoured in the eukaryotic host. The efficient expression in P. pastoris facilitates the production of genetically engineered GDH variants for electrochemical-, physiological- and structural studies.

  15. Heterologous overexpression of Glomerella cingulata FAD-dependent glucose dehydrogenase in Escherichia coli and Pichia pastoris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sygmund, Christoph; Staudigl, Petra; Klausberger, Miriam; Pinotsis, Nikos; Djinović-Carugo, Kristina; Gorton, Lo; Haltrich, Dietmar; Ludwig, Roland

    2011-12-12

    FAD dependent glucose dehydrogenase (GDH) currently raises enormous interest in the field of glucose biosensors. Due to its superior properties such as high turnover rate, substrate specificity and oxygen independence, GDH makes its way into glucose biosensing. The recently discovered GDH from the ascomycete Glomerella cingulata is a novel candidate for such an electrochemical application, but also of interest to study the plant-pathogen interaction of a family of wide-spread, crop destroying fungi. Heterologous expression is a necessity to facilitate the production of GDH for biotechnological applications and to study its physiological role in the outbreak of anthracnose caused by Glomerella (anamorph Colletotrichum) spp. Heterologous expression of active G. cingulata GDH has been achieved in both Escherichia coli and Pichia pastoris, however, the expressed volumetric activity was about 4800-fold higher in P. pastoris. Expression in E. coli resulted mainly in the formation of inclusion bodies and only after co-expression with molecular chaperones enzymatic activity was detected. The fed-batch cultivation of a P. pastoris transformant resulted in an expression of 48,000 U L⁻¹ of GDH activity (57 mg L⁻¹). Recombinant GDH was purified by a two-step purification procedure with a yield of 71%. Comparative characterization of molecular and catalytic properties shows identical features for the GDH expressed in P. pastoris and the wild-type enzyme from its natural fungal source. The heterologous expression of active GDH was greatly favoured in the eukaryotic host. The efficient expression in P. pastoris facilitates the production of genetically engineered GDH variants for electrochemical-, physiological- and structural studies.

  16. Expression of a cytoplasmic transhydrogenase in Saccharomyces cerevisiae results in formation of 2-oxoglutarate due to depletion of the NADPH pool

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nissen, T.L.; Anderlund, M.; Nielsen, Jens

    2001-01-01

    The intracellular redox state of a cell is to a large extent defined by the concentration ratios of the two pyridine nucleotide systems NADH/NAD(+) and NADPH/ADP(+) and has a significant influence on product formation in microorganisms. The enzyme pyridine nucleotide transhydrogenase, which can...... cultivations in high-performance bioreactors were carried out in order to allow quantitative analysis of the effect of transhydrogenase expression on product formation and on the intracellular concentrations of NADH, NAD(+), NADPH and NADP(+). A specific transhydrogenase activity of 4.53 U/mg protein...

  17. Mutational analysis of the N-terminal topogenic signal of watermelon glyoxysomal malate dehydrogenase using the heterologous host Hansenula polymorpha

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gietl, Christine; Faber, Klaas Nico; Klei, Ida J. van der; Veenhuis, Marten

    1994-01-01

    We have studied the significance of the N-terminal presequence of watermelon (Citrullus vulgaris) glyoxysomal malate dehydrogenase [gMDH; (S)-malate:NAD+ oxidoreductase; EC 1.1.1.37] in microbody targeting. The yeast Hansenula polymorpha was used as heterologous host for the in vivo expression of

  18. Capturing of the monoterpene olefin limonene produced in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jongedijk, E.J.; Cankar, K.; Ranzijn, J.; Krol, van der A.R.; Bouwmeester, H.J.; Beekwilder, M.J.

    2015-01-01

    Monoterpene olefins such as limonene are plant compounds with applications as flavouring and fragrance agents, as solvents and potentially also in polymer and fuel chemistry. We engineered baker's yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae to express a (-)-limonene synthase from Perilla frutescens and a

  19. Reconstitution of an efficient thymidine salvage pathway in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vernis, L.; Piskur, Jure; Diffley, J.F.X.

    2003-01-01

    The budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is unable to incorporate exogenous nucleosides into DNA. We have made a number of improvements to existing strategies to reconstitute an efficient thymidine salvage pathway in yeast. We have constructed strains that express both a nucleoside kinase as well...

  20. A comprehensive comparison of RNA-Seq-based transcriptome analysis from reads to differential gene expression and cross-comparison with microarrays: a case study in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nookaew, Intawat; Papini, Marta; Pornputtapong, Natapol

    2012-01-01

    RNA-seq, has recently become an attractive method of choice in the studies of transcriptomes, promising several advantages compared with microarrays. In this study, we sought to assess the contribution of the different analytical steps involved in the analysis of RNA-seq data generated with the I......RNA-seq, has recently become an attractive method of choice in the studies of transcriptomes, promising several advantages compared with microarrays. In this study, we sought to assess the contribution of the different analytical steps involved in the analysis of RNA-seq data generated...... gene expression identification derived from the different statistical methods, as well as their integrated analysis results based on gene ontology annotation are in good agreement. Overall, our study provides a useful and comprehensive comparison between the two platforms (RNA-seq and microrrays...

  1. Activation of an essential calcium signaling pathway in Saccharomyces cerevisiae by Kch1 and Kch2, putative low-affinity potassium transporters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefan, Christopher P; Zhang, Nannan; Sokabe, Takaaki; Rivetta, Alberto; Slayman, Clifford L; Montell, Craig; Cunningham, Kyle W

    2013-02-01

    In the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, mating pheromones activate a high-affinity Ca(2+) influx system (HACS) that activates calcineurin and is essential for cell survival. Here we identify extracellular K(+) and a homologous pair of transmembrane proteins, Kch1 and Kch2 (Prm6), as necessary components of the HACS activation mechanism. Expression of Kch1 and especially Kch2 was strongly induced during the response to mating pheromones. When forcibly overexpressed, Kch1 and Kch2 localized to the plasma membrane and activated HACS in a fashion that depended on extracellular K(+) but not pheromones. They also promoted growth of trk1 trk2 mutant cells in low K(+) environments, suggesting they promote K(+) uptake. Voltage-clamp recordings of protoplasts revealed diminished inward K(+) currents in kch1 kch2 double-mutant cells relative to the wild type. Conversely, heterologous expression of Kch1 in HEK293T cells caused the appearance of inwardly rectifying K(+) currents. Collectively, these findings suggest that Kch1 and Kch2 directly promote K(+) influx and that HACS may electrochemically respond to K(+) influx in much the same way as the homologous voltage-gated Ca(2+) channels in most animal cell types.

  2. Fungal genomics beyond Saccharomyces cerevisiae?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hofmann, Gerald; Mcintyre, Mhairi; Nielsen, Jens

    2003-01-01

    Fungi are used extensively in both fundamental research and industrial applications. Saccharomyces cerevisiae has been the model organism for fungal research for many years, particularly in functional genomics. However, considering the diversity within the fungal kingdom, it is obvious...

  3. Characterization of a Lactococcus lactis promoter for heterologous protein production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian E. Ogaugwu

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Constitutively active promoter elements for heterologous protein production in Lactococcus lactis are scarce. Here, the promoter of the PTS-IIC gene cluster from L. lactis NZ3900 is described. This promoter was cloned upstream of an enhanced green fluorescent protein, GFPmut3a, and transformed into L. lactis. Transformants produced up to 13.5 μg of GFPmut3a per milliliter of log phase cells. Addition of cellobiose further increased the production of GFPmut3a by up to two-fold when compared to glucose. Analysis of mutations at two specific positions in the PTS-IIC promoter showed that a ‘T’ to ‘G’ mutation within the −35 element resulted in constitutive expression in glucose, while a ‘C’ at nucleotide 7 in the putative cre site enhanced promoter activity in cellobiose. Finally, this PTS-IIC promoter is capable of mediating protein expression in Bacillus subtilis and Escherichia coli Nissle 1917, suggesting the potential for future biotechnological applications of this element and its derivatives.

  4. Engineering metabolic pathways in Amycolatopsis japonicum for the optimization of the precursor supply for heterologous brasilicardin congeners production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul N. Schwarz

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The isoprenoid brasilicardin A is a promising immunosuppressant compound with a unique mode of action, high potency and reduced toxicity compared to today's standard drugs. However, production of brasilicardin has been hampered since the producer strain Nocardia terpenica IFM0406 synthesizes brasilicardin in only low amounts and is a biosafety level 2 organism. Previously, we were able to heterologously express the brasilicardin gene cluster in the nocardioform actinomycete Amycolatopsis japonicum. Four brasilicardin congeners, intermediates of the BraA biosynthesis, were produced. Since chemical synthesis of the brasilicardin core structure has remained elusive we intended to produce high amounts of the brasilicardin backbone for semi synthesis and derivatization. Therefore, we used a metabolic engineering approach to increase heterologous production of brasilicardin in A. japonicum. Simultaneous heterologous expression of genes encoding the MVA pathway and expression of diterpenoid specific prenyltransferases were used to increase the provision of the isoprenoid precursor isopentenyl diphosphate (IPP and to channel the precursor into the direction of diterpenoid biosynthesis. Both approaches contributed to an elevated heterologous production of the brasilicardin backbone, which can now be used as a starting point for semi synthesis of new brasilicardin congeners with better properties.

  5. Expression of human poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase 1 in Saccharomyces cerevisiae: Effect on survival, homologous recombination and identification of genes involved in intracellular localization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    La Ferla, Marco; Mercatanti, Alberto; Rocchi, Giulia; Lodovichi, Samuele; Cervelli, Tiziana; Pignata, Luca [Yeast Genetics and Genomics, Institute of Clinical Physiology, National Council of Research (CNR), via Moruzzi 1, 56122 Pisa (Italy); Caligo, Maria Adelaide [Section of Genetic Oncology, University Hospital and University of Pisa, via Roma 57, 56125 Pisa (Italy); Galli, Alvaro, E-mail: alvaro.galli@ifc.cnr.it [Yeast Genetics and Genomics, Institute of Clinical Physiology, National Council of Research (CNR), via Moruzzi 1, 56122 Pisa (Italy)

    2015-04-15

    Highlights: • The human poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase 1 (PARP-1) gene affects growth and UV-induced homologous recombination in yeast. • PARP-1 chemical inhibition impacts yeast growth and UV-induced recombination. • A genome-wide screen identifies 99 yeast genes that suppress the growth defect inferred by PARP-1. • Bioinformatics analysis identifies 41 human orthologues that may have a role in PARP-1 intracellular localization. • The findings suggest that PARP-1 nuclear localization may affect the response to PARP inhibitors in cancer therapy. - Abstract: The poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase 1 (PARP-1) actively participates in a series of functions within the cell that include: mitosis, intracellular signaling, cell cycle regulation, transcription and DNA damage repair. Therefore, inhibition of PARP1 has a great potential for use in cancer therapy. As resistance to PARP inhibitors is starting to be observed in patients, thus the function of PARP-1 needs to be studied in depth in order to find new therapeutic targets. To gain more information on the PARP-1 activity, we expressed PARP-1 in yeast and investigated its effect on cell growth and UV induced homologous recombination. To identify candidate genes affecting PARP-1 activity and cellular localization, we also developed a yeast genome wide genetic screen. We found that PARP-1 strongly inhibited yeast growth, but when yeast was exposed to the PARP-1 inhibitor 6(5-H) phenantridinone (PHE), it recovered from the growth suppression. Moreover, we showed that PARP-1 produced PAR products in yeast and we demonstrated that PARP-1 reduced UV-induced homologous recombination. By genome wide screening, we identified 99 mutants that suppressed PARP-1 growth inhibition. Orthologues of human genes were found for 41 of these yeast genes. We determined whether the PARP-1 protein level was altered in strains which are deleted for the transcription regulator GAL3, the histone H1 gene HHO1, the HUL4 gene, the

  6. Expression of human poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase 1 in Saccharomyces cerevisiae: Effect on survival, homologous recombination and identification of genes involved in intracellular localization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Ferla, Marco; Mercatanti, Alberto; Rocchi, Giulia; Lodovichi, Samuele; Cervelli, Tiziana; Pignata, Luca; Caligo, Maria Adelaide; Galli, Alvaro

    2015-04-01

    The poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase 1 (PARP-1) actively participates in a series of functions within the cell that include: mitosis, intracellular signaling, cell cycle regulation, transcription and DNA damage repair. Therefore, inhibition of PARP1 has a great potential for use in cancer therapy. As resistance to PARP inhibitors is starting to be observed in patients, thus the function of PARP-1 needs to be studied in depth in order to find new therapeutic targets. To gain more information on the PARP-1 activity, we expressed PARP-1 in yeast and investigated its effect on cell growth and UV induced homologous recombination. To identify candidate genes affecting PARP-1 activity and cellular localization, we also developed a yeast genome wide genetic screen. We found that PARP-1 strongly inhibited yeast growth, but when yeast was exposed to the PARP-1 inhibitor 6(5-H) phenantridinone (PHE), it recovered from the growth suppression. Moreover, we showed that PARP-1 produced PAR products in yeast and we demonstrated that PARP-1 reduced UV-induced homologous recombination. By genome wide screening, we identified 99 mutants that suppressed PARP-1 growth inhibition. Orthologues of human genes were found for 41 of these yeast genes. We determined whether the PARP-1 protein level was altered in strains which are deleted for the transcription regulator GAL3, the histone H1 gene HHO1, the HUL4 gene, the deubiquitination enzyme gene OTU1, the nuclear pore protein POM152 and the SNT1 that encodes for the Set3C subunit of the histone deacetylase complex. In these strains the PARP-1 level was roughly the same as in the wild type. PARP-1 localized in the nucleus more in the snt1Δ than in the wild type strain; after UV radiation, PARP-1 localized in the nucleus more in hho1 and pom152 deletion strains than in the wild type indicating that these functions may have a role on regulating PARP-1 level and activity in the nucleus. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Dual N- and C-terminal helices are required for endoplasmic reticulum and lipid droplet association of alcohol acetyltransferases in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jyun-Liang Lin

    Full Text Available In the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae two alcohol acetyltransferases (AATases, Atf1 and Atf2, condense short chain alcohols with acetyl-CoA to produce volatile acetate esters. Such esters are, in large part, responsible for the distinctive flavors and aromas of fermented beverages including beer, wine, and sake. Atf1 and Atf2 localize to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER and Atf1 is known to localize to lipid droplets (LDs. The mechanism and function of these localizations are unknown. Here, we investigate potential mechanisms of Atf1 and Atf2 membrane association. Segments of the N- and C-terminal domains of Atf1 (residues 24-41 and 508-525, respectively are predicted to be amphipathic helices. Truncations of these helices revealed that the terminal domains are essential for ER and LD association. Moreover, mutations of the basic or hydrophobic residues in the N-terminal helix and hydrophobic residues in the C-terminal helix disrupted ER association and subsequent sorting from the ER to LDs. Similar amphipathic helices are found at both ends of Atf2, enabling ER and LD association. As was the case with Atf1, mutations to the N- and C-terminal helices of Atf2 prevented membrane association. Sequence comparison of the AATases from Saccharomyces, non-Saccharomyces yeast (K. lactis and P. anomala and fruits species (C. melo and S. lycopersicum showed that only AATases from Saccharomyces evolved terminal amphipathic helices. Heterologous expression of these orthologs in S. cerevisiae revealed that the absence of terminal amphipathic helices eliminates LD association. Combined, the results of this study suggest a common mechanism of membrane association for AATases via dual N- and C-terminal amphipathic helices.

  8. Heterologous expression of Gaeumannomyces graminis lipoxygenase in Aspergillus nidulans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heshof, R.; Schayck, van J.P.; Tamayo Ramos, J.A.; Graaff, de L.H.

    2014-01-01

    Aspergillus sp. contain ppo genes coding for Ppo enzymes that produce oxylipins from polyunsaturated fatty acids. These oxylipins function as signal molecules in sporulation and influence the asexual to sexual ratio of Aspergillus sp. Fungi like Aspergillus nidulans and Aspergillus niger contain

  9. Heterologous expression of two Arabidopsis starch dikinases in potato

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Xu, Xuan; Dees, Dianka; Huang, Xing Feng; Visser, Richard G.F.; Trindade, Luisa M.

    2018-01-01

    Starch phosphate esters influence physiochemical properties of starch granules that are essential both for starch metabolism and industrial use of starches. To modify properties of potato starch and understand the effect of starch phosphorylation on starch metabolism in storage starch, the starch

  10. Heterologous expression of Hordeum vulgare cysteine protease in yeast

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosenkilde, Anne Lind; Dionisio, Giuseppe; Holm, Preben B

    Cysteine Proteases accounts for more than 90 % of the total proteolytic activity in the degradation of barley seed storage proteins during germination. Several Cysteine proteases have been identified in barley. One of the key enzymes, Hordeum vulgare endoprotease B2 (HvEPB2) was cloned with and w......Cysteine Proteases accounts for more than 90 % of the total proteolytic activity in the degradation of barley seed storage proteins during germination. Several Cysteine proteases have been identified in barley. One of the key enzymes, Hordeum vulgare endoprotease B2 (HvEPB2) was cloned...

  11. Purification and characterization of heterologously expressed nitrilases from filamentous fungi

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Petříčková, Alena; Veselá, Alicja Barbara; Kaplan, Ondřej; Kubáč, David; Uhnáková, Bronislava; Malandra, A.; Felsberg, Jürgen; Rinágelová, Anna; Weyrauch, P.; Křen, Vladimír; Bezouška, Karel; Martínková, Ludmila

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 93, č. 4 (2012), s. 1553-1561 ISSN 0175-7598 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP504/11/0394; GA ČR GD305/09/H008; GA AV ČR IAA500200708; GA MŠk(CZ) LC06010; GA MŠk OC09046 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50200510 Keywords : Chaperones * Nitrilase * Aspergillus niger Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry Impact factor: 3.689, year: 2012

  12. Heterologous expression and purification of membrane-bound pyrophosphatases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kellosalo, J.; Kajander, T.; Palmgren, Michael Broberg

    2011-01-01

    Membrane-bound pyrophosphatases (M-PPases) are enzymes that couple the hydrolysis of inorganic pyrophosphate to pumping of protons or sodium ions. In plants and bacteria they are important for relieving stress caused by low energy levels during anoxia, drought, nutrient deficiency, cold and low l...

  13. 21 CFR 866.5785 - Anti-Saccharomyces cerevisiae (S. cerevisiae) antibody (ASCA) test systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...) antibody (ASCA) test systems. 866.5785 Section 866.5785 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION... Immunological Test Systems § 866.5785 Anti-Saccharomyces cerevisiae (S. cerevisiae) antibody (ASCA) test systems. (a) Identification. The Anti-Saccharomyces cerevisiae (S. cerevisiae) antibody (ASCA) test system is...

  14. Heterologous Production of Cyanobacterial Mycosporine-Like Amino Acids Mycosporine-Ornithine and Mycosporine-Lysine in Escherichia coli

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katoch, Meenu; Mazmouz, Rabia; Chau, Rocky; Pearson, Leanne A.; Pickford, Russell

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Mycosporine-like amino acids (MAAs) are an important class of secondary metabolites known for their protection against UV radiation and other stress factors. Cyanobacteria produce a variety of MAAs, including shinorine, the active ingredient in many sunscreen creams. Bioinformatic analysis of the genome of the soil-dwelling cyanobacterium Cylindrospermum stagnale PCC 7417 revealed a new gene cluster with homology to MAA synthase from Nostoc punctiforme. This newly identified gene cluster is unusual because it has five biosynthesis genes (mylA to mylE), compared to the four found in other MAA gene clusters. Heterologous expression of mylA to mylE in Escherichia coli resulted in the production of mycosporine-lysine and the novel compound mycosporine-ornithine. To our knowledge, this is the first time these compounds have been heterologously produced in E. coli and structurally characterized via direct spectral guidance. This study offers insight into the diversity, biosynthesis, and structure of cyanobacterial MAAs and highlights their amenability to heterologous production methods. IMPORTANCE Mycosporine-like amino acids (MAAs) are significant from an environmental microbiological perspective as they offer microbes protection against a variety of stress factors, including UV radiation. The heterologous expression of MAAs in E. coli is also significant from a biotechnological perspective as MAAs are the active ingredient in next-generation sunscreens. PMID:27520810

  15. Metabolic Engineering of Saccharomyces cerevisiae Microbial Cell Factories for Succinic Acid Production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Otero, José Manuel; Nielsen, Jens; Olsson, Lisbeth

    2007-01-01

    anhydride. There are several biomass platforms, all prokaryotic, for succinic acid production; however, overproduction of succinic acid in S. cerevisiae offers distinct process advantages. For example, S. cerevisiae has been awarded GRAS status for use in human consumables, grows well at low p......H significantly minimizing purification and acidification costs associated with organic acid production, and can utilize diverse carbon substrates in chemically defined medium. S. cerevisiae offers the unique advantage of being the most well characterized eukaryotic expression system. Here we describe the use...

  16. Biochemical mechanisms determine the functional compatibility of heterologous genes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Porse, Andreas; Schou, Thea S.; Munck, Christian

    2018-01-01

    -gene libraries have suggested that sequence composition is a strong barrier for the successful integration of heterologous genes. Here we sample 200 diverse genes, representing >80% of sequenced antibiotic resistance genes, to interrogate the factors governing genetic compatibility in new hosts. In contrast...... factors governing the functionality and fitness of antibiotic resistance genes. These findings emphasize the importance of biochemical mechanism for heterologous gene compatibility, and suggest physiological constraints as a pivotal feature orienting the evolution of antibiotic resistance....

  17. Optimization of the Production of Polygalacturonase from Aspergillus kawachii Cloned in Saccharomyces cerevisiae in Batch and Fed-Batch Cultures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Jorge Baruque

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Polygalacturonases (PG; EC 3.2.1.15 catalyze the hydrolysis of pectin and/or pectic acid and are useful for industrial applications such as juice clarification and pectin extraction. Growth and heterologous expression of recombinant Saccharomyces cerevisiae which expresses an acidic PG from Aspergillus kawachii has been studied in batch and fed-batch cultures. Kinetics and stoichiometric parameters of the recombinant yeast were determined in batch cultures in a synthetic medium. In these cultures, the total biomass concentration, protein concentration, and enzyme activity achieved were 2.2 g/L, 10 mg/L, and 3 U/mL, respectively, to give a productivity of 0.06 U/(mL·h. In fed-batch cultures, various strategies for galactose feeding were used: (i after a glucose growth phase, the addition of a single pulse of galactose which gave a productivity of 0.19 U/(mL·h; (ii after a glucose growth phase, a double pulse of galactose at the same final concentration was added, resulting in a productivity of 0.21 U/(mL·h; (iii a simultaneous feeding of glucose and galactose, yielding a productivity of 1.32 U/(mL·h. Based on these results, the simultaneous feeding of glucose and galactose was by far the most suitable strategy for the production of this enzyme. Moreover, some biochemical characteristics of the recombinant enzyme such as a molecular mass of ~60 kDa, an isoelectric point of 3.7 and its ability to hydrolyze polygalacturonic acid at pH=2.5 were determined.

  18. Effects of fermentation by Saccharomyces cerevisiae and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    yassine

    2013-02-13

    Feb 13, 2013 ... Effect of Saccharomyces cerevisiae fermentation on the ... beetroot, fermentation, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, betalain compounds. ... by Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains (González et al., .... Both red and yellow pigments were influenced during S. .... in beverages such as white wine, grape fruit, and green.

  19. Heterologous Production of a Novel Cyclic Peptide Compound, KK-1, in Aspergillus oryzae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akira Yoshimi

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available A novel cyclic peptide compound, KK-1, was originally isolated from the plant-pathogenic fungus Curvularia clavata. It consists of 10 amino acid residues, including five N-methylated amino acid residues, and has potent antifungal activity. Recently, the genome-sequencing analysis of C. clavata was completed, and the biosynthetic genes involved in KK-1 production were predicted by using a novel gene cluster mining tool, MIDDAS-M. These genes form an approximately 75-kb cluster, which includes nine open reading frames, containing a non-ribosomal peptide synthetase (NRPS gene. To determine whether the predicted genes were responsible for the biosynthesis of KK-1, we performed heterologous production of KK-1 in Aspergillus oryzae by introduction of the cluster genes into the genome of A. oryzae. The NRPS gene was split in two fragments and then reconstructed in the A. oryzae genome, because the gene was quite large (approximately 40 kb. The remaining seven genes in the cluster, excluding the regulatory gene kkR, were simultaneously introduced into the strain of A. oryzae in which NRPS had already been incorporated. To evaluate the heterologous production of KK-1 in A. oryzae, gene expression was analyzed by RT-PCR and KK-1 productivity was quantified by HPLC. KK-1 was produced in variable quantities by a number of transformed strains, along with expression of the cluster genes. The amount of KK-1 produced by the strain with the greatest expression of all genes was lower than that produced by the original producer, C. clavata. Therefore, expression of the cluster genes is necessary and sufficient for the heterologous production of KK-1 in A. oryzae, although there may be unknown factors limiting productivity in this species.

  20. Heterologous Production of a Novel Cyclic Peptide Compound, KK-1, in Aspergillus oryzae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshimi, Akira; Yamaguchi, Sigenari; Fujioka, Tomonori; Kawai, Kiyoshi; Gomi, Katsuya; Machida, Masayuki; Abe, Keietsu

    2018-01-01

    A novel cyclic peptide compound, KK-1, was originally isolated from the plant-pathogenic fungus Curvularia clavata . It consists of 10 amino acid residues, including five N -methylated amino acid residues, and has potent antifungal activity. Recently, the genome-sequencing analysis of C. clavata was completed, and the biosynthetic genes involved in KK-1 production were predicted by using a novel gene cluster mining tool, MIDDAS-M. These genes form an approximately 75-kb cluster, which includes nine open reading frames, containing a non-ribosomal peptide synthetase (NRPS) gene. To determine whether the predicted genes were responsible for the biosynthesis of KK-1, we performed heterologous production of KK-1 in Aspergillus oryzae by introduction of the cluster genes into the genome of A. oryzae . The NRPS gene was split in two fragments and then reconstructed in the A. oryzae genome, because the gene was quite large (approximately 40 kb). The remaining seven genes in the cluster, excluding the regulatory gene kkR , were simultaneously introduced into the strain of A. oryzae in which NRPS had already been incorporated. To evaluate the heterologous production of KK-1 in A. oryzae , gene expression was analyzed by RT-PCR and KK-1 productivity was quantified by HPLC. KK-1 was produced in variable quantities by a number of transformed strains, along with expression of the cluster genes. The amount of KK-1 produced by the strain with the greatest expression of all genes was lower than that produced by the original producer, C. clavata . Th