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Sample records for cereus sensu lato

  1. Incidence, Antibiotic Susceptibility, and Toxin Profiles of Bacillus cereus sensu lato Isolated from Korean Fermented Soybean Products.

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    Yim, Jin-Hyeok; Kim, Kwang-Yeop; Chon, Jung-Whan; Kim, Dong-Hyeon; Kim, Hong-Seok; Choi, Da-Som; Choi, In-Soo; Seo, Kun-Ho

    2015-06-01

    Korean fermented soybean products, such as doenjang, kochujang, ssamjang, and cho-kochujang, can harbor foodborne pathogens such as Bacillus cereus sensu lato (B. cereus sensu lato). The aim of this study was to characterize the toxin gene profiles, biochemical characteristics, and antibiotic resistance patterns of B. cereus sensu lato strains isolated from Korean fermented soybean products. Eighty-eight samples of Korean fermented soybean products purchased from retails in Seoul were tested. Thirteen of 26 doenjang samples, 13 of 23 kochujang samples, 16 of 30 ssamjang samples, and 5 of 9 cho-kochujang samples were positive for B. cereus sensu lato strains. The contamination level of all positive samples did not exceed 4 log CFU/g of food (maximum levels of Korea Food Code). Eighty-seven B. cereus sensu lato strains were isolated from 47 positive samples, and all isolates carried at least one enterotoxin gene. The detection rates of hblCDA, nheABC, cytK, and entFM enterotoxin genes among all isolates were 34.5%, 98.9%, 57.5%, and 100%, respectively. Fifteen strains (17.2%) harbored the emetic toxin gene. Most strains tested positive for salicin fermentation (62.1%), starch hydrolysis (66.7%), hemolysis (98.9%), motility test (100%), and lecithinase production (96.6%). The B. cereus sensu lato strains were highly resistant to β-lactam antibiotics such as ampicillin, penicillin, cefepime, imipenem, and oxacillin. Although B. cereus sensu lato levels in Korean fermented soybean products did not exceed the maximum levels permitted in South Korea (<10(4) CFU/g), these results indicate that the bacterial isolates have the potential to cause diarrheal or emetic gastrointestinal diseases.

  2. Diversity of commensal Bacillus cereus sensu lato isolated from the common sow bug (Porcellio scaber, Isopoda).

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    Swiecicka, Izabela; Mahillon, Jacques

    2006-04-01

    Although Bacillus cereus sensu lato are important both from an ecological and an economical point of view, little is known about their population structure, ecology, and relationships with other organisms. In the present work, the genotypic similarity of arthropod-borne B. cereus s.l. isolates, and their symbiotic relationship with the host are assessed. Bacilli of this group were recovered from the digestive tracts of sow bugs (Porcellio scaber) collected in three closely located sites. Their genotypic diversity was investigated using pulse-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) following the whole-genome DNA digestions with NotI and AscI, and PCR amplification of virulence genes. The majority of the sow-bug Bacillus cereus sensu stricto isolates originating from the same but also from different sites displayed identical PFGE patterns, virulence gene content and enterotoxicity, indicating strong genetic and genomic relationships. The sow-bug Bacillus mycoides/Bacillus pseudomycoides strains displayed a higher diversity. The isopod-B. cereus s.l. relationship was also evaluated using antibiotic-resistant derivatives of B. cereus s.s., B. mycoides/B. pseudomycoides and Bacillus thuringiensis reintroduced into sow bugs. Both spores and vegetative cells of B. cereus s.l. were recovered from sow bugs over a 30-day period, strongly suggesting that these bacteria are natural residents of terrestrial isopods.

  3. Comparative transcriptional profiling of Bacillus cereus sensu lato strains during growth in CO2-bicarbonate and aerobic atmospheres.

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    Karla D Passalacqua

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Bacillus species are spore-forming bacteria that are ubiquitous in the environment and display a range of virulent and avirulent phenotypes. This range is particularly evident in the Bacillus cereus sensu lato group; where closely related strains cause anthrax, food-borne illnesses, and pneumonia, but can also be non-pathogenic. Although much of this phenotypic range can be attributed to the presence or absence of a few key virulence factors, there are other virulence-associated loci that are conserved throughout the B. cereus group, and we hypothesized that these genes may be regulated differently in pathogenic and non-pathogenic strains. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here we report transcriptional profiles of three closely related but phenotypically unique members of the Bacillus cereus group--a pneumonia-causing B. cereus strain (G9241, an attenuated strain of B. anthracis (Sterne 34F(2, and an avirulent B. cereus strain (10987--during exponential growth in two distinct atmospheric environments: 14% CO(2/bicarbonate and ambient air. We show that the disease-causing Bacillus strains undergo more distinctive transcriptional changes between the two environments, and that the expression of plasmid-encoded virulence genes was increased exclusively in the CO(2 environment. We observed a core of conserved metabolic genes that were differentially expressed in all three strains in both conditions. Additionally, the expression profiles of putative virulence genes in G9241 suggest that this strain, unlike Bacillus anthracis, may regulate gene expression with both PlcR and AtxA transcriptional regulators, each acting in a different environment. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: We have shown that homologous and even identical genes within the genomes of three closely related members of the B. cereus sensu lato group are in some instances regulated very differently, and that these differences can have important implications for virulence. This study

  4. The Identification of Intrinsic Chloramphenicol and Tetracycline Resistance Genes in Members of the Bacillus cereus Group (sensu lato)

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    Glenwright, Helen; Pohl, Susanne; Navarro, Ferran; Miro, Elisenda; Jiménez, Guillermo; Blanch, Anicet R.; Harwood, Colin R.

    2017-01-01

    Bacillus toyonensis strain BCT-7112T (NCIMB 14858T) has been widely used as an additive in animal nutrition for more than 30 years without reports of adverse toxigenic effects. However, this strain is resistant to chloramphenicol and tetracycline and it is generally considered inadvisable to introduce into the food chain resistance determinants capable of being transferred to other bacterial strains, thereby adding to the pool of such determinants in the gastro-enteric systems of livestock species. We therefore characterized the resistance phenotypes of this strain and its close relatives to determine whether they were of recent origin, and therefore likely to be transmissible. To this end we identified the genes responsible for chloramphenicol (catQ) and tetracycline (tetM) resistance and confirmed the presence of homologs in other members of the B. toyonensis taxonomic unit. Unexpectedly, closely related strains encoding these genes did not exhibit chloramphenicol and tetracycline resistance phenotypes. To understand the differences in the behaviors, we cloned and expressed the genes, together with their upstream regulatory regions, into Bacillus subtilis. The data showed that the genes encoded functional proteins, but were expressed inefficiently from their native promoters. B. toyonensis is a taxonomic unit member of the Bacillus cereus group (sensu lato). We therefore extended the analysis to determine the extent to which homologous chloramphenicol and tetracycline resistance genes were present in other species within this group. This analysis revealed that homologous genes were present in nearly all representative species within the B. cereus group (sensu lato). The absence of known transposition elements and the observations that they are found at the same genomic locations, indicates that these chloramphenicol and tetracycline resistance genes are of ancient origin and intrinsic to this taxonomic group, rather than recent acquisitions. In this context we

  5. The Identification of Intrinsic Chloramphenicol and Tetracycline Resistance Genes in Members of the Bacillus cereus Group (sensu lato).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glenwright, Helen; Pohl, Susanne; Navarro, Ferran; Miro, Elisenda; Jiménez, Guillermo; Blanch, Anicet R; Harwood, Colin R

    2016-01-01

    Bacillus toyonensis strain BCT-7112(T) (NCIMB 14858(T)) has been widely used as an additive in animal nutrition for more than 30 years without reports of adverse toxigenic effects. However, this strain is resistant to chloramphenicol and tetracycline and it is generally considered inadvisable to introduce into the food chain resistance determinants capable of being transferred to other bacterial strains, thereby adding to the pool of such determinants in the gastro-enteric systems of livestock species. We therefore characterized the resistance phenotypes of this strain and its close relatives to determine whether they were of recent origin, and therefore likely to be transmissible. To this end we identified the genes responsible for chloramphenicol (catQ) and tetracycline (tetM) resistance and confirmed the presence of homologs in other members of the B. toyonensis taxonomic unit. Unexpectedly, closely related strains encoding these genes did not exhibit chloramphenicol and tetracycline resistance phenotypes. To understand the differences in the behaviors, we cloned and expressed the genes, together with their upstream regulatory regions, into Bacillus subtilis. The data showed that the genes encoded functional proteins, but were expressed inefficiently from their native promoters. B. toyonensis is a taxonomic unit member of the Bacillus cereus group (sensu lato). We therefore extended the analysis to determine the extent to which homologous chloramphenicol and tetracycline resistance genes were present in other species within this group. This analysis revealed that homologous genes were present in nearly all representative species within the B. cereus group (sensu lato). The absence of known transposition elements and the observations that they are found at the same genomic locations, indicates that these chloramphenicol and tetracycline resistance genes are of ancient origin and intrinsic to this taxonomic group, rather than recent acquisitions. In this context

  6. Pathogenicity and characterization of a novel Bacillus cereus sensu lato isolate toxic to the Mediterranean fruit fly Ceratitis capitata Wied.

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    Ruiu, Luca; Falchi, Giovanni; Floris, Ignazio; Marche, Maria Giovanna; Mura, Maria Elena; Satta, Alberto

    2015-03-01

    The lethal and sub-lethal effects of sporulated cultures of a novel Bacillus cereus sensu lato strain lacking detectable cry genes and identified through morphological and genetic analyses, have been studied on the Mediterranean fruit fly Ceratitis capitata. The lethal effects on young larvae were concentration dependent, with a median lethal concentration (LC50) of 4.48 × 10(8)spores/g of diet. Sporulated cultures of this strain significantly extended development time and reduced immature survival, and the size of emerging fly adults. Besides spores, the toxicity has been associated to the insoluble extra-spore fraction characterized through a proteomic approach. The profile of the extra-spore protein fraction (ES) showed major protein bands within the 35-65 kDa range. The results of mass spectrometry analysis highlighted the presence of putative virulence factors, including members of protein families previously associated to the insecticidal action of other microbial entomopathogens. These proteins include metalloproteases, peptidases and other enzymes.

  7. Development of a powder formulation based on Bacillus cereus sensu lato strain B25 spores for biological control of Fusarium verticillioides in maize plants.

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    Martínez-Álvarez, Juan C; Castro-Martínez, Claudia; Sánchez-Peña, Pedro; Gutiérrez-Dorado, Roberto; Maldonado-Mendoza, Ignacio E

    2016-05-01

    Maize is an economically important crop in northern Mexico. Different fungi cause ear and root rot in maize, including Fusarium verticillioides (Sacc.) Nirenberg. Crop management of this pathogen with chemical fungicides has been difficult. By contrast, the recent use of novel biocontrol strategies, such as seed bacterization with Bacillus cereus sensu lato strain B25, has been effective in field trials. These approaches are not without their problems, since insufficient formulation technology, between other factors, can limit success of biocontrol agents. In response to these drawbacks, we have developed a powder formulation based on Bacillus B25 spores and evaluated some of its characteristics, including shelf life and efficacy against F. verticillioides, in vitro and in maize plants. A talc-based powder formulation containing 1 × 10(9) c.f.u. g(-1) was obtained and evaluated for seed adherence ability, seed germination effect, shelf life and antagonism against F. verticillioides in in vitro and in planta assays. Seed adherence of viable bacterial spores ranged from 1.0 to 1.41 × 10(7) c.f.u. g(-1). Bacteria did not display negative effects on seed germination. Spore viability for the powder formulation slowly decreased over time, and was 53 % after 360 days of storage at room temperature. This formulation was capable of controlling F. verticillioides in greenhouse assays, as well as eight other maize phytopathogenic fungi in vitro. The results suggest that a talc-based powder formulation of Bacillus B25 spores may be sufficient to produce inoculum for biocontrol of maize ear and root rots caused by F. verticillioides.

  8. High-rate evolution of Saccharomyces sensu lato chromosomes

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    Spirek, M.; Yang, J.; Groth, C.

    2003-01-01

    Forty isolates belonging to the Saccharomyces sensu lato complex were analyzed for one nuclear and two mitochondrial sequences, and for their karyotypes. These data are useful for description and definition of yeast species based on the phylogenetic species concept. The deduced phylogenetic relat...

  9. Lantana camara L. (sensu lato: an enigmatic complex

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    Neha Goyal

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Lantana camara L., considered among the world’s worst invaders is in identity crisis and contentiously referred as Lantana camara L. (sensu lato. Taxonomic ambiguity in L. camara L. (sensu lato, a species complex is one of the grim caveats behind incompetence of its management efforts. Recognizing the extent of variability within the complex, we aim to highlight the need to circumscribe its composition to bring effective management and control efforts into practice. There is a need for clear terminology to examine weedy, naturalized and/or invasive complex constituents that have been placed under the contentious umbrella of ‘L. camara L. (sensu lato’. The time is ripe for invasion ecologists, cytogeneticists and conservationists to collaboratively focus on disentangling the complex and integrate their knowledge and expertise into management and control programs.

  10. Vector Capability of Xiphinema americanum sensu lato in California.

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    Griesbach, J A; Maggenti, A R

    1989-10-01

    Seven field populations of Xiphinema americanum sensu lato from California's major agronomic areas were tested for their ability to transmit two nepoviruses, including the prune brownline, peach yellow bud, and grapevine yellow vein strains of tomato ringspot virus and the bud blight strain of tobacco ringspot virus. Two field populations transmitted all isolates, one population transmitted all tomato ringspot virus isolates but failed to transmit bud blight strain of tobacco ringspot virus, and the remaining four populations failed to transmit any virus. Only one population, which transmitted all isolates, bad been associated with field spread of a nepovirus. As two California populations of Xiphinema americanum sensu lato were shown to have the ability to vector two different nepoviruses, a nematode taxonomy based on a parsimony of virus-vector relationship is not practical for these populations. Because two California populations of X. americanum were able to vector tobacco ringspot virus, commonly vectored by X. americanum in the eastern United States, these western populations cannot be differentiated from eastern populations by vector capability tests using tobacco ringspot virus.

  11. Antimicrobial activity of Stomoxys calcitransagainst Beauveria bassiana sensu lato isolates

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    Ana Paula Rodrigues de Moraes

    Full Text Available This study had the aims of evaluating the antimicrobial characteristics of Stomoxys calcitrans (Diptera: Muscidae larvae against the fungal isolates CG138, CG228 and ESALQ986 of Beauveria bassiana sensu lato (Balsamo-Crivelli Vuillemin, 1912 (Hypocreales: Cordycipitaceae. S. calcitrans eggs, larvae and pupae were exposed to these same isolates. Statistical analysis showed that the immature stages of S. calcitrans were not susceptible to the fungal isolates used, regardless of the exposure method. Diffusion test on solid culture medium reveled that macerated S. calcitrans larvae exposed to isolate CG138 reduced CG138 fungal development. The analysis of the chromatographic profiles indicated that the macerate or mucus of larvae of the control group and the groups exposed to the isolate CG138 presented different profiles. Reduced development of the isolate CG138 on the larvae cuticle was observed by means of scanning electron microscopy.

  12. CLASSIFICATION OF GENUS Triticum, SENSU LATO AND SENSU STRICTO, BASED ON SPIKE AND GRAIN MORPHOLOGY

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    Hristo P. STOYANOV

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The formulation of the present classifications of species of the genus Triticum associates mainly with several plant morphological factors such as fragility of the spikes spindle, grains threshability, grain sphericity, shape and position of glumes, lemmas and paleas and awns, compactness, etc. Special attention is paid to the factor "cultural/wild" form, the ploidy and the genomic constitution of the species, often supported by molecular data which provides considerable comfort in disclosing phylogenetic features in a particular taxonomic unit. Such taxonomic determination is associated with certain disadvantages. It is not sufficiently focused on the spike morphology related to the reproductive apparatus of the plant, and also the causes of phylogenetic differentiation of certain parameters, such as spike branching, multiple spikelets, as well as the ratios of quantitative properties. The existing classifications do not give a precise answer to the taxonomic position of amphidiploids in the genus Triticum, and also for those obtained from hybrid combinations with genera Aegilops, Secale, Haynaldia, Hordeum, Elymus, Leymus, Elytrigia, Agropyron, as transitional and similar forms. Based on studies of spike and grain morphology of a large number of representatives of the genus Triticum and other interspecific and intergeneric amphidiploid forms, a classification of the genus sensu lato and sensu stricto is composed. Sensu stricto, genus Triticum covers all existing wild and cultivated known wheat forms, together with interspecific artificial synthetic forms. Sensu lato, the genus includes intergeneric hybrids, for which a specific generic epithet was coined - ×Triticum, and also a specific epithet, consistent with the originator of the amphidiploid. Special attention was paid to species and amphidiploids with the genus Aegilops. Classification sensu strictissimo was also formulated where the genus Triticum brings together only diploid species

  13. A proposal for the classification of biological weapons sensu lato.

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    Rozsa, Lajos

    2014-12-01

    Due to historical and legislation reasons, the category of bioweapons is rather poorly defined. Authors often disagree on involving or excluding agents like hormones, psychochemicals, certain plants and animals (such as weeds or pests) or synthetic organisms. Applying a wide definition apparently threatens by eroding the regime of international legislation, while narrow definitions abandon several important issues. Therefore, I propose a category of 'biological weapons sensu lato' (BWsl) that is defined here as any tool of human aggression whose acting principle is based on disciplines of biology including particularly microbiology, epidemiology, medical biology, physiology, psychology, pharmacology and ecology, but excluding those based on inorganic agents. Synthetically produced equivalents (not necessarily exact copies) and mock weapons are also included. This definition does not involve any claim to subject all these weapons to international legislation but serves a purely scholarly purpose. BWsl may be properly categorized on the base of the magnitude of the human population potentially targeted (4 levels: individuals, towns, countries, global) and the biological nature of the weapons' intended effects (4 levels: agricultural-ecological agents, and non-pathogenic, pathogenic, or lethal agents against humans).

  14. Taxonomy and molecular epidemiology of Echinococcus granulosus sensu lato.

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    Romig, T; Ebi, D; Wassermann, M

    2015-10-30

    Echinococcus granulosus, formerly regarded as a single species with a high genotypic and phenotypic diversity, is now recognised as an assemblage of cryptic species, which differ considerably in morphology, development, host specificity (including infectivity/pathogenicity for humans) and other aspects. This diversity is reflected in the mitochondrial and nuclear genomes and has led to the construction of phylogenetic trees and hypotheses on the origin and geographic dispersal of various taxa. Based on phenotypic characters and gene sequences, E. granulosus (sensu lato) has by now been subdivided into E. granulosus sensu stricto (including the formerly identified genotypic variants G1-3), Echinococcus felidis (the former 'lion strain'), Echinococcus equinus (the 'horse strain', genotype G4), Echinococcus ortleppi (the 'cattle strain', genotype G5) and Echinococcus canadensis. The latter species, as recognised here, shows the highest diversity and is composed of the 'camel strain', genotype G6, the 'pig strain', genotype G7, and two 'cervid strains', genotypes G8 and G10. There is debate whether the closely related G6 and G7 should be placed in a separate species, but more morphological and biological data are needed to support or reject this view. In this classification, the application of rules for zoological nomenclature led to the resurrection of old species names, which had before been synonymised with E. granulosus. This nomenclatural subdivision of the agents of cystic echinococcosis (CE) may appear inconvenient for practical applications, especially because molecular tools are needed for identification of the cyst stage, and because retrospective data on 'E. granulosus' are now difficult to interpret without examination of voucher specimens. However, the increased awareness for the diversity of CE agents - now emphasised by species names rather than genotype numbers - has led to a large number of recent studies on this issue and a rapid increase of knowledge

  15. Sinopse taxonômica de Boraginaceae sensu lato A. Juss. no Estado de Alagoas, Brasil Taxonomic synopsis of Boraginaceae sensu lato A. Juss. in Alagoas State, Brazil

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    José Iranildo Miranda de Melo

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho consiste no tratamento sinóptico da família Boraginaceae sensu lato no Estado de Alagoas, Nordeste do Brasil. Foram encontrados três gêneros e 23 espécies: Cordia, com 13 espécies e Heliotropium e Tournefortia, representados por cinco espécies cada. São fornecidas chaves para o reconhecimento de gêneros e espécies, bem como ilustrações, dados de distribuição e hábitat.This work consists of a synoptic treatment for the family Boraginaceae sensu lato in Alagoas state, located in Northeast Brazil. Three genera and 23 species were found: Cordia with 13 species, Heliotropium and Tournefortia with five species each. Keys for determining genera and species are given, as well as illustrations, distribution data and habitat.

  16. Whole genome sequence of an unusual Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato isolate

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    Casjens, S.R.; Dunn, J.; Fraser-Liggett, C. M.; Mongodin, E. F.; Qiu, W. G.; Luft, B. J.; Schutzer, S. E.

    2011-03-01

    Human Lyme disease is caused by a number of related Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato species. We report here the complete genome sequence of Borrelia sp. isolate SV1 from Finland. This isolate is to date the closest known relative of B. burgdorferi sensu stricto, but it is sufficiently genetically distinct from that species that it and its close relatives warrant its candidacy for new-species status. We suggest that this isolate should be named 'Borrelia finlandensis.'

  17. The ecology of Lyme borreliosis risk : interactions between lxodes ricinus, rodents and Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duijvendijk, van Gilian

    2016-01-01

    The sheep tick (Ixodes ricinus) is widespread throughout Europe and can transmit Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato (s.l.), which can cause Lyme borreliosis and B. miyamotoi, the agent of Borrelia miyamotoi disease in humans. Borrelia afzelii is the most common genospeci

  18. Multilocus sequence typing of Pseudomonas syringae sensu lato confirms previously described genomospecies and permits rapid identification.

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    Since 2002, severe leaf spotting on parsley (Petroselinum crispum L.) has occurred in Monterey County, California. One of two different pathovars of Pseudomonas syringae sensu lato were isolated from diseased leaves from seven distinct outbreaks and twice from the same outbreak (2002 and 2009). Frag...

  19. Ability to cause erythema migrans differs between Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato isolates

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    E. Tijsse-Klasen (Ellen); N. Pandak (Nenad); P. Hengeveld (Paul); K. Takumi (Katsuhisa); M.P.G. Koopmans D.V.M. (Marion); H. Sprong (Hein)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Lyme borreliosis is a tick-borne disease caused by Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato. The variety of characteristic and non-specific clinical manifestations is partially explained by its genetic diversity. We investigated the ability of B. burgdorferi sl isolates to cause eryth

  20. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy of DNA from Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato and Ixodes ricinus ticks

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    Muntean, Cristina M.; Stefan, Razvan; Bindea, Maria; Cozma, Vasile

    2013-06-01

    In this work we present a method for detection of motile and immotile Borrelia burgdorferi genomic DNA, in relation with infectious and noninfectious spirochetes. An FT-IR study of DNA isolated from B. burgdorferi sensu lato strains and from positive and negative Ixodes ricinus ticks, respectively, is reported. Motile bacterial cells from the species B. burgdorferi sensu stricto, Borrelia garinii and Borrelia afzelii were of interest. Also, FT-IR absorbance spectra of DNA from immotile spirochetes of B. burgdorferi sensu stricto, in the absence and presence of different antibiotics (doxycycline, erythromycin, gentamicin, penicillin V or phenoxymethylpenicillin, tetracycline, respectively) were investigated. FT-IR spectra, providing a high molecular structural information, have been analyzed in the wavenumber range 400-1800 cm-1. FT-IR signatures, spectroscopic band assignments and structural interpretations of these DNAs are reported. Spectral differences between FT-IR absorbances of DNAs from motile bacterial cells and immotile spirochetes, respectively, have been found. Particularly, alterations of the sugar-phosphate B-form chain in the case of DNA from Borrelia immotile cells, as compared with DNA from B. burgdorferi sensu lato motile cells have been observed. Based on this work, specific B. burgdorferi sensu lato and I. ricinus DNA-ligand interactions, respectively, might be further investigated using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy.

  1. Geographical and genospecies distribution of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato DNA detected in humans in the USA.

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    Clark, Kerry L; Leydet, Brian F; Threlkeld, Clifford

    2014-05-01

    The present study investigated the cause of illness in human patients primarily in the southern USA with suspected Lyme disease based on erythema migrans-like skin lesions and/or symptoms consistent with early localized or late disseminated Lyme borreliosis. The study also included some patients from other states throughout the USA. Several PCR assays specific for either members of the genus Borrelia or only for Lyme group Borrelia spp. (Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato), and DNA sequence analysis, were used to identify Borrelia spp. DNA in blood and skin biopsy samples from human patients. B. burgdorferi sensu lato DNA was found in both blood and skin biopsy samples from patients residing in the southern states and elsewhere in the USA, but no evidence of DNA from other Borrelia spp. was detected. Based on phylogenetic analysis of partial flagellin (flaB) gene sequences, strains that clustered separately with B. burgdorferi sensu stricto, Borrelia americana or Borrelia andersonii were associated with Lyme disease-like signs and symptoms in patients from the southern states, as well as from some other areas of the country. Strains most similar to B. burgdorferi sensu stricto and B. americana were found most commonly and appeared to be widely distributed among patients residing throughout the USA. The study findings suggest that human cases of Lyme disease in the southern USA may be more common than previously recognized and may also be caused by more than one species of B. burgdorferi sensu lato. This study provides further evidence that B. burgdorferi sensu stricto is not the only species associated with signs and/or symptoms consistent with Lyme borreliosis in the USA.

  2. Isolation, cultivation, and in vitro susceptibility testing of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato: A review

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    Veinović Gorana

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Lyme borreliosis is the most common vector-borne disease in the northern hemisphere. The agents of Lyme borreliosis are borrelia, bacteria of the family Spirochaetaceae, which are grouped in Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato species complex. Borreliae are fastidious, slow-growing and biochemically inactive bacteria that need special attention and optimal conditions for cultivation. The isolation of Borrelia from clinical material and their cultivation is a time-consuming and demanding procedure. Cultivation lasts from 9 up to 12 weeks, which is much longer than is necessary to grow most other human bacterial pathogens. Although B. burgdorferi sensu lato is susceptible to a wide range of antimicrobial agents in vitro, up to now the susceptibility of individual Borrelia species to antibiotics is defined only partially. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 175011

  3. Selection of Beauveria bassiana sensu lato and Metarhizium anisopliae sensu lato isolates as microbial control agents against the boll weevil (Anthonomus grandis) in Argentina.

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    Nussenbaum, A L; Lecuona, R E

    2012-05-01

    The boll weevil (Anthonomus grandis) is the main pest of cotton in the Americas. The aim of this work was to evaluate isolates of the entomopathogenic fungi Beauveria bassiana sensu lato and Metarhizium anisopliae sensu lato virulent against A. grandis. Screening was performed to evaluate the pathogenicity of 28 isolates of M. anisopliae s.l. and 66 isolates of B. bassiana s.l. against boll weevil adults. To select the isolates, LC(50) values of the most virulent isolates were calculated, and compatibility between the fungi and insecticides was studied. In addition, the effects of these isolates on the feeding behavior of the adults were evaluated. Isolates Ma 50 and Ma 20 were the most virulent against A. grandis and their LC(50) values were 1.13×10(7) and 1.20×10(7) conidia/ml, respectively. In addition, these isolates were compatible with pyrethroid insecticides, but none with endosulfan. On the other hand, infected females reduced the damage caused by feeding on the cotton squares and their weight gain. This shows that entomopathogenic fungi cause mortality in the insects, but also these fungi could influence the feeding behavior of the females. In summary, these results indicate the possibility of the use of M. anisopliae s.l. as a microbiological control agent against boll weevils. Also, this species could be included in an Integrated Pest Management program.

  4. Characterization of virulence properties in the C. parapsilosis sensu lato species.

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    Tibor Németh

    Full Text Available The C. parapsilosis sensu lato group involves three closely related species, C. parapsilosis sensu stricto, C. orthopsilosis and C. metapsilosis. Although their overall clinical importance is dramatically increasing, there are few studies regarding the virulence properties of the species of the psilosis complex. In this study, we tested 63 C. parapsilosis sensu stricto, 12 C. metapsilosis and 18 C. orthopsilosis isolates for the ability to produce extracellular proteases, secrete lipases and form pseudohyphae. Significant differences were noted between species, with the C. metapsilosis strains failing to secrete lipase or to produce pseudohyphae. Nine different clinical isolates each of C. parapsilosis sensu stricto, C. orthopsilosis and C. metapsilosis were co-cultured with immortalized murine or primary human macrophages. C. parapsilosis sensu stricto isolates showed a significantly higher resistance to killing by primary human macrophages compared to C. orthopsilosis and C. metapsilosis isolates. In contrast, the killing of isolates by J774.2 mouse macrophages did not differ significantly between species. However, C. parapsilosis sensu stricto isolates induced the most damage to murine and human macrophages, and C. metapsilosis strains were the least toxic. Furthermore, strains that produced lipase or pseudohyphae were most resistant to macrophage-mediated killing and produced the most cellular damage. Finally, we used 9 isolates of each of the C. parapsilosis sensus lato species to examine their impact on the survival of Galleriamellonella larvae. The mortality rate of G. mellonella larvae infected with C. metapsilosis isolates was significantly lower than those infected with C. parapsilosis sensu stricto or C. orthopsilosis strains. Taken together, our findings demonstrate that C. metapsilosis is indeed the least virulent member of the psilosis group, and also highlight the importance of pseudohyphae and secreted lipases during fungal

  5. Characterization of virulence properties in the C. parapsilosis sensu lato species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Németh, Tibor; Tóth, Adél; Szenzenstein, Judit; Horváth, Péter; Nosanchuk, Joshua D; Grózer, Zsuzsanna; Tóth, Renáta; Papp, Csaba; Hamari, Zsuzsanna; Vágvölgyi, Csaba; Gácser, Attila

    2013-01-01

    The C. parapsilosis sensu lato group involves three closely related species, C. parapsilosis sensu stricto, C. orthopsilosis and C. metapsilosis. Although their overall clinical importance is dramatically increasing, there are few studies regarding the virulence properties of the species of the psilosis complex. In this study, we tested 63 C. parapsilosis sensu stricto, 12 C. metapsilosis and 18 C. orthopsilosis isolates for the ability to produce extracellular proteases, secrete lipases and form pseudohyphae. Significant differences were noted between species, with the C. metapsilosis strains failing to secrete lipase or to produce pseudohyphae. Nine different clinical isolates each of C. parapsilosis sensu stricto, C. orthopsilosis and C. metapsilosis were co-cultured with immortalized murine or primary human macrophages. C. parapsilosis sensu stricto isolates showed a significantly higher resistance to killing by primary human macrophages compared to C. orthopsilosis and C. metapsilosis isolates. In contrast, the killing of isolates by J774.2 mouse macrophages did not differ significantly between species. However, C. parapsilosis sensu stricto isolates induced the most damage to murine and human macrophages, and C. metapsilosis strains were the least toxic. Furthermore, strains that produced lipase or pseudohyphae were most resistant to macrophage-mediated killing and produced the most cellular damage. Finally, we used 9 isolates of each of the C. parapsilosis sensus lato species to examine their impact on the survival of Galleriamellonella larvae. The mortality rate of G. mellonella larvae infected with C. metapsilosis isolates was significantly lower than those infected with C. parapsilosis sensu stricto or C. orthopsilosis strains. Taken together, our findings demonstrate that C. metapsilosis is indeed the least virulent member of the psilosis group, and also highlight the importance of pseudohyphae and secreted lipases during fungal-host interactions.

  6. Detection of tick blood parasites in Egypt using PCR assay II- Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adham, Fatma K; El-Samie-Abd, Emtithal M; Gabre, Refaat M; El Hussein, Hala

    2010-12-01

    The prevalence of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato (s.l.), the etiologic agent of Lyme borrelosis (LB), was determined for the first time in Egypt by using polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Questing 5243 hard and soft ticks were collected from animal farms throughout Giza Governorate. DNA from 500 individual tick species was extracted and PCR was performed. Primers verified from the sequence of German strain Pko of Borrelia afzelii were used. Fragments of 642 bp were generated and sequenced. The prevalence of B. burgdorferi sensu lato (s.l.) was 28% of examined soft and hard ticks. High infection rate (66%) of B. burgdorferi s.l. was observed in both nymph and adult soft ticks Ornithodoros savignyi. Beside, the role of hard ticks as potential vectors of Lyme disease in Egypt, where the infection rate was between 0.0-50.0%. Sequence analysis of PCR product of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato shares high degree of similarity in sequence compared to similar species in GenBank.

  7. VERBENACEAE SENSU LATO EM UM TRECHO DA ESEC RASO DA CATARINA, BAHIA, BRASIL

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    JOSÉ IRANILDO MIRANDA DE MELO

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This work carried out a floristic-taxonomic survey of the family Verbenaceae sensu lato in a stretch at the Ecological Station Raso da Catarina, Bahia State, Brazil. Four genera and six species were recorded: Aegiphila, with one species (A. sellowiana Cham.; Lantana, with one species (L. fucata Lindl.; Lippia, with three species (L. gracilis Schauer, Lippia cf. schomburgkiana Schauer and L. thymoides Mart. & Schauer and Stachytarpheta, with one species (S. caatingensis S. Atkins. A key for recognition of the species, descriptions and illustrations, beyond data about flowering and fruiting, geographical distribution and habitat are provided.

  8. Differential sensitivity of the species of Candida parapsilosis sensu lato complex against statins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szenzenstein, Judit; Gácser, Attila; Grózer, Zsuzsanna; Farkas, Zoltán; Nagy, Katalin; Vágvölgyi, Csaba; Márki-Zay, János; Pfeiffer, Ilona

    2013-10-01

    Candida parapsilosis sensu stricto, Candida orthopsilosis and Candida metapsilosis are human fungal pathogens with clinical importance. The recently reclassified three closely related species have significant variation in virulence, clinical prevalence and susceptibility characteristics to different antifungal compounds. The aim of this study was to investigate the in vitro activity of atorvastatin and fluvastatin against C. metapsilosis, C. orthopsilosis and C. parapsilosis. Susceptibility tests showed that C. parapsilosis was the most sensitive while C. orthopsilosis was the least susceptible species to both drugs. On the basis of the differential sensitivity, we developed a simple, reliable and highly cost-effective plate assay to distinguish these closely related species. Applying this method, 54 isolates belonging to the C. parapsilosis sensu lato complex deposited in Szeged Microbial Collection could be sorted into the three species with 100 % probability.

  9. Molecular characterization of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato strains isolated in the area of Belgrade, Serbia Caracterização molecular de cepas de Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato isoladas na região de Belgrado, Sérvia

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    Elizabeta S. Ristanovic

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available This is the first report of the molecular characterization and identification of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato strains isolated in Serbia. Isolates A1, A2 and M1, from Ixodes ricinus, belong to Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto, while isolate K1 from Apodemus flavicollis is a mixture of Borrelia afzelii and B. burgdorferi s.s.Trata-se do primeiro relato de identificação e caracterização molecular de cepas de Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato isoladas na região de Belgrado, Sérvia. As cepas A1, A2 e M1, isoladas de Ixodes ricinus, pertencem à Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto, enquanto a cepa K1, isolada de Apodemus flavocollis é uma mistura de Borrelia afzelii e B. burgdorferi s.s.

  10. Ulex parviflorus sensu lato (Genisteae, Leguminosae en la zona centro de Portugal

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    Cubas, Paloma

    1997-06-01

    Full Text Available A group of gorses growing in Central Portugal has been traditionally identified as Ulex parviflorus Pourret sensu lato. The study of these plants reveáls important differences in morphological characters such as size, ramification, colour and indumentum of shoots, the type, disposition and indumentum of primary and secondary spines, and the dimensions, shape and indumentum of the calyx. Based on these morphological characteristics, as well as chromosome number, ecological requirements and geographic distribution, the plants are now ascribed to the following taxa: U. airensis sp. nov., U. australis subsp. welwitschianus stat. & comb. nov., U. eriocladus C. Vicioso and U. jussiaei WebbEn la zona centro de Portugal crece un conjunto de tojos que han sido tradicionalmente identificados como Ulex parviflorus Pourret sensu lato. Sin embargo, estas plantas presentan diferencias morfológicas en el porte, ramificación, color e indumento de ejes y ramas, en el tipo, disposición e indumento de las espinas primarias y secundarias y en las dimensiones, forma e indumento del cáliz. Estos caracteres morfológicos, el número cromosómico, los requerimientos ecológicos y el área geográfica permiten adscribir estas plantas a los siguientes táxones: U. airensis sp. nov., U. australis subsp. welwitschianus stat. & comb. nov., U. eriocladus C. Vicioso y U. jussiaei Webb.

  11. First isolation and cultivation of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato from Missouri.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver, J H; Kollars, T M; Chandler, F W; James, A M; Masters, E J; Lane, R S; Huey, L O

    1998-01-01

    Five Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato isolates from Missouri are described. This represents the first report and characterization of such isolates from that state. The isolates were obtained from either Ixodes dentatus or Amblyomma americanum ticks that had been feeding on cottontail rabbits (Sylvilagus floridanus) from a farm in Bollinger County, Mo., where a human case of Lyme disease had been reported. All isolates were screened immunologically by indirect immunofluorescence by using monoclonal antibodies to B. burgdorferi-specific outer surface protein A (OspA) (antibodies H3TS and H5332), B. burgdorferi-specific OspB (antibody H6831), Borrelia (genus)-specific antiflagellin (antibody H9724), and Borrelia hermsii-specific antibody (antibody H9826). Analysis of the isolates also involved a comparison of their protein profiles by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Finally, the isolates were analyzed by PCR with six pairs of primers known to amplify selected DNA target sequences specifically found in the reference strain B. burgdorferi B-31. Although some genetic variability was detected among the five isolates as well as between them and the B-31 strain, enough similarities were found to classify them as B. burgdorferi sensu lato.

  12. VARIABLES THAT INFLUENCE STUDENTS’ CHOICE OF DISTANCE EDUCATION LATO SENSU GRADUATE BUSINESS PROGRAMS

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    Eduardo Mendes Nascimento

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Based on Scriven’s User-Focused Evaluation Theory, the general objective in this study was to identify and analyze the degree of importance Brazilian students attribute to the variables that influence them when choosing distance education lato sensu graduate business programs. The research is classified as descriptive and an electronic questionnaire was used to survey the data, involving 354 students from distance education lato sensu graduate business programs distributed across different Brazilian locations. The questionnaire included 16 variables, which the students were expected to score from 0 to 10. The results indicated that 04 variables obtained a mean score superior to 9, and that flexibility was the main factor the respondents considered in the choice of a distance education program. This evidences that the possibility to structure the program according to their available time is fundamental for the students. Nevertheless, having a trained teaching staff (second most influential variable and a curriculum appropriate to their pedagogical needs (fourth are also essential characteristics. Finally, the respondents indicated the cost as the third most important variable. Some authors even consider it decisive in the students’ choice as distance education programs are frequently cheaper than in-class programs. In addition, it was verified that women score the investigated internal variables higher than men. In addition, the location of the support hub appeared as a determinant variable in the choice of the program.

  13. Rodent species as natural reservoirs of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato in different habitats of Ixodes ricinus in The Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gassner, F.; Takken, W.; Plas, C.; Kastelein, P.; Hoetmer, A.J.; Holdinga, M.; Overbeek, van L.S.

    2013-01-01

    Rodents are natural reservoirs for human pathogenic spirochaetes of the Borrelia burgdorferi complex [B. burgdorferi sensu lato (s.l.)], and the pathogens are transmitted by Ixodes ricinus ticks to humans in The Netherlands. B. burgdorferi s.l. infection prevalence in questing ticks, rodents, and ti

  14. Sporothrix schenckii Sensu Lato identification in fragments of skin lesion cultured in NNN medium for differential diagnosis of cutaneous leishmaniasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonio, Liliane de Fátima; Pimentel, Maria Inês Fernandes; Lyra, Marcelo Rosandiski; Madeira, Maria de Fátima; Miranda, Luciana de Freitas Campos; Paes, Rodrigo Almeida; Brito-Santos, Fábio; Carvalho, Maria Helena Galdino Figueredo; Schubach, Armando de Oliveira

    2017-02-01

    Eighty-nine patients with clinical suspicion of leishmaniasis were referred for differential diagnosis. Sporothrix schenckii sensu lato was isolated in Novy-MacNeal-Nicolle + Schneider media in 98% of 64 patients with final diagnosis of sporotrichosis. This medium may be suitable for diagnosis of sporotrichosis in areas where cutaneous leishmaniasis is also endemic.

  15. Genetic diversity of Phytophthora infestans sensu lato in Ecuador provides new insight into the origin of this important plant pathogen

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Adler, N.E.; Erselius, L.J.; Chacón, G.M.; Flier, W.G.; Ordonez, M.E.; Kroon, L.P.N.M.; Forbes, G.A.

    2004-01-01

    The metapopulation structure of Phytophthora infestans sensu lato is genetically diverse in the highlands of Ecuador. Previous reports documented the diversity associated with four putative clonal lineages of the pathogen collected from various hosts in the genus Solanum. This paper simultaneously a

  16. Coleopteran and Lepidopteran Hosts of the Entomopathogenic Genus Cordyceps sensu lato

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    Bhushan Shrestha

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Entomophthoralean and ascomycetous fungi are the two major groups known to parasitize arthropods in almost every terrestrial habitat of the earth. Within Ascomycota, Cordyceps sensu lato is a large genus with more than 400 spp. described on numerous orders of Arthropoda. Among the hosts of Cordyceps, Coleoptera and Lepidoptera are the two major orders. Out of the estimated 200 Cordyceps spp. recorded on coleopteran and lepidopteran hosts, we have documented 92 spp. based on the available information of their host species. Among coleopteran hosts, Scarabaeidae and Elateridae are the two major families. Similarly, among lepidopterans, Hepialidae is the largest host family. Cordyceps militaris shows the widest host range, extending to 2 orders, 13 families, and 32 spp. We hope such accumulative work will be useful as a quick reference for interested biologists, forest ecologists, biocontrol researchers, and fungal and insect taxonomists to apprehend host range and host specificities of Cordyceps fungi.

  17. A taxonomic revision of the Neoserica (sensu lato calva group (Coleoptera, Scarabaeidae, Sericini

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    Wangang Liu

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The species of the Neoserica (sensu lato calva group are revised. Neoserica calva Frey, 1972, comb. n. is redescribed. Thirteen new species are described from China and South Korea: Neoserica ailaoshanica sp. n., N. anonyma sp. n., N. calvoides sp. n., N. gulinqingensis sp. n., N. koelkebecki sp. n., N. liangi sp. n., N. luxiensis sp. n., N. menghaiensis sp. n., N. mengi sp. n., N. taipingensis sp. n., N. zheijangensis sp. n., N. zhibenshanica sp. n., and N. zongyuani sp. n. A key to Sericini genera with multilamellate antenna and species groups of Neoserica of mainland Asia as well as a key to species of the N. calva group are provided. A map of species distribution is given, habitus and male genitalia are illustrated.

  18. Candida parapsilosis (sensu lato) isolated from hospitals located in the Southeast of Brazil: Species distribution, antifungal susceptibility and virulence attributes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziccardi, Mariangela; Souza, Lucieri O P; Gandra, Rafael M; Galdino, Anna Clara M; Baptista, Andréa R S; Nunes, Ana Paula F; Ribeiro, Mariceli A; Branquinha, Marta H; Santos, André L S

    2015-12-01

    Candida parapsilosis (sensu lato), which represents a fungal complex composed of three genetically related species - Candida parapsilosis sensu stricto, Candida orthopsilosis and Candida metapsilosis, has emerged as an important yeast causing fungemia worldwide. The goal of the present work was to assess the prevalence, antifungal susceptibility and production of virulence traits in 53 clinical isolates previously identified as C. parapsilosis (sensu lato) obtained from hospitals located in the Southeast of Brazil. Species forming this fungal complex are physiologically/morphologically indistinguishable; however, polymerase chain reaction followed by restriction fragment length polymorphism of FKS1 gene has solved the identification inaccuracy, revealing that 43 (81.1%) isolates were identified as C. parapsilosis sensu stricto and 10 (18.9%) as C. orthopsilosis. No C. metapsilosis was found. The geographic distribution of these Candida species was uniform among the studied Brazilian States (São Paulo, Rio de Janeiro and Espírito Santo). All C. orthopsilosis and almost all C. parapsilosis sensu stricto (95.3%) isolates were susceptible to amphotericin B, fluconazole, itraconazole, voriconazole and caspofungin. Nevertheless, one C. parapsilosis sensu stricto isolate was resistant to fluconazole and another one was resistant to caspofungin. C. parapsilosis sensu stricto isolates exhibited higher MIC mean values to amphotericin B, fluconazole and caspofungin than those of C. orthopsilosis, while C. orthopsilosis isolates displayed higher MIC mean to itraconazole compared to C. parapsilosis sensu stricto. Identical MIC mean values to voriconazole were measured for these Candida species. All the isolates of both species were able to form biofilm on polystyrene surface. Impressively, biofilm-growing cells of C. parapsilosis sensu stricto and C. orthopsilosis exhibited a considerable resistance to all antifungal agents tested. Pseudohyphae were observed in 67.4% and 80

  19. Occurrence of Bartonella henselae and Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato co-infections in ticks collected from humans in Germany.

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    Mietze, A; Strube, C; Beyerbach, M; Schnieder, T; Goethe, R

    2011-06-01

    Bartonella (B.) henselae is the zoonotic agent of cat scratch disease. B. henselae has been associated with therapy-resistant Lyme disease in humans suggesting that B. henselae and Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato might be transmitted concurrently by ticks. In the present study we found that 16 (6.9%) of 230 Ixodes ricinus collected from humans harboured DNA of Bartonella spp. Fifteen positive ticks were infected with B. henselae and one tick with B. clarridgeiae. Twenty-five percent of the 16 Bartonella positive ticks were co-infected with Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato. Our data show that B. henselae is present in Ixodes ricinus and that ticks may serve as source of infection for humans.

  20. Comparative Genomics of Listeria Sensu Lato: Genus-Wide Differences in Evolutionary Dynamics and the Progressive Gain of Complex, Potentially Pathogenicity-Related Traits through Lateral Gene Transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiara, Matteo; Caruso, Marta; D'Erchia, Anna Maria; Manzari, Caterina; Fraccalvieri, Rosa; Goffredo, Elisa; Latorre, Laura; Miccolupo, Angela; Padalino, Iolanda; Santagada, Gianfranco; Chiocco, Doriano; Pesole, Graziano; Horner, David S; Parisi, Antonio

    2015-07-15

    Historically, genome-wide and molecular characterization of the genus Listeria has concentrated on the important human pathogen Listeria monocytogenes and a small number of closely related species, together termed Listeria sensu strictu. More recently, a number of genome sequences for more basal, and nonpathogenic, members of the Listeria genus have become available, facilitating a wider perspective on the evolution of pathogenicity and genome level evolutionary dynamics within the entire genus (termed Listeria sensu lato). Here, we have sequenced the genomes of additional Listeria fleischmannii and Listeria newyorkensis isolates and explored the dynamics of genome evolution in Listeria sensu lato. Our analyses suggest that acquisition of genetic material through gene duplication and divergence as well as through lateral gene transfer (mostly from outside Listeria) is widespread throughout the genus. Novel genetic material is apparently subject to rapid turnover. Multiple lines of evidence point to significant differences in evolutionary dynamics between the most basal Listeria subclade and all other congeners, including both sensu strictu and other sensu lato isolates. Strikingly, these differences are likely attributable to stochastic, population-level processes and contribute to observed variation in genome size across the genus. Notably, our analyses indicate that the common ancestor of Listeria sensu lato lacked flagella, which were acquired by lateral gene transfer by a common ancestor of Listeria grayi and Listeria sensu strictu, whereas a recently functionally characterized pathogenicity island, responsible for the capacity to produce cobalamin and utilize ethanolamine/propane-2-diol, was acquired in an ancestor of Listeria sensu strictu.

  1. The optimum cut-off value to differentiate Echinococcus granulosus sensu stricto from other species of E. granulosus sensu lato using larval rostellar hook morphometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soriano, S V; Pierangeli, N B; Pianciola, L A; Mazzeo, M; Lazzarini, L E; Debiaggi, M F; Bergagna, H F J; Basualdo, J A

    2015-01-01

    Cystic echinococcosis caused by Echinococcus granulosus sensu lato is one of the most important helminth zoonoses in the world; it affects both humans and livestock. The disease is endemic in Argentina and highly endemic in the province of Neuquén. Considerable genetic and phenotypic variation has been demonstrated in E. granulosus, and ten different genotypes (G1-G10) have been identified using molecular tools. Echinococcus granulosus sensu lato may be considered a species complex, comprised of E. granulosus sensu stricto (G1-G3), E. equinus (G4), E. ortleppi (G5) and E. canadensis (G6-G10). In endemic areas, the characterization of cystic echinococcosis molecular epidemiology is important in order to apply adequate control strategies. A cut-off value for larval large hook total length to distinguish E. granulosus sensu stricto isolates from those produced by other species of the complex was defined for the first time. Overall, 1780 larval hooks of 36 isolates obtained from sheep (n= 11, G1), goats (n= 10, G6), cattle (n= 5, G6) and pigs (n= 10, G7) were analysed. Validation against molecular genotyping as gold standard was carried out using the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis. The optimum cut-off value was defined as 26.5 μm. The proposed method showed high sensitivity (97.8%) and specificity (91.1%). Since in most endemic regions the molecular epidemiology of echinococcosis includes the coexistence of the widely distributed E. granulosus sensu stricto G1 strain and other species of the complex, this technique could be useful as a quick and economical tool for epidemiological and surveillance field studies, when fertile cysts are present.

  2. Echinococcus granulosus sensu lato genotypes infecting humans--review of current knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez Rojas, Cristian A; Romig, Thomas; Lightowlers, Marshall W

    2014-01-01

    Genetic variability in the species group Echinococcus granulosus sensu lato is well recognised as affecting intermediate host susceptibility and other biological features of the parasites. Molecular methods have allowed discrimination of different genotypes (G1-10 and the 'lion strain'), some of which are now considered separate species. An accumulation of genotypic analyses undertaken on parasite isolates from human cases of cystic echinococcosis provides the basis upon which an assessment is made here of the relative contribution of the different genotypes to human disease. The allocation of samples to G-numbers becomes increasingly difficult, because much more variability than previously recognised exists in the genotypic clusters G1-3 (=E. granulosus sensu stricto) and G6-10 (Echinococcus canadensis). To accommodate the heterogeneous criteria used for genotyping in the literature, we restrict ourselves to differentiate between E. granulosus sensu stricto (G1-3), Echinococcus equinus (G4), Echinococcus ortleppi (G5) and E. canadensis (G6-7, G8, G10). The genotype G1 is responsible for the great majority of human cystic echinococcosis worldwide (88.44%), has the most cosmopolitan distribution and is often associated with transmission via sheep as intermediate hosts. The closely related genotypes G6 and G7 cause a significant number of human infections (11.07%). The genotype G6 was found to be responsible for 7.34% of infections worldwide. This strain is known from Africa and Asia, where it is transmitted mainly by camels (and goats), and South America, where it appears to be mainly transmitted by goats. The G7 genotype has been responsible for 3.73% of human cases of cystic echinococcosis in eastern European countries, where the parasite is transmitted by pigs. Some of the samples (11) could not be identified with a single specific genotype belonging to E. canadensis (G6/10). Rare cases of human cystic echinococcosis have been identified as having been caused by

  3. Structures of xyloglucans in primary cell walls of gymnosperms, monilophytes (ferns sensu lato) and lycophytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Yves S Y; Harris, Philip J

    2012-07-01

    Little is known about the structures of the xyloglucans in the primary cell walls of vascular plants (tracheophytes) other than angiosperms. Xyloglucan structures were examined in 13 species of gymnosperms, 13 species of monilophytes (ferns sensu lato), and two species of lycophytes. Wall preparations were obtained, extracted with 6 M sodium hydroxide, and the extracts treated with a xyloglucan-specific endo-(1→4)-β-glucanase preparation. The oligosaccharides released were analysed by matrix-assisted laser-desorption ionisation time-of-flight mass spectrometry and by high-performance anion-exchange chromatography. The xyloglucan oligosaccharide profiles from the gymnosperm walls were similar to those from the walls of most eudicotyledons and non-commelinid monocotyledons, indicating that the xyloglucans were fucogalactoxyloglucans, containing the fucosylated units XXFG and XLFG. The xyloglucan oligosaccharide profiles for six of the monilophyte species were similar to those of the gymnosperms, indicating they were also fucogalactoxyloglucans. Phylogenetically, these monilophyte species were from both basal and more derived orders. However, the profiles for the other monilophyte species showed various significant differences, including additional oligosaccharides. In three of the species, these additional oligosaccharides contained arabinosyl residues which were most abundant in the profile of Equisetum hyemale. The two species of lycophytes examined, Selaginella kraussiana and Lycopodium cernuum, had quite different xyloglucan oligosaccharide profiles, but neither were fucogalactoxyloglucans. The S. kraussiana profile had abundant oligosaccharides containing arabinosyl residues. The L. cernuum profile indicated the xyloglucan had a very complex structure.

  4. Update of phylogenetic and genetic diversity of Sporothrix schenckii sensu lato.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rangel-Gamboa, Lucía; Martínez-Hernandez, Fernando; Maravilla, Pablo; Arenas-Guzmán, Roberto; Flisser, Ana

    2016-03-01

    Sporothrix schenckii sensu lato causes subcutaneous mycosis. In this article we analysed its phylogeny and genetic diversity using calmodulin DNA sequences deposited in GenBank database. Population genetics indices were calculated, plus phylogenetic and haplotype network trees were built. Five clades with high values of posterior probability, 47 haplotypes and high diversity in the complex were found. Analysis of partial calmodulin sequences alignment revealed conserved and polymorphic regions that could be used as reference for taxonomic identification. The use of population genetics analysis allowed understanding the phylogenetic proximity of S. schenckii s. str. and S. brasiliensis; scarce genetic flow among them with low migration index and high ancestry coefficient was found. Similarly, S. globosa, S. mexicana and S. pallida sequences showed highly differentiated species with no genetic exchange. The phylogenetic tree suggests that S. mexicana shared a common ancestor with S. pallida; while S. globosa and S. brasiliensis are more related to S. schenckii s. str. and showed less haplotype diversity and restrictions in geographic distribution. In the haplotype network tree S. schenckii s. str. species displayed worldwide distribution without dispersion centres; while S. brasiliensis and S. globosa, exhibited Brazil and Euro-Asia as dispersion centres, respectively. Our data suggest that S. schenckii complex has been submitted to a divergent evolution process, probably due to the pressure of the environment and of the host. In contrast, S. brasiliensis could have been submitted to purifying selection or expansion process.

  5. The order Corallinales sensu lato (Rhodophyta in the Iberian Atlantic: current state of knowledge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Lugilde

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available A review of the order Corallinales sensu lato in the Atlantic Iberian Peninsula is presented with the aim of assessing its current state of knowledge in comparison with adjacent areas (British Isles-Atlantic France, Macaronesia and Iberian Mediterranean. According to the information compiled from more than 250 publications, herbarium data and manuscripts, we concluded that Atlantic Iberian coralline algae have been poorly studied, which resulted in only 49 species reported. By contrast, Macaronesia is the most species-rich region (91, followed by Spanish Mediterranean (67 and the British Isles-Atlantic France (61. In the Atlantic Iberian Peninsula, 17 species occurred commonly (present in more than 50% of the coastline, particularly those corresponding to the genera Amphiroa, Jania, Lithophyllum, Mesophyllum, and Phymatolithon. Instead, the genera Harveylithon, Hydrolithon, Leptophytum, Lithothamnion, Neogoniolithon and Pneophyllum have been occasionally reported. In the Atlantic Iberian Peninsula and adjacent regions, the epilithic growth-form was dominant, followed by the epiphytic, epizoic and the unattached (maerl/rodoliths; besides, sciaphilous taxa were more abundant than photophilous species. The low intertidal and shallow subtidal harbour a high diversity of coralline algae, as well as semi-exposed coasts or areas affected by currents. The present study confirms that studies on the Atlantic Iberian coralline algae are scarce, and that further research on this group is required.

  6. Assessment of the efficacy of orally administered afoxolaner against Rhipicephalus sanguineus sensu lato.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunkle, Bruce; Daly, Sean; Dumont, Pascal; Drag, Marlene; Larsen, Diane

    2014-04-02

    Two studies were conducted to confirm that a single oral dose of the novel insecticide/acaricide afoxolaner is efficacious against existing infestations of Rhipicephalus sanguineus sensu lato in dogs and can control re-infestation for up to 35 days. Each study utilized 16 purpose bred adult dogs using a controlled randomized block design. One or two days prior to treatment, all dogs were infested with 50 unfed adult ticks. On Day 0 one group was treated with an oral chewable formulation of afoxolaner at a dose as close as possible to the minimum dose of 2.5mg/kg. Weekly re-infestations with 50 adult unfed ticks were repeated for five weeks. Forty-eight hours after treatment and after each re-infestation, the number of remaining live ticks on each dog was counted. Treatment with afoxolaner resulted in efficacies of 98.8-100% within 48 h on existing tick infestations, while the efficacy against new tick infestations was >95.7% over five weeks.

  7. Real-time PCR-based identification of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato species in ticks collected from humans in Romania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briciu, Violeta T; Meyer, Fabian; Sebah, Daniela; Tăţulescu, Doina F; Coroiu, Georgiana; Lupşe, Mihaela; Carstina, Dumitru; Mihalca, Andrei D; Hizo-Teufel, Cecilia; Klier, Christiane; Huber, Ingrid; Fingerle, Volker

    2014-09-01

    The aims of our study were to determine (i) which tick species bite humans in Romania and (ii) the prevalence of Borrelia (B.) burgdorferi genospecies in these ticks. All ticks collected from patients who presented to the Clinic of Infectious Diseases Cluj Napoca in spring/summer 2010 were morphologically identified by an entomologist and tested for B. burgdorferi genospecies prevalence by a real-time PCR assay targeting the hbb gene and melting curve analysis. Out of 532 ticks, 518 were Ixodes ricinus, 10 Dermacentor marginatus, and 3 Haemaphysalis spp. ticks, and one unidentified tick due to destruction. Since evaluation of the hbb PCR revealed that it was not possible to differentiate between B. spielmanii/B. valaisiana and B. garinii/B. bavariensis, sequencing of an 800-bp fragment of the ospA gene was performed in these cases. Out of 389 investigated ticks, 43 were positive by hbb PCR for B. burgdorferi sensu lato. The positive samples were 42 Ixodes ricinus (11.1% B. burgdorferi sensu lato prevalence) and the one unidentified tick. Species identification revealed the presence of mainly B. afzelii, but also of B. garinii, B. burgdorferi sensu stricto, B. valaisiana, and B. lusitaniae. In 4 samples, differentiation between B. spielmanii/B. valaisiana was impossible. Our study shows that the most relevant human pathogenic B. burgdorferi genospecies - predominantly B. afzelii - are present in ticks collected from Romanian patients.

  8. Clinical characteristics associated with Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato skin culture results in patients with erythema migrans.

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    Franc Strle

    Full Text Available Clinical characteristics associated with isolation of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato from skin have not been fully evaluated. To gain insight into predictors for a positive EM skin culture, we compared basic demographic, epidemiologic, and clinical data in 608 culture-proven and 501 culture-negative adult patients with solitary EM. A positive Borrelia spp. skin culture was associated with older age, a time interval of >2 days between tick bite and onset of the skin lesion, EM ≥ 5 cm in diameter, and location of the lesion on the extremities, whereas several other characteristics used as clinical case definition criteria for the diagnosis of EM (such as tick bite at the site of later EM, information on expansion of the skin lesion, central clearing were not. A patient with a 15-cm EM lesion had almost 3-fold greater odds for a positive skin culture than patients with a 5-cm lesion. Patients with a free time interval between the tick bite and onset of EM had the same probability of a positive skin culture as those who did not recall a tick bite (OR=1.02; however, the two groups had >3-fold greater odds for EM positivity than patients who reported a tick bite with no interval between the bite and onset of the lesion. In conclusion, several yet not all clinical characteristics used in EM case definitions were associated with positive Borrelia spp. skin culture. The findings are limited to European patients with solitary EM caused predominantly by B. afzelii but may not be valid for other situations.

  9. Retreat and extinction of the Late Pleistocene cave bear ( Ursus spelaeus sensu lato)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baca, Mateusz; Popović, Danijela; Stefaniak, Krzysztof; Marciszak, Adrian; Urbanowski, Mikołaj; Nadachowski, Adam; Mackiewicz, Paweł

    2016-12-01

    The cave bear ( Ursus spelaeus sensu lato) is a typical representative of Pleistocene megafauna which became extinct at the end of the Last Glacial. Detailed knowledge of cave bear extinction could explain this spectacular ecological transformation. The paper provides a report on the youngest remains of the cave bear dated to 20,930 ± 140 14C years before present (BP). Ancient DNA analyses proved its affiliation to the Ursus ingressus haplotype. Using this record and 205 other dates, we determined, following eight approaches, the extinction time of this mammal at 26,100-24,300 cal. years BP. The time is only slightly earlier, i.e. 27,000-26,100 cal. years BP, when young dates without associated collagen data are excluded. The demise of cave bear falls within the coldest phase of the last glacial period, Greenland Stadial 3. This finding and the significant decrease in the cave bear records with cooling indicate that the drastic climatic changes were responsible for its extinction. Climate deterioration lowered vegetation productivity, on which the cave bear strongly depended as a strict herbivore. The distribution of the last cave bear records in Europe suggests that this animal was vanishing by fragmentation into subpopulations occupying small habitats. One of them was the Kraków-Częstochowa Upland in Poland, where we discovered the latest record of the cave bear and also two other, younger than 25,000 14C years BP. The relatively long survival of this bear in karst regions may result from suitable microclimate and continuous access to water provided by deep aquifers, indicating a refugial role of such regions in the Pleistocene for many species.

  10. Seroprevalence against Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato and occurence of antibody co-expression with Anaplasma phagocytophilum in dogs in Latvia

    OpenAIRE

    Berzina, Inese; Matise, Ilze

    2013-01-01

    Background Lyme disease is commonly diagnosed in humans in Latvia, but up to date no studies have been performed to investigate its prevalence in dogs. The aim of this study was to evaluate if seroprevalence against B. burgdorferi sensu lato (B. burgdorferi s.l.) and co-expression of antibodies against B.burgdorferi s.l. and A. phagocytophilum is higher in dogs with clinical suspicion of tick-borne diseases compared to healthy dogs. Findings Venous blood was taken from healthy dogs (n=441) an...

  11. Synopsis of Boraginaceae sensu lato in the Caatingas of the São Francisco River, Northeastern Brazil

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    Miranda de Melo, José Iranildo

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This work presents a commented synopsis of Boraginaceae sensu lato in the basin of the lower-middle and lower stretches of the São Francisco River in Northeast Brazil (states of Pernambuco and Bahia. Five genera and 21 species were recorded: Euploca, with six species; Cordia, with five; Varronia, with four; and Heliotropium and Myriopus, represented by three species each. A new combination in the genus Myriopus is here proposed. Keys for the separation of genera and species as well as distributional and geographical data are provided.Este trabajo presenta una sinopsis comentada de la familia Boraginaceae sensu lato en la cuenca media y baja del río São Francisco, nordeste del Brasil (estados de Pernambuco y Bahía. Se reconocen cinco géneros y 21 especies: Euploca, con seis especies; Cordia, con cinco; Varronia, con cuatro y Heliotropium y Myriopus, representados por tres especies cada. Se propone una combinación nueva en el género Myriopus. Así mismo, se aportan claves para la separación de los géneros y especies y datos sobre la distribución geográfica y la ecología de las especies.

  12. Brown dog tick, Rhipicephalus sanguineus sensu lato, infestation ofsusceptible dog hosts is reduced by slow release of semiochemicalsfrom a less susceptible host

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domestic dog breeds are hosts for the tick Rhipicephalus sanguineus sensu lato, but infestation levels vary among breeds. Beagles are less susceptible to tick infestations than English cocker spaniels due to enhanced production of 2-hexanone and benzaldehyde that act as tick repellents. We report th...

  13. First molecular evidence of the simultaneous human infection with two species of Echinococcus granulosus sensu lato: Echinococcus granulosus sensu stricto and Echinococcus canadensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oudni-M'rad, Myriam; M'rad, Selim; Ksia, Amine; Lamiri, Rachida; Mekki, Mongi; Nouri, Abdellatif; Mezhoud, Habib; Babba, Hamouda

    2016-03-01

    Cystic echinococcosis is a widespread zoonotic parasitic disease especially in Tunisia which is one of the most endemic countries in the Mediterranean area. The etiological agent, Echinococcus granulosus sensu lato, implies dogs and other canids as definitive hosts and different herbivore species as intermediate hosts. Human contamination occurs during the consumption of parasite eggs passed in the environment through canid feces. Hydatid cysts coming from a child operated for multiple echinococcosis were collected and analyzed in order to genotype and to obtain some epidemiological molecular information. Three targets, ribosomal DNA ITS1 fragment, NADH dehydrogenase subunit 1 (nad1), and mitochondrial cytochrome c oxydase subunit 1 (CO1) genes, were amplified and analyzed by RFLP and sequencing approach. This study presents the first worldwide report in human of a simultaneous infection with Echinococcus granulosus sensu stricto (genotype G1) and Echinococcus canadensis (genotype G6) species. This is also the first report of the presence of E. canadensis in the Tunisian population which argues in favor of a greater importance of this species in human infestation in Tunisia than previously believed.

  14. Prevalence of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato in Ixodes ricinus ticks and assessment of entomological risk index at localities in Belgrade

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    Krstić Milena

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. The first case of human Lyme borreliosis (LB in Serbia was recorded in 1987. The number of reported LB cases has increased in the past decade. The aim of this study was to estimate the density of Ixodes ricinus (I. ricinus ticks, the prevalence of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato (B. burgdorferi in them, and entomological risk index (ERI at 19 Belgrade localities which were grouped into three categories (forests, parkforests, parks. The values of ERI were compared with the number of tick bites in humans. Methods. Ticks were collected monthly by using the flag hours method and the infection rate was determined by using dark field microscopy. The ERI value was calculated for each locality where the ticks were collected. The related data about tick bites was obtained from the patient protocol of the Institute of Epidemiology, Military Medical Academy, Belgrade. Results. The total number of collected ticks, the number of nymphs and the infection rates of the nymphs were significantly higher in forests (p < 0.05 than park-forests and parks. Statistically, the ERI value was significantly higher in forests than parks of Belgrade (χ2 = 7.78, p < 0.01. In March and July, the ERI value was also significantly higher in forests, than park-forests (p < 0.01 and parks (p < 0.01. May was the month with the highest ERI value in each ecological category (forests p < 0.05; park-forests p < 0.01; parks p < 0.001. However, the number of tick bites in humans did not correlate with ERI values. Conclusion. The obtained results indicate that the risk of tick bite and human exposure to B. burgdorferi sensu lato is present at all selected localities in Belgrade. For a more comprehensive Lyme disease risk assessment the method of entomological risk index assessment should be combined with other methods, taking into consideration all tick stages and the behaviour and habits of people who may get infected B. burgdorferi sensu lato.

  15. Karyomorphology of six taxa in Chrysanthemum sensu lato (Anthemideae) in Egypt and their genetic relationships by Giemsa C-banding

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Magdy Hussein ABD EL-TWAB; Ahmad Mohammad M. MEKAWY; Mohammad Saad EL-KATATNY

    2012-01-01

    Giemsa C-banding was applied to the chromosome complements of six diploid species belonging to six genera in Chrysanthemum sensu lato (Anthemideae) distributed in Egypt.Four types of C-banding distribution were observed in the taxa as follows:(i) negative C-banding in Anacyclus monanthos (L.) Thell.; (ii) all bands in terminal regions in Achilleafragrantissima (Forssk.) Sch.Bip,which showed 32 bands on 18 chromosomes; (iii)all eight bands at centromeric regions on eight chromosomes in Matricaria recutita L.; and (iv) bands at terminal and centromeric regions in Brocchia cinerea Vis.(12 terminal and six centromeric bands on 12 chromosomes),Cotula barbata DC.(four terminal,six centromeric,and eight short arm bands on 16 chromosomes),and Glebionis coronaria (L.) Cass.ex Spach.(eight terminal on the short arms and four large bands in centromeric regions on 12chromosomes).

  16. Presence of host-seeking Ixodes ricinus and their infection with Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato in the Northern Apennines, Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ragagli, Charlotte; Mannelli, Alessandro; Ambrogi, Cecilia; Bisanzio, Donal; Ceballos, Leonardo A; Grego, Elena; Martello, Elisa; Selmi, Marco; Tomassone, Laura

    2016-06-01

    Host-seeking ticks were collected in the Northern Apennines, Italy, by dragging at 35 sites, at altitudes ranging from 680 and 1670 m above sea level (asl), from April to November, in 2010 and 2011. Ixodes ricinus (4431 larvae, 597 nymphs and 12 adults) and Haemaphysalis punctata (11,209 larvae, 313 nymphs, and 25 adults) were the most abundant species, followed by Haemaphysalis sulcata (20 larvae, five nymphs, and 13 adults), Dermacentor marginatus (42 larvae and two adults) and Ixodes hexagonus (one nymph). Greatest numbers of ticks were collected at locations characterised by southern exposure and limestone substratum, at altitudes <1400 m asl; I. ricinus was most abundant in Turkey oak (Quercus cerris) wood, whereas H. punctata was mostly collected in hop hornbeam (Ostrya carpinifolia) wood and on exposed rocks. Ixodes ricinus was also found up to 1670 m asl, in high stand beech (Fagus sylvatica) wood. The overall prevalence of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato (sl) in 294 host-seeking I. ricinus nymphs was 8.5 %. Borrelia garinii was the most frequently identified genospecies (64.0 % of positive nymphs), followed by B. valaisiana, B. burgdorferi sensu stricto, B. afzelii, and B. lusitaniae. Based upon the comparison with the results of previous studies at the same location, these research findings suggest the recent invasion of the study area by the tick vector and the agents of Lyme borreliosis.

  17. Pteridologische aantekeningen, 3, De eikvaren (Polypodium vulgare L. sensu lato) in Nederland

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meinders-Groeneveld, J.; Segal, S.

    1967-01-01

    Pteridological Notes, 3 The genus Polypodium in the Netherlands Both Polypodium vulgare L. (sensu stricto) and P. interjectum Shivas occur in the Netherlands. Most of the differential characters reported in the literature overlap one another rather broadly, so that it is often necessary to use a ’sy

  18. Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato in humans in a rural area of Paraná State, Brazil

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    Daniela Dib Gonçalves

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This study describes the detection of Borrelia garinii and Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto (s.s. in Brazilian individuals using PCR and DNA sequencing. Our results suggest that these species are emerging pathogens in this country, and additional studies are necessary to determine the epidemiological characteristics of this disease in Brazil.

  19. A comparative laboratory trial evaluating the immediate efficacy of fluralaner, afoxolaner, sarolaner and imidacloprid + permethrin against adult Rhipicephalus sanguineus (sensu lato) ticks attached to dogs

    OpenAIRE

    Burgio, Federica; Meyer, Leon; Armstrong, Rob

    2016-01-01

    Background Acaricides are used to treat and prevent tick infestations, and a common clinical scenario is to administer an acaricide on observing an attached tick. Consequently, immediate acaricidal efficacy (onset of activity and speed of kill) results are clinically valuable. This study evaluated the immediate efficacy of four commercially available acaricides against adult Rhipicephalus sanguineus (sensu lato). Methods Forty dogs were blocked on hair length and tick carrying capacity, then ...

  20. Révision systématique des Hipparion sensu lato (Perissodactyla, Equidae de l'Ancien Monde

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    Zouhri, S.

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available La systématique des Hipparion sensu lato de l’Ancien Monde se caractérise par un foisonnement anormal des espèces rapportées à ce groupe et par une vive controverse sur le statut supraspécifique de celles-ci d’où une confusion générale de la phylogénie de ce groupe et bien évidemment des interprétations biochronologiques et biogéographiques qui en découlent. L’analyse critique de la systématique de chacune de ces nombreuses espèces d’Hipparion [s. l.] a permis une discussion et une réévaluation de la validité de ces dernières et la suggestion de synonymies et de regroupements de certaines espèces et l’élaboration d’une nouvelle classification supraspécifique de ce groupe. Quatre genres ont été alors redéfinis : Hippotherium, Hipparion, Cremohipparion et Proboscidipparion. Ce dernier taxon est subdivisé en trois sous-genres : Proboscidipparion, Plesiohipparion et Eurygnathohippus.La sistemática de Hipparion sensu lato del Antiguo Mundo se caracteriza por una multiplicación excesiva de especies relacionadas con este grupo y una marcada controversia sobre el status supraespecífico que trae consigo una confusión general de su filogenia, así como de las interpretaciones biocronológicas y biogeográficas que se deducen. El análisis crítico de la sistemática de cada una de las numerosas especies de Hipparion [s. l.] del Antiguo Mundo ha permitido una discusión y una reevaluación de la validez de las mismas, así como una nueva clasificación supraespecífica de este grupo. Cuatro géneros han sido redefinidos: Hippotherium, Hipparion, Cremohipparion y Proboscidipparion. Este último taxon ha sido subdividido en tres subgéneros: Proboscidipparion, Plesiohipparion y Eurygnathohippus. La validez, las sinonimias y los reagrupamientos de las especies relacionadas con cada uno de estos taxones han sido discutidos y analizados en detalle.

  1. Synthesis of Th17 cytokines in the culture of peripheral blood mononuclear cells stimulated with Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato

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    Sambor Grygorczuk

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available [b]Introduction and objective. [/b]Th17 lymphocytes and their cytokines, interleukin 17A (IL-17A, IL-17F and IL-22, participate in the response to extracellular bacteria and in the autoimmunity and may be engaged in the pathogenesis of Lyme borreliosis. Concentrations were measured of IL-17A, IL-17F and IL-22 in the supernatant of the peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC culture stimulated with [i]Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato[/i] ([i]B. burgdorferi[/i]. [b]Materials and method.[/b] The study group consisted of 13 patients with early disseminated and late Lyme borreliosis and a control group of 7 healthy persons. PBMC cultures were stimulated for 48 hours with [i]B. burgdorferi [/i]spirochetes of three pathogenic species: [i]B. burgdorferi[/i] sensu stricto, B. afzelii or B. garinii, in the multiplicity of infection 10:1. Concentrations of Th17 cytokines IL-17A, IL-17F and IL-22, as well as Th2/immunoregulatory cytokine IL-10 were measured with ELISA assays. [b]Results. [/b]Expression of IL-17A, IL-17F and IL-22 increased under stimulation, simultaneously with the increased IL-10 expression. Concentration of IL-17F tended to be lower in early neuroborreliosis than in late Lyme borreliosis and than in controls. [i]B. afzelii[/i] elicited higher expression of IL-17A than the other two species. [b]Conclusions.[/b] IL-17A, IL-17F and IL-22 are synthesized simultaneously by PBMC stimulated with [i]B. burgdorferi[/i]. There is no antagonism between Th17 response and IL-10 expression. The role of Th17 cytokines seems to differ depending on the clinical stage of Lyme borreliosis and on the [i]B. burgdorferi[/i] species.

  2. Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato spirochetes in wild birds in northwestern California: associations with ecological factors, bird behavior and tick infestation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, Erica A; Eisen, Lars; Eisen, Rebecca J; Fedorova, Natalia; Hasty, Jeomhee M; Vaughn, Charles; Lane, Robert S

    2015-01-01

    Although Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato (s.l.) are found in a great diversity of vertebrates, most studies in North America have focused on the role of mammals as spirochete reservoir hosts. We investigated the roles of birds as hosts for subadult Ixodes pacificus ticks and potential reservoirs of the Lyme disease spirochete B. burgdorferi sensu stricto (s.s.) in northwestern California. Overall, 623 birds representing 53 species yielded 284 I. pacificus larvae and nymphs. We used generalized linear models and zero-inflated negative binomial models to determine associations of bird behaviors, taxonomic relationships and infestation by I. pacificus with borrelial infection in the birds. Infection status in birds was best explained by taxonomic order, number of infesting nymphs, sampling year, and log-transformed average body weight. Presence and counts of larvae and nymphs could be predicted by ground- or bark-foraging behavior and contact with dense oak woodland. Molecular analysis yielded the first reported detection of Borrelia bissettii in birds. Moreover, our data suggest that the Golden-crowned Sparrow (Zonotrichia atricapilla), a non-resident species, could be an important reservoir for B. burgdorferi s.s. Of 12 individual birds (9 species) that carried B. burgdorferi s.l.-infected larvae, no birds carried the same genospecies of B. burgdorferi s.l. in their blood as were present in the infected larvae removed from them. Possible reasons for this discrepancy are discussed. Our study is the first to explicitly incorporate both taxonomic relationships and behaviors as predictor variables to identify putative avian reservoirs of B. burgdorferi s.l. Our findings underscore the importance of bird behavior to explain local tick infestation and Borrelia infection in these animals, and suggest the potential for bird-mediated geographic spread of vector ticks and spirochetes in the far-western United States.

  3. Large scale spatial risk and comparative prevalence of Borrelia miyamotoi and Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato in Ixodes pacificus.

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    Kerry Padgett

    Full Text Available Borrelia miyamotoi is a newly described emerging pathogen transmitted to people by Ixodes species ticks and found in temperate regions of North America, Europe, and Asia. There is limited understanding of large scale entomological risk patterns of B. miyamotoi and of Borreila burgdorferi sensu stricto (ss, the agent of Lyme disease, in western North America. In this study, B. miyamotoi, a relapsing fever spirochete, was detected in adult (n=70 and nymphal (n=36 Ixodes pacificus ticks collected from 24 of 48 California counties that were surveyed over a 13 year period. Statewide prevalence of B. burgdorferi sensu lato (sl, which includes B. burgdorferi ss, and B. miyamotoi were similar in adult I. pacificus (0.6% and 0.8%, respectively. In contrast, the prevalence of B. burgdorferi sl was almost 2.5 times higher than B. miyamotoi in nymphal I. pacificus (3.2% versus 1.4%. These results suggest similar risk of exposure to B. burgdorferi sl and B. miyamotoi from adult I. pacificus tick bites in California, but a higher risk of contracting B. burgdorferi sl than B. miyamotoi from nymphal tick bites. While regional risk of exposure to these two spirochetes varies, the highest risk for both species is found in north and central coastal California and the Sierra Nevada foothill region, and the lowest risk is in southern California; nevertheless, tick-bite avoidance measures should be implemented in all regions of California. This is the first study to comprehensively evaluate entomologic risk for B. miyamotoi and B. burgdorferi for both adult and nymphal I. pacificus, an important human biting tick in western North America.

  4. Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato spirochetes in wild birds in northwestern California: associations with ecological factors, bird behavior and tick infestation.

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    Erica A Newman

    Full Text Available Although Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato (s.l. are found in a great diversity of vertebrates, most studies in North America have focused on the role of mammals as spirochete reservoir hosts. We investigated the roles of birds as hosts for subadult Ixodes pacificus ticks and potential reservoirs of the Lyme disease spirochete B. burgdorferi sensu stricto (s.s. in northwestern California. Overall, 623 birds representing 53 species yielded 284 I. pacificus larvae and nymphs. We used generalized linear models and zero-inflated negative binomial models to determine associations of bird behaviors, taxonomic relationships and infestation by I. pacificus with borrelial infection in the birds. Infection status in birds was best explained by taxonomic order, number of infesting nymphs, sampling year, and log-transformed average body weight. Presence and counts of larvae and nymphs could be predicted by ground- or bark-foraging behavior and contact with dense oak woodland. Molecular analysis yielded the first reported detection of Borrelia bissettii in birds. Moreover, our data suggest that the Golden-crowned Sparrow (Zonotrichia atricapilla, a non-resident species, could be an important reservoir for B. burgdorferi s.s. Of 12 individual birds (9 species that carried B. burgdorferi s.l.-infected larvae, no birds carried the same genospecies of B. burgdorferi s.l. in their blood as were present in the infected larvae removed from them. Possible reasons for this discrepancy are discussed. Our study is the first to explicitly incorporate both taxonomic relationships and behaviors as predictor variables to identify putative avian reservoirs of B. burgdorferi s.l. Our findings underscore the importance of bird behavior to explain local tick infestation and Borrelia infection in these animals, and suggest the potential for bird-mediated geographic spread of vector ticks and spirochetes in the far-western United States.

  5. The heterogeneity, distribution and environmental associations of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato, the agent of Lyme borreliosis, in Scotland

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    Marianne eJames

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Lyme borreliosis is an emerging infectious humandisease caused by the Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato complex of bacteria with reported cases increasing in many areas of Europe and North America. To understand the drivers of disease risk and the distribution of symptoms which may improve mitigation and diagnostics, here we characterise the genetics, distribution and environmental associations of B. burgdorferi s.l. genospecies across Scotland. In Scotland reported Lyme borreliosis cases have increased almost 10-fold since 2000 but the distribution of B. burgdorferi s.l. is so far unstudied. Using a large survey of over 2200 Ixodes ricinus tick samples collected from birds, mammals and vegetation across 25 sites we identified four genospecies: B. afzelii (48%, B. garinii (36% B. valaisiana (8% and B. burgdorferi sensu stricto (7%, and one mixed genospecies infection. Surprisingly, 90% of the sequence types were novel and, importantly, up to 14% of samples were mixed intra-genospecies co-infections, suggesting tick co-feeding, feeding on multiple hosts or multiple infections in hosts. B. garinii (hosted by birds was considerably more genetically diverse than B. afzelii (hosted by small mammals, as predicted since there are more species of birds than small mammals and birds can import strains from mainland Europe. Higher proportions of samples contained B. garinii and B. valaisiana in the west, while B. afzelii and B. garinii were significantly more associated with mixed/deciduous than with coniferous woodlands. This may relate to the abundance of transmission hosts in different regions and habitats. These data on the genetic heterogeneity within and between Borrelia genospecies are a first step to understanding pathogen spread and could help explain the distribution of patient symptoms which may aid local diagnosis. Understanding the environmental associations of the pathogens is critical for rational policy making for disease risk mitigation and

  6. Environmental Contamination by Echinococcus granulosus sensu lato Eggs in Relation to Slaughterhouses in Urban and Rural Areas in Tunisia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaâbane-Banaoues, Raja; Oudni-M'rad, Myriam; M'rad, Selim; Mezhoud, Habib; Babba, Hamouda

    2016-02-01

    Hydatidosis has become a real concern for health care institutions and animal rearers in Tunisia. The Tunisian endemicity is aggravated by the growing number of dogs and the difficulty of getting rid of contaminated viscera because of the lack of equipment in most slaughterhouses. Therefore, microscopic and molecular tools were applied to evaluate the role of slaughterhouses in canine infection and Echinococcus granulosus sensu lato (s. l.) egg dissemination. Exposure risk to E. granulosus s. l. eggs in urban and rural areas was explored in order to implant preventive and adapted control strategies. Microscopic examinations detected taeniid eggs in 152 amongst 553 fecal samples. The copro-PCR demonstrated that 138 of 152 taeniid samples analyzed were positive for E. granulosus s. l. DNA. PCR-RFLP demonstrated that all isolated samples belonged to E. granulosus sensu stricto (s. s.). An important environmental contamination index (25.0%) by E. granulosus s. l. eggs was demonstrated. The average contamination index from the regions around slaughterhouses (23.3%; 95% CI: 17.7-28.9%) was in the same range as detected in areas located far from slaughterhouses (26.0%, 95% CI: 21.3-30.8%). Echinococcosis endemic areas were extended in both rural (29.9%, 95% CI: 24.8-34.9%) and urban locations (18.1%, 95% CI: 13.0-22.9%). The pathogen dissemination is related neither to the presence/absence of slaughterhouses nor to the location in urban or rural areas, but is probably influenced by human activities (home slaughtering) and behavior towards the infected viscera.

  7. Quantitative detection of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato in erythema migrans skin lesions using internally controlled duplex real time PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Rourke, Maria; Traweger, Andreas; Lusa, Lara; Stupica, Dasa; Maraspin, Vera; Barrett, P Noel; Strle, Franc; Livey, Ian

    2013-01-01

    B. burgdorferi sensu stricto, B. afzelii, B. garinii and B. bavariensis are the principal species which account for Lyme borreliosis (LB) globally. We have developed an internally controlled duplex quantitative real time PCR assay targeting the Borrelia 16S rRNA and the human RNAseP genes. This assay is well-suited for laboratory confirmation of suspected cases of LB and will be used to assess the efficacy of a vaccine against LB in clinical trials. The assay is highly specific, successfully detecting DNA extracted from 83 diverse B. burgdorferi sensu lato strains representing all major species causing LB, while 21 unrelated microbial species and human genomic DNA tested negative. The assay was highly reproducible and sensitive, with a lower limit of detection of 6 copies per PCR reaction. Together with culture, the assay was used to evaluate paired 3 mm skin biopsy samples taken from 121 patients presenting with solitary erythema migrans (EM) lesion. PCR testing identified more positive biopsy samples than culture (77.7% PCR positive versus 55.1% culture positive) and correctly identified all specimens scored as culture positive. OspA-based typing identified the majority of isolates as B. afzelii (96.8%) and the bacterial load was significantly higher in culture positive biopsies than in culture negative biopsies (Phistory of LB (P = 0.10). This is the first quantitative PCR study of human skin biopsies predominantly infected with B. afzelii and the first study to demonstrate a clear relationship between clinical symptoms in B. afzelii-infected patients and Borrelia burden.

  8. Changing patterns of prevalence in Opisthorchis viverrini sensu lato infection in children and adolescents in northeast Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khuntikeo, Narong; Sithithaworn, Paiboon; Loilom, Watcharin; Namwat, Nisana; Yongvanit, Puangrat; Thinkhamrop, Bandit; Kiatsopit, Nadda; Andrews, Ross H; Petney, Trevor N

    2016-12-01

    Infection with the liver fluke Opisthorchis viverrini sensu lato (s.l.), a group 1 carcinogen, is the most important risk factor for developing cholangiocarcinoma (CCA) in Southeast Asia. Cholangiocarcinoma is a fatal disease with the world's highest incidence being found in northeast Thailand. Liver fluke infection occurs through eating raw or partially cooked cyprinid fish containing metacercariae and, therefore, the control of O. viverrini s.l. infection should lead to a reduction in CCA incidence. In this report, we review and analyze the age-prevalence profile data of O. viverrini to reveal temporal changes in patterns of prevalence pre- and post-control programs in Thailand. The profiles of O. viverrini prevalence have transformed from high prevalence in school children prior to 1983 to low prevalences after 1994. This pattern strongly suggests the influence of the health education program on the likelihood of school children becoming infected. In conjunction with current developments in health and socioeconomic conditions, we predict that the incidence of CCA will be reduced with time as the population cohorts that experienced the education programs reach the age at which CCA is most likely to develop, i.e. >50 years. The lessons learned in Thailand may be applicable to other areas endemic for human liver flukes.

  9. Seasonal transmission of Opisthorchis viverrini sensu lato and a lecithodendriid trematode species in Bithynia siamensis goniomphalos snails in northeast Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Namsanor, Jutamas; Sithithaworn, Paiboon; Kopolrat, Kulthida; Kiatsopit, Nadda; Pitaksakulrat, Opal; Tesana, Smarn; Andrews, Ross H; Petney, Trevor N

    2015-07-01

    Seasonal changes play roles in the transmission success of fish-borne zoonotic trematodes (FZT). This study examined the seasonal transmission patterns of Opisthorchis viverrini sensu lato (s.l.) and a virgulate cercaria (family Lecithodendriidae) in the snail intermediate host, Bithynia siamensis goniomphalos in northeast Thailand. Snail samples were collected monthly during the rainy, cool, and hot seasons during 2012-2013 to determine the prevalence and intensity of larval trematode infections. The prevalence of O. viverrini s.l. varied significantly with season, being 0.31%, 1.05%, and 0.37% in the rainy, cool, and hot seasons, respectively (P < 0.05). Similarly, the prevalence of virgulate cercariae was 3.11%, 6.80%, and 1.64% in the rainy, cool, and hot seasons, respectively (P < 0.05). The intensity of larval trematode infections also varied between seasons and peaked in the hot season (P < 0.05) in both species. The snails infected with O. viverrini s.l. were significantly smaller (P < 0.05) and those infected with virgulate cercariae were significantly larger (P < 0.05) than uninfected snails. Seasonal variation and the different sizes of B. s. goniomphalos parasitized by O. viverrini s.l. and virgulate trematodes indicate complex host-parasite interactions with important implications for the epidemiology of O. viverrini s.l.

  10. The systematics and population genetics of Opisthorchis viverrini sensu lato: implications in parasite epidemiology and bile duct cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sithithaworn, Paiboon; Andrews, Ross H; Petney, Trevor N; Saijuntha, Weerachai; Laoprom, Nonglak

    2012-03-01

    Together with host and environmental factors, the systematics and population genetic variation of Opisthorchis viverrini may contribute to recorded local and regional differences in epidemiology and host morbidity in opisthorchiasis and cholangiocarcinoma (CCA). In this review, we address recent findings that O. viverrini comprises a species complex with varying degrees of population genetic variation which are associated with specific river wetland systems within Thailand as well as the Lao PDR. Having an accurate understanding of systematics is a prerequisite for a meaningful assessment of the population structure of each species within the O. viverrini complex in nature, as well as a better understanding of the magnitude of genetic variation that occurs within different species of hosts in its life cycle. Whether specific genotypes are related to habitat type(s) and/or specific intermediate host species are discussed based on current available data. Most importantly, we focus on whether there is a correlation between incidence of CCA and genotype(s) of O. viverrini. This will provide a solid basis for further comprehensive investigations of the role of genetic variation within each species of O. viverrini sensu lato in human epidemiology and genotype related morbidity as well as co-evolution of parasites with primary and secondary intermediate species of host.

  11. Use of FTA(®) card methodology for sampling and molecular characterization of Echinococcus granulosus sensu lato in Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boué, Franck; El Berbri, Ikhlass; Hormaz, Vanessa; Boucher, Jean-Marc; El Mamy, Ahmed Bezeid; Traore, Abdallah; Fihri, Ouafaa Fassi; Petavy, Anne-Françoise; Dakkak, Allal; Umhang, Gérald

    2017-02-01

    Cystic Echinococcosis is a parasitic disease caused by the cestode Echinococcus granulosus widely distributed in Africa. Monitoring of this parasite requires access to cyst samples on intermediate hosts observed at the slaughterhouse. In order to facilitate sampling in the field and analysis, the French National Reference Laboratory for Echinococcus spp. has developed a tissue derived from DNA sampling with FTA(®) card technology. The DNA samples were taken by applying the FTA(®) paper on the germinal layer after opening the cysts. The sampling technique was validated using frozen cysts (n = 76) stored in the laboratory and from field samples (n = 134) taken at the slaughterhouse by veterinarian technicians during meat inspection in Morocco, Mali and Mauritania. DNA was extracted after several weeks of storage at room temperature. PCR assays were performed using primers for generic cestode (cox1) and amplified fragments were sequenced. All samples taken in the lab and 80% of field samples were capable of molecular characterization. Cyst-derived DNA from FTA(®) samples can be useful for easy sampling, storage and rapid, safe and cheap shipment. The use of the FTA methodology will facilitate studies in the field to investigate the presence and genetic characterization of E. granulosus sensu lato in African countries.

  12. Polysynovitis in a horse due to [i]Borrelia burgdorferi[/i] sensu lato infection – Case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabrizio Passamonti

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Lyme borreliosis (LB is a multi-systemic tick-borne disease affecting both humans and animals, including horses, and is caused by a group of interrelated spirochetes classified within the[i] Borrelia burgdorferi [/i]sensu lato (s.l. complex. Despite the high reported seroprevalence in the European equine population for [i]B. burgdorferi[/i] s.l., to-date no documented clinical cases have been described. A 6-year-old Paint gelding was referred with a history of three weeks of fever, intermittent lameness and digital flexor tendon sheath effusion of the right hind limb. Based on a strict diagnostic protocol, which included serological tests for infectious diseases and molecular investigations, a final diagnosis was made of polysynovitis due to [i]B. burgdorferi [/i]s.l. infection. An unreported aspect observed in this case was the absence of the pathogen DNA in two of the affected joints. To the authors’ knowledge, the case described represents the first documented clinical case of equine LB in Italy. Moreover, the absence of pathogen DNA in two of the affected joints observed in this case revealed a possible similarity with the same condition described in humans, where an immunomediated pathogenesis for arthropathy due to [i]B. burgdorferi[/i] s.l. infection is suspected. Since humans and horses share the same habitat, this report supports the role of the horse as potential sentinel for human biological risk.

  13. First molecular evidence of [i]Borrelia burgdorferi[/i] sensu lato in goats, sheep, cattle and camels in Tunisia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Said, Mourad; Belkahia, Hanène; Alberti, Alberto; Abdi, Khaoula; Zhioua, Manel; Daaloul-Jedidi, Monia; Messadi, Lilia

    2016-09-01

    Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato (s.l.) are tick-transmitted spirochaetes of veterinary and human importance. Molecular epidemiology data on ruminants are still lacking in most countries of the world. Therefore, the aim of this study was to estimate the rate of B. burgdorferi s.l. infection in ruminants from Tunisia. A total of 1,021 ruminants (303 goats, 260 sheep, 232 cattle and 226 camels) from different bioclimatic areas in Tunisia were investigated for the presence of B. burgdorferi s.l. DNA in blood by real time PCR. Prevalence rates were 30.4% (92/303) in goats, 6.2% (16/260) in sheep, 1.3% (3/232) in cattle, and 1.8% (4/226) in camels. Only tick species belonging to Rhipicephalus and Hyalomma genera were found on the investigated animals. In small ruminants, the prevalence of B. burgdorferi s.l. varied significantly according to localities and farms. Goats located in humid areas were statistically more infected than those located in sub-humid areas. Prevalence rates varied significantly according to age and breed in sheep, and age and tick infestation in goats. This study provides the first insight into the presence of B. burgdorferi s.l. DNA in ruminants in Tunisia, and demonstrates that host species such as goats and sheep may play an important role in natural Lyme disease cycles in this country.

  14. Deep molecular divergence and exceptional morphological stasis in dwarf cannibal snails Nata sensu lato Watson, 1934 (Rhytididae) of southern Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moussalli, Adnan; Herbert, David G

    2016-02-01

    The genus Nata Watson, 1934 is a southern African endemic belonging to the Gondwanan family of carnivorous snails, Rhytididae. We present a molecular phylogeny of the genus based on two mitochondrial (16S and COI) and two nuclear genes (ITS2 and 28S RNA), and complement this with an appraisal of morphological characters relating to both the shell and soft parts. We identify four reciprocally monophyletic lineages for which valid names are already available, plus two undescribed species restricted to the Albany Thicket Biome. We show that Nata sensu lato may not be monophyletic. Rather there exist two deep lineages within Nata s.l., one lineage potentially sister to a clade dominated by the Australian and New Zealand radiation, and the other occupying a basal position within Rhytididae. Accordingly we recommend a revision recognising two genera, namely Nata s.s. and Natella respectively. Despite deep molecular divergences within Nata s.s., phenotypic evolution has been remarkably conserved, and contrasts greatly with that exhibited across other major lineages within the Rhytididae.

  15. Molecular characterization of Echinococcus granulosus sensu lato from farm animals in Egypt.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Said Amer

    Full Text Available Little is known on the diversity and public health significance of Echinococcus species in livestock in Egypt. In this study, 37 individual hydatid cysts were collected from dromedary camels (n=28, sheep (n=7 and buffalos (n=2. DNA was extracted from protoscoleces/germinal layer of individual cysts and amplified by PCR targeting nuclear (actin II and mitochondrial (COX1 and NAD1 genes. Direct sequencing of amplicons indicated the presence of Echinococcus canadenesis (G6 genotype in 26 of 28 camel cysts, 3 of 7 sheep cysts and the 2 buffalo derived cysts. In contrast, Echinococcus granulosus sensu stricto (G1 genotype was detected in one cyst from a camel and 4 of 7 cysts from sheep, whereas Echinococcus ortleppi (G5 genotype was detected in one cyst from a camel. This is the first identification of E. ortleppi in Egypt.

  16. Molecular characterization of Echinococcus granulosus sensu lato from farm animals in Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amer, Said; Helal, Ibrahim B; Kamau, Evelyne; Feng, Yaoyu; Xiao, Lihua

    2015-01-01

    Little is known on the diversity and public health significance of Echinococcus species in livestock in Egypt. In this study, 37 individual hydatid cysts were collected from dromedary camels (n=28), sheep (n=7) and buffalos (n=2). DNA was extracted from protoscoleces/germinal layer of individual cysts and amplified by PCR targeting nuclear (actin II) and mitochondrial (COX1 and NAD1) genes. Direct sequencing of amplicons indicated the presence of Echinococcus canadenesis (G6 genotype) in 26 of 28 camel cysts, 3 of 7 sheep cysts and the 2 buffalo derived cysts. In contrast, Echinococcus granulosus sensu stricto (G1 genotype) was detected in one cyst from a camel and 4 of 7 cysts from sheep, whereas Echinococcus ortleppi (G5 genotype) was detected in one cyst from a camel. This is the first identification of E. ortleppi in Egypt.

  17. Echinococcus granulosus sensu lato GENOTYPES IN DOMESTIC LIVESTOCK AND HUMANS IN GOLESTAN PROVINCE, IRAN.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharbatkhori, Mitra; Tanzifi, Asal; Rostami, Sima; Rostami, Masoomeh; Fasihi Harandi, Majid

    2016-01-01

    Cystic echinococcosis (CE) is a globally parasitic zoonosis caused by larval stages of Echinococcus granulosus. This study investigated E. granulosus genotypes isolated from livestock and humans in the Golestan province, northern Iran, southeast of the Caspian sea, using partial sequencing data of the cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (cox1) and NADH dehydrogenase 1 (nad1) mitochondrial genes. Seventy E. granulosus isolates were collected from animals in slaughterhouses: 18 isolates from sheep, 40 from cattle, nine from camels, two from buffaloes and one from a goat, along with four human isolates (formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissues) from CE patients of provincial hospitals. All isolates were successfully analysed by PCR amplification and sequencing. The sequence analysis found four E. granulosus genotypes among the 74 CE isolates: G1 (78.3%), G2 (2.7%), G3 (15%) and G6 (4%). The G1-G3 complex genotype was found in all of the sheep, goat, cattle and buffalo isolates. Among the nine camel isolates, the frequency of G1-G3 and G6 genotypes were 66.7% and 33.3%, respectively. All four human CE isolates belonged to E. granulosus sensu stricto. This study reports the first occurrence of the G2 genotype in cattle from Iran and confirms the previously reported G3 genotype in camels in the same country.

  18. Quantitative detection of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato in erythema migrans skin lesions using internally controlled duplex real time PCR.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria O'Rourke

    Full Text Available B. burgdorferi sensu stricto, B. afzelii, B. garinii and B. bavariensis are the principal species which account for Lyme borreliosis (LB globally. We have developed an internally controlled duplex quantitative real time PCR assay targeting the Borrelia 16S rRNA and the human RNAseP genes. This assay is well-suited for laboratory confirmation of suspected cases of LB and will be used to assess the efficacy of a vaccine against LB in clinical trials. The assay is highly specific, successfully detecting DNA extracted from 83 diverse B. burgdorferi sensu lato strains representing all major species causing LB, while 21 unrelated microbial species and human genomic DNA tested negative. The assay was highly reproducible and sensitive, with a lower limit of detection of 6 copies per PCR reaction. Together with culture, the assay was used to evaluate paired 3 mm skin biopsy samples taken from 121 patients presenting with solitary erythema migrans (EM lesion. PCR testing identified more positive biopsy samples than culture (77.7% PCR positive versus 55.1% culture positive and correctly identified all specimens scored as culture positive. OspA-based typing identified the majority of isolates as B. afzelii (96.8% and the bacterial load was significantly higher in culture positive biopsies than in culture negative biopsies (P<0.001. The quantitative data also enabled relationships between Borrelia burden and patient symptoms to be evaluated. The bacterial load was significantly higher among patients with systemic symptoms than without (P = 0.02 and was significantly higher for biopsies retrieved from patients with EM lesions with central clearing (P<0.001. 16S copy numbers were moderately lower in samples from patients reporting a history of LB (P = 0.10. This is the first quantitative PCR study of human skin biopsies predominantly infected with B. afzelii and the first study to demonstrate a clear relationship between clinical symptoms in B. afzelii

  19. An invasive mammal (the gray squirrel, Sciurus carolinensis) commonly hosts diverse and atypical genotypes of the zoonotic pathogen Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Millins, Caroline; Magierecka, Agnieszka; Gilbert, Lucy;

    2015-01-01

    Invasive vertebrate species can act as hosts for endemic pathogens and may alter pathogen community composition and dynamics. For the zoonotic pathogen Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato, the agent of Lyme borreliosis, recent work shows invasive rodent species can be of high epidemiological importance...... in squirrels infested with ticks. Invasive grey squirrels appear to become infected with locally circulating strains of B. burgdorferi s.l., further studies are required to determine their role in community disease dynamics. Our findings highlight that the role of introduced host species in B. burgdorferi s...

  20. Bayesian inference towards the resolution of molecular evolution:application to the "Trichoderma harzianum sensu lato" clade

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Druzhinina I S; Kubicek C P

    2004-01-01

    or T. harzianum formed either a proliferating megaclade (three loci combined tree) or appeared as several independent branches on the star-like phylograrm (ITS1 and 2 and large tef1a intron) . However most terminal clacles had a high posterior probability and thus fulfilled the criterion to consider their member isolates as a phylogenetic species. The clade containing the ex-neotype strain of T. harzianum included exclusively clonally propagating isolates from temperate climates, and was clearly distinguished from all other "H. lixii/T. harzianum" lineages by multivariate analysis of phenotype microarray data. We propose that only this lineage should be regarded as T. harzianum sensu stricto, and that the other lineages be regarded as T.harzianum sensu lato until phenetic characters have been defined which allow their description as separate taxa.

  1. Homogeneous Inflammatory Gene Profiles Induced in Human Dermal Fibroblasts in Response to the Three Main Species of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meddeb, Mariam; Carpentier, Wassila; Cagnard, Nicolas; Nadaud, Sophie; Grillon, Antoine; Barthel, Cathy; De Martino, Sylvie Josiane; Jaulhac, Benoît; Boulanger, Nathalie

    2016-01-01

    In Lyme borreliosis, the skin is the key site for bacterial inoculation by the infected tick and for cutaneous manifestations. We previously showed that different strains of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto isolated from tick and from different clinical stages of the Lyme borreliosis (erythema migrans, and acrodermatitis chronica atrophicans) elicited a very similar transcriptional response in normal human dermal fibroblasts. In this study, using whole transcriptome microarray chips, we aimed to compare the transcriptional response of normal human dermal fibroblasts stimulated by 3 Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato strains belonging to 3 main pathogenic species (B. afzelii, B. garinii and B. burgdorferi sensu stricto) in order to determine whether “species-related” inflammatory pathways could be identified. The three Borrelia strains tested exhibited similar transcriptional profiles, and no species-specific fingerprint of transcriptional changes in fibroblasts was observed. Conversely, a common core of chemokines/cytokines (CCL2, CXCL1, CXCL2, CXCL6, CXCL10, IL-6, IL-8) and interferon-related genes was stimulated by all the 3 strains. Dermal fibroblasts appear to play a key role in the cutaneous infection with Borrelia, inducing a homogeneous inflammatory response, whichever Borrelia species was involved. PMID:27706261

  2. Multiplex assay (Mikrogen recomBead) for detection of serum IgG and IgM antibodies to 13 recombinant antigens of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato in patients with neuroborreliosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dessau, Ram Benny; Møller, Jens K.; Kolmos, Birte

    2015-01-01

    A multiplex-bead-based assay for the detection of serum antibodies to Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato was evaluated. The assay contained 13 different antigens in both the IgG and the IgM assay; thus, a total of 26 measurement results were available from each sample. A total of 49 Danish patients...

  3. Seasonal Variation in Biting Rates of Simulium damnosum sensu lato, Vector of Onchocerca volvulus, in Two Sudanese Foci.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isam M A Zarroug

    Full Text Available The abundance of onchocerciasis vectors affects the epidemiology of disease in Sudan, therefore, studies of vector dynamics are crucial for onchocerciasis control/elimination programs. This study aims to compare the relative abundance, monthly biting-rates (MBR and hourly-based distribution of onchocerciasis vectors in Abu-Hamed and Galabat foci. These seasonally-based factors can be used to structure vector control efforts to reduce fly-biting rates as a component of onchocerciasis elimination programs.A cross-sectional study was conducted in four endemic villages in Abu-Hamed and Galabat foci during two non-consecutive years (2007-2008 and 2009-2010. Both adults and aquatic stages of the potential onchocerciasis vector Simulium damnosum sensu lato were collected following standard procedures during wet and dry seasons. Adult flies were collected using human landing capture for 5 days/month. The data was recorded on handheld data collection sheets to calculate the relative abundance, MBR, and hourly-based distribution associated with climatic factors. The data analysis was carried out using ANOVA and Spearman rank correlation tests.Data on vector surveillance revealed higher relative abundance of S. damnosum s.l. in Abu- Hamed (39,934 flies than Galabat (8,202 flies. In Abu-Hamed, vector populations increased in January-April then declined in June-July until they disappeared in August-October. Highest black fly density and MBR were found in March 2007 (N = 9,444, MBR = 58,552.8 bites/person/month, and March 2010 (N = 2,603, MBR = 16,138.6 bites/person/month while none of flies were collected in August-October (MBR = 0 bites/person/month. In Galabat, vectors increased in September-December, then decreased in February-June. The highest vector density and MBR were recorded in September 2007 (N = 1,138, MBR = 6,828 bites/person/month and September 2010 (N = 1,163, MBR = 6,978 bites/person/month, whereas, none appeared in collection from April to

  4. First Detection of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato DNA in Serum of the Wild Boar (Sus scrofa) in Northern Portugal by Nested-PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faria, Ana S; Paiva-Cardoso, Maria das Neves; Nunes, Mónica; Carreira, Teresa; Vale-Gonçalves, Hélia M; Veloso, Octávia; Coelho, Catarina; Cabral, João A; Vieira-Pinto, Madalena; Vieira, Maria L

    2015-03-01

    Lyme borreliosis is the most common tick-borne zoonosis in the northern hemisphere. Several vertebrates are crucial in the epidemiological cycle of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato, but the role of wild boar as a reservoir is still unknown. Sera were collected from 90 wild boars shot in the Trás-os-Montes region, Northern Portugal (hunting season 2011/2012). In this study, Borrelia DNA was detected for the first time by nested-PCR in three different sera, suggesting that the wild boar may be a potential reservoir for this spirochete. Sequencing results show 100% similarity with Borrelia afzelii. Further studies are needed to evaluate the public health risks associated with boar hunting.

  5. An invasive mammal (the gray squirrel, Sciurus carolinensis) commonly hosts diverse and atypical genotypes of the zoonotic pathogen Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Millins, Caroline; Magierecka, Agnieszka; Gilbert, Lucy

    2015-01-01

    Invasive vertebrate species can act as hosts for endemic pathogens and may alter pathogen community composition and dynamics. For the zoonotic pathogen Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato, the agent of Lyme borreliosis, recent work shows invasive rodent species can be of high epidemiological importance...... and may support host specific strains. This study examined the role of grey squirrels (Sciurus carolinensis), (n=679), an invasive species in the United Kingdom (UK), as B. burgdorferi s.l. hosts. We found that grey squirrels were frequently infested with Ixodes ricinus, the main vector of B. burgdorferi...... s.l. in the UK, and 11.9% were infected with B. burgdorferi s.l. All four genospecies which occur in the UK were detected in grey squirrels, and unexpectedly, the bird associated genospecies B. garinii, was most common. The second most frequent infection was with B. afzelli. Genotyping of B. garinii...

  6. A novel PCR-RFLP assay for molecular characterization of Echinococcus granulosus sensu lato and closely related species in developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaâbane-Banaoues, Raja; Oudni-M'rad, Myriam; M'rad, Selim; Amani, Hizem; Mezhoud, Habib; Babba, Hamouda

    2016-10-01

    Cystic echinococcosis, due to Echinococcus granulosus sensu lato (s. l.), currently affects three million people, especially in low-income countries and results in high livestock production loss. DNA-based methods demonstrated genetic variability of E. granulosus s. l., and five species were recognized to belong to the complex, including E. granulosus sensu stricto (s.s) (genotypes G1-G3), Echinococcus equinus (genotype G4), Echinococcus ortleppi (genotype G5), Echinococcus canadensis (genotypes G6-G10), and the lion strain Echinococcus felidis. The characterization of Echinococcus species responsible for human and animal echinococcosis is crucial to adapt the preventive measures against this parasitic disease. The sequencing approach is the gold standard for genotyping assays. Unfortunately, developing countries do not often have access to these techniques. Based on in silico RFLP tools, we described an accurate PCR-RFLP method for Echinococcus spp. characterization. The double digestion with the HaeIII and HinfI restriction enzymes of the PCR product from nad1 gene (1071 bp) led to a clear discrimination between E. granulosus s. l. and most closely related species (Echinococcus shiquicus and Echinococcus multilocularis).Molecular procedures and phylogenetic analysis confirmed the efficiency and the reproducibility of this simple and fast PCR-RFLP method. This technique is proved useful for fresh/unfixed and FF-PET tissues and enables large-scale molecular epidemiological screening in developing countries.

  7. Establishment of Multiple Locus Variable-number Tandem Repeat Analysis Assay for Genotyping of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato Detected in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Xin; HOU Xue Xia; GENG Zhen; ZHAO Rui; WAN Kang Lin; HAO Qin

    2014-01-01

    Objective Human Lyme Borreliosis (LB), which is caused by Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato (B. burgdorferi), has been identified as a major arthropod-borne infectious disease in China. We aimed to develop a multiple locus variable-number tandem repeat (VNTR) analysis (MLVA) assay for the genotyping of Borrelia burgdorferi strains detected in China. Methods B. garinii PBi complete 904.246 kb chromosome and two plasmids (cp26 and lp54) were screened by using Tandem Repeats Finder program for getting potential VNTR loci, the potential VNTR loci were analyzed and identified with PCR and the VNTR loci data were analyzed and MLVA clustering tree were constrcted by using the categorical coefficient and the unweighted pair-group method with arithmetic means (UPGMA). Results We identified 5 new VNTR loci through analyzing 47 potential VNTR loci. We used the MLVA protocol to analyse 101 B. burgdorferi strains detected in China and finally identified 51 unique genotypes in 4 major clusters including B. burgdorferi sensu stricto (B.b.s.s), B. garinii, B. afzelii, and B. valaisiana, consistent with the current MLSA phylogeny studies. The allele numbers of VNTR-1, VNTR-2, VNTR-3, VNTR-4, and VNTR-5 were 7, 3, 9, 7, and 6. The Hunter-Gaston index (HGI) of five VNTR loci were 0.79, 0.22, 0.77, 0.71, and 0.67, respectively. The combined HGI of five VNTR loci was 0.96. Clustering of the strains of Xinjiang, Inner Mongolia and Heilongjiang was confirmed, and this situation was consistent with the close geographical distribution of those provinces. Conclusion The MLVA protocol esytablished in this study is easy and can show strains’ phylogenetic relationships to distinguish the strains of Borrelia species. It is useful for further phylogenetic and epidemiological analyses of Borrelia strains.

  8. Ribotyping of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato in China%中国莱姆病螺旋体的核糖体基因分型研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    史翠霞; 万康林; 马凤琴; 张哲夫

    2001-01-01

    目的莱姆病螺旋体的基因型和临床表现、疫苗菌株和抗原菌株的选择存在密切的关系,所以对中国菌株进行分子流行病学研究,可为莱姆病的防治提供科学依据。方法 5S~23S rRNA基因间隔区RFLP分析和16+23S rRNA基因RFLP分析。结果中国菌株至少被分为3个基因型(B.burgdorferi sensu stricto、B.garinii和B.afzelii),B.garinii和B.afzelii占优势,B.burgdorferi sensu stricto少见。少数菌株用上述方法尚不能明确其分类地位,需进一步研究,中国很可能存在世界上独特的新基因型。结论中国菌株的基因型明显不同于北美菌株,而同欧洲菌株比较接近。5S~23S rRNA基因间隔区RFLP分析方法简便、快速、准确,是理想的基因型分类方法,可作为国内菌株基因型鉴定的常规方法。%Objective There is a close relationship between genospecies and clinical manifestation, the choice of strain for vaccine and serodiagnosis antigen. So molecular epidemiology of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato in China is important for the prevention of Lyme disease. Methods Rrf-rrl intergenic spacer RFLP analysis and 16+23S rRNA gene RFLP analysis. Results There were at least three genospecies in China. The most of them belongs to B. garinii and B. afzelii. A few isolates showed unique RFLP pattern. Their taxonomic positions remain unclear. There are probably new genospecies in China. Conclusions Chinese strains are quite different from that of Northern America and similar to that in Europe. The method of rrf-rrl intergenic spacer RFLP analysis is simple and accurate, so it could be used as routine genotyping method in China.

  9. Infection with Ehrlichia canis and Anaplasma platys (Rickettsiales: Anaplasmataceae) in two lineages of Rhipicephalus sanguineus sensu lato (Acari: Ixodidae) from Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cicuttin, Gabriel L; Tarragona, Evelina L; De Salvo, M Nazarena; Mangold, Atilio J; Nava, Santiago

    2015-09-01

    Natural infection with Ehrlichia canis and Anaplasma platys in ticks belonging to the tropical and temperate lineages of Rhipicephalus sanguineus sensu lato from Argentina was evaluated. Samples were tested for Ehrlichia canis infection by PCR assays using 16S rRNA, dsb and p28 gene, while detection of A. platys was performed with 16S rRNA and groESL gene. The assignment of the ticks to each lineage was corroborated with 16S rDNA sequences. All ticks infected with E. canis and A. platys belonged to the tropical lineage. These results constitute the first record of E. canis infection in R. sanguineus s.l ticks from Argentina. No ticks from the temperate lineage were found to be infected with E. canis, coinciding with previous studies performed in Argentina and Uruguay where E. canis infection was not detected in R. sanguineus s.l from the temperate lineage. Because the presence of the tropical lineage of R. sanguineus s.l has been documented in tropical areas of northern Argentina between 22° and 24° of south latitude, the findings of this work indicate that transmission of E. canis and A. platys to dogs by R. sanguineus s.l probably occurs along this region.

  10. Immunohistochemistry and real-time PCR as diagnostic tools for detection of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato in ticks collected from humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briciu, Violeta T; Sebah, Daniela; Coroiu, Georgiana; Lupşe, Mihaela; Cârstina, Dumitru; Ţăţulescu, Doina F; Mihalca, Andrei D; Gherman, Călin M; Leucuţa, Daniel; Meyer, Fabian; Hizo-Teufel, Cecilia; Fingerle, Volker; Huber, Ingrid

    2016-05-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate different methods used for detection of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato (s.l.) in ticks: immunohistochemistry followed by focus floating microscopy (FFM) and real-time polymerase chain reaction (real-time PCR) targeting the ospA and hbb genes. Additionally, an optimized ospA real-time PCR assay was developed with an integrated internal amplification control (IAC) for the detection of inhibition in the PCR assay and was validated as an improved screening tool for B. burgdorferi. One hundred and thirty-six ticks collected from humans in a hospital from Cluj-Napoca, Romania, were investigated regarding genus, stage of development and sex, and then tested by all three assays. A poor quality of agreement was found between FFM and each of the two real-time PCR assays, as assessed by concordance analysis (Cohen's kappa), whereas the agreement between the two real-time PCR assays was moderate. The present study argues for a low sensitivity of FFM and underlines that discordant results of different assays used for detection of B. burgdorferi in ticks are frequent.

  11. Prevalence of Babesia canis, Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato, and Anaplasma phagocytophilum in hard ticks collected from meadows of Lubelskie Voivodship (eastern Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dzięgiel Beata

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to assess the distribution of Anaplasma phagocytophilum, Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato, and Babesia canis in adult females and males of Ixodes ricinus and Dermacentor reticulatus ticks, inhabiting meadows near large forest complexes throughout the Lubelskie Voivodship (eastern region of Poland. Ticks were collected using the flagging method. Among 720 ticks collected, 506 were identified as D. reticulatus, and 214 as I. ricinus. DNA of B. canis and B. burgdorferi s.l. was detected in 21.3% and 0.6% of D. reticulatus ticks, respectively. In I. ricinus ticks, DNA specific to B. burgdorferi s.l. and A. phagocytophilum was detected in 5.6% and 10.3%, respectively. Co-infections of B. burgdorferi s.l. and A. phagocytophilum were found in two I. ricinus ticks. These results indicate that the Lublin region is an area at risk of tick-borne diseases of humans and animals, which must be considered in clinical practice.

  12. Seroprevalence of Rickettsia spp. in Equids and Molecular Detection of 'Candidatus Rickettsia amblyommii' in Amblyomma cajennense Sensu Lato Ticks From the Pantanal Region of Mato Grosso, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, Alvair Da S; Melo, Andréia L T; Amorim, Marcus V; Borges, Alice M C M; Gaíva E Silva, Lucas; Martins, Thiago F; Labruna, Marcelo B; Aguiar, Daniel M; Pacheco, Richard C

    2014-11-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate exposure of equids to rickettsial agents (Rickettsia rickettsii, Rickettsia parkeri, 'Candidatus Rickettsia amblyommii', Rickettsia rhipicephali, and Rickettsia bellii) and rickettsial infection in ticks of a Pantanal region of Brazil. Sera of 547 equids (500 horses and 47 donkeys) were evaluated by indirect immunofluorescence assay. In total, 665 adults and 106 nymphal pools of Amblyomma cajennense F. sensu lato, 10 Dermacentor nitens Neumann ticks, and 88 larval pools of Amblyomma sp. were tested by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Overall, 337 (61.6%) equids were reactive (titer ≥64) to at least one antigen of Rickettsia spp. The prevalence values for Rickettsia were 66%, and the highest endpoint titers were observed for 'Ca. R. amblyommii'. By PCR 3 (0.45%) A. cajennense s.l. females were positive for 'Ca. R. amblyommii'. Minimum infection rates of 0.75% for nymphs and 0.34% for larvae were calculated. Positive samples of ticks have had a fragment of the 16S mitochondrial rRNA gene sequenced and sequences showed 99% identity to Amblyomma sculptum Berlese. This study reports a wide exposure of equids to Rickettsia agents, and PCR evidence of infection with 'Ca. R. amblyommii', for the first time, in A. sculptum.

  13. Morphological characteristics of the antennal flagellum and its sensilla chaetica with character displacement in the sandfly Phlebotomus argentipes Annandale and Brunetti sensu lato (Diptera: Psychodidae)

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    K Ilango

    2000-06-01

    Using light microscope and scanning electron microscope, the external morphological characteristics of the antennal flagellum and its sensilla are described in the sandfly, Phlebotomus argentipes Annandale and Brunetti sensu lato, a well known vector of visceral leishmaniasis in India. A revised terminology is given for the antennal segments to bring phlebotomine more in line with other subfamilies and families while a description of antennal sensilla is provided for the first time in phlebotomine sandflies. Each flagellum consists of scape, pedicel, flagellomeres I to XIII and apiculus. The antennal segments contain scales and sensilla and the latter consist of sensilla trichodea, s. basiconica, s. auricillica, s. coeloconica and s. chaetica and their putative functions are discussed. The sensilla chaeticum hitherto known as antennal ascoid in the phlebotomine sandflies was used to differentiate within and between species. Differences in its relative size to the flagellomere between the populations of P. argentipes collected from the endemic and non-endemic areas in Tamil Nadu state, southern India were established. These differences are considered to be a character displacement as means of premating reproductive isolating mechanism among the populations/members of species complex.

  14. Fitness costs to Helicoverpa armigera after exposure to sub-lethal concentrations of Metarhizium anisopliae sensu lato: Study on F1 generation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarrahi, Azadeh; Safavi, Seyed Ali

    2016-07-01

    The entomopathogenic fungus, Metarhizium anisopliae (Metsch.) Sorokin is a valuable biocontrol agent attacking larval stages of many lepidopteran pests including Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner). Sub-lethal effects of M. anisopliae sensu lato (s.l.) (isolate M14) were investigated on life table parameters of offspring from treated larvae of H. armigera. Duration of different life stages was significantly affected by fungal treatments. Fecundity was decreased in females derived from H. armigera larvae treated with M. anisopliae s.l. Sub-lethal concentrations of the entomopathogen reduced the net reproduction rate (R0) of F1 insects for all treatments compared with the control. Similar reductions were observed for the intrinsic and the finite rates of increase (rm and λ, respectively). The mean generation time (T) and the doubling time (DT) were statistically higher in offspring of individuals exposed to some fungal concentrations than control insects. Our results indicated that there was a significant decrease in the F1 population of H. armigera derived from larvae that were exposed to sub-lethal concentrations of M. anisopliae s.l.

  15. Utility of COI, CAD and morphological data for resolving relationships within the genus Sarcophaga (sensu lato) (Diptera: Sarcophagidae): a preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meiklejohn, Kelly A; Wallman, James F; Pape, Thomas; Cameron, Stephen L; Dowton, Mark

    2013-10-01

    Currently there are ≈ 3000 known species of Sarcophagidae (Diptera), which are classified into 173 genera in three subfamilies. Almost 25% of sarcophagids belong to the genus Sarcophaga (sensu lato) however little is known about the validity of, and relationships between the ≈ 150 (or more) subgenera of Sarcophaga s.l. In this preliminary study, we evaluated the usefulness of three sources of data for resolving relationships between 35 species from 14 Sarcophaga s.l. subgenera: the mitochondrial COI barcode region, ≈ 800 bp of the nuclear gene CAD, and 110 morphological characters. Bayesian, maximum likelihood (ML) and maximum parsimony (MP) analyses were performed on the combined dataset. Much of the tree was only supported by the Bayesian and ML analyses, with the MP tree poorly resolved. The genus Sarcophaga s.l. was resolved as monophyletic in both the Bayesian and ML analyses and strong support was obtained at the species-level. Notably, the only subgenus consistently resolved as monophyletic was Liopygia. The monophyly of and relationships between the remaining Sarcophaga s.l. subgenera sampled remain questionable. We suggest that future phylogenetic studies on the genus Sarcophaga s.l. use combined datasets for analyses. We also advocate the use of additional data and a range of inference strategies to assist with resolving relationships within Sarcophaga s.l.

  16. Wild turkey (Meleagris gallopavo) as a host of ixodid ticks, lice, and Lyme disease spirochetes (Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato) in California state parks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane, Robert S; Kucera, Thomas F; Barrett, Reginald H; Mun, Jeomhee; Wu, Chunling; Smith, Vincent S

    2006-10-01

    Rio Grande wild turkeys (Meleagris gallopavo intermedia) were evaluated as potential hosts of ixodid ticks, lice, and Lyme disease spirochetes (Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato [s.l.]) in three state parks in Sonoma County, California, USA, during 2003 and 2004. In total, 113 birds were collected, 50 (44.2%) of which were found to be infested by 361 ixodid ticks representing three species: the western black-legged tick (Ixodes pacificus, n=248), the rabbit tick (Haemaphysalis leporispalustris, n=112), and one American dog tick (Dermacentor variabilis). Year-round the prevalence of all ticks combined was unrelated to the age or sex of turkeys, and the prevalence of infestation by I. pacificus (35.4%) was significantly higher than it was for either H. leporispalustris (14.2%) or D. variabilis (0.9%). The proportion of the two prevalent tick species differed significantly by life stage with 86.3% of the I. pacificus and 82.1% of the H. leporispalustris enumerated being nymphs and larvae, respectively. Three species of lice were collected, including the chicken body louse Menacanthus stramineus (12.5% of total), Chelopistes meleagridis (37.5% of total), and Oxylipeurus polytrapezius (50% of total). The records for all three ticks are the first ever from wild turkeys, and those for the lice are the first from this host in the far-western United States. Wild turkeys potentially were exposed to the feeding activities of I. pacificus nymphs infected with B. burgdorferi s.l. as 15% of host-seeking nymphs (n=200) collected in woodlands used by turkeys as roosting or foraging areas were infected mainly with B. burgdorferi sensu stricto (s.s.). However, only one (1%) of 90 turkey blood specimens tested by PCR contained B. burgdorferi s.s., and four in vitro, complement-protein assays demonstrated that domestic turkey serum is moderately bacteriolytic for this spirochete. Taken together, these findings indicate that wild turkeys are important avian hosts of I. pacificus nymphs

  17. Serological detection of Anaplasma phagocytophilum, Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato and Ehrlichia canis antibodies and Dirofilaria immitis antigen in a countrywide survey in dogs in Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krämer, Friederike; Schaper, Roland; Schunack, Bettina; Połozowski, Andrzej; Piekarska, Jolanta; Szwedko, Aleksandra; Jodies, Robert; Kowalska, Dagmara; Schüpbach, Dörte; Pantchev, Nikola

    2014-09-01

    Canine vector-borne diseases (CVBDs) have increasingly become a focus of attention in the past few years. Nevertheless, in many parts of Europe information on their occurrence is still scarce. In a large study in Poland 3,094 serum samples taken from dogs throughout all 16 Polish provinces were tested using a commercial kit for the detection of circulating antibodies against Anaplasma phagocytophilum, Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato and Ehrlichia canis and of Dirofilaria immitis antigen. A total of 12.31% (381/3,094; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 11.18-13.52%) and 3.75% (116/3,094; 95% CI: 3.11-4.48%) of the dogs were positive for A. phagocytophilum and B. burgdorferi s.l. antibodies, respectively. Furthermore, 0.26% (8/3,094; 95% CI: 0.11-0.51%) were positive for E. canis antibodies and 0.16% (5/3,094; 95% CI: 0.05-0.38%) for D. immitis antigen. The highest percentages of A. phagocytophilum-positive dogs were noted in Lesser Poland, Silesia and Łódź Provinces. For B. burgdorferi s.l., the highest prevalence was recorded in Łódź Province. Co-infections with A. phagocytophilum and B. burgdorferi s.l. were recorded in 1.71% of all examined dogs (53/3,094; 95% CI: 1.29-2.23%). One dog even had a triple infection, testing positive for E. canis too. Both A. phagocytophilum and B. burgdorferi s.l. have previously been reported in Poland and were confirmed in the present study by positive samples from all 16 provinces. Concerning E. canis and D. immitis travel history or importation cannot be excluded as factors which may have determined the occurrence of these pathogens in the relevant animals. Practitioners in Poland should be aware of the above mentioned CVBDs and of prophylactic measures to protect dogs and their owners.

  18. Investigating the host-range of the rust fungus Puccinia psidii sensu lato across tribes of the family Myrtaceae present in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morin, Louise; Aveyard, Ruth; Lidbetter, Jonathan R; Wilson, Peter G

    2012-01-01

    The exotic rust fungus Puccinia psidii sensu lato was first detected in Australia in April 2010. This study aimed to determine the host-range potential of this accession of the rust by testing its pathogenicity on plants of 122 taxa, representative of the 15 tribes of the subfamily Myrtoideae in the family Myrtaceae. Each taxon was tested in two separate trials (unless indicated otherwise) that comprised up to five replicates per taxon and six replicates of a positive control (Syzygium jambos). No visible symptoms were observed on the following four taxa in either trial: Eucalyptus grandis×camaldulensis, E. moluccana, Lophostemon confertus and Sannantha angusta. Only small chlorotic or necrotic flecks without any uredinia (rust fruiting bodies) were observed on inoculated leaves of seven other taxa (Acca sellowiana, Corymbia calophylla 'Rosea', Lophostemon suaveolens, Psidium cattleyanum, P. guajava 'Hawaiian' and 'Indian', Syzygium unipunctatum). Fully-developed uredinia were observed on all replicates across both trials of 28 taxa from 8 tribes belonging to the following 17 genera: Agonis, Austromyrtus, Beaufortia, Callistemon, Calothamnus, Chamelaucium, Darwinia, Eucalyptus, Gossia, Kunzea, Leptospermum, Melaleuca, Metrosideros, Syzygium, Thryptomene, Tristania, Verticordia. In contrast, the remaining 83 taxa inoculated, including the majority of Corymbia and Eucalyptus species, developed a broad range of symptoms, often across the full spectrum, from fully-developed uredinia to no visible symptoms. These results were encouraging as they indicate that some levels of genetic resistance to the rust possibly exist in these taxa. Overall, our results indicated no apparent association between the presence or absence of disease symptoms and the phylogenetic relatedness of taxa. It is most likely that the majority of the thousands of Myrtaceae species found in Australia have the potential to become infected to some degree by the rust, although this wide host range may

  19. Investigating the host-range of the rust fungus Puccinia psidii sensu lato across tribes of the family Myrtaceae present in Australia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louise Morin

    Full Text Available The exotic rust fungus Puccinia psidii sensu lato was first detected in Australia in April 2010. This study aimed to determine the host-range potential of this accession of the rust by testing its pathogenicity on plants of 122 taxa, representative of the 15 tribes of the subfamily Myrtoideae in the family Myrtaceae. Each taxon was tested in two separate trials (unless indicated otherwise that comprised up to five replicates per taxon and six replicates of a positive control (Syzygium jambos. No visible symptoms were observed on the following four taxa in either trial: Eucalyptus grandis×camaldulensis, E. moluccana, Lophostemon confertus and Sannantha angusta. Only small chlorotic or necrotic flecks without any uredinia (rust fruiting bodies were observed on inoculated leaves of seven other taxa (Acca sellowiana, Corymbia calophylla 'Rosea', Lophostemon suaveolens, Psidium cattleyanum, P. guajava 'Hawaiian' and 'Indian', Syzygium unipunctatum. Fully-developed uredinia were observed on all replicates across both trials of 28 taxa from 8 tribes belonging to the following 17 genera: Agonis, Austromyrtus, Beaufortia, Callistemon, Calothamnus, Chamelaucium, Darwinia, Eucalyptus, Gossia, Kunzea, Leptospermum, Melaleuca, Metrosideros, Syzygium, Thryptomene, Tristania, Verticordia. In contrast, the remaining 83 taxa inoculated, including the majority of Corymbia and Eucalyptus species, developed a broad range of symptoms, often across the full spectrum, from fully-developed uredinia to no visible symptoms. These results were encouraging as they indicate that some levels of genetic resistance to the rust possibly exist in these taxa. Overall, our results indicated no apparent association between the presence or absence of disease symptoms and the phylogenetic relatedness of taxa. It is most likely that the majority of the thousands of Myrtaceae species found in Australia have the potential to become infected to some degree by the rust, although this

  20. Combining a climatic niche model of an invasive fungus with its host species distributions to identify risks to natural assets: Puccinia psidii Sensu Lato in Australia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darren J Kriticos

    Full Text Available Puccinia psidii sensu lato (s.l. is an invasive rust fungus threatening a wide range of plant species in the family Myrtaceae. Originating from Central and South America, it has invaded mainland USA and Hawai'i, parts of Asia and Australia. We used CLIMEX to develop a semi-mechanistic global climatic niche model based on new data on the distribution and biology of P. psidii s.l. The model was validated using independent distribution data from recently invaded areas in Australia, China and Japan. We combined this model with distribution data of its potential Myrtaceae host plant species present in Australia to identify areas and ecosystems most at risk. Myrtaceaeous species richness, threatened Myrtaceae and eucalypt plantations within the climatically suitable envelope for P. psidii s.l in Australia were mapped. Globally the model identifies climatically suitable areas for P. psidii s.l. throughout the wet tropics and sub-tropics where moist conditions with moderate temperatures prevail, and also into some cool regions with a mild Mediterranean climate. In Australia, the map of species richness of Myrtaceae within the P. psidii s.l. climatic envelope shows areas where epidemics are hypothetically more likely to be frequent and severe. These hotspots for epidemics are along the eastern coast of New South Wales, including the Sydney Basin, in the Brisbane and Cairns areas in Queensland, and in the coastal region from the south of Bunbury to Esperance in Western Australia. This new climatic niche model for P. psidii s.l. indicates a higher degree of cold tolerance; and hence a potential range that extends into higher altitudes and latitudes than has been indicated previously. The methods demonstrated here provide some insight into the impacts an invasive species might have within its climatically suited range, and can help inform biosecurity policies regarding the management of its spread and protection of valued threatened assets.

  1. Comparative efficacy of two oral treatments for dogs containing either afoxolaner or fluralaner against Rhipicephalus sanguineus sensu lato and Dermacentor reticulatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beugnet, Frederic; Liebenberg, Julian; Halos, Lenaïg

    2015-04-15

    The present study compares the efficacy of two recent oral ectoparasiticides containing isoxazolines (NexGard(®), containing afoxolaner and administered at a monthly regimen, and Bravecto™ containing fluralaner and administered at a tri-monthly regimen) against Rhipicephalus sanguineus sensu lato and Dermacentor reticulatus ticks on dogs. 24 dogs were randomly allocated to untreated control, NexGard(®) treated, and Bravecto™ treated groups. The treatments were administered on Days 0, 28 and 56 for afoxolaner and on Day 0 for fluralaner. Tick infestations were performed weekly with 50 unfed adult ticks per each species on each dog from Days 30 to 84 (with the exception of R. sanguineus on Day 63). Ticks were counted at 24h post-infestation. The dogs from both treated groups had statistically significantly (p<0.05) less R. sanguineus and D. reticulatus ticks compared to the untreated dogs on all assessment days. Percent efficacy against R. sanguineus ranged from 86.4% to 99.5% at 24h post-infestation for NexGard(®) and from 65.7% to 100% for Bravecto™. Statistically significantly (p<0.05) less R. sanguineus ticks were recorded for NexGard(®) treated dogs compared to Bravecto™ treated dogs on Day 78. Percent efficacy against D. reticulatus ranged from 85.2% to 99.6% at 24h post-infestation for NexGard(®) and from 63.4% to 99.1% for Bravecto™. Statistically significantly (p<0.05) less D. reticulatus ticks were recorded for NexGard(®) treated dogs compared to Bravecto™ treated dogs on Days 71, 78 and 85.

  2. Investigation on resources of Cordyceps sensu lato in Wanfoshan reserve %安徽省万佛山地区虫草资源的初步调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭凡; 曹珊; 张琪; 李春如; 樊美珍

    2011-01-01

    通过对万佛山自然保护区的多次野外采集和调查,研究发现万佛山地区分布的虫草分属.6个种,分别为丝虫草Ophiocordyceps filiformis、珊瑚虫草Cordyceps martialis、粉被虫草C.pruinosa、下垂虫草O.nutans、亚黄蜂虫草O.oxycephala和莲状虫草C.nelumboides.其中下垂虫草和丝虫草最多,分别占总数的28%和23%.虫草的寄主涉及到鳞翅目的幼虫和茧、蜂的成虫、蜘蛛和蝽象,而主要寄主为鳞翅目的幼虫,占总数的58%.莲状虫草为中国大陆新记录种,此前仅在日本和中国台湾省有过报道.%Six species of Cordyceps sensu lato were collected from Wanfoshan Nature Reserve. They were Ophiocordyceps filiformis Moureau, Cordyceps martialis Spegazzini, C. pruinosa Petch, O. nutans Pat., O. oxycephala Penz. & Sacc. and C. nelumboides. Kobayasi & Shimizu. O. nutans and O. filiformis were the dominant species with relative abundance of 28% and 23%. The host related to lepodopteran larvae and cocoon, adult of bee,arachnida and pentatomidae, the main hosts were lepodopteran larvae with relative abundance of 58%. C. nelumboides was a new record in Chinese mainland, and it had only been reported in Japan and Taiwan Province before.

  3. Serological survey of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato, Anaplasma phagocytophilum, and Ehrlichia canis infections in rural and urban dogs in Central Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentina Virginia Ebani

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available [b]Introduction[i][/i][/b][i]. Borrelia burgdorferi [/i]sensu lato (s.l. and Anaplasma phagocytophilum are well known zoonotic pathogens, whereas[i] Ehrlichia canis[/i] is usually considered to be of veterinary concern, although on the basis of recent reports it also seems to be able to infect humans. [b]objective[/b]. The aim of the study was to determine the seroprevalence of [i]B. burgdorferi [/i]s.l., A. phagocytophilum and [i]E. canis[/i] in an Italian canine population, and to verify if there are differences between dogs living in urban areas and those from a rural environment. [b]materials and method.[/b] Blood sera of 1,965 dogs, 1,235 from cities and 730 from rural areas, were tested by indirect immunofluorescent assay (IFAT. [b]results[/b]. The overall seroprevalence was highest for E. canis (7.07%, followed by [i]A. phagocytophilum[/i] (4.68%, and [i]B. burgdorferi[/i] s.l. (1.47%. Rural dogs showed the highest seroprevalence to [i]B. burgdorferi[/i] s.l. and [i]A. phagocytophilum[/i]. No significant differences were observed between rural and urban [i]E. canis[/i]-positive dogs. A low percentage (1.32% of dogs with dual seropositivity was detected, and no triple positive reactions were observed. No significant differences were detected in the seroprevalence of the three agents in relationship to the age and gender of the dogs. Seroprevalence in the five years considered were not statistically different, except for the lowest rate for [i]E. canis[/i] observed in 2012. [b]conclusions[/b]. The results confirm the presence of [i]B. burgdorferi[/i] s.l., [i]A. phagocytophilum[/i] and [i]E. canis[/i] in Italian dogs in both urban and rural areas. Monitoring pet dogs, which share the same environment with their owners, is useful for identifying the presence of tick-borne disease agents of both veterinary and public health significance

  4. Multilocus sequence typing of Pseudomonas syringae sensu lato confirms previously described genomospecies and permits rapid identification of P. syringae pv. coriandricola and P. syringae pv. apii causing bacterial leaf spot on parsley.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bull, Carolee T; Clarke, Christopher R; Cai, Rongman; Vinatzer, Boris A; Jardini, Teresa M; Koike, Steven T

    2011-07-01

    Since 2002, severe leaf spotting on parsley (Petroselinum crispum) has occurred in Monterey County, CA. Either of two different pathovars of Pseudomonas syringae sensu lato were isolated from diseased leaves from eight distinct outbreaks and once from the same outbreak. Fragment analysis of DNA amplified between repetitive sequence polymerase chain reaction; 16S rDNA sequence analysis; and biochemical, physiological, and host range tests identified the pathogens as Pseudomonas syringae pv. apii and P. syringae pv. coriandricola. Koch's postulates were completed for the isolates from parsley, and host range tests with parsley isolates and pathotype strains demonstrated that P. syringae pv. apii and P. syringae pv. coriandricola cause leaf spot diseases on parsley, celery, and coriander or cilantro. In a multilocus sequence typing (MLST) approach, four housekeeping gene fragments were sequenced from 10 strains isolated from parsley and 56 pathotype strains of P. syringae. Allele sequences were uploaded to the Plant-Associated Microbes Database and a phylogenetic tree was built based on concatenated sequences. Tree topology directly corresponded to P. syringae genomospecies and P. syringae pv. apii was allocated appropriately to genomospecies 3. This is the first demonstration that MLST can accurately allocate new pathogens directly to P. syringae sensu lato genomospecies. According to MLST, P. syringae pv. coriandricola is a member of genomospecies 9, P. cannabina. In a blind test, both P. syringae pv. coriandricola and P. syringae pv. apii isolates from parsley were correctly identified to pathovar. In both cases, MLST described diversity within each pathovar that was previously unknown.

  5. Mechanisms of karyotype differentiation in Cassidinae sensu lato (Coleoptera, Polyphaga, Chrysomelidae) based on seven species of the Brazilian fauna and an overview of the cytogenetic data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Julio, Milena; Fernandes, Flávia Rodrigues; Costa, Cleide; Almeida, Mara Cristina; Cella, Doralice Maria

    2010-01-01

    Among the subfamilies of Chrysomelidae, Cassidinae sensu lato (s.l.) includes 6000 species distributed in 43 tribes. Approximately 100 of these species were cytogenetically analyzed and most of them presented 2n=18=16+Xy(p), which was smaller than 2n=20=18+Xy(p) considered basal for Polyphaga. However, some groups of species presented maintenance of the basal diploid number and others showed increase in this number. Certain species of the latter group also exhibited variation in the type of sex chromosome system (SCS). Considering the recent taxonomic revision accomplished for the Cassidinae s.l. species, the existence of phylogenetic relationship for some species of this subfamily, the high diversity of species of this group in the Neotropical region, and the low number of Cassidinae s.l. species karyotyped so far, the aim of the present work was to establish the main mechanisms involved in the karyotype evolution of this subfamily through the study of seven species of the Brazilian fauna and overview of the cytogenetic data. The individuals were collected in southeast and south of Brazil. The chromosomal preparations obtained from embryo and testes of adult males were stained with Giemsa solution. The species Agroiconota inedita (2n=42=40+Xy(p)), Charidotella (s.str.) immaculata (2n=22=20+Xy(p)), Charidotella (s.str.) sexpunctata (2n=22=20+Xy(p)), and Stolas chalybaea (2n=24=22+Xy(p)) revealed diploid number higher than that established as basal for Polyphaga and biarmed chromosomes. The karyotype of Cteisella confusa, Deloyala cruciata, and Metriona elatior showed the chromosomal formulae 2n=18=16+Xy(p) considered modal for Cassidinae s.l. and biarmed chromosomes. The seven species exhibited easily identified sex chromosomes due to their size and/or morphology. The analysis of meiotic cells of all the species showed pachytenes with a positively heteropycnotic block probably corresponding to the sex chromosomes; diplotenes with a high number of bivalents with two

  6. The ospA genes of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato detected in rodents in Zhejiang province%浙江省在鼠类中检测到伯氏疏螺旋体ospA基因

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜理平; 陆群英; 李钟梁; 张磊; 王复甦; 张政

    2012-01-01

    目的 了解浙江省磐安县鼠中感染伯氏疏螺旋体的情况,研究以外膜蛋白A(OspA)为靶基因的PCR方法在浙江省的应用.方法 利用PCR方法,检测磐安县128份鼠肝、脾标本中ospA基因特异片段;对所检测到的阳性结果进行序列测定,并进行分析.结果 从128份鼠肝、脾标本中检测发现4例ospA基因阳性片段,其中3份来自黄毛鼠,1份来自大林姬鼠;核酸序列基本一致,与伯氏疏螺旋体法雷斯疏螺旋体高度相似.结论 利用ospA基因能从标本中检测到伯氏疏螺旋体;浙江省部分山区存在鼠感染伯氏疏螺旋体的情况,其中伯氏疏螺旋体法雷斯疏螺旋体占优势.%Objective To identify Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato infection of rodents in Pan' an county, Zhejiang province. Methods The ospA gene specific fragments from 128 mouse liver and spleen samples were detected using the PCR method and the positive samples were sequenced, followed by phylogenetic analysis. Results It was found that there were four ospA gene positive fragments out of the 128 samples, of which 3 fragments were obtained from Rattus losea and the other one was from Apodemus peninsulae. The 4 positive fragments shared high similarity with each other in terms of the sequences and shared high identities with B. Valaisiana. Conclusion B. Burgdorferi sensu lato can be detected from samples using the ospA gene. There exists B. Burgdorferi sensu lato infection in rodents in some mountain areas of Zhejiang province, and B. Valaisiana is found to be predominant.

  7. Genotyping of Bacillus cereus strains by microarray-based resequencing.

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    Michael E Zwick

    Full Text Available The ability to distinguish microbial pathogens from closely related but nonpathogenic strains is key to understanding the population biology of these organisms. In this regard, Bacillus anthracis, the bacterium that causes inhalational anthrax, is of interest because it is closely related and often difficult to distinguish from other members of the B. cereus group that can cause diverse diseases. We employed custom-designed resequencing arrays (RAs based on the genome sequence of Bacillus anthracis to generate 422 kb of genomic sequence from a panel of 41 Bacillus cereus sensu lato strains. Here we show that RAs represent a "one reaction" genotyping technology with the ability to discriminate between highly similar B. anthracis isolates and more divergent strains of the B. cereus s.l. Clade 1. Our data show that RAs can be an efficient genotyping technology for pre-screening the genetic diversity of large strain collections to selected the best candidates for whole genome sequencing.

  8. Genotyping of Bacillus cereus strains by microarray-based resequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zwick, Michael E; Kiley, Maureen P; Stewart, Andrew C; Mateczun, Alfred; Read, Timothy D

    2008-07-02

    The ability to distinguish microbial pathogens from closely related but nonpathogenic strains is key to understanding the population biology of these organisms. In this regard, Bacillus anthracis, the bacterium that causes inhalational anthrax, is of interest because it is closely related and often difficult to distinguish from other members of the B. cereus group that can cause diverse diseases. We employed custom-designed resequencing arrays (RAs) based on the genome sequence of Bacillus anthracis to generate 422 kb of genomic sequence from a panel of 41 Bacillus cereus sensu lato strains. Here we show that RAs represent a "one reaction" genotyping technology with the ability to discriminate between highly similar B. anthracis isolates and more divergent strains of the B. cereus s.l. Clade 1. Our data show that RAs can be an efficient genotyping technology for pre-screening the genetic diversity of large strain collections to selected the best candidates for whole genome sequencing.

  9. Reassessment of the taxonomic structure of the diazotrophic genus Azoarcus sensu lato and description of three new genera and new species, Azovibrio restrictus gen. nov., sp. nov., Azospira oryzae gen. nov., sp. nov. and Azonexus fungiphilus gen. nov., sp. nov.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinhold-Hurek, B; Hurek, T

    2000-03-01

    The taxonomic structure of members of the genus Azoarcus sensu lato was reassessed in a polyphasic approach. Two species, Azoarcus communis and Azoarcus indigens, three unnamed species containing diazotrophs associated with Kallar grass roots (groups C, D) and a group of strains (E) isolated from fungi were analysed. They were compared by PAGE analyses of cellular proteins, genomic fingerprints, morphological and nutritional features to new isolates from rice roots. All strains within groups C, D and E containing 5-12 isolates showed group-specific cell and colony morphology and carbon source utilization patterns, with exception of the obligately microaerobic strain BS20-3, a member of group C. All strains, with this exception, also had almost indistinguishable electrophoretic protein patterns and genomic fingerprints generated with tDNA-directed primers, suggesting they belong to the same species. Phylogenetic analyses of almost complete 16S rDNA sequences carried out with three different algorithms (neighbour-joining, maximum-likelihood, parsimony) revealed that Azoarcus sensu lato is not monophyletic. Groups C, D and E formed three distinct lineages located between the Azoarcus/Thauera and the Rhodocyclus clusters. Phylogenetic distances between groups C, D and E were as large as between other genera (93-94% sequence similarity). This suggested they have the rank of three different genera. Since it was possible to differentiate them from each other and other related bacteria by phenotypic features, three new genera with one type species each are proposed: Azovibrio restrictus gen. nov., sp. nov., Azospira oryzae gen. nov., sp. nov. and Azonexus fungiphilus gen. nov., sp. nov.

  10. Genetic variability within Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato genospecies established by PCR-single-strand conformation polymorphism analysis of the rrfA-rrlB intergenic spacer in ixodes ricinus ticks from the Czech Republic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derdáková, Markéta; Beati, Lorenza; Pet'ko, Branislav; Stanko, Michal; Fish, Durland

    2003-01-01

    In Europe the Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato complex is represented by five distinct genospecies: Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto, Borrelia afzelii, Borrelia garinii, Borrelia valaisiana, and Borrelia lusitaniae. These taxonomic entities are known to differ in their specific associations with vertebrate hosts and to provoke distinct clinical manifestations in human patients. However, exceptions to these rules have often been observed, indicating that strains belonging to a single genospecies may be more heterogeneous than expected. It is, therefore, important to develop alternative identification tools which are able to distinguish Borrelia strains not only at the specific level but also at the intraspecific level. DNA from a sample of 370 Ixodes ricinus ticks collected in the Czech Republic was analyzed by PCR for the presence of a approximately 230-bp fragment of the rrfA-rrlB intergenic spacer of Borrelia spp. A total of 20.5% of the ticks were found to be positive. The infecting genospecies were identified by analyzing the amplified products by the restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) method with restriction enzyme MseI and by single-strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP) analysis. The two methods were compared, and PCR-SSCP analysis appeared to be a valuable tool for rapid identification of spirochetes at the intraspecific level, particularly when large samples are examined. Furthermore, by using PCR-SSCP analysis we identified a previously unknown Borrelia genotype, genotype I-77, which would have gone unnoticed if RFLP analysis alone had been used.

  11. The Water Cycle, a Potential Source of the Bacterial Pathogen Bacillus cereus

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    Julien Brillard

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The behaviour of the sporulating soil-dwelling Bacillus cereus sensu lato (B. cereus sl which includes foodborne pathogenic strains has been extensively studied in relation to its various animal hosts. The aim of this environmental study was to investigate the water compartments (rain and soil water, as well as groundwater closely linked to the primary B. cereus sl reservoir, for which available data are limited. B. cereus sl was present, primarily as spores, in all of the tested compartments of an agricultural site, including water from rain to groundwater through soil. During rain events, leachates collected after transfer through the soil eventually reached the groundwater and were loaded with B. cereus sl. In groundwater samples, newly introduced spores of a B. cereus model strain were able to germinate, and vegetative cells arising from this event were detected for up to 50 days. This first B. cereus sl investigation in the various types of interrelated environments suggests that the consideration of the aquatic compartment linked to soil and to climatic events should provide a better understanding of B. cereus sl ecology and thus be relevant for a more accurate risk assessment of food poisoning caused by B. cereus sl pathogenic strains.

  12. Identification, genetic diversity and cereulide producing ability of Bacillus cereus group stains isolated from Beninese traditional fermented food condiments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorsen, Line; Azokpota, Paulin; Hansen, Bjarne Munk

    2010-01-01

    Bacillus cereus sensu lato is often detected in spontaneously fermented African foods but is rarely identified to species level. Only some of the B. cereus group species are reported to be pathogenic to humans and identification to species level is necessary to estimate the safety of these products...... which are specific to emetic toxin producers. Cereulide production of these isolates was confirmed by liquid chromatography mass spectrometry/mass spectrometry. This is the first report on cereulide producing B. cereus in African fermented foods. Occurrence of the opportunistic human pathogen B. cereus......, which is able to produce emetic toxin in afitin, iru and sonru, could impose a health hazard. Interestingly, no reports on food poisoning from the consumption of the fermented condiments exist....

  13. Five-month comparative efficacy evaluation of three ectoparasiticides against adult cat fleas (Ctenocephalides felis), flea egg hatch and emergence, and adult brown dog ticks (Rhipicephalus sanguineus sensu lato) on dogs housed outdoors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varloud, Marie; Hodgkins, Elizabeth

    2015-03-01

    This study was designed to compare the efficacy of three topical combinations on dogs in outdoor conditions against adult cat fleas (Ctenocephalides felis), flea egg hatch and emergence, and against adult brown dog ticks (Rhipicephalus sanguineus sensu lato). Treatment was performed on day 0 with a placebo; dinotefuran, pyriproxifen and permethrin (DPP); fipronil and (S)-methoprene (FM) or imidacloprid and permethrin (IP). Dogs (n = 32), housed outdoors for 7 months, were treated monthly for four consecutive months (on days 0, 30, 60 and 90) and infested with ~100 unfed adult fleas on days 14, 55, 74, 115 and 150 and with ~50 unfed adult ticks on days 28, 44, 88 and 104. Adult fleas were counted and removed 24 h after infestation. Immediately after flea removal, dogs were reinfested with ~100 new adult fleas 72 h prior to egg collection for up to 48 h. Flea eggs were incubated for 32 days, and newly emerged adults were counted. Ticks were counted and removed 48 h after each infestation. FM had >90 % efficacy against fleas at each time point and variable efficacy against ticks (38.0-99.6 %). Efficacy of IP was 60 days after the last treatment. Despite challenging weather conditions, DPP was highly effective, providing >90 % efficacy against adult ticks as well as adult and immature fleas at every time point of the study.

  14. Borrelia mayonii sp. nov., a member of the Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato complex, detected in patients and ticks in the upper midwestern United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pritt, Bobbi S; Respicio-Kingry, Laurel B; Sloan, Lynne M; Schriefer, Martin E; Replogle, Adam J; Bjork, Jenna; Liu, Gongping; Kingry, Luke C; Mead, Paul S; Neitzel, David F; Schiffman, Elizabeth; Hoang Johnson, Diep K; Davis, Jeffrey P; Paskewitz, Susan M; Boxrud, David; Deedon, Alecia; Lee, Xia; Miller, Tracy K; Feist, Michelle A; Steward, Christopher R; Theel, Elitza S; Patel, Robin; Irish, Cole L; Petersen, Jeannine M

    2016-11-01

    Lyme borreliosis (LB) is a multisystem disease caused by spirochetes in the Borrelia burgdorferisensu lato (Bbsl) genospecies complex. We previously described a novel Bbsl genospecies (type strain MN14-1420T) that causes LB among patients with exposures to ticks in the upper midwestern USA. Patients infected with the novel Bbsl genospecies demonstrated higher levels of spirochetemia and somewhat differing clinical symptoms as compared with those infected with other Bbsl genospecies. The organism was detected from human specimens using PCR, microscopy, serology and culture. The taxonomic status was determined using an eight-housekeeping-gene (uvrA, rplB, recG, pyrG, pepX, clpX, clpA and nifS) multi-locus sequence analysis (MLSA) and comparison of 16S rRNA gene, flaB, rrf-rrl, ospC and oppA2 nucleotide sequences. Using a system threshold of 98.3 % similarity for delineation of Bbsl genospecies by MLSA, we demonstrated that the novel species is a member of the Bbsl genospecies complex, most closely related to B. burgdorferisensu stricto (94.7-94.9 % similarity). This same species was identified in Ixodes scapularis ticks collected in Minnesota and Wisconsin. This novel species, Borrelia mayonii sp. nov, is formally described here. The type strain, MN14-1420, is available through the Deutsche Sammlung von Mikroorganismen und Zelkulturen GmbH (DSM 102811) and the American Type Culture Collection (ATCC BAA-2743).

  15. Establishment of a minor groove binder-probe based quantitative real time PCR to detect Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato and differentiation of Borrelia spielmanii by ospA-specific conventional PCR

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    Strube Christina

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato (sl, the causative agent of Lyme borreliosis, is transmitted by ticks of the genus Ixodes as vector. For identification of Borrelia infections in ticks a TaqMan™ minor groove binder (MGB probe-based quantitative real time PCR (qPCR was established targeting the 5S-23S intergenic spacer. Extension to a duplex qPCR included an Ixodes spp. positive control to verify successful DNA isolation. Besides qPCR, an ospA-specific conventional PCR for species-specific identification of B. spielmanii was established. Afterwards 1000 I. ricinus flagged in the city of Hanover, Germany, were investigated for B. burgdorferi sl infections followed by species identification. Furthermore, I. hexagonus ticks were investigated to proof applicability of the PCRs. Results Quantitative real time PCR (qPCR identifying B. burgdorferi sl in ticks was able to detect 1-10 copies per reaction. B. spielmanii ospA-specific conventional PCR was also highly specific and showed no cross reactions with the other tested Borrelia species. From 1000 hanoveranian ticks 24.3% were positive compared to only 7.4% positives by dark-field microscopy. Related to tick stage 1.7% larvae, 18.1% nymphs, and 34.6% adults were positive. The most frequent species was B. garinii, followed by B. afzelii, B. spielmanii, B. valaisiana and B. burgdorferi sensu stricto (ss. 70.6% of I. ricinus were mono-infected, whereas 28.0% and 1.4% were infected with two and three Borrelia species, respectively. From 232 I. hexagonus collected from hedgehogs in different sites of Germany, qPCR detected 5.7% to be infected with B. burgdorferi sl, which were identified as B. afzelii, B. garinii and B. spielmanii. Conclusions The evaluated qPCR to detect B. burgdorferi sl in Ixodes spp. is highly specific and sensitive. As a duplex qPCR including detection of Ixodes spp. DNA it is the first DNA based technique incorporating a control for successful DNA isolation from

  16. Residência multiprofissional em saúde e pós-graduação lato sensu no Brasil: apontamentos históricos Multiprofessional residency in healthcare and postgraduate education in Brazil: historical remarks

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    Soraya Diniz Rosa

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Trata-se da discussão da educação superior brasileira, tomando-se como parâmetro a especialização no conjunto da pós-graduação, a partir da análise do Programa da Residência Multiprofissional em Saúde, reconhecido como pós-graduação lato sensu. Utilizou-se a pesquisa histórica e documental como instrumento para análise dos problemas enfrentados no modelo de formação proposto no referido programa e apresentado pelos ministérios da Educação e da Saúde como base para a consolidação da política nacional de educação em saúde. Os resultados alcançados nos permitem afirmar a importância da pós-graduação lato sensu no âmbito da educação em saúde. Contudo, sua oferta descontínua e, na maioria dos casos, não acadêmica, tem caracterizado um modelo limitado pela lógica mercantil, evidenciando a falta de políticas públicas que assegurem a devida qualificação profissional. A Residência Multiprofissional em Saúde pretende ser uma nova estratégia para políticas de educação permanente que, enfocando categorias profissionais não médicas da área, favoreça a produção das condições necessárias para mudanças no modelo médico-assistencial restritivo, ainda hegemônico, de atenção em saúde. Resta saber se essa interferência no modelo educacional vai contribuir para uma melhor ação profissional ou se restringe à estruturação da rede de serviços públicos, através da oferta de um campo de trabalho precarizado.This is a discussion about Brazilian higher education, using as a parameter specialization courses in the postgraduate program based on the analysis of the Programa da Residência Multiprofissional em Saúde [Multidisciplinary Residency Program in Health-care], known as a postgraduate program. We used historical and documental research as a tool for analysis of the problems faced in the training model proposed in the Program and presented by the ministries of Education and Health as the basis

  17. Genetic characterization of human-derived hydatid cysts of Echinococcus granulosus sensu lato in Heilongjiang Province and the first report of G7 genotype of E. canadensis in humans in China.

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    Tiemin Zhang

    Full Text Available Cystic echinococcosis (CE caused by the larval stage of Echinococcus granulosus sensu lato (s.l. is one of the most important zoonotic parasitic diseases worldwide and 10 genotypes (G1-G10 have been reported. In China, almost all the epidemiological and genotyping studies of E. granulosus s.l. are from the west and northwest pasturing areas. However, in Heilongjiang Province of northeastern China, no molecular information is available on E. granulosus s.l. To understand and to speculate on possible transmission patterns of E. granulosus s.l., we molecularly identified and genotyped 10 hydatid cysts from hepatic CE patients in Heilongjiang Province based on mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (cox1, cytochrome b (cytb and NADH dehydrogenase subunit 1 (nad1 genes. Two genotypes were identified, G1 genotype (n = 6 and G7 genotype (n = 4. All the six G1 genotype isolates were identical to each other at the cox1 locus; three and two different sequences were obtained at the cytb and nad1 loci, respectively, with two cytb gene sequences not being described previously. G7 genotype isolates were identical to each other at the cox1, cytb and nad1 loci; however, the cytb gene sequence was not described previously. This is the first report of G7 genotype in humans in China. Three new cytb gene sequences from G1 and G7 genotypes might reflect endemic genetic characterizations. Pigs might be the main intermediate hosts of G7 genotype in our investigated area by homology analysis. The results will aid in making more effective control strategies for the prevention of transmission of E. granulosus s.l.

  18. Genetic characterization of human-derived hydatid cysts of Echinococcus granulosus sensu lato in Heilongjiang Province and the first report of G7 genotype of E. canadensis in humans in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Tiemin; Yang, Dong; Zeng, Zhaolin; Zhao, Wei; Liu, Aiqin; Piao, Daxun; Jiang, Tao; Cao, Jianping; Shen, Yujuan; Liu, Hua; Zhang, Weizhe

    2014-01-01

    Cystic echinococcosis (CE) caused by the larval stage of Echinococcus granulosus sensu lato (s.l.) is one of the most important zoonotic parasitic diseases worldwide and 10 genotypes (G1-G10) have been reported. In China, almost all the epidemiological and genotyping studies of E. granulosus s.l. are from the west and northwest pasturing areas. However, in Heilongjiang Province of northeastern China, no molecular information is available on E. granulosus s.l. To understand and to speculate on possible transmission patterns of E. granulosus s.l., we molecularly identified and genotyped 10 hydatid cysts from hepatic CE patients in Heilongjiang Province based on mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (cox1), cytochrome b (cytb) and NADH dehydrogenase subunit 1 (nad1) genes. Two genotypes were identified, G1 genotype (n = 6) and G7 genotype (n = 4). All the six G1 genotype isolates were identical to each other at the cox1 locus; three and two different sequences were obtained at the cytb and nad1 loci, respectively, with two cytb gene sequences not being described previously. G7 genotype isolates were identical to each other at the cox1, cytb and nad1 loci; however, the cytb gene sequence was not described previously. This is the first report of G7 genotype in humans in China. Three new cytb gene sequences from G1 and G7 genotypes might reflect endemic genetic characterizations. Pigs might be the main intermediate hosts of G7 genotype in our investigated area by homology analysis. The results will aid in making more effective control strategies for the prevention of transmission of E. granulosus s.l.

  19. Detection of presumptive Bacillus cereus in the Irish dairy farm environment

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    O’Connell A.

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the study was to isolate potential Bacillus cereus sensu lato (B. cereus s.l. from a range of farm environments. Samples of tap water, milking equipment rinse water, milk sediment filter, grass, soil and bulk tank milk were collected from 63 farms. In addition, milk liners were swabbed at the start and the end of milking, and swabs were taken from cows’ teats prior to milking. The samples were plated on mannitol egg yolk polymyxin agar (MYP and presumptive B. cereus s.l. colonies were isolated and stored in nutrient broth with 20% glycerol and frozen at -80 °C. These isolates were then plated on chromogenic medium (BACARA and colonies identified as presumptive B. cereus s.l. on this medium were subjected to 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA sequencing. Of the 507 isolates presumed to be B. cereus s.l. on the basis of growth on MYP, only 177 showed growth typical of B. cereus s.l. on BACARA agar. The use of 16S rRNA sequencing to identify isolates that grew on BACARA confirmed that the majority of isolates belonged to B. cereus s.l. A total of 81 of the 98 isolates sequenced were tentatively identified as presumptive B. cereus s.l. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis was carried out on milk and soil isolates from seven farms that were identified as having presumptive B. cereus s.l. No pulsotype was shared by isolates from soil and milk on the same farm. Presumptive B. cereus s.l. was widely distributed within the dairy farm environment.

  20. Prevalence of Dirofilaria immitis, Ehrlichia canis, Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato, Anaplasma spp. and Leishmania infantum in apparently healthy and CVBD-suspect dogs in Portugal - a national serological study

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    Cardoso Luís

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Canine vector-borne diseases (CVBDs are caused by a wide range of pathogens transmitted to dogs by arthropods including ticks and insects. Many CVBD-agents are of zoonotic concern, with dogs potentially serving as reservoirs and sentinels for human infections. The present study aimed at assessing the seroprevalence of infection with or exposure to Dirofilaria immitis, Ehrlichia canis, Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato, Anaplasma spp. and Leishmania infantum in dogs in Portugal. Methods Based on 120 veterinary medical centres from all the regions of mainland and insular Portugal, 557 apparently healthy and 628 CVBD-suspect dogs were sampled. Serum, plasma or whole blood was tested for qualitative detection of D. immitis antigen and antibodies to E. canis, B. burgdorferi s. l., Anaplasma spp. and L. infantum with two commercial in-clinic enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kits. Odds ratios (OR were calculated by logistic regression analysis to identify independent risk factors of exposure to the vector-borne agents. Results Total positivity levels to D. immitis, E. canis, B. burgdorferi, Anaplasma spp., L. infantum, one or more agents and mixed agents were 3.6%, 4.1%, 0.2%, 4.5%, 4.3%, 14.0% and 2.0% in the healthy group, and 8.9%, 16.4%, 0.5%, 9.2%, 25.2%, 46.3% and 11.6% in the clinically suspect group, respectively. Non-use of ectoparasiticides was a risk factor for positivity to one or more agents both in the apparently healthy (OR = 2.1 and CVBD-suspect (OR = 1.5 dogs. Seropositivity to L. infantum (OR = 7.6, E. canis (OR = 4.1 and D. immitis (OR = 2.4 were identified as risk factors for the presence of clinical signs compatible with CVBDs. Positivity to mixed agents was not found to be a risk factor for disease. Conclusions Dogs in Portugal are at risk of becoming infected with vector-borne pathogens, some of which are of zoonotic concern. CVBDs should be considered by practitioners and prophylactic measures must be put in

  1. Exoproteome analysis of a novel strain of Bacillus cereus implicated in disease resembling cutaneous anthrax.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Neha; Goel, Ajay Kumar; Alam, Syed Imteyaz

    2014-03-01

    Bacillus cereus belongs to B. cereus sensu lato group, shared by six other related species including Bacillus anthracis. B. anthracis is the causative agent for serious illness affecting a wide range of animals as well as humans and is a category A Biological and Toxin Warfare (BTW) agent. Recent studies indicate that a Bacillus species other than B. anthracis can cause anthrax-like disease and role of anthrax virulence plasmids (pXO1 and pXO2) on the pathogenicity of B. cereus has been documented. B. cereus strain TF5 was isolated from the tissue fluid of cutaneous anthrax-like skin lesions of a human patient from an anthrax endemic area in India. The strain harboured a PA gene, however, presence of pXO1 or pXO2-like plasmids could not be ascertained using reported primers. Abundant exoproteome of the strain in the early stationary phase was elucidated using a 2-DE MS approach and compared with that from a reference B. cereus strain. Analysis of proteins showing qualitative and quantitative differences between the two strains indicated an altered regulatory mechanism and putative role of S-layer protein and sphingomyelinase in the pathogenesis of strain TF5. Phylogenetic analysis of the S-layer protein indicated close affiliation of the strain with anthracis-like B. cereus strains such as B. cereus var. anthracis strain CI; whereas sphingomyelinase exhibited specific relationship with all the strains of B. anthracis apart from that with anthracis-like B. cereus strains.

  2. The Pore-Forming Haemolysins of Bacillus Cereus: A Review

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    Vincent Sanchis

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The Bacillus cereus sensu lato group contains diverse Gram-positive spore-forming bacteria that can cause gastrointestinal diseases and severe eye infections in humans. They have also been incriminated in a multitude of other severe, and frequently fatal, clinical infections, such as osteomyelitis, septicaemia, pneumonia, liver abscess and meningitis, particularly in immuno-compromised patients and preterm neonates. The pathogenic properties of this organism are mediated by the synergistic effects of a number of virulence products that promote intestinal cell destruction and/or resistance to the host immune system. This review focuses on the pore-forming haemolysins produced by B. cereus: haemolysin I (cereolysin O, haemolysin II, haemolysin III and haemolysin IV (CytK. Haemolysin I belongs to the cholesterol-dependent cytolysin (CDC family whose best known members are listeriolysin O and perfringolysin O, produced by L. monocytogenes and C. perfringens respectively. HlyII and CytK are oligomeric ß-barrel pore-forming toxins related to the α-toxin of S. aureus or the ß-toxin of C. perfringens. The structure of haemolysin III, the least characterized haemolytic toxin from the B. cereus, group has not yet been determined.

  3. A catalog of the types of Stratiomyidae, Tabanidae, Asilidae sensu lato, and Syrphidae (Insecta, Diptera deposited in the Museo Argentino de Ciencias Naturales, Buenos Aires (MACN: with an appendix on types of Tabanidae deposited in the Instituto "Dr. Carlos G. Malbrán", Buenos Aires (ANLIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Axel O Bachmann

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The type specimens of all accepted categories of three names of Stratiomyidae, fifty-nine of Tabanidae, twenty-four of Asilidae sensu lato (includes Leptogastridae, and twenty of Syrphidae are recorded. In an appendix twelve paratypes of six species of Tabanidae are recorded, housed in the Administración Nacional de Laboratorios e Institutos de Salud "Dr. Carlos G. Malbrán" (ANLIS, Departamento Vectores, Buenos Aires.Se registran los ejemplares típo de todas las categorías aceptadas de tres nombres de Stratiomyidae, cincuenta y nueve de Tabanidae, veinticuatro de Asilidae s. l. (incluye Leptogastridae y veinte de Syrphidae. En un appendix se registran doce paratipos, de seis especies de Tabanidae, depositados en la Administración Nacional de Laboratorios e Institutos de Salud "Dr. Carlos G. Malbrán" (ANLIS, Departamento Vectores, Buenos Aires.

  4. Molecular and toxigenic characterization of Bacillus cereus and Bacillus thuringiensis strains isolated from commercial ground roasted coffee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaves, Jeane Quintanilha; Cavados, Clara de Fátima Gomes; Vivoni, Adriana Marcos

    2012-03-01

    Thirty samples of roasted ground coffee beans from 10 different commercial brands were analyzed to investigate the occurrence and levels of Bacillus cereus and Bacillus thuringiensis strains. Strains were evaluated for their genetic diversity by repetitive element sequence polymorphism PCR (Rep-PCR) and for their toxigenic profiles, i.e., the presence of hblA, hblC, hblD, nheA, nheB, nheC, cytK, ces, and entFM. Survival and multiplication of B. cereus sensu lato in the ready-to-drink coffee was determined to evaluate this beverage as a possible vehicle for B. cereus infection. B. cereus was detected in 17 (56.7%) of the 30 samples, and B. thuringiensis was detected in 8 (26.7%) of the 30 samples. Five samples did not produce any characteristic growth. The most common gene, entFM, was detected in 23 strains (92%). The NHE complex (nheA, nheB, and nheC genes) was found in 19 strains (76%). The HBL complex (hblA, hblC, and hblD) was found in 16 strains (64%). All strains were negative for ces. The cytK gene was found in 16 strains (64%). The computer-assisted cluster analysis of Rep-PCR profiles using a clustering criterion of 80% similarity revealed four main clusters. Cluster 1 was the predominant and comprised three B. thuringiensis strains with 100% similarity, cluster 2 comprised two B. cereus strains (100% similarity), cluster 3 comprised two B. thuringiensis strains (90% similarity), and cluster 4 comprised one B. thuringiensis strain and one B. cereus strain (85% similarity). The cluster analysis of fingerprints generated by Rep-PCR revealed a high genetic diversity among the B. cereus strains, suggesting that the contamination could have originated from different sources. In our experiments, when sugar was added and the beverage was kept in thermic bottles there was a significant increase in B. cereus sensu lato levels, which may increase the risk of food poisoning. These results highlight the need for additional studies on this subject to better evaluate

  5. Identification, genetic diversity and cereulide producing ability of Bacillus cereus group strains isolated from Beninese traditional fermented food condiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorsen, Line; Azokpota, Paulin; Hansen, Bjarne Munk; Hounhouigan, D Joseph; Jakobsen, Mogens

    2010-08-15

    Bacillus cereus sensu lato is often detected in spontaneously fermented African foods but is rarely identified to species level. Only some of the B. cereus group species are reported to be pathogenic to humans and identification to species level is necessary to estimate the safety of these products. In the present study, a total of 19 Bacillus cereus group spp. isolated from afitin, iru and sonru, three spontaneously fermented African locust (Parkia biglobosa) bean based condiments produced in Benin, were investigated. The strains were isolated at 6, 12, 18, 24 and 48 h fermentation time. By using phenotypic and genotypic methods all of the isolates could be identified as B. cereus sensu stricto. The isolates were grouped according to their PM13 PCR (random amplification of polymorphic DNA PCR) fingerprint and formed two major clusters, one of which contained eight strains isolated from afitin (cluster 1). Highly similar PM13 profiles were obtained for seven of the isolates, one from afitin, one from iru and five from sonru (cluster 2). Four of the isolates, one from afitin and three from sonru, did not form any particular cluster. The PM13 profiles of cluster 2 isolates were identical to those which are specific to emetic toxin producers. Cereulide production of these isolates was confirmed by liquid chromatography mass spectrometry/mass spectrometry. This is the first report on cereulide producing B. cereus in African fermented foods. Occurrence of the opportunistic human pathogen B. cereus, which is able to produce emetic toxin in afitin, iru and sonru, could impose a health hazard. Interestingly, no reports on food poisoning from the consumption of the fermented condiments exist.

  6. From genome to toxicity: a combinatory approach highlights the complexity of enterotoxin production in Bacillus cereus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeßberger, Nadja; Krey, Viktoria M; Rademacher, Corinna; Böhm, Maria-Elisabeth; Mohr, Ann-Katrin; Ehling-Schulz, Monika; Scherer, Siegfried; Märtlbauer, Erwin

    2015-01-01

    In recent years Bacillus cereus has gained increasing importance as a food poisoning pathogen. It is the eponymous member of the B. cereus sensu lato group that consists of eight closely related species showing impressive diversity of their pathogenicity. The high variability of cytotoxicity and the complex regulatory network of enterotoxin expression have complicated efforts to predict the toxic potential of new B. cereus isolates. In this study, comprehensive analyses of enterotoxin gene sequences, transcription, toxin secretion and cytotoxicity were performed. For the first time, these parameters were compared in a whole set of B. cereus strains representing isolates of different origin (food or food poisoning outbreaks) and of different toxic potential (enteropathogenic and apathogenic) to elucidate potential starting points of strain-specific differential toxicity. While toxin gene sequences were highly conserved and did not allow for differentiation between high and low toxicity strains, comparison of nheB and hblD enterotoxin gene transcription and Nhe and Hbl protein titers revealed not only strain-specific differences but also incongruence between toxin gene transcripts and toxin protein levels. With one exception all strains showed comparable capability of protein secretion and so far, no secretion patterns specific for high and low toxicity strains were identified. These results indicate that enterotoxin expression is more complex than expected, possibly involving the orchestrated interplay of different transcriptional regulator proteins, as well as posttranscriptional and posttranslational regulatory mechanisms plus additional influences of environmental conditions.

  7. From genome to toxicity: A combinatory approach highlights the complexity of enterotoxin production in Bacillus cereus

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    Nadja eJessberger

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In recent years Bacillus cereus has gained increasing importance as a food poisoning pathogen. It is the eponymous member of the B. cereus sensu lato group that consists of eight closely related species showing impressive diversity of their pathogenicity. The high variability of cytotoxicity and the complex regulatory network of enterotoxin expression have complicated efforts to predict the toxic potential of new B. cereus isolates. In this study, comprehensive analyses of enterotoxin gene sequences, transcription, toxin secretion and cytotoxicity were performed. For the first time, these parameters were compared in a whole set of B. cereus strains representing isolates of different origin (food or food poisoning outbreaks and of different toxic potential (enteropathogenic and apathogenic to elucidate potential starting points of strain-specific differential toxicity. While toxin gene sequences were highly conserved and did not allow for differentiation between high and low toxicity strains, comparison of nheB and hblD enterotoxin gene transcription and Nhe and Hbl protein titers revealed not only strain-specific differences but also incongruence between toxin gene transcripts and toxin protein levels. With one exception all strains showed comparable capability of protein secretion and so far, no secretion patterns specific for high and low toxicity strains were identified. These results indicate that enterotoxin expression is more complex than expected, possibly involving the orchestrated interplay of different transcriptional regulator proteins, as well as posttranscriptional and posttranslational regulatory mechanisms plus additional influences of environmental conditions.

  8. Review of the taxonomy of the genus Arthrobacter, emendation of the genus Arthrobacter sensu lato, proposal to reclassify selected species of the genus Arthrobacter in the novel genera Glutamicibacter gen. nov., Paeniglutamicibacter gen. nov., Pseudoglutamicibacter gen. nov., Paenarthrobacter gen. nov. and Pseudarthrobacter gen. nov., and emended description of Arthrobacter roseus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busse, Hans-Jürgen

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, the taxonomy of the genus Arthrobacter is discussed, from its first description in 1947 to the present state. Emphasis is given to intrageneric phylogeny and chemotaxonomic characteristics, concentrating on quinone systems, peptidoglycan compositions and polar lipid profiles. Internal groups within the genus Arthrobacter indicated from homogeneous chemotaxonomic traits and corresponding to phylogenetic grouping and/or high 16S rRNA gene sequence similarities are highlighted. Furthermore, polar lipid profiles and quinone systems of selected species are shown, filling some gaps concerning these chemotaxonomic traits. Based on phylogenetic groupings, 16S rRNA gene sequence similarities and homogeneity in peptidoglycan types, quinone systems and polar lipid profiles, a description of the genus Arthrobacter sensu lato and an emended description of Arthrobacter roseus are provided. Furthermore, reclassifications of selected species of the genus Arthrobacter into novel genera are proposed, namely Glutamicibacter gen. nov. (nine species), Paeniglutamicibacter gen. nov. (six species), Pseudoglutamicibacter gen. nov. (two species), Paenarthrobacter gen. nov. (six species) and Pseudarthrobacter gen. nov. (ten species).

  9. A comparison of Mg/Ca ratios in Globigerinoides ruber (white): sensu stricto versus a mixture of genotypes

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Naik, S.S.

    Mg/Ca ratios were measured in core AAS9/21 from the eastern Arabian Sea (EAS), on two sets of planktonic foraminifera, one with a mixture of Globigerinoides ruber genotypes (sensu stricto and sensu lato) and the second which contained only G. ruber...

  10. Candida parapsilosis sensu stricto and the closely related species Candida orthopsilosis and Candida metapsilosis in vulvovaginal candidiasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yuxia; Shan, Yingying; Fan, Shangrong; Li, Jianling; Liu, Xiaoping

    2015-02-01

    This study aimed to determine the clinical characteristics and in vitro susceptibilities of Candida parapsilosis sensu stricto, Candida orthopsilosis and Candida metapsilosis isolates from patients with vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC). We analysed 63 vaginal C. parapsilosis specimens. After the molecular analyses, the isolates were characterised as C. parapsilosis sensu stricto (77.8%), C. orthopsilosis (7.9%) and C. metapsilosis (14.3%). The signs and symptoms of VVC caused by C. parapsilosis sensu lato, including itching, erythema and abnormal discharge, were milder than those caused by C. albicans. None of the C. parapsilosis sensu lato isolates were resistant to fluconazole, miconazole or itraconazole. The resistance rates of C. albicans to fluconazole, itraconazole, miconazole and clotrimazole were 2.3, 1.5, 3.1 and 0.8%, respectively. Both C. parapsilosis sensu lato and C. albicans were susceptible to nystatin. The mycological eradication rate at follow-up days 7-14 and 30-35 were 77.8% (49/63) and 76.2% (48/63), respectively, when treated with various antifungal agents and regimens. We conclude that C. parapsilosis sensu stricto and the closely related species C. orthopsilosis and C. metapsilosis were present in the vaginal samples of VVC patients. The symptoms and signs of VVC caused by C. parapsilosis are milder than those caused by C. albicans. The antifungal susceptibility and therapeutic efficacy in patients colonised by C. parapsilosis sensu lato were similar to those observed in C. albicans-colonised patients.

  11. Phylogeny of Elymus sensu lato in Triticeae (Poaceae) based on plastid trnL-F sequence data%基于叶绿体trnL-F序列对广义披碱草属物种的系统进化研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张春; 凡星; 沙莉娜; 康厚扬; 张海琴; 周永红

    2011-01-01

    The genus Elymus sensu lato includes Roegneria, Elymus, Hystrix, Sitanion, and Kengyilia. The plastid trnL-F sequence data were analyzed for their phylogenetic relationships, maternal donor, and for the origin and differentiation of St genomes by using Maximum Parsimony (MP) and Median Joining algorithm (MJ) methods. 1) The maternal donor of Elymus sensu lato was not always Pseudoroegneria. The P genome served as the maternal donor to Kengyilia melanthera and K. thoroldiana, while the Ns genome was the maternal donor for Hystrix duthiei and H. duthiei ssp. longearistata; 2) The MP tree revealed the close relationships between P, W and St genomes, while the H and Ns genomes were distinctly related to them; 3) K. melanthera and K. thoroldiana were clustered with diploid Agropyron species, which indicated the close relationships among them. H. patula was clustered in the St clade, while H. duthiei and H. duthiei ssp. longearistata were grouped in the Ns clade. The genomic constitution of H. patula was different from H. duthiei and H. duthiei ssp. longearistata; 4) The five diploid species with St genome did not form the monophyletic clades, suggesting the differentiation of the diploid species. The olyploid species with St genome were not clustered together, suggesting the differentiation of St genomes in polyploids; 5) The species distributed in Eurasia might originate from the diploid species of Pseudoroegneria from Asia, while the North American species might originate from North America Pseudoroegneria species. Some species might have a multiple origin and experienced recurrent hybridization between species with different genomes.%广义披碱草属包括了披碱草属、鹅观草属、猬草属、裂颖草属和仲彬草属.为深入研究这5个小麦族多年生属的系统地位、母本来源及St染色体组的来源和分化等问题,本研究根据叶绿体DNA trnL-F序列构建了系统树和网状结构图.结果表明,1)广义披碱草属物种的母

  12. Characteristics and phylogeny of Bacillus cereus strains isolated from Maari, a traditional West African food condiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorsen, Line; Kando, Christine Kere; Sawadogo, Hagrétou; Larsen, Nadja; Diawara, Bréhima; Ouédraogo, Georges Anicet; Hendriksen, Niels Bohse; Jespersen, Lene

    2015-03-02

    Maari is a spontaneously fermented food condiment made from baobab tree seeds in West African countries. This type of product is considered to be safe, being consumed by millions of people on a daily basis. However, due to the spontaneous nature of the fermentation the human pathogen Bacillus cereus occasionally occurs in Maari. This study characterizes succession patterns and pathogenic potential of B. cereus isolated from the raw materials (ash, water from a drilled well (DW) and potash), seed mash throughout fermentation (0-96h), after steam cooking and sun drying (final product) from two production sites of Maari. Aerobic mesophilic bacterial (AMB) counts in raw materials were of 10(5)cfu/ml in DW, and ranged between 6.5×10(3) and 1.2×10(4)cfu/g in potash, 10(9)-10(10)cfu/g in seed mash during fermentation and 10(7) - 10(9) after sun drying. Fifty three out of total 290 AMB isolates were identified as B. cereus sensu lato by use of ITS-PCR and grouped into 3 groups using PCR fingerprinting based on Escherichia coli phage-M13 primer (M13-PCR). As determined by panC gene sequencing, the isolates of B. cereus belonged to PanC types III and IV with potential for high cytotoxicity. Phylogenetic analysis of concatenated sequences of glpF, gmk, ilvD, pta, pur, pycA and tpi revealed that the M13-PCR group 1 isolates were related to B. cereus biovar anthracis CI, while the M13-PCR group 2 isolates were identical to cereulide (emetic toxin) producing B. cereus strains. The M13-PCR group 1 isolates harboured poly-γ-D-glutamic acid capsule biosynthesis genes capA, capB and capC showing 99-100% identity with the environmental B. cereus isolate 03BB108. Presence of cesB of the cereulide synthetase gene cluster was confirmed by PCR in M13-PCR group 2 isolates. The B. cereus harbouring the cap genes were found in potash, DW, cooking water and at 8h fermentation. The "emetic" type B. cereus were present in DW, the seed mash at 48-72h of fermentation and in the final product

  13. Comparative bioinformatics and experimental analysis of the intergenic regulatory regions of Bacillus cereus hbl and nhe enterotoxin operons and the impact of CodY on virulence heterogeneity

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    Maria-Elisabeth eBöhm

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Bacillus cereus is a food contaminant with greatly varying enteropathogenic potential. Almost all known strains harbor the genes for at least one of the three enterotoxins Nhe, Hbl and CytK. While some strains show no cytotoxicity, others have caused outbreaks, in rare cases even with lethal outcome. The reason for these differences in cytotoxicity is unknown. To gain insight into the origin of enterotoxin expression heterogeneity in different strains, the architecture and role of 5’ intergenic regions (5’IGRs upstream of the nhe and hbl operons was investigated. In silico comparison of 142 strains of all seven phylogenetic groups of B. cereus sensu lato proved the presence of long 5’IGRs upstream of the nheABC and hblCDAB operons, which harbor recognition sites for several transcriptional regulators, including the virulence regulator PlcR, redox regulators ResD and Fnr, the nutrient-sensitive regulator CodY as well as the master regulator for biofilm formation SinR. By determining transcription start sites, unusually long 5’ untranslated regions (5’UTRs upstream of the nhe and hbl start codons were identified, which are not present upstream of cytK-1 and cytK-2. Promoter fusions lacking various parts of the nhe and hbl 5’UTR in B. cereus INRA C3 showed that the entire 331 bp 5’UTR of nhe is necessary for full promoter activity, while the presence of the complete 606 bp hbl 5’UTR lowers promoter activity. Repression was caused by a 268 bp sequence directly upstream of the hbl transcription start. Luciferase activity of reporter strains containing nhe and hbl 5’IGR lux fusions provided evidence that toxin gene transcription is upregulated by the depletion of free amino acids. Electrophoretic mobility shift assays showed that the branched-chain amino acid sensing regulator CodY binds to both nhe and hbl 5’UTR downstream of the promoter, potentially acting as a nutrient-responsive roadblock repressor of toxin gene transcription

  14. Comparative Bioinformatics and Experimental Analysis of the Intergenic Regulatory Regions of Bacillus cereus hbl and nhe Enterotoxin Operons and the Impact of CodY on Virulence Heterogeneity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Böhm, Maria-Elisabeth; Krey, Viktoria M; Jeßberger, Nadja; Frenzel, Elrike; Scherer, Siegfried

    2016-01-01

    Bacillus cereus is a food contaminant with greatly varying enteropathogenic potential. Almost all known strains harbor the genes for at least one of the three enterotoxins Nhe, Hbl, and CytK. While some strains show no cytotoxicity, others have caused outbreaks, in rare cases even with lethal outcome. The reason for these differences in cytotoxicity is unknown. To gain insight into the origin of enterotoxin expression heterogeneity in different strains, the architecture and role of 5' intergenic regions (5' IGRs) upstream of the nhe and hbl operons was investigated. In silico comparison of 142 strains of all seven phylogenetic groups of B. cereus sensu lato proved the presence of long 5' IGRs upstream of the nheABC and hblCDAB operons, which harbor recognition sites for several transcriptional regulators, including the virulence regulator PlcR, redox regulators ResD and Fnr, the nutrient-sensitive regulator CodY as well as the master regulator for biofilm formation SinR. By determining transcription start sites, unusually long 5' untranslated regions (5' UTRs) upstream of the nhe and hbl start codons were identified, which are not present upstream of cytK-1 and cytK-2. Promoter fusions lacking various parts of the nhe and hbl 5' UTR in B. cereus INRA C3 showed that the entire 331 bp 5' UTR of nhe is necessary for full promoter activity, while the presence of the complete 606 bp hbl 5' UTR lowers promoter activity. Repression was caused by a 268 bp sequence directly upstream of the hbl transcription start. Luciferase activity of reporter strains containing nhe and hbl 5' IGR lux fusions provided evidence that toxin gene transcription is upregulated by the depletion of free amino acids. Electrophoretic mobility shift assays showed that the branched-chain amino acid sensing regulator CodY binds to both nhe and hbl 5' UTR downstream of the promoter, potentially acting as a nutrient-responsive roadblock repressor of toxin gene transcription. PlcR binding sites are

  15. Observaciones cariológicas en Vicia amphicarpa sensu lato

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    Tardío Pato, F. Javier

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available Cytological studies were carried out on twenty four amphicarpic wild populations of Vicia sativa group from different sites (19 from Spain, 4 from Syria and 1 from Turkey. Morphologically, 19 accessions can be attributed to taxon Dorthes and 5 to V. angustifolia subsp. pseudoangustifolia (Rouy Tardío, comb. nov. In our studies, these two taxa show different chromosome numbers, V. amphicarpa Dorthes, has 14 chromosomes, while V. angustifolia subsp. pseudoangustifolia has only 12. Furthermore, the form of the chromosomes in the karyotypes of both taxa is quite different. The chromosome number and the morphology of the karyotype found in the first taxon agree with most of previous reports on V. amphicarpa, with a very characteristic short metacentric and six acrocentric chromosomes, one of them satellited. However, the second taxon has a very different karyotype with three large chromosomes, one of them submetacentric and another satellited, plus another three chromosomes which are significantly smaller. Therefore, we can conclude that within the genus Vicia, at least two amphicarpic taxa exist, clearly differentiated, both in morphological and karyotypical characteristics.Se estudian cariológicamente 24 poblaciones anficárpicas silvestres pertenecientes al grupo Vicia sativa, de distinta procedencia (19 españolas, cuatro de Siria y una de Turquía. Se encuentran diferencias en los números cromosomáticos y en los cariótipos. Diecinueve poblaciones presentan 14 cromosomas y cariotipo como el observado por otros autores, constituido por un pequeño cromosoma metacéntrico y seis acrocéntricos, uno de ellos con satélite. Éstas corresponden a V. amphicarpa Dorthes. Las otras cinco, con 2n = 12 y cariotipo con tres cromosomas grandes, uno de ellos submetacéntrico, otro con satélite, y otros tres mucho más pequeños, corresponden a V. angustifolia subsp. pseudoangustifolia (Rouy Tardío. Esta anterior se propone como combinación nueva. Por lo tanto, dentro de Vicia existen, al menos, dos táxones anficárpicos claramente diferenciados, tanto en su morfología externa como en el cariotipo.

  16. Group II introns in the Bacillus cereus group with unusual splicing properties

    OpenAIRE

    Stabell, Fredrik Bernhard

    2009-01-01

    Mobile genetic elements have had, and still have an impact on the evolution of the genomes providing means for adaptation and structural organization. These elements are one of the major driving forces for the general evolution of all life forms. For the organisms and their genomes these elements are essential for development and adaptation to different environments. The Bacillus cereus group of bacteria includes the related species B. cereus (sensu stricto), B. thuringiensis, B. weihenst...

  17. La familia Apocynaceae sensu lato en México: diversidad y distribución The family Apocynaceae sensu lato in Mexico: diversity and distribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verónica Juárez-Jaimes

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available La familia Apocynaceae s.l. se ubica entre las 15 familias más diversas de México, con 385 especies repartidas en 50 géneros y 3 subfamilias, de las cuales Asclepiadoideae es la de mayor diversidad en géneros, especies y endemismos. Los géneros con más especies nativas (y endémicas son Asclepias y Matelea. Los estados más ricos en diversidad de taxones son los ubicados en ambas vertientes; destacan Chiapas, Guerrero, Oaxaca y Veracruz. Por su número de especies, sobresalen el bosque tropical caducifolio y los matorrales xerófilos. Del total de especies, 176 son endémicas de México. Se presenta la lista de especies registradas, señalándose su distribución por estados.Apocynaceae s.l. is among the 15 most diverse families in Mexico, with a total of 385 species, distributed in 50 genera and 3 subfamilies of which Asclepiadoideae is the most diverse in numbers of genera, species and endemics. The genera with the most native species and endemics are Asclepias and Matelea. The richest states in terms of taxon diversity are those at the Pacific and Atlantic slopes, Chiapas, Oaxaca, Guerrero and Veracruz being the most prominent. Tropical deciduous forest and arid tropical scrub are the most important vegetation types by their total number of species, 176 of which are endemic to Mexico. A list of species recorded in México is provided, indicating their state distribution.

  18. Biodiversity in Bacillus cereus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pielaat A; Fricker M; Nauta MJ; van Leusden FM; MGB

    2006-01-01

    In het kader van een EU project zijn door de verschillende partners experimenten uitgevoerd om inzicht te krijgen in de variatie in eigenschappen van B. cereus-stammen welke bijdragen aan de mate van virulentie. Hiertoe zijn 100 B. cereus-stammen geselecteerd en eigenschappen zoals toxine-vorming,

  19. Biodiversity in Bacillus cereus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pielaat A; Fricker M; Nauta MJ; Leusden FM van; MGB

    2006-01-01

    Experiments have been performed by different partners to identify variability in properties of Bacillus cereus strains that contribute to the extent of their virulence as part of an EU project. To this end, 100 B. cereus strains were selected and screened for biological properties, such as toxin pro

  20. Microdiversity of Echinococcus granulosus sensu stricto in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez Rojas, C A; Ebi, D; Gauci, C G; Scheerlinck, J P; Wassermann, M; Jenkins, D J; Lightowlers, M W; Romig, T

    2016-07-01

    Echinococcus granulosus (sensu lato) is now recognized as an assemblage of cryptic species, which differ considerably in morphology, development, host specificity (including infectivity/pathogenicity for humans) and other aspects. One of these species, E. granulosus sensu stricto (s.s.), is now clearly identified as the principal agent causing cystic echinococcosis in humans. Previous studies of a small section of the cox1 and nadh1 genes identified two variants of E. granulosus s.s. to be present in Australia; however, no further work has been carried out to characterize the microdiversity of the parasite in its territory. We have analysed the sequence of the full length of the cox1 gene (1609 bp) from 37 isolates of E. granulosus from different hosts and geographic regions of Australia. The analysis shows that seven haplotypes of E. granulosus s.s. not previously described were found, together with five haplotypes known to be present in other parts of the world, including the haplotype EG01 which is widespread and present in all endemic regions. These data extend knowledge related to the geographical spread and host range of E. granulosus s.s. in a country such as Australia in which the parasite established around 200 years ago.

  1. A new approach to identify species in Xiphinema americanum sensu lato.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prior, T; Hockland, S; Decraemer, W

    2010-01-01

    Four putative species belonging to the X. americanum group are known to transmit American nepoviruses and these nematodes and viruses are listed in European quarantine legislation. Identification of species in this group is therefore of particular importance for phytosanitary purposes, but is problematic because of the similar morphology of the putative species. As part of the Synthesys project BE-TAF 1769, eight collaborative institutions contributed material to Fera for study. Video technology allowed the best records of type material and in conjunction with photographic images created a 'virtual' collection of images that relies less on the deteriorating quality of museum specimens. Revised definitions of lip region and tail shape are considered to be the most stable characters for differentiation. Position of the amphidial aperture, development of the odontostyle collar and some established morphometric characters are considered of limited use although they retain value for latter stages of identification.

  2. Morphometric Evidence for Three Juvenile Stages in Some Species of Xiphinema americanum sensu lato.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halbrendt, J M; Brown, D J

    1992-06-01

    One to two hundred nematodes from each of seven Xiphinema americanum-group populations were measured to determine the range of stylet and body lengths for juveniles and adults. First-stage juveniles were identified by the position of the replacement odontostyle (i.e., the tip of the replacement odontostyle overlapped the base of the odontophore). Nematodes were identified as second stage if the functional odontostyle was the same length as the replacement odontostyle of the first stage. Subsequent stages were similarly identified by establishing the range of corresponding replacement and functional odontostyle lengths. In all populations examined, this procedure created natural divisions that clearly grouped nematodes by stylet and body length. Presumably these groups identified all juvenile and adult stages. Populations of X. americanum, X. rivesi, and X. californicum from the United States had three juvenile stages, but a population of X. pachtaicum from Bulgaria had four juvenile stages.

  3. Blood feeding on large grazers affects the transmission of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato by Ixodes ricinus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pacilly, F.C.A.; Benning, M.E.; Jacobs, F.; Leidekker, J.; Sprong, H.; Wieren, van S.E.; Takken, W.

    2014-01-01

    The presence of Ixodes ricinus and their associated Borrelia infections on large grazers was investigated. Carcases of freshly shot red deer, mouflon and wild boar were examined for the presence of any stage of I. ricinus. Questing ticks were collected from locations where red deer and wild boar are

  4. Early cytokine release in response to live Borrelia burgdorferi Sensu Lato Spirochetes is largely complement independent.

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    Kerstin Sandholm

    Full Text Available AIM: Here we investigated the role of complement activation in phagocytosis and the release of cytokines and chemokines in response to two clinical isolates: Borrelia afzelii K78, which is resistant to complement-mediated lysis, and Borrelia garinii LU59, which is complement-sensitive. METHODS: Borrelia spirochetes were incubated in hirudin plasma, or hirudin-anticoagulated whole blood. Complement activation was measured as the generation of C3a and sC5b-9. Binding of the complement components C3, factor H, C4, and C4BP to the bacterial surfaces was analyzed. The importance of complement activation on phagocytosis, and on the release of cytokines and chemokines, was investigated using inhibitors acting at different levels of the complement cascade. RESULTS: 1 Borrelia garinii LU59 induced significantly higher complement activation than did Borrelia afzelii K78. 2 Borrelia afzelii K78 recruited higher amounts of factor H resulting in significantly lower C3 binding. 3 Both Borrelia strains were efficiently phagocytized by granulocytes and monocytes, with substantial inhibition by complement blockade at the levels of C3 and C5. 4 The release of the pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines IL-1β, IL-6, TNF, CCL20, and CXCL8, together with the anti-inflammatory IL-10, were increased the most (by>10-fold after exposure to Borrelia. 5 Both strains induced a similar release of cytokines and chemokines, which in contrast to the phagocytosis, was almost totally unaffected by complement blockade. CONCLUSIONS: Our results show that complement activation plays an important role in the process of phagocytosis but not in the subsequent cytokine release in response to live Borrelia spirochetes.

  5. Downy mildew on coleus (Plectranthus scutellarioides) caused by Peronospora belbahrii sensu lato in Tennessee

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleus (Plectranthus scutellarioides [syn. = Solenostemon scutellarioides]) is a popular ornamental plant in the mint family (Lamiaceae), prized for its colorful and showy foliage. In August 2015, disease symptoms typical of downy mildew were observed at two sites in Nashville, Tennessee: (i) at the...

  6. Use of DNA barcode sensu lato to identify traditional Tibetan medicinal plant Gentianopsis paludosa (Gentianaceae)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chun-Ying XUE; De-Zhu LI

    2011-01-01

    Gentianopsis paludosa (Hook. f.) Ma (Gentianaceae) is an important species in Tibetan folk medicine commonly used to clear away the "heat evils" and toxic materials. A survey of market samples revealed that nine adulterant species, Gentianopsis barbata, G. contorta, G. grandis, Halenia elliptica, Lomatogonium macranthum, L.rotatum, Swertia angustifolia, S. bifolia and S. erythrosticta, are often marketed as G. paludosa. Methods to distinguish G. paludosa from its adulterants are limited by current morphological and chemical methods. DNA sequence analysis of the nuclear ribosomal DNA internal transcribed spacer region (ITS) was used in the differentiation of G.paludosa from the adulterant species. The data showed that the internal transcribed spacer regions differ significantly between G. paludosa and all nine adulterant species, so that they could be easily distinguished at the DNA level.

  7. Flora of the Xingo region, Alagoas-Sergipe: Portulacaceae sensu lato

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    Hermes de Oliveira Machado-Filho

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Portulacaceae Juss. Includes herbaceous to subshrub plants, presenting fleshy leaves, alternate, sub-opposite to opposite, bisexual flowers, actinomorphic, with or without bracts, and fruit usually in capsule with longitudinal or transverse dehiscence. This paper deals with the floristic-taxonomic study of Portulacaceae in the Xingo region, in the states of Alagoas and Sergipe (Northeastern Brazil. We recorded 2 genera and 6 species: Portulaca L., with 4 species (P. elatior Mart. ex Rohrb., P. halimoides L., P. mucronata Link, and P. oleracea L. and Talinum Adans., with 2 species (T. paniculatum (Jacq. Gaertn. and T. triangulare (Jacq. Willd.. We present descriptions, illustrations, and keys for separation of genera and species, besides distribution and habitat data on the species found in the area.

  8. Molecular phylogenies reveal host-specific divergence of Ophiocordyceps unilateralis sensu lato following its host ants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobmoo, N; Mongkolsamrit, S; Tasanathai, K; Thanakitpipattana, D; Luangsa-Ard, J J

    2012-06-01

    Ophiocordyceps unilateralis (Hypocreales, Ascomycetes) is an entomopathogenic fungus specific to formicine ants (Formicinae, Hymenoptera). Previous works have shown that the carpenter ant Camponotus leonardi acts as the principal host with occasional infections of ants from the genus Polyrhachis (sister genus of Camponotus). Observations were made on the permanent plots of Mo Singto, Khao Yai National Park of Thailand according to which O. unilateralis was found to occur predominantly on three host species: C. leonardi, C. saundersi and P. furcata. Molecular phylogenies of the elongation factor 1-α and β-Tubulin genes indicate a separation of O. unilateralis samples into three clades, reflecting specificity to each of the three different ant species. Samples collected from P. furcata and from C. leonardi were found to form sister groups with samples from C. saundersi forming an outgroup to the latter. Additional samples collected from unidentified ant species of Camponotus and Polyrhachis were positioned as outgroups to those samples on identified species. These results demonstrate that O. unilateralis is clearly not a single phylogenetic species and comprises at least three species that are specific to different host ant species. These cryptic species may arise through recent events of speciation driven by their specificity to host ant species.

  9. Molecular analysis of Ixodes granulatus, a possible vector tick for Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Li-Lian; Wu, Wen-Jer; Shih, Chien-Ming

    2009-08-01

    The genetic identity of Ixodes granulatus ticks was determined for the first time in Taiwan. The phylogenetic relationships were analyzed by comparing the sequences of mitochondrial 16S ribosomal DNA gene obtained from 19 strains of ticks representing seven species of Ixodes and two outgroup species (Rhipicephalus sanguineus and Haemaphysalis inermis). Four major clades could be easily distinguished by neighbour-joining analysis and were congruent by maximum-parsimony method. All these I. granulatus ticks of Taiwan were genetically affiliated to a monophyletic group with highly homogeneous sequences (92.2-99.3% similarity), and can be discriminated from other Ixodes species and other genera of ticks with a sequence divergence ranging from 11.7 to 30.8%. Moreover, intraspecific analysis revealed that two distinct lineages are evident between the same species of I. granulatus ticks collected from Taiwan and Malaysia. Our results demonstrate that all these I. granulatus ticks of Taiwan represent a unique lineage distinct from the common vector ticks (I. ricinus complex) for Borrelia burgdorferi spirochetes.

  10. Whole-genome phylogenies of the family Bacillaceae and expansion of the sigma factor gene family in the Bacillus cereus species-group

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    Dyer David W

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Bacillus cereus sensu lato group consists of six species (B. anthracis, B. cereus, B. mycoides, B. pseudomycoides, B. thuringiensis, and B. weihenstephanensis. While classical microbial taxonomy proposed these organisms as distinct species, newer molecular phylogenies and comparative genome sequencing suggests that these organisms should be classified as a single species (thus, we will refer to these organisms collectively as the Bc species-group. How do we account for the underlying similarity of these phenotypically diverse microbes? It has been established for some time that the most rapidly evolving and evolutionarily flexible portions of the bacterial genome are regulatory sequences and transcriptional networks. Other studies have suggested that the sigma factor gene family of these organisms has diverged and expanded significantly relative to their ancestors; sigma factors are those portions of the bacterial transcriptional apparatus that control RNA polymerase recognition for promoter selection. Thus, examining sigma factor divergence in these organisms would concurrently examine both regulatory sequences and transcriptional networks important for divergence. We began this examination by comparison to the sigma factor gene set of B. subtilis. Results Phylogenetic analysis of the Bc species-group utilizing 157 single-copy genes of the family Bacillaceae suggests that several taxonomic revisions of the genus Bacillus should be considered. Within the Bc species-group there is little indication that the currently recognized species form related sub-groupings, suggesting that they are members of the same species. The sigma factor gene family encoded by the Bc species-group appears to be the result of a dynamic gene-duplication and gene-loss process that in previous analyses underestimated the true heterogeneity of the sigma factor content in the Bc species-group. Conclusions Expansion of the sigma factor gene family

  11. Characterization of Bacillus cereus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijnands LM; Dufrenne JB; Leusden FM; MGB

    2002-01-01

    Bacillus cereus is a ubiquitary microorganism that may cause food borne disease. Pathogenicity, however, depends on various characteristics such as the ability to form (entero)-toxin(s) that can not be detected by microbiological methods. Further characterization of pathogenic properties is not only

  12. Molecular epidemiology and antifungal susceptibility of Candida parapsilosis sensu stricto, Candida orthopsilosis, and Candida metapsilosis in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yee-Chun; Lin, Yu-Hsin; Chen, Kuo-Wei; Lii, Joanne; Teng, Hwa-Jen; Li, Shu-Ying

    2010-11-01

    Candida parapsilosis was recently reclassified into 3 closely related species, C. parapsilosis sensu stricto, Candida orthopsilosis, and Candida metapsilosis. Variation in susceptibility characteristics and prevalence of the 3 genomic species could have therapeutic and epidemiologic implications. The aim of this study is to characterize the genetic and antifungal susceptibility profiles of 97 C. parapsilosis isolates from 71 patients. Among the 71 nonduplicate isolates, 85.9% (61/71) were identified as C. parapsilosis sensu stricto, 5.6% (4/71) as C. metapsilosis, and 8.5% (6/71) as C. orthopsilosis species based on sequences of the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region. The delineation of these 3 species is concordant with that achieved by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis of BssHII restriction fragments at 75% similarity. Antifungal susceptibility tests showed that most isolates were susceptible to flucytosine, azoles, amphotericin B, and echinocandins, whereas 3 C. metapsilosis isolates from 1 patient showed resistance and susceptible-dose dependence to fluconazole. The C. metapsilosis isolates exhibited significantly higher MIC values to both fluconazole and voriconazole than those of C. parapsilosis sensu stricto and C. orthopsilosis. On the other hand, the C. metapsilosis isolates showed significantly lower MIC values on 24 h to caspofungin than those of C. parapsilosis sensu stricto and C. orthopsilosis. For micafungin, the isolates of C. parapsilosis sensu stricto had significantly higher MIC values on 24 h than those of C. orthopsilosis and C. metapsilosis. Compared to Candida albicans, mutations from proline to alanine were identified on the hot spot 1 of Fks1 in all these C. parapsilosis sensu lato isolates regardless of their MIC levels. Some of the C. orthopsilosis and C. metapsilosis isolates expressed the isoleucine to valine substitution on the hot spot 2 region. However, the amino acid variations in these isolates did not correlate to their MIC

  13. Demonstration of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto infection in ticks from the northeast of Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordillo-Pérez, G; Vargas, M; Solórzano-Santos, F; Rivera, A; Polaco, O J; Alvarado, L; Muñóz, O; Torres, J

    2009-05-01

    Borrelia burgdorferisensu lato infection has been confirmed in clinical cases in the northeast of Mexico; however, the bacterium has not been identified as infecting the tick vector Ixodes, Amblyomma and Dermacentor ticks were collected from mammals and plants in northeastern Mexico and examined for Borrelia. Eighteen of 214 ticks were PCR-positive for the fla and 16S rRNA genes and 15 for the ospA gene. Southern blotting with a fla probe and sequencing of ospA genes confirmed infection with B. burgdorferi sensu stricto. These findings, together with reports of indigenous cases, fulfil the criteria that allow northeastern Mexico to be considered as a zone endemic for Lyme disease.

  14. Echinococcus granulosus sensu stricto (s.s.) from the critically endangered antelope Addax nasomaculatus in Tunisia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boufana, Belgees; Saïd, Yousra; Dhibi, Mokhtar; Craig, Philip S; Lahmar, Samia

    2015-12-01

    Echinococcus granulosus sensu lato (s.l.) is a zoonotic disease highly endemic in Tunisia. Canids including stray and semi-stray dogs, jackals and foxes are known as definitive hosts and a wide range of ungulates have been shown to harbour the metacestode hydatid stage and may serve as intermediate hosts. Fertile hydatid cysts of Echinococcus equinus and E. granulosus sensu stricto (s.s.) were recently molecularly identified for the first time from Tunisian donkeys. E. granulosus (s.s.) was also identified from wild boars in Tunisia. Here we report the confirmation of hydatid cysts caused by E. granulosus (s.s.) in the critically endangered antelope, Addax nasomaculatus in Tunisia. DNA-based molecular analysis revealed that A.nasomaculatus was infected with E. granulosus (s.s.) which had a 100% identity with the main globally distributed E. granulosus (s.s.) (EgTu01) haplotype. Cysts of Taenia hydatigena (n=33) were also observed on the liver and in the body cavity. Due to their endangered status and their relatively small numbers, it is unlikely that hydatid infection of A. nasomaculatus will form a major contribution to the epidemiology and transmission of E. granulosus in Tunisia, but infection may result in pathology, morbidity and early mortality, and may still play a role in the perpetuation of the parasite in wildlife cycles.

  15. Estrutura da comunidade de Chlorococcales sensu lato (Chlorophyceae em diferentes hábitats aquáticos e hidroperíodos Structure of the Chlorococcales sensu lato (Chlorophyceae community in different aquatic habitats and hydroperiods

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    Lezilda Carvalho Torgan

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo visa avaliar a riqueza, a densidade, a diversidade específica e a distribuição da comunidade de Chlorococcales s.l. em zonas pelágicas e litorâneas de diferentes hábitats aquáticos (lagoas isoladas, lagoas interligadas, banhados, açudes e arroios em dois hidroperíodos (águas altas e baixas em região subtropical no sul do Brasil. As amostragens de fitoplâncton foram realizadas em duas áreas, situadas entre as coordenadas 30(040´ - 30(010´ S e 50(030´ - 51(031´W no ano de 2003, com a obtenção simultânea de dados de temperatura, condutividade, pH, transparência e profundidade da água. Os resultados revelaram que as médias de riqueza e de diversidade específica foram maiores na zona litorânea e significativamente maiores (p24°C. Dentre os táxons observados, Desmodesmus heteracanthus (Guerr. Hentschke et Torgan, D. lunatus (W. et G. S. West Hegew. e Monoraphidium griffithii (Berk. Kom-Legn., mostraram-se indicadoras de hábitats e D. armatus (Chod. Hegew., D. denticulatus (Lagerh. An, Friedl et Hegew. e D. lunatus foram indicadoras de hidroperíodo. Este estudo demonstra a importância do hábitat e do hidroperíodo, na estrutura da comunidade de Chlorococcales s.l.This study aims to evaluate richness, density specific diversity and distribution of the Chlorococcales s.l. community in pelagic and littoral zones of different aquatic habitats (isolated lagoons, interlinked lagoons, swamps, reservoirs and streams during two hydroperiods (high and low water in a subtropical region in Southern Brazil. Phytoplankton sampling was carried out in two areas, situated within the coordinates 30(040´ - 30(010´ S and 50(030´ - 51(031´ W, in 2003 with simultaneous information on temperature, conductivity, pH, transparency and depth of water. The results showed that richness and specific diversity averages were higher in the littoral zone and significantly higher (p24°C. Among the observed taxa Desmodesmus heteracanthus (Guerr. Hentschke & Torgan, D. lunatus (W. et G. S. West Hegew. and Monoraphidium griffithii (Berk. Kom-Legn. were habitat indicators and D. armatus (Chod. Hegew., D. denticulatus (Lagerh. An, Friedl et Hegew. and D. lunatus were hydroperiod indicators. This study shows the importance of habitats and hydroperiods for Chlorococcales s.l. community structure.

  16. Genetic population structure of the alpine species Rhododendron pseudochrysanthum sensu lato (Ericaceae inferred from chloroplast and nuclear DNA

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    Wang Wei-Kuang

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A complex of incipient species with different degrees of morphological or ecological differentiation provides an ideal model for studying species divergence. We examined the phylogeography and the evolutionary history of the Rhododendron pseudochrysanthum s. l. Results Systematic inconsistency was detected between gene genealogies of the cpDNA and nrDNA. Rooted at R. hyperythrum and R. formosana, both trees lacked reciprocal monophyly for all members of the complex. For R. pseudochrysanthum s.l., the spatial distribution of the cpDNA had a noteworthy pattern showing high genetic differentiation (FST = 0.56-0.72 between populations in the Yushan Mountain Range and populations of the other mountain ranges. Conclusion Both incomplete lineage sorting and interspecific hybridization/introgression may have contributed to the lack of monophyly among R. hyperythrum, R. formosana and R. pseudochrysanthum s.l. Independent colonizations, plus low capabilities of seed dispersal in current environments, may have resulted in the genetic differentiation between populations of different mountain ranges. At the population level, the populations of Central, and Sheishan Mountains may have undergone postglacial demographic expansion, while populations of the Yushan Mountain Range are likely to have remained stable ever since the colonization. In contrast, the single population of the Alishan Mountain Range with a fixed cpDNA haplotype may have experienced bottleneck/founder's events.

  17. PCR-based methods for the detection of L1014 kdr mutation in Anopheles culicifacies sensu lato

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    Dash Aditya P

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Anopheles culicifacies s.l., a major malaria vector in India, has developed widespread resistance to DDT and is becoming resistant to pyrethroids–the only insecticide class recommended for the impregnation of bed nets. Knock-down resistance due to a point mutation in the voltage gated sodium channel at L1014 residue (kdr is a common mechanism of resistance to DDT and pyrethroids. The selection of this resistance may pose a serious threat to the success of the pyrethroid-impregnated bed net programme. This study reports the presence of kdr mutation (L1014F in a field population of An. culicifacies s.l. and three new PCR-based methods for kdr genotyping. Methods The IIS4-IIS5 linker to IIS6 segments of the para type voltage gated sodium channel gene of DDT and pyrethroid resistant An. culicifacies s.l. population from the Surat district of India was sequenced. This revealed the presence of an A-to-T substitution at position 1014 leading to a leucine-phenylalanine mutation (L1014F in a few individuals. Three molecular methods viz. Allele Specific PCR (AS-PCR, an Amplification Refractory Mutation System (ARMS and Primer Introduced Restriction Analysis-PCR (PIRA-PCR were developed and tested for kdr genotyping. The specificity of the three assays was validated following DNA sequencing of the samples genotyped. Results The genotyping of this An. culicifacies s.l. population by the three PCR based assays provided consistent result and were in agreement with DNA sequencing result. A low frequency of the kdr allele mostly in heterozygous condition was observed in the resistant population. Frequencies of the different genotypes were in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. Conclusion The Leu-Phe mutation, which generates the kdr phenotype in many insects, was detected in a pyrethroid and DDT resistant An. culicifacies s.l. population. Three PCR-based methods were developed for kdr genotyping. All the three assays were specific. The ARMS method was refractory to non-specific amplification in non-stringent amplification conditions. The PIRA-PCR assay is able to detect both the codons for the phenylalanine mutation at kdr locus, i.e., TTT and TTC, in a single assay, although the latter codon was not found in the population genotyped.

  18. Escolha de cursos de pós-graduação lato sensu e os seus fatores determinantes

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    Amire Tauil

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The professionalization of the educational branch makes HEIs (Higher Education Institutions seek information on attractiveness of their courses, that is, which factors are decisive for the choice of this institution. Thus, this study aims to identify the determining factors in the choice of students for post-graduation courses in a higher education institution. To meet the objective of a descriptive research with a quantitative approach was carried out in a higher education institution of Vitória,Espirito Santo, through the application of a questionnaire to 210 students in their first day of class in the graduate school. Data were analyzed using descriptive and multivariate statistics. The main results, which contribute positively to the attractiveness of the HEIs, are related to factors such as: the structure of the higher education institution, for example, campus security and the place of meal; update of the course, teachers with experience in the labor market and updating course subjects; and personal reasons, such as the location of the institution. These factors can be an important indicator for HEIs offering postgraduate course.

  19. [Relationship between characteristics of sexual behavior and male sperm competitive ability in taxa of superspecies complex Mus musculus sensu lato].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambaryan, A B; Maltzev, A N; Kotenkova, E V

    2015-01-01

    Some physiological parameters that determine quality of male sperm (its concentration, spermatozoa morphology) and testicle size vary in integrity, i.e. the bigger are testicles the higher is sperm quality. Therefore, the estimate of testicles relative mass is often used as a characteristic of sperm competitive ability when comparing phylogenetically close mammal species. In house mice belonging to the superspecies complex Mus musculus s.l., testicles relative mass is greater in exoanthropic species than in synanthropic ones. It is shown in our study that this pattern is apparent also at the intraspecies level since testicles mass index, sperm concentration, and percentage of morphologically normal spermatozoa in subspecies Mus musculus wagneri, which is facultatively synanthropic, are higher compared with synanthropic subspecies M m. musculus. An analysis of sexual behavior of the three forms (namely, exoanthropic species M. spicilegus and two subspecies mentioned above) indicates that in M. spicilegus both sexual behavior efficiency and ejaculation rate during coupling were higher as compared with other two subspecies. Based on the analysis of life pattern, reproduction systems, and group spatial-ethological structure, the hypotheses are formulated that explain the maintenance of selection directed to increase of sperm competitive ability in exoanthropic house mice species.

  20. Borniopsis mortoni sp. n. (Heterodonta, Galeommatoidea, Galeommatidae sensu lato), a new bivalve commensal with a synaptid sea cucumber from Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goto, Ryutaro; Ishikawa, Hiroshi

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The Galeommatoidea is a bivalve superfamily that exhibits high species diversity in shallow waters. Many members of this superfamily are associated commensally with burrowing marine invertebrates in benthic sediments. The genus Borniopsis is known only from eastern Asia and exhibits high host diversity (e.g., mantis shrimps, crabs, holothurians, sipunculans and echiurans). A new species, Borniopsis mortoni sp. n., is described from mud flats at the mouth of the Souzu River, southwestern Shikoku Island, Japan. This species has elongate-ovate shells covered by a tan to dark brown periostracum, and lives attached by both its foot and byssal threads to the body surface of the synaptid sea cucumber Patinapta ooplax. Several individuals of Borniopsis mortoni are often found on the same host, but sometimes more than 10 individuals can occur together. Borniopsis mortoni is one of the smallest species in this genus. Probably, its small body size is an adaptation to the mode of life in a narrow host burrow. Until now, only two other Borniopsis species were known to have commensal associations with synaptids. Thus, this is the third example of a synaptid-associated species from this genus. In addition, we briefly review the galeommatoideans commensal with apodid sea cucumbers. PMID:27667939

  1. Multilocus microsatellite typing (MLMT of strains from Turkey and Cyprus reveals a novel monophyletic L. donovani sensu lato group.

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    Evi Gouzelou

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: New foci of human CL caused by strains of the Leishmania donovani (L. donovani complex have been recently described in Cyprus and the Çukurova region in Turkey (L. infantum situated 150 km north of Cyprus. Cypriot strains were typed by Multilocus Enzyme Electrophoresis (MLEE using the Montpellier (MON system as L. donovani zymodeme MON-37. However, multilocus microsatellite typing (MLMT has shown that this zymodeme is paraphyletic; composed of distantly related genetic subgroups of different geographical origin. Consequently the origin of the Cypriot strains remained enigmatic. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The Cypriot strains were compared with a set of Turkish isolates obtained from a CL patient and sand fly vectors in south-east Turkey (Çukurova region; CUK strains and from a VL patient in the south-west (Kuşadasi; EP59 strain. These Turkish strains were initially analyzed using the K26-PCR assay that discriminates MON-1 strains by their amplicon size. In line with previous DNA-based data, the strains were inferred to the L. donovani complex and characterized as non MON-1. For these strains MLEE typing revealed two novel zymodemes; L. donovani MON-309 (CUK strains and MON-308 (EP59. A population genetic analysis of the Turkish isolates was performed using 14 hyper-variable microsatellite loci. The genotypic profiles of 68 previously analyzed L. donovani complex strains from major endemic regions were included for comparison. Population structures were inferred by combination of bayesian model-based and distance-based approaches. MLMT placed the Turkish and Cypriot strains in a subclade of a newly discovered, genetically distinct L. infantum monophyletic group, suggesting that the Cypriot strains may originate from Turkey. CONCLUSION: The discovery of a genetically distinct L. infantum monophyletic group in the south-eastern Mediterranean stresses the importance of species genetic characterization towards better understanding, monitoring and controlling the spread of leishmaniasis in this region.

  2. The fauna of the family Bombycidae sensu lato (Insecta, Lepidoptera, Bombycoidea) from Mainland China, Taiwan and Hainan Islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xing; Wang, Min; Zolotuhin, Vadim V; Hirowatari, Toshiya; Wu, Shipher; Huang, Guo-Hua

    2015-07-22

    Seventy-seven species of family Bombycidae s. lat., belonging to 25 genera in three subfamilies, that have been recorded from China are listed and described, with illustrations of the adults, preimaginal stages (if available), and their genitalia. Keys to subfamilies and genera are provided. Two new genera and four new species are described, two subgenera are raised to generic status, seven new combinations are made, and one genus and six species are newly recorded from China. The new taxa are as follows: Rotunda Wang, X. & Zolotuhin, gen. nov., Comparmustilia Wang, X. & Zolotuhin, gen. nov., Triuncina daii Wang, X. & Zolotuhin, sp. nov., Triuncina xiongi Wang, X. & Zolotuhin, sp. nov., Gnathocinara boi Wang, X. & Zolotuhin, sp. nov. and Promustilia yajiangensis Wang, X. & Zolotuhin, sp. nov. The taxa newly recorded for China are: Sesquiluna Forbes, 1955; Trilocha friedeli Dierl, 1978; Bivincula kalikotei Dierl, 1978; Sesquiluna forbesi Zolotuhin & Witt, 2009; Mustilizans lepusa Zolotuhin, 2007; Smerkata brechlini (Zolotuhin, 2007) and Mustilia castanea Moore, 1879. The seven new combinations are: Rotunda rotundapex (Miyata & Kishida, 1990), comb. nov., Triuncina nitida (Chu & Wang, L.Y., 1993), comb. nov., Gunda sesostris (Vuillot, 1893), comb. nov., Smerkata fusca (Kishida, 1993), comb. nov., Comparmustilia sphingiformis (Moore, 1879), comb. nov., Comparmustilia semiravida (Yang, 1995), comb. nov., Comparmustilia gerontica (West, 1932), comb. nov.. The two subgenera raised to generic level are: Promustilia Zolotuhin, 2007, stat. nov. and Smerkata Zolotuhin, 2007, stat. nov.. The distributions of the species in China were determined and distributional maps provided. All type specimens of the new species described here are deposited in the College of Plant Protection, Hunan Agricultural University, China (HUNAU); Department of Entomology, South China Agricultural University, China (SCAU); Kyushu University Museum, Kyushu University, Japan (KUM), and Entomological Museum Thomas J. Witt, Munich, Germany (MWM).

  3. Seroprevalence of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato and tick-borne encephalitis virus in zoo animal species in the Czech Republic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirmarová, Jana; Tichá, Lucie; Golovchenko, Marina; Salát, Jiří; Grubhoffer, Libor; Rudenko, Nataliia; Nowotny, Norbert; Růžek, Daniel

    2014-09-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the prevalence of antibodies against Borrelia bugdorferi (Bb) s.l. and tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) in zoo animals in the Czech Republic. We collected 133 serum samples from 69 animal species from 5 zoos located in different parts of the country. The samples were obtained from even-toed ungulates (n=78; 42 species), odd-toed ungulates (n=32; 11 species), carnivores (n=13; 9 species), primates (n=2, 2 species), birds (n=3; 2 species), and reptiles (n=5; 3 species). A high antibody prevalence (60%) was observed for Bb s.l. On the other hand, only two animals had TBEV-specific antibodies: a markhor (Capra falconeri) and a reindeer (Rangifer tarandus), both from the same zoo, located in an area endemic for TBEV. Both of these animals were also positive for Bb s.l. antibodies. Our results indicate that a high number of animal species in the Czech zoos were exposed to Bb s.l. and that TBEV infection occurred at least in one of the investigated zoos. Considering the pathogenic potential of these two tick-borne pathogens, clinical and serological monitoring should be continued, and therapeutic and preventive measures should be taken when necessary.

  4. Are the specialized bird ticks, Ixodes arboricola and I. frontalis, competent vectors for Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heylen, D.; Sprong, H.; Van Oers, K.; Fonville, M.; Matthysen, E.

    2014-01-01

    Our study tested whether two European bird-specialized ticks, Ixodes arboricola and I. frontalis, can act as vectors in the transmission cycles of Borrelia burgdorferi s.l. The ticks have contrasting ecologies but share songbird hosts (such as the great tit, Parus major) with the generalist I. ricin

  5. Are the specialized bird ticks, Ixodes arboricola and I. frontalis, competent vectors for Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heylen, D.; Sprong, H.; Oers, van K.; Fonville, M.; Leirs, H.; Matthysen, E.

    2014-01-01

    Our study tested whether two European bird-specialized ticks, Ixodes arboricola and I. frontalis, can act as vectors in the transmission cycles of Borrelia burgdorferi s.l. The ticks have contrasting ecologies but share songbird hosts (such as the great tit, Parus major) with the generalist I. ricin

  6. Brazilian Atlantic Forest lato sensu: the most ancient Brazilian forest, and a biodiversity hotspot, is highly threatened by climate change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AF. Colombo

    Full Text Available After 500 years of exploitation and destruction, the Brazilian Atlantic Forest has been reduced to less the 8% of its original cover, and climate change may pose a new threat to the remnants of this biodiversity hotspot. In this study we used modelling techniques to determine present and future geographical distribution of 38 species of trees that are typical of the Brazilian Atlantic Forest (Mata Atlântica, considering two global warming scenarios. The optimistic scenario, based in a 0.5% increase in the concentration of CO2 in the atmosphere, predicts an increase of up to 2 °C in the Earth's average temperature; in the pessimistic scenario, based on a 1% increase in the concentration of CO2 in the atmosphere, temperature increase may reach 4 °C. Using these parameters, the occurrence points of the studied species registered in literature, the Genetic Algorithm for Rule-set Predictions/GARP and Maximum entropy modeling of species geographic distributions/MaxEnt we developed models of present and future possible occurrence of each species, considering Earth's mean temperature by 2050 with the optimistic and the pessimistic scenarios of CO2 emission. The results obtained show an alarming reduction in the area of possible occurrence of the species studied, as well as a shift towards southern areas of Brazil. Using GARP, on average, in the optimistic scenario this reduction is of 25% while in the pessimistic scenario it reaches 50%, and the species that will suffer the worst reduction in their possible area of occurrence are: Euterpe edulis, Mollinedia schottiana, Virola bicuhyba, Inga sessilis and Vochysia magnifica. Using MaxEnt, on average, in the optimistic scenario the reduction will be of 20% while in the pessimistic scenario it reaches 30%, and the species that will suffer the worst reduction are: Hyeronima alchorneoides, Schefflera angustissima, Andira fraxinifolia and the species of Myrtaceae studied.

  7. Comparative analysis of spermatids of Rhipicephalus sanguineus sensu lato (Ixodidae) and Ornithodoros rostratus ticks (Argasidae): morphophysiology aimed at systematics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampieri, Bruno Rodrigues; Calligaris, Izabela Bragião; Matos, Renata da Silva; Páez, Fredy Arvey Rivera; Bueno, Odair Corrêa; Camargo-Mathias, Maria Izabel

    2016-02-01

    The phylogenetic relationships among tick species (Acari: Ixodida) have been revisited by several researchers over the last decades. Two subfamilies, Rhipicephalinae (Ixodidae) and Ornithodorinae (Argasidae), deserve special attention. The male reproductive system morphology, as well as the ultrastructure of the germ cells, may provide important information for phylogeny and systematics of metazoan groups, with spermatozoa exhibiting characters that can be used for this purpose. With that information in mind, this study aimed at evaluating, through a comparative analysis, the morphology of the male reproductive systems and germ cells of ticks species Rhipicephalus sanguineus and Ornithodoros rostratus. In order to do that, histology and scanning electron microscopy techniques were used. The results have shown that despite the similarities in the general morphology of the male reproductive system among studied Ixodida so far, there are morphological differences among the species studied herein, mainly the U-shaped testis (ancestral character) in O. rostratus and the pair testes (derived character) in R. sanguineus, and the general morphology of germ cells (spermatids V). Besides that, the morphological changes observed during the spermiogenesis appear to be different between the species studied here, probably characterizing the two families considered. The data generated in this study showed the importance of comparative internal morphology studies, mainly in regard to spermatology, despite the morphological data obtained herein not being enough to product a cladogram (sperm cladistics), it was already possible to observe clear differences among families Argasidae and Ixodidae in regard to the organization of their male reproductive systems and concerning the external morphology of spermatids. Data yet to be obtained through transmission electron microscopy techniques will allow the application of spermiocladistics and spermiotaxonomy as tools for tick systematics.

  8. Annea gen. nov.(Detarieae, Caesalpinioideae, Leguminosae): a home for two species long misplaced in Hymenostegia sensu lato. Phytotaxa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mackinder, B.A.; Wieringa, J.J.

    2013-01-01

    A new genus Annea is described to accommodate two tropical African legume species previously misplaced in Hymenostegia (Leguminosae, Caesalpinioideae, Detarieae). Annea gen. nov. is widespread in tropical Africa but has an unusual disjunct generic distribution, occurring in both upper and lower Guin

  9. Borniopsis mortoni sp. n. (Heterodonta, Galeommatoidea, Galeommatidae sensu lato, a new bivalve commensal with a synaptid sea cucumber from Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryutaro Goto

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The Galeommatoidea is a bivalve superfamily that exhibits high species diversity in shallow waters. Many members of this superfamily are associated commensally with burrowing marine invertebrates in benthic sediments. The genus Borniopsis is known only from eastern Asia and exhibits high host diversity (e.g., mantis shrimps, crabs, holothurians, sipunculans and echiurans. A new species, Borniopsis mortoni sp. n., is described from mud flats at the mouth of the Souzu River, southwestern Shikoku Island, Japan. This species has elongate-ovate shells covered by a tan to dark brown periostracum, and lives attached by both its foot and byssal threads to the body surface of the synaptid sea cucumber Patinapta ooplax. Several individuals of B. mortoni are often found on the same host, but sometimes more than 10 individuals can occur together. Borniopsis mortoni is one of the smallest species in this genus. Probably, its small body size is an adaptation to the mode of life in a narrow host burrow. Until now, only two other Borniopsis species were known to have commensal associations with synaptids. Thus, this is the third example of a synaptid-associated species from this genus. In addition, we briefly review the galeommatoideans commensal with apodid sea cucumbers.

  10. A Molecular Phylogeny of Anopheles Annulipes (Diptera: Culicidae) sensu lato: The Most Species-Rich Anopheline Complex

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-09-27

    Springsc 130°58E 12°42S K-14[3],N-17 N-17(91) DQ420404 DQ420596 DQ420468 DQ420532 42 Jim Jim Ckd 133°05E 13°05S K-14[3],N-17, K-14(63) DQ420396...of An. annulipes s.l. may be the cause of much of the diYculty that taxonomists have had in explaining the extensive morphological variation within

  11. Effectiveness of Beauveria bassiana sensu lato strains for biological control against Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus (Acari: Ixodidae) in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Ming; Ren, Qiaoyun; Guan, Guiquan; Li, Yufeng; Han, Xueqing; Ma, Chao; Yin, Hong; Luo, Jianxun

    2013-10-01

    Owing to the need to combat the spread of acaricide-resistant ticks, the development of long-term biological control has become a hot topic for tick control. In this study, we investigated the pathogenicity of three Beauveria bassiana isolates on the engorged female Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus ticks using different conidial concentrations. The results showed that B. bassiana B.bAT17 was highly pathogenic against engorged R. (B.) microplus females, resulting in lethal time (LT50 and LT90) of 7.14 and 9.33 days at a concentration of 10(9)conidia/ml. R. (B.) microplus females treated with B. bassiana B.bAT17 significantly reduced the amount of ovipositioning; and most ticks died before they could begin to oviposit. Proteases and chitinases were analyzed in order to establish a screening method for identification of high virulent strains. This study has confirmed the significant pathogenic effect of entomopathogenic fungi against engorged R. (B.) microplus females in China, and further studies on the efficiency of the fungus against ticks in the field are required.

  12. Molecular characterization of Echinococcus granulosus sensu stricto and Echinococcus canadensis in humans and livestock from Algeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zait, Houria; Kouidri, Mokhtaria; Grenouillet, Florence Elisabeth; Umhang, Gérald; Millon, Laurence; Hamrioui, Boussad; Grenouillet, Frédéric

    2016-06-01

    In Algeria, previous studies investigated genotypes of Echinococcus granulosus sensu lato in animals and identified E. granulosus sensu stricto (s.s.) genotypes G1 and G3 whereas Echinococcus canadensis genotype G6 was only reported from dromedary cysts. Molecular data on human cystic echinococcosis (CE) were limited. We implemented a large genotyping study of hydatid cysts from humans and livestock animals to specify CE's molecular epidemiology and the genetic diversity in Algeria. Fifty-four human CE cysts from patients predominantly admitted in surgical units from Mustapha Hospital, Algiers, and 16 cysts from livestock animals gathered in two geographically distinct slaughterhouses, Tiaret and Tamanrasset, were collected. Molecular characterization was performed using sequencing of two mitochondrial genes, cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) and NADH dehydrogenase subunit I (NDI). In humans, G1 of E. granulosus s.s. was the main genotype (90.7 %); four samples (7.4 %) were characterized as E. granulosus s.s. G3 and one cyst as E. canadensis G6 (1.8 %). This molecular confirmation of E. canadensis G6 human infection in Algeria was observed in a Tuareg female living in a desertic area in Tamanrasset. All cysts from sheep, cattle, and goat were identified as E. granulosus s.s. G1 and the two cysts originating from dromedary as E. canadensis G6. Twenty concatenated haplotypes (COI + NDI) were characterized. Among E. granulosus s.s., one haplotype (HL1) was highly predominant in both humans and animals cysts (71.6 %). This study revealed main occurrence of E. granulosus s.s. in humans and livestock animals, with description of a predominant shared haplotype corresponding to the main worldwide observed haplotype E.granulosus s.s. G1. E. canadensis G6 was limited to South Algeria, in dromedary as well as in human.

  13. Reprint of "Echinococcus granulosus sensu stricto (s.s.) from the critically endangered antelope Addax nasomaculatus in Tunisia".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boufana, Belgees; Saïd, Yousra; Dhibi, Mokhtar; Craig, Philip S; Lahmar, Samia

    2017-01-01

    Echinococcus granulosus sensu lato (s.l.) is a zoonotic disease highly endemic in Tunisia. Canids including stray and semi-stray dogs, jackals and foxes are known as definitive hosts and a wide range of ungulates have been shown to harbour the metacestode hydatid stage and may serve as intermediate hosts. Fertile hydatid cysts of Echinococcus equinus and E. granulosus sensu stricto (s.s.) were recently molecularly identified for the first time from Tunisian donkeys. E. granulosus (s.s.) was also identified from wild boars in Tunisia. Here we report the confirmation of hydatid cysts caused by E. granulosus (s.s.) in the critically endangered antelope, Addax nasomaculatus in Tunisia. DNA-based molecular analysis revealed that A. nasomaculatus was infected with E. granulosus (s.s.) which had a 100% identity with the main globally distributed E. granulosus (s.s.) (EgTu01) haplotype. Cysts of Taenia hydatigena (n=33) were also observed on the liver and in the body cavity. Due to their endangered status and their relatively small numbers, it is unlikely that hydatid infection of A. nasomaculatus will form a major contribution to the epidemiology and transmission of E. granulosus in Tunisia, but infection may result in pathology, morbidity and early mortality, and may still play a role in the perpetuation of the parasite in wildlife cycles.

  14. Emetic toxin-producing strains of Bacillus cereus show distinct characteristics within the Bacillus cereus group.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carlin, Frédéric; Fricker, Martina; Pielaat, Annemarie; Heisterkamp, Simon; Shaheen, Ranad; Salonen, Mirja Salkinoja; Svensson, Birgitta; Nguyen-the, Christophe; Ehling-Schulz, Monika

    2006-01-01

    One hundred representative strains of Bacillus cereus were selected from a total collection of 372 B. cereus strains using two typing methods (RAPD and FT-IR) to investigate if emetic toxin-producing hazardous B. cereus strains possess characteristic growth and heat resistance profiles. The strains

  15. Rapid Detection & Identification of Bacillus Species using MALDI-TOF/TOF and Biomarker Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-06-01

    Les travaux propos6s devraient initialement etre axes Sur le groupe Bacillus cereus, comprenant B. anthracis, B. cereus, and B. thuringiensis . Les...sensu lato), comprises four recognized species: B. cereus, B. thuringiensis , B. anthracis, and B. mycoides [35 - 37]. These Bacillus species can...and B. thuringiensis are genetically closely related, but phenotypically very diverse. B. anthracis produces a toxin that is the cause of the acute and

  16. Pacemaker-associated Bacillus cereus endocarditis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barraud, Olivier; Hidri, Nadia; Ly, Kim; Pichon, Nicolas; Manea, Petrus; Ploy, Marie-Cécile; Garnier, Fabien

    2012-11-01

    We report the case of a pacemaker-associated Bacillus cereus endocarditis in a nonimmunocompromised patient. Antibiotic treatment was ineffective, and the pacemaker had to be removed. B. cereus was cultured from several blood samples and from the pacemaker electrodes. This case underlines the contribution of the rpoB gene for Bacillus species determination.

  17. Bacillus cereus endocarditis in native aortic valve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngow, H A; Wan Khairina, W M N

    2013-02-01

    Bacillus cereus endocarditis is rare. It has been implicated in immunocompromised individuals, especially in intravenous drug users as well as in those with a cardiac prosthesis. The patient was a 31-year-old ex-intravenous drug addict with a past history of staphylococcal pulmonary valve endocarditis, who presented with symptoms of decompensated cardiac failure. Echocardiography showed severe aortic regurgitation with an oscillating vegetation seen on the right coronary cusp of the aortic valve. The blood cultures grew Bacillus cereus. We report this as a rare case of Bacillus cereus endocarditis affecting a native aortic valve.

  18. Microbial Transformation of Quercetin by Bacillus cereus

    OpenAIRE

    Rao, Koppaka V.; Weisner, Nghe T.

    1981-01-01

    Biotransformation of quercetin was examined with a number of bacterial cultures. In the presence of a bacterial culture (Bacillus cereus), quercetin was transformed into two crystalline products, identified as protocatechuic acid and quercetin-3-glucoside (isoquercitrin).

  19. Bacillus cereus Bacteremia in a Preterm Neonate

    OpenAIRE

    Hilliard, Nicholaus J.; Schelonka, Robert L.; Waites, Ken B.

    2003-01-01

    Bacillus cereus is an uncommon but potentially serious bacterial pathogen causing infections of the bloodstream, lungs, and central nervous system of preterm neonates. A case of bacteremia caused by B. cereus in a 19-day-old preterm neonate who was successfully treated with vancomycin, tobramycin, meropenem, and clindamycin is described. Implications for the diagnostic laboratory and clinicians when Bacillus species are detected in normally sterile sites are discussed, and the small numbers o...

  20. Pseudomembranous tracheobronchitis due to Bacillus cereus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strauss, R; Mueller, A; Wehler, M; Neureiter, D; Fischer, E; Gramatzki, M; Hahn, E G

    2001-09-01

    We present a case of a rapidly progressive pseudomembranous tracheobronchitis and pneumonia in a 52-year-old woman with severe aplastic anemia. Bacillus cereus was isolated from bronchoalveolar lavage fluids, blood cultures, and pseudomembrane biopsy specimens; despite intensive antibiotic treatment, the patient's condition deteriorated rapidly. To our knowledge, this is the first report of a B. cereus infection that has caused pseudomembranous tracheobronchitis, possibly because of the production of bacterial toxins.

  1. Bacillus cereus, a volatile human pathogen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bottone, Edward J

    2010-04-01

    Bacillus cereus is a Gram-positive aerobic or facultatively anaerobic, motile, spore-forming, rod-shaped bacterium that is widely distributed environmentally. While B. cereus is associated mainly with food poisoning, it is being increasingly reported to be a cause of serious and potentially fatal non-gastrointestinal-tract infections. The pathogenicity of B. cereus, whether intestinal or nonintestinal, is intimately associated with the production of tissue-destructive exoenzymes. Among these secreted toxins are four hemolysins, three distinct phospholipases, an emesis-inducing toxin, and proteases. The major hurdle in evaluating B. cereus when isolated from a clinical specimen is overcoming its stigma as an insignificant contaminant. Outside its notoriety in association with food poisoning and severe eye infections, this bacterium has been incriminated in a multitude of other clinical conditions such as anthrax-like progressive pneumonia, fulminant sepsis, and devastating central nervous system infections, particularly in immunosuppressed individuals, intravenous drug abusers, and neonates. Its role in nosocomial acquired bacteremia and wound infections in postsurgical patients has also been well defined, especially when intravascular devices such as catheters are inserted. Primary cutaneous infections mimicking clostridial gas gangrene induced subsequent to trauma have also been well documented. B. cereus produces a potent beta-lactamase conferring marked resistance to beta-lactam antibiotics. Antimicrobials noted to be effective in the empirical management of a B. cereus infection while awaiting antimicrobial susceptibility results for the isolate include ciprofloxacin and vancomycin.

  2. The Text of Aristotle's De Sensu and De Memoria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bloch, David Kristian

    2008-01-01

    An examination of alle the manuscripts of the period 10th-14th centuries, which contain the Aristotelian treatises De Sensu and De Memoria. The article establishes a stemma codicum that includes alle these manuscripts.......An examination of alle the manuscripts of the period 10th-14th centuries, which contain the Aristotelian treatises De Sensu and De Memoria. The article establishes a stemma codicum that includes alle these manuscripts....

  3. Echinococcus ortleppi (G5) and Echinococcus granulosus sensu stricto (G1) loads in cattle from Southern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balbinotti, Helier; Santos, Guilherme B; Badaraco, Jeferson; Arend, Ana C; Graichen, Daniel Ângelo S; Haag, Karen L; Zaha, Arnaldo

    2012-09-10

    Echinococcus granulosus sensu stricto (G1) and Echinococcus ortleppi (G5) are haplotypes of the parasite formerly known as Echinococcus granulosus sensu lato, which in its larval stage causes cystic hydatid disease, endemic in Southern Brazil. Epidemiological and molecular knowledge about the haplotypes occurring in a region is essential to control the spread of the disease. The aim of this work was to analyze the haplotype frequency and fertility of hydatid cysts in cattle from the state of Rio Grande do Sul. Cysts were collected and classified according to their fertility status. DNA was extracted from protoscoleces and germinal layers and then used as template for the amplification of the cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 gene by PCR. Amplicons were purified and sequenced, and the sequences were analyzed for haplotype identification. A total of 638 fertile cysts collected in the last ten years were genotyped. On average, G1 (56.6%) was more frequent than G5 (43.4%). In lungs, the G5 haplotype exhibited a higher parasite load (52.8%), whereas in the liver, G1 was more frequent (90.4%). The analysis revealed an increase in the frequency of G5 haplotype cysts during the period of sampling, and an increase in the abundance of fertile cysts has also been observed in the last several years. Most infertile cysts were genotyped as G1. The possible factors involved in the increase in the proportion of E. ortleppi (G5) and the consequences of this increase are discussed. This study suggests that the proportion of E. ortleppi (G5) loads in cattle may be increasing overtime.

  4. Canine echinococcosis: genetic diversity of Echinococcus granulosus sensu stricto (s.s.) from definitive hosts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boufana, B; Lett, W; Lahmar, S; Griffiths, A; Jenkins, D J; Buishi, I; Engliez, S A; Alrefadi, M A; Eljaki, A A; Elmestiri, F M; Reyes, M M; Pointing, S; Al-Hindi, A; Torgerson, P R; Okamoto, M; Craig, P S

    2015-11-01

    Canids, particularly dogs, constitute the major source of cystic echinococcosis (CE) infection to humans, with the majority of cases being caused by Echinococcus granulosus (G1 genotype). Canine echinococcosis is an asymptomatic disease caused by adult tapeworms of E. granulosus sensu lato (s.l.). Information on the population structure and genetic variation of adult E. granulosus is limited. Using sequenced data of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (cox1) we examined the genetic diversity and population structure of adult tapeworms of E. granulosus (G1 genotype) from canid definitive hosts originating from various geographical regions and compared it to that reported for the larval metacestode stage from sheep and human hosts. Echinococcus granulosus (s.s) was identified from adult tapeworm isolates from Kenya, Libya, Tunisia, Australia, China, Kazakhstan, United Kingdom and Peru, including the first known molecular confirmation from Gaza and the Falkland Islands. Haplotype analysis showed a star-shaped network with a centrally positioned common haplotype previously described for the metacestode stage from sheep and humans, and the neutrality indices indicated population expansion. Low Fst values suggested that populations of adult E. granulosus were not genetically differentiated. Haplotype and nucleotide diversities for E. granulosus isolates from sheep and human origin were twice as high as those reported from canid hosts. This may be related to self-fertilization of E. granulosus and/or to the longevity of the parasite in the respective intermediate and definitive hosts. Improved nuclear single loci are required to investigate the discrepancies in genetic variation seen in this study.

  5. [Nucleotide sequence analysis of a species specific probe by an inserted fragment from recombinant plasmid pCX7 of L. interrogans sensu stricto serovar lai].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, B; Xiao, J; Yan, Z; Shen, C; Li, S; Fang, Z

    1998-12-01

    The etiological agents of leptospirosis are the pathogenic leptospires (L. interrogans sensu lato) which can be divided into 223 serovars organized into 23 serogroups. The serovar remains the basic taxon, but serotyping may now be accomplished and recognized by acceptable methods. Complementary molecular approaches are being used extensively to assess genetic relatedness amongst leptospires with restriction endonuclese analysis (REA), pulse field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and DNA-DNA hybridization as well established tools. However, the method is cumbersome and unsuitable for routine application. To develop a sensitive and specific method for identification of pathogenic leptospires, a genomic library of L. interrogans sensu stricto serovar lai was constructed with the plasmid vector pUC9. A recombinant plasmid, designated pCX7 which has homologous fragment of pathogenic leptospires was screened from the bank. pCX7 could recognize pathogenic leptospiral DNA fragment 1.7 kb of strain 017 without cross hybridization to nonpathogenic leptospiral DNA. Inserted fragment of pCX7 DNA sequencing was performed by Dr. Yan Zhengxin (Max-Plank-Institut fur Biology, Tubingen, Germany). Insert fragment was cloned into pBluescript and sequenced by using ABI(Applied Bio. Systems, Model 373A). Nucleotide sequences were analyzed by Dr. Xiao Jianguo (Texas University Medical School and School of Public Health, Center for Infectious Diseases) using a suit of computer program (NIH). One open reading frame of 306 nucleotids were identified. There were identifiable initiation codons, terminators, pribnow box and sextama box within the sequenced regions. These results further confirmed that the little homology between L. interrogans sensu strito and L. borgpeterseni serovar javanica, L. inadai serovar ranarun and serovar manhao (L. genomospecies 2), L. biflexa serovar patoc, L. illini. pCX7 DNA probe could provide a base for identification and classification of leptospires.

  6. Linking Bacillus cereus genotypes and carbohydrate utilization capacity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Warda, Alicja K.; Siezen, Roland J.; Boekhorst, Jos; Wells-Bennik, Marjon H.J.; Jong, de Anne; Kuipers, Oscar P.; Nierop Groot, Masja N.; Abee, Tjakko

    2016-01-01

    We characterised carbohydrate utilisation of 20 newly sequenced Bacillus cereus strains isolated from food products and food processing environments and two laboratory strains, B. cereus ATCC 10987 and B. cereus ATCC 14579. Subsequently, genome sequences of these strains were analysed together wi

  7. Linking Bacillus cereus Genotypes and Carbohydrate Utilization Capacity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Warda, Alicja K.; Siezen, Roland J.; Boekhorst, Jos; Wells-Bennik, Marjon H.J.; Jong, de Anne; Kuipers, Oscar P.; Nierop Groot, Masja N.; Abee, Tjakko

    2016-01-01

    We characterised carbohydrate utilisation of 20 newly sequenced Bacillus cereus strains isolated from food products and food processing environments and two laboratory strains, B. cereus ATCC 10987 and B. cereus ATCC 14579. Subsequently, genome sequences of these strains were analysed together with

  8. Progress in food-related research focussing on Bacillus cereus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vries, de Y.P.; Voort, van der M.; Schaik, van W.; Hornstra, L.M.; Vos, de W.M.; Abee, T.

    2004-01-01

    Bacillus cereus is a gram-positive, rod-shaped, endospore-forming bacterium that occurs ubiquitously and is frequently isolated from soil and food products. When B. cereus is present in foods, it can cause spoilage and poisoning. The work of our group is focussed on several properties of B. cereus t

  9. Comparison of Growth of Borrelia afzelii, Borrelia garinii, and Borrelia burgdorferi Sensu Stricto at Five Different Temperatures.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gorana Veinović

    Full Text Available Lyme borreliosis is caused by the spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato, a fastidious bacterium that replicates slowly and requires special conditions to grow in the laboratory. Borrelia isolation from clinical material is a golden standard for microbiological diagnosis of borrelial infection. Important factors that affect in vitro borrelia growth are temperature of incubation and number of borrelia cells in the sample. The aim of the study was to assess the influence of temperature on borrelia growth and survival by evaluation and comparison of growth of 31 different borrelia strains at five different temperatures and to determine the influence of different inoculums on borrelia growth at different temperatures. Borreliae were cultured in the MKP medium; the initial and final number of spirochetes was determined by dark field microscopy using Neubauer counting chamber. The growth of borrelia was defined as final number of cells/mL after three days of incubation. For all three Borrelia species, the best growth was found at 33°C, followed by 37, 28, and 23°C, while no growth was detected at 4°C (P0.05, respectively. Inoculum had statistically significant influence on growth of all three Borrelia species at all tested temperatures except at 4°C.

  10. Bacillus cereus Biofilms—Same, Only Different

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majed, Racha; Faille, Christine; Kallassy, Mireille; Gohar, Michel

    2016-01-01

    Bacillus cereus displays a high diversity of lifestyles and ecological niches and include beneficial as well as pathogenic strains. These strains are widespread in the environment, are found on inert as well as on living surfaces and contaminate persistently the production lines of the food industry. Biofilms are suspected to play a key role in this ubiquitous distribution and in this persistency. Indeed, B. cereus produces a variety of biofilms which differ in their architecture and mechanism of formation, possibly reflecting an adaptation to various environments. Depending on the strain, B. cereus has the ability to grow as immersed or floating biofilms, and to secrete within the biofilm a vast array of metabolites, surfactants, bacteriocins, enzymes, and toxins, all compounds susceptible to act on the biofilm itself and/or on its environment. Within the biofilm, B. cereus exists in different physiological states and is able to generate highly resistant and adhesive spores, which themselves will increase the resistance of the bacterium to antimicrobials or to cleaning procedures. Current researches show that, despite similarities with the regulation processes and effector molecules involved in the initiation and maturation of the extensively studied Bacillus subtilis biofilm, important differences exists between the two species. The present review summarizes the up to date knowledge on biofilms produced by B. cereus and by two closely related pathogens, Bacillus thuringiensis and Bacillus anthracis. Economic issues caused by B. cereus biofilms and management strategies implemented to control these biofilms are included in this review, which also discuss the ecological and functional roles of biofilms in the lifecycle of these bacterial species and explore future developments in this important research area. PMID:27458448

  11. Bacillus cereus bacteremia in a preterm neonate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilliard, Nicholaus J; Schelonka, Robert L; Waites, Ken B

    2003-07-01

    Bacillus cereus is an uncommon but potentially serious bacterial pathogen causing infections of the bloodstream, lungs, and central nervous system of preterm neonates. A case of bacteremia caused by B. cereus in a 19-day-old preterm neonate who was successfully treated with vancomycin, tobramycin, meropenem, and clindamycin is described. Implications for the diagnostic laboratory and clinicians when Bacillus species are detected in normally sterile sites are discussed, and the small numbers of infant infections proven to be due to this organism that have been described previously are reviewed.

  12. Features of Bacillus cereus swarm cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senesi, Sonia; Salvetti, Sara; Celandroni, Francesco; Ghelardi, Emilia

    2010-11-01

    When propagated on solid surfaces, Bacillus cereus can produce differentiated swarm cells under a wide range of growth conditions. This behavioural versatility is ecologically relevant, since it allows this bacterium to adapt swarming to environmental changes. Swarming by B. cereus is medically important: swarm cells are more virulent and particularly prone to invade host tissues. Characterisation of swarming-deficient mutants highlights that flagellar genes as well as genes governing different metabolic pathways are involved in swarm-cell differentiation. In this review, the environmental and genetic requirements for swarming and the role played by swarm cells in the virulence this pathogen exerts will be outlined.

  13. Bacillus cereus as a nongastrointestinal pathogen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavani G.

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The potential of Bacillus cereus to cause systemic infections is of serious concern. Apart from Gastrointestinal infections, it causes respiratory tract infections, nosocomial infections, eye infections, CNS infections, cutaneous infections, endocarditis, osteomyelitis and urinary tract infections. The potential of this bacterium to cause life threatening infections has increased. Trauma is an important predisposing factor for Bacillus cereus infections. The maintenance of skin and mucous membrane integrity limits infection by this micro-organism. [Int J Res Med Sci 2014; 2(1.000: 28-30

  14. Bacillus cereus cellulitis from contaminated heroin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dancer, S J; McNair, D; Finn, P; Kolsto, A B

    2002-03-01

    Concern exists over recent unexplained deaths among intravenous drug users. This report describes a patient with crepitant cellulitis who was admitted complaining of severe pain in the right forearm. Ultrasonography demonstrated gas in the tissues and he was referred for early surgical debridement of the arm. He was treated with intravenous benzyl penicillin, gentamicin and metronidazole and made a full recovery. Aspirate samples grew Bacillus cereus, morphologically similar to the isolate obtained from a sample of the patient's own heroin. Antibiogram and API 50CHB profiles were also similar. Further typing included 'H' flagellar serotyping, which found both blood and heroin strains to be non-typable, and amplified fragment polymorphism analysis, which showed that the strains were indistinguishable. Genotyping of two selected genes from B. cereus confirmed almost certain identity between the two strains. This case illustrates the potential virulence of B. cereus when inoculated into tissues, and to our knowledge, is the first report to demonstrate a conclusive microbiological link between contaminated heroin and serious sepsis in a drug user due to B. cereus.

  15. Bacillus cereus infection outbreak in captive psittacines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godoy, S N; Matushima, E R; Chaves, J Q; Cavados, C F G; Rabinovitch, L; Teixeira, R H F; Nunes, A L V; Melville, P; Gattamorta, M A; Vivoni, A M

    2012-12-28

    This study reports an uncommon epizootic outbreak of Bacillus cereus that caused the sudden death of 12 psittacines belonging to the species Anodorhynchus hyacinthinus (1 individual), Diopsittaca nobilis (1 individual), Ara severa (1 individual) and Ara ararauna (9 individuals) in a Brazilian zoo. Post-mortem examination of the animals reveled extensive areas of lung hemorrhage, hepatic congestion, hemorrhagic enteritis and cardiac congestion. Histopathological examination of the organs showed the presence of multiple foci of vegetative cells of Gram-positive bacilli associated with discrete and moderate mononuclear inflammatory cell infiltrate. Seventeen B. cereus strains isolated from blood and sterile organs of nine A. ararauna were analyzed in order to investigate the genetic diversity (assessed by Rep-PCR) and toxigenic profiles (presence of hblA, hblC and hblD; nheA, nheB and nheC as well as cytK, ces and entFM genes) of such strains. Amplification of genomic DNA by Rep-PCR of B. cereus strains generated two closely related profiles (Rep-PCR types A and B) with three bands of difference. All strains were classified as belonging to the toxigenic profile I which contained HBL and NHE gene complexes, entFM and cytK genes. Altogether, microbiological and histopathological findings and the evidence provided by the success of the antibiotic prophylaxis, corroborate that B. cereus was the causative agent of the infection that killed the birds.

  16. The phylogeny and taxonomic status of the Chlorocystini (sensu stricto) (Homoptera, Tibicinidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boer, de A.J.

    1995-01-01

    The “Baeturia and related genera complex”, as defined earlier (De Boer, 1990) by shared aedeagal characters, is identified as the tribe Chlorocystini (sensu stricto). The Prasiini (sensu stricto) are identified as the sister group of the Chlorocystini (sensu stricto), while the genus Muda is recogni

  17. Bacillus cereus bacteremia outbreak due to contaminated hospital linens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasahara, T; Hayashi, S; Morisawa, Y; Sakihama, T; Yoshimura, A; Hirai, Y

    2011-02-01

    We describe an outbreak of Bacillus cereus bacteremia that occurred at Jichi Medical University Hospital in 2006. This study aimed to identify the source of this outbreak and to implement appropriate control measures. We reviewed the charts of patients with blood cultures positive for B. cereus, and investigated B. cereus contamination within the hospital environment. Genetic relationships among B. cereus isolates were analyzed. Eleven patients developed B. cereus bacteremia between January and August 2006. The hospital linens and the washing machine were highly contaminated with B. cereus, which was also isolated from the intravenous fluid. All of the contaminated linens were autoclaved, the washing machine was cleaned with a detergent, and hand hygiene was promoted among the hospital staff. The number of patients per month that developed new B. cereus bacteremia rapidly decreased after implementing these measures. The source of this outbreak was B. cereus contamination of hospital linens, and B. cereus was transmitted from the linens to patients via catheter infection. Our findings demonstrated that bacterial contamination of hospital linens can cause nosocomial bacteremia. Thus, blood cultures that are positive for B. cereus should not be regarded as false positives in the clinical setting.

  18. Comparison of hand hygiene procedures for removing Bacillus cereus spores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasahara, Teppei; Hayashi, Shunji; Hosoda, Kouichi; Morisawa, Yuji; Hirai, Yoshikazu

    2014-01-01

    Bacillus cereus is a spore-forming bacterium. B. cereus occasionally causes nosocomial infections, in which hand contamination with the spores plays an important role. Therefore, hand hygiene is the most important practice for controlling nosocomial B. cereus infections. This study aimed to determine the appropriate hand hygiene procedure for removing B. cereus spores. Thirty volunteers' hands were experimentally contaminated with B. cereus spores, after which they performed 6 different hand hygiene procedures. We compared the efficacy of the procedures in removing the spores from hands. The alcohol-based hand-rubbing procedures scarcely removed them. The soap washing procedures reduced the number of spores by more than 2 log10. Extending the washing time increased the spore-removing efficacy of the washing procedures. There was no significant difference in efficacy between the use of plain soap and antiseptic soap. Handwashing with soap is appropriate for removing B. cereus spores from hands. Alcohol-based hand-rubbing is not effective.

  19. Necrotizing gastritis due to Bacillus cereus in an immunocompromised patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Scanff, J; Mohammedi, I; Thiebaut, A; Martin, O; Argaud, L; Robert, D

    2006-04-01

    Bacillus cereus is increasingly being acknowledged as a serious bacterial pathogen in immunocompromised patients. We present a case of acute necrotizing gastritis caused by B. cereus in a 37-year-old woman with acute myeloblastic leukemia, who recovered following total parenteral nutrition and treatment with imipenem and vancomycin. B. cereus was isolated from gastric mucosa and blood cultures. Up to now, no case of acute necrotizing gastritis due to this organism has been reported.

  20. Seroprevalence and geographic distribution of Dirofilaria immitis and tick-borne infections (Anaplasma phagocytophilum, Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato, and Ehrlichia canis) in dogs from Romania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mircean, Viorica; Dumitrache, Mirabela Oana; Györke, Adriana; Pantchev, Nikola; Jodies, Robert; Mihalca, Andrei Daniel; Cozma, Vasile

    2012-07-01

    Tick-borne diseases are of great concern worldwide. Despite this, in Romania there is only limited information regarding the prevalence of vector-borne pathogens in dogs. In all, 1146 serum samples were tested by SNAP(®) 4Dx(®) (IDEXX Laboratories, Inc., Westbrook, ME) for Anaplasma phagocytophilum, Borrelia burgdorferi, and Ehrlichia canis antibodies, and for Dirofilaria immitis antigen. The correlation between positive cases and their geographic distribution, as well as potential risk factors (age, sex, breed, type of dog, habitat, and prophylactic treatments) were evaluated. Overall, 129 dogs (11.3%) were serologically-positive to one or more of the tested pathogens. The seroprevalence for the four infectious agents were: A. phagocytophilum 5.5% (63/1146), D. immitis 3.3% (38/1146), E. canis 2.1% (24/1146), and B. burgdorferi 0.5% (6/1146). Co-infection with E. canis and A. phagocytophilum was registered in 2 dogs (0.2%). The geographical distribution of the seropositive cases suggests clustered foci in southern regions and in the western part of the country for D. immitis, and in the southeastern region (Constanţa County) for E. canis. A. phagocytophilum and B. burgdorferi showed a homogenous distribution, with a tendency for Lyme-positive samples to concentrate in central Romania. For D. immitis, A. phagocytophilum, and E. canis, administering prophylactic treatments was a risk factor associated with infection. Another associated risk factor was the type of dog (stray dogs were at risk being positive for D. immitis, shelter dogs for E. canis, and hunting dogs for B. burgdorferi). The prevalence of D. immitis was significantly higher in males and in dogs older than 2 years. This survey represents the first data detailing A. phagocytophilum and E. canis seroprevalence in Romanian dogs, and the most comprehensive epidemiological study on vector-borne infections in dogs from this country.

  1. Which forest bird species are the main hosts of the tick, Ixodes ricinus, the vector of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato, during the breeding season?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsot, M; Henry, P-Y; Vourc'h, G; Gasqui, P; Ferquel, E; Laignel, J; Grysan, M; Chapuis, J-L

    2012-07-01

    Wild birds are important hosts for vector-borne pathogens, especially those borne by ticks. However, few studies have been conducted on the role of different bird species within a community as hosts of vector-borne pathogens. This study addressed individual and species factors that could explain the burden of Ixodes ricinus on forest birds during the reproductive periods of both vectors and hosts. The goal was to identify which bird species contribute the most to the tick population at the community level. Birds were mist-netted on four plots in 2008 and on seven plots in 2009 in two forests (Sénart and Notre Dame, near Paris, France). The dependence of the tick load per bird upon environmental conditions (questing nymph density, year and plot) and on host species traits (species, age, sex, body size, vertical space use, level of innate and acquired immunity) was analysed. Finally, the relative contribution of each bird species to the local dynamics of ticks was estimated, while accounting for their respective abundance. Tick burden differed markedly between bird species and varied according to questing nymph density. Bird species with a high body mass, those that forage low in the vegetation, and those that had a high innate immune response and a high spleen mass were more likely to have a high tick burden. Four species (the Common Blackbird, Turdus merula, the European Robin, Erithacus rubecula, the Song Thrush, Turdus philomelos, and the Winter Wren, Troglodytes troglodytes) hosted more than 90% of the ticks in the local bird community. These species, and particularly T. merula which was host to a high proportion of the nymphs, are likely to contribute significantly to the circulation of pathogens for which they are competent, such as the agent of Lyme borreliosis.

  2. Screening of cytoplasmic DNA diversity between and within Lupinus mutabilis Sweet and Lupinus albus sensu lato by restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olczak, T; Rurek, M; Jańska, H; Augustyniak, H; Sawicka-Sienkiewicz, E J

    2001-01-01

    Seven populations and five mutant lines of the Andean lupin and four species from the section Albus were screened for their mitochondrial and chloroplast polymorphisms. For this purpose the RFLP method with EcoRI as a restriction enzyme was used. Lupinus luteus, Lupinus albus and Phaseolus vulgaris organellar clones as well as amplified fragments were used as probes. We found that mitochondrial probes were more suitable than chloroplast probes for identification of inter- and intra-specific variations within the examined material. Most mitochondrial probes differentiate the two species investigated. A high level of mitochondrial polymorphism was observed among the populations of L. mutabilis in contrast to monomorphism among the species in the section Albus. A limited polymorphism was detected between the mutant lines of L. mutabilis. We conclude from this study that the mitochondrial RFLP analysis is a valuable tool for identification of variability among Andean lupin populations.

  3. Analysis of the population genetics of Opisthorchis viverrini sensu lato in the Nam Ngum River wetland, Lao PDR, by multilocus enzyme electrophoresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiatsopit, Nadda; Sithithaworn, Paiboon; Saijuntha, Weerachai; Pitaksakulrat, Opal; Petney, Trevor N; Webster, Joanne P; Andrews, Ross H

    2014-08-01

    A previous population genetics study of Opisthorchis viverrini from a locality in an endemic area in Thailand found little genetic variation over time and second intermediate fish host species. Since a similar comparative analysis is not available for Lao PDR, we conducted a study of O. viverrini from different endemic foci in Vientiane Province, Lao PDR, based on spatial, temporal and fish host species. A total of 620 adult O. viverrini originating from the Nam Ngum River wetland were analysed at five previously defined polymorphic enzyme loci. Of these worms, 252 were from six different localities (spatial samples), 162 worms from different years (temporal samples) and 206 worms from four different cyprinid fish species. Significant heterozygote deficiency was found in most O. viverrini populations with levels of genetic differentiation ranging between F ST 0.0000 and 0.0197 suggesting that gene flow occurred at a variable rate. The role of temporal factors and fish host species had little influence on the level of genetic differentiation. As for O. viverrini from Thailand, these findings indicate that self-fertilization and/or a clonal distribution of O. viverrini occurs in Lao PDR. Unlike the results for O. viverrini from Thailand, spatial population substructuring may be the underlying population processes for O. viverrini in Lao PDR. These findings indicate that geographical variation may contribute to the transmission dynamics of the parasite with implications for parasite control. However, other host factors, such as snail intermediate hosts and mammal reservoir hosts, as well as human beings, may also play significant roles.

  4. Co-occurrence and distribution of East (L1014S) and West (L1014F) African knock-down resistance in Anopheles gambiae sensu lato population of Tanzania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabula, Bilali; Kisinza, William; Tungu, Patrick; Ndege, Chacha; Batengana, Benard; Kollo, Douglas; Malima, Robert; Kafuko, Jessica; Mohamed, Mahdi; Magesa, Stephen

    2014-01-01

    Objective Insecticide resistance molecular markers can provide sensitive indicators of resistance development in Anopheles vector populations. Assaying these makers is of paramount importance in the resistance monitoring programme. We investigated the presence and distribution of knock-down resistance (kdr) mutations in Anopheles gambiae s.l. in Tanzania. Methods Indoor-resting Anopheles mosquitoes were collected from 10 sites and tested for insecticide resistance using the standard WHO protocol. Polymerase chain reaction-based molecular diagnostics were used to genotype mosquitoes and detect kdr mutations. Results The An. gambiae tested were resistance to lambdacyhalothrin in Muheza, Arumeru and Muleba. Out of 350 An. gambiae s.l. genotyped, 35% were An. gambiae s.s. and 65% An. arabiensis. L1014S and L1014F mutations were detected in both An. gambiae s.s. and An. arabiensis. L1014S point mutation was found at the allelic frequency of 4–33%, while L1014F was at the allelic frequency 6–41%. The L1014S mutation was much associated with An. gambiae s.s. (χ2 = 23.41; P mutaciones de resistencia knockdown (kdr) en Anopheles gambiae s.l. en Tanzania. Métodos Se recolectaron mosquitos Anopheles intradomiciliarios de 10 lugares diferentes y se evaluaron en busca de resistencia a insecticidas utilizando el protocolo estándar de la OMS. Mediante un diagnóstico molecular basado en la PCR se genotiparon los mosquitos y se detectaron los genotipos kdr. Resultados Los An. gambiae evaluados eran resistentes a lambdacialotrina en Muheza, Arumeru y Muleba. De 350 An. gambiae s.l. genotipados, 35% eran An. gambiae s.s. y 65% eran An. arabiensis. Se detectaron mutaciones L1014S y L1014F tanto en An. gambiae s.s. como en An. arabiensis. La mutación puntual L1014S se encontró con una frecuencia alélica de 4-33%, mientras que L1014F tenía una frecuencia alélica de 6-14%. La mutación L1014S estaba ampliamente asociada a An. gambiae s.s. (Chi-Cuadrado = 23.41; P mutaciones de L1014S y L1014F junto con informes de resistencia a los insecticidas sugiere que la resistencia a piretroides se está convirtiendo en un fenómeno común entre las poblaciones del vector de la malaria en Tanzania. La presencia de la mutación L1014F en estas poblaciones del Este de África indican la diseminación del gen a lo largo del continente africano. Determinar las implicaciones potenciales a nivel operativo de estos hallazgos sobre el control de la malaria requiere de más estudios. PMID:24386946

  5. Genetic diversity of Fusarium graminearum sensu lato isolates from wheat associated with Fusarium Head Blight in diverse geographic locations of Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Consolo, Verónica F; Ortega, Leonel M; Salerno, Graciela; Astoreca, Andrea L; Alconada, Teresa M

    2015-01-01

    Fusarium Head Blight is an important wheat disease in the Argentine Pampas region, being Fusarium graminearum the predominant pathogen. DNA polymorphism of the isolates was analyzed by IGS-RFLP and ISSR. IGS-RFLP and ISSR profiling were carried out using six endonucleases and eight primers, respectively. IGS-RFLP yielded 41 bands, 30 of which were polymorphic while ISSR produced 87 bands with 47 polymorphic bands. Both markers showed genetic variability among the analyzed isolates; however, IGS-RFLP was more efficient than ISSR, showing a higher polymorphic average (59.91%) than the latter (44.11%). The averages of polymorphic information content (PIC) were 0.211 and 0.129, respectively. Twenty haplotypes were identified by IGS-RFLP and 15 haplotypes by ISSR. Genotype clustering within dendrograms was different for both types of markers. The genetic groups obtained by IGS-RFLP showed a partial association to geographic origin. This is the first report on genetic variability of F. graminearum isolates from wheat in Argentina using IGS-RFLP and ISSR markers.

  6. Anaplasmataceae and Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato in the sand lizard Lacerta agilis and co-infection of these bacteria in hosted Ixodes ricinus ticks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ekner Anna

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Anaplasmataceae and Borrelia burgdorferi s.l. are important tick-borne bacteria maintained in nature by transmission between ticks and vertebrate hosts. However, the potential role of lizards as hosts has not been sufficiently studied. Results The current study showed that 23 of 171 examined sand lizards Lacerta agilis were PCR positive for Anaplasmataceae. The nucleotide sequences of the several selected PCR products showed 100% homology with Anaplasma spp. found in Ixodes ricinus collected in Tunisia and Morocco (AY672415 - AY672420. 1.2% of lizard collar scale samples were PCR positive for B. lusitaniae. In addition, 12 of 290 examined I. ricinus were PCR positive for B. burgdorferi s.l. and 82 were PCR positive for Anaplasmatacea. The number of ticks per lizard and the number of ticks PCR positive for both microorganisms per lizard were strongly correlated. Moreover, we found a significant correlation between numbers of ticks infected with Anaplasmataceae and with B. burgdorferi s.l. living on the same lizard. However, there was no significant correlation between detection of both bacteria in the same tick. Conclusions To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of Anaplasmataceae DNA and additionally the second report of B. burgdorferi s.l DNA detection in the sand lizard.

  7. Molecular evolution and population genetics of a Gram-negative binding protein gene in the malaria vector Anopheles gambiae (sensu lato)

    OpenAIRE

    Salgueiro, Patrícia; Lopes, Ana Sofia; Mendes, Cristina; Charlwood, Jacques Derek; Arez, Ana Paula; Pinto, João; Silveira, Henrique

    2016-01-01

    Background Clarifying the role of the innate immune system of the malaria vector Anopheles gambiae is a potential way to block the development of the Plasmodium parasites. Pathogen recognition is the first step of innate immune response, where pattern recognition proteins like GNBPs play a central role. Results We analysed 70 sequences of the protein coding gene GNBPB2 from two species, Anopheles gambiae (s.s.) and An. coluzzii, collected in six African countries. We detected 135 segregating ...

  8. The practical importance of permanent and semipermanent habitats for controlling aquatic stages of Anopheles gambiae sensu lato mosquitoes: operational observations from a rural town in western Kenya

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fillinger, U.; Sonye, G.; Killeen, G.F.; Knols, B.G.J.; Becker, N.

    2004-01-01

    Control of aquatic-stage Anopheles is one of the oldest and most historically successful interventions to prevent malaria, but it has seen little application in Africa. Consequently, the ecology of immature afrotropical Anopheles has received insufficient attention. We therefore examined the populat

  9. Bacillus cereus panophthalmitis: source of the organism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamsuddin, D; Tuazon, C U; Levy, C; Curtin, J

    1982-01-01

    Serious infections with the "nonpathogenic" Bacillus species are increasingly being recognized, especially in drug abusers. Cases of panophthalmitis secondary to infection with Bacillus cereus, with and without associated bacteremia, have been reported. Three drug abusers with panophthalmitis seen in our hospitals during a three-year period are described, and the similar cases reported in the literature are reviewed. The syndrome is characterized by an acute onset with a rapid fulminating course that eventually leads to enucleation or evisceration of the eye. The pathogenic mechanism is unknown, but is probably related to the production of toxin (lecithinase) by B. cereus. Clindamycin appears to be the antibiotic of choice in the treatment of this infection. In order to identify a possible source of the organism, 59 samples of heroin and injection paraphernalia were cultured. Twenty cultures yielded organisms; Bacillus species were the predominant isolates. Thirty-eight percent of the isolates were identified as B. cereus. Thus, infections caused by Bacillus species in drug abusers can probably be associated with intravenous heroin abuse because heroin mixtures and injection paraphernalia are frequently contaminated with this organism.

  10. BACILLUS CEREUS: ISOLATION IN JENNET MILK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.L. Scatassa

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Jennet milk as human food is hypoallergenic for patients affected by Cow Milk Protein Allergy and multiple food allergies. For these pathologies, jennet milk represents the best alternative to other types of milk. Therefore, jennet milk consumers are very sensible to the effects of pathogens' contaminations, and several hygienic practices during the milk production need to be adopted. During regular monitoring in one Sicilian jennet farm, Bacillus cereus in the milk was detected. In 3 bulk milk samples (maximum concentration: 1.2 x 103 ufc/ml, in 3 individual milk samples (10, 20 e 60 ufc/ml, in the milk filter (5 ufc/cm2, in the soil (maximum concentration: 1.5 x 103 ufc/g, on the hands and the gloves of two milkers, on the animal hide (from 1 to 3 ufc/cm2. No spores were detected. A total of 8 Bacillus cereus s.s. strains were analyzed for diarrhoic toxin, and 6 strains producing enterotoxins resulted. The improvement of environmental and milking hygienic conditions reduced Bacillus cereus concentration.

  11. Identification and safety evaluation of Bacillus species occurring in high numbers during spontaneous fermentations to produce Gergoush, a traditional Sudanese bread snack

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorsen, Line; Abdelgadir, Warda S.; Rønsbo, Mie Hvillum

    2011-01-01

    Gergoush is a naturally fermented Sudanese Bread snack produced in three fermentation steps (primary starter, adapted starter and final dough), followed by three baking steps for a half to one hour at above 200°C. This study examines the microbiota of two sets of fermentations performed...... no bacteria were detected after baking. A total of 180 B. cereus sensu lato isolates from four different primary starters, adapted starters and final doughs were further identified as B. cereus sensu stricto (118 isolates) and Bacillus thuringiensis (62 isolates). The safety of Gergoush was evaluated based...

  12. Manipulating Steady Heat Conduction by Sensu-shaped Thermal Metamaterials

    CERN Document Server

    Han, Tiancheng; Liu, Dan; Gao, Dongliang; Li, Baowen; Thong, John T L; Qiu, Cheng-Wei

    2014-01-01

    The ability to design the control of heat flow has innumerable benefits in the design of electronic systems such as thermoelectric energy harvesters, solid-state lighting, and thermal imagers, where the thermal design plays a key role in performance and device reliability. However, to realize one advanced control function of thermal flux, one needs to design one sophisticated, multilayered and inhomogeneous thermal structure with different composition/shape at different regions of one device. In this work, we employ one identical sensu-unit with facile natural composition to experimentally realize a new class of thermal metamaterials for controlling thermal conduction (e.g., thermal concentrator, focusing/resolving, uniform heating), only resorting to positioning and locating the same unit element of sensu-shape structure. The thermal metamaterial unit and the proper arrangement of multiple identical units are capable of transferring, redistributing and managing thermal energy in a versatile fashion. It is al...

  13. Manipulating Steady Heat Conduction by Sensu-shaped Thermal Metamaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Tiancheng; Bai, Xue; Liu, Dan; Gao, Dongliang; Li, Baowen; Thong, John T. L.; Qiu, Cheng-Wei

    2015-01-01

    The ability to design the control of heat flow has innumerable benefits in the design of electronic systems such as thermoelectric energy harvesters, solid-state lighting, and thermal imagers, where the thermal design plays a key role in performance and device reliability. In this work, we employ one identical sensu-unit with facile natural composition to experimentally realize a new class of thermal metamaterials for controlling thermal conduction (e.g., thermal concentrator, focusing/resolving, uniform heating), only resorting to positioning and locating the same unit element of sensu-shape structure. The thermal metamaterial unit and the proper arrangement of multiple identical units are capable of transferring, redistributing and managing thermal energy in a versatile fashion. It is also shown that our sensu-shape unit elements can be used in manipulating dc currents without any change in the layout for the thermal counterpart. These could markedly enhance the capabilities in thermal sensing, thermal imaging, thermal-energy storage, thermal packaging, thermal therapy, and more domains beyond. PMID:25974383

  14. Manipulating Steady Heat Conduction by Sensu-shaped Thermal Metamaterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Tiancheng; Bai, Xue; Liu, Dan; Gao, Dongliang; Li, Baowen; Thong, John T L; Qiu, Cheng-Wei

    2015-05-14

    The ability to design the control of heat flow has innumerable benefits in the design of electronic systems such as thermoelectric energy harvesters, solid-state lighting, and thermal imagers, where the thermal design plays a key role in performance and device reliability. In this work, we employ one identical sensu-unit with facile natural composition to experimentally realize a new class of thermal metamaterials for controlling thermal conduction (e.g., thermal concentrator, focusing/resolving, uniform heating), only resorting to positioning and locating the same unit element of sensu-shape structure. The thermal metamaterial unit and the proper arrangement of multiple identical units are capable of transferring, redistributing and managing thermal energy in a versatile fashion. It is also shown that our sensu-shape unit elements can be used in manipulating dc currents without any change in the layout for the thermal counterpart. These could markedly enhance the capabilities in thermal sensing, thermal imaging, thermal-energy storage, thermal packaging, thermal therapy, and more domains beyond.

  15. Bacillus cereus: emetic toxin production and gamma hypothesis for growth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Biesta-Peters, E.G.

    2011-01-01

    Bacillus cereus is a food spoilage microorganism and a pathogen. Growth of B. cereus can be prevented or delayed by adding growth limiting compounds to the food product or by altered storage conditions. Combinations of growth limiting factors

  16. Antimicrobial Effects of Honey on Bacillus Cereus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    This paper should be cited as: Javadzadeh M, Najafi M, Rezaei M, Dastoor M, Behzadi AS, Amiri A . [ Antimicrobial Effects of Honey on Bacillus Cereus ]. MLJ. 201 4 ; 8 ( 2 : 55 - 61 [Article in Persian] Javadzadeh, M. (MSc

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objective: Honey is a healthy and nutritious food that has been used for a long time as a treatment for different diseases. One of the applied properties of honey is its antimicrobial effect, which differs between different types of honey due to variation of phenolic and antioxidant compositions. This study aimed to assess antimicrobial effect of honey on Bacillus cereus, considering its chemical properties. Material and Methods: Three samples of honey (A1 and A2 of Khorasan Razavi Province and A3 of South Khorasan province (were prepared and studied in terms of chemical parameters .The antibacterial effect of honey was surveyed throughTurbidimeter using spectrometer with incubator time of 2, 4, 6, and 8hrs. the level of turbidity caused by bacterium growth was measured at different times with a wavelength of 600nm. Results: According to the study, the samples containing higher concentration of polyphenol has more antimicrobial activity. The samples of A2, A3, and A1 had the highest concentration of polyphenol, respectively. Conclusion: The results indicate the prebiotic effect of honey that can be justified by the presence of fructo-oligosacharids and vitamin B. Keywords: Honey, Bacillus Cereus, Antibacterial, Turbidimetry.

  17. Enterotoxigenic profiles and polymerase chain reaction detection of Bacillus cereus group cells and B. cereus strains from foods and food-borne outbreaks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Y M; Sheu, S J; Chen, Y L; Tsen, H Y

    1999-10-01

    Bacillus cereus is one of the important food pathogens. Since B. cereus group cells, such as B. cereus, B. thuringiensis, B. anthracis and B. mycoides, share many phenotypical properties and a high level of chromosomal sequence similarity, it is interesting to investigate the virulence profiles for B. cereus group cells, including B. cereus strains isolated from foods and samples associated with food-poisoning outbreaks. For this investigation, the presence of enterotoxin genes, such as those of haemolysin BL, B. cereus enterotoxin T and enterotoxin FM, were assayed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) methods. Meanwhile, their enterotoxin activities were assayed using the BCET-RPLA kit, haemolytic patterns on sheep blood agar and their cytotoxicity to Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells. Results showed that there were 12 enterotoxigenic profiles for the 98 B. cereus group strains collected. In addition, if any of the three types of enterotoxins was present in the B. cereus group cells, these cells were shown to be cytotoxic to the CHO cells. Similar enterotoxigenic profiles could be found among strains of B. cereus, B. mycoides and B. thuringiensis. Thus, all B. cereus group strains may be potentially toxigenic and the detection of these cells in foods is important. We thus designed PCR primers, termed Ph1/Ph2, from the sphingomyelinase gene of B. cereus cells. These primers were specific for all B. cereus group strains and could be used for the detection of B. cereus cells contaminated in food samples.

  18. Production, Secretion and Biological Activity of Bacillus cereus Enterotoxins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia Senesi

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Bacillus cereus behaves as an opportunistic pathogen frequently causing gastrointestinal diseases, and it is increasingly recognized to be responsible for severe local or systemic infections. Pathogenicity of B. cereus mainly relies on the secretion of a wide array of toxins and enzymes and also on the ability to undergo swarming differentiation in response to surface-sensing. In this report, the pathogenicity exerted by B. cereus toxins is described with particular attention to the regulatory mechanisms of production and secretion of HBL, Nhe and CytK enterotoxins.

  19. Bacillus cereus in Brazilian Ultra High Temperature milk Bacillus cereus em leite UHT brasileiro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiana de Paula Pacheco-Sanchez

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Brazilian Ultra High Temperature (UHT milk consumption has increased during the last decade from 187 to 4,200 million liters. In the continuous UHT process, milk is submitted for 2-4 s to 130-150ºC, in a continuous flow system with immediate refrigeration and aseptical packing in hermetic packages. This research had the purpose to verify the incidence of B. cereus species from the B. cereus group, in UHT milk. In 1998 high indexes of these organisms were reported, reaching 34.14% of the analyzed samples. Beyond this fact, there was the need to establish methods and processes adjusted for correct identification of B. cereus. Thus, commercial sterility tests of 6,500 UHT milk packages were investigated in two assays, after ten days incubation at 37ºC and 7ºC to germinate all possible spores and/or to recuperate injured vegetative cells followed by pH measurement. Samples (1,300 packages each from five Brazilian UHT plants of whole UHT milk processed by direct steam injection, packaged in carton were investigated for the presence of Bacillus cereus through phenotypic and genetic (PCR tests. Values of pH were different for the samples, ranging between 6.57 and 6.73. After storage of the samples, only four packages with pH measurement below the lower limit of 6.5 were found and analyzed for the presence of B. cereus. This organism was not detected in any of the samples indicating that the five Brazilian UHT milk processors control pathogenic microorganisms and it can be said that the consumption of UHT milk does not present safety problems to consumers. Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR and PCR tests were efficient and must be adopted to confirm the biochemical series for B. cereus.O consumo de leite ultra-alta temperatura (UHT brasileiro aumentou, durante a última década, de 187 milhões de litros para 4,200 milhões de litros. No processo contínuo de leite UHT o leite é submetido por 2-4 seg a 130-150ºC, em sistemas de

  20. Bacillus cereus panophthalmitis after intravenous heroin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatem, G; Merritt, J C; Cowan, C L

    1979-03-01

    Two healthy young black men developed panophthalmitis after intravenous heroin injections. Bacillus cereus, considered to be a relatively noncommon pathogen for man, was found to be the causative agent as it was recovered from the anterior chamber and viterous cavity of both cases. The ocular findings were unilateral in each case, and neither patient had any sistemic involvement from the bacteremia. The onset of visual symptoms varied from 24 to 36 hours after the last intravenous injection with the eye becoming rapidly blind. Photographs of the early fundus lesions included preretinal hypopyon-like lesions and peculiar changes in the blood vasculature. Intracameral gentamicin and steroids did not alter the cause, and treatment was enucleation.

  1. Bacillus cereus immune escape: a journey within macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Seav-Ly; Ramarao, Nalini

    2013-10-01

    During bacterial infection, professional phagocytes are attracted to the site of infection, where they constitute a first line of host cell defense. Their function is to engulf and destroy the pathogens. Thus, bacteria must withstand the bactericidal activity of professional phagocytes, including macrophages to counteract the host immune system. Bacillus cereus infections are characterized by bacteremia despite the accumulation of inflammatory cells at the site of infection. This implies that the bacteria have developed means of resisting the host immune system. Bacillus cereus spores survive, germinate, and multiply in contact with macrophages, eventually producing toxins that kill these cells. However, the exact mechanism by which B. cereus evades immune attack remains unclear. This review addresses the interaction between B. cereus and macrophages, highlighting, in particular, the ways in which the bacteria escape the microbicidal activities of professional phagocytes.

  2. Fatal Bacillus cereus bacteremia in a patient with diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orrett, F A

    2000-04-01

    This report describes a fatal case of Bacillus cereus septicemia in a patient with uncontrolled diabetes and re-emphasizes the potential seriousness of Bacillus infections in patients with compromised immune function.

  3. Adaptation in Bacillus cereus: from stress to disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine Duport

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Bacillus cereus is a foodborne pathogen that causes diarrheal disease in humans. After ingestion B. cereus experiences in the human gastro-intestinal tract abiotic physical variables encountered in food, such as acidic pH in the stomach and changing oxygen conditions in the human intestine. B. cereus responds to environmental changing conditions (stress by reversibly adjusting its physiology to maximize resource utilization while maintaining structural and genetic integrity by repairing and minimizing damage to cellular infrastructure. As reviewed in this article, B. cereus adapts to acidic pH and changing oxygen conditions through diverse regulatory mechanisms and then exploits its metabolic flexibility to grow and produce enterotoxins. We then focus on the intricate link between metabolism, redox homeostasis and enterotoxins, which are recognized as important contributors of food-borne disease.

  4. Fulminating bacteremia and pneumonia due to Bacillus cereus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, J M; Hair, J G; Hebert, M; Hebert, L; Roberts, F J; Weyant, R S

    1997-02-01

    We present two cases of rapidly progressing, fatal pneumonia caused by Bacillus cereus. These cases are interesting in that B. cereus, even from blood or sputum specimens, may often be considered a contaminant and receive inadequate attention. Also of interest was the fact that the two patients resided in the same area of the state, were welders by trade, and became ill within a few days of each other, yet there was no epidemiologic link between them.

  5. Fulminating bacteremia and pneumonia due to Bacillus cereus.

    OpenAIRE

    Miller, J M; Hair, J G; Hebert, M.; Hebert, L; Roberts, F. J.; Weyant, R S

    1997-01-01

    We present two cases of rapidly progressing, fatal pneumonia caused by Bacillus cereus. These cases are interesting in that B. cereus, even from blood or sputum specimens, may often be considered a contaminant and receive inadequate attention. Also of interest was the fact that the two patients resided in the same area of the state, were welders by trade, and became ill within a few days of each other, yet there was no epidemiologic link between them.

  6. A catalog of the types of Chrysomelidae sensu lato (Insecta, Coleoptera, Polyphaga deposited in the Museo Argentino de Ciencias Naturales, Buenos Aires Catálogo de los tipos de Chrysomelidae sensu lato (Insecta, Coleoptera, Polyphaga depositados en el Museo Argentino de Ciencias Naturales, Buenos Aires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Axel O. Bachmann

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The type specimens (all current categories of Chrysomelidae s.l. deposited in this Museum are listed; 125 names are recorded, 85 of them (68 percent are represented here by name-bearing types ('primary' types, five of them dubious. The family is taken in its broadest sense, including the Bruchinae, Hispinae (along with the former Cassidinae, and other groups sometimes considered as separate families. The specific and subspecific names were alphabetically filed, followed by the generic ones as they were spelled in the original publication, or the generic and specific names in the case of subspecies and varieties. Later combinations and/or current binomina are mentioned insofar as these are known to the authors. Two lists are added: 1. of specimens labelled as types of unavailable names, chiefly those not found in the literature, and supposedly not published, and 2. of specimens labelled as types, but not originally included as such, and published or not after the original description.Se catalogan los ejemplares típicos, de todas las categorías aceptadas, de Chrysomelidae s.l. conservados en este museo; se registran 125 nombres, 85 de ellos (68 por ciento representados aquí por tipos portadores de nombres (tipos 'primarios', cinco de ellos dudosos. La familia se toma en su concepto más amplio, incluyendo a las Bruchinae, las Hispinae (con las anteriores Cassidinae y otros grupos a veces considerados como familias separadas. Los nombres específicos y subespecíficos fueron ordenados alfabéticamente; a estos siguen los de los géneros, así como se publicaron originalmente, o de los géneros y especies en el caso de las subespecies y variedades. Se mencionan las combinaciones ulteriores y/o los binomios en uso, hasta donde son conocidos por los autores. Se agregan dos listas: 1. de los ejemplares rotulados como tipos, de nombres no disponibles, principalmente aquellos no hallados en la bibliografía, y supuestamente no publicados, y 2. de los ejemplares rotulados como tipos, pero no incluidos originalmente como tales, publicados o no después de la descripción original.

  7. Linking Bacillus cereus Genotypes and Carbohydrate Utilization Capacity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alicja K Warda

    Full Text Available We characterised carbohydrate utilisation of 20 newly sequenced Bacillus cereus strains isolated from food products and food processing environments and two laboratory strains, B. cereus ATCC 10987 and B. cereus ATCC 14579. Subsequently, genome sequences of these strains were analysed together with 11 additional B. cereus reference genomes to provide an overview of the different types of carbohydrate transporters and utilization systems found in B. cereus strains. The combined application of API tests, defined growth media experiments and comparative genomics enabled us to link the carbohydrate utilisation capacity of 22 B. cereus strains with their genome content and in some cases to the panC phylogenetic grouping. A core set of carbohydrates including glucose, fructose, maltose, trehalose, N-acetyl-glucosamine, and ribose could be used by all strains, whereas utilisation of other carbohydrates like xylose, galactose, and lactose, and typical host-derived carbohydrates such as fucose, mannose, N-acetyl-galactosamine and inositol is limited to a subset of strains. Finally, the roles of selected carbohydrate transporters and utilisation systems in specific niches such as soil, foods and the human host are discussed.

  8. Virulence of Bacillus cereus: a multivariate analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minnaard, J; Delfederico, L; Vasseur, V; Hollmann, A; Rolny, I; Semorile, L; Pérez, P F

    2007-05-10

    Biological activity and presence of DNA sequences related to virulence genes were studied in 21 strains of the Bacillus cereus group. The activity of spent culture supernatants and the effect of infection by vegetative bacterial cells were assessed on cultured human enterocytes (Caco-2 cells). The effect of extracellular factors on the detachment, necrosis and mitochondrial dehydrogenase activity of cultured human enterocytes was studied. Hemolytic activity on rabbit red blood cells was also evaluated and the effect of direct procaryotic-eucaryotic interactions was assessed in infection assays with vegetative bacterial cells. Concerning virulence genes, presence of the DNA sequences corresponding to the genes entS, entFM, nhe (A, B and C), sph, hbl (A, B, C and D), piplC and bceT was assessed by PCR. Ribopatterns were determined by an automated riboprinting analysis after digestion of the DNA with EcoRI. Principal component analysis and biplots were used to address the relationship between variables. Results showed a wide range of biological activities: decrease in mitochondrial dehydrogenase activity, necrosis, cell detachment and hemolytic activity. These effects were strain-dependent. Concerning the occurrence of the DNA sequences tested, different patterns were found. In addition, ribotyping showed that strains under study grouped into two main clusters. One of these clusters includes all the strains that were positive for all the DNA sequences tested. Positive and negative correlations between variables under study were evidenced. Interestingly, high detaching strains were positively correlated with the presence of the sequences entS, nheC and sph. Within gene complexes, high correlation was found between sequences of the hbl complex. In contrast, sequences of the nhe complex were not correlated. Some strains clustered together in the biplots. These strains were positive for all the DNA sequences tested and they were able to detach enterocytes upon infection

  9. Invasive Bacillus cereus Infection in a Renal Transplant Patient: A Case Report and Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan John

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Bacillus cereus is a common cause of gastrointestinal diseases. The majority of individuals with B cereus-related food poisoning recover without any specific treatment. It can, however, rarely cause invasive disease in immunocompromised patients.

  10. Bacillus cereus bacteremia and meningitis in immunocompromised children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaur, A H; Patrick, C C; McCullers, J A; Flynn, P M; Pearson, T A; Razzouk, B I; Thompson, S J; Shenep, J L

    2001-05-15

    Two cases of Bacillus cereus meningitis in immunocompromised children at our hospital within a 2-month period prompted us to review B. cereus--related invasive disease. We identified 12 patients with B. cereus isolated in blood cultures from September 1988 through August 2000 at our institution. Three of these patients also had B. cereus isolated from CSF specimens; 1 additional patient had possible CNS involvement (33%, group A), whereas 8 patients had no evidence of CNS involvement (67%, group B). Patients in group A were more likely to have neutropenia at the onset of sepsis and were more likely to have an unfavorable outcome. They were also more likely to have received intrathecal chemotherapy in the week before the onset of their illness. Two patients from group A died. One survived with severe sequelae. The fourth patient had mild sequelae at follow-up. No sequelae or deaths occurred among patients in group B. In patients with unfavorable outcomes, the interval from the time of recognition of illness to irreversible damage or death was short, which demonstrates a need for increased awareness, early diagnosis, and more-effective therapy, particularly that which addresses B. cereus toxins.

  11. Bacillus cereus bacteraemia: comparison between haematologic and nonhaematologic patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Tusgul

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Bacillus cereus bacteraemia can be severe, especially among patients with haematologic malignancy. We retrospectively reviewed first episodes of true B. cereus bacteraemia (more than one positive bottle plus signs of infection at our institution between 1997 and 2013 with the aim to compare haematologic versus nonhaematologic patients and analyse episodes with complicated outcome. Among 56 episodes of positive-blood cultures for B. cereus, 21 were considered significant. Median age was 54 years (range 23–82 years. Ten patients (48% had a haematologic malignancy; all were neutropenic at the time of B. cereus bacteraemia. Nonhaematologic patients were either intravenous drug users (n=3, 14%, polytraumatized (n=3, 14% or had multiple chronic comorbidities (n=5, 24%. Most episodes were hospital acquired (15, 71%. Sources of bacteraemia were intravascular catheter (n=11, 52%, digestive tract (n=6, 29%, drug injection (n=3, 14% and wound (n=1, 5%. Adequate antibiotic therapy was provided to 18 patients (86% during a median of 17 days (range 2–253 days. The intravascular catheter was removed in eight cases (42%. Three haematologic patients had a complicated course with neurologic complications (meningoencephalitis and cerebral abscesses. Complications appeared to be associated with catheter infection (100% of complicated cases vs. 29% of noncomplicated cases. In conclusion, B. cereus bacteraemia can have a complicated course in a subset of patients, mainly those with haematologic malignancy. Catheter infection may be associated with a worse outcome with frequent neurologic complications.

  12. Presence and significance of Bacillus cereus in dehydrated potato products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Nicola J; Whyte, Rosemary; Hudson, J Andrew

    2007-02-01

    Dehydrated potato contains Bacillus cereus at a prevalences of 10 to 40% and at numbers usually less than 10(3) CFU g(-1). B. cereus in dehydrated potato is likely to be present as spores that are able to survive drying of the raw vegetable and may represent a significant inoculum in the reconstituted (rehydrated) product where conditions favor germination of, and outgrowth from, spores. Holding rehydrated mashed potato alone, or as part of another product (e.g., potato-topped pie), at temperatures above 10 degrees C and below 60 degrees C may allow growth of vegetative B. cereus. Levels exceeding 10(4) CFU g(-1) are considered hazardous to human health and may be reached within a few hours if stored inappropriately between these temperatures. Foods incorporating mashed potato prepared from dehydrated potato flakes have been implicated in B. cereus foodborne illness. This review is a summary of the information available concerning the prevalence and numbers of B. cereus in dehydrated potato flakes and the rate at which growth might occur in the rehydrated product.

  13. Characterization of a spore-specific protein of the Bacillus cereus group

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    From, C.; Voort, van der M.; Abee, T.; Granum, P.E.

    2012-01-01

    Bc1245 is a monocistronic chromosomal gene of Bacillus cereus ATCC 14579 encoding a putative protein of 143 amino acids identified in this study to have a spore-related function in B. cereus. Bc1245 is highly conserved in the genome of members of the B. cereus group, indicating an important function

  14. [Incidence of Bacillus cereus in powdered dehydrated food].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iacona, V A; Simonetta, A; Basílico, J C

    1987-01-01

    Bacillus cereus incidence on dehydrated powdered foods on sale in supermarkets of Santa Fe city was studied. Two hundred and fifty samples of five different foods: desserts, soups, mousses, pre-cooked "polenta" and mashed potatoes, were examined. Toxinogenic activity of strains confirmed as B. cereus by means of the test of lethality in rats, was analyzed. The ratio between contaminated samples and total analyzed samples was always greater than 6% (Table 1). Besides, none of the analyzed foods exceeded acceptability maximum limit (10(5) UFC/g), established by I.C.M.S.F. (Table 2). It was checked in all cases that no simple lineal correlation existed between B. cereus and total aerobic bacteria enumerations. On the other hand, the percentage of strains with lethal effects was in all cases greater than 42.8% (Table 3).

  15. The Bacillus cereus spoIIS programmed cell death system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jana eMelnicakova

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Programmed cell death in bacteria is generally associated with two¬ component toxin antitoxin systems. The SpoIIS toxin-antitoxin system, consisting of a membrane bound SpoIISA toxin and a small, cytosolic antitoxin SpoIISB, was originally identified in Bacillus subtilis. In this work we describe the Bacillus cereus SpoIIS system which is a three-component system, harbouring an additional gene spoIISC. Its protein product serves as an antitoxin, and similarly as SpoIISB, is able to bind SpoIISA and abolish its toxic effect. Our results indicate that SpoIISC seems to be present not only in B. cereus but also in other Bacilli containing a SpoIIS toxin antitoxin system. In addition, we show that B. cereus SpoIISA can form higher oligomers and we discuss the possible role of this multimerization for the protein’s toxic function.

  16. [Pedagogical training in stricto sensu graduate programs in public health].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corrêa, Guilherme Torres; Ribeiro, Victoria Maria Brant

    2013-06-01

    The scope of this research is to discuss the relevance and need for pedagogical training of university lecturers in the Public Health field. The contention is that college teaching is a practice that requires specific training, since it is characterized by complex elements that transcend the mastery of given content. Considering stricto sensu graduate studies as an important stage in the training of future university lecturers, an attempt was made to identify and analyze the subjects and practices of pedagogical training in academic masters and doctorate programs in Public Health. To achieve the research aim, this work was based on Pierre Bourdieu's field theory and on Tomaz Tadeu da Silva's curriculum theory. Results indicate that the programs do not consider the aspect of teacher training as a major issue. With regard to the Public Health field approximately 61% of masters and 38% of doctorate programs have pedagogical training subjects/practices. Furthermore, there is a tendency for technical-instrumental training, which is in line with the history of the Public Health field. The conclusion is that there is a need to develop a culture that values college and graduate Public Health teaching, considering the complexity of pedagogical practice in all its dimensions.

  17. Food–bacteria interplay: pathometabolism of emetic Bacillus cereus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehling-Schulz, Monika; Frenzel, Elrike; Gohar, Michel

    2015-01-01

    Bacillus cereus is a Gram-positive endospore forming bacterium known for its wide spectrum of phenotypic traits, enabling it to occupy diverse ecological niches. Although the population structure of B. cereus is highly dynamic and rather panmictic, production of the emetic B. cereus toxin cereulide is restricted to strains with specific genotypic traits, associated with distinct environmental habitats. Cereulide is an ionophoric dodecadepsipeptide that is produced non-ribosomally by an enzyme complex with an unusual modular structure, named cereulide synthetase (Ces non-ribosomal peptide synthetase). The ces gene locus is encoded on a mega virulence plasmid related to the B. anthracis toxin plasmid pXO1. Cereulide, a highly thermo- and pH- resistant molecule, is preformed in food, evokes vomiting a few hours after ingestion, and was shown to be the direct cause of gastroenteritis symptoms; occasionally it is implicated in severe clinical manifestations including acute liver failures. Control of toxin gene expression in emetic B. cereus involves central transcriptional regulators, such as CodY and AbrB, thereby inextricably linking toxin gene expression to life cycle phases and specific conditions, such as the nutrient supply encountered in food matrices. While in recent years considerable progress has been made in the molecular and biochemical characterization of cereulide toxin synthesis, far less is known about the embedment of toxin synthesis in the life cycle of B. cereus. Information about signals acting on toxin production in the food environment is lacking. We summarize the data available on the complex regulatory network controlling cereulide toxin synthesis, discuss the role of intrinsic and extrinsic factors acting on toxin biosynthesis in emetic B. cereus and stress how unraveling these processes can lead to the development of novel effective strategies to prevent toxin synthesis in the food production and processing chain. PMID:26236290

  18. Food-bacteria interplay: pathometabolism of emetic Bacillus cereus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehling-Schulz, Monika; Frenzel, Elrike; Gohar, Michel

    2015-01-01

    Bacillus cereus is a Gram-positive endospore forming bacterium known for its wide spectrum of phenotypic traits, enabling it to occupy diverse ecological niches. Although the population structure of B. cereus is highly dynamic and rather panmictic, production of the emetic B. cereus toxin cereulide is restricted to strains with specific genotypic traits, associated with distinct environmental habitats. Cereulide is an ionophoric dodecadepsipeptide that is produced non-ribosomally by an enzyme complex with an unusual modular structure, named cereulide synthetase (Ces non-ribosomal peptide synthetase). The ces gene locus is encoded on a mega virulence plasmid related to the B. anthracis toxin plasmid pXO1. Cereulide, a highly thermo- and pH- resistant molecule, is preformed in food, evokes vomiting a few hours after ingestion, and was shown to be the direct cause of gastroenteritis symptoms; occasionally it is implicated in severe clinical manifestations including acute liver failures. Control of toxin gene expression in emetic B. cereus involves central transcriptional regulators, such as CodY and AbrB, thereby inextricably linking toxin gene expression to life cycle phases and specific conditions, such as the nutrient supply encountered in food matrices. While in recent years considerable progress has been made in the molecular and biochemical characterization of cereulide toxin synthesis, far less is known about the embedment of toxin synthesis in the life cycle of B. cereus. Information about signals acting on toxin production in the food environment is lacking. We summarize the data available on the complex regulatory network controlling cereulide toxin synthesis, discuss the role of intrinsic and extrinsic factors acting on toxin biosynthesis in emetic B. cereus and stress how unraveling these processes can lead to the development of novel effective strategies to prevent toxin synthesis in the food production and processing chain.

  19. Food – bacteria interplay: Pathometabolism of emetic Bacillus cereus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika eEhling-Schulz

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Bacillus cereus is a gram-positive endospore forming bacterium known for its wide spectrum of phenotypic traits, enabling it to occupy diverse ecological niches. Although the population structure of B. cereus is highly dynamic and rather panmictic, production of the emetic B. cereus toxin cereulide is restricted to strains with specific genotypic traits, associated with distinct environmental habitats. Cereulide is an ionophoric dodecadepsipeptide that is produced non-ribosomally by an enzyme complex with an unusual modular structure, named cereulide synthetase (Ces NRPS. The ces gene locus is encoded on a mega virulence plasmid related to the Bacillus anthracis toxin plasmid pXO1. Cereulide, a highly thermo- and pH- resistant molecule, is preformed in food, evokes vomiting a few hours after ingestion and was shown to be the direct cause of gastroenteritis symptoms; occasionally it is implicated in severe clinical manifestations including acute liver failures. Control of toxin gene expression in emetic Bacillus cereus involves central transcriptional regulators, such as CodY and AbrB, thereby inextricably linking toxin gene expression to life cycle phases and specific conditions, such as the nutrient supply encountered in food matrices. While in recent years considerable progress has been made in the molecular and biochemical characterization of cereulide toxin synthesis, far less is known about the embedment of toxin synthesis in the life cycle of B. cereus. Information about signals acting on toxin production in the food environment is literally lacking. We summarize the data available on the complex regulatory network controlling cereulide toxin synthesis, discuss the role of intrinsic and extrinsic factors acting on toxin biosynthesis in emetic B. cereus and stress how unraveling these processes can lead to the development of novel effective strategies to prevent toxin synthesis in the food production and processing chain.

  20. Bacillus cereus bacteremia in an adult with acute leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funada, H; Uotani, C; Machi, T; Matsuda, T; Nonomura, A

    1988-03-01

    Bacillus cereus, which used to be considered non-pathogenic, was isolated from the blood of a patient with acute leukemia who was receiving intensive chemotherapy. Fatal bacteremia developed with a clinical syndrome of acute gastroenteritis, followed by both meningoencephalitis with subarachnoid hemorrhage and multiple liver abscesses probably caused by infective vasculitis. Surveillance stool cultures revealed colonization with the organism prior to the onset of diarrhea, and repetitive blood cultures were found to be positive. Thus, this case suggested some new important clinicopathologic features of true B. cereus bacteremia complicating acute leukemia.

  1. [Can industrial laundry remove Bacillus cereus from hospital linen?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoh, Myonsun; Matsuyama, Junko; Shime, Akiko; Okayama, Kana; Sakamoto, Rei; Honda, Takeshi

    2010-09-01

    Contaminated hospital linen has caused some cases of Bacillus cereus bacteremia in Japan. We analyzed the disinfection efficacy of industrial washing of hospital towels and sheets by counting the number of B. cereus on linen before and after washing. That before washing averaged 7.6 cells/cm2 on unwashed sheets, decreasing to 1.2 cells/cm2 after washing. That on unwashed towels, however, averaged 10(6) cells/cm2 before washing and 1096 cells/cm2 after washing, which was very high and suggested the possibility of causing nosocomial infection.

  2. An Optical Biosensor for Bacillus Cereus Spore Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chengquan; Tom, Harry W. K.

    2005-03-01

    We demonstrate a new transduction scheme for optical biosensing. Bacillus cereus is a pathogen that may be found in food and dairy products and is able to produce toxins and cause food poisoning. It is related to Bacillus anthracis (anthrax). A CCD array covered with micro-structured glass coverslip is used to detect the optical resonant shift due to the binding of the antigen (bacillus cereus spore) to the antibody (polyclonal antibody). This novel optical biosensor scheme has the potential for detecting 10˜100 bioagents in a single device as well as the potential to test for antigens with multiple antibody tests to avoid ``false positives.''

  3. Seasonal trend and clinical presentation of Bacillus cereus bloodstream infection: association with summer and indwelling catheter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, K; Matsumura, Y; Yamamoto, M; Nagao, M; Ito, Y; Takakura, S; Ichiyama, S

    2014-08-01

    Bacillus cereus, an opportunistic pathogen, can cause fatal infection. However, B. cereus bloodstream infections (BSIs) have not been well characterised. From 2008 to 2013, B. cereus isolates from all of the specimens and patients with B. cereus BSIs were identified. Environmental samples were collected to detect B. cereus contamination. We also characterised the clinical presentation of B. cereus BSI through analyses of risk factors for BSI and mortality. A total of 217 clinical B. cereus isolates was detected. Fifty-one patients with nosocomial infections were diagnosed as B. cereus BSI, and 37 had contaminated blood cultures. The number of B. cereus isolates and BSI patients was significantly greater from June to September than from January to April (4.9 vs. 1.5 per month and 1.2 vs. 0.2, respectively). All BSIs were nosocomial and related to central or peripheral vascular catheter. Urinary catheter [odds ratio (OR) 6.93, 95% confidence interval (CI) 2.40-20.0] was the independent risk factor associated with BSI patients when compared to patients regarded as contaminated. In-hospital mortality among BSI patients was 20% and was associated with urinary catheter (OR 34.7, 95 % CI 1.89-63.6) and higher Charlson index (OR 1.99, 95 % CI 1.26-3.12). The number of B. cereus isolates and BSI increased during summer. Inpatients with indwelling vascular or urinary catheters should be carefully monitored for potential B. cereus BSIs.

  4. Intractable Bacillus cereus bacteremia in a preterm neonate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    John, Anna B; Razak, Eissa A S A; Razak, Emad E M H; Al-Naqeeb, Niran; Dhar, Rita

    2007-04-01

    Although often regarded as a contaminant, Bacillus spp. have been implicated in serious systemic infections. The incidence of such infections is low with only a few cases reported in the literature. We describe the clinical course of early-onset Bacillus cereus bacteremia in a preterm neonate who was successfully treated with vancomycin.

  5. Characterization of germination receptors of Bacillus cereus ATCC 14579

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hornstra, L.M.; Vries, de Y.P.; Wells-Bennik, M.H.J.; Vos, de W.M.; Abee, T.

    2006-01-01

    Specific amino acids, purine ribonucleosides, or a combination of the two is required for efficient germination of endospores of Bacillus cereus ATCC 14579. A survey including 20 different amino acids showed that L-alanine, L-cysteine, L-threonine, and L-glutamine are capable of initiating the germi

  6. Rapid detoxification of cereulide in Bacillus cereus food poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiota, Mitsutaka; Saitou, Keiko; Mizumoto, Hiroshi; Matsusaka, Masanori; Agata, Norio; Nakayama, Masahiro; Kage, Masayoshi; Tatsumi, Shinji; Okamoto, Akira; Yamaguchi, Seiji; Ohta, Michio; Hata, Daisuke

    2010-04-01

    Bacillus cereus is recognized as a major pathogenic bacterium that causes food poisoning and produces gastrointestinal diseases of 2 types: emetic and diarrheal. The emetic type, which is often linked to pasta and rice, arises from a preformed toxin, cereulide, in food. Rapid and accurate diagnostic methods for this emetic toxin are important but are limited. Here we describe 3 patients with B cereus food poisoning in which cereulide was detected and measured sequentially. Three family members began to vomit frequently 30 minutes after consuming reheated fried rice. After 6 hours, a 1-year-old brother died of acute encephalopathy. A 2-year-old sister who presented with unconsciousness recovered rapidly after plasma exchange and subsequent hemodialysis. Their mother recovered soon by fluid therapy. From leftover fried rice and the children's stomach contents, B cereus was isolated. Serum cereulide was detected in both children; it decreased to an undetected level in the sister. These cases highlight the importance of measuring the value of cereulide, which would reflect the severity of B cereus emetic food poisoning. The cases also suggest the possible role of blood-purification therapy in severe cases.

  7. Successful treatment of Bacillus cereus infection with ciprofloxacin.

    OpenAIRE

    Gascoigne, A.D.; Richards, J.; Gould, K.; Gibson, G. J.

    1991-01-01

    Bacillus cereus is rarely a pulmonary pathogen but may cause pneumonia in immunocompromised patients. A patient with bronchiectasis and no recognisable immunodeficiency had this organism isolated during two infective exacerbations, once from respiratory secretions and once by blood culture. Ciprofloxacin treatment was effective on both occasions.

  8. The fate of Bacillus cereus in the gastrointestinal tract

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pielaat A; Wijnands LM; Takumi K; Nauta MJ; Leusden FM van; MGB

    2006-01-01

    This report presents a mathematical dynamical model for the behaviour of Bacillus cereus in the gastro-intestinal tract. Biological processes and system dynamics are simultaneously incorporated in this mechanistic model. Variability in growth characteristics and physical traits of different B. cereu

  9. Induction of natural competence in Bacillus cereus ATCC14579

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mironczuk, Aleksandra M.; Kovács, Ákos T.; Kuipers, O.P.

    2008-01-01

    Natural competence is the ability of certain microbes to take up exogenous DNA from the environment and integrate it in their genome. Competence development has been described for a variety of bacteria, but has so far not been shown to occur in Bacillus cereus. However, orthologues of most proteins

  10. A novel zoonotic genotype related to Echinococcus granulosus sensu stricto from southern Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wassermann, Marion; Woldeyes, Daniel; Gerbi, Banchwosen Mechal; Ebi, Dennis; Zeyhle, Eberhard; Mackenstedt, Ute; Petros, Beyene; Tilahun, Getachew; Kern, Peter; Romig, Thomas

    2016-09-01

    Complete mitochondrial and two nuclear gene sequences of a novel genotype (GOmo) related to Echinococcus granulosus sensu stricto are described from a metacestode isolate retrieved from a human patient in southwestern Ethiopia. Phylogenetically, the genotype is positioned within the E. granulosus sensu stricto/Echinococcus felidis cluster, but cannot easily be allocated to either species. Based on different mitochondrial DNA markers, it is closest to the haplotype cluster that currently defines the species E. granulosus sensu stricto (which includes variants showing the widely cited G1, G2 and G3 sequences), but is clearly not part of this cluster. Pairwise distances between GOmo and E. granulosus sensu stricto are in the range of those between the most distant members of the Echinococcus canadensis complex (G6-10) that were recently proposed as separate species. At this stage, we prefer to list GOmo informally as a genotype rather than giving it any taxonomic rank because our knowledge rests on a single isolate from a dead-end host (human), and its lifecycle is unknown. According to data on molecularly characterised Echinococcus isolates from this region, GOmo has never been found in the usual livestock species that carry cystic echinococcosis and the possibility of a wildlife source of this newly recognised zoonotic agent cannot be excluded. The discovery of GOmo adds complexity to the already diverse array of cystic echinococcosis agents in sub-Saharan Africa and challenges hypotheses on the biogeographical origin of the E. granulosus sensu stricto clade.

  11. Bacillus cereus bacteraemia: comparison between haematologic and nonhaematologic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tusgul, S; Prod'hom, G; Senn, L; Meuli, R; Bochud, P-Y; Giulieri, S G

    2017-01-01

    Bacillus cereus bacteraemia can be severe, especially among patients with haematologic malignancy. We retrospectively reviewed first episodes of true B. cereus bacteraemia (more than one positive bottle plus signs of infection) at our institution between 1997 and 2013 with the aim to compare haematologic versus nonhaematologic patients and analyse episodes with complicated outcome. Among 56 episodes of positive-blood cultures for B. cereus, 21 were considered significant. Median age was 54 years (range 23-82 years). Ten patients (48%) had a haematologic malignancy; all were neutropenic at the time of B. cereus bacteraemia. Nonhaematologic patients were either intravenous drug users (n = 3, 14%), polytraumatized (n = 3, 14%) or had multiple chronic comorbidities (n = 5, 24%). Most episodes were hospital acquired (15, 71%). Sources of bacteraemia were intravascular catheter (n = 11, 52%), digestive tract (n = 6, 29%), drug injection (n = 3, 14%) and wound (n = 1, 5%). Adequate antibiotic therapy was provided to 18 patients (86%) during a median of 17 days (range 2-253 days). The intravascular catheter was removed in eight cases (42%). Three haematologic patients had a complicated course with neurologic complications (meningoencephalitis and cerebral abscesses). Complications appeared to be associated with catheter infection (100% of complicated cases vs. 29% of noncomplicated cases). In conclusion, B. cereus bacteraemia can have a complicated course in a subset of patients, mainly those with haematologic malignancy. Catheter infection may be associated with a worse outcome with frequent neurologic complications.

  12. A novel and highly specific phage endolysin cell wall binding domain for detection of Bacillus cereus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Minsuk; Sim, Jieun; Kang, Taejoon; Nguyen, Hoang Hiep; Park, Hyun Kyu; Chung, Bong Hyun; Ryu, Sangryeol

    2015-09-01

    Rapid, specific and sensitive detection of pathogenic bacteria is crucial for public health and safety. Bacillus cereus is harmful as it causes foodborne illness and a number of systemic and local infections. We report a novel phage endolysin cell wall-binding domain (CBD) for B. cereus and the development of a highly specific and sensitive surface plasmon resonance (SPR)-based B. cereus detection method using the CBD. The newly discovered CBD from endolysin of PBC1, a B. cereus-specific bacteriophage, provides high specificity and binding capacity to B. cereus. By using the CBD-modified SPR chips, B. cereus can be detected at the range of 10(5)-10(8) CFU/ml. More importantly, the detection limit can be improved to 10(2) CFU/ml by using a subtractive inhibition assay based on the pre-incubation of B. cereus and CBDs, removal of CBD-bound B. cereus, and SPR detection of the unbound CBDs. The present study suggests that the small and genetically engineered CBDs can be promising biological probes for B. cereus. We anticipate that the CBD-based SPR-sensing methods will be useful for the sensitive, selective, and rapid detection of B. cereus.

  13. [Serological diagnosis of sporotrichosis using an antigen of Sporothrix schenckii sensu stricto mycelium].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarado, Primavera; Ostos, Ana; Franquiz, Nohelys; Roschman-González, Antonio; Zambrano, Edgar A; Mendoza, Mireya

    2015-06-01

    We developed and analyzed an Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) in order to detect antibodies in sera from sporotrichosis patients. We used a crude antigen of Sporothrix schenckii sensu stricto, obtained from the mycelial phase of the fungi. Positive sera were analyzed by other serological techniques such as double immunodiffusion (IGG) and counterimmunoelectrophoresis (CIE). The assay was validated by using sera from patients with other pathologies such as: histoplasmosis, paracoccidioidomycosis, tuberculosis, leishmaniasis, lupus and healthy individuals as negative controls. For the Sporothrix schenckii sensu stricto antigen, we found a 100% of specificity by every technique and sensitivity higher than 98% with IDD, CIE and ELISA. Our results show a high sensitivity and specificity for the Sporothrix schenckii sensu stricto antigen, so it can be used for IDD, CIE and ELISA. The results suggest that this antigen could be used in conjunction with other conventional tests for differential diagnosis and may be useful for monitoring the disease progression and response to treatment.

  14. Strictu sensu post-graduation in anesthesiology: experience of ten years at Universidade Estadual Paulista

    OpenAIRE

    José Reinaldo Cerqueira Braz; Pedro Thadeu Galvão Vianna; Yara Marcondes Machado Castiglia; Luiz Antonio Vane; Flávio Massone; Lino Lemonica; Gladys Bastos de Castro

    2005-01-01

    JUSTIFICATIVA E OBJETIVOS: O número de Programas de Pós-Graduação em Anestesiologia stricto sensu existente no país ainda é muito pequeno. Com a finalidade de incentivar a pós-graduação em Anestesiologia no Brasil, é apresentada a experiência acumulada em dez anos de atividades do programa da Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP). CONTEÚDO: O Programa de Pós-Graduação em Anestesiologia stricto sensu da UNESP foi credenciado pela CAPES, desde a sua criação em 1994, nos Cursos de Mestrado e Do...

  15. Clinical characteristics and antimicrobial susceptibility of Bacillus cereus blood stream infections

    OpenAIRE

    Ikeda, Mahoko; Yagihara,Yuka; Tatsuno, Keita; Okazaki, Mitsuhiro; Okugawa, Shu; Moriya, Kyoji

    2015-01-01

    Background Bacillus cereus is one of the pathogens causing nosocomial bloodstream infections (BSIs). However, few reports have documented the antimicrobial susceptibility and clinical characteristics of Bacillus cereus BSI and the importance of empirical therapy. The aim of this study was to investigate the clinical characteristics and antimicrobial susceptibility of B. cereus isolates from patients with BSI and to analyze the impact of appropriate empirical therapy on the outcome of patients...

  16. Comparative genome analysis of Bacillus cereus group genomes with Bacillus subtilis

    OpenAIRE

    Anderson, Iain; Sorokin, Alexei; Kapatral, Vinayak; Reznik, Gary; Bhattacharya, Anamitra; Mikhailova, Natalia; Burd, Henry; Joukov, Victor; Kaznadzey, Denis; Walunas, Theresa; D'Souza, Mark; Larsen, Niels; Pusch, Gordon; Liolios, Konstantinos; Grechkin, Yuri

    2005-01-01

    Genome features of the Bacillus cereus group genomes (representative strains of Bacillus cereus, Bacillus anthracis and Bacillus thuringiensis sub spp israelensis) were analyzed and compared with the Bacillus subtilis genome. A core set of 1,381 protein families among the four Bacillus genomes, with an additional set of 933 families common to the B. cereus group, was identified. Differences in signal transduction pathways, membrane transporters, cell surface structures, cell wall, and S-...

  17. Bacillus cereus food poisoning: international and Indian perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tewari, Anita; Abdullah, Swaid

    2015-05-01

    Food borne illnesses result from eating food or drinking beverages that are contaminated with chemical matter, heavy metals, parasites, fungi, viruses and Bacteria. Bacillus cereus is one of the food-borne disease causing Bacteria. Species of Bacillus and related genera have long been troublesome to food producers on account of their resistant endospores. Their spores may be present on various types of raw and cooked foods, and their ability to survive high cooking temperatures requires that cooked foods be served hot or cooled rapidly to prevent the growth of this bacteria. Bacillus cereus is well known as a cause of food poisoning, and much more is now known about the toxins produced by various strains of this species, so that its significance in such episodes are clearer. However, it is still unclear why such cases are so rarely reported worldwide.

  18. Naphthalene degradation and biosurfactant activity by Bacillus cereus 28BN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tuleva, B.; Christova, N. [Inst. of Microbiology, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Sofia (Bulgaria); Jordanov, B.; Nikolova-Damyanova, B. [Inst. of Organic Chemistry, Sofia (Bulgaria); Petrov, P. [National Center of Infectious and Parasitic Diseases, Sofia (Bulgaria)

    2005-08-01

    Biosurfactant activity and naphthalene degradation by a new strain identified as Bacillus cereus 28BN were studied. The strain grew well and produced effective biosurfactants in the presence of n-alkanes, naphthalene, crude oil and vegetable oils. The biosurfactants were detected by the surface tension lowering of the medium, thin layer chromatography and infrared spectra analysis. With (2%) naphthalene as the sole carbon source, high levels of rhamnolipids at a concentration of 2.3 g l{sup -1} were determined in the stationary growth. After 20 d of incubation 72 {+-} 4% of the initial naphthalene was degraded. This is the first report for a Bacillus cereus rhamnolipid producing strain that utilized naphthalene under aerobic conditions. The strain looks promising for application in environmental technologies. (orig.)

  19. Genome Sequences of Three Novel Bacillus cereus Bacteriophages

    OpenAIRE

    Julianne H Grose; Jensen, Jordan D.; Merrill, Bryan D.; Fisher, Joshua N. B.; Burnett, Sandra H.; Breakwell, Donald P

    2014-01-01

    The Bacillus cereus group is an assemblage of highly related firmicute bacteria that cause a variety of diseases in animals, including insects and humans. We announce three high-quality, complete genome sequences of bacteriophages we isolated from soil samples taken at the bases of fruit trees in Utah County, Utah. While two of the phages (Shanette and JL) are highly related myoviruses, the bacteriophage Basilisk is a siphovirus.

  20. Bacillus cereus bacteremia and multiple brain abscesses during acute lymphoblastic leukemia induction therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansford, Jordan R; Phillips, Marianne; Cole, Catherine; Francis, Joshua; Blyth, Christopher C; Gottardo, Nicholas G

    2014-04-01

    Bacillus cereus can cause serious infections in immunosuppressed patients. This population may be susceptible to B. cereus pneumonia, bacteremia, cellulitis, and rarely cerebral abscess. Here we report an 8-year-old boy undergoing induction therapy for acute lymphoblastic leukemia who developed multifocal B. cereus cerebral abscesses, highlighting the propensity for B. cereus to develop cerebral abscesses. A review of the literature over the past 25 years identified another 11 cases (3 children and 8 adults) of B. cereus cerebral abscess in patients undergoing cancer therapy. B. cereus cerebral abscesses were associated with a high mortality rate (42%) and significant morbidity. Notably, B. cereus bacteremia with concomitant cerebral abscess was associated with induction chemotherapy for acute leukemia in both children and adults (10 of 12 case reports). Our case report and review of the literature highlights the propensity for B. cereus to develop cerebral abscess(es). Therefore, early consideration for neuroimaging should be given for any neutropenic cancer patient identified with B. cereus bacteremia, in particular those with acute leukemia during induction therapy.

  1. Occurrence and characterization of toxigenic Bacillus cereus in food and infant feces

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sameer; Rushdi; Organji; Hussein; Hasan; Abulreesh; Khaled; Elbanna; Gamal; Ebrahim; Haridy; Osman; Manal; Khider

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the true incidence of Bacillus cereus(B. cereus) in food and children diarrhea cases. Methods: A total of 110 samples of various dairy products such as raw milk, long life pasteurized milk, yoghurt and infant powdered milk formulas, raw rice, and feces were examined for the presence of B. cereus by selective plating on mannitol-egg-yolk-polymyxin agar. Confirmation of B. cereus was carried out by biochemical tests and PCR. Identification of non-B. cereus isolates was carried out by 16 S r DNA sequencing. Antimicrobial susceptibility was done by disk diffusion method.Results: Overall 35 samples(31.8%, n = 110) yielded Bacillus-like growth. Of which 19 samples(54.28%) were positive for B. cereus. All isolates were positive for enterotoxin production. No psychrotolerant B. cereus strains were detected in all samples. All B. cereus isolates were resistant to penicillin G, but susceptible to vancomycin, erythromycin and clindamycin. Conclusions: The results of this study confirm the importance of including B. cereus in disease control and prevention programs, as well as in routine clinical and food quality control laboratories in both Saudi Arabia and Egypt.

  2. Occurrence and characterization of toxigenic Bacillus cereus in food and infant feces

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sameer Rushdi Organji; Hussein Hasan Abulreesh; Khaled Elbanna; Gamal Ebrahim Haridy Osman; Manal Khider

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the true incidence of Bacillus cereus (B. cereus) in food and children diarrhea cases. Methods:A total of 110 samples of various dairy products such as raw milk, long life pasteurized milk, yoghurt and infant powdered milk formulas, raw rice, and feces were examined for the presence of B. cereus by selective plating on mannitol-egg-yolk-polymyxin agar. Confirmation of B. cereus was carried out by biochemical tests and PCR. Identification of non-B. cereus isolates was carried out by 16S rDNA sequencing. Antimicrobial susceptibility was done by disk diffusion method. Results:Overall 35 samples (31.8%, n=110) yielded Bacillus-like growth. Of which 19 samples (54.28%) were positive for B. cereus. All isolates were positive for enterotoxin production. No psychrotolerant B. cereus strains were detected in all samples. All B. cereus isolates were resistant to penicillin G, but susceptible to vancomycin, erythromycin and clindamycin. Conclusions:The results of this study confirm the importance of including B. cereus in disease control and prevention programs, as well as in routine clinical and food quality control laboratories in both Saudi Arabia and Egypt.

  3. Production of Alpha Amylase by Bacillus cereus in Submerged Fermentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helen H. Raplong

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Microorganisms have the ability to secrete enzymes when they are grown in the presence of certain substrates. Amylases are among the most important industrial enzymes and are of great significance in biotechnological studies. Bacteria belonging to the genus Bacillus were isolated using mannitol egg yolk polymyxin B (MYP agar a highly selective media for Bacillus cereus isolation. The isolates were tested for α-amylase production on nutrient agar supplemented with starch and in submerged fermentation. The bacteria isolated and identified (using the Microgen Bacillus identification kit were all Bacillus cereus and SB2 had the largest zone of hydrolysis of 12mm on nutrient agar supplemented with starch as well as the highest enzyme activity of 1.62U/ml. Amylase activity of 2.56U/ml was obtained after 24 hours incubation in submerged fermentation. When amylase enzyme production parameters where optimized, maximum amylase activity was obtained at a pH of 6.5, temperature of 350C, incubation time of 24 hours and 4% inoculums concentration. Bacillus cereus SB2 is a potential isolate for alpha-amylase production with soluble starch as the sole carbon source in submerged fermentation.

  4. Cr(VI) uptake mechanism of Bacillus cereus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhi; Huang, Zhipeng; Cheng, Yangjian; Pan, Danmei; Pan, Xiaohong; Yu, Meijuan; Pan, Zhiyun; Lin, Zhang; Guan, Xiong; Wu, Ziyu

    2012-04-01

    In this study, we investigated the Cr(VI) uptake mechanism in an indigenous Cr(VI)-tolerant bacterial strain -Bacillus cereus through batch and microscopic experiments. We found that both the cells and the supernatant collected from B. cereus cultivation could reduce Cr(VI). The valence state analysis revealed the complete transformation from Cr(VI) into Cr(III) by living B. cereus. Further X-ray absorption fine structure and Fourier transform infrared analyses showed that the reduced Cr(III) was coordinated with carboxyl and amido functional groups from either the cells or supernatant. Scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy observation showed that noticeable Cr(III) precipitates were accumulated on bacterial surfaces. However, Cr(III) could also be detected in bacterial inner portions by using transmission electron microscopy thin section analysis coupled with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. Through quantitative analysis of chromium distribution, we determined the binding ratio of Cr(III) in supernatant, cell debris and cytoplasm as 22%, 54% and 24%, respectively. Finally, we further discussed the role of bacterium-origin soluble organic molecules to the remediation of Cr(VI) pollutants.

  5. Chemodiversity of cereulide, the emetic toxin of Bacillus cereus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marxen, Sandra; Stark, Timo D; Frenzel, Elrike; Rütschle, Andrea; Lücking, Genia; Pürstinger, Gabriel; Pohl, Elena E; Scherer, Siegfried; Ehling-Schulz, Monika; Hofmann, Thomas

    2015-03-01

    Food-borne intoxications are increasingly caused by the dodecadepsipeptide cereulide, the emetic toxin produced by Bacillus cereus. As such intoxications pose a health risk to humans, a more detailed understanding on the chemodiversity of this toxin is mandatory for the reliable risk assessment of B. cereus toxins in foods. Mass spectrometric screening now shows a series of at least 18 cereulide variants, among which the previously unknown isocereulides A-G were determined for the first time by means of UPLC-TOF MS and ion-trap MS(n) sequencing, (13)C-labeling experiments, and post-hydrolytic dipeptide and enantioselective amino acid analysis. The data demonstrate a high microheterogeneity in cereulide and show evidence for a relaxed proof reading function of the non-ribosomal cereulide peptide synthetase complex giving rise to an enhanced cereulide chemodiversity. Most intriguingly, the isocereulides were found to differ widely in their cell toxicity correlating with their ionophoric properties (e.g., purified isocereulide A showed about 8-fold higher cytotoxicity than purified cereulide in the HEp-2 assay and induced an immediate breakdown of bilayer membranes). These findings provide a substantial contribution to the knowledge-based risk assessment of B. cereus toxins in foods, representing a still unsolved challenge in the field of food intoxications.

  6. Studies on Barbula consanguinea (Thw. & Mitt.) Jaeg. sensu Eddy : a pan-tropical species

    OpenAIRE

    Sollman, Philip

    2000-01-01

    Barbula consanguinea (Thw. & Mitt.) Jaeg. sensu Eddy is considered as a pan-tropical species. This taxon is reported new for several central African countries, the Arabian peninsula, and Middle America. This variable species is shortly discussed and compared with (most) related taxa. Hymenostylium crispulum Broth. & Par. and Barbula obscura Sull. (= Barbula wrightii Sauerb.) are considered as synonyms of Barbula consanguinea.

  7. Effectiveness of synthetic versus natural human volatiles as attractants for Anopheles gambiae (Diptera: Culicidae) sensu stricto

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smallegange, R.C.; Knols, B.G.J.; Takken, W.

    2010-01-01

    Females of the African malaria vector, Anopheles gambiae Giles sensu stricto, use human volatiles to find their blood-host. Previous work has shown that ammonia, lactic acid, and aliphatic carboxylic acids significantly affect host orientation and attraction of this species, In the current study, th

  8. Detection of Bacillus cereus on selected retail chicken products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, D P; Berrang, M E; Feldner, P W; Phillips, R W; Meinersmann, R J

    2004-08-01

    Samples from five chicken meat products, obtained at retail stores, were evaluated for the presence of Bacillus cereus. The products tested were as follows: breaded, fully cooked, frozen nuggets (NUGGETS); breaded, fully cooked, frozen tenders (TENDERS); fully cooked, frozen, white-meat fajita-style strips (STRIPS); raw, refrigerated, boneless, skinless, marinated breast fillets (FILLETS); and raw, refrigerated, cut-up, tray-pack bone-in parts (PARTS), either split breasts or thighs. Four packages of each item were obtained on three different days (n = 60). Frozen and refrigerated products were held overnight in their respective environments as appropriate; then packages were opened aseptically, and a total of 25 g of tissue was excised from multiple pieces within a package. The 25-g samples were enriched in 225 ml of Trypticase soy-polymixin broth for 18 to 24 h at 30 degrees C and then plated on mannitol-egg yolk-polymixin agar and incubated for 18 to 24 h at 30 degrees C. Colonies characteristic of B. cereus were chosen and replated for isolation on mannitol-egg yolk-polymixin agar. Suspect colonies were confirmed as Bacillus spp. by Gram stain, hemolysis on blood agar, and a biochemical test strip. Isolates were further confirmed as B. cereus using Bacteriological Analytical Manual procedures, including tests for motility, rhizoid growth, hemolysis, and protein toxin crystal production. B. cereus was detected in 27 of 60 total samples. By product, the prevalence levels were as follows: NUGGETS, 11 of 12 positive; TENDERS, 8 of 12 positive; STRIPS, 6 of 12 positive; FILLETS, 0 of 12 positive; and PARTS, 2 of 12 positive. Isolates were tested by PCR for presence of the toxin-encoding genes bceT, nheABC, hblACD, and cytK. Results indicate that B. cereus organisms were present on four of the five retail poultry products tested in this study, with the highest rates reported for the three fully cooked items, especially the two breaded products. All strains isolated

  9. Ultrastructure of Spironucleus salmonis n. comb. (formerly Octomitus salmonis sensu Moore 1922, Davis 1926, and Hexamita salmonis sensu Ferguson 1979), with a guide to spironucleus species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poynton, Sarah L; Fard, M Reza Saghari; Jenkins, John; Ferguson, Hugh W

    2004-07-05

    Diplomonad flagellates can be associated with significant morbidity and mortality in fishes, particularly in farmed salmonids. Diagnosis using only light microscopy is limited, and species cannot be confirmed. We therefore undertook a comprehensive transmission electron microscopy study of 20 trophozoites from the intestine of farmed juvenile rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss from Northern Ireland (reported as Hexamita salmonis by Ferguson in 1979). Re-assignment to the genus Spironucleus was determined based on the anteriorly tapering and intertwined elongate nuclei, anterior-medial kinetosomes, and the presence of a flagellar pocket. At the species level we observed a tri-radiate pattern of microtubules in the opening of the asymetrical striated lamina, comprising 3 to 5 microtubules following the edge of the flagellar pocket, 3 radiating away from the opening of the striated lamina, and 4 to 5 curving over the striated lamina. We observed electron-dense plaques adjacent to the kinetosomes, electron-dense bodies, numerous free ribosomes, aggregations of glycogen, bowl-shaped membranous structures, rough endoplasmic reticulum, and a novel distinctive pyriform sac of densely packed free ribosomes at the posterior of the cell (8-shaped in transverse section, and delineated by furrowed endoplasmic reticulum). We now propose to rename H. salmonis sensu Ferguson (1979) Spironucleus salmonis. Our review of the morphology of Octomitus salmonis illustrated by Moore (1922a,b) and Davis (1926), has shown that this organism also belongs to the genus Spironucleus. We synonymise H. salmonis sensu Ferguson (1979) with O. salmonis sensu Moore (1922) and Davis (1926), and rename them S. salmonis. An expanded diagnostic guide, including new cytoplasmic elements, is presented for the 4 species of Spironucleus from fishes (S. barkhanus, S. salmonis, S. torosa and S. vortens). We recommend that type descriptions of diplomonads be based on organisms taken directly from the host rather

  10. Polymerase chain reaction assay for the detection of Bacillus cereus group cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Bjarne Munk; Leser, Thomas D.; Hendriksen, Niels Bohse

    2001-01-01

    Recent investigations have shown that members of the Bacillus cereus group carry genes which have the potential to cause gastrointestinal and somatic diseases. Although most cases of diseases caused by the B. cereus group bacteria are relatively mild, it is desirable to be able to detect members ...

  11. Association between tea ingestion and invasive Bacillus cereus infection among children with cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Saleeby, C M; Howard, S C; Hayden, R T; McCullers, J A

    2004-11-15

    Bacillus cereus is an emerging pathogen that causes invasive disease in immunocompromised hosts. A case-control study, prompted by a clinical case, demonstrated an association between dietary tea ingestion and B. cereus bacteremia. Policies designed to interrupt transmission of this pathogen to susceptible patients should be considered.

  12. Persistent Bacillus cereus Bacteremia in 3 Persons Who Inject Drugs, San Diego, California, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaefer, Gabrielle; Campbell, Wesley; Jenks, Jeffrey; Beesley, Cari; Katsivas, Theodoros; Hoffmaster, Alex; Mehta, Sanjay R; Reed, Sharon

    2016-09-01

    Bacillus cereus is typically considered a blood culture contaminant; however, its presence in blood cultures can indicate true bacteremia. We report 4 episodes of B. cereus bacteremia in 3 persons who inject drugs. Multilocus sequence typing showed that the temporally associated infections were caused by unrelated clones.

  13. Persistent Bacillus cereus Bacteremia in 3 Persons Who Inject Drugs, San Diego, California, USA

    OpenAIRE

    Schaefer, Gabrielle; Campbell, Wesley; Jenks, Jeffrey; Beesley, Cari; Katsivas, Theodoros; Hoffmaster, Alex; Mehta, Sanjay R.; Reed, Sharon

    2016-01-01

    Bacillus cereus is typically considered a blood culture contaminant; however, its presence in blood cultures can indicate true bacteremia. We report 4 episodes of B. cereus bacteremia in 3 persons who inject drugs. Multilocus sequence typing showed that the temporally associated infections were caused by unrelated clones.

  14. Metabolic capacity of Bacillus cereus strains ATCC 14579 and ATCC 10987 interlinked with comparative genomics.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mols, M.; Been, M.W.H.J. de; Zwietering, M.H.; Moezelaar, R.; Abee, T.

    2007-01-01

    Bacillus cereus is an important food-borne pathogen and spoilage organism. In this study, numerous phenotypes and the genomes of B.?cereus strains ATCC 14579 and ATCC 10987 were analysed to compare their metabolic capacity and stress resistance potential. The growth performance of the two strains wa

  15. Identification of proteins involved in the heat stress response of Bacillus cereus ATCC 14579

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Periago, P.M.; Schaik, van W.; Abee, T.; Wouters, J.A.

    2002-01-01

    To monitor the ability of the food-borne opportunistic pathogen Bacillus cereus to survive during minimal processing of food products, we determined its heat-adaptive response. During pre-exposure to 42°C, B. cereus ATCC 14579 adapts to heat exposure at the lethal temperature of 50°C (maximum protec

  16. Soya bean tempe extracts show antibacterial activity against Bacillus cereus cells and spores

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roubos-van den Hil, P.J.; Dalmas, E.; Nout, M.J.R.; Abee, T.

    2010-01-01

    Aims: Tempe, a Rhizopus ssp.-fermented soya bean food product, was investigated for bacteriostatic and/or bactericidal effects against cells and spores of the food-borne pathogen Bacillus cereus. Methods and results: Tempe extract showed a high antibacterial activity against B. cereus ATCC 14579 bas

  17. Adaptation of the food-borne pathogen Bacillus cereus to carvacrol

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ultee, A.; Kets, E.P.W.; Alberda, M.; Hoekstra, F.A.; Smid, E.J.

    2000-01-01

    Carvacrol, a natural antimicrobial compound present in the essential oil fraction of oregano and thyme, is bactericidal towards Bacillus cereus. A decrease of the sensitivity of B. cereus towards carvacrol was observed after growth in the presence of non-lethal carvacrol concentrations. A decrease o

  18. Prevalence, genetic diversity, and antibiotic resistance of Bacillus cereus isolated from Korean fermented soybean products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Cheol-Woo; Cho, Seung-Hak; Kang, Suk-Ho; Park, Yong-Bae; Yoon, Mi-Hye; Lee, Jong-Bok; No, Wan-Seob; Kim, Jung-Beom

    2015-01-01

    Bacillus cereus contamination is a major food safety problem for Korean fermented soybean products, but few studies have assessed its potential to cause foodborne illness. The objectives of this study were to investigate the prevalence and characteristics of B. cereus isolated from Korean fermented soybean products. B. cereus was detected in 110 of 162 (67.9%) samples. The highest B. cereus frequency was observed in deonjang (68 of 93 samples, 73.1%) and cheonggukjang (18 of 25, 72.0%); however, nonhemolytic enterotoxin was detected only in 22 of 162 samples (13.6%). Although the tested B. cereus isolates showed diverse pulsotypes according to repetitive sequence-PCR banding patterns, they displayed similar antibiotic sensitivity spectra. The low frequency of enterotoxin detection suggests that the potential risk of B. cereus foodborne illness associated with Korean fermented soybean products is lower than generally presumed. However, considering the prevalence of B. cereus and the high content of fermented soybean products in the Korean diet, it is necessary to constantly monitor the level of contamination with B. cereus and its toxins in such Korean food products.

  19. Plant compounds enhance assay sensitivity for detection of active bacillus cereus toxin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacillus cereus is an important food pathogen, producing emetic and diarrheal syndromes, the latter mediated by enterotoxins. It has been estimated that there are 84,000 cases of B. cereus food poisoning in the US each year, with an annual cost of USD 36 million. The ability to sensitively trace and...

  20. Influence of carvacrol on growth and toxin production by Bacillus cereus. International

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ultee, A.; Smid, E.J.

    2001-01-01

    The natural antimicrobial compound carvacrol was investigated for its effect on diarrheal toxin production by Bacillus cereus. Carvacrol (0-0.06 mg/ml) reduced the viable count and the maximal specific growth rate (μmax) of B. cereus in BHI broth. The total amount of protein was not affected by carv

  1. Detection and expression of enterotoxin genes in plant-associated strains of Bacillus cereus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacillus cereus is an environmental microbe that commonly inhabits plants and soil. Twenty five plant-associated B. cereus isolates were obtained from apple, cacao, tomato, and potato. The isolates were screened for the presence and expression of enterotoxin B (BcET) components of the nonhemolytic e...

  2. Concerted action of sphingomyelinase and non-hemolytic enterotoxin in pathogenic Bacillus cereus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viktoria M Doll

    Full Text Available Bacillus cereus causes food poisoning and serious non-gastrointestinal-tract infections. Non-hemolytic enterotoxin (Nhe, which is present in most B. cereus strains, is considered to be one of the main virulence factors. However, a B. cereus ΔnheBC mutant strain lacking Nhe is still cytotoxic to intestinal epithelial cells. In a screen for additional cytotoxic factors using an in vitro model for polarized colon epithelial cells we identified B. cereus sphingomyelinase (SMase as a strong inducer of epithelial cell death. Using single and double deletion mutants of sph, the gene encoding for SMase, and nheBC in B. cereus we demonstrated that SMase is an important factor for B. cereus cytotoxicity in vitro and pathogenicity in vivo. SMase substantially complemented Nhe induced cytotoxicity in vitro. In addition, SMase but not Nhe contributed significantly to the mortality rate of larvae in vivo in the insect model Galleria mellonella. Our study suggests that the role of B. cereus SMase as a secreted virulence factor for in vivo pathogenesis has been underestimated and that Nhe and SMase complement each other significantly to cause full B. cereus virulence hence disease formation.

  3. Effects of Bacillus cereus Endospores on Free-Living Protist Growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Santos, Susana S; Hendriksen, Niels Bohse; Jakobsen, Hans Henrik;

    2016-01-01

    We studied the predator-prey interactions between heterotrophic protists and endospores of Bacillus cereus group bacteria, in order to gain insight on survival and dispersal of B. cereus endospores in the environment. It has been hypothesised that the spore stage protects against digestion...

  4. Dispersal syndromes related to edge distance in cerrado sensu stricto fragments of central-western Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Vitor Fleuri Jardim

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The main selective forces affecting the fruiting strategies are related to the environment in which plants occur. As a savanna, microclimatic conditions should not vary in relation to distance from edge in cerrado sensu stricto fragments. Thus, we postulated that the importance of different dispersal syndromes would not vary towards the fragment core. Our aim was to test in four cerrado sensu stricto fragments in central Brazil whether the absolute density of anemo-, auto-, and zoochorous individuals varied in relation to edge distance. According to results, the absolute density of anemo-and autochorous individuals did not vary, whereas those of zoochorous individuals increased with edge distance, pointing out that there were other factors rather than abiotic conditions shifting zoochorous species to the interior of cerrado sensu stricto fragments.As principais forças seletivas que afetam as estratégias de frutificação estão relacionadas ao ambiente em que as plantas ocorrem. Como fragmentos de cerrado sensu stricto são savânicos, as condições microclimáticas não devem variar em relação à distância da borda. Assim, postulamos que a importância das diferentes síndromes de dispersão não varia da borda ao interior de um fragmento de vegetação. O objetivo deste trabalho foi testar, em quatro fragmentos de cerrado sensu stricto (centro-oeste do Brasil, se a densidade absoluta de indivíduos anemo, auto e zoocóricos variava em função da distância da borda. Segundo nossos resultados, a densidade absoluta de indivíduos anemo e autocóricos não variou significativamente borda em direção ao interior dos fragmentos, enquanto que a dos indivíduos zoocóricos aumentou, indicando que existem outros fatores, que não as condições abióticas, deslocando as espécies zoocóricas para o interior dos fragmentos de cerrado sensu stricto.

  5. The Pathogenomic Sequence Analysis of B. cereus and B. Thuringiensis isolates closely related to Bacillus anthracis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, C S; Xie, G; Challacombe, J F; Altherr, M R; Bhotika, S S; Bruce, D; Campbell, C S; Campbell, M L; Chen, J; Chertkov, O; Cleland, C; Dimitrijevic-Bussod, M; Doggett, N A; Fawcett, J J; Glavina, T; Goodwin, L A; Hill, K K; Hitchcock, P; Jackson, P J; Keim, P; Kewalramani, A R; Longmire, J; Lucas, S; Malfatti, S; McMurry, K; Meincke, L J; Misra, M; Moseman, B L; Mundt, M; Munk, A C; Okinaka, R T; Parson-Quintana, B; Reilly, L P; Richardson, P; Robinson, D L; Rubin, E; Saunders, E; Tapia, R; Tesmer, J G; Thayer, N; Thompson, L S; Tice, H; Ticknor, L O; Wills, P L; Gilna, P; Brettin, T S

    2005-10-12

    The sequencing and analysis of two close relatives of Bacillus anthracis are reported. AFLP analysis of over 300 isolates of B. cereus, B. thuringiensis and B. anthracis identified two isolates as being very closely related to B. anthracis. One, a B. cereus, BcE33L, was isolated from a zebra carcass in Nambia; the second, a B. thuringiensis, 97-27, was isolated from a necrotic human wound. The B. cereus appears to be the closest anthracis relative sequenced to date. A core genome of over 3,900 genes was compiled for the Bacillus cereus group, including B anthracis. Comparative analysis of these two genomes with other members of the B. cereus group provides insight into the evolutionary relationships among these organisms. Evidence is presented that differential regulation modulates virulence, rather than simple acquisition of virulence factors. These genome sequences provide insight into the molecular mechanisms contributing to the host range and virulence of this group of organisms.

  6. Bacillus cereus un patógeno importante en el control microbiológico de los alimentos / Bacillus cereus an important pathogen the microbiological control of food

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Sánchez

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Resumen Bacillus cereus es una bacteria genéticamente diversa que se encuentra comúnmente en el ambiente. Contamina los alimentos afectando la salud humana, al ingerir el microorganismo y/o sus toxinas, la emética o las enterotoxinas. En Colombia son escasos los reportes de intoxicación por B. cereus y se estima que hay un gran subregistro. Por lo anterior, se recomienda aumentar la vigilancia de este patógeno y realizar estudios sobre aspectos relevantes que permitan aplicar medidas de control para disminuir las intoxicaciones por B. cereus. El objetivo de esta revisión bibliográfica es presentar información actualizada sobre B. cereus, que incluye aspectos de su biología, taxonomía, toxinas, alimentos que contamina y metodologías para detectar, prevenir y controlar este microorganismo. La información presentada es de utilidad para el público en general, especialmente personas vinculadas al sector de alimentos, inocuidad alimentaria y control de procesos. / Abstract Bacillus cereus is a genetically diverse bacterium commonly found in the environment. It contaminates food, thus affecting human health upon ingestion of the microorganism and/or its toxins, the emetic or enterotoxins. In Colombia, reports of intoxication by B. cereus are scarce and under-registration is presumed. Because of this, it is recommended to increase surveillance of this pathogen and to develop studies on relevant aspects that allow the application of control measures to reduce intoxications by B. cereus. The aim of this review is to present current information on B. cereus, including aspects of its biology, taxonomy, toxins, food that it contaminates and methodologies for the detection, prevention and control of this microorganism. This information is useful for the general public, especially people involved with the food sector, food safety and process control.

  7. Is Cytotoxin K from Bacillus cereus a bona fide enterotoxin?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castiaux, Virginie; Liu, Xiaojin; Delbrassinne, Laurence; Mahillon, Jacques

    2015-10-15

    Cytotoxin K (CytK) produced by Bacillus cereus s.l. has generally been considered to be associated with the foodborne diarrhoeal syndrome. Two distinct variants of CytK have been reported: CytK-1 from Bacillus cytotoxicus and CytK-2 from B. cereus. In order to determine whether CytK plays a significant role in the diarrhoeal disease, the occurrence of cytK genes was assessed among 390 B. cereus isolates with different origins including clinical and food poisoning samples and was found to be 46%. Interestingly, the cytK occurrence was slightly lower in food poisoning and clinical isolates than in environmental samples. Seventy cytK-2 positive strains (including 28 isolates from foodborne outbreaks) were then selected in order to assess their genetic diversity. A genetic dendrogram based on the cytK-2 sequences of these 70 strains and on two cytK-1 sequences from strains NVH 391-98 and 883-00 showed an important diversity. However, no strain clustering according to the origin or source of isolation was observed. These observations were confirmed by Multi-Locus Sequences Typing (MLST) based on five different loci of housekeeping genes (ccpA, recF, sucC, purF and gdpD) for which no grouping of foodborne outbreak strains could be identified. Therefore, the choice of cytK as virulence factor for the diarrhoeal pathotype does not seem to be relevant per se, even though the involvement of CytK in the diarrhoeal syndrome cannot be fully excluded. Potential synergistic effects between CytK and other virulence factors, together with their potential variable expression levels should be further investigated.

  8. The PlcR virulence regulon of Bacillus cereus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michel Gohar

    Full Text Available PlcR is a Bacillus cereus transcriptional regulator, which activates gene expression by binding to a nucleotidic sequence called the 'PlcR box'. To build a list of all genes included in the PlcR regulon, a consensus sequence was identified by directed mutagenesis. The reference strain ATCC14579 sequenced genome was searched for occurrences of this consensus sequence to produce a virtual regulon. PlcR control of these genes was confirmed by comparing gene expression in the reference strain and its isogenic Delta-plcR strain using DNA microarrays, lacZ fusions and proteomics methods. The resulting list included 45 genes controlled by 28 PlcR boxes. Forty of the PlcR controlled proteins were exported, of which 22 were secreted in the extracellular medium and 18 were bound or attached to cell wall structures (membrane or peptidoglycan layer. The functions of these proteins were related to food supply (phospholipases, proteases, toxins, cell protection (bacteriocins, toxins, transporters, cell wall biogenesis and environment-sensing (two-component sensors, chemotaxis proteins, GGDEF family regulators. Four genes coded for cytoplasmic regulators. The PlcR regulon appears to integrate a large range of environmental signals, including food deprivation and self cell-density, and regulate the transcription of genes designed to overcome obstacles that hinder B. cereus growth within the host: food supply, host barriers, host immune defenses, and competition with other bacterial species. PlcR appears to be a key component in the efficient adaptation of B. cereus to its host environment.

  9. Bacillus cereus spores and cereulide in food-borne illness

    OpenAIRE

    Shaheen, Ranad

    2009-01-01

    B. cereus is a gram-positive bacterium that possesses two different forms of life:the large, rod-shaped cells (ca. 0.002 mm by 0.004 mm) that are able to propagate and the small (0.001 mm), oval shaped spores. The spores can survive in almost any environment for up to centuries without nourishment or water. They are insensitive towards most agents that normally kill bacteria: heating up to several hours at 90 ºC, radiation, disinfectants and extreme alkaline (≥ pH 13) and acid (≀ pH 1) e...

  10. Isolation of Bacillus Cereus from wounds and burns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Behzadiannejhad Gh

    1997-09-01

    Full Text Available The culture results of 203 cases with different wounds were studies; 150 of the latter were burn cases (mainly second and third degree burns, and 53 were of other types (surgical, traumatic, ect. Four subtypes of Bacillus cereus were isolated upon culture, and the different toxins produced in DHT broth with 0.1% glucose were assessed. The lethal toxin was injected intravenously to Syrian rats, none of whom died. VPR factor was assessed in the 4 subtypes. Three subtypes produced VPR in significant amounts.

  11. Bread, beer and wine: yeast domestication in the Saccharomyces sensu stricto complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sicard, Delphine; Legras, Jean-Luc

    2011-03-01

    Yeasts of the Saccharomyces sensu stricto species complex are able to convert sugar into ethanol and CO(2) via fermentation. They have been used for thousands years by mankind for fermenting food and beverages. In the Neolithic times, fermentations were probably initiated by naturally occurring yeasts, and it is unknown when humans started to consciously add selected yeast to make beer, wine or bread. Interestingly, such human activities gave rise to the creation of new species in the Saccharomyces sensu stricto complex by interspecies hybridization or polyploidization. Within the S. cerevisiae species, they have led to the differentiation of genetically distinct groups according to the food process origin. Although the evolutionary history of wine yeast populations has been well described, the histories of other domesticated yeasts need further investigation.

  12. Differentiation of females in Sergentomyia sensu stricto (Diptera: Psychodidae) using scanning electron microscopy of pharyngeal armatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benabdennbi, I; Bombard, S; Braverman, Y; Pesson, B

    1996-03-01

    Scanning electron microscopy of external ornamentation and internal armature of the pharynx was used to identify females of Sergentomyia sensu stricto. Five species from the eastern Mediterranean basin were compared; S. minuta clearly was separated from species of the fallax-group. Within the fallax-group, S. fallax was distinguished readily by its heart-shaped pharynx and the difference in armature between the dorsal and lateral plates.

  13. Effectiveness of disinfectants used in hemodialysis against both Candida orthopsilosis and C. parapsilosis sensu stricto biofilms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pires, Regina Helena; da Silva, Julhiany de Fátima; Gomes Martins, Carlos Henrique; Fusco Almeida, Ana Marisa; Pienna Soares, Christiane; Soares Mendes-Giannini, Maria José

    2013-05-01

    Biofilms have been observed in the fluid pathways of hemodialysis machines. The impacts of four biocides used for the disinfection of hemodialysis systems were tested against Candida parapsilosis sensu stricto and Candida orthopsilosis biofilms generated by isolates obtained from a hydraulic circuit that were collected in a hemodialysis unit. Acetic acid was shown to be the most effective agent against Candida biofilms. Strategies for effective disinfection procedures used for hemodialysis systems should also seek to kill and inhibit biofilms.

  14. Discrimination between E. granulosus sensu stricto, E. multilocularis and E. shiquicus Using a Multiplex PCR Assay

    OpenAIRE

    Cong-Nuan Liu; Zhong-Zi Lou; Li Li; Hong-Bin Yan; David Blair; Meng-Tong Lei; Jin-Zhong Cai; Yan-Lei Fan; Jian-Qiu Li; Bao-Quan Fu; Yu-Rong Yang; McManus, Donald P; Wan-Zhong Jia

    2015-01-01

    Background Infections of Echinococcus granulosus sensu stricto (s.s), E. multilocularis and E. shiquicus are commonly found co-endemic on the Qinghai-Tibet plateau, China, and an efficient tool is needed to facilitate the detection of infected hosts and for species identification. Methodology/Principal Findings A single-tube multiplex PCR assay was established to differentiate the Echinococcus species responsible for infections in intermediate and definitive hosts. Primers specific for E. gra...

  15. A Escola Fiocruz de Governo na profissionalização de servidores públicos federais: uma análise dos cursos lato sensu para a Anvisa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecília Andrade de Melo e SILVA

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available O trabalho teve como objetivo a análise quanti-qualitativa dos Trabalhos de Conclusão-TCC do “Curso de Especialização em Vigilância Sanitária dos Servidores da Anvisa” entre 2006 e 2009, cujo principal objeto era formar servidores recém-ingressos da Agencia Nacional de Vigilância Sanitária – Anvisa no campo da saúde coletiva. Foram examinados 366 TCC, a partir de seus resumos. Foram divididos os trabalhos por Macroeixos e categorizados entre artigos, projetos de pesquisa e monografias. Os resultados demonstraram que os temas que mais predominaram como objeto de estudo foram “vigilância” e “medicamentos”.

  16. Isolation and drug susceptibility of Candida parapsilosis sensu lato and other species of C. parapsilosis complex from patients with blood stream infections and proposal of a novel LAMP identification method for the species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trabasso, Plinio; Matsuzawa, Tetsuhiro; Fagnani, Renata; Muraosa, Yasunori; Tominaga, Kenichiro; Resende, Mariangela Ribeiro; Kamei, Katsuhiko; Mikami, Yuzuru; Schreiber, Angelica Zaninelli; Moretti, Maria Luiza

    2015-02-01

    Candida parapsilosis complex (CPC) is the third Candida species isolated in blood cultures of patients from our Hospital, following C. albicans and C. tropicalis. From 2006 to 2010, the median annual distribution of CPC was 8 cases/year. Records of 36 patients were reviewed. CPC were 31 (86.1%) C. parapsilosis; 4 (11.1%) C. orthopsilosis; and 1 (2.8%) C. metapsilosis. Clinical characteristics were central venous catheter, 34 (94.4%); parental nutrition, 25 (70%); surgery, 27 (57.9%); prior bacteremia, 20 (51.3%); malignancy, 18 (50%). General mortality was 47.2%. Death was higher in immunosuppressed patients (17 vs. 11; p = 0.003). Three out four (75%) patients with C. orthopsilosis and 14 out 31 (45.2%) with C. parapsilosis died (p = 0.558). Thirty-nine individual isolates were tested for susceptibility to seven antifungal drugs, with MICs values showing susceptibility to all of them. Two isolates, one C. orthopsilosis and one C. parapsilosis, had fluconazole MIC = 4 μg/mL. Differentiation among CPC has implication in caring for patients with invasive candidiasis since there are differences in virulence, pathogenicity and drug susceptibility. A method targeting the topoisomerase II gene based on loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) was developed. LAMP emerges as a promising tool for the identification of fungal species due to the high sensitivity and specificity. LAMP can be performed at the point-of-care, being no necessary the use of expensive equipment. In our study, the method was successful comparing to the DNA sequencing and proved to be a reliable and fast assay to distinguish the three species of CPC.

  17. Halocoryza Alluaud 1919, sea-side beetles of the Indian, Atlantic (sensu lato, and Pacific Oceans: a generic synopsis and description of a remarkable new species from Baja California Sur, México (Coleoptera, Carabidae, Scaritini, Clivinina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Terry Erwin

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Information on the three previously described species of Halocoryza Alluaud is updated and a new species for the genus from Isla Carmen, Sea of Cortés, Baja California Sur, México is described. Halocoryza whiteheadiana sp. n. was found at UV light on a beach of that island. This species does not fit the profile of the other three species, i.e., living on coralline beach sands, or in the Mangrove intertidal zone. Two alternative possibilities as to why this is so are suggested and a study plan for testing these possibilities is proposed.

  18. Isolation and identification of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato from ticks in six provinces in China%中国六省蜱中莱姆病螺旋体分离与鉴定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    耿震; 侯学霞; 万康林; 郝琴

    2010-01-01

    目的 了解中国6省蜱中莱姆病螺旋体携带情况.方法 在6省各选取2个采样点捕蜱,采用病原分离培养和巢式PCR方法对蜱进行莱姆病螺旋体检测,通过基因测序确定分型.结果 6省共采集到2200余只蜱,约1000只蜱用于病原分离培养,从吉林省长白县全沟硬蜱标本中分离到13株螺旋体,从贵州省道真粒形硬蜱标本中分离到9株螺旋体.1255只蜱用于PCR检测,从6省的蜱标本中检测到莱姆病螺旋体特异片段,其中吉林省(长白县27.08%、通化县20.41%)、青海省(互助县25.06%、黄南县21.11%)和贵州省(道真县25.63%)蜱中莱姆病螺旋体阳性率较高,山西省(垣曲县4.72%、交城县3.64%)蜱中莱姆病螺旋体阳性率较低.通过序列同源性分析确定吉林、青海、甘肃和山西省蜱中莱姆病螺旋体基因型均为Borrelia garinii.贵州、湖南省的基因型均为Borrelia valaisiana.结论 6省蜱中均带有莱姆病螺旋体,且带菌率有差异;山西省蜱中存在Borrelia ganmi型莱姆病螺旋体,湖南省蜱中存在Borrelia valaisiana型莱姆病螺旋体.%Objective To understand the carrying status of Borrelia burgdorferi in ticks from the mountain areas from six representative provinces, including Jilin, Shanxi, Gansu, Qinghai,Guizhou and Hunan in China. Methods Flagging and trapping methods were used to collect ticks in forest area and culture medium was used to isolate the pathogen. Nested-PCR was used to detect the gem-carrying rate of ticks. Results More than 2200 ticks from six representative provinces were collected and 1000 ticks were used to isolate the pathogen. 13 Lyme disease spirochetes from ixodes persulcatus in Changbai, Jilin province and 9 Lyme disease spirochetes from ixodes granulatus in Daozhen, Guizhou province were identified. There were 1255 ticks used for PCR testing. Specific fragments of the Borrelia burgdorferi in ticks were found from the six representative provinces in China. The carrier rate was higher in Jilin (Changbai 27.08%, Tonghua 20.41% ), Qinghai (Huzhu 25.06%, Huangnan 21.11%)and Guizhou (Daozhen 25.63% ), than in Shanxi (Yuanqu 4.72%,Jiaocheng 3.64% ). Result from the sequence analysis showed that the genotype belong to Borrelia garinii in Jilin, Qinghai, Gansu, Shanxi provinces but Borrelia valaisiana in Guizhou and Hunan provinces. Conclusion Our data showed that there existed Lyme disease spirochetes in all the six representative provinces in China, but the carriying rates of ticks were different. Borrelia garinii was found in Shanxi province, and Borrelia valaisiana in Hunan province.

  19. Detection and genotyping of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato in Pingxiang of Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region, China%广西凭祥地区莱姆病螺旋体检测和基因分型研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩华; 万道正; 张晓龙; 梁中平; 郭天宇; 褚宸一; 赵荣涛; 石华; 宋宏彬

    2013-01-01

    目的 调查广西凭祥地区莱姆病感染情况和基因型别.方法 2011年7月从广西凭祥地区采集蜱、啮齿动物和野鸟标本,分别采取煮沸法和Qiagen试剂盒提取蜱、啮齿动物脾脏以及鸟脾脏中莱姆病螺旋体基因组DNA;采用巢式PCR扩增莱姆病螺旋体5S~23S rRNA基因间隔区;对PCR扩增产物进行测序,并将序列结果与GenBank中莱姆病螺旋体5S~23SrRNA基因问隔区序列比对分析.结果 从3份啮齿动物标本中检测到莱姆病螺旋体5S~23SrRNA基因间隔区片段,啮齿动物的感染率为5.66%(3/53).其中一个序列与GenBank中Borrelia valaisiana基因型莱姆病螺旋体(序列号:HM100125.1,AB091455.1,AB091454.1,AB091453.1)同源性为100%;蜱和鸟标本中未检测到莱姆病螺旋体.结论 广西凭祥地区啮齿动物中存在莱姆病螺旋体B.valaisiana基因型感染.

  20. A new genus of athecate interstitial dinoflagellates, Togula gen. nov., previously encompassed within Amphidinium sensu lato: Inferred from light and electron microscopy and phylogenetic analyses of partial large subunit ribosomal DNA sequences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Mårten Flø; Murray, Shauna; Daugbjerg, Niels

    2004-01-01

    and scanning electron microscopy did not reveal significant differences between the vegetative motile cells; however, cells about to undergo mitosis developed longitudinal grooves on the hypocone in one of the clades but not in the other. Both clades differed substantially from A. britannicum in partial large...

  1. A novel dodine-free selective medium based on the use of cetyl trimethyl ammonium bromide (CTAB) to isolate Beauveria bassiana, Metarhizium anisopliae sensu lato and Paecilomyces lilacinus from soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Posadas, Julieta B; Comerio, Ricardo M; Mini, Jorge I; Nussenbaum, Ana L; Lecuona, Roberto E

    2012-01-01

    This study evaluated the quaternary ammonium compound cetyl trimethyl ammonium bromide (CTAB) as an alternative to the chemically related dodecylguanidine (dodine) for the selective isolation of entomopathogenic fungi. Oatmeal agar (OA) with chloramphenicol was used as basal medium, and three concentrations of CTAB (0.5, 0.6, 0.7 g/L) were evaluated and compared against OA + 0.46 g/L dodine. Selective isolation and growth studies were performed with the entomopathogens Beauveria bassiana, Metarhizium anisopliae s.l. and Paecilomyces lilacinus and five common non-entomopathogenic non-target species. The three entomopathogenic fungi sporulated earlier on OA + 0.6 g/L CTAB than on OA + 0.46 g/L dodine, while none of the non-target fungi sporulated on OA + 0.6 g/L CTAB. All entomopathogenic fungal isolates grew on OA + 0.6 g/L CTAB, despite some intra-species variation, whereas non-target fungi showed no growth or sporulation. OA + 0.6 g/L CTAB resulted in an efficient medium to isolate B. bassiana, M. anisopliae s. l. and P. lilacinus from soil samples. Results of our study suggest that OA + 0.6 g/L CTAB is a suitable, simple and inexpensive to prepare medium to replace OA + 0.46 g/L dodine for the selective isolation of these fungi.

  2. Cash management system 'CEREUS-SM'; Supermarket muke kinsen shoriki 'CEREUS-SM'

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Niizuma, N.; Fukushima, Y.; Kinoshita, S. [Fuji Electric Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    2000-03-10

    The adjustment system with change in coin has reduced cashier work in supermarkets, and has spread as the standard peripheral equipment of the point of sales (POS) system. Recently, there have been customer needs for a type with change in bill and coin. Fuji Electric has developed cash management system 'CEREUS-SM' which is as small as the current system only with change in coin and can be handled by anyone, including a part-timer or a student worker. (author)

  3. Erratum to: Seasonal trend and clinical presentation of Bacillus cereus bloodstream infection: association with summer and indwelling catheter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, K; Matsumura, Y; Yamamoto, M; Nagao, M; Ito, Y; Takakura, S; Ichiyama, S

    2016-05-01

    Bacillus cereus, an opportunistic pathogen, can cause fatal infection. However, B. cereus bloodstream infections (BSIs) have not been well characterised. From 2008 to 2013, B. cereus isolates from all of the specimens and patients with B. cereus BSIs were identified. Environmental samples were collected to detect B. cereus contamination. We also characterised the clinical presentation of B. cereus BSI through analyses of risk factors for BSI and mortality. A total of 143 clinical B. cereus isolates was detected. Fifty-one patients with nosocomial infections were diagnosed as B. cereus BSI, and 37 had contaminated blood cultures. The number of B. cereus isolates and BSI patients was significantly greater from June to September than from January to April (3.4 vs. 1.0 per month and 1.4 vs. 0.2, respectively). All BSIs were nosocomial and related to central or peripheral vascular catheter. Urinary catheter [odds ratio (OR) 6.93, 95 % confidence interval (CI) 2.40-20.0] was the independent risk factor associated with BSI patients when compared to patients regarded as contaminated. In-hospital mortality among BSI patients was 20 % and was associated with urinary catheter (OR 12.3, 95 % CI 0.67-225, p=0.045) and higher Charlson index (OR 1.99, 95 % CI 1.26-3.12). The number of B. cereus isolates and BSI increased during summer. Inpatients with indwelling vascular or urinary catheters should be carefully monitored for potential B. cereus BSIs.

  4. Bacillus subtilis HJ18-4 from traditional fermented soybean food inhibits Bacillus cereus growth and toxin-related genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eom, Jeong Seon; Lee, Sun Young; Choi, Hye Sun

    2014-11-01

    Bacillus subtilis HJ18-4 isolated from buckwheat sokseongjang, a traditional Korean fermented soybean food, exhibits broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity against foodborne pathogens, including Bacillus cereus. In this study, we investigated the antibacterial efficacy and regulation of toxin gene expression in B. cereus by B. subtilis HJ18-4. Expression of B. cereus toxin-related genes (groEL, nheA, nheC, and entFM) was downregulated by B. subtilis HJ18-4, which also exhibited strong antibacterial activity against B. cereus. We also found that water extracts of soy product fermented with B. subtilis HJ18-4 significantly inhibited the growth of B. cereus and toxin expression. These results indicate that B. subtilis HJ18-4 could be used as an antimicrobial agent to control B. cereus in the fermented soybean food industry. Our findings also provide an opportunity to develop an efficient biological control agent against B. cereus.

  5. Genetic relationships between sympatric populations of Bacillus cereus and Bacillus thuringiensis, as revealed by rep-PCR genomic fingerprinting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Paula S Peruca

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available The bacterial strain Bacillus cereus is closely related to Bacillus thuringiensis, although any genetic relationship between the two strains is still in debate. Using rep-PCR genomic fingerprinting, we established the genetic relationships between Brazilian sympatric populations of B. cereus and B. thuringiensis simultaneously collected from two geographically separate sites. We observed the formation of both B. thuringiensis and B. cereus clusters, as well as strains of B. cereus that are more closely related to B. thuringiensis than to other B. cereus strains. In addition, lower genetic variability was observed among B. thuringiensis clusters compared to B. cereus clusters, indicating that either the two species should be categorized as separate or that B. thuringiensis may represent a clone from a B. cereus background.

  6. Assessment of hydrophobicity and roughness of stainless steel adhered by an isolate of Bacillus cereus from a dairy plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia Campos Bernardes

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The interaction between the surface of stainless steel and Bacillus cereus was studied in terms of the characteristics of interfacial interaction determined from the measurement of the contact angle of the surface of B. cereus and stainless steel in the presence or absence of B. cereus adherence. The microtopographies and the roughness of the surface of stainless steel and stainless steel adhered by B. cereus were evaluated with the help of atomic force microscopy and perfilometry. The strain of B. cereus studied was considered hydrophilic, whereas the stainless steel was considered hydrophobic. The adhesion was not thermodynamically favorable (ΔGadhesion > 0 between the stainless steel and the strain of B. cereus studied. Thus, the interaction between them was not favored by the thermodynamic aspect of adhesion. There was no difference (p > 0.05 in the roughness of the surfaces of stainless steel adhered by B. cereus when analyzed by atomic force microscope and perfilometry.

  7. Assessment of hydrophobicity and roughness of stainless steel adhered by an isolate of Bacillus cereus from a dairy plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernardes, Patrícia Campos; de Andrade, Nélio José; Ferreira, Sukarno Olavo; de Sá, João Paulo Natalino; Araújo, Emiliane Andrade; Delatorre, Deyse Maria Zanom; Luiz, Lívia Maria Pinheiro

    2010-01-01

    The interaction between the surface of stainless steel and Bacillus cereus was studied in terms of the characteristics of interfacial interaction determined from the measurement of the contact angle of the surface of B. cereus and stainless steel in the presence or absence of B. cereus adherence. The microtopographies and the roughness of the surface of stainless steel and stainless steel adhered by B. cereus were evaluated with the help of atomic force microscopy and perfilometry. The strain of B. cereus studied was considered hydrophilic, whereas the stainless steel was considered hydrophobic. The adhesion was not thermodynamically favorable (ΔGadhesion > 0) between the stainless steel and the strain of B. cereus studied. Thus, the interaction between them was not favored by the thermodynamic aspect of adhesion. There was no difference (p > 0.05) in the roughness of the surfaces of stainless steel adhered by B. cereus when analyzed by atomic force microscope and perfilometry. PMID:24031578

  8. [Morphologic detection of Bacillus cereus in blank cartridges].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothschild, M A; Mülling, C

    1998-01-01

    Wound infections after gunshot wounds from live ammunition can produce serious complications. It is well known that projectiles per se are neither sterile nor does their firing cause sterilization. The germs on the surface of a projectile enter the body together with the projectile and are thus introduced into the wound together with skin bacteria. However it is less known that wound infections can occur in wounds caused by the gas jet from blank ammunition (mainly from shots at very close range). In such ammunition without a projectile, the propellant particles are usually contaminated with bacteria which find their way into the wound together with skin germs. In previous investigations, we have microbiologically detected the species Bacillus cereus in the propellant of blank cartridges. In the present study, we have applied scanning electron microscopic methods to find out which areas of the blank cartridges are colonized by these bacteria. For this purpose 20 blank cartridges, each from 4 different manufacturers, were electronmicroscopically examined. B. cereus only found on the surface of intact nitrocellulose particles but not in the interior of broken prepared propellant particles. Bacterial structures were not morphologically identified on black powder particles.

  9. Bacillus cereus var. toyoi enhanced systemic immune response in piglets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schierack, Peter; Wieler, Lothar H; Taras, David; Herwig, Volker; Tachu, Babila; Hlinak, Andreas; Schmidt, Michael F G; Scharek, Lydia

    2007-07-15

    Probiotic bacteria have been suggested to stimulate the host immune system. In this study we evaluated the immunomodulatory effects of probiotic Bacillus cereus var. toyoi on the systemic immunity of piglets. A pool of 70 piglets was divided into a probiotic or control group. We determined the ratios of peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) subsets and measured proliferative responses and cytokine production of PBMCs and effects on vaccination responses. Blood samples of probiotic-treated piglets showed a significantly lower frequency of CD8(high)/CD3+ T cells and CD8(low)/CD3+ T cells and a significant higher CD4+/CD8+ ratio. IL-4 and IFN-gamma production of polyclonally stimulated PBMCs was on average higher in the probiotic group. Specific proliferative responses of PBMCs to Influenza vaccination antigens were significantly higher and antibody titers against H3N2 Influenza and Mycoplasma vaccination antigens were on average higher in the probiotic group. In conclusion, B. cereus var. toyoi therefore alters the immune status of piglets as indicated by changes in the ratios as well as functionalities of systemic immune cell populations.

  10. Environment driven cereulide production by emetic strains of Bacillus cereus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apetroaie-Constantin, Camelia; Shaheen, Ranad; Andrup, Lars; Smidt, Lasse; Rita, Hannu; Salkinoja-Salonen, Mirja

    2008-09-30

    The impacts of growth media and temperature on production of cereulide, the emetic toxin of Bacillus cereus, were measured for seven well characterised strains selected for diversity of biochemical and genetic properties and sources of origin. All strains carried cereulide synthase gene, ces, on a megaplasmid of ca. 200 kb and all grew up to 48-50 degrees C, but produced cereulide only up to 39 degrees C. On tryptic soy agar five strains, originating from foods, food poisonings and environment, produced highest amounts of cereulide at 23 to 28 degrees C, whereas two strains, from human faeces, produced cereulide similarly from 23 to 39 degrees C, with no clear temperature trend. These two strains differed from the others also by producing more cereulide on tryptic soy agar if supplemented with 5 vol.% of blood, whereas the other five strains produced similarly, independent on the presence of blood. On oatmeal agar only one strain produced major amounts of cereulide. On skim milk agar, raw milk agar, and MacConkey agar most strains grew well but produced only low amounts of cereulide. Three media components, the ratio [K+]:[Na+], contents of glycine and [Na+], appeared of significance for predicting cereulide production. Increase of [K+]:[Na+] (focal variable) predicted (P cereus in a complex manner. The relevance of the findings to production of cereulide in the gut and to the safety of amino acids as additives in foods containing live toxinogenic organisms is discussed.

  11. The Arthromitus stage of Bacillus cereus: intestinal symbionts of animals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margulis, L.; Jorgensen, J. Z.; Dolan, S.; Kolchinsky, R.; Rainey, F. A.; Lo, S. C.

    1998-01-01

    In the guts of more than 25 species of arthropods we observed filaments containing refractile inclusions previously discovered and named "Arthromitus" in 1849 by Joseph Leidy [Leidy, J. (1849) Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia 4, 225-233]. We cultivated these microbes from boiled intestines of 10 different species of surface-cleaned soil insects and isopod crustaceans. Literature review and these observations lead us to conclude that Arthromitus are spore-forming, variably motile, cultivable bacilli. As long rod-shaped bacteria, they lose their flagella, attach by fibers or fuzz to the intestinal epithelium, grow filamentously, and sporulate from their distal ends. When these organisms are incubated in culture, their life history stages are accelerated by light and inhibited by anoxia. Characterization of new Arthromitus isolates from digestive tracts of common sow bugs (Porcellio scaber), roaches (Gromphodorhina portentosa, Blaberus giganteus) and termites (Cryptotermes brevis, Kalotermes flavicollis) identifies these flagellated, spore-forming symbionts as a Bacillus sp. Complete sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene from four isolates (two sow bug, one hissing roach, one death's head roach) confirms these as the low-G+C Gram-positive eubacterium Bacillus cereus. We suggest that B. cereus and its close relatives, easily isolated from soil and grown on nutrient agar, enjoy filamentous growth in moist nutrient-rich intestines of healthy arthropods and similar habitats.

  12. Occurrence of Toxigenic Bacillus cereus and Bacillus thuringiensis in Doenjang, a Korean Fermented Soybean Paste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Kyung Min; Kim, Hyun Jung; Jeong, Moon Cheol; Koo, Minseon

    2016-04-01

    This study determined the prevalence and toxin profile of Bacillus cereus and Bacillus thuringiensis in doenjang, a fermented soybean food, made using both traditional and commercial methods. The 51 doenjang samples tested were broadly contaminated with B. cereus; in contrast, only one sample was positive for B. thuringiensis. All B. cereus isolates from doenjang were positive for diarrheal toxin genes. The frequencies of nheABC and hblACD in traditional samples were 22.7 and 0%, respectively, whereas 5.1 and 5.1% of B. cereus isolates from commercial samples possessed nheABC and hblACD, respectively. The detection rate of ces gene was 10.8%. The predominant toxin profile among isolates from enterotoxigenic B. cereus in doenjang was profile 4 (entFM-bceT-cytK). The major enterotoxin genes in emetic B. cereus were cytK, entFM, and nheA genes. The B. thuringiensis isolate was of the diarrheagenic type. These results provide a better understanding of the epidemiology of the enterotoxigenic and emetic B. cereus groups in Korean fermented soybean products.

  13. Bacillus cereus induces permeability of an in vitro blood-retina barrier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moyer, A L; Ramadan, R T; Thurman, J; Burroughs, A; Callegan, M C

    2008-04-01

    Most Bacillus cereus toxin production is controlled by the quorum-sensing-dependent, pleiotropic global regulator plcR, which contributes to the organism's virulence in the eye. The purpose of this study was to analyze the effects of B. cereus infection and plcR-regulated toxins on the barrier function of retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) cells, the primary cells of the blood-retina barrier. Human ARPE-19 cells were apically inoculated with wild-type or quorum-sensing-deficient B. cereus, and cytotoxicity was analyzed. plcR-regulated toxins were not required for B. cereus-induced RPE cytotoxicity, but these toxins did increase the rate of cell death, primarily by necrosis. B. cereus infection of polarized RPE cell monolayers resulted in increased barrier permeability, independent of plcR-regulated toxins. Loss of both occludin and ZO-1 expression occurred by 8 h postinfection, but alterations in tight junctions appeared to precede cytotoxicity. Of the several proinflammatory cytokines analyzed, only interleukin-6 was produced in response to B. cereus infection. These results demonstrate the deleterious effects of B. cereus infection on RPE barrier function and suggest that plcR-regulated toxins may not contribute significantly to RPE barrier permeability during infection.

  14. Probiotic Bacillus cereus Strains, a Potential Risk for Public Health in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Kui; Hölzel, Christina S; Cui, Yifang; Mayer, Ricarda; Wang, Yang; Dietrich, Richard; Didier, Andrea; Bassitta, Rupert; Märtlbauer, Erwin; Ding, Shuangyang

    2016-01-01

    Bacillus cereus is an important cause of foodborne infectious disease and food poisoning. However, B. cereus has also been used as a probiotic in human medicine and livestock production, with low standards of safety assessment. In this study, we evaluated the safety of 15 commercial probiotic B. cereus preparations from China in terms of mislabeling, toxin production, and transferable antimicrobial resistance. Most preparations were incorrectly labeled, as they contained additional bacterial species; one product did not contain viable B. cereus at all. In total, 18 B. cereus group strains-specifically B. cereus and Bacillus thuringiensis-were isolated. Enterotoxin genes nhe, hbl, and cytK1, as well as the ces-gene were assessed by PCR. Enterotoxin production and cytotoxicity were confirmed by ELISA and cell culture assays, respectively. All isolated B. cereus group strains produced the enterotoxin Nhe; 15 strains additionally produced Hbl. Antimicrobial resistance was assessed by microdilution; resistance genes were detected by PCR and further characterized by sequencing, transformation and conjugation assays. Nearly half of the strains harbored the antimicrobial resistance gene tet(45). In one strain, tet(45) was situated on a mobile genetic element-encoding a site-specific recombination mechanism-and was transferable to Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus subtilis by electro-transformation. In view of the wide and uncontrolled use of these products, stricter regulations for safety assessment, including determination of virulence factors and transferable antimicrobial resistance genes, are urgently needed.

  15. Probiotic Bacillus cereus strains, a potential risk for public health in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kui eZhu

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Bacillus cereus is an important cause of foodborne infectious disease and food poisoning. However, B. cereus has also been used as a probiotic in human medicine and livestock production, with low standards of safety assessment. In this study, we evaluated the safety of 15 commercial probiotic B. cereus preparations from China in terms of mislabeling, toxin production, and transferable antimicrobial resistance. Most preparations were incorrectly labeled, as they contained additional bacterial species; one product did not contain viable B. cereus at all. In total, 18 B. cereus group strains – specifically B. cereus and B. thuringiensis – were isolated. Enterotoxin genes nhe, hbl, and cytK1, as well as the ces-gene were assessed by PCR. Enterotoxin production and cytotoxicity were confirmed by ELISA and cell culture assays, respectively. All isolated B. cereus group strains produced the enterotoxin Nhe; 15 strains additionally produced Hbl. Antimicrobial resistance was assessed by microdilution; resistance genes were detected by PCR and further characterized by sequencing, transformation and conjugation assays. Nearly half of the strains harbored the antimicrobial resistance gene tet(45. In one strain, tet(45 was situated on a mobile genetic element – encoding a site specific recombination mechanism – and was transferable to Staphylococcus aureus and B. subtilis by electro-transformation. In view of the wide and uncontrolled use of these products, stricter regulations for safety assessment, including determination of virulence factors and transferable antimicrobial resistance genes, are urgently needed.

  16. Genetic diversity of clinical isolates of Bacillus cereus using multilocus sequence typing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pruckler James M

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bacillus cereus is most commonly associated with foodborne illness (diarrheal and emetic but is also an opportunistic pathogen that can cause severe and fatal infections. Several multilocus sequence typing (MLST schemes have recently been developed to genotype B. cereus and analysis has suggested a clonal or weakly clonal population structure for B. cereus and its close relatives B. anthracis and B. thuringiensis. In this study we used MLST to determine if B. cereus isolates associated with illnesses of varying severity (e.g., severe, systemic vs. gastrointestinal (GI illness were clonal or formed clonal complexes. Results A retrospective analysis of 55 clinical B. cereus isolates submitted to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention between 1954 and 2004 was conducted. Clinical isolates from severe infections (n = 27, gastrointestinal (GI illness (n = 18, and associated isolates from food (n = 10 were selected for analysis using MLST. The 55 isolates were diverse and comprised 38 sequence types (ST in two distinct clades. Of the 27 isolates associated with serious illness, 13 clustered in clade 1 while 14 were in clade 2. Isolates associated with GI illness were also found throughout clades 1 and 2, while no isolates in this study belonged to clade 3. All the isolates from this study belonging to the clade 1/cereus III lineage were associated with severe disease while isolates belonging to clade1/cereus II contained isolates primarily associated with severe disease and emetic illness. Only three STs were observed more than once for epidemiologically distinct isolates. Conclusion STs of clinical B. cereus isolates were phylogenetically diverse and distributed among two of three previously described clades. Greater numbers of strains will need to be analyzed to confirm if specific lineages or clonal complexes are more likely to contain clinical isolates or be associated with specific illness, similar to B. anthracis and

  17. Bacteriophage PBC1 and its endolysin as an antimicrobial agent against Bacillus cereus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Minsuk; Ryu, Sangryeol

    2015-04-01

    Bacillus cereus is an opportunistic human pathogen responsible for food poisoning and other, nongastrointestinal infections. Due to the emergence of multidrug-resistant B. cereus strains, the demand for alternative therapeutic options is increasing. To address these problems, we isolated and characterized a Siphoviridae virulent phage, PBC1, and its lytic enzymes. PBC1 showed a very narrow host range, infecting only 1 of 22 B. cereus strains. Phylogenetic analysis based on the major capsid protein revealed that PBC1 is more closely related to the Bacillus clarkii phage BCJA1c and phages of lactic acid bacteria than to the phages infecting B. cereus. Whole-genome comparison showed that the late-gene region, including the terminase gene, structural genes, and holin gene of PBC1, is similar to that from B. cereus temperate phage 250, whereas their endolysins are different. Compared to the extreme host specificity of PBC1, its endolysin, LysPBC1, showed a much broader lytic spectrum, albeit limited to the genus Bacillus. The catalytic domain of LysPBC1 when expressed alone also showed Bacillus-specific lytic activity, which was lower against the B. cereus group but higher against the Bacillus subtilis group than the full-length protein. Taken together, these results suggest that the virulent phage PBC1 is a useful component of a phage cocktail to control B. cereus, even with its exceptionally narrow host range, as it can kill a strain of B. cereus that is not killed by other phages, and that LysPBC1 is an alternative biocontrol agent against B. cereus.

  18. The effect of selected factors on the survival of Bacillus cereus in the human gastrointestinal tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berthold-Pluta, Anna; Pluta, Antoni; Garbowska, Monika

    2015-05-01

    Bacillus cereus is a Gram-positive bacterium widely distributed in soil and vegetation. This bacterial species can also contaminate raw or processed foods. Pathogenic B. cereus strains can cause a range of infections in humans, as well as food poisoning of an emetic (intoxication) or diarrheal type (toxico-infection). Toxico-infections are due to the action of the Hbl toxin, Nhe toxin, and cytotoxin K produced by the microorganism in the gastrointestinal tract. This occurs once the spores or vegetative B. cereus cells survive the pH barrier of the stomach and reach the small intestine where they produce toxins in sufficient amounts. This article discusses the effect of various factors on the survival of B. cereus in the gastrointestinal tract, including low pH and the presence of digestive enzymes in the stomach, bile salts in the small intestine, and indigenous microflora in the lower parts of the gastrointestinal tract. Additional aspects also reported to affect B. cereus survival and virulence in the gastrointestinal tract include the interaction of the spores and vegetative cells with enterocytes. In vitro studies revealed that both vegetative B. cereus and spores can survive in the gastrointestinal tract suggesting that the biological form of the microorganism may have less influence on the occurrence of the symptoms of infection than was once believed. It is most likely the interaction between the pathogen and enterocytes that is necessary for the diarrheal form of B. cereus food poisoning to develop. The adhesion of B. cereus to the intestinal epithelium allows the bacterium to grow and produce enterotoxins in the proximity of the epithelium. Recent studies suggest that the human intestinal microbiota inhibits the growth of vegetative B. cereus cells considerably.

  19. Bacillus cereus catheter related bloodstream infection in a patient with acute lymphoblastic leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurler, N; Oksuz, L; Muftuoglu, M; Sargin, Fd; Besisik, Sk

    2012-01-01

    Bacillus cereus infection is rarely associated with actual infection and for this reason single positive blood culture is usually regarded as contamination . However it may cause a number of infections, such catheter-related bloodstream infections. Significant catheter-related bloodstream infections (CRBSI) caused by Bacillus spp. are mainly due to B. cereus and have been predominantly reported in immunocompromised hosts. Catheter removal is generally advised for management of infection. In this report, catheter-related bacteremia caused by B. cereus in a patient with acute lymphoblast c leukemia (ALL) in Istanbul Medical Faculty was presented.

  20. A Cluster of Bacillus cereus Bacteremia Cases among Injection Drug Users

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael A Benusic

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Bacillus cereus is a ubiquitous spore-forming organism that is infrequently implicated in extraintestinal infections. The authors report three cases of B cereus bacteremia among injection drug users presenting within one month to an urban tertiary care hospital. Treatment with intravenous vancomycin was successful in all three cases. While temporal association suggested an outbreak, molecular studies of patient isolates using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis did not suggest a common source. A review of the association of B cereus infections with heroin use and treatment of this pathogen is provided.

  1. Bacillus cereus bacteremia and hemolytic anemia in a patient with hemoglobin SC disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodgers, G M; Barrera, E; Martin, R R

    1980-08-01

    A patient with hemoglobin SC disease and cholelithiasis was found to have Bacillus cereus bacteremia. Hemolytic anemia developed, for which common causes of hemolysis were excluded, suggesting a relationship with the bacteremia. Following in vitro incubation, type O erythrocytes were hemolyzed by the culture, but not by a bacteria-free filtrate. This case confirms the association between sickle cell disorders and cholelithiasis with B cereus infections. In addition, it provides evidence for in vivo hemolysis with B cereus bacteremia, an organism not previously associated with hemolytic anemia.

  2. A cluster of Bacillus cereus bacteremia cases among injection drug users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benusic, Michael A; Press, Natasha M; Hoang, Linda Mn; Romney, Marc G

    2015-01-01

    Bacillus cereus is a ubiquitous spore-forming organism that is infrequently implicated in extraintestinal infections. The authors report three cases of B cereus bacteremia among injection drug users presenting within one month to an urban tertiary care hospital. Treatment with intravenous vancomycin was successful in all three cases. While temporal association suggested an outbreak, molecular studies of patient isolates using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis did not suggest a common source. A review of the association of B cereus infections with heroin use and treatment of this pathogen is provided.

  3. Successful surgical drainage and aggressive medical therapy in a preterm neonate with Bacillus cereus meningitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drazin, Doniel; Lehman, Deborah; Danielpour, Moise

    2010-01-01

    Bacillus cereus meningitis is a rare disease with a very high mortality rate in neonates. The authors present the rare case of a premature infant with B. cereus bacteremia and subsequent intracranial abscesses. In addition to aggressive medical therapy, surgical drainage was performed via a left frontal mini-craniotomy. At 15 months of age, the patient had mild developmental delay, cortical blindness, and sensorineural hearing loss. The clinical case is described and difficulties in the management of B. cereus meningoencephalitis in infants are discussed.

  4. Occurrence and significance of Bacillus cereus and Bacillus thuringiensis in ready-to-eat food

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosenquist, Hanne; Ørum-Smidt, Lasse; Andersen, Sigrid R

    2005-01-01

    Among 48,901 samples of ready-to-eat food products at the Danish retail market, 0.5% had counts of Bacillus cereus-like bacteria above 10(4) cfu g(-1). The high counts were most frequently found in starchy, cooked products, but also in fresh cucumbers and tomatoes. Forty randomly selected strains...... had at least one gene or component involved in human diarrhoeal disease, while emetic toxin was related to only one B. cereus strain. A new observation was that 31 out of the 40 randomly selected B. cereus-like strains could be classified as Bacillus thuringiensis due to crystal production and...

  5. Bacillus cereus Induces Permeability of an In Vitro Blood-Retina Barrier▿

    OpenAIRE

    Moyer, A. L.; Ramadan, R.T.; Thurman, J.; Burroughs, A; Callegan, M.C.

    2008-01-01

    Most Bacillus cereus toxin production is controlled by the quorum-sensing-dependent, pleiotropic global regulator plcR, which contributes to the organism's virulence in the eye. The purpose of this study was to analyze the effects of B. cereus infection and plcR-regulated toxins on the barrier function of retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) cells, the primary cells of the blood-retina barrier. Human ARPE-19 cells were apically inoculated with wild-type or quorum-sensing-deficient B. cereus, and ...

  6. Bacillus cereus Bloodstream Infection in a Preterm Neonate Complicated by Late Meningitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toshinobu Horii

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Central nervous system infections caused by Bacillus cereus have rarely been reported in infants. In this paper, the case of a 2-month-old low-birth-weight female who developed meningitis 45 days after resolution of a bloodstream infection (BSI is described. The pulsed-field gel electrophoresis results revealed that the patterns of both B. cereus isolates responsible for the acute meningitis and for the prior bacteraemic episode were closely related. Although the source of the infection from within the patient was not clear, it is suggested that the B. cereus BSI developed in the neonate was complicated by acute meningitis.

  7. Characteristics and phylogeny of Bacillus cereus strains isolated from Maari, a traditional West African food condiment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorsen, Line; Kando, Christine Kere; Sawadogo, Hagrétou

    2015-01-01

    cereus occasionally occurs in Maari. This study characterizes succession patterns and pathogenic potential of B. cereus isolated from the raw materials (ash, water from a drilled well (DW) and potash), seed mash throughout fermentation (0-96h), after steam cooking and sun drying (final product) from two...... found in potash, DW, cooking water and at 8h fermentation. The "emetic" type B. cereus were present in DW, the seed mash at 48-72h of fermentation and in the final product, while the remaining isolates (PanC type IV) were detected in ash, at 48-72h fermentation and in the final product. This work sheds...

  8. Inhibition of Bacillus cereus spore outgrowth and multiplication by chitosan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mellegård, Hilde; From, Cecilie; Christensen, Bjørn E; Granum, Per E

    2011-10-03

    Bacillus cereus is an endospore-forming bacterium able to cause food-associated illness. Different treatment processes are used in the food industry to reduce the number of spores and thereby the potential of foodborne disease. Chitosan is a polysaccharide with well-documented antibacterial activity towards vegetative cells. The activity against bacterial spores, spore germination and subsequent outgrowth and growth (the latter two events hereafter denoted (out)growth), however, is poorly documented. By using six different chitosans with defined macromolecular properties, we evaluated the effect of chitosan on Bacillus cereus spore germination and (out)growth using optical density assays and a dipicolinic acid release assay. (Out)growth was inhibited by chitosan, but germination was not. The action of chitosan was found to be concentration-dependent and also closely related to weight average molecular weight (M(w)) and fraction of acetylation (F(A)) of the biopolymer. Chitosans of low acetylation (F(A)=0.01 or 0.16) inhibited (out)growth more effectively than higher acetylated chitosans (F(A)=0.48). For the F(A)=0.16 chitosans with medium (56.8kDa) and higher M(w) (98.3kDa), a better (out)growth inhibition was observed compared to low M(w) (10.6kDa) chitosan. The same trend was not evident with chitosans of 0.48 acetylation, where the difference in activity between the low (19.6kDa) and high M(w) (163.0kDa) chitosans was only minor. In a spore test concentration corresponding to 10(2)-10(3)CFU/ml (spore numbers relevant to food), less chitosan was needed to suppress (out)growth compared to higher spore numbers (equivalent to 10(8)CFU/ml), as expected. No major differences in chitosan susceptibility between three different strains of B. cereus were detected. Our results contribute to a better understanding of chitosan activity towards bacterial spore germination and (out)growth.

  9. Diversidade alfa e beta no cerrado sensu strictu da Chapada Pratinha, Brasil Alfa and Beta diversity in the cerrado sensu stricto

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Cristina Felfili

    2001-08-01

    Full Text Available O bioma cerrado possui uma das mais ricas floras dentre as savanas mundiais com mais de 6000 espécies, abrange uma vasta extensão territorial, contém as três maiores bacias hidrográficas sul americanas, e se destaca pela elevada biodiversidade. O objetivo deste trabalho, que faz parte do Projeto Biogeografia do Bioma Cerrado, foi analisar as diversidades alfa e beta em comunidades de cerrado sensu stricto. Foram amostrados o Parque Nacional de Brasília, a Estação Ecológica de Águas Emendadas, a Area de Proteção Ambiental (APA Gama-Cabeça de Veado, Silvânia-GO, Paracatu-MG e Patrocínio-MG. A amostragem foi aleatória com 10 parcelas de 20x50m em cada área de estudo. Foram incluídas plantas lenhosas, exceto lianas, que tivessem no mínimo 5cm de diâmetro. Foi calculada a diversidade alfa pelo teste de Shannon & Wienner e o de Simpson. A diversidade beta foi calculada pelo índice de Whittaker que mede a mudança ou taxa de substituição na composição de espécies de um local para outro. Foi efetuada a curva espécie-área para as 60 parcelas amostradas e efetuada a classificação por TWINSPAN. O cerrado sensu stricto da Chapada Pratinha pode ser diferenciado em duas zonas fitogeográficas: Distrito Federal-Silvânia e Paracatu-Patrocínio. Estas coincidem com um zoneamento por sistemas de terra que classifica a primeira zona como terras altas em contraposição à segunda.The cerrado flora is one of the richest among the world's savannas with more than 6000 species. The cerrado covers a large territory, contains the three most important hydrographycal basins in South America and a high diversity. The objective of this work, that is part of the project Biogeography of the Cerrado Biome, was to analyse alfa and beta diversity in the cerrado sensu stricto. The sampled places were: Brasília National Park -- DF, Águas Emendadas Ecological Station -- DF, Environmentally protected Area of Gama-Cabeça de Veado -- DF, Silv

  10. Gamma radiation effect on Bacillus cereus spores inoculated in black pepper; Efeitos da radiacao gama sobre esporos de Bacillus cereus inoculados em pimenta-do-reino

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Froehlich, Angela; Axeredo, Raquel M.C.; Vanetti, Maria Cristina D. [Vicosa Univ., MG (Brazil). Dept. de Microbiologia; Villavicencio, Anna Lucia C. H. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)]. E-mail: villavic@net.ipen.br

    2000-07-01

    It had been analyzed 37 samples of worn out black pepper and in 85% of these samples was observed the presence of Bacillus cereus in numbers of up to 4,6 x 10{sup 4} UFC/g. The population of aerobic mesofilis bacteria varied of 2,8 x 10{sup 5} the 1,9 x 10{sup 8} UFC/g. The black pepper used during the experiment was evaluated, evidencing the aerobic presence of one aerobic mesofilis microbiota of, approximately, 2,6 x 10{sup 6} UFC/g, consisting, mainly, for species of the Bacillus sort. It was observed that the absence of B. cereus, coliforms, filamentous fungus and leavenings. The evaluation of the irradiation of the black pepper inoculated with 10{sup 6} UFC/g of B. cereus spores of with doses of gamma radiation varying between 2 and 10 kGy evidenced that doses up to 5 kGy had been enough to reduce the counting of, approximately, 10{sup 6} UFC/g of aerobic mesofilis organisms and 10{sup 4} UFC/g of B. cereus spores the not detectable numbers by the used methodology. The dose of reduction decimal (D{sub 10}) for the inoculated B. cereus spores in black pepper was of 1,78 kGy.

  11. Characterization of arabinogalactan-rich mucilage from Cereus triangularis cladodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petera, B; Delattre, C; Pierre, G; Wadouachi, A; Elboutachfaiti, R; Engel, E; Poughon, L; Michaud, P; Fenoradosoa, T A

    2015-01-01

    Cereus triangularis (Cactaceae) is a cactus used in food decoction as a traditional medicine in the North region of Madagascar to reduce stomach ache and intestinal diseases. Hydrocolloids were sequentially extracted from its cladodes with a yield of 24% (240 mg/g based on dried cladodes powder). Structural analyses has revealed that this polysaccharide with a molecular mass of 8430,000g/mol was mainly composed of a galactan backbone of a (1 → 4) linked β-d-Galp residues probably substituted at position 3 by L-arabinofuranosyl residues. In vitro antioxidant activity of this arabinogalactan-rich fraction was detected and quantified by radical DPPH scavenging, hydroxyl radical scavenging, radical anion superoxide scavenging and reducing power method.

  12. Alkaloid production by callous tissue cultures of Cereus peruvianus (Cactaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira, Arildo José Braz; Machado, Maria Fátima Pires da Silva

    2003-02-01

    The morphologically undifferentiated cells of nonregenerant callous tissue of Cereus peruvianus cultured in the original medium and in medium supplemented with tyrosine were used as an alkaloid source. Comparison of alkaloid production by C. peruvianus plants and by callous tissues indicated that alkaloid levels were almost twice as high in callous tissues as in shoots of C. peruvianus plants. The ratio of alkaloid concentration between mature plant and morphologically undifferentiated cells of callous tissue was 1:1.7. A relationship between culture medium containing tyrosine and alkaloid production was also observed in the callous tissues of C. peruvianus. Since increased alkaloid production may be induced by additional factors such as tyrosine, increasing levels of tyrosine or other conditions of the culture medium may be considered factors for inducing higher alkaloid production by C. peruvianus callous tissues.

  13. Photothermal spectroscopy of Bacillus anthracis and Bacillus cereus with microcantilevers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wig, Andrew G [ORNL; Arakawa, Edward T [ORNL; Passian, Ali [ORNL; Ferrell, Thomas L [ORNL; Thundat, Thomas George [ORNL

    2006-03-01

    Microcalorimetric optical and infrared spectroscopy is a method of determining the spectral absorption of small quantities of materials over a wide range of incident wavelengths. In this paper, the first spectroscopic results for microcantilevers coated with Bacillus anthracis (BA) are presented. These results, for B. anthracis from 2.5 to 14.5 {micro}m, are compared with results from microcantilevers coated with Bacillus cereus (BC) and standard spectroscopic absorption data. The results demonstrate strong correlation between the deflection measurements and the reference spectroscopic absorption peaks. An advantage of this microcantilever-based method over traditional spectroscopy is that much smaller amounts of material (nanogram quantities) can be detected in comparison with the milligram amounts needed for standard methods. Another advantage is that the complete system can be relatively small without sacrificing spectral resolution.

  14. Cereus peruvianus (Koubo new cactus fruit for the world

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yosef Mizrahi

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Several different species of the columnar cacti of the genera Stenocereus and Pachycereus, were introduced into different semi-arid ecozones in Israel and most of these efforts were of disappointing outcomes, the only exception being the Cereus peruvianus (L. Miller,which bore plenty of fruits, some of them of good taste. The original seeds of this plant were obtained from the late Mr. Amram (Ron Kodish, who collected seeds from various private gardens in Southern California which bore fruits of reasonable qualities. The initial success of this species led us to initiate an intensive research study, and today it is already fruit-crop, marketed mainly in Israel under the name " Koubo" . This paper will describe our work of domestication of this new cactus fruit crop in Israel.

  15. Nosocomial bacteremia and catheter infection by Bacillus cereus in an immunocompetent patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernaiz, C; Picardo, A; Alos, J I; Gomez-Garces, J L

    2003-09-01

    We present a case of Bacillus cereus bacteremia and catheter infection in an immunocompetent patient subjected to abdominal surgery, who recovered following central catheter removal and treatment with piperacillin/tazobactam.

  16. [Two cases of acute myelogenous leukemia with Bacillus cereus bacteremia resulting in fatal intracranial hemorrhage].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, H; Moriyama, Y; Tatekawa, T; Tominaga, N; Teshima, H; Hiraoka, A; Masaoka, T; Yoshinaga, T

    1993-12-01

    This manuscript reports Bacillus cereus sepsis in two cases with acute myelogenous leukemia (AML) who suffered complications of fatal intracranial hemorrhage during remission induction therapy. The first case was 43-year-old male with AML (M0) receiving first consolidation chemotherapy who developed sudden diarrhea, abdominal pain and spiking fever. Two days later, he died of intracranial hemorrhage. The second case was 15-year-old male with AML (M5b) who was receiving first induction chemotherapy. He developed headache and vomiting following spiking fever and diarrhea. He died of subarachnoid hemorrhage the next day. In both cases, Bacillus cereus was isolated from blood culture. Fatal intracranial hemorrhage due to severe bleeding tendency caused rapid to death in both cases. These bleeding tendencies might have been induced by B. cereus sepsis. In addition, we should not overlook B. cereus as contamination, but rather consider it as a potential pathogen, when isolated from blood culture.

  17. Relapsing peritonitis with Bacillus cereus in a patient on continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnussen, Eyð Tausen; Vang, Amanda Gratton; á Steig, Torkil; Gaini, Shahin

    2016-04-26

    We present a case where Bacillus cereus was determined to be the causative agent of relapsing peritonitis in a patient on continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD). The patient, a 70-year-old man from the Faroe Islands, was admitted with relapsing peritonitis four times over a 3-month period. Peritoneal cultures were positive for growth of B. cereus, a rare bacterial cause of peritonitis. The cultures demonstrated susceptibility to vancomycin, and therefore the patient was treated with intraperitoneal vancomycin, intraperitoneal gentamycin and oral ciprofloxacin. As a result of the relapsing B. cereus peritonitis diagnosis and a CT scan showing contraction of the peritoneum after longstanding inflammation, the peritoneal catheter was removed and the patient converted to haemodialysis. To date, the patient has not been readmitted due to peritonitis. A lack of proper hygiene when changing the dialysis bag was the suspected source of infection with B. cereus.

  18. A case of intoxication due to a highly cytotoxic Bacillus cereus strain isolated from cooked chicken.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, Ana C; Minnaard, Jessica; Pérez, Pablo F; Alippi, Adriana M

    2015-04-01

    Outbreaks of Bacillus cereus infection/intoxication are not commonly reported because symptoms are often mild, and the disease is self-limiting. However, hypervirulent strains increase health risks. We report a case, which occurred in Argentina, of severe food poisoning illness on a healthy adult woman associated to B. cereus strain MVL2011. The studied strain was highly cytotoxic, showed high ability to detach Caco-2 cells and was positive for the hblA, hblB, and hblC genes of the hbl complex, bceT, entS and ces. As it is considered that B. cereus emetic cluster evolved from a panmictic population of diarrheal strains, B. cereus MVL2011 could constitute an intermediate strain between diarrheal and emetic strains.

  19. Evaluation of the Sporicidal Activity of Ethanol Extract of Arctium lappa Root against Bacillus cereus

    OpenAIRE

    Vajihe Karbasizade; Arezoo Dabiri

    2014-01-01

    Background: Bacillus cereus is one of the most common causes of food spoilage, keratitis, endophthalmitis, and panophthalmitis. These bacteria produce spores which are resistant to chemical and physical agents. Nowadays, the sporicidal properties of plants have been considered as alternatives to chemical sporicidal agents. Materials and Methods: In this empirical-experimental study the effect of ethanol extract of edible burdock (Arctium lappa) root has been studied on Bacillus cereus spo...

  20. A cluster of Bacillus cereus bacteremia cases among injection drug users

    OpenAIRE

    Benusic, Michael A; Press, Natasha M; Linda MN Hoang; Romney, Marc G.

    2015-01-01

    Bacillus cereus is a ubiquitous spore-forming organism that is infrequently implicated in extraintestinal infections. The authors report three cases of B cereus bacteremia among injection drug users presenting within one month to an urban tertiary care hospital. Treatment with intravenous vancomycin was successful in all three cases. While temporal association suggested an outbreak, molecular studies of patient isolates using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis did not suggest a common source. A...

  1. Bacillus Cereus Catheter Related Bloodstream Infection in a Patient with Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia

    OpenAIRE

    N Gurler; Oksuz, L; M Muftuoglu; Sargin, FD; Besisik, SK

    2012-01-01

    Bacillus cereus infection is rarely associated with actual infection and for this reason single positive blood culture is usually regarded as contamination . However it may cause a number of infections, such catheter-related bloodstream infections. Significant catheter-related bloodstream infections (CRBSI) caused by Bacillus spp. are mainly due to B. cereus and have been predominantly reported in immunocompromised hosts. Catheter removal is generally advised for management of infection. In t...

  2. Association of Genotyping of Bacillus cereus with Clinical Features of Post-Traumatic Endophthalmitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Meng; Wang, Qian; Tang, Zhide; Wang, Youpei; Gu, Yunfeng; Lou, Yongliang; Zheng, Meiqin

    2016-01-01

    Bacillus cereus is the second most frequent cause of post-traumatic bacterial endophthalmitis. Although genotyping of B. cereus associated with gastrointestinal infections has been reported, little is known about the B. cereus clinical isolates associated with post-traumatic endophthalmitis. This is largely due to the limited number of clinical strains available isolated from infected tissues of patients with post-traumatic endophthalmitis. In this study, we report successful isolation of twenty-four B. cereus strains from individual patients with different disease severity of post-traumatic endophthalmitis. Phylogenetic analysis showed that all strains could be categorized into three genotypes (GTI, GTII and GTIII) and the clinical score showed significant differences among these groups. We then further performed genotyping using the vrrA gene, and evaluated possible correlation of genotype with the clinical features of B. cereus-caused post-traumatic endophthalmitis, and with the prognosis of infection by conducting follow-up with patients for up to 2 months. We found that the disease of onset and final vision acuity were significantly different among the three groups. These results suggested that the vrrA gene may play a significant role in the pathogenesis of endophthalmitis, and genotyping of B. cereus has the potential for predicting clinical manifestation and prognosis of endophthalmitis. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of isolation of large numbers of clinical isolates of B. cereus from patients with endophthalmitis. This work sets the foundation for future investigation of the pathogenesis endophthalmitis caused by B. cereus infection.

  3. Association of Genotyping of Bacillus cereus with Clinical Features of Post-Traumatic Endophthalmitis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meng Hong

    Full Text Available Bacillus cereus is the second most frequent cause of post-traumatic bacterial endophthalmitis. Although genotyping of B. cereus associated with gastrointestinal infections has been reported, little is known about the B. cereus clinical isolates associated with post-traumatic endophthalmitis. This is largely due to the limited number of clinical strains available isolated from infected tissues of patients with post-traumatic endophthalmitis. In this study, we report successful isolation of twenty-four B. cereus strains from individual patients with different disease severity of post-traumatic endophthalmitis. Phylogenetic analysis showed that all strains could be categorized into three genotypes (GTI, GTII and GTIII and the clinical score showed significant differences among these groups. We then further performed genotyping using the vrrA gene, and evaluated possible correlation of genotype with the clinical features of B. cereus-caused post-traumatic endophthalmitis, and with the prognosis of infection by conducting follow-up with patients for up to 2 months. We found that the disease of onset and final vision acuity were significantly different among the three groups. These results suggested that the vrrA gene may play a significant role in the pathogenesis of endophthalmitis, and genotyping of B. cereus has the potential for predicting clinical manifestation and prognosis of endophthalmitis. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of isolation of large numbers of clinical isolates of B. cereus from patients with endophthalmitis. This work sets the foundation for future investigation of the pathogenesis endophthalmitis caused by B. cereus infection.

  4. Enterotoxin Production in Natural Isolates of Bacillaceae outside the Bacillus cereus Group

    OpenAIRE

    Phelps, Rebecca J.; McKillip, John L.

    2002-01-01

    Thirty-nine Bacillus strains obtained from a variety of environmental and food sources were screened by PCR for the presence of five gene targets (hblC, hblD, hblA, nheA, and nheB) in two enterotoxin operons (HBL and NHE) traditionally harbored by Bacillus cereus. Seven isolates exhibited a positive signal for at least three of the five possible targets, including Bacillus amyloliquefaciens, B. cereus, Bacillus circulans, Bacillus lentimorbis, Bacillus pasteurii, and Bacillus thuringiensis su...

  5. Infective endocarditis due to Bacillus cereus in a pregnant female: A case report and literature review

    OpenAIRE

    Mahek Shah; Soumya Patnaik; Supakanya Wongrakpanich; Yaser Alhamshari; Talal Alnabelsi

    2015-01-01

    Incidence of infective endocarditis during pregnancy is around 0.006% with high maternal and fetal mortality. Bacillus cereus is an extremely rare cause for endocarditis in intravenous drug abusers (IVDA) or those with valvular disease or devices such as pacemakers. We report a case of B. cereus endocarditis, which, to the best of our knowledge, has never been reported in pregnancy. A 30-year-old, 25-week pregnant female presented with right shoulder pain, swelling and erythema on the lateral...

  6. Comparison of enterotoxin production and phenotypic characteristics between emetic and enterotoxic Bacillus cereus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jung-Beom; Kim, Jai-Moung; Kim, So-Yeong; Kim, Jong-Hyun; Park, Yong-Bae; Choi, Na-Jung; Oh, Deog-Hwan

    2010-07-01

    Bacillus cereus was divided into emetic toxin (cereulide)- and enterotoxin-producing strains, but emetic toxin-producing B. cereus is difficult to detect immunochemically. Screening methods for emetic toxin-producing B. cereus are needed. The objectives of this study were to identify and detect emetic toxin-producing B. cereus among 160 B. cereus strains, and to compare enterotoxin production and phenotypic characteristics between the emetic toxin-producing and enterotoxin-producing strains. Forty emetic toxin-producing B. cereus strains were determined with high-pressure liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis. Among the emetic toxin-producing strains (n = 40), 31 (77.5%) and 3 (7.5%) strains produced nonhemolytic enterotoxin (NHE) and hemolysin BL (HBL) enterotoxins, respectively. In addition, 107 (89.2%) and 100 (83.3%) strains produced NHE and HBL enterotoxins among the enterotoxin-producing strains (n = 120). The number of strains positive for starch hydrolysis, salicin fermentation, and hemolysis among the emetic toxin-producing strains were 3 (7.5%), 3 (7.5%), and 26 (65.0%), respectively, and among enterotoxin-producing strains, these numbers were 101 (84.2%), 100 (83.3%), and 111 (92.5%), respectively. In particular, the three emetic toxin-producing B. cereus strains (JNHE 6, JNHE 36, and KNIH 28) produced the HBL and NHE enterotoxins and were capable of starch hydrolysis and salicin fermentation. The absence of HBL enterotoxin and certain phenotypic properties, such as starch hydrolysis and salicin fermentation, indicates that these properties were not critical characteristics of the emetic toxin-producing B. cereus tested in this study.

  7. PENGARUH EKSTRAK ANDALIMAN (Zanthoxyium acanthopodium DC TERHADAP PERMEABILITAS DAN HIDROFOBISITAS Bacillus cereus [Effect of Andaliman (Zanthoxylum acanthopodium DC Extracts upon Permeability and Hidrophobicity of Bacillus cereus

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    Sedarnawati Yasni2

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Andaliman spice is usually added as one of main spices in cooked fish and meat. Andaliman seeds were extracted using maceration method with nonpolar, semipolar and polar solvents. The result showed that the three kinds of andaliman extract had antibacterial activity on Bacillus cereus, especially during exponential phase (8 hour incubation period. Ethyl-acetate extract of Andaliman showed the highest antibacterial activity toward B. cereus with MIC and MBC values being 0.2% and 0.8% respectively. The permeability of B. cereus was observed at the dose of 2.5 MIC and 60.30% hydrophobicity leakage was obtained at 6% andaliman extracted by ethyl-acetate.

  8. Differentiation of strains from the Bacillus cereus group by RFLP-PFGE genomic fingerprinting.

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    Otlewska, Anna; Oltuszak-Walczak, Elzbieta; Walczak, Piotr

    2013-11-01

    Bacillus mycoides, Bacillus pseudomycoides, Bacillus weihenstephanensis, Bacillus anthracis, Bacillus thuringiensis, and Bacillus cereus belong to the B. cereus group. The last three species are characterized by different phenotype features and pathogenicity spectrum, but it has been shown that these species are genetically closely related. The macrorestriction analysis of the genomic DNA with the NotI enzyme was used to generate polymorphism of restriction profiles for 39 food-borne isolates (B. cereus, B. mycoides) and seven reference strains (B. mycoides, B. thuringiensis, B. weihenstephanensis, and B. cereus). The PFGE method was applied to differentiate the examined strains of the B. cereus group. On the basis of the unweighted pair group method with the arithmetic mean method and Dice coefficient, the strains were divided into five clusters (types A-E), and the most numerous group was group A (25 strains). A total of 21 distinct pulsotypes were observed. The RFLP-PFGE analysis was successfully used for the differentiation and characterization of B. cereus and B. mycoides strains isolated from different food products.

  9. Fulminant septicemia of Bacillus cereus resistant to carbapenem in a patient with biphenotypic acute leukemia.

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    Kiyomizu, Kazunobu; Yagi, Toshinari; Yoshida, Hitoshi; Minami, Ryota; Tanimura, Akira; Karasuno, Takahiro; Hiraoka, Akira

    2008-10-01

    We report a case of fulminant septicemia with Bacillus cereus resistant to carbapenem. A 33-year-old man was suffering from febrile neutropenia (FN) on day 15 after the start of remission-induction therapy for biphenotypic acute leukemia under gut decontamination with polymyxin B and nystatin. Meropenem, a carbapenem, was administered according to the guideline for FN. Two days later (on day 17), he complained of severe abdominal pain, lost consciousness, went into sudden cardiopulmonary arrest, and died. Autopsy showed multiple spots of hemorrhage and necrosis caused by bacterial plaque in the brain, lungs, and liver. B. cereus was isolated from a blood sample obtained in the morning on day 17 and it was after his death that the isolated B. cereus was revealed to be resistant to carbapenem. B. cereus obtained from blood samples has been reported to be usually sensitive to carbapenem and also to vancomycin, new quinolones, and clindamycin. If B. cereus resistant to carbapem increases, our method of gut decontamination with polymyxin B and nystatin may have to be changed to one containing a new quinolone for the prevention of septicemia. Careful watching to determine whether B. cereus resistant to carbapem increases may be also important for empiric therapy, because carbapenem is often selected as the initial therapy for FN in patients with severe neutropenia.

  10. Proteomic evidences for rex regulation of metabolism in toxin-producing Bacillus cereus ATCC 14579.

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    Laouami, Sabrina; Clair, Géremy; Armengaud, Jean; Duport, Catherine

    2014-01-01

    The facultative anaerobe, Bacillus cereus, causes diarrheal diseases in humans. Its ability to deal with oxygen availability is recognized to be critical for pathogenesis. The B. cereus genome comprises a gene encoding a protein with high similarities to the redox regulator, Rex, which is a central regulator of anaerobic metabolism in Bacillus subtilis and other Gram-positive bacteria. Here, we showed that B. cereus rex is monocistronic and down-regulated in the absence of oxygen. The protein encoded by rex is an authentic Rex transcriptional factor since its DNA binding activity depends on the NADH/NAD+ ratio. Rex deletion compromised the ability of B. cereus to cope with external oxidative stress under anaerobiosis while increasing B. cereus resistance against such stress under aerobiosis. The deletion of rex affects anaerobic fermentative and aerobic respiratory metabolism of B. cereus by decreasing and increasing, respectively, the carbon flux through the NADH-recycling lactate pathway. We compared both the cellular proteome and exoproteome of the wild-type and Δrex cells using a high throughput shotgun label-free quantitation approach and identified proteins that are under control of Rex-mediated regulation. Proteomics data have been deposited to the ProteomeXchange with identifier PXD000886. The data suggest that Rex regulates both the cross-talk between metabolic pathways that produce NADH and NADPH and toxinogenesis, especially in oxic conditions.

  11. Proteomic evidences for rex regulation of metabolism in toxin-producing Bacillus cereus ATCC 14579.

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    Sabrina Laouami

    Full Text Available The facultative anaerobe, Bacillus cereus, causes diarrheal diseases in humans. Its ability to deal with oxygen availability is recognized to be critical for pathogenesis. The B. cereus genome comprises a gene encoding a protein with high similarities to the redox regulator, Rex, which is a central regulator of anaerobic metabolism in Bacillus subtilis and other Gram-positive bacteria. Here, we showed that B. cereus rex is monocistronic and down-regulated in the absence of oxygen. The protein encoded by rex is an authentic Rex transcriptional factor since its DNA binding activity depends on the NADH/NAD+ ratio. Rex deletion compromised the ability of B. cereus to cope with external oxidative stress under anaerobiosis while increasing B. cereus resistance against such stress under aerobiosis. The deletion of rex affects anaerobic fermentative and aerobic respiratory metabolism of B. cereus by decreasing and increasing, respectively, the carbon flux through the NADH-recycling lactate pathway. We compared both the cellular proteome and exoproteome of the wild-type and Δrex cells using a high throughput shotgun label-free quantitation approach and identified proteins that are under control of Rex-mediated regulation. Proteomics data have been deposited to the ProteomeXchange with identifier PXD000886. The data suggest that Rex regulates both the cross-talk between metabolic pathways that produce NADH and NADPH and toxinogenesis, especially in oxic conditions.

  12. Characterization of Bacillus cereus isolates from local dairy farms in China.

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    Cui, Yifang; Liu, Xiaoye; Dietrich, Richard; Märtlbauer, Erwin; Cao, Jie; Ding, Shuangyang; Zhu, Kui

    2016-06-01

    Bacillus cereus is an important opportunistic foodborne pathogen. In the present work, a total of 306 milk and environmental samples were collected from 10 local dairy farms in Beijing, China. Of the 92 B. cereus-like isolates, 88 and 4 belonged to B. cereus and B. thuringiensis, respectively. The prevalence of B. cereus isolates in bedding, feces, feed, liquid manure and raw milk was 93.3%, 78.9%, 41.2%, 100.0% and 9.8%, respectively. Three main toxin genes nhe, hbl and ces were detected with rates of 100.0%, 78.3% and 1.1%, but no strain harbored cytK1 The production of Nhe, Hbl and cereulide could be confirmed by specific monoclonal antibodies-based enzyme immunoassays in 94.6%, 70.7% and 1.1% of all isolates, respectively. Cytotoxicity tests were used to further corroborate the results of genetic and protein-based assays; 91.3% of the isolates showed cytotoxicity to Vero cells. All isolates were tested for antimicrobial resistance against 17 antibiotics. All isolates were resistant to lincomycin, retapamulin, tiamulin and valnemulin, while two strains were susceptible to ampicillin and ceftiofur. A total of 16 isolated strains were resistant to tetracycline. Since spores of B. cereus are not inactivated during manufacturing of most milk products, contamination of milk with B. cereus on the farm level may represent a potential hazard, particularly with respect to emetic toxin-producing strains.

  13. Direct detection of toxigenic Bacillus cereus in dietary complement for children and cassava starch

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    Jnnifer A. Sánchez

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Bacillus cereus is a food contaminant anda known human pathogen that can causeemetic and diarrheal syndromes. In this studywe evaluated the presence of toxigenic B.cereus by multiplex PCR directly in dietarycomplement for children and cassava starchsamples collected on Medellin, Colombia.Of 75 dietary complement for childrensamples evaluated, 70.7% were contaminatedwith toxigenic B. cereus and four differenttoxigenic consortia were detected: I: nheA,hblC, cytK (9.8%, II: nheA, hblC (2%,III: hblC, cytK (41.2%, IV: hblC (47%.Of 75 cassava starch samples, 44% werecontaminated with toxigenic B. cereus andfour different toxigenic consortia weredetermined: I: nheA, hblC, cytK (48.5%,II: nheA, hblC, cytK, cesB (3%, III: hblC,cytK (30.3%, IV: hblC (18.2%. In general,in dietary complement for children onlyenterotoxigenic consortia were detectedwhile in cassava starch the enterotoxigenicconsortia predominated over the emetic.Multiplex PCR was useful to detect toxigenicB. cereus contamination allowing directand simultaneous detection of all toxingenes in foods. This study is the first inColombia to evaluate toxigenic B. cereus,providing information of importance formicrobiological risk evaluation in driedfoods.

  14. Bacillus cereus strain S2 shows high nematicidal activity against Meloidogyne incognita by producing sphingosine

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    Gao, Huijuan; Qi, Gaofu; Yin, Rong; Zhang, Hongchun; Li, Chenggang; Zhao, Xiuyun

    2016-01-01

    Plant-parasitic nematodes cause serious crop losses worldwidely. This study intended to discover the antagonistic mechanism of Bacillus cereus strain S2 against Meloidogyne incognita. Treatment with B. cereus strain S2 resulted in a mortality of 77.89% to Caenorhabditis elegans (a model organism) and 90.96% to M. incognita. In pot experiment, control efficiency of B. cereus S2 culture or supernatants were 81.36% and 67.42% towards M. incognita, respectively. In field experiment, control efficiency was 58.97% towards M. incognita. Nematicidal substances were isolated from culture supernatant of B. cereus S2 by polarity gradient extraction, silica gel column chromatography and HPLC. Two nematicidal compounds were identified as C16 sphingosine and phytosphingosine by LC-MS. The median lethal concentration of sphingosine was determined as 0.64 μg/ml. Sphingosine could obviously inhibit reproduction of C. elegans, with an inhibition rate of 42.72% for 24 h. After treatment with sphingosine, ROS was induced in intestinal tract, and genital area disappeared in nematode. Furthermore, B. cereus S2 could induce systemic resistance in tomato, and enhance activity of defense-related enzymes for biocontrol of M. incognita. This study demonstrates the nematicidal activity of B. cereus and its product sphingosine, as well provides a possibility for biocontrol of M. incognita. PMID:27338781

  15. DnaJ sequences of Bacillus cereus strains isolated from outbreaks of hospital infection are highly similar to Bacillus anthracis.

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    Zhang, Jiwei; van Hung, Pham; Hayashi, Masahiro; Yoshida, Shigeru; Ohkusu, Kiyofumi; Ezaki, Takayuki

    2011-07-01

    Bacillus cereus is becoming an important nomosomial pathogen because of frequent isolation from blood cultures and from severe systemic infections. To differentiate highly pathogenic outbreak strain of B. cereus from other sources of the Bacillus cereus, we attempted to analyze their dnaJ sequences. Assays indicated that dnaJ sequence similarity of all of 52 blood culture isolates of B. cereus ranged from 92.8% to 100%. The distance between B. anthracis and B. cereus except six outbreak isolates ranged from 3.8% to 6.4%. The dnaJ sequences of six outbreak strains of B. cereus (GTC 02891, GTC 02896, GTC 02916, GTC 02917, GTC 03221, and GTC 03222) were closely related to those of B. anthracis (99.2%-99.5% sequence similarity). Ba813 sequences were only found in the six outbreak strains of B. cereus. The other pathogenic factors of B. anthracis were not found in these six outbreak strains, with the exception of GTC 02891 (cap-positive). The six outbreak strains formed clear β-hemolytic colonies on a sheep blood agar plate. Our findings suggest that outbreak strains of B. cereus isolated from blood cultures are likely to have the risk of causing serious infection, and dnaJ and Ba813 are important markers to identify such strains. Phylogenetic analysis of dnaJ and MLST revealed that the six outbreak strains of B. cereus are closely related to B. anthracis.

  16. Analysis of Sporothrix schenckii sensu stricto and Sporothrix brasiliensis virulence in Galleria mellonella.

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    Clavijo-Giraldo, Diana M; Matínez-Alvarez, José A; Lopes-Bezerra, Leila M; Ponce-Noyola, Patricia; Franco, Bernardo; Almeida, Ricardo S; Mora-Montes, Héctor M

    2016-03-01

    The study of the host-pathogen interaction is essential to understand the mechanisms underlying adhesion, colonization and tissue damage by pathogens. This is usually achieved by performing in vivo studies using small mammals, such as rats, mice and guinea pigs. Nowadays, the mouse models of systemic or subcutaneous infection are the gold standard assays to analyze the virulence of members of the Sporothrix schenckii complex. There are, however, invertebrates that have been recently used as alternative hosts to assess the virulence of both bacteria and fungi, and among them, larvae of Galleria mellonella are popular because they are easy to breed, and require non-specialized facilities to maintain the colony. Here, we assessed the use of G. mellonella larvae to test the virulence of S. schenckii sensu stricto and Sporothrix brasiliensis strains, and found that infection with yeast-like cells, but not with conidia or germlings, reproduces the virulence data generated in the mouse model of infection. Furthermore, with this insect model we could classify the virulence of some strains as low, intermediate or high, in line with the observations in the mammalian model. Therefore, G. mellonella is suitable, and a new alternative, to test virulence of both S. schenckii sensu stricto and S. brasiliensis.

  17. STRICTO SENSU POST-GRADUATION PROGRAMME NURSING: THE OPINION OF UNDERGRADUATES

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    Estela Maria Leite Meirelles Monteiro

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 21 false false false PT-BR X-NONE X-NONE Objetivo: Conhecer o entendimento dos graduandos de Enfermagem de uma Universidade Pública de Pernambuco sobre a contribuição de um Programa Associado de Pós-Graduação Stricto Sensu em Enfermagem. Métodos: Estudo descritivo-exploratório qualitativo. Foram entrevistados trinta estudantes de enfermagem nos meses de agosto a novembro de 2009. Os dados foram apresentados utilizando-se a técnica do Discurso do Sujeito Coletivo. Resultado: Foram evidenciadas três Idéias Centrais: Conhecimento sobre o Programa Associado de Pós-Graduação Stricto Sensu em Enfermagem da UPE; contribuição para a prática profissional e o interesse em ingressar. Conclusão: O entendimento da proposta de fortalecimento das pesquisas e de uma articulação destas com as tecnologias e práticas profissionais vem requerer um redirecionamento na filosofia das IES, tendo a incumbência de despertar o mais precocemente, entre seus graduandos o interesse e a habilidade por pesquisar, sedimentando sua formação na busca contínua de conhecimentos, na renovação dos saberes, na inquietação por investigar objetos de estudo instrumentalizadores do agir profissional em saúde.

  18. Elucidation of enterotoxigenic Bacillus cereus outbreaks in Austria by complementary epidemiological and microbiological investigations, 2013.

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    Schmid, Daniela; Rademacher, Corinna; Kanitz, Elisabeth Eva; Frenzel, Elrike; Simons, Erica; Allerberger, Franz; Ehling-Schulz, Monika

    2016-09-01

    Identifying Bacillus cereus as the causative agent of a foodborne outbreak still poses a challenge. We report on the epidemiological and microbiological investigation of three outbreaks of food poisoning (A, B, and C) in Austria in 2013. A total of 44% among 32 hotel guests (A), 22% among 63 employees (B) and 29% among 362 residents of a rehab clinic (C) fell sick immediately after meal consumption. B. cereus isolated from left overs or retained samples from related foods were characterized by toxin gene profiling, and molecular typing using panC sequencing and M13-PCR typing (in outbreak A and C). We identified two B. cereus strains in outbreak A, and six B. cereus strains, each in outbreak B and C; we also found Staphylococcus aureus and staphylococcal enterotoxins in outbreak A. The panC sequence based phylogenetic affiliation of the B. cereus strains, together with findings of the retrospective cohort analyses, helped determining their etiological role. Consumption of a mashed potatoes dish in outbreak A (RR: ∞), a pancake strips soup in outbreak B (RR 13.0; 95% CI 1.8-93.0) and for outbreak C of a fruit salad (RR 1.50; 95% CI 1.09-2.00), deer ragout (RR: 1.99; 95% CI 1.23-3.22) and a cranberry/pear (RR 2.46; 95% CI 1.50-4.03)were associated with increased risk of falling sick. An enterotoxigenic strain affiliated to the phylogenetic group with the highest risk of food poisoning was isolated from the crème spinach and the strawberry buttermilk, and also from the stool samples of the one B. cereus positive outbreak case-patient, who ate both. Our investigation of three food poisoning outbreaks illustrates the added value of a combined approach by using epidemiological, microbiological and genotyping methods in identifying the likely outbreak sources and the etiological B. cereus strains.

  19. Fitossociologia de cerrado sensu stricto no município de Abaeté-MG Phytosociology of the cerrado sensu stricto in Abaeté, MG, Brazil

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    Amilcar Walter Saporetti Jr

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available O cerrado tem sido objeto de discussão de grupos temáticos que estudam a conservação de biodiversidade no Estado de Minas Gerais. São inúmeras as áreas de conservação com vegetação de cerrado das quais não se têm informações a respeito de sua composição florística e estrutura. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar florística e fitossociologicamente uma área de cerrado sensu stricto, no município de Abaeté-MG. A área de estudo é um fragmento com 2 ha de cerrado sensu stricto, preservado como área de reserva da CAF-Santa Bárbara, situada nas coordenadas 19º05'S e 44º58'W, a uma altitude de 480 m, em leve depressão próxima de uma vereda. O clima pertence ao tipo Cwa pelo sistema de Köppen, com precipitação média anual de 1.400 mm. O solo é do tipo Latossolo Vermelho distrófico. Foram instaladas 15 parcelas de 200 m² (10 x 20 m, distribuídas sistematicamente ao longo de trilhas, distanciadas 10 m entre si. Foram amostrados todos os indivíduos lenhosos vivos com circunferência do caule ao nível do solo (CAS igual ou maior que 10 cm. O índice de Shannon foi de 3,590 e a equabilidade foi de 0,804, considerados comuns para cerrados bem conservados. Foram amostrados 1.339 indivíduos, sendo a composição florística constituída por 85 espécies, distribuídas em 44 famílias. As famílias com maior número de espécies foram Leguminosae Caesalpinioideae com sete espécies, Annonaceae com cinco, Myrtaceae, Malpighiaceae, Erythroxylaceae, Anacardiaceae, Rubiaceae e Bignoniaceae com quatro, seguidas de Vochysiaceae e Leguminosae Papilionoideae com três. As espécies que apresentaram o maior valor de importância (VI foram Xylopia aromatica (Lam. Mart. (22,21, Myrcia lingua Berg (18,18 Caryocar brasiliense Cambess. (17,91, Eugenia dysenterica DC. (17,58, Byrsonima intermedia A. Juss. (13,69 e Brosimum gaudichaudii Trécul (11,86.The cerrado has been a topic of discussion of thematic groups studying biodiversity

  20. Vacuum Distillation Residue Upgrading by an Indigenous Bacillus Cereus

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    Mitra Sadat Tabatabaee

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Background:Biological processing of heavy fractions of crude oils offers less severe process conditions and higher selectivity for refining. Biochemical Processes are expected to be low demand energy processes and certainly ecofriendly.Results:A strain of biosurfactant producing bacterium was isolated from an oil contaminated soil at Tehran refinery distillation unit. Based on selected phenotypic and genotypic characteristic including morphology, biochemical proprety, and 16 SrRNA sequencing identified as a novel strain of Bacillus cereus (JQ178332. This bacterium endures a wide range of pH, salinity and temperature. This specific strain utilizes both paraffin and anthracene as samples of aliphatic and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. The ability of this bacterium to acquire all its energy and chemical requirements from Vacuum Distillation Residue (VR, as a net sample of problematic hydrocarbons in refineries, was studied. SARA test ASTM D4124-01 revealed 65.5% decrease in asphaltenic, 22.1% in aliphatics and 30.3% in Aromatics content of the VR in MSM medium. Further results with 0.9% saline showed 55% decrease in asphaltene content and 2.1% Aromatics respectively.Conclusion:Remarkable abilities of this microorganism propose its application in an ecofriendly technology to upgrade heavy crude oils.

  1. Compensatory Evolution of Intrinsic Transcription Terminators in Bacillus Cereus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safina, Ksenia R.; Mironov, Andrey A.

    2017-01-01

    Many RNA molecules possess complicated secondary structure critical to their function. Mutations in double-helical regions of RNA may disrupt Watson–Crick (WC) interactions causing structure destabilization or even complete loss of function. Such disruption can be compensated by another mutation restoring base pairing, as has been shown for mRNA, rRNA and tRNA. Here, we investigate the evolution of intrinsic transcription terminators between closely related strains of Bacillus cereus. While the terminator structure is maintained by strong natural selection, as evidenced by the low frequency of disrupting mutations, we observe multiple instances of pairs of disrupting-compensating mutations in RNA structure stems. Such two-step switches between different WC pairs occur very fast, consistent with the low fitness conferred by the intermediate non-WC variant. Still, they are not instantaneous, and probably involve transient fixation of the intermediate variant. The GU wobble pair is the most frequent intermediate, and remains fixed longer than other intermediates, consistent with its less disruptive effect on the RNA structure. Double switches involving non-GU intermediates are more frequent at the ends of RNA stems, probably because they are associated with smaller fitness loss. Together, these results show that the fitness landscape of bacterial transcription terminators is rather rugged, but that the fitness valleys associated with unpaired stem nucleotides are rather shallow, facilitating evolution. PMID:28201729

  2. A biochemically active MCM-like helicase in Bacillus cereus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuels, Martin; Gulati, Gaurav; Shin, Jae-Ho; Opara, Rejoice; McSweeney, Elizabeth; Sekedat, Matt; Long, Stephen; Kelman, Zvi; Jeruzalmi, David

    2009-01-01

    The mini-chromosome maintenance (MCM) proteins serve as the replicative helicases in archaea and eukaryotes. Interestingly, an MCM homolog was identified, by BLAST analysis, within a phage integrated in the bacterium Bacillus cereus (Bc). BcMCM is only related to the AAA region of MCM-helicases; the typical amino-terminus is missing and is replaced by a segment with weak homology to primases. We show that BcMCM displays 3′→5′ helicase and ssDNA-stimulated ATPase activity, properties that arise from its conserved AAA domain. Isolated BcMCM is a monomer in solution but likely forms the functional oligomer in vivo. We found that the BcMCM amino-terminus can bind ssDNA and harbors a zinc atom, both hallmarks of the typical MCM amino-terminus. No BcMCM-catalyzed primase activity could be detected. We propose that the divergent amino-terminus of BcMCM is a paralog of the corresponding region of MCM-helicases. A divergent amino terminus makes BcMCM a useful model for typical MCM-helicases since it accomplishes the same function using an apparently unrelated structure. PMID:19474351

  3. Purification and characterization of two polyhydroxyalcanoates from Bacillus cereus.

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    Zribi-Maaloul, Emna; Trabelsi, Imen; Elleuch, Lobna; Chouayekh, Hichem; Ben Salah, Riadh

    2013-10-01

    This work aimed to study the potential of 155 strains of Bacillus sp., isolated from a collection of Tunisian microorganisms, for polyhydroxyalcanoates production. The strains were submitted to a battery of standard tests commonly used for determining bioplastic properties. The findings revealed that two of the isolates, namely Bacillus US 163 and US 177, provided red excitations at a wavelength of approximately 543 nm. The polyhydroxyalcanoates produced by the two strains were purified. Gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy (GC-MS), Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), and gel permeation chromatography (GPC) were used to characterize the two biopolymers. Bacillus US 163 was noted to produce a poly methyl-3-hydroxy tetradecanoic acid (P-3HTD) with an average molecular weight of 455 kDa, a completely amorphous homopolymer without crystallinity. The US 177 strain produced a homopolymer of methyl-3-hydroxy octadecanoic acid (P3-HOD) with an average molecular weight of 555 kDa. Exhibiting the highest performance, US 163 and US 177 were submitted to 16S rRNA gene sequencing, and the results revealed that they belonged to the Bacillus cereus species. Overall, the findings indicated that the Bacilli from petroleum soil have a number of promising properties that make them promising candidates for bioplastic production.

  4. Sperm bioassay for rapid detection of cereulide-producing Bacillus cereus in food and related environments.

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    Andersson, Maria A; Jääskeläinen, Elina L; Shaheen, Ranad; Pirhonen, Tuula; Wijnands, Luc M; Salkinoja-Salonen, Mirja S

    2004-07-15

    A novel in vitro method, sperm micro assay for rapidly distinguishing cereulide, the emetic toxin producing Bacillus cereus from non-producers is described and its use for quantitating cereulide and screening large numbers of B. cereus strains/colonies evaluated. The assay is non-laborious and can be executed with equipment present in most laboratories. Boar spermatozoa, purchased as standard semen from artificial insemination suppliers, are used to detect toxicity. Boar sperms respond within 5 min by cessation of motility when exposed at 37 degrees C to heat-treated (100 degrees C) extract prepared from a cereulide containing B. cereus. The assay can be done on individual colonies on the primary plate, with no need for pure culture and the qualitative result is obtained within 30 min. The assay is robust, not sensitive to age or storage of the culture plates. The use of the sperm micro assay for semiquantitative estimation of cereulide in B. cereus was validated with 14 different B. cereus strains using as reference the specific chemical assay for cereulide, based on liquid chromatography-ion trap mass spectrometry (LC-ion trap MS). The cereulide contents calculated from endpoint dilutions of the sperm micro assay matched the result of the chemical analysis closely. The detection threshold of the sperm micro assay was measured as 0.3 +/- 0.1 ng of cereulide per 5.4 x 10(6) sperm cells in 0.2 ml or 0.9 ng of cereulide per mg of B. cereus biomass (wet wt.). Food-related B. cereus strains contained 4-400 ng of cereulide per mg (wet wt.). When a large number of B. cereus of food, non-food, clinical and environmental origins were screened and 107 independent strains/isolates were identified as cereulide producers, it was observed that all of these had low or no haemolytic activity when cultivated on bovine blood agar. None of the strains/isolates with wide, clear zones of haemolysis, considered typical of B. cereus, produced cereulide.

  5. Bacillus Cereus catheter related bloodstream infection in a patient in a patient with acute lymphblastic leukemia

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    Lütfiye Öksüz

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Bacillus cereus infection is rarely associated with actual infection and for this reason single positive blood culture is usually regarded as contamination . However it may cause a number of infections, such catheter-related blood stream infections. Significant catheter-related bloodstream infections (CRBSI caused by Bacillus spp. are mainly due to B.cereus and have been predominantly reported in immunocompromised hosts1 . Catheter removal is generally advised for management of infection. In this report, catheter-related bacteremia caused by B.cereus in a patient with acute lymphoblastıc leukemia (ALL in Istanbul Medical Faculty was presented.A 44-year old man presented with fatigue, weight loss, epistaxis and high fever. A double-lumen Hickman–catheter (Bard 12.0 Fr, Round Dual Lumen was inserted by surgical cut-down to access the right subclavian vein which would be necessary for allogeneic stem cell transplantation. Three weeks later the patient presented with high fever and headache. Bacillus spp. was isolated from the cathether while blood culture obtained from the peripheral vein remained negative. The bacterial identification was confirmed as B.cereus using VITEK identification system It has been reported Bacillus cereus septicemia may be fatal in immunocompromised hosts despite broad-spectrum appropriate treatment10. Catheter removal is essential for prevention of recurrent bacteremia. Long-term cathater salvage should be reserved for appropriate patient group.

  6. Architecture and High-Resolution Structure of Bacillus thuringiensis and Bacillus cereus Spore Coat Surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Plomp, M; Leighton, T; Wheeler, K; Malkin, A

    2005-02-18

    We have utilized atomic force microscopy (AFM) to visualize the native surface topology and ultrastructure of Bacillus thuringiensis and Bacillus cereus spores in water and in air. AFM was able to resolve the nanostructure of the exosporium and three distinctive classes of appendages. Removal of the exosporium exposed either a hexagonal honeycomb layer (B. thuringiensis) or a rodlet outer spore coat layer (B. cereus). Removal of the rodlet structure from B. cereus spores revealed an underlying honeycomb layer similar to that observed with B. thuringiensis spores. The periodicity of the rodlet structure on the outer spore coat of B. cereus was {approx}8 nm, and the length of the rodlets was limited to the cross-patched domain structure of this layer to {approx}200 nm. The lattice constant of the honeycomb structures was {approx}9 nm for both B. cereus and B. thuringiensis spores. Both honeycomb structures were composed of multiple, disoriented domains with distinct boundaries. Our results demonstrate that variations in storage and preparation procedures result in architectural changes in individual spore surfaces, which establish AFM as a useful tool for evaluation of preparation and processing ''fingerprints'' of bacterial spores. These results establish that high-resolution AFM has the capacity to reveal species-specific assembly and nanometer scale structure of spore surfaces. These species-specific spore surface structural variations are correlated with sequence divergences in a spore core structural protein SspE.

  7. Comparative genome analysis of Bacillus cereus group genomes withBacillus subtilis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, Iain; Sorokin, Alexei; Kapatral, Vinayak; Reznik, Gary; Bhattacharya, Anamitra; Mikhailova, Natalia; Burd, Henry; Joukov, Victor; Kaznadzey, Denis; Walunas, Theresa; D' Souza, Mark; Larsen, Niels; Pusch,Gordon; Liolios, Konstantinos; Grechkin, Yuri; Lapidus, Alla; Goltsman,Eugene; Chu, Lien; Fonstein, Michael; Ehrlich, S. Dusko; Overbeek, Ross; Kyrpides, Nikos; Ivanova, Natalia

    2005-09-14

    Genome features of the Bacillus cereus group genomes (representative strains of Bacillus cereus, Bacillus anthracis and Bacillus thuringiensis sub spp israelensis) were analyzed and compared with the Bacillus subtilis genome. A core set of 1,381 protein families among the four Bacillus genomes, with an additional set of 933 families common to the B. cereus group, was identified. Differences in signal transduction pathways, membrane transporters, cell surface structures, cell wall, and S-layer proteins suggesting differences in their phenotype were identified. The B. cereus group has signal transduction systems including a tyrosine kinase related to two-component system histidine kinases from B. subtilis. A model for regulation of the stress responsive sigma factor sigmaB in the B. cereus group different from the well studied regulation in B. subtilis has been proposed. Despite a high degree of chromosomal synteny among these genomes, significant differences in cell wall and spore coat proteins that contribute to the survival and adaptation in specific hosts has been identified.

  8. Infective endocarditis due to Bacillus cereus in a pregnant female: A case report and literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Mahek; Patnaik, Soumya; Wongrakpanich, Supakanya; Alhamshari, Yaser; Alnabelsi, Talal

    2015-01-01

    Incidence of infective endocarditis during pregnancy is around 0.006% with high maternal and fetal mortality. Bacillus cereus is an extremely rare cause for endocarditis in intravenous drug abusers (IVDA) or those with valvular disease or devices such as pacemakers. We report a case of B. cereus endocarditis, which, to the best of our knowledge, has never been reported in pregnancy. A 30-year-old, 25-week pregnant female presented with right shoulder pain, swelling and erythema on the lateral aspect of deltoid muscle from large abscess over her deltoid muscle. She was found to have a vegetation on the native tricuspid valve. Cultures from abscess fluid and blood cultures grew B. cereus, she was appropriately treated with antimicrobials and had favorable outcomes. There are cereus endocarditis reported but none during pregnancy. When cultures grow unusual organisms the case must be thoroughly investigated. This case illustrates a rare situation (endocarditis in pregnancy) with an unusual outcome (B. cereus) on an uncommon valve (tricuspid valve).

  9. Infective endocarditis due to Bacillus cereus in a pregnant female: A case report and literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahek Shah

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Incidence of infective endocarditis during pregnancy is around 0.006% with high maternal and fetal mortality. Bacillus cereus is an extremely rare cause for endocarditis in intravenous drug abusers (IVDA or those with valvular disease or devices such as pacemakers. We report a case of B. cereus endocarditis, which, to the best of our knowledge, has never been reported in pregnancy. A 30-year-old, 25-week pregnant female presented with right shoulder pain, swelling and erythema on the lateral aspect of deltoid muscle from large abscess over her deltoid muscle. She was found to have a vegetation on the native tricuspid valve. Cultures from abscess fluid and blood cultures grew B. cereus, she was appropriately treated with antimicrobials and had favorable outcomes. There are <20 cases of B. cereus endocarditis reported but none during pregnancy. When cultures grow unusual organisms the case must be thoroughly investigated. This case illustrates a rare situation (endocarditis in pregnancy with an unusual outcome (B. cereus on an uncommon valve (tricuspid valve.

  10. [Bacillus cereus sepsis and subarachnoid hemorrhage following consolidation chemotherapy for acute myelogenous leukemia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawatani, Eri; Kishikawa, Yuki; Sankoda, Chikahiro; Kuwahara, Nobuo; Mori, Daisuke; Osoegawa, Kouichi; Matsuishi, Eijo; Gondo, Hisashi

    2009-04-01

    A 64-year-old man with acute myelogenous leukemia (FAB classification, M7) in remission received consolidation chemotherapy with mitoxantrone/cytosine arabinoside. WBC counts decreased to 0/microl on day 14, and fever (39.3 degrees C) and epigastralgia developed on day 15. Cefozopran was instituted for febrile neutropenia; however, on day 16, he was found to be in cardiac arrest. CT scan on day 16 revealed subarachnoid hemorrhage. Gram-positive rods were isolated from blood cultures on day 15, and were later identified as B.cereus. He recovered transiently, but eventually died on day 19. Postmortem examination demonstrated many colonies of B. cereus in the cerebrum, cerebellum, lung, and liver. Hepatocyte necrosis was also observed in the liver. Bacterial aneurysms or septic emboli were not identified in the arachnoid vessels, but necrosis of cerebral vessels was prominent, which was considered to be the cause of subarachnoid hemorrhage. Fatal subarachnoid hemorrhage has been reported to be associated with B. cereus sepsis, which developed at nadir following chemotherapy for leukemia patients. Because of the aggressive clinical course of B. cereus sepsis, including the risk for subarachnoid hemorrhage, early treatment with effective antibiotics for B. cereus sepsis would be important in the management of leukemia patients after chemotherapy.

  11. Comparative proteomic analysis of experimental evolution of the Bacillus cereus-Ketogulonicigenium vulgare co-culture.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qian Ma

    Full Text Available The microbial co-culture system composing of Ketogulonicigenium vulgare and Bacillus cereus was widely adopted in industry for the production of 2-keto-gulonic acid (2-KGA, the precursor of vitamin C. We found serial subcultivation of the co-culture could enhance the yield of 2-KGA by 16% in comparison to that of the ancestral co-culture. To elucidate the evolutionary dynamics and interaction mechanisms of the two microbes, we performed iTRAQ-based quantitative proteomic analyses of the pure cultures of K. vulgare, B. cereus and their co-culture during serial subcultivation. Hierarchy cluster analyses of the proteomic data showed that the expression level of a number of crucial proteins associated with sorbose conversion and oligopeptide transport was significantly enhanced by the experimental evolution. In particular, the expression level of sorbose/sorbosone dehydrogenase was enhanced in the evolved K. vulgare, while the expression level of InhA and the transport efficiency of oligopeptides were increased in the evolved B. cereus. The decreased sporulating protein expression and increased peptide transporter expression observed in evolved B. cereus, together with the increased amino acids synthesis in evolved K. vulgare suggested that serial subcultivation result in enhanced synergistic cooperation between K. vulgare and B. cereus, enabling an increased production of 2-KGA.

  12. BACILLUS CEREUS EM PRODUTOS LÁCTEOS - UMA REVISÃO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maike Taís Maziero

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Bacillus cereus é uma bactéria termodúrica, formadora de esporos, capaz de se multiplicar em temperatura de refrigeração. Pode causar dois tipos de doenças de origem alimentar: a síndrome emética e a síndrome diarréica. Além do aspecto epidemiológico, B. cereus causa defeitos tecnológicos em produtos lácteos, relacionados com a produção de lipases e proteases. A presença de B. cereus em produtos lácteos vem sendo relatada por pesquisas feitas em vários países, bem como os defeitos tecnológicos associados à contaminação dos produtos por essa bactéria. Destacam-se, na presente revisão, os principais aspectos relacionados à presença de B. cereus em produtos lácteos. Para tanto, foram selecionados trabalhos relevantes e inovadores sobre B. cereus em várias bases de dados, entre elas, Science Direct, SciELO, Scirus e Google Acadêmico.

  13. Detection of toxin genes and RAPD analysis of bacillus cereus isolates from different soil types

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Savic Dejana

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to detect genes for enterotoxins (hbla, entFM and bceT and for emetic toxin (cer, to determine antibiotic resistance, and to estimate intraspecies diversity in B. cereus isolates by RAPD analysis. B. cereus was identified in 12 out of 117 indigenous Bacillus spp. using the classical microbiological methods and PCR. All isolates were resistant to penicillin and ampicillin, two to tetracyclin and four to trimethoprim-sulphamethoxazole. Also, all isolates produced inducible penicillinases and β-lactamase. Toxin genes were detected with PCR. EntFM and cer genes were present in all isolates, hbla in all, but two, and bceT in none. RAPD analysis was performed with four different primers, two of them designed for this study. The intraspecies diversity revealed 10 different patterns at the 90% similarity level. Two separate clusters were formed regardless of a soil type or utilization. The detection of genes encoding toxins in all B. cereus isolates indicated these bacteria as potentially pathogenic and seriously for human health. Regardless of a soil type or utilization, the RAPD analysis showed high intraspecies heterogeneity in B. cereus isolates. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to analyse the presence of entero- and emetic toxin genes and genetic heterogeneity in B. cereus isolates from different soil types and different soil utilization in Serbia. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR37006

  14. Enterotoxin production by Bacillus cereus under gastrointestinal conditions and their immunological detection by commercially available kits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceuppens, Siele; Rajkovic, Andreja; Hamelink, Stefanie; Van de Wiele, Tom; Boon, Nico; Uyttendaele, Mieke

    2012-12-01

    Currently, three commercial kits for Bacillus cereus enterotoxins Nhe and/or Hbl detection are available, namely, the Bacillus diarrheal enterotoxin visual immunoassay (BDE VIA™) kit (3M Tecra), B. cereus enterotoxin reversed passive latex agglutination (BCET-RPLA) kit (Oxoid), and the Duopath(®) Cereus Enterotoxins (Merck). The performance of the kits and their applicability to gastrointestinal simulation samples were evaluated. Then, the stability and production of enterotoxins Hbl and Nhe under gastrointestinal conditions were investigated. Enterotoxin production was absent or impaired at acidic pH, i.e., in gastric medium with pH 5.0 and lasagne verde with pH 5.5. B. cereus did produce enterotoxins Nhe and Hbl during anaerobic growth in intestinal medium at pH 7.0, but the toxins were instantly degraded by the enzymes in the host's digestive secretions. Preformed enterotoxins did not withstand gastrointestinal passage under the simulated conditions, which suggests that preformed enterotoxins in food do not contribute to the diarrheal food poisoning syndrome. In conclusion, diarrhea is probably caused by de novo enterotoxin production by B. cereus cells located closely to the host's intestinal epithelium.

  15. Proteome data to explore the impact of pBClin15 on Bacillus cereus ATCC 14579

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Paul Madeira

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This data article reports changes in the cellular and exoproteome of B. cereus cured from pBClin15.Time-course changes of proteins were assessed by high-throughput nanoLC-MS/MS. We report all the peptides and proteins identified and quantified in B. cereus with and without pBClin15. Proteins were classified into functional groups using the information available in the KEGG classification and we reported their abundance in term of normalized spectral abundance factor. The repertoire of experimentally confirmed proteins of B. cereus presented here is the largest ever reported, and provides new insights into the interplay between pBClin15 and its host B. cereus ATCC 14579. The data reported here is related to a published shotgun proteomics analysis regarding the role of pBClin15, “Deciphering the interactions between the Bacillus cereus linear plasmid, pBClin15, and its host by high-throughput comparative proteomics” Madeira et al. [1]. All the associated mass spectrometry data have been deposited in the ProteomeXchange Consortium (http://proteomecentral.proteomexchange.org via the PRIDE partner repository (http://www.ebi.ac.uk/pride/, with the dataset identifier PRIDE: PXD001568, PRIDE: PXD002788 and PRIDE: PXD002789.

  16. 40 CFR 180.1181 - Bacillus cereus strain BPO1; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Bacillus cereus strain BPO1; exemption... FOOD Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.1181 Bacillus cereus strain BPO1; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. An exemption from the requirement of a tolerance for residues of the Bacillus...

  17. The possibility of discriminating within the Bacillus cereus group using gyrB sequencing and PCR-RFLP

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Gert B; Fisker, Niels; Sparsø, Thomas;

    2005-01-01

    Based on a combination of PCR and restriction endonuclease (RE) digestion (PCR-RE digestion), we have examined the possibility of differentiating members of the Bacillus cereus group. Fragments of the gyrB gene (362 bp) from pure cultures of 12 B. cereus, 25 B. thuringiensis, 25 B. mycoides and two...

  18. The worldwide distribution of genetically and phylogenetically diverse Bacillus cereus isolates harbouring Bacillus anthracis-like plasmids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaminska, Paulina Sylwia; Yernazarova, Aliya; Drewnowska, Justyna Malgorzata; Zambrowski, Grzegorz; Swiecicka, Izabela

    2015-10-01

    Bacillus cereus is a close relative of B. anthracis, the causative agent of anthrax whose pathogenic determinants are located on pXO1 and pXO2 plasmids. Bacillus anthracis-like plasmids have been also noted among B. cereus, however, genetic features of B. cereus harbouring these elements remain largely undescribed, especially from the global perspective. Herein, we present the genetic polymorphism, population structure and phylogeny of B. cereus with pXO1-/pXO2-like plasmids originating from Argentina, Kazakhstan, Kenya and Poland. The plasmids were found in about 17% of the isolates, but their frequencies and expression of replicons differed within and between populations. In the multi-locus sequence typing, the bacteria exhibited high genetic polymorphism reflected by 116 sequencing types, including 84 singletons and 10 clonal complexes, which mainly consisted of isolates of the same origin. The phylogenetic analysis of pXO1-/pXO2-like positive B. cereus isolates revealed six independent clades; in certain clades individual populations predominated. Generally, B. cereus with pXO1-/pXO2-like plasmids did not indicate the genetic relationship with B. anthracis, and cannot be classified into an evolutionary independent anthrax line within the B. cereus group. Our report is of a crucial importance for discovering the genetic specificity and evolution of B. cereus bacilli.

  19. Heat stress leads to superoxide formation in Bacillus cereus detected using the fluorescent probe MitoSOX

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mols, J.M.; Ceragioli, M.; Abee, T.

    2011-01-01

    Bacillus cereus is a food-borne human pathogen and food spoilage organism. Spores and vegetative cells of B. cereus can be found almost everywhere and therefore often end up in food processing equipment and food products. To remove spores and vegetative cells from food or equipment, harsh treatments

  20. Toxin Profile, Biofilm Formation, and Molecular Characterization of Emetic Toxin-Producing Bacillus cereus Group Isolates from Human Stools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Su Kyung; Chang, Hyun-Joo; Choi, Sung-Wook; Ok, Gyeongsik; Lee, Nari

    2015-11-01

    Emetic toxin-producing Bacillus cereus group species are an important problem, because the staple food for Korean is grains such as rice. In this study, we determined the prevalence (24 of 129 isolates) of emetic B. cereus in 36,745 stool samples from sporadic food-poisoning cases in Korea between 2007 and 2008. The toxin gene profile, toxin production, and biofilm-forming ability of the emetic B. cereus isolates were investigated. Repetitive element sequence polymorphism polymerase chain reaction fingerprints (rep-PCR) were also used to assess the intraspecific biodiversity of these isolates. Emetic B. cereus was present in 0.07% of the sporadic food-poisoning cases. The 24 emetic isolates identified all carried the nheABC and entFM genes and produced NHE enterotoxin. However, they did not have hemolysin BL toxin or related genes. A relationship between biofilm formation and toxin production was not observed in this study. The rep-PCR fingerprints of the B. cereus isolates were not influenced by the presence of toxin genes, or biofilm-forming ability. The rep-PCR assay discriminated emetic B. cereus isolates from nonemetic isolates, even if this assay did not perfectly discriminate these isolates. Further study on emetic isolates possessing a high degree of diversity may be necessary to evaluate the performance of the subtyping assay to discriminate emetic and nonemetic B. cereus isolates and could provide a more accurate indication of the risk from B. cereus strains.

  1. Characterization and exposure assessment of emetic bacillus cereus and cereulide production in food products on the Dutch market

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Biesta-Peters, Elisabeth G.; Dissel, Serge; Reij, Martine W.; Zwietering, Marcel H.; In't Veld, Paul H.

    2016-01-01

    The emetic toxin cereulide, which can be produced by Bacillus cereus, can be the cause of food poisoning upon ingestion by the consumer. The toxin causes vomiting and is mainly produced in farinaceous food products. This article includes the prevalence of B. cereus and of cereulide in food produc

  2. Inhibition of Bacillus cereus Growth and Toxin Production by Bacillus amyloliquefaciens RD7-7 in Fermented Soybean Products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eom, Jeong Seon; Choi, Hye Sun

    2016-01-01

    Bacillus cereus is a gram-positive, rod-shaped, spore-forming bacterium that has been isolated from contaminated fermented soybean food products and from the environment. B. cereus produces diarrheal and emetic toxins and has caused many outbreaks of foodborne diseases. In this study, we investigated whether B. amyloliquefaciens RD7-7, isolated from rice doenjang (Korean fermented soybean paste), a traditional Korean fermented soybean food, shows antimicrobial activity against B. cereus and regulates its toxin gene expression. B. amyloliquefaciens RD7-7 exhibited strong antibacterial activity against B. cereus and inhibited the expression of B. cereus toxin-related genes (groEL, nheA, nheC, and entFM). We also found that addition of water extracts of soybean and buckwheat soksungjang (Korean fermented soybean paste made in a short time) fermented with B. amyloliquefaciens RD7-7 significantly reduced the growth and toxin expression of B. cereus. These results indicate that B. amyloliquefaciens RD7-7 could be used to control B. cereus growth and toxin production in the fermented soybean food industry. Our findings also provide a basis for the development of candidate biological control agents against B. cereus to improve the safety of fermented soybean food products.

  3. Identification of sigmaB-dependent genes in Bacillus cereus by proteome and in vitro transcription analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schaik, van W.; Zwietering, M.H.; Vos, de W.M.; Abee, T.

    2004-01-01

    The alternative sigma factor sigma(B) of the food pathogen Bacillus cereus is activated upon stress exposure and plays a role in the adaptive response of vegetative cells. This study describes the identification of sigma(B)-dependent genes in B. cereus. Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis was perfor

  4. [The production of knowledge regarding gestational hypertension in the stricto sensu graduate nursing studies in Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Marialda; Monticelli, Marisa; Brüggemann, Odaléa Maria; Costa, Roberta

    2012-08-01

    This documental study analyzed the Brazilian production of stricto sensu nursing graduate programs related to gestational hypertension. The data source used was the Brazilian Nursing Association Theses and Dissertations Database. The survey located 14 studies produced between 1979-2008, produced mainly in the Southeast region between 1996 and2008. The analytical process revealed a concern with the subjectivity of pregnant women and with aspects regarding nursing care. Furthermore, it showed that most studies used a qualitative methodology supported by nursing theories. The experience lived by pregnant women with hypertension is marked by negative feelings and socioeconomic problems, and is also affected by how the family is organized. The culture of pregnant women with hypertension is disregarded and they receive care in a context in which the disease is the priority. In conclusion, despite some scientific advancements, this topic has not raised the interest it deserves among nurses attending graduate study programs.

  5. Sporothrix schenckii sensu stricto isolated from soil in an armadillo's burrow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Anderson Messias; Bagagli, Eduardo; de Camargo, Zoilo Pires; Bosco, Sandra de Moraes Gimenes

    2014-04-01

    Sporotrichosis is a polymorphic disease of man and animals caused by traumatic implantation of propagules into the skin and subcutaneous tissue. Pathogenic species includes S. brasiliensis, S. schenckii, S. globosa and S. luriei. The disease is remarkable for its occurrence as sapronoses and/or zoonosis outbreaks in tropical and subtropical areas; although, the ecology of the clinical clade is still puzzling. Here, we describe an anamorphic Sporothrix strain isolated from soil in an armadillo's burrow, which was located in a hyper endemic area of Paracoccidioidomycosis in Brazil. This isolate was identified as S. schenckii sensu stricto (Clade IIa) based on morphological and physiological characteristics and phylogenetic analyses of calmodulin sequences. We then discuss the role of the nine-banded armadillo Dasypus novemcinctus as a natural carrier of Sporothrix propagules to better understand Sporothrix sources in nature and reveal essential aspects about the pathogen's eco-epidemiology.

  6. Pollen Morphology of Eight Genera of the Subtribe Mutisiinae Less. sensu Bremer (Compositae) from Asia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Na-Na LIN; Hong WANG; De-Zhu LI; Stephen BLACKMORE

    2005-01-01

    The pollen morphology of 28 species and one variety representing eight genera of the subtribe Mutisiinae Less. sensu Bremer (Compositae) was investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and light microscopy. The pollen grains are usually radically symmetrical, isopolar, and tricolporate. The shape varies from spheroidal to subprolate in equatorial view and is three-lobed circular in polar view. Based on exine sculpturing observed under SEM, the pollen grains can be divided into three types: (i) type Ⅰ, with macrogranulate sculpture; (ii) type Ⅱ, with a finely granulate sculpture; and (iii) type Ⅲ, with spiny sculpture.The palynological data showed that the Macroclinidium Maxim. was remarkably distinguished from those of the other seven genera. The variation of pollen characteristics within the Mutisiinae in Asia is little at species level, but it proves some useful information for studying the relationships among genera and it has an important significance in further understanding the evolutionary history of Mutisiinae.

  7. A resiliência humana no ambiente acadêmico de cursos stricto sensu

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Este estudo surgiu do interesse de compreender de que maneira se dá a questão da resiliência no ambiente acadêmico de pós-graduação stricto sensu, no qual os indivíduos são confrontados com demandas de alta dedicação e esforço que exigem a conformação a um novo modelo de realização de atividades. Como estratégia de pesquisa utilizou-se o estudo comparativo de casos, mediante método de coleta qualitativa empírica, com corte temporal transversal. Selecionaram-se duas antigas e conceituadas inst...

  8. Echinococcus canadensis (G7) and Echinococcus granulosus sensu stricto (G1) in swine of southern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteiro, D U; Botton, S A; Tonin, A A; Azevedo, M I; Graichen, D A S; Noal, C B; de la Rue, M L

    2014-05-28

    The cystic echinococcosis (CE) is an important zoonotic disease caused by the parasite Echinococcus spp. In Brazil, this parasite is present in Rio Grande do Sul (RS) state, border with Argentina and Uruguay, causing several damages to human and animal health. This study aimed to identify Echinococcus spp. in hydatid cysts of swine and evaluate the similarity of the genotypes through the phylogenetic analysis. A total of 3,101,992 swine were slaughtered in the central/northern region of RS/Brazil, during 2008-2012. Five isolates were characterized as hydatid cyst by molecular analysis, based on the mitochondrial gene cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (cox-I). The genotypes E. granulosus sensu stricto (G1) (n=2) and E. canadensis (G7) (n=3) were identified in the hydatid cysts. The swine represents a potential intermediate host for different genotypes of Echinococcus spp., besides it can contribute to the perpetuation of the parasite's life cycle in rural areas.

  9. ULTRASTRUCTURE OF GYMNODINIUM AUREOLUM (DINOPHYCEAE): TOWARD A FURTHER REDEFINITION OF GYMNODINIUM SENSU STRICTO

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Gert

    2001-01-01

    of Gymnodinium, G. fuscum (Ehrenberg) Stein and certain other Gymnodinium species. The nuclear pores were restricted to these chambers. In the flagellar apparatus a nuclear fibrous connective linked the longitudinal microtubular root and the nucleus. This structure had so far been observed only in Gymnodinium...... spp. and in the heterotrophic species Actiniscus pentasterias (Ehrenberg) Ehrenberg, Nematodinium armatum (Dogiel) Kofoid et Swezy and Polykrikos kofoidii Chatton. Another unusual feature of G. aureolum was the presence of a striated fiber in the longitudinal flagellum, a feature previously only found...... in Ceratium furca (Ehrenberg) Claparède et Lachmann and C. tripos (O.F. Müller) Nitzsch. Gymnodinium aureolum also possessed a prominent ventral protrusion associated with the peduncle and containing electron opaque material. It is concluded that G. aureolum belongs to the Gymnodinium sensu stricto group...

  10. COLONIZATION OF VIGNA RADIATA ROOTS BY CHROMIUM RESISTANT BACTERIAL STRAINS OF OCHROBACTRUM INTERMEDIUM, BACILLUS CEREUS AND BREVIBA CTERIUM SP.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MUHAMMAD Faisal; SHAHIDA Hasnain

    2005-01-01

    The present study deals with colonization potential of plant growth promoting bacterial strains ( Ochrobactrum intermedium, Bacillus cereus and Brevibacterium sp. ) on Vigna radiata roots. The roots were heavily colonized with O. intermedium and B. cereus as compared to Brevibacterium sp. O. intermedium mainly colonized rhizoplane while B. cereus occurred both on the rhizoplane and near root zone. O. intermedium and B. cereus were found to be present both on the rhizoplane and near root zone, while Brevibacterium only in the rhizosphere in the form of groups. The cells of B. cereus were found more in the sites where root exudates were existed. From the above results it was observed that the number of O. intermedium cells were large at root exudate site. Fig 2, Tab 1, Ref 15

  11. The Pathogenomic Sequence Analysis of B. cereus and B.thuringiensis Isolates Closely Related to Bacillus anthracis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Cliff S.; Xie, Gary; Challacombe, Jean F.; Altherr, MichaelR.; Smriti, B.; Bruce, David; Campbell, Connie S.; Campbell, Mary L.; Chen, Jin; Chertkov, Olga; Cleland, Cathy; Dimitrijevic-Bussod, M.; Doggett, Norman A.; Fawcett, John J.; Glavina, Tijana; Goodwin, Lynne A.; Hill, Karen K.; Hitchcock, Penny; Jackson, Paul J.; Keim, Paul; Kewalramani, Avinash Ramesh; Longmire, Jon; Lucas, Susan; Malfatti,Stephanie; McMurry, Kim; Meincke, Linda J.; Misra, Monica; Moseman,Bernice L.; Mundt, Mark; Munk, A. Christine; Okinaka, Richard T.; Parson-Quintana, B.; Reilly, Lee P.; Richardson, Paul; Robinson, DonnaL.; Rubin, Eddy; Saunders, Elizabeth; Tapia, Roxanne; Tesmer, Judith G.; Thayer, Nina; Thompson, Linda S.; Tice, Hope; Ticknor, Lawrence O.; Wills, Patti L.; Gilna, Payl; Brettin, Thomas S.

    2005-08-18

    The sequencing and analysis of two close relatives of Bacillus anthracis are reported. AFLP analysis of over 300 isolates of B.cereus, B. thuringiensis and B. anthracis identified two isolates as being very closely related to B. anthracis. One, a B. cereus, BcE33L, was isolated from a zebra carcass in Nambia; the second, a B. thuringiensis, 97-27, was isolated from a necrotic human wound. The B. cereus appears to be the closest anthracis relative sequenced to date. A core genome of over 3,900 genes was compiled for the Bacillus cereus group, including Banthracis. Comparative analysis of these two genomes with other members of the B. cereus group provides insight into the evolutionary relationships among these organisms. Evidence is presented that differential regulation modulates virulence, rather than simple acquisition of virulence factors. These genome sequences provide insight into the molecular mechanisms contributing to the host range and virulence of this group of organisms.

  12. Multilocus sequence typing reveals that Bacillus cereus strains isolated from clinical infections have distinct phylogenetic origins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barker, Margaret; Thakker, Bishan; Priest, Fergus G

    2005-04-01

    Eight strains of Bacillus cereus isolated from bacteremia and soft tissue infections were assigned to seven sequence types (STs) by multilocus sequence typing (MLST). Two strains from different locations had identical STs. The concatenated sequences of the seven STs were aligned with 65 concatenated sequences from reference STs and a neighbor-joining tree was constructed. Two strains were distantly related to all reference STs. Three strains were recovered in a clade that included Bacillus anthracis, B. cereus and rare Bacillus thuringiensis strains while the other three strains were assigned to two STs that were more closely affiliated to most of the B. thuringiensis STs. We conclude that invasive B. cereus strains do not form a single clone or clonal complex of highly virulent strains.

  13. Relapsing peritonitis with Bacillus cereus in a patient on continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Magnussen, Eyð Tausen; Vang, Amanda Gratton; á Steig, Torkil

    2016-01-01

    We present a case where Bacillus cereus was determined to be the causative agent of relapsing peritonitis in a patient on continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD). The patient, a 70-year-old man from the Faroe Islands, was admitted with relapsing peritonitis four times over a 3-month period....... Peritoneal cultures were positive for growth of B. cereus, a rare bacterial cause of peritonitis. The cultures demonstrated susceptibility to vancomycin, and therefore the patient was treated with intraperitoneal vancomycin, intraperitoneal gentamycin and oral ciprofloxacin. As a result of the relapsing B....... cereus peritonitis diagnosis and a CT scan showing contraction of the peritoneum after longstanding inflammation, the peritoneal catheter was removed and the patient converted to haemodialysis. To date, the patient has not been readmitted due to peritonitis. A lack of proper hygiene when changing...

  14. Production of nanodrug for Bacillus cereus isolated from HIV positive patient using Mallotus philippensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Bhuvaneswari

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The present investigation was aimed to synthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs using Mallotus philippensis leaf extract and their antibacterial potential against Bacillus cereus isolated from HIV positive patient. In this, UV- Visible spectroscopy showed the high peak of absorption band at 450 nm. Based on XRD analysis, face centered cubic structure and average size of the AgNPs was around 16 nm. FTIR spectroscopy study revealed the seventeen functional groups of the AgNPs was observed. The morphology of AgNPs was spherical, oval shapes and diameter of the particle size ranges between 9 and 24 nm was measured using transmission electron microscopy (TEM. In addition to these green synthesized AgNPs were found to express the higher efficacy in inhibiting the growth of Bacillus cereus (B. cereus isolated from the HIV-positive patient.

  15. Phages Preying on Bacillus anthracis, Bacillus cereus, and Bacillus thuringiensis: Past, Present and Future

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annika Gillis

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Many bacteriophages (phages have been widely studied due to their major role in virulence evolution of bacterial pathogens. However, less attention has been paid to phages preying on bacteria from the Bacillus cereus group and their contribution to the bacterial genetic pool has been disregarded. Therefore, this review brings together the main information for the B. cereus group phages, from their discovery to their modern biotechnological applications. A special focus is given to phages infecting Bacillus anthracis, B. cereus and Bacillus thuringiensis. These phages belong to the Myoviridae, Siphoviridae, Podoviridae and Tectiviridae families. For the sake of clarity, several phage categories have been made according to significant characteristics such as lifestyles and lysogenic states. The main categories comprise the transducing phages, phages with a chromosomal or plasmidial prophage state, γ-like phages and jumbo-phages. The current genomic characterization of some of these phages is also addressed throughout this work and some promising applications are discussed here.

  16. Surface reaction of Bacillus cereus biomass and its biosorption for lead and copper ions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PAN Jian-hua; LIU Rui-xia; TANG Hong-xiao

    2007-01-01

    In this study, the Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) analytical technique identified the surface chemical functional groups of Bacillus cereus biomass. B. Cereus cells mainly contained carboxyl, hydroxyl, phosphate, amino, and amide functional groups. In order to explain the surface acid-base properties of aqueous B. Cereus biomass, the potentiometric titration was conducted . The computer program FITEQL 4.0 was used to perform the model calculations. The optimization results indicated that three sites-three pKas model, which assumed the cell surface to have three distinct types of surface organic functional groups based on IR analysis results, simulated the experimental results very well. Moreover, batch adsorption experiments were performed to investigate biosorption behavior of Cu (Ⅱ) and Pb (Ⅱ) ions onto the biomass. Obviously, the adsorption equilibrium data for the two ions were reasonably described by typical Langmuir isotherm.

  17. A genomic region involved in the formation of adhesin fibers in Bacillus cereus biofilms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joaquín eCaro-Astorga

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Bacillus cereus is a bacterial pathogen that is responsible for many recurrent disease outbreaks due to food contamination. Spores and biofilms are considered the most important reservoirs of B. cereus in contaminated fresh vegetables and fruits. Biofilms are bacterial communities that are difficult to eradicate from biotic and abiotic surfaces because of their stable and extremely strong extracellular matrix. These extracellular matrixes contain exopolysaccharides, proteins, extracellular DNA, and other minor components. Although B. cereus can form biofilms, the bacterial features governing assembly of the protective extracellular matrix are not known. Using the well-studied bacterium B. subtilis as a model, we identified two genomic loci in B. cereus, which encodes two orthologs of the amyloid-like protein TasA of B. subtilis and a SipW signal peptidase. Deletion of this genomic region in B. cereus inhibited biofilm assembly; notably, mutation of the putative signal peptidase SipW caused the same phenotype. However, mutations in tasA or calY did not completely prevent biofilm formation; strains that were mutated for either of these genes formed phenotypically different surface attached biofilms. Electron microscopy studies revealed that TasA polymerizes to form long and abundant fibers on cell surfaces, whereas CalY does not aggregate similarly. Heterologous expression of this amyloid-like cassette in a B. subtilis strain lacking the factors required for the assembly of TasA amyloid-like fibers revealed i the involvement of this B. cereus genomic region in formation of the air-liquid interphase pellicles and ii the intrinsic ability of TasA to form fibers similar to the amyloid-like fibers produced by its B. subtilis ortholog.

  18. Phospholipase C from Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Bacillus cereus;characterization of catalytic activity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nooran Sherif Elleboudy; Mohammad Mabrouk Aboulwafa; Nadia Abdel-Haleem Hassouna

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To study characteristics of phospholipases C (PLCs), their importance for producing microorganisms as well as the potential of their use for industrial purposes. Methods:PLC from Bacillus cereus (B. cereus) D101 was selected as an example of Gram-positive PLCs and PLC from Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P. aeruginosa) D183 of Gram-negative ones. Enzymes were partially purified by ammonium sulfate precipitation followed by membrane dialysis. Partially purified preparations were used to study effect of different factors on activities as well as in substrate specificity tests which were conducted using a turbidimetric assay method. Results: Maximum activity was at pH 7 and 8 and 40℃for P. aeruginosa PLC, and pH 8-10 and 37℃for B. cereus PLC. Both PLCs were inhibited by Pi at 5 mM or higher, whereas, PLC from B. cereus only was inhibited by EDTA. Activity of P. aeruginosa PLC was not affected by removing Zn2+ions from reaction mixture or their replacement with Ca2+, Ba2+, Mg2+or Mn2+ions. Vis-à-vis, activity of B. cereus PLC was found to be metal ion dependent. PLCs from both isolates were relatively thermostable and showed maximum affinity toward phosphatidylcholine. Sphingomyelin and phosphatidylethanolamine were not good substrates and phosphatidylinositol, phosphatidylserine, phosphatidylglycerol and cardiolipin could be considered non-substrates. Conclusions: Human body physiological conditions could favor activity of P. aeruginosa and B. cereus PLCs. These enzymes may participate in phosphate scavenging and virulence of producing isolates but not in autolysis. PLCs from both isolates are potential candidates for industrial use.

  19. Toxin producing Bacillus cereus persist in ready-to-reheat spaghetti Bolognese mainly in vegetative state.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajkovic, Andreja; Kljajic, Milica; Smigic, Nada; Devlieghere, Frank; Uyttendaele, Mieke

    2013-10-15

    The potential of Bacillus cereus to cause a diarrheal toxico-infection is related to its ability to perform de novo enterotoxin production in the small intestine. A prerequisite for this is presence of sufficient numbers of B. cereus that have survived gastro-intestinal passage. It is known that the percentage of survival is much smaller for vegetative cells in comparison to spores and it is therefore important to know the state in which B. cereus is ingested. The results of the current study performed on twelve B. cereus strains, comprising both diarrheal and emetic type, indicate that exposure via contaminated foods mainly concerns vegetative cells. Inoculated vegetative cells grew to high counts, with the growth dynamic depending on the storage temperature. At 28 °C growth to high counts resulted in spore formation, in general, after 1 day of storage. One strain was an exception, producing spores only after 16 days. At 12 °C obtained high counts did not result in spore formation for 11 of 12 tested strains after two weeks of storage. The highest counts and time to sporulation were different between strains, but no difference was observed on the group level of diarrheal and emetic strains. The spore counts were always lower than vegetative cell counts and occurred only when food was obviously sensory spoiled (visual and odor evaluation). Similar observations were made with food inoculated with B. cereus spores instead of vegetative cells. Although the prospect of consuming spores was found very weak, the numbers of vegetative B. cereus cells were high enough, without obvious sensory deviation, to survive in sufficient level to cause diarrheal toxico-infection.

  20. Successful Treatment of Bacillus cereus Bacteremia in a Patient with Propionic Acidemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatma Deniz Aygun

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Bacillus cereus can cause serious, life-threatening, systemic infections in immunocompromised patients. The ability of microorganism to form biofilm on biomedical devices can be responsible for catheter-related bloodstream infections. Other manifestations of severe disease are meningitis, endocarditis, osteomyelitis, and surgical and traumatic wound infections. The most common feature in true bacteremia caused by Bacillus is the presence of an intravascular catheter. Herein, we report a case of catheter-related bacteremia caused by B. cereus in a patient with propionic acidemia.

  1. Bacillus cereus Cerebral Abscess During Induction Chemotherapy for Childhood Acute Leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dabscheck, Gabriel; Silverman, Lewis; Ullrich, Nicole J

    2015-10-01

    A 5-year-old boy with standard-risk B-cell acute lymphoblastic anemia developed fever during induction chemotherapy. The patient had no neurological symptoms. Blood cultures grew Bacillus cereus and neuroimaging studies demonstrated a cerebral abscess. Imaging changes resolved after completion of antibiotics. Bacillus cereus bacteremia is increasingly implicated as the cause of life-threatening infections, including cerebral abscesses, in compromised patients. Positive blood cultures for this organism should prompt neuroimaging and consideration of cerebrospinal fluid sampling, as well as catheter removal. Given the worse outcome with central nervous system involvement, there is a need for increased awareness and early diagnosis, particularly in immunocompromised individuals.

  2. Successful Treatment of Bacillus cereus Bacteremia in a Patient with Propionic Acidemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aygun, Fatma Deniz; Aygun, Fatih; Cam, Halit

    2016-01-01

    Bacillus cereus can cause serious, life-threatening, systemic infections in immunocompromised patients. The ability of microorganism to form biofilm on biomedical devices can be responsible for catheter-related bloodstream infections. Other manifestations of severe disease are meningitis, endocarditis, osteomyelitis, and surgical and traumatic wound infections. The most common feature in true bacteremia caused by Bacillus is the presence of an intravascular catheter. Herein, we report a case of catheter-related bacteremia caused by B. cereus in a patient with propionic acidemia.

  3. Resistance and biosorption mechanism of silver ions by Bacillus cereus biomass

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Li; Qing Hu; Jinghai Zeng; Hongyan Qi; Guoqiang Zhuang

    2011-01-01

    Biosorption of silver ions onto Bacillus cereus biomass was investigated.Overall kinetic experiments were performed for the determination of the necessary contact time for the attainment of equilibrium.It was found that the overall biosorption process was best described by pseudo second-order kinetic model.The crystals detected by scanning electron microscope and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy suggested the precipitation was a possible mechanism of biosorption.The molecular genetics of silver resistance of B.cereus biomass was also detected and illustrated by a whole cell sensor tool.

  4. Properties of the Bacillus Cereus strain used in probiotic CenBiot Propriedades da cepa de Bacillus cereus utilizada no probiótico CenBiot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Gil-Turnes

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Bacillus cereus CenBiot fulfilled the requirements to be used as probiotic. The spores showed D80 of 14 hs, inhibited Escherichia coli and Yersinia pseudotuberculosis after 24 hs in associative culture, were innocuous for suckling and adult mice and were not inhibited by antibiotics at low concentrations.Bacillus cereus CenBiot possui as características necessárias para ser utilizada como probiótico. Os esporos apresentaram D80 de 14 hs, inibiram Escherichia coli e Yersinia pseudotuberculosis após cultivadas associativamente por 24 hs, foram inócuos para camundongos lactentes e adultos e não foram inibidos por antibióticos a baixas concentrações.

  5. Study of the antibacterial effects of chitosans on Bacillus cereus (and its spores) by atomic force microscopy imaging and nanoindentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandes, Joao C. [Escola Superior de Biotecnologia, Universidade Catolica Portuguesa, Rua Dr. Antonio Bernardino de Almeida, 4200-072 Porto (Portugal); Eaton, Peter, E-mail: peter.eaton@fc.up.pt [REQUIMTE, Departamento de Quimica, Faculdade de Ciencias da Universidade do Porto, Rua do Campo Alegre, 4169-007 Porto (Portugal); Gomes, Ana M.; Pintado, Manuela E.; Xavier Malcata, F. [Escola Superior de Biotecnologia, Universidade Catolica Portuguesa, Rua Dr. Antonio Bernardino de Almeida, 4200-072 Porto (Portugal)

    2009-07-15

    Bacillus cereus is a Gram-positive, spore-forming bacterium that is widely distributed in nature. Its intrinsic thermal resistance coupled with the extraordinary resistance against common food preservation techniques makes it one of the most frequent food-poisoning microorganisms causing both intoxications and infections. In order to control B. cereus growth/sporulation, and hence minimize the aforementioned hazards, several antimicrobial compounds have been tested. The aim of this work was to assess by atomic force microscopy (AFM) the relationship between the molecular weight (MW) of chitosan and its antimicrobial activity upon both vegetative and resistance forms of B. cereus. The use of AFM imaging studies helped us to understand how chitosans with different MW act differently upon B. cereus. Higher MW chitosans (628 and 100 kDa) surrounded both forms of B. cereus cells by forming a polymer layer-which eventually led to the death of the vegetative form by preventing the uptake of nutrients yet did not affect the spores since these can survive for extended periods without nutrients. Chitooligosaccharides (COS) (<3 kDa), on the other hand, provoked more visible damages in the B. cereus vegetative form-most probably due to the penetration of the cells by the COS. The use of COS by itself on B. cereus spores was not enough for the destruction of a large number of cells, but it may well weaken the spore structure and its ability to contaminate, by inducing exosporium loss.

  6. [Bacillus cereus bacteremia in Crohn's disease with multiple ileal stricture on maintenance azathioprine therapy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hizawa, Kazuoki; Nagata, Yuko; Taniguchi, Masahiko; Nakamori, Mari; Matsumoto, Takayuki; Iida, Mitsuo

    2009-01-01

    We describe a case of 36-year-old Japanese man with Crohn's disease, complicated by Bacillus cereus bacteremia on maintenance azathioprine therapy. Although anti-microbial agents were ineffective, the patient became well immediately after a partial resection of the ileum with multiple severe stenosis.

  7. Bacillus cereus meningitis and bacteremia associated with an Ommaya reservoir in a patient with lymphoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, I; Fainstein, V; McLaughlin, P

    1984-07-01

    After placement of an Ommaya reservoir, meningitis and bacteremia due to Bacillus cereus occurred in a patient with stage IV lymphoblastic lymphoma and meningeal involvement. Bacillus species have been implicated as meningeal pathogens after lumbar punctures. These organisms have become an important cause of severe infection, especially in immunologically compromised patients.

  8. Role of ureolytic activity in Bacillus cereus nitrogen metabolism and acid survival

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mols, J.M.; Abee, T.

    2008-01-01

    The presence and activities of urease genes were investigated in 49 clinical, food, and environmental Bacillus cereus isolates. Ten strains were shown to have urease genes, with eight of these strains showing growth on urea as the sole nitrogen source. Two of the urease-positive strains, including t

  9. Study on Attenuation Characteristics of Biocontrol Strain Anti-8098A, Bacillus cereus, against Ralstoniasolanacearum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    BoLIU; Ying-ZhiLIN; Yu-JingZHU; Ci-BinGE; YiCAO

    2004-01-01

    The present study dealt with the attenuation characteristics of bacterial-wilt-disease biocontrol strain Anti-8098A, Bacillus cereus, againstpathogeny Ralstonia solanacearum (RS). In order to distinguish the pathogenicity of RS, the attenuation index (radius of the center red ring/radius of the whole mycelium ring, on TTC culture medium) was established (Hayward, 1976), companying with the mortality of tomato

  10. A Pseudo-tRNA Modulates Antibiotic Resistance in Bacillus cereus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rogers, Theresa E; Ataide, Sandro F; Dare, Kiley

    2012-01-01

    Bacterial genomic islands are often flanked by tRNA genes, which act as sites for the integration of foreign DNA into the host chromosome. For example, Bacillus cereus ATCC14579 contains a pathogenicity island flanked by a predicted pseudo-tRNA, tRNA(Other), which does not function in translation...

  11. Comparative transcriptomic and phenotypic analysis of the responses of Bacillus cereus to various disinfectant treatments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ceragioli, M.; Mols, J.M.; Moezelaar, R.; Ghelardi, E.; Senesi, S.; Abee, T.

    2010-01-01

    Antimicrobial chemicals are widely applied to clean and disinfect food-contacting surfaces. However, the cellular response of bacteria to various disinfectants is unclear. In this study, the physiological and genome-wide transcriptional responses of Bacillus cereus ATCC 14579 exposed to four differe

  12. Bacillus cereus associated food borne disease : quantitative aspects of exposure assessment and hazard characterization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijnands, L.M.

    2008-01-01

    The consumption of food contaminated with the bacterium Bacillus cereus may lead to either symptoms of vomiting or symptoms of diarrhoea. As the symptoms are rather mild, few patients seek medical attention. Therefore, it is hard to estimate the number of cases. To improve estimation of this number

  13. Fate of pathogenic Bacillus cereus spores after ingestion by protist grazers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winding, Anne; Santos, Susana; Hendriksen, Niels Bohse

    was initially investigated in microcosms inoculated with pure cultures of the protists Acanthamoeba castellanii, Tetrahymena pyriformis and Cercomonas sp. as grazers. Individual protist cultures were fed with fluorescently labelled (CellTracker™RedCMTPX) B. cereus spores or vegetative cells as the only food...

  14. Phenotypic, genomic, transcriptomic and proteomic changes in Bacillus cereus after a short-term space flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Longxiang; Zhou, Lisha; Liu, Jinwen; Cen, Zhong; Wu, Chunyan; Wang, Tong; Zhou, Tao; Chang, De; Guo, Yinghua; Fang, Xiangqun; Wang, Junfeng; Li, Tianzhi; Yin, Sanjun; Dai, Wenkui; Zhou, Yuping; Zhao, Jiao; Fang, Chengxiang; Yang, Ruifu; Liu, Changting

    2014-01-01

    The environment in space could affect microorganisms by changing a variety of features, including proliferation rate, cell physiology, cell metabolism, biofilm production, virulence, and drug resistance. However, the relevant mechanisms remain unclear. To explore the effect of a space environment on Bacillus cereus, a strain of B. cereus was sent to space for 398 h by ShenZhou VIII from November 1, 2011 to November 17, 2011. A ground simulation with similar temperature conditions was simultaneously performed as a control. After the flight, the flight and control strains were further analyzed using phenotypic, genomic, transcriptomic and proteomic techniques to explore the divergence of B. cereus in a space environment. The flight strains exhibited a significantly slower growth rate, a significantly higher amikacin resistance level, and changes in metabolism relative to the ground control strain. After the space flight, three polymorphic loci were found in the flight strains LCT-BC25 and LCT-BC235. A combined transcriptome and proteome analysis was performed, and this analysis revealed that the flight strains had changes in genes/proteins relevant to metabolism. In addition, certain genes/proteins that are relevant to structural function, gene expression modification and translation, and virulence were also altered. Our study represents the first documented analysis of the phenotypic, genomic, transcriptomic, and proteomic changes that occur in B. cereus during space flight, and our results could be beneficial to the field of space microbiology.

  15. The study of effect bacteriocin producing Lactoco ccus lactis on Listeria monocytogenes and Bacillus cereus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Mirhossieni, M.Sc

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available AbstractBackground and purpose: Dairy products often associated with problems such as short shelf life and poor hygiene control. A novel approach is to utilize bacteriocin or bacteriocin producer strains, to control undesirable micro flora as Listeria monocytogenes and Bacillus cereus in foods. Hence, we studied the effect of nisin like producing Lactococcus lactis against Listeria monocytogenes and Bacillus cereus, in order to compare the isolated strain within different countries.Materials and Methods: In this research we studied the effect of nisin like producing Lactococcus lactis, with producer spot test method. We also used supernatant from 24 h culture of Lactoccus lactis. Moreover, we studied the effect of bacteriocin on Listeria monocytogenes and Bacillus cereus growth curves.Results: The growth of both strains was inhibited by the bacteriocin. Conclusion: According to our results, the bacteriocin could be used in liquid food with bacteriocin added directly or as a starter culture in fermentation. This would inhibit the growth of Listeria monocytogenes; furthermore, Bacillus cereus is used to reduce food poisoning for fermented food products.

  16. Combined action of nisin and carvacrol on Bacillus cereus and Listeria monocytogenes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pol, I.E.; Smid, E.J.

    1999-01-01

    Nisin, a small antimicrobial protein, was tested for its bactericidal action against Listeria monocytogenes and Bacillus cereus and a typical biphasic reduction of the viable count was observed. The reduction was most fast during the first 10 min of exposure, while the viable count remained stable i

  17. Lessons learnt from a birthday party: a Bacillus cereus outbreak, Bari, Italy, January 2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Domenico Martinelli

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Bacillus cereus, a ubiquitous bacterium, can be isolated in various starchy food items, causing both emetic and diarrhoeal disease. The real burden of B. cereus outbreaks is actually poorly known in Italy. We report a B. cereus foodborne outbreak that occurred in a pub in Bari (Italy on January 22nd 2012 during a birthday party, promptly reported by the pub owner. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Between January 22nd and 24th 2012, we performed a retrospective cohort study among the guests of the party to identify risk factors associated with illness. Leftovers of different meals were available for microbiological analysis. Faecal specimens were collected from cases. RESULTS: A total of 12 cases among the 13 customers (attack rate: 92% were reported. All cases had consumed basmati rice and sweet and sour vegetables (aetiological fraction: 100%. B. cereus was isolated from both basmati rice served during the party and faecal specimens. DISCUSSION: The close collaboration between the pub owner and the public health officers and the possibility to test food leftovers and stool samples contributed to prevent further cases.

  18. A selective chromogenic agar that distinguishes Bacillus anthracis from Bacillus cereus and Bacillus thuringiensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juergensmeyer, Margaret A; Gingras, Bruce A; Restaino, Lawrence; Frampton, Elon W

    2006-08-01

    A selective and differential plating medium, R & F anthracis chromogenic agar (ACA), has been developed for isolating and identifying presumptive colonies of Bacillus anthracis. ACA contains the chromogenic substrate 5-bromo-4-chloro-3-indoxyl-choline phosphate that upon hydrolysis yields teal (blue green) colonies indicating the presence of phosphatidylcholine-specific phospholipase C (PC-PLC) activity. Among seven Bacillus species tested on ACA, only members of the Bacillus cereus group (B. anthracis, B. cereus, and B. thuringiensis) produced teal colonies (PC-PLC positive) having cream rings. Examination of colony morphology in 18 pure culture strains of B. anthracis (15 ATCC strains plus AMES-1-RIID, ANR-1, and AMED-RIID), with one exception, required 48 h at 35 to 37 degrees C for significant color production, whereas only 24 h was required for B. cereus and B. thuringiensis. This differential rate of PC-PLC synthesis in B. anthracis (due to the truncated plcR gene and PlcR regulator in B. anthracis) allowed for the rapid differentiation on ACA of presumptive colonies of B. anthracis from B. cereus and B. thuringiensis in both pure and mixed cultures. Effective recovery of B. anthracis from a variety of matrices having both high (soil and sewage) and low microbial backgrounds (cloth, paper, and blood) spiked with B. anthracis ANR-1 spores suggests the probable utility of ACA plating for B. anthracis recovery in a diversity of applications.

  19. Isolation, identification and characterization of Bacillus cereus from the dairy environment.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    te Giffel, M.C.

    1997-01-01

    In this thesis the occurrence of Bacillus cereus in the milk production and processing environment was investigated. Isolates were identified biochemically and by DNA probes based on the variable regions of 16S rRNA. Further characterization was carried out using biochemical and molecular typing, in

  20. Prevalence of potentially pathogenic Bacillus cereus in food commodities in The Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijnands, L.M.; Dufrenne, J.B.; Rombouts, F.M.; Veld, in 't P.H.; Leusden, van F.M.

    2006-01-01

    Randomly selected food commodities, categorized in product groups, were investigated for the presence and number of Bacillus cereus bacteria. If positive, and when possible, five separate colonies were isolated and investigated for the presence of four virulence factors: presence of genes encoding t

  1. The pathogenic mechanism of the diarrheal syndrome caused by Bacillus cereus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijnands LM; Dufrenne JB; Leusden FM van; MGB

    2002-01-01

    As a contaminant of food commodities, Bacillus cereus may produce several enterotoxins that are responsible for the development of a diarrhaeal syndrome. Although four enterotoxins -haemolysin BL (HBL), non-haemolytic enterotoxin (NHE), enterotoxin-T, and cytotoxin-K- have been described as possibly

  2. Production of keratinolytic enzyme by an indigenous feather-degrading strain Bacillus cereus Wu2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, Wei-Hsun; Too, Jui-Rze; Wu, Jane-Yii

    2012-12-01

    A novel feather-degrading microorganism was isolated from a poultry farm in Taiwan, and was identified Bacillus cereus Wu2 according to 16S rRNA sequencing. The isolated strain produces keratinolytic enzyme using chicken feather as the sole carbon and nitrogen source. The experimental results indicated that the extra carbon sources (glucose, fructose, starch, sucrose, or lactose) could act as a catabolite repressor to the enzyme secretion or keratinolytic activity when keratinous substrates were employed as protein sources. However, addition of 2 g/L of NH(4)Cl to the feather medium increased the enzyme production. The optimum temperature and initial pH for enzyme production were 30°C and 7.0, respectively. The maximum yield of the enzyme was 1.75 kU/mL in the optimal chicken feather medium; this value was about 17-fold higher than the yield in the basal hair medium. The B. cereus Wu2 possessed disulfide reductase activity along with keratinolytic activity. The amino acid contents of feathers degradated by B. cereus Wu2 were higher, especially for lysine, methionine and threonine which were nutritionally essential amino acids and usually deficient in the feather meal. Thus, B. cereus Wu2 could be not only used to enhance the nutritional value of feather meal but is also a potential bioinoculant in agricultural environments.

  3. Deletion in sigB in Bacillus cereus affects spore properties

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vries, de Y.P.; Hornstra, L.M.; Atmadja, R.D.; Schaik, van W.; Vos, de W.M.; Abee, T.

    2005-01-01

    In Bacillus cereus and other gram-positive bacteria the alternative sigma factor ¿B is an important regulator of the stress response. Deletion of the sigB gene generally leads to a stress-sensitive phenotype of vegetative cells. In this study, we describe the effect of the deletion of the sigB gene

  4. Anthrax Toxin-Expressing Bacillus cereus Isolated from an Anthrax-Like Eschar.

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    Chung K Marston

    Full Text Available Bacillus cereus isolates have been described harboring Bacillus anthracis toxin genes, most notably B. cereus G9241, and capable of causing severe and fatal pneumonias. This report describes the characterization of a B. cereus isolate, BcFL2013, associated with a naturally occurring cutaneous lesion resembling an anthrax eschar. Similar to G9241, BcFL2013 is positive for the B. anthracis pXO1 toxin genes, has a multi-locus sequence type of 78, and a pagA sequence type of 9. Whole genome sequencing confirms the similarity to G9241. In addition to the chromosome having an average nucleotide identity of 99.98% when compared to G9241, BcFL2013 harbors three plasmids with varying homology to the G9241 plasmids (pBCXO1, pBC210 and pBFH_1. This is also the first report to include serologic testing of patient specimens associated with this type of B. cereus infection which resulted in the detection of anthrax lethal factor toxemia, a quantifiable serum antibody response to protective antigen (PA, and lethal toxin neutralization activity.

  5. Detection of toxigenic Bacillus cereus strains isolated from vegetables in Mexico City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores-Urbán, Karen A; Natividad-Bonifacio, Iván; Vázquez-Quiñones, Carlos R; Vázquez-Salinas, Carlos; Quiñones-Ramírez, Elsa Irma

    2014-12-01

    Bacillus cereus can cause diarrhea and emetic syndromes after ingestion of food contaminated with it. This ability is due to the production of enterotoxins by this microorganism, these being the hemolysin BL complex, which is involved in the diarrheal syndrome, and cereulide, which is responsible for the emetic syndrome. The detection of genes associated with the production of these toxins can predict the virulence of strains isolated from contaminated food. In this paper, we analyzed 100 samples of vegetables, 25 of each kind (broccoli, coriander, carrot, and lettuce) obtained from different markets in Mexico City and its metropolitan area. B. cereus was isolated in 32, 44, 84, and 68% of the samples of broccoli, carrot, lettuce, and coriander, respectively. The hblA gene (encoding one of the three subunits of hemolysin BL) was amplified in 100% of the B. cereus isolates, and the ces gene (encoding the cereulide) could not be amplified from any of them. This is the first report of B. cereus isolation from the vegetables analyzed in this work and, also, the first report in Mexico of the isolation from vegetables of strains with potential virulence. The results should serve as evidence of the potential risk of consuming these foods without proper treatment.

  6. Toxin profile, antibiotic resistance, and phenotypic and molecular characterization of Bacillus cereus in Sunsik.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chon, Jung-Whan; Kim, Jong-Hyun; Lee, Sun-Jin; Hyeon, Ji-Yeon; Seo, Kun-Ho

    2012-10-01

    Sunsik, a ready-to-eat food in Korea, is comprised of various agricultural and marine products, and has been an important concern in Bacillus cereus food poisoning. The aim of this study was to investigate the toxin profiles, genotypic and phenotypic patterns as well as antibiotic resistance of B. cereus strains isolated from Sunsik. A subtyping method known as automated repetitive sequence-based PCR system (DiversiLab™) was used to assess the intraspecific biodiversity of these isolates. Thirty-five B. cereus strains were isolated from 100 commercial Sunsik samples, all of which harbored at least 1 enterotoxin gene. The detection rates of nheABC, hblCDA, cytK, and entFM enterotoxin gene among all isolates were 97%, 86%, 77%, and 100%, respectively. Most strains also produced corresponding enterotoxins such as HBL (83%) and NHE (94%). One strain (2.9%) carried the emetic toxin genes, including ces and EM1, and was positive for the HEp-2 cell emetic toxin assay. Most strains were positive for various biochemical tests such as salicin hydrolysis (86%), starch fermentation (89%), hemolysis (89%), motility test (100%) and lecithinase hydrolysis (89%). All isolates were susceptible to most antibiotics although they were highly resistant to β-lactam antibiotics. By using the automated rep-PCR system, all isolates were successfully differentiated, indicating the diversity of B. cereus strains present in Sunsik.

  7. Anthrax Toxin-Expressing Bacillus cereus Isolated from an Anthrax-Like Eschar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marston, Chung K; Ibrahim, Hisham; Lee, Philip; Churchwell, George; Gumke, Megan; Stanek, Danielle; Gee, Jay E; Boyer, Anne E; Gallegos-Candela, Maribel; Barr, John R; Li, Han; Boulay, Darbi; Cronin, Li; Quinn, Conrad P; Hoffmaster, Alex R

    2016-01-01

    Bacillus cereus isolates have been described harboring Bacillus anthracis toxin genes, most notably B. cereus G9241, and capable of causing severe and fatal pneumonias. This report describes the characterization of a B. cereus isolate, BcFL2013, associated with a naturally occurring cutaneous lesion resembling an anthrax eschar. Similar to G9241, BcFL2013 is positive for the B. anthracis pXO1 toxin genes, has a multi-locus sequence type of 78, and a pagA sequence type of 9. Whole genome sequencing confirms the similarity to G9241. In addition to the chromosome having an average nucleotide identity of 99.98% when compared to G9241, BcFL2013 harbors three plasmids with varying homology to the G9241 plasmids (pBCXO1, pBC210 and pBFH_1). This is also the first report to include serologic testing of patient specimens associated with this type of B. cereus infection which resulted in the detection of anthrax lethal factor toxemia, a quantifiable serum antibody response to protective antigen (PA), and lethal toxin neutralization activity.

  8. PCR detection of cytK gene in Bacillus cereus group strains isolated from food samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oltuszak-Walczak, Elzbieta; Walczak, Piotr

    2013-11-01

    A method for detection of the cytotoxin K cytK structural gene and its active promoter preceded by the PlcR-binding box, controlling the expression level of this enterotoxin, was developed. The method was applied for the purpose of the analysis of 47 bacterial strains belonging to the Bacillus cereus group isolated from different food products. It was found that the majority of the analyzed strains carried the fully functional cytK gene with its PlcR regulated promoter. The cytK gene was not detected in four emetic strains of Bacillus cereus carrying the cesB gene and potentially producing an emetic toxin - cereulide. The cytotoxin K gene was detected in 4 isolates classified as Bacillus mycoides and one reference strain B. mycoides PCM 2024. The promoter region and the N-terminal part of the cytK gene from two strains of B. mycoides (5D and 19E) showed similarities to the corresponding sequences of Bacillus cereus W23 and Bacillus thuringiensis HD-789, respectively. It was shown for the first time that the cytK gene promoter region from strains 5D and 19E of Bacillus mycoides had a similar arrangement to the corresponding sequence of Bacillus cereus ATCC 14579. The presence of the cytK gene in Bacillus mycoides shows that this species, widely recognized as nonpathogenic, may pose potential biohazard to human beings.

  9. Plant compounds enhance the assay sensitivity for detection of active Bacillus cereus toxin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasooly, Reuven; Hernlem, Bradley; He, Xiaohua; Friedman, Mendel

    2015-03-11

    Bacillus cereus is an important food pathogen, producing emetic and diarrheal syndromes, the latter mediated by enterotoxins. The ability to sensitively trace and identify this active toxin is important for food safety. This study evaluated a nonradioactive, sensitive, in vitro cell-based assay, based on B. cereus toxin inhibition of green fluorescent protein (GFP) synthesis in transduced monkey kidney Vero cells, combined with plant extracts or plant compounds that reduce viable count of B. cereus in food. The assay exhibited a dose dependent GFP inhibition response with ~25% inhibition at 50 ng/mL toxin evaluated in culture media or soy milk, rice milk or infant formula, products associated with food poisonings outbreak. The plant extracts of green tea or bitter almond and the plant compounds epicatechin or carvacrol were found to amplify the assay response to ~90% inhibition at the 50 ng/mL toxin concentration greatly increasing the sensitivity of this assay. Additional studies showed that the test formulations also inhibited the growth of the B. cereus bacteria, likely through cell membrane disruption. The results suggest that the improved highly sensitive assay for the toxin and the rapid inactivation of the pathogen producing the toxin have the potential to enhance food safety.

  10. X-ray Crystal Structure of the B Component of Hemolysin BL from Bacillus cereus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Madegowda,M.; Eswaramoorthy, S.; Burley, S.; Swaminathan, S.

    2008-01-01

    Bacillus cereus Hemolysin BL enterotoxin, a ternary complex of three proteins, is the causative agent of food poisoning and requires all three components for virulence. The X-ray structure of the binding domain of HBL suggests that it may form a pore similar to other soluble channel forming proteins. A putative pathway of pore formation is discussed.

  11. Plant Compounds Enhance the Assay Sensitivity for Detection of Active Bacillus cereus Toxin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reuven Rasooly

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Bacillus cereus is an important food pathogen, producing emetic and diarrheal syndromes, the latter mediated by enterotoxins. The ability to sensitively trace and identify this active toxin is important for food safety. This study evaluated a nonradioactive, sensitive, in vitro cell-based assay, based on B. cereus toxin inhibition of green fluorescent protein (GFP synthesis in transduced monkey kidney Vero cells, combined with plant extracts or plant compounds that reduce viable count of B. cereus in food. The assay exhibited a dose dependent GFP inhibition response with ~25% inhibition at 50 ng/mL toxin evaluated in culture media or soy milk, rice milk or infant formula, products associated with food poisonings outbreak. The plant extracts of green tea or bitter almond and the plant compounds epicatechin or carvacrol were found to amplify the assay response to ~90% inhibition at the 50 ng/mL toxin concentration greatly increasing the sensitivity of this assay. Additional studies showed that the test formulations also inhibited the growth of the B. cereus bacteria, likely through cell membrane disruption. The results suggest that the improved highly sensitive assay for the toxin and the rapid inactivation of the pathogen producing the toxin have the potential to enhance food safety.

  12. Comparative analysis of antimicrobial activities of valinomycin and cereulide, the Bacillus cereus emetic toxin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tempelaars, M.H.; Rodrigues, S.; Abee, T.

    2011-01-01

    Cereulide and valinomycin are highly similar cyclic dodecadepsipeptides with potassium ionophoric properties. Cereulide, produced by members of the Bacillus cereus group, is known mostly as emetic toxin, and no ecological function has been assigned. A comparative analysis of the antimicrobial activi

  13. Spore prevalence and toxigenicity of Bacillus cereus and Bacillus thuringiensis isolates from U.S. retail spices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hariram, Upasana; Labbé, Ronald

    2015-03-01

    Recent incidents of foodborne illness associated with spices as the vehicle of transmission prompted this examination of U.S. retail spices with regard to Bacillus cereus. This study focused on the levels of aerobic-mesophilic spore-forming bacteria and B cereus spores associated with 247 retail spices purchased from five states in the United States. Samples contained a wide range of aerobic-mesophilic bacterial spore counts ( 10(7) CFU/g). Using a novel chromogenic agar, B. cereus and B. thuringiensis spores were isolated from 77 (31%) and 11 (4%) samples, respectively. Levels of B. cereus were thuringiensis isolates possessed at least one type of enterotoxin gene: HBL (hemolysin BL) or nonhemolytic enterotoxin (NHE). None of the 88 isolates obtained in this study possessed the emetic toxin gene (ces). Using commercially available immunological toxin detection kits, the toxigenicity of the isolates was confirmed. The NHE enterotoxin was expressed in 98% of B. cereus and 91% of B. thuringiensis isolates that possessed the responsible gene. HBL enterotoxin was detected in 87% of B. cereus and 100% of B. thuringiensis PCR-positive isolates. Fifty-two percent of B. cereus and 54% of B. thuringiensis isolates produced both enterotoxins. Ninety-seven percent of B. cereus isolates grew at 12°C, although only two isolates grew well at 9°C. The ability of these spice isolates to form spores, produce diarrheal toxins, and grow at moderately abusive temperatures makes retail spices an important potential vehicle for foodborne illness caused by B. cereus strains, in particular those that produce diarrheal toxins.

  14. Nosocomial pseudoepidemic caused by Bacillus cereus traced to contaminated ethyl alcohol from a liquor factory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsueh, P R; Teng, L J; Yang, P C; Pan, H L; Ho, S W; Luh, K T

    1999-07-01

    From September 1990 to October 1990, 15 patients who were admitted to four different departments of the National Taiwan University Hospital, including nine patients in the emergency department, three in the hematology/oncology ward, two in the surgical intensive care unit, and one in a pediatric ward, were found to have positive blood (14 patients) or pleural effusion (1 patient) cultures for Bacillus cereus. After extensive surveillance cultures, 19 additional isolates of B. cereus were recovered from 70% ethyl alcohol that had been used as a skin disinfectant (14 isolates from different locations in the hospital) and from 95% ethyl alcohol (5 isolates from five alcohol tanks in the pharmacy department), and 10 isolates were recovered from 95% ethyl alcohol from the factory which supplied the alcohol to the hospital. In addition to these 44 isolates of B. cereus, 12 epidemiologically unrelated B. cereus isolates, one Bacillus sphaericus isolate from a blood specimen from a patient seen in May 1990, and two B. sphaericus isolates from 95% alcohol in the liquor factory were also studied for their microbiological relatedness. Among these isolates, antibiotypes were determined by using the disk diffusion method and the E test, biotypes were created with the results of the Vitek Bacillus Biochemical Card test, and random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) patterns were generated by arbitrarily primed PCR. Two clones of the 15 B. cereus isolates recovered from patients were identified (clone A from 2 patients and clone B from 13 patients), and all 29 isolates of B. cereus recovered from 70 or 95% ethyl alcohol in the hospital or in the factory belonged to clone B. The antibiotype and RAPD pattern of the B. sphaericus isolate from the patient were different from those of isolates from the factory. Our data show that the pseudoepidemic was caused by a clone (clone B) of B. cereus from contaminated 70% ethyl alcohol used in the hospital, which we successfully traced to

  15. A quantitative microbiological exposure assessment model for Bacillus cereus in REPFEDs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daelman, Jeff; Membré, Jeanne-Marie; Jacxsens, Liesbeth; Vermeulen, An; Devlieghere, Frank; Uyttendaele, Mieke

    2013-09-16

    One of the pathogens of concern in refrigerated and processed foods of extended durability (REPFED) is psychrotrophic Bacillus cereus, because of its ability to survive pasteurisation and grow at low temperatures. In this study a quantitative microbiological exposure assessment (QMEA) of psychrotrophic B. cereus in REPFEDs is presented. The goal is to quantify (i) the prevalence and concentration of B. cereus during production and shelf life, (ii) the number of packages with potential emetic toxin formation and (iii) the impact of different processing steps and consumer behaviour on the exposure to B. cereus from REPFEDs. The QMEA comprises the entire production and distribution process, from raw materials over pasteurisation and up to the moment it is consumed or discarded. To model this process the modular process risk model (MPRM) was used (Nauta, 2002). The product life was divided into nine modules, each module corresponding to a basic process: (1) raw material contamination, (2) cross contamination during handling, (3) inactivation during preparation, (4) growth during intermediate storage, (5) partitioning of batches in portions, (6) mixing portions to create the product, (7) recontamination during assembly and packaging, (8) inactivation during pasteurisation and (9) growth during shelf life. Each of the modules was modelled and built using a combination of newly gathered and literature data, predictive models and expert opinions. Units (batch/portion/package) with a B. cereus concentration of 10(5)CFU/g or more were considered 'risky' units. Results show that the main drivers of variability and uncertainty are consumer behaviour, strain variability and modelling error. The prevalence of B. cereus in the final products is estimated at 48.6% (±0.01%) and the number of packs with too high B. cereus counts at the moment of consumption is estimated at 4750 packs per million (0.48%). Cold storage at retail and consumer level is vital in limiting the exposure

  16. Toxin production in a rare and genetically remote cluster of strains of the Bacillus cereus group

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Granum Per

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Three enterotoxins are implicated in diarrhoeal food poisoning due to Bacillus cereus: Haemolysin BL (Hbl, Non-haemolytic enterotoxin (Nhe, and Cytotoxin K (CytK. Toxin gene profiling and assays for detection of toxin-producing stains have been used in attempts to evaluate the enterotoxic potential of B. cereus group strains. B. cereus strain NVH 391/98, isolated from a case of fatal enteritis, was genetically remote from other B. cereus group strains. This strain lacked the genes encoding Hbl and Nhe, but contains CytK-1. The high virulence of this strain is thought to be due to the greater cytotoxic activity of CytK-1 compared to CytK-2, and to a high level of cytK expression. To date, only three strains containing cytK-1 have been identified; B. cereus strains NVH 391/98, NVH 883/00, and INRA AF2. Results A novel gene variant encoding Nhe was identified in these three strains, which had an average of 80% identity in protein sequence with previously identified Nhe toxins. While culture supernatants containing CytK and Nhe from NVH 391/98 and INRA AF2 were highly cytotoxic, NVH 883/00 expressed little or no CytK and Nhe and was non-cytotoxic. Comparative sequence and expression studies indicated that neither the PlcR/PapR quorum sensing system, nor theYvrGH and YvfTU two-component systems, were responsible for the observed difference in toxin production. Additionally, phylogenetic analysis of 13 genes showed that NVH 391/98, NVH 883/00, and INRA AF2 comprise a novel cluster of strains genetically distant from other B. cereus group strains. Conclusion Due to its divergent sequence, the novel nhe operon had previously not been detected in NVH 391/98 using PCR and several monoclonal antibodies. Thus, toxigenic profiling based on the original nhe sequence will fail to detect the toxin in this group of strains. The observation that strain NVH 883/00 carries cytK-1 but is non-cytotoxic indicates that the detection of this gene

  17. Intestinal carriage of Bacillus cereus: faecal isolation studies in three population groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turnbull, P C; Kramer, J M

    1985-12-01

    The results of examinations of stools for Bacillus cereus among three unrelated groups of individuals are presented. The groups consisted of (1) healthy school-children aged 6-11 years in a rural region of South Africa examined during each of the four seasons of the year; (2) 15 healthy volunteers comprising staff of a London microbiology laboratory and their families examined on each of 3 consecutive weeks; (3) 75 unrelated young children, 2 months to 5 years of age, in a second rural region of South Africa examined during a pilot study of 1 week's duration on the aetiology of rural gastroenteritis. The stools of the last group were submitted as being related to present or recent diarrhoea in the respective children. In group 1, B. cereus isolation rates ranged from 24.3% at the autumn visit to 43% at the summer visit with a significantly higher rate of isolation in the summer than at other seasons of the year (P less than 0.05). B. cereus was isolated from 40% of group 2 volunteers on week 1, none on week 2 and 20% on week 3. The organism was detected in the 12 positive specimens at levels of approximately 10(2)/g and constituted 2.5-30% of the total aerobic spore-forming bacillus population in the stools. In group 3, B. cereus was recovered from 18.7% of the stool samples and was isolated consecutively with other pathogens (enteropathogenic Escherichia coli and rotavirus) on only five occasions. In groups 1 and 3, less than 5% of the stools had '3+' levels of B. cereus (greater than 10 colonies per direct plate culture). B. cereus was readily isolated from all of 10 food samples, representative of the typical diet of the group 1 individuals, and was present in substantial numbers (10(4) to 5.5 X 10(6)/g) in half of them. The isolation results, supported by serotyping, indicated that carriage of B. cereus in stools is transient and its presence at any one time reflects solely its intake with foods.

  18. Antagonism between Bacillus cereus and Pseudomonas fluorescens in planktonic systems and in biofilms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simões, Manuel; Simoes, Lúcia C; Pereira, Maria O; Vieira, Maria J

    2008-01-01

    In the environment, many microorganisms coexist in communities competing for resources, and they are often associated as biofilms. The investigation of bacterial ecology and interactions may help to improve understanding of the ability of biofilms to persist. In this study, the behaviour of Bacillus cereus and Pseudomonas fluorescens in the planktonic and sessile states was compared. Planktonic tests were performed with single and dual species cultures in growth medium with and without supplemental FeCl3. B. cereus and P. fluorescens single cultures had equivalent growth behaviours. Also, when in co-culture under Fe-supplemented conditions, the bacteria coexisted and showed similar growth profiles. Under Fe limitation, 8 h after co-culture and over time, the number of viable B. cereus cells decreased compared with P. fluorescens. Spores were detected during the course of the experiment, but were not correlated with the decrease in the number of viable cells. This growth inhibitory effect was correlated with the release of metabolite molecules by P. fluorescens through Fe-dependent mechanisms. Biofilm studies were carried out with single and dual species using a continuous flow bioreactor rotating system with stainless steel (SS) substrata. Steady-state biofilms were exposed to a series of increasing shear stress forces. Analysis of the removal of dual species biofilms revealed that the outer layer was colonised mainly by B. cereus. This bacterium was able to grow in the outermost layers of the biofilm due to the inhibitory effect of P. fluorescens being decreased by the exposure of the cells to fresh culture medium. B. cereus also constituted the surface primary coloniser due to its favourable adhesion to SS. P. fluorescens was the main coloniser of the middle layers of the biofilm. Single and dual species biofilm removal data also revealed that B. cereus biofilms had the highest physical stability, followed by P. fluorescens biofilms. This study highlights the

  19. In Vitro Activities of Amphotericin B, Terbinafine, and Azole Drugs against Clinical and Environmental Isolates of Aspergillus terreus Sensu Stricto

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández, Mariana S.; Rojas, Florencia D.; Cattana, María E.; Sosa, María de los Ángeles; Iovannitti, Cristina A.; Giusiano, Gustavo E.

    2015-01-01

    The antifungal susceptibilities of 40 clinical and environmental isolates of A. terreus sensu stricto to amphotericin B, terbinafine, itraconazole, and voriconazole were determined in accordance with CLSI document M38-A2. All isolates had itraconazole and voriconazole MICs lower than epidemiologic cutoff values, and 5% of the isolates had amphotericin B MICs higher than epidemiologic cutoff values. Terbinafine showed the lowest MICs. No significant differences were found when MICs of clinical and environmental isolates were compared. PMID:25824228

  20. A review of ceratocystis sensu stricto with special reference to the species complexes c. coerulescens and c. fimbriata.

    OpenAIRE

    Marín Montoya, Mauricio; Wingfield, Michael J.

    2011-01-01

    El género Ceratocystis sensu stricto incluye un alto número de hongos fitopatógenos de plantas angiospermas y gimnospermas en diversas regiones del mundo. Entre las principales enfermedades causadas por estos hongos se destacan los marchitamientos vasculares, manchado de maderas, chancros y pudriciones radiculares, de tallos y frutos. Muchas especies producen metabolitos volátiles con olores que atraen una amplia variedad de insectos a los tejidos vegetales infectados, sin embargo, el grado d...

  1. Central Venous Access Device-Related Bacillus Cereus Endocarditis: A Case Report and Review of the Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, William F

    2016-06-01

    Bacillus cereus typically presents as a gastrointestinal infection, but rarely manifests as systemic disease. This report describes a case of B. cereus-related endocarditis that presented as a sickle cell crisis and bacteremia. Initial clinical suspicion was for laboratory contamination of blood cultures. The case herein described is intended to demonstrate an uncommon presentation of B. cereus infection and highlights the value of an aggressive need to further investigate and interpret unexpected blood culture findings in clinical practice, early adequate antimicrobial therapy, prompt diagnosis, and consideration to urgent surgical interventions in such cases.

  2. One-day pulsed-field gel electrophoresis protocol for rapid determination of emetic Bacillus cereus isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaminska, Paulina S; Fiedoruk, Krzysztof; Jankowska, Dominika; Mahillon, Jacques; Nowosad, Karol; Drewicka, Ewa; Zambrzycka, Monika; Swiecicka, Izabela

    2015-04-01

    Bacillus cereus, the Gram-positive and spore-forming ubiquitous bacterium, may cause emesis as the result of food intoxication with cereulide, a heat-stable emetic toxin. Rapid determination of cereulide-positive B. cereus isolates is of highest importance due to consequences of this intoxication for human health and life. Here we present a 1-day pulsed-field gel electrophoresis for emetic B. cereus isolates, which allows rapid and efficient determination of their genomic relatedness and helps determining the source of intoxication in case of outbreaks caused by these bacilli.

  3. Inactivation of Enterobacter sakazakii, Bacillus cereus, and Salmonella typhimurium in powdered weaning food by electron-beam irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong, Yun-Hee [Department of Food Science and Technology, College of Agriculture and Life Science, Chungnam National University, Yuseong-Gu, Daejeon 305-764 (Korea, Republic of); Park, Ji-Yong [Department of Biotechnology, Yonsei University, Seoul 120-749 (Korea, Republic of); Park, Jong-Hyun [Department of Food Science and Biotechnology, Kyungwon University, Sungnam 461-701 (Korea, Republic of); Chung, Myong-Soo [Department of Food Science, Ehwa Women' s University, Seoul 120-750 (Korea, Republic of); Kwon, Ki-Sung [Center for Food safety Evaluation, Korea Food and Drug Administration, Seoul 122-704 (Korea, Republic of); Chung, Kyungsook; Won, Misun [Korea Research Institute of Bioscience and Biotechnology, Daejeon 305-333 (Korea, Republic of); Song, Kyung-Bin [Department of Food Science and Technology, College of Agriculture and Life Science, Chungnam National University, Yuseong-Gu, Daejeon 305-764 (Korea, Republic of)], E-mail: kbsong@cnu.ac.kr

    2008-09-15

    Inactivation of Enterobacter sakazakii, Bacillus cereus, and Salmonella typhimurium were evaluated in powdered weaning food using electron-beam irradiation. E. sakazakii, B. cereus, and S. typhimurium were eliminated by irradiation at 16, 8, and 8 kGy, respectively. The D{sub 10}-vlaues of E. sakazakii, B. cereus, and S. typhimurium inoculated on powdered weaning food were 4.83, 1.22, and 0.98 kGy, respectively. The results suggest that electron-beam irradiation should inhibit the growth of pathogenic bacteria on baby food without impairing qualities.

  4. Genetic diversity and population genetic structure analysis of Echinococcus granulosus sensu stricto complex based on mitochondrial DNA signature.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Sharma

    Full Text Available The genetic diversity and population genetics of the Echinococcus granulosus sensu stricto complex were investigated based on sequencing of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA. Total 81 isolates of hydatid cyst collected from ungulate animals from different geographical areas of North India were identified by sequencing of cytochrome c oxidase subunit1 (coxi gene. Three genotypes belonging to E. granulosus sensu stricto complex were identified (G1, G2 and G3 genotypes. Further the nucleotide sequences (retrieved from GenBank for the coxi gene from seven populations of E. granulosus sensu stricto complex covering 6 continents, were compared with sequences of isolates analysed in this study. Molecular diversity indices represent overall high mitochondrial DNA diversity for these populations, but low nucleotide diversity between haplotypes. The neutrality tests were used to analyze signatures of historical demographic events. The Tajima's D test and Fu's FS test showed negative value, indicating deviations from neutrality and both suggested recent population expansion for the populations. Pairwise fixation index was significant for pairwise comparison of different populations (except between South America and East Asia, Middle East and Europe, South America and Europe, Africa and Australia, indicating genetic differentiation among populations. Based on the findings of the present study and those from earlier studies, we hypothesize that demographic expansion occurred in E. granulosus after the introduction of founder haplotype particular by anthropogenic movements.

  5. Bacillus Cereus catheter related bloodstream infection in a patient in a patient with acute lymphblastic leukemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lütfiye Öksüz

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available

    Bacillus cereus infection is rarely associated with actual infection and for this reason single positive blood culture is usually regarded as contamination . However it may cause a number of infections, such catheter-related blood stream infections. Significant catheter-related bloodstream infections (CRBSI caused by Bacillus spp. are mainly due to B.cereus and have been predominantly reported in immunocompromised hosts1 . Catheter removal is generally advised for management of infection. In this report, catheter-related bacteremia caused by B.cereus in a patient with acute lymphoblastıc leukemia (ALL in Istanbul Medical Faculty was presented.A 44-year old man presented with fatigue, weight loss, epistaxis and high fever. A double-lumen Hickman–catheter (Bard 12.0 Fr, Round Dual Lumen was inserted by surgical cut-down to access the right subclavian vein which would be necessary for allogeneic stem cell transplantation. Three weeks later the patient presented with high fever and headache. Bacillus spp. was isolated from the cathether while blood culture obtained from the peripheral vein remained negative. The bacterial identification was confirmed as B.cereus using VITEK identification system

    It has been reported Bacillus cereus septicemia may be fatal in immunocompromised hosts despite broad-spectrum appropriate treatment10. Catheter removal is essential for prevention of recurrent bacteremia. Long-term cathater salvage should be reserved for appropriate patient group.

  6. Germination and outgrowth of spores of Bacillus cereus group members: diversity and role of germinant receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abee, Tjakko; Groot, Masja Nierop; Tempelaars, Marcel; Zwietering, Marcel; Moezelaar, Roy; van der Voort, Menno

    2011-04-01

    Bacillus cereus is a gram-positive, facultative anaerobic, endospore-forming toxicogenic human pathogen. Endospores are highly specialized, metabolically dormant cell types that are resistant to extreme environmental conditions, including heat, dehydration and other physical stresses. B. cereus can enter a range of environments, and can in its spore form, survive harsh conditions. If these conditions become favorable, spores can germinate and grow out and reach considerable numbers in a range of environments including processed foods. Certainly the last decade, when consumer preferences have shifted to mildly processed food, new opportunities arose for spore-forming spoilage and pathogenic organisms. Only rigorous methods have been shown to be capable of destroying all spores present in food, thus a shift toward e.g., milder heat preservation strategies, may result in low but significant amounts of viable spores in food products. Hence, the need for a mild spore destruction strategy is eminent including control of spore outgrowth. Consequently, there is a large interest in triggering spore germination in foodstuffs, since germinated spores have lost the extreme resistance of dormant spores and are relatively easy to kill. Another option could be to prevent germination so that no dangerous levels can be reached. This contribution will focus on germination and outgrowth characteristics of B. cereus and other members of the B. cereus group, providing an overview of the niches these spore-formers can occupy, the signals that trigger germination, and how B. cereus copes with these wake-up calls in different environments including foods, during food processing and upon interaction with the human host.

  7. Identification and characterization of a novel marine Bacillus cereus for mosquito control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poopathi, Subbiah; Mani, C; Thirugnanasambantham, K; Praba, V Lakshmi; Ahangar, Niyaz Ahmad; Balagangadharan, K

    2014-01-01

    Entomopathogenic bacteria to control mosquitoes are a promising environmentally friendly alternative to synthetic pesticides. In the present study, a novel mosquitocidal bacterium was isolated from marine soil collected from east coastal areas at Pondicherry (India). 16S rRNA gene sequence alignment depicted that this isolate belonged to Bacillus cereus VCRC-B520 (NCBI: KC-119192). Biochemical studies on bacterial growth, biomass, and toxin production have revealed that this strain could possibly be helpful in the production of a biopesticide in mosquito control. Toxicity assay with B. cereus against mosquito larvae has shown that the filariasis vector, Culex quinquefasciatus, is more susceptible than the other two species (Anopheles stephensi and Aedes aegypti). The LC50 and LC90 values for C. quinquefasciatus were 0.30 and 2.21 mg/L, respectively. No effect of B. cereus was found on nontargeted organisms. SDS-PAGE analysis and protein purification result from the cell mass of B. cereus have shown that a well-perceptible polypeptide was the dependable factor (85 kDa) for mosquitocidal action. Protein characterization (M/S MALDI-TOF) has shown that it is an endotoxin-specific insecticidal protein, namely "Cry4Aa". Phylogenetic analyses of 16S rDNA gene sequence from this marine isolate have revealed the presence of homology among closely related Bacillus strains. Therefore, considerable interest has been shown on the identification of a potential mosquitocidal bacterium from marine environment (B. cereus), which was not reported earlier in view of the current scenario of the rapid development of resistance to Bacillus sphaericus in mosquito vector control program.

  8. Helicobacter heilmannii sensu stricto-related gastric ulcers: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, Takehisa; Kawakubo, Masatomo; Akamatsu, Taiji; Koide, Naohiko; Ogiwara, Naoko; Kubota, Seiko; Sugano, Mitsutoshi; Kawakami, Yoshiyuki; Katsuyama, Tsutomu; Ota, Hiroyoshi

    2014-03-28

    A spiral bacterium (SH9), morphologically different from Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori), was found in a 62-year-old woman's gastric mucosa. Gastroscopic examination revealed multiple gastric ulcers near the pyloric ring; mapping gastric biopsy showed mild mononuclear infiltration with large lymphoid follicles in the antrum, without corpus atrophy. Urea breath test and H. pylori culture were negative, but Giemsa staining of biopsies revealed tightly coiled bacteria that immunostained with anti-H. pylori antibody. Sequencing of SH9 16S rRNA and the partial urease A and B subunit genes showed that the former sequence had highest similarity (99%; 1302/1315 bp) to Helicobacter heilmannii (H. heilmannii) sensu stricto (H. heilmannii s.s.) BC1 obtained from a bobcat, while the latter sequence confirmed highest similarity (98.3%; 1467/1493 bp) to H. heilmannii s.s. HU2 obtained from a human. The patient was diagnosed with multiple gastric ulcers associated with H. heilmannii s.s. infection. After triple therapy (amoxicillin, clarithromycin, and lansoprazole) with regimen for eradicating H. pylori, gastroscopy showed ulcer improvement and no H. heilmannii s.s. upon biopsy.

  9. Echinococcus granulosus Sensu Stricto in Dogs and Jackals from Caspian Sea Region, Northern Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shirzad GHOLAMI

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aim of the present study was genotyping of Echinococcus granulosus isolates from dogs and jackals in Mazandaran Province, northern Iran, and using partial sequence of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 gene (cox1.Methods: E. granulosus isolates (n = 15 were collected from 42 stray dogs and 16 jackals found in south of the Caspian Sea in northern Iran. After morphological study, the isolates were genetically characterized using consensus sequences (366bp of the cox1 gene. Phylogenetic analysis of cox1 nucleotide sequence data was performed using a Bayesian Inference approach.Results: Four different sequences were observed among the isolates. Two genotypes [G1 (66.7% and G3 (33.3%] were identified among the isolates. The G1 sequences indicated three sequence profiles. One profile (Maz1 had 100% homology with reference sequence (AN: KP339045. Two other profiles, designated Maz2 and Maz3, had 99% homology with the G1 genotype (ANs: KP339046 and KP339047. A G3 sequence designated Maz4 showed 100% homology with a G3 reference sequence (AN: KP339048.Conclusion: The occurrence of the G1 genotype of E. granulosus sensu stricto as a frequent genotype in dogs is emphasized. This study established the first molecular characterization of E. granulosus in the province.

  10. Echinococcus equinus and Echinococcus granulosus sensu stricto from the United Kingdom: genetic diversity and haplotypic variation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boufana, Belgees; Lett, Wai San; Lahmar, Samia; Buishi, Imad; Bodell, Anthony J; Varcasia, Antonio; Casulli, Adriano; Beeching, Nicholas J; Campbell, Fiona; Terlizzo, Monica; McManus, Donald P; Craig, Philip S

    2015-02-01

    Cystic echinococcosis is endemic in Europe including the United Kingdom. However, information on the molecular epidemiology of Echinococcus spp. from the United Kingdom is limited. Echinococcus isolates from intermediate and definitive animal hosts as well as from human cystic echinococcosis cases were analysed to determine species and genotypes within these hosts. Echinococcus equinus was identified from horse hydatid isolates, cysts retrieved from captive UK mammals and copro-DNA of foxhounds and farm dogs. Echinococcus granulosus sensu stricto (s.s.) was identified from hydatid cysts of sheep and cattle as well as in DNA extracted from farm dog and foxhound faecal samples, and from four human cystic echinococcosis isolates, including the first known molecular confirmation of E. granulosus s.s. infection in a Welsh sheep farmer. Low genetic variability for E. equinus from various hosts and from different geographical locations was detected using the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 gene (cox1), indicating the presence of a dominant haplotype (EQUK01). In contrast, greater haplotypic variation was observed for E. granulosus s.s. cox1 sequences. The haplotype network showed a star-shaped network with a centrally placed main haplotype (EgUK01) that had been reported from other world regions.

  11. Potential role of Bacillus endospores in soil amended by olive mill wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naclerio, Gino; Falasca, Antonio; Petrella, Emma; Nerone, Valentina; Cocco, Federica; Celico, Fulvio

    2010-01-01

    The main aim of this work was to know how spread is laccase activity in spores of Bacillus species isolated from a soil where Italian law allows olive mill wastewater (OMW) spreading, and to investigate the potential role of such autochthonous soil microorganisms in degradation of OMW phenols, and prevention of groundwater pollution. Laccase activity was detected for the first time in spores of wild-type Bacillus pumilus, B. cereus sensu lato, and B. amyloliquefaciens strains. Because B. pumilus, B. cereus sensu lato, and B. amyloliquefaciens, together with B. subtilis account for a total of 93% of Bacillus isolates at the study site, the nearly totality of Bacillus spores reveals laccase activity. Thus, taking also into consideration that Bacillus spores are more abundant (about 100-fold) than white-rot fungi (that possess a well known extracellular, radical-based ligninolytic enzyme system capable of degrading OMW phenols) in the studied soil, these spores may contribute to in-situ degradation of OMW phenols. This role is further emphasized by dilution of crude OMW during infiltration of rainwater through soil that allows to minimize the antibacterial activity of phenols. The widespread presence of Bacillus spores in soils indicates a potential detoxifying role of these spores in a broader context.

  12. Diagnostic properties of three conventional selective plating media for selection of Bacillus cereus, B. thuringiensis and B. weihenstephanensis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hendriksen, Niels Bohse; Hansen, Bjarne Munk

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the diagnostic properties of the two selective plating media and a chromogenic medium for identification of Bacillus cereus. The 324 isolates were B. cereus (37%), Bacillus weihenstephanensis (45%) or Bacillus thuringiensis (18%), as identified by a new...... combination of techniques. All isolates were growing on mannitol–egg yolk–polymyxin agar (MYP), and they did not form acid from mannitol. However, a significant lower number of B. thuringiensis isolates did not show lecithinase activity. All isolates were also growing on polymyxin–egg yolk...... recommended selective plating media MYP and PEMBA for detection of B. cereus group bacteria both have their limitations for identification of some B. cereus, B. weihenstephanensis or B. thuringiensis. However, MYP is preferable compared to PEMBA. The chromogenic medium has its own advantages and limitations...

  13. Isolation, Identification of Bacillus Thuringiensis/Cereus and Its Enhancement on Protein Wastewater Treatment by Rhodobacter Sphaeroides

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shuli Liu; Guangming Zhang; Jie Zhang

    2016-01-01

    In order to enhance the degrading protein capability of purple non⁃sulfur bacteria ( PNSB), an effective strain, L2, was used to co⁃culture with Rhodobacter sphaeroides ATCC17023. The effects of added strain on protein removal of R. sphaeroides were investigated. Results showed that strain L2, being identified as Bacillus thuringiensis/cereus, had a high potential for producing protease with a production of 295 U/mL. The optimal B. thuringiensis/cereus ( 40 μL ) could significantly increase protein degradation of R. sphaeroides. Protein removal and biomass production were improved by 483% and 67%, respectively. R. sphaeroides/total biomass production was more than 95%. Theoretical analysis revealed that R. sphaeroides syntrophically interacted with B. thuringiensis/cereus. Protein degradation of B. thuringiensis/cereus provided small molecule substrates ( VFAs) for R. sphaeroides growth and cells materials synthesis.

  14. BC4707 is a major facilitator superfamily multidrug resistance transport protein from Bacillus cereus implicated in fluoroquinolone tolerance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roger Simm

    Full Text Available Transcriptional profiling highlighted a subset of genes encoding putative multidrug transporters in the pathogen Bacillus cereus that were up-regulated during stress produced by bile salts. One of these multidrug transporters (BC4707 was selected for investigation. Functional characterization of the BC4707 protein in Escherichia coli revealed a role in the energized efflux of xenobiotics. Phenotypic analyses after inactivation of the gene bc4707 in Bacillus cereus ATCC14579 suggested a more specific, but modest role in the efflux of norfloxacin. In addition to this, transcriptional analyses showed that BC4707 is also expressed during growth of B. cereus under non-stressful conditions where it may have a role in the normal physiology of the bacteria. Altogether, the results indicate that bc4707, which is part of the core genome of the B. cereus group of bacteria, encodes a multidrug resistance efflux protein that is likely involved in maintaining intracellular homeostasis during growth of the bacteria.

  15. Synergistic effect of electrolyzed water and citric Acid against bacillus cereus cells and spores on cereal grains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Young Bae; Guo, Jin Yong; Rahman, S M E; Ahn, Juhee; Oh, Deog-Hwan

    2009-01-01

    The effects of acidic electrolyzed water (AcEW), alkaline electrolyzed water (AlEW), 100 ppm sodium hypochlorite (NaClO), and 1% citric acid (CA) alone, and combinations of AcEW with 1% CA (AcEW + CA) and AlEW with 1% CA (AlEW + CA) against Bacillus cereus vegetative cells and spores was evaluated as a function of temperature (25, 30, 40, 50, or 60 degrees C) and dipping time (3 or 6 h). A 3-strain cocktail of Bacillus cereus cells or spores of approximately 10(7) CFU/g was inoculated in various cereal grains (brown rice, Job's tear rice, glutinous rice, and barley rice). B. cereus vegetative cells and spores were more rapidly inactivated at 40 degrees C than at 25 degrees C. Regardless of the dipping time, all treatments reduced the numbers of B. cereus vegetative cells and spore by more than 1 log CFU/g, except the deionized water (DIW), which showed approximately 0.7 log reduction. The reductions of B. cereus cells increased with increasing dipping temperature (25 to 60 degrees C). B. cereus vegetative cells were much more sensitive to the combined treatments than spores. The effectiveness of the combined electrolyzed water (EW) and 1% CA was considerable in inhibiting B. cereus on cereal grains. The application of combined EW and CA for controlling B. cereus cells and spores on cereal grains has not been previously reported. Therefore, the synergistic effect of EW and CA may provide a valuable insight on reducing foodborne pathogens on fruits, vegetables, and cereal grains.

  16. Characterization of LysB4, an endolysin from the Bacillus cereus-infecting bacteriophage B4

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Son Bokyung

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bacillus cereus is a foodborne pathogen that causes emetic or diarrheal types of food poisoning. The incidence of B. cereus food poisoning has been gradually increasing over the past few years, therefore, biocontrol agents effective against B. cereus need to be developed. Endolysins are phage-encoded bacterial peptidoglycan hydrolases and have received considerable attention as promising antibacterial agents. Results The endolysin from B. cereus phage B4, designated LysB4, was identified and characterized. In silico analysis revealed that this endolysin had the VanY domain at the N terminus as the catalytic domain, and the SH3_5 domain at the C terminus that appears to be the cell wall binding domain. Biochemical characterization of LysB4 enzymatic activity showed that it had optimal peptidoglycan hydrolase activity at pH 8.0-10.0 and 50°C. The lytic activity was dependent on divalent metal ions, especially Zn2+. The antimicrobial spectrum was relatively broad because LysB4 lysed Gram-positive bacteria such as B. cereus, Bacillus subtilis and Listeria monocytogenes and some Gram-negative bacteria when treated with EDTA. LC-MS analysis of the cell wall cleavage products showed that LysB4 was an L-alanoyl-D-glutamate endopeptidase, making LysB4 the first characterized endopeptidase of this type to target B. cereus. Conclusions LysB4 is believed to be the first reported L-alanoyl-D-glutamate endopeptidase from B. cereus-infecting bacteriophages. The properties of LysB4 showed that this endolysin has strong lytic activity against a broad range of pathogenic bacteria, which makes LysB4 a good candidate as a biocontrol agent against B. cereus and other pathogenic bacteria.

  17. Detection of hblA and bal Genes in Bacillus cereus Isolates From Cheese Samples Using the Polymerase Chain Reaction

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    Molayi Kohneshahri

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background Bacillus cereus is a Gram-positive spore-forming bacterium, which causes food poisoning. Spores enable the persistence of B. cereus in the environment, and B. cereus strains can tolerate adverse environmental conditions, such as temperature and insufficient nutrients. B. cereus causes food poisoning via the production of two enterotoxins. Most isolates produce toxins leading to diarrhea (enterotoxins and vomiting (emetic forms. Diarrhea is caused by the production of three different heat-labile enterotoxins: HBL, NHE, and cytotoxin K. A heat-stable toxin, cereulide, is responsible for emesis. Objectives This study aimed to detect enterotoxigenic B. cereus isolates in cheese samples using the polymerase chain reaction (PCR. Materials and Methods Two-hundred pasteurized (n = 100 and nonpasteurized (n = 100 cheese samples were collected. The initial isolation was performed on PEMBA specific medium. Antibiotic susceptibility testing was performed using several antibiotic disks, according to the guidelines of the Clinical Laboratory and Standards Institute. Specific primers amplifying the hblA enterotoxin-encoding gene and bal hemolysin-encoding gene were used for the molecular detection of the toxins. Results Ten samples were positive for the presence of B. cereus, with both Gram staining and biochemical reactions. All the isolates were resistant to penicillin and ampicillin but susceptible to vancomycin, erythromycin, and ciprofloxacin. Six and three isolates were resistant to tetracycline and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, respectively. The hblA and bal genes were amplified in all the B. cereus isolates. Conclusions The prevalence of B. cereus among the cheese samples was low. All the isolates were positive for genes encoding the hblA enterotoxin and bal toxin.

  18. Effect of endophytic Bacillus cereus ERBP inoculation into non-native host: Potentials and challenges for airborne formaldehyde removal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khaksar, Gholamreza; Treesubsuntorn, Chairat; Thiravetyan, Paitip

    2016-10-01

    Phytoremediation could be a cost-effective, environmentally friendly approach for the treatment of indoor air. However, some drawbacks still dispute the expediency of phytotechnology. Our objectives were to investigate the competency of plant growth-promoting (PGP) endophytic Bacillus cereus ERBP (endophyte root blue pea), isolated from the root of Clitoria ternatea, to colonize and stabilize within Zamioculcas zamiifolia and Euphorbia milii as non-native hosts without causing any disease or stress symptoms. Moreover, the impact of B. cereus ERBP on the natural shoot endophytic community and for the airborne formaldehyde removal capability of non-native hosts was assessed. Non-native Z. zamiifolia was effectively inoculated with B. cereus ERBP through soil as the most efficient method of endophyte inoculation. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis profiling of the shoot endophytic community verified the colonization and stability of B. cereus ERBP within its non-native host during a 20-d fumigation period without interfering with the natural shoot endophytic diversity of Z. zamiifolia. B. cereus ERBP conferred full protection to its non-native host against formaldehyde phytotoxicity and enhanced airborne formaldehyde removal of Z. zamiifolia whereas non-inoculated plants suffered from formaldehyde phytotoxicity because their natural shoot endophytic community was detrimentally affected by formaldehyde. In contrast, B. cereus ERBP inoculation into non-native E. milii deteriorated airborne formaldehyde removal of the non-native host (compared to a non-inoculated one) as B. cereus ERBP interfered with natural shoot endophytic community of E. milii, which caused stress symptoms and stimulated ethylene biosynthesis. Non-native host inoculation with PGP B. cereus ERBP could bear potentials and challenges for airborne formaldehyde removal.

  19. Growth/no growth models for heat-treated psychrotrophic Bacillus cereus spores under cold storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daelman, Jeff; Vermeulen, An; Willemyns, Tine; Ongenaert, Rebecca; Jacxsens, Liesbeth; Uyttendaele, Mieke; Devlieghere, Frank

    2013-01-15

    The microbiological safety of refrigerated and processed foods of extended durability (REPFED) is linked to spore-forming pathogens, more specifically Clostridium botulinum and Bacillus cereus. In this study two sets of growth/no growth (GNG) models are presented for the spores of two B. cereus strains. The models incorporate both product (water activity (a(w)) and pH) and process parameters (pasteurization value at 90 °C (P(90)) or heating temperature). The first model evaluates the effect of four different P(90)-values (P(90)=0, 4, 7 or 10 min, all applied at 90 °C) on the germination and subsequent growth of B. cereus spores under different conditions of pH and a(w) at 10 °C. These models show that a heat treatment not only increases the time to growth (TTG), but also significantly increases the minimal a(w) and pH necessary for germination and subsequent growth: e.g. at a(w) 0.995 and without heat treatment (P(90)=0), strain FF355 B. cereus spores were predicted to germinate and grow at pH 5.3. With a P(90) of 10 min, the minimal pH increased to 5.7. The second set of models for B. cereus spores compares the effect of three heat treatments with the same P(90)-value (10 min) but applied at different temperatures (85, 87 and 90 °C), on the germination and subsequent growth at 10 °C. The second model shows that lower heating temperatures (85 and 87 °C) had less effect on the TTG and minimal a(w) and pH than a higher temperature (90 °C). Finally, the first set of models was validated in broth using spores of seven psychrotrophic B. cereus strains, to evaluate the effect of strain variability on the model predictions. The results of the validation (% growth) were compared to the predicted growth probability. The results showed that the models were prone to fail-dangerous results (i.e. predicting no growth when growth was observed: 17%-34%). Using a very low threshold for growth (0.1% predicted chance of growth was considered to be complete growth), the models

  20. Extending the Bacillus cereus group genomics to putative food-borne pathogens of different toxicity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lapidus, Alla L. [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Goltsman, Eugene [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Auger, Sandrine [Genetique Microbienne; Galleron, Nathalie [Genetique Microbienne; Segurens, Beatrice [Center National Sequencage, F-91057 Evry, France; Simon, Jorg [Johann Wolfgang Goethe University, Frankfurt am Main, Germany; Dossat, Carole [Genoscope/Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique-Unite Mixte de Recherche; Land, Miriam L [ORNL; Broussolle, Veronique [Securite et Qualite des Produits d' Origine Vegetale; Brillard, Julien [Securite et Qualite des Produits d' Origine Vegetale; Guinebretiere, Marie-Helene [Securite et Qualite des Produits d' Origine Vegetale; Sanchis, Vincent [Genetique Microbienne; Nguen-the, Christophe [Securite et Qualite des Produits d' Origine Vegetale; Lereclus, Didier [Genetique Microbienne; Richardson, P M [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Wincker, Patrick [Genoscope/Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique-Unite Mixte de Recherche; Weissenbach, Jean [Genoscope/Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique-Unite Mixte de Recherche; Ehrlich, Dusko [Genetique Microbienne; Sorokin, Alexei [Genetique Microbienne

    2008-01-01

    The Bacillus cereus group represents sporulating soil bacteria containing pathogenic strains which may cause diarrheic or emetic food poisoning outbreaks. Multiple locus sequence typing revealed a presence in natural samples of these bacteria of about 30 clonal complexes. Application of genomic methods to this group was however biased due to the major interest for representatives closely related to Bacillus anthracis. Albeit the most important food-borne pathogens were not yet defined, existing data indicate that they are scattered all over the phylogenetic tree. The preliminary analysis of the sequences of three genomes discussed in this paper narrows down the gaps in our knowledge of the B. cereus group. The strain NVH391-98 is a rare but particularly severe food-borne pathogen. Sequencing revealed that the strain should be a representative of a novel bacterial species, for which the name Bacillus cytotoxis or Bacillus cytotoxicus is proposed. This strain has a reduced genome size compared to other B. cereus group strains. Genome analysis revealed absence of sigma B factor and the presence of genes encoding diarrheic Nhe toxin, not detected earlier. The strain B. cereus F837/76 represents a clonal complex close to that of B. anthracis. Including F837/76, three such B. cereus strains had been sequenced. Alignment of genomes suggests that B. anthracis is their common ancestor. Since such strains often emerge from clinical cases, they merit a special attention. The third strain, KBAB4, is a typical facultative psychrophile generally found in soil. Phylogenic studies show that in nature it is the most active group in terms of gene exchange. Genomic sequence revealed high presence of extra-chromosomal genetic material (about 530 kb) that may account for this phenomenon. Genes coding Nhe-like toxin were found on a big plasmid in this strain. This may indicate a potential mechanism of toxicity spread from the psychrophile strain community. The results of this genomic

  1. Root exudate-induced alterations in Bacillus cereus cell wall contribute to root colonization and plant growth promotion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swarnalee Dutta

    Full Text Available The outcome of an interaction between plant growth promoting rhizobacteria and plants may depend on the chemical composition of root exudates (REs. We report the colonization of tobacco, and not groundnut, roots by a non-rhizospheric Bacillus cereus (MTCC 430. There was a differential alteration in the cell wall components of B. cereus in response to the REs from tobacco and groundnut. Attenuated total reflectance infrared spectroscopy revealed a split in amide I region of B. cereus cells exposed to tobacco-root exudates (TRE, compared to those exposed to groundnut-root exudates (GRE. In addition, changes in exopolysaccharides and lipid-packing were observed in B. cereus grown in TRE-amended minimal media that were not detectable in GRE-amended media. Cell-wall proteome analyses revealed upregulation of oxidative stress-related alkyl hydroperoxide reductase, and DNA-protecting protein chain (Dlp-2, in response to GRE and TRE, respectively. Metabolism-related enzymes like 2-amino-3-ketobutyrate coenzyme A ligase and 2-methylcitrate dehydratase and a 60 kDa chaperonin were up-regulated in response to TRE and GRE. In response to B. cereus, the plant roots altered their exudate-chemodiversity with respect to carbohydrates, organic acids, alkanes, and polyols. TRE-induced changes in surface components of B. cereus may contribute to successful root colonization and subsequent plant growth promotion.

  2. Differentiation Between Bacillus thuringiensis and Bacillus cereus by 16S rDNA-PCR and ERIC-PCR

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Haitao; LIU Dongming; GAO Jiguo

    2011-01-01

    16S rDNA and ERIC (Enterobacteia Repetitive Intergenic Consensus Sequences) based on PCR method were tested for the effectiveness of the differentiation of B. thuringiensis and B. cereus. 16S rDNA-PCR primers were designed based on the sequence difference in variable regions of B. cereus 16S rDNA and B. thuringiensis 16S rDNA, 16S rDNA-PCR showed no obvious difference between B. cereus and B. thuringiensis. The only difference was that one 1600-bp amplificon could be obtained from all the three B. Cereus strains, and none amplificon from any B. thuringiensis strains. ERIC was optimized based on previous reports. The genonlic DNA was used for the template of ER1C-PCR, and the following DNA fingerprints were analyzed by the agarose gel electrophoresis. The results showed that DNA fingerprint of three B. thuringiensis strains had a unique amplicon less than 100-bp, while DNA fingerprint of three B. cereus" strains had none. Moreover, DNA fingerprint of B. cereus showed a 700-bp amplicon, but didn't have any DNA fingerprints ofB. thuringiensis genome. Therefore, ERIC-PCR technique should be able to be used for the differentiation of B. thuringiensis and B. cereus.

  3. Effect of temperatures on the growth, toxin production, and heat resistance of Bacillus cereus in cooked rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jun; Ding, Tian; Oh, Deog-Hwan

    2014-02-01

    Bacillus cereus is capable of producing enterotoxin and emetic toxin, and Bacillus foodborne illnesses occur due to the consumption of food contaminated with endospores. The objectives of this study were to investigate the growth and toxin production of B. cereus in cooked rice and to determine the effect of temperature on toxin destruction. Cooked rice inoculated with B. cereus was stored at 15, 25, 35, and 45°C or treated at 80, 90, and 100°C. The results indicated that emetic toxin was produced faster than enterotoxin (which was not detected below 15°C) at all the storage temperatures (15-45°C) during the first 72 h. Emetic toxin persisted at 100°C for 2 h, although enterotoxin was easily to be destroyed by this treatment within 15 min. In addition, B. cereus in cooked rice stored at a warm temperature for a period was not inactivated due to survival of the thermostable endospores. These data indicate that the contaminated cooked rice with B. cereus might present a potential risk to consumers. Results from this study may help enhance the safety of such food, and provide valuable and reliable information for risk assessment and management, associated with the problem of B. cereus in cooked rice.

  4. ENUMERATION OF Bacillus cereus IN “FUBÁ” OF CORN (Zea mays. L. ENUMERAÇÃO DE Bacillus cereus EM FUBÁ DE MILHO (Zea mays L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albenones José de Mesquita

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available

    A hundred (100 samples of “fubá” were examined, in relation to the incidence of Bacillus cereus, obtained by different technological processes (common “fubá” and previously cooked “fubá” and sold in the retail market in Goiânia - GO. The results of the examination showed that 23% of the samples was contaminated, of this percentual, 39.1% of the contaminations occurred in samples of previously cooked “fubá” and 60.9% in samples of common “fubá”. This in relation of the two products clearly showed the more accurate technological process that the previously cooked “fubá” was brought under. It was also observed that the totality of the analyzed samples showed enumerations below the limit established by the Brazilian microbiologic standard that establishes a limit of 10³ cells of Bacillus cereus for a gram of the food.

    Foram examinadas 100 amostras de fubá de milho, em relação à incidência de Bacillus cereus, obtidas através de processamentos tecnológicos diferentes (fubá comum e fubá pré-cozido e comercializadas no mercado varejista de Goiânia - GO. Os resultados revelaram que 23% das amostras estavam contaminadas, deste percentual, 39,1% das contaminações ocorreram em amostras de fubá pré-cozido e 60,9%, em amostras de fubá comum. Esta considerável diferença, observada em termos percentuais em relação aos dois produtos evidenciou o processamento tecnológico mais rigoroso a que foi submetido o fubá pré-cozido. Observou-se, também, que a totalidade das amostras analisadas apresentou enumerações abaixo do limite estabelecido pelo padrão microbiológico brasileiro que determina um limite de 10³ células de B. cereus por gama do alimento.

  5. Physiological behaviour of gliotoxigenic Aspergillus fumigatus sensu stricto isolated from maize silage under simulated environmental conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso, V; Vergara, L Díaz; Aminahuel, C; Pereyra, C; Pena, G; Torres, A; Dalcero, A; Cavaglieri, L

    2015-01-01

    Environmental conditions play a key role in fungal development. During the silage production process, humidity, oxygen availability and pH vary among lactic-fermentation phases and among different silage sections. The aim of this work was to study the physiological behaviour of gliotoxicogenic Aspergillus fumigatus strains isolated from maize silage under simulated natural physicochemical conditions - different water activities (a(W)), temperatures (Tº), pH and oxygen pressure - on the growth parameters (growth rate and lag phase) and gliotoxin production. The silage was made with the harvested whole maize plant that was chopped and used for trench-type silo fabrication. Water activity and pH of the silage samples were determined. Total fungal counts were performed on Dichloran Rose Bengal Chloramphenicol agar and Dichloran 18% Glycerol agar. The morphological identification of A. fumigatus was performed with different culture media and at different growth temperature to observe microscopic and macroscopic characteristics. Gliotoxin production by A. fumigatus was determined by HPLC. All strains isolated were morphologically identified as A. fumigatus. Two A. fumigatus strains isolated from the silage samples were selected for the ecophysiological study (A. fumigatus sensu stricto RC031 and RC032). The results of this investigation showed that the fungus grows in the simulated natural physicochemical conditions of corn silage and produces gliotoxin. The study of the physiological behaviour of gliotoxigenic A. fumigatus under simulated environmental conditions allowed its behaviour to be predicted in silage and this will in future enable appropriate control strategies to be developed to prevent the spread of this fungus and toxin production that leads to impairment and reduced quality of silage.

  6. First insights into the genetic diversity of Echinococcus granulosus sensu stricto (s.s.) in Serbia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debeljak, Zoran; Boufana, Belgees; Interisano, Maria; Vidanovic, Dejan; Kulisic, Zoran; Casulli, Adriano

    2016-06-15

    Cystic echinococcosis (CE) caused by Echinococcus granulosus sensu stricto (s.s.) is a cosmopolitan zoonotic infection which is endemic in Serbia where it is subject to mandatory reporting. However, information on the incidence of the disease in humans and prevalence of hydatid infection in livestock remains limited. We used sequenced data of the cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (cox 1) mitochondrial gene to examine the genetic diversity and population structure of E. granulosus (s.s.) from intermediate hosts from Serbia. We also compared our generated nucleotide sequences with those reported for neighbouring European countries. Echinococcus canadensis was molecularly confirmed from pig and human hydatid isolates. E. granulosus (G1) was confirmed from sheep and cattle hydatid isolates as well as the first molecular confirmation in Serbia of E. granulosus G2 in sheep and E. granulosus G3 in sheep and cattle hydatid isolates. The Serbian E. granulosus (s.s.) parsimony network displayed 2 main haplotypes (SB02 and SB05) which together with the neutrality indices were suggestive of bottleneck and/or balancing selection. Haplotype analysis showed the presence of the common E. granulosus haplotype described from other worldwide regions. Investigation of the pairwise fixation (Fst) index suggested that Serbian populations of E. granulosus (s.s.) from sheep and cattle hosts showed moderate genetic differentiation. Six of the Serbian haplotypes (SB02-SB07) were shared with haplotypes from Bulgaria, Hungary and/or Romania. Further studies using a larger number of hydatid isolates from various locations across Serbia will provide more information on the genetic structure of E. granulosus (s.s.) within this region.

  7. Bacillus cereus G9241 Makes Anthrax Toxin and Capsule like Highly Virulent B. anthracis Ames but Behaves like Attenuated Toxigenic Nonencapsulated B. anthracis Sterne in Rabbits and Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-01

    Microbiology. All Rights Reserved. Bacillus cereus G9241 Makes Anthrax Toxin and Capsule like Highly Virulent B. anthracis Ames but Behaves like...G9241 for mice requires the presence of both plasmids. The Bacillus cereus group, of which Bacillus anthracis, Bacil- lus thuringiensis , and B... Bacillus cereus G9241 Makes Anthrax Toxin and Capsule like Highly Virulent B. anthracis Ames but Behaves like Attenuated Toxigenic Nonencapsulated B

  8. Meningitis and bacteremia due to Bacillus cereus. A case report and a review of Bacillus infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegman-Igra, Y; Lavochkin, J; Schwartz, D; Konforti, N

    1983-06-01

    A patient with meningitis and bacteremia due to Bacillus cereus is described. The patient had transsphenoidal hypophysectomy for chromophobe adenoma, complicated by rhinorrhea, which was corrected by subarachnoid drainage. Three weeks after removal of the drain, the patient presented with meningitis and died the following day. The causative organism was identified as B. cereus. The literature on Bacillus infections is reviewed with special attention to severe infections. A modified classification is proposed, dividing infections into superficial, closed-space and systemic ones. Sixty-one previously reported cases of systemic Bacillus infections are reviewed according to type of infection (endocarditis, meningitis or pulmonary infection), and the underlying conditions, ways of acquiring the infection, clinical picture and mortality are discussed.

  9. Bacillus cereus fatal bacteremia and apparent association with nosocomial transmission in an intensive care unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carretto, E; Barbarini, D; Poletti, F; Marzani, F C; Emmi, V; Marone, P

    2000-01-01

    Bacillus cereus has sometimes been implicated in food poisoning and in opportunistic infections of seriously ill patients. This report describes an unusual case of persistent bacteremia and multiple organ failure associated with B. cereus in a patient admitted to our institution for lung cancer. The patient was undergoing treatment with an antimicrobial agent (imipenem) that was shown to be effective against the micro-organism in vitro. No portal of entry for the strain was detected. After treatment with vancomycin, also shown to be effective in vitro, no clinical improvement was noted and the patient died. Molecular studies showed that the same strain caused an episode of pseudobacteremia in another patient admitted to the same ICU room.

  10. Antimicrobial resistance among Pseudomonas spp. and the Bacillus cereus group isolated from Danish agricultural soil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Lars Bogø; Baloda, S.; Boye, Mette;

    2001-01-01

    From four Danish pig farms, bacteria of Pseudomonas spp. and the Bacillus cereus group were isolated from soil and susceptibility towards selected antimicrobials was tested. From each farm, soil samples representing soil just before and after spread of animal waste and undisturbed agricultural soil......, when possible, were collected. Soil from a well-characterized Danish farm soil (Hojbakkegaard) was collected for comparison. The Psudomonas spp. and B. cereus were chosen as representative for Gram-negative and Gram-positive indigenous soil bacteria to test the effect of spread of animal waste...... on selection of resistance among soil bacteria. No variations in resistance levels were observed between farms; but when the four differently treated soils were compared, resistance was seen for carbadox, chloramphenicol, nalidixan (nalidixic acid), nitrofurantoin, streptomycin and tetracycline for Pseudomonas...

  11. Formation of cereulide and enterotoxins by Bacillus cereus in fermented African locust beans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorsen, Line; Azokpota, Paulin; Munk Hansen, Bjarne

    2011-01-01

    genes nhe (A, B, C) were present in all 19 isolates, the hbl (A, C, D) in one (afitin), and the cytK gene in three isolates (afitin). Levels of cytotoxicity to Vero cells and NheA production in BHI-broth was within the range of known diarrheal outbreak strains. Autoclaved cooked African locust beans...... inoculated with emetic (cereulide producing) B. cereus Ba18H2/RIF supported growth at 25, 30 and 40 °C with highly different maximum cereulide productions of 6 ± 5, 97 ± 3 and 0.04 ± 0.02 μg/g beans, respectively (48 h). For non-autoclaved cooked beans inoculated with 2, 4 and 6 log10 B. cereus Ba18H2/RIF...

  12. Detection and Characterization of β-Lactam Resistance in Bacillus cereus PTCC 1015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javad Behravan

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, detection, isolation, and characterization of β-lactamases from Bacillus cereus PTCC 1015 were investigated. B. cereus was inoculated in nutrient broth containing ampicillin (50 μg.ml−1 for 24 h (35°C, 200 rpm. Activity measurements were carried out against ampicillin (0.1 mg.ml−1 and cephalexin (0.08 mg.ml−1 by a spectrophotometric method at different conditions (pH 6–10, temperatures 25–45°C.Maximum penicillinase and cephalosporinase activity was observed at pH 7. The optimized temperatures for penicillinase and cephalosporinase activity were 30 and 40°C, respectively. At the above conditions, maximum enzymatic activity was calculated as 0.89 ± 0.014 and 0.037 ± 0.001 units against ampicillin and cephalexin.

  13. Bacillus cereus Certhrax ADP-ribosylates vinculin to disrupt focal adhesion complexes and cell adhesion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Nathan C; Barbieri, Joseph T

    2014-04-11

    Bacillus cereus is often associated with mild to moderate gastroenteritis; however, some recent isolates cause inhalational anthrax-like diseases and death. These potential emerging human pathogens express multiple virulence factors. B. cereus strain G9241 expresses anthrax toxin, several polysaccharide capsules, and the novel ADP-ribosyltransferase, Certhrax. In this study, we show that Certhrax ADP-ribosylates Arg-433 of vinculin, a protein that coordinates actin cytoskeleton and extracellular matrix interactions. ADP-ribosylation of vinculin disrupted focal adhesion complexes and redistributed vinculin to the cytoplasm. Exogenous vinculin rescued these phenotypes. This provides a mechanism for strain G9241 to breach host barrier defenses and promote bacterial growth and spread. Certhrax is the first bacterial toxin to add a post-translational modification to vinculin to disrupt the actin cytoskeleton.

  14. Lifesaving liver transplantation for multi-organ failure caused by Bacillus cereus food poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tschiedel, Eva; Rath, Peter-Michael; Steinmann, Jörg; Becker, Heinz; Dietrich, Rudolf; Paul, Andreas; Felderhoff-Müser, Ursula; Dohna-Schwake, Christian

    2015-02-01

    Bacillus cereus is a spore-forming, gram-positive bacterium that causes food poisoning presenting with either emesis or diarrhea. Diarrhea is caused by proteinaceous enterotoxin complexes, mainly hemolysin BL, non-hemolytic enterotoxin (NHE), and cytotoxin K. In contrast, emesis is caused by the ingestion of the depsipeptide toxin cereulide, which is produced in B. cereus contaminated food, particularly in pasta or rice. In general, the illness is mild and self-limiting. However, due to cereulide intoxication, nine severe cases with rhabdomyolysis and/or liver failure, five of them lethal, are reported in literature. Here we report the first case of life-threatening liver failure and severe rhabdomyolysis in this context that could not be survived without emergency hepatectomy and consecutive liver transplantation.

  15. Differentiation of Bacillus anthracis from Bacillus cereus by gas chromatographic whole-cell fatty acid analysis.

    OpenAIRE

    Lawrence, D.; Heitefuss, S; Seifert, H S

    1991-01-01

    Three strains of Bacillus anthracis and seven strains of Bacillus cereus were grown on complex medium and on synthetic medium. Gas chromatographic analysis of whole-cell fatty acids of strains grown on complex medium gave nearly identical fatty acid patterns. Fatty acid patterns of strains grown on synthetic medium showed a high content of branched-chain fatty acids. Significant differences between the fatty acid patterns of the two species were found. Odd iso/anteiso fatty acid ratios were a...

  16. Biotyping of Bacillus cereus from the street vended Foods in Srinagar area of Kashmir

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasir Hafeez

    Full Text Available Aim: The present study was undertaken to describe the biotyping of Bacillus cereus isolated from different street vended mutton tikka and chutney samples. Materials and Methods: A total of 100 street vended food samples comprising of 60 mutton tikka and 40 chutney samples were tested. Results: The biotype 3 and biotype 4 showed the highest occurrence with, 29.63% and 25.93% isolates falling in these biotypes, respectively. The percentage occurrence of the biotypes 1, 6, 2, 5, and 7 was 14.81%, 11.11%, 7.40%, 7.40% and 3.84%, respectively. The most common found biotypes in Mutton tikka were biotypes 3(29.63%, 4(25.93%, 1(14.81% and 6(11.11%. The Bacillus cereus strains isolated from chutney samples could be divided into 7 of the 9 possible biotypes. The biotypes 6 and 7 showed the highest occurrence with 38.46% and 30.76% falling in these biotypes, respectively. The biotype 5 and 2 were prevalent to the extent of 23.07%, 7.69%, respectively. The biotypes 3, 4 and 1 were absent. The mean bacterial count of 60 mutton tikka and 40 chutney samples was 4.6817 and 5.6575 log cfu/g. 10 Conclusion: The field isolates and the standard strains of Bacillus cereus had similar cultural, morphological and biochemical characteristics. The biotypes recovered from the Mutton tikka samples were biotypes 3, 4, 1 and 6 and in chutneys the biotypes recovered were 6, 7, 5 and 2. The strains of Bacillus cereus were highly resistant to penicillin G (92.59%. [Vet World 2012; 5(10.000: 590-593

  17. Traumatic wound infection due to Bacillus cereus in an immunocompromised patient: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaruratanasirikul, S; Kalnauwakul, S; Lekhakula, A

    1987-03-01

    A young man recently responding to immunosuppressive therapy for acute myelocytic leukemia was admitted with fever and haemorrhagic blebs on both extremities after sustaining some scratch marks in a muddy pond. Gram stains of the hemorrhagic fluid in the blebs revealed many gram positive bacilli. B. cereus was identified from culture of tissue fluid. He did not respond to therapy despite bacteriological cure. Terminally, he developed Pseudomonas aeruginosa bacteremia and generalized bleeding.

  18. Successful Treatment of Bacillus cereus Bacteremia in a Patient with Propionic Acidemia

    OpenAIRE

    Fatma Deniz Aygun; Fatih Aygun; Halit Cam

    2016-01-01

    Bacillus cereus can cause serious, life-threatening, systemic infections in immunocompromised patients. The ability of microorganism to form biofilm on biomedical devices can be responsible for catheter-related bloodstream infections. Other manifestations of severe disease are meningitis, endocarditis, osteomyelitis, and surgical and traumatic wound infections. The most common feature in true bacteremia caused by Bacillus is the presence of an intravascular catheter. Herein, we report a case ...

  19. Biofilm Formation by Bacillus cereus Is Influenced by PlcR, a Pleiotropic Regulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsueh, Yi-Huang; Somers, Eileen B.; Lereclus, Didier; Wong, Amy C. Lee

    2006-01-01

    The ΔplcR mutant of Bacillus cereus strain ATCC 14579 developed significantly more biofilm than the wild type and produced increased amounts of biosurfactant. Biosurfactant production is required for biofilm formation and may be directly or indirectly repressed by PlcR, a pleiotropic regulator. Coating polystyrene plates with surfactin, a biosurfactant from Bacillus subtilis, rescued the deficiency in biofilm formation by the wild type. PMID:16820512

  20. Bacillus cereus iron uptake protein fishes out an unstable ferric citrate trimer

    OpenAIRE

    Fukushima, Tatsuya; Sia, Allyson K.; Allred, Benjamin E.; Nichiporuk, Rita; Zhou, Zhongrui; Andersen, Ulla N.; Raymond, Kenneth N.

    2012-01-01

    Citrate is a common biomolecule that chelates Fe(III). Many bacteria and plants use ferric citrate to fulfill their nutritional requirement for iron. Only the Escherichia coli ferric citrate outer-membrane transport protein FecA has been characterized; little is known about other ferric citrate-binding proteins. Here we report a unique siderophore-binding protein from the Gram-positive pathogenic bacterium Bacillus cereus that binds multinuclear ferric citrate complexes. We have demonstrated ...

  1. Partial isolation and some properties of enterotoxin produced by Bacillus cereus strains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. V. Guaycurus

    1993-03-01

    Full Text Available Extracellular proteins produced by Bacillus cereus AL-42 and AL-15 were fractioned by chromatography on QAE-Sephadex and Sephadex G75. This last chromatographic process resulted in three peaks. The major peak showed vascular permeability activity to rabbits, lethality to mice, and cytotoxicity to Vero and Hela cells. The analysis by SDS-PAGE after ultrafiltration confirm recent findings that the enterotoxin is a compound with molecular mass > 30.000.

  2. Comparative transcriptomics reveal host-specific nucleotide variation in entomophthoralean fungi

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Fine Licht, Henrik Hjarvard; Jensen, Annette Bruun; Eilenberg, Jørgen

    2017-01-01

    -off influencing the capacity to infect alternate hosts. Here, we investigate host adaptation in two morphologically indistinguishable and closely related obligate specialist insect-pathogenic fungi from the phylum Entomophthoromycota, Entomophthora muscae sensu stricto and E. muscae sensu lato, pathogens...

  3. Global transcriptome analysis of Bacillus cereus ATCC 14579 in response to silver nitrate stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ganesh Babu Malli Mohan

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs were synthesized using Bacillus cereus strains. Earlier, we had synthesized monodispersive crystalline silver nanoparticles using B. cereus PGN1 and ATCC14579 strains. These strains have showed high level of resistance to silver nitrate (1 mM but their global transcriptomic response has not been studied earlier. In this study, we investigated the cellular and metabolic response of B. cereus ATCC14579 treated with 1 mM silver nitrate for 30 & 60 min. Global expression profiling using genomic DNA microarray indicated that 10% (n = 524 of the total genes (n = 5234 represented on the microarray were up-regulated in the cells treated with silver nitrate. The majority of genes encoding for chaperones (GroEL, nutrient transporters, DNA replication, membrane proteins, etc. were up-regulated. A substantial number of the genes encoding chemotaxis and flagellar proteins were observed to be down-regulated. Motility assay of the silver nitrate treated cells revealed reduction in their chemotactic activity compared to the control cells. In addition, 14 distinct transcripts overexpressed from the 'empty' intergenic regions were also identified and proposed as stress-responsive non-coding small RNAs.

  4. Time dynamics of the Bacillus cereus exoproteome are shaped by cellular oxidation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Paul eMadeira

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available At low density, Bacillus cereus cells release a large variety of proteins into the extracellular medium when cultivated in pH-regulated, glucose-containing minimal medium, either in the presence or absence of oxygen. The majority of these exoproteins are putative virulence factors, including toxin-related proteins. Here, B. cereus exoproteome time courses were monitored by nanoLC-MS/MS under low-oxidoreduction potential (ORP anaerobiosis, high-ORP anaerobiosis, and aerobiosis, with a specific focus on oxidative-induced post-translational modifications of methionine residues. Principal component analysis (PCA of the exoproteome dynamics indicated that toxin-related proteins were the most representative of the exoproteome changes, both in terms of protein abundance and their methionine sulfoxide (Met(O content. PCA also revealed an interesting interconnection between toxin-, metabolism-, and oxidative stress–related proteins, suggesting that the abundance level of toxin-related proteins, and their Met(O content in the B. cereus exoproteome, reflected the cellular oxidation under both aerobiosis and anaerobiosis.

  5. Arsenic release by indigenous bacteria Bacillus cereus from aquifer sediments at Datong Basin, northern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Zuoming; Wang, Yanxin; Duan, Mengyu; Xie, Xianjun; Su, Chunli

    2011-03-01

    Endemic arsenic poisoning due to long-term drinking of high arsenic groundwater has been reported in Datong Basin, northern China. To investigate the effects of microbial activities on arsenic mobilization in contaminated aquifers, Bacillus cereus ( B. cereus) isolated from high arsenic aquifer sediments of the basin was used in our microcosm experiments. The arsenic concentration in the treatment with both bacteria and sodium citrate or glucose had a rapid increase in the first 18 d, and then, it declined. Supplemented with bacteria only, the concentration could increase on the second day. By contrast, the arsenic concentration in the treatment supplemented with sodium citrate or glucose was kept very low. These results indicate that bacterial activities promoted the release of arsenic in the sediments. Bacterial activities also influenced other geochemical parameters of the aqueous phase, such as pH, Eh, and the concentrations of dissolved Fe, Mn, and Al that are important controls on arsenic release. The removal of Fe, Mn, and Al from sediment samples was observed with the presence of B. cereus. The effects of microbial activities on Fe, Mn, and Al release were nearly the same as those on As mobilization. The pH values of the treatments inoculated with bacteria were lower than those without bacteria, still at alkaline levels. With the decrease of Eh values in treatments inoculated with bacteria, the microcosms became more reducing and are thus favorable for arsenic release.

  6. Film coating of seeds with Bacillus cereus RS87 spores for early plant growth enhancement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jetiyanon, Kanchalee; Wittaya-Areekul, Sakchai; Plianbangchang, Pinyupa

    2008-10-01

    The plant growth-promoting rhizobacterium Bacillus cereus RS87 was previously reported to promote plant growth in various crops in both greenhouse and field trials. To apply as a plant growth promoting agent with practical use, it is essential to ease the burden of routine preparation of a fresh suspension of strain RS87 in laboratory. The objectives of this study were to investigate the feasibility of film-coating seeds with B. cereus RS87 spores for early plant growth enhancement and to reveal the indoleacetic acid (IAA) production released from strain RS87. The experiment consisted of the following 5 treatments: nontreated seeds, water-soaked seeds, film-coated seeds, seeds soaked with vegetative cells of strain RS87, and film-coated seeds with strain RS87 spores. Three experiments were conducted separately to assess seed emergence, root length, and plant height. Results showed that both vegetative cells and spores of strain RS87 significantly promoted (P seed emergence, root length and plant height over the control treatments. The strain RS87 also produced IAA. In conclusion, the film coating of seeds with spores of B. cereus RS87 demonstrated early plant growth enhancement as well as seeds using their vegetative cells. IAA released from strain RS87 would be one of the mechanisms for plant growth enhancement.

  7. Extended genetic analysis of Brazilian isolates of Bacillus cereus and Bacillus thuringiensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viviane Zahner

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Multiple locus sequence typing (MLST was undertaken to extend the genetic characterization of 29 isolates of Bacillus cereus and Bacillus thuringiensis previously characterized in terms of presence/absence of sequences encoding virulence factors and via variable number tandem repeat (VNTR. Additional analysis involved polymerase chain reaction for the presence of sequences (be, cytK, inA, pag, lef, cya and cap, encoding putative virulence factors, not investigated in the earlier study. MLST analysis ascribed novel and unique sequence types to each of the isolates. A phylogenetic tree was constructed from a single sequence of 2,838 bp of concatenated loci sequences. The strains were not monophyletic by analysis of any specific housekeeping gene or virulence characteristic. No clear association in relation to source of isolation or to genotypic profile based on the presence or absence of putative virulence genes could be identified. Comparison of VNTR profiling with MLST data suggested a correlation between these two methods of genetic analysis. In common with the majority of previous studies, MLST was unable to provide clarification of the basis for pathogenicity among members of the B. cereus complex. Nevertheless, our application of MLST served to reinforce the notion that B. cereus and B. thuringiensis should be considered as the same species.

  8. Bacillus cereus iron uptake protein fishes out an unstable ferric citrate trimer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukushima, Tatsuya; Sia, Allyson K; Allred, Benjamin E; Nichiporuk, Rita; Zhou, Zhongrui; Andersen, Ulla N; Raymond, Kenneth N

    2012-10-16

    Citrate is a common biomolecule that chelates Fe(III). Many bacteria and plants use ferric citrate to fulfill their nutritional requirement for iron. Only the Escherichia coli ferric citrate outer-membrane transport protein FecA has been characterized; little is known about other ferric citrate-binding proteins. Here we report a unique siderophore-binding protein from the gram-positive pathogenic bacterium Bacillus cereus that binds multinuclear ferric citrate complexes. We have demonstrated that B. cereus ATCC 14579 takes up (55)Fe radiolabeled ferric citrate and that a protein, BC_3466 [renamed FctC (ferric citrate-binding protein C)], binds ferric citrate. The dissociation constant (K(d)) of FctC at pH 7.4 with ferric citrate (molar ratio 1:50) is 2.6 nM. This is the tightest binding observed of any B. cereus siderophore-binding protein. Nano electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry (nano ESI-MS) analysis of FctC and ferric citrate complexes or citrate alone show that FctC binds diferric di-citrate, and triferric tricitrate, but does not bind ferric di-citrate, ferric monocitrate, or citrate alone. Significantly, the protein selectively binds triferric tricitrate even though this species is naturally present at very low equilibrium concentrations.

  9. Bacillus cereus from blood cultures: virulence genes, antimicrobial susceptibility and risk factors for blood stream infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horii, Toshinobu; Notake, Shigeyuki; Tamai, Kiyoko; Yanagisawa, Hideji

    2011-11-01

    We characterized the profiles of virulence genes and antimicrobial susceptibility of Bacillus cereus isolates from blood cultures as well as the risk factors for blood stream infections (BSIs). The diversity of virulence gene patterns was found to be wide among 15 B. cereus isolates from BSIs and also among 11 isolates from contaminated blood cultures. The MicroScan broth microdilution method yielded results corresponding with those of the agar dilution (reference) method for levofloxacin, linezolid, and vancomycin, while the Etest results were consistent with the reference results for clindamycin, gentamicin, imipenem, levofloxacin, and linezolid. Compared with the reference values, however, some isolates showed marked differences of the minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) for ampicillin and clindamycin when determined using the MicroScan method, or the MICs for ampicillin, meropenem, and vancomycin when determined using the Etest method. Significantly more patients were treated with antimicrobials for more than 3 days during the 3-month period before isolation in the BSI group. Prior antimicrobial therapy may be a risk factor for BSIs due to B. cereus.

  10. Enterotoxin production in natural isolates of Bacillaceae outside the Bacillus cereus group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phelps, Rebecca J; McKillip, John L

    2002-06-01

    Thirty-nine Bacillus strains obtained from a variety of environmental and food sources were screened by PCR for the presence of five gene targets (hblC, hblD, hblA, nheA, and nheB) in two enterotoxin operons (HBL and NHE) traditionally harbored by Bacillus cereus. Seven isolates exhibited a positive signal for at least three of the five possible targets, including Bacillus amyloliquefaciens, B. cereus, Bacillus circulans, Bacillus lentimorbis, Bacillus pasteurii, and Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. kurstaki. PCR amplicons were confirmed by restriction enzyme digest patterns compared to a positive control strain. Enterotoxin gene expression of each strain grown in a model food system (skim milk) was monitored by gene-specific reverse transcription-PCR and confirmed with the Oxoid RPLA and Tecra BDE commercial kits. Lecithinase production was noted on egg yolk-polymyxin B agar for all strains except B. lentimorbis, whereas discontinuous beta hemolysis was exhibited by all seven isolates grown on 5% sheep blood agar plates. The results of this study confirm the presence of enterotoxin genes in natural isolates of Bacillus spp. outside the B. cereus group and the ability of these strains to produce toxins in a model food system under aerated conditions at 32 degrees C.

  11. The analysis of the immobilization mechanism of Ni(II) on Bacillus cereus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Xiaohong; Chen, Zhi; Cheng, Yangjian; Pan, Danmei; Yin, Shungao; Huang, Feng; Guan, Xiong; Lin, Zhang

    2011-04-01

    This work focused on the identification of biosorption mechanism of Ni(II) by living Bacillus cereus (B. cereus) based on batch experiments and a variety of microscopic equipments. The adsorption equilibrium reached rapidly in 2 h and the maximum nickel adsorption capability of B. cereus was 17.7 mg x g(-1) (dry weight). Atomic force microscopy (AFM) analysis showed that the bacterial surface roughness increased from 7.9 +/- 0.5 nm to 12.6 +/- 1.6 nm during this process. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) observation confirmed that there was Ni(II) on the bacterial surface. However, transmission electron microscopy (TEM) thin section analysis coupled with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) revealed that Ni(II) could also be found in the inner portions of the bacteria. Inductive coupled plasma emission spectrometer (ICP-OES) quantitative analysis elucidated that over 70% of the immobilized Ni(II) was binding on the surface of bacteria. X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis showed that the Ni(II) collected by the bacteria was amorphous. Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) analysis indicated that amides and carboxylation functional groups might be involved in the coordination of Ni(II).

  12. L-asparaginase production by mangrove derived Bacillus cereus MAB5:optimization by response surface methodology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ThenmozhiC; SankarR; KaruppiahV; SampathkumarP

    2011-01-01

    Objective:To isolate marine bacteria, statistically optimize them for maximum asparaginase production. Methods:In the present study, statistically based experimental designs were applied to maximize the production of L-asparaginase from bacterial strain of Bacillus cereus (B. cereus) MAB5 (HQ675025) isolated and identified by 16S rDNA sequencing from mangroves rhizosphere sediment. Results:Plackett-Barman design was used to identify the interactive effect of the eight variables viz. yeast extract, soyabean meal, glucose, magnesium sulphate, KH2PO4, wood chips, aspargine and sodium chloride. All the variables are denoted as numerical factors and investigated at two widely spaced intervals designated as-1 (low level) and+1 (high level). The effect of individual parameters on L-asparaginase production was calculated. Soyabean meal, aspargine, wood chips and sodium chloride were found to be the significant among eight variables. The maximum amount of L-asparaginase produced (51.54 IU/mL) from the optimized medium containing soyabean meal (6.282 8 g/L), aspargine (5.5 g/L), wood chips (1.383 8 g/L) and NaCl (4.535 4 g/L). Conclusions:The study revealed that, it is useful to produce the maximum amount of L-asparaginase from B. cereus MAB5 for the treatment of various infections and diseases.

  13. Arsenic release by indigenous bacteria Bacillus cereus from aquifer sediments at Datong Basin, northern China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zuoming XIE; Yanxin WANG; Mengyu DUAN; Xianjun XIE; Chunli SU

    2011-01-01

    Endemic arsenic poisoning due to long-term drinking of high arsenic groundwater has been reported in Datong Basin, northern China. To investigate the effects of microbial activities on arsenic mobilization in contaminated aquifers, Bacillus cereus (B. cereus) isolated from high arsenic aquifer sediments of the basin was used in our microcosm experiments. The arsenic concentration in the treatment with both bacteria and sodium citrate or glucose had a rapid increase in the first 18 d, and then, it declined.Supplemented with bacteria only, the concentration could increase on the second day. By contrast, the arsenic concentration in the treatment supplemented with sodium citrate or glucose was kept very low. These results indicate that bacterial activities promoted the release of arsenic in the sediments. Bacterial activities also influenced other geochemical parameters of the aqueous phase, such as pH,Eh, and the concentrations of dissolved Fe, Mn, and Al that are important controls on arsenic release. The removal of Fe, Mn, and Al from sediment samples was observed with the presence of B. cereus. The effects of microbial activities on Fe, Mn, and Al release were nearly the same as those on As mobilization. The pH values of the treatments inoculated with bacteria were lower than those without bacteria, still at alkaline levels. With the decrease of Eh values in treatments inoculated with bacteria, the microcosms became more reducing and are thus favorable for arsenic release.

  14. Persistence strategies of Bacillus cereus spores isolated from dairy silo tanks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaheen, Ranad; Svensson, Birgitta; Andersson, Maria A; Christiansson, Anders; Salkinoja-Salonen, Mirja

    2010-05-01

    Survival of Bacillus cereus spores of dairy silo tank origin was investigated under conditions simulating those in operational dairy silos. Twenty-three strains were selected to represent all B. cereus isolates (n = 457) with genotypes (RAPD-PCR) that frequently colonised the silo tanks of at least two of the sampled eight dairies. The spores were studied for survival when immersed in liquids used for cleaning-in-place (1.0% sodium hydroxide at pH 13.1, 75 degrees C; 0.9% nitric acid at pH 0.8, 65 degrees C), for adhesion onto nonliving surfaces at 4 degrees C and for germination and biofilm formation in milk. Four groups with different strategies for survival were identified. First, high survival (log 15 min kill steel from cold water. Third, a cereulide producing group with spores characterised by slow germination in rich medium and well preserved viability when exposed to heating at 90 degrees C. Fourth, spores capable of germinating at 8 degrees C and possessing the cspA gene. There were indications that spores highly resistant to hot 1% sodium hydroxide may be effectively inactivated by hot 0.9% nitric acid. Eight out of the 14 dairy silo tank isolates possessing hot-alkali resistant spores were capable of germinating and forming biofilm in whole milk, not previously reported for B. cereus.

  15. Extended genetic analysis of Brazilian isolates of Bacillus cereus and Bacillus thuringiensis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zahner, Viviane; Silva, Ana Carolina Telles de Carvalho e; de Moraes, Gabriela Pinhel; McIntosh, Douglas; de Filippis, Ivano

    2013-01-01

    Multiple locus sequence typing (MLST) was undertaken to extend the genetic characterization of 29 isolates of Bacillus cereus and Bacillus thuringiensis previously characterized in terms of presence/absence of sequences encoding virulence factors and via variable number tandem repeat (VNTR). Additional analysis involved polymerase chain reaction for the presence of sequences (be, cytK, inA, pag, lef, cya and cap), encoding putative virulence factors, not investigated in the earlier study. MLST analysis ascribed novel and unique sequence types to each of the isolates. A phylogenetic tree was constructed from a single sequence of 2,838 bp of concatenated loci sequences. The strains were not monophyletic by analysis of any specific housekeeping gene or virulence characteristic. No clear association in relation to source of isolation or to genotypic profile based on the presence or absence of putative virulence genes could be identified. Comparison of VNTR profiling with MLST data suggested a correlation between these two methods of genetic analysis. In common with the majority of previous studies, MLST was unable to provide clarification of the basis for pathogenicity among members of the B. cereus complex. Nevertheless, our application of MLST served to reinforce the notion that B. cereus and B. thuringiensis should be considered as the same species. PMID:23440117

  16. Time dynamics of the Bacillus cereus exoproteome are shaped by cellular oxidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madeira, Jean-Paul; Alpha-Bazin, Béatrice; Armengaud, Jean; Duport, Catherine

    2015-01-01

    At low density, Bacillus cereus cells release a large variety of proteins into the extracellular medium when cultivated in pH-regulated, glucose-containing minimal medium, either in the presence or absence of oxygen. The majority of these exoproteins are putative virulence factors, including toxin-related proteins. Here, B. cereus exoproteome time courses were monitored by nanoLC-MS/MS under low-oxidoreduction potential (ORP) anaerobiosis, high-ORP anaerobiosis, and aerobiosis, with a specific focus on oxidative-induced post-translational modifications of methionine residues. Principal component analysis (PCA) of the exoproteome dynamics indicated that toxin-related proteins were the most representative of the exoproteome changes, both in terms of protein abundance and their methionine sulfoxide (Met(O)) content. PCA also revealed an interesting interconnection between toxin-, metabolism-, and oxidative stress-related proteins, suggesting that the abundance level of toxin-related proteins, and their Met(O) content in the B. cereus exoproteome, reflected the cellular oxidation under both aerobiosis and anaerobiosis.

  17. The role of SH and S-S groups in Bacillus cereus beta-amylase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nomura, K; Yoneda, I; Nanmori, T; Shinke, R; Morita, Y; Mikami, B

    1995-12-01

    The properties of sulfhydryl (SH) and disulfide (S-S) groups in Bacillus cereus BQ10-S1 Spo III beta-amylase have been investigated to clarify their roles in the enzyme action. Two out of three cysteine residues in B. cereus beta-amylase were found to form an S-S bond, which was found to be located between Cys91 and Cys99 by the analysis of an S-S containing peptide. The replacement of the soybean beta-amylase model around L3 loop 1 revealed that the S-S bond is located at the root of this flexible loop that moves between open and closed forms during catalysis. The analysis of fluorescence labeled peptides revealed that the remaining free SH group was Cys331. Modification of Cys331 with N-ethylmaleimide or p-chloromercuribenzoic acid (PCMB) caused inactivation of the enzyme. The rate constants for the reactions were consistent with those of Cys343 in soybean enzyme. The binding affinity of the PCMB-modified enzyme to maltose was also decreased. These results indicate that the modification of Cys331, which exists as a free SH group in B. cereus beta-amylase caused inactivation by a similar mechanism to that in the case of Cys343 in soybean beta-amylase as assumed from the sequence homology. This cysteine residue has a common role in beta-amylases irrespective their origin.

  18. Complete genome sequence of the cold-active bacteriophage VMY22 from Bacillus cereus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Kunhao; Cheng, Benxu; Zhang, Shengting; Wang, Nan; Fang, Yuan; Zhang, Qi; Kuang, Anxiu; Lin, Lianbing; Ji, Xiuling; Wei, Yunlin

    2016-06-01

    The cold-active bacteriophage VMY22, belonging to the Podoviridae family, was isolated from Mingyong Glacier in China. Sequence analysis revealed that the genome is 18,609 bp long, with an overall G + C content of 36.4 mol%, and 25 open reading frames (ORFs). The sequence contains 46 potential promoters, 6 transcription terminators, and no tRNAs. Most of the ORFs show a high degree of similarity to B103 (NC_004165). Two noteworthy findings were made. First, one of the predicted proteins, ORF 19, shows high sequence similarity to the bacteriocin biosynthesis protein from Bacillus cereus. From this information, we propose that the VMY22 phage is at an intermediate phase in its coevolution with its bacterial host. Second, seven of the hypothetical proteins appear to be unique to this cold-active B. cereus phage (i.e., not found in temperate-active B. cereus phages). These observations add to our current knowledge about the coevolution of bacteriophages and their hosts. The identification of a novel group of gene and protein structures and functions will lead to a better understanding of cold-adaptation mechanisms in bacteria and their bacteriophages.

  19. Pós-graduação Stricto Sensu em Enfermagem no Brasil: avanços e perspectivas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Gracinda Silvan Scochi

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available A Enfermagem é campo de conhecimento específico e prática social que se consolida e se fortalece como ciência. No Brasil, tem se desenvolvido em função do aumento e qualificação dos programas de pós-graduação stricto sensu. Este artigo tem como objetivo apresentar um resgate histórico da Pós-Graduação Stricto Sensu de Enfermagem no Brasil e refletir sobre sua evolução, avanços, desafios e perspectivas futuras. Explora-se a criação dos cursos de pós-graduação stricto sensu, destacando os movimentos para se construir a cultura da pós-graduação acadêmica e profissional na Enfermagem. Apresenta-se a trajetória histórica da sua consolidação, expansão, conquista da excelência e visibilidade internacional ao longo de quatro décadas e apontam-se os desafios e as perspectivas futuras. Constata-se que a pós-graduação na área vem contribuindo para o avanço e consolidação do conhecimento científico, tecnológico e de inovação em Enfermagem e saúde, tendo como filosofia, o respeito à diversidade e o livre debate de ideias, a elevação da qualidade de vida e saúde e a efetivação do exercício da cidadania.

  20. Epidemiologic Investigation of a Cluster of Neuroinvasive Bacillus cereus Infections in 5 Patients With Acute Myelogenous Leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhee, Chanu; Klompas, Michael; Tamburini, Fiona B; Fremin, Brayon J; Chea, Nora; Epstein, Lauren; Halpin, Alison Laufer; Guh, Alice; Gallen, Rachel; Coulliette, Angela; Gee, Jay; Hsieh, Candace; Desjardins, Christopher A; Pedamullu, Chandra Sekhar; DeAngelo, Daniel J; Manzo, Veronica E; Folkerth, Rebecca Dunn; Milner, Danny A; Pecora, Nicole; Osborne, Matthew; Chalifoux-Judge, Diane; Bhatt, Ami S; Yokoe, Deborah S

    2015-09-01

    Background.  Five neuroinvasive Bacillus cereus infections (4 fatal) occurred in hospitalized patients with acute myelogenous leukemia (AML) during a 9-month period, prompting an investigation by infection control and public health officials. Methods.  Medical records of case-patients were reviewed and a matched case-control study was performed. Infection control practices were observed. Multiple environmental, food, and medication samples common to AML patients were cultured. Multilocus sequence typing was performed for case and environmental B cereus isolates. Results.  All 5 case-patients received chemotherapy and had early-onset neutropenic fevers that resolved with empiric antibiotics. Fever recurred at a median of 17 days (range, 9-20) with headaches and abrupt neurological deterioration. Case-patients had B cereus identified in central nervous system (CNS) samples by (1) polymerase chain reaction or culture or (2) bacilli seen on CNS pathology stains with high-grade B cereus bacteremia. Two case-patients also had colonic ulcers with abundant bacilli on autopsy. No infection control breaches were observed. On case-control analysis, bananas were the only significant exposure shared by all 5 case-patients (odds ratio, 9.3; P = .04). Five environmental or food isolates tested positive for B cereus, including a homogenized banana peel isolate and the shelf of a kitchen cart where bananas were stored. Multilocus sequence typing confirmed that all case and environmental strains were genetically distinct. Multilocus sequence typing-based phylogenetic analysis revealed that the organisms clustered in 2 separate clades. Conclusions.  The investigation of this neuroinvasive B cereus cluster did not identify a single point source but was suggestive of a possible dietary exposure. Our experience underscores the potential virulence of B cereus in immunocompromised hosts.