WorldWideScience

Sample records for ceres integral benchmarks

  1. Shielding integral benchmark archive and database

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    SINBAD (Shielding integral benchmark archive and database) is a new electronic database developed to store a variety of radiation shielding benchmark data so that users can easily and incorporate the data into their calculations. SINBAD is an excellent data source for users who require the quality assurance necessary in developing cross-section libraries or radiation transport codes. The future needs of the scientific community are best served by the electronic database format of SINBAD and its user-friendly interface, combined with its data accuracy and integrity. It has been designed to be able to include data from nuclear reactor shielding, fusion blankets and accelerator shielding experiments. (authors)

  2. Shielding Integral Benchmark Archive and Database (SINBAD)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kirk, Bernadette Lugue [ORNL; Grove, Robert E [ORNL; Kodeli, I. [International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA); Sartori, Enrico [ORNL; Gulliford, J. [OECD Nuclear Energy Agency

    2011-01-01

    The Shielding Integral Benchmark Archive and Database (SINBAD) collection of benchmarks was initiated in the early 1990 s. SINBAD is an international collaboration between the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development s Nuclear Energy Agency Data Bank (OECD/NEADB) and the Radiation Safety Information Computational Center (RSICC) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). SINBAD is a major attempt to compile experiments and corresponding computational models with the goal of preserving institutional knowledge and expertise that need to be handed down to future scientists. SINBAD is also a learning tool for university students and scientists who need to design experiments or gain expertise in modeling and simulation. The SINBAD database is currently divided into three categories fission, fusion, and accelerator benchmarks. Where possible, each experiment is described and analyzed using deterministic or probabilistic (Monte Carlo) radiation transport software.

  3. Shielding Integral Benchmark Archive and Database (SINBAD)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Shielding Integral Benchmark Archive and Database (SINBAD) collection of benchmarks was initiated in the early 1990s. SINBAD is an international collaboration between the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development's Nuclear Energy Agency Data Bank (OECD/NEADB) and the Radiation Safety Information Computational Center (RSICC) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). SINBAD is a major attempt to compile experiments and corresponding computational models with the goal of preserving institutional knowledge and expertise that need to be handed down to future scientists. SINBAD is also a learning tool for university students and scientists who need to design experiments or gain expertise in modeling and simulation. The SINBAD database is currently divided into three categories fission, fusion, and accelerator benchmarks. Where possible, each experiment is described and analyzed using deterministic or probabilistic (Monte Carlo) radiation transport software.

  4. SINBAD: Shielding integral benchmark archive and database

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    SINBAD is a new electronic database developed to store a variety of radiation shielding benchmark data so that users can easily retrieve and incorporate the data into their calculations. SINBAD is an excellent data source for users who require the quality assurance necessary in developing cross-section libraries or radiation transport codes. The future needs of the scientific community are best served by the electronic database format of SINBAD and its user-friendly interface, combined with its data accuracy and integrity

  5. SINBAD: Shielding integral benchmark archive and database

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hunter, H.T.; Ingersoll, D.T.; Roussin, R.W. [and others

    1996-04-01

    SINBAD is a new electronic database developed to store a variety of radiation shielding benchmark data so that users can easily retrieve and incorporate the data into their calculations. SINBAD is an excellent data source for users who require the quality assurance necessary in developing cross-section libraries or radiation transport codes. The future needs of the scientific community are best served by the electronic database format of SINBAD and its user-friendly interface, combined with its data accuracy and integrity.

  6. Feedback on 239Pu and 240Pu nuclear data and associated covariances through the CERES integral experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benchmark measurements of irradiated and un-irradiated fuel samples were performed in the framework of the CERES collaborative program between AEA (UK Atomic Energy Agency) and CEA (French Atomic Energy Commission). These experiments provide relevant data for the validation of fuel burn-up and criticality-safety calculations for the whole fuel cycle. As part of this program, pile-oscillation measurements were carried out on a range of mixed-oxide samples with plutonium of various mass and isotopic contents, both in the MINERVE and DIMPLE reactors. Four core configurations, two over-thermalized situations and two pressurized water reactor (PWR)-type situations, were constituted with different forward and adjoint flux spectra, emphasizing fission and/or capture contributions. The experiments were analyzed using reference TRIPOLI4 calculations with the JEFF-3.1.1 library, using exact three-dimensional models of the core configurations. In a first step, calculations of each DIMPLE configuration were performed and compared with the experiment, showing very good agreements with a maximum C-E of -230 pcm. In the second step, reactivity worth experiments were analyzed, using recently developed exact-perturbation capabilities in TRIPOLI4. A consistent assimilation of calculation over experiment discrepancies was performed with the CONRAD code, using the integral data assimilation method. Covariance matrix on multigroup neutron cross sections and multiplicities were generated and significant trends were identified, especially on the 239Pu and 240Pu capture cross sections in the thermal energy range (E < 0.1 eV). Further investigations should be required to confirm these conclusions, due to the strong dependence of these trends and of posterior covariances to prior covariances. (author)

  7. Shielding integral benchmark archive and database (SINBAD)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kirk, B.L.; Grove, R.E. [Radiation Safety Information Computational Center RSICC, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, P.O. Box 2008, Oak Ridge, TN 37831-6171 (United States); Kodeli, I. [Josef Stefan Inst., Jamova 39, 1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Gulliford, J.; Sartori, E. [OECD NEA Data Bank, Bd des Iles, 92130 Issy-les-Moulineaux (France)

    2011-07-01

    The shielding integral benchmark archive and database (SINBAD) collection of experiments descriptions was initiated in the early 1990s. SINBAD is an international collaboration between the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development's Nuclear Energy Agency Data Bank (OECD/NEADB) and the Radiation Safety Information Computational Center (RSICC) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). SINBAD was designed to compile experiments and corresponding computational models with the goal of preserving institutional knowledge and expertise that need to be handed down to future scientists. SINBAD can serve as a learning tool for university students and scientists who need to design experiments or gain expertise in modeling and simulation. The SINBAD database is currently divided into three categories - fission, fusion, and accelerator experiments. Many experiments are described and analyzed using deterministic or stochastic (Monte Carlo) radiation transport software. The nuclear cross sections also play an important role as they are necessary in performing computational analysis. (authors)

  8. Shielding integral benchmark archive and database (SINBAD)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The shielding integral benchmark archive and database (SINBAD) collection of experiments descriptions was initiated in the early 1990s. SINBAD is an international collaboration between the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development's Nuclear Energy Agency Data Bank (OECD/NEADB) and the Radiation Safety Information Computational Center (RSICC) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). SINBAD was designed to compile experiments and corresponding computational models with the goal of preserving institutional knowledge and expertise that need to be handed down to future scientists. SINBAD can serve as a learning tool for university students and scientists who need to design experiments or gain expertise in modeling and simulation. The SINBAD database is currently divided into three categories - fission, fusion, and accelerator experiments. Many experiments are described and analyzed using deterministic or stochastic (Monte Carlo) radiation transport software. The nuclear cross sections also play an important role as they are necessary in performing computational analysis. (authors)

  9. Integral benchmarks with reference to thorium fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This is a power point presentation about the Indian participation in the CRP 'Evaluated Data for the Thorium-Uranium fuel cycle'. The plans and scope of the Indian participation are to provide selected integral experimental benchmarks for nuclear data validation, including Indian Thorium burn up benchmarks, post-irradiation examination studies, comparison of basic evaluated data files and analysis of selected benchmarks for Th-U fuel cycle

  10. Developing integrated benchmarks for DOE performance measurement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barancik, J.I.; Kramer, C.F.; Thode, Jr. H.C.

    1992-09-30

    The objectives of this task were to describe and evaluate selected existing sources of information on occupational safety and health with emphasis on hazard and exposure assessment, abatement, training, reporting, and control identifying for exposure and outcome in preparation for developing DOE performance benchmarks. Existing resources and methodologies were assessed for their potential use as practical performance benchmarks. Strengths and limitations of current data resources were identified. Guidelines were outlined for developing new or improved performance factors, which then could become the basis for selecting performance benchmarks. Data bases for non-DOE comparison populations were identified so that DOE performance could be assessed relative to non-DOE occupational and industrial groups. Systems approaches were described which can be used to link hazards and exposure, event occurrence, and adverse outcome factors, as needed to generate valid, reliable, and predictive performance benchmarks. Data bases were identified which contain information relevant to one or more performance assessment categories . A list of 72 potential performance benchmarks was prepared to illustrate the kinds of information that can be produced through a benchmark development program. Current information resources which may be used to develop potential performance benchmarks are limited. There is need to develop an occupational safety and health information and data system in DOE, which is capable of incorporating demonstrated and documented performance benchmarks prior to, or concurrent with the development of hardware and software. A key to the success of this systems approach is rigorous development and demonstration of performance benchmark equivalents to users of such data before system hardware and software commitments are institutionalized.

  11. Benchmark analyses of sodium convection in the upper plenum of the MONJU reactor vessel - Comparison between plant system analysis code CERES and CFD code -

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the CRP of IAEA, the data of the upper plenum geometry of the prototype FBR“MONJU” and the boundary conditions of the plant trip test were provided by JAEA. A plant system analysis code CERES for FBRs was developed by CRIEPI. To verify the CERES code, analyses had been performed for the system test of the MONJU, the results of which showed good agreement with the test. However, the difficulty of accurately reproducing the temperature variation arising from a complex flow in the upper plenum was identified. By using the general-purpose analysis code STAR-CCM+, detailed analysis in the upper plenum was enabled. Based on comparison between analyses of the CERES and STAR-CCM+ codes, parameters that had to be considered to simulate the flow pattern appropriately for plant system analysis codes were discussed. And, the analysis capability of CERES code with appropriate parameter was able to be confirmed. (author)

  12. Melcor benchmarking against integral severe fuel damage tests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Madni, I.K. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)

    1995-09-01

    MELCOR is a fully integrated computer code that models all phases of the progression of severe accidents in light water reactor nuclear power plants, and is being developed for the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) by Sandia National Laboratories (SNL). Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) has a program with the NRC to provide independent assessment of MELCOR, and a very important part of this program is to benchmark MELCOR against experimental data from integral severe fuel damage tests and predictions of that data from more mechanistic codes such as SCDAP or SCDAP/RELAP5. Benchmarking analyses with MELCOR have been carried out at BNL for five integral severe fuel damage tests, namely, PBF SFD 1-1, SFD 14, and NRU FLHT-2, analyses, and their role in identifying areas of modeling strengths and weaknesses in MELCOR.

  13. Integral test of JENDL-3.3 with shielding benchmarks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Integral tests of neutron and gamma-ray production data for cross-section libraries based on the Japanese Evaluated Nuclear Data Library, Version 3.3 (JENDL-3.3) have been performed by using shielding benchmarks. An evaluation scheme for shielding benchmark analysis established in Japanese Nuclear Data Committee (JNDC) was applied to the integral test for medium-heavy nuclei such as Oxygen, Sodium, Aluminum, Silicon, Titanium, Vanadium, Chromium, Iron, Cobalt, Nickel, Copper, Zirconium, Niobium, Molybdenum, Tungsten and Mercury. Calculations were made based on a continuous-energy Monte Carlo code MCNP4C and multi-group discrete ordinates codes ANISN, DORT and TORT. Calculations with JENDL-3.2, ENDF/B-VI, EFF-2, FENDL-1 and FENDL-2 were also made for comparison. The results of JENDL-3.3 were generally satisfactory and the cross-section libraries generated with JENDL-3.3 were verified to shielding applications for fission and fusion reactors. (author)

  14. Integral benchmarks for data assimilation: selection of a consistent set and establishment of integral correlations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This presentation shows how to define a consistent set of integral benchmarks and associated correlations in order to perform reliable data assimilation. It presents examples of the impact of integral uncertainty correlations on the integral performance assessment of evaluated libraries, and provides recommendations to ensure the full consistency of the integral information. The uncertainties and correlations of the integral benchmarks of ICSBEP Handbook have been evaluated with 'uncertainties-of-uncertainties'. The selected cases have been found to be almost entirely correlated. The second sections in ICSBEP benchmarks profiles provide enough data for experimental uncertainties correlations establishment. Correlations being applied change the evaluated accuracy levels of ND libraries. 'Equivalence theory' being applied to 235U bare spherical experimental configurations demonstrates contradictions. An action to be determined is to elaborate uncertainties and their correlations in the 'integral field' and to work on PFNS for U and Pu (if possible), and on ZPR-6 issues

  15. CERES progress report: Phases 1 and 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dannevik, W.P.; Ambrosiano, J.; Kercher, J.; Penner, J.E. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Emanuel, W. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1994-05-27

    The CERES project represents a long-term commitment of LLNL`s Global Climate Research Division to the EPA. The goal is to build an Earth System Model (ESM) with the ability in the near future to assist EPA in carrying out its responsibilities in the environmental policy and assessment arena, with particular emphasis on the terrestrial ecosystem components of the Earth system. There are two complementary aspects of the CERES development plan. The first is to provide a computational framework and modeling infrastructure for ESM development. The goal is to create an ``open architecture`` enabling submodels from different research groups studying terrestrial ecosystems to become part of a fully-coupled model of the Earth`s climate system. The second goal is to contribute fundamentally to understanding of the terrestrial component of the Earth system by developing advanced models. During this first phase of the CERES project, these two activities have been somewhat separate; the software engineering and framework building activity having been done in parallel with terrestrial model development. These two activities are merging as the framework becomes more mature, with robust software tools, and with a growing complement of tuned and benchmarked submodels and as the ecosystem models become fully incorporated into the ESM modeling framework. Two appendices contain the following papers: (1) ``Research Recommendations to the EPA in Support of Earth System Modeling Activities,`` LLNL CERES project report; and (2) ``Progress Report on Terrestrial Model Development: Research in Support of the CERES Earth System Modeling Project,`` LLNL CERES project report.

  16. Supply chain integration scales validation and benchmark values

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan A. Marin-Garcia

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The clarification of the constructs of the supply chain integration (clients, suppliers, external and internal, the creation of a measurement instrument based on a list of items taken from earlier papers, the validation of these scales and a preliminary benchmark to interpret the scales by percentiles based on a set of control variables (size of the plant, country, sector and degree of vertical integration. Design/methodology/approach: Our empirical analysis is based on the HPM project database (2005-2007 timeframe. The international sample is made up of 266 plants across ten countries: Austria, Canada, Finland, Germany, Italy, Japan, Korea, Spain, Sweden and the USA. In each country. We analized the descriptive statistics, internal consistency testing to purify the items (inter-item correlations, Cronbach’s alpha, squared multiple correlation, corrected item-total correlation, exploratory factor analysis, and finally, a confirmatory factor analysis to check the convergent and discriminant validity of the scales. The analyses will be done with the SPSS and EQS programme using the maximum likelihood parameter estimation method. Findings: The four proposed scales show excellent psychometric properties. Research limitations/implications: with a clearer and more concise designation of the supply chain integration measurement scales more reliable and accurate data could be taken to analyse the relations between these constructs with other variables of interest to the academic l fields. Practical implications: providing scales that are valid as a diagnostic tool for best practices, as well as providing a benchmark with which to compare the score for each individual plant against a collection of industrial companies from the machinery, electronics and transportation sectors. Originality/value: supply chain integration may be a major factor in explaining the performance of companies. The results are nevertheless inconclusive, the vast range

  17. Benchmarking Benchmarks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D.C. Blitz (David)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractBenchmarking benchmarks is a bundle of six studies that are inspired by the prevalence of benchmarking in academic finance research as well as in investment practice. Three studies examine if current benchmark asset pricing models adequately describe the cross-section of stock returns. W

  18. INTEGRAL BENCHMARKS AVAILABLE THROUGH THE INTERNATIONAL REACTOR PHYSICS EXPERIMENT EVALUATION PROJECT AND THE INTERNATIONAL CRITICALITY SAFETY BENCHMARK EVALUATION PROJECT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. Blair Briggs; Lori Scott; Enrico Sartori; Yolanda Rugama

    2008-09-01

    Interest in high-quality integral benchmark data is increasing as efforts to quantify and reduce calculational uncertainties accelerate to meet the demands of next generation reactor and advanced fuel cycle concepts. The International Reactor Physics Experiment Evaluation Project (IRPhEP) and the International Criticality Safety Benchmark Evaluation Project (ICSBEP) continue to expand their efforts and broaden their scope to identify, evaluate, and provide integral benchmark data for method and data validation. Benchmark model specifications provided by these two projects are used heavily by the international reactor physics, nuclear data, and criticality safety communities. Thus far, 14 countries have contributed to the IRPhEP, and 20 have contributed to the ICSBEP. The status of the IRPhEP and ICSBEP is discussed in this paper, and the future of the two projects is outlined and discussed. Selected benchmarks that have been added to the IRPhEP and ICSBEP handbooks since PHYSOR’06 are highlighted, and the future of the two projects is discussed.

  19. 'Wasteaware' benchmark indicators for integrated sustainable waste management in cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, David C; Rodic, Ljiljana; Cowing, Michael J; Velis, Costas A; Whiteman, Andrew D; Scheinberg, Anne; Vilches, Recaredo; Masterson, Darragh; Stretz, Joachim; Oelz, Barbara

    2015-01-01

    This paper addresses a major problem in international solid waste management, which is twofold: a lack of data, and a lack of consistent data to allow comparison between cities. The paper presents an indicator set for integrated sustainable waste management (ISWM) in cities both North and South, to allow benchmarking of a city's performance, comparing cities and monitoring developments over time. It builds on pioneering work for UN-Habitat's solid waste management in the World's cities. The comprehensive analytical framework of a city's solid waste management system is divided into two overlapping 'triangles' - one comprising the three physical components, i.e. collection, recycling, and disposal, and the other comprising three governance aspects, i.e. inclusivity; financial sustainability; and sound institutions and proactive policies. The indicator set includes essential quantitative indicators as well as qualitative composite indicators. This updated and revised 'Wasteaware' set of ISWM benchmark indicators is the cumulative result of testing various prototypes in more than 50 cities around the world. This experience confirms the utility of indicators in allowing comprehensive performance measurement and comparison of both 'hard' physical components and 'soft' governance aspects; and in prioritising 'next steps' in developing a city's solid waste management system, by identifying both local strengths that can be built on and weak points to be addressed. The Wasteaware ISWM indicators are applicable to a broad range of cities with very different levels of income and solid waste management practices. Their wide application as a standard methodology will help to fill the historical data gap. PMID:25458855

  20. Review of recent benchmark experiments on integral test for high energy nuclear data evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakashima, Hiroshi; Tanaka, Susumu; Konno, Chikara; Fukahori, Tokio; Hayashi, Katsumi [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    1998-11-01

    A survey work of recent benchmark experiments on an integral test for high energy nuclear data evaluation was carried out as one of the work of the Task Force on JENDL High Energy File Integral Evaluation (JHEFIE). In this paper the results are compiled and the status of recent benchmark experiments is described. (author)

  1. Integral Benchmark Data for Nuclear Data Testing Through the ICSBEP & IRPhEP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. Blair Briggs; John D. Bess; Jim Gulliford; Ian Hill

    2013-10-01

    The status of the International Criticality Safety Benchmark Evaluation Project (ICSBEP) and International Reactor Physics Experiment Evaluation Project (IRPhEP) was last discussed directly with the nuclear data community at ND2007. Since ND2007, integral benchmark data that are available for nuclear data testing have increased significantly. The status of the ICSBEP and the IRPhEP is discussed and selected benchmark configurations that have been added to the ICSBEP and IRPhEP Handbooks since ND2007 are highlighted.

  2. Planetary science: Salty Ceres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zolotov, Mikhail

    2016-07-01

    Anomalously bright spots are seen on the dark cratered surface of the dwarf planet Ceres. The Dawn spacecraft's detection of sodium carbonates in bright areas is consistent with aqueous activity in an ice-poor and salty regolith.

  3. An integrated data envelopment analysis-artificial neural network approach for benchmarking of bank branches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shokrollahpour, Elsa; Hosseinzadeh Lotfi, Farhad; Zandieh, Mostafa

    2016-02-01

    Efficiency and quality of services are crucial to today's banking industries. The competition in this section has become increasingly intense, as a result of fast improvements in Technology. Therefore, performance analysis of the banking sectors attracts more attention these days. Even though data envelopment analysis (DEA) is a pioneer approach in the literature as of an efficiency measurement tool and finding benchmarks, it is on the other hand unable to demonstrate the possible future benchmarks. The drawback to it could be that the benchmarks it provides us with, may still be less efficient compared to the more advanced future benchmarks. To cover for this weakness, artificial neural network is integrated with DEA in this paper to calculate the relative efficiency and more reliable benchmarks of one of the Iranian commercial bank branches. Therefore, each branch could have a strategy to improve the efficiency and eliminate the cause of inefficiencies based on a 5-year time forecast.

  4. Introduction of integral benchmarking systems into executive bodies’ performance

    OpenAIRE

    Vladimir Eliseenko; Konstantin Golovshchinskiy

    2008-01-01

    Recent years have witnessed various analytical methods for comparing or benchmarking technologies widely applied due to multiple public sector reforms. Such mechanisms became widespread because sometimes there was a lack of other criteria to assess better performance except for comparing separate characteristic features of the systems being analyzed. Besides, introduction of management by objectives gave rise to multiple targets, which might be used as a base for comparison. Thus, along with ...

  5. Dilepton Measurements with CERES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marin,A.; Rehak, P. et al.

    2007-07-09

    We report on dilepton measurements for central Pb on Au collisions at the top CERN SPS energy with the upgraded CERES experiment. The dilepton mass spectrum of 2000 data with improved mass resolution shows an enhancement over the expectation from hadron decays that is well described by a model including a strong broadening of the {rho} spectral function. The measured excess yield excludes the dropping mass scenario. We also report on the {phi} meson measured simultaneously both in the K{sup +}K{sup -} and in the dilepton decay channel for the first time in high energy heavy-ion collisions. An excellent agreement is found between the rapidity densities and the shape of the measured transverse momentum spectrum. The data rule out a possible enhancement of the {phi} yield in the leptonic over hadronic channel by a factor larger than 1.6 at 95% CL. CERES results are in agreement with NA49 results.

  6. Integrated manufacturing approach to attain benchmark team performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shau-Ron; Nguyen, Andrew; Naguib, Hussein

    1994-09-01

    A Self-Directed Work Team (SDWT) was developed to transfer a polyimide process module from the research laboratory to our wafer fab facility for applications in IC specialty devices. The SDWT implemented processes and tools based on the integration of five manufacturing strategies for continuous improvement. These were: Leadership Through Quality (LTQ), Total Productive Maintenance (TMP), Cycle Time Management (CTM), Activity-Based Costing (ABC), and Total Employee Involvement (TEI). Utilizing these management techniques simultaneously, the team achieved six sigma control of all critical parameters, increased Overall Equipment Effectiveness (OEE) from 20% to 90%, reduced cycle time by 95%, cut polyimide manufacturing cost by 70%, and improved its overall team member skill level by 33%.

  7. Benchmarking the Integration of WAVEWATCH III Results into HAZUS-MH: Preliminary Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berglund, Judith; Holland, Donald; McKellip, Rodney; Sciaudone, Jeff; Vickery, Peter; Wang, Zhanxian; Ying, Ken

    2005-01-01

    The report summarizes the results from the preliminary benchmarking activities associated with the use of WAVEWATCH III (WW3) results in the HAZUS-MH MR1 flood module. Project partner Applied Research Associates (ARA) is integrating the WW3 model into HAZUS. The current version of HAZUS-MH predicts loss estimates from hurricane-related coastal flooding by using values of surge only. Using WW3, wave setup can be included with surge. Loss estimates resulting from the use of surge-only and surge-plus-wave-setup were compared. This benchmarking study is preliminary because the HAZUS-MH MR1 flood module was under development at the time of the study. In addition, WW3 is not scheduled to be fully integrated with HAZUS-MH and available for public release until 2008.

  8. Integral Data Benchmark of HENDL2.0/MG Compared with Neutronics Shielding Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Jieqiong; Xu, Dezheng; Zheng, Shanliang; He, Zhaozhong; Hu, Yanglin; Li, Jingjing; Zou, Jun; Zeng, Qin; Chen, Mingliang; Wang, Minghuang

    2009-10-01

    HENDL2.0, the latest version of the hybrid evaluated nuclear data library, was developed based upon some evaluated data from FENDL2.1 and ENDF/B-VII. To qualify and validate the working library, an integral test for the neutron production data of HENDL2.0 was performed with a series of existing spherical shell benchmark experiments (such as V, Be, Fe, Pb, Cr, Mn, Cu, Al, Si, Co, Zr, Nb, Mo, W and Ti). These experiments were simulated numerically using HENDL2.0/MG and a home-developed code VisualBUS. Calculations were conducted with both FENDL2.1/MG and FENDL2.1/MC, which are based on a continuous-energy Monte Carlo Code MCNP/4C. By comparison and analysis of the neutron leakage spectra and the integral test, benchmark results of neutron production data are presented in this paper.

  9. Integral Data Benchmark of HENDL2.0/MG Compared with Neutronics Shielding Experiments

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIANG Jieqiong; XU Dezheng; ZHENG Shanliang; HE Zhaozhong; HU Yanglin; LI Jingjing; ZOU Jun; ZENG Qin; CHEN Mingliang; WANG Minghuang

    2009-01-01

    HENDL2.0,the latest version of the hybrid evaluated nuclear data library,was developed based upon some evaluated data from FENDL2.1 and ENDF/B-VII.To qualify and validate the working library,an integral test for the neutron production data of HENDL2.0 was performed with a series of existing spherical shell benchmark experiments (such as V,Be,Fe,Pb,Cr,Mn,Cu,Al,Si,Co,Zr,Nb,Mo,W and Ti).These experiments were simulated numerically using HENDL2.0/MG and a home-developed code VisualBUS.Calculations were conducted with both FENDL2.1/MG and FENDL2.1/MC,which are based on a continuous-energy Monte Carlo Code MCNP/4C.By comparison and analysis of the neutron leakage spectra and the integral test,benchmark results of neutron production data are presented in this paper.

  10. The CERES Astronomical Database

    CERN Document Server

    Xanthopoulos, E; Snellen, I; Dennett-Thorpe, J; Mack, K H

    1999-01-01

    The CERES Astronomical Archive was created initially in order to make the large amount of data that were collected from the two surveys, the Jodrell-VLA Astrometric Survey (JVAS) and the Cosmic Lens All-Sky Survey (CLASS), easily accessible to the partner members of the Consortium for European Research on Extragalactic Surveys (CERES) through the web. Here we describe the web based archive of the 15,000 flat spectrum radio sources. There is a wealth of information that one can access including downloading the raw and processed data for each of the sources. We also describe the search engines that were developed so that a) one can search through the archive for an object or a sample of objects by setting specific criteria and b) select new samples. Since new data are continually gathered on the same sources from follow up programs, an automatic update engine was created so that the new information and data can be added easily in the archive.

  11. Virtual instrument simulator for CERES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, John J.

    1997-12-01

    A benchtop virtual instrument simulator for CERES (clouds and the Earth's radiant energy system) has been built at NASA, Langley Research Center in Hampton, Virginia. The CERES instruments will fly on several earth orbiting platforms notably NASDA's tropical rainfall measurement mission (TRMM) and NASA's Earth observing system (EOS) satellites. CERES measures top of the atmosphere radiative fluxes using microprocessor controlled scanning radiometers. The CERES virtual instrument simulator consists of electronic circuitry identical to the flight unit's twin microprocessors and telemetry interface to the supporting spacecraft electronics and two personal computers (PC) connected to the I/O ports that control azimuth and elevation gimbals. Software consists of the unmodified TRW developed flight code and ground support software which serves as the instrument monitor and NASA/TRW developed engineering models of the scanners. The CERES instrument simulator will serve as a testbed for testing of custom instrument commands intended to solve in-flight anomalies of the instruments which could arise during the CERES mission. One of the supporting computers supports the telemetry display which monitors the simulator microprocessors during the development and testing of custom instrument commands. The CERES engineering development software models have been modified to provide a virtual instrument running on a second supporting computer linked in real time to the instrument flight microprocessor control ports. The CERES instrument simulator will be used to verify memory uploads by the CERES flight operations TEAM at NASA. Plots of the virtual scanner models match the actual instrument scan plots. A high speed logic analyzer has been used to track the performance of the flight microprocessor. The concept of using an identical but non-flight qualified microprocessor and electronics ensemble linked to a virtual instrument with identical system software affords a relatively

  12. Solution of the WFNDEC 2015 eddy current benchmark with surface integral equation method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demaldent, Edouard; Miorelli, Roberto; Reboud, Christophe; Theodoulidis, Theodoros

    2016-02-01

    In this paper, a numerical solution of WFNDEC 2015 eddy current benchmark is presented. In particular, the Surface Integral Equation (SIE) method has been employed for numerically solving the benchmark problem. The SIE method represent an effective and efficient alternative to standard numerical solver like Finite Element Method (FEM) when electromagnetic fields need to be calculated in problems involving homogeneous media. The formulation of SIE method allows to properly solve the electromagnetic problem by meshing the surface of the media instead to the complete media volume as done in FEM. The surface meshing enables to describe the problem with a smaller number of unknowns with respect to FEM. This property is directly translated in an obvious gain in terms of CPU time efficiency.

  13. A SEARCH FOR SATELLITES AROUND CERES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We conducted a satellite search around the dwarf planet 1 Ceres using Hubble Space Telescope and ground-based Palomar data. No candidate objects were found orbiting Ceres in its entire stability region down to ∼500 km from the surface of Ceres. Assuming a satellite would have the same albedo as Ceres, which has a visual geometric albedo of 0.07-0.10, our detection limit is sensitive to satellites larger than 1-2 km in diameter.

  14. Benchmarking of neutral beam current drive codes as a basis for the integrated modelling for ITER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neutral beam injection is a robust method for heating and current drive because it does not depend on any resonance conditions or coupling conditions at the edge. High-energy neutral beam current drive (NBCD) was experimentally validated for central current drive in JT-60U, giving a further confidence in ITER predictions. Recent progress in diagnostics, equilibrium solvers and analysis techniques enable rather detailed comparisons with NBCD codes. However, different codes give somewhat different results. Thus, we need to clarify physics implementations in NBCD codes, such as the beam model, ionization process, fast ion diffusion in the velocity space, orbit effects and electron shielding. Also from an integrated modelling viewpoint, an NBCD code benchmark is needed to establish a more solid basis for ITER operations. A benchmark of the Fokker-Planck code ACCOME has been performed against the orbit following Monte-Carlo code OFMC. Although calculated profiles agree rather well, the OFMC profile is slightly wider than the ACCOME one. The difference in the total fast ion current is ∼ 15%. We have examined fast ion diffusion in the 2D velocity space and observed difference in the diffusion in the pitch angle space. We have also examined orbit effects using a point source of the fast ions. Comparison of OFMC runs with and without the drift term in the orbit equation shows the finite banana width effect is not negligible. We have started a new NBCD code benchmark in the frame of the ITPA Steady-State Operation Topical Group with Fokker-Planck codes and orbit following Monte-Carlo codes such as OFMC, ACCOME, SPOT, NEMO, ASTRA, TRANSP/NUBEAM, ONETWO/NUBEAM, DRIFT and TOPICS. (author)

  15. Preliminary Geological Map of the Ac-H-1 Asari Quadrangle of Ceres: An Integrated Mapping Study Using Dawn Spacecraft Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruesch, O.; McFadden, L. A.; Hiesinger, H.; Scully, J. E. C.; Kneissl, T.; Hughson, K.; Williams, D. A.; Roatsch, T.; Preusker, F.; Schmedemann, N.; Marchi, S.; Jaumann, R.; Nathues, A.; Raymond, C. A.; Russell, C. T.

    2015-12-01

    We used geologic mapping applied to Dawn spacecraft data as a tool to understand the geologic history of the Ac-H-1 Asari quadrangle of dwarf planet Ceres. The Dawn Framing Camera observed the quadrangle (north polar area: 66°N-90°N) from an altitude of 4424 km and a clear-filter mosaic was produced at a spatial resolution of 400 m/pixel. A stereo-photogrammetric digital elevation model was calculated from images acquired during a higher altitude resulting in a spatial resolution of 1.4 km/pixel. Key characteristics of the study area are (1) a high density of impact craters and (2) moderate topographic variations. We measured a crater density of 9.8E-04 (km-2) for crater diameters >10 km, the highest on Ceres. Few isolated topographic highs (plateaus), reaching ~5 km in altitude relative to the ellipsoid, are present. Their irregular shape is often sculpted by impacts. We also note a positive relief with relatively steep slopes (~13°) and a cone-like shape centered at 85°N/8°E. Topographic lows, reaching -4 km, correspond to the floors of impact craters with diameters up to 64 km. The morphology of impact craters exhibits varying degrees of degradation. Degraded crater floors show central peaks and mass wasting deposits. The largest morphologically fresh deposit (78°N/38°E) is 20 km long, and has a lobate shape with striations on its surface. It extends from a crater rim downslope. No extensive ejecta deposits are present in the study area. In the course of the ongoing mission, we will incorporate mosaics from the High Altitude Mapping Orbit (~140 m/pixel) and Low Altitude Mapping Orbit (~35 m/pixel) phases to complete the preliminary photo-geological map and stratigraphy.

  16. Preliminary Geological Map of the Ac-H-8 Nawish Quadrangle of Ceres: An Integrated Mapping Study Using Dawn Spacecraft Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frigeri, Alessandro; De Sanctis, Maria Cristina; Carrozzo, Giacomo; Ammannito, Eleonora; Williams, David; Mest, Scott; Buczkowski, Debra; Preusker, Frank; Jaumann, Ralf; Roatsch, Thomas; Scully, Jennifer; Raymond, Carol; Russell, Christopher

    2016-04-01

    Herein we present the geologic mapping of the Ac-H-8 Nawish Quadrangle of dwarf planet Ceres, produced on the basis of the Dawn spacecraft data. The Ac-H-08 Nawish quadrangle is located between -22°S and 22°N and between 144°E and 216°E. At the north-east border, a polygonal, 75km-wide crater named Nawish gives the name to the whole quadrangle. An unamed, partially degraded, 100km-diameter crater is evident in the lower central sector of the quadrangle. Bright materials have been mapped and are associated with craters. For example, bright materials occur in the central peak region of Nawish crater and in the ejecta of an unnamed crater, which is located in the nearby quadrangle Ac-H-09. The topography of the area obtained from stereo-processing of imagery shows an highland in the middle of the quadrangle. Topography is lower in the northern and southern borders, with a altitude span of about 9500 meters. At the time of this writing geologic mapping was based on Framing Camera (FC) mosaics from the High Altitude Mapping Orbit (HAMO, 140 m/px) and Survey (415 m/px) orbits, including grayscale and color images and digital terrain models derived from stereo images. The first sessions of Low Altitude Mapping Orbit (LAMO, 35 m/px) images have been received as we are writing this abstract in the first half of January 2016. LAMO images represent the maximum spatial resolution images available for Ceres from the Dawn mission. Support of the Dawn Instrument, Operations, and Science Teams is acknowledged. This work is supported by grants from NASA, and from the German and Italian Space Agencies.

  17. Ceres' hydrogen-rich regolith

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prettyman, Thomas H.; Yamashita, Naoyuki; Castillo-Rogez, Julie C.; Feldman, William C.; Lawrence, David J.; McSween, Harry Y.; Schorghofer, Norbert; Toplis, Michael J.; Forni, Olivier; Joy, Steven P.; Marchi, Simone; Platz, Thomas; Polanskey, Carol A.; De Sanctis, Maria Cristina; Rayman, Marc D.; Raymond, Carol A.; Russell, Christopher T.

    2016-04-01

    Low-altitude mapping of Ceres by Dawn's Gamma Ray and Neutron Detector (GRaND) began in December of 2015. GRaND will continue to acquire data for at least six months in a circular-polar orbit, at an altitude of about 0.8 body radii. Close-proximity enables global mapping of the elemental composition of Ceres' regolith, with regional-scale spatial resolution, similar to that achieved at Vesta. An initial analysis of the data shows that Ceres' regolith is rich in H, consistent with the detection of ammoniated phyllosilicates by Dawn's Visible to InfraRed (VIR) spectrometer. Global maps of neutron and gamma ray counting data reveal a strong latitude variation, with suppressed counts at the poles. Lower bound estimates of the concentration of polar H exceed that found in carbonaceous chondrites, which are the best meteorite analogs for Ceres. Thermal modeling predicts that water ice is stable near the surface at high latitudes, and, given Ceres' low obliquity, water ice and other volatile species may be concentrated in permanently shadowed regions near the poles. Excess hydrogen at high latitudes is likely in the form of water ice within the decimeter depths sensed by GRaND. Changes in the hydration state of phyllosilicates and hydrated salt minerals with temperature could also contribute to observed spatial variations. Some GRaND signatures show evidence for layering of hydrogen, consistent with ice stability models. Differences in the gamma ray spectra of Ceres and Vesta indicate that Ceres' surface is primitive (closely related to carbonaceous chondrite-like compositions), in contrast to Vesta's fractionated igneous composition. Strong gamma rays are observed at 7.6 MeV (Fe), 6.1 MeV (O), and 2.2 MeV (H). With additional accumulation time, it may be possible to quantify or bound the concentration of other elements, such as Mg, Ni, and C. Elements diagnostic of hydrothermal activity (K, Cl, and S) may be detectable if they are present in high concentrations over

  18. Integrating CFD, CAA, and Experiments Towards Benchmark Datasets for Airframe Noise Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choudhari, Meelan M.; Yamamoto, Kazuomi

    2012-01-01

    Airframe noise corresponds to the acoustic radiation due to turbulent flow in the vicinity of airframe components such as high-lift devices and landing gears. The combination of geometric complexity, high Reynolds number turbulence, multiple regions of separation, and a strong coupling with adjacent physical components makes the problem of airframe noise highly challenging. Since 2010, the American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics has organized an ongoing series of workshops devoted to Benchmark Problems for Airframe Noise Computations (BANC). The BANC workshops are aimed at enabling a systematic progress in the understanding and high-fidelity predictions of airframe noise via collaborative investigations that integrate state of the art computational fluid dynamics, computational aeroacoustics, and in depth, holistic, and multifacility measurements targeting a selected set of canonical yet realistic configurations. This paper provides a brief summary of the BANC effort, including its technical objectives, strategy, and selective outcomes thus far.

  19. ‘Wasteaware’ benchmark indicators for integrated sustainable waste management in cities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Solid waste management (SWM) is a key utility service, but data is often lacking. • Measuring their SWM performance helps a city establish priorities for action. • The Wasteaware benchmark indicators: measure both technical and governance aspects. • Have been developed over 5 years and tested in more than 50 cities on 6 continents. • Enable consistent comparison between cities and countries and monitoring progress. - Abstract: This paper addresses a major problem in international solid waste management, which is twofold: a lack of data, and a lack of consistent data to allow comparison between cities. The paper presents an indicator set for integrated sustainable waste management (ISWM) in cities both North and South, to allow benchmarking of a city’s performance, comparing cities and monitoring developments over time. It builds on pioneering work for UN-Habitat’s solid waste management in the World’s cities. The comprehensive analytical framework of a city’s solid waste management system is divided into two overlapping ‘triangles’ – one comprising the three physical components, i.e. collection, recycling, and disposal, and the other comprising three governance aspects, i.e. inclusivity; financial sustainability; and sound institutions and proactive policies. The indicator set includes essential quantitative indicators as well as qualitative composite indicators. This updated and revised ‘Wasteaware’ set of ISWM benchmark indicators is the cumulative result of testing various prototypes in more than 50 cities around the world. This experience confirms the utility of indicators in allowing comprehensive performance measurement and comparison of both ‘hard’ physical components and ‘soft’ governance aspects; and in prioritising ‘next steps’ in developing a city’s solid waste management system, by identifying both local strengths that can be built on and weak points to be addressed. The Wasteaware ISWM indicators

  20. ‘Wasteaware’ benchmark indicators for integrated sustainable waste management in cities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, David C., E-mail: waste@davidcwilson.com [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Imperial College London (United Kingdom); Rodic, Ljiljana [Education and Competence Studies, Wageningen University and Research Centre (Netherlands); Cowing, Michael J. [Independent Consultant (Saint Lucia); Velis, Costas A. [School of Civil Engineering, University of Leeds (United Kingdom); Whiteman, Andrew D. [RWA Group, Sofia (Bulgaria); Scheinberg, Anne [WASTE, Gouda (Netherlands); Vilches, Recaredo; Masterson, Darragh [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Imperial College London (United Kingdom); Stretz, Joachim [Deutsche Gesellschaft für Internationale Zusammenarbeit GmbH (GIZ), Cairo (Egypt); Oelz, Barbara [GIZ, Eschborn (Germany)

    2015-01-15

    Highlights: • Solid waste management (SWM) is a key utility service, but data is often lacking. • Measuring their SWM performance helps a city establish priorities for action. • The Wasteaware benchmark indicators: measure both technical and governance aspects. • Have been developed over 5 years and tested in more than 50 cities on 6 continents. • Enable consistent comparison between cities and countries and monitoring progress. - Abstract: This paper addresses a major problem in international solid waste management, which is twofold: a lack of data, and a lack of consistent data to allow comparison between cities. The paper presents an indicator set for integrated sustainable waste management (ISWM) in cities both North and South, to allow benchmarking of a city’s performance, comparing cities and monitoring developments over time. It builds on pioneering work for UN-Habitat’s solid waste management in the World’s cities. The comprehensive analytical framework of a city’s solid waste management system is divided into two overlapping ‘triangles’ – one comprising the three physical components, i.e. collection, recycling, and disposal, and the other comprising three governance aspects, i.e. inclusivity; financial sustainability; and sound institutions and proactive policies. The indicator set includes essential quantitative indicators as well as qualitative composite indicators. This updated and revised ‘Wasteaware’ set of ISWM benchmark indicators is the cumulative result of testing various prototypes in more than 50 cities around the world. This experience confirms the utility of indicators in allowing comprehensive performance measurement and comparison of both ‘hard’ physical components and ‘soft’ governance aspects; and in prioritising ‘next steps’ in developing a city’s solid waste management system, by identifying both local strengths that can be built on and weak points to be addressed. The Wasteaware ISWM indicators

  1. Asteroid secular dynamics: Ceres' fingerprint identified

    CERN Document Server

    Novaković, Bojan; Tsirvoulis, Georgios; Knezević, Zoran

    2015-01-01

    Here we report on the significant role of a so far overlooked dynamical aspect, namely a secular resonance between the dwarf planet Ceres and other asteroids. We demonstrate that this type of secular resonance can be the dominant dynamical factor in certain regions of the main asteroid belt. Specifically, we performed a dynamical analysis of the asteroids belonging to the (1726) Hoffmeister family. To identify which dynamical mechanisms are actually at work in this part of the main asteroid belt, i.e. to isolate the main perturber(s), we study the evolution of this family in time. The study is accomplished using numerical integrations of test particles performed within different dynamical models. The obtained results reveal that the post-impact evolution of the Hoffmeister asteroid family is a direct consequence of the nodal secular resonance with Ceres. This leads us to the conclusion that similar effects must exist in other parts of the asteroid belt. In this respect, the obtained results shed light on an i...

  2. Quo Vadis Benchmark Simulation Models? 8th IWA Symposium on Systems Analysis and Integrated Assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jeppsson, U.; Alex, J.; Batstone, D,;

    2011-01-01

    As the work of the IWA Task Group on Benchmarking of Control Strategies for WWTPs is coming towards an end, it is essential to disseminate the knowledge gained. For this reason, all authors of the IWA Scientific and Technical Report on benchmarking have come together to provide their insights...... modifications within the WWTP, the realism of models, control strategy extensions and the potential for new evaluation tools within the existing benchmark system....

  3. Climate Model Evaluation using New Datasets from the Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loeb, Norman G.; Wielicki, Bruce A.; Doelling, David R.

    2008-01-01

    . Diurnal cycles are explicitly resolved by merging geostationary satellite observations with CERES and MODIS. Atmospheric state data are provided from a frozen version of the Global Modeling and Assimilation Office- Data Assimilation System at the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center. In addition to improving the accuracy of top-of-atmosphere (TOA) radiative fluxes, CERES also produces radiative fluxes at the surface and at several levels in the atmosphere using radiative transfer modeling, constrained at the TOA by CERES (ERBE was limited to the TOA). In all, CERES uses 11 instruments on 7 spacecraft all integrated to obtain climate accuracy in TOA to surface fluxes. This presentation will provide an overview of several new CERES datasets of interest to the climate community (including a new adjusted TOA flux dataset constrained by estimates of heat storage in the Earth system), show direct comparisons between CERES ad ERBE, and provide a detailed error analysis of CERES fluxes at various time and space scales. We discuss how observations can be used to reduce uncertainties in cloud feedback and climate sensitivity and strongly argue why we should NOT "call off the quest".

  4. Evaluating Surface Flux Results from CERES-FLASHFlux

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilber, A. C.; Stackhouse, P. W.; Kratz, D. P.; Gupta, S. K.; Sawaengphokhai, P.

    2015-12-01

    The Fast Longwave and Shortwave Radiative Flux (FLASHFlux) data product was developed to provide a rapid release version of the Clouds and Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) results, which could be made available to the research and applications communities within one week of the satellite observations by exchanging some accuracy for speed of processing. TOA and surface flux products are provided for each CERES footprint (Single Scanner Footprint - SSF) and also time integrated and spatially averaged (TISA) to provide global daily averaged quantities. Despite the use of the most recently available calibration coefficients and operational inputs that are different from CERES formal climate quality data products, FLASHFlux has been found to provide results that compare very favorably with the CERES results. The TISA results from the FLASHFlux highly parameterized models are compared to the surface fluxes from CERES-EBAF, which uses a radiative transfer model, for the time period when both products are available. The FLASHFlux surface data products also have been found to give accurate surface flux results when compared to ground measurements. We present validation of both footprint-level and time-space averaged surface fluxes against ground measurements. Validation is done for both longwave (LW) and shortwave (SW) surface fluxes. The surface radiation measurements for land and island sites are collected from multiple networks, including the Baseline Surface Radiation Network (BSRN), Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM). In the US, the NOAA SURFRAD network provides surface flux data products within a day of measurement and these are optimal for FLASHFlux validation. Ocean buoy measurements are from Woods Hole Oceanographic Institute (WHOI). Overall bias for the SSF downward LW flux has been found to be about 6 Wm-2. For SW the bias is about 3 Wm-2. Clear and cloudy sky conditions will be evaluated separately. Validation is also examined by surface type.

  5. Interior Evolution of Ceres Revealed by Dawn

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raymond, Carol A.; Park, Ryan S.; Konopliv, Alex S.; Bland, Michael T.; Marchi, Simone; Castillo-Rogez, Julie C.; McCord, Thomas B.; Jaumann, Ralf; Russell, Christopher T.; Prettyman, Thomas H.

    2015-11-01

    Dawn's exploration of Ceres has revealed its geophysical characteristics, informing the processes that have shaped it. Dawn has determined the average diameter of Ceres to be 940 km, smaller than the previously estimated 975 km [1]. This implies a density of 2160 kg/m3, indicating that Ceres is less differentiated than predicted [2]. The low-degree gravity field is consistent with the body being in hydrostatic equilibrium and the magnitude of J2 implies some central condensation. Ceres' entire surface is cratered, implying the lack of a thick (10's of km) water ice layer at the surface. Variability in Ceres' crater morphology indicates that the near-surface layer has variable strength and rheology, likely due to heterogeneity in the near-surface mixture of rock, ice and salt. The lack of a number of expected large impact basins on Ceres can be interpreted to be the result of viscous relaxation, resurfacing or a combination of both. These data provide insights into Ceres' thermal evolution and mechanical properties, which appear to be unique to this warm, icy body.[1] Thomas, P. C., et al., Differentiation of the asteroid Ceres as revealed by its shape, Nature, 437, 224-226, 2005; [2] McCord et al., Ceres: Its Origin, Evolution and Structure and Dawn's Potential Contribution, Space Sci Rev DOI 10.1007/s11214-010-9729-9, 2011.

  6. CERES FLASHFlux: CERES Data Products for Science and Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawaengphokhai, P.; Stackhouse, P. W.; Kratz, D. P.; Gupta, S. K.; Wilber, A. C.

    2013-12-01

    The Clouds and Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) Fast Longwave And SHortwave Radiative Fluxes (FLASHFlux) data products were introduced at the NASA Langley Research Center to address the needs of the science community for global surface and top-of-atmosphere (TOA) radiative fluxes on a near real-time basis. This has been accomplished by enhancing the speed of CERES processing using simplified calibration and averaging techniques to produce daily TOA fluxes and fast radiation parameterizations to produce daily surface fluxes within a week of satellite observation. While the resulting products are not considered to be sufficiently accurate for studying long-term climate trends, they satisfy the needs for many near real-time scientific data analyses and industrial applications. Currently, FLASHFlux produces daily Level-2 Single Scanner Footprint (SSF) and Level-3 Temporally Interpolated and Spatially Averaged (TISA) data products. The SSF products are derived for the cross-track CERES instrument on Terra and Aqua separately. The TISA data products are derived using measurements from the CERES instruments from Terra and Aqua together. TOA fluxes from SSF have been used to validate flux products from CloudSat and Megha-Tropiques and are available within about 4 days of real-time.. Additionally, we show the usefulness of the FLASHFlux TISA top-of-atmosphere data products for near real term application such as extending the CERES Energy Balance And Filled (EBAF) data to assess Earth's radiation budget variability as presented in the State of the Climate 2012. The FLASHFlux SSF and TISA employ the Langley Parameterize Shortwave Algorithm (LPSA) and Langley Parameterize Longwave Algorithm (LPLA) to derive daily surface flux estimates within about 6-7 days of satellite observation. Preliminary surface validation of the FLASHFlux Version3A shows underestimation less than 5 Wm-2 for downward longwave flux and less than 20 Wm-2 for downward shortwave flux. Improvement in

  7. Neutron Cross Section Processing Methods for Improved Integral Benchmarking of Unresolved Resonance Region Evaluations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Jonathan A.; Forget, Benoit; Smith, Kord S.; Brown, Forrest B.

    2016-03-01

    In this work we describe the development and application of computational methods for processing neutron cross section data in the unresolved resonance region (URR). These methods are integrated with a continuous-energy Monte Carlo neutron transport code, thereby enabling their use in high-fidelity analyses. Enhanced understanding of the effects of URR evaluation representations on calculated results is then obtained through utilization of the methods in Monte Carlo integral benchmark simulations of fast spectrum critical assemblies. First, we present a so-called on-the-fly (OTF) method for calculating and Doppler broadening URR cross sections. This method proceeds directly from ENDF-6 average unresolved resonance parameters and, thus, eliminates any need for a probability table generation pre-processing step in which tables are constructed at several energies for all desired temperatures. Significant memory reduction may be realized with the OTF method relative to a probability table treatment if many temperatures are needed. Next, we examine the effects of using a multi-level resonance formalism for resonance reconstruction in the URR. A comparison of results obtained by using the same stochastically-generated realization of resonance parameters in both the single-level Breit-Wigner (SLBW) and multi-level Breit-Wigner (MLBW) formalisms allows for the quantification of level-level interference effects on integrated tallies such as keff and energy group reaction rates. Though, as is well-known, cross section values at any given incident energy may differ significantly between single-level and multi-level formulations, the observed effects on integral results are minimal in this investigation. Finally, we demonstrate the calculation of true expected values, and the statistical spread of those values, through independent Monte Carlo simulations, each using an independent realization of URR cross section structure throughout. It is observed that both probability table

  8. Neutron Cross Section Processing Methods for Improved Integral Benchmarking of Unresolved Resonance Region Evaluations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walsh Jonathan A.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work we describe the development and application of computational methods for processing neutron cross section data in the unresolved resonance region (URR. These methods are integrated with a continuous-energy Monte Carlo neutron transport code, thereby enabling their use in high-fidelity analyses. Enhanced understanding of the effects of URR evaluation representations on calculated results is then obtained through utilization of the methods in Monte Carlo integral benchmark simulations of fast spectrum critical assemblies. First, we present a so-called on-the-fly (OTF method for calculating and Doppler broadening URR cross sections. This method proceeds directly from ENDF-6 average unresolved resonance parameters and, thus, eliminates any need for a probability table generation pre-processing step in which tables are constructed at several energies for all desired temperatures. Significant memory reduction may be realized with the OTF method relative to a probability table treatment if many temperatures are needed. Next, we examine the effects of using a multi-level resonance formalism for resonance reconstruction in the URR. A comparison of results obtained by using the same stochastically-generated realization of resonance parameters in both the single-level Breit-Wigner (SLBW and multi-level Breit-Wigner (MLBW formalisms allows for the quantification of level-level interference effects on integrated tallies such as keff and energy group reaction rates. Though, as is well-known, cross section values at any given incident energy may differ significantly between single-level and multi-level formulations, the observed effects on integral results are minimal in this investigation. Finally, we demonstrate the calculation of true expected values, and the statistical spread of those values, through independent Monte Carlo simulations, each using an independent realization of URR cross section structure throughout. It is observed that both

  9. A Brief History of Ceres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castillo, J. C.

    2014-12-01

    Available observations and thermal simulations suggest that Ceres is a warm icy body differentiated in a rocky core and icy shell. This model is supported by recent detection of a cloud of water vapor sourced from a couple of regions at the surface of the asteroid (Kueppers et al. (2014) Nature 505, 525). Combining geophysical tools developed for icy satellite modeling and hydrogeochemistry modeling, we derive interior and geological evolution scenarios for a variety of assumptions on the asteroid's accretional environment. Key events include (1) the early differentiation of a rocky core accompanied by a phase of intensive hydration in high pH environment. These conditions are favorable to the production of brucite and carbonates, as well as the redistribution of certain elements, e.g., potassium, from the rock to the aqueous phase; (2) an episode of partial dehydration of the core accompanied by a major heat pulse and further rock leaching; (3) efficient convection, including a phase in the mobile-lid regime that could have been responsible for the recent emplacement of Ceres' surface. It is important to keep in mind that Ceres is a small object whose main heat source is limited to long-lived radioisotope decay. Hence it is unlikely, from a basic thermal standpoint, that this object could maintain cryovolcanic activity at present. However, we will also report on a scenario in which potassium-40 has been extensively leached from the rock and is now concentrated in thick salt cumulates at the interface between the rocky core and shell, as was proposed for Europa (Prieto-Ballesteros and Kargel (2005) Icarus 173, 212). Low salt thermal conductivity combined with potassium-40 abundance may lead to partial melting. Whether or not this warm layer at the base of the icy shell can promote a late phase of cryovolcanism will be evaluated and presented at the meeting. We will compare the implications of these models against other models for the emplacement of Ceres' surface

  10. High integrity reference trajectory for benchmarking land navigation data fusion methods

    OpenAIRE

    Betaille, David; CHAPELON, Antoine; Lusetti, Benoît; KAIS, Mikaël; MILLESCAMPS, Damien

    2007-01-01

    AbstractIn the framework of a joint initiative of several French laboratories that investigate land navigation, the authors have designed an architecture and tests protocol for benchmarking altogether data fusion methods applied on a collection of sensors covering the complete range of quality. Special attention has been given to sensors data timestamping since the benchmarking is based on the comparison of computed trajectories with the reference trajectory, so called because its compu...

  11. Geomorphological related albedo features on Ceres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krohn, K.; Matz, K.-D.; Jaumann, R.; Otto, K.; Li, J.-Y.; Buczkowski, D.; Mest, S.; Scully, J. E. C.; Williams, D. A.; Raymond, C. A.; Russell, C. T.

    2015-10-01

    NASA's Dawn spacecraft entered orbit of Ceres on March 6, 2015, to spend one year characterizing the geology, elemental and mineralogical composition, topography, shape, and internal structure of the Ceres [1]. Ceres is supposed to be differentiated into a silicate core, a liquid water mantle and a solid ice crust with a surface temperature from 130K to 235K [2,3]. At the time of writing, the acquired image data from Ceres provide a spatial resolution of up to 2.1 km/pixel. The surface of Ceres reveals some albedo features that seem to be related to geomorphology. Those features show either a high or a low albedo compared to the surrounding.

  12. SINBAD: A shielding integral benchmark archive and database for PC`s

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hunter, H.T.; Ingersoll, D.T.; Roussin, R.W.; Sartori, E.; Slater, C.O.

    1994-06-01

    Within the last 30 years, many shielding ``benchmark`` experiments, involving thermal and fast reactor spectra, as well as fusion reactor sources, have been performed worldwide. The results provide a means to perform quality assurance and consistency checks on recently developed transport codes and cross-section libraries. An effective means for storing, locating, and retrieving these experimental and calculational benchmark results for nuclear systems is under development. A new electronic data base called SINBAD, has the flexibility and a detailed storage structure capable of handling the many types of data found in benchmarks. These data are related by classifications and subclassifications so they may be quickly and efficiently reassembled at the user`s control. Output for data searching may be first perused at the screen and then printed and/or saved to a computer file for future use in user`s calculations. Future graphic display developments will allow a more comprehensive examination of the experimental geometry detail and data comparison.

  13. Surface Albedo and Spectral Variability of Ceres

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Jian-Yang; Nathues, Andreas; Corre, Lucille Le; Izawa, Matthew R M; Clouts, Edward A; Sykes, Mark V; Carsenty, Uri; Castillo-Rogez, Julie C; Hoffmann, Martin; Jaumann, Ralf; Krohn, Katrin; Mottola, Stefano; Prettyman, Thomas H; Schaefer, Michael; Schenk, Paul; Schröder, Stefan E; Williams, David A; Smith, David E; Zuber, Maria T; Konopliv, Alexander S; Park, Ryan S; Raymond, Carol A; Russell, Christopher T

    2016-01-01

    Previous observations suggested that Ceres has active but possibly sporadic water outgassing, and possibly varying spectral characteristics in a time scale of months. We used all available data of Ceres collected in the past three decades from the ground and the Hubble Space Telescope, and the newly acquired images by Dawn Framing Camera to search for spectral and albedo variability on Ceres, in both a global scale and local regions, particularly the bright spots inside Occator crater, over time scales of a few months to decades. Our analysis has placed an upper limit on the possible temporal albedo variation on Ceres. Sporadic water vapor venting, or any possibly ongoing activity on Ceres, is not significant enough to change the albedo or the area of the bright features in Occator crater by >15%, or the global albedo by >3% over various time scales that we searched. Recently reported spectral slope variations can be explained by changing Sun-Ceres-Earth geometry. The active area on Ceres is less than 1 km$^2...

  14. Surface Albedo and Spectral Variability of Ceres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jian-Yang; Reddy, Vishnu; Nathues, Andreas; Le Corre, Lucille; Izawa, Matthew R. M.; Cloutis, Edward A.; Sykes, Mark V.; Carsenty, Uri; Castillo-Rogez, Julie C.; Hoffmann, Martin; Jaumann, Ralf; Krohn, Katrin; Mottola, Stefano; Prettyman, Thomas H.; Schaefer, Michael; Schenk, Paul; Schröder, Stefan E.; Williams, David A.; Smith, David E.; Zuber, Maria T.; Konopliv, Alexander S.; Park, Ryan S.; Raymond, Carol A.; Russell, Christopher T.

    2016-02-01

    Previous observations suggested that Ceres has active, but possibly sporadic, water outgassing as well as possibly varying spectral characteristics over a timescale of months. We used all available data of Ceres collected in the past three decades from the ground and the Hubble Space Telescope, as well as the newly acquired images by the Dawn  Framing Camera, to search for spectral and albedo variability on Ceres, on both a global scale and in local regions, particularly the bright spots inside the Occator crater, over timescales of a few months to decades. Our analysis has placed an upper limit on the possible temporal albedo variation on Ceres. Sporadic water vapor venting, or any possibly ongoing activity on Ceres, is not significant enough to change the albedo or the area of the bright features in the Occator crater by >15%, or the global albedo by >3% over the various timescales that we searched. Recently reported spectral slope variations can be explained by changing Sun-Ceres-Earth geometry. The active area on Ceres is less than 1 km2, too small to cause global albedo and spectral variations detectable in our data. Impact ejecta due to impacting projectiles of tens of meters in size like those known to cause observable changes to the surface albedo on Asteroid Scheila cannot cause detectable albedo change on Ceres due to its relatively large size and strong gravity. The water vapor activity on Ceres is independent of Ceres’ heliocentric distance, ruling out the possibility of the comet-like sublimation process as a possible mechanism driving the activity.

  15. Regional Heterogenity In Ceres' Subsurface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raymond, Carol A.; Marchi, Simone; Bland, Michael T.; Castillo-Rogez, Julie C.; Park, Ryan S.; Russell, Christopher T.; Hughson, Kynan G.; Scully, Jennifer E. C.

    2016-04-01

    The Dawn mission arrived at Ceres in March 2015 to find a body different than expected. Dawn found that Ceres was slightly smaller (avg radius of 470 versus 476.2 km), flatter and denser than the previous estimates, raising the question of how completely Ceres had differentiated. Dawn's gravity measurements indicate that Ceres is close to hydrostatic equilibrium and there is some degree of central condensation, suggesting a gradient in the content of volatiles within the interior. The surface is heavily cratered indicating that the outer shell is not dominated by ice, as would be expected for a differentiated body. Crater preservation at all scales, absent those larger than ~300 km, and complex morphology of the surface indicate a strong outer shell comprising no more than 40% ice by volume. The global, near-hydrostatic shape is consistent with a warmer, weaker interior beneath the strong outer shell. While the lack of evidence for an ice-dominated layer near the surface could indicate that it never formed, and thus Ceres only partially differentiated, an alternate explanation is that the volatile-rich outermost shell was lost as a result of im-pacts and to mixing of the ice with the silicate-rich briny layer that formed at the base of the former frozen ocean. Understanding the composition and rheology of the outer shell is a key part of solving the interior evolution puzzle. Thus far, we see evidence in the crater record for a viscosity several orders of magnitude higher than pure water ice; however, the crater preservation state varies considerably over the surface. There is no striking latitude dependence to the variation in crater preservation state, rather there are regional and local variations that juxtapose smooth, ap-parently relaxed or resurfaced areas next to areas of well-defined impacts and tectonic features. The largest craters Kerwan and Yalode are associated with surronding smoother, more sparsely cratered terrains, and show smooth inte-riors with

  16. Constraining Ceres' interior from its Rotational Motion

    CERN Document Server

    Rambaux, Nicolas; Dehant, Véronique; Kuchynka, Petr

    2011-01-01

    Context. Ceres is the most massive body of the asteroid belt and contains about 25 wt.% (weight percent) of water. Understanding its thermal evolution and assessing its current state are major goals of the Dawn Mission. Constraints on internal structure can be inferred from various observations. Especially, detailed knowledge of the rotational motion can help constrain the mass distribution inside the body, which in turn can lead to information on its geophysical history. Aims. We investigate the signature of the interior on the rotational motion of Ceres and discuss possible future measurements performed by the spacecraft Dawn that will help to constrain Ceres' internal structure. Methods. We compute the polar motion, precession-nutation, and length-of-day variations. We estimate the amplitudes of the rigid and non-rigid response for these various motions for models of Ceres interior constrained by recent shape data and surface properties. Results. As a general result, the amplitudes of oscillations in the r...

  17. The missing large impact craters on Ceres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchi, S.; Ermakov, A. I.; Raymond, C. A.; Fu, R. R.; O'Brien, D. P.; Bland, M. T.; Ammannito, E.; de Sanctis, M. C.; Bowling, T.; Schenk, P.; Scully, J. E. C.; Buczkowski, D. L.; Williams, D. A.; Hiesinger, H.; Russell, C. T.

    2016-07-01

    Asteroids provide fundamental clues to the formation and evolution of planetesimals. Collisional models based on the depletion of the primordial main belt of asteroids predict 10-15 craters >400 km should have formed on Ceres, the largest object between Mars and Jupiter, over the last 4.55 Gyr. Likewise, an extrapolation from the asteroid Vesta would require at least 6-7 such basins. However, Ceres' surface appears devoid of impact craters >~280 km. Here, we show a significant depletion of cerean craters down to 100-150 km in diameter. The overall scarcity of recognizable large craters is incompatible with collisional models, even in the case of a late implantation of Ceres in the main belt, a possibility raised by the presence of ammoniated phyllosilicates. Our results indicate that a significant population of large craters has been obliterated, implying that long-wavelength topography viscously relaxed or that Ceres experienced protracted widespread resurfacing.

  18. Dawn approaches Ceres: Analysis of first FC color data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, Martin; Nathues, Andreas; Schäfer, Michael; Russell, Christopher T.; Schäfer, Tanja; Memgel, Kurt; Reddy, Vishnu; Thangjam, Guneshwar S.; Sierks, Holger; Christensen, Ulrich; Hiesinger, Harald; Le Corre, Lucille; Gutiérrez-Marqués, Pablo; Büttner, Irene; Hall, Ian; Ripken, Joachim; Sykes, Mark V.; Li, Jian-Yang

    2015-04-01

    Since December 1, 2014 the Dawn spacecraft obtains images of Ceres by its onboard Framing Camera in seven color bands and one clear (panchromatic) filter. The size of Ceres (in pixels) has increased during this time from a diameter of 9 pixels to about a quarter of the full frame. The higher resolution of more recent data reveals first details of the topography and distribution of reflectances. Also, we are going to show evidence on extent and elevation of impact structures and other geologic features. These are first indications on their context and unique properties of the surface and evolution of Ceres. The relationship of these features to previous resolved HST observations (Li et al., 2006) and the recent discussion on water emission activity (Küppers et al., 2014), as well as their distribution in longitude and latitude, will be discussed. The (anticipated) most recent data will be able to resolve water related features comparable with those on icy satellites. Potential consequences for the upcoming high resolution data and their planning are to be shown. The first data, obtained on Dec 1st, have been used to start studying the phase curve and to derive an integrated spectrum of Ceres (17 co-registered pixels around the center of the disk). The data were integrated to a single spectrum between 0.44 µm and 0.96 µm. The spectrum is essentially flat over all bands within the accuracy of the data (± 0.01 in reflectance). It is consistent with previous Earth based spectra (Vilas and McFadden, 1992, Burbine et al., 2002, Li et al., 2006). Potential sites showing spectral absorption features in the visual wavelength range will be discussed. The distribution of reflectances at positions relative to the sub-solar longitude also confirms the expected extrapolation of the phase curve from ground based observations. A comparison of the observed phase effect and detected surface features will be presented. Thus differences of the surface roughness on different size

  19. Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) is a key component of the Earth Observing System (EOS) program. The CERES instruments provide radiometric...

  20. Recent accelerator experiments updates in Shielding INtegral Benchmark Archive Database (SINBAD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kodeli, I.; Sartori, E.; Kirk, B.

    2006-06-01

    SINBAD is an internationally established set of radiation shielding and dosimetry data relative to experiments relevant in reactor shielding, fusion blanket neutronics and accelerator shielding. In addition to the characterization of the radiation source, it describes shielding materials and instrumentation and the relevant detectors. The experimental results, be it dose, reaction rates or unfolded spectra are presented in tabular ASCII form that can easily be exported to different computer environments for further use. Most sets in SINBAD also contain the computer model used for the interpretation of the experiment and, where available, results from uncertainty analysis. The set of primary documents used for the benchmark compilation and evaluation are provided in computer readable form. SINBAD is available free of charge from RSICC and from the NEA Data Bank.

  1. Recent accelerator experiments updates in Shielding INtegral Benchmark Archive Database (SINBAD)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kodeli, I. [IAEA Representative at OECD/NEA Data Bank, 12 bd. des Iles, 92130 Issy-les-Moulinaux (France)]. E-mail: ivo.kodeli@oecd.org; Sartori, E. [OECD Nuclear Energy Agency, 12 bd des Iles, 92130 Issy les Moulineaux (France); Kirk, B. [RSICC, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, POB 2008, Oak Ridge, TN 37831-6362 (United States)

    2006-06-23

    SINBAD is an internationally established set of radiation shielding and dosimetry data relative to experiments relevant in reactor shielding, fusion blanket neutronics and accelerator shielding. In addition to the characterization of the radiation source, it describes shielding materials and instrumentation and the relevant detectors. The experimental results, be it dose, reaction rates or unfolded spectra are presented in tabular ASCII form that can easily be exported to different computer environments for further use. Most sets in SINBAD also contain the computer model used for the interpretation of the experiment and, where available, results from uncertainty analysis. The set of primary documents used for the benchmark compilation and evaluation are provided in computer readable form. SINBAD is available free of charge from RSICC and from the NEA Data Bank.

  2. Recent accelerator experiments updates in Shielding INtegral Benchmark Archive Database (SINBAD)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    SINBAD is an internationally established set of radiation shielding and dosimetry data relative to experiments relevant in reactor shielding, fusion blanket neutronics and accelerator shielding. In addition to the characterization of the radiation source, it describes shielding materials and instrumentation and the relevant detectors. The experimental results, be it dose, reaction rates or unfolded spectra are presented in tabular ASCII form that can easily be exported to different computer environments for further use. Most sets in SINBAD also contain the computer model used for the interpretation of the experiment and, where available, results from uncertainty analysis. The set of primary documents used for the benchmark compilation and evaluation are provided in computer readable form. SINBAD is available free of charge from RSICC and from the NEA Data Bank

  3. Integral benchmark experiments of the Japanese Evaluated Nuclear Data Library (JENDL)-3.3 for the fusion reactor design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    JENDL-3.3 is a neutron cross section data library of 337 nuclei evaluated from the latest experimental data. JENDL-3.3 introduces double differential cross sections, which are energy- and angle-dependent ones of the scattered secondary neutrons, and are important for anisotropic neutron transport calculations for the fusion reactors design. This paper overviews benchmark experiments carried out for key fusion related nuclei such as Iron and Vanadium, and the results of analyses with JENDL-3.3, together with JENDL-3.2 and FENDL-2 for a comparison purpose. The experiments have been carried out at the Fusion Neutron Source (FNS) of JAERI. During the neutron injection into the assemblies, neutron and secondary gamma-ray spectra have been measured inside and outside the assemblies. For the test assemblies, we have used Iron, Copper, Vanadium and Tungsten as a single element material, and LiAlO2 and SiC as a compound material. From the integral benchmark experiments it was confirmed that the accuracy of JENDL-3.3 has been improved well compared with JENDL- 3.2 and FENDL-2 by the re-evaluation using latest experimental data, and JENDL-3.3 is suitable for the nuclear analysis of the fusion reactor. (author)

  4. DAWN Framing Camera results from Ceres orbit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nathues, A.; Hoffmann, M.; Schäfer, M.; Le Corre, L.; Reddy, V.; Platz, T.; Russel, C. T.; Li, J.-Y.; Ammanito, E.; Buettner, I.; Christensen, U.; Hall, I.; Kelley, M.; Gutiérrez Marqués, P.; McCord, T. B.; McFadden, L. A.; Mengel, K.; Mottola, S.; O'Brien, D.; Pieters, C.

    2015-10-01

    Having completed its investigation of Vesta in late 2012, the NASA Dawn mission [1] reached its second target, the dwarf planet Ceres on March 6, 2015. During its operational phase, Dawn is scheduled to fly four polar orbits, each with a different distance to the target. The Framing Cameras (FCs) onboard the Dawn spacecraft are mapping the dwarf planet Ceres in seven colors and a clear filter [2], covering the wavelength range between 0.4 and 1.0 μm. The FCs also conduct a number of sequences for purposes of navigation, instrument calibration, and have already performed satellite searches and three early rotational characterizations (RCs) of Ceres in February and May 2015. During the EPSC conference we intend to present the most intriguing results obtained from the Survey orbit (resolution ~400 m/pixel) as well as the first results from HAMO orbit (~140 m/pixel) focusing on the analysis of FC color data.

  5. Benchmarking the OLGA lower-hybrid full-wave code for a future integration with ALOHA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preinhaelter, J.; Hillairet, J.; Urban, J.

    2014-02-01

    The ALOHA [1] code is frequently used as a standard to solve the coupling of lower hybrid grills to the plasma. To remove its limitations on the linear density profile, homogeneous magnetic field and the fully decoupled fast and slow waves in the determination of the plasma surface admittance, we exploit the recently developed efficient full wave code OLGA [2]. There is simple connection between these two codes, namely, the plasma surface admittances used in ALOHA-2D can be expressed as the slowly varying parts of the coupling element integrands in OLGA and the ALOHA coupling elements are then linear combinations of OLGA coupling elements. We developed AOLGA module (subset of OLGA) for ALOHA. An extensive benchmark has been performed. ALOHA admittances differ from AOLGA results mainly for N∥in the inaccessible region but the coupling elements differ only slightly. We compare OLGA and ALOHA for a simple 10-waveguide grill operating at 3.7 GHz and the linear density profile as it is used in ALOHA. Hence we can detect pure effects of fast and slow waves coupling on grill efficiency. The effects are weak for parameters near the optimum coupling and confirm the ALOHA results validity. We also compare the effect of the plasma surface density and the density gradient on the grill coupling determined by OLGA and ALOHA.

  6. The Very Special Small World Ceres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pieters, Carle; Russell, C. T.; Nathues, Andreas; Raymond, Carol; Jaumann, Ralf; De Sanctis, Maria Cristina

    2016-07-01

    The long-lived Dawn spacecraft is now exploring the mysterious dwarf planet Ceres from an orbit only 360 km above the surface. Ceres is the largest planetary body located between Mars and Jupiter and represents a unique transition from rocky bodies of the inner solar system to icy bodies of the outer solar system. The surface, once predicted to be smooth with an ice shell, exhibits abundant craters, several with unfamiliar erosion-like characteristics across ejecta deposits. Although the surface of Ceres is very dark, ray systems around the youngest large craters are extensive, principally seen in high contrast color displays. The uppermost surface is hydrated and shown to contain ammoniated phyllosilicates with a small amount of carbonates but no water ice exposed on the surface (with possibly one exception). The special spectral features diagnostic of Ceres mineralogy are observed globally, but are not found in any meteorite measured in Earth-based laboratories. Unlike Vesta and its HEDs, Ceres has no meteorite sample to guide our understanding of its evolution. Morphologic features found on the surface include a possible (cryo-) volcanic construct, a wide array of tectonic lineaments, smooth deposits of fluidized material associated with several large craters, clusters of pit craters suggesting volatile release, and one remarkable large crater with floor fractures and an array of localized deposits up to 5x brighter than surroundings. Although key data are still being acquired and analyzed to characterize this small hydrated world, Ceres is certain to be a member of the newly recognized category of diverse solar system bodies known as "ocean worlds".

  7. Benchmarking HRD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, Donald J.

    1993-01-01

    Discusses benchmarking, the continuous process of measuring one's products, services, and practices against those recognized as leaders in that field to identify areas for improvement. Examines ways in which benchmarking can benefit human resources functions. (JOW)

  8. Multidimensional benchmarking

    OpenAIRE

    Campbell, Akiko

    2016-01-01

    Benchmarking is a process of comparison between performance characteristics of separate, often competing organizations intended to enable each participant to improve its own performance in the marketplace (Kay, 2007). Benchmarking sets organizations’ performance standards based on what “others” are achieving. Most widely adopted approaches are quantitative and reveal numerical performance gaps where organizations lag behind benchmarks; however, quantitative benchmarking on its own rarely yi...

  9. Vesta and Ceres as Seen by Dawn

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, C. T.; Nathues, A.; De Sanctis, M. C.; Prettyman, T. H.; Konopliv, A. S.; Park, R. S.; Jaumann, R.; McSween, H. Y., Jr.; Raymond, C. A.; Pieters, C. M.; McCord, T. B.; Marchi, S.; Schenk, P.; Buczkowski, D.

    2015-12-01

    Ceres and Vesta are the most massive bodies in the main asteroid belt. They have witnessed 4.6 Ga of solar system history. Dawn's objective is to interview these two witnesses. These bodies are relatively simple protoplanets, with a modest amount of thermal evolution and geochemical alteration. They are our best archetypes of the early building blocks of the terrestrial planets. In particular siderophile elements in the Earth's core were probably first segregated in Vesta-like bodies, and its water was likely first condensed in Ceres-like bodies. Vesta has provided copious meteorites for geochemical analysis. This knowledge was used to infer the constitution of the parent body. Dawn verified that Vesta was consistent with being that body, confirming the geochemical inferences from these samples on the formation and evolution of the solar system. Ceres has not revealed itself with a meteoritic record nor an asteroid family. While the surface is scarred with craters, it is probable that the ejecta from the crater-forming events created little competent material from the icy crust and any such ejected material that reached Earth might have disintegrated upon entry into the Earth's atmosphere. Ceres' surface differs greatly from Vesta's. Plastic or fluidized mass wasting is apparent as are many irregularly shaped craters, including many polygonal crater forms. There are many central-pit craters possibly caused by volatilization of the crust in the center of the impact. There are many central-peak craters but are these due to rebound or pingo-like formation processes? Bright spots, possibly salt deposits, dot the landscape, evidence of fluvial processes beneath the crust. Observations of the largest region of bright spots may suggest sublimation from the surface of the bright area, consistent with Herschel water vapor observations. Ceres is not only the most massive body in the asteroid belt but also possibly the most active occupant of the main belt.

  10. Footprints of a possible Ceres asteroid paleo-family

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carruba, V.; Nesvorný, D.; Marchi, S.; Aljbaae, S.

    2016-05-01

    Ceres is the largest and most massive body in the asteroid main belt. Observational data from the Dawn spacecraft reveal the presence of at least two impact craters about 280 km in diameter on the Ceres surface, that could have expelled a significant number of fragments. Yet, standard techniques for identifying dynamical asteroid families have not detected any Ceres family. In this work, we argue that linear secular resonances with Ceres deplete the population of objects near Ceres. Also, because of the high escape velocity from Ceres, family members are expected to be very dispersed, with a considerable fraction of km-sized fragments that should be able to reach the pristine region of the main belt, the area between the 5J:-2A and 7J:-3A mean-motion resonances, where the observed number of asteroids is low. Rather than looking for possible Ceres family members near Ceres, here we propose to search in the pristine region. We identified 156 asteroids whose taxonomy, colours, albedo could be compatible with being fragments from Ceres. Remarkably, most of these objects have inclinations near that of Ceres itself.

  11. Measurements of integral cross section ratios in two dosimetry benchmark neutron fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the frame of a current interlaboratory effort devoted to the standardization of fuels and materials neutron dosimetry, the 103Rh(n,n')103mRh and 58Ni(n,p)58Co integral cross sections have been accurately measured relatively to the 115In(n,n')115m In cross section in the 235U thermal fission neutron spectrum and in the MOL-ΣΣ intermediate-energy standard neutron field. In this last neutron field, the data are related also to the 235U(n,f) cross section. The measurements are extensively documented and the results briefly compared to literature. Most noticeably, decisive support is provided for the selection of a specific 103Rh(n,n')103mRh differential-energy cross section among the existing, conflicting data. (author)

  12. Integral transport in a three region sphere with associated benchmark problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We derive, by the method of characteristics, an integral form of the transport equation with isotropic scattering for spherical symmetry in which the spatial dependence of the cross-sections is arbitrary. The sources of particles (photons or neutrons) can be either incident on the surface with an arbitrary angular distribution or distributed within the body. A specific example is given for the case of a three region sphere in the form of a central spherical core surrounded by a concentric shell followed by an outer shell. By allowing the total cross-section to go to zero in any one of the regions we may evaluate the effect of voids. Some numerical results are given which enable the limitations of void representation in a standard computer code to be highlighted. We also consider the case of a multiplying system and calculate the effect of an annular void on the multiplication factor

  13. Benchmarking expert system tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riley, Gary

    1988-01-01

    As part of its evaluation of new technologies, the Artificial Intelligence Section of the Mission Planning and Analysis Div. at NASA-Johnson has made timing tests of several expert system building tools. Among the production systems tested were Automated Reasoning Tool, several versions of OPS5, and CLIPS (C Language Integrated Production System), an expert system builder developed by the AI section. Also included in the test were a Zetalisp version of the benchmark along with four versions of the benchmark written in Knowledge Engineering Environment, an object oriented, frame based expert system tool. The benchmarks used for testing are studied.

  14. The Composition of the Dwarf Planet Ceres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivkin, A.; Li, J. Y.; Milliken, R. E.; Lim, L. F.; Lovell, A.; Schmidt, B. E.; McFadden, L. A.

    2012-12-01

    Ceres, the largest object between Mars and Jupiter, is not easily classified. Its low density suggests a significant ice fraction, like the icy satellites. It is too warm for ice to remain stable over much of its surface, but may maintain ice at a depth of a few meters [1,2]. It is large enough to be in hydrostatic equilibrium, but is probably differentiated rock from ice rather than the metal-rock separation seen in the planets [3,4]. It is considered a "dwarf planet" in the current IAU scheme, the only one interior to Neptune. What we know about Ceres has to this point been determined via remote sensing. The first observations of Ceres were made in the visible-near IR (0.4-2.5 μm) spectral region, and established an overall similarity to carbonaceous chondrites based on a low albedo and relatively flat spectrum. Its visible specrtum places it within the C class, which dominates the middle of the asteroid belt [5,6]. Positive identifications of absorptions have been rare in this spectral region, beyond a decrease in reflectance shortward of 0.4 μm due to oxidized iron. A broad band centered near 1.1 μm is consistent with magnetite, which is also found in some carbonaceous chondrites [7]. Longer wavelengths have provided more quantitative identifications. A series of absorptions in the 3-4 μm region have been interpreted most recently as due to brucite and carbonates [8-11]. Mid-IR (8-13 μm) observations have inconsistently found evidence for carbonates, but on the whole are consistent with the 3-4 μm observations [12,13]. A list of identified and yet-unidentified [14,15] absorptions in Ceres' spectrum is presented in Table 1. In addition to these identified species, the possibility of near-surface ice on Ceres combined with a low obliquity and resultant low temperatures at high latitudes leads to the prospect of polar caps, undetected in our low spatial resolution data but observable from orbit. The possibility of solar wind-created OH and impactor

  15. Financial benchmarking

    OpenAIRE

    Boldyreva, Anna

    2014-01-01

    This bachelor's thesis is focused on financial benchmarking of TULIPA PRAHA s.r.o. The aim of this work is to evaluate financial situation of the company, identify its strengths and weaknesses and to find out how efficient is the performance of this company in comparison with top companies within the same field by using INFA benchmarking diagnostic system of financial indicators. The theoretical part includes the characteristic of financial analysis, which financial benchmarking is based on a...

  16. Chemical Mapping of Vesta and Ceres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prettyman, Thomas H.; Mittlefehldt, David W.; Yamashita, Naoyuki; McSween, Harry Y.; Feldman, William C.; Lawrence, David J.; Beck, Andrew W.; McCoy, Timothy J.; Toplis, Michael J.; Mizzon, Hugau; Raymond, Carol A.; Russell, Christopher T.

    2012-01-01

    Following successful science operations at Vesta, the Dawn spacecraft is headed for an encounter with Ceres in 2015. What have we learned at Vesta? And, what do we expect to learn by comparing Vesta and Ceres? We will address these questions from the standpoint of geochemistry. Dawn's Gamma Ray and Neutron Detector (GRaND) is sensitive to the elemental composition of surface materials to depths of a few decimeters [1]. Gamma rays and neutrons, produced by the steady bombardment of galactic cosmic rays and by the decay of naturally ]occurring radioisotopes (K, Th, U), provide a chemical fingerprint of the regolith. Analysis of planetary radiation emissions enables mapping of specific elements (such as Fe, Mg, Si, Cl, and H) and compositional parameters (such as average atomic mass), which provide information about processes that shaped the planet1s surface and interior. Dawn has exceeded operational goals for GRaND at Vesta, accumulating an abundance of nadir-pointed data during five months in a 210 km, low altitude mapping orbit around Vesta (265-km mean radius). Chemical information from gamma ray and neutron measurements was used to test the connection between Vesta and the howardite, eucrite, and diogenite (HED) meteorites [2]. Additionally, GRaND searched for evolved, igneous lithologies [3], mantle and upper crustal materials exposed in large impact basins, mesosiderite compositions, and hydrogen in Vesta1s bulk regolith. Results of our analyses and their implications for thermal evolution and regolith-processes will be presented. The possibility of a subcrustal ocean [4, 5] and lack of cerean meteorites makes water-rich Ceres a compelling target of exploration [6]. If Ceres underwent aqueous differentiation, then crustal overturn or gas driven volcanism may have significantly modified its primitive surface; and products of aqueous alteration (e.g. [7]) would detectable by GRaND [1]. For example, the presence of Cl in salts, associated with liquid

  17. Clouds and Earth Radiant Energy System (CERES), a Review: Past, Present and Future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, G. L.; Priestley, K. J.; Loeb, N. G.; Wielicki, B. A.; Charlock, T. P.; Minnis, P.; Doelling, D. R.; Rutan, D. A.

    2011-01-01

    and ultraviolet radiation (total, UVA and UVB) are computed. The CERES instruments aboard the Terra and Aqua spacecraft have served well past their design life times. A CERES instrument has been integrated onto the NPP platform and is ready for launch in 2011. Another CERES instrument is being built for launch in 2014, and plans are being made for a series of follow-on missions.

  18. Modeling of TOA radiance measured by CERES and SCIAMACHY over the East Antarctic Plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radkevich, A.; Kato, S.; Lukashin, C.

    2015-12-01

    CERES and SCIAMACHY are satellite borne remote sensing instruments measuring solar-reflected and Earth-emitted radiation at the top-of-atmosphere (TOA). CERES instruments are designed to monitor the Earth's radiation budget by measuring radiation in 3 broad bands. SCIAMACHY sensor measured earth reflected radiation in the spectral range 0.24 to 2.38 um with fine spectral and coarse spatial resolutions. In this work we evaluate CERES shortwave (SW) TOA radiance over permanent clear sky snow in the East Antarctic Plateau to test consistency between modeled and observed radiances. We use SCIAMACHY observations to validate spectral performance of our radiative transfer (RT) model. We revisiting the issue reported by Hudson et al (2010) with another radiative transfer model and using instantaneous atmospheric profiles. That paper reported some overestimation of TOA albedo by their model in comparison with CERES observed SW radiances. As pointed out by Hudson et al., that comparison involves some uncertainties including errors in the modeled surface albedo and atmospheric properties. We use RT model based on DISORT coupled with a k-distribution approach (Kato et al 1999). We use the same approach for the lower boundary condition as in Hudson et al. (2010) with a modification related to modeling surface albedo. In this work we create atmospheric profiles for the individual CERES and SCIAMACHY observations from GEOS-4 reanalysis. A comparison between modeling and actual observations was performed for data from the CERES sensors onboard EOS Terra and Aqua, and Suomi-NPP. Similar to the study by Hudson et al. (2010), the model overestimates the TOA radiance. Modeled radiances are greater than observed ones from the CERES Single Satellite Footprint data by 4.6% for FM-1, 2, and FM-4, and by 3.6% for FM-5. Modeled and observed radiance correlates well: coefficient of determination R2 > 0.999. We compare modeled radiances SCIAMACHY radiances by spectrally integrating over the

  19. Secular resonances with Ceres and Vesta

    CERN Document Server

    Tsirvoulis, Georgios

    2016-01-01

    In this work we explore dynamical perturbations induced by the massive asteroids Ceres and Vesta on main-belt asteroids through secular resonances. First we determine the location of the linear secular resonances with Ceres and Vesta in the main belt, using a purely numerical technique. Then we use a set of numerical simulations of fictitious asteroids to investigate the importance of these secular resonances in the orbital evolution of main-belt asteroids. We found, evaluating the magnitude of the perturbations in the proper elements of the test particles, that in some cases the strength of these secular resonances is comparable to that of known non-linear secular resonances with the giant planets. Finally we explore the asteroid families that are crossed by the secular resonances we studied, and identified several cases where the latter seem to play an important role in their post-impact evolution.

  20. The Rediscovery of Ceres in 1801

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brosche, P.

    After the discovery by Piazzi, the first known asteroid disappeared in February 1801 at the day sky. Its rediscovery was the result of the combined efforts of a theoretician (Gauß) and a practitioner (Zach). The factual rediscovery took place at the end of 1801: Zach got first sight of Ceres on December 7 and gained the insight of its planetary nature on December 31. He was succeeded by Olbers, whose corresponding dates were January 1 and 2 of 1802.

  1. Asteroid secular dynamics: Ceres' fingerprint identified

    OpenAIRE

    Novaković, Bojan; Maurel, Clara; Tsirvoulis, Georgios; Knezević, Zoran

    2015-01-01

    Here we report on the significant role of a so far overlooked dynamical aspect, namely a secular resonance between the dwarf planet Ceres and other asteroids. We demonstrate that this type of secular resonance can be the dominant dynamical factor in certain regions of the main asteroid belt. Specifically, we performed a dynamical analysis of the asteroids belonging to the (1726) Hoffmeister family. To identify which dynamical mechanisms are actually at work in this part of the main asteroid b...

  2. Gauss, Ceres og mindste kvadraters metode

    OpenAIRE

    Fundal, Magnus; Jørgensen, Simon; Lykkelund, Claus

    2016-01-01

    On the first of january, 1801, a new celestial object was discovered by Giuseppe Piazzi. The perceived new planet, Ceres, was observed until the start of february, at which point it disappeared behind the halo of the sun. It was rediscovered due to the orbital computations of the German mathematician Carl Friedrich Gauss, which greatly contributed to his later fame as a mathematician. Several sources (such as Anton (2010)) indicate that the computations by Gauss involved the method of le...

  3. The Geology of Ceres: an Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaumann, R.; Russell, C. T.; Raymond, C. A.; McSween, H. Y., Jr.; Williams, D. A.; Buczkowski, D.; Hiesinger, H.; De Sanctis, M. C.; Nathues, A.; Preusker, F.; Roatsch, T.; Ammannito, E.; Otto, K.; Krohn, K.; Stephan, K.; Matz, K. D.; Elgner, S.; Kersten, E.; Wagner, R. J.; Schroeder, S.; Schulzeck, F.; von der Gathen, I.; Schmedemann, N.; Kneissl, T.; Nessemann, A.; Scully, J. E. C.; Mest, S. C.; Marchi, S.; Schenk, P.; McCord, T. B.

    2015-12-01

    Ceres exhibits geological features indicating significant resurfacing due to impact cratering, tectonic stress, relaxation, mass displacement, upwelling, doming and possible cryo-volcanic and/or cryo-glacial processes. Ceres' surface is characterized by a smooth and rugged topography ranging from about -7.5km to 7.5km relative to a best-fit ellipsoidal shape with 482x482x446km. Ceres' topography has a much greater range in elevation relative to its ellipsoidal dimensions (3.2%) than the Moon and Mars (1% and 0.9%) or Earth (0.3%) but is lower compared to Vesta (15%). Its topography is comparable to the icy satellite Iapetus (3.6%) but significantly higher than that of other icy satellites (depression infills and distinctive bright spots characterize Ceres' surface. Impact craters range from pristine to highly degraded, comparable to that of various icy satellites, the Moon and Vesta, indicating an intensive cratering history over the age of the solar system as indicated by surface units with different crater densities. Some craters show upwelling dome-like structures on the floor. Bright spots with higher albedo than the surrounding terrain occur at different locations correlated with impact structures and tectonic crustal stress. These spots indicate material differences and possible time-variable effects related to cryo-processes either volcanic and/or glacial. Trough-like features and polygonal impact crater rims indicate crustal stress that compensates by tectonic processes. According to the relatively high topography to radius ratio, steep slopes, mass wasting, and flow processes are expected and observed. We thank the Dawn Science and Operations Team for their support.

  4. Ceres Revealed in a Grain of Salt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zolensky, M. E.; Bodnar, R. J.; Chan, Q. H.-S.; Hagiya, K.; Komatsu, M.; Steele, A.; Fries, M.; Kebukawa, Y.; Mikouchi, T.; Ohsumi, K.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Zag and Monahans (1998) are H chondrite regolith breccias containing 4.5 giga-year-old halite crystals which contain abundant inclusions of aqueous fluids, solids and organics. These all originated on a cryo-volcanically-active C class asteroid, probably 1 Ceres; the halite was transported to the regolith of the H chondrite parent asteroid, potentially 6 Hebe. Detailed analysis of these solids will thus potentially reveal the mineralogy of Ceres. Mineralogy of solids in the Monahans Halite Solid grains are present in the halites, which were entrained within the mother brines during eruption, including material from the interior and surface of the erupting body. The solids include abundant, widely variable organics that could not have been significantly heated (which would have resulted in the loss of fluids from the halite). Our analyses by Raman microprobe, SEM/EDX, synchrotron X-ray diffraction, UPLC-FD/QToF-MS, C-XANES and TEM reveal that these trapped grains include macromolecular carbon (MMC) similar in structure to CV3 chondrite matrix carbon, aliphatic carbon compounds, olivine (Fo99-59), high- and low-Ca pyroxene, feldspars, phyllosilicates, magnetite, sulfides, metal, lepidocrocite, carbonates, diamond, apatite and zeolites. Conclusions: The halite in Monahans and Zag derive from a water and carbon-rich object that was cryo-volcanically active in the early solar system, probably Ceres. The Dawn spacecraft found that Ceres includes C chondrite materials. Our samples include both protolith and aqueously-altered samples of the body, permitting understanding of alteration conditions. Whatever the halite parent body, it was rich in a wide variety of organics and warm, liquid water at the solar system's dawn.

  5. Benchmark selection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hougaard, Jens Leth; Tvede, Mich

    2002-01-01

    Within a production theoretic framework, this paper considers an axiomatic approach to benchmark selection. It is shown that two simple and weak axioms; efficiency and comprehensive monotonicity characterize a natural family of benchmarks which typically becomes unique. Further axioms are added in...... order to obtain a unique selection...

  6. Interactive benchmarking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lawson, Lartey; Nielsen, Kurt

    2005-01-01

    We discuss individual learning by interactive benchmarking using stochastic frontier models. The interactions allow the user to tailor the performance evaluation to preferences and explore alternative improvement strategies by selecting and searching the different frontiers using directional...... suggested benchmarking tool. The study investigates how different characteristics on dairy farms influences the technical efficiency....

  7. Precious benchmarking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recently, there has been a new word added to our vocabulary - benchmarking. Because of benchmarking, our colleagues travel to power plants all around the world and guests from the European power plants visit us. We asked Marek Niznansky from the Nuclear Safety Department in Jaslovske Bohunice NPP to explain us this term. (author)

  8. Modelling anaerobic co-digestion in Benchmark Simulation Model No. 2: Parameter estimation, substrate characterisation and plant-wide integration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnell, Magnus; Astals, Sergi; Åmand, Linda; Batstone, Damien J; Jensen, Paul D; Jeppsson, Ulf

    2016-07-01

    Anaerobic co-digestion is an emerging practice at wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) to improve the energy balance and integrate waste management. Modelling of co-digestion in a plant-wide WWTP model is a powerful tool to assess the impact of co-substrate selection and dose strategy on digester performance and plant-wide effects. A feasible procedure to characterise and fractionate co-substrates COD for the Benchmark Simulation Model No. 2 (BSM2) was developed. This procedure is also applicable for the Anaerobic Digestion Model No. 1 (ADM1). Long chain fatty acid inhibition was included in the ADM1 model to allow for realistic modelling of lipid rich co-substrates. Sensitivity analysis revealed that, apart from the biodegradable fraction of COD, protein and lipid fractions are the most important fractions for methane production and digester stability, with at least two major failure modes identified through principal component analysis (PCA). The model and procedure were tested on bio-methane potential (BMP) tests on three substrates, each rich on carbohydrates, proteins or lipids with good predictive capability in all three cases. This model was then applied to a plant-wide simulation study which confirmed the positive effects of co-digestion on methane production and total operational cost. Simulations also revealed the importance of limiting the protein load to the anaerobic digester to avoid ammonia inhibition in the digester and overloading of the nitrogen removal processes in the water train. In contrast, the digester can treat relatively high loads of lipid rich substrates without prolonged disturbances. PMID:27088248

  9. Interior Evolution of Ceres and Vesta Revealed by Dawn

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raymond, C. A.; Russell, C. T.; Bland, M. T.; Castillo, J. C.; De Sanctis, M. C.; Ermakov, A.; Jaumann, R.; Konopliv, A. S.; Marchi, S.; McCord, T. B.; McSween, H. Y., Jr.; Nathues, A.; Park, R. S.; Prettyman, T. H.; Toplis, M. J.; Zuber, M. T.

    2015-12-01

    Dawn's exploration of Vesta and Ceres has revealed their geophysical characteristics, informing the processes that shaped the bodies. Dawn has determined the average diameter of Ceres to be 940 km, smaller than the previously estimated 975 km [1]. This implies a density of 2160 kg/m3, indicating that Ceres is less differentiated than predicted [2]. Ceres' entire surface is cratered, implying the lack of a thick (10's of km) water ice layer at the surface. Variability in Ceres' crater morphology indicates that the near-surface layer has variable strength and rheology, likely due to heterogeneity in the near-surface mixture of rock, ice and salt. These observations may indicate that Ceres lost a significant amount of an original surface ice layer due to impact erosion. The lack of large impact basins on Ceres can be interpreted to be the result of viscous relaxation. These data provide insights into Ceres' thermal evolution and mechanical properties, which appear to be unique to this warm, icy body. In contrast to Ceres, Vesta formed very early and hot, resulting in a fully differentiated body. Dawn's exploration revealed geophysical and geochemical evidence for an iron-rich core and basaltic crust. However, unlike the pre-Dawn paradigm of Vesta's evolution, Dawn found that the crust and mantle of Vesta are less distinct than predicted by classical differentiation models. [1] Thomas, P. C., et al., Differentiation of the asteroid Ceres as revealed by its shape, Nature, 437, 224-226, 2005; [2] McCord et al., Ceres: Its Origin, Evolution and Structure and Dawn's Potential Contribution, Space Sci Rev
DOI 10.1007/s11214-010-9729-9, 2011.

  10. Validation of CENDL and JEFF evaluated nuclear data files for TRIGA calculations through the analysis of integral parameters of TRX and BAPL benchmark lattices of thermal reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this paper is to present the validation of evaluated nuclear data files CENDL-2.2 and JEFF-3.1.1 through the analysis of the integral parameters of TRX and BAPL benchmark lattices of thermal reactors for neutronics analysis of TRIGA Mark-II Research Reactor at AERE, Bangladesh. In this process, the 69-group cross-section library for lattice code WIMS was generated using the basic evaluated nuclear data files CENDL-2.2 and JEFF-3.1.1 with the help of nuclear data processing code NJOY99.0. Integral measurements on the thermal reactor lattices TRX-1, TRX-2, BAPL-UO2-1, BAPL-UO2-2 and BAPL-UO2-3 served as standard benchmarks for testing nuclear data files and have also been selected for this analysis. The integral parameters of the said lattices were calculated using the lattice transport code WIMSD-5B based on the generated 69-group cross-section library. The calculated integral parameters were compared to the measured values as well as the results of Monte Carlo Code MCNP. It was found that in most cases, the values of integral parameters show a good agreement with the experiment and MCNP results. Besides, the group constants in WIMS format for the isotopes U-235 and U-238 between two data files have been compared using WIMS library utility code WILLIE and it was found that the group constants are identical with very insignificant difference. Therefore, this analysis reflects the validation of evaluated nuclear data files CENDL-2.2 and JEFF-3.1.1 through benchmarking the integral parameters of TRX and BAPL lattices and can also be essential to implement further neutronic analysis of TRIGA Mark-II research reactor at AERE, Dhaka, Bangladesh.

  11. Footprints of a possible Ceres asteroid paleo-family

    CERN Document Server

    Carruba, V; Marchi, S; Aljbaae, S

    2016-01-01

    Ceres is the largest and most massive body in the asteroid main belt. Observational data from the Dawn spacecraft reveal the presence of at least two impact craters about 280~km in diameter on the Ceres surface, that could have expelled a significant number of fragments. Yet, standard techniques for identifying dynamical asteroid families have not detected any Ceres family. In this work, we argue that linear secular resonances with Ceres deplete the population of objects near Ceres. Also, because of the high escape velocity from Ceres, family members are expected to be very dispersed, with a considerable fraction of km-sized fragments that should be able to reach the pristine region of the main belt, the area between the 5J:-2A and 7J:-3A mean-motion resonances, where the observed number of asteroids is low. Rather than looking for possible Ceres family members near Ceres, here we propose to search in the pristine region. We identified 156 asteroids whose taxonomy, colors, albedo could be compatible with bein...

  12. WLUP benchmarks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The IAEA-WIMS Library Update Project (WLUP) is on the end stage. The final library will be released on 2002. It is a result of research and development made by more than ten investigators during 10 years. The organization of benchmarks for testing and choosing the best set of data has been coordinated by the author of this paper. It is presented the organization, name conventions, contents and documentation of WLUP benchmarks, and an updated list of the main parameters for all cases. First, the benchmarks objectives and types are given. Then, comparisons of results from different WIMSD libraries are included. Finally it is described the program QVALUE for analysis and plot of results. Some examples are given. The set of benchmarks implemented on this work is a fundamental tool for testing new multigroup libraries. (author)

  13. Integral parameters for the Godiva benchmark calculated by using theoretical and adjusted fission spectra of 235U

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The theoretical and adjusted Watt spectrum representations for 235U are used as weighting functions to calculate Keff and θf28/θf25 for the benchmark Godiva. The results obtained show that the values of Keff and θf28/θf25 are not affected by spectrum form change. (author)

  14. Characteristics of Polygonal Craters on (1) Ceres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otto, Katharina A.; Jaumann, Ralf; Krohn, Katrin; Buczkowski, Debra L.; von der Gathen, Isabel; Kersten, Elke; Mest, Scott C.; Naß, Andrea; Neesemann, Adrian; Preusker, Frank; Roatsch, Thomas; Schröder, Stefan E.; Schulzeck, Fanziska; Scully, Jennifer E. C.; Stephan, Katrin; Wagner, Roland; Williams, David A.; Raymond, Carol A.; Russell, Chistopher T.

    2016-04-01

    The Dawn spacecraft arrived at Ceres in March 2015. There, the on-board Framing Camera (FC) collects image data with a resolution of up to 35 m/pixel, which reveal a large variety of impact crater morphologies including polygonal craters. Polygonal craters show straight rim sections aligned to form an angular shape. They are commonly associated with fractures in the target material, which may be preserved as linear structures on Ceres [3, 4]. On Ceres, we find polygonal craters with a size ranging between 5 km and 280 km in diameter. However, the majority of polygonal craters have diameters ranging between 10 km and 50 km diameter. A preferential hexagonal shape is observed and some polygonal craters exhibit central peaks or relaxed crater floors. On average there are eight to ten polygonal craters per 100,000 km², however the northern latitudes have a slightly higher and the southern latitudes a slightly lower polygonal crater density. This may hint at an older and younger age of the northern (> 60° N) and southern regions (> 60° S) compared to the mid latitudes, respectively. Alternatively, the relaxation of craters may be advanced in the mid latitudes which are generally warmer than the poles and thus support the relaxation of depressions. Also, the southern region harbors relatively large craters which may have altered or destroyed preexisting structures in the crust which are necessary for the formation of polygonal craters. Most polygonal craters have six or seven straight rim sections; however, there is a tendency for fewer edges with decreasing crater size. Although this observation may be biased due to the map resolution, it is also possible that the impactor creating a relatively small polygonal crater embeds less energy and thus forms the straight rim sections during the excavation stage. This may result in fewer straight rim sections compared to more energetic impactors which form their polygonal shape during the modification stage. Straight rim

  15. Dawn at Ceres reveals an ammoniated surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pieters, Carle M.; De Sanctis, Maria Cristina; Ammannito, Eleonora; Raponi, Andrea; Combe, Jean-Philippe; McCord, Thomas B.; McSween, Harry; McFadden, Lucy A.; Marchi, Simone; Capaccioni, Fabrizio; Capria, Maria Teresa; Carrozzo, Giacomo; Ciarniello, Mauro; Longobardo, Andrea; Fonte, Sergio; Formisano, Michelangelo; Frigeri, Alessandro; Giardino, Marco; Magni, Gianfranco; Palomba, Enersto; Tosi, Federico; Turrini, Diego; Zambon, Francesca; Jaumann, Ralf; Feldman, William; Prettyman, Thomas; Toplis, Michael; Raymond, Carol A.; Russell, Christopher T.

    2015-11-01

    The Visible and Infrared Mapping Spectrometer (VIR) on board the Dawn spacecraft has observed Ceres’ surface and acquired spectra (0.5 to 5 µm) since January 2015. Here we report the average Ceres spectrum, including the important spectral range (2.6-2.9 µm) previously precluded from (telescopic) measurements due to telluric atmospheric absorptions. The VIR data confirm that the surface is very dark with an average albedo of 0.090 ±0.006 at 0.55 µm, consistent with Hubble Space Telescope data (Li et al., Icarus, 2006) and contains no prominent absorption features in the visible and near-Infrared at wavelengths less than 2.5 µm. Ceres’ average spectrum, however, is characterized by a prominent diagnostic absorption band at 2.7 µm along with weaker absorption bands observed between 3.05-3.1, 3.3-3.4 and 3.9-4 µm. We modeled the new VIR spectra of Ceres with various ices, meteorites, silicates, carbonates, and hydrates using Hapke theory. Results of the spectral modeling indicate that extensive water ice is not present in spectra representing the typical surface acquired to date at relatively low spatial resolution (Agency-ASI and was developed under the leadership of INAF, Rome-Italy. The instrument was built by Selex-Galileo, Florence-Italy. The analyses are supported by ASI, NASA, and the German Space Agency. Enabling contributions from the Dawn Instrument, Operations, and Science Teams are gratefully acknowledged.

  16. Comparative tectonic features on Ceres and other planetary bodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roatsch, T.; von der Gathen, I.; Jaumann, R.; Krohn, K.; Otto, K.; Schulzeck, F.; Williams, D. A.; Buczkowski, D.; De Sanctis, M. C.; Elgner, S.; Kersten, E.; Matz, K. D.; Naß, A.; Preusker, F.; Schenk, P.; Schroeder, S.; Stephan, K.; Wagner, R. J.; Raymond, C. A.; Russell, C. T.

    2015-12-01

    Dawn Framing Camera images of Ceres' surface indicate that tectonic processes have played an important role in the surface formation history and alterations. We study structures expected to be the result of tectonic deformation and crustal stresses, which may enable us to reconstruct the formation process of the surface and the topographic signature. Tectonic features on Ceres such as troughs, ridges, scarps, fractures, depressions and domes are analogous to those on other planetary bodies like Enceladus, Ganymede, Europa and Mercury. Comparing these surface features will provide additional information about possible scenarios of crustal formation on Ceres. First investigations show that craters, like Urvara (46°S and 249°E), display sets of trenches radiating from the craters interior. They were likely formed by extensional tectonics linked to the impact. Similar features were also found on Mercury's surface. It is expected that other tectonic deformations on Ceres also influence the appearance of craters and crater walls. Comparatively small scale fissures on Ceres' surface, frequently arranged subparallel, seem to appear in terrain that looks smooth in the images. Fractures, cracks and scarps on Ceres can be found on Enceladus, Europa and Mercury in similar patterns. The "tiger stripes" on Enceladus are possible large scale analogous. Ridges on Europa, Enceladus and Ganymede are lineaments that dominate their entire surface. Those on Ceres' however, are more irregularly shaped and less distinct. On Ceres surface troughs seem to be relatively rare. However, they show similarities to troughs on Enceladus and Mercury, and could also be related to those on Europa and Ganymede. Domes are distributed over Ceres' entire surface and have a relatively regular shape. Analogous exist on Europa (relatively irregular or with halos) and Ganymede in the crater interiors.

  17. A MATLAB/Simulink based GUI for the CERES Simulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valencia, Luis H.

    1995-01-01

    The Clouds and The Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) simulator will allow flight operational familiarity with the CERES instrument prior to launch. It will provide a CERES instrument simulation facility for NASA Langley Research Center. NASA Goddard Space Flight Center and TRW. One of the objectives of building this simulator would be for use as a testbed for functionality checking of atypical memory uploads and for anomaly investigation. For instance, instrument malfunction due to memory damage requires troubleshooting on a simulator to determine the nature of the problem and to find a solution.

  18. Benchmark exercise

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The motivation to conduct this benchmark exercise, a summary of the results, and a discussion of and conclusions from the intercomparison are given in Section 5.2. This section contains further details of the results of the calculations and intercomparisons, illustrated by tables and figures, but avoiding repetition of Section 5.2 as far as possible. (author)

  19. The rediscovery of Ceres in 1801. (German Title: Die Wiederauffindung der Ceres im Jahre 1801)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brosche, Peter

    After the discovery by Piazzi, the first known asteroid disappeared in February 1801 in the daylight sky. Its rediscovery was the result of the combined efforts of a theoretician (Gauß) and a practitioner (Zach). The factual rediscovery took place at the end of 1801: Zach got the first sight of Ceres on December 7 and gained the insight of its planetary nature on December 31. He was succeeded by Olbers, whose corresponding dates were January 1 and 2 of 1802.

  20. Validation study of SRAC2006 code system based on evaluated nuclear data libraries for TRIGA calculations by benchmarking integral parameters of TRX and BAPL lattices of thermal reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► To validate the SRAC2006 code system for TRIGA neutronics calculations. ► TRX and BAPL lattices are treated as standard benchmarks for this purpose. ► To compare the calculated results with experiment as well as MCNP values in this study. ► The study demonstrates a good agreement with the experiment and the MCNP results. ► Thus, this analysis reflects the validation study of the SRAC2006 code system. - Abstract: The goal of this study is to present the validation study of the SRAC2006 code system based on evaluated nuclear data libraries ENDF/B-VII.0 and JENDL-3.3 for neutronics analysis of TRIGA Mark-II Research Reactor at AERE, Bangladesh. This study is achieved through the analysis of integral parameters of TRX and BAPL benchmark lattices of thermal reactors. In integral measurements, the thermal reactor lattices TRX-1, TRX-2, BAPL-UO2-1, BAPL-UO2-2 and BAPL-UO2-3 are treated as standard benchmarks for validating/testing the SRAC2006 code system as well as nuclear data libraries. The integral parameters of the said lattices are calculated using the collision probability transport code PIJ of the SRAC2006 code system at room temperature 20 °C based on the above libraries. The calculated integral parameters are compared to the measured values as well as the MCNP values based on the Chinese evaluated nuclear data library CENDL-3.0. It was found that in most cases, the values of integral parameters demonstrate a good agreement with the experiment and the MCNP results. In addition, the group constants in SRAC format for TRX and BAPL lattices in fast and thermal energy range respectively are compared between the above libraries and it was found that the group constants are identical with very insignificant difference. Therefore, this analysis reflects the validation study of the SRAC2006 code system based on evaluated nuclear data libraries JENDL-3.3 and ENDF/B-VII.0 and can also be essential to implement further neutronics calculations of

  1. On the possible origin of the asteroid (1) Ceres

    CERN Document Server

    Rogozin, Yury I

    2014-01-01

    The last three decades the asteroid (1) Ceres is an object of the intensive ground-and space-based observations. A new unusual contributing to these studies represents the recent detection of localized sources of water vapour releasing from its surface at a rate about 6 kg s-1 (K\\"uppers et al 2014). A drastic distinction between asteroid (1) Ceres and nearest the large asteroid (4) Vesta in terms of their composition and appearance emphasizes an urgent state of a problem of the possible origin of Ceres in the main asteroid belt. By analogy with the early assumptions of some well-known astronomers of Mercury and Mars as the escaped satellites of their host planets we have put forward and semi-empirically have justified a hypothesis for the plausible origin of Ceres as the satellite of a disrupted planet in the past orbited the Sun of ~ 5 AU. The orbital location of this host of Ceres beyond the snow line of the Solar System explains a formation the icy mantle of Ceres, which appears may be a water vapour sour...

  2. Is (1) Ceres a Small Planet or a Large Comet?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Küppers, M.; O'Rourke, L.; Bockelée-Morvan, D.; Zakharov, V.; Lee, S.; Von Allmen, P.; Carry, B.; Teyssier, D.; Marston, A.; Müller, T.; Crovisier, J.; Barucci, M. A.; Moreno, R.

    2014-12-01

    The snowline conventionally divides Solar System objects into dry bodies, ranging out to the main asteroid belt, and icy bodies beyond the belt. Recently, the detection of dust emission from "main-belt comets" and of hydration features and possible water ice absorption on some main-belt asteroids together with theories of migration of small bodies in the solar system cast some doubts on the classical picture. Ceres, contributing about 30 % of the mass of the asteroid belt, is thought to be differentiated into an icy core and a silicate mantle and hydrated minerals were found on infrared spectra of its surface. A marginal detection of OH, a photodissociation product of water was reported in 1991, but questioned by later, more sensitive observations.. Observations of Ceres with the Heterodyne Instrument for the Far Infrared (HIFI) on the Herschel Space Observatory in the context of the MACH 11 guaranteed time program and with a follow up DDT program detected water vapour from Ceres on 3 occasions in 2012 and 2013. The production rate of water on Ceres is a few times 1026 s-1. The signal from the water vapour from Ceres was found to be linearly polarized during some of the observations, with the absorption being stronger in the horizontal branch. The measured line area ratio of up to 2.5 between H and V polarizations is so far unexplained. The water signal varies on time scales of hours. Those variations are interpreted as localized sources on Ceres surface rotating into and out of the hemisphere visible by Herschel. The time variability is consistent with those sources being dark features known from ground-based adaptive optics observations. The water vapour on Ceres may be either produced by near surface ice heated by sunlight (cometary activity) or by cryovolcanoes or geysers getting their energy from Ceres' interior. In the first case the production rate is expected to peak around perihelion, while for volcanic the time variations are expected to be more

  3. The Water Regime of Ceres and its Potential Habitability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, J. Y.; Sykes, M. V.; Castillo, J. C.; McFadden, L. A.

    2014-12-01

    Ceres is the largest object in the main asteroid belt of the Solar System, with a diameter of 940 km and accounting for ~1/3 of the total mass of the asteroid belt. The recent unequivocal discovery of water vapor associated with localized sources on Ceres by Herschel Space Telescope confirmed its enrichment in volatiles as suggested by its low density and previous observations and theoretical models. Hence water must have played a significant role in the evolution of Ceres and even affected its current state. Spectral reflectance of Ceres surface reveals the pervasive signature of hydrated minerals and carbonates. The albedo and spectral homogeneity suggest that processes involving liquid-phase activity at the global scale may have occurred in the past. The current evolution models of Ceres indicate that liquid water was present following an early differentiation and drove hydrothermal activity for a few tens of My since its formation. Silicate leaching could lead to the concentration of soluble species in an ocean that could play a role in lowering the freezing temperature of that layer. The likely accretion of low-eutectic species such as ammonia hydrates could have promoted the long-term preservation of a deep liquid layer at the base of an icy shell over extended periods of time (possibly until present). The significance of water on Ceres and its active nature as revealed by Herschel observations not only suggest that Ceres is an object that potentially hides important clues about volatile history in the inner solar system, but also indicate a world of potential astrobiological interest. The Dawn spacecraft is scheduled to arrive at Ceres in March 2015 to perform detailed geological, spectroscopic, compositional, and gravity mapping. In the mean time, we have begun an observing campaign using ground- and space-based facilities covering wavelengths from UV to sub-mm, to fully characterize the nature of water and hydration features detected at Ceres, and to

  4. Benchmark solutions of radiative integral transfer equations for three-dimensional emitting-absorbing and scattering media bounded by gray walls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Three-dimensional dimensionless radiative integral transfer equations (RITEs) for a cubic emitting-absorbing and isotropically scattering homogeneous medium of constant properties bounded by gray walls are solved using the method of “product integration”. The resultant system of linear equations for the incident energy is solved iteratively. Evaluation of the accuracy of the numerical solution is achieved by using the computer codes to make predictions for an idealized enclosure in which the exact analytical solution is possible. Comparison of the analytical and numerical values of medium temperatures and heat fluxes has shown that our method is logically correct and has good accuracy. Four benchmark problems for participating medium subjected to various combinations of internally uniform/non-uniform source terms are solved. To make the benchmark problems more complex and more general, different scattering albedo (ω=0.1, 0.5, 0.9), different wall emissivity (ε=0.1, 0.5, 0.9) and different optical thickness (τ=0.1, 1.0, 5.0) are considered. The solutions for the temperature of the medium and the heat flux components are given in tabular form and they may serve as standard values to assess the accuracy of other methods more conveniently.

  5. Benchmarking & European Sustainable Transport Policies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gudmundsson, H.

    2003-01-01

    support Sustainable European Transport Policies. The key message is that transport benchmarking has not yet been developed to cope with the challenges of this task. Rather than backing down completely, the paper suggests some critical conditions for applying and adopting benchmarking for this purpose. One...... way forward is to ensure a higher level of environmental integration in transport policy benchmarking. To this effect the paper will discuss the possible role of the socalled Transport and Environment Reporting Mechanism developed by the European Environment Agency. The paper provides an independent...

  6. Comparison of the Cratering Records of Ceres and Rhea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmedemann, N.; Wagner, R. J.; Michael, G.; Kneissl, T.; Hiesinger, H.; Ivanov, B.; Denk, T.; Jaumann, R.; Neesemann, A.; Raymond, C. A.; Russell, C.

    2015-12-01

    Comparing the cratering records of dwarf planet Ceres and the Saturnian satellite Rhea, offers a great opportunity in comparative planetology to fill the gaps of understanding of the cratering history of the two bodies. Both bodies show strong indications for a water-ice rich crust. For Ceres, the amount of ice in the crust is indeterminate. Early Dawn imaging data shows complex craters on Ceres which are smaller than those on the basaltic asteroid Vesta. The smallest complex craters on Ceres are similar in size (~10-15 km) to those on Rhea, which might indicate a rather high water-ice content in Ceres' crust. The surface gravity on both bodies is almost equal, differing by only ~4%. Thus, regardless of their absolute values many variables required to relate projectile and crater size should be very similar on both bodies (surface gravity, strength to gravity transition, simple to complex transition, target density). The remaining variables such as projectile density and impact velocity are comparatively well known for Ceres but still in discussion for the Saturnian satellites. If the crater size-frequency distributions for craters >5 km from Rhea and Ceres are plotted together and are corrected for different projectile flux and exposure time, both records plot nearly on top of each other. This could indicate a common projectile population that impacted both bodies at nearly the same velocity. However, if the impacting projectile populations are very different, the impact velocity would have to compensate for such differences. Different ice temperatures may also play some role. Reducing the degrees of freedom increases the chance of understanding the projectile source and dynamics in the Saturnian system. We acknowledge the support of the Dawn and Cassini Instrument, Operations, and Science Teams. This work is supported by the German Space Agency (DLR), grants 50OW1101, 50OH1102 and 50OH0305.

  7. Ammonia Bearing Species on Ceres: Implication on Origin and Evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Sanctis, M. C.; Ammannito, E.; Raponi, A.; Marchi, S.; Ciarniello, M.; McSween, H. Y., Jr.; McCord, T. B.; Capaccioni, F.; Capria, M. T.; Carrorro, F. G.; Longobardo, A.; Tosi, F.; Fonte, S.; Giardino, M.; Palomba, E.; Magni, G.; Zambon, F.; Pieters, C. M.; McFadden, L. A.; Raymond, C. A.

    2015-12-01

    The Visible and Infrared Mapping Spectrometer (VIR) on board the Dawn spacecraft observed Ceres' surface acquiring spectra since January 2015. Here we report the average Ceres spectrum, including the spectral range previously precluded from telescopic measurements due to telluric atmospheric absorptions. The data indicate that the surface is very dark: average albedo of 0.090 ±0.006 at 0.55 µm, consistent with HST data (Li et al., 2006). Ceres' average spectrum is characterized by a prominent absorption band at 2.7 micron. Weaker absorption bands are observed between 3.05-3.1, 3.3-3.4 and 3.9-4 micron; the visible and near-IR ranges lack prominent bands. We modelled the spectra of Ceres using Hapke theory. Results of the spectral modelling indicate that extensive water ice is not present in surface spectra acquired so far. The best fit is obtained with a mixture of ammoniated phyllosilicates mixed with other clays, Mg-carbonates, and dark material, like magnetite (De Sanctis et al. 2015, submitted). The presence of ammonia bearing materials across the surface has implications for the origin of Ceres and its internal structure and evolution. Higher spatial resolution spectra are being acquired to address the small scale mineralogy across this dwarf planet. References: Li, et al., Photometric analysis of 1 Ceres and surface mapping from HST observations. Icarus 182, 143-160 (2006). De Sanctis et al., Ammoniated phyllosilicates on dwarf planet Ceres reveal an outer solar system origin, Nature submitted, (2015). This work is supported the Italian Space Agencies, NASA, and from the German Space Agency. Support of the Dawn Instrument, Operations, and Science Teams is acknowledged.

  8. PageRank Pipeline Benchmark: Proposal for a Holistic System Benchmark for Big-Data Platforms

    CERN Document Server

    Dreher, Patrick; Hill, Chris; Gadepally, Vijay; Kuszmaul, Bradley; Kepner, Jeremy

    2016-01-01

    The rise of big data systems has created a need for benchmarks to measure and compare the capabilities of these systems. Big data benchmarks present unique scalability challenges. The supercomputing community has wrestled with these challenges for decades and developed methodologies for creating rigorous scalable benchmarks (e.g., HPC Challenge). The proposed PageRank pipeline benchmark employs supercomputing benchmarking methodologies to create a scalable benchmark that is reflective of many real-world big data processing systems. The PageRank pipeline benchmark builds on existing prior scalable benchmarks (Graph500, Sort, and PageRank) to create a holistic benchmark with multiple integrated kernels that can be run together or independently. Each kernel is well defined mathematically and can be implemented in any programming environment. The linear algebraic nature of PageRank makes it well suited to being implemented using the GraphBLAS standard. The computations are simple enough that performance predictio...

  9. Selecting benchmarks for reactor calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Criticality, reactor physics, fusion and shielding benchmarks are expected to play important roles in GENIV design, safety analysis and in the validation of analytical tools used to design these reactors. For existing reactor technology, benchmarks are used to validate computer codes and test nuclear data libraries. However the selection of these benchmarks are usually done by visual inspection which is dependent on the expertise and the experience of the user and thereby resulting in a user bias in the process. In this paper we present a method for the selection of these benchmarks for reactor applications and uncertainty reduction based on Total Monte Carlo (TMC) method. Similarities between an application case and one or several benchmarks are quantified using the correlation coefficient. Based on the method, we also propose two approaches for reducing nuclear data uncertainty using integral benchmark experiments as an additional constrain in the TMC method: a binary accept/reject method and a method of uncertainty reduction using weights. Finally, the methods were applied to a full Lead Fast Reactor core and a set of criticality benchmarks. (author)

  10. Analysis of VENUS-3 benchmark experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper presents the revision and the analysis of VENUS-3 benchmark experiment performed at CEN/SCK, Mol (Belgium). This benchmark was found to be particularly suitable for validation of current calculation tools like 3-D neutron transport codes, and in particular of the 3D sensitivity and uncertainty analysis code developed within the EFF project. The compilation of the integral experiment was integrated into the SINBAD electronic data base for storing and retrieving information about the shielding experiments for nuclear systems. SINBAD now includes 33 reviewed benchmark descriptions and several compilations waiting for the review, among them many benchmarks relevant for pressure vessel dosimetry system validation.(author)

  11. Ceres Survey Atlas derived from Dawn Framing Camera images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roatsch, Th.; Kersten, E.; Matz, K.-D.; Preusker, F.; Scholten, F.; Jaumann, R.; Raymond, C. A.; Russell, C. T.

    2016-02-01

    The Dawn Framing Camera (FC) acquired almost 900 clear filter images of Ceres with a resolution of about 400 m/pixels during the seven cycles in the Survey orbit in June 2015. We ortho-rectified 42 images from the third cycle and produced a global, high-resolution, controlled mosaic of Ceres. This global mosaic is the basis for a high-resolution Ceres atlas that consists of 3 tiles mapped at a scale of 1:2,000,000. The nomenclature used in this atlas was proposed by the Dawn team and was approved by the International Astronomical Union (IAU). The whole atlas is available to the public through the Dawn GIS web page.

  12. CERES: A Set of Automated Reduction Routines for Echelle Spectra

    CERN Document Server

    Brahm, Rafael; Espinoza, Néstor

    2016-01-01

    We present the Collection of Extraction Routines for Echelle Spectra (CERES). These routines were developed for the construction of automated pipelines for the reduction, extraction and analysis of spectra acquired with different instruments, allowing the obtention of homogeneous and standardised results. This modular code includes tools for handling the different steps of the processing: CCD reductions, tracing of the echelle orders, optimal and simple extraction, computation of the wavelength solution, estimation of radial velocities, and rough and fast estimation of the atmospheric parameters. Currently, CERES has been used to develop automated pipelines for eleven different spectrographs, namely CORALIE, FEROS, HARPS, PUCHEROS, FIDEOS, CAFE, DuPont/Echelle, Magellan/Mike, Keck/HIRES, Magellan/PFS and APO/ARCES, but the routines can be easily used in order to deal with data coming from other spectrographs. We show the high precision in radial velocity that CERES achieves for some of these instruments and w...

  13. El grabado del Cándalo, Garciaz (Cáceres

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel RUBIO ANDRADA

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN: Se presenta un nuevo grabado de la época del Bronce en el término de Garciaz, Cáceres. Grabados semejantes se conocían sobre todo en la comarca de Hurdes y norte de Portugal. De su estudio se deduce una relación armamentista con el mundo astral.ABSTRACT: A new engraving from Bronze age, has been found in Garciaz boundary (Cáceres. Similar engraving were already known in "Las Hurdes" district and in Portugal (norther áreas. It has been deduced from its research a relation between the arms woeld and the cosmisc one.

  14. The PRISM Benchmark Suite

    OpenAIRE

    Kwiatkowsa, Marta; Norman, Gethin; Parker, David

    2012-01-01

    We present the PRISM benchmark suite: a collection of probabilistic models and property specifications, designed to facilitate testing, benchmarking and comparisons of probabilistic verification tools and implementations.

  15. Kvantitativ benchmark - Produktionsvirksomheder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Ole H.; Andersen, Vibeke

    Rapport med resultatet af kvantitativ benchmark over produktionsvirksomhederne i VIPS projektet.......Rapport med resultatet af kvantitativ benchmark over produktionsvirksomhederne i VIPS projektet....

  16. Benchmarking in Student Affairs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosier, Robert E.; Schwarzmueller, Gary J.

    2002-01-01

    Discusses the use of benchmarking in student affairs, focusing on issues related to student housing. Provides examples of how benchmarking has influenced administrative practice at many institutions. (EV)

  17. Active regions on 1 Ceres in Dawn Framing Camera colours

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, M.

    2015-10-01

    Very prominent bright sites on the dwarf planet Ceres were imaged by the Dawn Framing Cameras. Continuing analysis during early phases of this mission revealed their unique visual and nearinfrared spectral properties. These, their local diurnal variability, and their geologic context hint at an unprecedented phenomenon among planetary bodies.

  18. Benchmarking and Performance Measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Town, J. Stephen

    This paper defines benchmarking and its relationship to quality management, describes a project which applied the technique in a library context, and explores the relationship between performance measurement and benchmarking. Numerous benchmarking methods contain similar elements: deciding what to benchmark; identifying partners; gathering…

  19. High resolution Ceres HAMO atlas derived from Dawn FC images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roatsch, Thomas; Kersten, Elke; Matz, Klaus-Dieter; Preusker, Frank; Scholten, Frank; Jaumann, Ralf; Raymond, Carol A.; Russell, Chris T.

    2016-04-01

    Introduction: NASA's Dawn spacecraft entered the orbit of dwarf planet Ceres in March 2015, and will characterize the geology, elemental and mineralogical composition, topography, shape, and internal structure of Ceres. One of the major goals of the mission is a global mapping of Ceres. Data: The Dawn mission was mapping Ceres in HAMO (High Altitude Mapping Orbit, 1475 km altitude) between August and October 2015. The framing camera took about 2,600 clear filter images with a resolution of about 140 m/pixel during these cycles. The images were taken with different viewing angles and different illumination conditions. We selected images from one cycle (cycle #1) for the mosaicking process to have similar viewing and illumination conditions. Very minor gaps in the coverage were filled with a few images from cycle #2. Data Processing: The first step of the processing chain towards the cartographic products is to ortho-rectify the images to the proper scale and map projec-tion type. This process requires detailed information of the Dawn orbit and attitude data and of the topography of the targets. Both, improved orientation and a high-resolution shape model, are provided by stereo processing (bundle block adjustment) of the HAMO stereo image dataset [3]. Ceres's HAMO shape model was used for the calculation of the ray intersection points while the map projection itself was done onto the reference sphere of Ceres with a radius of 470 km. The final step is the controlled mosaicking) of all images to a global mosaic of Ceres, the so-called basemap. Ceres map tiles: The Ceres atlas was produced in a scale of 1:750,000 and consists of 15 tiles that conform to the quadrangle scheme proposed by Greeley and Batson [4]. A map scale of 1:750,000 guarantees a mapping at the highest available Dawn resolution in HAMO. The individual tiles were extracted from the global mosaic and reprojected. Nomenclature: The Dawn team proposed 81 names for geological features. By international

  20. New integral experiments for large angle scattering cross section data benchmarking with DT neutron beam at JAEA/FNS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohnishi, Seiki, E-mail: ohnishi@nmri.go.jp [National Maritime Research Institute, Mitaka, Tokyo (Japan); Kondo, Keitaro [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Tokai-mura, Ibaraki (Japan); Azuma, Tetsushi [Kyoto University, Kumatori-cho, Osaka (Japan); Sato, Satoshi; Ochiai, Kentaro; Takakura, Kosuke [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Tokai-mura, Ibaraki (Japan); Murata, Isao [Osaka University, Suita, Osaka (Japan); Konno, Chikara [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Tokai-mura, Ibaraki (Japan)

    2012-08-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We constructed a deuteron-triton fusion neutron beam. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A large SS316 cylinder assembly was irradiated by the neutron beam. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The reaction rates of activation foil were measured inside it. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The C/Es became smaller with the distance from the beam axis. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The large angle scattering cross section around 90 Degree-Sign affects that. - Abstract: A new integral experiment with a deuteron-triton fusion (DT) neutron beam started in order to validate scattering cross section data. First the DT neutron beam was constructed with a collimator. The performance of the collimator system and the characteristics of the DT neutron beam were measured. Second a new integral experiment for type 316 stainless steel (SS316) was carried out with this DT neutron beam. The DT neutron beam of 3.5 cm in diameter was injected to the front surface center of an SS316 cylindrical assembly. Reaction rates of the {sup 93}Nb(n,2n){sup 92m}Nb reaction in the assembly were measured with the activation foil method and were calculated with the Monte Carlo transport calculation code. The measurement points were located at three positions, on the center of the beam axis and at 15 cm and 30 cm apart from the axis. The ratio of calculation to experiment of the {sup 93}Nb(n,2n){sup 92m}Nb reaction rate became smaller than 1 with the distance from the beam axis. Then, the dependency of each reaction rate on scattering angle was calculated. It was proved that at off-axis positions, where C/E is smaller than 1, 90 Degree-Sign scattering contribute relatively larger than at on-axis positions and backward scattering made little contribution to the results in this experiment. The reasons of the discrepancy between the measured and calculated data will be investigated.

  1. Implementation of Benchmarking Transportation Logistics Practices and Future Benchmarking Organizations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of the Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management's (OCRWM) Logistics Benchmarking Project is to identify established government and industry practices for the safe transportation of hazardous materials which can serve as a yardstick for design and operation of OCRWM's national transportation system for shipping spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste to the proposed repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. The project will present logistics and transportation practices and develop implementation recommendations for adaptation by the national transportation system. This paper will describe the process used to perform the initial benchmarking study, highlight interim findings, and explain how these findings are being implemented. It will also provide an overview of the next phase of benchmarking studies. The benchmarking effort will remain a high-priority activity throughout the planning and operational phases of the transportation system. The initial phase of the project focused on government transportation programs to identify those practices which are most clearly applicable to OCRWM. These Federal programs have decades of safe transportation experience, strive for excellence in operations, and implement effective stakeholder involvement, all of which parallel OCRWM's transportation mission and vision. The initial benchmarking project focused on four business processes that are critical to OCRWM's mission success, and can be incorporated into OCRWM planning and preparation in the near term. The processes examined were: transportation business model, contract management/out-sourcing, stakeholder relations, and contingency planning. More recently, OCRWM examined logistics operations of AREVA NC's Business Unit Logistics in France. The next phase of benchmarking will focus on integrated domestic and international commercial radioactive logistic operations. The prospective companies represent large scale shippers and have vast experience in

  2. Ceres' deformational surface features compared to other planetary bodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von der Gathen, Isabel; Jaumann, Ralf; Krohn, Katrin; Buczkowski, Debra L.; Elgner, Stephan; Kersten, Elke; Matz, Klaus-Dieter; Nass, Andrea; Otto, Katharina; Preusker, Frank; Roatsch, Thomas; Schröder, Stefanus E.; Schulzeck, Franziska; Stephan, Katrin; Wagner, Roland; De Sanctis, Maria C.; Schenk, Paul; Scully, Jennifer E. C.; Williams, Dave A.; Raymond, Carol A.

    2016-04-01

    On March 2015, NASA's Dawn spacecraft arrived at the dwarf planet Ceres and has been providing images of its surface. Based on High Altitude Mapping Orbiter (HAMO) clear filter images (140 m/px res.), a Survey mosaic (~400 m/px) and a series of Low Altitude Mapping Orbiter (LAMO) clear filter images (35 m/px) of the Dawn mission [1], deformational features are identified on the surface of Ceres. In order to further our knowledge about the nature and origin of these features, we start a comparative analysis of similar features on different planetary bodies, like Enceladus, Ganymede and the Moon, based on images provided by the Cassini, Galileo and Lunar Orbiter mission. This study focuses on the small scale fractures, mostly located on Ceres' crater floors, in comparison with crater fractures on the planetary bodies named above. The fractures were analyzed concerning the morphology and shape, the distribution, orientation and possible building mechanisms. On Ceres, two different groups of fractures are distinct. The first one includes fractures, normally arranged in subparallel pattern, which are usually located on crater floors, but also on crater rims. Their sense of direction is relatively uniform but in some cases they get deformed by shearing. The second group consists of joint systems, which spread out of one single location, sometimes arranged concentric to the crater rim. They were likely formed by cooling-melting processes linked to the impact process or up doming material. Fractures located on crater floors are also common on the icy satellite Enceladus [3]. While Enceladus' fractures don't seem to have a lot in common compared to those on Ceres, we assume that similar fracture patterns and therefore similar building mechanism can be found e.g. on Ganymede and especially on the Moon [2]. Further work will include the comparison of the fractures with additional planetary bodies and the trial to explain why fracturing e.g. on Enceladus differs from that on

  3. FAT3D- An OECD/NEA benchmark on thermal fatigue in fluid mixing areas - CSNI integrity and ageing working group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thermal cycling is a widespread and recurring problem in nuclear power plants worldwide. Several incidents with leakage of primary water inside the containment challenged the integrity of nuclear power plants although no release outside of containment occurred. Thermal cycling was not taken into account at the design stage. Regulatory bodies, utilities and researchers have to address it for their operating plants. Thermal fatigue in a fluid mixing area is a well-known phenomenon that has already been studied in the past. Generally, this phenomenon is linked to turbulent mixing of two fluids at two different temperatures and creates 'elephant skin' type damage at the inner surface of the component and some cracks, which remain relatively small, compared to the thickness of the structure. However, this kind of fatigue damage can create cracks that propagate through the entire wall thickness. Some experts consider that 3D thermo-mechanical loading is a major factor influencing crack propagation through the thickness. This factor is linked to the complex thermal hydraulic loading and has an impact on the stress distribution in the structure and the damage or crack propagation estimates. For this reason an R and D program, based on a test and numerical interpretations, was launched by IRSN and conducted by CEA to quantify experimentally the influence of the 3D aspects on crack initiation and propagation. The main objective was to work on a configuration with a 3D thermal load easy enough to reproduce using numerical simulations, so that accurate mechanical studies could be carried out and assessment methodologies be validated or modified. Under the auspices of the OECD/NEA Committee for the Safety of Nuclear Installations (CSNI) and its Working Group on Integrity of Components and Structures (IAGE), a benchmark was launched in 2002. Seven organisations from four countries contributed to this effort aiming at comparing different approaches used for mechanical assessment

  4. Cherenkov ring fitting techniques for the CERES RICH detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The CERES experiment studies the production of low-mass electron pairs in proton-proton, proton-nucleus and nucleus-nucleus collisions at the CERN-SPS. Particle identification and momentum measurement are solely based on two azimuthally symmetric RICH detectors. The off-line reconstruction of electron rings has to be preformed without prior knowledge of the cherenkov ring centers, a demand which is unique as compared to other RICH applications using the rings for particle identification or rejection only. During the last years the CERES collaboration has developed several algorithms to cope with the problems of ring recognition in a background-contaminated environment. Here we report on encouraging experiences with the robust ring fitting technique based on a reweighted least-squares method and compare its performance with previously used algorithms based on the minimization of summed Gaussian weights. (orig.)

  5. First observations of Ceres by VIR on Dawn mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Sanctis, M. Cristina; Ammannito, Eleonora; Fonte, Sergio; Magni, Gianfranco; Capaccioni, Fabrizio; Capria, M. Teresa; Raymond, Carol. A.; Russell, Christopher T.

    2015-04-01

    The Dawn spacecraft [1] is now approaching Ceres, the second of its targets. Ceres represents the key to understand some important points relative to the role of the protoplanet size and the water content in the evolution of these bodies. Ceres is thought to be differentiated, and hydrated minerals were proposed to exist on its surface [2,3,4]. Its low density [3] associated with the presence of transient water vapour, suggests a high content of ice inside the body and on its surface. Ceres seems to have been subject to differentiation and hydrothermal activity, and might host a liquid subsurface layer even today. Dawn is equipped with a Visible and InfraRed Mapping Spectrometer (VIR-MS) [5]. VIR-MS is an imaging spectrometer coupling high spectral and spatial resolution in the VIS (0.25-1 micron) and IR (0.95-5 micron) spectral ranges. The surface composition of Ceres is poorly understood through its nearly featureless visible spectrum. Its visible reflectance spectrum has a steep UV absorption edge that begins at a relatively short wavelength, around 0.4 micron, unlike many C-type asteroids where the UV drop-off begins around 0.6 to 0.7 micron[6]. The near-IR spectrum has a strong absorption band centered at about 3-micron. The absorption features in the 3-micron region were attributed to structural water in clay minerals [7,8] but could also be ammoniated clays [9]. [10] reported the discovery of carbonates and iron-rich clays from measurements of weak 3-micron features, and the results are consistent with the mid-IR spectra of clay minerals. On approach to Ceres, Dawn will obtain images and hyperspectral . VIR data, with resolution larger than Hubble images will reveal the first details of the Ceres' surface composition. Here we report about the first data obtained by VIR during its approach to Ceres. Acknowledgments VIR is funded by the Italian Space Agency-ASI and was developed under the leadership of INAF-Istituto di Astrofisica e Planetologia Spaziali, Rome

  6. Aquatic Life Benchmarks

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Aquatic Life Benchmarks is an EPA-developed set of criteria for freshwater species. These benchmarks are based on toxicity values reviewed by EPA and used in...

  7. The Origin of Dwarf Planet Ceres Constrained by Dawn

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchi, Simone; De Sanctis, Cristina; O'Brien, David; Ammannito, Eleonora; Castillo-Rogez, Julie; Jaumann, Ralf; Schenk, Paul; Raymond, Carol; Russell, Christopher; Park, Ryan

    2015-11-01

    The Dawn spacecraft has acquired important clues regarding the origin of dwarf planet Ceres. The surface composition is characterized by a prominent absorption band at 2.7 micron that is best explained by the presence of ammoniated phyllosilicates (De Sanctis et al. 2015), while the average density indicates a bulk water content of 30-40%. The occurrence of widespread smooth terrains, marked by a flat topography and few superposed craters, associated with a large 290-km crater is best explained by the present of low viscosity material mobilized by the impact energy (Marchi 2015). Such low viscosity material is compatible with an ice-rich outer shell whose melting temperature is reduced by the presence of salts and/or ammonia hydrates. Such inferred internal structure could also explain the lack of impact structures larger than about 400 km, which may have relaxed leaving no obvious signatures in imaging data.The presence of ammoniated phyllosilicates points toward the presence of ammonia available in Ceres' makeup. Ammonia is relatively rare among meteorites due to its high volatility at typical main belt temperatures, thus indicating a potential contribution of material from the colder outer solar system.Two main scenarios emerge. Either Ceres formed in the trans-neptunian disk and subsequently was captured in the main belt, or it formed close to its current position with a late addition of material drifting from the outer solar system. The two scenarios imply rather different collisional evolution, therefore Ceres' cratering record can potentially help to discriminate the more likely evolution. As craters are susceptible to degradation due to internal heat flow, terrain properties and superposed cratering, here we will evaluate the evidence for and against these formation scenarios by taking into account the latest digital terrain models and gravity data acquired by Dawn.De Sanctis et al, submitted, July 2015.Marchi S., IAU General Assembly, August 2015.

  8. Laser calibration system for the CERES Time Projection Chamber

    OpenAIRE

    Miskowiec, Dariusz; Braun-Munzinger, Peter

    2008-01-01

    A Nd:YAG laser was used to simulate charged particle tracks at known positions in the CERES Time Projection Chamber at the CERN SPS. The system was primarily developed to study the response of the readout electronics and to calibrate the electron drift velocity. Further applications were the determination of the gating grid transparency, the chamber position calibration, and long-term monitoring of drift properties of the gas in the detector.

  9. Benchmarking for major producers of limestone in the Czech Republic

    OpenAIRE

    Vaněk, Michal; Mikoláš, Milan; Bora, Petr

    2013-01-01

    The validity of information available to managers influences the quality of the decision-making processes controlled by those managers. Benchmarking is a method which can yield quality information. The importance of benchmarking is strengthened by the fact that many authors consider benchmarking to be an integral part of strategic management. In commercial practice, benchmarking data and conclusions usually become commercial secrets for internal use only. The wider professional public lacks t...

  10. Vesta and Ceres by the light of Dawn

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Christopher T.

    2015-11-01

    Ceres and Vesta are the most massive bodies in the main asteroid belt. They both appear to be intact protoplanets whose growth may have been drastically altered by the concomitant formation of Jupiter.. These two bodies have witnessed 4.6 Ga of solar system history, much, but not all, of which has been recorded in their surfaces. Dawn’s objective is to interview these two witnesses to learn as much as possible about the early epoch. These bodies are protoplanets, our best archetypes of the early building blocks of the terrestrial planets. In particular, siderophile elements in the Earth’s core were probably first segregated in Vesta-like bodies, and its water was likely first condensed in Ceres-like bodies.Many of the basaltic achondrites originated from a common parent body. Dawn verified that Vesta was consistent with that parent body. hence strengthening geochemical inferences from these samples on the formation and evolution of the solar system and supporting hypotheses for their delivery from Vesta to Earth. Ceres has not revealed itself with a meteoritic record. While the surface is scarred with craters, it is probable that the ejecta from the crater-forming event created little competent material from the icy crust and any such ejected projectiles that reached Earth might have disintegrated upon entry into the Earth’s atmosphere.Ceres’ surface differs greatly from Vesta’s. Plastic or fluidized mass wasting is apparent, as are many irregularly shaped craters, including many polygonal crater forms. There are many central-pit craters possibly caused by volatilization of the crust in the center of the impact. There are also many central-peak craters, which were made by rebound or pingo-like formation processes. Bright deposits dot the landscape, which are possibly salt-rich, suggesting fluvial activity beneath the crust. Observations of the brightest spots on Ceres could suggest sublimation from the surface of the bright area, which may be water vapor

  11. Benchmarking semantic web technology

    CERN Document Server

    García-Castro, R

    2009-01-01

    This book addresses the problem of benchmarking Semantic Web Technologies; first, from a methodological point of view, proposing a general methodology to follow in benchmarking activities over Semantic Web Technologies and, second, from a practical point of view, presenting two international benchmarking activities that involved benchmarking the interoperability of Semantic Web technologies using RDF(S) as the interchange language in one activity and OWL in the other.The book presents in detail how the different resources needed for these interoperability benchmarking activities were defined:

  12. Research Reactor Benchmarks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A criticality benchmark experiment performed at the Jozef Stefan Institute TRIGA Mark II research reactor is described. This experiment and its evaluation are given as examples of benchmark experiments at research reactors. For this reason the differences and possible problems compared to other benchmark experiments are particularly emphasized. General guidelines for performing criticality benchmarks in research reactors are given. The criticality benchmark experiment was performed in a normal operating reactor core using commercially available fresh 20% enriched fuel elements containing 12 wt% uranium in uranium-zirconium hydride fuel material. Experimental conditions to minimize experimental errors and to enhance computer modeling accuracy are described. Uncertainties in multiplication factor due to fuel composition and geometry data are analyzed by sensitivity analysis. The simplifications in the benchmark model compared to the actual geometry are evaluated. Sample benchmark calculations with the MCNP and KENO Monte Carlo codes are given

  13. Sensor to User - NASA/EOS Data for Coastal Zone Management Applications Developed from Integrated Analyses: Verification, Validation and Benchmark Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Callie; Arnone, Robert

    2006-01-01

    The NASA Applied Sciences Program seeks to transfer NASA data, models, and knowledge into the hands of end-users by forming links with partner agencies and associated decision support tools (DSTs). Through the NASA REASoN (Research, Education and Applications Solutions Network) Cooperative Agreement, the Oceanography Division of the Naval Research Laboratory (NRLSSC) is developing new products through the integration of data from NASA Earth-Sun System assets with coastal ocean forecast models and other available data to enhance coastal management in the Gulf of Mexico. The recipient federal agency for this research effort is the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA). The contents of this report detail the effort to further the goals of the NASA Applied Sciences Program by demonstrating the use of NASA satellite products combined with data-assimilating ocean models to provide near real-time information to maritime users and coastal managers of the Gulf of Mexico. This effort provides new and improved capabilities for monitoring, assessing, and predicting the coastal environment. Coastal managers can exploit these capabilities through enhanced DSTs at federal, state and local agencies. The project addresses three major issues facing coastal managers: 1) Harmful Algal Blooms (HABs); 2) hypoxia; and 3) freshwater fluxes to the coastal ocean. A suite of ocean products capable of describing Ocean Weather is assembled on a daily basis as the foundation for this semi-operational multiyear effort. This continuous realtime capability brings decision makers a new ability to monitor both normal and anomalous coastal ocean conditions with a steady flow of satellite and ocean model conditions. Furthermore, as the baseline data sets are used more extensively and the customer list increased, customer feedback is obtained and additional customized products are developed and provided to decision makers. Continual customer feedback and response with new improved

  14. Benchmarking: A tool to enhance performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Munro, J.F. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Kristal, J. [USDOE Assistant Secretary for Environmental Management, Washington, DC (United States); Thompson, G.; Johnson, T. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)

    1996-12-31

    The Office of Environmental Management is bringing Headquarters and the Field together to implement process improvements throughout the Complex through a systematic process of organizational learning called benchmarking. Simply stated, benchmarking is a process of continuously comparing and measuring practices, processes, or methodologies with those of other private and public organizations. The EM benchmarking program, which began as the result of a recommendation from Xerox Corporation, is building trust and removing barriers to performance enhancement across the DOE organization. The EM benchmarking program is designed to be field-centered with Headquarters providing facilitatory and integrative functions on an ``as needed`` basis. One of the main goals of the program is to assist Field Offices and their associated M&O/M&I contractors develop the capabilities to do benchmarking for themselves. In this regard, a central precept is that in order to realize tangible performance benefits, program managers and staff -- the ones closest to the work - must take ownership of the studies. This avoids the ``check the box`` mentality associated with some third party studies. This workshop will provide participants with a basic level of understanding why the EM benchmarking team was developed and the nature and scope of its mission. Participants will also begin to understand the types of study levels and the particular methodology the EM benchmarking team is using to conduct studies. The EM benchmarking team will also encourage discussion on ways that DOE (both Headquarters and the Field) can team with its M&O/M&I contractors to conduct additional benchmarking studies. This ``introduction to benchmarking`` is intended to create a desire to know more and a greater appreciation of how benchmarking processes could be creatively employed to enhance performance.

  15. An Effective Approach for Benchmarking Implementation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. M. Deros

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: The purpose of this study is to present a benchmarking guideline, conceptual framework and computerized mini program to assists companies achieve better performance in terms of quality, cost, delivery, supply chain and eventually increase their competitiveness in the market. The study begins with literature review on benchmarking definition, barriers and advantages from the implementation and the study of benchmarking framework. Approach: Thirty respondents were involved in the case study. They comprise of industrial practitioners, which had assessed usability and practicability of the guideline, conceptual framework and computerized mini program. Results: A guideline and template were proposed to simplify the adoption of benchmarking techniques. A conceptual framework was proposed by integrating the Deming’s PDCA and Six Sigma DMAIC theory. It was provided a step-by-step method to simplify the implementation and to optimize the benchmarking results. A computerized mini program was suggested to assist the users in adopting the technique as part of improvement project. As the result from the assessment test, the respondents found that the implementation method provided an idea for company to initiate benchmarking implementation and it guides them to achieve the desired goal as set in a benchmarking project. Conclusion: The result obtained and discussed in this study can be applied in implementing benchmarking in a more systematic way for ensuring its success.

  16. Photometric Properties of Ceres from Telescopic Observations using Dawn Framing Camera Color Filters

    CERN Document Server

    Reddy, Vishnu; Gary, Bruce L; Sanchez, Juan A; Stephens, Robert D; Megna, Ralph; Coley, Daniel; Nathues, Andreas; Corre, Lucille Le; Hoffmann, Martin

    2015-01-01

    The dwarf planet Ceres is likely differentiated similar to the terrestrial planets but with a water/ice dominated mantle and an aqueously altered crust. Detailed modeling of Ceres' phase function has never been performed to understand its surface properties. The Dawn spacecraft began orbital science operations at the dwarf planet in April 2015. We observed Ceres with flight spares of the seven Dawn Framing Camera color filters mounted on ground-based telescopes over the course of three years to model its phase function versus wavelength. Our analysis shows that the modeled geometric albedos derived from both the IAU HG model and the Hapke model are consistent with a flat and featureless spectrum of Ceres, although the values are ~10% higher than previous measurements. Our models also suggest a wavelength dependence of Ceres' phase function. The IAU G-parameter and the Hapke single-particle phase function parameter, g, are both consistent with decreasing (shallower) phase slope with increasing wavelength. Such...

  17. Benchmarking monthly homogenization algorithms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. K. C. Venema

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The COST (European Cooperation in Science and Technology Action ES0601: Advances in homogenization methods of climate series: an integrated approach (HOME has executed a blind intercomparison and validation study for monthly homogenization algorithms. Time series of monthly temperature and precipitation were evaluated because of their importance for climate studies and because they represent two important types of statistics (additive and multiplicative. The algorithms were validated against a realistic benchmark dataset. The benchmark contains real inhomogeneous data as well as simulated data with inserted inhomogeneities. Random break-type inhomogeneities were added to the simulated datasets modeled as a Poisson process with normally distributed breakpoint sizes. To approximate real world conditions, breaks were introduced that occur simultaneously in multiple station series within a simulated network of station data. The simulated time series also contained outliers, missing data periods and local station trends. Further, a stochastic nonlinear global (network-wide trend was added.

    Participants provided 25 separate homogenized contributions as part of the blind study as well as 22 additional solutions submitted after the details of the imposed inhomogeneities were revealed. These homogenized datasets were assessed by a number of performance metrics including (i the centered root mean square error relative to the true homogeneous value at various averaging scales, (ii the error in linear trend estimates and (iii traditional contingency skill scores. The metrics were computed both using the individual station series as well as the network average regional series. The performance of the contributions depends significantly on the error metric considered. Contingency scores by themselves are not very informative. Although relative homogenization algorithms typically improve the homogeneity of temperature data, only the best ones improve

  18. Benchmarking foreign electronics technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bostian, C.W.; Hodges, D.A.; Leachman, R.C.; Sheridan, T.B.; Tsang, W.T.; White, R.M.

    1994-12-01

    This report has been drafted in response to a request from the Japanese Technology Evaluation Center`s (JTEC) Panel on Benchmarking Select Technologies. Since April 1991, the Competitive Semiconductor Manufacturing (CSM) Program at the University of California at Berkeley has been engaged in a detailed study of quality, productivity, and competitiveness in semiconductor manufacturing worldwide. The program is a joint activity of the College of Engineering, the Haas School of Business, and the Berkeley Roundtable on the International Economy, under sponsorship of the Alfred P. Sloan Foundation, and with the cooperation of semiconductor producers from Asia, Europe and the United States. Professors David A. Hodges and Robert C. Leachman are the project`s Co-Directors. The present report for JTEC is primarily based on data and analysis drawn from that continuing program. The CSM program is being conducted by faculty, graduate students and research staff from UC Berkeley`s Schools of Engineering and Business, and Department of Economics. Many of the participating firms are represented on the program`s Industry Advisory Board. The Board played an important role in defining the research agenda. A pilot study was conducted in 1991 with the cooperation of three semiconductor plants. The research plan and survey documents were thereby refined. The main phase of the CSM benchmarking study began in mid-1992 and will continue at least through 1997. reports are presented on the manufacture of integrated circuits; data storage; wireless technology; human-machine interfaces; and optoelectronics. Selected papers are indexed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

  19. The Conic Benchmark Format

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friberg, Henrik A.

    This document constitutes the technical reference manual of the Conic Benchmark Format with le extension: .cbf or .CBF. It unies linear, second-order cone (also known as conic quadratic) and semidenite optimization with mixed-integer variables. The format has been designed with benchmark libraries...... in mind, and therefore focuses on compact and easily parsable representations. The problem structure is separated from the problem data, and the format moreover facilitate benchmarking of hotstart capability through sequences of changes....

  20. Bayesian Benchmark Dose Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Fang, Qijun; Piegorsch, Walter W.; Barnes, Katherine Y.

    2014-01-01

    An important objective in environmental risk assessment is estimation of minimum exposure levels, called Benchmark Doses (BMDs) that induce a pre-specified Benchmark Response (BMR) in a target population. Established inferential approaches for BMD analysis typically involve one-sided, frequentist confidence limits, leading in practice to what are called Benchmark Dose Lower Limits (BMDLs). Appeal to Bayesian modeling and credible limits for building BMDLs is far less developed, however. Indee...

  1. Risk Management with Benchmarking

    OpenAIRE

    Suleyman Basak; Alex Shapiro; Lucie Teplá

    2005-01-01

    Portfolio theory must address the fact that, in reality, portfolio managers are evaluated relative to a benchmark, and therefore adopt risk management practices to account for the benchmark performance. We capture this risk management consideration by allowing a prespecified shortfall from a target benchmark-linked return, consistent with growing interest in such practice. In a dynamic setting, we demonstrate how a risk-averse portfolio manager optimally under- or overperforms a target benchm...

  2. First Results of the Exploration of Ceres by Dawn

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Christopher T.; Raymond, Carol A.; Nathues, Andreas; DeSanctis, Maria Cristina; Prettyman, Tom H.; McSween, Harry Y.; Jaumann, Ralf; Pieters, Carle M.; Park, Ryan S.

    2015-08-01

    Dawn was conceived to be a journey in space and time, to travel to extant surviving protoplanets and interview them to determine the course of solar system history during its earliest days. Dawn first examined Vesta, the largest, basaltic asteroid for which there are many samples in the form of the HED meteorites. The geochemical community had decoded these samples and developed a model of radionuclide heating of the early protoplanets seeded by an early nearby supernova. Dawn’s measurements were consistent with expectations based on the HED meteorites providing support for the standard model. Dawn’s second target is Ceres, a body with no family of asteroids or associated meteorites, a body about which we know very little. Its density suggests a significant water content, about 25% by mass, consistent with formation a few million years later in solar system history, when the short-lived radionuclides had decayed. Thus, little such heat would be trapped in its interior. Reports from the Herschel Space Observatory of a water vapor near Ceres are consistent with these expectations. Dawn began observing Ceres with resolved images in December 2014, and exceeded the resolution of the Hubble Space Telescope in January 2015. The images available at this writing show a dark, cratered and structured surface consistent with expectations based on the HST observations. The first comprehensive survey of the planet is scheduled to commence in late April 2015, and will search for any plumes at a distance of 14,000 km. This is followed by the survey orbit in June at a distance of 4900 km. We present an initial look at these observations.

  3. Aeroelastic Benchmark Experiments Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — M4 Engineering proposes to conduct canonical aeroelastic benchmark experiments. These experiments will augment existing sources for aeroelastic data in the...

  4. MCNP neutron benchmarks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Over 50 neutron benchmark calculations have recently been completed as part of an ongoing program to validate the MCNP Monte Carlo radiation transport code. The new and significant aspects of this work are as follows: These calculations are the first attempt at a validation program for MCNP and the first official benchmarking of version 4 of the code. We believe the chosen set of benchmarks is a comprehensive set that may be useful for benchmarking other radiation transport codes and data libraries. These calculations provide insight into how well neutron transport calculations can be expected to model a wide variety of problems

  5. How Activists Use Benchmarks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seabrooke, Leonard; Wigan, Duncan

    2015-01-01

    Non-governmental organisations use benchmarks as a form of symbolic violence to place political pressure on firms, states, and international organisations. The development of benchmarks requires three elements: (1) salience, that the community of concern is aware of the issue and views it as...... important; (2) will, that activists and issue entrepreneurs will carry the message forward; and (3) expertise, that benchmarks created can be defended as accurate representations of what is happening on the issue of concern. We contrast two types of benchmarking cycles where salience, will, and expertise...

  6. Benchmark af erhvervsuddannelserne

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bogetoft, Peter; Wittrup, Jesper

    I dette arbejdspapir diskuterer vi, hvorledes de danske erhvervsskoler kan benchmarkes, og vi præsenterer resultaterne af en række beregningsmodeller. Det er begrebsmæssigt kompliceret at benchmarke erhvervsskolerne. Skolerne udbyder en lang række forskellige uddannelser. Det gør det vanskeligt at...

  7. Thermal Performance Benchmarking (Presentation)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moreno, G.

    2014-11-01

    This project will benchmark the thermal characteristics of automotive power electronics and electric motor thermal management systems. Recent vehicle systems will be benchmarked to establish baseline metrics, evaluate advantages and disadvantages of different thermal management systems, and identify areas of improvement to advance the state-of-the-art.

  8. Internet based benchmarking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bogetoft, Peter; Nielsen, Kurt

    2005-01-01

    We discuss the design of interactive, internet based benchmarking using parametric (statistical) as well as nonparametric (DEA) models. The user receives benchmarks and improvement potentials. The user is also given the possibility to search different efficiency frontiers and hereby to explore...

  9. Ceres: Its Origin and Predicted Bulk Chemical Composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prentice, Andrew

    2014-11-01

    I explore the formation of Ceres in the framework of the Modern Laplacian theory of Solar System origin (MLT; Prentice 2006 PASA 23 1; 2008 LPSC, abs.1945.pdf). I suggest that all MB asteroids condensed within a gas ring cast off from the equator of the contracting protosolar cloud (PSC) near to the mean present orbit of Ceres. According to the MLT, the shedding of gas rings started at the orbit of Quaoar and comes about through supersonic turbulent stress due to powerful convective motions in the cloud. If the PSC contracts uniformly, the gas ring mean orbital radii Rn (n = 0, 1, 2...) form a geometric sequence and their temperatures Tn scale nearly as Tn ~ A/Rn. The values of the mean ratio Rn/Rn+1 and the constant A depend on the controlling parameters of the PSC. These are chosen so that the mean ratio matches the observed mean planetary spacing and that the metal mass fraction ~0.71 of the condensate at Mercury’s orbit yields a planet of mean density 5.43 g/cc. For Mercury, Tn = 1638 K and the gas pressure on the gas ring mean orbit is 18 kPa.For Ceres, Tn = 272 K and the gas pressure is 8.9 Pa. The condensate consists mostly of Mg-silicates & SiO2 (mass fraction 0.394), magnetite (0.181), (Fe-Ni-Co)S (0.191), and brucite (0.127). The RTP mean density is 3.391 g/cc. If short-lived radionuclides cause dehydration of the rock and separation of rocks & metals to form a central core, the RTP density of the core is 3.662 g/cc and the mass fractions of separated water and NaCl are 0.04182 and 0.00153. All MB asteroids may initially have been ocean worlds. As Tn exceeds the brine freezing temperature 271 K, the water mantles remain liquid. Collisions between the asteroid embryos dislodge water from the smaller ones, so creating a liquid torus on the gas ring mean orbit. This water is then accreted by the largest embryos. A 4-zone model for Ceres (c) with mean density 2.08 g/cc has a rock (and inner metal) core of mass 0.732Mc, overlain by a 2.5 km thick salt layer

  10. Verification and validation benchmarks.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oberkampf, William Louis; Trucano, Timothy Guy

    2007-02-01

    Verification and validation (V&V) are the primary means to assess the accuracy and reliability of computational simulations. V&V methods and procedures have fundamentally improved the credibility of simulations in several high-consequence fields, such as nuclear reactor safety, underground nuclear waste storage, and nuclear weapon safety. Although the terminology is not uniform across engineering disciplines, code verification deals with assessing the reliability of the software coding, and solution verification deals with assessing the numerical accuracy of the solution to a computational model. Validation addresses the physics modeling accuracy of a computational simulation by comparing the computational results with experimental data. Code verification benchmarks and validation benchmarks have been constructed for a number of years in every field of computational simulation. However, no comprehensive guidelines have been proposed for the construction and use of V&V benchmarks. For example, the field of nuclear reactor safety has not focused on code verification benchmarks, but it has placed great emphasis on developing validation benchmarks. Many of these validation benchmarks are closely related to the operations of actual reactors at near-safety-critical conditions, as opposed to being more fundamental-physics benchmarks. This paper presents recommendations for the effective design and use of code verification benchmarks based on manufactured solutions, classical analytical solutions, and highly accurate numerical solutions. In addition, this paper presents recommendations for the design and use of validation benchmarks, highlighting the careful design of building-block experiments, the estimation of experimental measurement uncertainty for both inputs and outputs to the code, validation metrics, and the role of model calibration in validation. It is argued that the understanding of predictive capability of a computational model is built on the level of

  11. O RGANIZATION OF WORK OF NURSING IN FAMILY HEALTH STRATEGIES OF THE CITY OF CÁCERES - MT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylvia Maria Barbosa Cunha

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The primary care team should be able to plan, organize, develop and evaluate actions that respondto community needs and articulate the various sectors involved in health promotion. Knowing theprofile of these professionals can take steps towards their qualification and performance, for a moreadequate assistance and quality of the population.Objective:Learn to Work OrganizationStrategies in Nursing Family Health Cáceres-MT.Methodology:This is a quantitative andqualitative research.Data collection occurred through questionnaires given to professional nursesand nursing technicians FHT the city of Cáceres, between the months of September and October2011.Result:We found that the relationship between professional community and currently is aprocess that is weakened. They state that almost always feel satisfied with their freedom andautonomy at work. Indicate the main impediments that hinder the work, such as inadequate physicalinfrastructure, lack of financial resources, materials, procedures, drug shortages, low pay.Conclusion:Work organization means not only reflect the way work is designed and ordered, butthink of all that makes up thiscontext and their social integration

  12. Cryosphere Broadband Surface Albedo Derivation with MODIS-to-CERES Conversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radkevich, A.; Rose, F. G.; Charlock, T. P.; Kato, S.

    2011-12-01

    Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) instruments on NASA's Earth Observing System (EOS) Terra and Aqua satellites measure broadband shortwave and longwave radiation reflected and emitted at the Top of the atmosphere (TOA). CERES synthesizes broadband observations with other EOS data streams. The CERES Surface and Atmospheric Radiation Budget (SARB) group matches observations with a radiative transfer code to determine fluxes at several levels. The presentation describes how the next edition of CERES will improve the retrieval of cryosphere surface albedo. Surface albedo is one of the input parameters of numerous models such cloud-resolving model (CRM) simulation, general circulation models (GCMs) and transient climate change simulations. It was recently showed by Park and Wu (2010) that CRM simulation well represents the SW radiative budget during winter because the radiation calculation for the snow-covered period is improved by using prescribed evolving surface albedo. Qu and Hall (2007) analyzed snow albedo feedback (SAF) in several transient climate change models. They stated that high quality observations of albedo of snow-covered surfaces would be extremely useful in reducing SAF spread in the next generation of models. CERES measures radiance and infers flux by applying scene-dependent, empirically based angular distribution models (ADMs). The ADMs are obtained from the complex CERES rotating azimuth plane scan mode to establish BRDF on the scale of 30 km broadband footprints. While CERES has much coarser spatial resolution than MODIS, the CERES measurement-based BRDF provides a keen advantage in accuracy over complex surfaces. CERES SARB retrievals of surface albedo have to date been based on only those 30 km footprints that are completely clear; there are too few (~5%) such footprints over sea ice. The upcoming edition of CERES will include MODIS radiances in 7 SW bands (currently 4), which are point spread function weighted to both a whole

  13. A performance geodynamo benchmark

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsui, H.; Heien, E. M.

    2014-12-01

    In the last ten years, a number of numerical dynamo models have successfully represented basic characteristics of the geomagnetic field. However, to approach the parameters regime of the Earth's outer core, we need massively parallel computational environment for extremely large spatial resolutions. Local methods are expected to be more suitable for massively parallel computation because the local methods needs less data communication than the spherical harmonics expansion, but only a few groups have reported results of the dynamo benchmark using local methods (Harder and Hansen, 2005; Matsui and Okuda, 2005; Chan et al., 2007) because of the difficulty treating magnetic boundary conditions based on the local methods. On the other hand, some numerical dynamo models using spherical harmonics expansion has performed successfully with thousands of processes. We perform benchmark tests to asses various numerical methods to asses the next generation of geodynamo simulations. The purpose of the present benchmark test is to assess numerical geodynamo models on a massively parallel computational platform. To compare among many numerical methods as possible, we consider the model with the insulated magnetic boundary by Christensen et al. (2001) and with the pseudo vacuum magnetic boundary, because the pseudo vacuum boundaries are implemented easier by using the local method than the magnetic insulated boundaries. In the present study, we consider two kinds of benchmarks, so-called accuracy benchmark and performance benchmark. In the present study, we will report the results of the performance benchmark. We perform the participated dynamo models under the same computational environment (XSEDE TACC Stampede), and investigate computational performance. To simplify the problem, we choose the same model and parameter regime as the accuracy benchmark test, but perform the simulations with much finer spatial resolutions as possible to investigate computational capability (e

  14. Toxicological Benchmarks for Wildlife

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sample, B.E. Opresko, D.M. Suter, G.W.

    1993-01-01

    Ecological risks of environmental contaminants are evaluated by using a two-tiered process. In the first tier, a screening assessment is performed where concentrations of contaminants in the environment are compared to no observed adverse effects level (NOAEL)-based toxicological benchmarks. These benchmarks represent concentrations of chemicals (i.e., concentrations presumed to be nonhazardous to the biota) in environmental media (water, sediment, soil, food, etc.). While exceedance of these benchmarks does not indicate any particular level or type of risk, concentrations below the benchmarks should not result in significant effects. In practice, when contaminant concentrations in food or water resources are less than these toxicological benchmarks, the contaminants may be excluded from further consideration. However, if the concentration of a contaminant exceeds a benchmark, that contaminant should be retained as a contaminant of potential concern (COPC) and investigated further. The second tier in ecological risk assessment, the baseline ecological risk assessment, may use toxicological benchmarks as part of a weight-of-evidence approach (Suter 1993). Under this approach, based toxicological benchmarks are one of several lines of evidence used to support or refute the presence of ecological effects. Other sources of evidence include media toxicity tests, surveys of biota (abundance and diversity), measures of contaminant body burdens, and biomarkers. This report presents NOAEL- and lowest observed adverse effects level (LOAEL)-based toxicological benchmarks for assessment of effects of 85 chemicals on 9 representative mammalian wildlife species (short-tailed shrew, little brown bat, meadow vole, white-footed mouse, cottontail rabbit, mink, red fox, and whitetail deer) or 11 avian wildlife species (American robin, rough-winged swallow, American woodcock, wild turkey, belted kingfisher, great blue heron, barred owl, barn owl, Cooper's hawk, and red

  15. Shielding benchmark problems, (2)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shielding benchmark problems prepared by Working Group of Assessment of Shielding Experiments in the Research Committee on Shielding Design in the Atomic Energy Society of Japan were compiled by Shielding Laboratory in Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute. Fourteen shielding benchmark problems are presented newly in addition to twenty-one problems proposed already, for evaluating the calculational algorithm and accuracy of computer codes based on discrete ordinates method and Monte Carlo method and for evaluating the nuclear data used in codes. The present benchmark problems are principally for investigating the backscattering and the streaming of neutrons and gamma rays in two- and three-dimensional configurations. (author)

  16. Age-dependent morphological and compositional variations on Ceres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaumann, Ralf

    2016-04-01

    Extended smooth plains cover the interior of a number of craters on Ceres. Smooth plains appear on different topographic levels associated with pits and flow-like features that overrun crater rims. The material forming these plains also ponds in depressions and smaller craters and cover the pre-existing surface creating distinct geological boundaries. Ikapati crater shows smooth plains on different topographic levels associated with pits and flow-like features that overrun crater rims. The material forming these plains, ponds in depressions and smaller craters and cover the pre-existing surface creating a distinct geological boundary. The interior of Occator also exhibits extended plains of ponded material, multiple flows originating from the center overwhelming the mass wasting deposits from the rim, dome-like features, vents cracks and fissures. Furthermore, crater densities on Occator's floor are lower than those on the ejecta blanket indicating a post-impact formation age of the flows. The flows to the northeast appear to originate from the central region and move slightly uphill. This indicates either a feeding zone that pushes the flows forward by supplying low-viscosity material or a depression of the crater center, possibly after discharging a subsurface reservoir. The plains and flows as well as some areas surrounding the craters appear spectrally blue. Both plains and flow material are characterized in camera and spectrometer visible spectra by a slightly negative slope with a gradual drop off up to 10% in reflectance from 0.5μm to 1μm. Although the spectral variations in the visible are subtle, they are clearly expressed in the color ratio composite. The crater densities of 20 locations across the surface of Ceres with different spectral behavior were analyzed in order to investigate the age dependence of spectral surface features. The results indicate that bluish material is mainly associated with the youngest impact craters on Ceres ( 1 Ga

  17. The Plume Chaser mission: Two-spacecraft search for organics on the dwarf planet Ceres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayak, Michael; Mauro, David; Stupl, Jan; Aziz, Jonathan; Colaprete, Anthony; Dono-Perez, Andres; Frost, Chad; Jonsson, Jonas; McKay, Chris; Sears, Derek; Soulage, Michael; Swenson, Jason; Yang, Fan Yang

    2016-03-01

    We present a mission concept designed at NASA Ames Research Center for a two-probe mission to the dwarf planet Ceres, utilizing a set of small low-cost spacecraft. The primary spacecraft will carry both a mass and an infrared spectrometer to characterize water vapor detected to be emanating from Ceres. Shortly after its arrival a second identical spacecraft will impact Ceres to create an ejecta "plume" timed to enable a rendezvous and sampling by the primary spacecraft. This enables additional subsurface chemistry, volatile content and material characterization, and new science complementary to the Dawn spacecraft, the first to arrive at Ceres. Science requirements, candidate instruments, rendezvous trajectories, spacecraft design and comparison with Dawn science are detailed.

  18. NASA Software Engineering Benchmarking Effort

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godfrey, Sally; Rarick, Heather

    2012-01-01

    Benchmarking was very interesting and provided a wealth of information (1) We did see potential solutions to some of our "top 10" issues (2) We have an assessment of where NASA stands with relation to other aerospace/defense groups We formed new contacts and potential collaborations (1) Several organizations sent us examples of their templates, processes (2) Many of the organizations were interested in future collaboration: sharing of training, metrics, Capability Maturity Model Integration (CMMI) appraisers, instructors, etc. We received feedback from some of our contractors/ partners (1) Desires to participate in our training; provide feedback on procedures (2) Welcomed opportunity to provide feedback on working with NASA

  19. Diagnostic Algorithm Benchmarking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poll, Scott

    2011-01-01

    A poster for the NASA Aviation Safety Program Annual Technical Meeting. It describes empirical benchmarking on diagnostic algorithms using data from the ADAPT Electrical Power System testbed and a diagnostic software framework.

  20. GeodeticBenchmark_GEOMON

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — The GeodeticBenchmark_GEOMON data layer consists of geodetic control monuments (points) that have a known position or spatial reference. The locations of these...

  1. Benchmarking in University Toolbox

    OpenAIRE

    Katarzyna Kuźmicz

    2015-01-01

    In the face of global competition and rising challenges that higher education institutions (HEIs) meet, it is imperative to increase innovativeness and efficiency of their management. Benchmarking can be the appropriate tool to search for a point of reference necessary to assess institution’s competitive position and learn from the best in order to improve. The primary purpose of the paper is to present in-depth analysis of benchmarking application in HEIs worldwide. The study involves indica...

  2. Accelerator shielding benchmark problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Accelerator shielding benchmark problems prepared by Working Group of Accelerator Shielding in the Research Committee on Radiation Behavior in the Atomic Energy Society of Japan were compiled by Radiation Safety Control Center of National Laboratory for High Energy Physics. Twenty-five accelerator shielding benchmark problems are presented for evaluating the calculational algorithm, the accuracy of computer codes and the nuclear data used in codes. (author)

  3. Benchmarking conflict resolution algorithms

    OpenAIRE

    Vanaret, Charlie; Gianazza, David; Durand, Nicolas; Gotteland, Jean-Baptiste

    2012-01-01

    Applying a benchmarking approach to conflict resolution problems is a hard task, as the analytical form of the constraints is not simple. This is especially the case when using realistic dynamics and models, considering accelerating aircraft that may follow flight paths that are not direct. Currently, there is a lack of common problems and data that would allow researchers to compare the performances of several conflict resolution algorithms. The present paper introduces a benchmarking approa...

  4. Benchmarking and regulation

    OpenAIRE

    Agrell, Per Joakim; Bogetoft, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Benchmarking methods, and in particular Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA), have become well-established and informative tools for economic regulation. DEA is now routinely used by European regulators to set reasonable revenue caps for energy transmission and distribution system operators. The application of benchmarking in regulation, however, requires specific steps in terms of data validation, model specification and outlier detection that are not systematically documented in open publication...

  5. Accelerator shielding benchmark problems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirayama, H.; Ban, S.; Nakamura, T. [and others

    1993-01-01

    Accelerator shielding benchmark problems prepared by Working Group of Accelerator Shielding in the Research Committee on Radiation Behavior in the Atomic Energy Society of Japan were compiled by Radiation Safety Control Center of National Laboratory for High Energy Physics. Twenty-five accelerator shielding benchmark problems are presented for evaluating the calculational algorithm, the accuracy of computer codes and the nuclear data used in codes. (author).

  6. The permanently shadowed regions of dwarf planet Ceres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schorghofer, Norbert; Mazarico, Erwan; Platz, Thomas; Preusker, Frank; Schröder, Stefan E.; Raymond, Carol A.; Russell, Christopher T.

    2016-07-01

    Ceres has only a small spin axis tilt (4°), and craters near its rotational poles can experience permanent shadow and trap volatiles, as is the case on Mercury and on Earth's Moon. Topography derived from stereo imaging by the Dawn spacecraft is used to calculate direct solar irradiance that defines the extent of the permanently shadowed regions (PSRs). In the northern polar region, PSRs cover ˜1800 km2 or 0.13% of the hemisphere, and most of the PSRs are cold enough to trap water ice over geological time periods. Based on modeling of the water exosphere, water molecules seasonally reside around the winter pole and ultimately an estimated 0.14% of molecules get trapped. Even for the lowest estimates of the amount of available water, this predicts accumulation rates in excess of loss rates, and hence, there should be fresh ice deposits in the cold traps.

  7. Ammoniated phyllosilicates with a likely outer Solar System origin on (1) Ceres

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Sanctis, M. C.; Ammannito, E.; Raponi, A.; Marchi, S.; McCord, T. B.; McSween, H. Y.; Capaccioni, F.; Capria, M. T.; Carrozzo, F. G.; Ciarniello, M.; Longobardo, A.; Tosi, F.; Fonte, S.; Formisano, M.; Frigeri, A.; Giardino, M.; Magni, G.; Palomba, E.; Turrini, D.; Zambon, F.; Combe, J.-P.; Feldman, W.; Jaumann, R.; McFadden, L. A.; Pieters, C. M.; Prettyman, T.; Toplis, M.; Raymond, C. A.; Russell, C. T.

    2015-12-01

    Studies of the dwarf planet (1) Ceres using ground-based and orbiting telescopes have concluded that its closest meteoritic analogues are the volatile-rich CI and CM carbonaceous chondrites. Water in clay minerals, ammoniated phyllosilicates, or a mixture of Mg(OH)2 (brucite), Mg2CO3 and iron-rich serpentine have all been proposed to exist on the surface. In particular, brucite has been suggested from analysis of the mid-infrared spectrum of Ceres. But the lack of spectral data across telluric absorption bands in the wavelength region 2.5 to 2.9 micrometres—where the OH stretching vibration and the H2O bending overtone are found—has precluded definitive identifications. In addition, water vapour around Ceres has recently been reported, possibly originating from localized sources. Here we report spectra of Ceres from 0.4 to 5 micrometres acquired at distances from ~82,000 to 4,300 kilometres from the surface. Our measurements indicate widespread ammoniated phyllosilicates across the surface, but no detectable water ice. Ammonia, accreted either as organic matter or as ice, may have reacted with phyllosilicates on Ceres during differentiation. This suggests that material from the outer Solar System was incorporated into Ceres, either during its formation at great heliocentric distance or by incorporation of material transported into the main asteroid belt.

  8. Intercalibration of CERES, MODIS, and MISR reflected solar radiation and its application to albedo trends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhan, Yizhe; Davies, Roger

    2016-06-01

    Measurements on the Terra satellite by the Cloud and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES), the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), and the Multiangle Imaging Spectroradiometer (MISR), between 2001 and 2015 over the polar regions, are analyzed in order to investigate the intercalibration differences between these instruments. Direct comparisons of colocated near-nadir radiances from CERES, MODIS, and MISR show relative agreement within 2.4% decade-1. By comparison with the CERES shortwave broadband, MODIS Collection 6 is getting brighter, by 1.0 ± 0.7% decade-1 in the red band and 1.4 ± 0.7% decade-1 in the near infrared. MISR's red and near-infrared bands, however, show darkening trends of -1.0 ± 0.6% decade-1 and -1.1 ± 0.6% decade-1, respectively. The CERES/MODIS or CERES/MISR visible and near IR radiance ratio is shown to have a significant negative correlation with precipitable water content over the Antarctic Plateau. The intercalibration results successfully correct the differential top-of-atmosphere trends in zonal albedos between CERES and MISR.

  9. Ammoniated phyllosilicates with a likely outer Solar System origin on (1) Ceres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Sanctis, M C; Ammannito, E; Raponi, A; Marchi, S; McCord, T B; McSween, H Y; Capaccioni, F; Capria, M T; Carrozzo, F G; Ciarniello, M; Longobardo, A; Tosi, F; Fonte, S; Formisano, M; Frigeri, A; Giardino, M; Magni, G; Palomba, E; Turrini, D; Zambon, F; Combe, J-P; Feldman, W; Jaumann, R; McFadden, L A; Pieters, C M; Prettyman, T; Toplis, M; Raymond, C A; Russell, C T

    2015-12-10

    Studies of the dwarf planet (1) Ceres using ground-based and orbiting telescopes have concluded that its closest meteoritic analogues are the volatile-rich CI and CM carbonaceous chondrites. Water in clay minerals, ammoniated phyllosilicates, or a mixture of Mg(OH)2 (brucite), Mg2CO3 and iron-rich serpentine have all been proposed to exist on the surface. In particular, brucite has been suggested from analysis of the mid-infrared spectrum of Ceres. But the lack of spectral data across telluric absorption bands in the wavelength region 2.5 to 2.9 micrometres--where the OH stretching vibration and the H2O bending overtone are found--has precluded definitive identifications. In addition, water vapour around Ceres has recently been reported, possibly originating from localized sources. Here we report spectra of Ceres from 0.4 to 5 micrometres acquired at distances from ~82,000 to 4,300 kilometres from the surface. Our measurements indicate widespread ammoniated phyllosilicates across the surface, but no detectable water ice. Ammonia, accreted either as organic matter or as ice, may have reacted with phyllosilicates on Ceres during differentiation. This suggests that material from the outer Solar System was incorporated into Ceres, either during its formation at great heliocentric distance or by incorporation of material transported into the main asteroid belt. PMID:26659184

  10. The KMAT: Benchmarking Knowledge Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Jager, Martha

    Provides an overview of knowledge management and benchmarking, including the benefits and methods of benchmarking (e.g., competitive, cooperative, collaborative, and internal benchmarking). Arthur Andersen's KMAT (Knowledge Management Assessment Tool) is described. The KMAT is a collaborative benchmarking tool, designed to help organizations make…

  11. Benchmarking in Mobarakeh Steel Company

    OpenAIRE

    Sasan Ghasemi; Mohammad Nazemi; Mehran Nejati

    2008-01-01

    Benchmarking is considered as one of the most effective ways of improving performance in companies. Although benchmarking in business organizations is a relatively new concept and practice, it has rapidly gained acceptance worldwide. This paper introduces the benchmarking project conducted in Esfahan's Mobarakeh Steel Company, as the first systematic benchmarking project conducted in Iran. It aims to share the process deployed for the benchmarking project in this company and illustrate how th...

  12. The Crop Evaluation Research for Environmental Strategies (CERES) Remote Sensing 2008 Project Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casas, Joseph C.; Glaser, John A.; Copenhaver, Kenneth L.; May, George

    2009-01-01

    resistance development. The two agencies have entered into an agreement which could potentially lead to the development of next generation NASA sensors that will more specifically address the requirements of the USEPA's resistance development strategy and offer opportunities to study the ever changing ecosystem complexities. The USEPA/NASA/ITD team has developed a broad research project entitled CERES (Crop Evaluation Research for Environmental Strategies). CERES is a research effort leading to decision support system tools that are designed to integrate multi-resolution NASA remote sensing data products and USEPA geo -spatial models to monitor the potential for insect pest resistance development from the regional to the landscape and then to the field level.

  13. Benchmarking the Netherlands. Benchmarking for growth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This is the fourth edition of the Ministry of Economic Affairs' publication 'Benchmarking the Netherlands', which aims to assess the competitiveness of the Dutch economy. The methodology and objective of the benchmarking remain the same. The basic conditions for economic activity (institutions, regulation, etc.) in a number of benchmark countries are compared in order to learn from the solutions found by other countries for common economic problems. This publication is devoted entirely to the potential output of the Dutch economy. In other words, its ability to achieve sustainable growth and create work over a longer period without capacity becoming an obstacle. This is important because economic growth is needed to increase prosperity in the broad sense and meeting social needs. Prosperity in both a material (per capita GDP) and immaterial (living environment, environment, health, etc) sense, in other words. The economy's potential output is determined by two structural factors: the growth of potential employment and the structural increase in labour productivity. Analysis by the Netherlands Bureau for Economic Policy Analysis (CPB) shows that in recent years the increase in the capacity for economic growth has been realised mainly by increasing the supply of labour and reducing the equilibrium unemployment rate. In view of the ageing of the population in the coming years and decades the supply of labour is unlikely to continue growing at the pace we have become accustomed to in recent years. According to a number of recent studies, to achieve a respectable rate of sustainable economic growth the aim will therefore have to be to increase labour productivity. To realise this we have to focus on for six pillars of economic policy: (1) human capital, (2) functioning of markets, (3) entrepreneurship, (4) spatial planning, (5) innovation, and (6) sustainability. These six pillars determine the course for economic policy aiming at higher productivity growth. Throughout

  14. Operational benchmarking of Japanese and Danish hopsitals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Traberg, Andreas; Itoh, Kenji; Jacobsen, Peter

    2010-01-01

    This benchmarking model is designed as an integration of three organizational dimensions suited for the healthcare sector. The model incorporates posterior operational indicators, and evaluates upon aggregation of performance. The model is tested upon seven cases from Japan and Denmark. Japanese...

  15. Mesoscale inversion: first results from the CERES campaign with synthetic data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Lauvaux

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available We investigate the ability of a mesoscale model to reconstruct CO2 fluxes at regional scale. Formally, we estimate the reduction of error for a CO2 flux inversion at 8 km resolution in the South West of France, during four days of the CarboEurope Regional Experiment Strategy (CERES in spring 2005. Measurements from two towers and two airplanes are available for this campaign. The lagrangian particle dispersion model LPDM was coupled to the non-hydrostatic model Meso-NH and integrated in a matrix inversion framework. Impacts of aircraft and tower measurements are quantified separately and together. We find that the configuration with both towers and aircraft is able to significantly reduce uncertainties on the 4-day averaged CO2 fluxes over about half of the 300×300 km2 domain. Most of this reduction comes from the tower measurements, even though the impact of aircraft measurements remains noticeable. Imperfect knowledge of boundary conditions does not significantly impact the error reduction for surface fluxes. We test alternative strategies to improve the impact of aircraft measurements and find that most information comes from measurements inside the boundary layer. We find that there would be a large improvement in error reduction if we could improve our ability to model nocturnal concentrations at tower sites.

  16. Mesoscale inversion: first results from the CERES campaign with synthetic data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Lauvaux

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available We investigate the ability of a mesoscale model to reconstruct CO2 fluxes at regional scale. Formally, we estimate the reduction of error for a CO2 flux inversion at 8 km resolution in the South West of France, during four days of the CarboEurope Regional Experiment (CERES in spring 2005. Measurements from two towers and two airplanes are available for this campaign. The lagrangian particle dispersion model LPDM was coupled to the non-hydrostatic model Meso-NH and integrated in a matrix inversion framework. Impacts of aircraft and tower measurements are quantified separately and together. We find that the configuration with both towers and aircraft is able to significantly reduce uncertainties on the 4-day averaged CO2 fluxes over about half of the 300×300 km domain. Most of this reduction comes from the tower measurements, even though the impact of aircraft measurements remains noticeable. The noise contributed by imperfect knowledge of boundary inflows does not significantly impair the resolution. We test alternative strategies to improve the impact of aircraft measurements and find that most information comes from measurements inside the boundary layer.

  17. MCNP neutron benchmarks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    More than 50 neutron benchmark calculations have recently been completed as part of an ongoing program to validate the MCNP Monte Carlo radiation transport code. The benchmark calculations reported here are part of an ongoing multiyear, multiperson effort to benchmark version 4 of the MCNP code. The MCNP is a Monte Carlo three-dimensional general-purpose, continuous-energy neutron, photon, and electron transport code. It is used around the world for many applications including aerospace, oil-well logging, physics experiments, criticality safety, reactor analysis, medical imaging, defense applications, accelerator design, radiation hardening, radiation shielding, health physics, fusion research, and education. The first phase of the benchmark project consisted of analytic and photon problems. The second phase consists of the ENDF/B-V neutron problems reported in this paper and in more detail in the comprehensive report. A cooperative program being carried out a General Electric, San Jose, consists of light water reactor benchmark problems. A subsequent phase focusing on electron problems is planned

  18. Shielding Benchmark Computational Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hunter, H.T.; Slater, C.O.; Holland, L.B.; Tracz, G.; Marshall, W.J.; Parsons, J.L.

    2000-09-17

    Over the past several decades, nuclear science has relied on experimental research to verify and validate information about shielding nuclear radiation for a variety of applications. These benchmarks are compared with results from computer code models and are useful for the development of more accurate cross-section libraries, computer code development of radiation transport modeling, and building accurate tests for miniature shielding mockups of new nuclear facilities. When documenting measurements, one must describe many parts of the experimental results to allow a complete computational analysis. Both old and new benchmark experiments, by any definition, must provide a sound basis for modeling more complex geometries required for quality assurance and cost savings in nuclear project development. Benchmarks may involve one or many materials and thicknesses, types of sources, and measurement techniques. In this paper the benchmark experiments of varying complexity are chosen to study the transport properties of some popular materials and thicknesses. These were analyzed using three-dimensional (3-D) models and continuous energy libraries of MCNP4B2, a Monte Carlo code developed at Los Alamos National Laboratory, New Mexico. A shielding benchmark library provided the experimental data and allowed a wide range of choices for source, geometry, and measurement data. The experimental data had often been used in previous analyses by reputable groups such as the Cross Section Evaluation Working Group (CSEWG) and the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development/Nuclear Energy Agency Nuclear Science Committee (OECD/NEANSC).

  19. Deviating From the Benchmarks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rocha, Vera; Van Praag, Mirjam; Carneiro, Anabela

    This paper studies three related questions: To what extent otherwise similar startups employ different quantities and qualities of human capital at the moment of entry? How persistent are initial human capital choices over time? And how does deviating from human capital benchmarks influence firm...... survival? The analysis is based on a matched employer-employee dataset and covers about 17,500 startups in manufacturing and services. We adopt a new procedure to estimate individual benchmarks for the quantity and quality of initial human resources, acknowledging correlations between hiring decisions......, founders human capital, and the ownership structure of startups (solo entrepreneurs versus entrepreneurial teams). We then study the survival implications of exogenous deviations from these benchmarks, based on spline models for survival data. Our results indicate that (especially negative) deviations from...

  20. Validating CERES Radiative Fluxes in the Arctic with Airborne Radiative Flux Measurements from the ARISE Campaign

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corbett, J.; Bucholtz, A.; Kato, S.; Rose, F. G.; Smith, W. L., Jr.

    2015-12-01

    The Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) instruments on board NASA's Terra, Aqua, and Soumi-NPP satellites provide the only measurements of reflected solar shortwave and emitted longwave radiative flux over the Arctic. Various methods have shown the uncertainty of CERES fluxes over sea ice to be higher than other scene types. However validation against an independent radiative flux measurement has never been attempted. We present here an attempt to better quantify the uncertainty of time-and-space averaged CERES flux measurements using airborne measurements from the Arctic Radiation - IceBridge Sea Ice Experiment (ARISE). The ARISE campaign took place during September of 2014 based out of Fairbanks, Alaska, with most of the measurements taken in the vicinity of the sea ice edge between 125°W and 150°W, and 71°N to 77°N. For six of the flights, measurements were taken in a lawnmower type pattern over either 100 x 200 km box regions at a constant altitude of >6 km, or 100 x 100 km box regions at an altitude of between 200 m to 500 m. They were designed to resemble the CERES Level 3 spatial averaging grids, and were located and timed to coincide with a high number of CERES overpasses. On board the aircraft were a set of upward and downward facing shortwave and longwave broadband radiometers (BBR), along with other instruments measuring meteorological conditions and cloud properties. We have compared the broadband radiative fluxes from BBR with those from CERES for the three days where the aircraft was flying the high altitude pattern. We use the Fu-Liou radiative transfer model to account for differences in the measurement altitude between BBR and CERES. We will present results of the comparisons between the computed fluxes and the measured longwave and shortwave radiative fluxes.

  1. Benchmarking for Best Practice

    CERN Document Server

    Zairi, Mohamed

    1998-01-01

    Benchmarking for Best Practice uses up-to-the-minute case-studies of individual companies and industry-wide quality schemes to show how and why implementation has succeeded. For any practitioner wanting to establish best practice in a wide variety of business areas, this book makes essential reading. .It is also an ideal textbook on the applications of TQM since it describes concepts, covers definitions and illustrates the applications with first-hand examples. Professor Mohamed Zairi is an international expert and leading figure in the field of benchmarking. His pioneering work in this area l

  2. Remote Sensing Segmentation Benchmark

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mikeš, Stanislav; Haindl, Michal; Scarpa, G.

    Piscataway, NJ : IEEE Press, 2012, s. 1-4. ISBN 978-1-4673-4960-4. [IAPR Workshop on Pattern Recognition in Remote Sensing (PRRS). Tsukuba Science City (JP), 11.11.2012] R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP103/11/0335; GA ČR GA102/08/0593 Grant ostatní: CESNET(CZ) 409/2011 Keywords : remote sensing * segmentation * benchmark Subject RIV: BD - Theory of Information http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2013/RO/mikes-remote sensing segmentation benchmark.pdf

  3. Benchmarking the World's Best

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, Marc S.

    2012-01-01

    A century ago, the United States was a world leader in industrial benchmarking. However, after World War II, once no one could compete with the U.S., it became complacent. Many industrialized countries now have higher student achievement and more equitable and efficient education systems. A higher proportion of young people in their workforces…

  4. Benchmarks: WICHE Region 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Western Interstate Commission for Higher Education, 2013

    2013-01-01

    Benchmarks: WICHE Region 2012 presents information on the West's progress in improving access to, success in, and financing of higher education. The information is updated annually to monitor change over time and encourage its use as a tool for informed discussion in policy and education communities. To establish a general context for the…

  5. Benchmark problem proposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The meeting of the Radiation Energy Spectra Unfolding Workshop organized by the Radiation Shielding Information Center is discussed. The plans of the unfolding code benchmarking effort to establish methods of standardization for both the few channel neutron and many channel gamma-ray and neutron spectroscopy problems are presented

  6. Benchmarking and Performance Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian TANTAU

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The relevance of the chosen topic is explained by the meaning of the firm efficiency concept - the firm efficiency means the revealed performance (how well the firm performs in the actual market environment given the basic characteristics of the firms and their markets that are expected to drive their profitability (firm size, market power etc.. This complex and relative performance could be due to such things as product innovation, management quality, work organization, some other factors can be a cause even if they are not directly observed by the researcher. The critical need for the management individuals/group to continuously improve their firm/company’s efficiency and effectiveness, the need for the managers to know which are the success factors and the competitiveness determinants determine consequently, what performance measures are most critical in determining their firm’s overall success. Benchmarking, when done properly, can accurately identify both successful companies and the underlying reasons for their success. Innovation and benchmarking firm level performance are critical interdependent activities. Firm level variables, used to infer performance, are often interdependent due to operational reasons. Hence, the managers need to take the dependencies among these variables into account when forecasting and benchmarking performance. This paper studies firm level performance using financial ratio and other type of profitability measures. It uses econometric models to describe and then propose a method to forecast and benchmark performance.

  7. CCF benchmark test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A benchmark test on common cause failures (CCF) was performed giving interested institutions in Germany the opportunity of demonstrating and justifying their interpretations of events, their methods and models for analyzed CCF. The participants of this benchmark test belonged to expert and consultant organisations and to industrial institutions. The task for the benchmark test was to analyze two typical groups of motor-operated valves in German nuclear power plants. The benchmark test was carried out in two steps. In the first step the participants were to assess in a qualitative way some 200 event-reports on isolation valves. They then were to establish, quantitatively, the reliability parameters for the CCF in the two groups of motor-operated valves using their own methods and their own calculation models. In a second step the reliability parameters were to be recalculated on the basis of a common reference of well defined events, chosen from all given events, in order to analyze the influence of the calculation models on the reliability parameters. (orig.)

  8. Benchmarking Public Procurement 2016

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank Group

    2015-01-01

    Benchmarking Public Procurement 2016 Report aims to develop actionable indicators which will help countries identify and monitor policies and regulations that impact how private sector companies do business with the government. The project builds on the Doing Business methodology and was initiated at the request of the G20 Anti-Corruption Working Group.

  9. NAS Parallel Benchmarks Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subhash, Saini; Bailey, David H.; Lasinski, T. A. (Technical Monitor)

    1995-01-01

    The NAS Parallel Benchmarks (NPB) were developed in 1991 at NASA Ames Research Center to study the performance of parallel supercomputers. The eight benchmark problems are specified in a pencil and paper fashion i.e. the complete details of the problem to be solved are given in a technical document, and except for a few restrictions, benchmarkers are free to select the language constructs and implementation techniques best suited for a particular system. In this paper, we present new NPB performance results for the following systems: (a) Parallel-Vector Processors: Cray C90, Cray T'90 and Fujitsu VPP500; (b) Highly Parallel Processors: Cray T3D, IBM SP2 and IBM SP-TN2 (Thin Nodes 2); (c) Symmetric Multiprocessing Processors: Convex Exemplar SPP1000, Cray J90, DEC Alpha Server 8400 5/300, and SGI Power Challenge XL. We also present sustained performance per dollar for Class B LU, SP and BT benchmarks. We also mention NAS future plans of NPB.

  10. Benchmarking Parallel Natural Algorithms for Telecommunications Devices Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Henrique da Silva-Santos

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This work presents the benchmark of three different adapted parallel natural inspired algorithms (Genetic Algorithm, Evolutionary Strategy and Artificial Immune System integrated to some numerical techniques to optimize a microstrip antenna and crystal based photonic filter. The evaluations were focused on parallel computing impact, considering convergence and runtime simulation analyses. This benchmark contributes to point out their efficiency of these algorithms to optimize telecommunication devices integrated with some numerical solution, and it also provide runtime equation estimative for these optimizations.

  11. Exploration of a Small Volatile-Rich World: New Light on Ceres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Christopher T.; Raymond, Carol A.; Ammannito, Eleonora; Buczkowski, Debra L.; DeSanctis, Maria Cristina; Hiesinger, Harald; Jaumann, Ralf; McSween, Harry Y.; Nathues, Andreas; Park, Ryan S.; Pieters, Carle M.

    2016-04-01

    In March 2015, Dawn arrived at Ceres after its 7.5-year journey. It had orbited and mapped Vesta before arriving at its final target, the largest body in the main asteroid belt. There it found a dark, dry, heavily cratered surface punctuated by small bright spots. Ceres encountered a similar cratering population to that encountered by Vesta and is just as cratered at smaller sizes, but Ceres is missing the largest expected craters and is gravitationally relaxed at lowest orders. Ceres' crust consists of a thin lag deposit containing ammoniated clay of probable endogenous origin, carbonates and dark material, and exhibits bright patches of possible salt concentrations. To be consistent with the crater distribution and the gravity data, there must exist beneath this crust a strong lithosphere of water-ice and rock, containing carbonates and salt. Under this 'upper mantle' must be a lower mantle, consisting of a warmer, weaker athenosphere of similar chemical composition. In the center lies a solid core. Flat crater floors, flows of material across the surface, isolated mountains at least one of which appears to be an ice volcano, all point to the importance of volatile-driven activity on Ceres that likely involves brine-driven cryovolcanism.

  12. Economic assessment of novel amine based CO2 capture technologies integrated in power plants based on European Benchmarking Task Force methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Novel amine solvent applied to ASC and NGCC power plants. • CESAR-1 (AMP and piperazine) reduces the cost of CO2 avoided compared to MEA. • Higher cost reduction achieved for ASC power plants. • European common methodology description for economic benchmark studies in carbon capture. - Abstract: The objective of this paper is to assess the economic advantages of an innovative solvent for CO2 capture on state-of-the-art solvents. The CESAR-1 solvent, which is an aqueous solution of 2-amino-2-methyl-propanol (AMP) and piperazine (PZ), is applied both to advanced supercritical pulverised (ASC) coal and natural gas combined cycle (NGCC) power plants with post-combustion CO2 capture units. The methodology includes process model developments using commercial simulation programs, which determine the thermodynamic properties of the selected power plants and the performance of the CO2 capture units. The results show that the techno-economic benefit of CESAR-1 versus MEA is more significant for ASC than that for NGCC due to a higher concentration of CO2 in the flue gas. This follows from the fact that the switch from MEA to CESAR-1 solvents reduces the electricity cost by 4.16 €/MW h in the case of the ASC plant compared to 0.67 €/MW h in connection with the proposed NGCC plant. Based on the above figures, we can conclude that CESAR-1 reduces the cost of CO2 avoided compared to MEA by 6 €/t CO2 and 2 €/t CO2 for the selected ASC and NGCC plants respectively. In view of that, the techno-economics can be improved if the CO2 capture plant is designed to operate using the CESAR-1 absorption technology due to a reduction in the regeneration energy and the solvent recirculation rate (considering its higher CO2 net capacity). However, the variable costs of running the capture plant are higher for the CESAR-1 solvent due to the higher cost of the amines

  13. Phasic temperature control appraised with the Ceres-Wheat model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volk, T; Bugbee, B; Tubiello, F

    1997-01-01

    Phasic control refers to the specification of a series of different environmental conditions during a crop's life cycle, with the goal of optimizing some aspect of productivity. Because of the enormous number of possible scenarios, phasic control is an ideal situation for modeling to provide guidance prior to experiments. Here we use the Ceres-Wheat model, modified for hydroponic growth chambers, to examine temperature effects. We first establish a baseline by running the model at constant temperatures from 10 degrees C to 30 degrees C. Grain yield per day peaks at 15 degrees C at a value that is 25% higher than the yield at the commonly used 23 degrees C. We then show results for phasic control limited to a single shift in temperature and, finally, we examine scenarios that allow each of the five phases of the life cycle to have a different temperature. Results indicate that grain yield might be increased by 15-20% over the best yield at constant temperature, primarily from a boosted harvest index, which has the additional advantage of less waste biomass. Such gains, if achievable, would help optimize food production for life support systems. Experimental work should first verify the relationship between yield and temperature, and then move to selected scenarios of phasic control, based on model predictions. PMID:11540452

  14. Elastic-Plastic J-Integral Solutions or Surface Cracks in Tension Using an Interpolation Methodology. Appendix C -- Finite Element Models Solution Database File, Appendix D -- Benchmark Finite Element Models Solution Database File

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Phillip A.; Wells, Douglas N.

    2013-01-01

    No closed form solutions exist for the elastic-plastic J-integral for surface cracks due to the nonlinear, three-dimensional nature of the problem. Traditionally, each surface crack must be analyzed with a unique and time-consuming nonlinear finite element analysis. To overcome this shortcoming, the authors have developed and analyzed an array of 600 3D nonlinear finite element models for surface cracks in flat plates under tension loading. The solution space covers a wide range of crack shapes and depths (shape: 0.2 less than or equal to a/c less than or equal to 1, depth: 0.2 less than or equal to a/B less than or equal to 0.8) and material flow properties (elastic modulus-to-yield ratio: 100 less than or equal to E/ys less than or equal to 1,000, and hardening: 3 less than or equal to n less than or equal to 20). The authors have developed a methodology for interpolating between the goemetric and material property variables that allows the user to reliably evaluate the full elastic-plastic J-integral and force versus crack mouth opening displacement solution; thus, a solution can be obtained very rapidly by users without elastic-plastic fracture mechanics modeling experience. Complete solutions for the 600 models and 25 additional benchmark models are provided in tabular format.

  15. Benchmarking i den offentlige sektor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bukh, Per Nikolaj; Dietrichson, Lars; Sandalgaard, Niels

    2008-01-01

    I artiklen vil vi kort diskutere behovet for benchmarking i fraværet af traditionelle markedsmekanismer. Herefter vil vi nærmere redegøre for, hvad benchmarking er med udgangspunkt i fire forskellige anvendelser af benchmarking. Regulering af forsyningsvirksomheder vil blive behandlet, hvorefter...

  16. High-resolution Ceres High Altitude Mapping Orbit atlas derived from Dawn Framing Camera images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roatsch, Th.; Kersten, E.; Matz, K.-D.; Preusker, F.; Scholten, F.; Jaumann, R.; Raymond, C. A.; Russell, C. T.

    2016-09-01

    The Dawn spacecraft Framing Camera (FC) acquired over 2400 clear filter images of Ceres with a resolution of about 140 m/pixel during the six cycles in the High Altitude Mapping Orbit (HAMO) phase between August 18 and October 21, 2015. We ortho-rectified the images from the first cycle and produced a global, high-resolution, controlled photomosaic of Ceres. This global mosaic is the basis for a high-resolution Ceres atlas that consists of 15 tiles mapped at a scale of 1:750,000. The nomenclature used in this atlas was proposed by the Dawn team and was approved by the International Astronomical Union (IAU). The full atlas is available to the public through the Dawn Geographical Information System (GIS) web page

  17. Results of two multi-chord stellar occultations by dwarf planet (1) Ceres

    CERN Document Server

    Gomes-Júnior, A R; Braga-Ribas, F; Assafin, M; Vieira-Martins, R; Camargo, J I B; Sicardy, B; Timerson, B; George, T; Broughton, J; Blank, T; Benedetti-Rossi, G; Brooks, J; Dantowitz, R F; Dunham, D W; Dunham, J B; Ellington, C K; Emilio, M; Herpich, F R; Jacques, C; Maley, P D; Mehret, L; Mello, A J T; Milone, A C; Pimentel, E; Schoenell, W; Weber, N S

    2015-01-01

    We report the results of two multi-chord stellar occultations by the dwarf planet (1) Ceres that were observed from Brazil on 2010 August 17, and from the USA on 2013 October 25. Four positive detections were obtained for the 2010 occultation, and nine for the 2013 occultation. Elliptical models were adjusted to the observed chords to obtain Ceres' size and shape. Two limb fitting solutions were studied for each event. The first one is a nominal solution with an indeterminate polar aspect angle. The second one was constrained by the pole coordinates as given by Drummond et al. Assuming a Maclaurin spheroid, we determine an equatorial diameter of 972 $\\pm$ 6 km and an apparent oblateness of 0.08 $\\pm$ 0.03 as our best solution. These results are compared to all available size and shape determinations for Ceres made so far, and shall be confirmed by the NASA's Dawn space mission.

  18. Texture Segmentation Benchmark

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Haindl, Michal; Mikeš, Stanislav

    Los Alamitos : IEEE Press, 2008, s. 2933-2936. ISBN 978-1-4244-2174-9. [19th International Conference on Pattern Recognition. Tampa (US), 07.12.2008-11.12.2008] R&D Projects: GA AV ČR 1ET400750407; GA MŠk 1M0572; GA ČR GA102/07/1594; GA ČR GA102/08/0593 Grant ostatní: GA MŠk(CZ) 2C06019 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10750506 Keywords : texture segmentation * image segmentation * benchmark Subject RIV: BD - Theory of Information http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2008/RO/haindl-texture segmentation benchmark.pdf

  19. Radiography benchmark 2014

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of the 2014 WFNDEC RT benchmark study was to compare predictions of various models of radiographic techniques, in particular those that predict the contribution of scattered radiation. All calculations were carried out for homogenous materials and a mono-energetic X-ray point source in the energy range between 100 keV and 10 MeV. The calculations were to include the best physics approach available considering electron binding effects. Secondary effects like X-ray fluorescence and bremsstrahlung production were to be taken into account if possible. The problem to be considered had two parts. Part I examined the spectrum and the spatial distribution of radiation behind a single iron plate. Part II considered two equally sized plates, made of iron and aluminum respectively, only evaluating the spatial distribution. Here we present the results of above benchmark study, comparing them to MCNP as the assumed reference model. The possible origins of the observed deviations are discussed

  20. Formation of brucite and cronstedtite-bearing mineral assemblages on Ceres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zolotov, Mikhail Yu.

    2014-01-01

    Dwarf planet Ceres is the largest body in the main asteroid belt with a rocky surface and uncertain internal structure. Spectra of Ceres in near- and mid-infrared wavelengths are consistent with the occurrence of brucite, Mg-bearing carbonates, and an Fe-rich phyllosilicate cronstedtite. Spectra of 10 Hygiea and 324 Bamberga imply similar compositions. Here, we considered stabilities of these minerals to constrain their origin. Cronstedtite is most stable at the temperature of ˜0 °C at moderately oxidizing aqueous conditions and at high water/rock ratios. Although cronstedtite could form on planetesimals, the apparent lack of serpentine may indicate its formation by Ceres' temporary surface solutions. Brucite forms at a low activity of dissolved SiO2, at a low fugacity of CO2, and at highly alkaline pH. Brucite and cronstedtite do not form together and may not form deep in the Ceres' interior. The absence of Mg serpentine from Ceres' surface materials and the unlikely occurrence of very olivine-rich rocks do not indicate a formation of brucite through serpentinization of such rocks. Brucite could form by transient near-surface fluids which do not equilibrate with silicates. Temporary fluids could deposit Mg carbonates before, after, or together with brucite at near-surface conditions that favor CO2 degassing. Regardless of Ceres' internal structure, internal thermal and aqueous processes may not affect cold near-surface layers. Percolation of interior fluids is not consistent with the lack of detection of low-solubility salts. However, impacts of ice-rich targets during the Late Heavy Bombardment could account for transient aqueous environments and unusual surface mineralogies of Ceres, Hygiea, and Bamberga. Brucite and Mg carbonates could have formed through hydration and carbonation of MgO evaporated from silicates. Apparently abundant carbonates may indicate an ample impact oxidation of organic matter, and the occurrence of brucite with cronstedtite may

  1. Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) Visualization Single Satellite Footprint (SSF) Plot Generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barsi, Julia A.

    1995-01-01

    The first Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) instrument will be launched in 1997 to collect data on the Earth's radiation budget. The data retrieved from the satellite will be processed through twelve subsystems. The Single Satellite Footprint (SSF) plot generator software was written to assist scientists in the early stages of CERES data analysis, producing two-dimensional plots of the footprint radiation and cloud data generated by one of the subsystems. Until the satellite is launched, however, software developers need verification tools to check their code. This plot generator will aid programmers by geolocating algorithm result on a global map.

  2. Benchmarking of LSTM Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Breuel, Thomas M.

    2015-01-01

    LSTM (Long Short-Term Memory) recurrent neural networks have been highly successful in a number of application areas. This technical report describes the use of the MNIST and UW3 databases for benchmarking LSTM networks and explores the effect of di?erent architectural and hyperparameter choices on performance. Significant ?ndings include: (1) LSTM performance depends smoothly on learning rates, (2) batching and momentum has no significant effect on performance, (3) softmax training outperfor...

  3. Texture Fidelity Benchmark

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Haindl, Michal; Kudělka, Miloš

    Los Alamitos, USA: IEEE Computer Society CPS, 2014. ISBN 978-1-4799-7971-4. [International Workshop on Computational Intelligence for Multimedia Understanding 2014 (IWCIM). Paris (FR), 01.11.2014-02.11.2014] R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA14-10911S Institutional support: RVO:67985556 Keywords : Benchmark testing * fidelity criteria * texture Subject RIV: BD - Theory of Information http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2014/RO/haindl-0439654.pdf

  4. Cloud benchmarking for performance

    OpenAIRE

    Varghese, Blesson; Akgun, Ozgur; Miguel, Ian; Thai, Long; Barker, Adam

    2014-01-01

    How can applications be deployed on the cloud to achieve maximum performance? This question has become significant and challenging with the availability of a wide variety of Virtual Machines (VMs) with different performance capabilities in the cloud. The above question is addressed by proposing a six step benchmarking methodology in which a user provides a set of four weights that indicate how important each of the following groups: memory, processor, computation and storage are to the applic...

  5. Morphology of Cryogenic Flows and Channels on Dwarf Planet Ceres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krohn, Katrin; Jaumann, Ralf; Otto, Katharina A.; von der Gathen, Isabel; Matz, Klaus-Dieter; Buczkowski, Debra L.; Williams, David A.; Pieters, Carle M.; Preusker, Frank; Roatsch, Thomas; Stephan, Katrin; Wagner, Roland J.; Russell, Christopher T.; Raymond, Carol A.

    2016-04-01

    Cereś surface is affected by numerous impact craters and some of them show features such as channels or multiple flow events forming a smooth, less cratered surface, indicating possible post-impact resurfacing [1,2]. Flow features occur on several craters on Ceres such as Haulani, Ikapati, Occator, Jarimba and Kondos in combination with smooth crater floors [3,4], appearing as extended plains, ponded material, lobate flow fronts and in the case of Haulani lobate flows originating from the crest of the central ridge [3] partly overwhelming the mass wasting deposits from the rim. Haulanís crater flanks are also affected by multiple flow events radiating out from the crater and partly forming breakages. Flows occur as fine-grained lobes with well-defined margins and as smooth undifferentiated streaky flows covering the adjacent surface. Thus, adjacent craters are covered by flow material. Occator also exhibits multiple flows but in contrast to Haulani, the flows originating from the center overwhelm the mass wasting deposits from the rim [4]. The flows have a "bluish" signature in the FC color filters ratio. Channels occur at relatively fresh craters. They also show the "bluish" signature like the flows and plains. Only few channels occur at older "reddish" craters. They are relatively fresh incised into flow features or crater ejecta. Most are small, narrow and have lobated lobes with predominant distinctive flow margins. The widths vary between a few tens of meters to about 3 km. The channels are found on crater flanks as well as on the crater floors. The occurrence of flow features indicates viscous material on the surface. Those features could be formed by impact melt. However, impact melt is produced during the impact, assuming similar material properties as the ejecta it is expected to have nearly the same age as the impact itself, but the flows and plains are almost free of craters, thus, they seem to be much younger than the impact itself. In addition, the

  6. The NAS Parallel Benchmarks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bailey, David H.

    2009-11-15

    The NAS Parallel Benchmarks (NPB) are a suite of parallel computer performance benchmarks. They were originally developed at the NASA Ames Research Center in 1991 to assess high-end parallel supercomputers. Although they are no longer used as widely as they once were for comparing high-end system performance, they continue to be studied and analyzed a great deal in the high-performance computing community. The acronym 'NAS' originally stood for the Numerical Aeronautical Simulation Program at NASA Ames. The name of this organization was subsequently changed to the Numerical Aerospace Simulation Program, and more recently to the NASA Advanced Supercomputing Center, although the acronym remains 'NAS.' The developers of the original NPB suite were David H. Bailey, Eric Barszcz, John Barton, David Browning, Russell Carter, LeoDagum, Rod Fatoohi, Samuel Fineberg, Paul Frederickson, Thomas Lasinski, Rob Schreiber, Horst Simon, V. Venkatakrishnan and Sisira Weeratunga. The original NAS Parallel Benchmarks consisted of eight individual benchmark problems, each of which focused on some aspect of scientific computing. The principal focus was in computational aerophysics, although most of these benchmarks have much broader relevance, since in a much larger sense they are typical of many real-world scientific computing applications. The NPB suite grew out of the need for a more rational procedure to select new supercomputers for acquisition by NASA. The emergence of commercially available highly parallel computer systems in the late 1980s offered an attractive alternative to parallel vector supercomputers that had been the mainstay of high-end scientific computing. However, the introduction of highly parallel systems was accompanied by a regrettable level of hype, not only on the part of the commercial vendors but even, in some cases, by scientists using the systems. As a result, it was difficult to discern whether the new systems offered any fundamental

  7. Quantitative consistency testing of thermal benchmark lattice experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper sets forth a general method to demonstrate the quantitative consistency (or inconsistency) of results of thermal reactor lattice experiments. The method is of particular importance in selecting standard ''benchmark'' experiments for comparison testing of lattice analysis codes and neutron cross sections. ''Benchmark'' thermal lattice experiments are currently selected by consensus, which usually means the experiment is geometrically simple, well-documented, reasonably complete, and qualitatively consistent. A literature search has not revealed any general quantitative test that has been applied to experimental results to demonstrate consistency, although some experiments must have been subjected to some form or other of quantitative test. The consistency method is based on a two-group neutron balance condition that is capable of revealing the quantitative consistency (or inconsistency) of reported thermal benchmark lattice integral parameters. This equation is used in conjunction with a second equation in the following discussion to assess the consistency (or inconsistency) of: (1) several Cross Section Evaluation Working Group (CSEWG) defined thermal benchmark lattices, (2) SRL experiments on the Mark 5R and Mark 15 lattices, and (3) several D2O lattices encountered as proposed thermal benchmark lattices. Nineteen thermal benchmark lattice experiments were subjected to a quantitative test of consistency between the reported experimental integral parameters. Results of this testing showed only two lattice experiments to be generally useful as ''benchmarks,'' three lattice experiments to be of limited usefulness, three lattice experiments to be potentially useful, and 11 lattice experiments to be not useful. These results are tabulated with the lattices identified

  8. Benchmark Data Through The International Reactor Physics Experiment Evaluation Project (IRPHEP)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. Blair Briggs; Dr. Enrico Sartori

    2005-09-01

    The International Reactor Physics Experiments Evaluation Project (IRPhEP) was initiated by the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) Nuclear Energy Agency’s (NEA) Nuclear Science Committee (NSC) in June of 2002. The IRPhEP focus is on the derivation of internationally peer reviewed benchmark models for several types of integral measurements, in addition to the critical configuration. While the benchmarks produced by the IRPhEP are of primary interest to the Reactor Physics Community, many of the benchmarks can be of significant value to the Criticality Safety and Nuclear Data Communities. Benchmarks that support the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP), for example, also support fuel manufacture, handling, transportation, and storage activities and could challenge current analytical methods. The IRPhEP is patterned after the International Criticality Safety Benchmark Evaluation Project (ICSBEP) and is closely coordinated with the ICSBEP. This paper highlights the benchmarks that are currently being prepared by the IRPhEP that are also of interest to the Criticality Safety Community. The different types of measurements and associated benchmarks that can be expected in the first publication and beyond are described. The protocol for inclusion of IRPhEP benchmarks as ICSBEP benchmarks and for inclusion of ICSBEP benchmarks as IRPhEP benchmarks is detailed. The format for IRPhEP benchmark evaluations is described as an extension of the ICSBEP format. Benchmarks produced by the IRPhEP add new dimension to criticality safety benchmarking efforts and expand the collection of available integral benchmarks for nuclear data testing. The first publication of the "International Handbook of Evaluated Reactor Physics Benchmark Experiments" is scheduled for January of 2006.

  9. Self-benchmarking Guide for Data Centers: Metrics, Benchmarks, Actions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mathew, Paul; Ganguly, Srirupa; Greenberg, Steve; Sartor, Dale

    2009-07-13

    This guide describes energy efficiency metrics and benchmarks that can be used to track the performance of and identify potential opportunities to reduce energy use in data centers. This guide is primarily intended for personnel who have responsibility for managing energy use in existing data centers - including facilities managers, energy managers, and their engineering consultants. Additionally, data center designers may also use the metrics and benchmarks described in this guide for goal-setting in new construction or major renovation. This guide provides the following information: (1) A step-by-step outline of the benchmarking process. (2) A set of performance metrics for the whole building as well as individual systems. For each metric, the guide provides a definition, performance benchmarks, and potential actions that can be inferred from evaluating this metric. (3) A list and descriptions of the data required for computing the metrics. This guide is complemented by spreadsheet templates for data collection and for computing the benchmarking metrics. This guide builds on prior data center benchmarking studies supported by the California Energy Commission. Much of the benchmarking data are drawn from the LBNL data center benchmarking database that was developed from these studies. Additional benchmark data were obtained from engineering experts including facility designers and energy managers. This guide also builds on recent research supported by the U.S. Department of Energy's Save Energy Now program.

  10. Phase Angle Effects on 3-micron Absorption Band on Ceres: Implications for Dawn Mission

    CERN Document Server

    Takir, Driss; Sanchez, Juan A; Corre, Lucille Le; Hardersen, Paul S; Nathues, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    Phase angle-induced spectral effects are important to characterize since they affect spectral band parameters such as band depth and band center, and therefore skew mineralogical interpretations of planetary bodies via reflectance spectroscopy. Dwarf planet (1) Ceres is the next target of NASA's Dawn mission, which is expected to arrive in March 2015. The visible and near-infrared mapping spectrometer (VIR) onboard Dawn has the spatial and spectral range to characterize the surface between 0.25-5.0 microns. Ceres has an absorption feature at 3.0 microns due to hydroxyl- and/or water-bearing minerals (e.g. Lebofsky et al. 1981, Rivkin et al. 2003). We analyzed phase angle-induced spectral effects on the 3-micron absorption band on Ceres using spectra measured with the long-wavelength cross-dispersed (LXD: 1.9-4.2 microns) mode of the SpeX spectrograph/imager at the NASA Infrared Telescope Facility (IRTF). Ceres LXD spectra were measured at different phase angles ranging from 0.7o to 22o. We found that the band...

  11. Discovery of the first asteroid, Ceres historical studies in asteroid research

    CERN Document Server

    Cunningham, Clifford

    2016-01-01

    Based on extensive primary sources, many never previously translated into English, this is the definitive account of the origins of Ceres as it went from being classified as a new planet to reclassification as the first of a previously unknown group of celestial objects. Cunningham opens this critical moment of astronomical discovery to full modern analysis for the first time. This book includes all the voluminous correspondence, translated into English, between the astronomers of Europe about the startling discovery of Ceres by Piazzi in 1801. It covers the period up to March 1802, at which time Pallas was discovered. Also included are Piazzi's two monographs about Ceres, and the sections of two books dealing with Ceres, one by Johann Bode, the other by Johann Schroeter. The origin of the word 'asteroid' is explained, along with several chapters on the antecedents of the story going back to ancient Greek times. The formulation of Bode's Law is given, as are the details on the efforts of Baron von Zach to org...

  12. Improved Evapotranspiration Simulation In the CERES-Maize Crop Model Under Limited Irrigation Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    An increasingly considered alternative to full irrigation practices is limited irrigation, where the crop is intentionally stressed during specific growth stages in an effort to maximize yield per unit water consumed, or evapotranspiration (ET). Recent studies have shown that CERES-Maize crop model...

  13. Localized sources of water vapour on the dwarf planet (1) Ceres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Küppers, M.; O'Rourke, L.; Bockelée-Morvan, D.; Zakharov, V.; Lee, S.; von Allmen, P.; Carry, B.; Teyssier, D.; Marston, A.; Müller, T.; Crovisier, J.; Barucci, A.; Moreno, R.

    2014-07-01

    We report the detection of water vapour on (1) Ceres, the first unambiguous discovery of water on an object in the asteroid main belt. Most of the water vapour stems from localized regions at low latitude, possibly from surface features known from adaptive-optics observations. We suggest either cometary-type sublimation from the near surface or cryovolcanism as the origin of the waver vapour [1]. The snowline conventionally divides Solar System objects into dry bodies, ranging out to the main asteroid belt, and icy bodies beyond the belt. Recently, the detection of dust emission from ''main-belt comets'' [2] and of hydration features and possible water ice absorption on some main-belt asteroids [3], together with theories of migration of small bodies in the solar system [4], cast some doubts on the classical picture. Ceres is thought to be differentiated into an icy core and a silicate mantle [5] and hydrated minerals were found on infrared spectra of its surface [6]. A marginal detection of OH, a photodissociation product of water was reported in 1991 [7], but questioned by later, more sensitive observations [8]. We observed Ceres with the Heterodyne Instrument for the Far Infrared (HIFI) [9] on the Herschel Space Observatory [10] in the context of the MACH 11 guaranteed time program and with a follow-up DDT program. The observations took place in Nov. 2011, Oct. 2012, and March 2013. We searched for the signature of water in the ground state line of ortho-water at 556.936 GHz. After a non- detection in the first observation, an absorption line is clearly visible in all other observations. In March 2013, water is detected in emission as well (at 3 sigma level). The production rate of water on Ceres is a few times 10^{26} s^{-1}. The signal from the water vapour from Ceres was found to be linearly polarized during some of the observations, with the absorption being stronger in the horizontal branch. The measured line-area ratio of up to 2.5 between H and V

  14. Entropy-based benchmarking methods

    OpenAIRE

    Temurshoev, Umed

    2012-01-01

    We argue that benchmarking sign-volatile series should be based on the principle of movement and sign preservation, which states that a bench-marked series should reproduce the movement and signs in the original series. We show that the widely used variants of Denton (1971) method and the growth preservation method of Causey and Trager (1981) may violate this principle, while its requirements are explicitly taken into account in the pro-posed entropy-based benchmarking methods. Our illustrati...

  15. Benchmarking in the Semantic Web

    OpenAIRE

    García-Castro, Raúl; Gómez-Pérez, A.

    2009-01-01

    The Semantic Web technology needs to be thoroughly evaluated for providing objective results and obtaining massive improvement in its quality; thus, the transfer of this technology from research to industry will speed up. This chapter presents software benchmarking, a process that aims to improve the Semantic Web technology and to find the best practices. The chapter also describes a specific software benchmarking methodology and shows how this methodology has been used to benchmark the inter...

  16. Selecting benchmarks for reactor calculations

    OpenAIRE

    Alhassan, Erwin; Sjöstrand, Henrik; Duan, Junfeng; Helgesson, Petter; Pomp, Stephan; Österlund, Michael; Rochman, Dimitri; Koning, Arjan J.

    2014-01-01

    Criticality, reactor physics, fusion and shielding benchmarks are expected to play important roles in GENIV design, safety analysis and in the validation of analytical tools used to design these reactors. For existing reactor technology, benchmarks are used to validate computer codes and test nuclear data libraries. However the selection of these benchmarks are usually done by visual inspection which is dependent on the expertise and the experience of the user and there by resulting in a user...

  17. HPC Benchmark Suite NMx Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Intelligent Automation Inc., (IAI) and University of Central Florida (UCF) propose to develop a comprehensive numerical test suite for benchmarking current and...

  18. Regional Competitive Intelligence: Benchmarking and Policymaking

    OpenAIRE

    Huggins, Robert

    2010-01-01

    Im Bereich der Regionalpolitik erfreuen sich Benchmarking-Untersuchungen wachsender Beliebtheit. In diesem Beitrag werden das Konzept des regionalen Benchmarking sowie seine Verbindungen mit den regionalpolitischen Gestaltungsprozessen analysiert. Ich entwickle eine Typologie der regionalen Benchmarking-Untersuchungen und Benchmarker und unterziehe die Literatur einer kritischen Uumlberpruumlfung. Ich argumentiere, dass die Kritiker des regionalen Benchmarking nicht die Vielfalt und Entwicklu...

  19. Measuring NUMA effects with the STREAM benchmark

    CERN Document Server

    Bergstrom, Lars

    2011-01-01

    Modern high-end machines feature multiple processor packages, each of which contains multiple independent cores and integrated memory controllers connected directly to dedicated physical RAM. These packages are connected via a shared bus, creating a system with a heterogeneous memory hierarchy. Since this shared bus has less bandwidth than the sum of the links to memory, aggregate memory bandwidth is higher when parallel threads all access memory local to their processor package than when they access memory attached to a remote package. But, the impact of this heterogeneous memory architecture is not easily understood from vendor benchmarks. Even where these measurements are available, they provide only best-case memory throughput. This work presents a series of modifications to the well-known STREAM benchmark to measure the effects of NUMA on both a 48-core AMD Opteron machine and a 32-core Intel Xeon machine.

  20. Shielding benchmark test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iron data in JENDL-2 have been tested by analyzing shielding benchmark experiments for neutron transmission through iron block performed at KFK using CF-252 neutron source and at ORNL using collimated neutron beam from reactor. The analyses are made by a shielding analysis code system RADHEAT-V4 developed at JAERI. The calculated results are compared with the measured data. As for the KFK experiments, the C/E values are about 1.1. For the ORNL experiments, the calculated values agree with the measured data within an accuracy of 33% for the off-center geometry. The d-t neutron transmission measurements through carbon sphere made at LLNL are also analyzed preliminarily by using the revised JENDL data for fusion neutronics calculation. (author)

  1. One Year of Observations of Dawn at Ceres: Composition as seen by VIR

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Sanctis, M. Cristina; Ammannito, Eleonora; Ciarniello, Mauro; Raponi, Andrea; Carrozzo, F. Giacomo; Frigeri, Alessandro; Longobardo, Andrea; Palomba, Ernesto; Tosi, Federico; Zambon, Francesca; Fonte, Sergio; Formisano, Michelangelo; Giardino, Marco; Magni, Gianfranco; Capaccioni, Fabrizio; Capria, M. Teresa; Marchi, Simone; Pieters, Carle M.; Ehlmann, Bethany; McCord, Tom

    2016-04-01

    NASA's Dawn spacecraft [1] arrived at Ceres on March 5, 2015, and has been studying the dwarf planet. The Dawn mission is observing Ceres' surface with its suite of instruments [1] including a Visible and InfraRed Mapping Spectrometer (VIR-MS) [2]. VIR-MS is an imaging spectrometer coupling high spectral and spatial resolution in the VIS (0.25-1-micron) and IR (0.95-5-micron) spectral ranges. Ceres' surface is very dark, but small localized areas exhibit unexpectedly bright materials. Since the first approach data, near infrared spectra revealed a dark surface, with a strong and complex absorption band in the spectral region around 3 microns [3]. Near-infrared spectroscopic analyses confirmed previous observation of bands at 3.1, 3.3-3.5, 3.9 micron but have clearly identified a band at 2.72 micron. This characteristic narrow feature is distinctive for OH-bearing minerals, while H2O-bearing phases, show a much broader absorption band that is a poor match for the Ceres spectrum. Water ice does not fit the observed spectrum. The 3.05-3.1 μm band is also visible in Ceres' ground-based spectra, and has been previously attributed to different phases including water ice, hydrated or NH4-bearing clays and brucite [4,5,6]. We find here that the best fit is obtained with ammoniated phyllosilicate added to a dark material (likely magnetite), antigorite and carbonate [7]. These different components, including ammoniated phases, occur everywhere across the surface although with different relative abundances [8]. Particularly interesting are the bright materials present in some craters like Occator, Haulani and Oxo that show different proportions of the components of the mixture [8]. However, the distribution of the band depths are not always linked to morphological structures. The retrieved mineralogy and composition indicates pervasive aqueous alteration of the surface, processes that are expected to be favored on large bodies like Ceres [9]. Furthermore, Ceres' low density

  2. SSI and structural benchmarks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents the latest results of the ongoing program entitled, Standard Problems for Structural Computer Codes, currently being worked on at BNL for the USNRC, Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research. During FY 1986, efforts were focussed on three tasks, namely, (1) an investigation of ground water effects on the response of Category I structures, (2) the Soil-Structure Interaction Workshop and (3) studies on structural benchmarks associated with Category I structures. The objective of the studies on ground water effects is to verify the applicability and the limitations of the SSI methods currently used by the industry in performing seismic evaluations of nuclear plants which are located at sites with high water tables. In a previous study by BNL (NUREG/CR-4588), it has been concluded that the pore water can influence significantly the soil-structure interaction process. This result, however, is based on the assumption of fully saturated soil profiles. Consequently, the work was further extended to include cases associated with variable water table depths. In this paper, results related to cut-off depths beyond which the pore water effects can be ignored in seismic calculations, are addressed. Comprehensive numerical data are given for soil configurations typical to those encountered in nuclear plant sites. These data were generated by using a modified version of the SLAM code which is capable of handling problems related to the dynamic response of saturated soils. Further, the paper presents some key aspects of the Soil-Structure Interaction Workshop (NUREG/CP-0054) which was held in Bethesda, MD on June 1, 1986. Finally, recent efforts related to the task on the structural benchmarks are described

  3. Benchmark experiments for nuclear data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benchmark experiments offer the most direct method for validation of nuclear data. Benchmark experiments for several areas of application of nuclear data were specified by CSEWG. These experiments are surveyed and tests of recent versions of ENDF/B are presented. (U.S.)

  4. Internal Benchmarking for Institutional Effectiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronco, Sharron L.

    2012-01-01

    Internal benchmarking is an established practice in business and industry for identifying best in-house practices and disseminating the knowledge about those practices to other groups in the organization. Internal benchmarking can be done with structures, processes, outcomes, or even individuals. In colleges or universities with multicampuses or a…

  5. NASA Software Engineering Benchmarking Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rarick, Heather L.; Godfrey, Sara H.; Kelly, John C.; Crumbley, Robert T.; Wifl, Joel M.

    2013-01-01

    To identify best practices for the improvement of software engineering on projects, NASA's Offices of Chief Engineer (OCE) and Safety and Mission Assurance (OSMA) formed a team led by Heather Rarick and Sally Godfrey to conduct this benchmarking study. The primary goals of the study are to identify best practices that: Improve the management and technical development of software intensive systems; Have a track record of successful deployment by aerospace industries, universities [including research and development (R&D) laboratories], and defense services, as well as NASA's own component Centers; and Identify candidate solutions for NASA's software issues. Beginning in the late fall of 2010, focus topics were chosen and interview questions were developed, based on the NASA top software challenges. Between February 2011 and November 2011, the Benchmark Team interviewed a total of 18 organizations, consisting of five NASA Centers, five industry organizations, four defense services organizations, and four university or university R and D laboratory organizations. A software assurance representative also participated in each of the interviews to focus on assurance and software safety best practices. Interviewees provided a wealth of information on each topic area that included: software policy, software acquisition, software assurance, testing, training, maintaining rigor in small projects, metrics, and use of the Capability Maturity Model Integration (CMMI) framework, as well as a number of special topics that came up in the discussions. NASA's software engineering practices compared favorably with the external organizations in most benchmark areas, but in every topic, there were ways in which NASA could improve its practices. Compared to defense services organizations and some of the industry organizations, one of NASA's notable weaknesses involved communication with contractors regarding its policies and requirements for acquired software. One of NASA's strengths

  6. Quantum benchmarks for Gaussian states

    CERN Document Server

    Chiribella, Giulio

    2014-01-01

    Teleportation and storage of continuous variable states of light and atoms are essential building blocks for the realization of large scale quantum networks. Rigorous validation of these implementations require identifying, and surpassing, benchmarks set by the most effective strategies attainable without the use of quantum resources. Such benchmarks have been established for special families of input states, like coherent states and particular subclasses of squeezed states. Here we solve the longstanding problem of defining quantum benchmarks for general pure Gaussian states with arbitrary phase, displacement, and squeezing, randomly sampled according to a realistic prior distribution. As a special case, we show that the fidelity benchmark for teleporting squeezed states with totally random phase and squeezing degree is 1/2, equal to the corresponding one for coherent states. We discuss the use of entangled resources to beat the benchmarks in experiments.

  7. Benchmarking biofuels; Biobrandstoffen benchmarken

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Croezen, H.; Kampman, B.; Bergsma, G.

    2012-03-15

    A sustainability benchmark for transport biofuels has been developed and used to evaluate the various biofuels currently on the market. For comparison, electric vehicles, hydrogen vehicles and petrol/diesel vehicles were also included. A range of studies as well as growing insight are making it ever clearer that biomass-based transport fuels may have just as big a carbon footprint as fossil fuels like petrol or diesel, or even bigger. At the request of Greenpeace Netherlands, CE Delft has brought together current understanding on the sustainability of fossil fuels, biofuels and electric vehicles, with particular focus on the performance of the respective energy carriers on three sustainability criteria, with the first weighing the heaviest: (1) Greenhouse gas emissions; (2) Land use; and (3) Nutrient consumption [Dutch] Greenpeace Nederland heeft CE Delft gevraagd een duurzaamheidsmeetlat voor biobrandstoffen voor transport te ontwerpen en hierop de verschillende biobrandstoffen te scoren. Voor een vergelijk zijn ook elektrisch rijden, rijden op waterstof en rijden op benzine of diesel opgenomen. Door onderzoek en voortschrijdend inzicht blijkt steeds vaker dat transportbrandstoffen op basis van biomassa soms net zoveel of zelfs meer broeikasgassen veroorzaken dan fossiele brandstoffen als benzine en diesel. CE Delft heeft voor Greenpeace Nederland op een rijtje gezet wat de huidige inzichten zijn over de duurzaamheid van fossiele brandstoffen, biobrandstoffen en elektrisch rijden. Daarbij is gekeken naar de effecten van de brandstoffen op drie duurzaamheidscriteria, waarbij broeikasgasemissies het zwaarst wegen: (1) Broeikasgasemissies; (2) Landgebruik; en (3) Nutriëntengebruik.

  8. Cleanroom energy benchmarking results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tschudi, William; Xu, Tengfang

    2001-09-01

    A utility market transformation project studied energy use and identified energy efficiency opportunities in cleanroom HVAC design and operation for fourteen cleanrooms. This paper presents the results of this work and relevant observations. Cleanroom owners and operators know that cleanrooms are energy intensive but have little information to compare their cleanroom's performance over time, or to others. Direct comparison of energy performance by traditional means, such as watts/ft{sup 2}, is not a good indicator with the wide range of industrial processes and cleanliness levels occurring in cleanrooms. In this project, metrics allow direct comparison of the efficiency of HVAC systems and components. Energy and flow measurements were taken to determine actual HVAC system energy efficiency. The results confirm a wide variation in operating efficiency and they identify other non-energy operating problems. Improvement opportunities were identified at each of the benchmarked facilities. Analysis of the best performing systems and components is summarized, as are areas for additional investigation.

  9. Issues in Benchmark Metric Selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crolotte, Alain

    It is true that a metric can influence a benchmark but will esoteric metrics create more problems than they will solve? We answer this question affirmatively by examining the case of the TPC-D metric which used the much debated geometric mean for the single-stream test. We will show how a simple choice influenced the benchmark and its conduct and, to some extent, DBMS development. After examining other alternatives our conclusion is that the “real” measure for a decision-support benchmark is the arithmetic mean.

  10. Benchmark simulation models, quo vadis?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jeppsson, U.; Alex, J; Batstone, D. J.;

    2013-01-01

    As the work of the IWA Task Group on Benchmarking of Control Strategies for wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) is coming to an end, it is essential to disseminate the knowledge gained. For this reason, all authors of the IWA Scientific and Technical Report on benchmarking have come together to...... and spatial extension, process modifications within the WWTP, the realism of models, control strategy extensions and the potential for new evaluation tools within the existing benchmark system. We find that there are major opportunities for application within all of these areas, either from existing...

  11. California commercial building energy benchmarking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kinney, Satkartar; Piette, Mary Ann

    2003-07-01

    Building energy benchmarking is the comparison of whole-building energy use relative to a set of similar buildings. It provides a useful starting point for individual energy audits and for targeting buildings for energy-saving measures in multiple-site audits. Benchmarking is of interest and practical use to a number of groups. Energy service companies and performance contractors communicate energy savings potential with ''typical'' and ''best-practice'' benchmarks while control companies and utilities can provide direct tracking of energy use and combine data from multiple buildings. Benchmarking is also useful in the design stage of a new building or retrofit to determine if a design is relatively efficient. Energy managers and building owners have an ongoing interest in comparing energy performance to others. Large corporations, schools, and government agencies with numerous facilities also use benchmarking methods to compare their buildings to each other. The primary goal of Task 2.1.1 Web-based Benchmarking was the development of a web-based benchmarking tool, dubbed Cal-Arch, for benchmarking energy use in California commercial buildings. While there were several other benchmarking tools available to California consumers prior to the development of Cal-Arch, there were none that were based solely on California data. Most available benchmarking information, including the Energy Star performance rating, were developed using DOE's Commercial Building Energy Consumption Survey (CBECS), which does not provide state-level data. Each database and tool has advantages as well as limitations, such as the number of buildings and the coverage by type, climate regions and end uses. There is considerable commercial interest in benchmarking because it provides an inexpensive method of screening buildings for tune-ups and retrofits. However, private companies who collect and manage consumption data are concerned that the

  12. A Global Vision over Benchmarking Process: Benchmarking Based Enterprises

    OpenAIRE

    Catalina SITNIKOV; Giurca Vasilescu, Laura

    2008-01-01

    Benchmarking uses the knowledge and the experience of others to improve the enterprise. Starting from the analysis of the performance and underlying the strengths and weaknesses of the enterprise it should be assessed what must be done in order to improve its activity. Using benchmarking techniques, an enterprise looks at how processes in the value chain are performed. The approach based on the vision “from the whole towards the parts” (a fragmented image of the enterprise’s value chain) redu...

  13. Dwarf planet Ceres: Ellipsoid dimensions and rotational pole from Keck and VLT adaptive optics images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drummond, J. D.; Carry, B.; Merline, W. J.; Dumas, C.; Hammel, H.; Erard, S.; Conrad, A.; Tamblyn, P.; Chapman, C. R.

    2014-07-01

    The dwarf planet (1) Ceres, the largest object between Mars and Jupiter, is the target of the NASA Dawn mission, and we seek a comprehensive description of the spin-axis orientation and dimensions of Ceres in order to support the early science operations at the rendezvous in 2015. We have obtained high-angular resolution images using adaptive optics cameras at the W.M. Keck Observatory and the ESO VLT over ten dates between 2001 and 2010, confirming that the shape of Ceres is well described by an oblate spheroid. We derive equatorial and polar diameters of 967 ± 10 km and 892 ± 10 km, respectively, for a model that includes fading of brightness towards the terminator, presumably linked to limb darkening. These dimensions lie between values derived from a previous analysis of a subset of these images obtained at Keck by Carry et al. (Carry et al. [2008]. Astron. Astrophys. 478 (4), 235-244) and a study of Hubble Space Telescope observations (Thomas et al. [2005]. Nature 437, 224-226). Although the dimensions are 1-2% smaller than those found from the HST, the oblateness is similar. We find the spin-vector coordinates of Ceres to lie at (287°, +64°) in equatorial EQJ2000 reference frame (346°, +82° in ecliptic ECJ2000 coordinates), yielding a small obliquity of 3°. While this is in agreement with the aforementioned studies, we have improved the accuracy of the pole determination, which we set at a 3° radius.

  14. FINANCIAL AND RISK ANALYSIS OF MAIZE TECHNOLOGY IN ETHIOPIA, BASED ON CERES-MAIZE MODEL RESULTS

    OpenAIRE

    Crawford, Eric W.; Howard, Julie A.; Kelly, Valerie A.

    2000-01-01

    This paper presents a financial and risk analysis of improved versus traditional maize production technology in Ethiopia, based on yields simulated with the CERES-Maize crop growth model (Schulthess and Ward, 2000). The purpose is to analyze the potential performance of the SG2000/Ministry of Agriculture program technology under less favorable meteorological conditions (rainfall level and distribution), and in areas with lower agroecological potential than those covered by the SG2000/MOA prog...

  15. Heathlands, fire and grazing. A palaeoenvironmental view of Las Hurdes (Cáceres, Spain history during the last 1200 years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Abel-Schaad

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Aim of study. The diachronic study of vegetation change through palynological analysis of sedimentary deposits is an essential tool both to design sound strategies on landscape  management and to understand its anthropogenic dynamics.Area of study. La Meseguera mire (Ladrillar, Cáceres, Spain is located in the Hurdes region in the western part of Iberian Central System and started to develop at the beginning of the Islamic period (ca. 770 cal AD, in an area widely dominated by heathland.  Material and methods. Pollen, non-pollen palynomorphs and charcoal accumulation rate (CHAR combined with historical data are useful indicators to assess the increasing role of human influence on vegetation.Main results. The use of fire and livestock husbandry represents the main drivers of landscape change in the course of the history. The establishment of forest afforestation plans, from the middle of 20th century, changed substantially the regional features. The sporadic presence of beech pollen is detected until 16th century, which implies the most western location in the Iberian Central Mountain System.Research highlights. The integration of pollen analysis and historical data is an essential tool when studying the changes in Holocene vegetation. These changes have been mainly driven by anthropogenic disturbances, more specifically by fire and livestock husbandry.Key Words: Anthropogenic dynamics; Central Mountain System; microcharcoals; non-pollen palynomorphs.  

  16. Short-term variability over the surface of (1) Ceres. A changing amount of water ice?

    CERN Document Server

    Perna, D; Ieva, S; Fornasier, S; Barucci, M A; Lantz, C; Dotto, E; Strazzulla, G

    2014-01-01

    Context: The dwarf planet (1) Ceres - next target of the NASA Dawn mission - is the largest body in the asteroid main belt; although several observations of this body have been performed so far, the presence of surface water ice is still questioned. Aims: Our goal is to better understand the surface composition of Ceres, and to constrain the presence of exposed water ice. Methods: We acquired new visible and near-infrared spectra at the Telescopio Nazionale Galileo (TNG, La Palma, Spain), and reanalyzed literature spectra in the 3-$\\mu$m region. Results: We obtained the first rotationally-resolved spectroscopic observations of Ceres at visible wavelengths. Visible spectra taken one month apart at almost the same planetocentric coordinates show a significant slope variation (up to 3 %/10$^3\\AA$). A faint absorption centered at 0.67 $\\mu$m, possibly due to aqueous alteration, is detected in a subset of our spectra. The various explanations in the literature for the 3.06-$\\mu$m feature can be interpreted as due ...

  17. Low-temperature reflectance spectra of brucite and the primitive surface of 1-Ceres?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, P.; Schmitt, B.; Cloutis, E. A.; Vernazza, P.

    2015-09-01

    The surface of Ceres, the most massive asteroid, presents a peculiar absorption band at 3.06 μm. This feature has been attributed to a number of candidate phases, including a magnesium hydroxide, brucite (Mg(OH)2). In order to gain insights into this possibility we have investigated the evolution of brucite reflectance spectrum under decreasing temperature (down to 93 K). Following early observation of brucite infrared spectra in transmission, a strong evolution of the reflectance spectrum of brucite is found under decreasing temperature. Small shifts of the band positions are found in particular at 1.36 and 1.39 μm, while the most important evolution is a decrease in intensity of the features at 2.82 and 3.06 μm. These observations can be seen in the light of the nature of these modes, which are transitions from excited states (difference bands) that are less populated under low-temperature. Such results provide a major test for the presence of brucite on Ceres from forthcoming DAWN observations, by searching for a possible evolution of the band with local time and then surface temperature. Based on the fact that the equivalent summation bands are not observed in Ceres spectra, brucite is not favored as the major constituent to the 3.06 μm feature. The possibility that this feature rather corresponds to ammoniated minerals (phyllosilicates or salts) is discussed.

  18. Daily variability of Ceres' albedo detected by means of radial velocities changes of the reflected sunlight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molaro, P.; Lanza, A. F.; Monaco, L.; Tosi, F.; Lo Curto, G.; Fulle, M.; Pasquini, L.

    2016-05-01

    Bright features have been recently discovered by Dawn on Ceres, which extend previous photometric and Space Telescope observations. These features should produce distortions of the line profiles of the reflected solar spectrum and therefore an apparent radial velocity variation modulated by the rotation of the dwarf planet. Here we report on two sequences of observations of Ceres performed in the nights of 2015 July 31, August 26 and 27 by means of the high-precision High Accuracy Radial Velocity Planet Searcher (HARPS) spectrograph at the 3.6 m La Silla European Southern Observatory (ESO) telescope. The observations revealed a quite complex behaviour which likely combines a radial velocity modulation due to the rotation with an amplitude of ≈±6 m s-1 and an unexpected diurnal effect. The latter changes imply changes in the albedo of Occator's bright features due to the blaze produced by the exposure to solar radiation. The short-term variability of Ceres' albedo is on time-scales ranging from hours to months and can both be confirmed and followed by means of dedicated radial velocity observations.

  19. Spectrophotometric properties of dwarf planet Ceres from VIR onboard Dawn mission

    CERN Document Server

    Ciarniello, M; Ammannito, E; Raponi, A; Longobardo, A; Palomba, E; Carrozzo, F G; Tosi, F; Li, J -Y; Schröder, S; Zambon, F; Frigeri, A; Fonte, S; Giardino, M; Pieters, C M; Raymond, C A; Russell, C T

    2016-01-01

    We study the spectrophotometric properties of dwarf planet Ceres in the VIS-IR spectral range by means of hyper-spectral images acquired by the VIR instrument onboard NASA Dawn mission. Observations with phase angle within the $7.3^{\\circ}<\\alpha<131^{\\circ}$ interval have been used to characterize Ceres' phase curve in the 0.465-4.05 $\\mu m$ spectral range. Hapke's model has been applied to perform the photometric correction of the dataset, allowing us to produce albedo and color maps of the surface. The $V$ band magnitude phase function of Ceres has been fitted with both the classical linear model and HG formalism. The single scattering albedo and the asymmetry parameter at 0.55 $\\mu m$ are respectively $w=0.14 \\pm 0.02$ and $\\xi=-0.11 \\pm0.08$ (two lobes Henyey-Greenstein phase function); the modeled geometric albedo is $0.094\\pm0.007$; the roughness parameter is $\\bar{\\theta}=29^{\\circ} \\pm 6^{\\circ}$. Albedo maps indicate small variability at global scale with average reflectance $0.034 \\pm 0.003$....

  20. Bright carbonate deposits as evidence of aqueous alteration on (1) Ceres

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Sanctis, M. C.; Raponi, A.; Ammannito, E.; Ciarniello, M.; Toplis, M. J.; McSween, H. Y.; Castillo-Rogez, J. C.; Ehlmann, B. L.; Carrozzo, F. G.; Marchi, S.; Tosi, F.; Zambon, F.; Capaccioni, F.; Capria, M. T.; Fonte, S.; Formisano, M.; Frigeri, A.; Giardino, M.; Longobardo, A.; Magni, G.; Palomba, E.; McFadden, L. A.; Pieters, C. M.; Jaumann, R.; Schenk, P.; Mugnuolo, R.; Raymond, C. A.; Russell, C. T.

    2016-08-01

    The typically dark surface of the dwarf planet Ceres is punctuated by areas of much higher albedo, most prominently in the Occator crater. These small bright areas have been tentatively interpreted as containing a large amount of hydrated magnesium sulfate, in contrast to the average surface, which is a mixture of low-albedo materials and magnesium phyllosilicates, ammoniated phyllosilicates and carbonates. Here we report high spatial and spectral resolution near-infrared observations of the bright areas in the Occator crater on Ceres. Spectra of these bright areas are consistent with a large amount of sodium carbonate, constituting the most concentrated known extraterrestrial occurrence of carbonate on kilometre-wide scales in the Solar System. The carbonates are mixed with a dark component and small amounts of phyllosilicates, as well as ammonium carbonate or ammonium chloride. Some of these compounds have also been detected in the plume of Saturn’s sixth-largest moon Enceladus. The compounds are endogenous and we propose that they are the solid residue of crystallization of brines and entrained altered solids that reached the surface from below. The heat source may have been transient (triggered by impact heating). Alternatively, internal temperatures may be above the eutectic temperature of subsurface brines, in which case fluids may exist at depth on Ceres today.

  1. Early investigations of Ceres and the discovery of Pallas historical studies in asteroid research

    CERN Document Server

    Cunningham, Clifford

    2016-01-01

    An asteroid scholar, Cunningham in this book picks up where his Discovery of the First Asteroid, Ceres left off in telling the story of the impact created by the discovery of this new class of object in the early 1800s. The best and brightest minds of mathematics, science, and philosophy were fascinated by Ceres, and figures as diverse as Gauss, Herschel, Brougham, Kant, and Laplace all contributed something to the conversation. The first few chapters deal with the mathematical and philosophical aspects of the discovery, and the rivalry between Germany and France that so affected science and astronomy of that era. The jockeying for glory over the discovery of Ceres by both Piazzi and Bode is examined in detail, as is the reception given to Herschel’s use of the word 'asteroid.' Archival research that reveals the creator of the word 'asteroid' is presented in this book. Astronomy was a truly cosmopolitan field at the time, spanning across various disciplines, and the discovery of Pallas, a story completely t...

  2. Daily variability of Ceres' Albedo detected by means of radial velocities changes of the reflected sunlight

    CERN Document Server

    Molaro, P; Monaco, L; Tosi, F; Curto, G Lo; Fulle, M; Pasquini, L

    2016-01-01

    Bright features have been recently discovered by Dawn on Ceres, which extend previous photometric and Space Telescope observations. These features should produce distortions of the line profiles of the reflected solar spectrum and therefore an apparent radial velocity variation modulated by the rotation of the dwarf planet. Here we report on two sequences of observations of Ceres performed in the nights of 31 July, 26-27 August 2015 by means of the high-precision HARPS spectrograph at the 3.6-m La Silla ESO telescope. The observations revealed a quite complex behaviour which likely combines a radial velocity modulation due to the rotation with an amplitude of approx +/- 6 m/s and an unexpected diurnal effect. The latter changes imply changes in the albedo of Occator's bright features due to the blaze produced by the exposure to solar radiation. The short-term variability of Ceres' albedo is on timescales ranging from hours to months and can both be confirmed and followed by means of dedicated radial velocity ...

  3. Distribution and Validation of CERES Irradiance Global Data Products Via Web Based Tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutan, David; Mitrescu, Cristian; Doelling, David; Kato, Seiji

    2016-01-01

    The CERES SYN1deg product provides climate quality 3-hourly globally gridded and temporally complete maps of top of atmosphere, in atmosphere, and surface fluxes. This product requires efficient release to the public and validation to maintain quality assurance. The CERES team developed web-tools for the distribution of both the global gridded products and grid boxes that contain long term validation sites that maintain high quality flux observations at the Earth's surface. These are found at: http://ceres.larc.nasa.gov/order_data.php. In this poster we explore the various tools available to users to sub-set, download, and validate using surface observations the SYN1Deg and Surface-EBAF products. We also analyze differences found in long-term records from well-maintained land surface sites such as the ARM central facility and high quality buoy radiometers, which due to their isolated nature cannot be maintained in a similar manner to their land based counterparts.

  4. Performance Targets and External Benchmarking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis, Ivar; Hansen, Allan; Vámosi, Tamás S.

    Research on relative performance measures, transfer pricing, beyond budgeting initiatives, target costing, piece rates systems and value based management has for decades underlined the importance of external benchmarking in performance management. Research conceptualises external benchmarking as a...... market mechanism that can be brought inside the firm to provide incentives for continuous improvement and the development of competitive advances. However, whereas extant research primarily has focused on the importance and effects of using external benchmarks, less attention has been directed towards...... the conditions upon which the market mechanism is performing within organizations. This paper aims to contribute to research by providing more insight to the conditions for the use of external benchmarking as an element in performance management in organizations. Our study explores a particular type...

  5. Benchmarking and Sustainable Transport Policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gudmundsson, Henrik; Wyatt, Andrew; Gordon, Lucy

    2004-01-01

    Order to learn from the best. In 2000 the European Commission initiated research to explore benchmarking as a tool to promote policies for ‘sustainable transport’. This paper reports findings and recommendations on how to address this challenge. The findings suggest that benchmarking is a valuable...... tool that may indeed help to move forward the transport policy agenda. However, there are major conditions and limitations. First of all it is not always so straightforward to delimit, measure and compare transport services in order to establish a clear benchmark. Secondly ‘sustainable transport......’ evokes a broad range of concerns that are hard to address fully at the level of specific practices. Thirdly policies are not directly comparable across space and context. For these reasons attempting to benchmark ‘sustainable transport policies’ against one another would be a highly complex task, which...

  6. Benchmarking Developing Asia's Manufacturing Sector

    OpenAIRE

    Felipe, Jesus; Gemma ESTRADA

    2007-01-01

    This paper documents the transformation of developing Asia's manufacturing sector during the last three decades and benchmarks its share in GDP with respect to the international regression line by estimating a logistic regression.

  7. Water Level Superseded Benchmark Sheets

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Images of National Coast & Geodetic Survey (now NOAA's National Geodetic Survey/NGS) tidal benchmarks which have been superseded by new markers or locations....

  8. Benchmarking hypercube hardware and software

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grunwald, Dirk C.; Reed, Daniel A.

    1986-01-01

    It was long a truism in computer systems design that balanced systems achieve the best performance. Message passing parallel processors are no different. To quantify the balance of a hypercube design, an experimental methodology was developed and the associated suite of benchmarks was applied to several existing hypercubes. The benchmark suite includes tests of both processor speed in the absence of internode communication and message transmission speed as a function of communication patterns.

  9. Strategic Behaviour under Regulation Benchmarking

    OpenAIRE

    Jamasb, Tooraj; Nillesen, Paul; Michael G. Pollitt

    2003-01-01

    Liberalisation of generation and supply activities in the electricity sectors is often followed by regulatory reform of distribution networks. In order to improve the efficiency of distribution utilities, some regulators have adopted incentive regulation schemes that rely on performance benchmarking. Although regulation benchmarking can influence the ?regulation game?, the subject has received limited attention. This paper discusses how strategic behaviour can result in inefficient behav...

  10. Research on computer systems benchmarking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Alan Jay (Principal Investigator)

    1996-01-01

    This grant addresses the topic of research on computer systems benchmarking and is more generally concerned with performance issues in computer systems. This report reviews work in those areas during the period of NASA support under this grant. The bulk of the work performed concerned benchmarking and analysis of CPUs, compilers, caches, and benchmark programs. The first part of this work concerned the issue of benchmark performance prediction. A new approach to benchmarking and machine characterization was reported, using a machine characterizer that measures the performance of a given system in terms of a Fortran abstract machine. Another report focused on analyzing compiler performance. The performance impact of optimization in the context of our methodology for CPU performance characterization was based on the abstract machine model. Benchmark programs are analyzed in another paper. A machine-independent model of program execution was developed to characterize both machine performance and program execution. By merging these machine and program characterizations, execution time can be estimated for arbitrary machine/program combinations. The work was continued into the domain of parallel and vector machines, including the issue of caches in vector processors and multiprocessors. All of the afore-mentioned accomplishments are more specifically summarized in this report, as well as those smaller in magnitude supported by this grant.

  11. The topography of Ceres and implications for the formation of linear surface structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buczkowski, D.; Otto, K.; Ruesch, O.; Scully, J. E. C.; Williams, D. A.; Mest, S. C.; Schenk, P.; Jaumann, R.; Nathues, A.; Preusker, F.; Park, R. S.; Raymond, C. A.; Russell, C. T.

    2015-12-01

    NASA's Dawn spacecraft began orbiting the dwarf planet Ceres in April 2015. Framing Camera data from the Approach (1.3 km/px) and Survey (415 m/px) orbits include digital terrain models derived from processing stereo images. These models have supported various scientific studies of the surface. The eastern hemisphere of Ceres is topographically higher than the western hemisphere. Some of linear structures on Ceres (which include grooves, pit crater chains, fractures and troughs) appear to be radial to the large basins Urvara and Yalode, and most likely formed due to impact processes. However, set of regional linear structures (RLS) that do not have any obvious relationship to impact craters are found on the eastern hemisphere topographic high region. Many of the longer RLS are comprised of smaller structures that have linked together, suggestive of en echelon fractures. Polygonal craters, theorized to form when pervasive subsurface fracturing affects crater formation [1], are widespread on Ceres [2], and those proximal to the RLS have straight crater rims aligned with the grooves and troughs, suggesting that the RLS are fracture systems. A cross-section of one RLS is displayed in FC images of the Occator crater wall. Comparing these images to the digital terrain models show 1) that the structure dips ~60º and 2) there is downward motion on the hanging wall, implying normal faulting. The digital terrain models also reveal the presence of numerous positive relief features with sub-circular shapes. These dome-like features have been tentatively interpreted as volcanic/magmatic features [3]; other possibilities include salt domes. Analog models of domal uplift in areas of regional extension [4] predict patterns of linear structures similar to those observed in the RLS near Occator. Utilizing topography data provided by the Ceres digital terrain models, we assess the relationship between the RLS and nearby domes and topographic high regions to determine the mechanism

  12. Geological Mapping of the Ac-H-7 Kerwan Quadrangle of Ceres from NASA Dawn Mission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, David; Mest, Scott; Kneissl, Thomas; Hendrik Pasckert, Jan; Hiesinger, Harald; Neesemann, Adrian; Schmedemann, Nico; Buczkowski, Debra; Scully, Jennifer; Marchi, Simone; Schenk, Paul; Jaumann, Ralf; Roatsch, Thomas; Preusker, Frank; Nathues, Andreas; Schaefer, Michael; Hoffmann, Martin; Raymond, Carol; Russell, Christopher

    2016-04-01

    NASA's Dawn Science Team is conducting a geologic mapping campaign for Ceres similar to that done for Vesta [1,2], including a series of 15 Low Altitude Mapping Orbit (LAMO)-based quadrangle maps. Ac-H-7 Kerwan Quadrangle is located between 22°S-22°N and 72-144°E, and hosts several primary features and terrains: 1) The 280 km diameter impact basin Kerwan occur in the center and SE corner of the quad-rangle. Kerwan's rim is very degraded and there is no obvious ejecta field, indicating it is one of the oldest visible large impact basins on Ceres. Kerwan's interior is filled with a 'smooth terrain' that also extends beyond the rim to the east and west. This smooth terrain hosts a significantly lower impact crater density than most of the rest of Ceres' surface. Preliminary crater counts of the Kerwan smooth terrain derive cratering model ages of ~3 Ga using the lunar-derived chronology and ~600-800 Ma using the asteroid flux-derived chronology (H. Hiesinger, pers. comm., 2016). Our working interpretation is that the Kerwan impact occurred when Ceres' crust had a greater proportion of ice than at present, and that impact heating melted crustal material resulting in resurfacing of the Kerwan region by an icy impact melt, or possibly initiated cryovolcanic flows. There are hints of possible flow margins on the Kerwan floor in HAMO images, that have to be confirmed or denied by study of LAMO images. 2) Part of the 126 km diameter crater Dantu and its ejecta field covers the NE corner of the quadrangle. FC color data show both bright and dark materials in the ejecta field, suggesting ex-cavation of terrains of different compositions. Alternatively, because Dantu is one of two longitudes on Ceres where water vapor release has been detected [3], another interpretation is that the bright and/or dark deposits in the Dantu region could result from explosive cryovolcanism. Further study of LAMO data is required to investigate these hypotheses. 3) Other features include the

  13. Photon shielding calculations for a radiation waste facility benchmark

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Estes, G.P.; Urban, W.T.; Heath, A.R.

    1985-11-01

    Photon transport calculations have been performed for the ANS 6.2.1 radiation waste facility shielding benchmark using the continuous energy Monte Carlo code MCNP, and ONEDANT and TWODANT discrete ordinates codes. Comparisons are made of integral dose rates and flux spectra calculated with the three codes for various geometries, cross-section sets, and source and output energy group structures.

  14. Closed-Loop Neuromorphic Benchmarks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Terrence C.; DeWolf, Travis; Kleinhans, Ashley; Eliasmith, Chris

    2015-01-01

    Evaluating the effectiveness and performance of neuromorphic hardware is difficult. It is even more difficult when the task of interest is a closed-loop task; that is, a task where the output from the neuromorphic hardware affects some environment, which then in turn affects the hardware's future input. However, closed-loop situations are one of the primary potential uses of neuromorphic hardware. To address this, we present a methodology for generating closed-loop benchmarks that makes use of a hybrid of real physical embodiment and a type of “minimal” simulation. Minimal simulation has been shown to lead to robust real-world performance, while still maintaining the practical advantages of simulation, such as making it easy for the same benchmark to be used by many researchers. This method is flexible enough to allow researchers to explicitly modify the benchmarks to identify specific task domains where particular hardware excels. To demonstrate the method, we present a set of novel benchmarks that focus on motor control for an arbitrary system with unknown external forces. Using these benchmarks, we show that an error-driven learning rule can consistently improve motor control performance across a randomly generated family of closed-loop simulations, even when there are up to 15 interacting joints to be controlled. PMID:26696820

  15. Benchmarking of human resources management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David M. Akinnusi

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews the role of human resource management (HRM which, today, plays a strategic partnership role in management. The focus of the paper is on HRM in the public sector, where much hope rests on HRM as a means of transforming the public service and achieving much needed service delivery. However, a critical evaluation of HRM practices in the public sector reveals that these services leave much to be desired. The paper suggests the adoption of benchmarking as a process to revamp HRM in the public sector so that it is able to deliver on its promises. It describes the nature and process of benchmarking and highlights the inherent difficulties in applying benchmarking in HRM. It concludes with some suggestions for a plan of action. The process of identifying “best” practices in HRM requires the best collaborative efforts of HRM practitioners and academicians. If used creatively, benchmarking has the potential to bring about radical and positive changes in HRM in the public sector. The adoption of the benchmarking process is, in itself, a litmus test of the extent to which HRM in the public sector has grown professionally.

  16. ZZ IHEAS-BENCHMARKS, High-Energy Accelerator Shielding Benchmarks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Description of program or function: Six kinds of Benchmark problems were selected for evaluating the model codes and the nuclear data for the intermediate and high energy accelerator shielding by the Shielding Subcommittee in the Research Committee on Reactor Physics. The benchmark problems contain three kinds of neutron production data from thick targets due to proton, alpha and electron, and three kinds of shielding data for secondary neutron and photon generated by proton. Neutron and photo-neutron reaction cross section data are also provided for neutrons up to 500 MeV and photons up to 300 MeV, respectively

  17. Radiation Detection Computational Benchmark Scenarios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shaver, Mark W.; Casella, Andrew M.; Wittman, Richard S.; McDonald, Ben S.

    2013-09-24

    Modeling forms an important component of radiation detection development, allowing for testing of new detector designs, evaluation of existing equipment against a wide variety of potential threat sources, and assessing operation performance of radiation detection systems. This can, however, result in large and complex scenarios which are time consuming to model. A variety of approaches to radiation transport modeling exist with complementary strengths and weaknesses for different problems. This variety of approaches, and the development of promising new tools (such as ORNL’s ADVANTG) which combine benefits of multiple approaches, illustrates the need for a means of evaluating or comparing different techniques for radiation detection problems. This report presents a set of 9 benchmark problems for comparing different types of radiation transport calculations, identifying appropriate tools for classes of problems, and testing and guiding the development of new methods. The benchmarks were drawn primarily from existing or previous calculations with a preference for scenarios which include experimental data, or otherwise have results with a high level of confidence, are non-sensitive, and represent problem sets of interest to NA-22. From a technical perspective, the benchmarks were chosen to span a range of difficulty and to include gamma transport, neutron transport, or both and represent different important physical processes and a range of sensitivity to angular or energy fidelity. Following benchmark identification, existing information about geometry, measurements, and previous calculations were assembled. Monte Carlo results (MCNP decks) were reviewed or created and re-run in order to attain accurate computational times and to verify agreement with experimental data, when present. Benchmark information was then conveyed to ORNL in order to guide testing and development of hybrid calculations. The results of those ADVANTG calculations were then sent to PNNL for

  18. PageRank Pipeline Benchmark: Proposal for a Holistic System Benchmark for Big-Data Platforms

    OpenAIRE

    Dreher, Patrick; Byun, Chansup; Hill, Chris; Gadepally, Vijay; Kuszmaul, Bradley; Kepner, Jeremy

    2016-01-01

    The rise of big data systems has created a need for benchmarks to measure and compare the capabilities of these systems. Big data benchmarks present unique scalability challenges. The supercomputing community has wrestled with these challenges for decades and developed methodologies for creating rigorous scalable benchmarks (e.g., HPC Challenge). The proposed PageRank pipeline benchmark employs supercomputing benchmarking methodologies to create a scalable benchmark that is reflective of many...

  19. Atomic Energy Research benchmark activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The test problems utilized in the validation and verification process of computer programs in Atomic Energie Research are collected into one bunch. This is the first step towards issuing a volume in which tests for VVER are collected, along with reference solutions and a number of solutions. The benchmarks do not include the ZR-6 experiments because they have been published along with a number of comparisons in the Final reports of TIC. The present collection focuses on operational and mathematical benchmarks which cover almost the entire range of reaktor calculation. (Author)

  20. 3-D neutron transport benchmarks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A set of 3-D neutron transport benchmark problems proposed by the Osaka University to NEACRP in 1988 has been calculated by many participants and the corresponding results are summarized in this report. The results of Keff, control rod worth and region-averaged fluxes for the four proposed core models, calculated by using various 3-D transport codes are compared and discussed. The calculational methods used were: Monte Carlo, Discrete Ordinates (Sn), Spherical Harmonics (Pn), Nodal Transport and others. The solutions of the four core models are quite useful as benchmarks for checking the validity of 3-D neutron transport codes

  1. Ceres Evolution: From Thermodynamic Modeling and Telescope to Dawn Orbital Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCord, Thomas B.; Combe, Jean Philippe; Castillo-Rogez, Julie C.; Raymond, Carol A.; De Sanctis, Maria Cristina; Jaumann, Ralf; Ammannito, Eleonora; Russell, Christopher

    2015-11-01

    Thermodynamic modeling indicated that Ceres has experienced planetary processes, including extensive melting of its ~25% water and differentiation, (McCord and Sotin, JGR, 2005; Castillo and McCord, Icarus, 2009). Early telescopic studies showed Ceres’ surface to be spectrally similar to carboneous-chondrite-like material, i.e., aqueously altered silicates darkened by carbon, with a water-OH-related absorption near 3.06 µm. Later observations improved the spectra and suggested more specific interpretations: Structural water in clay minerals, phyllosilicates, perhaps ammoniated, iron-rich clays, carbonates, brucite, all implying extensive aqueous alteration, perhaps in the presence of CO2. Telescopic observations and thermodynamic models predicted Dawn would find a very different body compared to Vesta (e.g. McCord et al., SSR, 2011), as current Dawn observations are confirming. Ceres’ original water ice should have melted early in its evolution, with the resulting differentiation and mineralization strongly affecting Ceres’ composition, size and shape over time. The ocean should have become very salty and perhaps may still be liquid in places. The surface composition from telescopes seems to reflect this complex history. The mineralization with repeated mixing of the crust with the early liquid interior and with in-fall from space would create a complex surface that will present an interpretation challenge for Dawn. The Dawn spacecraft is currently collecting observations of Ceres’ landforms, elemental and mineralogical/molecular composition and gravity field from orbit. Early results suggest a heavily cratered but distorted and lumpy body with features and composition consistent with internal activity, perhaps recent or current, associated with water and perhaps other volatiles. We will present and interpret the latest Dawn Ceres findings and how they affect our earlier understanding of Ceres evolution from modeling and telescope observations.

  2. Cross sections, benchmarks, etc.: What is data testing all about

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to determine the consistency of two distinct measurements of a physical quantity, the discrepancy d between the two should be compared with its own standard deviation, σ = √(σ/sub 1//sup 2/+σ/sub 2//sup 2/). To properly test a given cross-section library by a set of benchmark (integral) measurements, the quantity corresponding to (d/σ)/sup 2/ is the quadratic d/sup dagger/C/sup -1/d. Here d is the vector of which the components are the discrepancies between the calculated values of the integral parameters and their corresponding measured values, and C is the uncertainty matrix of these discrepancies. This quadratic form is the only true measure of the joint consistency of the library and benchmarks. On the other hand, the very matrix C is essentially all one needs to adjust the library by the benchmarks. Therefore, any argument against adjustment simultaneously disqualifies all serious attempts to test cross-section libraries against integral benchmarks

  3. Development and Implementation of a Comprehensive Radiometric Validation Protocol for the CERES Earth Radiation Budget Climate Record Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Priestley, K. J.; Matthews, G.; Thomas, S.

    2006-01-01

    The CERES Flight Models 1 through 4 instruments were launched aboard NASA's Earth Observing System (EOS) Terra and Aqua Spacecraft into 705 Km sun-synchronous orbits with 10:30 a.m. and 1:30 p.m. equatorial crossing times. These instruments supplement measurements made by the CERES Proto Flight Model (PFM) instrument launched aboard NASA's Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) into a 350 Km, 38-degree mid-inclined orbit. CERES Climate Data Records consist of geolocated and calibrated instantaneous filtered and unfiltered radiances through temporally and spatially averaged TOA, Surface and Atmospheric fluxes. CERES filtered radiance measurements cover three spectral bands including shortwave (0.3 to 5 microns), total (0.3 to 100 microns) and an atmospheric window channel (8 to 12 microns). The CERES Earth Radiation Budget measurements represent a new era in radiation climate data, realizing a factor of 2 to 4 improvement in calibration accuracy and stability over the previous ERBE climate records, while striving for the next goal of 0.3-percent per decade absolute stability. The current improvement is derived from two sources: the incorporation of lessons learned from the ERBE mission in the design of the CERES instruments and the development of a rigorous and comprehensive radiometric validation protocol consisting of individual studies covering different spatial, spectral and temporal time scales on data collected both pre and post launch. Once this ensemble of individual perspectives is collected and organized, a cohesive and highly rigorous picture of the overall end-to-end performance of the CERES instrument's and data processing algorithms may be clearly established. This approach has resulted in unprecedented levels of accuracy for radiation budget instruments and data products with calibration stability of better than 0.2-percent and calibration traceability from ground to flight of 0.25-percent. The current work summarizes the development, philosophy

  4. Benchmark calculations in multigroup and multidimensional time-dependent transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is widely recognized that reliable benchmarks are essential in many technical fields in order to assess the response of any approximation to the physics of the problem to be treated and to verify the performance of the numerical methods used. The best possible benchmarks are analytical solutions to paradigmatic problems where no approximations are actually introduced and the only error encountered is connected to the limitations of computational algorithms. Another major advantage of analytical solutions is that they allow a deeper understanding of the physical features of the model, which is essential for the intelligent use of complicated codes. In neutron transport theory, the need for benchmarks is particularly great. In this paper, the authors propose to establish accurate numerical solutions to some problems concerning the migration of neutron pulses. Use will be made of the space asymptotic theory, coupled with a Laplace transformation inverted by a numerical technique directly evaluating the inversion integral

  5. Annual ryegrass toxicity in Thoroughbred horses in Ceres in the Western Cape Province, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.D. Grewar

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available An outbreak of annual ryegrass toxicity occurred on a Thoroughbred stud in Ceres in the Western Cape Province of South Africa. This is the 1st report of annual ryegrass toxicity in horses in South Africa, although the condition has been reported in cattle and sheep populations in the past. Annual ryegrass toxicity is characterised by a variety of neurological signs including tremors, convulsions, recumbency and in many cases death. The description of the outbreak includes the history, clinical presentation and treatment protocol administered during the outbreak. Various epidemiological variables and their influence in the outbreak are also considered.

  6. Benchmarking biodiversity performances of farmers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Snoo, de G.R.; Lokhorst, A.M.; Dijk, van J.; Staats, H.; Musters, C.J.M.

    2010-01-01

    Farmers are the key players when it comes to the enhancement of farmland biodiversity. In this study, a benchmark system that focuses on improving farmers’ nature conservation was developed and tested among Dutch arable farmers in different social settings. The results show that especially tailored

  7. Benchmark calculations for EGS5

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the past few years, EGS4 has undergone an extensive upgrade to EGS5, in particularly in the areas of low-energy electron physics, low-energy photon physics, PEGS cross section generation, and the coding from Mortran to Fortran programming. Benchmark calculations have been made to assure the accuracy, reliability and high quality of the EGS5 code system. This study reports three benchmark examples that show the successful upgrade from EGS4 to EGS5 based on the excellent agreements among EGS4, EGS5 and measurements. The first benchmark example is the 1969 Crannell Experiment to measure the three-dimensional distribution of energy deposition for 1-GeV electrons shower in water and aluminum tanks. The second example is the 1995 Compton-scattered spectra measurements for 20-40 keV, linearly polarized photon by Namito et. al., in KEK, which was a main part of the low-energy photon expansion work for both EGS4 and EGS5. The third example is the 1986 heterogeneity benchmark experiment by Shortt et. al., who used a monoenergetic 20-MeV electron beam to hit the front face of a water tank containing both air and aluminum cylinders and measured spatial depth dose distribution using a small solid-state detector. (author)

  8. Nominal GDP: Target or Benchmark?

    OpenAIRE

    Hetzel, Robert L.

    2015-01-01

    Some observers have argued that the Federal Reserve would best fulfill its mandate by adopting a target for nominal gross domestic product (GDP). Insights from the monetarist tradition suggest that nominal GDP targeting could be destabilizing. However, adopting benchmarks for both nominal and real GDP could offer useful information about when monetary policy is too tight or too loose.

  9. Monte Carlo photon benchmark problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Photon benchmark calculations have been performed to validate the MCNP Monte Carlo computer code. These are compared to both the COG Monte Carlo computer code and either experimental or analytic results. The calculated solutions indicate that the Monte Carlo method, and MCNP and COG in particular, can accurately model a wide range of physical problems. 8 refs., 5 figs

  10. Benchmarked Library Websites Comparative Study

    KAUST Repository

    Ramli, Rindra M.

    2015-01-01

    This presentation provides an analysis of services provided by the benchmarked library websites. The exploratory study includes comparison of these websites against a list of criterion and presents a list of services that are most commonly deployed by the selected websites. In addition to that, the investigators proposed a list of services that could be provided via the KAUST library website.

  11. PRISMATIC CORE COUPLED TRANSIENT BENCHMARK

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. Ortensi; M.A. Pope; G. Strydom; R.S. Sen; M.D. DeHart; H.D. Gougar; C. Ellis; A. Baxter; V. Seker; T.J. Downar; K. Vierow; K. Ivanov

    2011-06-01

    The Prismatic Modular Reactor (PMR) is one of the High Temperature Reactor (HTR) design concepts that have existed for some time. Several prismatic units have operated in the world (DRAGON, Fort St. Vrain, Peach Bottom) and one unit is still in operation (HTTR). The deterministic neutronics and thermal-fluids transient analysis tools and methods currently available for the design and analysis of PMRs have lagged behind the state of the art compared to LWR reactor technologies. This has motivated the development of more accurate and efficient tools for the design and safety evaluations of the PMR. In addition to the work invested in new methods, it is essential to develop appropriate benchmarks to verify and validate the new methods in computer codes. The purpose of this benchmark is to establish a well-defined problem, based on a common given set of data, to compare methods and tools in core simulation and thermal hydraulics analysis with a specific focus on transient events. The benchmark-working group is currently seeking OECD/NEA sponsorship. This benchmark is being pursued and is heavily based on the success of the PBMR-400 exercise.

  12. Swiss electricity grid - Benchmarking pilot project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) describes a benchmarking pilot project carried out as a second phase in the development of a formula for the regulation of an open electricity market in Switzerland. It follows on from an initial phase involving the definition of a 'blue print' and a basic concept. The aims of the pilot project - to check out the practicability of the concept - are discussed. The collection of anonymised data for the benchmarking model from over 30 electricity utilities operating on all 7 Swiss grid levels and their integration in the three areas 'Technology', 'Grid Costs' and 'Capital Invested' are discussed in detail. In particular, confidentiality and data protection aspects are looked at. The methods used in the analysis of the data are described and the results of an efficiency analysis of various utilities are presented. The report is concluded with a listing of questions concerning data collection and analysis as well as operational and capital costs that are still to be answered

  13. Swiss electricity grid - Benchmarking pilot project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This article is a short version of the ENET number 210369. This report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) describes a benchmarking pilot project carried out as a second phase in the development of a formula for the regulation of an open electricity market in Switzerland. It follows on from an initial phase involving the definition of a 'blue print' and a basic concept. The aims of the pilot project - to check out the practicability of the concept - are discussed. The collection of anonymised data for the benchmarking model from over 30 electricity utilities operating on all 7 Swiss grid levels and their integration in the three areas 'Technology', 'Grid Costs' and 'Capital Invested' are discussed in detail. In particular, confidentiality and data protection aspects are looked at. The methods used in the analysis of the data are described and the results of an efficiency analysis of various utilities are presented. The report is concluded with a listing of questions concerning data collection and analysis as well as operational and capital costs that are still to be answered

  14. Toxicological Benchmarks for Screening Potential Contaminants of Concern for Effects on Sediment-Associated Biota

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hull, R.N.

    1993-01-01

    A hazardous waste site may contain hundreds of chemicals; therefore, it is important to screen contaminants of potential concern for the ecological risk assessment. Often this screening is done as part of a screening assessment, the purpose of which is to evaluate the available data, identify data gaps, and screen contaminants of potential concern. Screening may be accomplished by using a set of toxicological benchmarks. These benchmarks are helpful in determining whether contaminants warrant further assessment or are at a level that requires no further attention. If a chemical concentration or the reported detection limit exceeds a proposed lower benchmark, further analysis is needed to determine the hazards posed by that chemical. If, however, the chemical concentration falls below the lower benchmark value, the chemical may be eliminated from further study. The use of multiple benchmarks is recommended for screening chemicals of concern in sediments. Integrative benchmarks developed for the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration and the Florida Department of Environmental Protection are included for inorganic and organic chemicals. Equilibrium partitioning benchmarks are included for screening nonionic organic chemicals. Freshwater sediment effect concentrations developed as part of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA's) Assessment and Remediation of Contaminated Sediment Project are included for inorganic and organic chemicals (EPA 1996). Field survey benchmarks developed for the Ontario Ministry of the Environment are included for inorganic and organic chemicals. In addition, EPA-proposed sediment quality criteria are included along with screening values from EPA Region IV and Ecotox Threshold values from the EPA Office of Solid Waste and Emergency Response. Pore water analysis is recommended for ionic organic compounds; comparisons are then made against water quality benchmarks. This report is an update of three prior reports

  15. Integration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Emerek, Ruth

    2004-01-01

    Bidraget diskuterer de forskellige intergrationsopfattelse i Danmark - og hvad der kan forstås ved vellykket integration......Bidraget diskuterer de forskellige intergrationsopfattelse i Danmark - og hvad der kan forstås ved vellykket integration...

  16. BONFIRE: benchmarking computers and computer networks

    OpenAIRE

    Bouckaert, Stefan; Vanhie-Van Gerwen, Jono; Moerman, Ingrid; Phillips, Stephen; Wilander, Jerker

    2011-01-01

    The benchmarking concept is not new in the field of computing or computer networking. With “benchmarking tools”, one usually refers to a program or set of programs, used to evaluate the performance of a solution under certain reference conditions, relative to the performance of another solution. Since the 1970s, benchmarking techniques have been used to measure the performance of computers and computer networks. Benchmarking of applications and virtual machines in an Infrastructure-as-a-Servi...

  17. Composition and structure of the shallow subsurface of Ceres revealed by crater morphology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bland, Michael T.; Raymond, Carol A.; Schenk, Paul M.; Fu, Roger R.; Kneissl, Thomas; Pasckert, Jan Hendrik; Hiesinger, Harry; Preusker, Frank; Park, Ryan S.; Marchi, Simone; King, Scott D.; Castillo-Rogez, Julie C.; Russell, Christopher T.

    2016-07-01

    Before NASA’s Dawn mission, the dwarf planet Ceres was widely believed to contain a substantial ice-rich layer below its rocky surface. The existence of such a layer has significant implications for Ceres’s formation, evolution, and astrobiological potential. Ceres is warmer than icy worlds in the outer Solar System and, if its shallow subsurface is ice-rich, large impact craters are expected to be erased by viscous flow on short geologic timescales. Here we use digital terrain models derived from Dawn Framing Camera images to show that most of Ceres’s largest craters are several kilometres deep, and are therefore inconsistent with the existence of an ice-rich subsurface. We further show from numerical simulations that the absence of viscous relaxation over billion-year timescales implies a subsurface viscosity that is at least one thousand times greater than that of pure water ice. We conclude that Ceres’s shallow subsurface is no more than 30% to 40% ice by volume, with a mixture of rock, salts and/or clathrates accounting for the other 60% to 70%. However, several anomalously shallow craters are consistent with limited viscous relaxation and may indicate spatial variations in subsurface ice content.

  18. The appearance of Carbonaceous Chondrites on (1) Ceres from observations by the Dawn Framing Camera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schäfer, Tanja; Schäfer, Michael; Mengel, Kurt; Cloutis, Edward A.; Izawa, Matthew R. M.; Thangjam, Guneshwar; Hoffmann, Martin; Platz, Thomas; Nathues, Andreas; Kallisch, Jan; Ripken, Joachim; Russel, Christopher T.

    2016-04-01

    NASA's Dawn spacecraft reached dwarf planet Ceres in March 2015 and started data acquisition using three different instruments. These are the Framing Camera (FC; [1]), the Visible & Infrared Spectrometer (VIR; [2]), and the Gamma Ray and Neutron Detector (GRaND; [3]). In our work we focus on the potential appearance of carbonaceous chondritic (CC) material on the cerean surface using Dawn FC color mosaics covering the VIS/NIR wavelength region. In preparation of the Dawn arrival at Ceres, a discrimination scheme for CC groups using FC color ratios was developed by [4] and is based on 121 CC laboratory spectra compiled from RELAB. As the cerean surface material mainly differs by its spectral slope over the whole FC wavelength range (0.44-0.97 μm), we classified the color mosaics by this parameter. We applied the CC discrimination scheme only to those regions on the cerean surface (more than 90 %) which exhibit spectral slopes ≥ -1 % reflectance per μm to exclude the strongly negative sloped regions of large young craters such as Occator, Haulani, and Oxo. These are not likely to be similar to pure CC material as can be seen by their brightness and their bluish spectral slope [5]. We found that the surface material of Ceres is, among the suite of CCs, most similar to Ivuna samples artificially heated to 200 and 300°C [6] and unusual CCs, which naturally experienced heating. The latter ones comprise Dhofar 225, Y-86789 and Y-82162, which have been determined to have undergone aqueous alteration and subsequent thermal metamorphism (e.g. [7,8]).Our comparison with VIR data shows, that the spectra of Ivuna heated to 200°C and 300°C match well the OH-absorption at 2.7 μm but do not show the smaller 3.05-3.1 μm absorption observed on Ceres [9,10,11]. Nevertheless, the remarkably flat UV drop-off detected on the cerean surface may, at least spectrally, correspond to highly aqueously altered and subsequently thermally metamorphosed CC material. Further alteration of

  19. First Spectral Coverage of two regions on Ceres in the far-UV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendrix, Amanda R.; Vilas, Faith; Li, Jian-Yang

    2015-11-01

    We present the first spectral observations of Ceres in the far-ultraviolet, along with new measurements in the near-UV and visible, as measured by HST/STIS as part of Cycle 22, in August-September, 2015. The observations are motivated by early broad-band UV observations [1][2][3] suggesting a UV absorption centered near 260 nm along with a very strong increase in UV reflectance into the far-UV (~160 nm). We have observed two central longitudes of Ceres - near 0°W and 120°W (this latter area one of the regions in which Herschel detected water vapor) - using the G140L (~120-172 nm), G230L (~170-310 nm) and G430L (~300-570 nm) detectors. We use the data to test a prediction of graphitized carbon on the surface, and we look for signatures of water ice and/or water vapor.[1] Parker, J. W., S. A. Stern, P. C. Thomas, M. C. Festou, W. J. Merline, E. F. Young, R. P Binzel, L. A. Lebofsky (2002). Astron J. 123, 549[2] Li et al. (2006). Icarus 182: 143-160.[3] Rivkin, A. S., J.-Y. Li, R. E. Milliken, L. F. Lim, A. J. Lovell, B. E. Schmidt, L. A. McFadden, B. A. Cohen (2011). Space Sci Rev 163, 95.

  20. Explaining Earths Energy Budget: CERES-Based NASA Resources for K-12 Education and Public Outreach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambers, L. H.; Bethea, K.; Marvel, M. T.; Ruhlman, K.; LaPan, J.; Lewis, P.; Madigan, J.; Oostra, D.; Taylor, J.

    2014-01-01

    Among atmospheric scientists, the importance of the Earth radiation budget concept is well understood. Papers have addressed the topic for over 100 years, and the large Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) science team (among others), with its multiple on-orbit instruments, is working hard to quantify the details of its various parts. In education, Earth's energy budget is a concept that generally appears in middle school and Earth science curricula, but its treatment in textbooks leaves much to be desired. Students and the public hold many misconceptions, and very few people have an appreciation for the importance of this energy balance to the conditions on Earth. More importantly, few have a correct mental model that allows them to make predictions and understand the effect of changes such as increasing greenhouse gas concentrations. As an outreach element of the core CERES team at NASA Langley, a multi-disciplinary group of scientists, educators, graphic artists, writers, and web developers has been developing and refining graphics and resources to explain the Earth's Energy budget over the last few decades. Resources have developed through an iterative process involving ongoing use in front of a variety of audiences, including students and teachers from 3rd to 12th grade as well as public audiences.

  1. How Benchmarking and Higher Education Came Together

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, Gary D.; Ronco, Sharron L.

    2012-01-01

    This chapter introduces the concept of benchmarking and how higher education institutions began to use benchmarking for a variety of purposes. Here, benchmarking is defined as a strategic and structured approach whereby an organization compares aspects of its processes and/or outcomes to those of another organization or set of organizations to…

  2. A Framework for Urban Transport Benchmarking

    OpenAIRE

    Henning, Theuns; Essakali, Mohammed Dalil; Oh, Jung Eun

    2011-01-01

    This report summarizes the findings of a study aimed at exploring key elements of a benchmarking framework for urban transport. Unlike many industries where benchmarking has proven to be successful and straightforward, the multitude of the actors and interactions involved in urban transport systems may make benchmarking a complex endeavor. It was therefore important to analyze what has bee...

  3. Benchmarking: Achieving the best in class

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaemmerer, L

    1996-05-01

    Oftentimes, people find the process of organizational benchmarking an onerous task, or, because they do not fully understand the nature of the process, end up with results that are less than stellar. This paper presents the challenges of benchmarking and reasons why benchmarking can benefit an organization in today`s economy.

  4. The LDBC Social Network Benchmark: Interactive Workload

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Erling, O.; Averbuch, A.; Larriba-Pey, J.; Chafi, H.; Gubichev, A.; Prat, A.; Pham, M.D.; Boncz, P.A.

    2015-01-01

    The Linked Data Benchmark Council (LDBC) is now two years underway and has gathered strong industrial participation for its mission to establish benchmarks, and benchmarking practices for evaluating graph data management systems. The LDBC introduced a new choke-point driven methodology for developin

  5. A biosegmentation benchmark for evaluation of bioimage analysis methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kvilekval Kristian

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We present a biosegmentation benchmark that includes infrastructure, datasets with associated ground truth, and validation methods for biological image analysis. The primary motivation for creating this resource comes from the fact that it is very difficult, if not impossible, for an end-user to choose from a wide range of segmentation methods available in the literature for a particular bioimaging problem. No single algorithm is likely to be equally effective on diverse set of images and each method has its own strengths and limitations. We hope that our benchmark resource would be of considerable help to both the bioimaging researchers looking for novel image processing methods and image processing researchers exploring application of their methods to biology. Results Our benchmark consists of different classes of images and ground truth data, ranging in scale from subcellular, cellular to tissue level, each of which pose their own set of challenges to image analysis. The associated ground truth data can be used to evaluate the effectiveness of different methods, to improve methods and to compare results. Standard evaluation methods and some analysis tools are integrated into a database framework that is available online at http://bioimage.ucsb.edu/biosegmentation/. Conclusion This online benchmark will facilitate integration and comparison of image analysis methods for bioimages. While the primary focus is on biological images, we believe that the dataset and infrastructure will be of interest to researchers and developers working with biological image analysis, image segmentation and object tracking in general.

  6. An historic discovery around the corner from school: Ceres, a solar system object with an uncertain identity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stira, Salvatore

    2016-04-01

    Ceres is the largest object in the asteroid belt between Mars and Jupiter, and it was discovered on January 1, 1801, by the Italian astronomer Giuseppe Piazzi. The study of Ceres is especially relevant to my students because this celestial body was discovered in Palermo, in the astronomic observatory located in the UNESCO world heritage site "Palazzo dei Normanni", around 500 meters away from the institute where I teach, and because Ceres was considered the patron goddess of Sicily. Moreover, it received scientists and media attention recently because it was explored by the NASA Dawn spacecraft in 2015. The categorization of Ceres has changed more than once and has been the subject of some disagreement. It was originally considered a planet, but was reclassified as an asteroid in the 1850s when many other objects in similar orbits were discovered. Its status changed again in 2006 when it was promoted to dwarf planet, a classification it shares with Pluto and other Kuiper belt objects. The study of this celestial body has a notable educational value, since the uncertain identity of Ceres constitutes an occasion to reflect on the criterions of classification of the natural objects. The history of its discovery allows the students to understand as the scientific method doesn't always consist in the verification of hypothesis through experiments but it sometimes asks for the forecast of facts through mathematical calculations, repeated and methodic observations, the collaboration between scientists of different sectors and nationality. Furthermore, it is a particularly suitable topic for interdisciplinary connections, as regards both scientific and humanistic matters. In order to promote the scientific competences of my first class students, I have developed a learning unit on Ceres, thanks to good cooperation with the Palermo Observatory scientists, particularly active in the astronomic dissemination towards the schools and the citizens. The most meaningful activities

  7. Comparative Assessment of Satellite-Retrieved Surface Net Radiation: An Examination on CERES and SRB Datasets in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Pan

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Surface net radiation plays an important role in land–atmosphere interactions. The net radiation can be retrieved from satellite radiative products, yet its accuracy needs comprehensive assessment. This study evaluates monthly surface net radiation generated from the Clouds and the Earth’s Radiant Energy System (CERES and the Surface Radiation Budget project (SRB products, respectively, with quality-controlled radiation data from 50 meteorological stations in China for the period from March 2000 to December 2007. Our results show that surface net radiation is generally overestimated for CERES (SRB, with a bias of 26.52 W/m2 (18.57 W/m2 and a root mean square error of 34.58 W/m2 (29.49 W/m2. Spatially, the satellite-retrieved monthly mean of surface net radiation has relatively small errors for both CERES and SRB at inland sites in south China. Substantial errors are found at northeastern sites for two datasets, in addition to coastal sites for CERES. Temporally, multi-year averaged monthly mean errors are large at sites in western China in spring and summer, and in northeastern China in spring and winter. The annual mean error fluctuates for SRB, but decreases for CERES between 2000 and 2007. For CERES, 56% of net radiation errors come from net shortwave (NSW radiation and 44% from net longwave (NLW radiation. The errors are attributable to environmental parameters including surface albedo, surface water vapor pressure, land surface temperature, normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI of land surface proxy, and visibility for CERES. For SRB, 65% of the errors come from NSW and 35% from NLW radiation. The major influencing factors in a descending order are surface water vapor pressure, surface albedo, land surface temperature, NDVI, and visibility. Our findings offer an insight into error patterns in satellite-retrieved surface net radiation and should be valuable to improving retrieval accuracy of surface net radiation. Moreover, our

  8. Methodology for Benchmarking IPsec Gateways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Tisovský

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyses forwarding performance of IPsec gateway over the rage of offered loads. It focuses on the forwarding rate and packet loss particularly at the gateway’s performance peak and at the state of gateway’s overload. It explains possible performance degradation when the gateway is overloaded by excessive offered load. The paper further evaluates different approaches for obtaining forwarding performance parameters – a widely used throughput described in RFC 1242, maximum forwarding rate with zero packet loss and us proposed equilibrium throughput. According to our observations equilibrium throughput might be the most universal parameter for benchmarking security gateways as the others may be dependent on the duration of test trials. Employing equilibrium throughput would also greatly shorten the time required for benchmarking. Lastly, the paper presents methodology and a hybrid step/binary search algorithm for obtaining value of equilibrium throughput.

  9. Gaming in a benchmarking environment. A non-parametric analysis of benchmarking in the water sector

    OpenAIRE

    De Witte, Kristof; Marques, Rui

    2009-01-01

    This paper discusses the use of benchmarking in general and its application to the drinking water sector. It systematizes the various classifications on performance measurement, discusses some of the pitfalls of benchmark studies and provides some examples of benchmarking in the water sector. After presenting in detail the institutional framework of the water sector of the Belgian region of Flanders (without benchmarking experiences), Wallonia (recently started a public benchmark) and the Net...

  10. Adapting benchmarking to project management : an analysis of project management processes, metrics, and benchmarking process models

    OpenAIRE

    Emhjellen, Kjetil

    1997-01-01

    Since the first publication on benchmarking in 1989 by Robert C. Camp of “Benchmarking: The search for Industry Best Practices that Lead to Superior Performance”, the improvement technique benchmarking has been established as an important tool in the process focused manufacturing or production environment. The use of benchmarking has expanded to other types of industry. Benchmarking has past the doorstep and is now in early trials in the project and construction environment....

  11. HS06 benchmark for an ARM server

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We benchmarked an ARM cortex-A9 based server system with a four-core CPU running at 1.1 GHz. The system used Ubuntu 12.04 as operating system and the HEPSPEC 2006 (HS06) benchmarking suite was compiled natively with gcc-4.4 on the system. The benchmark was run for various settings of the relevant gcc compiler options. We did not find significant influence from the compiler options on the benchmark result. The final HS06 benchmark result is 10.4.

  12. TRIGA Mark II benchmark experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Experimental results of pulse parameters and control rod worth measurements at TRIGA Mark 2 reactor in Ljubljana are presented. The measurements were performed with a completely fresh, uniform, and compact core. Only standard fuel elements with 12 wt% uranium were used. Special efforts were made to get reliable and accurate results at well-defined experimental conditions, and it is proposed to use the results as a benchmark test case for TRIGA reactors

  13. Restaurant Energy Use Benchmarking Guideline

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hedrick, R.; Smith, V.; Field, K.

    2011-07-01

    A significant operational challenge for food service operators is defining energy use benchmark metrics to compare against the performance of individual stores. Without metrics, multiunit operators and managers have difficulty identifying which stores in their portfolios require extra attention to bring their energy performance in line with expectations. This report presents a method whereby multiunit operators may use their own utility data to create suitable metrics for evaluating their operations.

  14. Local Innovation Systems and Benchmarking

    OpenAIRE

    Cantner, Uwe

    2008-01-01

    This paper reviews approaches used for evaluating the performance of local or regional innovation systems. This evaluation is performed by a benchmarking approach in which a frontier production function can be determined, based on a knowledge production function relating innovation inputs and innovation outputs. In analyses on the regional level and especially when acknowledging regional innovation systems those approaches have to take into account cooperative invention and innovation - the c...

  15. 粒子滤波同化方法在CERES-Wheat作物模型估产中的应用%Estimation of crop yield using CERES-Wheat model based on particle filter data assimilation method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜志伟; 陈仲新; 任建强; 周清波

    2012-01-01

    In order to validate the feasibility of particle filter algorithm for crop yield estimation using crop growth model as well as accuracy, the data assimilation system of CERES-Wheat (crop environment resource synthesis for wheat) model was integrated. The ground observation was employed to perform an experiment to test the capability of data assimilation system for crop yield estimation. The effect of particle dimension and perturbed variance on accuracy and efficiency was also discussed. The results showed that CERES-Wheat data assimilation system based on particle filter could correctly adjust the trajectory of model states and significantly improve the precision of forecasted crop yield. The coefficient of determination R2 between simulated and observed winter wheat yields before and after performing PF assimilation scheme increased from 0.68 to 0.83, normalized root mean square error (NRMSE) from 4.93% to 3.40%, and relative error (RE) from 4.15% to 2.93%. For the trials of perturbed particle size and variance, there were no significant improvement when particle size increased from 50 to 250, but the computation time increased by 5 times. As perturbed variance of particles increased, NRMSE and RE increased by 0.32% and 0.26%, respectively. Therefore, the disturbed dimensions and variance of particles should be determined based on a compromised consideration of both the simulated precision and computed cost. This study provides a valuable reference for monitoring crop growth and yield estimation on regional scale using multi-sources remote sensing data.%为验证粒子滤波同化算法在作物模型估产应用中的可行性和精度,应用该算法构建了CERES-Wheat(cropenvironmentresourcesynthesis for wheat)作物模型同化系统,并应用地面观测数据研究了同化系统的估产能力以及粒子扰动维数和方差对同化结果和效率的影响.研究结果表明,构建的作物模型同化系统能够利用作物关键生育期内观测LAI

  16. RISKIND verification and benchmark comparisons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report presents verification calculations and benchmark comparisons for RISKIND, a computer code designed to estimate potential radiological consequences and health risks to individuals and the population from exposures associated with the transportation of spent nuclear fuel and other radioactive materials. Spreadsheet calculations were performed to verify the proper operation of the major options and calculational steps in RISKIND. The program is unique in that it combines a variety of well-established models into a comprehensive treatment for assessing risks from the transportation of radioactive materials. Benchmark comparisons with other validated codes that incorporate similar models were also performed. For instance, the external gamma and neutron dose rate curves for a shipping package estimated by RISKIND were compared with those estimated by using the RADTRAN 4 code and NUREG-0170 methodology. Atmospheric dispersion of released material and dose estimates from the GENII and CAP88-PC codes. Verification results have shown the program to be performing its intended function correctly. The benchmark results indicate that the predictions made by RISKIND are within acceptable limits when compared with predictions from similar existing models

  17. Thermal Performance Benchmarking: Annual Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moreno, Gilbert

    2016-04-08

    The goal for this project is to thoroughly characterize the performance of state-of-the-art (SOA) automotive power electronics and electric motor thermal management systems. Information obtained from these studies will be used to: Evaluate advantages and disadvantages of different thermal management strategies; establish baseline metrics for the thermal management systems; identify methods of improvement to advance the SOA; increase the publicly available information related to automotive traction-drive thermal management systems; help guide future electric drive technologies (EDT) research and development (R&D) efforts. The performance results combined with component efficiency and heat generation information obtained by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) may then be used to determine the operating temperatures for the EDT components under drive-cycle conditions. In FY15, the 2012 Nissan LEAF power electronics and electric motor thermal management systems were benchmarked. Testing of the 2014 Honda Accord Hybrid power electronics thermal management system started in FY15; however, due to time constraints it was not possible to include results for this system in this report. The focus of this project is to benchmark the thermal aspects of the systems. ORNL's benchmarking of electric and hybrid electric vehicle technology reports provide detailed descriptions of the electrical and packaging aspects of these automotive systems.

  18. Prismatic VHTR neutronic benchmark problems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Connolly, Kevin John, E-mail: connolly@gatech.edu [Nuclear and Radiological Engineering and Medical Physics Programs, George W. Woodruff School, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States); Rahnema, Farzad, E-mail: farzad@gatech.edu [Nuclear and Radiological Engineering and Medical Physics Programs, George W. Woodruff School, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States); Tsvetkov, Pavel V. [Department of Nuclear Engineering, Texas A& M University, College Station, TX (United States)

    2015-04-15

    Highlights: • High temperature gas-cooled reactor neutronics benchmark problems. • Description of a whole prismatic VHTR core in its full heterogeneity. • Modeled using continuous energy nuclear data at a representative hot operating temperature. • Benchmark results for core eigenvalue, block-averaged power, and some selected pin fission density results. - Abstract: This paper aims to fill an apparent scarcity of benchmarks based on high temperature gas-cooled reactors. Within is a description of a whole prismatic VHTR core in its full heterogeneity and modeling using continuous energy nuclear data at a representative hot operating temperature. Also included is a core which has been simplified for ease in modeling while attempting to preserve as faithfully as possible the neutron physics of the core. Fuel and absorber pins have been homogenized from the particle level, however, the blocks which construct the core remain strongly heterogeneous. A six group multigroup (discrete energy) cross section set has been developed via Monte Carlo using the original heterogeneous core as a basis. Several configurations of the core have been solved using these two cross section sets; eigenvalue results, block-averaged power results, and some selected pin fission density results are presented in this paper, along with the six-group cross section data, so that method developers may use these problems as a standard reference point.

  19. Prismatic VHTR neutronic benchmark problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • High temperature gas-cooled reactor neutronics benchmark problems. • Description of a whole prismatic VHTR core in its full heterogeneity. • Modeled using continuous energy nuclear data at a representative hot operating temperature. • Benchmark results for core eigenvalue, block-averaged power, and some selected pin fission density results. - Abstract: This paper aims to fill an apparent scarcity of benchmarks based on high temperature gas-cooled reactors. Within is a description of a whole prismatic VHTR core in its full heterogeneity and modeling using continuous energy nuclear data at a representative hot operating temperature. Also included is a core which has been simplified for ease in modeling while attempting to preserve as faithfully as possible the neutron physics of the core. Fuel and absorber pins have been homogenized from the particle level, however, the blocks which construct the core remain strongly heterogeneous. A six group multigroup (discrete energy) cross section set has been developed via Monte Carlo using the original heterogeneous core as a basis. Several configurations of the core have been solved using these two cross section sets; eigenvalue results, block-averaged power results, and some selected pin fission density results are presented in this paper, along with the six-group cross section data, so that method developers may use these problems as a standard reference point

  20. Standard Guide for Benchmark Testing of Reactor Dosimetry in Standard and Reference Neutron Fields

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2010-01-01

    Return to Contents page 1.1 This guide covers facilities and procedures for benchmarking neutron measurements and calculations. Particular sections of the guide discuss: the use of well-characterized benchmark neutron fields to calibrate integral neutron sensors; the use of certified-neutron-fluence standards to calibrate radiometric counting equipment or to determine interlaboratory measurement consistency; development of special benchmark fields to test neutron transport calculations; use of well-known fission spectra to benchmark spectrum-averaged cross sections; and the use of benchmarked data and calculations to determine the uncertainties in derived neutron dosimetry results. 1.2 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as standard. No other units of measurement are included in this standard.

  1. Re-evaluation and continued development of shielding benchmark database SINBAD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Expert Group on Radiation Transport and Shielding was started at the OECD/NEA in June 2011 with the mandate to, among others, monitor, steer and support the continued development of the Shielding Integral Benchmark Archive and Database (SINBAD), in cooperation with RSICC. The present status of this database is presented, which grew since its beginnings in the 1990’s to an international reference database containing at present 100 benchmarks relevant for fission, fusion and accelerator shielding applications. As part of its activities a thorough revision of 45 benchmark experiments was completed recently in order to verify in details the completeness and consistency of the benchmark information, in particular concerning the evaluation of the experimental sources of uncertainty. This review process is expected to provide users with a proper choice and help them make better use of the experimental information and is planned to be extended to other available benchmarks. (author)

  2. Benchmark analysis of the DeCART MOC code with the VENUS-2 critical experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Computational benchmarks based on well-defined problems with a complete set of input and a unique solution are often used as a means of verifying the reliability of numerical solutions. VENUS is a widely used MOX benchmark problem for the validation of numerical methods and nuclear data set. In this paper, the results of benchmarking the DeCART (Deterministic Core Analysis based on Ray Tracing) integral transport code is reported using the OECD/NEA VENUS-2 MOX benchmark problem. Both 2-D and 3-D DeCART calculations were performed and comparisons are reported with measured data, as well as with the results of other benchmark participants. In general the DeCART results agree well with both the experimental data as well as those of other participants. (authors)

  3. An introduction to benchmarking in healthcare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benson, H R

    1994-01-01

    Benchmarking--the process of establishing a standard of excellence and comparing a business function or activity, a product, or an enterprise as a whole with that standard--will be used increasingly by healthcare institutions to reduce expenses and simultaneously improve product and service quality. As a component of total quality management, benchmarking is a continuous process by which an organization can measure and compare its own processes with those of organizations that are leaders in a particular area. Benchmarking should be viewed as a part of quality management programs, not as a replacement. There are four kinds of benchmarking: internal, competitive, functional and generic. With internal benchmarking, functions within an organization are compared with each other. Competitive benchmarking partners do business in the same market and provide a direct comparison of products or services. Functional and generic benchmarking are performed with organizations which may have a specific similar function, such as payroll or purchasing, but which otherwise are in a different business. Benchmarking must be a team process because the outcome will involve changing current practices, with effects felt throughout the organization. The team should include members who have subject knowledge; communications and computer proficiency; skills as facilitators and outside contacts; and sponsorship of senior management. Benchmarking requires quantitative measurement of the subject. The process or activity that you are attempting to benchmark will determine the types of measurements used. Benchmarking metrics usually can be classified in one of four categories: productivity, quality, time and cost-related. PMID:10139084

  4. A study regarding the stability of the primordial crust of asteroid Ceres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Formisano, Michelangelo; Federico, Costanzo; De Sanctis, Maria Cristina; De Angelis, Simone

    2016-04-01

    Ceres is a particular object of the solar system, since it is a "transition body" between the icy satellites of the outer solar system and the rocky bodies of the inner part. Probably it is differentiated [1,2], i.e. it has a core made of "rock" (silicates) with a weak presence of metals, a large icy mantle and a rocky crust. In particular, it has been proposed the existence on the surface of the ammoniated phyllosilicates, compatible with an outer solar system origin [3]. Also water in clay minerals, brucite, and iron-rich serpentine have been proposed to exist on the surface [4]. Ice directly on the surface regolith seems to be very unstable: numerical simulations of [5] indicate that it can last for very few orbits. A crust made of a mixture of ice and rock is potentially unstable. In the solar system, for example, Callisto has such a crust but its surface temperature is below the critical temperature for the Rayleigh-Taylor instability [6]: this seems not to be the case of Ceres. In this work, we verify the stability of the primordial crust, by assuming a certain initial composition (ice and rock) and thickness. We assume a post-differentiation Ceres, made of three layers (rocky core, icy mantle and crust). The key role is played by the viscosity of the layers, which influenced the survival or not of the primordial crust. We applied the method of the parametrized thermal convection widely diffused in literature. [1] McCord, T.B. and Sotin, C., 2005, JGR 110 [2] Castillo-Rogez, J.C., and McCord, T.B., 2010, Icarus 205, 443-459 [3] De Sanctis, M.C. et al., 2015, doi:10.1038/nature16172 [4] Rivkin, A.S., et al., 2014, Space Sci Rev, 95-116, 163, doi 10.1007/s11214-010-9677-4 [5] Formisano, M., et al., 2016, MRAS 455, 1892-1904 [6] Shoji, D. and Kurita, K., 2014, doi:10.1002/2014JE004695.

  5. Spectral modeling of Ceres VIR data from Dawn: Method and Result

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raponi, Andrea; De Sanctis, M. C.; Ciarniello, M.; Carrozzo, F. G.; Ammannito, E.; Capaccioni, F.; Capria, M. T.; Frigeri, A.; Fonte, S.; Giardino, M.; Longobardo, A.; Magni, G.; Marchi, S.; Palomba, E.; Pieters, C. M.; Tosi, F.; Turrini, D.; Zambon, F.; Raymond, C. A.; Russell, C. T.

    2015-11-01

    The Dawn spacecraft [1] is at Ceres, the closest of the IAU-defined dwarf planets to the Sun. This work focuses on the interpretation of Ceres’ surface composition based on the data from the VIR instrument [2] onboard Dawn. The Visible InfraRed (VIR) mapping spectrometer combines high spectral and spatial resolution in the VIS (0.25-1mm) and IR (1-5mm) spectral ranges. VIR will provide a very good coverage of the surface during its orbital mission at Ceres.In order to model the measured spectra, we have utilized Hapke's radiative transfer model [3], which allows estimation of the mineral composition, the relative abundances of the spectral end-members, and the grain size. Optical constants of the spectral end-members are approximated by applying the methodology described in [4] to IR spectra reflectance obtained from the RELAB database.The observed spectra of Ceres surface are affected by a thermal emission component that prevents direct comparison with laboratory data at longer wavelengths. Thus to model the whole wavelength range measured by VIR, the thermal emission is modeled together with the reflectance. Calibrated spectra are first cleaned by removing artefacts. A best fit is obtained with a least square optimization algorithm. For further details on the method, see reference [5].The range 2.5 - 2.9 μm is severely hindered by Earth's atmosphere, but it contains a strong absorption band that dominates the IR Ceres’ spectrum. Thanks to the VIR instrument we can obtain a compositional model for the whole IR range [6]. We used several different combinations of materials hypothesized to be representative of the Ceres’ surface including phyllosilicates, ices, carbonaceous chondrites and salts. The results will be discussed.Acknowledgements This work is supported by the Italian Space Agencies and NASA. Enabling contributions from the Dawn Instrument, Operations, and Science Teams are gratefully acknowledged.Reference[1] Russell et al., Space Sci. Rev., 163

  6. The 1.7- to 4.2-micron spectrum of asteroid 1 Ceres - Evidence for structural water in clay minerals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebofsky, L. A.; Feierberg, M. A.; Larson, H. P.; Johnson, J. R.; Tokunaga, A. T.

    1981-01-01

    A high-resolution Fourier spectrum (1.7-3.5 microns) and medium-resolution spectrophotometry (2.7-4.2 microns) were obtained for Asteroid 1 Ceres. The presence of the 3-micron absorption feature due to water of hydration was confirmed. The 3-micron feature is compared with the 3-micron bands due to water of hydration in clays and salts. It is concluded that the spectrum of Ceres shows a strong absorption at 2.7-2.8 microns due to structural OH groups in clay minerals. The dominant minerals on the surface of Ceres are therefore hydrated clay minerals structurally similar to terrestrial montmorillonites. There is also a narrow absorption feature at 3.1 microns which is attributable to a very small amount of water ice on Ceres. This is the first evidence for ice on the surface of an asteroid.

  7. Benchmark evaluation of structural reliability evaluation codes for FBR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes a procedure of structural reliability evaluation of passive components of fast breeder reactors for a failure due to fatigue-creep interaction damage, and also reports results of benchmark evaluation conducted by using two independently developed codes. The structural integrity of a reactor vessel was evaluated deterministically and probabilistically. The results estimated by two codes agree well for both of deterministic and probabilistic evaluations, which shows that these codes are programmed properly according to the evaluation procedure. (author)

  8. Benchmark calculations of thermal reaction rates. I - Quantal scattering theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatfield, David C.; Truhlar, Donald G.; Schwenke, David W.

    1991-01-01

    The thermal rate coefficient for the prototype reaction H + H2 yields H2 + H with zero total angular momentum is calculated by summing, averaging, and numerically integrating state-to-state reaction probabilities calculated by time-independent quantum-mechanical scattering theory. The results are very carefully converged with respect to all numerical parameters in order to provide high-precision benchmark results for confirming the accuracy of new methods and testing their efficiency.

  9. Benchmarks

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The National Flood Hazard Layer (NFHL) data incorporates all Digital Flood Insurance Rate Map(DFIRM) databases published by FEMA, and any Letters Of Map Revision...

  10. Compilation of benchmark results for fusion related Nuclear Data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report compiles results of benchmark tests for validation of evaluated nuclear data to be used in nuclear designs of fusion reactors. Parts of results were obtained under activities of the Fusion Neutronics Integral Test Working Group organized by the members of both Japan Nuclear Data Committee and the Reactor Physics Committee. The following three benchmark experiments were employed used for the tests: (i) the leakage neutron spectrum measurement experiments from slab assemblies at the D-T neutron source at FNS/JAERI, (ii) in-situ neutron and gamma-ray measurement experiments (so-called clean benchmark experiments) also at FNS, and (iii) the pulsed sphere experiments for leakage neutron and gamma-ray spectra at the D-T neutron source facility of Osaka University, OKTAVIAN. Evaluated nuclear data tested were JENDL-3.2, JENDL Fusion File, FENDL/E-1.0 and newly selected data for FENDL/E-2.0. Comparisons of benchmark calculations with the experiments for twenty-one elements, i.e., Li, Be, C, N, O, F, Al, Si, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zr, Nb, Mo, W and Pb, are summarized. (author). 65 refs

  11. Mineral Dust Impact on Short- and Long-Wave Radiation and Comparison with Ceres Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romano, Salvatore; Perrone, Maria Rita

    2016-06-01

    Clear-sky downward and upward radiative flux measurements both in the short- and in the long-wave spectral range have been used to estimate and analyze the radiation changes at the surface due to the mineral dust advection at a Central Mediterranean site. Then, short- and long-wave radiative fluxes retrieved from the CERES (Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System) radiometer sensors operating on board the EOS (Earth Observing System) AQUA and TERRA platforms have been used to evaluate the mineral dust radiative impact at the top of the atmosphere. Satellite-derived radiative fluxes at the surface have been compared with corresponding ground-based flux measurements, collocated in space and time, to better support and understand the desert dust radiative impact. Results referring to the year 2012 are reported.

  12. CERES: un juego serio para el fomento de la actividad física

    OpenAIRE

    Lampérez Zubia, Jorge

    2014-01-01

    En este proyecto fin de carrera se explicarán los pasos seguidos en las diferentes etapas del desarrollo de una aplicación para móviles Android dentro del proyecto CERES. Esta aplicación en cuestión se trata de una aplicación de salud y permite mediante los sensores propios del móvil llevar la monitorización de la actividad física así como establecer una conexión con diferentes dispositivos (básculas, termómetros, pulsioxímetro…) para la obtención de medidas. Estos datos almace...

  13. National Plan for Research - Development and Innovation, CERES Programme. Annual Scientific Session

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The CERES Programme is a research program organized in the frame of Institut of Atomic Physics, Bucharest, Romania. The annual scientific session held in Bucharest on December 2-3, 2002 covered the following 9 sections (projects): Mathematics (2); Physics (85); Chemistry (14); Engineering (2); Earth Sciences (13); Life Sciences (8); Economics and Social Studies (4); Culture (4); Works received after the deadline. The most numerous contributions within the INIS scope addressed subjects from the fields: theoretical and experimental nuclear physics, seismic survey and prognoses, high energy physics and quantum field theory, physical properties of materials, nuclear spectroscopic instrumentation, nuclear methods in isotopic analysis. The contributors presented their results obtained under research contracts supported by the Romanian Ministry of Education and Research in the period October 15, 2001 - October 15, 2002. Many of the reported research works were done in collaborations with international organizations or institutes from abroad

  14. Benchmarking homogenization algorithms for monthly data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. K. C. Venema

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The COST (European Cooperation in Science and Technology Action ES0601: advances in homogenization methods of climate series: an integrated approach (HOME has executed a blind intercomparison and validation study for monthly homogenization algorithms. Time series of monthly temperature and precipitation were evaluated because of their importance for climate studies and because they represent two important types of statistics (additive and multiplicative. The algorithms were validated against a realistic benchmark dataset. The benchmark contains real inhomogeneous data as well as simulated data with inserted inhomogeneities. Random independent break-type inhomogeneities with normally distributed breakpoint sizes were added to the simulated datasets. To approximate real world conditions, breaks were introduced that occur simultaneously in multiple station series within a simulated network of station data. The simulated time series also contained outliers, missing data periods and local station trends. Further, a stochastic nonlinear global (network-wide trend was added.

    Participants provided 25 separate homogenized contributions as part of the blind study. After the deadline at which details of the imposed inhomogeneities were revealed, 22 additional solutions were submitted. These homogenized datasets were assessed by a number of performance metrics including (i the centered root mean square error relative to the true homogeneous value at various averaging scales, (ii the error in linear trend estimates and (iii traditional contingency skill scores. The metrics were computed both using the individual station series as well as the network average regional series. The performance of the contributions depends significantly on the error metric considered. Contingency scores by themselves are not very informative. Although relative homogenization algorithms typically improve the homogeneity of temperature data, only the best ones improve

  15. Benchmarking and testing the "Sea Level Equation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spada, G.; Barletta, V. R.; Klemann, V.; van der Wal, W.; James, T. S.; Simon, K.; Riva, R. E. M.; Martinec, Z.; Gasperini, P.; Lund, B.; Wolf, D.; Vermeersen, L. L. A.; King, M. A.

    2012-04-01

    The study of the process of Glacial Isostatic Adjustment (GIA) and of the consequent sea level variations is gaining an increasingly important role within the geophysical community. Understanding the response of the Earth to the waxing and waning ice sheets is crucial in various contexts, ranging from the interpretation of modern satellite geodetic measurements to the projections of future sea level trends in response to climate change. All the processes accompanying GIA can be described solving the so-called Sea Level Equation (SLE), an integral equation that accounts for the interactions between the ice sheets, the solid Earth, and the oceans. Modern approaches to the SLE are based on various techniques that range from purely analytical formulations to fully numerical methods. Despite various teams independently investigating GIA, we do not have a suitably large set of agreed numerical results through which the methods may be validated. Following the example of the mantle convection community and our recent successful Benchmark for Post Glacial Rebound codes (Spada et al., 2011, doi: 10.1111/j.1365-246X.2011.04952.x), here we present the results of a benchmark study of independently developed codes designed to solve the SLE. This study has taken place within a collaboration facilitated through the European Cooperation in Science and Technology (COST) Action ES0701. The tests involve predictions of past and current sea level variations, and 3D deformations of the Earth surface. In spite of the signi?cant differences in the numerical methods employed, the test computations performed so far show a satisfactory agreement between the results provided by the participants. The differences found, which can be often attributed to the different numerical algorithms employed within the community, help to constrain the intrinsic errors in model predictions. These are of fundamental importance for a correct interpretation of the geodetic variations observed today, and

  16. Gaia FGK benchmark stars: Metallicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jofré, P.; Heiter, U.; Soubiran, C.; Blanco-Cuaresma, S.; Worley, C. C.; Pancino, E.; Cantat-Gaudin, T.; Magrini, L.; Bergemann, M.; González Hernández, J. I.; Hill, V.; Lardo, C.; de Laverny, P.; Lind, K.; Masseron, T.; Montes, D.; Mucciarelli, A.; Nordlander, T.; Recio Blanco, A.; Sobeck, J.; Sordo, R.; Sousa, S. G.; Tabernero, H.; Vallenari, A.; Van Eck, S.

    2014-04-01

    Context. To calibrate automatic pipelines that determine atmospheric parameters of stars, one needs a sample of stars, or "benchmark stars", with well-defined parameters to be used as a reference. Aims: We provide detailed documentation of the iron abundance determination of the 34 FGK-type benchmark stars that are selected to be the pillars for calibration of the one billion Gaia stars. They cover a wide range of temperatures, surface gravities, and metallicities. Methods: Up to seven different methods were used to analyze an observed spectral library of high resolutions and high signal-to-noise ratios. The metallicity was determined by assuming a value of effective temperature and surface gravity obtained from fundamental relations; that is, these parameters were known a priori and independently from the spectra. Results: We present a set of metallicity values obtained in a homogeneous way for our sample of benchmark stars. In addition to this value, we provide detailed documentation of the associated uncertainties. Finally, we report a value of the metallicity of the cool giant ψ Phe for the first time. Based on NARVAL and HARPS data obtained within the Gaia DPAC (Data Processing and Analysis Consortium) and coordinated by the GBOG (Ground-Based Observations for Gaia) working group and on data retrieved from the ESO-ADP database.Tables 6-76 are only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (ftp://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/564/A133

  17. The CERES/ARM/GEWEX Experiment (CAGEX) for the Retrieval of Radiative Fluxes with Satellite Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charlock, Thomas P.; Alberta, Timothy L.

    1996-11-01

    Results from a temporally intensive, limited area, radiative transfer model experiment are on-line for investigating the vertical profile of shortwave and longwave radiative fluxes from the surface to the top of the atmosphere (TOA). The CERES/ARM/GEWEX Experiment (CAGEX) Version 1 provides a record of fluxes that have been computed with a radiative transfer code; the atmospheric sounding, aerosol, and satellite-retrieved cloud data on which the computations have been based; and surface-based measurements of radiative fluxes and cloud properties from ARM for comparison.The computed broadband fluxes at TOA show considerable scatter when compared with fluxes that are inferred empirically from narrowband operational satellite data. At the surface, LW fluxes computed with an alternate sounding dataset compare well with pyrgeometer measurements. In agreement with earlier work, the authors find that the calculated SW surface insulation is larger than the measurements for clear-sky and total-sky conditions.This experiment has been developed to test retrievals of radiative fluxes and the associated forcings by clouds, aerosols, surface properties, and water vapor. Collaboration is sought; the goal is to extend the domain of meteorological conditions for which such retrievals can be done accurately. CAGEX Version 1 covers April 1994. Subsequent versions will (a) at first span the same limited geographical area with data from October 1995, (b) then expand to cover a significant fraction of the GEWEX Continental-Scale International Project region for April 1996 through September 1996, and (c) eventually be used in a more advanced form to validate CERES.

  18. NFS Tricks and Benchmarking Traps

    OpenAIRE

    Seltzer, Margo; Ellard, Daniel

    2003-01-01

    We describe two modi cations to the FreeBSD 4.6 NFS server to increase read throughput by improving the read-ahead heuristic to deal with reordered requests and stride access patterns. We show that for some stride access patterns, our new heuristics improve end-to-end NFS throughput by nearly a factor of two. We also show that benchmarking and experimenting with changes to an NFS server can be a subtle and challenging task, and that it is often difficult to distinguish the impact of a new ...

  19. TRIGA Mark II benchmark experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The experimental results of startup tests after reconstruction and modification of the TRIGA Mark II reactor in Ljubljana are presented. The experiments were performed with a completely fresh, compact, and uniform core. The operating conditions were well defined and controlled, so that the results can be used as a benchmark test case for TRIGA reactor calculations. Both steady-state and pulse mode operation were tested. In this paper, the following steady-state experiments are treated: critical core and excess reactivity, control rod worths, fuel element reactivity worth distribution, fuel temperature distribution, and fuel temperature reactivity coefficient

  20. Data Assimilation of Benchmark Experiments for Homogenous Thermal / Epithermal Uranium Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This presentation reports on the data assimilation of benchmark experiments for homogeneous thermal and epithermal uranium systems. The assimilation method is based on Kalman filters using integral parameters and sensitivity coefficients calculated with MONK9 and ENDF/B-VII data. The assimilation process results in an overall improvement of the calculation-benchmark agreement, and may help in the selection of nuclear data after analysis of adjustment trends

  1. A Privacy-Preserving Benchmarking Platform

    OpenAIRE

    Kerschbaum, Florian

    2010-01-01

    A privacy-preserving benchmarking platform is practically feasible, i.e. its performance is tolerable to the user on current hardware while fulfilling functional and security requirements. This dissertation designs, architects, and evaluates an implementation of such a platform. It contributes a novel (secure computation) benchmarking protocol, a novel method for computing peer groups, and a realistic evaluation of the first ever privacy-preserving benchmarking platform.

  2. Rethinking benchmark dates in international relations

    OpenAIRE

    Buzan, Barry; Lawson, George

    2014-01-01

    International Relations (IR) has an ‘orthodox set’ of benchmark dates by which much of its research and teaching is organized: 1500, 1648, 1919, 1945 and 1989. This article argues that IR scholars need to question the ways in which these orthodox dates serve as internal and external points of reference, think more critically about how benchmark dates are established, and generate a revised set of benchmark dates that better reflects macro-historical international dynamics. The first part of t...

  3. WIPP benchmark II results using SANCHO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Results of the second Benchmark problem in the WIPP code evaluation series using the finite element dynamic relaxation code SANCHO are presented. A description of SANCHO and its model for sliding interfaces is given, along with a discussion of the various small routines used for generating stress plot data. Conclusions and a discussion of this benchmark problem, as well as recommendations for a possible third benchmark problem are presented

  4. Benchmarking for Excellence and the Nursing Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sleboda, Claire

    1999-01-01

    Nursing is a service profession. The services provided are essential to life and welfare. Therefore, setting the benchmark for high quality care is fundamental. Exploring the definition of a benchmark value will help to determine a best practice approach. A benchmark is the descriptive statement of a desired level of performance against which quality can be judged. It must be sufficiently well understood by managers and personnel in order that it may serve as a standard against which to measure value.

  5. The design and analysis of benchmark experiments

    OpenAIRE

    Hothorn, Torsten; Leisch, Friedrich; Zeileis, Achim; Hornik, Kurt

    2003-01-01

    The assessment of the performance of learners by means of benchmark experiments is established exercise. In practice, benchmark studies are a tool to compare the performance of several competing algorithms for a certain learning problem. Cross-validation or resampling techniques are commonly used to derive point estimates of the performances which are compared to identify algorithms with good properties. For several benchmarking problems, test procedures taking the variability of those point ...

  6. Computational Chemistry Comparison and Benchmark Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    SRD 101 NIST Computational Chemistry Comparison and Benchmark Database (Web, free access)   The NIST Computational Chemistry Comparison and Benchmark Database is a collection of experimental and ab initio thermochemical properties for a selected set of molecules. The goals are to provide a benchmark set of molecules for the evaluation of ab initio computational methods and allow the comparison between different ab initio computational methods for the prediction of thermochemical properties.

  7. Pynamic: the Python Dynamic Benchmark

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, G L; Ahn, D H; de Supinksi, B R; Gyllenhaal, J C; Miller, P J

    2007-07-10

    Python is widely used in scientific computing to facilitate application development and to support features such as computational steering. Making full use of some of Python's popular features, which improve programmer productivity, leads to applications that access extremely high numbers of dynamically linked libraries (DLLs). As a result, some important Python-based applications severely stress a system's dynamic linking and loading capabilities and also cause significant difficulties for most development environment tools, such as debuggers. Furthermore, using the Python paradigm for large scale MPI-based applications can create significant file IO and further stress tools and operating systems. In this paper, we present Pynamic, the first benchmark program to support configurable emulation of a wide-range of the DLL usage of Python-based applications for large scale systems. Pynamic has already accurately reproduced system software and tool issues encountered by important large Python-based scientific applications on our supercomputers. Pynamic provided insight for our system software and tool vendors, and our application developers, into the impact of several design decisions. As we describe the Pynamic benchmark, we will highlight some of the issues discovered in our large scale system software and tools using Pynamic.

  8. Method and system for benchmarking computers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gustafson, John L.

    1993-09-14

    A testing system and method for benchmarking computer systems. The system includes a store containing a scalable set of tasks to be performed to produce a solution in ever-increasing degrees of resolution as a larger number of the tasks are performed. A timing and control module allots to each computer a fixed benchmarking interval in which to perform the stored tasks. Means are provided for determining, after completion of the benchmarking interval, the degree of progress through the scalable set of tasks and for producing a benchmarking rating relating to the degree of progress for each computer.

  9. Characterizing universal gate sets via dihedral benchmarking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carignan-Dugas, Arnaud; Wallman, Joel J.; Emerson, Joseph

    2015-12-01

    We describe a practical experimental protocol for robustly characterizing the error rates of non-Clifford gates associated with dihedral groups, including small single-qubit rotations. Our dihedral benchmarking protocol is a generalization of randomized benchmarking that relaxes the usual unitary 2-design condition. Combining this protocol with existing randomized benchmarking schemes enables practical universal gate sets for quantum information processing to be characterized in a way that is robust against state-preparation and measurement errors. In particular, our protocol enables direct benchmarking of the π /8 gate even under the gate-dependent error model that is expected in leading approaches to fault-tolerant quantum computation.

  10. The Zoo, Benchmarks & You: How To Reach the Oregon State Benchmarks with Zoo Resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002

    This document aligns Oregon state educational benchmarks and standards with Oregon Zoo resources. Benchmark areas examined include English, mathematics, science, social studies, and career and life roles. Brief descriptions of the programs offered by the zoo are presented. (SOE)

  11. Benchmarking Implementations of Functional Languages with ``Pseudoknot'', a Float-Intensive Benchmark

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hartel, P.H.; Feeley, M.; Alt, M.; Augustsson, L.

    1996-01-01

    Over 25 implementations of different functional languages are benchmarked using the same program, a floatingpoint intensive application taken from molecular biology. The principal aspects studied are compile time and execution time for the various implementations that were benchmarked. An important

  12. SARNET benchmark on QUENCH-11. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    computational results can be defined. Larger discrepancies are seen in the hydrogen production and the related oxide scale thickness. Analysis shows that the agreement between calculated and experimental data is determined by both, limitations of severe accident codes and of the experiment. Severe accident codes are intended and developed to analyze typical accident situations in nuclear reactors. Special features of the experimental set-up of integral tests like QUENCH-11 as the presence of a shroud and electrode materials for the electric heating are irrelevant for reactors and cannot be simulated in the desirable detail. User effects add to the problems. However, a limited bandwidth of some calculated mainstream results, including hydrogen production, is a good outcome of the code benchmark. Taking in view other experiments, a further demand for an improvement concerning the oxidation of severe damaged structures during a reflood scenario is seen. Additionally, the benchmark proved to be valuable for a number of participants to become acquainted with the physical problems and with the application of large severe accident codes. For the transfer of knowledge and experience to younger scientists and engineers, this is an important issue to maintain the standard of nuclear safety. (orig.)

  13. SARNET benchmark on QUENCH-11. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stefanova, A. [Bylgarska Akademiya na Naukite, Sofia (Bulgaria). Inst. for Nuclear Research and Nuclear Energy; Drath, T. [Ruhr-Univ. Bochum (Germany). Energy Systems and Energy Economics; Duspiva, J. [Nuclear Research Inst., Rez (CZ). Dept. of Reactor Technology] (and others)

    2008-03-15

    computational results can be defined. Larger discrepancies are seen in the hydrogen production and the related oxide scale thickness. Analysis shows that the agreement between calculated and experimental data is determined by both, limitations of severe accident codes and of the experiment. Severe accident codes are intended and developed to analyze typical accident situations in nuclear reactors. Special features of the experimental set-up of integral tests like QUENCH-11 as the presence of a shroud and electrode materials for the electric heating are irrelevant for reactors and cannot be simulated in the desirable detail. User effects add to the problems. However, a limited bandwidth of some calculated mainstream results, including hydrogen production, is a good outcome of the code benchmark. Taking in view other experiments, a further demand for an improvement concerning the oxidation of severe damaged structures during a reflood scenario is seen. Additionally, the benchmark proved to be valuable for a number of participants to become acquainted with the physical problems and with the application of large severe accident codes. For the transfer of knowledge and experience to younger scientists and engineers, this is an important issue to maintain the standard of nuclear safety. (orig.)

  14. Progress report on terrestrial model development (TERRA and HABITAT): Research in support of the CERES earth system modeling project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kercher, J.R.; Axelrod, M.C.; Amthor, J.S. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Chambers, J.Q. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)]|[California Univ., Santa Barbara, CA (United States). Dept. of Biological Sciences

    1994-05-01

    Although there is only a developing understanding of the many processes affecting and coupling the atmosphere, oceans, and land systems of the earth, we are embarked on an effort to construct a prototype model (CERES) of the full Earth system. As part of this effort, we have proposed to the EPA to construct an Earth System Framework for the CERES model that supports flexible, modular development, coupling, and replacement of Earth System submodel components. This project has two specific areas of study. These areas are (1) the terrestrial contribution to the biogeochemical cycling and (2) the interactions of climate and the land ecosystems. The objectives of these two areas of study are: development of a globally distributed model of terrestrial ecosystem productivity, linking model to the submodels, using coupled system to explore biogeochemical cycles, exploration of greenhouse effect, development of models of surface, and the study of the dynamics of climate change and vegetation response.

  15. 'Integration'

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olwig, Karen Fog

    2011-01-01

    , while the countries have adopted disparate policies and ideologies, differences in the actual treatment and attitudes towards immigrants and refugees in everyday life are less clear, due to parallel integration programmes based on strong similarities in the welfare systems and in cultural notions of...

  16. Next-generation angular distribution models for top-of-atmosphere radiative flux calculation from CERES instruments: methodology

    OpenAIRE

    W. Su; Corbett, J; Z. Eitzen; L. Liang

    2015-01-01

    The top-of-atmosphere (TOA) radiative fluxes are critical components to advancing our understanding of the Earth's radiative energy balance, radiative effects of clouds and aerosols, and climate feedback. The Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) instruments provide broadband shortwave and longwave radiance measurements. These radiances are converted to fluxes by using scene-type-dependent angular distribution models (ADMs). This paper describes the next-gener...

  17. Using Web-Based Peer Benchmarking to Manage the Client-Based Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raska, David; Keller, Eileen Weisenbach; Shaw, Doris

    2013-01-01

    The complexities of integrating client-based projects into marketing courses provide challenges for the instructor but produce richness of context and active learning for the student. This paper explains the integration of Web-based peer benchmarking as a means of improving student performance on client-based projects within a single semester in…

  18. Next-generation angular distribution models for top-of-atmosphere radiative flux calculation from the CERES instruments: methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Su

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The top-of-atmosphere (TOA radiative fluxes are critical components to advancing our understanding of the Earth's radiative energy balance, radiative effects of clouds and aerosols, and climate feedback. The Clouds and Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES instruments provide broadband shortwave and longwave radiance measurements. These radiances are converted to fluxes by using scene type dependent Angular Distribution Models (ADMs. This paper describes the next-generation ADMs that are developed for Terra and Aqua using all available CERES rotating azimuth plane radiance measurements. Coincident cloud and aerosol retrievals, and radiance measurements from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS, and meteorological parameters from Goddard Earth Observing System (GEOS data assimilation version 5.4.1 are used to define scene type. CERES radiance measurements are stratified by scene type and by other parameters that are important for determining the anisotropy of the given scene type. Anisotropic factors are then defined either for discrete intervals of relevant parameters or as a continuous functions of combined parameters, depending on the scene type. Compared to the existing ADMs, the new ADMs change the monthly mean instantaneous fluxes by up to 5 W m−2 on a regional scale of 1° latitude × 1° longitude, but the flux changes are less than 0.5 W m−2 on a global scale.

  19. Latest development of a chemical model combined with an atmospheric transport model in CERES NRBC-E

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    CERES NRBC-E is an operational platform, developed by CEA DAM that is used to assess the impact on the environment and on health of atmospheric releases of radiological, chemical and biological elements. The last development takes into account the chemical reactions occurring during the atmospheric transport. The chemical reaction model between the species in gaseous phases and aqueous phases is based on the DSMACC code (Dynamically Simple Model for Atmospheric Chemical Complexity), on the preprocessor KPP (kinetic Pre-processor) and the TUV (Tropospheric Ultraviolet-photolysis). A preliminary version of CERES NRBC-E is available for testing. The atmospheric dispersion of an ammoniac release has been computed. Results show that taking into account chemical reactions occurring between OH radicals and ammoniac, leads to a reduction of the atmospheric ratio of NH3. The next step will be to include in CERES NRBC-E the chemical reactions that happen between the atmospheric releases and the aqueous phase generated by the presence of fog and clouds

  20. HPC Analytics Support. Requirements for Uncertainty Quantification Benchmarks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paulson, Patrick R. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Purohit, Sumit [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Rodriguez, Luke R. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-05-01

    This report outlines techniques for extending benchmark generation products so they support uncertainty quantification by benchmarked systems. We describe how uncertainty quantification requirements can be presented to candidate analytical tools supporting SPARQL. We describe benchmark data sets for evaluating uncertainty quantification, as well as an approach for using our benchmark generator to produce data sets for generating benchmark data sets.

  1. ES-RBE Event sequence reliability Benchmark exercise

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The event Sequence Reliability Benchmark Exercise (ES-RBE) can be considered as a logical extension of the other three Reliability Benchmark Exercices : the RBE on Systems Analysis, the RBE on Common Cause Failures and the RBE on Human Factors. The latter, constituting Activity No. 1, was concluded by the end of 1987. The ES-RBE covered the techniques that are currently used for analysing and quantifying sequences of events starting from an initiating event to various plant damage states, including analysis of various system failures and/or successes, human intervention failure and/or success and dependencies between systems. By this way, one of the scopes of the ES-RBE was to integrate the experiences gained in the previous exercises

  2. General benchmarks for quantum repeaters

    CERN Document Server

    Pirandola, Stefano

    2015-01-01

    Using a technique based on quantum teleportation, we simplify the most general adaptive protocols for key distribution, entanglement distillation and quantum communication over a wide class of quantum channels in arbitrary dimension. Thanks to this method, we bound the ultimate rates for secret key generation and quantum communication through single-mode Gaussian channels and several discrete-variable channels. In particular, we derive exact formulas for the two-way assisted capacities of the bosonic quantum-limited amplifier and the dephasing channel in arbitrary dimension, as well as the secret key capacity of the qubit erasure channel. Our results establish the limits of quantum communication with arbitrary systems and set the most general and precise benchmarks for testing quantum repeaters in both discrete- and continuous-variable settings.

  3. Human factors reliability Benchmark exercise

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Joint Research Centre of the European Commission has organized a Human Factors Reliability Benchmark Exercise (HF-RBE) with the aim of assessing the state of the art in human reliability modelling and assessment. Fifteen teams from eleven countries, representing industry, utilities, licensing organisations and research institutes, participated in the HF-RBE. The HF-RBE was organized around two study cases: (1) analysis of routine functional Test and Maintenance (T and M) procedures: with the aim of assessing the probability of test induced failures, the probability of failures to remain unrevealed and the potential to initiate transients because of errors performed in the test; (2) analysis of human actions during an operational transient: with the aim of assessing the probability that the operators will correctly diagnose the malfunctions and take proper corrective action. This report contains the final summary reports produced by the participants in the exercise

  4. Experimental and computational benchmark tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A program involving principally NIST, LANL, and ORNL has been in progress for about four years now to establish a series of benchmark measurements and calculations related to the moderation and leakage of 252Cf neutrons from a source surrounded by spherical aqueous moderators of various thicknesses and compositions. The motivation for these studies comes from problems in criticality calculations concerning arrays of multiplying components, where the leakage from one component acts as a source for the other components. This talk compares experimental and calculated values for the fission rates of four nuclides - 235U, 239Pu, 238U, and 237Np - in the leakage spectrum from moderator spheres of diameters 76.2 mm, 101.6 mm, and 127.0 mm, with either pure water or enriched B-10 solutions as the moderator. Very detailed Monte Carlo calculations were done with the MCNP code, using a open-quotes light waterclose quotes S(α,β) scattering kernel

  5. Benchmark scenarios for the NMSSM

    CERN Document Server

    Djouadi, A; Ellwanger, U; Godbole, R; Hugonie, C; King, S F; Lehti, S; Moretti, S; Nikitenko, A; Rottlander, I; Schumacher, M; Teixeira, A

    2008-01-01

    We discuss constrained and semi--constrained versions of the next--to--minimal supersymmetric extension of the Standard Model (NMSSM) in which a singlet Higgs superfield is added to the two doublet superfields that are present in the minimal extension (MSSM). This leads to a richer Higgs and neutralino spectrum and allows for many interesting phenomena that are not present in the MSSM. In particular, light Higgs particles are still allowed by current constraints and could appear as decay products of the heavier Higgs states, rendering their search rather difficult at the LHC. We propose benchmark scenarios which address the new phenomenological features, consistent with present constraints from colliders and with the dark matter relic density, and with (semi--)universal soft terms at the GUT scale. We present the corresponding spectra for the Higgs particles, their couplings to gauge bosons and fermions and their most important decay branching ratios. A brief survey of the search strategies for these states a...

  6. VHTRC temperature coefficient benchmark problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As an activity of IAEA Coordinated Research Programme, a benchmark problem is proposed for verifications of neutronic calculation codes for a low enriched uranium fuel high temperature gas-cooled reactor. Two problems are given on the base of heating experiments at the VHTRC which is a pin-in-block type core critical assembly loaded mainly with 4% enriched uranium coated particle fuel. One problem, VH1-HP, asks to calculate temperature coefficient of reactivity from the subcritical reactivity values at five temperature steps between an room temperature where the assembly is nearly at critical state and 200degC. The other problem, VH1-HC, asks to calculate the effective multiplication factor of nearly critical loading cores at the room temperature and 200degC. Both problems further ask to calculate cell parameters such as migration area and spectral indices. Experimental results corresponding to main calculation items are also listed for comparison. (author)

  7. Benchmarking Learning and Teaching: Developing a Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson-Smart, Cheryl; Winning, Tracey; Gerzina, Tania; King, Shalinie; Hyde, Sarah

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: To develop a method for benchmarking teaching and learning in response to an institutional need to validate a new program in Dentistry at the University of Sydney, Australia. Design/methodology/approach: After a collaborative partner, University of Adelaide, was identified, the areas of teaching and learning to be benchmarked, PBL…

  8. Beyond Benchmarking: Value-Adding Metrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitz-enz, Jac

    2007-01-01

    HR metrics has grown up a bit over the past two decades, moving away from simple benchmarking practices and toward a more inclusive approach to measuring institutional performance and progress. In this article, the acknowledged "father" of human capital performance benchmarking provides an overview of several aspects of today's HR metrics…

  9. Evaluating software verification systems: benchmarks and competitions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beyer, Dirk; Huisman, Marieke; Klebanov, Vladimir; Monahan, Rosemary

    2014-01-01

    This report documents the program and the outcomes of Dagstuhl Seminar 14171 “Evaluating Software Verification Systems: Benchmarks and Competitions”. The seminar brought together a large group of current and future competition organizers and participants, benchmark maintainers, as well as practition

  10. Benchmark Two-Good Utility Functions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jaegher, K.

    2007-01-01

    Benchmark two-good utility functions involving a good with zero income elasticity and unit income elasticity are well known. This paper derives utility functions for the additional benchmark cases where one good has zero cross-price elasticity, unit own-price elasticity, and zero own price elasticit

  11. Benchmarking for controllere: Metoder, teknikker og muligheder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bukh, Per Nikolaj; Sandalgaard, Niels; Dietrichson, Lars

    2008-01-01

    Der vil i artiklen blive stillet skarpt på begrebet benchmarking ved at præsentere og diskutere forskellige facetter af det. Der vil blive redegjort for fire forskellige anvendelser af benchmarking for at vise begrebets bredde og væsentligheden af at klarlægge formålet med et benchmarkingprojekt...

  12. The Linked Data Benchmark Council Project

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boncz, P.A.; Fundulaki, I.; Gubichev, A.; Larriba-Pey, J.; Neumann, T.

    2013-01-01

    Despite the fast growth and increasing popularity, the broad field of RDF and Graph database systems lacks an independent authority for developing benchmarks, and for neutrally assessing benchmark results through industry-strength auditing which would allow to quantify and compare the performance of

  13. The role of benchmarking for yardstick competition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    With the increasing interest in yardstick regulation, there is a need to understand the most appropriate method for realigning tariffs at the outset. Benchmarking is the tool used for such realignment and is therefore a necessary first-step in the implementation of yardstick competition. A number of concerns have been raised about the application of benchmarking, making some practitioners reluctant to move towards yardstick based regimes. We assess five of the key concerns often discussed and find that, in general, these are not as great as perceived. The assessment is based on economic principles and experiences with applying benchmarking to regulated sectors, e.g. in the electricity and water industries in the UK, The Netherlands, Austria and Germany in recent years. The aim is to demonstrate that clarity on the role of benchmarking reduces the concern about its application in different regulatory regimes. We find that benchmarking can be used in regulatory settlements, although the range of possible benchmarking approaches that are appropriate will be small for any individual regulatory question. Benchmarking is feasible as total cost measures and environmental factors are better defined in practice than is commonly appreciated and collusion is unlikely to occur in environments with more than 2 or 3 firms (where shareholders have a role in monitoring and rewarding performance). Furthermore, any concern about companies under-recovering costs is a matter to be determined through the regulatory settlement and does not affect the case for using benchmarking as part of that settlement. (author)

  14. Repeated Results Analysis for Middleware Regression Benchmarking

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bulej, Lubomír; Kalibera, T.; Tůma, P.

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 60, - (2005), s. 345-358. ISSN 0166-5316 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA102/03/0672 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10300504 Keywords : middleware benchmarking * regression benchmarking * regression testing Subject RIV: JD - Computer Applications, Robotics Impact factor: 0.756, year: 2005

  15. A performance benchmark test for geodynamo simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsui, H.; Heien, E. M.

    2013-12-01

    In the last ten years, a number of numerical dynamo models have successfully represented basic characteristics of the geomagnetic field. As new models and numerical methods continue to be developed, it is important to update and extend benchmarks for testing these models. The first dynamo benchmark of Christensen et al. (2001) was applied to models based on spherical harmonic expansion methods. However, only a few groups have reported results of the dynamo benchmark using local methods (Harder and Hansen, 2005; Matsui and Okuda, 2005; Chan et al., 2007) because of the difficulty treating magnetic boundary conditions based on the local methods. On the other hand, spherical harmonics expansion methods perform poorly on massively parallel computers because global data communications are required for the spherical harmonics expansions to evaluate nonlinear terms. We perform benchmark tests to asses various numerical methods for the next generation of geodynamo simulations. The purpose of this benchmark test is to assess numerical geodynamo models on a massively parallel computational platform. To compare among many numerical methods as possible, we consider the model with the insulated magnetic boundary by Christensen et al. (2001) and with the pseudo vacuum magnetic boundary, because the pseudo vacuum boundaries are implemented easier by using the local method than the magnetic insulated boundaries. In the present study, we consider two kinds of benchmarks, so-called accuracy benchmark and performance benchmark. In the accuracy benchmark, we compare the dynamo models by using modest Ekman and Rayleigh numbers proposed by Christensen et. al. (2001). We investigate a required spatial resolution for each dynamo code to obtain less than 1% difference from the suggested solution of the benchmark test using the two magnetic boundary conditions. In the performance benchmark, we investigate computational performance under the same computational environment. We perform these

  16. Vver-1000 Mox core computational benchmark

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The NEA Nuclear Science Committee has established an Expert Group that deals with the status and trends of reactor physics, fuel performance and fuel cycle issues related to disposing of weapons-grade plutonium in mixed-oxide fuel. The objectives of the group are to provide NEA member countries with up-to-date information on, and to develop consensus regarding, core and fuel cycle issues associated with burning weapons-grade plutonium in thermal water reactors (PWR, BWR, VVER-1000, CANDU) and fast reactors (BN-600). These issues concern core physics, fuel performance and reliability, and the capability and flexibility of thermal water reactors and fast reactors to dispose of weapons-grade plutonium in standard fuel cycles. The activities of the NEA Expert Group on Reactor-based Plutonium Disposition are carried out in close co-operation (jointly, in most cases) with the NEA Working Party on Scientific Issues in Reactor Systems (WPRS). A prominent part of these activities include benchmark studies. At the time of preparation of this report, the following benchmarks were completed or in progress: VENUS-2 MOX Core Benchmarks: carried out jointly with the WPRS (formerly the WPPR) (completed); VVER-1000 LEU and MOX Benchmark (completed); KRITZ-2 Benchmarks: carried out jointly with the WPRS (formerly the WPPR) (completed); Hollow and Solid MOX Fuel Behaviour Benchmark (completed); PRIMO MOX Fuel Performance Benchmark (ongoing); VENUS-2 MOX-fuelled Reactor Dosimetry Calculation (ongoing); VVER-1000 In-core Self-powered Neutron Detector Calculational Benchmark (started); MOX Fuel Rod Behaviour in Fast Power Pulse Conditions (started); Benchmark on the VENUS Plutonium Recycling Experiments Configuration 7 (started). This report describes the detailed results of the benchmark investigating the physics of a whole VVER-1000 reactor core using two-thirds low-enriched uranium (LEU) and one-third MOX fuel. It contributes to the computer code certification process and to the

  17. CERES Top-of-Atmosphere Earth Radiation Budget Climate Data Record: Accounting for in-Orbit Changes in Instrument Calibration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norman G. Loeb

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The Clouds and the Earth’s Radiant Energy System (CERES project provides observations of Earth’s radiation budget using measurements from CERES instruments onboard the Terra, Aqua and Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership (S-NPP satellites. As the objective is to create a long-term climate data record, it is necessary to periodically reprocess the data in order to incorporate the latest calibration changes and algorithm improvements. Here, we focus on the improvements and validation of CERES Terra and Aqua radiances in Edition 4, which are used to generate higher-level climate data products. Onboard sources indicate that the total (TOT channel response to longwave (LW radiation has increased relative to the start of the missions by 0.4% to 1%. In the shortwave (SW, the sensor response change ranges from −0.4% to 0.6%. To account for in-orbit changes in SW spectral response function (SRF, direct nadir radiance comparisons between instrument pairs on the same satellite are made and an improved wavelength dependent degradation model is used to adjust the SRF of the instrument operating in a rotating azimuth plane scan mode. After applying SRF corrections independently to CERES Terra and Aqua, monthly variations amongst these instruments are highly correlated and the standard deviation in the difference of monthly anomalies is 0.2 Wm−2 for ocean and 0.3 Wm−2 for land/desert. Additionally, trends in CERES Terra and Aqua monthly anomalies are consistent to 0.21 Wm−2 per decade for ocean and 0.31 Wm−2 per decade for land/desert. In the LW, adjustments to the TOT channel SRF are made to ensure that removal of the contribution from the SW portion of the TOT channel with SW channel radiance measurements during daytime is consistent throughout the mission. Accordingly, anomalies in day–night LW difference in Edition 4 are more consistent compared to Edition 3, particularly for the Aqua land/desert case.

  18. Shielding benchmark test of JENDL-3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kawai, M. (Toshiba Corp., Kawasaki, Kanagawa (Japan)); Hasegawa, A.; Ueki, K. (and others)

    1990-02-01

    The integral test of JENDL-3 for shielding application was made on a cross sections of carbon, sodium and iron by analyzing the various shielding benchmark experiments: Broomstick experiments at ORNL for iron and sodium, neutron transmission experiments for sodium at ORNL, iron and carbon, ASPIS deep penetration experiments for iron, measurements of leakage spectrum from iron spheres at KfK, angular neutron spectrum measurements in graphite block at RPI. Analyses were made with radiation transport codes ANISN (1D, Sn), DIAC (1D, Sn), DOT-3.5 (2D, Sn) and MCNP (3D, point Monte Carlo). It was observed that revising JENDL-3T iron data resulted in an improvement in reproducing the experimental data, particularly in the MeV neutron energy region. For sodium, JENDL-3 gave better results than JENDL-2 and ENDF/B-IV. For carbon, JENDL-3 gave better agreement, compared to ENDF/B-IV. The conclusion is that JENDL-3 is highly applicable to the reactor shielding analyses. (author).

  19. Nuevos datos sobre la construcción del puente de Almaraz (Cáceres

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Castro Santamaría, Ana

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available The Almaraz bridge (Cáceres is one of the most interesting of the XVIth century in Spain. Nevertheless, its constructive history was scarcely known. Through several lawsuits located in the Archives of Simancas and the Chancillería of Valladolid, it has been possible to reconstruct its biography, from the end of the XVth century until the definitive campaign retaken in the fourth decade of the XVIth century, by initiative of the Concejo de la Mesta and under the direction of Juan de Álava and his technical assintant Martín de la Ordieta. At first, the bridge was thought to have three arches and its layout was not straight. In 1539, Diego de Vergara took control of the piecework and fundamental changes took place, mainly the reduction of the number of arches to two. However, in 1542 when the informations ended, they had not managed to finish the first of the two arches, fundamentally because of economic problems derived from the corruption that affected the management at all levels.

    El puente de Almaraz (Cáceres es uno de los más interesantes del siglo XVI español y, sin embargo, poco se conocía de su historia constructiva. A través de varios pleitos localizados en los Archivos de Simancas y de la Chancillería de Valladolid se ha podido recomponer su biografía, desde finales del siglo XV hasta ser definitivamente retomado en los años 30 del siglo XVI, por iniciativa de la Mesta y bajo la maestría de Juan de Álava y Martín de la Ordieta como aparejador. El puente entonces iba a tener tres arcos y su trazado no era recto. En 1539 se hizo con los destajos Diego de Vergara y se producen cambios fundamentales, sobre todo la reducción del número de arcos a dos. No obstante, en 1542 en que cesan las informaciones, no se había logrado siquiera acabar el primero de los dos arcos, fundamentalmente por problemas económicos derivados de la corrupción que afectó a la gestión a todos los niveles.

  20. Hydrothermal venting on carbonaceous chondritic elevations on 1 Ceres and 4 Vesta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, Martin; Nathues, Andreas; Platz, Thomas; Thangjam, Guneshwar

    2016-04-01

    Framing Camera images of the Dawn spacecraft [1] led to the discovery of recent geologic activity on Ceres, including deposition of salts, formation of near surface haze [2], and impact associated spectral diversity. More detailed analyses revealed widespread flow features, partly composed of granular material, but also indicating sites of fluidized areas of the surface and sub-surface. The unexpected discovery of deposits of carbonaceous chondritic material on Vesta associated with indications of considerable amounts of volatiles at large impact structures hint at similar processes [3, 4]. Near large crater walls on both proto-/dwarf-planets, montes and domes appear to be associated with uplift and even release of water-driven material including salts and clays [5, 6]. We report morphologic and color band spectroscopic characteristics of selected key features on 1 Ceres and 4 Vesta which demonstrate this context. A first analysis indicates compositional differences of the proportion of the content of salts and phyllosilicates, e. g. on the different elevations of the primary and secondary spots in Occator and some flow features. The distribution and diversity of these color features is further characterized by a comparison with more widespread properties on the whole surface. During this investigation, not only the link between salt deposits and different types of materials at the centers of activity could be described, but we also offer an intriguing new interpretation of one of the most prominent surface features of Vesta: Lucaria Tholus. Several analogies with similar features and properties of Mars [7] further support the view of a related origin. References: [1] Sierks, H. et al., Space Sci. Rev., 163, 263-327, 2011. [2] Nathues, A. et al., Nature 528, 237-240, 2015. [3] Reddy, V. et al. Icarus, 221, 544-559, 2012. [4] Scully, J. E. C. et al., EPSC Abstracts 8, 2013-242-2, 2013. [5] Platz, T. et al. LPSC 2016 [6] Ruesch, O. et al. LPSC 2016 [7] Platz, T. et

  1. Framework for benchmarking online retailing performance using fuzzy AHP and TOPSIS method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Ahsan Akhtar Hasin

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Due to increasing penetration of internet connectivity, on-line retail is growing from the pioneer phase to increasing integration within people's lives and companies' normal business practices. In the increasingly competitive environment, on-line retail service providers require systematic and structured approach to have cutting edge over the rival. Thus, the use of benchmarking has become indispensable to accomplish superior performance to support the on-line retail service providers. This paper uses the fuzzy analytic hierarchy process (FAHP approach to support a generic on-line retail benchmarking process. Critical success factors for on-line retail service have been identified from a structured questionnaire and literature and prioritized using fuzzy AHP. Using these critical success factors, performance levels of the ORENET an on-line retail service provider is benchmarked along with four other on-line service providers using TOPSIS method. Based on the benchmark, their relative ranking has also been illustrated.

  2. Validation of neutron-transport calculations in benchmark facilities for improved damage-fluence predictions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An accurate determination of damage fluence accumulated by reactor pressure vessels (RPV) as a function of time is essential in order to evaluate the vessel integrity for both pressurized thermal shock (PTS) transients and end-of-life considerations. The desired accuracy for neutron exposure parameters such as displacements per atom or fluence (E > 1 MeV) is of the order of 20 to 30%. However, these types of accuracies can only be obtained realistically by validation of nuclear data and calculational methods in benchmark facilities. The purposes of this paper are to review the needs and requirements for benchmark experiments, to discuss the status of current benchmark experiments, to summarize results and conclusions obtained so far, and to suggest areas where further benchmarking is needed

  3. Benchmarking--Measuring and Comparing for Continuous Improvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henczel, Sue

    2002-01-01

    Discussion of benchmarking focuses on the use of internal and external benchmarking by special librarians. Highlights include defining types of benchmarking; historical development; benefits, including efficiency, improved performance, increased competitiveness, and better decision making; problems, including inappropriate adaptation; developing a…

  4. Current status of accelerator benchmarks in OECD/NEA radiation shielding experiments database SINBAD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to preserve and make available the information on the performed radiation shielding benchmarks the Data Bank of the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency (OECD/NEADB) and the Radiation Safety Information Computational Center (RSICC) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) started the Shielding Integral Benchmark Archive and Database (SINBAD) Project in the early 1990's. The SINBAD database now comprises 100 shielding benchmarks, also covering accelerator shielding benchmarks in addition to fission reactor shielding and fusion blanket neutronics. Recently, a thorough revision of six of the 23 accelerator benchmark experiments was completed in order to provide detailed verification of the completeness and consistency of the benchmark information, in particular concerning the evaluation of the experimental sources of uncertainty. This review process is expected to provide users with an easier choice and help them make better use of the experimental information and is planned to be extended to other available benchmarks. The OECD NEA Working Party on Scientific Issues of Reactor Systems (WPRS) Expert Group on Radiation Transport and Shielding (EGRTS) was created in 2011 and its mandate is to monitor, steer and support the continued development of the SINBAD database. Co-ordination of the SATIF-11 Workshop is part of the mandate of EGRTS and the development of the accelerator benchmark database is done in a close co-operation with the SATIF expert group. Proposals and assistance in new benchmark compilations are welcome. SINBAD is available at no charge from RSICC and from the NEA Data Bank. Since its beginnings SINBAD has been used by nuclear data evaluators, computer code developers, experiment designers and university students. (authors)

  5. Assessment of the clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) instrument performance and stability on the Aqua, Terra, and S-NPP spacecraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Nathaniel P.; Thomas, Susan; Shankar, Mohan; Hess, Phillip C.; Smith, Natividad M.; Walikainen, Dale R.; Wilson, Robert S.; Priestley, Kory J.

    2015-09-01

    The Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) scanning radiometer is designed to measure reflected solar radiation and thermal radiation emitted by the Earth. Five CERES instruments are currently taking active measurements in-orbit with two aboard the Terra spacecraft (FM1 and FM2), two aboard the Aqua spacecraft (FM3 and FM4), and one aboard the S-NPP spacecraft (FM5). The CERES instrument uses three scanning thermistor bolometers to make broadband radiance measurements in the shortwave (0.3 - 5.0 micrometers), total (0.3 - >100 micrometers) and water vapor window (8 - 12 micrometer) regions. An internal calibration module (ICM) used for in-flight calibration is built into the CERES instrument package consisting of an anodized aluminum blackbody source for calibrating the total and window sensors, and a shortwave internal calibration source (SWICS) for the shortwave sensor. The ICM sources, along with a solar diffusor called the Mirror Attenuator Mosaic (MAM), are used to define shifts or drifts in the sensor response over the life of the mission. In addition, validation studies are conducted to understand any spectral changes that may occur with the sensors and assess the pointing accuracy of the instrument, allowing for corrections to be made to the radiance calculations in CERES data products. This paper covers the observed trends in the internal and solar calibration data, discusses the latest techniques used to correct for sensor response, and explains the validation studies used to assess the performance and stability of the instrument.

  6. ICSBEP Benchmarks For Nuclear Data Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briggs, J. Blair

    2005-05-01

    The International Criticality Safety Benchmark Evaluation Project (ICSBEP) was initiated in 1992 by the United States Department of Energy. The ICSBEP became an official activity of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) — Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA) in 1995. Representatives from the United States, United Kingdom, France, Japan, the Russian Federation, Hungary, Republic of Korea, Slovenia, Serbia and Montenegro (formerly Yugoslavia), Kazakhstan, Spain, Israel, Brazil, Poland, and the Czech Republic are now participating. South Africa, India, China, and Germany are considering participation. The purpose of the ICSBEP is to identify, evaluate, verify, and formally document a comprehensive and internationally peer-reviewed set of criticality safety benchmark data. The work of the ICSBEP is published as an OECD handbook entitled "International Handbook of Evaluated Criticality Safety Benchmark Experiments." The 2004 Edition of the Handbook contains benchmark specifications for 3331 critical or subcritical configurations that are intended for use in validation efforts and for testing basic nuclear data. New to the 2004 Edition of the Handbook is a draft criticality alarm / shielding type benchmark that should be finalized in 2005 along with two other similar benchmarks. The Handbook is being used extensively for nuclear data testing and is expected to be a valuable resource for code and data validation and improvement efforts for decades to come. Specific benchmarks that are useful for testing structural materials such as iron, chromium, nickel, and manganese; beryllium; lead; thorium; and 238U are highlighted.

  7. Lesson learned from the SARNET wall condensation benchmarks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • The results of the benchmarking activity on wall condensation are reported. • The work was performed in the frame of SARNET. • General modelling techniques for condensation are discussed. • Results of University of Pisa and of other benchmark participants are discussed. • The lesson learned is drawn. - Abstract: The prediction of condensation in the presence of noncondensable gases has received continuing attention in the frame of the Severe Accident Research Network of Excellence, both in the first (2004–2008) and in the second (2009–2013) EC integrated projects. Among the different reasons for considering so relevant this basic phenomenon, coped with by classical treatments dated in the first decades of the last century, there is the interest for developing updated CFD models for reactor containment analysis, requiring validating at a different level the available modelling techniques. In the frame of SARNET, benchmarking activities were undertaken taking advantage of the work performed at different institutions in setting up and developing models for steam condensation in conditions of interest for nuclear reactor containment. Four steps were performed in the activity, involving: (1) an idealized problem freely inspired at the actual conditions occurring in an experimental facility, CONAN, installed at the University of Pisa; (2) a first comparison with experimental data purposely collected by the CONAN facility; (3) a second comparison with data available from experimental campaigns performed in the same apparatus before the inclusion of the activities in SARNET; (4) a third exercise involving data obtained at lower mixture velocity than in previous campaigns, aimed at providing conditions closer to those addressed in reactor containment analyses. The last step of the benchmarking activity required to change the configuration of the experimental apparatus to achieve the lower flow rates involved in the new test specifications. The

  8. A CIDADE DE CÁCERES NAS PROPAGANDAS ELEITORAIS 2012: DISPUTA DE SENTIDOS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jucineia Seraglio

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This study is part of the reflection that I developed in my Master's degree research in Linguistics under the bias of the Semantic of the Event, discipline developed in Brazil by Guimarães (2002. In view that the event of saying makes the operation of the language affected by the sayable, we propose to analyze how the city of Cáceres-MT is said and meant in the texts that make up the slogans and other advertising materials of the campaigns of candidates for the municipal government in the 2012 election, or even how each political party interprets the city in their various aspects and transform them into advertising materials. We take as the official corpus documents such as the electoral law number 9.504 / 97, advertisements and materials as magazines, pamphlets, cards, stickers, fold ers disclosed during political advertisements. We noticed that advertisements, exposed to external aspects, configure a symbolic game for the dispute of meanings, evoking statements already said in addition to design new statements / and or interpretations

  9. Evaluation of soil physical condition with the use of ceres model, permeameter and infiltrometer methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doležal F.

    1997-06-01

    Full Text Available The following sites were investigated: Tisice (district Melnik, central Bohemia: An irrigation and agronomic experiment station of which some archive data were used as inputs to (and to test the outputs of the CERES-Barley model. The irrigation and agronomic experiments have been conducted in Tisice since 1955 by the Research Institute of Irrigation Management in Bratislava and its predecessors, the Research Institute of Crop Production in Praha-Ruzyne and the Czech Hydrometeorological Institute. Several additional infiltration measurements were made in 1995. Liblice (district Melnik, central Bohemia, about 10 km aside from Tisice, on the boundary of a protected region of natural water recharge ('The North Bohemian Cretaceous'. Standard farm fields. Several sites, on various catena! soil forms developed on virtually the same parent rock (see below, were investigated using infiltration tests in 1993-1994. Homi Tresnovec (district Usti nad Orlici, East Bohemia, in a submountainous peneplain of the Orlicke hory mountains. A pilot experimental field for testing a wholeprofile soil reclamation methods. Some treatments of the experiment were investigated using infiltration tests in 1994. The two latter sites were investigated within a research project on 'Revitalisation of the agricultural and forest catchment' (1993-1995, financed by the Ministry of Agriculture of the Czech Republic. The project was executed by the Research Institute for Soil and Water Conservation in Prague - Zbraslav.

  10. The Effect of Asian Dust Aerosols on Cloud Properties and Radiative Forcing from MODIS and CERES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jianping; Minnis, Patrick; Lin, Bing; Wang, Tianhe; Yi, Yuhong; Hu, Yongxiang; Sun-Mack, Sunny; Ayers, Kirk

    2005-01-01

    The effects of dust storms on cloud properties and radiative forcing are analyzed over northwestern China from April 2001 to June 2004 using data collected by the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) and Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) instruments on the Aqua and Terra satellites. On average, ice cloud effective particle diameter, optical depth and ice water path of the cirrus clouds under dust polluted conditions are 11%, 32.8%, and 42% less, respectively, than those derived from ice clouds in dust-free atmospheric environments. The humidity differences are larger in the dusty region than in the dust-free region, and may be caused by removal of moisture by wet dust precipitation. Due to changes in cloud microphysics, the instantaneous net radiative forcing is reduced from -71.2 W/m2 for dust contaminated clouds to -182.7 W/m2 for dust-free clouds. The reduced cooling effects of dusts may lead to a net warming of 1 W/m2, which, if confirmed, would be the strongest aerosol forcing during later winter and early spring dust storm seasons over the studied region.

  11. Constraints on an exosphere at Ceres from Hubble Space Telescope observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, Lorenz; Ivchenko, Nickolay; Retherford, Kurt D.; Cunningham, Nathaniel J.; Feldman, Paul D.; Saur, Joachim; Spencer, John R.; Strobel, Darrell F.

    2016-03-01

    We report far ultraviolet observations of Ceres obtained with the Cosmic Origin Spectrograph (COS) of the Hubble Space Telescope in the search for atomic emissions from an exosphere. The derived brightnesses at the oxygen lines at 1304 Å and 1356 Å are consistent with zero signals within the 1σ propagated statistical uncertainties. The OI 1304 Å brightness of 0.12 ± 0.20 Rayleighs can be explained by solar resonant scattering from an atomic oxygen column density of (8.2 ± 13.4) × 1010 cm-2. Assuming that O is produced by photodissociation of H2O, we derive an upper limit for H2O abundance and compare it to previous observations. Our upper limit is well above the expected O brightness for a tenuous sublimated H2O exosphere, but it suggests that H2O production with a rate higher than 4 × 1026 molecules s-1 was not present at the time of the COS observation. Additionally, we derive an extremely low geometric albedo of ˜1% in the 1300 Å to 1400 Å range.

  12. Sensitivity of CERES-Maize yield simulation to the selected weather data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sensitivity analysis of selected weather data runs after successful parametrization and validation of the CERES-Maize simulation model. Estimation of the potential yield has been carried out during the long term experiment (1980-1997) as well as the estimation of influence of meteorological parameters on the simulation results for the water-limited yield. 10 % under and over stimulation of global radiation and precipitation as well as increasing and decreasing temperature by 1 deg C on simulated potential and water-limited yield have been done. In most of the years, air temperature underestimation resulted in a higher simulated grain yield and overstimulation shown a lower yield for water limited level. Overestimation of precipitation during wet days in growing period of the maize leads to an increase of amount of water available for the plant and to increase the yield. Underestimation of global radiation by 10 % resulted in a decline in simulated grain yield from -8.8 to -9.9 %. The overestimation caused increase of the yield from 7.8 to 10 %. Overestimation by 10 % resulted in a slight underestimation of the yield in low yielding years and underestimation of global radiation by 10 % in overestimation of the yield. The effect was opposite in high yielding years

  13. Analytical Radiation Transport Benchmarks for The Next Century

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verification of large-scale computational algorithms used in nuclear engineering and radiological applications is an essential element of reliable code performance. For this reason, the development of a suite of multidimensional semi-analytical benchmarks has been undertaken to provide independent verification of proper operation of codes dealing with the transport of neutral particles. The benchmarks considered cover several one-dimensional, multidimensional, monoenergetic and multigroup, fixed source and critical transport scenarios. The first approach, called the Green's Function. In slab geometry, the Green's function is incorporated into a set of integral equations for the boundary fluxes. Through a numerical Fourier transform inversion and subsequent matrix inversion for the boundary fluxes, a semi-analytical benchmark emerges. Multidimensional solutions in a variety of infinite media are also based on the slab Green's function. In a second approach, a new converged SN method is developed. In this method, the SN solution is ''minded'' to bring out hidden high quality solutions. For this case multigroup fixed source and criticality transport problems are considered. Remarkably accurate solutions can be obtained with this new method called the Multigroup Converged SN (MGCSN) method as will be demonstrated

  14. Benchmarking Gas Path Diagnostic Methods: A Public Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Donald L.; Bird, Jeff; Davison, Craig; Volponi, Al; Iverson, R. Eugene

    2008-01-01

    Recent technology reviews have identified the need for objective assessments of engine health management (EHM) technology. The need is two-fold: technology developers require relevant data and problems to design and validate new algorithms and techniques while engine system integrators and operators need practical tools to direct development and then evaluate the effectiveness of proposed solutions. This paper presents a publicly available gas path diagnostic benchmark problem that has been developed by the Propulsion and Power Systems Panel of The Technical Cooperation Program (TTCP) to help address these needs. The problem is coded in MATLAB (The MathWorks, Inc.) and coupled with a non-linear turbofan engine simulation to produce "snap-shot" measurements, with relevant noise levels, as if collected from a fleet of engines over their lifetime of use. Each engine within the fleet will experience unique operating and deterioration profiles, and may encounter randomly occurring relevant gas path faults including sensor, actuator and component faults. The challenge to the EHM community is to develop gas path diagnostic algorithms to reliably perform fault detection and isolation. An example solution to the benchmark problem is provided along with associated evaluation metrics. A plan is presented to disseminate this benchmark problem to the engine health management technical community and invite technology solutions.

  15. Human factors reliability benchmark exercise

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Joint Research Centre of the European Commission has organised a Human Factors Reliability Benchmark Exercise (HF-RBE) with the aim of assessing the state of the art in human reliability modelling and assessment. Fifteen teams from eleven countries, representing industry, utilities, licensing organisations and research institutes, participated in the HF-RBE. The HF-RBE was organised around two study cases: (1) analysis of routine functional Test and Maintenance (TPM) procedures: with the aim of assessing the probability of test induced failures, the probability of failures to remain unrevealed and the potential to initiate transients because of errors performed in the test; (2) analysis of human actions during an operational transient: with the aim of assessing the probability that the operators will correctly diagnose the malfunctions and take proper corrective action. This report summarises the contributions received from the participants and analyses these contributions on a comparative basis. The aim of this analysis was to compare the procedures, modelling techniques and quantification methods used, to obtain insight in the causes and magnitude of the variability observed in the results, to try to identify preferred human reliability assessment approaches and to get an understanding of the current state of the art in the field identifying the limitations that are still inherent to the different approaches

  16. Benchmarking in healthcare using aggregated indicators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Traberg, Andreas; Jacobsen, Peter

    2010-01-01

    databases, the model is constructed as a comprehensive hierarchy of indicators. By aggregating the outcome of each indicator, the model is able to benchmark healthcare providing units. By assessing performance deeper in the hierarchy, a more detailed view of performance is obtained. The validity test of the...... model is performed at a Danish non-profit hospital, where four radiological sites are benchmarked against each other. Because of the multifaceted perspective on performance, the model proved valuable both as a benchmarking tool and as an internal decision support system....

  17. LAPUR-K BWR stability benchmark

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper documents the stability benchmark of the LAPUR-K code using the measurements taken at the Ringhals Unit 1 plant over four cycles of operation. This benchmark was undertaken to demonstrate the ability of LAPUR-K to calculate the decay ratios for both core-wide and regional mode oscillations. This benchmark contributes significantly to assuring that LAPUR-K can be used to define the exclusion region for the Monticello Plant in response to recent US Nuclear Regulatory Commission notices concerning oscillation observed at Boiling Water Reactor plants. Stability is part of Northern States Power Reload Safety Evaluation of the Monticello Plant

  18. Benchmark assemblies of the Los Alamos Critical Assemblies Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Several critical assemblies of precisely known materials composition and easily calculated and reproducible geometries have been constructed at the Los Alamos National Laboratory. Some of these machines, notably Jezebel, Flattop, Big Ten, and Godiva, have been used as benchmark assemblies for the comparison of the results of experimental measurements and computation of certain nuclear reaction parameters. These experiments are used to validate both the input nuclear data and the computational methods. The machines and the applications of these machines for integral nuclear data checks are described

  19. Reactor fuel depletion benchmark of TINDER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • A reactor burnup benchmark of TINDER, coupling MCNP6 to CINDER2008, was performed. • TINDER is a poor candidate for fuel depletion calculations using its current libraries. • Data library modification is necessary if fuel depletion is desired from TINDER. - Abstract: Accurate burnup calculations are key to proper nuclear reactor design, fuel cycle modeling, and disposal estimations. The TINDER code, originally designed for activation analyses, has been modified to handle full burnup calculations, including the widely used predictor–corrector feature. In order to properly characterize the performance of TINDER for this application, a benchmark calculation was performed. Although the results followed the trends of past benchmarked codes for a UO2 PWR fuel sample from the Takahama-3 reactor, there were obvious deficiencies in the final result, likely in the nuclear data library that was used. Isotopic comparisons versus experiment and past code benchmarks are given, as well as hypothesized areas of deficiency and future work

  20. DOE Commercial Building Benchmark Models: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torcelini, P.; Deru, M.; Griffith, B.; Benne, K.; Halverson, M.; Winiarski, D.; Crawley, D. B.

    2008-07-01

    To provide a consistent baseline of comparison and save time conducting such simulations, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has developed a set of standard benchmark building models. This paper will provide an executive summary overview of these benchmark buildings, and how they can save building analysts valuable time. Fully documented and implemented to use with the EnergyPlus energy simulation program, the benchmark models are publicly available and new versions will be created to maintain compatibility with new releases of EnergyPlus. The benchmark buildings will form the basis for research on specific building technologies, energy code development, appliance standards, and measurement of progress toward DOE energy goals. Having a common starting point allows us to better share and compare research results and move forward to make more energy efficient buildings.

  1. Numerical methods: Analytical benchmarking in transport theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Numerical methods applied to reactor technology have reached a high degree of maturity. Certainly one- and two-dimensional neutron transport calculations have become routine, with several programs available on personal computer and the most widely used programs adapted to workstation and minicomputer computational environments. With the introduction of massive parallelism and as experience with multitasking increases, even more improvement in the development of transport algorithms can be expected. Benchmarking an algorithm is usually not a very pleasant experience for the code developer. Proper algorithmic verification by benchmarking involves the following considerations: (1) conservation of particles, (2) confirmation of intuitive physical behavior, and (3) reproduction of analytical benchmark results. By using today's computational advantages, new basic numerical methods have been developed that allow a wider class of benchmark problems to be considered

  2. Medicare Contracting - Redacted Benchmark Metric Reports

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services has compiled aggregate national benchmark cost and workload metrics using data submitted to CMS by the AB MACs and...

  3. Benchmarking Optimization Software with Performance Profiles

    OpenAIRE

    Dolan, Elizabeth D.; Moré, Jorge J.

    2001-01-01

    We propose performance profiles-distribution functions for a performance metric-as a tool for benchmarking and comparing optimization software. We show that performance profiles combine the best features of other tools for performance evaluation.

  4. Poaia [Psychotria ipecacuanha (Brot.) Stoves]: aspectos da memória cultural dos poaieiros de Cáceres - Mato Grosso, Brasil Ipecac [Psychotria ipecacuanha (Brot.) Stoves]: aspects of cultural memory of "poaieiros" in Cáceres - Mato Grosso, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    V.A. Teixeira; M.F.B. Coelho; L.C. Ming

    2012-01-01

    O Brasil está entre os principais exportadores de poaia [Psychotria ipecacuanha (Brot.) Stoves] seguido do Panamá e Costa Rica. A poaia brasileira apresenta alto valor farmacológico das raízes devido aos teores de emetina e cefalina. Este trabalho teve como objetivo descrever como as famílias de poaieiros mantém a memória cultural sobre a Psychotria ipecacuanha (Brot.) Stoves. As informações foram coletadas no município de Cáceres, Mato Grosso, através de entrevista estruturada e observação p...

  5. Benchmarking carbon emissions performance in supply chains

    OpenAIRE

    Acquaye, Adolf; Genovese, Andrea; Barrett, John W.; Koh, Lenny

    2014-01-01

    Purpose – The paper aims to develop a benchmarking framework to address issues such as supply chain complexity and visibility, geographical differences and non-standardized data, ensuring that the entire supply chain environmental impact (in terms of carbon) and resource use for all tiers, including domestic and import flows, are evaluated. Benchmarking has become an important issue in supply chain management practice. However, challenges such as supply chain complexity and visibility, geogra...

  6. EPRI depletion benchmark calculations using PARAGON

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • PARAGON depletion calculations are benchmarked against the EPRI reactivity decrement experiments. • Benchmarks cover a wide range of enrichments, burnups, cooling times, and burnable absorbers, and different depletion and storage conditions. • Results from PARAGON-SCALE scheme are more conservative relative to the benchmark data. • ENDF/B-VII based data reduces the excess conservatism and brings the predictions closer to benchmark reactivity decrement values. - Abstract: In order to conservatively apply burnup credit in spent fuel pool criticality analyses, code validation for both fresh and used fuel is required. Fresh fuel validation is typically done by modeling experiments from the “International Handbook.” A depletion validation can determine a bias and bias uncertainty for the worth of the isotopes not found in the fresh fuel critical experiments. Westinghouse’s burnup credit methodology uses PARAGON™ (Westinghouse 2-D lattice physics code) and its 70-group cross-section library, which have been benchmarked, qualified, and licensed both as a standalone transport code and as a nuclear data source for core design simulations. A bias and bias uncertainty for the worth of depletion isotopes, however, are not available for PARAGON. Instead, the 5% decrement approach for depletion uncertainty is used, as set forth in the Kopp memo. Recently, EPRI developed a set of benchmarks based on a large set of power distribution measurements to ascertain reactivity biases. The depletion reactivity has been used to create 11 benchmark cases for 10, 20, 30, 40, 50, and 60 GWd/MTU and 3 cooling times 100 h, 5 years, and 15 years. These benchmark cases are analyzed with PARAGON and the SCALE package and sensitivity studies are performed using different cross-section libraries based on ENDF/B-VI.3 and ENDF/B-VII data to assess that the 5% decrement approach is conservative for determining depletion uncertainty

  7. A framework for benchmarking land models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Q. Luo

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Land models, which have been developed by the modeling community in the past few decades to predict future states of ecosystems and climate, have to be critically evaluated for their performance skills of simulating ecosystem responses and feedback to climate change. Benchmarking is an emerging procedure to measure performance of models against a set of defined standards. This paper proposes a benchmarking framework for evaluation of land model performances and, meanwhile, highlights major challenges at this infant stage of benchmark analysis. The framework includes (1 targeted aspects of model performance to be evaluated, (2 a set of benchmarks as defined references to test model performance, (3 metrics to measure and compare performance skills among models so as to identify model strengths and deficiencies, and (4 model improvement. Land models are required to simulate exchange of water, energy, carbon and sometimes other trace gases between the atmosphere and land surface, and should be evaluated for their simulations of biophysical processes, biogeochemical cycles, and vegetation dynamics in response to climate change across broad temporal and spatial scales. Thus, one major challenge is to select and define a limited number of benchmarks to effectively evaluate land model performance. The second challenge is to develop metrics of measuring mismatches between models and benchmarks. The metrics may include (1 a priori thresholds of acceptable model performance and (2 a scoring system to combine data–model mismatches for various processes at different temporal and spatial scales. The benchmark analyses should identify clues of weak model performance to guide future development, thus enabling improved predictions of future states of ecosystems and climate. The near-future research effort should be on development of a set of widely acceptable benchmarks that can be used to objectively, effectively, and reliably evaluate fundamental properties

  8. The MCNP6 Analytic Criticality Benchmark Suite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, Forrest B. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States). Monte Carlo Codes Group

    2016-06-16

    Analytical benchmarks provide an invaluable tool for verifying computer codes used to simulate neutron transport. Several collections of analytical benchmark problems [1-4] are used routinely in the verification of production Monte Carlo codes such as MCNP® [5,6]. Verification of a computer code is a necessary prerequisite to the more complex validation process. The verification process confirms that a code performs its intended functions correctly. The validation process involves determining the absolute accuracy of code results vs. nature. In typical validations, results are computed for a set of benchmark experiments using a particular methodology (code, cross-section data with uncertainties, and modeling) and compared to the measured results from the set of benchmark experiments. The validation process determines bias, bias uncertainty, and possibly additional margins. Verification is generally performed by the code developers, while validation is generally performed by code users for a particular application space. The VERIFICATION_KEFF suite of criticality problems [1,2] was originally a set of 75 criticality problems found in the literature for which exact analytical solutions are available. Even though the spatial and energy detail is necessarily limited in analytical benchmarks, typically to a few regions or energy groups, the exact solutions obtained can be used to verify that the basic algorithms, mathematics, and methods used in complex production codes perform correctly. The present work has focused on revisiting this benchmark suite. A thorough review of the problems resulted in discarding some of them as not suitable for MCNP benchmarking. For the remaining problems, many of them were reformulated to permit execution in either multigroup mode or in the normal continuous-energy mode for MCNP. Execution of the benchmarks in continuous-energy mode provides a significant advance to MCNP verification methods.

  9. Benchmark Two-Good Utility Functions

    OpenAIRE

    de Jaegher, K.

    2007-01-01

    Benchmark two-good utility functions involving a good with zero income elasticity and unit income elasticity are well known. This paper derives utility functions for the additional benchmark cases where one good has zero cross-price elasticity, unit own-price elasticity, and zero own price elasticity. It is shown how each of these utility functions arises from a simple graphical construction based on a single given indifference curve. Also, it is shown that possessors of such utility function...

  10. Bundesländer-Benchmarking 2002

    OpenAIRE

    Blancke, Susanne; Hedrich, Horst; Schmid, Josef

    2002-01-01

    Das Bundesländer Benchmarking 2002 basiert auf einer Untersuchung ausgewählter Arbeitsmarkt- und Wirtschaftsindikatoren in den deutschen Bundesländern. Hierfür wurden drei Benchmarkings nach der Radar-Chart Methode vorgenommen: Eines welches nur Arbeitsmarktindikatoren betrachtet; eines, welches nur Wirtschaftsindikatoren betrachtet; und eines welches gemischte Arbeitsmarkt- und Wirtschaftsindikatoren beleuchtet. Verglichen wurden die Länder untereinander im Querschnitt zu zwei Zeitpunkten –...

  11. Benchmarking Deep Reinforcement Learning for Continuous Control

    OpenAIRE

    Duan, Yan; Chen, Xi; Houthooft, Rein; Schulman, John; Abbeel, Pieter

    2016-01-01

    Recently, researchers have made significant progress combining the advances in deep learning for learning feature representations with reinforcement learning. Some notable examples include training agents to play Atari games based on raw pixel data and to acquire advanced manipulation skills using raw sensory inputs. However, it has been difficult to quantify progress in the domain of continuous control due to the lack of a commonly adopted benchmark. In this work, we present a benchmark suit...

  12. Distributional benchmarking in tax policy evaluations

    OpenAIRE

    Thor O. Thoresen; Zhiyang Jia; Peter J. Lambert

    2013-01-01

    Given an objective to exploit cross-sectional micro data to evaluate the distributional effects of tax policies over a time period, the practitioner of public economics will find that the relevant literature offers a wide variety of empirical approaches. For example, studies vary with respect to the definition of individual well-being and to what extent explicit benchmarking techniques are utilized to describe policy effects. The present paper shows how the concept of distributional benchmark...

  13. Simple Benchmark Specifications for Space Radiation Protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singleterry, Robert C. Jr.; Aghara, Sukesh K.

    2013-01-01

    This report defines space radiation benchmark specifications. This specification starts with simple, monoenergetic, mono-directional particles on slabs and progresses to human models in spacecraft. This report specifies the models and sources needed to what the team performing the benchmark needs to produce in a report. Also included are brief descriptions of how OLTARIS, the NASA Langley website for space radiation analysis, performs its analysis.

  14. Features and technology of enterprise internal benchmarking

    OpenAIRE

    A. V. Dubodelova; Yurynets, O. V.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the article. The aim of the article is to generalize characteristics, objectives, advantages of internal benchmarking. The stages sequence of internal benchmarking technology is formed. It is focused on continuous improvement of process of the enterprise by implementing existing best practices.The results of the analysis. Business activity of domestic enterprises in crisis business environment has to focus on the best success factors of their structural units by using standard rese...

  15. Overview of CSEWG shielding benchmark problems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maerker, R.E.

    1979-01-01

    The fundamental philosophy behind the choosing of CSEWG shielding benchmarks is that the accuracy of a certain range of cross section data be adequately tested. The benchmarks, therefore, consist of measurements and calculations of these measurements. Calculations for which there are no measurements provide little information on the adequacy of the data, although they can perhaps indicate the sensitivity of results to variations in data.

  16. Dukovany NPP fuel cycle benchmark definition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The new benchmark based on Dukovany NPP Unit-2 history is defined. The main goal of this benchmark is to compare results obtained by different codes used for neutron-physics calculation in organisations which are interested in this task. All needed are described in this paper or there are given references, where it is possible to obtain this information. Input data are presented in tables, requested output data format for automatic processing is described (Authors)

  17. Benchmarking Danish Vocational Education and Training Programmes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bogetoft, Peter; Wittrup, Jesper

    This study paper discusses methods whereby Danish vocational education and training colleges can be benchmarked, and presents results from a number of models. It is conceptually complicated to benchmark vocational colleges, as the various colleges in Denmark offer a wide range of course programmes......-related achievement. We attempt to summarise the various effects that the colleges have in two relevant figures, namely retention rates of students and employment rates among students who have completed training programmes....

  18. Under Pressure Benchmark for DDBMS Availability

    OpenAIRE

    Fior, Alessandro Gustavo; Meira, Jorge Augusto; Cunha De Almeida, Eduardo; Coelho, Ricardo Gonçalves; Didonet Del Fabro, Marcos; Le Traon, Yves

    2013-01-01

    The availability of Distributed Database Management Systems (DDBMS) is related to the probability of being up and running at a given point in time, and managing failures. One well-known and widely used mechanism to ensure availability is replication, which includes performance impact on maintaining data replicas across the DDBMS's machine nodes. Benchmarking can be used to measure such impact. In this article, we present a benchmark that evaluates the performance of DDBMS, considering availab...

  19. DWEB: A Data Warehouse Engineering Benchmark

    OpenAIRE

    Darmont, Jérôme; Bentayeb, Fadila; Boussaïd, Omar

    2005-01-01

    Data warehouse architectural choices and optimization techniques are critical to decision support query performance. To facilitate these choices, the performance of the designed data warehouse must be assessed. This is usually done with the help of benchmarks, which can either help system users comparing the performances of different systems, or help system engineers testing the effect of various design choices. While the TPC standard decision support benchmarks address the first point, they ...

  20. MPI Benchmarking Revisited: Experimental Design and Reproducibility

    OpenAIRE

    Hunold, Sascha; Carpen-Amarie, Alexandra

    2015-01-01

    The Message Passing Interface (MPI) is the prevalent programming model used on today's supercomputers. Therefore, MPI library developers are looking for the best possible performance (shortest run-time) of individual MPI functions across many different supercomputer architectures. Several MPI benchmark suites have been developed to assess the performance of MPI implementations. Unfortunately, the outcome of these benchmarks is often neither reproducible nor statistically sound. To overcome th...

  1. Karma1.1 benchmark calculations for the numerical benchmark problems and the critical experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The transport lattice code KARMA 1.1 has been developed at KAERI for the reactor physics analysis of the pressurized water reactor. This program includes the multi-group library processed from ENDF/B-VI R8 and also utilizes the macroscopic cross sections for the benchmark problems. Benchmark calculations were performed for the C5G7 and the KAERI benchmark problems given with seven group cross sections, for various fuels loaded in the operating pressurized water reactors in South Korea, and for the critical experiments including CE, B and W and KRITZ. Benchmark results show that KARMA 1.1 is working reasonably. (author)

  2. Benchmarking for Cost Improvement. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-09-01

    The US Department of Energy`s (DOE) Office of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management (EM) conducted the Benchmarking for Cost Improvement initiative with three objectives: Pilot test benchmarking as an EM cost improvement tool; identify areas for cost improvement and recommend actions to address these areas; provide a framework for future cost improvement. The benchmarking initiative featured the use of four principal methods (program classification, nationwide cost improvement survey, paired cost comparison and component benchmarking). Interested parties contributed during both the design and execution phases. The benchmarking initiative was conducted on an accelerated basis. Of necessity, it considered only a limited set of data that may not be fully representative of the diverse and complex conditions found at the many DOE installations. The initiative generated preliminary data about cost differences and it found a high degree of convergence on several issues. Based on this convergence, the report recommends cost improvement strategies and actions. This report describes the steps taken as part of the benchmarking initiative and discusses the findings and recommended actions for achieving cost improvement. The results and summary recommendations, reported below, are organized by the study objectives.

  3. Clinically meaningful performance benchmarks in MS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motl, Robert W.; Scagnelli, John; Pula, John H.; Sosnoff, Jacob J.; Cadavid, Diego

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Identify and validate clinically meaningful Timed 25-Foot Walk (T25FW) performance benchmarks in individuals living with multiple sclerosis (MS). Methods: Cross-sectional study of 159 MS patients first identified candidate T25FW benchmarks. To characterize the clinical meaningfulness of T25FW benchmarks, we ascertained their relationships to real-life anchors, functional independence, and physiologic measurements of gait and disease progression. Candidate T25FW benchmarks were then prospectively validated in 95 subjects using 13 measures of ambulation and cognition, patient-reported outcomes, and optical coherence tomography. Results: T25FW of 6 to 7.99 seconds was associated with a change in occupation due to MS, occupational disability, walking with a cane, and needing “some help” with instrumental activities of daily living; T25FW ≥8 seconds was associated with collecting Supplemental Security Income and government health care, walking with a walker, and inability to do instrumental activities of daily living. During prospective benchmark validation, we trichotomized data by T25FW benchmarks (10 seconds) ranges of performance. PMID:24174581

  4. ''FULL-CORE'' VVER-440 calculation benchmark

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Because of the difficulties with experimental validation of power distribution predicted by macro-code on the pin by pin level we decided to prepare a calculation benchmark named ''FULL-CORE'' VVER-440. This benchmark is a two-dimensional (2D) calculation benchmark based on the VVER-440 reactor core cold state geometry with taking into account the geometry of explicit radial reflector. The main task of this benchmark is to test the pin by pin power distribution in fuel assemblies predicted by macro-codes that are used for neutron-physics calculations especially for VVER-440 reactors. The proposal of this benchmark was presented at the 21st Symposium of AER in 2011. The reference solution has been calculated by MCNP code using Monte Carlo method and the results have been published in the AER community. The results of reference calculation were presented at the 22nd Symposium of AER in 2012. In this paper we will compare the available macro-codes results of this calculation benchmark.

  5. Action-Oriented Benchmarking: Concepts and Tools

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    California Energy Commission; Mathew, Paul; Mills, Evan; Mathew, Paul; Piette, Mary Ann; Bourassa, Norman; Brook, Martha

    2008-02-13

    Most energy benchmarking tools provide static feedback on how one building compares to a larger set of loosely similar buildings, without providing information at the end-use level or on what can be done to reduce consumption, cost, or emissions. In this article--Part 1 of a two-part series--we describe an 'action-oriented benchmarking' approach, which extends whole-building energy benchmarking to include analysis of system and component energy use metrics and features. Action-oriented benchmarking thereby allows users to generate more meaningful metrics and to identify, screen and prioritize potential efficiency improvements. This opportunity assessment process can then be used to inform and optimize a full-scale audit or commissioning process. We introduce a new web-based action-oriented benchmarking system and associated software tool-EnergyIQ. The benchmarking methods, visualizations, and user interface design are informed by an end-user needs assessment survey and best-practice guidelines from ASHRAE.

  6. Preparation of fusion benchmarks in electronic format for nuclear data validation studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An IAEA Consultants Meeting on ''Preparation of fusion benchmarks in electronic format for nuclear data validation studies'' was convened by the International Atomic Energy Agency and held during December 13-16, 1993 at the IAEA Headquarters, Vienna. The main purpose of the meeting was to review the current status of work in the subject of compilation of fusion neutronic benchmarks for the purpose of integral validation of Fusion Evaluated Nuclear Data Libraries (FENDL working libraries). The compiled information in electronic format on fusion benchmarks will be used to integrally validate the working nuclear data libraries in processed form derived within the scope of the FENDL project of the Agency for neutron and photon transport. The detailed agenda, the complete list of participants and the recommendations of the Consultants Meeting are presented in this report. (author). 9 refs, tabs

  7. De nuevo sobre Ataecina y Turobriga. Exploraciones del año 1900 en Las Torrecillas (Alcuéscar, Cáceres)

    OpenAIRE

    Abascal, Juan Manuel

    1996-01-01

    A manuscript in the Real Academia de la Historia (Madrid) contains the data on an archaeological prospection carried out in 1900 in Las Torrecillas (Alcuéscar, prov. Cáceres). The inscriptions found in Sta. Lucía probably come from Las Torrecillas, site that could be identified with Turobriga.Un manuscrito conservado en la Real Academia de la Historia contiene los resultados de una prospección arqueológica llevada a cabo en 1900 en el paraje de Las Torrecillas en Alcuéscar (Cáceres), el lugar...

  8. Surface radiation budget in the Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) effort and in the Global Energy and Water Cycle Experiment (GEWEX)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charlock, Thomas P.; Smith, G. L.; Rose, Fred G.

    1990-01-01

    The surface radiation budget (SRB) and the atmospheric radiative flux divergence (ARD) are vital components of the weather and climate system. The importance of radiation in a complex international scientific endeavor, the GEWEX of the World Climate Research Programme is explained. The radiative transfer techniques and satellite instrumentation that will be used to retrieve the SRB and ARD later in this decade with the CERES are discussed; CERES is a component of the Earth Observing System satellite program. Examples of consistent SRB and ARD retrievals made with Nimbus-7 and International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project data from July 1983 are presented.

  9. Shielding benchmark tests of JENDL-3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The integral test of neutron cross sections for major shielding materials in JENDL-3 has been performed by analyzing various shielding benchmark experiments. For the fission-like neutron source problem, the following experiments are analyzed: (1) ORNL Broomstick experiments for oxygen, iron and sodium, (2) ASPIS deep penetration experiments for iron, (3) ORNL neutron transmission experiments for iron, stainless steel, sodium and graphite, (4) KfK leakage spectrum measurements from iron spheres, (5) RPI angular neutron spectrum measurements in a graphite block. For D-T neutron source problem, the following two experiments are analyzed: (6) LLNL leakage spectrum measurements from spheres of iron and graphite, and (7) JAERI-FNS angular neutron spectrum measurements on beryllium and graphite slabs. Analyses have been performed using the radiation transport codes: ANISN(1D Sn), DIAC(1D Sn), DOT3.5(2D Sn) and MCNP(3D point Monte Carlo). The group cross sections for Sn transport calculations are generated with the code systems PROF-GROUCH-G/B and RADHEAT-V4. The point-wise cross sections for MCNP are produced with NJOY. For comparison, the analyses with JENDL-2 and ENDF/B-IV have been also carried out. The calculations using JENDL-3 show overall agreement with the experimental data as well as those with ENDF/B-IV. Particularly, JENDL-3 gives better results than JENDL-2 and ENDF/B-IV for sodium. It has been concluded that JENDL-3 is very applicable for fission and fusion reactor shielding analyses. (author)

  10. Isprs Benchmark for Multi-Platform Photogrammetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nex, F.; Gerke, M.; Remondino, F.; Przybilla, H.-J.; Bäumker, M.; Zurhorst, A.

    2015-03-01

    Airborne high resolution oblique imagery systems and RPAS/UAVs are very promising technologies that will keep on influencing the development of geomatics in the future years closing the gap between terrestrial and classical aerial acquisitions. These two platforms are also a promising solution for National Mapping and Cartographic Agencies (NMCA) as they allow deriving complementary mapping information. Although the interest for the registration and integration of aerial and terrestrial data is constantly increasing, only limited work has been truly performed on this topic. Several investigations still need to be undertaken concerning algorithms ability for automatic co-registration, accurate point cloud generation and feature extraction from multiplatform image data. One of the biggest obstacles is the non-availability of reliable and free datasets to test and compare new algorithms and procedures. The Scientific Initiative "ISPRS benchmark for multi-platform photogrammetry", run in collaboration with EuroSDR, aims at collecting and sharing state-of-the-art multi-sensor data (oblique airborne, UAV-based and terrestrial images) over an urban area. These datasets are used to assess different algorithms and methodologies for image orientation and dense matching. As ground truth, Terrestrial Laser Scanning (TLS), Aerial Laser Scanning (ALS) as well as topographic networks and GNSS points were acquired to compare 3D coordinates on check points (CPs) and evaluate cross sections and residuals on generated point cloud surfaces. In this paper, the acquired data, the pre-processing steps, the evaluation procedures as well as some preliminary results achieved with commercial software will be presented.

  11. Benchmarking the QUAD4/TRIA3 element

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitrof, Stephen M.; Venkayya, Vipperla B.

    1993-01-01

    The QUAD4 and TRIA3 elements are the primary plate/shell elements in NASTRAN. These elements enable the user to analyze thin plate/shell structures for membrane, bending and shear phenomena. They are also very new elements in the NASTRAN library. These elements are extremely versatile and constitute a substantially enhanced analysis capability in NASTRAN. However, with the versatility comes the burden of understanding a myriad of modeling implications and their effect on accuracy and analysis quality. The validity of many aspects of these elements were established through a series of benchmark problem results and comparison with those available in the literature and obtained from other programs like MSC/NASTRAN and CSAR/NASTRAN. Never-the-less such a comparison is never complete because of the new and creative use of these elements in complex modeling situations. One of the important features of QUAD4 and TRIA3 elements is the offset capability which allows the midsurface of the plate to be noncoincident with the surface of the grid points. None of the previous elements, with the exception of bar (beam), has this capability. The offset capability played a crucial role in the design of QUAD4 and TRIA3 elements. It allowed modeling layered composites, laminated plates and sandwich plates with the metal and composite face sheets. Even though the basic implementation of the offset capability is found to be sound in the previous applications, there is some uncertainty in relatively simple applications. The main purpose of this paper is to test the integrity of the offset capability and provide guidelines for its effective use. For the purpose of simplicity, references in this paper to the QUAD4 element will also include the TRIA3 element.

  12. Benchmarking the QUAD4/TRIA3 element

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitrof, Stephen M.; Venkayya, Vipperla B.

    1993-09-01

    The QUAD4 and TRIA3 elements are the primary plate/shell elements in NASTRAN. These elements enable the user to analyze thin plate/shell structures for membrane, bending and shear phenomena. They are also very new elements in the NASTRAN library. These elements are extremely versatile and constitute a substantially enhanced analysis capability in NASTRAN. However, with the versatility comes the burden of understanding a myriad of modeling implications and their effect on accuracy and analysis quality. The validity of many aspects of these elements were established through a series of benchmark problem results and comparison with those available in the literature and obtained from other programs like MSC/NASTRAN and CSAR/NASTRAN. Never-the-less such a comparison is never complete because of the new and creative use of these elements in complex modeling situations. One of the important features of QUAD4 and TRIA3 elements is the offset capability which allows the midsurface of the plate to be noncoincident with the surface of the grid points. None of the previous elements, with the exception of bar (beam), has this capability. The offset capability played a crucial role in the design of QUAD4 and TRIA3 elements. It allowed modeling layered composites, laminated plates and sandwich plates with the metal and composite face sheets. Even though the basic implementation of the offset capability is found to be sound in the previous applications, there is some uncertainty in relatively simple applications. The main purpose of this paper is to test the integrity of the offset capability and provide guidelines for its effective use. For the purpose of simplicity, references in this paper to the QUAD4 element will also include the TRIA3 element.

  13. Shielding benchmark tests of JENDL-3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kawai, Masayoshi [Toshiba Corp., Kawasaki, Kanagawa (Japan); Hasegawa, Akira; Ueki, Kohtaro; Yamano, Naoki; Sasaki, Kenji; Matsumoto, Yoshihiro; Takemura, Morio; Ohtani, Nobuo; Sakurai, Kiyoshi

    1994-03-01

    The integral test of neutron cross sections for major shielding materials in JENDL-3 has been performed by analyzing various shielding benchmark experiments. For the fission-like neutron source problem, the following experiments are analyzed: (1) ORNL Broomstick experiments for oxygen, iron and sodium, (2) ASPIS deep penetration experiments for iron, (3) ORNL neutron transmission experiments for iron, stainless steel, sodium and graphite, (4) KfK leakage spectrum measurements from iron spheres, (5) RPI angular neutron spectrum measurements in a graphite block. For D-T neutron source problem, the following two experiments are analyzed: (6) LLNL leakage spectrum measurements from spheres of iron and graphite, and (7) JAERI-FNS angular neutron spectrum measurements on beryllium and graphite slabs. Analyses have been performed using the radiation transport codes: ANISN(1D Sn), DIAC(1D Sn), DOT3.5(2D Sn) and MCNP(3D point Monte Carlo). The group cross sections for Sn transport calculations are generated with the code systems PROF-GROUCH-G/B and RADHEAT-V4. The point-wise cross sections for MCNP are produced with NJOY. For comparison, the analyses with JENDL-2 and ENDF/B-IV have been also carried out. The calculations using JENDL-3 show overall agreement with the experimental data as well as those with ENDF/B-IV. Particularly, JENDL-3 gives better results than JENDL-2 and ENDF/B-IV for sodium. It has been concluded that JENDL-3 is very applicable for fission and fusion reactor shielding analyses. (author).

  14. Benchmarking von Krankenhausinformationssystemen – eine vergleichende Analyse deutschsprachiger Benchmarkingcluster

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jahn, Franziska

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Benchmarking is a method of strategic information management used by many hospitals today. During the last years, several benchmarking clusters have been established within the German-speaking countries. They support hospitals in comparing and positioning their information system’s and information management’s costs, performance and efficiency against other hospitals. In order to differentiate between these benchmarking clusters and to provide decision support in selecting an appropriate benchmarking cluster, a classification scheme is developed. The classification scheme observes both general conditions and examined contents of the benchmarking clusters. It is applied to seven benchmarking clusters which have been active in the German-speaking countries within the last years. Currently, performance benchmarking is the most frequent benchmarking type, whereas the observed benchmarking clusters differ in the number of benchmarking partners and their cooperation forms. The benchmarking clusters also deal with different benchmarking subjects. Assessing costs and quality application systems, physical data processing systems, organizational structures of information management and IT services processes are the most frequent benchmarking subjects. There is still potential for further activities within the benchmarking clusters to measure strategic and tactical information management, IT governance and quality of data and data-processing processes. Based on the classification scheme and the comparison of the benchmarking clusters, we derive general recommendations for benchmarking of hospital information systems.

  15. Geological Mapping of the Ac-H-14 Yalode Quadrangle of Ceres from NASA's Dawn Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crown, David; Yingst, Aileen; Mest, Scott; Platz, Thomas; Sizemore, Hanna; Berman, Daniel; Williams, David; Roatsch, Thomas; Preusker, Frank; Nathues, Andreas; Hoffman, Martin; Schäfer, Michael; Raymond, Carol; Russell, Christopher

    2016-04-01

    The Dawn Science Team is conducting a geologic mapping campaign for Ceres that includes production of a Survey- and High Altitude Mapping Orbit (HAMO)-based global map and a series of 15 Low Altitude Mapping Orbit (LAMO)-based quadrangle maps. In this abstract we discuss the surface geology and geologic evolution of the Ac-H-14 Yalode Quadrangle (21-66°S, 270-360°E). The current geologic map was produced using ArcGIS software based on HAMO images (140 m/pixel) for surface morphology and stratigraphic relationships, Survey (400 m/pixel) digital terrain models for topographic information, and Dawn Framing Camera (FC) color images as context for map unit identification. The map will be updated through analysis of LAMO images (35 m/pixel) that are just becoming available. The Yalode Quadrangle is dominated by the 260-km diameter impact basin Yalode (42.3°S, 293.6°E) and includes rugged and smooth terrains to the east. Preliminary geologic mapping defined two regional units (cratered terrain and smooth material), which dominate the quadrangle, as well as a series of impact crater material units. Mapped geologic features include crater rims, graben, ridges, troughs, scarp, lineaments, and impact crater chains. Geologic contacts are typically not distinct in Survey and HAMO images. Impact craters in Yalode Quadrangle display a range of preservation states. Degraded features, including Yalode basin and numerous smaller craters, exhibit subdued rims, lack discrete ejecta deposits, and have infilled interiors. More pristine features (including Mondamin, Besua, Lono and craters on the Yalode basin floor) have well-defined, quasi-circular forms with prominent rims and in some cases discernible ejecta. Some of these craters have bowl-shaped interiors, and others contain hills or mounds on their floors that are interpreted as central peaks. Yalode basin has a variably preserved rim, which is continuous and sharply defined to the north/northwest and is irregular or degraded

  16. Origin Hypotheses for Kilometer-Scale Mounds on Dwarf Planet Ceres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sizemore, Hanna G.; Platz, Thomas; Schmidt, Britney E.; Scully, Jennifer E. C.; Russell, Christopher T.; Mest, Scott C.; Crown, David A.; Sykes, Mark V.; Hughson, Kynan H. G.; Chilton, Heather T.; Williams, David A.; Pieters, Carle M.; Marchi, Simone; Travis, Bryan; Raymond, Carol A.

    2015-11-01

    The Dawn Framing Camera has revealed numerous domical to conical features on Ceres, which may have relevance to the presence and history of near-surface ice. These features fall into two broad classes, large domes 10s to >100 km in diameter exhibiting 1-5 km of positive relief, and small mounds : Kilometer and sub-kilometer scale albedo variations; sub-kilometer flow features on individual mounds; localized vents; conical or domical shape. Challenge: Features are smaller than convective plumes expected from thermal evolution modeling.Hypothesis 2: Kilometer-scale mounds are analogous to terrestrial and martian pingos, which grow by drawing liquid water through a silicate matrix as a freezing front propagates downward. Observational tests: Mounds occurring on smooth material that floods or embays large-scale features; little or no local albedo variation; no small flows associated with individual mounds; domical or ring-shape; concentric or radial fractures on dome, or central depression. Challenge: Small Cerean mounds observed thus far are an order of magnitude larger than terrestrial or martian pingos.Hypothesis 3: Kilometer-scale mounds are rootless cones analogous to features observed on the surface of volcanic flows in volatile-rich regions of Earth and Mars. Rootless cones are produced when layers of fluid material inundate a region; localized devolatilization of a layer mobilizes clasts to form cone-shaped deposits. Observational tests: Mounds on smooth material that floods or embays large-scale features; conical, not domical, profile; large central depressions; cones in organized spatial patterns; no small-scale flows. Challenge: Low gravity environment and/or cryolava composition may be incompatible with this process.In addition to morphological observations, VIR data will help distinguish between these hypotheses.

  17. Storage-Intensive Supercomputing Benchmark Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cohen, J; Dossa, D; Gokhale, M; Hysom, D; May, J; Pearce, R; Yoo, A

    2007-10-30

    Critical data science applications requiring frequent access to storage perform poorly on today's computing architectures. This project addresses efficient computation of data-intensive problems in national security and basic science by exploring, advancing, and applying a new form of computing called storage-intensive supercomputing (SISC). Our goal is to enable applications that simply cannot run on current systems, and, for a broad range of data-intensive problems, to deliver an order of magnitude improvement in price/performance over today's data-intensive architectures. This technical report documents much of the work done under LDRD 07-ERD-063 Storage Intensive Supercomputing during the period 05/07-09/07. The following chapters describe: (1) a new file I/O monitoring tool iotrace developed to capture the dynamic I/O profiles of Linux processes; (2) an out-of-core graph benchmark for level-set expansion of scale-free graphs; (3) an entity extraction benchmark consisting of a pipeline of eight components; and (4) an image resampling benchmark drawn from the SWarp program in the LSST data processing pipeline. The performance of the graph and entity extraction benchmarks was measured in three different scenarios: data sets residing on the NFS file server and accessed over the network; data sets stored on local disk; and data sets stored on the Fusion I/O parallel NAND Flash array. The image resampling benchmark compared performance of software-only to GPU-accelerated. In addition to the work reported here, an additional text processing application was developed that used an FPGA to accelerate n-gram profiling for language classification. The n-gram application will be presented at SC07 at the High Performance Reconfigurable Computing Technologies and Applications Workshop. The graph and entity extraction benchmarks were run on a Supermicro server housing the NAND Flash 40GB parallel disk array, the Fusion-io. The Fusion system specs are as follows

  18. Full sphere hydrodynamic and dynamo benchmarks

    KAUST Repository

    Marti, P.

    2014-01-26

    Convection in planetary cores can generate fluid flow and magnetic fields, and a number of sophisticated codes exist to simulate the dynamic behaviour of such systems. We report on the first community activity to compare numerical results of computer codes designed to calculate fluid flow within a whole sphere. The flows are incompressible and rapidly rotating and the forcing of the flow is either due to thermal convection or due to moving boundaries. All problems defined have solutions that alloweasy comparison, since they are either steady, slowly drifting or perfectly periodic. The first two benchmarks are defined based on uniform internal heating within the sphere under the Boussinesq approximation with boundary conditions that are uniform in temperature and stress-free for the flow. Benchmark 1 is purely hydrodynamic, and has a drifting solution. Benchmark 2 is a magnetohydrodynamic benchmark that can generate oscillatory, purely periodic, flows and magnetic fields. In contrast, Benchmark 3 is a hydrodynamic rotating bubble benchmark using no slip boundary conditions that has a stationary solution. Results from a variety of types of code are reported, including codes that are fully spectral (based on spherical harmonic expansions in angular coordinates and polynomial expansions in radius), mixed spectral and finite difference, finite volume, finite element and also a mixed Fourier-finite element code. There is good agreement between codes. It is found that in Benchmarks 1 and 2, the approximation of a whole sphere problem by a domain that is a spherical shell (a sphere possessing an inner core) does not represent an adequate approximation to the system, since the results differ from whole sphere results. © The Authors 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Royal Astronomical Society.

  19. Higher education information technology management benchmarking in Europe

    OpenAIRE

    Juult, Janne

    2013-01-01

    Objectives of the Study: This study aims to facilitate the rapprochement of the European higher education benchmarking projects towards a unified European benchmarking project. Total of four higher education IT benchmarking projects are analysed by comparing their categorisation of benchmarking indicators and their data manipulation processes. Four select benchmarking projects are compared in this fashion for the first time. The focus is especially on the Finnish Bencheit project's point o...

  20. Revaluering benchmarking - A topical theme for the construction industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Grane Mikael Gregaard

    2011-01-01

    Over the past decade, benchmarking has increasingly gained foothold in the construction industry. The predominant research, perceptions and uses of benchmarking are valued so strongly and uniformly, that what may seem valuable, is actually abstaining researchers and practitioners from studying and...... questioning the concept objectively. This paper addresses the underlying nature of benchmarking, and accounts for the importance of focusing attention on the sociological impacts benchmarking has in organizations. To understand these sociological impacts, benchmarking research needs to transcend the...

  1. Criteria of benchmark selection for efficient flexible multibody system formalisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valášek M.

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the selection process of benchmarks for testing and comparing efficient flexible multibody formalisms. The existing benchmarks are briefly summarized. The purposes for benchmark selection are investigated. The result of this analysis is the formulation of the criteria of benchmark selection for flexible multibody formalisms. Based on them the initial set of suitable benchmarks is described. Besides that the evaluation measures are revised and extended.

  2. Studies of thermal-reactor benchmark-data interpretation: experimental corrections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Experimental values of integral parameters of the lattices studied in this report, i.e., the MIT(D2O) and TRX benchmark lattices have been re-examined and revised. The revisions correct several systematic errors that have been previously ignored or considered insignificant. These systematic errors are discussed in detail. The final corrected values are presented

  3. Global solutions to a class of CEC benchmark constrained optimization problems

    OpenAIRE

    Zhou, Xiaojun

    2012-01-01

    This paper aims to solve a class of CEC benchmark constrained optimization problems that have been widely studied by nature-inspired optimization algorithms. Global optimality condition based on canonical duality theory is derived. Integrating the dual solutions with the KKT conditions, we are able to obtain the approximate solutions or global solutions easily.

  4. Shielding experimental benchmark storage, retrieval, and display system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The complete description of an integral shielding benchmark experiment includes the radiation source, materials, physical geometry, and measurement data. This information is not usually contained in a single document, but must be gathered from several sources, including personal contact with the experimentalists. A comprehensive database of the experimental details is extremely useful and cost-effective in present day computations. Further, experimental data are vulnerable to being lost or destroyed as a result of facility closures, retirement of experimental personnel, and ignorance. A standard set of experiments, used globally, establishes a framework to validate and verify models in computer codes and guarantee comparative analyses between different computational systems. SINBAD is a database that was conceived in 1992 to store, retrieve, and display the measurements from international experiments for the past 50 years in nuclear shielding. Based at Oak Ridge National Laboratory's Radiation Safety Information and Computational Center (RSICC) SINBAD has a collection of integral benchmark experiments from around the world. SINBAD is shared with the Office of Economic and Cooperative Development Nuclear Energy Agency Data Bank, which provides contributions from Europe, Russia, and Japan. (author)

  5. Shielding Experimental Benchmark Storage, Retrieval, and Display System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hunter, H.; Kodeli, I.; Marshall, W.J.; Parson, J.; Sartor, E.

    1999-10-17

    The complete description of an integral shielding benchmark experiment includes the radiation source, materials, physical geometry, and measurement data. This information is not usually contained in a single document, but must be gathered from several sources, including personal contact with the experimentalists. A comprehensive database of the experimental details is extremely useful and cost-effective in present day computations. Further, experimental data are vulnerable to being lost or destroyed as a result of facility closures, retirement of experimental personnel, and ignorance. A standard set of experiments, used globally, establishes a framework to validate and verify models in computer codes and guarantee comparative analyses between different computational systems. SINBAD is a database that was conceived in 1992 to store, retrieve, and display the measurements from international experiments for the past 50 years in nuclear shielding. Based at Oak Ridge National Laboratory's Radiation Safety Information and Computational Center (RSICC) SINBAD has a collection of integral benchmark experiments from around the world. SINBAD is shared with the Office of Economic and Cooperative Development/Nuclear Energy Agency Data Bank, which provides contributions from Europe, Russia, and Japan.

  6. Shielding experimental benchmark storage, retrieval, and display system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hunter, H.T. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Parsons, J.L. [University of Tennessee, Castle Oak Place Knoxville, TN (United States); Marshall, W.J. [University of Missouri, Knoxville, TN (United States); Sartori, E. [OECD/Nuclear Energy Agency Data Bank, Issy les Moulineaux (France); Kodeli, I. [Institute Jozef Stefan, Ljubljana (Slovenia)

    2000-03-01

    The complete description of an integral shielding benchmark experiment includes the radiation source, materials, physical geometry, and measurement data. This information is not usually contained in a single document, but must be gathered from several sources, including personal contact with the experimentalists. A comprehensive database of the experimental details is extremely useful and cost-effective in present day computations. Further, experimental data are vulnerable to being lost or destroyed as a result of facility closures, retirement of experimental personnel, and ignorance. A standard set of experiments, used globally, establishes a framework to validate and verify models in computer codes and guarantee comparative analyses between different computational systems. SINBAD is a database that was conceived in 1992 to store, retrieve, and display the measurements from international experiments for the past 50 years in nuclear shielding. Based at Oak Ridge National Laboratory's Radiation Safety Information and Computational Center (RSICC) SINBAD has a collection of integral benchmark experiments from around the world. SINBAD is shared with the Office of Economic and Cooperative Development Nuclear Energy Agency Data Bank, which provides contributions from Europe, Russia, and Japan. (author)

  7. Features and technology of enterprise internal benchmarking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.V. Dubodelova

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the article. The aim of the article is to generalize characteristics, objectives, advantages of internal benchmarking. The stages sequence of internal benchmarking technology is formed. It is focused on continuous improvement of process of the enterprise by implementing existing best practices.The results of the analysis. Business activity of domestic enterprises in crisis business environment has to focus on the best success factors of their structural units by using standard research assessment of their performance and their innovative experience in practice. Modern method of those needs satisfying is internal benchmarking. According to Bain & Co internal benchmarking is one the three most common methods of business management.The features and benefits of benchmarking are defined in the article. The sequence and methodology of implementation of individual stages of benchmarking technology projects are formulated.The authors define benchmarking as a strategic orientation on the best achievement by comparing performance and working methods with the standard. It covers the processes of researching, organization of production and distribution, management and marketing methods to reference objects to identify innovative practices and its implementation in a particular business.Benchmarking development at domestic enterprises requires analysis of theoretical bases and practical experience. Choice best of experience helps to develop recommendations for their application in practice.Also it is essential to classificate species, identify characteristics, study appropriate areas of use and development methodology of implementation. The structure of internal benchmarking objectives includes: promoting research and establishment of minimum acceptable levels of efficiency processes and activities which are available at the enterprise; identification of current problems and areas that need improvement without involvement of foreign experience

  8. BENCHMARKING FOR THE ROMANIAN HEAVY COMMERCIAL VEHICLES MARKET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pop Nicolae Alexandru

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The globalization has led to a better integration of international markets of goods, services and capital markets, fact which leads to a significant increase of investments in those regions with low labor cost and with access to commercial routes. The development of international trade has imposed a continuous growth of the volumes of transported goods and the development of a transport system, able to stand against the new pressure exercised by cost, time and space. The solution to efficient transport is the intermodal transportation relying on state-of-the-art technological platforms, which integrates the advantages specific to each means of transportation: flexibility for road transportation, high capacity for railway, low costs for sea, and speed for air transportation. Romania’s integration in the pan-European transport system alongside with the EU’s enlargement towards the east will change Romania’s positioning into a central one. The integrated governmental program of improving the intermodal infrastructure will ensure fast railway, road and air connections. For the Danube harbors and for the sea ports, EU grants and allowances will be used thus increasing Romania’s importance in its capacity as one of Europe’s logistical hubs. The present paper intends to use benchmarking, the management and strategic marketing tool, in order to realize an evaluation of the Romanian heavy commercial vehicles market, within European context. Benchmarking encourages change in a complex and dynamic context where a permanent solution cannot be found. The different results stimulate the use of benchmarking as a solution to reduce gaps. MAN’s case study shows the dynamics of the players on the Romanian market for heavy commercial vehicles, when considering the strong growth of Romanian exported goods but with a modest internal demand, a limited but developing road infrastructure, and an unfavorable international economical context together with

  9. Toxicological benchmarks for wildlife: 1994 Revision

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The process by which ecological risks of environmental contaminants are evaluated is two-tiered. The first tier is a screening assessment where concentrations of contaminants in the environment are compared to toxicological benchmarks which represent concentrations of chemicals in environmental media (water, sediment, soil, food, etc.) that are presumed to be nonhazardous to the surrounding biota. The second tier is a baseline ecological risk assessment where toxicological benchmarks are one of several lines of evidence used to support or refute the presence of ecological effects. The report presents toxicological benchmarks for assessment of effects of 76 chemicals on 8 representative mammalian wildlife species and 31 chemicals on 9 avian wildlife species. The chemicals are some of those that occur at United States Department of Energy waste sites; the wildlife species were chosen because they are widely distributed and provide a representative range of body sizes and diets. Further descriptions of the chosen wildlife species and chemicals are provided in the report. The benchmarks presented in this report represent values believed to be nonhazardous for the listed wildlife species. These benchmarks only consider contaminant exposure through oral ingestion of contaminated media; exposure through inhalation or direct dermal exposure are not considered in this report

  10. Toxicological benchmarks for wildlife: 1994 Revision

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Opresko, D.M.; Sample, B.E.; Suter, G.W. II

    1994-09-01

    The process by which ecological risks of environmental contaminants are evaluated is two-tiered. The first tier is a screening assessment where concentrations of contaminants in the environment are compared to toxicological benchmarks which represent concentrations of chemicals in environmental media (water, sediment, soil, food, etc.) that are presumed to be nonhazardous to the surrounding biota. The second tier is a baseline ecological risk assessment where toxicological benchmarks are one of several lines of evidence used to support or refute the presence of ecological effects. The report presents toxicological benchmarks for assessment of effects of 76 chemicals on 8 representative mammalian wildlife species and 31 chemicals on 9 avian wildlife species. The chemicals are some of those that occur at United States Department of Energy waste sites; the wildlife species were chosen because they are widely distributed and provide a representative range of body sizes and diets. Further descriptions of the chosen wildlife species and chemicals are provided in the report. The benchmarks presented in this report represent values believed to be nonhazardous for the listed wildlife species. These benchmarks only consider contaminant exposure through oral ingestion of contaminated media; exposure through inhalation or direct dermal exposure are not considered in this report.

  11. Verification of the plant dynamics analytical code CERES. Comparison with the SAS4/SASSYS-1 code based on the analysis of the small fast reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The CERES was validated by the comparison of code to code with a plant dynamics analysis code SAS4A/SASSYS-1. SAS4A/SASSYS-1 is developed by Argonne National Laboratory (USA), and, it has been verified by the FFTF/EBR-II analysis results. The loss-of-offsite-power event (TBO) and the unprotected-loss-of-flow event (ULOF) of 4S reactor (August 2006 design) were analyzed by both codes. The main results as follows; (1) Almost same values were predicted for the reactor core inlet/outlet temperature, the peak temperature occurrence timing, the IHX temperature, and the secondary system temperatures in the ULOF event analysis. (2) The IHX primary inlet temperature predicted by CERES lie between the SAS4A/SASSYS-1 results both with and without thermal stratification model in the TOB event that the low temperature sodium flows out to the upper plenum. From the result, the rationality of the plenum model of CERES was confirmed. Therefore, the fundamental abilities of the CERES to analyze natural circulation and the core reactivity feedback were able to be confirmed. (author)

  12. Standardized benchmarking in the quest for orthologs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altenhoff, Adrian M; Boeckmann, Brigitte; Capella-Gutierrez, Salvador; Dalquen, Daniel A; DeLuca, Todd; Forslund, Kristoffer; Huerta-Cepas, Jaime; Linard, Benjamin; Pereira, Cécile; Pryszcz, Leszek P; Schreiber, Fabian; da Silva, Alan Sousa; Szklarczyk, Damian; Train, Clément-Marie; Bork, Peer; Lecompte, Odile; von Mering, Christian; Xenarios, Ioannis; Sjölander, Kimmen; Jensen, Lars Juhl; Martin, Maria J; Muffato, Matthieu; Gabaldón, Toni; Lewis, Suzanna E; Thomas, Paul D; Sonnhammer, Erik; Dessimoz, Christophe

    2016-05-01

    Achieving high accuracy in orthology inference is essential for many comparative, evolutionary and functional genomic analyses, yet the true evolutionary history of genes is generally unknown and orthologs are used for very different applications across phyla, requiring different precision-recall trade-offs. As a result, it is difficult to assess the performance of orthology inference methods. Here, we present a community effort to establish standards and an automated web-based service to facilitate orthology benchmarking. Using this service, we characterize 15 well-established inference methods and resources on a battery of 20 different benchmarks. Standardized benchmarking provides a way for users to identify the most effective methods for the problem at hand, sets a minimum requirement for new tools and resources, and guides the development of more accurate orthology inference methods. PMID:27043882

  13. Standardized benchmarking in the quest for orthologs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Altenhoff, Adrian M; Boeckmann, Brigitte; Capella-Gutierrez, Salvador;

    2016-01-01

    Achieving high accuracy in orthology inference is essential for many comparative, evolutionary and functional genomic analyses, yet the true evolutionary history of genes is generally unknown and orthologs are used for very different applications across phyla, requiring different precision......-recall trade-offs. As a result, it is difficult to assess the performance of orthology inference methods. Here, we present a community effort to establish standards and an automated web-based service to facilitate orthology benchmarking. Using this service, we characterize 15 well-established inference methods...... and resources on a battery of 20 different benchmarks. Standardized benchmarking provides a way for users to identify the most effective methods for the problem at hand, sets a minimum requirement for new tools and resources, and guides the development of more accurate orthology inference methods....

  14. Benchmarks for multicomponent diffusion and electrochemical migration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasouli, Pejman; Steefel, Carl I.; Mayer, K. Ulrich; Rolle, Massimo

    2015-01-01

    been published to date. This contribution provides a set of three benchmark problems that demonstrate the effect of electric coupling during multicomponent diffusion and electrochemical migration and at the same time facilitate the intercomparison of solutions from existing reactive transport codes...... considered in solute transport problems, electromigration can strongly affect mass transport processes. The number of reactive transport models that consider electromigration has been growing in recent years, but a direct model intercomparison that specifically focuses on the role of electromigration has not....... The first benchmark focuses on the 1D transient diffusion of HNO3 (pH = 4) in a NaCl solution into a fixed concentration reservoir, also containing NaCl—but with lower HNO3 concentrations (pH = 6). The second benchmark describes the 1D steady-state migration of the sodium isotope 22Na triggered by...

  15. Energy benchmarking of South Australian WWTPs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krampe, J

    2013-01-01

    Optimising the energy consumption and energy generation of wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) is a topic with increasing importance for water utilities in times of rising energy costs and pressures to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Assessing the energy efficiency and energy optimisation of a WWTP are difficult tasks as most plants vary greatly in size, process layout and other influencing factors. To overcome these limits it is necessary to compare energy efficiency with a statistically relevant base to identify shortfalls and optimisation potential. Such energy benchmarks have been successfully developed and used in central Europe over the last two decades. This paper demonstrates how the latest available energy benchmarks from Germany have been applied to 24 WWTPs in South Australia. It shows how energy benchmarking can be used to identify shortfalls in current performance, prioritise detailed energy assessments and help inform decisions on capital investment. PMID:23656950

  16. AGENT code - neutron transport benchmark examples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper focuses on description of representative benchmark problems to demonstrate the versatility and accuracy of the AGENT (Arbitrary Geometry Neutron Transport) code. AGENT couples the method of characteristics and R-functions allowing true modeling of complex geometries. AGENT is optimized for robustness, accuracy, and computational efficiency for 2-D assembly configurations. The robustness of R-function based geometry generator is achieved through the hierarchical union of the simple primitives into more complex shapes. The accuracy is comparable to Monte Carlo codes and is obtained by following neutron propagation through true geometries. The computational efficiency is maintained through a set of acceleration techniques introduced in all important calculation levels. The selected assembly benchmark problems discussed in this paper are: the complex hexagonal modular high-temperature gas-cooled reactor, the Purdue University reactor and the well known C5G7 benchmark model. (author)

  17. Benchmark calculations of power distribution within assemblies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The main objective of this Benchmark is to compare different techniques for fine flux prediction based upon coarse mesh diffusion or transport calculations. We proposed 5 ''core'' configurations including different assembly types (17 x 17 pins, ''uranium'', ''absorber'' or ''MOX'' assemblies), with different boundary conditions. The specification required results in terms of reactivity, pin by pin fluxes and production rate distributions. The proposal for these Benchmark calculations was made by J.C. LEFEBVRE, J. MONDOT, J.P. WEST and the specification (with nuclear data, assembly types, core configurations for 2D geometry and results presentation) was distributed to correspondents of the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency. 11 countries and 19 companies answered the exercise proposed by this Benchmark. Heterogeneous calculations and homogeneous calculations were made. Various methods were used to produce the results: diffusion (finite differences, nodal...), transport (Pij, Sn, Monte Carlo). This report presents an analysis and intercomparisons of all the results received

  18. Benchmarking optimization solvers for structural topology optimization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rojas Labanda, Susana; Stolpe, Mathias

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to benchmark different optimization solvers when applied to various finite element based structural topology optimization problems. An extensive and representative library of minimum compliance, minimum volume, and mechanism design problem instances for different...... sizes is developed for this benchmarking. The problems are based on a material interpolation scheme combined with a density filter. Different optimization solvers including Optimality Criteria (OC), the Method of Moving Asymptotes (MMA) and its globally convergent version GCMMA, the interior point...... profiles conclude that general solvers are as efficient and reliable as classical structural topology optimization solvers. Moreover, the use of the exact Hessians in SAND formulations, generally produce designs with better objective function values. However, with the benchmarked implementations solving...

  19. Benchmark field study of deep neutron penetration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, J. F.; Sale, K.; Gold, R.; Roberts, J. H.; Preston, C. C.

    1991-06-01

    A unique benchmark neutron field has been established at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) to study deep penetration neutron transport. At LLNL, a tandem accelerator is used to generate a monoenergetic neutron source that permits investigation of deep neutron penetration under conditions that are virtually ideal to model, namely the transport of mono-energetic neutrons through a single material in a simple geometry. General features of the Lawrence Tandem (LATAN) benchmark field are described with emphasis on neutron source characteristics and room return background. The single material chosen for the first benchmark, LATAN-1, is a steel representative of Light Water Reactor (LWR) Pressure Vessels (PV). Also included is a brief description of the Little Boy replica, a critical reactor assembly designed to mimic the radiation doses from the atomic bomb dropped on Hiroshima, and its us in neutron spectrometry.

  20. Computational benchmark for deep penetration in iron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A benchmark for calculation of neutron transport through iron is now available based upon a rigorous Monte Carlo treatment of ENDF/B-IV and ENDF/B-V cross sections. The currents, flux, and dose (from monoenergetic 2, 14, and 40 MeV sources) have been tabulated at various distances through the slab using a standard energy group structure. This tabulation is available in a Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory report. The benchmark is simple to model and should be useful for verifying the adequacy of one-dimensional transport codes and multigroup libraries for iron. This benchmark also provides useful insights regarding neutron penetration through iron and displays differences in fluxes calculated with ENDF/B-IV and ENDF/B-V data bases

  1. SP2Bench: A SPARQL Performance Benchmark

    CERN Document Server

    Schmidt, Michael; Lausen, Georg; Pinkel, Christoph

    2008-01-01

    Recently, the SPARQL query language for RDF has reached the W3C recommendation status. In response to this emerging standard, the database community is currently exploring efficient storage techniques for RDF data and evaluation strategies for SPARQL queries. A meaningful analysis and comparison of these approaches necessitates a comprehensive and universal benchmark platform. To this end, we have developed SP$^2$Bench, a publicly available, language-specific SPARQL performance benchmark. SP$^2$Bench is settled in the DBLP scenario and comprises both a data generator for creating arbitrarily large DBLP-like documents and a set of carefully designed benchmark queries. The generated documents mirror key characteristics and social-world distributions encountered in the original DBLP data set, while the queries implement meaningful requests on top of this data, covering a variety of SPARQL operator constellations and RDF access patterns. As a proof of concept, we apply SP$^2$Bench to existing engines and discuss ...

  2. MCU participation in MIDICORE benchmark

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For some years MCU specialists perform wide range of full-scale WWER-1000 neutron physical calculations. One of interesting questions emerged in course of these calculations is the elaboration degree of radial reflector geometry description. MIDICORE 2D approach simplifies modeling of horizontal grooves in core basket. We modeled them not only exactly, but also in two approximate ways, one of which was proposed in MCNP reference calculation. Apart from this reference restricted core area all three cases considered were 60 deg rotational symmetry segment of model core. keff, relative pin by pin power distribution in proposed fuel assemblies and integral fission power of all fuel assemblies was obtained. (Authors)

  3. Analytical benchmarks for precision particle tracking in electric and magnetic rings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To determine the accuracy of tracking programs for precision storage ring experiments, analytical estimates of particle and spin dynamics in electric and magnetic rings were developed and compared to the numerical results of a tracking program based on Runge–Kutta/Predictor–Corrector integration. Initial discrepancies in the comparisons indicated the need to improve several of the analytical estimates. In the end, this rather slow program passed all benchmarks, often agreeing with the analytical estimates to the part-per-billion level. Thus, it can in turn be used to benchmark faster tracking programs for accuracy

  4. Analytical benchmarks for precision particle tracking in electric and magnetic rings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Metodiev, E.M. [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Physics Department, Upton, NY 11973 (United States); Harvard College, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Center for Axion and Precision Physics Research, IBS, Daejeon 305-701 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Physics, KAIST, Daejeon 305-701 (Korea, Republic of); D' Silva, I.M.; Fandaros, M. [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Physics Department, Upton, NY 11973 (United States); Gaisser, M. [Center for Axion and Precision Physics Research, IBS, Daejeon 305-701 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Physics, KAIST, Daejeon 305-701 (Korea, Republic of); Hacıömeroğlu, S. [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Physics Department, Upton, NY 11973 (United States); Center for Axion and Precision Physics Research, IBS, Daejeon 305-701 (Korea, Republic of); Istanbul Technical University, Istanbul 34469 (Turkey); Department of Physics, KAIST, Daejeon 305-701 (Korea, Republic of); Huang, D. [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Physics Department, Upton, NY 11973 (United States); Huang, K.L. [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Physics Department, Upton, NY 11973 (United States); Harvard College, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Patil, A.; Prodromou, R.; Semertzidis, O.A.; Sharma, D.; Stamatakis, A.N. [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Physics Department, Upton, NY 11973 (United States); Orlov, Y.F. [Department of Physics, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY (United States); Semertzidis, Y.K. [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Physics Department, Upton, NY 11973 (United States); Center for Axion and Precision Physics Research, IBS, Daejeon 305-701 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Physics, KAIST, Daejeon 305-701 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-11

    To determine the accuracy of tracking programs for precision storage ring experiments, analytical estimates of particle and spin dynamics in electric and magnetic rings were developed and compared to the numerical results of a tracking program based on Runge–Kutta/Predictor–Corrector integration. Initial discrepancies in the comparisons indicated the need to improve several of the analytical estimates. In the end, this rather slow program passed all benchmarks, often agreeing with the analytical estimates to the part-per-billion level. Thus, it can in turn be used to benchmark faster tracking programs for accuracy.

  5. Benchmarking stiff ODE solvers for atmorspheric chemistry problems I: implicit versus explicit

    OpenAIRE

    Sandu, A.; Verwer, Jan; Loon, van, E.E.; G. R. Carmichael; POTRA, F.A.; DABDUB, D; Seinfeld, J. H.

    1996-01-01

    [NM-R 9603] In many applications of atmospheric transport-chemistry problems, a major task is the numerical integration of the stiff systems of ordinary differential equations describing the chemical transformations. This paper presents a comprehensive numerical comparison between five explicit and four implicit solvers for a set of seven benchmark problems from actual applications. The results presented may constitute a guide for atmospheric modelers to select a suitable integrator based on ...

  6. A Benchmarking System for Domestic Water Use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dexter V. L. Hunt

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The national demand for water in the UK is predicted to increase, exacerbated by a growing UK population, and home-grown demands for energy and food. When set against the context of overstretched existing supply sources vulnerable to droughts, particularly in increasingly dense city centres, the delicate balance of matching minimal demands with resource secure supplies becomes critical. When making changes to "internal" demands the role of technological efficiency and user behaviour cannot be ignored, yet existing benchmarking systems traditionally do not consider the latter. This paper investigates the practicalities of adopting a domestic benchmarking system (using a band rating that allows individual users to assess their current water use performance against what is possible. The benchmarking system allows users to achieve higher benchmarks through any approach that reduces water consumption. The sensitivity of water use benchmarks are investigated by making changes to user behaviour and technology. The impact of adopting localised supplies (i.e., Rainwater harvesting—RWH and Grey water—GW and including "external" gardening demands are investigated. This includes the impacts (in isolation and combination of the following: occupancy rates (1 to 4; roof size (12.5 m2 to 100 m2; garden size (25 m2 to 100 m2 and geographical location (North West, Midlands and South East, UK with yearly temporal effects (i.e., rainfall and temperature. Lessons learnt from analysis of the proposed benchmarking system are made throughout this paper, in particular its compatibility with the existing Code for Sustainable Homes (CSH accreditation system. Conclusions are subsequently drawn for the robustness of the proposed system.

  7. Reactor group constants and benchmark test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The evaluated nuclear data files such as JENDL, ENDF/B-VI and JEF-2 are validated by analyzing critical mock-up experiments for various type reactors and assessing applicability for nuclear characteristics such as criticality, reaction rates, reactivities, etc. This is called Benchmark Testing. In the nuclear calculations, the diffusion and transport codes use the group constant library which is generated by processing the nuclear data files. In this paper, the calculation methods of the reactor group constants and benchmark test are described. Finally, a new group constants scheme is proposed. (author)

  8. Benchmarking of European power network companies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A European benchmark has been conducted among 63 grid companies to obtain insight in the degree of efficiency of these companies and to identify the main cost drivers. The benchmark shows that, based on the full distribution cost, the performance differs greatly from company to company. The cost of the companies with the worst performers is five times higher than that of the best performer. Dutch grid operators turn out to work relatively efficient compared to other European companies. Consumers benefit from the consequently lower energy bills. [mk

  9. Toxicological benchmarks for wildlife: 1996 Revision

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this report is to present toxicological benchmarks for assessment of effects of certain chemicals on mammalian and avian wildlife species. Publication of this document meets a milestone for the Environmental Restoration (ER) Risk Assessment Program. This document provides the ER Program with toxicological benchmarks that may be used as comparative tools in screening assessments as well as lines of evidence to support or refute the presence of ecological effects in ecological risk assessments. The chemicals considered in this report are some that occur at US DOE waste sites, and the wildlife species evaluated herein were chosen because they represent a range of body sizes and diets

  10. Benchmark calculations for fusion blanket development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benchmark problems representing the leading fusion blanket concepts are presented. Benchmark calculations for self-cooled Li17Pb83 and helium-cooled blankets were performed. Multigroup data libraries generated from ENDF/B-IV and V files using the NJOY and AMPX processing codes with different weighting functions were used. The sensitivity of the tritium breeding ratio to group structure and weighting spectrum increases as the thickness and Li enrichment decrease with up to 20% discrepancies for thin natural Li17Pb83 blankets. (author)

  11. Confidential benchmarking based on multiparty computation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damgård, Ivan Bjerre; Damgård, Kasper Lyneborg; Nielsen, Kurt;

    We report on the design and implementation of a system that uses multiparty computation to enable banks to benchmark their customers' confidential performance data against a large representative set of confidential performance data from a consultancy house. The system ensures that both the banks......' and the consultancy house's data stays confidential, the banks as clients learn nothing but the computed benchmarking score. In the concrete business application, the developed prototype help Danish banks to find the most efficient customers among a large and challenging group of agricultural customers with too much...

  12. Benchmark testing of 233U evaluations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper we investigate the adequacy of available 233U cross-section data (ENDF/B-VI and JENDL-3) for calculation of critical experiments. An ad hoc revised 233U evaluation is also tested and appears to give results which are improved relative to those obtained with either ENDF/B-VI or JENDL-3 cross sections. Calculations of keff were performed for ten fast benchmarks and six thermal benchmarks using the three cross-section sets. Central reaction-rate-ratio calculations were also performed

  13. Toxicological benchmarks for wildlife: 1996 Revision

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sample, B.E.; Opresko, D.M.; Suter, G.W., II

    1996-06-01

    The purpose of this report is to present toxicological benchmarks for assessment of effects of certain chemicals on mammalian and avian wildlife species. Publication of this document meets a milestone for the Environmental Restoration (ER) Risk Assessment Program. This document provides the ER Program with toxicological benchmarks that may be used as comparative tools in screening assessments as well as lines of evidence to support or refute the presence of ecological effects in ecological risk assessments. The chemicals considered in this report are some that occur at US DOE waste sites, and the wildlife species evaluated herein were chosen because they represent a range of body sizes and diets.

  14. Geological Mapping of the Ac-H-13 Urvara Quadrangle of Ceres from NASA's Dawn Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sizemore, Hanna; Williams, David; Platz, Thomas; Mest, Scott; Yingst, Aileen; Crown, David; O'Brien, David; Buczkowski, Debra; Schenk, Paul; Scully, Jennifer; Jaumann, Ralf; Roatsch, Thomas; Preusker, Frank; Nathues, Andreas; De Sanctis, Maria Cristina; Russell, Christopher; Raymond, Carol

    2016-04-01

    The Dawn Science Team is conducting a geologic mapping campaign for Ceres similar to that done for Vesta [1,2], including production of a Survey- and High Altitude Mapping Orbit (HAMO)-based global map, and a series of 15 Low Altitude Mapping Orbit (LAMO)-based quadrangle maps. In this abstract we discuss the geologic evolution of the Ac-H-13 Urvara Quadrangle. At the time of this writing LAMO images (35 m/pixel) are just becoming available. Thus, our geologic maps are based on HAMO images (140 m/pixel) and Survey (400 m/pixel) digital ter-rain models (for topographic information). Dawn Framing Camera (FC) color images are also used to provide context for map unit identification. The maps to be presented as posters will be updated from analyses of LAMO images. The Urvara Quadrangle is dominated by the 170-km diameter impact basin Urvara (46.4°S, 248.6°E) and includes cratered terrain to the west. Named features include the impact craters Meanderi (40.9°S, 193.7°E, 103 km diameter), Sekhet (66.4°S, 254.9°E, 41 km diameter), and Fluusa (31.5°S, 277.9°E), as well as the crater chains Gerber Catena (38.1°S, 214.8°E) and Sam-hain Catena (19.6°S, 210.3°E). Based on preliminary geologic mapping [3,4], we interpret the two prominent catenae as pit craters associated with large scale tectonism rather than secondary impacts. We interpret two large curvilinear depressions near the eastern quadrangle boundary as secondary crater chains resulting from the Urvara impact. Textural and morphological asymme-tries in crater materials within the quadrangle indicate heterogeneities in subsurface composition and volatile content. Features on the Urvara basin floor are consistent with impact fluidization of target materials; post impact extrusion of volatile rich material may have also played a minor role. References: [1] Williams D.A. et al. (2014) Icarus, 244, 1-12. [2] Yingst R.A. et al. (2014) PSS, 103, 2-23. [3] Sizemore et al. (2015) GSA Abstracts with Program

  15. Small vs. Large Convective Cloud Objects from CERES Aqua Observations: Where are the Intraseasonal Variation Signals?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Kuan-Man

    2016-01-01

    During inactive phases of Madden-Julian oscillation (MJO), there are plenty of deep but small convective systems and far fewer deep and large ones. During active phases of MJO, a manifestation of an increase in the occurrence of large and deep cloud clusters results from an amplification of large-scale motions by stronger convective heating. This study is designed to quantitatively examine the roles of small and large cloud clusters during the MJO life cycle. We analyze the cloud object data from Aqua CERES observations for tropical deep convective (DC) and cirrostratus (CS) cloud object types according to the real-time multivariate MJO index. The cloud object is a contiguous region of the earth with a single dominant cloud-system type. The size distributions, defined as the footprint numbers as a function of cloud object diameters, for particular MJO phases depart greatly from the combined (8-phase) distribution at large cloud-object diameters due to the reduced/increased numbers of cloud objects related to changes in the large-scale environments. The medium diameter corresponding to the combined distribution is determined and used to partition all cloud objects into "small" and "large" groups of a particular phase. The two groups corresponding to the combined distribution have nearly equal numbers of footprints. The medium diameters are 502 km for DC and 310 km for cirrostratus. The range of the variation between two extreme phases (typically, the most active and depressed phases) for the small group is 6-11% in terms of the numbers of cloud objects and the total footprint numbers. The corresponding range for the large group is 19-44%. In terms of the probability density functions of radiative and cloud physical properties, there are virtually no differences between the MJO phases for the small group, but there are significant differences for the large groups for both DC and CS types. These results suggest that the intreseasonal variation signals reside at the

  16. Status of the international criticality safety benchmark evaluation project (ICSBEP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since ICNC'99, four new editions of the International Handbook of Evaluated Criticality Safety Benchmark Experiments have been published. The number of benchmark specifications in the Handbook has grown from 2157 in 1999 to 3073 in 2003, an increase of nearly 1000 specifications. These benchmarks are used to validate neutronics codes and nuclear cross-section data. Twenty evaluations representing 192 benchmark specifications were added to the Handbook in 2003. The status of the International Criticality Safety Benchmark Evaluation Project (ICSBEP) is provided in this paper along with a summary of the newly added benchmark specifications that appear in the 2003 Edition of the Handbook. (author)

  17. Benchmarking Declarative Approximate Selection Predicates

    CERN Document Server

    Hassanzadeh, Oktie

    2009-01-01

    Declarative data quality has been an active research topic. The fundamental principle behind a declarative approach to data quality is the use of declarative statements to realize data quality primitives on top of any relational data source. A primary advantage of such an approach is the ease of use and integration with existing applications. Several similarity predicates have been proposed in the past for common quality primitives (approximate selections, joins, etc.) and have been fully expressed using declarative SQL statements. In this thesis, new similarity predicates are proposed along with their declarative realization, based on notions of probabilistic information retrieval. Then, full declarative specifications of previously proposed similarity predicates in the literature are presented, grouped into classes according to their primary characteristics. Finally, a thorough performance and accuracy study comparing a large number of similarity predicates for data cleaning operations is performed.

  18. Benchmarking of photon and coupled neutron and photon process of SuperMC 2.0

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Super Monte Carlo Calculation Program for Nuclear and Radiation Process (SuperMC), developed by FDS Team in China, is a multi-functional simulation program mainly based on Monte Carlo (MC) method and advanced computer technology. This paper focuses on the benchmarking of physical process of photon and coupled neutron-photon of SuperMC2.0. Integral leakage rate of photon in the spherical and hemispherical shell experiment was tested to verify the physical process of photon and coupled neutron and photon transport. Vanadium assembly experiment and ADS benchmark were given as comprehensive benchmarks. The correctness was preliminarily verified by comparing calculation results of SuperMC with experimental results and MCNP calculation results. (author)

  19. Analytical Benchmarking, Precision Particle Tracking, Electric and Magnetic Storage Rings, Runge-Kutta, Predictor-Corrector

    CERN Document Server

    Metodiev, E M; Fandaros, M; Haciomeroglu, S; Huang, D; Huang, K L; Patil, A; Prodromou, R; Semertzidis, O A; Sharma, D; Stamatakis, A N; Orlov, Y F; Semertzidis, Y K

    2015-01-01

    A set of analytical benchmarks for tracking programs are required for precision storage ring experiments. To determine the accuracy of precision tracking programs in electric and magnetic rings, a variety of analytical estimates of particle and spin dynamics in the rings are developed and compared to the numerical results of tracking simulations. Initial discrepancies in the comparisons indicated the need for improvement of several of the analytical estimates. As an example, we find that the fourth order Runge-Kutta/Predictor-Corrector method was accurate but slow, and that it passed all the benchmarks it was tested against, often to the sub-part per billion level. Thus high precision analytical estimates and tracking programs based on fourth order Runge-Kutta/Predictor-Corrector integration can be used to benchmark faster tracking programs for accuracy.

  20. Alternative industrial carbon emissions benchmark based on input-output analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Mengyao; Ji, Xi

    2016-05-01

    Some problems exist in the current carbon emissions benchmark setting systems. The primary consideration for industrial carbon emissions standards highly relate to direct carbon emissions (power-related emissions) and only a portion of indirect emissions are considered in the current carbon emissions accounting processes. This practice is insufficient and may cause double counting to some extent due to mixed emission sources. To better integrate and quantify direct and indirect carbon emissions, an embodied industrial carbon emissions benchmark setting method is proposed to guide the establishment of carbon emissions benchmarks based on input-output analysis. This method attempts to link direct carbon emissions with inter-industrial economic exchanges and systematically quantifies carbon emissions embodied in total product delivery chains. The purpose of this study is to design a practical new set of embodied intensity-based benchmarks for both direct and indirect carbon emissions. Beijing, at the first level of carbon emissions trading pilot schemes in China, plays a significant role in the establishment of these schemes and is chosen as an example in this study. The newly proposed method tends to relate emissions directly to each responsibility in a practical way through the measurement of complex production and supply chains and reduce carbon emissions from their original sources. This method is expected to be developed under uncertain internal and external contexts and is further expected to be generalized to guide the establishment of industrial benchmarks for carbon emissions trading schemes in China and other countries.

  1. Toxicological benchmarks for screening potential contaminants of concern for effects on sediment-associated biota

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Because a hazardous waste site may contain hundreds of chemicals, it is important to screen contaminants of concern for the ecological risk assessment. Often this screening is done as part of a Screening Assessment, the purpose of which is to evaluate the available data, identify data gaps, and screen potential contaminants of concern. Screening may be accomplished by using a set of toxicological benchmarks. These benchmarks are helpful in determining whether contaminants warrant further assessment or are at a level that requires no further attention. If a chemical concentration or the reported detection limit exceeds a proposed lower benchmark, more analysis is needed to determine the hazards posed by that chemical. If, however, the chemical concentration falls below the lower benchmark value, the chemical may be eliminated from further study. This report briefly describes three categories of approaches to the development of sediment quality benchmarks. These approaches are based on analytical chemistry, toxicity test results, and field survey data. A fourth integrative approach incorporates all three types of data

  2. Utilizing benchmark data from the ANL-ZPR diagnostic cores program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The support of the criticality safety community is allowing the production of benchmark descriptions of several assemblies from the ZPR Diagnostic Cores Program. The assemblies have high sensitivities to nuclear data for a few isotopes. This can highlight limitations in nuclear data for selected nuclides or in standard methods used to treat these data. The present work extends the use of the simplified model of the U9 benchmark assembly beyond the validation of keff. Further simplifications have been made to produce a data testing benchmark in the style of the standard CSEWG benchmark specifications. Calculations for this data testing benchmark are compared to results obtained with more detailed models and methods to determine their biases. These biases or corrections factors can then be applied in the use of the less refined methods and models. Data testing results using Versions IV, V, and VI of the ENDF/B nuclear data are presented for keff, f28/f25, c28/f25, and βeff. These limited results demonstrate the importance of studying other integral parameters in addition to keff in trying to improve nuclear data and methods and the importance of accounting for methods and/or modeling biases when using data testing results to infer the quality of the nuclear data files

  3. Prague texture segmentation data generator and benchmark

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mikeš, Stanislav; Haindl, Michal

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 2006, č. 64 (2006), s. 67-68. ISSN 0926-4981 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) 1M0572; GA AV ČR(CZ) 1ET400750407; GA AV ČR IAA2075302 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10750506 Keywords : image segmentation * texture * benchmark * web Subject RIV: BD - Theory of Information

  4. Cleanroom Energy Efficiency: Metrics and Benchmarks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    International SEMATECH Manufacturing Initiative; Mathew, Paul A.; Tschudi, William; Sartor, Dale; Beasley, James

    2010-07-07

    Cleanrooms are among the most energy-intensive types of facilities. This is primarily due to the cleanliness requirements that result in high airflow rates and system static pressures, as well as process requirements that result in high cooling loads. Various studies have shown that there is a wide range of cleanroom energy efficiencies and that facility managers may not be aware of how energy efficient their cleanroom facility can be relative to other cleanroom facilities with the same cleanliness requirements. Metrics and benchmarks are an effective way to compare one facility to another and to track the performance of a given facility over time. This article presents the key metrics and benchmarks that facility managers can use to assess, track, and manage their cleanroom energy efficiency or to set energy efficiency targets for new construction. These include system-level metrics such as air change rates, air handling W/cfm, and filter pressure drops. Operational data are presented from over 20 different cleanrooms that were benchmarked with these metrics and that are part of the cleanroom benchmark dataset maintained by Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL). Overall production efficiency metrics for cleanrooms in 28 semiconductor manufacturing facilities in the United States and recorded in the Fabs21 database are also presented.

  5. Benchmarking 2010: Trends in Education Philanthropy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bearman, Jessica

    2010-01-01

    "Benchmarking 2010" offers insights into the current priorities, practices and concerns of education grantmakers. The report is divided into five sections: (1) Mapping the Education Grantmaking Landscape; (2) 2010 Funding Priorities; (3) Strategies for Leveraging Greater Impact; (4) Identifying Significant Trends in Education Funding; and (5)…

  6. Benchmarking 2011: Trends in Education Philanthropy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grantmakers for Education, 2011

    2011-01-01

    The analysis in "Benchmarking 2011" is based on data from an unduplicated sample of 184 education grantmaking organizations--approximately two-thirds of Grantmakers for Education's (GFE's) network of grantmakers--who responded to an online survey consisting of fixed-choice and open-ended questions. Because a different subset of funders elects to…

  7. What Is the Impact of Subject Benchmarking?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pidcock, Steve

    2006-01-01

    The introduction of subject benchmarking led to fears of increased external intervention in the activities of universities and a more restrictive view of institutional autonomy, accompanied by an undermining of the academic profession, particularly through the perceived threat of the introduction of a national curriculum for higher education. For…

  8. A protein–DNA docking benchmark

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Dijk, M.; Bonvin, A.M.J.J.

    2008-01-01

    We present a protein–DNA docking benchmark containing 47 unbound–unbound test cases of which 13 are classified as easy, 22 as intermediate and 12 as difficult cases. The latter shows considerable structural rearrangement upon complex formation. DNA-specific modifications such as flipped out bases an

  9. Resolution for the Loviisa benchmark problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the present paper, the Loviisa benchmark problem for cycles 11 and 8, and reactor blocks 1 and 2 from Loviisa NPP, is calculated. This problem user law leakage reload patterns and was posed at the second thematic group of TIC meeting held in Rheinsberg GDR, march 1989. SPPS-1 coarse mesh code has been used for the calculations

  10. Comparative benchmarks of full QCD algorithms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report performance benchmarks for several algorithms that we have used to simulate the Schroedinger functional with two flavors of dynamical quarks. They include hybrid and polynomial hybrid Monte Carlo with preconditioning. An appendix describes a method to deal with autocorrelations for nonlinear functions of primary observables as they are met here due to reweighting. (orig.)

  11. First CSNI numerical benchmark problem: comparison report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to be able to make valid statements about a model's ability to describe a certain physical situation, it is indispensable that the numerical errors are much smaller than the modelling errors; otherwise, numerical errors could compensate or over pronounce model errors in an uncontrollable way. Therefore, knowledge about the numerical errors dependence on discretization parameters (e.g. size of spatial and temporal mesh) is required. In recognition of this need, numerical benchmark problems have been introduced. In the area of transient two-phase flow, numerical benchmarks are rather new. In June 1978, the CSNI Working Group on Emergency Core Cooling of Water Reactors has proposed to ICD /CSNI to sponsor a First CSNI Numerical Benchmark exercise. By the end of October 1979, results of the computation had been received from 10 organisations in 10 different countries. Based on these contributions, a preliminary comparison report has been prepared and distributed to the members of the CSNI Working Group on Emergency Core Cooling of Water Reactors, and to the contributors to the benchmark exercise. Comments on the preliminary comparison report by some contributors have subsequently been received. They have been considered in writing this final comparison report

  12. Benchmarking Linked Open Data Management Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Angles Rojas, R.; Pham, M.D.; Boncz, P.A.

    2014-01-01

    With inherent support for storing and analysing highly interconnected data, graph and RDF databases appear as natural solutions for developing Linked Open Data applications. However, current benchmarks for these database technologies do not fully attain the desirable characteristics in industrial-st

  13. Benchmarking in radiation protection in pharmaceutical industries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A benchmarking on radiation protection in seven pharmaceutical companies in Germany and Switzerland was carried out. As the result relevant parameters describing the performance and costs of radiation protection were acquired and compiled and subsequently depicted in figures in order to make these data comparable. (orig.)

  14. Three-dimensional RAMA fluence methodology benchmarking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes the benchmarking of the RAMA Fluence Methodology software, that has been performed in accordance with U. S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission Regulatory Guide 1.190. The RAMA Fluence Methodology has been developed by TransWare Enterprises Inc. through funding provided by the Electric Power Research Inst., Inc. (EPRI) and the Boiling Water Reactor Vessel and Internals Project (BWRVIP). The purpose of the software is to provide an accurate method for calculating neutron fluence in BWR pressure vessels and internal components. The Methodology incorporates a three-dimensional deterministic transport solution with flexible arbitrary geometry representation of reactor system components, previously available only with Monte Carlo solution techniques. Benchmarking was performed on measurements obtained from three standard benchmark problems which include the Pool Criticality Assembly (PCA), VENUS-3, and H. B. Robinson Unit 2 benchmarks, and on flux wire measurements obtained from two BWR nuclear plants. The calculated to measured (C/M) ratios range from 0.93 to 1.04 demonstrating the accuracy of the RAMA Fluence Methodology in predicting neutron flux, fluence, and dosimetry activation. (authors)

  15. A Programming Model Performance Study Using the NAS Parallel Benchmarks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongzhang Shan

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Harnessing the power of multicore platforms is challenging due to the additional levels of parallelism present. In this paper we use the NAS Parallel Benchmarks to study three programming models, MPI, OpenMP and PGAS to understand their performance and memory usage characteristics on current multicore architectures. To understand these characteristics we use the Integrated Performance Monitoring tool and other ways to measure communication versus computation time, as well as the fraction of the run time spent in OpenMP. The benchmarks are run on two different Cray XT5 systems and an Infiniband cluster. Our results show that in general the three programming models exhibit very similar performance characteristics. In a few cases, OpenMP is significantly faster because it explicitly avoids communication. For these particular cases, we were able to re-write the UPC versions and achieve equal performance to OpenMP. Using OpenMP was also the most advantageous in terms of memory usage. Also we compare performance differences between the two Cray systems, which have quad-core and hex-core processors. We show that at scale the performance is almost always slower on the hex-core system because of increased contention for network resources.

  16. Next-Generation Angular Distribution Models for Top-of-Atmosphere Radiative Flux Calculation from the CERES Instruments: Methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, W.; Corbett, J.; Eitzen, Z.; Liang, L.

    2015-01-01

    The top-of-atmosphere (TOA) radiative fluxes are critical components to advancing our understanding of the Earth's radiative energy balance, radiative effects of clouds and aerosols, and climate feedback. The Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) instruments provide broadband shortwave and longwave radiance measurements. These radiances are converted to fluxes by using scene-type-dependent angular distribution models (ADMs). This paper describes the next-generation ADMs that are developed for Terra and Aqua using all available CERES rotating azimuth plane radiance measurements. Coincident cloud and aerosol retrievals, and radiance measurements from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), and meteorological parameters from Goddard Earth Observing System (GEOS) data assimilation version 5.4.1 are used to define scene type. CERES radiance measurements are stratified by scene type and by other parameters that are important for determining the anisotropy of the given scene type. Anisotropic factors are then defined either for discrete intervals of relevant parameters or as a continuous functions of combined parameters, depending on the scene type. Significant differences between the ADMs described in this paper and the existing ADMs are over clear-sky scene types and polar scene types. Over clear ocean, we developed a set of shortwave (SW) ADMs that explicitly account for aerosols. Over clear land, the SW ADMs are developed for every 1 latitude1 longitude region for every calendar month using a kernel-based bidirectional reflectance model. Over clear Antarctic scenes, SW ADMs are developed by accounting the effects of sastrugi on anisotropy. Over sea ice, a sea-ice brightness index is used to classify the scene type. Under cloudy conditions over all surface types, the longwave (LW) and window (WN) ADMs are developed by combining surface and cloud-top temperature, surface and cloud emissivity, cloud fraction, and precipitable water

  17. AIRS Water Vapor and Cloud Products Validate and Explain Recent Negative Global and Tropical OLR Trends Observed by CERES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susskind, Joel; Molnar, Gyula; Iredell, Lena

    2010-01-01

    This paper compares spatial and temporal anomalies and trends of OLR as observed by CERES and computed based on AIRS retrieved surface and atmospheric geophysical parameters over the time period September 2002 February 2010. This time period is marked by a substantial decreasing OLR trend on the order of -0.1 W/m2/yr averaged over the globe. There are very large spatial variations of these trends however, with local values ranging from -2.6 W/m2/yr to +3.0 W/m2/yr in the tropics. The spatial patterns of the AIRS and CERES trends are in essentially perfect agreement with each other, as are the anomaly time series averaged over different spatial regions. This essentially perfect agreement of OLR anomalies and trends derived from observations by two different instruments, in totally independent and different manners, implies that both sets of results must be highly accurate. The agreement of anomalies and trends of OLR as observed by CERES and computed from AIRS derived products also indirectly validates the anomalies and trends of the AIRS derived products as well. We used the anomalies and trends of AIRS derived water vapor and cloud products to explain why global OLR has had a large negative trend over the time period September 2002 through February 2010. Tropical OLR began to decrease significantly at the onset of a strong La Nina in mid-2007. AIRS products show that cloudiness and mid-tropospheric water vapor began to increase in the region 5degN - 20degS latitude extending eastward from 150degW - 30 E longitude at that time, with a corresponding very large drop in OLR in this region. Late 2009 is characterized by a strong El-Nino, with a corresponding change in sign of observed anomalies of mid-tropospheric water vapor, cloud cover, and OLR in this region, as we] l as that of OLR anomalies in the tropics and globally. Monthly mean anomalies of OLR, water vapor and cloud cover over this region are all shown to be highly correlated in time with those of an El Nino

  18. SARNET hydrogen deflagration benchmarks: Main outcomes and conclusions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Modelling of hydrogen turbulent flame: effect of turbulence. • Modelling of hydrogen turbulent flame: effect of additional diluents. • Comparison of different models and modelling approaches. • Recommendations for further experimental and modelling work dealing with combustion. - Abstract: In case of a core melt-down accident in a light water nuclear reactor, hydrogen is produced during reactor core degradation and released into the reactor building. This subsequently creates a combustion hazard. A local ignition of the combustible mixture may generate standing flames or initially slow propagating flames. Depending on geometry, mixture composition and turbulence level, the flame can accelerate or be quenched after a certain distance. The loads generated by the combustion process (increase of the containment atmosphere pressure and temperature) may threaten the integrity of the containment building and of internal walls and equipment. Turbulent deflagration flames may generate high pressure pulses, temperature peaks, shock waves and large pressure gradients which could severely damage specific containment components, internal walls and/or safety equipment. The evaluation of such loads requires validated codes which can be used with a high level of confidence. Currently, turbulence and steam effect on flame acceleration, flame deceleration and flame quenching mechanisms are not well reproduced by combustion models usually implemented in safety tools and further model enhancement and validation are still needed. For this purpose, two hydrogen deflagration benchmark exercises have been organised in the framework of the SARNET network. The first benchmark was focused on turbulence effect on flame propagation. For this purpose, three tests performed in the ENACCEF facility were considered. They concern vertical flame propagation in an initially homogenous mixture with 13 vol.% hydrogen content and different geometrical configurations. Three blockage

  19. CFD validation in OECD/NEA t-junction benchmark.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Obabko, A. V.; Fischer, P. F.; Tautges, T. J.; Karabasov, S.; Goloviznin, V. M.; Zaytsev, M. A.; Chudanov, V. V.; Pervichko, V. A.; Aksenova, A. E. (Mathematics and Computer Science); (Cambridge Univ.); (Moscow Institute of Nuclar Energy Safety)

    2011-08-23

    and benchmark data. The numerical scheme has a very small scheme diffusion and is the second and the first order accurate in space and time, correspondingly. We compare and contrast simulation results for three computational fluid dynamics codes CABARET, Conv3D, and Nek5000 for the T-junction thermal striping problem that was the focus of a recent OECD/NEA blind benchmark. The corresponding codes utilize finite-difference implicit large eddy simulation (ILES), finite-volume LES on fully staggered grids, and an LES spectral element method (SEM), respectively. The simulations results are in a good agreement with experimenatl data. We present results from a study of sensitivity to computational mesh and time integration interval, and discuss the next steps in the simulation of this problem.

  20. BN-600 fully MOX fuelled core benchmark analyses (Phase 4). Draft synthesis report - Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    from the Republic of Korea, IPPE from the Russian Federation. The participants applied their own state-of-the-art basic data, computer codes and methods to the benchmark analysis. Within the scope of these core benchmark analyses, they have validated their efforts to update basic nuclear data, and to improve methodologies and computer codes for calculating safety relevant reactor physics parameters. This report first addresses the benchmark definitions and specifications given for Phase 4 and briefly introduces the basic data, computer codes, and methodologies applied to the benchmark analysis by various participants. Then, the results for integral and local reactivity coefficient values obtained by the participants are inter-compared in terms of calculational uncertainty resulting from different data and method approximations along with their effects on the ULOF and UTOP transient behaviours. In addition, the results are evaluated in comparison with the results for the hybrid core. This benchmark concludes that the safety analysis of such a design would require the use of the most advanced computational tools (transport theory and three-dimensional Hex-Z modeling are required) which should be checked by representative experiments. A side conclusion to this benchmark is that the use of MOX fuel in the BN-600 core could be envisaged given with a design penalty associated to the larger reactivity coefficient uncertainties

  1. Benchmarking in Identifying Priority Directions of Development of Telecommunication Operators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaharchenko Lolita A.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The article analyses evolution of development and possibilities of application of benchmarking in the telecommunication sphere. It studies essence of benchmarking on the basis of generalisation of approaches of different scientists to definition of this notion. In order to improve activity of telecommunication operators, the article identifies the benchmarking technology and main factors, that determine success of the operator in the modern market economy, and the mechanism of benchmarking and component stages of carrying out benchmarking by a telecommunication operator. It analyses the telecommunication market and identifies dynamics of its development and tendencies of change of the composition of telecommunication operators and providers. Having generalised the existing experience of benchmarking application, the article identifies main types of benchmarking of telecommunication operators by the following features: by the level of conduct of (branch, inter-branch and international benchmarking; by relation to participation in the conduct (competitive and joint; and with respect to the enterprise environment (internal and external.

  2. Benchmarking – A tool for judgment or improvement?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Grane Mikael Gregaard

    2010-01-01

    Change in construction is high on the agenda for the Danish government and a comprehensive effort is done in improving quality and efficiency. This has led to an initiated governmental effort in bringing benchmarking into the Danish construction sector. This paper is an appraisal of benchmarking as...... it is presently carried out in the Danish construction sector. Many different perceptions of benchmarking and the nature of the construction sector, lead to an uncertainty in how to perceive and use benchmarking, hence, generating an uncertainty in understanding the effects of benchmarking. This...... paper addresses these issues, and describes how effects are closely connected to the perception of benchmarking, the intended users of the system and the application of the benchmarking results. The fundamental basis of this paper is taken from the development of benchmarking in the Danish construction...

  3. Toxicological benchmarks for screening contaminants of potential concern for effects on sediment-associated biota: 1994 Revision. Environmental Restoration Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Because a hazardous waste site may contain hundreds of chemicals, it is important to screen contaminants of potential concern for the ecological risk assessment. Often this screening is done as part of a Screening Assessment, the purpose of which is to evaluate the available data, identify data gaps, and screen contaminants of potential concern. Screening may be accomplished by using a set of toxicological benchmarks. These benchmarks are helpful in determining whether contaminants warrant further assessment or are at a level that requires no further attention. If a chemical concentration or the reported detection limit exceeds a proposed lower benchmark, more analysis is needed to determine the hazards posed by that chemical. If, however, the chemical concentration falls below the lower benchmark value, the chemical may be eliminated from further study. This report briefly describes three categories of approaches to the development of sediment quality benchmarks. These approaches are based on analytical chemistry, toxicity test and field survey data. A fourth integrative approach incorporates all three types of data. The equilibrium partitioning approach is recommended for screening nonpolar organic contaminants of concern in sediments. For inorganics, the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration has developed benchmarks that may be used for screening. There are supplemental benchmarks from the province of Ontario, the state of Wisconsin, and US Environmental Protection Agency Region V. Pore water analysis is recommended for polar organic compounds; comparisons are then made against water quality benchmarks. This report is an update of a prior report. It contains revised ER-L and ER-M values, the five EPA proposed sediment quality criteria, and benchmarks calculated for several nonionic organic chemicals using equilibrium partitioning

  4. Revaluering benchmarking - A topical theme for the construction industry

    OpenAIRE

    Rasmussen, Grane Mikael Gregaard

    2011-01-01

    Over the past decade, benchmarking has increasingly gained foothold in the construction industry. The predominant research, perceptions and uses of benchmarking are valued so strongly and uniformly, that what may seem valuable, is actually abstaining researchers and practitioners from studying and questioning the concept objectively. This paper addresses the underlying nature of benchmarking, and accounts for the importance of focusing attention on the sociological impacts benchmarking has in...

  5. Regression Benchmarking: An Approach to Quality Assurance in Performance

    OpenAIRE

    Bulej, Lubomír

    2005-01-01

    The paper presents a short summary of our work in the area of regression benchmarking and its application to software development. Specially, we explain the concept of regression benchmarking, the requirements for employing regression testing in a software project, and methods used for analyzing the vast amounts of data resulting from repeated benchmarking. We present the application of regression benchmarking on a real software project and conclude with a glimpse at the challenges for the fu...

  6. Destination benchmarking: facilities, customer satisfaction and levels of tourist expenditure

    OpenAIRE

    Metin KOZAK

    2000-01-01

    An extensive review of past benchmarking literature showed that there have been a substantial number of both conceptual and empirical attempts to formulate a benchmarking approach, particularly in the manufacturing industry. However, there has been limited investigation and application of benchmarking in tourism and particularly in tourist destinations. The aim of this research is to further develop the concept of benchmarking for application within tourist destinations and to evaluate its...

  7. On the Extrapolation with the Denton Proportional Benchmarking Method

    OpenAIRE

    Marco Marini; Tommaso Di Fonzo

    2012-01-01

    Statistical offices have often recourse to benchmarking methods for compiling quarterly national accounts (QNA). Benchmarking methods employ quarterly indicator series (i) to distribute annual, more reliable series of national accounts and (ii) to extrapolate the most recent quarters not yet covered by annual benchmarks. The Proportional First Differences (PFD) benchmarking method proposed by Denton (1971) is a widely used solution for distribution, but in extrapolation it may suffer when the...

  8. An Arbitrary Benchmark CAPM: One Additional Frontier Portfolio is Sufficient

    OpenAIRE

    Ekern, Steinar

    2008-01-01

    The benchmark CAPM linearly relates the expected returns on an arbitrary asset, an arbitrary benchmark portfolio, and an arbitrary MV frontier portfolio. The benchmark is not required to be on the frontier and may be non-perfectly correlated with the frontier portfolio. The benchmark CAPM extends and generalizes previous CAPM formulations, including the zero beta, two correlated frontier portfolios, riskless augmented frontier, and inefficient portfolio versions. The covariance between the of...

  9. Benchmarking of corporate social responsibility: Methodological problems and robustness.

    OpenAIRE

    Graafland, J.J.; Eijffinger, S.C.W.; Smid, H.

    2004-01-01

    This paper investigates the possibilities and problems of benchmarking Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR). After a methodological analysis of the advantages and problems of benchmarking, we develop a benchmark method that includes economic, social and environmental aspects as well as national and international aspects of CSR. The overall benchmark is based on a weighted average of these aspects. The weights are based on the opinions of companies and NGO’s. Using different me...

  10. Towards a Benchmark Suite for Modelica Compilers: Large Models

    OpenAIRE

    Frenkel, Jens; Schubert, Christian; Kunze, Günter; Fritzson, Peter; Sjölund, Martin; Pop, Adrian

    2011-01-01

    The paper presents a contribution to a Modelica benchmark suite. Basic ideas for a tool independent benchmark suite based on Python scripting along with models for testing the performance of Modelica compilers regarding large systems of equation are given. The automation of running the benchmark suite is demonstrated followed by a selection of benchmark results to determine the current limits of Modelica tools and how they scale for an increasing number of equations.

  11. Argonne National Laboratory results for the OECD 3-D Mox fuel assembly benchmark (C5G7 Mox Benchmark Extension)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two prototypic versions of the Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) nodal neutronics transport code VARIANT are used to solve the OECD 3-D Mox fuel assembly benchmark. The first prototypical code is titled VARIANT-SE, and is based upon the classical spherical harmonics expansion of the angular flux within the node. The second prototypical code is titled VARIANT-ISE, and it uses a form of integral transport internal to each node. In both cases, spherical harmonic Lagrange multipliers are maintained to couple the nodes together. Also, spatial finite elements within each node are used to model the fuel pin cell geometry specified in the OECD benchmark. In general the VARIANT-ISE code yielded results that were comparable to the Monte-Carlo reference solution. The remaining errors resulted primarily from the low space-angle approximation applied. The VARIANT-SE code produced results that were less accurate than those of VARIANT-ISE. This is a direct result of the lack of refinement in the space-angle approximation applied in the VARIANT-SE code

  12. Taking Stock of Corporate Benchmarking Practices: Panacea or Pandora's Box?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleisher, Craig S.; Burton, Sara

    1995-01-01

    Discusses why corporate communications/public relations (cc/pr) should be benchmarked (an approach used by cc/pr managers to demonstrate the value of their activities to skeptical organizational executives). Discusses myths about cc/pr benchmarking; types, targets, and focus of cc/pr benchmarking; a process model; and critical decisions about…

  13. Discovering and Implementing Best Practices to Strengthen SEAs: Collaborative Benchmarking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Building State Capacity and Productivity Center, 2013

    2013-01-01

    This paper is written for state educational agency (SEA) leaders who are considering the benefits of collaborative benchmarking, and it addresses the following questions: (1) What does benchmarking of best practices entail?; (2) How does "collaborative benchmarking" enhance the process?; (3) How do SEAs control the process so that "their" needs…

  14. 40 CFR 141.172 - Disinfection profiling and benchmarking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... benchmarking. 141.172 Section 141.172 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED... Disinfection-Systems Serving 10,000 or More People § 141.172 Disinfection profiling and benchmarking. (a... sanitary surveys conducted by the State. (c) Disinfection benchmarking. (1) Any system required to...

  15. 42 CFR 422.258 - Calculation of benchmarks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Calculation of benchmarks. 422.258 Section 422.258... and Plan Approval § 422.258 Calculation of benchmarks. (a) The term “MA area-specific non-drug monthly... the plan bids. (c) Calculation of MA regional non-drug benchmark amount. CMS calculates the...

  16. The NeT bead-on-plate benchmark for weld residual stress simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fracture mechanics based structural integrity assessments of pressure vessels and piping are widely used to support the economic and safe management of operating engineering plant. Assessments of defects at weldments can be highly sensitive to the through-thickness distribution of residual stress assumed in the fracture calculations. Increasingly, finite element modelling approaches are applied to predict residual stress in engineering structures arising from the welding process. However, such methods are complex and require analysts to make many assumptions and approximations. Guidelines covering the calculation of residual stresses in weldments are being prepared for inclusion in the R6 defect assessment procedure and will be accompanied by a series of validation benchmarks. The benchmarks will allow analysts to evaluate and improve the accuracy of weld modelling approaches and assess their suitability for use in fracture assessments. The first part of this paper presents an austenitic stainless steel bead-on-plate weldment validation benchmark based on the extensive round robin measurements performed by members of the European NeT project. The benchmark defines thermal and residual stress performance targets against which a weld simulation approach can be evaluated. Guidance is also provided on how to validate predicted residual stress profiles for use in a high integrity fracture assessment. The second part of this paper provides a commentary on how the weld simulation accuracy and performance targets have been established

  17. Prevalencia de hiperlipidemia en niños y adolescentes de la provincia de Cáceres

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prieto Albino Luis

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available FUNDAMENTO: Actualmente se considera al factor lipídico como el principal responsable del riesgo cardiovascular del individuo joven, factor ya presente en la infancia en proporciones preocupantes y crecientes como parecen mostrar diversos estudios nacionales. En el presente trabajo se analiza la prevalencia de hiperlipidemia en niños de la provincia de Cáceres según diversos criterios, describiendo los cambios según grupos de edad y sexo, y comparando los resultados globales con otros estudios autóctonos. MÉTODO: Estudio descriptivo transversal de una muestra representativa y proporcional de 2.150 niños (2 a 16 años de la provincia de Cáceres (N=91.083. Se determina: colesterol total, fracciones, apolipoproteinas y cocientes de riesgo (técnica enzimática. RESULTADOS: El 27.9% de los niños presenta valores de colesterol total >200 mg/dl.; 7.5% de las mujeres y 4.7% de los varones muestran cifras superiores a 230 mg/dl. Niveles de C-LDL>130 mg/dl. aparecen en un 26.4%, de Apo-B>75 mg/dl en el 65.5% y de C-NO-HDL>165 en el 8.4%. Un C-HDL3.5 y LDL/HDL>2.2 se mostraron en el 36.1% y en el 39.8% respectivamente. La prevalencia de hiperlipidemia es superior en mujeres y etapas prepuberales. CONCLUSIONES: De forma global, e independientemente del criterio utilizado, la proporción de casos de hiperlipidemia es elevada y superior a la referida en otros estudios españoles. La prevalencia de hiperlipidemia es mayor en mujeres prepuberales, mostrándose los cocientes de riesgo mas discriminativos e identificando mejor el cambio del perfil lipídico puberal.

  18. Citizen Science participation in the NASA CERES Students' Cloud Observations Online Project (S'COOL)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, P. M.; Moore, S.; Crecelius, S.; Rogerson, T.; Chambers, L. H.

    2012-12-01

    ground truth data for CERES the 3 satellites currently carrying those instruments provide several options for scheduling. Should the citizen scientist be of school age, the student will be able to take the skills learned with the S'COOL project from the backyard to the classroom - or vice versa. S'COOL has attracted some unique citizen scientists over the years, providing ground truth observations from several unique locations. These include a group that circumnavigated the American continents, a woman who has rowed solo across all the world's oceans, and planned participation this fall from several Pacific research cruises. Classroom students turn ROVER observers, or citizen scientists that observe from varying locations, help over summer breaks and vacations. This is the case with a dedicated Connecticut elementary classroom that observes clouds as a class and is assigned summer work as roving observers to continue the data collection over their break. Outcomes: This paper will summarize the S'COOL project's experience with a variety of citizen scientists over the course of activities to date.

  19. Geological Mapping of the Ac-H-3 Dantu Quadrangle of Ceres from NASA's Dawn Mission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kneissl, Thomas; Schmedemann, Nico; Neesemann, Adrian; Williams, David A.; Crown, David A.; Mest, Scott C.; Buczkowski, Debra L.; Scully, Jennifer E. C.; Frigeri, Allessandro; Ruesch, Ottaviano; Hiesinger, Harald; Walter, Sebastian H. G.; Jaumann, Ralf; Roatsch, Thomas; Preusker, Frank; Kersten, Elke; Naß, Andrea; Nathues, Andreas; Platz, Thomas; Russell, Chistopher T.

    2016-04-01

    The Dawn Science Team is conducting a geologic mapping campaign for Ceres similar to that done for Vesta [1,2], including production of a Survey- and High Altitude Mapping Orbit (HAMO)-based global map and a series of 15 Low Altitude Mapping Orbit (LAMO)-based quadrangle maps. In this abstract we discuss the geologic evolution of the Ac-H-3 Dantu Quadrangle. The current map is based on a Framing Camera (FC) clear-filter image mosaic from HAMO data (~140 m/px) as well as a digital terrain model (DTM) derived from imagery of the Survey phase [3]. Albedo variations were identified and mapped using a mosaic of photometrically corrected HAMO images provided by DLR. FC color images provided further context for map unit identification. LAMO images (35m/pixel), which have just become available at the time of writing, will be used to update the map to be presented as a poster. The quadrangle is located between 21-66°N and 90-180°E in a large-scale depression north of the impact basin Kerwan. The northern and southeastern parts of the quadrangle are characterized by cratered terrain while the south and southwest are dominated by the partially smooth ejecta blankets of craters Dantu and Gaue. East-west oriented pit/crater chains in the southern half of the quadrangle might be related to tectonic processes [4,5]. Dantu crater (d=~126 km) is a complex impact crater showing slump terraces and a partially smooth crater floor with concentric and radial fractures. Furthermore, Dantu shows a central pit structure with pitted terrain on its floor as well as several bright spots in the interior and exterior of the crater. High-resolution measurements of crater size-frequency distributions (CSFDs) superposed on Dantu indicate a formation/modification age of ~200 - 700 Ma. Most of the ejecta appear to be relatively bright and correspond to parts of the #2 high albedo region observed with the Hubble Space Telescope [6]. However, the southwestern portion of the ejecta blanket is

  20. Benchmarking ICRF Full-wave Solvers for ITER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R. V. Budny, L. Berry, R. Bilato, P. Bonoli, M. Brambilla, R. J. Dumont, A. Fukuyama, R. Harvey, E. F. Jaeger, K. Indireshkumar, E. Lerche, D. McCune, C. K. Phillips, V. Vdovin, J. Wright, and members of the ITPA-IOS

    2011-01-06

    Abstract Benchmarking of full-wave solvers for ICRF simulations is performed using plasma profiles and equilibria obtained from integrated self-consistent modeling predictions of four ITER plasmas. One is for a high performance baseline (5.3 T, 15 MA) DT H-mode. The others are for half-field, half-current plasmas of interest for the pre-activation phase with bulk plasma ion species being either hydrogen or He4. The predicted profiles are used by six full-wave solver groups to simulate the ICRF electromagnetic fields and heating, and by three of these groups to simulate the current-drive. Approximate agreement is achieved for the predicted heating power for the DT and He4 cases. Factor of two disagreements are found for the cases with second harmonic He3 heating in bulk H cases. Approximate agreement is achieved simulating the ICRF current drive.