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Sample records for cerebro vascular oclusiva

  1. Funciones superiores en pacientes con accidente cerebro vascular.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe Rodríguez

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Los estudios realizados en Chile hasta la fecha no permiten detectar de manera significativa el deterioro neuropsicológico causado por el accidente cerebro vascular (ACV y el impacto que éste tiene en el paciente a nivel de su desenvolvimiento diario y familiar. Con base a esto el objetivo de esta investigación fue elaborar un perfil de deterioro neuropsicológico de las diversas funciones cerebrales superiores causado por un ACV, en un grupo de 50 pacientes de la Unidad de Medicina Física del Hospital San José al cuál se le administró un Protocolo de Evaluación Neuropsicológica, comparándose luego con un grupo control de 50 sujetos evaluados con el mismo protocolo. Se encuentra que sobre un 20% de la población con ACV evaluada presenta deterioro en al menos uno de los ítems evaluados, siendo las funciones ejecutivas, la memoria a largo plazo y la memoria a corto plazo las áreas mayoritariamente afectada en la población evaluada.

  2. Síndrome metabólica na doença arterial coronariana e vascular oclusiva: uma revisão sistemática Metabolic syndrome in coronary artery and occlusive vascular diseases: a systematic review

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    Daniela Reis Elbert Farias

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Atualmente, a síndrome metabólica (SM se mostra altamente prevalente, sendo associada a fatores de risco para doenças crônicas não transmissíveis, tais como diabetes mellitus tipo 2, doenças ateroscleróticas e coronarianas. O objetivo desta revisão sistemática foi descrever os resultados de estudos que investigaram a associação da SM com a doença arterial coronariana e doenças vasculares oclusivas. Foi realizada a revisão sistemática com dados de estudos originais publicados entre 1999 e 2008, escritos em inglês ou português, utilizando-se as bases de dados Medline, Pubmed, Highwire Press e Science Direct. Foram incluídos artigos que fizeram o diagnóstico da SM através do critério do National Cholesterol Education Program - Adult Treatment Panel III (NCEP ATP III, 2001. Foram excluídos estudos realizados com animais, de suplementação e que realizaram administração oral ou endovenosa de qualquer substância, assim como aqueles de baixa qualidade metodológica e com amostra inicialmente heterogênea. Apesar da heterogeneidade entre os estudos, observou-se que indivíduos com SM apresentam maior probabilidade (risco = 2,13 de desenvolverem as doenças vasculares oclusivas, doença coronariana, diabetes mellitus e acidente vascular encefálico. Mudanças no estilo de vida, como práticas alimentares saudáveis, atividade física regular e a cessação do tabagismo devem ser incentivadas pelos profissionais da saúde a fim de minimizar as complicações e a morbimortalidade associada à SM.

  3. Hidden intrahospital mortality for cerebro vascular diseases in the Intermediate Care Unit service. A five year period from 2000 to 2004. Mortalidad oculta intrahospitalaria por enfermedades cerebro vasculares en el Servicio de Terapia Intermedia. Quinquenio 2000-2004.

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    Julio Jova Hernández

    2005-11-01

    la mortalidad oculta por enfermedades cerebrovasculares en la Unidad de Cuidados Intermedios Métodos: Estudio descriptivo, retrospectivo, de serie de casos, realizado durante el quinquenio 2000-2004 en el Hospital Provincial ¨Dr. Gustavo Aldereguía Lima¨ de Cienfuegos. Se revisaron los informes mensuales del grupo de atención a enfermedades cerebro vasculares obtenidos de bases de datos computadorizadas del Departamento de Estadísticas del hospital (n=3477. Se aplicó encuesta para la obtención de datos como: año y mes de hospitalización, estado al egreso, lugar de fallecimiento si se produjo el mismo, estadía, y tipo de enfermedad cerebro vascular.Fueron revisados los protocolos de necropsia de los fallecidos. Resultados: La mortalidad oculta fue de 0,05; la principal entidad causal fue el infarto cerebral (71, 87 %, el comportamiento fue similar en los cinco años, la estadía media de pacientes fallecidos en Unidad de Cuidados Intermedios fue de 4,2 días y fuera de esta unidad de 8,7 días. Se comprobó la reducida mortalidad oculta intrahospitalaria por enfermedades cerebro vasculares con definición de la letalidad por estas entidades en los primeros días en cuidados progresivos. Un porciento reducido de los pacientes falleció en otras unidades, donde se constató una estadía media que duplica a la de la Unidad de Cuidados Intermedios y como principal causa la polimorbilidad asociada a la bronconeumonía.

  4. Effectiveness of Application of Cerebro-Vascular Function Testing in Early Screening for Cerebro-Vascular Diseases%脑血管功能检测在早期筛查脑血管疾病中的应用价值

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李喜梅; 王瑜; 叶燕珍; 付丽玲

    2015-01-01

    Objective To explore the effectiveness of application of cerebro-vascular function testing in early screening for cerebro-vascular diseases. Methods Altogether 2439 participants (1620 male and 819 female) were selected from the healthy check-up crowd. All of them accepted cerebro-vascular function testing so as to analyze the cerebro-vascular function comprehensive integral differences as well as cerebro-vascular function indexes and the distribution characteristics of integrated integral score between male and female participants. Results The proportion of cerebro-vascular function score≥75, 50~74.9, 25~49.9, 0~24.9 points in male participants were 88.3%, 9.4%, 1.6%and 6.0%versus 89.7%, 7.6%, 2.0%and 0.7%in female participants. There were no signiifcant differences between two groups (P>0.05). Percentage of high-risk stroke individual in male and female were 11.7 and 10.3 respectively. The signiifcantly upward trend appeared with the growth of the age. Means of maxim and minimum cerebral blood lfow velocity were reduced, and the means of peripheral resistance and pulse wave velocity were increased along with the age growth. There were no statistically signiifcant differences between gender in the abnormal rate of cerebral hemo-dynamics and the mean value of single index. Conclusion The cerebro-vascular function testing was suitable for screening for high-risk stroke individuals among healthy check-up crowd, which deserved wider promotion.%目的:探讨脑血管功能检测在早期筛查脑血管疾病中的应用价值。方法选择2439例健康体检者进行脑血管功能检测,其中男1620人,女819人,比较男女患者脑血管功能积分差异,分析脑血管功能指标及综合积分值的分布特征。结果男性脑血管功能积分值≥75分、50~74.9分、25~49.9分、0~24.9分的构成比分别为88.3%、9.4%、1.6%、6.0%;女性分别为89.7%、7.6%、2.0%、0.7%,两组比较差异无统计学意义(P>0.05)。男、女脑

  5. Comportamiento Clínico Epidemiológico de las Enfermedades Cerebro Vascular de la Policlínica Pedro del Toro Saad 2006 - 2007

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    Adisnubia Boue Ávila

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó una investigación descriptiva en la Policlínica Pedro del Toro Saad de la ciudad de Holguín, con el objetivo de abordar el comportamiento clínico epidemiológico, de las Enfermedades Cerebro Vascular .Los datos estadísticos se obtuvieron mediante la revisión de las historias clínicas familiares e individuales de los casos, se realizaron encuestas directas a los pacientes, la información se tomó del departamento de estadísticas por la autora. Los métodos empleados fueron el histórico lógico, análisis y síntesis e inducción - deducción. Observamos que hubo un incremento con la edad, predominando el sexo masculino una alta incidencia de la Hipertensión Arterial como factores de riesgo, existe un predominio de ocurrencia en el horario de la mañana, los trastornos del lenguaje y la pérdida de la fuerza muscular fueron los principales síntomas encontrados. Recomendamos realizar grupos multidisciplinarios de salud, para la rehabilitación adecuada de los pacientes con Enfermedades Cerebro-Vascular.

  6. 血压、血脂、血糖与心脑血管疾病相关性研究%Correlation between BP,BL and BS with Cardio-cerebro-vascular Disorders in Morbidity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李柏林; 唐世琪; 胡春梅; 陈敏芳

    2001-01-01

    目的:为了解高血压、高血脂、高血糖在心脑血管疾病的发病方面所起的作用及影响程度的相关性。方法:对武汉市3 151例脑力劳动者健康体检资料进行分析。结果:血糖、血脂均值及高血压、糖尿病、心脑血管疾病的患病率都随年龄的增长而增高,高血压与心脑血管疾病在患病率增高方面有明显的相关性,而血脂、血糖水平与心脑血管疾病的患病率之间相关性却不甚明显。结论:脑力劳动者患高血压病,特别是长期药物控制不好的高血压病才是心脑血管疾病发病的最重要危险因素,降低心脑血管疾病的发病率和复发率的关键是,加强对高血压病的监控,合理用药,稳定血压。%To investigate the correlation between hyperpressure hyperlipemia and hyperglycemia on effect of cardio-cerebro-vascular disorders in morbidity.Methods:The physical examination on 3 151 menter workers was analysed.Results:The average value of blood pressure (BP),blood lipin (BL) and blood sugar (BS) and the morbidity of cardio-cerebro-vascular disorders with aged were increased.Obviously hypertension correlates closely with the morbidity of cardio-cerebro-vascular disorders,but less with the value of BL and BS.Conclusion:The hypertension of mental worker is important factor of cardio-cerebro-vascular disorders.Especially,it is the most important factor of risk that the effect on the chronic medecine-control blood pressure is poor.

  7. Factores de riesgo relacionados con mortalidad por enfermedad cerebro vascular. armenia 2008 = Risk factors associated with cerebrovascular disease mortality, Armenia, Colombia, 2008

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    Álvarez Aristizábal, Luis Carlos

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: La Enfermedad cerebro vascular (ECV se encuentra entre las primeras causas de morbimortalidad en adultos en todo el mundo. Comparte con la enfermedad cardiovascular factores de riesgo modificables y no modificables; constituye una prioridad para la salud pública realizar todos los esfuerzos necesarios en la prevención primaria a través del tratamiento farmacológico y no farmacológico adecuados.Objetivo: Determinar la prevalencia y la mortalidad del accidente cerebrovascular y la relación con factores de riesgo.Métodos: se realizó un estudio de cross sectional .Se revisaron 318 historias clínicas de pacientes con diagnóstico de ECV que ingresaron a IPS de tercer nivel en la ciudad de Armenia entre 2005 y 2007. Se analizó la frecuencia de los factores de riesgo y se relacionaron con la mortalidad y tipos de ECV.Resultados: La edad promedio fue 72 años; la mortalidad del 29.9%. Presentaron ECV isquémico 61.9% y hemorrágica 38.1%, con una mortalidad de 21.3% y 43.8% respectivamente. Los factores de riesgo más prevalentes fueron: hipertensión arterial (74.5%, tabaquismo (23.3%, ACV o cardiopatía isquémica previos (15.4%, y diabetes (15.1%. Se encontraron asociados a mortalidad: presión arterial media al ingreso a urgencias mayor a 105 (OR 1.6, presión arterial diastólica mayor a 100 (OR 3.1 y ECV hemorrágica (OR 2.9.Conclusiones: los eventos hemorrágicos son menos frecuentes pero ocasionan mayor mortalidad que los isquémicos; es necesario realizar programas de prevención secundaria para el adecuado control de factores como la hipertensión arterial; además impulsar la promoción para el cambio a estilos de vida saludables.

  8. Patología cerebro-vascular hemorrágica en adultos asociada al consumo de cocaína Cerebral haemorrhage in adults associated with the use of cocaine

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    M. Blanco

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available La cocaína es la segunda droga de comercio ilegal más consumida en España después del cannabis. El número de pacientes atendidos en los servicios de urgencias tras consumir cocaína y los casos de muerte secundarios al consumo de la misma han ido aumentando hasta multiplicarse por seis en los últimos años. El consumo de este alcaloide ocasiona efectos nocivos, constatados sobre diferentes órganos y sistemas corporales, e incluso la muerte. A nivel del SNC destaca, por su gravedad e incidencia, la patología cerebro-vascular hemorrágica (PCVH. Este tipo de cuadro se halla asociado al consumo de drogas ilícitas entre el 9,5% y el 34% de los accidentes vasculares en menores de 45 años, siendo la cocaína la más frecuentemente implicada en su presentación. Por otro lado, la rotura de un aneurisma o malformación arteriovenosa se ha detectado hasta en el 50% de los pacientes con PCVH secundarios al consumo de cocaína. Presentamos tres casos de muerte súbita en adultos por patología cerebro-vascular hemorrágica asociada al consumo de cocaína.Cocaine is the second most frequent illegal drug consumed in Spain after cannabis. A significant increase has occurred in the number of individuals treated in emergency departments after cocaine use just as in the number of cocaine-related deaths. These rates have been actually multiplied by six in the latest years. Cocaine causes injury in different organ systems, even death. In the CNS the use of cocaine is frequently associated with cerebral haemorrhage. Stroke in young adults below 45 years is usually related to drug use between 9,5% and 34% of cases, and cocaine is the most frequently mentioned drug. Otherwise, even 50% of cocaine-related stroke is the result of rupture of saccular aneurysms involving the arteries at the base of the brain and vascular malformation. In this paper, we present three cases of sudden death in adults due to cerebral haemorrhage associated with cocaine use.

  9. Cerebro humano y conocimiento

    OpenAIRE

    Martínez-Freire, Pascual F.

    2012-01-01

    Si hablamos de órganos vitales vienen a la mente ejemplos tales como el corazón, responsable de que nuestra sangre circule o los pulmones, protagonistas en la respiración. Pero ¿qué hay del cerebro?, ¿sabemos realmente cuáles son sus misiones y por qué son básicas para nuestra existencia?

  10. Cerebro arte y creatividad

    OpenAIRE

    Brainsky, Simón; Guzmán Cervantes, Eugenia; Matallana, Diana; Montaña, Clemencia; Montañés, Patricia; Morales, Hernando de; Moreno Cardozo, Belén del Rocío; Morillo, Anibal; Pardo, Rodrigo; Rojas, Alejandro; Ruiz, Edwin

    2001-01-01

    En el seminario Cerebro, Arte y Creatividad, realizado en mayo del 2000, en la Universidad Nacional, cuyas conferencias hemos integrado en este libro, hemos querido aproximamos a diversas manifestaciones del arte, diversas variedades de creatividad, desde la perspectiva de las funciones cerebrales y desde la perspectiva de los principios psicológicos que gobiernan la actividad creativa. Se explora cómo los hallazgos relativos al funcionamiento y especialización funcional de los hemisferi...

  11. El lenguaje del cerebro

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    Antonio Ibáñez Molina

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available La introducción de nuevas técnicas de análisis de ritmos EEG en estudio de la comprensión del lenguaje permite explorar esta habilidad humana desde una perspectiva de integración de grupos de redes neuronales. Los ritmos de disparo neuronal que generan estos grupos pueden conectarse por sincronía formando unidades funcionales transitorias distribuidas en diversas áreas del cerebro. En esta revisión comentamos algunos de estos ritmos y su relación con el lenguaje.

  12. Incidência de acidente cerebro-vascular embólico na cardiopatia chagásica crônica

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    A. Spina-França

    1974-09-01

    Full Text Available A incidência de acidente vascular cerebral embólico na cardiopatia chagásica crônica foi avaliada a partir de duas séries consecutivas de casos: a primeira compreendendo 63 pacientes com cardiopatia chagásica crônica e, a segunda, 84 pacientes com acidentes cerebrovasculares, 59 dos quais de tipo não hemorrágico. Em relação aos casos de cardiopatia chagásica crônica a incidência de acidente vascular cerebral embólico mostrou-se da ordem de 3,17%; em relação aos acidentes cerebrovasculares, da ordem de 4,76% e quando considerados apenas aqueles de tipo não hemorrágico, da ordem de 6,78%.

  13. Generación de agrupamientos semánticos en una tarea de fluidez verbal en pacientes víctimas de un Accidente Cerebro Vascular y controles sin patología cerebral.

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    Leticia Vivas

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo se propone comparar el desempeño de tres grupos de personas en una tarea de fluidez verbal semántica: pacientes que sufrieron un Accidente Cerebro Vascular (ACV, adultos mayores sanos y adultos jóvenes sanos. La tarea consiste en solicitarle a lo participantes que emitan la mayor cantidad de ejemplares que conozcan de una categoría semántica en un lapso de tiempo de un minuto. En este caso se escogió la categoría animales. En primer lugar, el análisis de varianza permitió detectar diferencias de medias significativas (p<0.05 en la cantidad de palabras emitidas por grupo, siendo los pacientes los que produjeron menor cantidad de ejemplares. Luego, se realizó un escalamiento multidimensional por grupo para analizar los agrupamientos de los ejemplares de acuerdo al orden en que fueron emitidos. Se observó que los pacientes son los que generaron menor cantidad de agrupamientos y los adultos jóvenes mayor cantidad de agrupamientos. De este modo, cabe suponer que existe una asociación entre la escasa conformación de agrupamientos y la dificultad en la recuperación de ejemplares de la memoria semántica. Así, tanto en el grupo de pacientes como en las personas adultas mayores (en menor grado habría un funcionamiento deficiente los mecanismos de recuperación de la información semántica que disminuiría la capacidad de generar ejemplares de una categoría semántica.

  14. Accidente cerebro-vascular en la enfermedad de Fabry: Algo más que una simple estenosis Stroke in Fabry disease: More than a simple stenosis

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    Juan Manuel Politei

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Se analiza la evidencia existente a la fecha sobre los mecanismos fisiopatológicos que pueden generar accidentes cerebrovasculares en la enfermedad de Fabry. Esta entidad es el resultado de la deficiencia de a-galactosidasa A, lo que resulta en depósito patológico de glicoesfingilípidos en distintas poblaciones celulares. Asociados a la insuficiencia renal y cardíaca, los accidentes cerebrovasculares pueden derivar en la muerte de los pacientes. Durante mucho tiempo el único mecanismo generador de daño vascular informado fue la oclusión vascular por depósito lipídico a nivel endotelial. En la actualidad se describen otros mecanismos. El advenimiento de la terapia de reemplazo enzimático ha generado gran expectativa en cuanto la posibilidad de reversión de estos mecanismos. Si bien la evidencia es escasa y son necesarios más estudios a largo plazo, algunos informes demuestran que luego de meses, el tratamiento ha logrado revertir algunos de los mecanismos implicados.The objective is to analyze the updated evidence on the physiopathological mechanisms that can generate cerebrovascular damage in Fabry disease. Fabry disease is the result of the deficiency of a-galactosidasa A, which causes pathological storage of glycosphingolipids, in different cells. Associated to renal and cardiac insufficiency, cerebrovascular complications can derive in the death of the patients. During a long time the only reported mechanism was the vascular occlusion by deposit of lipids at endothelial level. At the present time, other mechanisms are postulated. The arrival of enzyme replacement therapy has generated great expectation on the possibility of reversion of these alterations. Although the evidence is scarce and more long term studies are necessary, some reports demonstrate that after months, the treatment has managed to revert some of the mechanisms involved.

  15. El cerebro sintiente

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    Mora, Francisco

    1999-05-01

    Full Text Available Not available.Este ensayo oferta algunas reflexiones acerca de las emociones. Primero define lo que son las emociones y los sentimientos y después se analizan las funciones que las emociones tienen para la supervivencia biológica y su significado en el hombre de hoy. Tras ello, se traza un esbozo de las rutas que recorren las percepciones hasta alcanzar las áreas que codifican para la emoción en el cerebro. Una parte del ensayo refiere brevemente a la relación entre emociones y valores morales. Finalmente se especula acerca del significado de las emociones para mejor entender la naturaleza humana.

  16. Hipertensão arterial pulmonar hereditária apresentando-se como venopatia oclusiva

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    Sonia Meiken Franchi

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Um homem de 33 anos com hipertensão arterial pulmonar hereditária teve um diagnóstico confirmado de venopatia oclusiva e microvasculopatia. O paciente permaneceu estável por 3 anos e meio recebendo sildenafila via oral, 75 mg 3x/dia (teste de caminhada de seis minutos de 375 m vs 105 m basal, mas necessitou da adição de bosentana (125 mg 2x/dia posteriormente. A despeito do desfecho fatal após 5 anos, as observações sugerem um utilidade potencial dos vasodilatadores como uma ponte para o transplante de pulmão em casos selecionados com envolvimento venocapilar significante. A ocorrência de lesões veno-oclusivas e capilares na forma familiar da hipertensão arterial pulmonar enfatiza as dificuldades com a atual classificação da doença.

  17. Registro de pacientes con accidente cerebro vascular en un hospital público del Perú, 2000-2009 Registry of patients with stroke stated in a public hospital of Peru, 2000-2009

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    Ana Castañeda-Guarderas

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Estudio que describe las características de los registros de pacientes con accidente cerebro vascular (ACV, como diagnóstico causante de hospitalización en el Hospital Nacional Cayetano Heredia entre los años 2000 - 2009. Se obtuvieron 2225 registros de pacientes mayores de 18 años, con ACV. De acuerdo con la CIE-10, 1071 tenían el diagnóstico de ACV isquémico, 554 ACV hemorrágico, 183 hemorragia subaracnoidea, 49 isquémico hemorrágico, 10 crisis isquémica transitorias y en 358 no fue posible especificar el tipo. Se registraron 352 muertes (19,6 %, la mayoría en los primeros tres días. La razón hombre/mujer fue 1,09; la edad promedio 64,1 ± 17,2 años y la mediana del tiempo de hospitalización fue de nueve días. Las condiciones asociadas más frecuentes fueron hipertensión arterial, fibrilación auricular y diabetes mellitus tipo 2. La mortalidad descrita es la más alta informada en nuestro medio, es constante en todos los grupos de edad y mayor en mujeres.We performed a descriptive study taking on account the characteristics of the registries of the patients hospitalized at the Hospital Nacional Cayetano Heredia between the years 2000 and 2009 with stroke as hospitalization diagnosis. 2225 records were obtained from patients older than 18, with stroke. According to ICD-10, 1071 had diagnosis of ischemic stroke, 554 were hemorrhagic, 183 were subarachnoid hemorrhage, 49 were ischemic plus hemorrhagic, 10 were transient ischemic attack (TIA and in 358 we were unable to specify the type of stroke. 352 deaths were recorded (19.6 %, most of them during the first 3 days. The male / female ratio was 1.09, the mean age 64.1 ± 17.2 years and the median length of hospital stay was 9 days. The most common associated conditions were high blood pressure, atrial fibrillation and type 2 diabetes mellitus. The mortality found is the highest reported in our country, constant in all age groups and higher in women.

  18. El coste del cerebro humano

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    Ana Navarrete

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Una de las mayores incógnitas de la evolución humana es cómo nuestros antepasados pudieron desarrollar cerebros que consumen una elevada cantidad de energía sin que esto repercutiera en su supervivencia. Hasta hace poco se consideraba que nuestro cerebro se benefició de la reducción de otros órganos de alto consumo energético para posibilitar su aumento de tamaño, pero nuevos resultados indican que semejante reducción no tuvo lugar ni en mamíferos ni en primates. En cambio, todo parece indicar que la reducción de costes de locomoción, con la adquisición del bipedalismo, pudo contribuir al aumento de tamaño de nuestros cerebros.

  19. Cerebro-costo-mandibular syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Plotz, FB; vanEssen, AJ; Bosschaart, AN; Bos, AP

    1996-01-01

    We describe two boys with the cerebro-costomandibular syndrome (CCMS). Both patients presented with Pierre Robin anomaly and respiratory insufficiency and died 12 hours and 10 months after birth. The first boy had muscular hypotonia, severe micrognathia, glossoptosis, short; palate, preauricular tag

  20. Risk factors for healthcare-associated infection in patients with cerebro-vascular diseases%脑血管病患者医院感染危险因素

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    夏应勇; 王立云; 赵玉美

    2015-01-01

    目的:了解神经内科脑血管病患者医院感染现状及相关危险因素。方法对2013年1—12月某院脑血管病患者医院感染情况和危险因素进行调查分析。结果3573例脑血管病患者,发生医院感染214例,感染率为5.99%;感染部位以呼吸道(54.67%)为主,其次为泌尿道(25.23%)。单因素分析结果显示,年龄、住院时间、意识障碍、患慢性阻塞性肺疾病(COPD)和糖尿病、侵入性操作、使用抑酸剂、预防性使用抗菌药物与发生医院感染均相关(P <0.05)。多因素 logistic 回归分析显示,意识障碍、高龄、侵入性操作、患 COPD 和糖尿病是脑血管病患者发生医院感染的独立危险因素(均 P <0.05)。结论神经内科患者医院感染发生率较高,引起医院感染危险因素较多,应针对以上因素进行合理干预,减少医院感染的发生。%Objective To understand the incidence and related risk factors of healthcare-associated infection(HAI)in neu-rological patients with cerebrovascular diseases.Methods The occurrence and risk factors of HAI in patients with cerebro-vascular diseases in a hospital between Jan and December 2013 were investigated and analyzed.Results Of 3 573 investiga-ted patients,214 had HAI,the incidence of HAI was 5.99%;the main infection site was respiratory tract (54.67%),fol-lowed by urinary tract (25.23%).Univariate analysis revealed that age,length of hospitalization,disturbance of conscious-ness,chronic obstructive pulmonary disease,diabetes mellitus,invasive procedures,application of antacids,and antimicro-bial prophylaxis were all related to the occurrence of HAI (P<0.05).Multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed that disturbance of consciousness,old age,invasive procedures,chronic obstructive pulmonary disease,and diabetes mellitus were independent risk factors for the occurrence of HAI (all P <0.05).Conclusion The incidence of HAI is

  1. VELARIZATION OF LABIAL, CODA STOPS IN SPANISH: A FREQUENCY ACCOUNT VELARIZACION DE OCLUSIVAS LABIALES POSNUCLEARES: UN ANALISIS DE FRECUENCIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ESTHER L BROWN

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available In several varieties of spoken Spanish, word-medial, labial stops are articulated as velar stops (pepsi > Pe[k]si. This work summarizes some previous attempts to explain this abrupt sound substitution. Then, building upon advances in phonotactic theory (e.g., Pierrehumbert, 1994 and patterns emergent from lexical representations (Bybee, 2001, this work presents a new theoretical perspective from which to examine the p > k phenomenon. Syllable-final, word-medial, velar stops (/g, k/ have a significantly higher token and type frequency than syllable-final, word-medial labial stops (/b, p/ in Spanish. As a result, the schema [..C VELAR$C..], and not [..C LABIAL$C..], emerges as a stronger, more productive schema, promoting the abrupt sound substitution LABIAL > VELAR.En algunas variedades del español hablado, las oclusivas labiales en medio de palabra se realizan con una articulación velar (pepsi > peksi. Este trabajo provee un resumen de estudios previos que intentan explicar esta sustitución fonológica abrupta e incorpora avances teóricos de la fonotáctica (e.g., Pierrehumbert, 1994 y de los patrones que surgen de las representaciones léxicas (Bybee, 2001 para explicar desde una perspectiva teórica nueva el fenómeno p > k en español. Las oclusivas velares, posnucleares (/g, k/ tienen una frecuencia de uso y una frecuencia de categoría significativamente más alta que las oclusivas labiales (/b, p/ en la misma posición. Como resultado, el esquema [..C VELAR$C..], y no [..C LABIAL$C..], surge como el esquema más fuerte y productivo, dando motivación al cambio fonológico LABIAL > VELAR.

  2. OCULO-CEREBRO-RENAL SYNDROME (LOWE'S SYNDROME)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1991-01-01

    Oculo-cerebro-renal syndrome (Lowe's syndrome) is characterized by mental and motor retardation, cataract, glaucoma and renal abnormalities. It is an X-linked recessive metabolic disease. Two brothers suffering from Lowe's syndrome are reported. Their mother with lenticular opacities and peculiar facial appearance is in concordance with the obligate carrier. The ocular changes and heridity are discussed.

  3. Los laberintos del placer en el cerebro

    OpenAIRE

    García Olmedo, Francisco

    2003-01-01

    Francisco Mora es un neurobiólogo acreditado, con una loable trayectoria de divulgador de su arte, que se ha plasmado ya en varios libros dirigidos a un público general. Ahora pretende guiarnos por los laberintos del placer en el cerebro humano, y lo hace en un estilo exento de tecnicismos y rico en metáforas

  4. 单纯舒张期高血压对新发心脑血管事件的影响%Impact of isolated diastolic hypertension on new-onset cardiovascular and cerebro-vascular diseases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邢凤梅; 董岩; 陶杰; 高新颖; 周剑辉; 陈朔华; 季春鹏; 姚涛; 吴寿岭

    2014-01-01

    目的 探讨单纯舒张期高血压(IDH)对新发心脑血管事件(CVD)的影响.方法 采用队列研究方法,以参加2006-2007年度开滦集团公司职工健康体检的101 510例职工中符合“中国高血压防治指南(2010)”正常血压诊断标准(19 460例)及正常血压高值诊断标准(35448例)、IDH诊断标准(6 780例)的既往无脑梗死、脑出血、蛛网膜下腔出血、心肌梗死、恶性肿瘤病史的61 688例作为观察队列,随访0.5 ~62.0(47.1±4.8)个月,随访期间每半年收集1次CVD情况.用寿命表法计算正常血压组、正常高值组、IDH组新发CVD的累积发病率,并用log-rank法检验及多变量Cox比例风险回归模型分析IDH对CVD的影响.结果 (1)随访期间,IDH组的总CVD(1.7%)、心肌梗死(0.3%)、脑梗死(1.0%)、脑出血累积发病率(0.4%)均高于正常血压组(0.9%、0.2%、0.6%、0.1%),两组总CVD、脑梗死事件、脑出血累积发病率差异有统计学意义(P<0.05).(2)校正相关因素后,IDH组发生总CVD、脑梗死、脑出血的HR值分别是正常血压组的1.67倍(95%CI:1.28 ~ 2.17)、1.59倍(95%CI:1.12 ~ 2.27)和2.67倍(95%CI:1.54~4.65).(3)对年龄进行分层分析,在<60岁组,校正后IDH组发生脑梗死的HR值为2.22(95%CI:1.41~ 3.50);在≥60岁组,校正后IDH组发生脑出血的HR值为7.27(95%CI:2.58 ~ 20.42).结论 IDH是总CVD、脑梗死、脑出血的独立预测因子,在不同的年龄层人群中,IDH对不同心脑血管事件的预测价值不同.%Objective To explore the impact of isolated diastolic hypertension (IDH) on new-onset cardio-cerebral vascular diseases (CVD).Methods This cohort study involved 101 510 participants who were employees of the Kailuan Group-a state-run coal mining company,in 2006 and 2007.Among them,6 780 subjects were diagnosed with IDH,35 448 subjects were diagnosed with high-normal blood pressure and 19 460 subjects were diagnosed with normal tension

  5. A discussion of the value of testing carotid intima-media thickness by ultrasound to cardio-cerebro-vascular disease%超声检测颈动脉内中膜厚度在心脑血管疾病中的价值探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨丽丽; 余凤

    2015-01-01

    目的:探讨超声检测颈动脉内中膜厚度在心脑血管疾病中的应用价值。方法2012年1月~2014年6月我院超声检测颈动脉内中膜厚度共2167例,根据超声检测结果,分为正常组和异常组,统计两组患者心脑血管疾病患病情况。结果2167例受检者经超声检测,IMT异常893例(41.21%),其中,内中膜增厚112例(5.17%),粥样硬化斑块674例(31.10%),颈动脉狭窄107例(4.94%),以轻中度狭窄最为常见, IMT正常组中心血管病发病率为4.95%,异常组为35.95%,两组差异具有统计学意义(P<0.05);正常组中脑血管病发病率为3.53%,异常组为26.88%,两组差异具有统计学意义(P<0.05);IMT异常组中高血压和短暂性脑缺血发作(TIA)的发病率分别明显高于其他心脑血管疾病,差异具有统计学意义(x2a=6.569, P<0.05;x2b=7.247,P<0.05)。结论超声检测颈动脉内中膜厚度对心脑血管疾病早期预防、早期诊断、早期干预具有重要意义。%Objective To discuss the application value of testing carotid intima-media thickness by ultrasound to cardio-cerebro-vascular disease (CCVD).Methods 2167 cases tested carotid intima-media thickness by ultrasound in our hospital during January 2012 to June 2013 were divided into normal group and abnormal group according to the ultrasound attenuation detecting results. And the prevalence situation of CCVD of patients in the two groups was counted.Results2167 cases were examined by ultrasound in which 893 (41.21%)people's IMT were abnormal. Among them, 112 cases (5.17%)had thickening of their internal medial, 674 cases(31.10%) had atherosclerotic plaque, 107 cases(4.94%) were of carotid artery stenosis in which Mild-to-moderate carotid stenosis was the most common. The morbidity of cardiovascular disease was 4.95% in IMT normal group and 35.95% in abnormal group, it showed a significant difference between

  6. Terapia oclusiva em ambliopia: fatores prognósticos Occlusion therapy in amblyopia: factors that influence the outcome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Carolina Fava Salata

    2001-04-01

    Full Text Available Objetivos: Ambliopia é o defeito visual mais comum em crianças e por mais de 250 anos a terapia oclusiva vem sendo o melhor tratamento. Sendo assim, propusemo-nos a determinar os fatores que influenciam no sucesso do tratamento da ambliopia por terapia oclusiva em nosso meio. Métodos: Foi realizado um estudo retrospectivo com 169 crianças amblíopes atendidas no Ambulatório de Ambliopia do Hospital de Clínicas da UNICAMP, Campinas (SP, entre janeiro de 1996 e maio de 1998. A população atendida foi classificada quanto ao sexo, idade de início do tratamento por faixa etária (3 grupos, olho afetado, tipo de ambliopia (estrabísmica, anisometrópica, por deprivação, associação de dois tipos, tempo de seguimento, gravidade da ambliopia (leve, moderada, grave, adesão ao tratamento (regular, irregular e resposta obtida (cura, melhora, sem cura. Resultados: A adesão ao tratamento não diferiu entre as faixas etárias (p=0,68 e não foi influenciada pela gravidade da ambliopia (p=0,82. Dos pacientes estudados 52,67% curaram-se, 19,52% melhoraram e 27,81% não obtiveram cura. Os pacientes com adesão regular tiveram índice de cura significativamente maior do que os pacientes com adesão irregular (p=0,0009. O resultado do tratamento não dependeu da idade de início do mesmo (p=0,39 e da gravidade da ambliopia (p=0,30. Conclusão: Concluímos, assim, que, no nosso grupo de estudo, a adesão é o principal fator prognóstico no sucesso da terapia oclusiva.Purpose: Amblyopia is the most common form of visual problem in children and for more than 250 years occlusion therapy is the standard treatment. Thus our purpose is to identify the factors that influence the outcome of amblyopia treatment with occlusion therapy. Methods: We reviewed 169 amblyopic children seen in the outpatient clinic of amblyopia of the Campinas State University, between January 1996 and May 1998. Patients were analyzed regar-ding sex, age at start of treatment (3

  7. Cuidar de pessoa incapacitada por acidente vascular cerebral no domicílio: o fazer do cuidador familiar El cuidado de la persona incapacitada por accidente cerebro vascular en el domicilio: el hacer del cuidador familiar Taking care of persons handicapped by cerebral vascular accident at home: the familial caregiver activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nara Marilene Oliveira Girardon Perlini

    2005-06-01

    incapacitated by cerebral vascular accident. The sample was comprised of 35 family caregivers, most of them women, wives or daughters. The care given is directly related to the degree of incapacity of the person who is being cared for. The orientation received indicated no commitment of professionals for the continuity of the care. The caregivers learn in daily practice how to care, based on observation and assistance to nursing during the internment period. The difficulties are related to physical effort, to lack of information and fear, to the embarassment and the shame of handling someone else's body. The study focuses on the need for preparation for hospital discharge, emphasizes the family as a concrete space for care; and observed an increase in life expectancy.

  8. The Value of Measurement of Carotid Intima-media Thickness Using Ultrasound in Patients with Cardio-cerebro-vascular Diseases%超声检测颈动脉内中膜厚度在心脑血管疾病中的价值

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘志敏; 黄碧霞; 古泉辉

    2013-01-01

    Objective:To study the value of measurement of carotid intima-media thickness using ultrasound in cardio-cerebro-vascular diseases. Method:Patients associated with hypertension,diabetes,coronary heart disease,cerebral infarction from our hospital from August 2012 to April 2013 were recruited.Color Doppler ultrasound was used to measure their carotid intima-media thickness(IMT) as well as artery atheromatous plague and stenosis of carotid artery.Result:(1)An average of 58%of patients indicated having abnormities of carotid intima media thickness when 52%and 9%of them having carotid artery atheromatous plague and stenosis of carotid artery respectively.(2)Patients with anomaly of carotid intima media thickness had significantly higher rates of hypertension and cerebral infarction.Conclusion:Noninvasive measurement of carotid intima-media thickness using Color Doppler ultrasound is a effective and convenient technique of screening and assessment for atherosclerosis among patients.It will be helpful for cohort at high risk of atherosclerosis and for diagnosis and treatment of this disease.%目的:探讨超声测量颈总动脉内-中膜厚度(IMT)在心脑血管疾病中的价值。方法:2012年8月-2013年4月来笔者所在医院就诊的高血压、糖尿病、冠心病、脑梗死患者均经高分辨率彩色多普勒超声检测双侧颈动脉内中膜厚度(IMT)、斑块有无及性质、管腔狭窄程度。结果:(1)颈动脉IMT异常者占58%,颈动脉斑块阳性者占52%,颈动脉狭窄者占9%,以轻度狭窄为主。(2)颈动脉内中膜检测有阳性的病变者中,高血压与脑梗死患者的检出率较高。结论:采用高分辨率彩色多普勒超声检测颈动脉内中膜厚度的方法,对筛查和评估动脉粥样硬化疾病,是一种简便、经济、有效、无创、可测量、重复性好的科学手段;也可以对无临床症状的高危人群的预后提供帮助;为早期临床诊断及干预动脉硬化提供依据。

  9. Fatal cerebro-renal oxalosis after appendectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfeiffer, H; Weiss, F U; Karger, B; Aghdassi, A; Lerch, M M; Brinkmann, B

    2004-04-01

    A case of a 24-year-old male with fatal cerebro-renal oxalosis assumed to be due to infusions of the sugar surrogate xylitol after appendectomy is reported. The diagnosis was established only after intensive histological investigations following the autopsy. The clinical picture was characterized by an acute seizure, coma and renal failure 2 days after the first xylitol infusion. Death occurred due to cerebral dysregulation as a very rare complication after parenteral administration of xylitol. Subendothelial double refractive calcium oxalate crystals were found in the walls of cerebral blood vessels, in particular in the stem ganglion regions and in the cortical renal tubules. The most common type of primary oxalosis was excluded by sequencing analysis. The young age, the minor surgical intervention and the otherwise unremarkable history are special features of this case. Since the genetic background of xylitol intolerance is still unclear, it is suggested that it should be banned as a sugar surrogate in clinical practice. PMID:14634832

  10. ¡Abre tu cerebro! Descubre la Neurociencia Cognitiva

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ángel Correa

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available En el presente Año de la Ciencia, el gobierno español apuesta por la divulgación científica. Numerosas actividades acercarán a todos los públicos los conocimientos sobre el cerebro y la mente humana desde la Neurociencia Cognitiva.

  11. Análise temporal das oclusivas orais do Português Europeu: um estudo de caso de normalidade e perturbação fonológica Temporal analysis of European Portuguese stops: a case study of normality and phonologically disturbance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mário André Lopes Barroco

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: neste artigo são analisadas as durações das diferentes fases das oclusivas produzidas por duas crianças, uma delas com perturbação fonológica (informante 2. MÉTODOS: o corpus é constituído por 54 palavras com oclusivas em posição inicial, medial e final. Neste estudo participaram dois informantes nativos do Português Europeu (PE, com sete e oito anos de idade. RESULTADOS: os resultados obtidos para o PE (informante 1 para a duração total das oclusivas mostram que a duração das oclusivas não vozeadas é superior a das oclusivas vozeadas. O Voice Onset Time (VOT é, de forma geral, superior para as oclusivas não vozeadas, relativamente às oclusivas vozeadas. A informante 2 (com perturbação fonológica efectua desvozeamento da oclusiva vozeada [g] em todas as posições de palavra e em posição inicial da oclusiva [d], vozeando-a em posição medial e final. A oclusiva [b] é normalmente vozeada. CONCLUSÃO: a maioria dos parâmetros analisados acompanhou a normalidade existindo excepções.PURPOSE: this paper submits a study on the duration of the different phases of stops produced by two children, one of them with phonological disturbance (speaker 2. METHODS: the corpus includes 54 real words, with stop consonants in initial, medial and final position. In this study two of European Portuguese (EP native speakers, aged between seven and eight years, took part. RESULTS: the results for the EP speaker 1 showed that the total duration of voiceless stop consonants was greater than voiced stop consonants. The VOT was, in general, larger for voiceless stops than in voiced stop consonant. Speaker 2 (with phonological disorder devoiced the stop [g], and the stop consonant [d] was devoiced in initial position and voiced in medial and final position. The stop consonant [b] was normally voiced. CONCLUSION: most of the analyzed durations show similar values for both speakers.

  12. La reanimación cerebro cardiopulmonar: estado del arte

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Catalina Leal-Forero

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Las maniobras de reanimación cerebro- cardiopulmonares son efectivas a largo plazo cuando se preserva la función del cerebro. La comunidad ha progresado en el conocimiento de la cadena de sobrevida o supervivencia, sin embargo, hace falta mayor conocimiento de la preservación de la función cerebral y la protección sistémica para que el síndrome isquemia-reperfusión (que se presenta después del paro o cuando el corazón ha recuperado su circulación de manera espontánea, no limite los esfuerzos de una reanimación aparentemente exitosa.

  13. Características acústicas da oclusiva glotal associada à sequência de Pierre Robin: estudo de caso Acoustic characteristics of glottal stop associated to Pierre Robin Sequence: case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viviane Cristina de Castro Marino

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A fissura de palato, em associação à Sequência de Pierre Robin, pode favorecer o desenvolvimento de produções atípicas (compensatórias, na fala da criança, como é o caso da oclusiva glotal (golpe de glote comumente observada em substituição aos sons oclusivos (vozeados ou não. No presente estudo, foi realizada a análise dos parâmetros fonético-acústicos da oclusiva glotal produzidas em /k/ e /g/ por uma criança do gênero feminino, com 5 anos, que apresentava fissura de palato reparada, associada à Sequência de Pierre Robin. Para isso, foram selecionadas seis palavras em que a oclusiva velar encontrava-se na posição inicial da palavra e combinada com as vogais /a/, /i/ e /u/ na posição acentuada. Foi ainda realizado julgamento perceptivo-auditivo por três fonoaudiólogos, que apresentou concordância quanto à presença da oclusiva glotal de 100% para ambas as relações (intra e inter-juízes. Na inspeção dos dados via espectrograma foi observada variabilidade dos parâmetros espectrais (burst e transição formântica e essas variações também puderam ser computadas considerando as vogais separadamente. A análise estatística revelou diferença estatisticamente significante entre as duas consoantes velares (/k/ e /g/ nos parâmetros espectral (burst, temporal (VOT e duração relativa da oclusiva na palavra e os relativos às características acústicas das vogais adjacentes às oclusivas (período estacionário de F3. Por fim, as características acústicas da oclusiva glotal sugeriram que a criança pode ter utilizado de estratégias para marcar contrastes fônicos na língua, ainda que os mesmos não tenham magnitude suficiente para serem resgatados auditivamente pelo ouvinte.The cleft palate, in association with Pierre Robin Sequence, may foster the development of atypical (compensatory productions on the child’s speech such as the use of glottal stop as a substitution for occlusive sounds (voiced or

  14. Características acústicas da oclusiva glotal associada à sequência de Pierre Robin: estudo de caso Acoustic characteristics of glottal stop associated to Pierre Robin Sequence: case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viviane Cristina de Castro Marino

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available A fissura de palato, em associação à Sequência de Pierre Robin, pode favorecer o desenvolvimento de produções atípicas (compensatórias, na fala da criança, como é o caso da oclusiva glotal (golpe de glote comumente observada em substituição aos sons oclusivos (vozeados ou não. No presente estudo, foi realizada a análise dos parâmetros fonético-acústicos da oclusiva glotal produzidas em /k/ e /g/ por uma criança do gênero feminino, com 5 anos, que apresentava fissura de palato reparada, associada à Sequência de Pierre Robin. Para isso, foram selecionadas seis palavras em que a oclusiva velar encontrava-se na posição inicial da palavra e combinada com as vogais /a/, /i/ e /u/ na posição acentuada. Foi ainda realizado julgamento perceptivo-auditivo por três fonoaudiólogos, que apresentou concordância quanto à presença da oclusiva glotal de 100% para ambas as relações (intra e inter-juízes. Na inspeção dos dados via espectrograma foi observada variabilidade dos parâmetros espectrais (burst e transição formântica e essas variações também puderam ser computadas considerando as vogais separadamente. A análise estatística revelou diferença estatisticamente significante entre as duas consoantes velares (/k/ e /g/ nos parâmetros espectral (burst, temporal (VOT e duração relativa da oclusiva na palavra e os relativos às características acústicas das vogais adjacentes às oclusivas (período estacionário de F3. Por fim, as características acústicas da oclusiva glotal sugeriram que a criança pode ter utilizado de estratégias para marcar contrastes fônicos na língua, ainda que os mesmos não tenham magnitude suficiente para serem resgatados auditivamente pelo ouvinte.The cleft palate, in association with Pierre Robin Sequence, may foster the development of atypical (compensatory productions on the child’s speech such as the use of glottal stop as a substitution for occlusive sounds (voiced or

  15. Neurociencia aplicada: el cerebro al servicio de la humanidad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ángel Correa

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available La neurociencia aplicada utiliza tecnología y conocimiento sobre el cerebro para resolver problemas prácticos, principalmente en la clínica y el trabajo. La cura de lesiones neurológicas, Parkinson y Alzheimer, podría depender de terapias génicas, neurofeedback, neuroestimulación magnética o implantes neurales. En neuroergonomía, la aplicación de la realidad virtual mejora la productividad y la seguridad laboral.

  16. ¿Qué puede localizarse en el cerebro?

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    Alfredo Ardila

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Una de las grandes cuestiones de la neurociencia es la localización cerebral: ¿qué función cognitiva desarrolla cada área del cerebro? Recientemente, he propuesto que es posible avanzar en esta dirección si: a analizamos correctamente las funciones cognitivas en sus factores de procesamiento; b buscamos la localización cerebral de esos factores componentes; y c integramos para ello los métodos de la neuropsicología, la neuroimagen y la psicometría.

  17. Educación basada en el funcionamiento del cerebro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Franco Corso

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: La educación basada en el cerebro es una disciplina que busca maximizar la capacidad de aprender –memoria, atención, entendimiento- a partir de los hallazgos neurocientíficos. Desarrollo: En el siguiente artículo buscamos exponer algunos de los conocimientos de neurociencias y aprendizaje y como estos tienen aplicabilidad en el aula de clase o en general en el proceso de aprendizaje que se va deteriorando con la edad. Conclusión: El dividir la clase en bloques, realizar animaciones para estimulación visual, despertar emociones o exponer primero los conceptos generales antes que los específicos han sido formas eficaces de mejorar el rendimiento de los estudiantes en el aula de clase. La adecuada alimentación, el ejercicio constante, el reforzamiento en la lectura o ejercicios de memoria son clave para estimular el cerebro y prevenir el deterioro cognitivo normal de el envejecimiento.

  18. Creatividad y cerebro: bases neurológicas de la creatividad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Alexandra RENDÓN URIBE

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo se presentan algunas consideraciones teóricas sobre la creatividad, y una definición a partir de la cual se sustenta la necesidad de profundizar en el sustrato biológico de la creatividad. Al respecto se retoman algunas teorías y explicaciones que permiten entender la relación de la creatividad con la estructura cerebral, entre ellas se tienen: la lateralización hemisférica, la teoría del cerebro triuno, la teoría del cerebro total y la evolución filogenética del cerebro creador.

  19. Creatividad y cerebro: bases neurológicas de la creatividad

    OpenAIRE

    María Alexandra RENDÓN URIBE

    2013-01-01

    En este trabajo se presentan algunas consideraciones teóricas sobre la creatividad, y una definición a partir de la cual se sustenta la necesidad de profundizar en el sustrato biológico de la creatividad. Al respecto se retoman algunas teorías y explicaciones que permiten entender la relación de la creatividad con la estructura cerebral, entre ellas se tienen: la lateralización hemisférica, la teoría del cerebro triuno, la teoría del cerebro total y la evolución filogenética del cerebro cread...

  20. Perspectivas y desafíos en la investigación del cerebro

    OpenAIRE

    Belmonte Martínez, Carlos

    2010-01-01

    El cerebro humano, pese a su tremenda complejidad, no es un órgano mágico sino un ejemplo particularmente brillante de cómo las presiones evolutivas han conducido a la diversidad biológica de las especies que pueblan la Tierra. Rodolfo Llinás ha propuesto que la necesidad de dirigir y coordinar el movimiento fue la pulsión evolutiva mas importante en la aparición del cerebro y esgrime como ejemplo la ascidia, un tunicado marino que en su etapa larvaria posee un cerebro rudimentario, que le si...

  1. Economía material: cuerpo y cerebro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santiago Alonso

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available La neuroeconomía proporciona un sustrato material a la economía. Este trabajo se enmarca en el campo de la psicología cognitiva, la economía, la biología y la neurociencia. En particular, revisa los hallazgos de la neuroeconomía que fundamentan la idea de que el cuerpo y el cerebro determinan el comportamiento económico individual. En otros términos, la biología revelada determina los cursos de acción que se toman. La hipótesis básica es que más que las preferencias reveladas, la biología revelada debe ser consistente con un organismo racional

  2. Economía material: cuerpo y cerebro

    OpenAIRE

    Santiago Alonso

    2012-01-01

    La neuroeconomía proporciona un sustrato material a la economía. Este trabajo se enmarca en el campo de la psicología cognitiva, la economía, la biología y la neurociencia. En particular, revisa los hallazgos de la neuroeconomía que fundamentan la idea de que el cuerpo y el cerebro determinan el comportamiento económico individual. En otros términos, la biología revelada determina los cursos de acción que se toman. La hipótesis básica es que más que las preferencias reveladas, la biología rev...

  3. Evolución, cerebro y cognición

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Felipe Zapata

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available En esta revisión se presenta un recorrido sobre el proceso de la evolución cerebral en los últimos 4 millones de años; en la segunda parte, se enfatiza en el concepto de modularidad de la mente, y el papel del lenguaje y de la fluidez cognitiva en el paso de la mente primitiva a la mente moderna. Se hace referencia a las funciones ejecutivas, la memoria de trabajo y la teoría de la mente. El enfoque es el de la teoría de la complejidad, la cual concibe la mente como una emergencia, es decir, como una propiedad de la interacción, en este caso, de la interacción neural presente en el cerebro.

  4. Cerebro, números y educación

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego ALONSO CÁNOVAS

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available En este artículo se aborda el tema de las posibles contribuciones que la Neurociencia Cognitiva puede realizar a la Educación Matemática. En particular, se analizan las bases cerebrales del llamado sentido numérico, y la diferencia entre el cálculo rutinario y el que requiere la comprensión de los números como magnitud. El estudio del cerebro también aporta explicaciones plausibles a algunas de las dificultades en el aprendizaje de las matemáticas que aparecen en nuestras aulas. Se expone, de forma breve, una posible relación entre la inmadurez del lóbulo frontal en el proceso de desarrollo y algunos errores debidos a respuestas impulsivas. Aunque algunas hipótesis son muy especulativas, hacemos referencia a la posible relación entre el talento para las matemáticas y la biología. Finalmente citamos algunos resultados provenientes desde la Psicología Cognitiva sobre la importancia del desarrollo de la intuición matemática en la Educación Primaria y Secundaria.

  5. Educación, cerebro y emoción

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joaquín GARCÍA CARRASCO

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available El artículo resalta la importancia de la aproximación a la neurología para completar el marco desde el que construir una teoría de la educación. El planteamiento se considera especialmente importante si se atiende a que esa teoría debe ser inclusiva respecto a todas las formas de diferencia, respecto a todas las acciones educativas que tienen como marco el cuerpo y respecto a la importancia de fundamentar de una educación ambiental. Frente a una perspectiva fuertemente cognitivista de los procesos formativos, muestra el papel del sistema emocional en la estructura global de la mente, el de la emoción en los procesos de las operaciones mentales superiores. El estudio se propone desde una perspectiva sistémica, con diferentes niveles de organización y cómo dentro de todos esos niveles juegan un papel importante las emociones. Va dejando clara la medida en que los tres conceptos de educación, cerebro y emoción son conceptos mutuamente imbricados, ninguno puede ser soslayado si se busca la comprensión plena de los procesos educativos.

  6. Modelo basado en SIG para el estudio de la mortalidad por enfermedad cerebro-vascular

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    Carlos Alberto Tangarife Villa

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available En los últimos 15 años el estudio para una de las tres primeras causas de muerte a nivel mundial –enfermedad cerebrovascular (ECV– se caracteriza por utilizar el enfoque epidemiológico tradicional y sus técnicas de análisis estadístico bivariado y multivariado orientadas a identificar su composición según variables de persona y explorar relaciones con sus determinantes pero sin impactar significativamente su ocurrencia, sin embargo, en el presente artículo se identifica como alternativa de análisis la modelación espacio-temporal con SIG a niveles de desagregación detallados; en este sentido el análisis comparativo de los modelos utilizados en los estudios conocidos, desvela el uso de datos y técnicas de análisis espacial básicas para identificar patrones como los evidenciados en los cinturones de diabetes y ECV en USA o el clúster colombiano de enfermedades del aparato circulatorio identificado en la región andina que sugiere un comportamiento similar para la ECV. El panorama anterior demanda la combinación de enfoques con énfasis en sus técnicas de análisis avanzadas –análisis multi-criterio, kriging, interpolación, correlación y regresión espacial– soportadas con SIG y por lo tanto, como contribución final se propone un modelo integrado dirigido a impactar positivamente la mortalidad por ECV.

  7. Dichotic auditory-verbal memory in adults with cerebro-vascular accident

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    Samaneh Yekta

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Cerebrovascular accident is a neurological disorder involves central nervous system. Studies have shown that it affects the outputs of behavioral auditory tests such as dichotic auditory verbal memory test. The purpose of this study was to compare this memory test results between patients with cerebrovascular accident and normal subjects.Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted on 20 patients with cerebrovascular accident aged 50-70 years and 20 controls matched for age and gender in Emam Khomeini Hospital, Tehran, Iran. Dichotic auditory verbal memory test was performed on each subject.Results: The mean score in the two groups was significantly different (p<0.0001. The results indicated that the right-ear score was significantly greater than the left-ear score in normal subjects (p<0.0001 and in patients with right hemisphere lesion (p<0.0001. The right-ear and left-ear scores were not significantly different in patients with left hemisphere lesion (p=0.0860.Conclusion: Among other methods, Dichotic auditory verbal memory test is a beneficial test in assessing the central auditory nervous system of patients with cerebrovascular accident. It seems that it is sensitive to the damages occur following temporal lobe strokes.

  8. Vascular Cures

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... our CEO Board of Directors Scientific Advisory Board History of Vascular Cures Impact Contact Us Vascular Disease What is Vascular Disease? Education and Awareness Vascular Diseases Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm Aortic ...

  9. Ciencia y valores en los estudios del cerebro

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    Gómez Rodríguez, Amparo

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the biological theories of the XIX century about the mental inferiority of the women are examined. The analysis is centered in evolutionism, phrenology and studies of the brain (with special attention to the proposal of Moebius. The author analyzes these theories showing that the ideology about the inferiority of women acts in the hypotheses that are sustained and in researchs that are carried out. The ideology acts in background assumptions and external values on women that are operating in scientific practice in these scientific areas. The conclusion is that these theories confirm the dominant gender stereotypes.

    En este artículo se examinan las teorías biológicas del siglo XIX acerca de la inferioridad mental de las mujeres. El estudio se centra en el evolucionismo, la frenología y los estudios del cerebro (con especial atención a la propuesta de Moebius. Se lleva a cabo un análisis de dichas teorías mostrando como opera la ideología acerca de la inferioridad de las mujeres tanto en las hipótesis que se sostienen como en las investigaciones que se llevan a cabo. La ideología se concreta en el trasfondo de asunciones y valores externas que está operando en la práctica científica llevada a cabo en estas áreas científicas. La conclusión es que tales teorías se limitan a confirmar los estereotipos de género dominantes.

  10. Apuntes de José Antonio Valverde sobre la evolución del cerebro

    OpenAIRE

    Valverde Gómez, José Antonio, 1926-2003

    2008-01-01

    Apuntes sobre la evolución del cerebro, que el autor utilizó para elaborar su conferencia "L'Evolution Humaine Apercue Generale", impartida en el Musèe de l'Homme de París, y patrocinada por la Société d’Anthropologie de Paris, el 21 de marzo de 1963.

  11. Immuno-reactive somatostatin in the cerebro-spinal fluid. Immunreaktives Somatostatin im Liquor cerebrospinalis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kohler, J.

    1983-01-01

    In the present work the lumbar cerebro-spinal fluid of 178 patients with different neurological affections was examined with the aid of a specific radioimmunoassay for somatostatin. 18 patients without any pathologic neurological findings served as controls. In degenerative diseases of the brain, reduced somatostatin levels in the cerebro-spinal fluid as compared to the controls were measured. In 3 patients with isolated cerebellar atrophy no reduction of the somatostatin content was found; rather the values were highly normal. Huntington-Chorea also is a case apart. In patients with manifest affections, the somatostatin reduction, amounting to 54.6%, was particularly notable as compared to the controls. By contrast, degenerative diseases with predominant medullary and spastic affection are characterized by significantly increased somatostatin levels. Again, in non-spastic patients the values were not significantly different from those of the controls. Patients with inflammations of the brain and meminges as well as with tumors of the nervous system showed somatostatin levels increased by about 60.8% respectively 51.8% as compared to the controls. Epileptic patients normally exhibit a reduced somatostatin level in the cerebro-spinal fluid, but the reduction is not significant. Disseminated encephalomyclitis, whether chromic or acute, is not found to be associated with significant modifications of the somatostatin level in the cerebro-spinal fluid. Strikingly, however, patients in which the disease took a serious or very serious clinical course showed also the lowest somatostatin levels in the cerebro-spinal fluid. In patients exhibiting the roof compression symptom in consequence of a prolapse of the disk, no significant modifications were found. By contrast, in patients with the symptoms of a transverse lesion, significantly increased somatostatin values were measured.

  12. Estimation of stops' spectral place cues using multitaper techniques Estimação das características espectrais relacionadas com o ponto de articulação de oclusivas utilizando a técnica multitaper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marisa Lobo Lousada

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This study focuses on the spectral characteristics of the European Portuguese stops /p, b, t, d, k, g/ produced by six native speakers. We analysed the spectral peaks and troughs by means of multitaper spectra and performed a parameterisation of the stop spectra using slope and moment measures. In comparison to traditional spectral estimations, multitaper is more exact and, more importantly, not limited to a stationary signal length necessary for the analysis window. Therefore, it is well-suited for the rather short duration of the burst of a stop. Results show that the burst characteristics vary with place of articulation. While the global spectral frequencies match the data in classical literature, it is shown that other spectral measures in our data do not follow the typical classical spectral patterns. It is discussed whether these differences are due to the use of different methodology, or substantial cross-linguistic differences in the spectral characteristics.Este estudo analisa as caraterísticas espetrais das oclusivas /p, b, t, d, k, g/ do Português Europeu produzidas por seis informantes nativos. Procedeu-se à análise dos picos e dos vales espetrais (espetros multitaper e à parametrização das caraterísticas espetrais através da análise dos declives dos espetros e do cálculo dos momentos de distribuição. Comparativamente às análises espetrais tradicionais, a análise multitaper permite um maior controlo da variância associada a este tipo de sinais fazendo uso de apenas uma curta janela, o que se adequa às caraterísticas do burst das oclusivas. Os resultados mostram que as caraterísticas do burst variam de acordo com o ponto de articulação. As frequências espetrais obtidas correspondem aos resultados publicados na literatura clássica. No entanto, verifica-se que outras medidas espetrais, no presente estudo, não estão de acordo com os padrões espetrais clássicos. É discutido se estas diferenças se devem ao uso

  13. [Vascular parkinsonism].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marxreiter, F; Winkler, J

    2016-07-01

    Parkinsonism may result from cerebral vascular disorders that feature white matter lesions and small vessel pathology. Vascular Parkinsonism typically presents as lower body Parkinsonism with predominant gait impairment. Urinary incontinence and cognitive decline are additional features of the disease. There is a considerable overlap between vascular Parkinsonism and vascular dementia. We review the clinical characteristics of vascular Parkinsonism and discuss the current treatment approaches, as well as the role of brain imaging for the diagnostic workup. . PMID:27299942

  14. Una caja de ritmos llamada cerebro: Moviendo objetos con la mente.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ángel Correa Torres

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available El cerebro genera ritmos sin parar. Los ritmos cerebrales constituyen un lenguaje de comunicación entreneuronas mientras procesan información. La investigación dedicada a descifrar este lenguaje está revolucionando tanto teorías neurocientíficas como aplicaciones clínicas y tecnológicas. Hoy se piensa que los ritmos cerebrales cumplen un papel crucial en funciones cognitivas como percibir, recordar o moverse. El control a través del pensamiento de objetos electrónicos reales o virtuales ha dejado de ser una ficción gracias al desarrollo de la interfaz cerebro-computadora.

  15. Modality Specific Cerebro-Cerebellar Activations in Verbal Working Memory: An fMRI Study

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    Matthew P. Kirschen

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Verbal working memory (VWM engages frontal and temporal/parietal circuits subserving the phonological loop, as well as, superior and inferior cerebellar regions which have projections from these neocortical areas. Different cerebro-cerebellar circuits may be engaged for integrating aurally- and visually-presented information for VWM. The present fMRI study investigated load (2, 4, or 6 letters and modality (auditory and visual dependent cerebro-cerebellar VWM activation using a Sternberg task. FMRI revealed modality-independent activations in left frontal (BA 6/9/44, insular, cingulate (BA 32, and bilateral inferior parietal/supramarginal (BA 40 regions, as well as in bilateral superior (HVI and right inferior (HVIII cerebellar regions. Visual presentation evoked prominent activations in right superior (HVI/CrusI cerebellum, bilateral occipital (BA19 and left parietal (BA7/40 cortex while auditory presentation showed robust activations predominately in bilateral temporal regions (BA21/22. In the cerebellum, we noted a visual to auditory emphasis of function progressing from superior to inferior and from lateral to medial regions. These results extend our previous findings of fMRI activation in cerebro-cerebellar networks during VWM, and demonstrate both modality dependent commonalities and differences in activations with increasing memory load.

  16. “Conectoma”: Una nueva visión del cerebro y los trastornos psiquiátricos

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    María Emilia Vilatta

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Desde el año 2010 el proyecto “conectoma humano” se encuentra desarrollando una novedosa investigación neurocientífica que tiene como propósito lograr un mapeo integral del cerebro para obtener datos sobre la organización de sus conexiones estructurales y la conformación de dinámicas funcionales. Recientemente, estas investigaciones realizadas sobre cerebros de adultos sanos se han extendido hacia el estudio de cerebros “patológicos”, desarrollando hipótesis sobre algunos trastornos neuropsiquiátricos, tales como la esquizofrenia, que, de confirmarse, significarían un gran avance para el campo de la psiquiatría.

  17. Interfaz Cerebro Computadora embebida basada en potenciales evocados visuales de estado estacionario

    OpenAIRE

    García, Pablo Andrés; Toccateli, Graciela M.; Spinelli, Enrique Mario

    2013-01-01

    El objeto de las Interfaces Cerebro Computadora (ICC) es brindar un canal de comunicación a personas con discapacidades motoras para que puedan manejar un deletreador, comandar una silla de ruedas, un mouse de computadora o bien un electrodoméstico. Las ICC utilizan los biopotenciales cerebrales generados a voluntad por el usuario o bien evocados en respuesta a estímulos. La forma comúnmente utilizada para registrar esta actividad es mediante electrodos dispuestos sobre el cuero cabelludo por...

  18. Una caja de ritmos llamada cerebro: Moviendo objetos con la mente.

    OpenAIRE

    Ángel Correa Torres

    2008-01-01

    El cerebro genera ritmos sin parar. Los ritmos cerebrales constituyen un lenguaje de comunicación entreneuronas mientras procesan información. La investigación dedicada a descifrar este lenguaje está revolucionando tanto teorías neurocientíficas como aplicaciones clínicas y tecnológicas. Hoy se piensa que los ritmos cerebrales cumplen un papel crucial en funciones cognitivas como percibir, recordar o moverse. El control a través del pensamiento de objetos electrónicos reales o virtuales ha de...

  19. Efecto del clorhidrato de tiaprida sobre el metabolismo oxidativo de cerebro de rata "in vitro"

    OpenAIRE

    Torrecilla García-Ripoll, Juan Ramón

    2012-01-01

    El clorhidrato de tiaprida es una benzamida u ortopramida con efecto neuroléptico atípico. En el presente trabajo se estudia el efecto del clorhidrato de tiaprida sobre el consumo de oxígeno, glucosa, fosforilación oxidativa mitocondrial, actividad ATPasa y la interacción con diversos neurotransmisores en preparaciones de cortes de corteza de rata "in vitro". En relación con el MATERIAL Y METODOS, se determinó el consumo de oxígeno en cortes, homogeneizados y mitocondrias de cerebro de r...

  20. Trastornos cognoscitivos asociados al efecto del VIH/sida en el cerebro. Estudio comparativo entre los estadios inicial y final

    OpenAIRE

    Teresita Villaseñor Cabrera; Genoveva Rizo Curiel

    2003-01-01

    Se valora el efecto que causa el vih en el cerebro mediante la comparación de las funciones cognoscitivas en los estadios inicial y final de la enfermedad. La patología asociada al efecto del vih en el cerebro muestra desde el inicio de la infección cambios en las funciones cognoscitivas, en áreas relacionadas con coordinación visomotora, velocidad del pensamiento, tareas visoconstructivas durante la fase asintomática de la enfermedad. En la fase sida, se añaden otras áreas y se intensifica l...

  1. Factores psicológicos en la implementación de sistemas de interfaces cerebro-ordenador (BCI)

    OpenAIRE

    Da Silva-Sauer, Leandro

    2014-01-01

    Un sistema BCI (Brain Computer Interface) es una interfaz entre el cerebro humano y un sistema artificial, tal como un ordenador, y se basa principalmente en el análisis de las señales electroencefalográficas (EEG). Estas interfaces BCI permiten al cerebro usar un nuevo canal no muscular para enviar mensajes y órdenes al mundo exterior. Estos sistemas permiten mejorar la calidad de vida de pacientes con severas discapacidades y pueden representar un canal viable para interac...

  2. Daño nuclear en neuronas de cerebros de pacientes con enfermedad de Alzheimer y otras demencias

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Lopera

    2000-02-01

    Full Text Available

    Introducción: La enfermedad de Alzheimer (EA es una entidad neurodegenerativa y es la causa más común de demencia. Recientemente se reportó en Antioquia (Colombia un grupo familiar con una mutación puntual en el codon 280 de la Presenilina 1 denominada E280A (sustitución de un ácido glutámico por una alanina, la cual produce un incremento en el acúmulo de b-Amiloide (bA de 42-43 aminoácidos y una patología cerebral severa. Durante los últimos años se ha propuesto que la muerte celular es uno de los factores principales de pérdida neuronal en la EA. Hasta el presente no se ha establecido el tipo de muerte celular implicadas en la pérdida neuronal. Por lo tanto el objetivo de esta investigación es establecer el tipo de muerte celular que ocurre en la EA y otras demencias tales como la Demencia Fronto Temporal (DFT, Huntington y Demencia Cerebro Vascular, con base en los siguientes criterios: 1. Fragmentación del ADN. 2. Cambios morfológicos nucleares. 3. Cambios citoplasmáticos y 4. Expresión de ciertas proteínas asociadas a muerte celular. Los resultados de esta investigación permitirán establecer una correlación entre los parámetros morfológicos e histoquímicos antes mencionados, entre placas de bA y ovillos neurofibrilares en la EA y con ovillos neurofibrilares en la DFT adicionalmente. Este trabajo nos permitirá determinar si existe un mecanismo común de muerte celular en las enfermedades neurodegenerativas con demencia.

    Cerebro disminuido: el valor de la emoción y la motivación

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flórez, Jesús

    1999-05-01

    Full Text Available Not available.Empezamos a conocer las bases moleculares de los mecanismos por los que determinadas influencias cerebrales pueden suplir las carencias de otras, y de cómo la ejercitación o el aprovechamiento de sistemas neurales funcionantes puede incidir sobre el funcionamiento de otros sistemas limitados del cerebro, y extraer de ellos funciones que se creían perdidas o ausentes. Ante un cerebro disminuido debemos preguntarnos, por encima de cualquier otra consideración, cuáles son sus «capacidades para» y no sus «limitaciones en». En términos evolutivos, los estados emocionales humanos adquieren tareas de gran calado ya que llegan a suscitar actividades cognitivas y actitudes mentales que, de otro modo, quedarían ignotas. Esto cobra particular trascendencia en situaciones en que la capacidad cognitiva se encuentra alterada, ya que las aferencias emocionales y motivacionales llegan a suplir las carencias de estímulos de otro carácter.

  3. [Vascular dementia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leeuw, H.F. de; Gijn, J. van

    2004-01-01

    Vascular dementia is one of the most frequently occurring dementia syndromes. Its prevalence is about 5% among subjects above 85 years of age. Elevated blood pressure and atherosclerosis are the most important risk factors. According to international criteria, vascular dementia usually occurs within

  4. Instantánea de los cánceres de cerebro y del sistema nervioso central

    Science.gov (United States)

    Información sobre las tendencias de incidencia, mortalidad y financiamiento del NCI sobre los cánceres de cerebro y del sistema nervioso central; así como ejemplos de actividades del NCI y adelantos en la investigación de estos tipos de cáncer.

  5. Cáncer de pulmón de células pequeñas metastatizado en cerebro

    OpenAIRE

    Iglesias Rozas, José Rafael, 1942-

    2001-01-01

    Cuatro imágenes de un cáncer de pulmón de células pequeñas metastatizado situado en el cerebro de un paciente de 55 años. Four pictures of a metastasized small cell lung cancer located in the brain of a 55-year-old male patient.

  6. Estudo comparativo de eco-Doppler com arteriografia na avaliação da doença oclusiva aorto-ilíaca Comparative study of Doppler ultrasonography with arteriography in the evaluation of aortoiliac occlusive disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Cesar Rocha Moreira

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Contexto: A arteriografia com contraste (AC tem sido o exame tradicional de avaliação de pacientes com suspeita de doença oclusiva aorto-ilíaca (DOAI. Recentemente, métodos menos invasivos, como a eco-Doppler, têm sido usados com a mesma finalidade. Objetivo: Comparar prospectivamente a eco-Doppler com a AC e eventual manometria arterial direta (MAD na avaliação pré-operatória de pacientes com suspeita de DOAI. Métodos: Foram submetidos a eco-Doppler e a AC 125 pacientes internados para tratamento de doença arterial oclusiva dos membros inferiores, avaliando comparativamente 552 segmentos da aorta infrarrenal e das artérias ilíacas comum e externa. As lesões encontradas foram classificadas em cinco categorias: 1 normal e estenose leve (0 a 19%; 2 estenose moderada (20 a 49%; 3 estenose significativa (50 a 79%; 4 estenose crítica (80 a 99%; e 5 oclusão total. A MAD foi usada em 19 segmentos de 15 pacientes para classificar lesões limítrofes entre duas categorias. Foram calculados índices de validade (sensibilidade, especificidade, valor preditivo positivo, valor preditivo negativo e acurácia para distinguir lesões hemodinamicamente significativas de não-significativas e para distinguir estenoses críticas de oclusões. O padrão-ouro foi AC, complementado pela MAD. Foram também calculados coeficientes de correlação kappa entre arteriografias e eco-Doppler para o conjunto dos segmentos aorto-ilíacos. Resultados: Lesões clinicamente relevantes (estenoses de 50 a 99% e oclusões totais foram observadas na eco-Doppler em 163 segmentos (29,5% e na AC em 158 segmentos (28,6%. A eco-Doppler mostrou altos índices de validade para distinguir lesões hemodinamicamente significativas de lesões não-significativas em todos os segmentos (acurácia = 92%; kappa = 0,81 e para diferenciar estenoses críticas de oclusões (acurácia = 86%; kappa = 0,73. Os índices de correlação entre os resultados das eco-Doppler e das AC foram

  7. Cortical Amyloid beta in cognitively normal elderly adults is associated with decreased network efficiency within the cerebro-cerebellar system.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefanie eSteininger

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Deposition of cortical amyloid beta (Aβ is a correlate of aging and a risk factor for Alzheimer Disease (AD. While several higher order cognitive processes involve functional interactions between cortex and cerebellum, this study aims to investigate effects of cortical Aβ deposition on coupling within the cerebro-cerebellar system. We included 15 healthy elderly subjects with normal cognitive performance as assessed by neuropsychological testing. Cortical Aβ was quantified using Pittsburgh Compound-B positron-emission-tomography (PiB-PET late frame signals. Volumes of brain structures were assessed by applying an automated parcellation algorithm to three dimensional magnetization-prepared rapid gradient-echo T1-weighted images. Basal functional network activity within the cerebro-cerebellar system was assessed using blood-oxygen-level dependent (BOLD resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI at the high field strength of 7 Tesla for measuring coupling between cerebellar seeds and cerebral gray matter. A bivariate regression approach was applied for identification of brain regions with significant effects of individual cortical Aβ load on coupling.Consistent with earlier reports, a significant degree of positive and negative coupling could be observed between cerebellar seeds and cerebral voxels. Significant positive effects of cortical Aβ load on cerebro-cerebellar coupling resulted for cerebral brain regions located in inferior temporal lobe, prefrontal cortex, hippocampus, parahippocampal gyrus and thalamus. Our findings indicate that brain amyloidosis in cognitively normal elderly subjects is associated with decreased network efficiency within the cerebro-cerebellar system. While the identified cerebral regions are consistent with established patterns of increased sensitivity for Aβ associated neurodegeneration, additional studies are needed to elucidate the relationship between dysfunction of the cerebro

  8. Descifrando el ruido del cerebro: Actividad cerebral espontánea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos González-García

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available La actividad basal del cerebro ha sido conceptualizada tradicionalmente como “ruido”. Sin embargo, el avance en los métodos de análisis de neuroimagen ha permitido descifrar patrones coherentes de actividad en este estado de ‘reposo’. Estos patrones, lejos de ser aleatorios, parecen corresponderse en parte con los sistemas cerebrales clásicos, lo que sugiere que nos encontramos ante un funcionamiento ‘por defecto’ de distintas redes cerebrales. Esta Función Cerebral por Defecto facilitaría nuestra adaptación al medio mediante una constante predicción y sincronización con el mismo.

  9. ¿Qué pasa en el cerebro de los perros cuando ven caras humanas?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura V. Cuaya

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Cuando tu perro te ve, no sólo se iluminan sus ojos, también su cerebro. Aquí resumimos un experimento que realizamos para conocer el procesamiento cerebral de las caras humanas en perros, utilizando imágenes de resonancia magnética funcional, en el que encontramos actividad en la corteza temporal, frontal y el núcleo caudado. La actividad en la corteza temporal sugiere que los perros procesan las caras de manera similar a nosotros. Fue inesperado encontrar actividad en el núcleo caudado, porque sugiere que los perros procesan las caras humanas como recompensas, incluso si son caras de humanos desconocidos.

  10. Global dysrhythmia of cerebro-basal ganglia-cerebellar networks underlies motor tics following striatal disinhibition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCairn, Kevin W; Iriki, Atsushi; Isoda, Masaki

    2013-01-01

    Motor tics, a cardinal symptom of Tourette syndrome (TS), are hypothesized to arise from abnormalities within cerebro-basal ganglia circuits. Yet noninvasive neuroimaging of TS has previously identified robust activation in the cerebellum. To date, electrophysiological properties of cerebellar activation and its role in basal ganglia-mediated tic expression remain unknown. We performed multisite, multielectrode recordings of single-unit activity and local field potentials from the cerebellum, basal ganglia, and primary motor cortex using a pharmacologic monkey model of motor tics/TS. Following microinjections of bicuculline into the sensorimotor putamen, periodic tics occurred predominantly in the orofacial region, and a sizable number of cerebellar neurons showed phasic changes in activity associated with tic episodes. Specifically, 64% of the recorded cerebellar cortex neurons exhibited increases in activity, and 85% of the dentate nucleus neurons displayed excitatory, inhibitory, or multiphasic responses. Critically, abnormal discharges of cerebellar cortex neurons and excitatory-type dentate neurons mostly preceded behavioral tic onset, indicating their central origins. Latencies of pathological activity in the cerebellum and primary motor cortex substantially overlapped, suggesting that aberrant signals may be traveling along divergent pathways to these structures from the basal ganglia. Furthermore, the occurrence of tic movement was most closely associated with local field potential spikes in the cerebellum and primary motor cortex, implying that these structures may function as a gate to release overt tic movements. These findings indicate that tic-generating networks in basal ganglia mediated tic disorders extend beyond classical cerebro-basal ganglia circuits, leading to global network dysrhythmia including cerebellar circuits.

  11. Cómo pensar sobre el cerebro. Hacia una definición de Neuroética

    OpenAIRE

    Echarte-Alonso, L.E. (Luis Enrique)

    2004-01-01

    Las investigaciones en Neuroética adolecen de dos grandes frenos, uno metodológico y otro histórico. Ambos están relacionados con la manera en que pensamos el cerebro y, a través de él, lo humano. En este artículo presento varias claves que ayudan a despejar algunos errores categoriales y a articular los problemas de los que se ocupa esta disciplina.

  12. Vascular emergencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semashko, D C

    1997-01-01

    This article reviews the initial assessment and emergent management of several common as well as uncommon vascular emergencies. Aortic dissection, aneurysms, and arterial occlusive disease are familiar but challenging clinical entities. Less frequently encountered conditions are also discussed including an aortic enteric fistula, mesenteric venous thrombosis, phlegmasia alba dolens, and subclavian vein thrombosis.

  13. El cerebro como máquina para aprender, recordar y olvidar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gruart i Massó, Agnès

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available The brain is the organ responsible for two noticeable abilities, to think and to behave, the two of which are dependent on the capability to learn and to store the acquired information. The evident advances of the Neurosciences in the past few years has allowed the discovery of the mechanism underlying those processes, but many other aspects still wait for a discovery. Reasonable information is available on neuronal architecture and neuronal connecting processes, as well as on cerebral structures related with the generation and storage of the different types of memory. These findings have opened a path for the developing of drugs related to those neural processes. On the other hand, science fiction and media influences have potentiated the survival of several legends regarding the nervous system extraordinary capabilities: from considering the brain as a computer to accepting that it is a plastic structure with unlimited capabilities.El cerebro es el órgano responsable de dos grandes habilidades, pensar y actuar, las cuales requieren de la capacidad de aprender y de recordar la información adquirida. El gran avance de las Neurociencias en los últimos años ha permitido conocer algunos de los mecanismos que subyacen a estos procesos, pero quedan aún muchos aspectos por descubrir. Se conoce la estructura neuronal y muchos de los mecanismos de comunicación entre neuronas y se han identificado algunas estructuras relacionadas con la elaboración y almacenamiento de los diferentes tipos de memoria. Esto ha animado al desarrollo de fármacos que puedan incidir positivamente sobre estos procesos. La ciencia ficción por un lado, y la presión mediática por el otro, han hecho que perduren algunas leyendas acerca de las extraordinarias capacidades del sistema nervioso: desde aceptar que el cerebro es como un ordenador a pensar que es de una estructura plástica con capacidades prácticamente ilimitadas.

  14. What Is Vascular Disease?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... our CEO Board of Directors Scientific Advisory Board History of Vascular Cures Impact Contact Us Vascular Disease What is Vascular Disease? Education and Awareness Vascular Diseases Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm Aortic ...

  15. Diabetes and Vascular Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... our CEO Board of Directors Scientific Advisory Board History of Vascular Cures Impact Contact Us Vascular Disease What is Vascular Disease? Education and Awareness Vascular Diseases Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm Aortic ...

  16. Myelin basic protein determination in cerebro-spinal fluid of children with tuberculous meningitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Myelin basic protein (MBP), an indicator of neural tissue damage in cerebro-spinal fluid, was studied in patients with tuberculous meningitis (TBM). MBP levels were elevated in 62% of the cases of TBM, the levels being 13.3+-18.8 ng/mL, compared with control levels of 1.34+-0.55 ng/mL(p<0.001). MBP level was related to certain clinical features of the disease, such as level of consciousness, neurological characteristics associated with signs of raised intracranial tension and the presence of arteritis associated with hydrocephalus. However, its greatest significance was its correlation with the progress of disease. Persistence of high levels of MBP over a period of a few weeks was associated with little or no improvement in the clinical state of the patient or a higher mortality rate. Return to normal levels of MBP indicated a more favourable outcome of disease. Hence MBP estimation gave not only an indicator of the degree of neurological damage but also an important marker to evaluate patients' progress and response to treatment. (author)

  17. NEUROÉTICA: LA DOTACIÓN ÉTICA DEL CEREBRO HUMANO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NATALIA LÓPEZ MORATALLA

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Los procesos neurobiológicos que subyacen al juicio ético es el foco de atención de la Neuroética. El conocimiento, desde las neurociencias, de qué áreas cerebrales se activan y cuales se silencian mientras las personas deciden cómo actuar ante un dilema moral, ha permitido conocer los correlatos cerebrales que subyacen a los actos humanos y ofrecer una explicación de cómo está impresa en la dinámica del cerebro la dotación ética de cada hombre y común a todos los hombres. De interés central es el papel causal que desempeñan las emociones en el juicio ético y en paralelo las áreas cerebrales relacionadas con las emociones. La finalidad de las inclinaciones naturales del hombre están fuertemente atadas, por hundir sus raíces en los sistemas instintivos de la supervivencia animal, sensible a las emociones básicas; y al mismo tiempo, e inseparablemente, la vida de cada hombre está liberada del automatismo de tales leyes, es decir, regido por la ley de la libertad. El juicio ético es propiedad innata de la mente.

  18. Cerebro-afferent vessel and pupillary basal diameter variation induced by stomatognathic trigeminal proprioception: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    De Cicco Vincenzo

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction A patient affected by asymmetric hemodynamics of cerebro-afferent vessels underwent duplex color scanner investigations in occlusal proprioceptive un- and rebalance conditions. Pupillometric video-oculographic examinations were performed in order to spot connected trigeminal proprioceptive motor patterns able to interfere on sympathetic autonomic activity. The aim of this case report is to verify if involuntary jaw closing during swallowing, executed in unbalance and rebalance myoelectric activity, would be able to modify cerebral hemodynamics. Case presentation A 56-year-old Caucasian Italian woman affected by asymmetric blood flow of cerebro-afferent vessels underwent an electromyographic investigation of her occlusal muscles in order to assess their occlusal functional balance. The extreme asymmetry of myoelectric activity in dental occlusion evidenced by electromyographic values suggested the rebalancing of the functions of occlusal muscles through concurrent transcutaneous stimulation of the trigeminal nerve supra- and submandibular motor branches. The above-mentioned method allowed the detection of a symmetric craniomandibular muscular relation that can be kept constant through the use of a cusp bite modeled on the inferior dental arch: called orthotic-syntropic bite for its peculiar use of electrostimulation. A few days later, the patient underwent a duplex color scanner investigation and pupillometric video-oculographic examinations in occlusal unbalance and rebalance conditions. Conclusions A comparative data analysis showed that an unbalanced dental occlusal function may represent an interferential pattern on cerebral hemodynamics velocity and pupillometric evaluations have proved useful both in the analysis of locus coeruleus functional modalities and as a diagnostic tool in the assessment of pathologies involving locus coeruleus and autonomic systems. The inclusion of myoelectric masseter examinations can be

  19. PURIFICACIÓN DE IgY CONTRA LA SUBUNIDAD NR3 DEL RECEPTOR NMDA DE CEREBRO DE RATA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gina Méndez C

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo. Obtener anticuerpos tipo IgY contra péptidos sintéticos de las subunidades NR3A y NR3B del receptor NMDA de ratas, para reconocer y seguir la expresión de estas subunidades en extractos de cerebro de rata de diferentes edades. Materiales y métodos. Se diseñaron dos péptidos empleando los sistemas de la base de datos Entrez y el programa ClustalW-PBIL de alineamientos múltiples contra las subunidades NR3A y NR3B del receptor NMDA; una vez sintetizados por el método SSPS-fmoc fueron utilizados para inocular gallinas (Gallus gallus, variedad Hy Line Brown de 16 semanas de edad; al cabo de 57 días postinoculación se purificó IgY específica y se enfrentaron a extractos de cerebro de rata postnatal y adulta. Resultados. Se detectaron las subunidades NR3A y NR3B y se relacionó su expresión con la edad del animal; siendo mayor la expresión de la subunidad NR3A en extracto de cerebro de rata postnatal. No se encontró diferencia marcada en la expresión de la subunidad NR3B en las edades mencionadas. Conclusiones. Esta es la primera investigación que emplea proteína nativa para el reconocimiento de la subunidad NR3 del receptor NMDA, lo cual muestra la especificidad de los anticuerpos generados y contribuye con el entendimiento de las funciones de este receptor y su relación con la regulación de la memoria espacial.

  1. Analysis of cerebro-spinal fluid protein composition in early developmental stages in chick embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gato, A; Martín, P; Alonso, M I; Martín, C; Pulgar, M A; Moro, J A

    2004-04-01

    Foetal cerebro-spinal fluid (CSF) has a very high protein concentration when compared to adult CSF, and in many species five major protein fractions have been described. However, the protein concentration and composition in CSF during early developmental stages remains largely unknown. Our results show that in the earliest stages (18 to 30 H.H.) of chick development there is a progressive increase in CSF protein concentration until foetal values are attained. In addition, by performing electrophoretic separation and high-sensitivity silver staining, we were able to identify a total of 21 different protein fractions in the chick embryo CSF. In accordance with the developmental pattern of their concentration, these can be classified as follows: A: high-concentration fractions which corresponded with the ones described in foetal CSF by other authors; B: low-concentration fractions which remained stable throughout the period studied; C: low-concentration fractions which show changes during this period. The evolution and molecular weight of the latter group suggest the possibility of an important biological role. Our data demonstrate that all the CSF protein fractions are present in embryonic serum; this could mean that the specific transport mechanisms in neuroepithelial cells described in the foetal period evolve in very early stages of development. In conclusion, this paper offers an accurate study of the protein composition of chick embryonic CSF, which will help the understanding of the influences on neuroepithelial stem cells during development and, as a result, the appropriate conditions for the in vitro study of embryonic/foetal nervous tissue cells. PMID:15039986

  2. Factor neurotrófico derivado del cerebro en tejido cerebral de ratas sanas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa Serrano Sánchez

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Hasta el presente se conocen cinco proteínas, estructuralmente relacionadas, que constituyen la familia de las neurotrofinas dentro de las que se encuentra el factor neurotrófico derivado del cerebro (FNDC, que tiene influencia sobre muchos tipos de neuronas en el sistema nervioso central, promoviendo en ellas su diferenciación, crecimiento y supervivencia. Esta proteína es importante en la neuroprotección, así como en los mecanismos de plasticidad sináptica. Teniendo en cuenta la importancia de este factor en los fenómenos de neuroplasticidad y que no existen datos normativos referente a sus valores normales en el hipocampo, el estriado y la corteza, en este trabajo se evaluó su concentración en el tejido cerebral de ratas sanas. El tejido se obtuvo de ratas machos Wistar con peso corporal entre 200 a 250 g (n = 20. Las muestras fueron homogenizadas y la concentración del FNDC fue estimada por un ensayo inmunoenzimático. No hubo diferencias significativas en las concentraciones de FNDC entre los hemisferios cerebrales derecho e izquierdo para las estructuras homólogas estudiadas, aunque se evidenció una tendencia a la disminución del FNDC en el lado izquierdo con respecto al lado derecho. El hipocampo mostró una concentración más elevada del FNDC que la detectada en el estriado y la corteza, mientras que entre estas dos últimas estructuras no se detectaron diferencias significativas. Este trabajo permitió el establecimiento de los valores de referencia del FNDC, lo cual tendrá utilidad en los estudios futuros que indaguen sobre las potencialidades y los mecanismos neuroplásticos, tanto para el funcionamiento normal del sistema nervioso, como para la recuperación de las funciones perdidas.

  3. ANÁLISIS DE LA MENTE-CEREBRO-CONDUCTA DESDE LA CIENCIA Y LA FILOSOFÍA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Cecilia Vallejo Clavijo

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available El presente artículo corresponde al desarrollo de la segunda fase del proyecto investigativo “Ciencia y espiritualidad ”. En él se da a conocer el problema de la mente-cerebro-conducta desde la ciencia y la filosofía, con el fin de describir explicar y analizar de forma crítica algunas de las principales posturas teóricas que se han elaborado y que tienen que ver con el desarrollo de la ciencia en particular la física y la filosofía actual. Igualmente, en este artículo se presenta la relación entre el funcionamiento de la mente y el cerebro con la física cuántica, no sin antes presentar algunas de las más representativas teorías sobre la mente como: el dualismo, el funcionalismo y de la complejidad a fin de contextualizar la relación antes mencionada mentecerebro- conducta. Por otro lado, el análisis que se hace sobre el comportamiento del mundo subatómico desde la teoría cuántica y en el que va implícito una postura indeterminista nos lleva a plantear problemas acerca de la mente, el cerebro, la conducta y, particularmente, el comportamiento ético, (el problema del libre albedrío. En dicho análisis surgen interrogantes que dan lugar a la reflexión como, por ejemplo: ¿si se tomara el modelo de la física cuántica se podría llegar a considerar que el cerebro está constituido de mínimas incertidumbres, que serían el resultado de fluctuaciones cuánticas?, ¿esas irregularidades podrían traducirse en comportamientos atípicos, creativos y originales en los individuos?

  4. Society for Vascular Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 2017 Learn more Patient Information Pages from Vascular Medicine August 2016 The Vascular Laboratory More info for ... Learn more. Trending Now: Hot Topics in Vascular Medicine Video Series Fibromuscular Dysplasia (FMD) with Drs. Jeffrey ...

  5. ENTÉRATE DE CÓMO CAMBIA EL CEREBRO CUANDO SE LESIONA UN NERVIO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julieta Troncoso

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Desde hace algunos años el grupo de investigación de Neurofisiología Comportamental de la Universidad Nacional de Colombia ha venido evaluando los cambios que ocurren en el sistema nervioso central luego de la lesión de un nervio periférico. Específicamente trabajamos con el modelo de lesión del nervio facial en roedores para evaluar las modificaciones funcionales y estructurales que ocurren en la corteza sensoriomotora primaria luego de la lesión. Al lesionarse el nervio facial, el cerebro entra en un programa de reorganización que incluye cambios electrofisiológicos en las neuronas de la corteza motora que comandan los movimientos faciales (M1. En este sentido, las células de la corteza motora cerebral se vuelven más excitables y modifican su respuesta ante estímulos sensoriales. La reorganización tras la lesión también incluye cambios morfológicos en M1: las células piramidales de la corteza motora retraen su árbol dendrítico y disminuye la densidad de sus espinas dendríticas. En asociación con estos cambios, las células de M1 disminuyen transitoriamente su inmunorreactividad para NeuN (marcador específico de núcleos neuronales y aumentan la expresión de GAP43 (proteína de crecimiento axonal. Esto indica, posiblemente, un cambio metabólico celular en asociación con la búsqueda de nuevas dianas sinápticas. Finalmente, hallamos que la glía circundante en M1 (tanto astrocitos como microglía se activa de manera muy temprana luego de lesiones del nervio facial. Esto podría indicar que el remodelamiento estructural y funcional hallado en las neuronas corticales es el resultado de la interacción entre la activación de la glía circundante y las células piramidales de M1 (aunque se necesitan muchos experimentos adicionales que así lo demuestren. AbstractOur research group (Neurofisiología Comportamental, Universidad Nacional de Colombia has evaluated changes in the central nervous system induced by peripheral

  6. Branding of vascular surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perler, Bruce A

    2008-03-01

    The Society for Vascular Surgery surveyed primary care physicians (PCPs) to understand how PCPs make referral decisions for their patients with peripheral vascular disease. Responses were received from 250 PCPs in 44 states. More than 80% of the respondents characterized their experiences with vascular surgeons as positive or very positive. PCPs perceive that vascular surgeons perform "invasive" procedures and refer patients with the most severe vascular disease to vascular surgeons but were more than twice as likely to refer patients to cardiologists, believing they are better able to perform minimally invasive procedures. Nevertheless, PCPs are receptive to the notion of increasing referrals to vascular surgeons. A successful branding campaign will require considerable education of referring physicians about the totality of traditional vascular and endovascular care increasingly provided by the contemporary vascular surgical practice and will be most effective at the local grassroots level.

  7. Negociación social: cómo nuestro cerebro se anticipa a las decisiones de otras personas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Billeke

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Durante nuestro desarrollo nuestras conductas y cerebros se moldean para participar en complejas formas de interacción social. Por ejemplo, al enfrentarnos a una negociación resulta clave poder anticiparnos a las posibles decisiones de las otras personas a fin de llegar a un acuerdo. Investigaciones recientes han demostrado que la actividad oscilatoria cerebral está relacionada con esta expectativa que nos formamos sobre la conducta de los otros. Esta actividad cerebral guía nuestras futuras decisiones y se muestra alterada en pacientes con esquizofrenia. Los hallazgos de estas investigaciones pueden aplicarse para elaborar terapias de rehabilitación de habilidades sociales en enfermedades neuropsiquiátricas.

  8. Retraction: Selective cerebro-myocardial perfusion under mild hypothermia during primary repair for aortic coarctation with ventricular septal defect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-01

    The following article from Artificial Organs, "Selective Cerebro-Myocardial Perfusion Under Mild Hypothermia During Primary Repair for Aortic Coarctation With Ventricular Septal Defect" by Huiwen Chen, Haifa Hong, Zhongqun Zhu and Jinfen Liu, published online on 2 November 2012 in Wiley Online Library (wileyonlinelibrary.com), has been retracted by agreement between the authors, the journal Editor-in-Chief, Paul S. Malchesky, the International Center for Artificial Organs and Transplantation and Wiley Periodicals, Inc. The retraction has been agreed due to simultaneous publication of a substantially similar article, "Continuous Cerebral and Myocardial Perfusion During One-Stage Repair for Aortic Coarctation With Ventricular Septal Defect", by Huiwen Chen, Haifa Hong, Zhongqun Zhu and Jinfen Liu, in Pediatric Cardiology 7 November 2012 [Epub ahead of print].

  9. Neurociencia para filósofos: Cómo el estudio del cerebro nos ayuda a comprender el pensamiento

    OpenAIRE

    Martí-Sánchez, M. (Miguel)

    2015-01-01

    ¿Por qué una recensión de un libro sobre la historia de la Neurociencia1 en una revista dedicada a las relaciones entre ciencia, fe y Filosofía? No es usual que se reseñen libros sobre la historia de disciplinas científicas, a no ser sobre Física. Como es sabido, el cerebro no deja de ser un órgano corporal del ser humano y de otras especies del reino animal, del mismo modo que el corazón o el estómago. Si a ninguna de las disciplinas que los estudian les presta el filósofo ...

  10. Collagen vascular disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/001223.htm Collagen vascular disease To use the sharing features on this page, ... were previously said to have "connective tissue" or "collagen vascular" disease. We now have names for many of many ...

  11. Vascular grading of angiogenesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, S; Grabau, D A; Sørensen, Flemming Brandt;

    2000-01-01

    was moderately reproduced (kappa = 0.59). Vascular grade was significantly associated with axillary node involvement, tumour size, malignancy grade, oestrogen receptor status and histological type. In univariate analyses vascular grade significantly predicted recurrence free survival and overall survival for all...... patients (P analysis showed that vascular grading contributed with independent prognostic value in all patients (P

  12. How to Prevent Vascular Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... our CEO Board of Directors Scientific Advisory Board History of Vascular Cures Impact Contact Us Vascular Disease What is Vascular Disease? Education and Awareness Vascular Diseases Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm Aortic ...

  13. Multifocal vascular lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levin, Laura E; Lauren, Christine T

    2016-03-01

    Multifocal vascular lesions are important to recognize and appropriately diagnose. Generally first noticed on the skin, multifocal vascular lesions may have systemic involvement. Distinguishing among the different types of multifocal vascular lesions is often based on clinical features; however, radiological imaging and/or biopsy are frequently needed to identify distinct features and guide treatment. Knowledge of the systemic associations that can occur with different vascular anomalies may reduce life-threatening complications, such as coagulopathy, bleeding, cardiac compromise, and neurologic sequelae. This review provides a synopsis of the epidemiology, pathogenesis, presentation, workup, and treatment of several well-recognized multifocal vascular tumors and malformations. PMID:27607324

  14. Magnetic resonance imaging depiction of acquired Dyke-Davidoff-Masson syndrome with crossed cerebro-cerebellar diaschisis: Report of two cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ranjana Gupta

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Acquired Dyke-Davidoff-Masson syndrome, also known as hemispheric atrophy, is characterized by loss of volume of one cerebral hemisphere from an insult in early life. Crossed cerebellar diaschisis refers to dysfunction/atrophy of cerebellar hemisphere which is secondary to contralateral supratentorial insult. We describe magnetic resonance imaging findings in two cases of acquired Dyke-Davidoff-Masson syndrome with crossed cerebro-cerebellar diaschisis.

  15. Cerebro-corticale und subcorticale Prozessierung vestibulärer Informationen im intakten und lädierten System der Ratte (Micro-PET-Studie)

    OpenAIRE

    Lange, Elena

    2010-01-01

    In dieser Studie wurde anhand des Modells der Ratte das Gleichgewichtssystem auf cerebro-corticaler Ebene untersucht, und das Verhalten des Gehirns nach akuten sowie chronischen Ausfällen mit funktioneller Bildgebung untersucht. rnMit der Positronen-Emissions-Tomographie (PET) kann die Metabolismusrate bestimmter Gehirnareale gemessen werden. Narkotisierte Tiere wurden unter galvanischer vestibulärer Stimulation im PET gemessen und die Ergebnisse wurden mit Kontrollstimulations-Messungen verg...

  16. Estrógenos y desarrollo del cerebro femenino en la adolescencia: anticoncepción de emergencia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia López Moratalla

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available En el periodo entre pubertad y madurez tiene lugar el proceso de maduración cerebral en el que los niveles hormonales inducen modificaciones en las neuronas y dirigen la arquitectura y funcionalidad estructural al modificar los patrones de desarrollo de diversa áreas cerebrales. El inicio de la pubertad trae consigo la invasión del cerebro femenino por niveles elevados de hormonas: oleadas cíclicas de estrógenos y progesterona que se suman a los esteroides producidos in situ. Los centros de control de las emociones (amígdala cerebral, de la memoria y el aprendizaje (hipocampo y de la actividad sexual (hipotálamo se modifican en función de las concentraciones cíclicas de ambas hormonas. Las hormonas sexuales estimulan acciones multimodales, tanto a corto como a más largo plazo, debido a que las neuronas de las diversas áreas cerebrales poseen diversos tipos de receptores, de membrana, citoplásmicos y nucleares. La composición del anticonceptivo de emergencia -píldora postcoitalde elevada dosis hormonal, plantea la urgencia de un conocimiento profundo acerca del posible efecto que el descontrol del ciclo menstrual, en un momento de consolidación de la maduración cerebral, puede llevar consigo en la estructuración y desarrollo de los circuitos cerebrales. Cambios en la disponibilidad de los esteroides sexuales durante la pubertad y adolescencia subyacen a desordenes psiquiátricos cuya prevalencia es típicamente femenina como depresión, desordenes de ansiedad. Constituye un deber ético primordial dar a conocer los datos científicos acerca de la influencia de los estrógenos en la maduración del cerebro femenino joven, tanto para una información plena a las posibles usuarias, como para inducir las medidas de salud pública adecuadas.

  17. 脑血管疾病后遗症的康复研究现状%Present study on the rehabilitation of sequeal following cerebro-vascular diseases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭程; 王默然

    2007-01-01

    脑血管疾病后遗症是脑血管患者常见的合并症,患者经过系统的神经内科治疗后,肢体或语言常存在不同程度的功能障碍,心理上也遭受很大的创伤,给患者和其家庭带了巨大的压力,因此尽早实行功能康复和心理疗法对改善患者的生活质量有重要意义.近年来,国内外对脑血管疾病后遗症康复的研究取得了较大进展,现综述如下.

  18. 中风心脑血管病与微观证治学%Apoplexy Cardio- cerebro- vascular Disease and Doctrine of Microscopic Diagnosis and Treatment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭振球

    2006-01-01

    高血压是各种类型卒中最重要而且可以干预的危险因素.应用微观证治学方法,从中风"风中五脏",按肝风证治降压熄风,调脂祛痰和活血化瘀"治风三法",为防治高血压伴有动脉粥样硬化心脑血管病的首选方药.

  19. The relationship between geriatric depression and cardio-/cerebro-vascular diseases%老年抑郁症与心脑血管疾病的关系

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵树津; 李宝玉

    2007-01-01

    随着步入老龄化社会,抑郁症已成为老年人常见的精神障碍性疾病,并多与心脑血管病并存.心脑血管病与抑郁症相关,其因果关系可能是复杂的,双相的,血管性疾病易发生抑郁症,而抑郁症又进一步使血管性疾病恶化,故在治疗老年人躯体疾病时,更要重视相伴的精神疾病的诊治.

  20. 强化降脂与心脑血管病%Intensive lowering of blood lipid level and cardio-and cerebro-vascular diseases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    仝其广; 胡大一

    2004-01-01

    1994年以来具有里程碑意义的5项大规模临床试验[北欧辛伐他汀生存研究(4S)、西苏格兰冠心病预防研究(WOSCOPS)、胆固醇和冠心病复发事件试验(CARE)、普伐他汀对缺血性心脏病的长期干预(LIPID)和空军/得州冠状动脉粥样硬化预防研究(AFCAPS/TEXCAPS)]充分证明降脂治疗具有能显著减

  1. Walter Moxon, MD, FCRP (1836-1886): the cerebro-vascular system and the syndrome of "congestion of the brain": an analysis of his 1881 Croonian Lectures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckingham, Hugh W

    2008-01-01

    Walter Moxon, MD, FRCP lived, practiced medicine, taught and wrote in the mid- to late- nineteenth-century Victorian England, mostly at Guy's Hospital, London. He was widely informed in the "Art of Physic," writing on a range of issues from cerebral lateralization of articulate speech to angina pectoris. The present paper will trace briefly his contributions to the newly discovered asymmetry of articulate speech in the left frontal lobe (1866) and will in more detail trace and analyze his 1881 Croonian Lectures at the Royal College of Physicians on a medical shibboleth referred to as "congestion of the brain." In a series of ingenious and rhetorically creative arguments with imaginative tropes, demonstrations, evolutionary accounts of cognition and blood metabolism for human/biped cognition, and cogent citations from the medical literature of the day, Moxon skillfully instructs his medical audience against the misleading notion of cerebral "congestion" as an underlying pathology for cognitive, motor, and sensory deficits seen in the clinic. In so doing, he provides the medical community with an in-depth glimpse at the circulatory system, its flow dynamics, and how they serve to meet the cognitive, motor, and sensory demands of upright bipedal man. PMID:18161599

  2. Vascularity in thyroid neoplasms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Karen Kjaer; Andersen, Niels Frost; Melsen, Flemming;

    2006-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the reliability of four different methods (vascular grading, Chalkley count, microvessel density (MVD) and stereological estimation) for quantifying intratumoral microvascularity in thyroid neoplasms, by comparing the variability within and between...... count should be the preferred method for assessing microvascularity in thyroid neoplasms. The diagnostic evaluation revealed a tendency towards higher degree of vascularity in FA compared to both FC and PC for all methods. No statistically significant association was seen between vascular density and...

  3. Vascular cognitive impairment

    OpenAIRE

    Rebecca F. Gottesman; Hillis, Argye E.

    2014-01-01

    The term vascular cognitive impairment (VCI) has been proposed to encompass all people with cognitive impairment of cerebrovascular origin. VCI is not a single condition, but has several clinical presentations, etiologies, and treatment. VCI forms a spectrum that includes vascular dementia, mixed Alzheimer’s disease with a vascular component, and VCI that does not meet dementia criteria. Multiple pathophysiological mechanisms contribute to VCI, accounting for its heterogeneity. Although main ...

  4. Toxicología Postmortem: estudio analítico de cocaína en cerebro.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Mora

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available El screening de drogas de abuso postmortem en casos de presunta causa de muerte por sobredosis es un análisis habitual en todos los laboratorios toxicológicos. La matriz más utilizada y común para el estudio es la sangre debido a su relación temporal con los efectos en el individuo y su estado en el momento de la muerte. Otras matrices como humor vítreo, saliva y orina son también analizadas de modo alternativo para complementar los estudios postmortem o en casos de difícil extracción de sangre por motivos diversos. La utilización de cerebro como matriz biológica alternativa para el análisis toxicológico, proporciona información relevante del estado del individuo y de sus posibles alteraciones físicas y de conducta en el momento de la muerte.

  5. ¿Tenemos un cerebro preparado para realizar predicciones? Evidencia desde una tarea de detección

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Ortiz-Tudela

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Si pensamos en la función cerebral como fundamentalmente predictora del ambiente, nuestro sistema cognitivo debería contar con herramientas que le permitieran 1 establecer esas predicciones y reaccionar de acuerdo con ellas, y 2 detectar cuándo esas predicciones no se cumplen para disparar un mecanismo que lleve a adquirir nueva información para minimizar el error en las futuras predicciones. No obstante, aislar en el laboratorio estos dos tipos de procesos es bastante complicado. El estudio que presentamos aquí muestra una manera de separar la respuesta de detección (saber que algo está presente de la de identificación (saber qué es ese algo. La primera serviría como señal de alerta ante la falta de predicción y la segunda sería un reflejo de esas predicciones hechas por el cerebro.

  6. FILOSOFIA DE LA MENTE; APORTES TEORICOS Y EXPERIMENTALES A LA VISIÓN EMERGENTISTA DEL VINCULO MENTE-CEREBRO.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Ruiz Santos

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available El presente trabajo intenta sumar alprograma emergentista dentro del mapa teórico referido a la Filosofía de la Mente, tomando como referentes a disciplinas y teorías naturalizadas. Algunos puentes vinculantes desde la naturalización pueden ser por ejemplo el neuro-psicoanálisis, las neuronas espejo, la psicosomática, entre otros. Dichos puentes son posibles de ser tendidos a través de la naturalización de los procesos psicológicos vinculándolos a diferentes procesos biológicos. El objetivo del trabajo no pretende obturar los procesos psicológicos a través de la simplificación y reduccionismo de los mismos, ni biologizar la psicología a través de planteos cartesianos. Sino, de la mano de la neuro-fenomenología, acceder a más y nuevas evidencias sobre el vínculo mente-cerebro y sus implicancias aportando a una visión interaccionista y emergentista del vínculo.

  7. [Vascular graft prosthesis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakfé, N; Dieval, F; Thaveau, F; Rinckenbach, S; Hassani, O; Camelot, G; Durand, B; Kretz, J-G

    2004-06-01

    Performed since the 1950s, vascular grafting has opened modern era of vascular surgery. Autologous venous grafts are of first choice for revascularisation of small arteries. Synthetic grafts are mainly modelled using microporous polytetrafluoroethylene or terephtalate polyethylene. These prosthesis are mainly used for revascularization of medium and large size arteries. PMID:15220107

  8. Modelos animales de lesión y reparación del cerebro en desarrollo Animal models of injury and repair in developing brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Cuestas

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Gran parte de la morbilidad y mortalidad neonatal están determinadas por la lesión del cerebro en desarrollo. Un considerable número de los niños afectados presentarán secuelas neurológicas a largo plazo. A pesar de la importancia médica y social que presenta el problema, los avances alcanzados por la medicina neonatal no cuentan aún con una terapéutica eficaz para prevenir o aminorar las consecuencias de la lesión del cerebro en desarrollo. En la siguiente revisión nos proponemos actualizar las investigaciones más recientes en relación a los mecanismos de lesión y reparación del cerebro en desarrollo, basados en modelos animales que ilustran sobre los mecanismos plásticos de adaptación neuronal y funcional; el fin es un mejor conocimiento de los citados procesos que ayude al clínico en la práctica cotidiana de la neonatología.Brain injury is a major contributor to neonatal morbidity and mortality, a considerable group of these children will develop long term neurological sequels. Despite the great clinical and social significance and the advances in neonatal medicine, no therapy yet does exist that prevent or decrease detrimental effects in cases of neonatal brain injury. Our objective was to review recent research in relation to the hypothesis for repair mechanism in the developing brain, based in animal models that show developmental compensatory mechanisms that promote neural and functional plasticity. A better understanding of these adaptive mechanisms will help clinicians to apply knowledge derived from animals to human clinical situations.

  9. La Dislexia del Desarrollo: Gen, Cerebro y Cognición Developmental Dyslexia: Gen, Brain, and Cognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto M Galaburda

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available La dislexia del desarrollo es un trastorno que se caracteriza por dificultades en el aprendizaje de la lectura. Recientemente se ha podido vincular la dislexia a cuatro distintos genes candidatos de riesgo: DYX1C1, KIAA0319, DCDC2 y ROBO1. Estos cuatro genes participan en el desarrollo cerebral, y anomalías de dicho desarrollo constituyen los elementos conocidos del cuadro biológico que subyace a la dislexia. En animales experimentales, la inducción de anomalías del desarrollo cerebral similares produce problemas en el procesamiento de ciertos sonidos. En humanos, problemas de procesamiento de sonidos semejantes se asocian a un trastorno de aprendizaje de la lectura. Por consiguiente, es posible por primera vez, trazar una trayectoria tentativa entre una característica genética, variaciones del desarrollo del cerebro, y trastornos conductuales y cognitivos asociados a la dislexia.Developmental dyslexia is a disorder characterized by difficulties in reading acquisition. Recently, dyslexia has been related to four different genes which are prone-risk candidates: DYX1C1, KIAA0319, DCDC2, and ROBO1. These four genes participate in brain development, and anomalies in that development comprise the known elements of the biological constellation underlying dyslexia. The induction of similar brain development anomalies in experimental animals produces problems in the processing of certain sounds. In humans, similar sound processing problems are related to a reading acquisition disorder. Consequently, for the first time it is possible to delineate a tentative path between a genetic characteristic, brain development variations, and behavioral and cognitive disorders related to dyslexia.

  10. Pediatric vascular access

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pediatric interventional radiologists are ideally suited to provide vascular access services to children because of inherent safety advantages and higher success from using image-guided techniques. The performance of vascular access procedures has become routine at many adult interventional radiology practices, but this service is not as widely developed at pediatric institutions. Although interventional radiologists at some children's hospitals offer full-service vascular access, there is little or none at others. Developing and maintaining a pediatric vascular access service is a challenge. Interventionalists skilled in performing such procedures are limited at pediatric institutions, and institutional support from clerical staff, nursing staff, and technologists might not be sufficiently available to fulfill the needs of such a service. There must also be a strong commitment by all members of the team to support such a demanding service. There is a slippery slope of expected services that becomes steeper and steeper as the vascular access service grows. This review is intended primarily as general education for pediatric radiologists learning vascular access techniques. Additionally, the pediatric or adult interventional radiologist seeking to expand services might find helpful tips. The article also provides education for the diagnostic radiologist who routinely interprets radiographs containing vascular access devices. (orig.)

  11. Pediatric vascular access

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donaldson, James S. [Northwestern University, Feinberg School of Medicine, Department of Medical Imaging, Children' s Memorial Hospital, Chicago, IL (United States)

    2006-05-15

    Pediatric interventional radiologists are ideally suited to provide vascular access services to children because of inherent safety advantages and higher success from using image-guided techniques. The performance of vascular access procedures has become routine at many adult interventional radiology practices, but this service is not as widely developed at pediatric institutions. Although interventional radiologists at some children's hospitals offer full-service vascular access, there is little or none at others. Developing and maintaining a pediatric vascular access service is a challenge. Interventionalists skilled in performing such procedures are limited at pediatric institutions, and institutional support from clerical staff, nursing staff, and technologists might not be sufficiently available to fulfill the needs of such a service. There must also be a strong commitment by all members of the team to support such a demanding service. There is a slippery slope of expected services that becomes steeper and steeper as the vascular access service grows. This review is intended primarily as general education for pediatric radiologists learning vascular access techniques. Additionally, the pediatric or adult interventional radiologist seeking to expand services might find helpful tips. The article also provides education for the diagnostic radiologist who routinely interprets radiographs containing vascular access devices. (orig.)

  12. El tren de los pensamientos: cómo responde nuestro cerebro al entorno mientras evocamos imágenes mentales o generamos un discurso interno

    OpenAIRE

    Mario Villena-González

    2016-01-01

    Cuando nuestra atención se orienta internamente hacia nuestros pensamientos existe una atenuación del procesamiento cerebral a estímulos externos. Algunos estudios han demostrado que pensar en imágenes o en palabras activa regiones del cerebro implicadas en la percepción visual o auditiva, respectivamente. Sin embargo, se desconocían los efectos potenciales que podrían tener los diferentes contenidos mentales sobre el procesamiento atencional. Un estudio reciente de nuestro laboratorio mostró...

  13. La emoción musical difiere en hombres y mujeres: Un estudio de coherencia eléctrica entre zonas del cerebro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Luis Díaz

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Los cerebros masculino y femenino difieren en su experiencia musical estética: en las mujeres participa una red más amplia en las emociones musicales. La emoción agradable enlaza todo el hemisferio izquierdo y la desagradable los dos lóbulos frontales. En los hombres, en cambio, participan solamente las regiones anteriores y posteriores para la emoción agradable, y el lóbulo frontal derecho en la desagradable. Esto puede estar relacionado con la tendencia femenina a unificar la lógica y la emoción en una misma experiencia

  14. El cerebro y las matemáticas, una estrategia de aula para pensar sobre los hábitos y la salud integral del individuo

    OpenAIRE

    Acosta Torres, Enriqueta del Pilar

    2014-01-01

    Esta propuesta didáctica busca propiciar espacios de reflexión en adolescentes y adultos sobre temas de salud mental y autocuidado, aprovechando los descubrimientos y resultados de investigaciones científicas sobre el cerebro, a las que hoy en día el ciudadano común accede con facilidad a través de los medios de comunicación, junto con los contenidos estadísticos propuestos en los estándares curriculares de matemáticas, entre los cuales se encuentran la lectura e interpretación de tablas y...

  15. ¿Funciona el cerebro de los grandes maestros del ajedrez de manera diferente al de la población general?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel López Astorga

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available De Groot estuvo interesado por la actividad intelectual que tiene lugar cuando jugamos al ajedrez. Sus estudios le condujeron a diversas conclusiones, una de las cuales es que los momentos más importantes en el pensamiento y que inclinan a un movimiento o a otro son los primeros instantes tras observar una nueva configuración del tablero. Una teoría relativamente reciente, la teoría dual del razonamiento, parece apoyar esta tesis y puede dirigir el estudio del funcionamiento del cerebro de los grandes maestros de ajedrez.

  16. Erotismo y Neurociencias. Hacia una genealogía del estudio del cerebro en relación con el desarrollo de las emociones

    OpenAIRE

    Peter Paul Murcia Plazas

    2008-01-01

    El artículo pretende desarrollar las reflexiones pertinentes a la relación entre la experiencia erótica y el campo de las neurociencias, dando cuenta de los principales abordajes sobre el cerebro que a lo largo de la historia han legitimado las posturas dualistas y que por lo mismo han escindido la posibilidad de desarrollar investigación sobre el erotismo desde posturas no exclusivamente fisiologistas y reduccionistas; esto abre la posibilidad de comprender el desarrollo de las emociones y e...

  17. Cerebro, esp??ritu, conocimiento y psiquismo. Contribuciones desde la antropolog??a compleja de E. Morin. 2. Actividades cogitantes y antropolog??a psicoafectiva

    OpenAIRE

    Solana Ruiz, Jos?? Luis

    1998-01-01

    Este texto constituye la segunda parte de un art??culo cuya primera parte fue publicada en el anterior n??mero de la Gazeta y que tiene como objetivo global analizar y exponer los intentos del socioantrop??logo Edgar Morin por complejizar, salvando planteamientos reduccionistas de una u otra ??ndole, nuestra visi??n sobre el cerebro, el esp??ritu, el conocimiento y el psiquismo humanos. Si en la primera parte del art??culo expusimos los principios epistemol??gicos del paradigma moriniano de l...

  18. Multi-detector thoracic CT findings in cerebro-costo-mandibular syndrome: rib gaps and failure of costo-vertebral separation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watson, Tom Anthony; Arthurs, Owen John; Calder, Alistair Duncan [Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children NHS Foundation Trust, Department of Radiology, London (United Kingdom); Muthialu, Nagarajan [Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children NHS Foundation Trust, Department of Cardiothoracic surgery, London (United Kingdom)

    2014-02-15

    Cerebro-costo-mandibular syndrome (CCMS) describes a triad of mandibular hypoplasia, brain dysfunction and posterior rib defects (''rib gaps''). We present the CT imaging for a 2-year-old girl with CCMS that highlights the rib gap defects and shows absent transverse processes with abnormal fusion of the ribs directly to the vertebral bodies. We argue that this is likely to relate to abnormal lateral sclerotome development in embryology, with the failure of normal costo-vertebral junctions compounding impaired thoracic function. The case also highlights the use of CT for specific indications in skeletal dysplasia. (orig.)

  19. Glutaminasa GLS2 en cerebro y cáncer: nuevas localizaciones celulares e identificación de proteínas interactivas mediante aproximaciones neuroquímicas y proteómicas

    OpenAIRE

    Cardona Ramírez, Carolina

    2014-01-01

    En este trabajo se resumen importantes nuevas funciones asociadas a la expresión de isoenzimas glutaminasa (GA; EC 3.5.1.2), tanto en cerebro como en células cancerosas, con especial énfasis en las isoenzimas Gls2. En cerebro la enzima GA es la principal responsable de la generación de glutamato, principal neurotransmisor excitador del Sistema Nervioso Central. En células cancerosas, las isoenzimas GA juegan un papel importante tanto en la bioenergética tumoral como en procesos anaplerótic...

  20. Congenital Vascular Malformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... clots, obstruction of major vessels, causing progressive limb asymmetry by overgrowth, and for cosmetic indications or because ... t he Vascular Disease Foundation (VDF) develops educational information and initiatives for patients, their families and friends, ...

  1. Heart and vascular services

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Repair of aneurysms (dilated/enlarged portions) of the aorta and its branches Procedures may also be used ... Nutrition and lifestyle counseling, including smoking cessation and diabetes education Supervised exercise Alternative Names Circulatory system; Vascular ...

  2. Thrombolysis in vascular surgery

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, Linn

    2015-01-01

    Background and aims: Thrombolysis is in common use in the treatment of acute forms of vascular disease. It may be used both systemically and locally, in the latter case through an endovascular approach, socalled catheter-directed thrombolysis. The aims of this thesis were to investigate how thrombolysis affects performance-related outcomes pertaining to vascular patency after thrombolysis, and how it affects patient safety and the development of complications. Metho...

  3. Antioxidants and vascular health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bielli, Alessandra; Scioli, Maria Giovanna; Mazzaglia, Donatella; Doldo, Elena; Orlandi, Augusto

    2015-12-15

    Oxygen free radicals and other reactive oxygen species (ROS) are common products of normal aerobic cellular metabolism, but high levels of ROS lead to oxidative stress and cellular damage. Increased production of ROS favors vascular dysfunction, inducing altered vascular permeability and inflammation, accompanied by the loss of vascular modulatory function, the imbalance between vasorelaxation and vasoconstriction, and the aberrant expression of inflammatory adhesion molecules. Inflammatory stimuli promote oxidative stress generated from the increased activity of mitochondrial nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase, particularly of the Nox4 isoform, with the consequent impairment of mitochondrial β-oxidation. Vascular dysfunction due to the increase in Nox4 activity and ROS overproduction leads to the progression of cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, inflammatory bowel disease, and neurological disorders. Considerable research into the development of effective antioxidant therapies using natural derivatives or new synthetic molecules has been conducted. Antioxidants may prevent cellular damage by reducing ROS overproduction or interfering in reactions that involve ROS. Vitamin E and ascorbic acid are well known as natural antioxidants that counteract lipid peroxidative damage by scavenging oxygen-derived free radicals, thus restoring vascular function. Recently, preliminary studies on natural antioxidants such as goji berries, thymus, rosemary, green tea ginseng, and garlic have been conducted for their efficacy in preventing vascular damage. N-acetyl-cysteine and propionyl-L-carnitine are synthetic compounds that regulate ROS production by replacing endogenous antioxidants in both endothelial and smooth muscle cells. In this review, we consider the molecular mechanisms underlying the generation of oxidative stress-induced vascular dysfunction as well as the beneficial effects of antioxidant therapies. PMID:26585821

  4. Actividades para la corrección de la apraxia constructiva en pacientes con secuelas de enfermedad cerebro-vascular = Activities for the correction of constructive apraxia in patients with sequels of brain-vascular illness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Torres Aguilar, Maydane

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available RESUMENObjetivo: Evaluar un sistema de actividades realizadas para la corrección y compensación de la apraxia constructiva después de la exploración neuropsicológica. Método: Con el propósito de evaluar este sistema de actividades, se realizó un estudio prospectivo experimental con 15 pacientes que permanecieron en el Centro Internacional de Investigaciones y Restauración Neurológica (CIREN durante un período de 54 días que recibieron tratamiento defectológico (Terapia Ocupacional diario. En consecuencia se aplicó una escala evaluativa pre y post-intervención terapéutica comparándose los resultados.Resultados: A través de la escala de puntaje aplicada se obtuvo un incremento de recuperación en cuanto a la realización de las actividades sin niveles de ayuda ni modelos previos de un 93,4% post-intervención, como promedio, en los pacientes analizados.Conclusiones: Se observó una mejor asociación entre la idea del movimiento y la ejecución motora así como entre la percepción visual y la acción apropiada, después de la intervención.SUMMARYA great number of patients with Encephalic Static Lesions suffer psychic and motor alterations that avoid him to develop it more usually possible in his social environment. One of the psychic alterations that are frequently presented is the constructive apraxia which can appear in different grades, depending among other factors, of the severity of the damage. This unchains difficulties that go from the less complex, as the reproduction of drawings until others of more complexity like daily basic activities. Objectives: Evaluate system of activities for correction and/or compensation the constructive apraxia after neuro-psychological exploration. Methods and Material: With the proposal to check the effectiveness of this system of activities we carry out a prospective and experimental study with 15 patients that were in CIREN (International Centre of Research and Neurological Restoration for a period of 54 days in occupational and language therapy with a daily frequency, we apply an evaluative scale before and after the treatment, whose results were analyzed comparatively. Results: Trough the applied scale we observed a 93,4% increase post-intervention like average in intervenes patients. Conclusions: After the treatment we observed a better association between moment idea and the movement properly saying as well as between visual perception and the appropriate

  5. Plant vascular development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rybel, De Bert; Mähönen, Ari Pekka; Helariutta, Yrjö; Weijers, Dolf

    2016-01-01

    Vascular tissues in plants are crucial to provide physical support and to transport water, sugars and hormones and other small signalling molecules throughout the plant. Recent genetic and molecular studies have identified interconnections among some of the major signalling networks that regulate

  6. Engineered Vascularized Muscle Flap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egozi, Dana; Shandalov, Yulia; Freiman, Alina; Rosenfeld, Dekel; Ben-Shimol, David; Levenberg, Shulamit

    2016-01-01

    One of the main factors limiting the thickness of a tissue construct and its consequential viability and applicability in vivo, is the control of oxygen supply to the cell microenvironment, as passive diffusion is limited to a very thin layer. Although various materials have been described to restore the integrity of full-thickness defects of the abdominal wall, no material has yet proved to be optimal, due to low graft vascularization, tissue rejection, infection, or inadequate mechanical properties. This protocol describes a means of engineering a fully vascularized flap, with a thickness relevant for muscle tissue reconstruction. Cell-embedded poly L-lactic acid/poly lactic-co-glycolic acid constructs are implanted around the mouse femoral artery and vein and maintained in vivo for a period of one or two weeks. The vascularized graft is then transferred as a flap towards a full thickness defect made in the abdomen. This technique replaces the need for autologous tissue sacrifications and may enable the use of in vitro engineered vascularized flaps in many surgical applications. PMID:26779840

  7. Renal posttransplant's vascular complications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bašić Dragoslav

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION Despite high graft and recipient survival figures worldwide today, a variety of technical complications can threaten the transplant in the postoperative period. Vascular complications are commonly related to technical problems in establishing vascular continuity or to damage that occurs during donor nephrectomy or preservation [13]. AIM The aim of the presenting study is to evaluate counts and rates of vascular complications after renal transplantation and to compare the outcome by donor type. MATERIAL AND METHODS A total of 463 kidneys (319 from living related donor LD and 144 from cadaveric donor - CD were transplanted during the period between June 1975 and December 1998 at the Urology & Nephrology Institute of Clinical Centre of Serbia in Belgrade. Average recipients' age was 33.7 years (15-54 in LD group and 39.8 (19-62 in CD group. Retrospectively, we analyzed medical records of all recipients. Statistical analysis is estimated using Hi-squared test and Fischer's test of exact probability. RESULTS Major vascular complications including vascular anastomosis thrombosis, internal iliac artery stenosis, internal iliac artery rupture obliterant vasculitis and external iliac vein rupture were analyzed. In 25 recipients (5.4% some of major vascular complications were detected. Among these cases, 22 of them were from CD group vs. three from LD group. Relative rate of these complications was higher in CD group vs. LD group (p<0.0001. Among these complications dominant one was vascular anastomosis thrombosis which occurred in 18 recipients (17 from CD vs. one from LD. Of these recipients 16 from CD lost the graft, while the rest of two (one from each group had lethal outcome. DISCUSSION Thrombosis of renal allograft vascular anastomosis site is the most severe complication following renal transplantation. In the literature, renal allograft thrombosis is reported with different incidence rates, from 0.5-4% [14, 15, 16]. Data from the

  8. Vascular manifestations of Behcet's disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Regina Georgiyeva Goloeva

    2010-04-01

    Conclusion. Vascular disorders in BD were diagnosed in one fourth of the patients, mainly in young male patients. Severe thromboses with the development of chronic venous insignificance, Budd-Chiari syndrome, pulmonary and iliac artery aneurysms, and arterial thromboses were observed in male patients only. Vascular events were associated with erythema nodosum and epididymitis; in these concomitances, the vascular risk was substantially increased. Vascular death rates were 2,2%.

  9. El tren de los pensamientos: cómo responde nuestro cerebro al entorno mientras evocamos imágenes mentales o generamos un discurso interno

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Villena-González

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Cuando nuestra atención se orienta internamente hacia nuestros pensamientos existe una atenuación del procesamiento cerebral a estímulos externos. Algunos estudios han demostrado que pensar en imágenes o en palabras activa regiones del cerebro implicadas en la percepción visual o auditiva, respectivamente. Sin embargo, se desconocían los efectos potenciales que podrían tener los diferentes contenidos mentales sobre el procesamiento atencional. Un estudio reciente de nuestro laboratorio mostró que la imaginación visual inhibe el procesamiento de estímulos externos visuales en mayor medida que el pensamiento auditivo/verbal. Estos resultados demuestran que diferentes tipos de pensamientos afectan diferencialmente nuestra atención y el procesamiento cerebral de estímulos externos.

  10. VII Congreso Cerebro y Mente y I Congreso Antioqueño de Neurología y Neuropediatría

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asociación Latinoamericana de Neuropsicología y Asociación Antioqueña de Neurología

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available La Asociación Latinoamericana de Neuropsicología (ALAN convoca a la celebración del 7° Congreso Internacional Cerebro y Mente (La Integración del 22 al 25 de Agosto de 2012 en el Jardín Botánico de Medellín, junto con la conmemoración de los 20 años de investigación del Grupo de Neurociencias de Antioquia y el Primer Congreso Antioqueño de Neurología y Neuropediatría, avalado por la Asociación Antioqueña de Neurología.

  11. Vascular cognitive impairment and dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorelick, Philip B; Counts, Scott E; Nyenhuis, David

    2016-05-01

    Vascular contributions to cognitive impairment are receiving heightened attention as potentially modifiable factors for dementias of later life. These factors have now been linked not only to vascular cognitive disorders but also Alzheimer's disease. In this chapter we review 3 related topics that address vascular contributions to cognitive impairment: 1. vascular pathogenesis and mechanisms; 2. neuropsychological and neuroimaging phenotypic manifestations of cerebrovascular disease; and 3. prospects for prevention of cognitive impairment of later life based on cardiovascular and stroke risk modification. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Vascular Contributions to Cognitive Impairment and Dementia edited by M. Paul Murphy, Roderick A. Corriveau and Donna M. Wilcock. PMID:26704177

  12. Plant Vascular Biology 2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ding, Biao

    2014-11-17

    This grant supported the Second International Conference on Plant Vascular Biology (PVB 2010) held July 24-28, 2010 on the campus of Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio. Biao Ding (Ohio State University; OSU) and David Hannapel (Iowa State University; ISU) served as co-chairs of this conference. Biao Ding served as the local organizer. PVB is defined broadly here to include studies on the biogenesis, structure and function of transport systems in plants, under conditions of normal plant growth and development as well as of plant interactions with pathogens. The transport systems cover broadly the xylem, phloem, plasmodesmata and vascular cell membranes. The PVB concept has emerged in recent years to emphasize the integrative nature of the transport systems and approaches to investigate them.

  13. [Vascular endothelial Barrier Function].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanov, A N; Puchinyan, D M; Norkin, I A

    2015-01-01

    Endothelium is an important regulator of selective permeability of the vascular wall for different molecules and cells. This review summarizes current data on endothelial barrier function. Endothelial glycocalyx structure, its function and role in the molecular transport and leukocytes migration across the endothelial barrier are discussed. The mechanisms of transcellular transport of macromolecules and cell migration through endothelial cells are reviewed. Special section of this article addresses the structure and function of tight and adherens endothelial junction, as well as their importance for the regulation of paracellular transport across the endothelial barrier. Particular attention is paid to the signaling mechanism of endothelial barrier function regulation and the factors that influence on the vascular permeability.

  14. Vascular cognitive impairment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.V. Vakhnina

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Vascular pathology of the brain is the second most common cause of cognitive impairment after Alzheimer's disease. The article describes the modern concepts of etiology, pathogenetic mechanisms, clinical features and approaches to diagnosis and therapy of vascular cognitive impairment (VCI. Cerebrovascular accident, chronic cerebral circulatory insufficiency and their combination, sometimes in combination with a concomitant neurodegenerative process, are shown to be the major types of brain lesions leading to VCI. The clinical presentation of VCI is characterized by the neuropsychological status dominated by impairment of the executive frontal functions (planning, control, attention in combination with focal neurological symptoms. The diagnosis is based on comparing of the revealed neuropsychological and neurological features with neuroimaging data. Neurometabolic, acetylcholinergic, glutamatergic, and other vasoactive drugs and non-pharmacological methods are widely used to treat VCI. 

  15. Update on Vascular Dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Ayesha; Kalaria, Raj N; Corbett, Anne; Ballard, Clive

    2016-09-01

    Vascular dementia (VaD) is a major contributor to the dementia syndrome and is described as having problems with reasoning, planning, judgment, and memory caused by impaired blood flow to the brain and damage to the blood vessels resulting from events such as stroke. There are a variety of etiologies that contribute to the development of vascular cognitive impairment and VaD, and these are often associated with other dementia-related pathologies such as Alzheimer disease. The diagnosis of VaD is difficult due to the number and types of lesions and their locations in the brain. Factors that increase the risk of vascular diseases such as stroke, high blood pressure, high cholesterol, and smoking also raise the risk of VaD. Therefore, controlling these risk factors can help lower the chances of developing VaD. This update describes the subtypes of VaD, with details of their complex presentation, associated pathological lesions, and issues with diagnosis, prevention, and treatment. PMID:27502303

  16. Microfluidic Technology in Vascular Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. D. van der Meer

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Vascular cell biology is an area of research with great biomedical relevance. Vascular dysfunction is involved in major diseases such as atherosclerosis, diabetes, and cancer. However, when studying vascular cell biology in the laboratory, it is difficult to mimic the dynamic, three-dimensional microenvironment that is found in vivo. Microfluidic technology offers unique possibilities to overcome this difficulty. In this review, an overview of the recent applications of microfluidic technology in the field of vascular biological research will be given. Examples of how microfluidics can be used to generate shear stresses, growth factor gradients, cocultures, and migration assays will be provided. The use of microfluidic devices in studying three-dimensional models of vascular tissue will be discussed. It is concluded that microfluidic technology offers great possibilities to systematically study vascular cell biology with setups that more closely mimic the in vivo situation than those that are generated with conventional methods.

  17. MRI evaluation of vascular dementia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yicheng Liu; Hongxing Zhang; Wei Huang; Wenjun Wan; Hongfen Peng

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTTVE: To explain the association between vascular dementia and the cranial MRI manifestations, and recognize the value of cranial MRI in the early diagnosis of vascular dementia and the assessment of disease conditions.DATA SOURCES: Pubmed database was searched to identify articles about the cranial MRI manifestations of patients with vascular dementia published in English from January 1992 to June 2006 by using the key words of "MRI, vascular dementia". Others were collected by searching the name of journals and title of articles in the Chinese full-text journal database.STUDY SELECTTON: The collected articles were primarily checked, those correlated with the cranial MRI manifestations of patients with vascular dementia were selected, while the obviously irrelative ones were excluded, and the rest were retrieved manually, the full-texts were searched.DATA EXTRACTION: Totally 255 articles were collected, 41 of them were involved, and the other 214 were excluded.DATA SYNTHESIS: MRI can be taken as one of the effective methods for the early diagnosis and disease evaluation of vascular dementia. White matter lesions are the important risk factors of vascular dementia.Vascular dementia is accompanied by the atrophy of related brain sites, but further confirmation is needed to investigate whether there is significant difference. MRI can be used to quantitatively investigate the infarcted sites and sizes of patients with vascular dementia after infarction, but there is still lack of systematic investigation on the association of the infarcted sites and sizes with the cognitive function of patients with vascular dementia.CONCLUSTON: Cranial MRI can detect the symptoms of vascular dementia at early period, so that corresponding measures can be adopted to prevent and treat vascular dementia in time.

  18. Vascular Remodeling in Experimental Hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norma R. Risler

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The basic hemodynamic abnormality in hypertension is an increased peripheral resistance that is due mainly to a decreased vascular lumen derived from structural changes in the small arteries wall, named (as a whole vascular remodeling. The vascular wall is an active, flexible, and integrated organ made up of cellular (endothelial cells, smooth muscle cells, adventitia cells, and fibroblasts and noncellular (extracellular matrix components, which in a dynamic way change shape or number, or reorganize in response to physiological and pathological stimuli, maintaining the integrity of the vessel wall in physiological conditions or participating in the vascular changes in cardiovascular diseases such as hypertension. Research focused on new signaling pathways and molecules that can participate in the mechanisms of vascular remodeling has provided evidence showing that vascular structure is not only affected by blood pressure, but also by mechanisms that are independent of the increased pressure. This review will provide an overview of the evidence, explaining some of the pathophysiologic mechanisms participating in the development of the vascular remodeling, in experimental models of hypertension, with special reference to the findings in spontaneously hypertensive rats as a model of essential hypertension, and in fructose-fed rats as a model of secondary hypertension, in the context of the metabolic syndrome. The understanding of the mechanisms producing the vascular alterations will allow the development of novel pharmacological tools for vascular protection in hypertensive disease.

  19. CT in vascular pathologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bartolozzi, C.; Neri, E.; Caramella, D. [Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology Department of Oncology, University of Pisa, Via Roma 67, I-56100 Pisa (Italy)

    1998-06-02

    Since the introduction of helical scanners, CT angiography (CTA) has achieved an essential role in many vascular applications that were previously managed with conventional angiography. The performance of CTA is based on the accurate selection of collimation width, pitch, reconstruction spacing and scan delay, which must be modulated on the basis of the clinical issue. However, the major improvement of CT has been provided by the recent implementation of many post-processing techniques, such as multiplanar reformatting, shaded surface display, maximum intensity projections, 3D perspectives of surface and volume rendering, which simulate virtual intravascular endoscopy. The integration of the potentialities of the scanner and of the image processing techniques permitted improvement of: (a) the evaluation of aneurysms, dissection and vascular anomalies involving the thoracic aorta; (b) carotid artery stenosis; (c) aneurysms of abdominal aorta; (d) renal artery stenosis; (e) follow-up of renal artery stenting; and (f) acute or chronic pulmonary embolism. Our experience has shown that the assessment of arterial pathologies with CTA requires the integration of 3D post-processing techniques in most applications. (orig.) With 4 figs., 34 refs.

  20. Pulmonary vascular diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mélot, C; Naeije, R

    2011-04-01

    Diseases of the pulmonary vasculature are a cause of increased pulmonary vascular resistance (PVR) in pulmonary embolism, chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH), and pulmonary arterial hypertension or decreased PVR in pulmonary arteriovenous malformations on hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia, portal hypertension, or cavopulmonary anastomosis. All these conditions are associated with a decrease in both arterial PO2 and PCO2. Gas exchange in pulmonary vascular diseases with increased PVR is characterized by a shift of ventilation and perfusion to high ventilation-perfusion ratios, a mild to moderate increase in perfusion to low ventilation-perfusion ratios, and an increased physiologic dead space. Hypoxemia in these patients is essentially explained by altered ventilation-perfusion matching amplified by a decreased mixed venous PO2 caused by a low cardiac output. Hypocapnia is accounted for by hyperventilation, which is essentially related to an increased chemosensitivity. A cardiac shunt on a patent foramen ovale may be a cause of severe hypoxemia in a proportion of patients with pulmonary hypertension and an increase in right atrial pressure. Gas exchange in pulmonary arteriovenous malformations is characterized by variable degree of pulmonary shunting and/or diffusion-perfusion imbalance. Hypocapnia is caused by an increased ventilation in relation to an increased pulmonary blood flow with direct peripheral chemoreceptor stimulation by shunted mixed venous blood flow. PMID:23737196

  1. Dynamic adaption of vascular morphology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Okkels, Fridolin; Jacobsen, Jens Christian Brings

    2012-01-01

    The structure of vascular networks adapts continuously to meet changes in demand of the surrounding tissue. Most of the known vascular adaptation mechanisms are based on local reactions to local stimuli such as pressure and flow, which in turn reflects influence from the surrounding tissue. Here ...

  2. Clinical Analysis of 200 Patients with Cerebro Cardiac Syndrom%脑心综合征200例临床分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苑司臣; 赵海涛

    2010-01-01

    目的 探讨脑心综合症的发病机制、临床特点、治疗对卒中预后的影响.方法 对200例脑心综合征(Cerebro Cardiac SyndromCCS)患者的发生时间、病变类型,病变部位,意识障碍进行分析.结果 CCS多发生在卒中后72h(63%);CCS发病率为(53.33%),其中基底节区组26.5%,丘脑组31.5%,脑干组25.0%,脑叶组17.0%;脑出血患者合并CCS发生牟较脑梗死患者高,P<0.05.结论 脑心综合征发生常见丘脑、脑干部位病变,其发病机制可能与脑血管疾病导致的自主神经功能失调、神经体液功能紊乱有关.

  3. [The future of vascular medicine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroeger, K; Luther, B

    2014-10-01

    In the future vascular medicine will still have a great impact on health of people. It should be noted that the aging of the population does not lead to a dramatic increase in patient numbers, but will be associated with a changing spectrum of co-morbidities. In addition, vascular medical research has to include the intensive care special features of vascular patients, the involvement of vascular medicine in a holistic concept of fast-track surgery, a geriatric-oriented intensive monitoring and early geriatric rehabilitation. For the future acceptance of vascular medicine as a separate subject area under delimitation of cardiology and radiology is important. On the other hand, the subject is so complex and will become more complex in future specialisations that mixing of surgery and angiology is desirable, with the aim to preserve the vascular surgical knowledge and skills on par with the medical and interventional measures and further develop them. Only large, interdisciplinary guided vascular centres will be able to provide timely diagnosis and therapy, to deal with the growing multi-morbidity of the patient, to perform complex therapies even in an acute emergency and due to sufficient number of cases to present with well-trained and experienced teams. These requirements are mandatory to decrease patients' mortality step by step.

  4. Retina vascular network recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tascini, Guido; Passerini, Giorgio; Puliti, Paolo; Zingaretti, Primo

    1993-09-01

    The analysis of morphological and structural modifications of the retina vascular network is an interesting investigation method in the study of diabetes and hypertension. Normally this analysis is carried out by qualitative evaluations, according to standardized criteria, though medical research attaches great importance to quantitative analysis of vessel color, shape and dimensions. The paper describes a system which automatically segments and recognizes the ocular fundus circulation and micro circulation network, and extracts a set of features related to morphometric aspects of vessels. For this class of images the classical segmentation methods seem weak. We propose a computer vision system in which segmentation and recognition phases are strictly connected. The system is hierarchically organized in four modules. Firstly the Image Enhancement Module (IEM) operates a set of custom image enhancements to remove blur and to prepare data for subsequent segmentation and recognition processes. Secondly the Papilla Border Analysis Module (PBAM) automatically recognizes number, position and local diameter of blood vessels departing from optical papilla. Then the Vessel Tracking Module (VTM) analyses vessels comparing the results of body and edge tracking and detects branches and crossings. Finally the Feature Extraction Module evaluates PBAM and VTM output data and extracts some numerical indexes. Used algorithms appear to be robust and have been successfully tested on various ocular fundus images.

  5. Vascular graft infections with Mycoplasma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Levi-Mazloum, Niels Donald; Skov Jensen, J; Prag, J;

    1995-01-01

    Vascular graft infection is one of the most serious complications in vascular surgery. It is associated with mortality rates ranging from 25% to 75% and with morbidity in the form of amputation in approximately 30% of patients. Staphylococcus aureus is the leading pathogen. With conventional...... laboratory techniques, the percentage of culture-negative yet grossly infected vascular grafts seems to be increasing and is not adequately explained by the prior use of antibiotics. We have recently reported the first case of aortic graft infection with Mycoplasma. We therefore suggest the hypothesis...... that the large number of culture-negative yet grossly infected vascular grafts may be due to Mycoplasma infection not detected with conventional laboratory technique....

  6. Vascular contributions to cognitive impairment

    OpenAIRE

    Wright, Clinton B.; Flores, Alan

    2015-01-01

    Unlike many neurodegenerative causes of cognitive impairment and dementia, vascular damage is preventable. Despite the heterogeneity of vascular cognitive impairment (VCI) and the complexity of its clinical presentations, the potential for limiting progression and changing the trajectory of damage makes it all the more important for physicians to be educated about the syndrome and to remain vigilant when taking care of patients. In this review, we outline an approach to patients with possible...

  7. The relationships of vascular plants.

    OpenAIRE

    Kenrick, P

    2000-01-01

    Recent phylogenetic research indicates that vascular plants evolved from bryophyte-like ancestors and that this involved extensive modifications to the life cycle. These conclusions are supported by a range of systematic data, including gene sequences, as well as evidence from comparative morphology and the fossil record. Within vascular plants, there is compelling evidence for two major clades, which have been termed lycophytes (clubmosses) and euphyllophytes (seed plants, ferns, horsetails)...

  8. Multimodality imaging of vascular anomalies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Restrepo, Ricardo

    2013-03-01

    Vascular malformations and hemangiomas are common in children but remain a source of confusion during diagnosis, in part because of the lack of a uniform terminology. With the existing treatments for hemangiomas and vascular malformations, it is important to make the correct diagnosis initially to prevent adverse physical and emotional sequelae in not only the child but also the family. The diagnosis of vascular malformations is made primarily by the clinician and based on the physical exam. Imaging is carried out using predominantly ultrasound (US) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), which are complementary modalities. In most cases of vascular anomalies, US is the first line of imaging as it is readily available, less expensive, lacks ionizing radiation and does not require sedation. MRI is also of great help for further characterizing the lesions. Conventional arteriography is reserved for cases that require therapeutic intervention, more commonly for arteriovenous malformations. Radiographs usually play no role in diagnosing vascular anomalies in children. In this article, the author describes the terminology and types of hemangiomas and vascular malformations and their clinical, histological features, as well as the imaging approach and appearance.

  9. INTERFAZ CEREBRO COMPUTADOR BASADO EN SEÑALES EEG PARA EL CONTROL DE MOVIMIENTO DE UNA PROTESIS DE MANO USANDO ANFIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra Bedoya-Rojas

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Actualmente, existe un gran número de personas en el mundo que presentan amputación de miembros que son reemplazados usualmente por prótesis mecánicas. Por otro lado las prótesis electrómecanicas han venido tomando fuerza y son apoyadas por diferentes tipos de interfaces como las interfaces cerebro computador que han permitido mejorar la funcionalidad de estas, y a pesar de mostrar resultados representativos para el control de prótesis, aun es un campo abierto de investigación que busca mejorar su eficacia y eficiencia. En este estudio, se presenta una metodología de clasificación de señales electroencefalográficas (EEG para el control del movimiento de una prótesis de mano, basada en el sistema de inferencia neuro-difuso adaptativo (ANFIS aplicado a características obtenidas de la transformada wavelet (TW y los conjuntos difusos rough (FRS a señales EEG obtenidas en el sistema 10-10. De esta forma el rendimiento del sistema propuesto fue medido utilizando validación cruzada 70-30 con 30 repeticiones obteniendo un alto desempeño en términos de precisión, lo que significa que este modelo tiene potencial como clasificador en la detección de los cambios EEG para la generación de comandos para el control del movimiento de la mano

  10. Cerebral physiology and preservation during cardiac arrest Fisiología y preservación cerebral durante el paro cardíaco: vulnerabilidad del cerebro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis M. Gómez

    1991-03-01

    Full Text Available

    Cerebral physiology during cardiac arrest is discussed with particular Interest on selective neuronal damage. Previous concepts on brain tolerance to hypoxia are analyzed and new information about brain function prognosis after cardiac arrest is presented. Therapeutic alternatives for brain preservation are discussed with emphasis on the lack of effectiveness of barbiturates, the results of research with other drugs and the future role that blockers of excitatory neurotransmission may have as elements of cerebral preservation.

    Se hace una aproximación a la fisiología cerebral durante el paro cardíaco, destacando el concepto de darlo neuronal selectivo. Se presentan elementos que permiten modificar concepciones antiguas sobre la tolerancia del cerebro a la hipoxia severa. Además, se hace un nuevo planteamiento sobre el pronóstico cerebral luego de un paro cardíaco y se esbozan las alternativas terapéuticas utilizadas hasta la fecha para la preservación cerebral. Se hace énfasis en la inefectividad de los barbitúricos, en la investigación sobre la terapia con otras drogas y en el futuro abierto hacia los bloqueadores de los neurotransmisores excitadores, como elementos terapéuticos para la preservación cerebral.

  11. Fuga de cerebros y biografías low cost: nueva etapa en la precarización de la juventud

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Santos Ortega

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available 0 false 21 18 pt 18 pt 0 0 false false false /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Tabla normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin-top:0cm; mso-para-margin-right:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:10.0pt; mso-para-margin-left:0cm; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:12.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ascii-font-family:Cambria; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-hansi-font-family:Cambria; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-language:EN-US;} La normalización de la precariedad entre las personas jóvenes está entrando en lo que parece una nueva fase. De la mano de, entre otros factores, los discursos empresariales y la teoría del capital humano, estamos asistiendo a una vuelta de tuerca en la presión sobre la juventud: ya no basta con la búsqueda «activa» de empleo, ahora hay que invertir en uno mismo como «empresario de sí mismo» y, en esta lógica, si es preciso hay que optar por la «movilidad internacional». Presentamos una revisión teórica y conceptual alrededor de lo que se conoce como fuga de cerebros y su justificación discursiva. Estamos ante un proceso que probablemente dejará una marca importante en una generación que ha visto truncadas sus posibilidades de transición a situaciones estables, idealmente identificadas con el mundo adulto.

  12. Intestinal cell kinase, a protein associated with endocrine-cerebro-osteodysplasia syndrome, is a key regulator of cilia length and Hedgehog signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Heejung; Song, Jieun; Shin, Jeong-Oh; Lee, Hankyu; Kim, Hong-Kyung; Eggenschwiller, Jonathan T; Bok, Jinwoong; Ko, Hyuk Wan

    2014-06-10

    Endocrine-cerebro-osteodysplasia (ECO) syndrome is a recessive genetic disorder associated with multiple congenital defects in endocrine, cerebral, and skeletal systems that is caused by a missense mutation in the mitogen-activated protein kinase-like intestinal cell kinase (ICK) gene. In algae and invertebrates, ICK homologs are involved in flagellar formation and ciliogenesis, respectively. However, it is not clear whether this role of ICK is conserved in mammals and how a lack of functional ICK results in the characteristic phenotypes of human ECO syndrome. Here, we generated Ick knockout mice to elucidate the precise role of ICK in mammalian development and to examine the pathological mechanisms of ECO syndrome. Ick null mouse embryos displayed cleft palate, hydrocephalus, polydactyly, and delayed skeletal development, closely resembling ECO syndrome phenotypes. In cultured cells, down-regulation of Ick or overexpression of kinase-dead or ECO syndrome mutant ICK resulted in an elongation of primary cilia and abnormal Sonic hedgehog (Shh) signaling. Wild-type ICK proteins were generally localized in the proximal region of cilia near the basal bodies, whereas kinase-dead ICK mutant proteins accumulated in the distal part of bulged ciliary tips. Consistent with these observations in cultured cells, Ick knockout mouse embryos displayed elongated cilia and reduced Shh signaling during limb digit patterning. Taken together, these results indicate that ICK plays a crucial role in controlling ciliary length and that ciliary defects caused by a lack of functional ICK leads to abnormal Shh signaling, resulting in congenital disorders such as ECO syndrome. PMID:24853502

  13. Trans aqueductal, third ventricle – Cervical subarachnoid stenting: An adjuvant cerebro spinal fluid diversion procedure in midline posterior fossa tumors with hydrocephalus: The technical note and case series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teegala, Ramesh

    2016-01-01

    Background: Persistent or progressive hydrocephalus is one of the complex problems of posterior fossa tumors associated with hydrocephalus. The author evaluated the effectiveness of single-stage tumor decompression associated with a stent technique (trans aqueductal third ventricle – Cervical subarachnoid stenting) as an adjuvant cerebro spinal fluid (CSF) diversion procedure in controlling the midline posterior fossa tumors with hydrocephalus. Materials and Methods: Prospective clinical case series of 15 patients was evaluated from July 2006 to April 2012. Fifteen clinicoradiological diagnosed cases of midline posterior fossa tumors with hydrocephalus were included in this study. All the tumors were approached through the cerebello medullary (telo velo tonsilar) fissure technique. Following the excision of the posterior fossa tumor, a sizable stent was placed across the aqueduct from the third ventricle to the cervical subarachnoid space. Results: There were nine male and six female patients with an average age of 23 years. Complete tumor excision could be achieved in 12 patients and subtotal excision with clearance of aqueduct in remaining three patients. Hydrocephalus was controlled effectively in all the patients. There were no stent-related complications. Conclusions: This study showed the reliability of single-stage tumor excision followed by placement of aqueductal stent. The success rate of this technique is comparable to those of conventional CSF diversion procedures. This is a simple, safe, and effective procedure for the management of persistent and or progressive hydrocephalus. This technique may be very useful in situations where the patient's follow-up is compromised and the patients who are from a poor economic background. Long-term results need further evaluation to assess the overall functioning of this stent technique. PMID:27366254

  14. Expresión diferencial global de genes localizados en la Región Crítica del Síndrome de Down en el cerebro humano normal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio Cesar Montoya

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introducción:La información de la expresión de genes consignada en bases de datos, ha permitido extraer y analizar información acerca procesos moleculares implicados tanto en la homeostasis cerebral y su alteración en algunas neuropatologías.Objetivos:Correlacionar los niveles de transcripción de 19 genes localizados en la región crítica del cromosoma 21, asociada a Síndrome de Down (DSCR, con la localización cerebral y su coexpresión en diferentes subestructuras del cerebro humano.Métodos:A partir de valores de expresión génica disponibles en la base de datos del proyecto cerebro humano del Atlas del Cerebro del "Allen Institute for Brain Sciences" (http://human.brain-map.org/, se construyeron perfiles de expresión de 19 genes DSCR en 42 subestructuras cerebrales. Además, utilizando métodos estadísticos multivariados se analizaron los patrones de coexpresión de genes DSCR en el cerebro normal.Resultados:En el núcleo caudado, el núcleo accumbens y el putamen además de las Áreas centrales 2, 3 y 4, se determinaron los valores de expresión más elevados para los genes incluidos RCAN1, que codifica para una proteína involucrada en el proceso de transducción de señales de SNC; PCP4 cuya proteína interviene en la unión a la calmodulina y TTC3 una proteína que interviene en la diferenciación de neuronas. Las subestructuras idenjpgicadas con una elevada expresión de estos genes, están asociadas con procesos de aprendizaje, en diferentes tipos de memoria y habilidades motoras.Conclusiones:La regulación de la expresión de los genes DSCR es clave para mantener la homeostasis cerebral, especialmente en aquellas áreas de mayor expresión, las cuales están asociadas con procesos sumamente importantes.

  15. Evaluación inmunohistoquímica de la expresión de calbindina en el cerebro de ratones en diferentes tiempos después de la inoculación con el virus de la rabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Lamprea

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: La calbindina (CB es una proteína reguladora del metabolismo del calcio intracelular. Previamente se demostró que la infección con virus fijo de la rabia induce pérdida de la expresión de CB, en el cerebro de ratones en estado terminal de la enfermedad, a los 7-8 días de post-inoculación (p.i. intramuscular.Objetivo: Determinar si la pérdida de expresión de CB se presenta también en etapas tempranas de la infección y si es una consecuencia inmediata a la aparición de antígenos virales en el cerebro.Materiales y métodos: Se inocularon ratones con virus fijo de la rabia, por vía intramuscular, en su extremidad posterior izquierda. Diariamente se tomaron entre 4 y 6 animales infectados y sus respectivos controles, se fijaron por perfusión intracardíaca con paraformaldehído, se extrajeron sus cerebros y se obtuvieron cortes coronales en un vibrátomo. Estos se sometieron a reacciones inmunohistoquímicas para evaluar la presencia de antígenos virales y la expresión de CB. Esta última fue cuantificada mediante densitometría óptica en un microscopio con análisis de imágenes.Resultados: La inmunorreactividad a la rabia fue positiva en el cerebro a partir del día 3 p.i.; se observó primero en neuronas piramidales de la corteza frontal. La inmunotinción para CB no sufrió ninguna alteración cualitativa ni cuantitativa en la corteza cerebral y el estriado hasta el día 6 p.i.Conclusiones: Estos resultados coinciden con los de otros estudios sobre la rabia en los que se han encontrado alteraciones moleculares, metabólicas o fisiopatológicas en el sistema nervioso sólo en la fase terminal de la enfermedad.

  16. Obesity in Indian subjects with Vascular Dementia

    OpenAIRE

    CHANDRA, Mina; Anand, Kuljeet Singh Anand

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background: Obesity is considered a public health challenge in South Asia. Obesity is an independent risk factor in vascular dementia. It also contributes to other risk factors of vascular dementia like hypertension, coronary artery disease, dyslipidaemia and diabetes. As the rate of obesity in Indian subjects with vascular dementia is not known, we decided to assess obesity in subjects with vascular dementia. Methods: Subjects with vascular dementia presenting to Mem...

  17. FACTORES DE RIESGO VASCULAR: REGISTRO EXTRAINSTITUCIONAL EN LA LOCALIDAD DE ENCRUCIJADA / Vascular Risk factors: extra-institutional registry in Encrucijada municipality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerardo Álvarez Álvarez

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Resumen Introducción y objetivos: El conocimiento de los factores de riesgo vascular es de gran importancia para la preservación de la salud poblacional, ellos contribuyen al desarrollo de la aterosclerosis, sustrato necesario para ocasionar daños en el corazón, cerebro, riñón y vasos periféricos. El objetivo de esta investigación fue realizar un pesquisaje de un segmento poblacional en la búsqueda de estos factores de riesgo. Métodos: Se realizó una investigación de carácter analítico-transversal, de forma extrainstitucional a las unidades médicas, sobre factores de riesgo vascular en la localidad de Encrucijada, Villa Clara, en mayo del 2009. Resultados: Se habilitaron 10 puntos de registros en lugares concurridos por la población; en un lapso de 4 horas se alcanzó una casuística de 697 personas, con un predominio de mujeres y de personas con color de la piel blanca. La talla media poblacional fue de 1,64 cm, los valores promedios de peso corporal, índice de masa corporal y de la cintura abdominal fueron de: 67 kg, 25 kg/m2 y 86,3 cm. La hipertensión arterial fue encontrada en el 16 % de los casos, con mayor porcentaje en individuos con poca actividad física, en los de mayor índice de masa corporal y cintura abdominal, y con color negro de la piel. La adicción tabáquica fue superior en hombres. Se constató una notable aceptación poblacional. Conclusiones: Nuestro estudio demuestra la presencia de factores de riesgo vascular en un segmento de la población del municipio Encrucijada y nos alertan sobre la necesidad de fortalecer la medicina comunitaria (promoción y prevención para mejorar la salud de todos. / Abstract Introduction and objectives: The knowledge of vascular risk factors is of great importance in the preservation of the population's health as they contribute to the development of atherosclerosis which is a necessary substratum to produce damages in the heart, brain, kidney and peripheral vessels. This

  18. Vascular potassium channels in NVC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, K

    2016-01-01

    It has long been proposed that the external potassium ion ([K(+)]0) works as a potent vasodilator in the dynamic regulation of local cerebral blood flow. Astrocytes may play a central role for producing K(+) outflow possibly through calcium-activated potassium channels on the end feet, responding to a rise in the intracellular Ca(2+) concentration, which might well reflect local neuronal activity. A mild elevation of [K(+)]0 in the end feet/vascular smooth muscle space could activate Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase concomitant with inwardly rectifying potassium (Kir) channels in vascular smooth muscle cells, leading to a hyperpolarization of vascular smooth muscle and relaxation of smooth muscle actin-positive vessels. Also proposed notion is endothelial calcium-activated potassium channels and/or inwardly rectifying potassium channel-mediated hyperpolarization of vascular smooth muscle. A larger elevation of [K(+)]0, which may occur pathophysiologically in such as spreading depression or stroke, can trigger a depolarization of vascular smooth muscle cells and vasoconstriction instead. PMID:27130411

  19. Vascular calcification: Inducers and inhibitors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Donghyun, E-mail: dhlee@cau.ac.kr [Department of Biomedical Engineering, Division of Integrative Engineering, Chung-Ang University, 221 Heukseok-Dong, Dongjak-Gu, Seoul 156-756 (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-09-15

    Highlights: {center_dot} Types of vascular calcification processes. {center_dot} Inducers of vascular calcification. {center_dot} Inhibitors of vascular calcifications. {center_dot} Clinical utility for vascular calcification therapy. {center_dot} Implications for the development of new tissue engineering strategies. - Abstract: Unlike the traditional beliefs, there are mounting evidences suggesting that ectopic mineral depositions, including vascular calcification are mostly active processes, many times resembling that of the bone mineralization. Numbers of agents are involved in the differentiation of certain subpopulation of smooth muscle cells (SMCs) into the osteoblast-like entity, and the activation and initiation of extracellular matrix ossification process. On the other hand, there are factors as well, that prevent such differentiation and ectopic calcium phosphate formation. In normal physiological environments, activities of such procalcific and anticalcific regulatory factors are in harmony, prohibiting abnormal calcification from occurring. However, in certain pathophysiological conditions, such as atherosclerosis, chronic kidney disease (CKD), and diabetes, such balances are altered, resulting in abnormal ectopic mineral deposition. Understanding the factors that regulate the formation and inhibition of ectopic mineral formation would be beneficial in the development of tissue engineering strategies for prevention and/or treatment of such soft-tissue calcification. Current review focuses on the factors that seem to be clinically relevant and/or could be useful in developing future tissue regeneration strategies. Clinical utilities and implications of such factors are also discussed.

  20. Determination of Vascular Reactivity of Middle Cerebral Arteries from Stroke and Spinal Cord Injury Animal Models Using Pressure Myography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anwar, Mohammad A; Eid, Ali H

    2016-01-01

    Stroke and other neurovascular derangements are main causes of global death. They, along with spinal cord injuries, are responsible for being the principal cause of disability due to neurological and cognitive problems. These problems then lead to a burden on scarce financial resources and societal care facilities as well as have a profound effect on patients' families. The mechanism of action in these debilitating diseases is complex and unclear. An important component of these problems arises from derangement of blood vessels, such as blockage due to clotting/embolism, endothelial dysfunction, and overreactivity to contractile agents, as well as alteration in endothelial permeability. Moreover, the cerebro-vasculature (large vessels and arterioles) is involved in regulating blood flow by facilitating auto-regulatory processes. Moreover, the anterior (middle cerebral artery and the surrounding region) and posterior (basilar artery and its immediate locality) regions of the brain play a significant role in triggering the pathological progression of ischemic stroke particularly due to inflammatory activity and oxidative stress. Interestingly, modifiable and non-modifiable cardiovascular risk factors are responsible for driving ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke and spinal cord injury. There are different stroke animal models to examine the pathophysiology of middle cerebral and basilar arteries. In this context, arterial myography offers an opportunity to determine the etiology of vascular dysfunction in these diseases. Herein, we describe the technique of pressure myography to examine the reactivity of cerebral vessels to contractile and vasodilator agents and a prelude to stroke and spinal cord injury. PMID:27604741

  1. Fetal origin of vascular aging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shailesh Pitale

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Aging is increasingly regarded as an independent risk factor for development of cardiovascular diseases such as atherosclerosis and hypertension and their complications (e.g. MI and Stroke. It is well known that vascular disease evolve over decades with progressive accumulation of cellular and extracellular materials and many inflammatory processes. Metabolic syndrome, obesity and diabetes are conventionally recognized as risk factors for development of coronary vascular disease (CVD. These conditions are known to accelerate ageing process in general and vascular ageing in particular. Adverse events during intrauterine life may programme organ growth and favour disease later in life, popularly known as, ′Barker′s Hypothesis′. The notion of fetal programming implies that during critical periods of prenatal growth, changes in the hormonal and nutritional milieu of the conceptus may alter the full expression of the fetal genome, leading to permanent effects on a range of physiological.

  2. Vascular Gene Expression: A Hypothesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angélica Concepción eMartínez-Navarro

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The phloem is the conduit through which photoassimilates are distributed from autotrophic to heterotrophic tissues and is involved in the distribution of signaling molecules that coordinate plant growth and responses to the environment. Phloem function depends on the coordinate expression of a large array of genes. We have previously identified conserved motifs in upstream regions of the Arabidopsis genes, encoding the homologs of pumpkin phloem sap mRNAs, displaying expression in vascular tissues. This tissue-specific expression in Arabidopsis is predicted by the overrepresentation of GA/CT-rich motifs in gene promoters. In this work we have searched for common motifs in upstream regions of the homologous genes from plants considered to possess a primitive vascular tissue (a lycophyte, as well as from others that lack a true vascular tissue (a bryophyte, and finally from chlorophytes. Both lycophyte and bryophyte display motifs similar to those found in Arabidopsis with a significantly low E-value, while the chlorophytes showed either a different conserved motif or no conserved motif at all. These results suggest that these same genes are expressed coordinately in non- vascular plants; this coordinate expression may have been one of the prerequisites for the development of conducting tissues in plants. We have also analyzed the phylogeny of conserved proteins that may be involved in phloem function and development. The presence of CmPP16, APL, FT and YDA in chlorophytes suggests the recruitment of ancient regulatory networks for the development of the vascular tissue during evolution while OPS is a novel protein specific to vascular plants.

  3. Vascular Injury in Orthopedic Trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mavrogenis, Andreas F; Panagopoulos, George N; Kokkalis, Zinon T; Koulouvaris, Panayiotis; Megaloikonomos, Panayiotis D; Igoumenou, Vasilios; Mantas, George; Moulakakis, Konstantinos G; Sfyroeras, George S; Lazaris, Andreas; Soucacos, Panayotis N

    2016-07-01

    Vascular injury in orthopedic trauma is challenging. The risk to life and limb can be high, and clinical signs initially can be subtle. Recognition and management should be a critical skill for every orthopedic surgeon. There are 5 types of vascular injury: intimal injury (flaps, disruptions, or subintimal/intramural hematomas), complete wall defects with pseudoaneurysms or hemorrhage, complete transections with hemorrhage or occlusion, arteriovenous fistulas, and spasm. Intimal defects and subintimal hematomas with possible secondary occlusion are most commonly associated with blunt trauma, whereas wall defects, complete transections, and arteriovenous fistulas usually occur with penetrating trauma. Spasm can occur after either blunt or penetrating trauma to an extremity and is more common in young patients. Clinical presentation of vascular injury may not be straightforward. Physical examination can be misleading or initially unimpressive; a normal pulse examination may be present in 5% to 15% of patients with vascular injury. Detection and treatment of vascular injuries should take place within the context of the overall resuscitation of the patient according to the established principles of the Advanced Trauma Life Support (ATLS) protocols. Advances in the field, made mostly during times of war, have made limb salvage the rule rather than the exception. Teamwork, familiarity with the often subtle signs of vascular injuries, a high index of suspicion, effective communication, appropriate use of imaging modalities, sound knowledge of relevant technique, and sequence of surgical repairs are among the essential factors that will lead to a successful outcome. This article provides a comprehensive literature review on a subject that generates significant controversy and confusion among clinicians involved in the care of trauma patients. [Orthopedics. 2016; 39(4):249-259.]. PMID:27322172

  4. [Vascular Calcification - Pathological Mechanism and Clinical Application - . Role of vascular smooth muscle cells in vascular calcification].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurabayashi, Masahiko

    2015-05-01

    Vascular calcification is commonly seen with aging, chronic kidney disese (CKD), diabetes, and atherosclerosis, and is closely associated with cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Vascular calcification has long been regarded as the final stage of degeneration and necrosis of arterial wall and a passive, unregulated process. However, it is now known to be an active and tightly regulated process involved with phenotypic transition of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC) that resembles bone mineralization. Briefly, calcium deposits of atherosclerotic plaque consist of hydroxyapatite and may appear identical to fully formed lamellar bone. By using a genetic fate mapping strategy, VSMC of the vascular media give rise to the majority of the osteochondrogenic precursor- and chondrocyte-like cells observed in the calcified arterial media of MGP (- / -) mice. Osteogenic differentiation of VSMC is characterized by the expression of bone-related molecules including bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) -2, Msx2 and osteopontin, which are produced by osteoblasts and chondrocytes. Our recent findings are that (i) Runx2 and Notch1 induce osteogenic differentiation, and (ii) advanced glycation end-product (AGE) /receptor for AGE (RAGE) and palmitic acid promote osteogenic differentiation of VSMC. To understand of the molecular mechanisms of vascular calcification is now under intensive research area.

  5. Vascular contributions to cognitive impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores, Alan

    2015-01-01

    Summary Unlike many neurodegenerative causes of cognitive impairment and dementia, vascular damage is preventable. Despite the heterogeneity of vascular cognitive impairment (VCI) and the complexity of its clinical presentations, the potential for limiting progression and changing the trajectory of damage makes it all the more important for physicians to be educated about the syndrome and to remain vigilant when taking care of patients. In this review, we outline an approach to patients with possible VCI, summarize current treatment and prevention guidelines, and provide an overview with case examples. PMID:26124978

  6. Plant Vascular Biology and Agriculture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    William J.Lucas

    2010-01-01

    @@ The evolution of animal and plant vascular systems played a pivotal role in the advancement from simple to complex organisms,through the provision of a delivery system for the distribution of components essential for both metabolism and growth.Interestingly,although these two vascular systems conform to the same generel rules of fluid dynamics(Murray1926;McCulloh et al.2003),the developmental mechanisms adopted by plants and animals,to generate these long-distance transport systems.have little in common.

  7. Vascular Function in Alzheimer's Disease and Vascular Dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tachibana, Hisatsugu; Washida, Kazuo; Kowa, Hisatomo; Kanda, Fumio; Toda, Tatsushi

    2016-08-01

    We investigated vascular functioning in patients with a clinical and radiological diagnosis of either Alzheimer's disease (AD) or vascular dementia (VaD) and examined a possible relationship between vascular function and cognitive status. Twenty-seven patients with AD, 23 patients with VaD, and 26 healthy control patients underwent measurements of flow-mediated dilation (FMD), ankle-brachial index (ABI), cardioankle vascular index (CAVI), and intima-media thickness (IMT). The FMD was significantly lower in patients with AD or VaD compared to controls. There were no significant differences in ABI, CAVI, or IMT among the 3 groups. A significant correlation was found between Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) scores and FMD. Furthermore, a multiple regression analysis revealed that FMD was significantly predicted by MMSE scores. These results suggest that endothelial involvement plays a role in AD pathogenesis, and FMD may be more sensitive than other surrogate methods (ABI, CAVI, and IMT) for detecting early-stage atherosclerosis and/or cognitive decline. PMID:27284205

  8. 心脑血管急症救治现状与进展%Current status and progress in treatment of emergent cardio-cerebro-vascula diseases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙树杰; 唐学杰

    2012-01-01

    本文通过查阅大量文献并结合近些年(尤其是近十年)心脑血管急救领域所取得的进步,介绍了急性冠脉综合征介入治疗的进步尤其是药物洗脱支架( DES)的临床应用,很好的改善了既往支架内再狭窄的状况;急诊床旁快速检测技术,如心梗心衰标志物心肌肌钙蛋白I( CTNI)、心肌肌钙蛋白T(CTNT)、脑钠素(BNP)的应用,大大缩短了急诊临床判断的时间,也提高了判断的准确性;介绍了2010年新的国际心肺复苏指南的变化,强调了持续不间断的、高质量的心脏按压在心肺复苏(CPR)中的重要性,埋藏式心律转复除颤器(Implantable Cardioverter-Defibrillator,ICD)、自动体外除颤器(AED)在防治恶性心律失常及心源性猝死时所起到的重要作用;高血压脑出血目前治疗方法的选择及各自的优缺点,并探讨了未来治疗的趋势.%In this article, by reading lots of documents and considering progress made in recent years (especially the last decade ) in cardio-cerebro-vascula field, we summarize academic results and therapies, anticipate the treatment trends, introduce progress in interventional therapy for acute coronary artery syndrome, especially the clinical use of drug eluting stents, which solve the restenosis of stents. Technologies of emergency rapid bedside detection, such as cardiac infarction markers like CTNI, CTNT and BNP, have shortened the time and increased accuracy of clinical judgment. We introduce the updated 2010 version of New International Cardio-Pulmonary Resuscitation Guide, underline the importance of continuous and high qualified cardiac compression in CPR, introduce the important role implantable cardioverter-defibrillators and automated external defibrillators play in the prevention and cure of malignant arrhythmia and cardiogenic sudden death, and different treatments for cerebral hemorrhage, as well as discuss the treatment trends.

  9. Characterization and prognosis factors of cerebro-vascular disease in Cienfuegos province. Caracterización y factores pronósticos de la enfermedad cerebrovascular en la Provincia de Cienfuegos.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Suárez Suri

    Full Text Available Fundaments: Cerebrovascular disease constitutes the third cause of death and the first cause of severe discapacity in adults in those countries that have a developed health system like ours. Objective: To characterise the patients with cerebrovascular disease and to determine the variables that influence upon their prognosis once it is established. Method: Prospective, descriptive, longitudinal study of a series of cases developed at the University Hospital ¨Dr. Gustavo Aldereguía Lima¨. Questionnaires were applied to the patients that fitted the inclusion criteria (n 1318 Results: The mean age was 66,08 years with a predominance of white patients ( 75,26 %, mainly males ( 56,67%. The risk factor of highest frequency was hypertension ( 43,24 % The evolution for alive patients without discapacities was 14,71%, alive with discapacities ( 57,96% and death 27,31%. There was a predominance of ischemic cerebrovascular disease (46,13 % of aterothrombotic infarcts and 14,94 % cardioembolic disease. In regards to hemorrhagic disease 13,42 % were intracerebral hemorrhage and 4,55% subarachnoid hemorrhage. There was a prognostic correlation between the clinical variables: consciousness, sight, sensibility, language, tone, Babinski , osteotendious reflexes and muscular force. For the general variables cerebral edema, bacterial bronchopneumonia , displacement of the medial line, diagnosis is some values, CT scan diagnoses in some values for diabetes mellitus and convulsions.

    Fundamento: Las enfermedades cerebrovasculares constituyen la tercera causa de muerte y la primera de discapacidad grave del adulto en los países con sistemas de salud desarrollados similares al nuestro. Objetivo : Caracterizar a los pacientes con enfermedades cerebrovasculares y determinar las variables que influyen en su pronóstico una vez establecidas. Métodos : Estudio de tipo prospectivo, descriptivo, longitudinal, de serie de casos realizado en el Hopital Universitario ¨Dr. Gustavo Aldereguía Lima¨. Se aplicaron formularios al total de pacientes que cumplieron los criterios de inclusión (n- 1318. Resultados : Se constató una edad media de 66,08 años, predominó el color de la piel blanca (75,26 % , y el sexo masculino(56,67 %.El marcador de riesgo más reportado fue la hipertensión arterial(43,24 %. La evolución para vivos sin discapacidad fue de 14,71 %, vivos con discapacidad 57,96 % y fallecidos 27,31 %. Predominó la enfermedad cerebrovascular isquémica con 46,13 % de infartos aterotrombóticos y 14,94 % cardioembólicos; en las hemorrágicas el 13,42 % fueron hemorragias intracerebrales y 4,55 % hemorragias subaracnoideas. Se comprobó correlación pronóstica para las variables clínicas: conciencia, mirada, sensibilidad, lenguaje, tono, reflejo de Babinski, reflejos osteotendinosos, y fuerzas musculares.

  10. High Risk Factors of Cardio-cerebro-vascular Diseases among Healthy Populations%健康人群中心脑血管疾病高危因素分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    娄靓珂; 张贵生; 赵世波

    2002-01-01

    @@ 随着人民生活水平的提高,心脑血管疾病已成为严重危害人类健康的常见病、多发病,是致残及死亡的主要原因.因此发现心脑血管病高危因素,从而有效地防治心脑血管病就显得尤为重要.本文对2750例诱发心脑血管疾病高危因素的体检资料进行研究分析,为采取有效的预防措施提供依据.

  11. 机采血小板与血栓性心脑血管疾病预防的相关性探讨%Discussion on Correlation of Apheresis Platelet and Prevention of Thrombotic Cardio-cerebro Vascular Diseases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王雅宁; 崔立业

    2009-01-01

    目的 通过成分献血(机采血小板)者与全血献血者体内血浆D-二聚体含量的比对观察,探讨二者在降低血栓性心脑血管疾病发生意义上的临床价值.方法 采用全自动血凝分析透视光免疫浊度法对不同年龄段的360名健康献血者,进行体内血浆D-二聚体的含量测定,并进行比对观察.结果 180名成分献血(机采血小板)者体内D-二聚体的含量显著低于180名全血献血者,2组献血者不同年龄血浆D-二聚体含量差异均有统计学意义(P<0.01).结论 在降低血栓性疾病发生意义上,成份献血更优于传统的全血献血.

  12. 大气污染对心脑血管疾病影响的流行病学研究方法%Epidemiological methodology for the study of the influence of air contamination on cerebro-cardio-vascular diseases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    殷文军; 彭晓武; 宋世震

    2009-01-01

    随着工业化和城市化的快速发展,大气污染,尤其是城市大气污染日益严重,并成为全球性的社会公害,严重污染着人类赖以生存的大气环境,大气污染已成为影响人类健康的主要危害因素之一。

  13. Value of cerebral hemodynamic test in diagnosis of ischemic cerebro vascular disease.%脑血流动力学检测在缺血性脑血管病诊断中的价值

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谭诚; 邓彦

    2008-01-01

    目的 探讨脑血流动力学与缺血性脑血管病的关系. 方法 对1 235例受检者进行颈动脉及椎基底动脉系统血流动力学检测,把有指标明显异常的受检者进行头颅CT或MRI影像学检查对比分析. 结果 1 235例中有853例部分指标异常,其中426例明显异常.行头颅CT或MRI检查发现392例有影像学改变,且指标明显异常MRI和CT阳性组、指标明显异常MRI和CT阴性组及血流动力学指标轻度异常组三组的部分动力学指标两两比较差异有统计学意义(P<0.01). 结论 脑血流动力学检测对于缺血性脑血管病的诊断有重要应用价值.

  14. 高密度脂蛋白胆固醇与老年心脑血管疾病的关系%Relationship between HDL-C and Cardio-cerebro-vascular diseases in the elderly

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘亚军; 徐艳

    2013-01-01

    目的 探讨高密度脂蛋白胆固醇与老年心脑血管疾病的联系.方法 对入住笔者所在医院的93名老年心脑血管患者和90名老年健康体检者进行高密度脂蛋白胆固醇、低密度脂蛋白胆固醇、总胆固醇、甘油三脂的检测比较,并对HDL-C进行分段分组比较.结果 老年心脑血管患者的LDL-C、TC、TG水平明显高于老年健康体检者(P<0.05),HDL-C的水平明显低于老年健康体检者(P<0.05).结论 HDL-C的水平与老年心脑血管疾病发生有密切关系,且HDL-C水平越低,心脑血管疾病的发生率越高.

  15. Observation and nursing of peri-operative complication for patients with cerebro-vascular stent%脑血管支架植入术围手术期并发症的观察与护理

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李艳玲

    2008-01-01

    目的 通过观察支架植入术治疗脑动脉狭窄围术期的并发症.探讨其发生的原因及护理方法.方法 分析了25例脑血管支架成形术围术期出现的9例5种并发症的临床表现、护理要点及预防措施.结果常见并发症经及时发现和迅速处理后,均完全恢复,随访4~12个月未见其他并发症,效果满意.结论 护理人员掌握围术期并发症的原因及临床表现,做好预见性评估,才能有针对性、有目的的进行观察及护理,有效降低并发症的发生.

  16. 降压药物带来的希望远离心脑血管事件风险%Anti-hypertension bring benefits away from risk of cadio-cerebro-vascular events

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董强

    2009-01-01

    @@ 卒中是世界各国致死的第一或二位病因,是致残的第六大病因.高血压作为最重要的危险因素,在卒中人群中约占40%.Framinghan队列人群研究中,血压超过160/95 mm Hg(1mm Hg=0.133kp2)的个体相对卒中风险度明显增加(男性为3.1、女性为2.9),降低10/6~12/6 mm Hg则可以减少卒中风险38%.各国流行病数据揭示降压治疗比例在59%,而血压达标(140/80 mm Hg)仅仅34%,中国高血压危险人群中的控制则更差.

  17. Integrative Intervention of Hypertension and Cardio-cerebro-vascular Diseases%高血压与心脑血管疾病一体化干预的探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    白保英; 郝铁荣; 赵鹏; 柴小明

    2004-01-01

    目的为了实施对高血压与心脑血管病干预提供依据.方法对调查人群中的患病者与健康人群进行研究对照.结果吸烟为男性高血压轻度有害因素,饮酒、高Na+饮食为高血压中度有害因素.高血压为冠心病、脑血管疾病的高度有害因素.结论戒烟限酒、降低Na+摄入量是预防高血压的有力措施.控制血压可降低冠心病、脑血管病的发病率.

  18. 丽水市社区居民心脑血管病危险因素调查%An Investigation on the Risk Factors of Cardio-Cerebro-Vascular Diseases of Community Residents in Lishui City

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    叶挺梅; 陈永; 李会仙

    2004-01-01

    为探索丽水市社区心脑血管病的危险因素及其变化趋势,为制订丽水市心脑血管病防治规划提供依据,我们于2001年8月和2002年8月分别二次对城关镇社区8万人群进行了心脑血管疾病危险因素抽样调查,现将结果报告如下。

  19. 自拟脑脉通治疗脑血管疾病114例%From Plans the Brain Arteries to Pass the Treatment Cerebro-vascular Disease 114 Examples

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    侯庆勋

    2008-01-01

    脑血管痰病是长期忧郁恼怒,气郁化火,使肝阴暗耗、风阳升动、上扰清空所致.自拟脑脉通使肝热得清,肝风得熄,诸证自愈.治疗114例,治愈42例,显效47例,有效14例,无效2例.

  20. 急性脑血管疾病的治疗应注重补肾%Discussion on Paying more Attention to Tonify Kidney in Treating Acute Cerebro-vascular Disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林茵绿; 杜顺福

    2002-01-01

    @@ 急性脑血管病是目前构成人群死亡的主要原因,为高发病率、高致死率、高致残率疾病.根据不同的病因及症状,现代医学相应有溶栓、抗凝、降纤、降压、控制脑水肿及一些必要的外科手术等治疗.但鉴于溶栓治疗的时间窗太短,仅能使个别患者受益,其余的多种治疗手段均又不能彻底控制病情的发展及改善疾病的预后状况,因此近年应用降低神经元易损性的脑细胞保护剂越来越受到人们的重视,这就引出我们对中医补肾的思考.

  1. Vascular aspects of multiple sclerosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D'haeseleer, Miguel; Cambron, Melissa; Vanopdenbosch, Ludo; De Keyser, Jacques

    2011-01-01

    Three types of vascular dysfunction have been described in multiple sclerosis (MS). First, findings from epidemiological studies suggest that patients with MS have a higher risk for ischaemic stroke than people who do not have MS. The underlying mechanism is unknown, but might involve endothelial dy

  2. Vascular ultrasound for atherosclerosis imaging

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C.L. de Korte (Chris); H.H.G. Hansen (Hendrik); A.F.W. van der Steen (Anton)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractCardiovascular disease is a leading cause of death in the Western world. Therefore, detection and quantification of atherosclerotic disease is of paramount importance to monitor treatment and possible prevention of acute events. Vascular ultrasound is an excellent technique to assess the

  3. Subclinical hypothyroidism after vascular complicated pregnancy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zanden, M. van der; Hop-de Groot, R.J.; Sweep, F.C.; Ross, H.A.; Heijer, M. den; Spaanderman, M.E.A.

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Women with a history of vascular complicated pregnancy are at risk for developing remote cardiovascular disease. It is associated with underlying cardiovascular risk factors both jeopardizing trophoblast and vascular function. Subclinical hypothyroidism may relate to both conditions. METH

  4. Pediatric central nervous system vascular malformations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burch, Ezra A. [Brigham and Women' s Hospital, Department of Radiology, Boston, MA (United States); Orbach, Darren B. [Boston Children' s Hospital, Neurointerventional Radiology, Boston, MA (United States)

    2015-09-15

    Pediatric central nervous system (CNS) vascular anomalies include lesions found only in the pediatric population and also the full gamut of vascular lesions found in adults. Pediatric-specific lesions discussed here include infantile hemangioma, vein of Galen malformation and dural sinus malformation. Some CNS vascular lesions that occur in adults, such as arteriovenous malformation, have somewhat distinct manifestations in children, and those are also discussed. Additionally, children with CNS vascular malformations often have associated broader vascular conditions, e.g., PHACES (posterior fossa anomalies, hemangioma, arterial anomalies, cardiac anomalies, eye anomalies and sternal anomalies), hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia, and capillary malformation-arteriovenous malformation syndrome (related to the RASA1 mutation). The treatment of pediatric CNS vascular malformations has greatly benefited from advances in endovascular therapy, including technical advances in adult interventional neuroradiology. Dramatic advances in therapy are expected to stem from increased understanding of the genetics and vascular biology that underlie pediatric CNS vascular malformations. (orig.)

  5. Diagnosis advances in vascular cognitive impairment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hua Zhou; Zhong Zhao

    2009-01-01

    Vascular cognitive impairment(VCI) encompasses the entire range of cognitive deficits associated with cerebrovascular disease(CVD), from mild deficits with little or no functional impairment, such as vascular cognitive impairment-no dementia(VCIND), to full-blown vascular dementia(VaD). Accurate diagnosis of vascular cognitive impairment is important but may be difficult. In this review we report advances in VCI in the following areas: etiology, subtypes, neuropsychology, biomarkers, neuroimaging, and diagnostic criteria.

  6. MicroRNAs in Vascular Biology

    OpenAIRE

    Munekazu Yamakuchi

    2012-01-01

    Vascular inflammation is an important component of the pathophysiology of cardiovascular diseases, such as hypertension, atherosclerosis, and aneurysms. All vascular cells, including endothelial cells (ECs) and vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs), and infiltrating cells, such as macrophages, orchestrate a series of pathological events. Despite dramatic improvements in the treatment of atherosclerosis, the molecular basis of vascular inflammation is not well understood. In the last decade, mi...

  7. Neurofibromatosis, stroke and basilar impression: case report Neurofibromatose, acidente vascular cerebral e impressão basilar: relato de caso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ELCIO JULIATO PIOVESAN

    1999-06-01

    Full Text Available Neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1 can virtually affect any organ, presenting most frequently with "cafe au lait" spots and neurofibromas. Vasculopathy is a known complication of NF1, but cerebrovascular disease is rare. We report the case of a 51-year-old man admitted to the hospital with a history of stroke four months before admission. On physical examination, he presented various "cafe au lait" spots and cutaneous neurofibromas. Neurologic examination demonstrated right-sided facial paralysis, right-sided hemiplegia, and aphasia. Computed tomography scan of head showed hypodense areas in the basal ganglia and centrum semiovale. Radiographs of cranium and cervical spine showed basilar impression. Angiography revealed complete occlusion of both vertebral and left internal carotid arteries, and partial stenosis of the right internal carotid artery. A large network of collateral vessels was present (moyamoya syndrome. It is an uncommon case of occlusive cerebrovascular disease associated with NF1, since most cases described in the literature are in young people, and tend to spare the posterior cerebral circulation. Basilar impression associated with this case may be considered a pure coincidence, but rare cases of basilar impression and NF1 have been described.A neurofibromatose tipo 1 (NF1 pode acometer qualquer órgão mas as apresentações mais frequente são manchas café com leite e neurofibromas. O envolvimento de vasos é complicação conhecida da NF1, mas a doença cerebrovascular é rara. Relatamos o caso de paciente do sexo masculino de 51 anos com história de acidente vascular cerebral há quatro meses da admissão. Ao exame físico apresentava várias manchas café com leite e neurofibromas cutâneos. O exame neurológico demonstrou acometimento facial direito, hemiplegia direita e afasia. Tomografia computadorizada de crânio mostrou áreas hipodensas nos gânglios basais e centros semi-ovais. Radiografias do crânio e coluna cervical

  8. Near-infraread spectroscopy during peripheral vascular surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schroeder, Torben Veith; Eiberg, Jonas Peter; Vogt, Katja;

    1997-01-01

    Original,Near-infraread spectroscopy,Vascular disease,Vascular by-pass surgery,Perioperative oxymetry......Original,Near-infraread spectroscopy,Vascular disease,Vascular by-pass surgery,Perioperative oxymetry...

  9. Vascular diseases: aortitis, aortic aneurysms, and vascular calcification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ladich, Elena; Yahagi, Kazuyuki; Romero, Maria E; Virmani, Renu

    2016-01-01

    Inflammatory diseases of the aorta broadly include noninfectious and infectious aortitis, periaortitis, atherosclerosis, and inflammatory atherosclerotic aneurysms. Aortitis is uncommon but is increasingly recognized as an important cause of aortic aneurysms and dissections. Abdominal (AAA) and thoracic aortic aneurysms (TAA) have different pathologies and etiologies. AAAs are the most common type of aortic aneurysm, and the vast majority of these are atherosclerotic. The causes of TAA vary depending on the site of involvement, but medial degeneration is a common pathologic substrate, regardless of etiology, and genetic influences play a prominent role in TAA expression. Standardized classification schemes for inflammatory and degenerative diseases of the aorta have only recently been added to the pathology literature. A brief overview of the new histopathologic classifications for aortic inflammatory and degenerative diseases has recently been published by the Society for Cardiovascular Pathology and the Association for European Cardiovascular Pathology as a consensus document on the surgical pathology of the aorta. Vascular calcification is a highly regulated biologic process, and the mechanisms leading to vascular calcification are under investigation. Calcification may occur in the intima (atherosclerotic) or in the media secondary to metabolic disease. Rarely, vascular calcification may be associated with genetic disorders. PMID:27526100

  10. Identification of molecular processes needed for vascular formation through transcriptome analysis of different vascular systems

    OpenAIRE

    Xu, Peng; Kong, Yimeng; Li, Xuan; Li, Laigeng

    2013-01-01

    Background Vascular system formation has been studied through molecular and genetic approaches in Arabidopsis, a herbaceous dicot that is used as a model system. Different vascular systems have developed in other plants such as crops and trees. Uncovering shared mechanisms underlying vascular development by transcriptome analysis of different vascular systems may help to transfer knowledge acquired from Arabidopsis to other economically important species. Results Conserved vascular genes and ...

  11. Endoluminal vascular prostheses; Endoluminale Gefaessprothesen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vorwerk, D. [Klinikum Ingolstadt (Germany). Inst. fuer Diagnostische und Interventionelle Radiologie; Schuermann, K. [Technische Hochschule Aachen (Germany). Klinik fuer Radiologische Diagnostik

    2000-06-01

    Endoluminal vascular prostheses that can be implanted by percutaneous routes represent the most recent development in vascular interventional radiology. Various commercially available types of prosthesis are presented and the construction principles and applications are described. At present secure indications for the implantation of endoluminal prostheses are limited to the elimination of aneurysms and arteriovenous fistulae of the large vessels near the trunk in sections that do not cross a joint. The wide use in peripheral occlusive diseases cannot yet be recommended because confirmed data are not available. (orig.) [German] Endoluminale Gefaessprothesen, die perkutan implantierbar sind, stellen die juengste Entwicklung in der vaskulaeren interventionellen Radiologie dar. Verschiedene kommerziell erhaeltliche Prothesentypen werden vorgestellt, ihr Konstruktionsprinzip und ihre Applikation erlaeutert. Die gesicherten Indikationen zur endoluminalen Prothesenimplantation beschraenken sich zur Zeit auf die Ausschaltung von Aneurysmen und arteriovenoesen Fisteln der grossen stammnahen Gefaesse in nichtgelenkueberkreuzenden Abschnitten. Die breite Anwendung bei der peripheren Verschlusskrankheit hingegen kann nicht empfohlen werden, solange gesicherte Daten fehlen. (orig.)

  12. Vascularized osseous graft for scaphoid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The most commonly used technique for treatment of pseudo-arthrosis of the scaphoid is osteo-synthesis with Kirschnet wires and cortical sponge grafts. Results reported by different teams using this procedure show no more than 90% osseous consolidation, especially in cases where vascularisation of the proximal fragment of the scaphoid is compromised. Here we present a series of ten cases of pseudo-arthrosis of the scaphoid, treated using a new surgical technique involving a vascularized osseous graft of the distal radius. Using this procedure we obtained 100% consolidation, with no complications either during the procedure or immediately post-operatively. Patients returned to work in week 15 on average. In 4 cases we observed discomfort in the area of the scar, which was successfully treated using local cortisone injection. The results obtained are very similar to those seen in the literature on the different techniques for vascularized osseous grafts for pseudo-arthrosis of the scaphoid

  13. Tbx1 regulates brain vascularization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cioffi, Sara; Martucciello, Stefania; Fulcoli, Filomena Gabriella; Bilio, Marchesa; Ferrentino, Rosa; Nusco, Edoardo; Illingworth, Elizabeth

    2014-01-01

    The transcription factor TBX1 is the major gene involved in 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11.2DS). Using mouse models of these diseases, we have previously shown that TBX1 activates VEGFR3 in endothelial cells (EC), and that this interaction is critical for the development of the lymphatic vasculature. In this study, we show that TBX1 regulates brain angiogenesis. Using loss-of-function genetics and molecular approaches, we show that TBX1 regulates the VEGFR3 and DLL4 genes in brain ECs. In mice, loss of TBX1 causes global brain vascular defects, comprising brain vessel hyperplasia, enhanced angiogenic sprouting and vessel network disorganization. This phenotype is recapitulated in EC-specific Tbx1 conditional mutants and in an EC-only 3-dimensional cell culture system (matrigel), indicating that the brain vascular phenotype is cell autonomous. Furthermore, EC-specific conditional Tbx1 mutants have poorly perfused brain vessels and brain hypoxia, indicating that the expanded vascular network is functionally impaired. In EC-matrigel cultures, a Notch1 agonist is able to partially rescue microtubule hyperbranching induced by TBX1 knockdown. Thus, we have identified a novel transcriptional regulator of angiogenesis that exerts its effect in brain by negatively regulating angiogenesis through the DLL4/Notch1-VEGFR3 regulatory axis. Given the similarity of the phenotypic consequences of TBX1 mutation in humans and mice, this unexpected role of TBX1 in murine brain vascularization should stimulate clinicians to search for brain microvascular anomalies in 22q11.2DS patients and to evaluate whether some of the anatomical and functional brain anomalies in patients may have a microvascular origin. PMID:23945394

  14. Cellular mechanisms during vascular development

    OpenAIRE

    Blum, Yannick

    2012-01-01

    The vascular system is an essential organ in vertebrate animals and provides the organism with enough oxygen and nutrients. It is composed of an interconnected network of blood vessels, which form using a number of different morphogenetic mechanisms. Angiogenesis describes the formation of new blood vessels from preexisting vessels. A number of molecular pathways have been shown to be essential during angiogenesis. However, cellular architecture of blood vessels as well as cellular mechanisms...

  15. Fascia and Primo Vascular System

    OpenAIRE

    Chun Yang; Yi-kuan Du; Jian-bin Wu; Jun Wang; Ping Luan; Qin-lao Yang; Lin Yuan

    2015-01-01

    The anatomical basis for the concept of acupuncture points/meridians in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) has not been resolved. This paper reviews the fascia research progress and the relationship among acupuncture points/meridians, primo vascular system (PVS), and fascia. Fascia is as a covering, with common origins of layers of the fascial system despite diverse names for individual parts. Fascia assists gliding and fluid flow and holds memory and is highly innervated. Fascia is intimatel...

  16. Vascular Plant Checklists from Oklahoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael W. Palmer

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available A bibliography of 85 references involving Oklahoma flora is provided, 52 of which provide a vascular plant species list from an unambiguous area. I list geographic, topographic, and taxonomic summary data for 59 floras (some references provide multiple lists. The species-area relationship for Oklahoma (with a z value of 0.15 is similar to that of North America as a whole. In the face of imminent climate change, thepace of floristic research in Oklahoma needs to accelerate.

  17. Vascular instruction of pancreas development

    OpenAIRE

    Cleaver, Ondine; Dor, Yuval

    2012-01-01

    Blood vessels course through organs, providing them with essential nutrient and gaseous exchange. However, the vasculature has also been shown to provide non-nutritional signals that play key roles in the control of organ growth, morphogenesis and homeostasis. Here, we examine a decade of work on the contribution of vascular paracrine signals to developing tissues, with a focus on pancreatic β-cells. During the early stages of embryonic development, blood vessels are required for pancreas spe...

  18. NADPH Oxidases in Vascular Pathology

    OpenAIRE

    Konior, Anna; Schramm, Agata; Czesnikiewicz-Guzik, Marta; Tomasz J. Guzik

    2014-01-01

    Significance: Reactive oxygen species (ROS) play a critical role in vascular disease. While there are many possible sources of ROS, nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidases play a central role. They are a source of “kindling radicals,” which affect other enzymes, such as nitric oxide synthase endothelial nitric oxide synthase or xanthine oxidase. This is important, as risk factors for atherosclerosis (hypertension, diabetes, hypercholesterolemia, and smoking) regulate the ...

  19. Vascular gene expression: a hypothesis

    OpenAIRE

    Martínez-Navarro, Angélica C.; Galván-Gordillo, Santiago V.; Xoconostle-Cázares, Beatriz; Ruiz-Medrano, Roberto

    2013-01-01

    The phloem is the conduit through which photoassimilates are distributed from autotrophic to heterotrophic tissues and is involved in the distribution of signaling molecules that coordinate plant growth and responses to the environment. Phloem function depends on the coordinate expression of a large array of genes. We have previously identified conserved motifs in upstream regions of the Arabidopsis genes, encoding the homologs of pumpkin phloem sap mRNAs, displaying expression in vascular ti...

  20. Endangered vascular plants in Japan

    OpenAIRE

    IWATSUKI, Kunio

    2008-01-01

    The history of the Red List of Japanese vascular plants is briefly reviewed for editing and research. Especially on the results of recent monitoring, the present status of information and conservation activities on the endangered plants in Japan is discussed and the dynamics of the Japanese flora are taken up, in relation to basic research on plant biodiversity on the Japanese Archipelago. The figures of endangered plants are not very variable during the past quarter of a century, but we can ...

  1. Hydrogen sulfide and vascular relaxation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN Yan; TANG Chao-shu; DU Jun-bao; JIN Hong-fang

    2011-01-01

    Objective To review the vasorelaxant effects of hydrogen sulfide (H2S) in arterial rings in the cardiovascular system under both physiological and pathophysiological conditions and the possible mechanisms involved.Data sources The data in this review were obtained from Medline and Pubmed sources from 1997 to 2011 using the search terms "hydrogen sulfide" and ""vascular relaxation".Study selection Articles describing the role of hydrogen sulfide in the regulation of vascular activity and its vasorelaxant effects were selected.Results H2S plays an important role in the regulation of cardiovascular tone.The vasomodulatory effects of H2S depend on factors including concentration,species and tissue type.The H2S donor,sodium hydrosulfide (NarS),causes vasorelaxation of rat isolated aortic rings in a dose-dependent manner.This effect was more pronounced than that observed in pulmonary arterial rings.The expression of KATP channel proteins and mRNA in the aortic rings was increased compared with pulmonary artery rings.H2S is involved in the pathogenesis of a variety of cardiovascular diseases.Downregulation of the endogenous H2S pathway is an important factor in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular diseases.The vasorelaxant effects of H2S have been shown to be mediated by activation of KATP channels in vascular smooth muscle cells and via the induction of acidification due to activation of the CI/HCO3 exchanger.It is speculated that the mechanisms underlying the vasoconstrictive function of H2S in the aortic rings involves decreased NO production and inhibition of cAMP accumulation.Conclusion H2S is an important endogenous gasotransmitter in the cardiovascular system and acts as a modulator of vascular tone in the homeostatic regulation of blood pressure.

  2. [Vascular Ehlers-Danlos syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, Michael

    2009-04-20

    Vascular type Ehlers-Danlos syndrome (EDS) is a rare inherited disease with an autosomal dominant trait. The mutation of the COL3A1 gene which encodes type III collagen, is responsible of early vascular (spontaneous arterial rupture or dissection), digestive (perforation) and obstetrical events (uterine and arterial rupture). Diagnosis of the disease is primarily clinical, especially in case of characteristic morphologic features. Diagnostic certainty is obtained by evidencing the mutation of the COL3A1 gene. Some arterial lesions are suggestive of the disease, as dissecting aneurysms of the internal carotid, of the iliac arteries, and of the anterior visceral aortic branches, fusiform aneurisms of the splenic artery, and the occurrence of a non traumatic direct carotid-cavernous fistula. The occurrence of a spontaneous peritonitis or of an extensive perineal tear after delivery should also draw physician's attention. Because of the unpredictability of arterial or organ rupture, any patient diagnosed with vascular type EDS presenting with an acute pain syndrome should be considered as a trauma situation and be investigated straightaway by CT-scan or MRI testing, in order to eliminate a life threatening complication. PMID:19462862

  3. Cell-based strategies for vascular regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Tongqiang; Fan, Jiabing; Fartash, Armita; Liu, Haifeng; Fan, Yubo

    2016-05-01

    Vascular regeneration is known to play an essential role in the repair of injured tissues mainly through accelerating the repair of vascular injury caused by vascular diseases, as well as the recovery of ischemic tissues. However, the clinical vascular regeneration is still challenging. Cell-based therapy is thought to be a promising strategy for vascular regeneration, since various cells have been identified to exert important influences on the process of vascular regeneration such as the enhanced endothelium formation on the surface of vascular grafts, and the induction of vessel-like network formation in the ischemic tissues. Here are a vast number of diverse cell-based strategies that have been extensively studied in vascular regeneration. These strategies can be further classified into three main categories, including cell transplantation, construction of tissue-engineered grafts, and surface modification of scaffolds. Cells used in these strategies mainly refer to terminally differentiated vascular cells, pluripotent stem cells, multipotent stem cells, and unipotent stem cells. The aim of this review is to summarize the reported research advances on the application of various cells for vascular regeneration, yielding insights into future clinical treatment for injured tissue/organ. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part A: 104A: 1297-1314, 2016. PMID:26864677

  4. Clinical pharmacology and vascular risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silvestrelli, G; Corea, F; Micheli, S; Lanari, A

    2010-01-01

    Pharmacological treatment and several drugs of abuse have been associated with ischemic heart disease (IHD) and cerebrovascular diseases (CVD). However, there is a paucity of data on the independent risk of vascular disease (VD) associated with pharmacological treatment and no controlled trials demonstrating a reduction in risk with abstinence. Information about IHD and CVD-related drug abuse is mainly limited to epidemiological studies focused on urban populations. The potential link between some pharmacological treatments (estrogen, some oncologic drugs and some atypical antipsychotics) and cerebrovascular adverse events was analyzed, but disagreement about an association persists. Drugs of abuse, including cocaine, amphetamines and heroin, have been associated with an increased vascular risk. These drugs can cause abrupt changes in blood pressure, vasculitic-type changes, lead to embolization caused by infective endocarditis, and hemostatic and hematologic abnormalities that can result in increased blood viscosity and platelet aggregation. Long-term treatment strategies based on medication, psychological support, and outreach programs play an important role in treatment of drug dependency. In these last years public interest in risk factors for VD has been constantly increasing and the successful identification and management of pharmacological treatment and drug abuse can be challenging. One of the major public health issues for the future will be to focus more on new vascular risk factor recognition and management. The objective of this chapter is to review the relevance of IHD and CVD associated with various pharmacological treatments and drug abuse with focusing on ischemic disease. This chapter reports the clinical evidence of this association and analyzes the experimental role of new drugs as a growing risk factor of VD with the hypothetical new association. In conclusion, in this chapter great attention is paid to evaluating the scientific and real

  5. Vascular dementia: Facts and controversies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavlović Aleksandra

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Vascular dementia (VaD is the second most frequent dementia after Alzheimer’s disease, and is diagnosed during lifetime in 20% of demented patients. Five­year survival rate in VaD is 39%, while it is estimated to be 75% in healthy persons of the same age. It is therefore important to make correct diagnosis of VaD early in the course of the disease. Risk factors for VaD are identical to stroke risk factors, and there are significant possibilities for the prevention of vascular cognitive decline. Cognitive decline develops acutely or step­by­step within three months after stroke, but more gradual progression of intellectual decline is also possible. Neurological examination can reveal pyramidal and extrapyramidal signs, pseudobulbar palsy, gait disturbance and urinary incontinence. Neuropsychological profile comprises the loss of cognitive set shifting, decline in word fluency, verbal learning difficulties, perseverations, difficulties in complex figure copying, and in patients with cortically located lesions also problems with speech and praxia. The basis of the diagnosis is, besides history, neurological examination and neuropsychological assessment, computed tomography and/ or magnetic resonance brain imaging. Vascular risk factors control is the most important measure in VaD prevention. Modern guidelines for the treatment of cognitive decline in VaD emphasize that donepezil can be useful in the improvement of cognitive status at the level of Class IIa recommendation at the level of evidence A, while memantine may be useful in patients with mixed VaD and Alzheimer’s disease dementia. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 175022 i br. 175033

  6. Vascular comorbidities in multiple sclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thormann, Anja; Magyari, Melinda; Koch-Henriksen, Nils;

    2016-01-01

    To investigate the occurrence of vascular comorbidities before and after the clinical onset of multiple sclerosis. In this combined case-control and cohort study, all Danish born citizens with onset of multiple sclerosis 1980-2005 were identified from the Danish Multiple Sclerosis Registry...... and randomly matched with controls regarding year of birth, gender, and municipality on January 1st in the year of multiple sclerosis (MS) onset (index date). Individual-level information on comorbidities was obtained from several independent nationwide registries and linked to the study population by unique...

  7. Spinal vascular malformations; Spinale Gefaessmalformationen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yilmaz, U. [Universitaetsklinikum des Saarlandes, Klinik fuer Diagnostische und Interventionelle Neuroradiologie, Homburg/Saar (Germany)

    2012-05-15

    Spinal vascular malformations are a group of rare diseases with different clinical presentations ranging from incidental asymptomatic findings to progressive tetraplegia. This article provides an overview about imaging features as well as clinical and therapeutic aspects of spinal arteriovenous malformations, cavernomas and capillary telangiectasia. (orig.) [German] Spinale Gefaessmalformationen sind eine Gruppe seltener Erkrankungen mit unterschiedlichen klinischen Praesentationen, die vom asymptomatischen Zufallsbefund bis zur progredienten Tetraparese reichen. Dieser Artikel gibt einen Ueberblick ueber radiologische Befunde sowie klinische und therapeutische Aspekte von spinalen arteriovenoesen Malformationen, Kavernomen und kapillaeren Teleangiektasien. (orig.)

  8. DNA Damage and Repair in Vascular Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uryga, Anna; Gray, Kelly; Bennett, Martin

    2016-01-01

    DNA damage affecting both genomic and mitochondrial DNA is present in a variety of both inherited and acquired vascular diseases. Multiple cell types show persistent DNA damage and a range of lesions. In turn, DNA damage activates a variety of DNA repair mechanisms, many of which are activated in vascular disease. Such DNA repair mechanisms either stall the cell cycle to allow repair to occur or trigger apoptosis or cell senescence to prevent propagation of damaged DNA. Recent evidence has indicated that DNA damage occurs early, is progressive, and is sufficient to impair function of cells composing the vascular wall. The consequences of persistent genomic and mitochondrial DNA damage, including inflammation, cell senescence, and apoptosis, are present in vascular disease. DNA damage can thus directly cause vascular disease, opening up new possibilities for both prevention and treatment. We review the evidence for and the causes, types, and consequences of DNA damage in vascular disease. PMID:26442438

  9. Blood Flow Restricted Exercise and Vascular Function

    OpenAIRE

    Masahiro Horiuchi; Koichi Okita

    2012-01-01

    It is established that regular aerobic training improves vascular function, for example, endothelium-dependent vasodilatation and arterial stiffness or compliance and thereby constitutes a preventative measure against cardiovascular disease. In contrast, high-intensity resistance training impairs vascular function, while the influence of moderate-intensity resistance training on vascular function is still controversial. However, aerobic training is insufficient to inhibit loss in muscular str...

  10. Reconstructive vascular surgery below the knee

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, L B; Jelnes, R; Sager, P

    1986-01-01

    In a series of 38 consecutive patients with advanced peripheral vascular disease (i.e. rest pain) reconstructive vascular surgery was performed with the distal anastomosis below the knee. Ankle/arm pressure index (AAI) was 0.28 (0.11-0.47) preoperatively; accumulated graft patency rate was 0.47 (SD...... the prognosis in regard to graft patency is poor, we still suggest that distal vascular surgery should be considered prior to primary amputation....

  11. Extraordinary Vessels Needling for Vascular Dementia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU Jin; LAI Xin-sheng; HUANG Qiu-tang; XIAO Yuan-chun

    2003-01-01

    Purpose To observe the clinical efficacy of extraordinary vessels needling in treating vascular dementia. Method 39 cases vascular dementia were treated by acupoints selected from the eight extraordinary meridians and the time needling techniques such as eight methods of spiritual turtle, in accordance with time period and pattern identifition. Results 2 cases were cured, 30 cases improved and 7 cases failed; the total effective rate was 82.1%. Conclusion Extraordinary vessels needling has positive effects in treating vascular dementia.

  12. Vascular Risk Factors: Imaging and Neuropathologic Correlates

    OpenAIRE

    Knopman, David S; Roberts, Rosebud

    2010-01-01

    Cerebrovascular disease plays an important role in cognitive disorders in the elderly. Cerebrovascular disease and Alzheimer’s disease interact on several levels, one important level being the overlap in risk factors. The major vascular risk factors such as diabetes and impaired glycemic control, hypertension, obesity and hyper- or dyslipidemia have been associated both with Alzheimer’s disease and vascular dementia. The purpose of this review is to consider the context in which vascular deme...

  13. Vascular nursing in Greece: luxury or necessity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgakarakos, Efstratios; Bitza, Christina; Papanas, Nikolaos; Matsagkas, Miltiadis; Lazarides, Miltos K

    2013-09-01

    Although peripheral arterial disease is prevalent in the primary care setting, insufficient vascular education among nurses and physicians coupled with certain economic constraints undermines treatment efficacy. Moreover, the burden of advanced venous pathology such as posthrombotic syndrome, venous ulcers, and lymphedema remains suboptimally treated. This article advocates the development of a vascular nursing specialty as a means to improving vascular care especially nowadays, when health care providers dictate comprehensive and cost-effective nursing practice and patient management. It also presents the first attempt to organize a Vascular Nursing Educational Session in Greece. PMID:24043676

  14. Proatherogenic pathways leading to vascular calcification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mazzini, Michael J. [Department of Cardiology, Boston University Medical Center, Boston, MA (United States); Schulze, P. Christian [Department of Medicine, Boston University Medical Center, Boston, MA (United States)]. E-mail: christian.schulze@bmc.org

    2006-03-15

    Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in the western world and atherosclerosis is the major common underlying disease. The pathogenesis of atherosclerosis involves local vascular injury, inflammation and oxidative stress as well as vascular calcification. Vascular calcification has long been regarded as a degenerative process leading to mineral deposition in the vascular wall characteristic for late stages of atherosclerosis. However, recent studies identified vascular calcification in early stages of atherosclerosis and its occurrence has been linked to clinical events in patients with cardiovascular disease. Its degree correlates with local vascular inflammation and with the overall impact and the progression of atherosclerosis. Over the last decade, diverse and highly regulated molecular signaling cascades controlling vascular calcification have been described. Local and circulating molecules such as osteopontin, osteoprogerin, leptin and matrix Gla protein were identified as critical regulators of vascular calcification. We here review the current knowledge on molecular pathways of vascular calcification and their relevance for the progression of cardiovascular disease.

  15. Vascular grafting strategies in coronary intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knight, Darryl; Gillies, Elizabeth; Mequanint, Kibret

    2014-06-01

    With the growing need for coronary revascularizations globally, several strategies to restore blood flow to the heart have been explored. Bypassing the atherosclerotic coronary arteries with autologous grafts, synthetic prostheses and tissue-engineered vascular grafts continue to be evaluated in search of a readily available vascular graft with clinically acceptable outcomes. The development of such a vascular graft including tissue engineering approaches both in situ and in vitro is herein reviewed, facilitating a detailed comparison on the role of seeded cells in vascular graft patency.

  16. VASCULAR MALFORMATION OF CHEEK: A CASE REPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faiz

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Vascular lesions are among the most common congenital and neonatal abnormalities. Most of the congenital vascular malformations are often misdiagnosed and left untreated. These lesions are the result of an embryonic abnormality of the vascular system. This is a case report of 13 year male patient who came with a chief complaint of swelling on the right side of face since birth. It was diagnosed as vascular malformations of buccal mucosa of right side. It is emphasized that the management of these cases requ ires a multidisciplinary approach. Laser therapy, embolization followed by surgical excision is the favourable treatment modalities.

  17. Diffuse and vascular hepatic diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In addition to focal liver lesions, diffuse and vascular disorders of the liver represent a wide spectrum of liver diseases which are from the radiological point of view often difficult or nearly impossible to diagnose. Classical diagnostic methods are computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging in addition to ultrasound. Diffuse parenchymal damage caused by diseases of various etiologies is therefore difficult to evaluate because it often lacks characteristic morphological features. For hepatic steatosis, hemochromatosis/siderosis as an example of a diffuse storage disease and sarcoidosis and candidiasis as infectious/inflammatory diseases, an image-based diagnosis is appropriate in some cases. For most diffuse liver diseases, however only nonspecific changes are visualized. Vascular pathologies of the liver, such as the Budd-Chiari syndrome and portal vein thrombosis, however, can usually be diagnosed very clearly using radiology and there is also a very effective interventional radiological treatment. Chronic diseases very often culminate in liver cirrhosis which is highly associated with an increased risk of liver cancer. (orig.)

  18. Neuroradiological findings in vascular dementia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guermazi, Ali; Miaux, Yves; Suhy, Joyce; Pauls, Jon; Lopez, Ria [Synarc, Inc., Department of Radiology Services, San Francisco, CA (United States); Rovira-Canellas, Alex [Hospital General Universitari Vall d' Hebron, Unita de Resonancia Magnetica, Barcelona (Spain); Posner, Holly [Eisai, Inc., Teaneck, NJ (United States)

    2007-01-15

    There are multiple diagnostic criteria for vascular dementia (VaD) that may define different populations. Utilizing the criteria of the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke and Association Internationale pour la Recherche et l'Enseignement en Neurosciences (NINDS-AIREN) has provided improved consistency in the diagnosis of VaD. The criteria include a table listing brain imaging lesions associated with VaD. The different neuroradiological aspects of the criteria are reviewed based on the imaging data from an ongoing large-scale clinical trial testing a new treatment for VaD. The NINDS-AIREN criteria were applied by a centralized imaging rater to determine eligibility for enrollment in 1,202 patients using brain CT or MRI. Based on the above data set, the neuroradiological features that are associated with VaD and that can result from cerebral small-vessel disease with extensive leukoencephalopathy or lacunae (basal ganglia or frontal white matter), or may be the consequence of single strategically located infarcts or multiple infarcts in large-vessel territories, are illustrated. These features may also be the consequence of global cerebral hypoperfusion, intracerebral hemorrhage, or other mechanisms such as genetically determined arteriopathies. Neuroimaging confirmation of cerebrovascular disease in VaD provides information about the topography and severity of vascular lesions. Neuroimaging may also assist with the differential diagnosis of dementia associated with normal pressure hydrocephalus, chronic subdural hematoma, arteriovenous malformation or tumoral diseases. (orig.)

  19. Advance in molecular imaging research of vascular smooth muscle cells in the vascular diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) are the primary cells within the vascular wall structure and maintain the tension of blood vessels, playing a key role in the restenosis, atherosclerosis and some other vascular diseases. With the development of molecular imaging, VSMCs cellular level of imaging studies is becoming more and more attention. The phenotype modulation, proliferation, migration and molecular imaging research progress of VSMCs in pathologic state were reviewed, to improve the management of vascular restenosis and atherosclerosis. (authors)

  20. Vascular function in health, hypertension, and diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nyberg, Michael Permin; Gliemann, Lasse; Hellsten, Ylva

    2015-01-01

    to the formation of vasodilators such as nitric oxide (NO) and prostacyclin. In essential hypertension and type II diabetes, the endothelial function and regulation of vascular tone is impaired with consequent increases in peripheral vascular resistance and inadequate regulation of oxygen supply to the skeletal...

  1. Functional preservation of vascular smooth muscle tissue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, W. C.; Hutchins, P. M.; Kimzey, S. L.

    1973-01-01

    The ionic and cellular feedback relationships operating to effect the vascular decompensatory modifications were examined to reveal procedures for implementing protective measures guarding against vascular collapse when returning from a weightless environment to that of the earth's gravity. The surgical procedures for preparing the rat cremaster, and the fixation methods are described. Abstracts of publications resulting from this research are included.

  2. Vascular surgery and diabetic foot revascularization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GU Yong-quan

    2010-01-01

    @@ Patients with diabetes mellitus have an increased incidence of atherosclerotic vascular disease and infection involving the lower extremities.Lower limb arterial disease is more common among patients with diabetes, and lower limb atherosclerosis is the main cause of lower limb ischemia for these patients.Two types of vascular disease are seen in patients with diabetes.

  3. Covariance of lichen and vascular plant floras

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, J.P.; Wetmore, C.M.

    1999-01-01

    The geographic relationships among taxonomic groups are important to study to determine patterns of biodiversity and whether or not associations occur between large groups, e.g., birds and vascular plants. This study was undertaken to determine relationships between higher plants and lower plants, specifically vascular plant and lichen floras in nine national parks of the Great Lakes region. No significant relationship was found between vascular plant floras and lichen floras in this area, which spans 1200 km longitudinally, or between an additional 19 areas from North America that were less than 1000 km(2) in area. For areas larger than 1000 km(2), however, a significant positive relationship existed for 33 areas that span one to approximately 150 million km(2). The ratio of numbers of vascular plants to lichens appeared to average just over 6 across the 33 areas. In the Great Lakes parks, between 28-30% of either the vascular plant or lichen species were singletons (occurring in only one park), but the parks that contained the most singletons were not congruent: Isle Royale had the most singleton lichens, while Indiana Dunes had the most vascular plant singletons. Fewer lichen species (2%) than vascular plants (4%) occurred in all nine parks. Latitude appeared to explain some of the variation between the two groups: vascular plants decreased with increasing latitude, while lichens increased.

  4. What "helps" tumors evade vascular targeting treatment?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SI Zhi-chao; LIU Jie

    2008-01-01

    Objective To throw a light on the possible factors which might induce resistance of vascular targeting treatment in tumors by reviewing the recent publications in the field of tumor angiogenesis and vascular targeting treatment.Data sources The data used in this review were mainly from Medline and PubMed for relevant English language articles published from 1971 to January 2008. The search terms were "angiogenesis", "vascular targeting treatment" and "endothelial progenitor cells".Study selection Articles involved in the possible influence factors during angiogenesis and vascular targeting treatment were selected, including angiogenic or anti-angiogenic mechanism, tumor vasculature, tumor cells, cancer stem cells and endothelial progenitor cells.Results As a promising strategy vascular targeting treatment still has experimental and clinical setbacks which may term tumor vasculature's resistance to anti-angiogenesis agents. There are several possible explanations for such a resistance that might account for clinical and preclinical failures of anti-angiogenic treatment against tumor.Proangiogenic effect of hypoxia, normal tumor vasculature, escape of tumor cells and tumor vasculogenesis are included.This review reveals some clues which might be helpful to direct future research in order to remove obstacles to vascular targeting treatment.Conclusions Generally and undoubtedly vascular targeting treatment remains a promising strategy. But we still have to realize the existence of a challenging future. Further research is required to enhance our knowledge of vascular targeting treatment strategy before it could make a more substantial success.

  5. Apparatus for simulating a vascular interventional procedure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van den Dobbelsteen, J.J.; Dankelman, J.

    2008-01-01

    The invention relates to an apparatus (1) for simulating a vascular interventional procedure, comprising a wire-like element (7) representing an instrument to be inserted into a vascular tree, which wire-like element can be received in a holder (3), and wherein a sensor (12, 13) is provided for loca

  6. The Vascular Microenvironment and Systemic Sclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tracy Frech

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The role of the vascular microenvironment in the pathogenesis Systemic Sclerosis (SSc is appreciated clinically as Raynaud's syndrome with capillary nail bed change. This manifestation of vasculopathy is used diagnostically in both limited and diffuse cutaneous subsets of SSc, and is thought to precede fibrosis. The degree of subsequent fibrosis may also be determined by the vascular microenvironment. This paper describes why the vascular microenvironment might determine the degree of end-organ damage that occurs in SSc, with a focus on vascular cell senescence, endothelial progenitor cells (EPC including multipotential mesenchymal stem cells (MSC, pericytes, and angiogenic monocytes. An explanation of the role of EPC, pericytes, and angiogenic monocytes is important to an understanding of SSc pathogenesis. An evolving understanding of the vascular microenvironment in SSc may allow directed treatment.

  7. Vascular Stiffness in Insulin Resistance and Obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guanghong eJia

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Obesity, insulin resistance, and type 2 diabetes are associated with a substantially increased prevalence of vascular fibrosis and stiffness, with attendant increased risk of cardiovascular and chronic kidney disease. Although the underlying mechanisms and mediators of vascular stiffness are not well understood, accumulating evidence supports the role of metabolic and immune dysregulation related to increased adiposity, activation of the renin angiotensin aldosterone system, reduced bioavailable nitric oxide, increased vascular extracellular matrix (ECM and ECM remodeling in the pathogenesis of vascular stiffness. This review will give a brief overview of the relationship between obesity, insulin resistance and increased vascular stiffness to provide a contemporary understanding of the proposed underlying mechanisms and potential therapeutic strategies.

  8. PanVascular medicine. 2. ed.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lanzer, Peter (ed.) [Health Care Center Bitterfeld (Germany). Division of Cardiovascular Disease

    2015-06-01

    Vascular management and care has become a truly multidisciplinary enterprise as the number of specialists involved in the treatment of patients with vascular diseases has steadily increased. While in the past, treatments were delivered by individual specialists, in the twenty-first century a team approach is without doubt the most effective strategy. In order to promote professional excellence in this dynamic and rapidly evolving field, a shared knowledge base and interdisciplinary standards need to be established. Pan Vascular Medicine, 2nd edition has been designed to offer such an interdisciplinary platform, providing vascular specialists with state-of-the art descriptive and procedural knowledge. Basic science, diagnostics, and therapy are all comprehensively covered. In a series of succinct, clearly written chapters, renowned specialists introduce and comment on the current international guidelines and present up-to-date reviews of all aspects of vascular care.

  9. Geometry optimization of branchings in vascular networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khamassi, Jamel; Bierwisch, Claas; Pelz, Peter

    2016-06-01

    Progress has been made in developing manufacturing technologies which enable the fabrication of artificial vascular networks for tissue cultivation. However, those networks are rudimentary designed with respect to their geometry. This restricts long-term biological functionality of vascular cells which depends on geometry-related fluid mechanical stimuli and the avoidance of vessel occlusion. In the present work, a bioinspired geometry optimization for branchings in artificial vascular networks has been conducted. The analysis could be simplified by exploiting self-similarity properties of the system. Design rules in the form of two geometrical parameters, i.e., the branching angle and the radius ratio of the daughter branches, are derived using the wall shear stress as command variable. The numerical values of these parameters are within the range of experimental observations. Those design rules are not only beneficial for tissue engineering applications. Moreover, they can be used as indicators for diagnoses of vascular diseases or for the layout of vascular grafts.

  10. 心脑血管疾病患者血清同型半胱氨酸检测的临床意义%Clinical significance of serum homocysteine test in patients with cerebro- and cardiovascular diseases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘启波; 李蔼文; 谭俊青; 邓超

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the clinical significance of serum homocysteine( HCY)test in clinical diagnosis and treatment of cardiovascular diseases. Methods:A total of 100 patients treated in Guangdong Second Provincial Hospital for cerebro-and cardiovascular diseases( 50 cases of cerebral infarction,50 cases of coronary heart disease)and 50 healthy volunteers( control group)were randomly recruited between March 2013 and March 2014. For these three groups of patients,we detection serum levels of HCY and lipids. Results:Before treatment,patients with coronary heart disease( CHD ) and patients with cerebral infarction had significantly higher serum levels of HCY,TG,TC,HDL-C and LDL-C compared with the controls(P0.05). After treatment,patients with CHD and those with cerebral infarction showed significant improvement in serum HCY,TG,TC,HDL-C and LDL-C levels compared with baseline values(P0. 05 ). Conclusion:Elevation in serum HCY level is an important risk factor for development and progression of cerebro-and cardiovascular diseases,and may also induce dyslipidemia. Timely determination of serum HCY level is the key to start management and improve outcomes of cerebro-and cardiovascular diseases.%目的:探讨血清同型半胱氨酸( HCY)水平检测对于心脑血管疾病临床诊疗的意义。方法:随机选取2013年3月至2015年3月广东省第二中医院收治的100例心脑血管疾病患者(脑梗塞50例、冠心病50例)与50例健康体检者(对照组)作为研究对象,检测3组患者HCY水平和血脂水平。结果:冠心病组和脑梗死组治疗前HCY、TG、TC、HDL-C、LDL-C水平均明显高于对照组(P<0.05),且冠心病组与脑梗死组间比较,差异无统计学意义( P>0.05)。冠心病组和脑梗死组治疗后HCY、TG、TC、HDL-C、LDL-C水平均较各自治疗前明显改善(P<0.05),且冠心病组与脑梗死组间比较,差异无统计学意义(P>0.05)。结论

  11. Correlation between related factors and prognosis of the hypertensive cerebral hemorrhagepatients with cerebro-car-diac syndrome%高血压性脑出血并发脑-心综合征与预后的关系

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐兵; 邓发斌; 陈淳; 周宇; 郭川; 史阳; 孙杰; 张晓东

    2012-01-01

    目的 探讨高血压性脑出血并发脑-心综合征影响因素及与预后的关系.方法 纳入2007年6月~2011年6月来我院就诊的脑出血并发脑-心综合征患者,共纳入脑出血并发脑.心综合征患者87例,以同期就诊的脑出血未并发脑-心综合征患者为对照,对照组141例.比较两组患者之间临床指标的差异;并分析脑出血并发脑-心综合征患者的预后相关因素.结果 与脑出血未并发脑-心综合征患者相比,脑出血并发脑-心综合征病患者年龄较大(P<0.05).GCS评分较低(Pcerebro-cardiac syndrome group, patients were higher complication and higher death rates. Conclusion Cerebro-cardiac syndrome is the risk factors of hypertension cerebral hemorrhage patients progonsis

  12. Bypass materials in vascular surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Willich, Stephan N.

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Arteriosclerotic changes can lead to circulatory disturbances in various areas of the human vascular system. In addition to pharmacological therapy and the management of risk factors (e. g. hypertension, diabetes, lipid metabolism disorders, and lifestyle, surgical interventions also play an important role in the treatment of arteriosclerosis. Long-segment arterial occlusions, in particular, can be treated successfully with bypass sur-gery. A number of different materials are available for this type of operation, such as autologous vein or pros-thetic grafts comprised of polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE or Dacron®. Prosthetic materials are used especially in the treatment of peripheral artery disease, such as in aortoiliac or femoropopliteal bypass surgery. The present report will thus focus on this area in order to examine the effectiveness of different bypass materials. Among the efforts being made to refine the newly introduced DRG system in Germany, analysing the different bypass materials used in vascular surgery is particularly important. Indeed, in its current version the German DRG system does not distinguish between bypass materials in terms of reimbursement rates. Differences in cost structures are thus of especial interest to hospitals in their budget calculations, whereas both private and statutory health insurance funds are primarily interested in long-term results and their costs. Objectives: The goal of this HTA is to compare the different bypass materials used in vascular surgery in terms of their medical efficiency and cost-effectiveness, as well as with regard to their ethical, social and legal implications. In addition, this report aims to point out the areas in which further medical, epidemiological and health economic research is still needed. Methods: Relevant publications were identified by means of a structured search of databases accessed through the German Institute of Medical Documentation and Information

  13. Adverse Outcome Pathway for Embryonic Vascular Disruption and Alternative Methods to Identify Chemical Vascular Disruptors During Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chemically induced vascular toxicity during embryonic development can result in a wide range of adverse prenatal outcomes. We used information from genetic mouse models linked to phenotypic outcomes and a vascular toxicity knowledge base to construct an embryonic vascular disrupt...

  14. Assessment of vascular invasion in pancreatic carcinoma by MDCT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omar Hassanen

    2014-06-01

    Conclusion: Assessment of vascular invasion is crucial in the evaluation of resectability for pancreatic cancer. MDCT is an accurate diagnostic tool for peripancreatic vascular invasion in cancer pancreas.

  15. [A new specialty is born: Vascular medicine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laroche, J-P

    2016-05-01

    On the 4th of December 2015, the French authorities officially recognized the birth of a specialty in vascular medicine entitled CO-DES cardiology-vascular/vascular Medicine. France is the 7th country to obtain this specialty after Switzerland, Germany, Austria, Czech Republic, Slovakia and Slovenia, six countries in the EEC. It has taken years to achieve a long but exciting experience: we went from hopes to disappointments, sometimes with the blues, but lobbying helping… with sustained confidence. This article tells the story of 30 years of struggle to achieve this vascular medicine specialty. Gaston Bachelard wrote: "Nothing is obvious, nothing is given, all is built." For the construction of vascular medicine, we had to overcome many obstacles, nothing was given to us, everything was conquered. Beware "The specialist is one who knows more and more things about an increasingly restricted field, up to 'knowing everything about nothing"' recalled Ralph Barton Ferry, philosopher; so there is room for modesty and humility but also convictions. The physical examination will remain the basis of our exercise. But let us recall the contributions of all those vascular physicians who practiced in the past, together with those currently active, who built day after day, year after year, a vascular medicine of quality. It is because of the trust of our colleagues and our patients that we can occupy the place that is ours today. PMID:27090098

  16. Vascular Biomarkers in Asthma and COPD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakakos, Petros; Patentalakis, George; Papi, Alberto

    2016-01-01

    Bronchial asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) remain a global health problem with significant morbidity and mortality. The changes in bronchial microvasculature that occurin asthma and COPD contribute to airway wall remodeling. Angiogenesis seems to be more prevalent in asthma and vasodilatation seemsmore relevant in COPD while vascular leak is present in both diseases. Recently, there has been increased interest in the vascular component of airway remodeling in chronic bronchial inflammation of asthma and COPD although its role in the progression of the diseases has not been fully elucidated. Various cells andmediators are involved in the vascular remodeling in asthma and COPD while proinflammatory cytokines and growth factors exert angiogenic and antiangiogenic effects. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is a key regulator of blood vessel growth mainly in asthma but also in COPD. In asthmatic airways VEGF promotes proliferation and differentiation of endothelial cells and induces vascular leakage and permeability. It has also been involved in enhanced allergic sensitization, upregulated subsequent T-helper-2 type inflammatory responses, chemotaxis for monocytes and eosinophils, and airway oedema. Impaired VEGF signaling has been associated with emphysema in animal models. Studies on lung biopsies have shown a decreasing effect of anti-asthma drugs to the vascular component of airway remodeling. There is less available evidence on the effect of the currently used drugs on airway microvascular network in COPD. This review article explores the current knowledge regarding vascular biomarkers in asthma and COPD as well as the therapeutic implications of these mediators. PMID:26420364

  17. [A new specialty is born: Vascular medicine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laroche, J-P

    2016-05-01

    On the 4th of December 2015, the French authorities officially recognized the birth of a specialty in vascular medicine entitled CO-DES cardiology-vascular/vascular Medicine. France is the 7th country to obtain this specialty after Switzerland, Germany, Austria, Czech Republic, Slovakia and Slovenia, six countries in the EEC. It has taken years to achieve a long but exciting experience: we went from hopes to disappointments, sometimes with the blues, but lobbying helping… with sustained confidence. This article tells the story of 30 years of struggle to achieve this vascular medicine specialty. Gaston Bachelard wrote: "Nothing is obvious, nothing is given, all is built." For the construction of vascular medicine, we had to overcome many obstacles, nothing was given to us, everything was conquered. Beware "The specialist is one who knows more and more things about an increasingly restricted field, up to 'knowing everything about nothing"' recalled Ralph Barton Ferry, philosopher; so there is room for modesty and humility but also convictions. The physical examination will remain the basis of our exercise. But let us recall the contributions of all those vascular physicians who practiced in the past, together with those currently active, who built day after day, year after year, a vascular medicine of quality. It is because of the trust of our colleagues and our patients that we can occupy the place that is ours today.

  18. Oral vascular malformations: laser treatment and management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romeo, U.; Rocchetti, F.; Gaimari, G.; Tenore, G.; Palaia, G.; Lo Giudice, G.

    2016-03-01

    Vascular malformations are a very heterogeneous group of circulatory system's diseases that can involve different kind of vessels: arterial, venous or lymphatic ones. Many treatments, such as conventional surgery, embolization, steroid therapy and laser therapy, are available for vascular lesions. The laser approach relies more therapeutic techniques: the transmucosal thermophotocoagulation, intralesional photocoagulation, the excisional biopsy. Today laser is demonstrated to be the gold standard technique to treat vascular lesions that allows a safe and efficient treatment and a lower post-operative healing time. The only disadvantage is the risk of carbonization that could be avoided by using the multiple-spot single pulsed wave technique.

  19. Imaging evaluation of fetal vascular anomalies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calvo-Garcia, Maria A.; Kline-Fath, Beth M.; Koch, Bernadette L.; Laor, Tal [MLC 5031 Cincinnati Children' s Hospital Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Cincinnati, OH (United States); Adams, Denise M. [Cincinnati Children' s Hospital Medical Center, Department of Pediatrics and Hemangioma and Vascular Malformation Center, Cincinnati, OH (United States); Gupta, Anita [Cincinnati Children' s Hospital Medical Center, Department of Pathology, Cincinnati, OH (United States); Lim, Foong-Yen [Cincinnati Children' s Hospital Medical Center, Pediatric Surgery and Fetal Center of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, OH (United States)

    2015-08-15

    Vascular anomalies can be detected in utero and should be considered in the setting of solid, mixed or cystic lesions in the fetus. Evaluation of the gray-scale and color Doppler US and MRI characteristics can guide diagnosis. We present a case-based pictorial essay to illustrate the prenatal imaging characteristics in 11 pregnancies with vascular malformations (5 lymphatic malformations, 2 Klippel-Trenaunay syndrome, 1 venous-lymphatic malformation, 1 Parkes-Weber syndrome) and vascular tumors (1 congenital hemangioma, 1 kaposiform hemangioendothelioma). Concordance between prenatal and postnatal diagnoses is analyzed, with further discussion regarding potential pitfalls in identification. (orig.)

  20. Maternal uterine vascular remodeling during pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osol, George; Mandala, Maurizio

    2009-02-01

    Sufficient uteroplacental blood flow is essential for normal pregnancy outcome and is accomplished by the coordinated growth and remodeling of the entire uterine circulation, as well as the creation of a new fetal vascular organ: the placenta. The process of remodeling involves a number of cellular processes, including hyperplasia and hypertrophy, rearrangement of existing elements, and changes in extracellular matrix. In this review, we provide information on uterine blood flow increases during pregnancy, the influence of placentation type on the distribution of uterine vascular resistance, consideration of the patterns, nature, and extent of maternal uterine vascular remodeling during pregnancy, and what is known about the underlying cellular mechanisms.

  1. Vascular inflammatory cells in hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David G. Harrison

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Hypertension is a common disorder with uncertain etiology. In the last several years, it has become evident that components of both the innate and adaptive immune system play an essential role in hypertension. Macrophages and T cells accumulate in the perivascular fat, the heart and the kidney of hypertensive patients and in animals with experimental hypertension. Various immunosuppressive agents lower blood pressure and prevent end-organ damage. Mice lacking lymphocytes are protected against hypertension, and adoptive transfer of T cells, but not B cells in the animals restores their blood pressure response to stimuli such as angiotensin II or high salt. Recent studies have shown that mice lacking macrophages have blunted hypertension in response to angiotensin II and that genetic deletion of macrophages markedly reduces experimental hypertension. Dendritic cells have also been implicated in this disease. Many hypertensive stimuli have triggering effects on the central nervous system and signals arising from the circumventricular organ seem to promote inflammation. Studies have suggested that central signals activate macrophages and T cells, which home to the kidney and vasculature and release cytokines, including IL-6 and IL-17, which in turn cause renal and vascular dysfunction and lead to blood pressure elevation. These recent discoveries provide a new understanding of hypertension and provide novel therapeutic opportunities for treatment of this serious disease.

  2. Effect of vascular burden as measured by vascular indexes upon vascular dementia: a matched case-control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takahashi PY

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Paul Y Takahashi, Casey R Caldwell, Paul V TargonskiPrimary Care Internal Medicine, Mayo Clinic, Rochester MN, USABackground: Vascular dementia (VaD is a challenging illness that affects the lives of older adults and caregivers. It is unclear how multiple vascular risk factor exposures (polyvascular disease affect VaD.Purpose: To determine the relationship between multiple vascular risk exposures, as counted on an index in cases with VaD, compared with healthy age-/gender-matched controls.Methods: This was a matched case-control study of subjects living in Olmsted County, MN with documented VaD. Controls were selected by gender and age within 3 years from those who did not have dementia. The exposures included a total index (eleven exposure factors added together, along with indexes for cerebrovascular disease (two exposures, cardiovascular disease (four exposures, vascular disease (three exposures, and lifestyle (two exposures. Analysis used matched conditional univariable logistic regression for each index.Results: A total of 1736 potential subjects were identified, and 205 subjects were diagnosed with VaD. There was a significant association of the total score index with an odds ratio of 1.45 (95% confidence interval 1.21–1.74. The cerebrovascular index was also associated with VaD with an odds ratio of 12.18 (95% confidence interval 6.29–23.61. The cardiovascular and vascular indexes were also associated with VaD status. The lifestyle index was not associated with VaD.Conclusion: The cumulative role of multiple vascular risk factors or diseases increased the risk of VaD, as noted by the total vascular index. The lifestyle index did not reveal any significant differences. Further work is required for evaluation of these indexes.Keywords: polyvascular disease, elderly, vascular dementia

  3. Visualization of vascular disease with MR imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Results of preliminary studies with MR imaging-angiography in patients with vascular diseases (stenoses, occlusions) are presented. The method is based on a bipolar gradient motion refocusing technique in combination with spin-echo sequences or gradient-echo sequences and a two-dimensional or three-dimensional acquisition technique, respectively. Isotropic three-dimensional resolution of about 1.2 mm facilitates identification of vascular structure. However, the discrimination of vascular abnormalities is still better on two-dimensional images with highest in-plane resolution. Vessels and vascular diseases are clearly delineated on subtraction images of flow-enhanced and flow-suppressed sequences with a spatial resolution of 0.5 mm. The potential of MR imaging-angiography is demonstrated in 20 patients who underwent correlative x-ray studies (conventional angiography, digital subtraction angiography)

  4. World Federation of Vascular Societies: presidential address

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sillesen, Henrik Hegaard

    2010-01-01

    The presidential address describes briefly the history of the World Federation for Vascular Societies (WFVS) and its objectives. Vascular Surgery today includes interventional procedures (open surgical and endovascular) in addition to risk factor reduction and medical treatment. It is equally...... is best for other reasons, i.e. financial. Due to the increasing complex procedures - endovascular evolution and what is then "left" for open surgery - specialisation into "mainly open vascular surgeon" and "mainly endovascular surgeon" preceded by a common basic training into both, seems unavoidable...... important to train in clinical investigative methods, non-surgical treatment, decision making as is training in technical aspects of interventions. Similarly, it is vital, that the vascular specialist always recommends the treatment which is best to the individual patient, not only what he can do or what...

  5. Vascular training and endovascular practice in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liapis, C.D.; Avgerinos, E.D.; Sillesen, H.;

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the influence of the status of vascular surgery (VS) training paradigms on the actual practice of endovascular therapy among the European countries. METHODS: An email-based survey concerning vascular surgery training models and endovascular practices of different clinical...... specialties was distributed to a VS educator within 14 European countries. European Vascular and Endovascular Monitor (EVEM) data also were processed to correlate endovascular practice with training models. RESULTS: Fourteen questionnaires were gathered. Vascular training in Europe appears in 3 models: 1....... Mono-specialty (independence): 7 countries, 2. Subspecialty: 5 countries, 3. An existing specialty within general surgery: 2 countries. Independent compared to non-independent certification shortens overall training length (5.9 vs 7.9 years, p=0.006), while increasing overall training devoted...

  6. Extracellular Matrix Molecules Facilitating Vascular Biointegration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin K.C. Ng

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available All vascular implants, including stents, heart valves and graft materials exhibit suboptimal biocompatibility that significantly reduces their clinical efficacy. A range of biomolecules in the subendothelial space have been shown to play critical roles in local regulation of thrombosis, endothelial growth and smooth muscle cell proliferation, making these attractive candidates for modulation of vascular device biointegration. However, classically used biomaterial coatings, such as fibronectin and laminin, modulate only one of these components; enhancing endothelial cell attachment, but also activating platelets and triggering thrombosis. This review examines a subset of extracellular matrix molecules that have demonstrated multi-faceted vascular compatibility and accordingly are promising candidates to improve the biointegration of vascular biomaterials.

  7. Lower limb vascular dysfunction in cyclists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiago Ayala Melo Di Alencar

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Sports-related vascular insufficiency affecting the lower limbs is uncommon, and early signs and symptoms can be confused with musculoskeletal injuries. This is also the case among professional cyclists, who are always at the threshold between endurance and excess training. The aim of this review was to analyze the occurrence of vascular disorders in the lower limbs of cyclists and to discuss possible etiologies. Eighty-five texts, including papers and books, published from 1950 to 2012, were used. According to the literature reviewed, some cyclists receive a late diagnosis of vascular dysfunction due to a lack of familiarity of the medical team with this type of dysfunction. Data revealed that a reduced blood flow in the external iliac artery, especially on the left, is much more common than in the femoral and popliteal arteries, and that vascular impairment is responsible for the occurrence of early fatigue and reduced performance in cycling.

  8. Molecular signal transduction in vascular cell apoptosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Apoptosis is a form of genetically programmed cell death, which plays a key role in regulation of cellularity in a variety of tissue and cell types including the cardiovascular tissues. Under both physiological and pathophysiological conditions, various biophysiological and biochemical factors, including mechanical forces, reactive oxygen and nitrogen species, cytokines, growth factors, oxidized lipoproteins, etc., may influence apoptosis of vascular cells. The Fas/Fas ligand/caspase death-signaling pathway, Bcl-2 protein family/mitochondria, the tumor suppressive gene p53, and the proto-oncogene c-myc may be activated in atherosclerotic lesions, and mediates vascular apoptosis during the development of atherosclerosis. Abnormal expression and dysfunction of these apoptosis-regulating genes may attenuate or accelerate vascular cell apoptosis and affect the integrity and stability of atherosclerotic plaques. Clarification of the molecular mechanism that regulates apoptosis may help design a new strategy for treatment of atherosclerosis and its major complication, the acute vascular syndromes.

  9. Atherectomy: Treatment for Peripheral Vascular Disease

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available Atherectomy: Treatment for Peripheral Vascular Disease You must have Javascript enabled in your web browser. View Program Transcript Click Here to view the OR-Live, Inc. Privacy ...

  10. Hydrogels for Engineering of Perfusable Vascular Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Juan; Zheng, Huaiyuan; Poh, Patrina S P; Machens, Hans-Günther; Schilling, Arndt F

    2015-07-14

    Hydrogels are commonly used biomaterials for tissue engineering. With their high-water content, good biocompatibility and biodegradability they resemble the natural extracellular environment and have been widely used as scaffolds for 3D cell culture and studies of cell biology. The possible size of such hydrogel constructs with embedded cells is limited by the cellular demand for oxygen and nutrients. For the fabrication of large and complex tissue constructs, vascular structures become necessary within the hydrogels to supply the encapsulated cells. In this review, we discuss the types of hydrogels that are currently used for the fabrication of constructs with embedded vascular networks, the key properties of hydrogels needed for this purpose and current techniques to engineer perfusable vascular structures into these hydrogels. We then discuss directions for future research aimed at engineering of vascularized tissue for implantation.

  11. Amplatzer vascular plug as an embolic agent in different vascular pathologies: A pictorial essay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tresley, Jonathan; Bhatia, Shivank; Kably, Issam; Poozhikunnath Mohan, Prasoon; Salsamendi, Jason; Narayanan, Govindarajan

    2016-01-01

    The Amplatzer Vascular Plug (AVP) is a cylindrical plug made of self-expanding nitinol wire mesh with precise delivery control, which can be used for a variety of vascular pathologies. An AVP is an ideal vascular occlusion device particularly in high-flow vessels, where there is high risk of migration and systemic embolization with traditional occlusion devices. We performed 28 embolizations using the AVP from 2009 to 2014 and achieved complete occlusion without complications.

  12. Drinking Citrus Fruit Juice Inhibits Vascular Remodeling in Cuff-Induced Vascular Injury Mouse Model

    OpenAIRE

    Ohnishi, Arika; Asayama, Rie; Mogi, Masaki; Nakaoka, Hirotomo; Kan-no, Harumi; Tsukuda, Kana; Chisaka, Toshiyuki; Wang, Xiao-li; Bai, Hui-Yu; Shan, Bao-Shuai; Kukida, Masayoshi; Iwanami, Jun; Horiuchi, Masatsugu

    2015-01-01

    Citrus fruits are thought to have inhibitory effects on oxidative stress, thereby attenuating the onset and progression of cancer and cardiovascular disease; however, there are few reports assessing their effect on vascular remodeling. Here, we investigated the effect of drinking the juice of two different citrus fruits on vascular neointima formation using a cuff-induced vascular injury mouse model. Male C57BL6 mice were divided into five groups as follows: 1) Control (water) (C), 2) 10% Cit...

  13. New polymeric materials for vascular surgery

    OpenAIRE

    Cortecchia, Elisa

    2011-01-01

    The dramatic impact that vascular diseases have on human life quality and expectancy nowadays is the reason why both medical and scientific communities put great effort in discovering new and effective ways to fight vascular pathologies. Among the many different treatments, endovascular surgery is a minimally-invasive technique that makes use of X-ray fluoroscopy to obtain real-time images of the patient during interventions. In this context radiopaque biomaterials, i.e. materials able to abs...

  14. Evidence for a vascular factor in migraine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asghar, Mohammad S; Hansen, Adam E; Amin, Faisal Mohammad;

    2011-01-01

    It has been suggested that migraine is caused by neural dysfunction without involvement of vasodilatation. Because dismissal of vascular mechanisms seemed premature, we examined diameter of extra- and intracranial vessels in migraine without aura patients.......It has been suggested that migraine is caused by neural dysfunction without involvement of vasodilatation. Because dismissal of vascular mechanisms seemed premature, we examined diameter of extra- and intracranial vessels in migraine without aura patients....

  15. Review: Interventional radiology in peripheral vascular disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peripheral vascular diseases (PVD) are referred to as diseases affecting the blood vessels other than the heart and the brain. Interventional endovascular treatment whenever feasible has become the first line of management in the treatment of PVD. Interventions may be aimed at either revascularization or deliberate occlusion of a diseased vessel(s). This article reviews the various peripheral vascular diseases with their appropriate endovascular management

  16. Cardiac tumours simulating collagen vascular disease.

    OpenAIRE

    Fitzpatrick, A. P.; Lanham, J. G.; Doyle, D V

    1986-01-01

    Cardiac tumours can mimic collagen vascular disease and they are often accompanied by profound systemic upset. Both benign and malignant tumours may present in this way. Three cases of cardiac tumour, two malignant and one benign, are reported with just such a presentation. A review of fifteen similar case reports showed that a spectrum of different collagen vascular diseases was diagnosed and treated before the true diagnosis emerged. In half of these cases the cardiac tumour was only diagno...

  17. Vascular cognitive impairment, a cardiovascular complication

    OpenAIRE

    Frances, Adiukwu; Sandra, Ofori; Lucy, Ugbomah

    2016-01-01

    Over the past two decades, the term vascular cognitive impairment (VCI) has been used to refer to a spectrum of cognitive decline characterized by executive dysfunction, associated with vascular pathology. With 30% of stroke survivors showing cognitive impairments, it is regarded as the most common cause of cognitive impairment. This is a narrative review of available literature citing sources from PubMed, MEDLINE and Google Scholar. VCI has a high prevalence both before and after a stroke an...

  18. Viral vectors for vascular gene therapy

    OpenAIRE

    Fischer, Lukas; Preis, Meir; Weisz, Anat; Koren, Belly; Lewis, Basil S; Flugelman, Moshe Y

    2002-01-01

    Vascular gene therapy is the focus of multiple experimental and clinical research efforts. While several genes with therapeutic potential have been identified, the best method of gene delivery is unknown. Viral vectors have the capacity to transfer genes at high efficiency rates. Several viral-based vectors have been used in experimental vascular gene therapy for in vivo and ex vivo gene transfer. Adenoviral-based vectors are being used for the induction of angiogenesis in phase 1 and 2 clini...

  19. The Vascular Plants of Losap Atoll

    OpenAIRE

    MANNER, Harley I.; SANA, Dickson

    1995-01-01

    Prior to 1988, studies and observations on Losap Atoll (Chuuk, Federated States of Micronesia) indicated a vascular flora of 43 species. A recent collection and observations of the flora of Losap Atoll indicated the presence of 101 species of vascular plants, of which 70 are indigenous and 31 are introduced species. Of these, 34 indigenous and 22 introduced species can be considered new records. An implication of these increases in numbers of species is that the floras of most atolls in the P...

  20. How to Measure Peripheral Pulmonary Vascular Mechanics

    OpenAIRE

    Chesler, Naomi C; Argiento, Paola; Vanderpool, Rebecca; D’Alto, Michele; Naeije, Robert

    2009-01-01

    Pulmonary hypertension (PH) is initially a disease of the small, peripheral resistance arteries. Changes in these vessels are best assessed by measurement of pulmonary artery pressure at several levels of flow to generate multi-point pressure-flow curves. This approach is superior to the traditional single-point measurement of pulmonary vascular resistance (PVR) because it allows a flow-independent definition of the resistive properties of that portion of the pulmonary vascular bed and also p...

  1. HIF and pulmonary vascular responses to hypoxia

    OpenAIRE

    Shimoda, Larissa A.; Steven S Laurie

    2013-01-01

    In the lung, acute reductions in oxygen lead to hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction, whereas prolonged exposures to hypoxia result in sustained vasoconstriction, pulmonary vascular remodeling, and the development of pulmonary hypertension. Data from both human subjects and animal models implicate a role for hypoxia-inducible factors (HIFs), oxygen-sensitive transcription factors, in pulmonary vascular responses to both acute and chronic hypoxia. In this review, we discuss work from our laborat...

  2. Lymphangiosarcoma complicating extensive congenital mixed vascular malformations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Dhaybi, Rola; Agoumi, Mehdi; Powell, Julie; Dubois, Josée; Kokta, Victor

    2010-09-01

    Pediatric hepatic angiosarcoma is a very rare malignant vascular tumor. A few cases have shown pediatric hepatic angiosarcoma occurring on a background of preexisting vascular lesions. We report the case of a newborn girl who presented extensive limbs and upper trunk cutaneous mixed vascular malformations at birth. These malformations were associated with thrombocytopenia. Cutaneous biopsies revealed complex vascular malformations with a significant lymphatic component. Compressive body suit therapy led to regression of the limbs' cutaneous vascular malformations. At the age of 9 months, the patient presented multiple heterogeneous hepatosplenic nodules. Aggressive treatment with prednisone, vincristine, and hepatosplenic embolizations resulted in initial improvement of the hepatosplenic lesions for few months, followed by an increase of the lesions with failure of response to treatment despite adding alpha-interferon-2b to treatment. The patient died at the age of 19 months. The autopsy's pathological examination revealed a hepatic-based angiosarcoma with plurimetastatic dissemination to the spleen, lungs, peritoneum, pleura, mesenteric linings as well as the serosa of the stomach and small intestine. Multiple cutaneous and visceral complex capillaro-lymphatico-venous malformations were also identified. We hypothesize that these multiple extensive mixed vascular malformations were associated with chronic lymphedema which probably predisposed to the development of the angiosarcoma in our patient. PMID:20863270

  3. Vascular Adventitia Calcification and Its Underlying Mechanism.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Na Li

    Full Text Available Previous research on vascular calcification has mainly focused on the vascular intima and media. However, we show here that vascular calcification may also occur in the adventitia. The purpose of this work is to help elucidate the pathogenic mechanisms underlying vascular calcification. The calcified lesions were examined by Von Kossa staining in ApoE-/- mice which were fed high fat diets (HFD for 48 weeks and human subjects aged 60 years and older that had died of coronary heart disease, heart failure or acute renal failure. Explant cultured fibroblasts and smooth muscle cells (SMCswere obtained from rat adventitia and media, respectively. After calcification induction, cells were collected for Alizarin Red S staining. Calcified lesions were observed in the aorta adventitia and coronary artery adventitia of ApoE-/-mice, as well as in the aorta adventitia of human subjects examined. Explant culture of fibroblasts, the primary cell type comprising the adventitia, was successfully induced for calcification after incubation with TGF-β1 (20 ng/ml + mineralization media for 4 days, and the phenotype conversion vascular adventitia fibroblasts into myofibroblasts was identified. Culture of SMCs, which comprise only a small percentage of all cells in the adventitia, in calcifying medium for 14 days resulted in significant calcification.Vascular calcification can occur in the adventitia. Adventitia calcification may arise from the fibroblasts which were transformed into myofibroblasts or smooth muscle cells.

  4. Airway vascular damage in elite swimmers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreira, André; Palmares, Carmo; Lopes, Cristina; Delgado, Luís

    2011-11-01

    We postulated that high level swimming can promote airway inflammation and thus asthma by enhancing local vascular permeability. We aimed to test this hypothesis by a cross-sectional study comparing swimmers (n = 13, 17 ± 3 years, competing 7 ± 4 years, training 18 ± 3 h per week), asthmatic-swimmers (n = 6, 17 ± 2 years, competing 8 ± 3 years, training 16 ± 4 h per week), and asthmatics (n = 19, 14 ± 3 years). Subjects performed induced sputum and had exhaled nitric oxide, lung volumes, and airway responsiveness determined. Airway vascular permeability index was defined as the ratio of albumin in sputum and serum. Results from the multiple linear regression showed each unit change in airway vascular permeability index was associated with an increase of 0.97% (95%CI: 0.02 to 1.92; p = 0.047) in sputum eosinophilis, and of 2.64% (95%CI:0.96 to 4.31; p = 0.006) in sputum neutrophils after adjustment for confounders. In a general linear model no significant differences between airway vascular permeability between index study groups existed, after controlling for sputum eosinophilis and neutrophils. In conclusion, competitive swimmers training in chlorine-rich pools have similar levels of airway vascular permeability than asthmatics. Although competitive swimming has been associated with asthma, airway inflammation and airway hyperesponsiveness do not seem to be dependent on increased airway vascular permeability. PMID:21669516

  5. Stroke injury, cognitive impairment and vascular dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalaria, Raj N; Akinyemi, Rufus; Ihara, Masafumi

    2016-05-01

    The global burden of ischaemic strokes is almost 4-fold greater than haemorrhagic strokes. Current evidence suggests that 25-30% of ischaemic stroke survivors develop immediate or delayed vascular cognitive impairment (VCI) or vascular dementia (VaD). Dementia after stroke injury may encompass all types of cognitive disorders. States of cognitive dysfunction before the index stroke are described under the umbrella of pre-stroke dementia, which may entail vascular changes as well as insidious neurodegenerative processes. Risk factors for cognitive impairment and dementia after stroke are multifactorial including older age, family history, genetic variants, low educational status, vascular comorbidities, prior transient ischaemic attack or recurrent stroke and depressive illness. Neuroimaging determinants of dementia after stroke comprise silent brain infarcts, white matter changes, lacunar infarcts and medial temporal lobe atrophy. Until recently, the neuropathology of dementia after stroke was poorly defined. Most of post-stroke dementia is consistent with VaD involving multiple substrates. Microinfarction, microvascular changes related to blood-brain barrier damage, focal neuronal atrophy and low burden of co-existing neurodegenerative pathology appear key substrates of dementia after stroke injury. The elucidation of mechanisms of dementia after stroke injury will enable establishment of effective strategy for symptomatic relief and prevention. Controlling vascular disease risk factors is essential to reduce the burden of cognitive dysfunction after stroke. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Vascular Contributions to Cognitive Impairment and Dementia edited by M. Paul Murphy, Roderick A. Corriveau and Donna M. Wilcock. PMID:26806700

  6. Stroke injury, cognitive impairment and vascular dementia☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalaria, Raj N.; Akinyemi, Rufus; Ihara, Masafumi

    2016-01-01

    The global burden of ischaemic strokes is almost 4-fold greater than haemorrhagic strokes. Current evidence suggests that 25–30% of ischaemic stroke survivors develop immediate or delayed vascular cognitive impairment (VCI) or vascular dementia (VaD). Dementia after stroke injury may encompass all types of cognitive disorders. States of cognitive dysfunction before the index stroke are described under the umbrella of pre-stroke dementia, which may entail vascular changes as well as insidious neurodegenerative processes. Risk factors for cognitive impairment and dementia after stroke are multifactorial including older age, family history, genetic variants, low educational status, vascular comorbidities, prior transient ischaemic attack or recurrent stroke and depressive illness. Neuroimaging determinants of dementia after stroke comprise silent brain infarcts, white matter changes, lacunar infarcts and medial temporal lobe atrophy. Until recently, the neuropathology of dementia after stroke was poorly defined. Most of post-stroke dementia is consistent with VaD involving multiple substrates. Microinfarction, microvascular changes related to blood–brain barrier damage, focal neuronal atrophy and low burden of co-existing neurodegenerative pathology appear key substrates of dementia after stroke injury. The elucidation of mechanisms of dementia after stroke injury will enable establishment of effective strategy for symptomatic relief and prevention. Controlling vascular disease risk factors is essential to reduce the burden of cognitive dysfunction after stroke. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Vascular Contributions to Cognitive Impairment and Dementia edited by M. Paul Murphy, Roderick A. Corriveau and Donna M. Wilcock. PMID:26806700

  7. Vascular associated gene variants in patients with preeclampsia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lykke, Jacob A; Bare, Lance A; Olsen, Jørn;

    2012-01-01

    Preeclampsia has been linked to subsequent vascular disease with many shared predisposing factors. We investigated the association between severe preeclampsia, and its subtypes, and specific vascular-related polymorphisms.......Preeclampsia has been linked to subsequent vascular disease with many shared predisposing factors. We investigated the association between severe preeclampsia, and its subtypes, and specific vascular-related polymorphisms....

  8. Hypertensive organ damage in patients with vascular disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vlek, A.L.M.

    2009-01-01

    Hypertension is one of the most common vascular risk factors, and is an important cause of development of different vascular diseases. The main aim of this thesis was to determine the burden of hypertension-associated vascular diseases and end-organ damage in patients with manifest vascular disease.

  9. Treatment of subclavian vascular injuries in 15 cases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Zi-ming; WANG Ai-min; SUN Hong-zhen; DU Quan-yin; GUO Qing-shan; YIN Liang-jun; WU Si-yu; TANG Ying

    2006-01-01

    @@ Subclavian vascular injury accounts for 1%-5 % of all vascular injuries. If not found in time or managed swiftly, subclavian vascular injury is likely to cause hemorrhagic shock and even death. From March of 1998 through August of 2003, a total of 15 cases with subclavian vascular injury were treated in our department. The details are described in this report.

  10. Using the MEM-net program to report on mapping the EchoColorDoppler assessment for chronic cerebro spinal venous insufficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mandolesi S

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Sandro Mandolesi,1 Aldo d’Alessandro,2 Ettore Manconi,3 Tarcisio Niglio,4 Augusto Orsini,5 Dimitri Mandolesi,6 Alessandro d'Alessandro,7 Francesco Fedele1 1Department of Cardiovascular and Respiratory Sciences, Sapienza University Rome, Rome, Italy; 2Department of Angiology, “T Masselli-Mascia” Hospital, San Severo (FG, Foggia, Italy; 3Department of Cardiovascular and Neurological Sciences, University of Cagliari, Cagliari, Italy; 4Istituto Superiore di Sanità, Rome, Italy; 5Department of Vascular Surgery, “Gioia” Hospital, Sora (FR, Sora, Italy; 6Medicina del lavoro Sapienza University Roma, Rome, Italy; 7Faculty of Medicine, Catholic University “Our Lady of Good Counsel,” Tirana, Albania Introduction: Chronic cerebrospinal venous insufficiency (CCSVI is characterized by multiple stenosis/obstructions affecting the principal extracranial outflow pathways of the cerebrospinal venous system. Using EchoColorDoppler (ECD to assess chronic CCSVI is a very difficult and long examination. It takes about an hour even for an expert sonographer. Methods: Hemodynamic morphological map (MEM-Net is a program that works on the Internet. All the morphological and hemodynamic data of the patient can be entered into the program’s anatomical scheme to create a map of the ECD report. The program also allows us to collect all the data during the ECD assessment and, using its algorithm, make the report uniform. Conclusion: Reporting on the map by using MEM-net shortens the time of ECD written reporting that is done automatically. The program also makes a blind control of the report and enables the use of it for scientific research. We hope that in the future everyone will use this data collection tool for all scientific work on this topic. Keywords: CCSVI, ECD, Map, cerebral venous system, sonography

  11. Congenital vascular malformations in scintigraphic evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Congenital vascular malformations are tumour-like, non-neoplastic lesions caused by disorders of vascular tissue morphogenesis. They are characterised by a normal cell replacement cycle throughout all growth phases and do not undergo spontaneous involution. Here we present a scintigraphic image of familial congenital vascular malformations in two sisters. A 17-years-old young woman with a history of multiple hospitalisations for foci of vascular anomalies appearing progressively in the upper and lower right limbs, chest wall and spleen. A Parkes Weber syndrome was diagnosed based on the clinical picture. Due to the occurrence of new foci of malformations, a whole-body scintigraphic examination was performed. A 12-years-old girl reported a lump in the right lower limb present for approximately 2 years, which was clinically identified as a vascular lesion in the area of calcaneus and talus. Phleboscintigraphy visualized normal radiomarker outflow from the feet via the deep venous system, also observed in the superficial venous system once the tourniquets were released. In static and whole-body examinations vascular malformations were visualised in the area of the medial cuneiform, navicular and talus bones of the left foot, as well as in the projection of right calcaneus and above the right talocrural joint. People with undiagnosed disorders related to the presence of vascular malformations should undergo periodic follow-up to identify lesions that may be the cause of potentially serious complications and to assess the results of treatment. Presented scintigraphic methods may be used for both diagnosing and monitoring of disease progression

  12. 贝前列素联合维生素E治疗2型糖尿病合并下肢血管病变对防止心脑血管疾病发生的研究%Research on the prevention of cardio-cerebral vascular diseases to beraprost combined with Vitamin E in the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus with lower limb vascular diseases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄文权; 陈俏洁; 陈聪

    2014-01-01

    目的:探讨贝前列素联合维生素E对心脑血管疾病的预防效果,为贝前列素和维生素E的使用提供理论依据。方法把2型糖尿病合并下肢血管病变患者随机分为实验组(95例)和对照组(86例),实验组的治疗方案采用贝前列素联合维生素E,而对照组采用阿司匹林肠溶片联合维生素E。时间从患者接受治疗算起,1年和2年后回访,统计两组患者发生心血管疾病、致死性心血管疾病、卒中、致死性卒中的情况,采用x2检验分析相关数据。结果1年和2年后发生心脑血管疾病和心血管疾病在实验组与对照组间的差异均有统计学意义(P<0.05)。结论在治疗2型糖尿病合并下肢血管病时,采用贝前列素联合维生素E较阿司匹林肠溶片联合维生素E更能预防心脑血管疾病的发生。%ObjectiveTo investigate the combinatory preventing effect of beraprost and Vitamin E against cardio-cerebral vascular diseases, thus providing a theory base for the usage of these two drugs.Methods Type 2 diabetes mellitus patients with lower limb vascular lesion were randomly divided into experimental group (EG, 95 cases) and control group (CG, 86 cases). EG was treated by the combination of beraprost and Vitamin E, and CG by the combination of aspirin enteric-coated tablets and Vitamin E. The 1 year and 2 year incidence of cardiovascular disease, fatal cardiovascular disease, stroke, fatal stroke in two groups were recorded since the initiation of treatment. Data was analyzed with chi-square test. ResultsThere were statistical difference in incidence of cardio-cerebro-vascular diseases and cardiovascular diseases between the experimental and control groups after 1 year and 2 year (P<0.05).Conclusion In the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus patients with lower limb vascular lesion, the preventing effect of combination of beraprost and Vitamin against ecardio-cerebro-vascular diseases is better than

  13. Preparation and features of polycaprolactone vascular grafts with the incorporated vascular endothelial growth factor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sevostyanova, V. V., E-mail: sevostyanova.victoria@gmail.com; Khodyrevskaya, Y. I.; Glushkova, T. V.; Antonova, L. V.; Kudryavtseva, Y. A.; Barbarash, O. L.; Barbarash, L. S. [Research Institute for Complex Issues of Cardiovascular Diseases, Kemerovo (Russian Federation)

    2015-10-27

    The development of tissue-engineered small-diameter vascular grafts is an urgent issue in cardiovascular surgery. In this study, we assessed how the incorporation of the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) affects morphological and mechanical properties of polycaprolactone (PCL) vascular grafts along with its release kinetics. Vascular grafts were prepared using two-phase electrospinning. In pursuing our aims, we performed scanning electron microscopy, mechanical testing, and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Our results demonstrated the preservation of a highly porous structure and improvement of PCL/VEGF scaffold mechanical properties as compared to PCL grafts. A prolonged VEGF release testifies the use of this construct as a scaffold for tissue-engineered vascular grafts.

  14. Preparation and features of polycaprolactone vascular grafts with the incorporated vascular endothelial growth factor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sevostyanova, V. V.; Khodyrevskaya, Y. I.; Glushkova, T. V.; Antonova, L. V.; Kudryavtseva, Y. A.; Barbarash, O. L.; Barbarash, L. S.

    2015-10-01

    The development of tissue-engineered small-diameter vascular grafts is an urgent issue in cardiovascular surgery. In this study, we assessed how the incorporation of the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) affects morphological and mechanical properties of polycaprolactone (PCL) vascular grafts along with its release kinetics. Vascular grafts were prepared using two-phase electrospinning. In pursuing our aims, we performed scanning electron microscopy, mechanical testing, and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Our results demonstrated the preservation of a highly porous structure and improvement of PCL/VEGF scaffold mechanical properties as compared to PCL grafts. A prolonged VEGF release testifies the use of this construct as a scaffold for tissue-engineered vascular grafts.

  15. Design and development of multilayer vascular graft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madhavan, Krishna

    2011-07-01

    Vascular graft is a widely-used medical device for the treatment of vascular diseases such as atherosclerosis and aneurysm as well as for the use of vascular access and pediatric shunt, which are major causes of mortality and morbidity in this world. Dysfunction of vascular grafts often occurs, particularly for grafts with diameter less than 6mm, and is associated with the design of graft materials. Mechanical strength, compliance, permeability, endothelialization and availability are issues of most concern for vascular graft materials. To address these issues, we have designed a biodegradable, compliant graft made of hybrid multilayer by combining an intimal equivalent, electrospun heparin-impregnated poly-epsilon-caprolactone nanofibers, with a medial equivalent, a crosslinked collagen-chitosan-based gel scaffold. The intimal equivalent is designed to build mechanical strength and stability suitable for in vivo grafting and to prevent thrombosis. The medial equivalent is designed to serve as a scaffold for the activity of the smooth muscle cells important for vascular healing and regeneration. Our results have shown that genipin is a biocompatible crosslinker to enhance the mechanical properties of collagen-chitosan based scaffolds, and the degradation time and the activity of smooth muscle cells in the scaffold can be modulated by the crosslinking degree. For vascular grafting and regeneration in vivo, an important design parameter of the hybrid multilayer is the interface adhesion between the intimal and medial equivalents. With diametrically opposite affinities to water, delamination of the two layers occurs. Physical or chemical modification techniques were thus used to enhance the adhesion. Microscopic examination and graft-relevant functional characterizations have been performed to evaluate these techniques. Results from characterization of microstructure and functional properties, including burst strength, compliance, water permeability and suture

  16. Blood Flow Restricted Exercise and Vascular Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masahiro Horiuchi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available It is established that regular aerobic training improves vascular function, for example, endothelium-dependent vasodilatation and arterial stiffness or compliance and thereby constitutes a preventative measure against cardiovascular disease. In contrast, high-intensity resistance training impairs vascular function, while the influence of moderate-intensity resistance training on vascular function is still controversial. However, aerobic training is insufficient to inhibit loss in muscular strength with advancing age; thus, resistance training is recommended to prevent sarcopenia. Recently, several lines of study have provided compelling data showing that exercise and training with blood flow restriction (BFR leads to muscle hypertrophy and strength increase. As such, BFR training might be a novel means of overcoming the contradiction between aerobic and high-intensity resistance training. Although it is not enough evidence to obtain consensus about impact of BFR training on vascular function, available evidences suggested that BFR training did not change coagulation factors and arterial compliance though with inconsistence results in endothelial function. This paper is a review of the literature on the impact of BFR exercise and training on vascular function, such as endothelial function, arterial compliance, or other potential factors in comparison with those of aerobic and resistance training.

  17. Vascularized tail bone grafts in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sempuku, T; Tamai, S; Mizumoto, S; Yajima, H

    1993-03-01

    A new experimental model for vascularized corticocancellous bone grafts was established by investigation of vascular anatomy of the tail in 15 adult Fischer 344 rats and determination of the viability of vascularized tail bone grafts into the abdominal wall in 22 7-week-old rats. The tail bones of 40 rats were then raised on the pedicle of the caudal artery and its venae comitantes, transferred to a resected portion in the femur, and observed for 16 weeks. The vascularized graft showed marked reactive periosteal bone formation during the first and second weeks following transfer, and thereafter, the graft continued to show active bone formation. In transverse section, the sharp processes became rounded. In the cancellous bone, both bone resorption and bone formation were noticeably activated early after transfer, although resorption predominated and the amount of the cancellous bone consequently diminished. The nonvascularized grafts showed "creeping substitution." The results suggest that morphologic adaptation occurs if living (i.e., vascularized) tail bones are transferred to long-bone femurs.

  18. Cytoskeleton, cytoskeletal interactions, and vascular endothelial function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang J

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Jingli Wang,1 Michael E Widlansky1,21Department of Medicine, Cardiovascular Medicine Division, 2Department of Pharmacology, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, Wisconsin, USAAbstract: Far from being inert, the vascular endothelium is a critical regulator of vascular function. While the endothelium participates in autocrine, paracrine, and endocrine signaling, it also transduces mechanical signals from the cell surface involving key cell structural elements. In this review, we discuss the structure of the vascular endothelium and its relationship to traditional cardiovascular risk factors and clinical cardiovascular events. Further, we review the emerging evidence that cell structural elements, including the glycocalyx, intercellular junctions, and cytoskeleton elements, help the endothelium to communicate with its environment to regulate vascular function, including vessel permeability and signal transduction via nitric oxide bioavailability. Further work is necessary to better delineate the regulatory relationships between known key regulators of vascular function and endothelial cell structural elements.Keywords: endothelium, shear stress, eNOS, cardiovascular risk factors, glycocalyx

  19. Diagnosing vascular causes of renal failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abuelo, J G

    1995-10-15

    The incidence of renal failure due to vascular diseases is increasing. Two reasons for this are the epidemic of atherosclerotic vascular disease in the aging population and the widespread use of vasoactive drugs that can adversely affect renal function. These vascular causes of renal failure include vasomotor disorders such as that associated with nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs, small-vessel diseases such as cholesterol crystal embolization, and large-vessel diseases such as renal artery stenosis. These causes of azotemia are less familiar to physicians than more classic causes, such as acute tubular necrosis, and are less likely to be recognized in their early stages. This article describes the various vascular diseases that impair renal function and outlines the steps necessary to identify them. Although some of these conditions, such as renal artery stenosis, can gradually impair function, the vascular causes of acute renal failure are emphasized in this article. Because the vasculitides primarily cause renal failure through secondary glomerulonephritis, they are mentioned only briefly. Extensive testing is rarely necessary because the cause is usually suspected through syndrome recognition. The diagnosis can then be confirmed by the results of one or two additional tests or by improved renal function after treatment.

  20. Vascular permeability and drug delivery in cancers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandy eAzzi

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The endothelial barrier strictly maintains vascular and tissue homeostasis, and therefore modulates many physiological processes such as angiogenesis, immune responses, and dynamic exchanges throughout organs. Consequently, alteration of this finely tuned function may have devastating consequences for the organism. This is particularly obvious in cancers, where a disorganized and leaky blood vessel network irrigates solid tumors. In this context, vascular permeability drives tumor-induced angiogenesis, blood flow disturbances, inflammatory cell infiltration, and tumor cell extravasation. This can directly restrain the efficacy of conventional therapies by limiting intravenous drug delivery. Indeed, for more effective anti-angiogenic therapies, it is now accepted that not only should excessive angiogenesis be alleviated, but also that the tumor vasculature needs to be normalized. Recovery of normal state vasculature requires diminishing hyperpermeability, increasing pericyte coverage, and restoring the basement membrane, to subsequently reduce hypoxia and interstitial fluid pressure. In this review, we will introduce how vascular permeability accompanies tumor progression and, as a collateral damage, impacts on efficient drug delivery. The molecular mechanisms involved in tumor-driven vascular permeability will next be detailed, with a particular focus on the main factors produced by tumor cells, especially the emblematic vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF. Finally, new perspectives in cancer therapy will be presented, centered on the use of anti-permeability factors and normalization agents.

  1. Vascular oxidant stress and inflammation in hyperhomocysteinemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papatheodorou, Louisa; Weiss, Norbert

    2007-11-01

    Elevated plasma levels of homocysteine are a metabolic risk factor for atherosclerotic vascular disease, as shown in numerous clinical studies that linked elevated homocysteine levels to de novo and recurrent cardiovascular events. High levels of homocysteine promote oxidant stress in vascular cells and tissue because of the formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), which have been strongly implicated in the development of atherosclerosis. In particular, ROS have been shown to cause endothelial injury, dysfunction, and activation. Elevated homocysteine stimulates proinflammatory pathways in vascular cells, resulting in leukocyte recruitment to the vessel wall, mediated by the expression of adhesion molecules on endothelial cells and circulating monocytes and neutrophils, in the infiltration of leukocytes into the arterial wall mediated by increased secretion of chemokines, and in the differentiation of monocytes into cholesterol-scavenging macrophages. Furthermore, it stimulates the proliferation of vascular smooth muscle cells followed by the production of extracellular matrix. Many of these events involve redox-sensitive signaling events, which are promoted by elevated homocysteine, and result in the formation of atherosclerotic lesions. In this article, we review current knowledge about the role of homocysteine on oxidant stress-mediated vascular inflammation during the development of atherosclerosis.

  2. The vascular pattern in the flower of some Mesembryanthemaceae: Aptenia cordifolia and Dorotheanthus bellidiformis. The effect of an ontogenetical shifting on the vascular pattern and vascular conservatism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meulen-Bruijns, van der C.

    1976-01-01

    1. The vascular pattern in the flower at various stages of maturity of Aptenia cordifolia and Dorotheanthus bellidiformis is examined. 2. The vascular pattern of Dorotheanthus has been compared with that of Aptenia: typologically, Dorotheanthus is derived from Aptenia. 3. The vascular pattern of Apt

  3. Flaxseed and its contribution to body growth and brain of Wistar rats during chidhood and adolescence Linaza y su contribución al crecimiento del cuerpo y el cerebro de ratas wistar durante la infancia y la adolescencia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. D. Ferreira Costa Leite

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To evaluate the effect of flaxseed upon body growth and brain of rats. Methods: Experimental phase lasted 52 days, using 42 Wistar rats which were divided into four groups: Control (CG, n = 12, 10% casein diet; Flaxseed (GL, n = 12, 10% flaxseed diet plus casein; Modified Control (GCM, n = 12, 10% casein diet with changes in lipid and fiber comparable to GL; Non-protein (GA, n = 6, diet without protein. Considering food intake, protein intake and weight variation, the Protein Efficiency Ratio (PER was calculated. Net Protein Retention (NPR and the Food Efficiency Ratio (CEA were also determined relative to brain weight at 30 days of life (M30 and at 52 days (M52. Analysis of Variance (ANOVA, Test of Sheffe and post-test of Bonferroni were used, p Objetivos: Evaluar el efecto de la linaza en el crecimiento corporal y del cerebro de ratones. Métodos: El estudio experimental duró 52 días, utilizando 42 ratones Wistar, que fueron divididos en cuatro grupos: Control (GC, n = 12, dieta con 10% de caseína; Linaza (GL, n = 12, 10% de la dieta de linaza adicionada de caseína; Control Modificado (GCM n = 12, 10% de caseína con los cambios en los lípidos y fibra comparable a GL, Sin proteína (GA, n = 6, dieta sin proteínas. Fueron controlados la ingesta de alimentos, la ingesta de proteínas y la variación de peso, fueron calculados el Índice de Eficiencia Proteica (PER, la retención proteica neta (NPR y el Índice de Eficiencia de Alimentación (CEA. Se determinó también el peso cerebral relativo a los 30 días de vida (M30 y 52 días (M52. Fue utilizado ANOVA, prueba de Sheffé y coeficiente de Bonferroni, con p< 0,05. Resultados: GL tuvo menor consumo de alimentos, proteínas y variación del peso sobre GC, pero tuvo valores más altos que GCM. Con relación a PER, GL fue inferior a GC y similar a GCM, así como en el CEA. GL tuvo valores menores valores de NPR que GC y GCM. En M30, GL fue superior a GC en relación al peso

  4. VESGEN Software for Mapping and Quantification of Vascular Regulators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsons-Wingerter, Patricia A.; Vickerman, Mary B.; Keith, Patricia A.

    2012-01-01

    VESsel GENeration (VESGEN) Analysis is an automated software that maps and quantifies effects of vascular regulators on vascular morphology by analyzing important vessel parameters. Quantification parameters include vessel diameter, length, branch points, density, and fractal dimension. For vascular trees, measurements are reported as dependent functions of vessel branching generation. VESGEN maps and quantifies vascular morphological events according to fractal-based vascular branching generation. It also relies on careful imaging of branching and networked vascular form. It was developed as a plug-in for ImageJ (National Institutes of Health, USA). VESGEN uses image-processing concepts of 8-neighbor pixel connectivity, skeleton, and distance map to analyze 2D, black-and-white (binary) images of vascular trees, networks, and tree-network composites. VESGEN maps typically 5 to 12 (or more) generations of vascular branching, starting from a single parent vessel. These generations are tracked and measured for critical vascular parameters that include vessel diameter, length, density and number, and tortuosity per branching generation. The effects of vascular therapeutics and regulators on vascular morphology and branching tested in human clinical or laboratory animal experimental studies are quantified by comparing vascular parameters with control groups. VESGEN provides a user interface to both guide and allow control over the users vascular analysis process. An option is provided to select a morphological tissue type of vascular trees, network or tree-network composites, which determines the general collections of algorithms, intermediate images, and output images and measurements that will be produced.

  5. Evaluation of vascular pathologies with MR angiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The flow sensitivity of MR imaging methods can be used to visualize vascular structures (MR angiography). In this paper the method of flow-enhanced three-dimensional MR angiography will be presented. This technique makes use of the signal enhancement due to inflow of unsaturated spins into the imaging volume in combination with flow-compensated three-dimensional Fourier transform gradient-echo sequences. Projective images are calculated from the measured data by means of a maximum-intensity algorithm. The procedure was optimized for the visualization of the intra-and extracranial vasculature. The purpose of this study was to demonstrate the potential of this MR angiographic procedure to evaluate vascular disease in a clinical situation. Prospective studies in patients with vascular disease including aneurysms, arteriovenous malformations, arterial occlusion, and stenosis are shown in correlation with conventional procedures

  6. Neurogenic vascular headaches, food and chemical triggers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trotsky, M B

    1994-04-01

    Recent evidence has demonstrated that neurogenic vascular headaches are a combination of neurological primary events and secondary vasomotor changes. The neurological events involve the hypothalamus and sensory cortex with sympathetic hypofunction and noradrenergic abnormalities. A platelet theory has been proposed but has not really been confirmed as a legitimate cause of the neurogenic vascular headaches. Food and chemicals in foods can act as a precipitating factor in the food-sensitive neurogenic vascular headache patient. In these patients evidence is now being demonstrated to confirm this, but larger patient studies are needed. The food-sensitive migraine patient and cluster headache patient must give a good history and food diary to go along with active challenges and provocative testing in order to determine the causative foods. Any concomitant allergies of inhalants or environmentals must also be treated. The treatment modalities of elimination and rotation diets or provocation neutralization may successfully control the headaches without the need for continuous medications.

  7. Mechanisms of vascular calcification and associated diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marulanda, Juliana; Alqarni, Saleh; Murshed, Monzur

    2014-01-01

    Mineralization of bone and tooth extracellular matrix (ECM) is a physiologic process, while soft tissue mineralization, also known as ectopic mineralization (calcification), is a pathologic condition. Vascular calcification is common in aging and also in a number of genetic and metabolic disorders. The calcific deposits in arteries complicate the prognosis and increase the morbidity in diseases such as atherosclerosis, diabetes and chronic kidney disease (CKD). To completely understand the pathophysiology of these lifethreatening diseases, it is critical to elucidate the molecular mechanisms underlying vascular calcification. Unveiling these mechanisms will eventually identify new therapeutic targets and also improve the management of the associated complications. In the current review, we discussed the common determinants of ECM mineralization, the mechanism of vascular calcification associated with several human diseases and outlined the most common therapeutic approaches to prevent its progression.

  8. Vascular permeability in cerebral cavernous malformations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikati, Abdul G; Khanna, Omaditya; Zhang, Lingjiao;

    2015-01-01

    -controlled observational study investigated whether the brains of human subjects with familial CCM show vascular hyperpermeability by dynamic contrast-enhanced quantitative perfusion magnetic resonance imaging, in comparison with CCM cases without familial disease, and whether lesional or brain vascular permeability...... vascular hyperpermeability in humans with an autosomal dominant disease, as predicted mechanistically. Brain permeability, more than lesion permeability, may serve as a biomarker of CCM disease activity, and help calibrate potential drug therapy.......Patients with the familial form of cerebral cavernous malformations (CCMs) are haploinsufficient for the CCM1, CCM2, or CCM3 gene. Loss of corresponding CCM proteins increases RhoA kinase-mediated endothelial permeability in vitro, and in mouse brains in vivo. A prospective case...

  9. Effects of vascularization on cancer nanochemotherapy outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paiva, L. R.; Ferreira, S. C.; Martins, M. L.

    2016-08-01

    Cancer therapy requires anticancer agents capable of efficient and uniform systemic delivery. One promising route to their development is nanotechnology. Here, a previous model for cancer chemotherapy based on a nanosized drug carrier (Paiva et al., 2011) is extended by including tissue vasculature and a three-dimensional growth. We study through computer simulations the therapy against tumors demanding either large or small nutrient supplies growing under different levels of tissue vascularization. Our results indicate that highly vascularized tumors demand more aggressive therapies (larger injected doses administrated at short intervals) than poorly vascularized ones. Furthermore, nanoparticle endocytic rate by tumor cells, not its selectivity, is the major factor that determines the therapeutic success. Finally, our finds indicate that therapies combining cytotoxic agents with antiangiogenic drugs that reduce the abnormal tumor vasculature, instead of angiogenic drugs that normalize it, can lead to successful treatments using feasible endocytic rates and administration intervals.

  10. Pain management in patients with vascular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seretny, M; Colvin, L A

    2016-09-01

    Vascular disease covers a wide range of conditions, including arterial, venous, and lymphatic disorders, with many of these being more common in the elderly. As the population ages, the incidence of vascular disease will increase, with a consequent increase in the requirement to manage both acute and chronic pain in this patient population. Pain management can be complex, as there are often multiple co-morbidities to be considered. An understanding of the underlying pain mechanisms is helpful in the logical direction of treatment, particularly in chronic pain states, such as phantom limb pain or complex regional pain syndrome. Acute pain management for vascular surgery presents a number of challenges, including coexisting anticoagulant medication, that may preclude the use of regional techniques. Within the limited evidence base, there is a suggestion that epidural analgesia provides better pain relief and reduced respiratory complications after major vascular surgery. For carotid endarterectomy, there is again some evidence supporting the use of local anaesthetic analgesia, either by infiltration or by superficial cervical plexus block. Chronic pain in vascular disease includes post-amputation pain, for which well-known risk factors include high pain levels before amputation and in the immediate postoperative period, emphasizing the importance of good pain control in the perioperative period. Complex regional pain syndrome is another challenging chronic pain syndrome with a wide variety of treatment options available, with the strongest evidence being for physical therapies. Further research is required to gain a better understanding of the underlying pathophysiological mechanisms in pain associated with vascular disease and the best analgesic approaches to manage it. PMID:27566812

  11. Hypoxia, vascular smooth muscles and endothelium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Calvin K. Chan

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Hypoxia, or the lack of oxygen, has multiple impacts on the vascular system. The major molecular sensors for hypoxia at the cellular level are hypoxia inducible factor and heme oxygenase. Hypoxia also acts on the vasculature directly conveying its damaging effects through disruption of the control of vascular tone, particularly in the coronary circulation, enhancement of inflammatory responses and activation of coagulation pathways. These effects could be particularly detrimental under pathological conditions such as obstructive sleep apnea and other breathing disorders.

  12. Total knee arthroplasty in vascular malformation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harish Bhende

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In Klippel–Trenaunay syndrome, vascular malformations are not only in skin and superficial soft tissues but also in deep tissues like muscles bones and joints. It is well documemted that these recurrent intraarticular bleeds can cause early arthritis and joint pain. Performing arthroplasty in such patients is difficult and fraught with complications. We describe such a case where navigated total knee arthroplasty was performed with success to avoid the problems of intra medullary alignment used in the presence of intra medullary vascular malformations. We also suggest certain measures when knee arthroplasty is considered in such patients.

  13. Angiogenesis and vascular targeting: Relevance for hyperthermia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Horsman, Michael R

    2008-01-01

    The creation of a functional blood supply from the normal tissue vasculature via the process of angiogenesis is critical for the continued growth and development of solid tumours. This importance has led to the concept of targeting the tumour vasculature as a therapeutic strategy, and two major...... types of vascular targeting agents (VTAs) have developed; those that inhibit the angiogenic process-angiogenesis inhibiting agents (AIAs)-and those that specifically damage the already established neovasculature-vascular disrupting agents (VDAs). The tumour vasculature also plays a critical role...

  14. Diacylglycerol Kinase Inhibition and Vascular Function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Hyehun; Allahdadi, Kyan J; Tostes, Rita C A; Webb, R Clinton

    2009-01-01

    Diacylglycerol kinases (DGKs), a family of lipid kinases, convert diacylglycerol (DG) to phosphatidic acid (PA). Acting as a second messenger, DG activates protein kinase C (PKC). PA, a signaling lipid, regulates diverse functions involved in physiological responses. Since DGK modulates two lipid second messengers, DG and PA, regulation of DGK could induce related cellular responses. Currently, there are 10 mammalian isoforms of DGK that are categorized into five groups based on their structural features. These diverse isoforms of DGK are considered to activate distinct cellular functions according to extracellular stimuli. Each DGK isoform is thought to play various roles inside the cell, depending on its subcellular localization (nuclear, ER, Golgi complex or cytoplasm). In vascular smooth muscle, vasoconstrictors such as angiotensin II, endothelin-1 and norepinephrine stimulate contraction by increasing inositol trisphosphate (IP(3)), calcium, DG and PKC activity. Inhibition of DGK could increase DG availability and decrease PA levels, as well as alter intracellular responses, including calcium-mediated and PKC-mediated vascular contraction. The purpose of this review is to demonstrate a role of DGK in vascular function. Selective inhibition of DGK isoforms may represent a novel therapeutic approach in vascular dysfunction. PMID:21547002

  15. Angiogenesis: the genetic regulation of vascular development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.A. Haasdijk (Remco Anton)

    2014-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ For centuries, many scientists are fascinated by the organisation of the vascular network. The Greek philosopher and polymath Aristotle (384 BC) was one of the first man who described the vasculature. He wrote: “the system of blood vessels in the body may be compared to

  16. Vascular sphingolipids in physiological and pathological adaptation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Jun-Xiang; Su, Yu-Ting; Cheng, Yao-Ping; Zhang, Hai-Jun; Xie, Xiao-Ping; Chang, Yao-Ming

    2016-01-01

    Sphingolipids (SLs) are compounds containing a long-chain fatty alcohol amine called sphingosine which exists in cellular membranes, cytoplasm, nucleus, interstitial fluid, blood and lymphatic circulation. SLs act as essential constituents of membranes of eukaryotic cells, so the seesaw of SLs will lead to structural alteration of membranes instigating cellular functional change. SLs also act as crucial signaling molecules taking effect intracellularly or extracellularly which regulates activity of downstream molecules determining cellular adaptation to numerous stimulus. This review aims to highlight the contribution of SLs to physiological and pathophysiological remodeling of vasculature. We will first provide a short overview on metabolism, trafficking and compartmentalization of SLs. Then the regulation of SLs on reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation, vascular tone modulation, endothelial barrier integrity, apoptosis and autophagy are summarized. Finally, we will discuss how the SLs are modulated contributing to vascular development, angiogenesis and vascular remodeling in pathological situations as hypertension, atherosclerosis, and aging. The compellingly regulative actions of SLs bring about copious therapeutic targets for potential pharmacological intervention on the diseases involving vascular maladaptation. PMID:27100498

  17. Urticarial Reactions: Vascular Erythema, Urticaria, Vasculitis

    OpenAIRE

    Sibbald, R. Gary

    1987-01-01

    Vascular erythemas, including urticaria and vasculitis, represent diagnostic and therapeutic challenges. A careful systemic approach to history and physical examination should be followed by appropriate investigations to rule out systemic disease. Chronic urticaria patients should be physically tested to identify cholinergic, dermagraphic, and cold-induced responses. Food diaries and careful drug history may be important to identify exacerbating factors in chronic urticaria.

  18. ETS transcription factors in embryonic vascular development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig, Michael P; Sumanas, Saulius

    2016-07-01

    At least thirteen ETS-domain transcription factors are expressed during embryonic hematopoietic or vascular development and potentially function in the formation and maintenance of the embryonic vasculature or blood lineages. This review summarizes our current understanding of the specific roles played by ETS factors in vasculogenesis and angiogenesis and the implications of functional redundancies between them.

  19. Audit of the Danish national vascular database

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Levi-Mazloum, Niels Donald; Jensen, L P; Schroeder, T V

    1996-01-01

    The accuracy of data contained in the Danish vascular database was compared with the case notes. A total of 100 case notes were reviewed for 11 pertinent variables in the database. A high error rate ranging from 2 to 34% was found. Also, approximately 10% of patients had never been entered into t...

  20. Quality Estimation for Vascular Pattern Recognition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hartung, Daniel; Martin, Sophie; Busch, Christoph

    2011-01-01

    The quality of captured samples is a critical aspect in biometric systems. In this paper we present a quality estimation algorithm for vascular images, which uses global and local features based on a Grey Level Co-Occurrence Matrix (GLCM) and optionally available metadata. An evaluation of the al...

  1. Vascular benefits of angiotensin receptor blockers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voors, Adriaan A.

    2007-01-01

    There is convincing evidence that angiotensin II, through activation of the angiotensin II type 1 (AT1) receptor, is involved in the atherosclerotic process. Similarly, angiotensin receptor blockers decrease vascular inflammation, hypertrophy and thrombosis, which are the key components of the progr

  2. [Temporary vascular shunt technique for resource scarce environments].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouattara, N; Mlynski, A; Pierret, C

    2011-10-01

    The purpose of this report is to describe a simple and reproducible technique for temporary vascular shunting. This technique is appropriate only for exceptional situations involving scant resource availability. It is not intended to replace conventional vascular shunting techniques.

  3. Observations on the vegetation and vascular plants of Hopen

    OpenAIRE

    Skye, Erik

    1986-01-01

    The vascular plant flora of the small arctic island of Hopen, located in the Barents Sea. was inventoried during a visit in the summer of 1982. Eighteen vascular plant species were observed and mapped. and the vegetation described.

  4. Effects of Hemodynamic Forces on the Vascular Differentiation of Stem Cells: Implications for Vascular Graft Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diop, Rokhaya; Li, Song

    Although the field of vascular tissue engineering has made tremendous advances in the past decade, several complications have yet to be overcome in order to produce biocompatible small-diameter vascular conduits with long-term patency. Stem cells and progenitor cells represent potential cell sources in the development of autologous (or allogeneic), nonthrombogenic vascular grafts with mechanical properties comparable to native blood vessel. However, a better understanding of the effects of mechanical forces on stem cells and progenitor cells is needed to properly utilize these cells for tissue engineering applications. In this chapter, we discuss the current understanding of the effects of hemodynamic forces on the differentiation and function of adult stem cells, embryonic stem cells, and progenitor cells. We also review the use of stem cells and progenitor cells in vascular graft engineering.

  5. Calcium handling by vascular myocytes in hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.C.A. Tostes

    1997-03-01

    Full Text Available Calcium ions (Ca2+ trigger the contraction of vascular myocytes and the level of free intracellular Ca2+ within the myocyte is precisely regulated by sequestration and extrusion mechanisms. Extensive evidence indicates that a defect in the regulation of intracellular Ca2+ plays a role in the augmented vascular reactivity characteristic of clinical and experimental hypertension. For example, arteries from spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR have an increased contractile sensitivity to extracellular Ca2+ and intracellular Ca2+ levels are elevated in aortic smooth muscle cells of SHR. We hypothesize that these changes are due to an increase in membrane Ca2+ channel density and possibly function in vascular myocytes from hypertensive animals. Several observations using various experimental approaches support this hypothesis: 1 the contractile activity in response to depolarizing stimuli is increased in arteries from hypertensive animals demonstrating increased voltage-dependent Ca2+ channel activity in hypertension; 2 Ca2+ channel agonists such as Bay K 8644 produce contractions in isolated arterial segments from hypertensive rats and minimal contraction in those from normotensive rats; 3 intracellular Ca2+ concentration is abnormally increased in vascular myocytes from hypertensive animals following treatment with Ca2+ channel agonists and depolarizing interventions, and 4 using the voltage-clamp technique, the inward Ca2+ current in arterial myocytes from hypertensive rats is nearly twice as large as that from myocytes of normotensive rats. We suggest that an alteration in Ca2+ channel function and/or an increase in Ca2+ channel density, resulting from increased channel synthesis or reduced turnover, underlies the increased vascular reactivity characteristic of hypertension

  6. Coexistence of pheochromocytoma with uncommon vascular lesions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunil Kumar Kota

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Pheochromocytoma/paragangliomas have been described to be associated with rare vascular abnormalities like renal artery stenosis. Coexistence of physiologically significant renal artery lesions is a compounding factor that alters management and prognosis of pheochromocytoma patients. Apart from individual case reports, data on such association in Indian population is not available. The aim of this study is to find the nature and prevalence of associated vascular abnormalities. Materials and Methods: From 1990 to 2010, a total of 50 patients were diagnosed with pheochromocytoma/paragangliomas. Hospital charts of these patients were reviewed retrospectively to identify those with unusual vascular abnormalities. Available literature was also reviewed. Results: Of the 50 patients with pheochromocytoma, 7 (14% had coexisting vascular lesions including renal artery stenosis in 4, aortoarteritis in 1, aortic aneurysm in 1 and inferior vena cava thrombosis in 1. Pheochromocytoma was adrenal in 42 and extra adrenal in 8. Laparoscopic adrenalectomy was done in the patients. One patient with renal artery stenosis due to intimal fibrosis was subjected to percutaneous balloon angioplasty; the other three improved after adrenalectomy and lysis of fibrous adhesive bands. The patient with aortoarteritos was treated with oral steroids. Inferior vena cava thrombosis was reversed with anticoagulants. The patient with abdominal aortic aneurysm was advised for annual follow-up on account of its size of 4.5 cm and asymptomatic presentation. Conclusion: There are multiple mechanisms that can lead to renal artery stenosis and other vascular abnormalities in a case of pheochromocytoma. A high index of suspicion is necessary to enable both entities to be diagnosed preoperatively and allow proper planning of surgical therapy. Incomplete diagnosis may lead to persistent hypertension postoperatively in a case of associated renal artery stenosis.

  7. General versus vascular surgeon: impact of a vascular fellowship on clinical practice, surgical case load, and lifestyle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franz, Randall W

    2010-02-01

    An applicant shortage for vascular surgery (VS) residencies exists despite an increase in available training positions created to meet the growing demands for vascular surgeons. After 3 years of practice as an American Board of Surgery (ABS)-certified/board-eligible general surgeon, the author of this study attended an accredited 1-year VS training fellowship and received an ABS certificate of Added Qualifications in VS. The purpose of this review was to investigate the implications completing a vascular fellowship has had on VS procedure patterns, vascular procedure competency, clinical practice, career, and lifestyle with the aim of attracting trainees to the field of VS. The author's operative logs were reviewed retrospectively to summarize vascular procedures performed before and after the vascular fellowship. Statistical analysis was performed comparing the types and volume of vascular procedures before and after the vascular fellowship. Changes in professional career and personal life also were examined. The author performed 401 vascular procedures during 2.8 years as a general surgeon. In the first 3.4 years after the vascular fellowship, vascular procedure volume increased to 1563. The mean number of vascular procedures performed per year increased from 143.2 as a general surgeon to 459.7 as a vascular surgeon. The three major differences in vascular procedures occurring after the vascular fellowship were (1) a threefold increase in the number of vascular procedures performed, (2) a shift from major open to venous and endovascular procedures, and (3) an increase in case complexity. Specializing in VS also has resulted in increased career opportunities, more career satisfaction, a direct financial benefit, and more flexibility for lifestyle and family. Because of these positive changes, the author encourages medical students and residents interested in VS to explore the specialty early, seek vascular surgeons to serve as mentors, and enter one of the new VS

  8. Acceleration of vascular sprouting from fabricated perfusable vascular-like structures.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatsuya Osaki

    Full Text Available Fabrication of vascular networks is essential for engineering three-dimensional thick tissues and organs in the emerging fields of tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. In this study, we describe the fabrication of perfusable vascular-like structures by transferring endothelial cells using an electrochemical reaction as well as acceleration of subsequent endothelial sprouting by two stimuli: phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA and fluidic shear stress. The electrochemical transfer of cells was achieved using an oligopeptide that formed a dense molecular layer on a gold surface and was then electrochemically desorbed from the surface. Human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs, adhered to gold-coated needles (ϕ600 μm via the oligopeptide, were transferred to collagen gel along with electrochemical desorption of the molecular layer, resulting in the formation of endothelial cell-lined vascular-like structures. In the following culture, the endothelial cells migrated into the collagen gel and formed branched luminal structures. However, this branching process was strikingly slow (>14 d and the cell layers on the internal surfaces became disrupted in some regions. To address these issues, we examined the effects of the protein kinase C (PKC activator, PMA, and shear stress generated by medium flow. Addition of PMA at an optimum concentration significantly accelerated migration, vascular network formation, and its stabilization. Exposure to shear stress reoriented the cells in the direction of the medium flow and further accelerated vascular network formation. Because of the synergistic effects, HUVECs began to sprout as early as 3 d of perfusion culture and neighboring vascular-like structures were bridged within 5 d. Although further investigations of vascular functions need to be performed, this approach may be an effective strategy for rapid fabrication of perfusable microvascular networks when engineering three-dimensional fully

  9. Vascular endothelial growth factor regulates angiogenesis and vascular permeability in Kaposi's sarcoma.

    OpenAIRE

    Cornali, E.; Zietz, C; Benelli, R; Weninger, W.; Masiello, L.; Breier, G; Tschachler, E; Albini, A; Stürzl, M

    1996-01-01

    Abundant vasculature with increased permeability is a prominent histological feature of Kaposi's sarcoma (KS), a multifocal, cytokine-regulated tumor. Here we report on the role of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in AIDS-KS angiogenesis and vascular permeability. We demonstrate that different cytokines, which were previously shown to be active in KS development, modulate VEGF expression in KS spindle cells and cooperate with VEGF on the functional level. Northern blot analysis as we...

  10. Stimulation of vascular cells by extracellular signals - A biophysical analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Biela, Sarah A.

    2009-01-01

    Stimulation of vascular cells by extracellullar signals Treatment of vascular diseases often requires the selective addressing of endothelial (ECs) and smooth muscle cells (SMCs). The two vascular cell types are important for the wound healing after stent implantation. Recent research designs new materials and coatings for stents to improve the complex healing process. The aim of my work was to find and investigate different reactions in the two vascular cell types (ECs and SMCs) through surf...

  11. Oral encapsulated vascular malformation: An undescribed presentation in the mouth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, Márcio-Américo; Dias, Pedro-de Souza; Martínez-Martínez, Marisol; Sena-Filho, Marcondes; de Almeida, Oslei-Paes

    2016-01-01

    Vascular lesions have been classified in two broad categories, hemangiomas and malformations. Encapsulated vascular lesions have not been reported in the oral cavity, but they were described in other sites, mainly in the orbit. Herein, we present a case of an oral encapsulated vascular lesion located in the right buccal mucosa of a 69-year-old male, including histological and immunohistochemical description and a literature review. Key words:Buccal mucosa, hemangioma, vascular malformation, oral cavity. PMID:26855712

  12. Immune activation caused by vascular oxidation promotes fibrosis and hypertension

    OpenAIRE

    Wu, Jing; Saleh, Mohamed A; Kirabo, Annet; Itani, Hana A.; Montaniel, Kim Ramil C.; Xiao, Liang; Chen, Wei; Mernaugh, Raymond L.; Cai, Hua; Bernstein, Kenneth E.; Goronzy, Jörg J.; Weyand, Cornelia M.; Curci, John A.; Barbaro, Natalia R.; Moreno, Heitor

    2015-01-01

    Vascular oxidative injury accompanies many common conditions associated with hypertension. In the present study, we employed mouse models with excessive vascular production of ROS (tgsm/p22phox mice, which overexpress the NADPH oxidase subunit p22phox in smooth muscle, and mice with vascular-specific deletion of extracellular SOD) and have shown that these animals develop vascular collagen deposition, aortic stiffening, renal dysfunction, and hypertension with age. T cells from tgsm/p22phox m...

  13. Role of computed tomography in the study of vascular pathology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Procacci, C.; Bicego, E.; Bergamo, I.A. and others

    1988-01-01

    The most important indications to the use of computed tomography (CT) in the study of vascular pathology are considered. They may be divided as follows: 1) demonstration of vascular involvement by thoraco-abdominal neoplasms; 2) differential diagnosis between primary vascular and extra-vascular pathology; 3) assessment of primary arterial pathology. For each group, those pathologies are considered, for which CT plays a fundamental role.

  14. Advances in the Management of Cerebral Vascular Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Muhammad Imran Qadir; Hina Kanwal

    2015-01-01

    A cerebral vascular disease occurred with the arteries of brain due to the less supply of blood.  Stroke is mostly caused by cerebral vascular disease and it is also a common cause of vascular dementia due to reduced oxygen supply and blood flow to the brain. In industrialized countries, neurologic disability is most frequently caused by cerebeovascular disease. Individuals with cardiovascular disease, diabetes and high blood pressure etc are at higher possibility for cerebral vascular diseas...

  15. Diagnosis and Treatment of Vascular Surgery Related Infection

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Yong-Gan; Guo, Xue-Li; Song, Yan; Miao, Chao-Feng; Zhang, Chuang; Chen, Ning-Heng

    2015-01-01

    Surgical site infection (SSI) is an important component of infections acquired from hospital. The most significant feature of vascular surgery different from other surgeries is frequent application of artificial grafts. Once SSI occurs after vascular operations with grafts, it might results in a serious disaster. Staphylococcus aureus and coagulase-negative Staphylococcus are the most common pathogenic bacteria for SSI after vascular surgery. Although SSI in vascular surgery often lacks of ty...

  16. Using biplanar fluoroscopy to guide radiopaque vascular injections: a new method for vascular imaging.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haley D O'Brien

    Full Text Available Studying vascular anatomy, especially in the context of relationships with hard tissues, is of great interest to biologists. Vascular studies have provided significant insight into physiology, function, phylogenetic relationships, and evolutionary patterns. Injection of resin or latex into the vascular system has been a standard technique for decades. There has been a recent surge in popularity of more modern methods, especially radiopaque latex vascular injection followed by CT scanning and digital "dissection." This technique best displays both blood vessels and bone, and allows injections to be performed on cadaveric specimens. Vascular injection is risky, however, because it is not a standardizable technique, as each specimen is variable with regard to injection pressure and timing. Moreover, it is not possible to view the perfusion of injection medium throughout the vascular system of interest. Both data and rare specimens can therefore be lost due to poor or excessive perfusion. Here, we use biplanar video fluoroscopy as a technique to guide craniovascular radiopaque latex injection. Cadaveric domestic pigs (Sus scrofa domestica and white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus were injected with radiopaque latex under guidance of fluoroscopy. This method was found to enable adjustments, in real-time, to the rate, location, and pressure at which latex is injected in order to avoid data and specimen loss. In addition to visualizing the injection process, this technique can be used to determine flow patterns, and has facilitated the development of consistent markers for complete perfusion.

  17. Neuropilin-1 mediates vascular permeability independently of vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-2 activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, Lise; Prahst, Claudia; Ruckdeschel, Tina; Savant, Soniya; Weström, Simone; Fantin, Alessandro; Riedel, Maria; Héroult, Mélanie; Ruhrberg, Christiana; Augustin, Hellmut G

    2016-04-26

    Neuropilin-1 (NRP1) regulates developmental and pathological angiogenesis, arteriogenesis, and vascular permeability, acting as a coreceptor for semaphorin 3A (Sema3A) and the 165-amino acid isoform of vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGF-A165). NRP1 is also the receptor for the CendR peptides, a class of cell- and tissue-penetrating peptides with a specific R-x-x-R carboxyl-terminal motif. Because the cytoplasmic domain of NRP1 lacks catalytic activity, NRP1 is mainly thought to act through the recruitment and binding to other receptors. We report here that the NRP1 intracellular domain mediates vascular permeability. Stimulation with VEGF-A165, a ligand-blocking antibody, and a CendR peptide led to NRP1 accumulation at cell-cell contacts in endothelial cell monolayers, increased cellular permeability in vitro and vascular leakage in vivo. Biochemical analyses, VEGF receptor-2 (VEGFR-2) silencing, and the use of a specific VEGFR blocker established that the effects induced by the CendR peptide and the antibody were independent of VEGFR-2. Moreover, leakage assays in mice expressing a mutant NRP1 lacking the cytoplasmic domain revealed that this domain was required for NRP1-induced vascular permeability in vivo. Hence, these data define a vascular permeability pathway mediated by NRP1 but independent of VEGFR-2 activation.

  18. Accelerated Vascular Aging as a Paradigm for Hypertensive Vascular Disease: Prevention and Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barton, Matthias; Husmann, Marc; Meyer, Matthias R

    2016-05-01

    Aging is considered the most important nonmodifiable risk factor for cardiovascular disease and death after age 28 years. Because of demographic changes the world population is expected to increase to 9 billion by the year 2050 and up to 12 billion by 2100, with several-fold increases among those 65 years of age and older. Healthy aging and prevention of aging-related diseases and associated health costs have become part of political agendas of governments around the world. Atherosclerotic vascular burden increases with age; accordingly, patients with progeria (premature aging) syndromes die from myocardial infarctions or stroke as teenagers or young adults. The incidence and prevalence of arterial hypertension also increases with age. Arterial hypertension-like diabetes and chronic renal failure-shares numerous pathologies and underlying mechanisms with the vascular aging process. In this article, we review how arterial hypertension resembles premature vascular aging, including the mechanisms by which arterial hypertension (as well as other risk factors such as diabetes mellitus, dyslipidemia, or chronic renal failure) accelerates the vascular aging process. We will also address the importance of cardiovascular risk factor control-including antihypertensive therapy-as a powerful intervention to interfere with premature vascular aging to reduce the age-associated prevalence of diseases such as myocardial infarction, heart failure, hypertensive nephropathy, and vascular dementia due to cerebrovascular disease. Finally, we will discuss the implementation of endothelial therapy, which aims at active patient participation to improve primary and secondary prevention of cardiovascular disease. PMID:27118295

  19. Relationship between vascular invasion and microvessel density and micrometastasis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the relationship between vascular invasion and microvessel density (MVD) of tissue and micrometastasis in blood.METHODS: Vascular invasion was detected by both hematoxylin and eosin staining and immunohistochemiscal staining. Blood samples were collected from 17 patients with vascular invasion and 29 patients without vascular invasion and examined for cytokeratin20 (CK20) expression by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) analysis. Microvessel density of tissue samples was also determined by immunohistochemistry using antibodies to CD105.RESULTS: CK20 was detected in 12 of the 17 patients with vascular invasion and in 9 of the 29 patients without vascular invasion. Positive RT-PCR was significantly correlated with vascular invasion (70.6% vs 30.0%, P < 0.05). The average MVD was significantly higher in patients with positive vascular invasion than in patients with negative vascular invasion (29.2 ± 3.3 vs 25.4 ± 4.7, P < 0.05). The vascular invasion detected with hematoxylin-eosin staining was less than that with immunohistochemical staining. There was a significant difference between the two staining methods (19.6% vs 36.9%, P < 0.05).CONCLUSION: Positive CK20 RT-PCR, depth of tumor invasion, lymph node status, metastasis and MVD are significantly correlated with vascular invasion.Immunohistochemical staining is more sensitive than hematoxylin-eosin staining for detecting vascular invasion.

  20. Insight into 144 patients with ocular vascular events during VEGF antagonist injections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mansour, Ahmad M; Shahin, Maha; Kofoed, Peter K;

    2012-01-01

    To record ocular vascular events following injections of vascular endothelium growth factor (VEGF) antagonists.......To record ocular vascular events following injections of vascular endothelium growth factor (VEGF) antagonists....

  1. 老年人群代谢综合征与十年心脑血管疾病死亡率关系的研究%Association between metabolic syndrome and the 10 years mortality of cerebro-cardiovascular diseases in the senile population

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    金萌萌; 潘长玉; 田慧; 刘敏; 苏海燕

    2008-01-01

    目的 了解我国老年人群中代谢综合征(MS)的患病率以及其与心脑血管疾病死亡率的关系.方法 选取1996-1997年于我院进行健康体检的年龄在60岁以上的老年人1926例,共随访10年.MS采取2004年中华医学会糖尿病学分会推荐的标准进行诊断.按照是否诊断为MS分为非MS组(组1)和Ms组(组2).Cox比例风险模型用于心脑血管疾病生存分析以及组别之间发生心脑血管疾病死亡的相对危险度(RR)的比较.结果 人群中基线水平时符合MS诊断标准的人数为482人,占总人数25.03%.组1的心脑血管疾病死亡率为2.55/1000人年,组2为6.82/1000人年.累积生存率组1为97.14%,组2为92.46%.与组1相比,组2发生心脑血管疾病死亡的RR2.52(95%CI1.367~4.661,P<0.05).结论 老年人群属于MS高发与高危人群,MS与心脑血管死亡关系密切,MS人群具有更高的心脑血管死亡率及死亡风险.%Objective To assess the prevalence of metabolic syndrome(MS)and its association with mortality of cerebro-cardiovascular diseases in senile population.Methods Data were collected from 1926 people aged 60 and over,who took part in routine health examination in our hospital from 1996 to 1997.All subjects were followed up for 10 years.MS was diagnosed by using the definition recommended by Chinese Diabetic Society in 2004.Cox-proportional hazards models were used in survival analyses and to calculate the relative risk(RR)of cerebro-cardiovascular diseases mortality.Results The prevalence of MS was 25.03%(n=482,Group 2)in this population.The 10 year mortality of cerebro-cardiovascular diseases was significantly higher(6.82/1000-person year vs.2.55/1000-person year,P<0.05)and the cumulative survival rate was significantly lower(92.46%vs.97.14%,P<0.05)in group 2 compared that in group 1(non-MS,n=1444).Compared with group 1,RR of cerebro-cardiovascular diseases mortality Was 2.52(95%CI1.367-4.661,P<0.05)ingroup 2.Conclusion There was a high

  2. 侧脑室注射氯胺酮降低成年SD大鼠海马区突触可塑性%Effect of ketamine injected into cerebro ventriles on synaptic plasticity of hippocampus in adult SD rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭东勇; 谭涛; 田心; 王国林

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To observe the effect of ketamine of intracerebroventricular injection to adult SD rats on LTP of hippocampus. Methods: 12 adult SD rats were randomly divided into group C and C-I. LTP was recorded after NS or ketamine(50μg) 5μL were injected into cerebro ventriles respectively. Results: 30 min after stimulation, PS amplitude in group C and C—I were (216.29±12.11)% and (138.04±6.50)% (P<0.05). 60 min after stimulation, PS amplitude were (202.33±11.53)% and (149.60±10.86)%(P<0.05). LTP in group C-I reduced obviously. Conclusion: Ketamine of intracerebroventricular injection reduces synaptic plasticity of hippocampus in adult SD rats.%目的:研究侧脑室注射氯胺酮对成年SD大鼠在体海马区长时程增强(LTP)的影响.方法:成年SD大鼠12只,随机分为实验组(C-1组)和对照组(C组),前者经右侧脑室注射50μg氯胺酮(生理盐水稀释至5μL),后者注射等量生理盐水后,记录在体海马区LTP.结果:高频刺激后30min时,C组和C-1组分别为条件刺激PS幅值的(216.29±12.11)%和(138.04±6.50)%(P<0.05);刺激后60min时,分别为(202.33±11.53)%和(149.60±10.86)%(P<0.05),C-1组LTP突触可塑性改变程度较对照组显著降低.结论:侧脑室注射氯胺酮可显著降低成年大鼠海马区突触可塑性.

  3. 脑心综合征患者的心电图及心肌损伤标志物的变化%Change of electrocardiogram and markers of myocardial injury in patients with cerebro-cardiac syndrome.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李宏治; 张宝成; 钟志越

    2011-01-01

    目的 探讨脑卒中患者发生脑心综合征时,心电图(ECG)与心肌酶谱、肌钙蛋白-T(CTnT)等心肌损伤标志物的变化及意义.方法 检测发生脑心综合征的135例脑卒中患者的ECG、心肌酶谱与CTnT,并对不同损伤部位、不同病种的临床资料进行分析.结果 脑卒中后ECG改变在病后1周内发生率84.4%,其与脑损害部位有关,靠近基底节及丘脑的部位病变时其心电图异常率高;丘脑损伤以早搏多见,延髓损伤以心动过缓多见,而基底节区则以快速型心律失常多见;心肌酶谱异常者CK-MB升高为55.5%,肌钙蛋白T24h内升高者46.7%.结论 脑心综合征表现为早期心电图异常与心肌损伤标志物的升高.%Objective To investigate the change and significance of electrocardiogram( ECG) and markers of myocardi-al injury such as myocardial enzymes and troponin-T (CTnT) in affected patients with cerebrocardiac syndrome ( CCS) caused by cerebral stroke. Methods In one hundred and thirty-five patients with CCS, the ECG, myocardial enzymes and CTnT, and clinical data of different injury parts and different kinds of diseases were analyzed. Results The incidence of ECG changes within 1 week after stroke was 84.4%. The parts of the brain damage were related to the site near the basal ganglia and thalamus lesions of its high rate of abnormal electrocardiogram; Hypothalamic injury was common to premature beats, damage to heart over the medullary bradycardia was more commonly, while the basal ganglia of tachya-rrhythmia; abnormal myocardial enzyme CK-MB increase was in 55. 5% , troponin T 24 hours, increased in 46. 7%. Conclusion Early abnormal electrocardiogram changes and makers of myocardial injury occurs in cerebro-cardiac syndrome.

  4. Vascular disease and stroke risk in atrial fibrillation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Jonas Bjerring; Lip, Gregory Y.H.; Lane, Deirdre A;

    2012-01-01

    Vascular disease (including myocardial infarction and peripheral artery disease) has been proposed as a less well-validated risk factor for stroke in patients with atrial fibrillation. We investigated whether vascular disease is an independent risk factor of stroke/thromboembolism in atrial fibri...... fibrillation and whether adding vascular disease improves Congestive heart failure, Hypertension, Age 75 years, Diabetes, previous Stroke (CHADS(2)) risk stratification.......Vascular disease (including myocardial infarction and peripheral artery disease) has been proposed as a less well-validated risk factor for stroke in patients with atrial fibrillation. We investigated whether vascular disease is an independent risk factor of stroke/thromboembolism in atrial...

  5. Protein Kinase C Inhibitors as Modulators of Vascular Function and Their Application in Vascular Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raouf A. Khalil

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Blood pressure (BP is regulated by multiple neuronal, hormonal, renal and vascular control mechanisms. Changes in signaling mechanisms in the endothelium, vascular smooth muscle (VSM and extracellular matrix cause alterations in vascular tone and blood vessel remodeling and may lead to persistent increases in vascular resistance and hypertension (HTN. In VSM, activation of surface receptors by vasoconstrictor stimuli causes an increase in intracellular free Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]i, which forms a complex with calmodulin, activates myosin light chain (MLC kinase and leads to MLC phosphorylation, actin-myosin interaction and VSM contraction. Vasoconstrictor agonists could also increase the production of diacylglycerol which activates protein kinase C (PKC. PKC is a family of Ca2+-dependent and Ca2+-independent isozymes that have different distributions in various blood vessels, and undergo translocation from the cytosol to the plasma membrane, cytoskeleton or the nucleus during cell activation. In VSM, PKC translocation to the cell surface may trigger a cascade of biochemical events leading to activation of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK and MAPK kinase (MEK, a pathway that ultimately increases the myofilament force sensitivity to [Ca2+]i, and enhances actin-myosin interaction and VSM contraction. PKC translocation to the nucleus may induce transactivation of various genes and promote VSM growth and proliferation. PKC could also affect endothelium-derived relaxing and contracting factors as well as matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs in the extracellular matrix further affecting vascular reactivity and remodeling. In addition to vasoactive factors, reactive oxygen species, inflammatory cytokines and other metabolic factors could affect PKC activity. Increased PKC expression and activity have been observed in vascular disease and in certain forms of experimental and human HTN. Targeting of vascular PKC using PKC inhibitors may function in

  6. Carbon dioxide in vascular imaging and intervention

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang Xiaoming [Dept. of Clinical Radiology, Univ. Hospital, Kuopio (Finland); Manninen, H. [Dept. of Clinical Radiology, Univ. Hospital, Kuopio (Finland); Soimakallio, S. [Dept. of Clinical Radiology, Univ. Hospital, Kuopio (Finland)

    1995-07-01

    Angiography with iodinated contrast agents is bound up with the risks of contrast-induced nephrotoxicity and hypersensitivity, which led to the idea of using carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) gas as a negative contrast medium to eliminate these drawbacks. During the last decade, refinements and experiences have proved carbon dioxide digital subtraction angiography (CO{sub 2}-DSA) to be an accurate, safe, and clinically promising vascular imaging modality, with the advantages of no hypersensitivity and no nephrotoxicity as well as minimal patient discomfort. In this article, we have reviewed the history, physical and chemical aspects, techniques, and pathophysiologic changes with the use of CO{sub 2}-DSA as well as some clinical trials. Applications of CO{sub 2} gas in vascular interventions and other imagings, and the advantages and limitations of using CO{sub 2} gas in DSA are also discussed. (orig.).

  7. Carbon dioxide in vascular imaging and intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, X; Manninen, H; Soimakallio, S

    1995-07-01

    Angiography with iodinated contrast agents is bound up with the risks of contrast-induced nephrotoxicity and hypersensitivity, which led to the idea of using carbon dioxide (CO2) gas as a negative contrast medium to eliminate these drawbacks. During the last decade, refinements and experiences have proved carbon dioxide digital subtraction angiography (CO2-DSA) to be an accurate, safe, and clinically promising vascular imaging modality, with the advantages of no hypersensitivity and no nephrotoxicity as well as minimal patient discomfort. In this article, we have reviewed the history, physical and chemical aspects, techniques, and pathophysiologic changes with the use of CO2-DSA as well as some clinical trials. Applications of CO2 gas in vascular interventions and other imagings, and the advantages and limitations of using CO2 gas in DSA are also discussed. PMID:7619608

  8. Perioperative smoking cessation in vascular surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kehlet, M.; Heesemann, Sabine; Tonnesen, H.;

    2015-01-01

    Background: The effect of intensive smoking cessation programs on postoperative complications has never before been assessed in soft tissue surgery when smoking cessation is initiated on the day of surgery. Methods: A single-blinded randomized clinical trial conducted at two vascular surgery...... departments in Denmark. The intervention group was offered the Gold Standard Program (GSP) for smoking cessation intervention. The control group was offered the departments' standard care. Inclusion criteria were patients with planned open peripheral vascular surgery and who were daily smokers. According...... intervention and 21 as controls. There was no difference in 30-day complication rates or 6-week abstinence rates between the two groups. Conclusions: A trial assessing the effect of smoking cessation on postoperative complications on the day of soft tissue surgery is still needed. If another trial...

  9. Renovascular hypertension causes cerebral vascular remodeling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yamei Tang; Xiangpen Li; Yi Li; Qingyu Shen; Xiaoming Rong; Ruxun Huang; Ying Peng

    2011-01-01

    Renovascular hypertensive rats (RHRs) were developed using the 2-kidney, 2-clip method. All RHRs at 10 weeks displayed high permeability of the cerebral surface blood vessels. Vascular casts of the RHRs showed that the vascular network was sparse. The arterioles of the RHRs at 10 weeks had smaller lumen diameters, but thicker vessel walls with hyalinosis formation compared with control animals. The endothelial cell membrane appeared damaged, and microthrombus formed. After ischemia, the infarction size was larger in RHRs than in control animals. These results suggest that cerebral arterioles in RHRs underwent structural remodeling. High blood pressure may aggravate the severity of brain injury in cerebral ischemia and affect the recovery of ischemia.

  10. Vascular recruitment in forearm muscles during exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Palm, T; Nielsen, S L; Lassen, N A

    1983-01-01

    Blood flow and filtration of water across the vascular bed in human forearm muscles were studied at rest and during graded exercise with a hand ergometer. Blood flow was measured by dye dilution and water filtration was determined after injection of hyperoncotic albumin solution (23%) in the brac......Blood flow and filtration of water across the vascular bed in human forearm muscles were studied at rest and during graded exercise with a hand ergometer. Blood flow was measured by dye dilution and water filtration was determined after injection of hyperoncotic albumin solution (23...... a more massive recruitment of exchange area during exercise (a factor 12) than suspected on the basis of ultrafiltration in animals made with the prolonged venous stasis technique (showing a factor 2-5). The estimated variability in exchange surface area indicates, that animal studies of muscle...

  11. Vascular dementia: Pharmacological treatment approaches and perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrius Baskys

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Andrius Baskys1,3, Anthony C Hou21Department of Psychiatry and Human Behavior; 2Program in Geriatrics, University of California at Irvine, Irvine, California; 3Memory Disorders Program, VA Health Care System Long Beach, Long Beach, California, USAAbstract: Vascular dementia is a common condition for which there are no effective approved pharmacological treatments available. Absence of effective treatments creates a difficult situation for those suffering from the disease, their caregivers, and healthcare providers. This review will address our current understanding of the mechanisms of nerve cell damage due to ischemia and summarize available clinical trial data on several commonly used compounds including memantine, donepezil, galantamine, rivastigmine, nimodipine, hydergine, nicergoline, CDPcholine, folic acid, as well as such nonpharmacological approaches as validation therapy.Keywords: vascular dementia, excitotoxicity, treatment, NMDA, memantine, donepezil, galantamine, rivastigmine, nimodipine, hydergine, nicergoline, CDP-choline, folic acid

  12. Pretreatment imaging of peripheral vascular malformations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johnson JB

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Joshua B Johnson, Petrice M Cogswell, Michael A McKusick, Larry A Binkovitz, Stephen J Riederer, Phillip M Young Department of Radiology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN, USA Abstract: Peripheral vascular malformations (VMs are complex and diverse vascular lesions which require individualized pretreatment planning. Pretreatment imaging using various modalities, especially magnetic resonance imaging and time-resolved magnetic resonance angiography, is a valuable tool for classifying peripheral VMs to allow proper diagnosis, demonstrate complete extent, identify the nidus, and distinguish between low-flow and high-flow dynamics that determines the treatment approach. We discuss pretreatment imaging findings in four patients with peripheral VMs and how diagnostic imaging helped guide management. Keywords: time-resolved MRA, cartesian acquisition with projection-like reconstruction, endovascular treatment, magnetic resonance angiography

  13. Carbon dioxide in vascular imaging and intervention

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Angiography with iodinated contrast agents is bound up with the risks of contrast-induced nephrotoxicity and hypersensitivity, which led to the idea of using carbon dioxide (CO2) gas as a negative contrast medium to eliminate these drawbacks. During the last decade, refinements and experiences have proved carbon dioxide digital subtraction angiography (CO2-DSA) to be an accurate, safe, and clinically promising vascular imaging modality, with the advantages of no hypersensitivity and no nephrotoxicity as well as minimal patient discomfort. In this article, we have reviewed the history, physical and chemical aspects, techniques, and pathophysiologic changes with the use of CO2-DSA as well as some clinical trials. Applications of CO2 gas in vascular interventions and other imagings, and the advantages and limitations of using CO2 gas in DSA are also discussed. (orig.)

  14. Biophysical Regulation of Vascular Differentiation and Assembly

    CERN Document Server

    Gerecht, Sharon

    2011-01-01

    The ability to grow stem cells in the laboratory and to guide their maturation to functional cells allows us to study the underlying mechanisms that govern vasculature differentiation and assembly in health and disease. Accumulating evidence suggests that early stages of vascular growth are exquisitely tuned by biophysical cues from the microenvironment, yet the scientific understanding of such cellular environments is still in its infancy. Comprehending these processes sufficiently to manipulate them would pave the way to controlling blood vessel growth in therapeutic applications. This book assembles the works and views of experts from various disciplines to provide a unique perspective on how different aspects of its microenvironment regulate the differentiation and assembly of the vasculature. In particular, it describes recent efforts to exploit modern engineering techniques to study and manipulate various biophysical cues. Biophysical Regulation of Vascular Differentiation and Assembly provides an inter...

  15. [Transcranial electrostimulation in chronic cerebral vascular insufficiency].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voropaev, A A; Mochalov, A D

    2006-01-01

    The method of transcranial electrostimulation (TCES) has been used for treatment of 68 patients with chronic cerebral vascular insufficiency, stages I and II. A treatment course included 7 daily procedures. The influence of TCES was evaluated clinically, by EEG, transcranial ultrasonic Doppler study and hemodynamic indices in arteries and veins as well as by expression of trait and state anxiety. All the parameters were compared to those of the control group which was treated using conventional methods. TCES resulted in normalization of cerebral vascular reactivity, a decrease of venous circulation disturbances, positive influence on cerebral blood flow and EEG parameters, that corresponded to global improvement of the patients' state, regress of cephalgic syndrome and reduction of trait and state anxiety. The method is simple and safety and can be recommended for wide application including outpatient setting.

  16. The concept of vascular cognitive impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowler, J V

    2002-11-15

    Vascular dementia (VaD) is increasingly recognised to reflect an outmoded concept in that it identifies cases too late for preventive therapy to have an opportunity to prevent the development of dementia and uses a cognitive paradigm inappropriately based on Alzheimer's disease. A replacement is urgently required and a new concept, that of vascular cognitive impairment (VCI), has been proposed to meet this need. It is imperative that criteria for VCI are developed on the basis of knowledge and data rather than supposition and assumption, as was the case for VaD. This review details the state of knowledge that we have now reached concerning the fundamental points of severity and cognitive paradigm and also covers a number of other imaging-related essential points embracing atrophy, leukoaraiosis, infarct volume and infarct location. Finally, the increasingly important concept of mixed dementia (co-existent Alzheimer's disease and VCI) is discussed.

  17. Cognitive dysfunction in idiopathic and vascular parkinsonism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivanka Štenc Bradvica

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Aim To evaluate the characteristics of cognitive disturbances in patients with parkinsonism and to point out the need of following up those changes by highly specific tests. Methods The first group consisted of patients with Parkinson’s disease, and the second group of patients with vascular parkinsonism. The neuropsychological assessments were performed with mini mental state examination (MMSE and the Raven progressive matrices. Results The MMSE has shown a higher percentage of patients with vascular parkinsonism who had dementia. For evaluating the nonverbal possibilities, the aim of understanding the complex situation and the visual perception, the Raven’s progressive matrices were used showing that in both groups of the patients those speci- fic changes were highly present.Conclusion It was concluded that MMSE and Raven’s progressive matrices have to be obtained in early phases of the disease, andhave to be repeated to follow up the therapy effect.

  18. Post-transplant urological and vascular complications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Safa Javid

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available To determine the prevalence of urological and vascular complications in renal trans-plant recipients (RTx at Tabriz Renal Transplant Center, we studied 55 recipients of renal allo-grafts (25 male and 29 female patients with a mean age of 38.3 ± 13.4 years from October 2005 to November 2006. The surgical complications in our study included hematomas: 20.4%, renal artery stenosis: 20.4%, calculi: 7.4%, hydronephrosis or ureteral stricture: 5.6%, urinary leakage: 5.6%, lymphoceles: 1.9%, and renal vein thrombosis: 1.9%. We conclude that the most common urologic complications in our center were ureteric strictures and urine leaks, and the most common vascular complication was renal artery stenosis.

  19. Mitochondria in vascular health and disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dromparis, Peter; Michelakis, Evangelos D

    2013-01-01

    The eukaryote's mitochondrial network is perhaps the cell's most sophisticated and dynamic responsive sensing system. Integrating metabolic, oxygen, or danger signals with inputs from other organelles, as well as local and systemic signals, mitochondria have a profound impact on vascular function in both health and disease. This review highlights recently discovered aspects of mitochondrial function (oxygen sensing, inflammation, autophagy, and apoptosis) and discusses their role in diseases of both systemic and pulmonary vessels. We also emphasize the role of mitochondria as therapeutic targets for vascular disease. We highlight the intriguing similarities of mitochondria-driven molecular mechanisms in terms of both pathogenesis and therapies in very diverse diseases, such as atherosclerosis, pulmonary hypertension, and cancer, to support the foundation of a new field in medicine: mitochondrial medicine. PMID:23157555

  20. CSF biomarkers in neurodegenerative and vascular dementias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llorens, Franc; Schmitz, Matthias; Ferrer, Isidro; Zerr, Inga

    2016-01-01

    Neurodegenerative diseases with abnormal protein aggregates such as Alzheimer's disease, tauopathies, synucleinopathies, and prionopathies, together with vascular encephalopathies, are cause of cognitive impairment and dementia. Identification of reliable biomarkers in biological fluids, particularly in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), is of extreme importance in optimizing the precise early clinical diagnosis of distinct entities and predicting the outcome in particular settings. In addition, the study of CSF biomarkers is useful to identify and monitor the underlying pathological processes developing in the central nervous system of affected individuals. Evidence suggests that levels of key CSF molecules correlate, in some circumstances, with prediction, disease progression, and severity of cognitive decline. Correlation of CSF markers and underlying pathological molecular substrates in brain is an exciting field for further study. However, while some dementias such as Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease have accurate CSF biomarkers, other disease types such as dementia with Lewy bodies, vascular dementia, and frontotemporal dementia lack reliable biomarkers for their specific clinical diagnosis. PMID:27016008

  1. Vascular endothelium receptors and transduction mechanisms

    CERN Document Server

    Gillis, C; Ryan, Una; Proceedings of the Advanced Studies Institute on "Vascular Endothelium: Receptors and Transduction Mechanisms"

    1989-01-01

    Beyond their obvious role of a barrier between blood and tissue, vascular endothelial cells are now firmly established as active and essential participants in a host of crucial physiological and pathophysiological functions. Probably the two most important factors responsible for promoting the current knowledge of endothelial functions are 1) observations in the late sixties-early seventies that many non-ventilatory properties of the lung could be attributed to the pulmonary endothelium and 2) the establishment, in the early and mid-seventies of procedures for routine culture of vascular endothelial cells. Many of these endothelial functions require the presence of receptors on the surface of the plasma membrane. There is now evidence for the existence among others of muscarinic, a-and /3-adrenergic, purine, insulin, histamine, bradykinin, lipoprotein, thrombin, paf, fibronectin, vitronectin, interleukin and albumin receptors. For some of these ligands, there is evidence only for the existence of endothelial ...

  2. Visualizing vascular structures in virtual environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wischgoll, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    In order to learn more about the cause of coronary heart diseases and develop diagnostic tools, the extraction and visualization of vascular structures from volumetric scans for further analysis is an important step. By determining a geometric representation of the vasculature, the geometry can be inspected and additional quantitative data calculated and incorporated into the visualization of the vasculature. To provide a more user-friendly visualization tool, virtual environment paradigms can be utilized. This paper describes techniques for interactive rendering of large-scale vascular structures within virtual environments. This can be applied to almost any virtual environment configuration, such as CAVE-type displays. Specifically, the tools presented in this paper were tested on a Barco I-Space and a large 62x108 inch passive projection screen with a Kinect sensor for user tracking.

  3. Vascular Complications of Systemic Sclerosis during Pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliza F. Chakravarty

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Systemic sclerosis (SSc is a chronic autoimmune disorder characterized by progressive fibrosis of the skin and visceral tissues as well as a noninflammatory vasculopathy. Vascular disease in systemic sclerosis is a major cause of morbidity and mortality among nonpregnant patients with SSc and is even a bigger concern in the pregnant SSc patient, as the underlying vasculopathy may prevent the required hemodynamic changes necessary to support a growing pregnancy. Vascular manifestations including scleroderma renal crisis and pulmonary arterial hypertension should be considered relative contraindications against pregnancy due to the high associations of both maternal and fetal morbidity and mortality. In contrast, Raynaud's phenomenon may actually improve somewhat during pregnancy. Women with SSc who are considering a pregnancy or discover they are pregnant require evaluation for the presence and extent of underlying vasculopathy. In the absence of significant visceral vasculopathy, most women with SSc can expect to have reasonable pregnancy outcomes.

  4. Laser Treatment of Pediatric Vascular Lesions

    OpenAIRE

    Cole, Patrick D.; Sonabend, Michael L.; Levy, Moise L.

    2007-01-01

    Since its introduction in 1967, laser therapy has benefited patients and physicians alike. After the first clinical application by Goldman (Anderson RR, Parrish JA. Science 1983;220:524–527), laser therapy has become indispensable in the management of vascular birthmarks. In selecting a proper balance of wavelength, pulse duration, and energy density (fluence), the physician can mold laser energy to effectively manage lesions once considered untreatable. Now, the vast array of lesions amenabl...

  5. Computed Tomographic Angiography (CTA) in Vascular Trauma

    OpenAIRE

    M. Tehrai

    2007-01-01

    In the evaluation of trauma patients, computed tomo-graphy and CT angiography (CTA) are powerful non-invasive tools that provide a large amount of informa-tion in so little time that they have virtually replaced plain film radiography and catheter angiography. In our hospital, CTA has replaced catheter angiogra-phy for diagnosing most vascular injuries, resulting from penetrating and blunt trauma to head, neck, thorax, abdomen and extremities. This lecture will cover current imaging protocols...

  6. Vascular Anomalies in Pancreaticoduodenectomy: A Lesson Learned.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochoa, Joana E; Pointer, David T; Hamner, John B

    2016-01-01

    It is essential to identify any variant anatomy prior to surgery as this could have a drastic effect on surgical planning. We describe a case in which two vascular irregularities, an Arc of Buhler and celiac stenosis, were identified on angiogram after completion of a pancreaticoduodenectomy. While there could have been catastrophic results from his surgery in the setting of celiac stenosis, the presence of the aberrant Arc of Buhler allowed this patient to emerge without any permanent morbidity.

  7. Vascular malformations of the mandible (intraosseous haemangiomas)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guibert-Tranier, F.; Piton, J.; Caille, J.M.; Riche, M.C.; Merland, J.J.

    1982-11-01

    Haemangiomas of the mandible are relatively rare arteriovenous malformations: 85 cases have been described since 1849. The severe risk of bleeding during tooth extraction or biopsy led us to describe the radiological and angiographic features of this condition. The afferent vessles are the inferior dental, the lingual and the facial arteries. Preoperative embolization reduces the risk of bleeding at operation. Surgical treatment must assure the complete removal of the lesion. Radiotherapy and vascular ligatures are useless and dangerous.

  8. Vascular malformations of the mandible (intraosseous haemangiomas)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haemangiomas of the mandible are relatively rare arteriovenous malformations: 85 cases have been described since 1849. The severe risk of bleeding during tooth extraction or biopsy led us to describe the radiological and angiographic features of this condition. The afferent vessles are the inferior dental, the lingual and the facial arteries. Preoperative embolization reduces the risk of bleeding at operation. Surgical treatment must assure the complete removal of the lesion. Radiotherapy and vascular ligatures are useless and dangerous. (orig.)

  9. Temporary intravascular shunts for peripheral vascular trauma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Husain A

    1992-04-01

    Full Text Available Polyvinylchloride (PVC disposable endotracheal suction catheters were successfully used as temporary intravascular shunts in 5 patients of popliteal artery trauma. These simple shunts should be used routinely in such conditions to immediately re-establish blood supply to the ischaemic limb particularly in patients of polytrauma where systemic anticoagulation is contraindicated. This avoids the inherent delay prior to vascular repair and reduces the incidence of irreversible ischemia.

  10. The Vascular Endothelium and Human Diseases

    OpenAIRE

    Rajendran, Peramaiyan; Rengarajan, Thamaraiselvan; Thangavel, Jayakumar; Nishigaki, Yutaka; Sakthisekaran, Dhanapal; Sethi, Gautam; Nishigaki, Ikuo

    2013-01-01

    Alterations of endothelial cells and the vasculature play a central role in the pathogenesis of a broad spectrum of the most dreadful of human diseases, as endothelial cells have the key function of participating in the maintenance of patent and functional capillaries. The endothelium is directly involved in peripheral vascular disease, stroke, heart disease, diabetes, insulin resistance, chronic kidney failure, tumor growth, metastasis, venous thrombosis, and severe viral infectious diseases...

  11. Elastic and Collagenous Networks in Vascular Diseases

    OpenAIRE

    Arteaga-Solis, Emilio; Gayraud, Barbara; Ramirez, Francesco

    2000-01-01

    Supravalvular aortic stenosis (SVAS), Marfan syndrome (MFS) and Ehlers-Danlos syndrome type IV (EDS IV) are three clinical entities characterized by vascular abnormalities that result from mutations of structural components of the extracellular matrix (ECM). Analyses of naturally occurring human mutations and of artificially generated deficiencies in the mouse have provided insights into the pathogenesis of these heritable disorders of the connective tissue. SVAS is associated with haploinsuf...

  12. Arsenic Induced Decreases in the Vascular Matrix

    OpenAIRE

    Hays, Allison M.; Lantz, R. Clark; Rodgers, Laurel S.; Sollome, James J.; Vaillancourt, Richard R.; Andrew, Angeline S; Hamilton, Joshua W.; Camenisch, Todd D.

    2008-01-01

    Chronic ingestion of arsenic is associated with increased incidence of respiratory and cardiovascular diseases. To investigate the role of arsenic in early events in vascular pathology, C57BL/6 mice ingested drinking water with or without 50 ppb sodium arsenite (AsIII) for four, five or eight weeks. At five and eight weeks, RNA from the lungs of control and AsIII exposed animals was processed for microarray. Sixty-five genes were significantly and differentially expressed. Differential expres...

  13. Isolated plexiform neurofibroma mimicking a vascular lesion*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefano, Paola Cecilia; Apa, Sebastian Nicolas; Lanoël, Agustina Maria; María, Josefina Sala; Sierre, Sergio; Pierini, Adrián Martin

    2016-01-01

    Plexiform neurofibromas are benign tumors originating from peripheral nerve sheaths, generally associated with Neurofibromatosis Type 1 (NF1). They are diffuse, painful and sometimes locally invasive, generating cosmetic problems. This report discusses an adolescent patient who presented with an isolated, giant plexiform neurofibroma on her leg that was confused with a vascular lesion due to its clinical aspects. Once the diagnosis was confirmed by surgical biopsy, excision of the lesion was performed with improvement of the symptoms. PMID:27192529

  14. [Setting up situated learning in vascular rehabilitation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathe, Nathalie; Lascoux, Léa; Puchault, Hélène

    2014-01-01

    A pedagogical tool as well as a concept, situated learning describes the skills used in a situation in a given context, structuring the reflection, analysis and choice of nursing procedures, based on theoretical knowledge, know-how and interpersonal skills. A vascular rehabilitation team has chosen to formalise two situations from among the most common care procedures carried out in the department: the changing of complex dressings and ensuring the personal hygiene and comfort of a dependent patient with skin wounds.

  15. European red list of vascular plants

    OpenAIRE

    Abeli, Th.; Acevedo Rodríguez, A.; Aguiar, Carlos

    2011-01-01

    The European Red List is a review of the conservation status of c. 6,000 European species (mammals, reptiles, amphibians, dragonflies, butterflies, freshwater fishes, and selected groups of beetles, molluscs, and vascular plants) according to IUCN regional Red Listing guidelines. It identifies those species that are threatened with extinction at the regional level – in order that appropriate conservation action can be taken to improve their status. This Red List public...

  16. Split Rejection in Vascularized Composite Allotransplantation

    OpenAIRE

    Sinha, Indranil; Pomahac, Bohdan

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Graft monitoring following vascularized composite allotransplantation (VCA) relies primarily on serial skin biopsy. However, given that VCA comprised multiple tissue types, skin biopsy may not accurately reflect rejection in other transplanted tissue. Methods: A review of the literature on episodes of both acute and chronic rejection following VCA was completed. Special attention was given to how these patients were monitored for rejection and whether skin biopsy accurately refl...

  17. Role of BKCa channels in diabetic vascular complications

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qian Lingling; Liu Xiaoyu; Wang Ruxing

    2014-01-01

    Objective This review focuses on the role of the large conductance calcium-activated potassium (BKCa) channels in diabetic vascular complications.Data sources Relevant articles published in English or Chinese from 1981 to present were selected from PubMed.The search terms were "BKCa channels" and "diabetes".Important references from selected articles were also retrieved.Study selection Articles regarding the role of BKCa channels in diabetic vascular complications and relevant mechanisms were selected.Results The BKCa channels are abundantly expressed in vascular smooth cells and play an important role in regulation of vascular tone.Multiple studies indicated that the expression and function of BKCa channels are altered by different mechanisms in diabetic vascular diseases such as coronary arterial disease,cerebral arterial disease,and diabetic retinopathy.Conclusion BKCa channels may play an important role in diabetic vascular complications and may be an effective therapeutic target for relieving and reducing the burden of diabetic vascular complications.

  18. Vascular parkinsonism: analysis of seven cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silva Elton Gomes da

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Neuroimaging studies of elderly individuals reveal alterations in the white matter that are incompatible with the patient?s parkinsonism, mistakenly classified as vascular parkinsonism (VP. METHOD: This study was conducted on a population composed of 20 patients with Parkinson?s disease (PD whose neuroimaging exams revealed vascular alterations in the white matter and seven patients with VP in order to compare diagnostic criteria. RESULTS: Age at disease onset of patients with PD was 55±12 years and patients with VP it was 62±13 years. Twelve patients with PD and five patients with VP presented arterial hypertension; three patients with VP and two patients with PD presented gait impairment; all patients with VP presented rigidity and bradykinesia, six of them presented resting tremor; 19 patients with PD presented tremor and 19 of them presented rigidity, while 17 presented bradykinesia. When the symptoms and evolution of both diseases were compared, the vascular alterations in the white matter were considered unspecific. CONCLUSION: Since clinical symptoms are unspecific, a differential diagnosis requires neuroimaging, good response to levodopa and clinical evolution.

  19. Exercise training improves vascular mitochondrial function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Song-Young; Rossman, Matthew J; Gifford, Jayson R; Bharath, Leena P; Bauersachs, Johann; Richardson, Russell S; Abel, E Dale; Symons, J David; Riehle, Christian

    2016-04-01

    Exercise training is recognized to improve cardiac and skeletal muscle mitochondrial respiratory capacity; however, the impact of chronic exercise on vascular mitochondrial respiratory function is unknown. We hypothesized that exercise training concomitantly increases both vascular mitochondrial respiratory capacity and vascular function. Arteries from both sedentary (SED) and swim-trained (EX, 5 wk) mice were compared in terms of mitochondrial respiratory function, mitochondrial content, markers of mitochondrial biogenesis, redox balance, nitric oxide (NO) signaling, and vessel function. Mitochondrial complex I and complex I + II state 3 respiration and the respiratory control ratio (complex I + II state 3 respiration/complex I state 2 respiration) were greater in vessels from EX relative to SED mice, despite similar levels of arterial citrate synthase activity and mitochondrial DNA content. Furthermore, compared with the SED mice, arteries from EX mice displayed elevated transcript levels ofperoxisome proliferative activated receptor-γ coactivator-1αand the downstream targetscytochrome c oxidase subunit IV isoform 1,isocitrate dehydrogenase(Idh)2, andIdh3a, increased manganese superoxide dismutase protein expression, increased endothelial NO synthase phosphorylation (Ser(1177)), and suppressed reactive oxygen species generation (allPrespiratory capacity and evidence of improved redox balance, which may, at least in part, be attributable to elevated NO bioavailability, have the potential to protect against age- and disease-related challenges to arterial function. PMID:26825520

  20. Reversible vascular calcifications associated with hypervitaminosis D.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cirillo, Massimo; Bilancio, Giancarlo; Cirillo, Chiara

    2016-02-01

    A 64-year-old man was hospitalized in 2002 with symptoms of stupor, weakness, and renal colic. The clinical examination indicated borderline hypertension, small masses in the glutei, and polyuria. Laboratory tests evidenced high serum concentrations of creatinine, calcium, and phosphate. Imaging assessments disclosed widespread vascular calcifications, gluteal calcifications, and pelvic ectasia. Subsequent lab tests indicated suppressed serum parathyroid hormone, extremely high serum 25-hydroxy vitamin D, and normal serum 1,25-dihydroxy vitamin D. Treatment was started with intravenous infusion of saline and furosemide due to the evidence of hypercalcemia. Prednisone and omeprazole were added given the evidence of hypervitaminosis D. The treatment improved serum calcium, kidney function, and consciousness. The medical history disclosed recent treatment with exceptionally high doses of slow-release intra-muscular cholecalciferol and the recent excretion of urinary stones. The patient was discharged when it was possible to stop the intravenous treatment. The post-discharge treatment included oral hydration, furosemide, prednisone and omeprazole for approximately 6 months up to complete resolution of the hypercalcemia. The patient came back 12 years later because of microhematuria. Lab tests were normal for calcium/phosphorus homeostasis and kidney function. Imaging tests indicated only minor vascular calcifications. This is the first evidence of reversible vascular calcifications secondary to hypervitaminosis D. PMID:26318020

  1. Vascular cognitive impairment, a cardiovascular complication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frances, Adiukwu; Sandra, Ofori; Lucy, Ugbomah

    2016-06-22

    Over the past two decades, the term vascular cognitive impairment (VCI) has been used to refer to a spectrum of cognitive decline characterized by executive dysfunction, associated with vascular pathology. With 30% of stroke survivors showing cognitive impairments, it is regarded as the most common cause of cognitive impairment. This is a narrative review of available literature citing sources from PubMed, MEDLINE and Google Scholar. VCI has a high prevalence both before and after a stroke and is associated with great economic and caregiver burden. Despite this, there is no standardized diagnostic criteria for VCI. Hypertension has been identified as a risk factor for VCI and causes changes in cerebral vessel structure and function predisposing to lacuna infarcts and small vessel haemorrhages in the frontostriatal loop leading to executive dysfunction and other cognitive impairments. Current trials have shown promising results in the use of antihypertensive medications in the management of VCI and prevention of disease progression to vascular dementia. Prevention of VCI is necessary in light of the looming dementia pandemic. All patients with cardiovascular risk factors would therefore benefit from cognitive screening with screening instruments sensitive to executive dysfunction as well as prompt and adequate control of hypertension. PMID:27354961

  2. Rodent Models of Vascular Cognitive Impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yi; Kimura-Ohba, Shihoko; Thompson, Jeffrey; Rosenberg, Gary A

    2016-10-01

    Vascular cognitive impairment dementia (VCID), which is an increasingly important cause of dementia in the elderly, lacks effective treatments. Many different types of vascular disease are included under the diagnosis of VCID, including large vessel disease with multiple strokes and small vessel disease with lacunar infarcts and white matter disease. Animal models have been developed to study the multiple forms of VCID. Because of its progressive course, small vessel disease (SVD) is thought to be the optimal form of VCID for treatment. One theory is that the pathophysiology involves hypoxic hypoperfusion resulting in injury to the white matter and neuronal death. Bilateral occlusion of the common carotid arteries (BCAO) in a normotensive rat, which reduces cerebral blood flow, induces hypoxia with white matter damage; this model has been used to test drugs to block the injury. Another model is the spontaneously hypertensive/stroke prone rat (SHR/SP). Hypertension leads to small vessel disease resulting in progressive damage to the white matter, cortex, and hippocampus. Bilateral carotid artery stenosis (BCAS) with coils or ameroid constrictors produces a slower development of changes than BCAO, avoiding the acute ischemia. A few studies have been done with the two-clip, two-vessel occlusion renal model for induction of hypertension. There are benefits and drawbacks to each of these models with the model selected depending on the type of vascular damage that is to be studied. This review describes the most commonly used models, and the drugs that have been used to reduce the damage. PMID:27498679

  3. Connective tissue: Vascular and hematological (blood) support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvino, Nick

    2003-01-01

    Connective Tissue (CT) is a ubiquitous component of all major tissues and structures of the body (50% of all body protein is CT), including that of the blood, vascular, muscle, tendon, ligament, fascia, bone, joint, IVD's (intervertebral discs) and skin. Because of its ubiquitous nature, CT is an often overlooked component of any essential nutritional program that may address the structure, and/or function of these tissues. The central role of CT in the health of a virtually all cells, tissues, organs, and organ systems, is discussed. General nutritional CT support strategies, as well as specific CT support strategies that focus on blood, vascular, structural system (eg, muscles, tendons, ligaments, fascia, bone, and joints), integument (skin) and inflammatory and immune mediation will be discussed here and will deal with connective tissue dynamics and dysfunction. An overview of the current scientific understanding and possible options for naturally enhancing the structure and function of CT through the application of these concepts will be discussed in this article, with specific attention on the vascular and hematological systems.

  4. Vascular parkinsonism--characteristics, pathogenesis and treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korczyn, Amos D

    2015-06-01

    Parkinson disease is a primary degenerative disease of the brain, but parkinsonism can also result from a variety of vascular disorders. Vascular parkinsonism (VP) most frequently presents as lower body parkinsonism, a condition that is accompanied by the development of white matter lesions (WMLs) and lacunes in the brain. Patients with lower body parkinsonism exhibit gait impairment and go on to develop urinary incontinence, abnormal pyramidal responses and cognitive decline. However, WMLs and lacunes are also common observations among elderly individuals who do not have parkinsonism, which causes difficulty in determining the pathogenetic mechanisms that lead to VP. In addition, imaging studies suggest that many pathological and clinical features are common to VP and Binswanger disease, a type of small vessel vascular dementia. This Review summarizes current understanding of the clinical characteristics of VP, as well as knowledge gained from neuroimaging and nuclear imaging of the pathological features of VP. The lack of current treatment options, and the emergence of new therapies such as cerebrospinal fluid drainage, are also discussed. Finally, consideration is given to whether the overlap between VP and Binswanger disease means that these two disorders should be considered as part of the same disease entity. PMID:25917706

  5. Vascular permeability in cerebral cavernous malformations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikati, Abdul G; Khanna, Omaditya; Zhang, Lingjiao; Girard, Romuald; Shenkar, Robert; Guo, Xiaodong; Shah, Akash; Larsson, Henrik B W; Tan, Huan; Li, Luying; Wishnoff, Matthew S; Shi, Changbin; Christoforidis, Gregory A; Awad, Issam A

    2015-10-01

    Patients with the familial form of cerebral cavernous malformations (CCMs) are haploinsufficient for the CCM1, CCM2, or CCM3 gene. Loss of corresponding CCM proteins increases RhoA kinase-mediated endothelial permeability in vitro, and in mouse brains in vivo. A prospective case-controlled observational study investigated whether the brains of human subjects with familial CCM show vascular hyperpermeability by dynamic contrast-enhanced quantitative perfusion magnetic resonance imaging, in comparison with CCM cases without familial disease, and whether lesional or brain vascular permeability correlates with CCM disease activity. Permeability in white matter far (WMF) from lesions was significantly greater in familial than in sporadic cases, but was similar in CCM lesions. Permeability in WMF increased with age in sporadic patients, but not in familial cases. Patients with more aggressive familial CCM disease had greater WMF permeability compared to those with milder disease phenotype, but similar lesion permeability. Subjects receiving statin medications for routine cardiovascular indications had a trend of lower WMF, but not lesion, permeability. This is the first demonstration of brain vascular hyperpermeability in humans with an autosomal dominant disease, as predicted mechanistically. Brain permeability, more than lesion permeability, may serve as a biomarker of CCM disease activity, and help calibrate potential drug therapy.

  6. Vascular metallomics: copper in the vasculature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Easter, Renee N; Qilin Chan; Lai, Barry; Ritman, Erik L; Caruso, Joseph A; Zhenyu Qin

    2010-02-01

    Owing to recent progress in analytical techniques, metallomics are evolving from detecting distinct trace metals in a defined state to monitor the dynamic changes in the abundance and location of trace metals in vitro and in vivo. Vascular metallomics is an emerging field that studies the role of trace metals in vasculature. This review will introduce common metallomics techniques including atomic absorption spectrometry, inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry, inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry and X-ray fluorescence spectrometry with a summary table to compare these techniques. Moreover, we will summarize recent research findings that have applied these techniques to human population studies in cardiovascular diseases, with a particular emphasis on the role of copper in these diseases. In order to address the issue of interdisciplinary studies between metallomics and vascular biology, we will review the progress of efforts to understand the role of copper in neovascularization. This recent advance in the metallomics field may be a powerful tool to elucidate the signaling pathways and specific biological functions of these trace metals. Finally, we summarize the evidence to support the notion that copper is a dynamic signaling molecule. As a future direction, vascular metallomics studies may lead to the identification of targets for diagnosis and therapy in cardiovascular disease.

  7. Gasotransmitters in Vascular Complications of Diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Born, Joost C; Hammes, Hans-Peter; Greffrath, Wolfgang; van Goor, Harry; Hillebrands, Jan-Luuk

    2016-02-01

    In the past decades three gaseous signaling molecules-so-called gasotransmitters-have been identified: nitric oxide (NO), carbon monoxide (CO), and hydrogen sulfide (H2S). These gasotransmitters are endogenously produced by different enzymes in various cell types and play an important role in physiology and disease. Despite their specific functions, all gasotransmitters share the capacity to reduce oxidative stress, induce angiogenesis, and promote vasorelaxation. In patients with diabetes, a lower bioavailability of the different gasotransmitters is observed when compared with healthy individuals. As yet, it is unknown whether this reduction precedes or results from diabetes. The increased risk for vascular disease in patients with diabetes, in combination with the extensive clinical, financial, and societal burden, calls for action to either prevent or improve the treatment of vascular complications. In this Perspective, we present a concise overview of the current data on the bioavailability of gasotransmitters in diabetes and their potential role in the development and progression of diabetes-associated microvascular (retinopathy, neuropathy, and nephropathy) and macrovascular (cerebrovascular, coronary artery, and peripheral arterial diseases) complications. Gasotransmitters appear to have both inhibitory and stimulatory effects in the course of vascular disease development. This Perspective concludes with a discussion on gasotransmitter-based interventions as a therapeutic option.

  8. Heterogeneity of vascular endothelial cells with relevance to diagnosis of vascular tumours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuzu, I.; Bicknell, R.; Harris, A. L.; Jones, M.; Gatter, K. C.; Mason, D. Y.

    1992-01-01

    AIMS: To determine the distribution of factor VIII related antigen, CD31, CD34 and CD36 in normal and malignant human vascular tissues using a panel of well characterised monoclonal antibodies. METHODS: Frozen and fixed material from a wide range of normal tissues and routinely processed material from 43 benign and malignant vascular tumours were examined. Single immunocytochemical labelling was performed using the APAAP technique. Double staining involved the sequential use of APAAP with the peroxidase method. RESULTS: Human vascular endothelium was antigenically heterogeneous. One of the most restricted markers was factor VIII related antigen, despite its having been widely used in diagnostic pathology as a marker of vascular endothelium and of the tumours which arise from it. Three antibodies against factor VIII related antigen, CD31 (JC70) and CD34 (QBend 10) were identified as immunostaining routinely processed, formalin fixed, paraffin wax sections. Each antibody gave different staining when tested on a range of vascular tumours, both benign and malignant. CONCLUSIONS: A small panel of three reagents (factor VIII related antigen, CD31 (JC70) and CD34 (QBend 10)) should be used by diagnostic pathologists who want to show the presence of cells of endothelial origin in routine material. Images PMID:1371777

  9. Determination of the optical properties of vascular tissues: potential applications in vascular-targeting photodynamic therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Yongbin; Chen, Ping; Lin, Lie; Huang, Zheng; Tang, Guoqing; Xu, Heping

    2007-11-01

    It has been proven that photodynamic therapy (PDT) is effective in treating various malignant and non-malignant diseases. In the treatment of certain non-malignant vascular diseases, such as wet age-related macular degeneration (AMD) and port wine stains (PWS), unlike in the treatment of malignant solid tumors, light irradiation usually starts immediately after the intravenous (IV) injection of photosensitizers while the photosensitizers is mainly circulating inside blood vessels. Under such vascular-targeting action mode, photoreactions between photosensitizers and light can selectively destruct the vascular tissues. Light distribution is complex so that it is important to understand the optical properties of targeted vessels and surrounding tissues. To better determine the optical properties of vascular tissues, we developed a tissue-simulating phantom and adopted frequency-domain measurement of phase difference. Absorption and reduced scattering coefficients in blood vessels were estimated and light distribution was simulated by the Monte Carlo method. These determinations are essential for the implication of better light dosimetry models in clinical photodynamic therapy and vascular-targeting PDT, in particular.

  10. Comparative characterization of stromal vascular cells derived from three types of vascular wall and adipose tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Santsun; Eto, Hitomi; Kato, Harunosuke; Doi, Kentaro; Kuno, Shinichiro; Kinoshita, Kahori; Ma, Hsu; Tsai, Chi-Han; Chou, Wan-Ting; Yoshimura, Kotaro

    2013-12-01

    Multipotent stem/progenitor cells localize perivascularly in many organs and vessel walls. These tissue-resident stem/progenitor cells differentiate into vascular endothelial cells, pericytes, and other mesenchymal lineages, and participate in physiological maintenance and repair of vasculatures. In this study, we characterized stromal vascular cells obtained through the explant culture method from three different vessel walls in humans: arterial wall (ART; >500 μm in diameter), venous wall (VN; >500 μm in diameter), and small vessels in adipose tissue (SV; arterioles and venules, adipose-derived stem/stromal cells (ASCs). All stromal vascular cells of different origins presented fibroblast-like morphology and we could not visually discriminate one population from another. Flow cytometry showed that the cultured population heterogeneously expressed a variety of surface antigens associated with stem/progenitor cells, but CD105 was expressed by most cells in all groups, suggesting that the cells generally shared the characteristics of mesenchymal stem cells. Our histological and flow cytometric data suggested that the main population of vessel wall-derived stromal vascular cells were CD34(+)/CD31(-) and came from the tunica adventitia and areola tissue surrounding the adventitia. CD271 (p75NTR) was expressed by the vasa vasorum in the VN adventitia and by a limited population in the adventitia of SV. All three populations differentiated into multiple lineages as did ASCs. ART cells induced the largest quantity of calcium formation in the osteogenic medium, whereas ASCs showed the greatest adipogenic differentiation. SV and VN stromal cells had greater potency for network formation than did ART stromal cells. In conclusion, the three stromal vascular populations exhibited differential functional properties. Our results have clinical implications for vascular diseases such as arterial wall calcification and possible applications to regenerative therapies

  11. Vulvar vascular tumors: a clinicopathologic study of 85 patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papalas, John A; Sangueza, Omar P; Puri, Puja K; Robboy, Stanley J; Selim, Maria A

    2013-02-01

    The subepidermal hormonally sensitive tissue of the vulva is anatomically unique and may give rise to a wide variety of vascular tumors. As a consequence, classifying vulvar vascular lesions has been challenging due both to the wide variety of lesions that may be encountered and the heterogeneity in reporting across several disciplines. The purpose of this study is to present an institutional experience of vulvar vascular lesions. Overall, 85 patients were identified over a 26-year period. Vascular lesions belonging to the following classes included (n, %total) benign vascular tumors (32, 38%), dilatations of preexisting vessels (31, 36%), hyperplasia/reactive (7, 8%), tumors with significant vascular component (11, 13%), malformations (3, 4%), and malignant vascular tumors (1, 1%). Two reaction patterns based on vulvar lymphatic pathology were identified: one is a stromal dominant pattern and the other is a vascular dominant pattern. Vulvar vascular malformations and true vascular malignancies, although rare, may have associated high morbidity. To accurately classify vulvar lymphatic lesions, the pathologist must carefully consider the patient's clinical history taking into account features such as preexisting lymphedema. PMID:23348141

  12. Neuropathological diagnosis of vascular cognitive impairment and vascular dementia with implications for Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalaria, Raj N

    2016-05-01

    Vascular dementia (VaD) is recognised as a neurocognitive disorder, which is explained by numerous vascular causes in the general absence of other pathologies. The heterogeneity of cerebrovascular disease makes it challenging to elucidate the neuropathological substrates and mechanisms of VaD as well as vascular cognitive impairment (VCI). Consensus and accurate diagnosis of VaD relies on wide-ranging clinical, neuropsychometric and neuroimaging measures with subsequent pathological confirmation. Pathological diagnosis of suspected clinical VaD requires adequate postmortem brain sampling and rigorous assessment methods to identify important substrates. Factors that define the subtypes of VaD include the nature and extent of vascular pathologies, degree of involvement of extra and intracranial vessels and the anatomical location of tissue changes. Atherosclerotic and cardioembolic diseases appear the most common substrates of vascular brain injury or infarction. Small vessel disease characterised by arteriolosclerosis and lacunar infarcts also causes cortical and subcortical microinfarcts, which appear to be the most robust substrates of cognitive impairment. Diffuse WM changes with loss of myelin and axonal abnormalities are common to almost all subtypes of VaD. Medial temporal lobe and hippocampal atrophy accompanied by variable hippocampal sclerosis are also features of VaD as they are of Alzheimer's disease. Recent observations suggest that there is a vascular basis for neuronal atrophy in both the temporal and frontal lobes in VaD that is entirely independent of any Alzheimer pathology. Further knowledge on specific neuronal and dendro-synaptic changes in key regions resulting in executive dysfunction and other cognitive deficits, which define VCI and VaD, needs to be gathered. Hereditary arteriopathies such as cerebral autosomal dominant arteriopathy with subcortical infarcts and leukoencephalopathy or CADASIL have provided insights into the mechanisms of

  13. The clinical research of the efifcacy of Troxerotin and cerebro hydrolysate injection(TCHI) for the treatment of Neuralgia of herpes zoster%复方曲肽注射液治疗带状疱疹性神经痛的效果研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田刘军; 范天仁; 尹凤婷; 周楠; 张伟丽

    2016-01-01

    目的:研究复方曲肽注射液对带状疱疹性神经痛患者的作用效果。方法选取2014年9月~2015年6月在我科住院的诊断明确的带状疱疹性神经痛患者60例,将其随机分为治疗组与对照组,各30例,对照组采用阿昔洛韦、维生素B1、维生素B12等常规治疗,治疗组加用复方曲肽注射液,疗程为2周。结果治疗组有效率83.3%,对照组有效率50%,两组比较差异有统计学意义(P<0.05)。结论复方曲肽注射液在治疗带状疱疹性神经痛方面起到显著疗效。%objective To investigate the efifcacy of troxerotin and cerebro hydrolysate injection(TCHI) in the treatment of neuralgia of herpes zoster.Methods Select September201-June2015in our hospital diagnosis of herpes zoster neuralgia clear60patients were randomly divided into treatment group and control group(30cases),30cases in treatment group were administrated with troxerotin and cerebro hydrolysate injection(TCHI),while the other 30 cases in the control group were given conventional treatment,one course lasted2week.Results The effective rates were83.3%and50%(P<0.05)in the therapeutic group and the control group,respectively.Conclusion Troxerotin and cerebro hydrolysate injection(TCHI)plays a significant effect in terms of the treatment of neuralgia of herpes zoster.

  14. Vascular lesions secondary to osteotomy by corticotomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spinelli, Francesco; Spinelli, Renato; Stilo, Francesco; De Caridi, Giovanni; Mirenda, Francesco

    2007-01-01

    Management of vascular traumas is frequently delayed. Vascular injuries after elective operation for bone lengthening or correction of a deformity are very'rare situations. We describe 3 cases. Case 1: male, aged 22, undergoing corticotomy for bone lengthening; immediately presented acute limb ischaemia due to a partial lesion of the popliteal artery, documented by U.S. After 7 h, direct reconstruction of the artery and fasciotomies were performed. Case 2: male, aged 27, undergoing directional osteotomy for genu varus correction. For 30 days, constant increase in leg volume and decrease in function. US showed an important haematoma at the popliteal level; arteriography documented a partial lesion of the infra-genicular popliteal artery and a voluminous false aneurysm. Direct correction of the artery and fasciotomies were performed. Case 3: male, aged 22, undergoing corticotomy for leg lengthening; immediately presented leg pain with decreased distal pulses. After 4h, there was an increase in leg volume, and arteriography showed a total lesion of the infra-genicular popliteal artery and an arteriovenous fistula. Popliteo-tibial bypass with the contralateral greater saphenous vein and fasciotomies were performed. After 1 month endovascular closure of the fistula was obtained. All patients had recovered after two months with only minor leg insufficiency. Patency of the bypass and absence of infections or delayed false aneurysms were achieved. Vascular injuries after elective orthopaedic procedures are very rare situations. Such lesions are caused by an osteotomy via corticotomy performed percutaneously. The variety of clinical presentations accounts for the difficulty in diagnosing such lesions and for the delays in implementing treatment. It is very important to obtain an early diagnosis complete with an arteriography. PMID:17966782

  15. T cells in vascular inflammatory diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucas L Lintermans

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Inflammation of the human vasculature is a manifestation of many different diseases ranging from systemic autoimmune diseases to chronic inflammatory diseases, in which multiple types of immune cells are involved. For both autoimmune diseases and chronic inflammatory diseases several observations support a key role for T lymphocytes in these disease pathologies, but the underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. Previous studies in several autoimmune diseases have demonstrated a significant role for a specific subset of CD4+ T cells termed effector memory T cells. This expanded population of effector memory T cells may contribute to tissue injury and disease progression. These cells exert multiple pro-inflammatory functions through the release of effector cytokines. Many of these cytokines have been detected in the inflammatory lesions and participate in the vasculitic reaction, contributing to recruitment of macrophages, neutrophils, dendritic cells, NK cells, B cells and T cells. In addition, functional impairment of regulatory T cells paralyzes anti-inflammatory effects in vasculitic disorders. Interestingly, activation of effector memory T cells in uniquely dependent on the voltage-gated Kv1.3 potassium channel providing an anchor for specific drug targeting. In this review, we focus on the CD4+ T cells in the context of vascular inflammation and describe the evidence supporting the role of different T cell subsets in vascular inflammation. Selective targeting of pathogenic effector memory T cells might enable a more tailored therapeutic approach that avoids unwanted adverse side effects of generalized immunosuppression by modulating the effector functions of T cell responses to inhibit the development of vascular inflammation.

  16. Extraglandular and intraglandular vascularization of canine prostate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefanov, Miroslav

    2004-03-01

    The literature on the vascularization of the canine prostate is reviewed and the clinical significance of prostate morphology is described. Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), combined with improved corrosion casting methods, reveal new morphological details that promise better diagnostics and treatment but also require expansion of clinical nomenclature. A proposal is made for including two previously unnamed veins in Nomina Anatomica Veterinaria (NAV). The canine prostate has two lobes with independent vascularization. Each lobe is supplied through the left and right a. prostatica, respectively. The a. prostatica sprouts three small vessels (cranial, middle, and caudal) towards the prostate gland. A. prostatica is a small-size artery whose wall structure is similar to the arteries of the muscular type. V. prostatica is a small-size valved vein. The canine prostate has capsular, parenchymal, and urethral vascular zones. The surface vessels of the capsule are predominantly veins and the diameter of arterial vessels is larger than that of the veins. The trabecular vessels are of two types: direct and branched. The prostate parenchyma is supplied by branches of the trabecular vessels. The periacinary capillaries are fenestrated and form a net in a circular pattern. The processes of the myoepithelial cells embrace both the acins and the periacinar capillaries. In the prostate ductal system. there are spermatozoa. The prostatic part of the urethra is supplied by an independent branch of a. prostatica. The prostatic urethral part is drained by v. prostatica, the vein of the urethral bulb and the ventral prostate veins. M. urethralis begins as early as the urethral prostatic part. The greater part of the white muscle fibers in m. urethralis suggest an enhanced anaerobic metabolism.

  17. Water Movement in Vascular Plants: A Primer

    OpenAIRE

    Sane, Sanjay P.; Singh, Amit K.

    2011-01-01

    The origin of land plants was one of the most important events in evolutionary history of earth in terms of its broad impact on metazoan life and the biotic environment. Because vascular tissues enabled land plants to meet the challenges of terrestrial life, it is important to understand the mechanistic basis of water transport through these tissues from soil to the canopy of trees, in some cases almost 100 meters high. The answers to these questions involve not only the biology of plant vasc...

  18. Risk factors for vascular disease and dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breteler, M M; Bots, M L; Ott, A; Hofman, A

    1998-01-01

    There is increasing evidence that risk factors for vascular disease and stroke are associated with cognitive impairment and Alzheimer's disease. This paper reviews current knowledge on the relationship between risk factors for stroke and Alzheimer's disease. The focus will be on 'classical' risk factors, including age and gender, socioeconomic status, diabetes, cholesterol, prior cardiovascular disease, atrial fibrillation, cigarette smoking and alcohol use; as well as on factors that more recently have been recognized as putative risk factors, including APOE genotype, serum homocysteine concentration, relative abnormalities in the hemostatic and thrombotic systems, and inflammation.

  19. Role of quercetin in vascular physiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chirumbolo, Salvatore

    2012-12-01

    A recent paper in the Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology has shown that quercetin has a vascular protective effect associated with eNOS up-regulation, blood GSH redox ratio, and reduction of oxidative stress. Recent reports have recommended the consumption of quercetin, as it may contribute to a reduction in the risk of cardiovascular disease. However, the mechanisms by which quercetin exerts its action have not been fully elucidated. The majority of these mechanisms have been identified with models using animals treated with quercetin, and relatively few have been corroborated in human studies, which indicates the need for further investigation.

  20. Percutaneous Cryotherapy of Vascular Malformation: Initial Experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cornelis, F., E-mail: francoiscornelis@hotmail.com [Institut Bergonie, Department of Radiology (France); Neuville, A. [Institut Bergonie, Department of Pathology (France); Labreze, C. [Pellegrin Hospital, Department of Pediatric Dermatology (France); Kind, M. [Institut Bergonie, Department of Radiology (France); Bui, B. [Institut Bergonie, Department of Oncology (France); Midy, D. [Pellegrin Hospital, Department of Vascular Surgery (France); Palussiere, J. [Institut Bergonie, Department of Radiology (France); Grenier, N. [Pellegrin Hospital, Department of Radiology (France)

    2013-06-15

    The present report describes a case of percutaneous cryotherapy in a 36-year-old woman with a large and painful pectoral venous malformation. Cryoablation was performed in a single session for this 9-cm mass with 24 h hospitalisation. At 2- and 6-month follow-up, the pain had completely disappeared, and magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated a significant decrease in size. Percutaneous cryoablation shows promise as a feasible and apparently safe method for local control in patients with symptomatic venous vascular malformations.

  1. Aneurisma micotico de origem extra-vascular

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelson Pires Ferreira

    1976-12-01

    Full Text Available É relatado o caso de uma paciente com três anos de idade portadora de oftalmoplegia completa unilateral e aneurisma da artéria carótida interna, em sua porção intra-cavernosa. A etiologia infecciosa extra-vascular, na vigência de tromboflebite de seio cavernoso, foi considerada. As informações da literatura são discutidas, sendo comentada a infrequência da patologia. A indicação de ligadura da artéria carótida interna, no tratamento desses aneurismas, merece ulterior comprovação.

  2. Interventional Management of Vascular Renal Transplant Complications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolli, Kanti Pallav; LaBerge, Jeanne M

    2016-09-01

    Renal transplantation is the therapy of choice in patients with end stage renal disease. Although transplant rejection remains the most common complication after renal transplantation, vascular anatomical complications occur in 1%-23% of renal transplant recipients. Interventional radiologists play an important role in the management of these complications. This review discusses the role of image-guided interventions within the context of multidisciplinary patient management. Particular emphasis is given to anatomical considerations unique to this patient population, techniques used for image-guided interventions, and outcomes of image-guided interventions. PMID:27641457

  3. Multinephron dynamics on the renal vascular network

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marsh, Donald J; Wexler, Anthony S; Brazhe, Alexey;

    2012-01-01

    nephron models at each of the 16 sites, and symmetry breaking by varying nephron length. The symmetric model achieved synchronization of all elements in the network. As little as 1% variation in nephron length caused extensive desynchronization, although synchronization was maintained in small nephron...... clusters. In-phase synchronization predominated among nephrons separated by 1 or 3 vascular nodes, and anti-phase synchronization for 5 or 7 nodes of separation. Nephron dynamics were irregular and contained low frequency fluctuations. Results are consistent with simultaneous blood flow measurements...

  4. Endogenous pancreatic polypeptide in different vascular beds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, J H; Schwartz, Tania; Bülow, J B

    1986-01-01

    The plasma concentration of pancreatic polypeptide (PP-like immunoreactivity) was measured in different vascular beds in order to determine regional kinetics of endogenous PP in fasting, supine subjects with normal or moderately decreased kidney function. Patients with kidney disease (n = 10) had a...... concentration (r = 0.70, P less than 0.01). Hepatic venous PP was significantly higher than systemic PP in both controls and patients with kidney disease (P less than 0.001, n = 15). The values were positively correlated (r = 0.98, P less than 0.001; slope = 1.37 +/- 0.05, P less than 0.001), indicating a...

  5. Vascular cognitive impairments in chronic kidney disease

    OpenAIRE

    I. V. Rogova; Fomin, V. V.; I. V. Damulin; E. G. Minakova; O. Yu. Selivanova; Yu. A. Petleva

    2015-01-01

    Objective: to study the specific features of development of cognitive impairments (CIs), the role of traditional cardiovascular risk factors and renal failure-induced factors in patients with Stages I–IV chronic kidney disease (CKD) and to assess an association of CIs with the signs of vascular wall remodeling in them. Patients and methods. Fifty-one patients aged 53±10 years with CKD were examined. Among them, there were 20 patients with Stages I–II CKD: a glomerular filtration rate (GFR) of...

  6. Percutaneous Cryotherapy of Vascular Malformation: Initial Experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present report describes a case of percutaneous cryotherapy in a 36-year-old woman with a large and painful pectoral venous malformation. Cryoablation was performed in a single session for this 9-cm mass with 24 h hospitalisation. At 2- and 6-month follow-up, the pain had completely disappeared, and magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated a significant decrease in size. Percutaneous cryoablation shows promise as a feasible and apparently safe method for local control in patients with symptomatic venous vascular malformations.

  7. Selective vascular injury during cutaneous laser therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tunnell, James William

    Pulsed laser irradiation in conjunction with cryogen spray cooling (CSC) can induce selective vascular injury to remove cutaneous hypervascular malformations such as port wine stains (PWS), hemangiomas, and facial veins. In this group of studies, we characterized the cryogen heat removal process and determined the effects of pulsed laser irradiation in conjunction with cryogen spray cooling of human skin. First, we employed an inverse heat conduction algorithm to measure the thermal boundary condition due to CSC in in vitro skin phantoms. Second, we developed a mathematical model of laser irradiation in conjunction with CSC in human skin. We determined tissue damage and temperature profiles due to varying combinations of laser pulse duration, radiant exposure, and CSC application times. Finally, we used ex vivo and in vivo human skin to determine the effects of high radiant exposures and CSC on epidermal and vascular injury. CSC induces a dynamic cooling effect, removing heat from the skin both during and following the spurt application time. Residual cryogen, deposited on the skin surface during the cryogen spurt, remains on the skin surface several times as long as the as cryogen spurt itself. The heat removal rate during the cryogen spurt is greatest; however, the total energy removed following the cryogen spurt is also substantial (approximately half as much as during the spurt application time). CSC was effective in protecting the human skin epidermis in light to moderately pigmented skin. Mathematical modeling, ex vivo, and in vivo studies showed that the epidermal damage threshold could be increased by a factor of approximately two. Increased radiant exposures increased the risk of non-selective vascular injury observed in histology as injury to the epidermis and perivascular collagen; however, proper choice of cryogen cooling durations resulted in the elimination of epidermal injury as well as perivascular tissue injury. In addition, higher radiant

  8. Pulmonary manifestations of the collagen vascular diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiedemann, H P; Matthay, R A

    1989-12-01

    The collagen vascular diseases are a heterogeneous group of immunologically mediated inflammatory disorders. The organs and tissues that compose the respiratory system are frequently affected by these diseases. Potential targets of the inflammation and injury include the lung parenchyma, tracheobronchial tree, pulmonary vasculature, pleura, larynx, and respiratory muscles. In this article, the spectrum of respiratory disease caused by systemic lupus erythematosus, rheumatoid arthritis, scleroderma, polymyositis/dermatomyositis, mixed connective tissue disease, ankylosing spondylitis, relapsing polychondritis, and Sjögren's syndrome is reviewed. Where appropriate, therapeutic options are discussed.

  9. Molecular Mechanisms for Vascular Development and Secondary Cell Wall Formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jung Hyun; Wang, Huanzhong

    2016-01-01

    Vascular tissues are important for transporting water and nutrients throughout the plant and as physical support of upright growth. The primary constituents of vascular tissues, xylem, and phloem, are derived from the meristematic vascular procambium and cambium. Xylem cells develop secondary cell walls (SCWs) that form the largest part of plant lignocellulosic biomass that serve as a renewable feedstock for biofuel production. For the last decade, research on vascular development and SCW biosynthesis has seen rapid progress due to the importance of these processes to plant biology and to the biofuel industry. Plant hormones, transcriptional regulators and peptide signaling regulate procambium/cambium proliferation, vascular patterning, and xylem differentiation. Transcriptional regulatory pathways play a pivot role in SCW biosynthesis. Although most of these discoveries are derived from research in Arabidopsis, many genes have shown conserved functions in biofuel feedstock species. Here, we review the recent advances in our understanding of vascular development and SCW formation and discuss potential biotechnological uses. PMID:27047525

  10. Advances in the Management of Cerebral Vascular Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Imran Qadir

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available A cerebral vascular disease occurred with the arteries of brain due to the less supply of blood.  Stroke is mostly caused by cerebral vascular disease and it is also a common cause of vascular dementia due to reduced oxygen supply and blood flow to the brain. In industrialized countries, neurologic disability is most frequently caused by cerebeovascular disease. Individuals with cardiovascular disease, diabetes and high blood pressure etc are at higher possibility for cerebral vascular disease. After malignancy and heart disease, cerebral vascular disease is the third leading of death and estimated that an average 500,000 new stroke occurred in each year. Advance techniques such as Carotid Endarterectomy, Magnetic resonance imaging, Angiography and Single photon emission computed tomography etc are used for management of cerebral vascular disease.

  11. Early Vascular Aging: A New Target for Hypertension Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papakatsika, Sofia; Stabouli, Stella; Antza, Christina; Kotsis, Vasilios

    2016-01-01

    Vascular aging represents a progressive procedure involving biochemical, enzymatic, and cellular changes of the vascular tree. Early vascular aging (EVA), is defined as the inappropriate for age of vascular damage. Increased for age arterial stiffness is a biomarker that should be considered as a cardiovascular (CV) risk factor that can be manipulated. EVA is a new tool for guidance in everyday clinical praxis for patients at increased CV risk or a positive family history of early onset of cardiovascular events, such as stroke or coronary artery disease. Understanding the mechanisms promoting or protecting from EVA, a process that is in close relationship with CV diseases. The role of hypertension treatment against the development of vascular damage is important and different strategies could have a considerable impact on future vascular health. PMID:26548304

  12. Characterization of vascular tree architecture using the Tokunaga taxonomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galarreta-Valverde, Miguel A.; Zoghbi, Jihan M.; Pereira, Fabricio; Beregi, Jean-Paul; Mekkaoui, Choukri; Jackowski, Marcel P.

    2015-03-01

    The diagnosis of cardiovascular disease is usually assisted by resonance angiography (MRA) or computed tomography angiography (CTA) imaging. The identification of abnormal vascular architecture from angiographic three-dimensional images is therefore crucial to the diagnosis of cardiovascular disease. Automated detection and quantification of vascular structure and architecture thus holds significant clinical value. In this work, we employ a Lindenmayer system to represent vascular trees from angiographic images and describe a quantitative measure based on the Tokunaga taxonomy to differentiate vascular architectures. Synthetic vessel architectures with varying bifurcation patterns were compared and results showed that this architectural measure is proportional to the level of branching. In real MRA images, this measure was able to differentiate between normal and abnormal intracerebral vasculature containing an aneurysm. Hence, this methodology not only allows for compact representation of vascular architectures but also provides a quantitative metric of bifurcation complexity, which has the potential to characterize different types of vascular abnormalities.

  13. Mente, cerebro y educación

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilio SÁNCHEZ MIGUEL

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available En estas páginas se revisa el tipo de aportación que el desarrollo más reciente de las neurociencias ha hecho al estudio de la cognición y de la educación. Para ello, se considera la contribución de la neurociencia al estudio de (a los procesos cognitivos implicados en el aprendizaje, (b de la interacción entre ayudas y aprendizaje y (c de los logros del aprendizaje, contraponiendo en todos los casos los hallazgos obtenidos a través de medidas conductuales y las que proceden del registro de la actividad cerebral de seis líneas de investigación diferentes. En la segunda parte se analizan las consecuencias que pudieran tener esos conocimientos sobre la acción educativa.

  14. El cerebro, las drogas y los genes

    OpenAIRE

    Alejandra E. Ruiz Contreras; Mónica Méndez Díaz; Bertha Prieto Gómez; Antonio Romano; Seraid Caynas; Oscar Prospéro García

    2010-01-01

    En este segundo artículo sobre el tema reseñamos brevemente las drogas de abuso ilícitas. Describiremos también cómo la genética contribuye en forma importante en el desarrollo de la adicción. La marihuana (Cannabis sativa) es una de las drogas más populares entre los jóvenes. Se presenta para su consumo en dos formas: hachís, como un triturado de la planta seca y como aceite. Una vez consumida, sus efectos tardan en aparecer según la vía de administración. Por ejemplo, cuando se inhala, sus ...

  15. Drogas, cerebro y emoción

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Navarro, Miguel

    1999-05-01

    Full Text Available Not available.El Sistema Límbico es el responsable del procesamiento y expresión de las emociones producidas por el consumo de drogas de abuso. La vía mesolímbicacortical participa en las propiedades reforzadoras de los efectos agudos de las drogas, a través de múltiples señales en las que la activación dopaminérgica marca la señalización del estímulo y cambios en su relevancia. El estado adictivo se inicia por profundos cambios emocionales, en el que persiste un estado aversivo creciente y la pérdida del control en la toma de la droga, consecuencia del consumo crónico y la participación de algunas estructuras cerebrales integradas en la amígdala extendida. En este circuito interactúan varios sistemas neuroquímicos, responsables de los cambios neuroadaptativos y que operan como factores de vulnerabilidad. Se propone la existencia de mecanismos convergentes entre distintos sistemas de neurotransmisión como elementos adicionales en los cambios neuroadaptativos como estados transitorios en la adicción; y a su vez, como alternativa terapéutica futura.

  16. Blockade of Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Receptor 1 Prevents Inflammation and Vascular Leakage in Diabetic Retinopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianbo He

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Diabetic retinopathy (DR is a leading cause of blindness in working age adults. The objective of this study is to investigate the effects of vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 1 (VEGFR1 blockade on the complications of DR. Experimental models of diabetes were induced with streptozotocin (STZ treatment or Insulin2 gene mutation (Akita in mice. Protein expression and localization were examined by western blots (WB and immunofluorescence (IF. mRNA expression was quantified by PCR array and real-time PCR. The activity of VEGFR1 signaling was blocked by a neutralizing antibody called MF1. Vascular leakage was evaluated by measuring the leakage of [3H]-mannitol tracer into the retina and the IF staining of albumin. VEGFR1 blockade significantly inhibited diabetes-related vascular leakage, leukocytes-endothelial cell (EC adhesion (or retinal leukostasis, expression of intercellular adhesion molecule- (ICAM- 1 protein, abnormal localization and degeneration of the tight junction protein zonula occludens- (ZO- 1, and the cell adhesion protein vascular endothelial (VE cadherin. In addition, VEGFR1 blockade interfered with the gene expression of 10 new cytokines and chemokines: cxcl10, il10, ccl8, il1f6, cxcl15, ccl4, il13, ccl6, casp1, and ccr5. These results suggest that VEGFR1 mediates complications of DR and targeting this signaling pathway represents a potential therapeutic strategy for the prevention and treatment of DR.

  17. Local Augmented Angiotensinogen Secreted from Apoptotic Vascular Endothelial Cells Is a Vital Mediator of Vascular Remodelling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shyh-Jong Wu

    Full Text Available Vascular remodelling is a critical vasculopathy found in atheromatous diseases and allograft failures. The local renin angiotensin system (RAS has been implicated in vascular remodelling. However, the mechanisms by which the augmented local RAS is associated with the initial event of endothelial cell apoptosis in injured vasculature remain undefined. We induced the apoptosis of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs and vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs through serum starvation (SS. After the cells were subjected to SS, we found that the mRNA expression of angiotensinogen (AGT was increased by >3-fold in HUVECs and by approximately 2.5-fold in VSMCs. In addition, the expression of angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE mRNA was increased in VSMCs but decreased to 50% in HUVECs during the same apoptotic process. Increases in the expression of AGT protein and angiotensin II (Ang II were found in a serum-free medium conditioned by HUVECs (SSC. The increased Ang II was suppressed using lisinopril (an ACE inhibitor treatment. Moreover, the activation of ERK1/2 induced by the SSC in VSMCs was also suppressed by losartan. In conclusion, we first demonstrated that the augmented AGT released from apoptotic endothelial cells acts as a vital progenitor of Ang II to accelerate vascular remodelling, and we suggest that blocking local augmented Ang II might be an effective strategy for restraining intimal hyperplasia.

  18. New aspects of vascular remodelling: the involvement of all vascular cell types.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGrath, John C; Deighan, Clare; Briones, Ana M; Shafaroudi, Majid Malekzadeh; McBride, Melissa; Adler, Jeremy; Arribas, Silvia M; Vila, Elisabet; Daly, Craig J

    2005-07-01

    Conventionally, the architecture of arteries is based around the close-packed smooth muscle cells and extracellular matrix. However, the adventitia and endothelium are now viewed as key players in vascular growth and repair. A new dynamic picture has emerged of blood vessels in a constant state of self-maintenance. Recent work raises fundamental questions about the cellular heterogeneity of arteries and the time course and triggering of normal and pathological remodelling. A common denominator emerging in hypertensive remodelling is an early increase in adventitial cell density suggesting that adventitial cells drive remodelling and may initiate subsequent changes such as re-arrangement of smooth muscle cells and extracellular matrix. The organization of vascular smooth muscle cells follows regular arrangements that can be modelled mathematically. In hypertension, new patterns can be quantified in these terms and give insights to how structure affects function. As with smooth muscle, little is known about the organization of the vascular endothelium, or its role in vascular remodelling. Current observations suggest that there may be a close relationship between the helical organization of smooth muscle cells and the underlying pattern of endothelial cells. The function of myoendothelial connections is a topic of great current interest and may relate to the structure of the internal elastic lamina through which the connections must pass. In hypertensive remodelling this must present an organizational challenge. The objective of this paper is to show how the functions of blood vessels depend on their architecture and a continuous interaction of different cell types and extracellular proteins.

  19. Whole-body MR vascular screening detects unsuspected concomitant vascular disease in coronary heart disease patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coronary heart disease (CHD) patients often show atherosclerotic vascular disease in other vascular territories. We evaluated how often whole-body MR imaging detects concomitant arterial pathologies in CHD patients, and how often these pathologies were not known to the patients previously. Of 4,814 participants in the population-based Heinz Nixdorf Recall Study, 327 reported CHD (i.e., previous coronary bypass surgery, angioplasty); of those, 160 patients (mean age 66.4 years) were examined using MR of the brain, the heart (excluding the coronary arteries), and whole-body MR angiography. The prevalence of each vascular pathology was assessed, correlated to the others and compared to patients' histories. Of the 160 CHD patients, 16 (10%) showed MR signs of stroke, and 77 (48.1%) had a stenosis >50% in at least one extracerebral peripheral artery (other than the coronaries), including 28 (17.5%) with relevant renal artery stenoses, and 20 (12.5%) with relevant extracerebral internal carotid artery stenoses. False negative histories were reported in 12 of 81 cases with myocardial infarctions, and in 11 of 16 cases with cerebrovascular infarctions. This whole-body atherosclerosis MR screening program allows previously unknown concomitant vascular disease to be detected in coronary heart disease patients. Its prospective value should be assessed in further studies. (orig.)

  20. Whole-body MR vascular screening detects unsuspected concomitant vascular disease in coronary heart disease patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ladd, Susanne C.; Nuefer, Michael; Gizewski, Elke; Wanke, Isabel; Ladd, Mark E.; Forsting, Michael [University Hospital Essen, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology and Neuroradiology, Essen (Germany); Debatin, Joerg F. [University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Hamburg (Germany); Stang, Andreas [Martin-Luther University, Medical Faculty, Institute of Medical Epidemiology, Biometry and Informatics, Halle-Wittenberg (Germany); Bromen, Katja [DG INFSO, European Commission, Brussels (Belgium); Moebus, Susanne; Joeckel, Karl-Heinz [University Hospital, Institute of Medical Informatics, Biometry and Epidemiology, Essen (Germany); Doerfler, Arnd [University of Erlangen Medical School, Department of Neuroradiology, Erlangen (Germany); Benemann, Jens [University Hospital, Department of Neurology, Essen (Germany); Erbel, Raimund; Schmermund, Axel [University Hospital, Department of Cardiology, Essen (Germany)

    2007-04-15

    Coronary heart disease (CHD) patients often show atherosclerotic vascular disease in other vascular territories. We evaluated how often whole-body MR imaging detects concomitant arterial pathologies in CHD patients, and how often these pathologies were not known to the patients previously. Of 4,814 participants in the population-based Heinz Nixdorf Recall Study, 327 reported CHD (i.e., previous coronary bypass surgery, angioplasty); of those, 160 patients (mean age 66.4 years) were examined using MR of the brain, the heart (excluding the coronary arteries), and whole-body MR angiography. The prevalence of each vascular pathology was assessed, correlated to the others and compared to patients' histories. Of the 160 CHD patients, 16 (10%) showed MR signs of stroke, and 77 (48.1%) had a stenosis >50% in at least one extracerebral peripheral artery (other than the coronaries), including 28 (17.5%) with relevant renal artery stenoses, and 20 (12.5%) with relevant extracerebral internal carotid artery stenoses. False negative histories were reported in 12 of 81 cases with myocardial infarctions, and in 11 of 16 cases with cerebrovascular infarctions. This whole-body atherosclerosis MR screening program allows previously unknown concomitant vascular disease to be detected in coronary heart disease patients. Its prospective value should be assessed in further studies. (orig.)

  1. Cardiovascular risk factors regulate the expression of vascular endothelin receptors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xu, Cang-Bao; Sun, Yang; Edvinsson, Lars

    2010-01-01

    , cigarette smoking and hypertension (both strongly related to arterial wall injury), inflammation and atherosclerosis. The vascular endothelin receptors are a protein family that belongs to the larger family of G-protein coupled receptors. They mediate vascular smooth muscle contraction, proliferation......-activated protein kinase pathways and downstream transcription factors such as nuclear factor-kappaB. Understanding the mechanisms involved in vascular endothelin receptor upregulation during cardiovascular disease may provide novel therapeutic approaches....

  2. Pathophysiology of Headaches with a Prominent Vascular Component

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan A Pareja

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available Vascular changes, whether preliminary or secondary, seem to accompany most headaches. The literature concerning pathophysiological mechanisms in headaches where vascular phenomena are a major, integral part, ie, migraine and cluster headache syndrome, is reviewed and the most common forms of headache associated with cerebrovascular disease are discussed. Emphasis is placed on the vascular phenomena and on the abundant hypotheses and theories regarding headache mechanisms. This review also presents alternative explanatory models, and compares the available anatomical, physiological and biochemical results.

  3. [Future vascular medicine: inauguration of a cardiovascular hybrid concept].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debus, S; Larena-Avellaneda, A; Kölbel, T; Kieback, A; Atlihan, G; Diener, H

    2014-10-01

    The demographic developments will lead to an exponential increase of cardiovascular diseases. Additionally, technical developments of conservative and invasive treatment modalities will be added to distinguished, organ-orientated therapeutic concepts. This will also require a new orientation of vascular services. This concept implies that specific contents are referred to and contained in partner specialties. Since the heart and vascular system function as an anatomic and functional union, implementation of vascular medicine within cardiovascular centres represents a logical consequence.

  4. A new venture with sclerotherapy in an oral vascular lesion

    OpenAIRE

    Sitra, G.; Kayalvizhi, E. B.; Sivasankari, T.; Vishwanath, R.

    2014-01-01

    Vascular malformations are one of the most common lesions of the oral cavity. The lesion may be a congenital malformation observed in neonates or arteriovenous malformation observed in adults. Various surgical and medical managements are possible for vascular lesions which include surgical excision, laser therapy, cryotherapy, selective embolization, intralesional sclerosing agents, β-blockers and steroid therapy. Here we report a case of oral vascular lesion where intralesional injection wit...

  5. Vascularization of the Pineal Gland in the Crow

    OpenAIRE

    Nasu, Tetsuo; Nakai, Masaaki; Murakami, Noboru

    1994-01-01

    The blood vascularization in the pineal gland of the crow was investigated in detail using a vascular corrosion cast technique and by scanning electron microscopy. The pineal gland received two afferent arteries on either side, each artery arising from the A. Cerebra{is Caudalis (CC) which supplied its branches to the hemisphere. The pineal gland of the crow was so highly vascularized as to be suggestive of its high metabolic and endocrine activities. The efferent veins drained into the Sinus...

  6. Current Concepts: Laser Treatment of Adult Vascular Lesions

    OpenAIRE

    Wall, Tomi L.

    2007-01-01

    Patients frequently seek treatment of cutaneous vascular lesions for both medical and cosmetic reasons. Advances in the use of lasers and light sources enable physicians to effectively treat vascular lesions that were previously untreatable. Given the plethora of devices available, selecting the appropriate laser system and treatment parameters can be confusing for the laser surgeon. This article reviews current concepts in the treatment of adult vascular conditions. It highlights the differe...

  7. Role of Endothelin in Uteroplacental Circulation and Fetal Vascular Function

    OpenAIRE

    Paradis, Alexandra; Zhang, Lubo

    2013-01-01

    Endothelins are 21-amino acid peptides involved in vascular homeostasis. Three types of peptide have been identified, with endothelin-1 (ET-1) being the most potent vasoconstrictor currently known. Two endothelin receptor sub-types are found in various tissues, including the brain, heart, blood vessel, lung, and placenta. The ETA-receptor is associated with vasoconstriction in vascular smooth muscle. Conversely, the ETB-receptor can elicit a vasoconstrictor effect in vascular smooth muscle an...

  8. Evaluation of vascular rings with digital subtraction angiography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonkin, I L; Gold, R E; Moser, D; Laster, R E

    1984-06-01

    Seven patients with vascular rings were evaluated over a 2-year period with intravenous digital subtraction angiography (DSA), which was compared with screen-film aortography or cineangiography. The seven patients were also evaluated with barium esophagography. Six of the seven DSA images were totally diagnostic and one study was only partly diagnostic. Six of the seven vascular anomalies were confirmed surgically. DSA is suggested as an alternative to arteriography in evaluating patients with suspected vascular rings. PMID:6372419

  9. VASCULAR RISK FACTORS AND COGNITIVE DECLINE IN A POPULATION SAMPLE

    OpenAIRE

    Ganguli, Mary; Fu, Bo; Snitz, Beth E.; Unverzagt, Frederick W.; Loewenstein, David A; Hughes, Tiffany F.; Chang, Chung-Chou H.

    2014-01-01

    We examined several vascular factors in relation to rates of decline in five cognitive domains in a population-based cohort. In an age-stratified random sample (N=1982) aged 65+ years, we assessed at baseline the cognitive domains of attention, executive function, memory, language, and visuospatial function, and also vascular, inflammatory, and metabolic indices. Random effects models generated slopes of cognitive decline over the next four years; linear models identified vascular factors ass...

  10. Bone Marrow Vascular Niche: Home for Hematopoietic Stem Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Ningning He; Lu Zhang; Jian Cui; Zongjin Li

    2014-01-01

    Though discovered later than osteoblastic niche, vascular niche has been regarded as an alternative indispensable niche operating regulation on hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs). As significant progresses gained on this type niche, it is gradually clear that the main work of vascular niche is undertaking to support hematopoiesis. However, compared to what have been defined in the mechanisms through which the osteoblastic niche regulates hematopoiesis, we know less in vascular niche. In this rev...

  11. Human Vascular Endothelium from Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Adams, William James

    2013-01-01

    The vascular endothelium is a dynamic cellular interface that displays a unique phenotypic plasticity. This plasticity is critical for vascular function and when dysregulated is pathogenic in several diseases. The development of new human endothelial genotype-phenotype studies, personalized vascular medicine efforts and cell based regenerative therapies are limited by the unavailability of patient-specific endothelial cells. Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSC) offer great promise as a new p...

  12. The epidemic trend of cerebro-spinal meningitis in Hefei, 1990~1999%合肥市1990~1999年流行性脑脊髓膜炎的流行趋势

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    靳玉惠; 王蓓

    2001-01-01

    @@ 流行性脑脊髓膜炎(简称流脑)是由脑膜炎奈瑟菌引起的呼吸道传染病.实施A群脑膜炎球菌多糖疫苗的接种是预防流脑的主要措施.经10年来的不懈努力,我市的发病率已大幅度下降.1990年我市的流脑发病率近1.1/10万,到1999年发病率仅为0.1/10万.现将合肥市10年来的流脑流行趋势总结如下. 1 资料与方法 1.1 资料来源资料来自法定传染病报告系统,人口资料来源于合肥市统计局. 1.2 诊断标准流脑病例诊断根据临床和流行病学调查确定 . 1.3 统计分析数据输入微机,用Excel软件进行统计处理 . 2 结果 2.1 地区分布 1990~1999年全市8个地区均有病例发生,共报病例216例, 城区(东市区、中市区、西市区)8例,农村(郊区、蜀山镇、长丰县、肥东县、肥西县)208例 ,10年的平均发病率为0.53/10万.1990~1999年,农村平均发病率0.51/10万,城区平均发病率0.02/10万,农村发病率明显高于城区,其中长丰县发病最多,占农村发病数的71.8%. 表1可见,农村的发病率在1990年、1991年及1994年出现高峰,而城区的发病率则自90年以后波动不大,除1992、1995、1996,1990年以后城区无流脑病例发生. 2.2 季节分布将1990~1999年按达到第3个 表1 合肥市1990~1999年流脑的城乡发病率比较(1/10万 ) Table 1 Geographical distribution of cerebro-spinal meningitis in Hefei, 1990~1999(1/100 000)

  13. Correlative factors of cerebro-cardiac syndrome in acute cerebral infarction patients%急性脑梗死患者发生脑心综合征的相关因素

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹音; 恽文伟; 高萍; 陈卓友

    2012-01-01

    Objective To explore the correlative factors of cerebro-cardiac syndrome ( CCS) in acute cerebral infarction ( ACI) patients. Methods Compared the the level of BNP, the levels of myocardial enzymes, the abnormal rate of EEG, neurological deficits score ( NDS) , left ventricular ejection fraction ( LVEF) and the left ventricular end-diastolic dimension ( LVEDD) bteween 86 ACI patients with CCS and 90 ACI patients without CCS, and the correlations were analyzed. Results The level of plasma BNP in CCS group [ ( 1482. 93 ±233. 76)pg/ml] was significantly higher than non-CCS group [ ( 164. 53 ± 27. 05 ) pg/ml] ( P < 0. 05 ) , and the levels of myocardial enzymes had no significantly differences. Compared with non-CCS group, the abnormal rate of EEG in CCS group was significantly higher ( P < 0. 05 ) , and the LVEDD, LVEF and NDS had no significant differences. The level of plasma BNP was positively correlated with lactic dehydrogenase ( LDH) and NDS serious type ( r = 0. 360, r = 0. 382; all P < 0. 05 ) . Multivariant Logistic analysis showed that the level of plasma BNP was the independent influence factor of CCS (r = 6. 852, P = 0.009). According to ROC curve, when the cut point of the level of plasma BNP was 219.95 pg/ml, the area under curve was 0. 938 ( 95% CI:0. 865 - 1. 010;P < 0. 01) , and the sensitivity and specificity of BNP to diagnose CCS were 93. 8% and 80. 0% respectively. Conclusion The level of plasma BNP is one of the independent influence factors of CCS.%目的 探讨急性脑梗死患者发生脑心综合征(CCS)的相关因素.方法 比较86例CCS和90 例非CCS急性脑梗死患者的血浆B型利钠肽(BNP)水平、心肌酶谱水平、EEG异常率、神经功能缺损程度评分(NDS)、左室射血分数(LVEF)和左室舒张内径(LVEDD),并进行相关性分析.结果 CCS组[(1482.93±233.76)pg/ml]血浆BNP水平显著高于非CCS组[(164.53±27.05)pg/ml](P <0.05),而心肌酶谱指标差异无统计学意义.与非CCS组比

  14. Evaluating Peripheral Vascular Injuries: Is Color Doppler Enough for Diagnosis?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd Lateef Wani

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Background:: Vascular injury poses a serious threat to limb and life. Thus, diagnosis should be made immediately with minimally invasive methods. Doppler is a good aid in diagnosis of vascular injury. Methods:: The present prospective study was conducted on 150 patients who presented with soft signs (the signs which are suggestive but not confirmatory of vascular injury. They were subjected to color Doppler examination before exploration. The patients with the features of vascular injury on color Doppler were subjected to exploration. On the other hand, those who had normal Doppler were subjected to CT- angiography. Then, the findings of the exploration were matched with those of color Doppler. The data were analyzed using the SPSS statistical software. Results:: Out of the 150 Doppler examinations, 110 (73.33% were reported as positive, while 40 were reported as negative for vascular injury. These were subjected to CT-angiography and seven of them had the features of vascular injury on CT-angiography. All the patients with positive Doppler or CT angiography findings were subjected to exploration. Doppler had a sensitivity of 94% and specificity of 82.5% in diagnosis of vascular injury using Binary classification test. Conclusions:: Color Doppler is an easily available, reliable, and handy method of diagnosing a vascular injury. It has a very high sensitivity and specificity in diagnosis of vascular injuries.

  15. Serious Vascular Complications after Nonsurgical Rhinoplasty: A Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Qiqing; Liu, Yu; Fan, Dongliang

    2016-04-01

    There has been an increased global demand for dermal filler injections in recent years. Although hyaluronic acid-based dermal fillers generally have a good safety profile, serious vascular complications have been reported. Here we present a typical case of skin necrosis following a nonsurgical rhinoplasty using hyaluronic acid filler. Despite various rescuing managements, unsightly superficial scars were left. It is critical for plastic surgeons and dermatologists to be familiar with the vascular anatomy and the staging of vascular complications. Any patients suspected to experience a vascular complication should receive early management under close monitoring. Meanwhile, the potentially devastating outcome caused by illegal practice calls for stricter regulations and law enforcement. PMID:27200245

  16. The vascular hybrid room--operating room of the future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudorović, Narcis; Rogan, Suncica Andreja; Lovricević, Ivo; Zovak, Mario; Schmidt, Sasa

    2010-09-01

    The last two decades have seen a paradigm shift in the treatment of vascular related diseases from once traditional open surgical repairs to the entire vascular tree being amenable to percutaneous interventions. Neither the classic operating room nor the conventional angiography suite is optimal for both open surgery and endovascular procedures. Important issues for the vascular hybrid operating room include quality of the imaging equipment, radiation burden, ease of use of the equipment, need for specially trained personnel, ergonomics, ability to perform both open and percutaneous procedures, sterile environments, as well as quality and efficiency of patient care. The most important feature of working in a dedicated hybrid vascular suite should be the ability to attain best treatment of vascular patients. Whether the interventional radiologist or the vascular surgeon uses the facilities is of less importance. Establishment of an endovascular operating room suite has the benefit of a sterile environment, and the possibility of performing hybrid procedures and conversions when necessary. Moreover, angiography immediately before treatment gives contemporary anatomical information, and after treatment provides quality control. Consequently, better quality and service can be provided to the individual patient. These changes in the treatment of vascular disease require that a new type of vascular specialist, named 'vascular hybrid surgeon', trained to perform both endovascular and open surgical procedures in this highly complex patient group. PMID:21462818

  17. Assessment of nicotine dependence in subjects with vascular dementia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mina Chandra

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Nicotine dependence is an important public health issue. Nicotine dependence is a risk factor for vascular diseases like myocardial infarction and vascular dementia. The rate of nicotine dependence in Indian subjects with vascular dementia is not known. Hence we decided to assess nicotine dependence in subjects with vascular dementia. Methods: Nicotine dependence in subjects with vascular dementia was assessed among subjects presenting to memory clinic of a tertiary care hospital over a period of 16 months. Data regarding sociodemographic profile and severity of nicotine dependence as per Fagerstrom nicotine dependence scale for smoking and smokeless tobacco was analysed using SPSS version 17. Results: Our study shows that in 159 subjects with vascular dementia continuing nicotine dependence was seen in nearly 12% of the subjects. Though the rates are less than the population prevalence for India, it is still relevant as nicotine is not just a risk factor for development of vascular dementia but severe nicotine dependence and longer duration of nicotine use were found to be poor prognostic factors associated with severe dementia. Further as all subjects continued to be nicotine dependent despite having been advised to quit tobacco, suggesting the need for a more comprehensive tobacco cessation intervention be offered to subjects with vascular dementia to improve outcomes. Conclusion: In subjects with vascular dementia continuing nicotine dependence is an important risk factor which must be addressed. [Int J Res Med Sci 2015; 3(3.000: 711-714

  18. Diagnostic criteria for vascular cognitive disorders: a VASCOG statement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sachdev, Perminder; Kalaria, Raj; O’Brien, John; Skoog, Ingmar; Alladi, Suvarna; Black, Sandra E; Blacker, Deborah; Blazer, Dan; Chen, Christopher; Chui, Helena; Ganguli, Mary; Jellinger, Kurt; Jeste, Dilip V.; Pasquier, Florence; Paulsen, Jane; Prins, Niels; Rockwood, Kenneth; Roman, Gustavo; Scheltens, Philip

    2014-01-01

    Background Several sets of diagnostic criteria have been published for vascular dementia (VaD) since the 1960s. The continuing ambiguity in VaD definition warrants a critical re-examination. Methods Participants at a special symposium of the International Society for Vascular Behavioral and Cognitive Disorders (VASCOG) in 2009 critiqued the current criteria. They drafted a proposal for a new set of criteria, later reviewed through multiple drafts by the group, including additional experts and the members of the Neurocognitive Disorders Work Group of the DSM-5 Task Force. Results Cognitive disorders of vascular etiology are a heterogeneous group of disorders with diverse pathologies and clinical manifestations, discussed broadly under the rubric of vascular cognitive disorders (VCD). The continuum of vascular cognitive impairment is recognized by the categories of Mild Vascular Cognitive Disorder, and Vascular Dementia or Major Vascular Cognitive Disorder. Diagnostic thresholds are defined. Clinical and neuroimaging criteria are proposed for establishing vascular etiology. Subtypes of VCD are described, and the frequent co-occurrence of Alzheimer’s disease pathology emphasized. Conclusions The proposed criteria for VCD provide a coherent approach to the diagnosis of this diverse group of disorders, with a view to stimulating clinical and pathological validation studies. These criteria can be harmonized with the DSM-5 criteria such that an international consensus on the criteria for VCD may be achieved. PMID:24632990

  19. Bone vascularization: a way to study bone microarchitecture?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blery, P.; Autrusseau, F.; Crauste, E.; Freuchet, Erwan; Weiss, Pierre; Guédon, J.-P.; Amouriq, Y.

    2014-03-01

    Trabecular bone and its microarchitecture are of prime importance for health. Studying vascularization helps to better know the relationship between bone and vascular microarchitecture. This research is an animal study (nine Lewis rats), based on the perfusion of vascularization by a contrast agent (a mixture of 50% barium sulfate with 1.5% of gelatin) before euthanasia. The samples were studied by micro CT at a resolution of 9μm. Softwares were used to show 3D volumes of bone and vessels, to calculate bone and vessels microarchitecture parameters. This study aims to understand simultaneously the bone microarchitecture and its vascular microarchitecture.

  20. 3D Multiscale Modelling of Angiogenesis and Vascular Tumour Growth

    KAUST Repository

    Perfahl, H.

    2012-11-01

    We present a three-dimensional, multiscale model of vascular tumour growth, which couples nutrient/growth factor transport, blood flow, angiogenesis, vascular remodelling, movement of and interactions between normal and tumour cells, and nutrient-dependent cell cycle dynamics within each cell. We present computational simulations which show how a vascular network may evolve and interact with tumour and healthy cells. We also demonstrate how our model may be combined with experimental data, to predict the spatio-temporal evolution of a vascular tumour.

  1. Role of Mitochondria in Cerebral Vascular Function: Energy Production, Cellular Protection, and Regulation of Vascular Tone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busija, David W; Rutkai, Ibolya; Dutta, Somhrita; Katakam, Prasad V

    2016-06-13

    Mitochondria not only produce energy in the form of ATP to support the activities of cells comprising the neurovascular unit, but mitochondrial events, such as depolarization and/or ROS release, also initiate signaling events which protect the endothelium and neurons against lethal stresses via pre-/postconditioning as well as promote changes in cerebral vascular tone. Mitochondrial depolarization in vascular smooth muscle (VSM), via pharmacological activation of the ATP-dependent potassium channels on the inner mitochondrial membrane (mitoKATP channels), leads to vasorelaxation through generation of calcium sparks by the sarcoplasmic reticulum and subsequent downstream signaling mechanisms. Increased release of ROS by mitochondria has similar effects. Relaxation of VSM can also be indirectly achieved via actions of nitric oxide (NO) and other vasoactive agents produced by endothelium, perivascular and parenchymal nerves, and astroglia following mitochondrial activation. Additionally, NO production following mitochondrial activation is involved in neuronal preconditioning. Cerebral arteries from female rats have greater mitochondrial mass and respiration and enhanced cerebral arterial dilation to mitochondrial activators. Preexisting chronic conditions such as insulin resistance and/or diabetes impair mitoKATP channel relaxation of cerebral arteries and preconditioning. Surprisingly, mitoKATP channel function after transient ischemia appears to be retained in the endothelium of large cerebral arteries despite generalized cerebral vascular dysfunction. Thus, mitochondrial mechanisms may represent the elusive signaling link between metabolic rate and blood flow as well as mediators of vascular change according to physiological status. Mitochondrial mechanisms are an important, but underutilized target for improving vascular function and decreasing brain injury in stroke patients. © 2016 American Physiological Society. Compr Physiol 6:1529-1548, 2016.

  2. Role of Mitochondria in Cerebral Vascular Function: Energy Production, Cellular Protection, and Regulation of Vascular Tone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busija, David W; Rutkai, Ibolya; Dutta, Somhrita; Katakam, Prasad V

    2016-01-01

    Mitochondria not only produce energy in the form of ATP to support the activities of cells comprising the neurovascular unit, but mitochondrial events, such as depolarization and/or ROS release, also initiate signaling events which protect the endothelium and neurons against lethal stresses via pre-/postconditioning as well as promote changes in cerebral vascular tone. Mitochondrial depolarization in vascular smooth muscle (VSM), via pharmacological activation of the ATP-dependent potassium channels on the inner mitochondrial membrane (mitoKATP channels), leads to vasorelaxation through generation of calcium sparks by the sarcoplasmic reticulum and subsequent downstream signaling mechanisms. Increased release of ROS by mitochondria has similar effects. Relaxation of VSM can also be indirectly achieved via actions of nitric oxide (NO) and other vasoactive agents produced by endothelium, perivascular and parenchymal nerves, and astroglia following mitochondrial activation. Additionally, NO production following mitochondrial activation is involved in neuronal preconditioning. Cerebral arteries from female rats have greater mitochondrial mass and respiration and enhanced cerebral arterial dilation to mitochondrial activators. Preexisting chronic conditions such as insulin resistance and/or diabetes impair mitoKATP channel relaxation of cerebral arteries and preconditioning. Surprisingly, mitoKATP channel function after transient ischemia appears to be retained in the endothelium of large cerebral arteries despite generalized cerebral vascular dysfunction. Thus, mitochondrial mechanisms may represent the elusive signaling link between metabolic rate and blood flow as well as mediators of vascular change according to physiological status. Mitochondrial mechanisms are an important, but underutilized target for improving vascular function and decreasing brain injury in stroke patients. © 2016 American Physiological Society. Compr Physiol 6:1529-1548, 2016. PMID:27347901

  3. Drinking citrus fruit juice inhibits vascular remodeling in cuff-induced vascular injury mouse model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arika Ohnishi

    Full Text Available Citrus fruits are thought to have inhibitory effects on oxidative stress, thereby attenuating the onset and progression of cancer and cardiovascular disease; however, there are few reports assessing their effect on vascular remodeling. Here, we investigated the effect of drinking the juice of two different citrus fruits on vascular neointima formation using a cuff-induced vascular injury mouse model. Male C57BL6 mice were divided into five groups as follows: 1 Control (water (C, 2 10% Citrus unshiu (CU juice (CU10, 3 40% CU juice (CU40, 4 10% Citrus iyo (CI juice (CI10, and 5 40% CI juice (CI40. After drinking them for 2 weeks from 8 weeks of age, cuff injury was induced by polyethylene cuff placement around the femoral artery. Neointima formation was significantly attenuated in CU40, CI10 and CI40 compared with C; however, no remarkable preventive effect was observed in CU10. The increases in levels of various inflammatory markers including cytokines such as monocyte chemotactic protein-1, interleukin-6 (IL-6, IL-1β, and tumor necrosis factor-α in response to vascular injury did not differ significantly between C, CU10 and CI10. The increases in cell proliferation and superoxide anion production were markedly attenuated in CI10, but not in CU10 compared with C. The increase in phosphorylated ERK expression was markedly attenuated both in CU10 and CI10 without significant difference between CU10 and CI10. Accumulation of immune cells did not differ between CU10 and CI10. These results indicate that drinking citrus fruit juice attenuates vascular remodeling partly via a reduction of oxidative stress. Interestingly, the preventive efficacy on neointima formation was stronger in CI than in CU at least in part due to more prominent inhibitory effects on oxidative stress by CI.

  4. Drinking citrus fruit juice inhibits vascular remodeling in cuff-induced vascular injury mouse model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohnishi, Arika; Asayama, Rie; Mogi, Masaki; Nakaoka, Hirotomo; Kan-No, Harumi; Tsukuda, Kana; Chisaka, Toshiyuki; Wang, Xiao-Li; Bai, Hui-Yu; Shan, Bao-Shuai; Kukida, Masayoshi; Iwanami, Jun; Horiuchi, Masatsugu

    2015-01-01

    Citrus fruits are thought to have inhibitory effects on oxidative stress, thereby attenuating the onset and progression of cancer and cardiovascular disease; however, there are few reports assessing their effect on vascular remodeling. Here, we investigated the effect of drinking the juice of two different citrus fruits on vascular neointima formation using a cuff-induced vascular injury mouse model. Male C57BL6 mice were divided into five groups as follows: 1) Control (water) (C), 2) 10% Citrus unshiu (CU) juice (CU10), 3) 40% CU juice (CU40), 4) 10% Citrus iyo (CI) juice (CI10), and 5) 40% CI juice (CI40). After drinking them for 2 weeks from 8 weeks of age, cuff injury was induced by polyethylene cuff placement around the femoral artery. Neointima formation was significantly attenuated in CU40, CI10 and CI40 compared with C; however, no remarkable preventive effect was observed in CU10. The increases in levels of various inflammatory markers including cytokines such as monocyte chemotactic protein-1, interleukin-6 (IL-6), IL-1β, and tumor necrosis factor-α in response to vascular injury did not differ significantly between C, CU10 and CI10. The increases in cell proliferation and superoxide anion production were markedly attenuated in CI10, but not in CU10 compared with C. The increase in phosphorylated ERK expression was markedly attenuated both in CU10 and CI10 without significant difference between CU10 and CI10. Accumulation of immune cells did not differ between CU10 and CI10. These results indicate that drinking citrus fruit juice attenuates vascular remodeling partly via a reduction of oxidative stress. Interestingly, the preventive efficacy on neointima formation was stronger in CI than in CU at least in part due to more prominent inhibitory effects on oxidative stress by CI. PMID:25692290

  5. Vascular hemichorea: case report and review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bárbara Martínez Alfonzo

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Chorea rarely complicates ischemic or hemorrhagic cerebral vascular lesions. Clinical symptoms usually involve one side of the body while the injury is situated on the contralateral cerebral hemisphere. Spontaneous remission is the norm, but sometimes symptomatic treatment is required. A 58-year-old male patient who suffers from untreated high blood pressure, type II obesity, smokes 6 packs of cigarettes per year and has a moderate intake of alcohol is presented. The patient’s recent history began three days before he appeared at the Emergency Department. His symptoms were ceaseless, involuntary movements in his left arm and foot during day and night with no restriction of voluntary movements. Physical examination and laboratory tests revealed no other findings. Magnetic resonance imaging of the brain showed hyperintensity in the right posterolateral thalamic region consistent with ischemic cerebrovascular disease. Symptomatic therapy was indicated and his underlying conditions were addressed. The importance of this case lies on the low prevalence as well as the scarcity of publications regarding vascular causes of hemichorea, including diagnosis, therapy and prognosis.

  6. Regulation of vascular tone by adipocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Van de Voorde Johan

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Recent studies have shown that adipose tissue is an active endocrine and paracrine organ secreting several mediators called adipokines. Adipokines include hormones, inflammatory cytokines and other proteins. In obesity, adipose tissue becomes dysfunctional, resulting in an overproduction of proinflammatory adipokines and a lower production of anti-inflammatory adipokines. The pathological accumulation of dysfunctional adipose tissue that characterizes obesity is a major risk factor for many other diseases, including type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease and hypertension. Multiple physiological roles have been assigned to adipokines, including the regulation of vascular tone. For example, the unidentified adipocyte-derived relaxing factor (ADRF released from adipose tissue has been shown to relax arteries. Besides ADRF, other adipokines such as adiponectin, omentin and visfatin are vasorelaxants. On the other hand, angiotensin II and resistin are vasoconstrictors released by adipocytes. Reactive oxygen species, leptin, tumour necrosis factor α, interleukin-6 and apelin share both vasorelaxing and constricting properties. Dysregulated synthesis of the vasoactive and proinflammatory adipokines may underlie the compromised vascular reactivity in obesity and obesity-related disorders.

  7. Hypertension in Metabolic Syndrome: Vascular Pathophysiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yolanda Mendizábal

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Metabolic syndrome is a cluster of metabolic and cardiovascular symptoms: insulin resistance (IR, obesity, dyslipemia. Hypertension and vascular disorders are central to this syndrome. After a brief historical review, we discuss the role of sympathetic tone. Subsequently, we examine the link between endothelial dysfunction and IR. NO is involved in the insulin-elicited capillary vasodilatation. The insulin-signaling pathways causing NO release are different to the classical. There is a vasodilatory pathway with activation of NO synthase through Akt, and a vasoconstrictor pathway that involves the release of endothelin-1 via MAPK. IR is associated with an imbalance between both pathways in favour of the vasoconstrictor one. We also consider the link between hypertension and IR: the insulin hypothesis of hypertension. Next we discuss the importance of perivascular adipose tissue and the role of adipokines that possess vasoactive properties. Finally, animal models used in the study of vascular function of metabolic syndrome are reviewed. In particular, the Zucker fatty rat and the spontaneously hypertensive obese rat (SHROB. This one suffers macro- and microvascular malfunction due to a failure in the NO system and an abnormally high release of vasoconstrictor prostaglandins, all this alleviated with glitazones used for metabolic syndrome therapy.

  8. Morphogeometric Approaches to Non-vascular Plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanton, Daniel E; Reeb, Catherine

    2016-01-01

    Morphometric analysis of organisms has undergone a dramatic renaissance in recent years, embracing a range of novel computational and imaging techniques to provide new approaches to phenotypic characterization. These innovations have often developed piece-meal, and may reflect the taxonomic specializations and biases of their creators. In this review, we aim to provide a brief introduction to applications and applicability of modern morphometrics to non-vascular land plants, an often overlooked but evolutionarily and ecologically important group. The scale and physiology of bryophytes (mosses, liverworts, and hornworts) differ in important and informative ways from more "traditional" model plants, and their inclusion has the potential to powerfully broaden perspectives in plant morphology. In particular we highlight three areas where the "bryophytic perspective" shows considerable inter-disciplinary potential: (i) bryophytes as models for intra-specific and inter-specific phenotypic variation, (ii) bryophyte growth-forms as areas for innovation in architectural modularity, and (iii) bryophytes as models of ecophysiological integration between organs, individuals, and stands. We suggest that advances should come from two-way dialog: the translation and adoption of techniques recently developed for vascular plants (and other organisms) to bryophytes and the use of bryophytes as model systems for the innovation of new techniques and paradigms in morphogeometric approaches. PMID:27446146

  9. Prediction of Major Vascular Events after Stroke

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ovbiagele, Bruce; Goldstein, Larry B.; Amarenco, Pierre;

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Identifying patients with recent stroke or transient ischemic attack (TIA) at high risk of major vascular events (MVEs; stroke, myocardial infarction, or vascular death) may help optimize the intensity of secondary preventive interventions. We evaluated the relationships between...... the baseline Framingham Coronary Risk Score (FCRS) and a novel risk prediction model and with the occurrence of MVEs after stroke or TIA in subjects enrolled in the Stroke Prevention by Aggressive Reduction in Cholesterol Level (SPARCL) trial. METHODS: Data from the 4731 subjects enrolled in the SPARCL study......% confidence interval [CI]: 1.63-2.27). The novel model based on a multivariable analysis included age (HR = 1.37, 95% CI: 1.25-1.51 per 10 years), diabetes (HR = 1.82, 95% CI: 1.51-2.18), male sex (HR = 1.35, 95% CI: 1.12-1.61), and an apolipoprotein (APO)-B/APO-A1 ratio (HR = 1.56, 95% CI: 1.16-2.11). The c...

  10. Vascular mineralization in the brain of horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez, Jorge; Montgomery, Donald L; Uzal, Francisco A

    2012-05-01

    Vascular mineralization (siderocalcinosis) in the brain of horses has been usually assumed to be an incidental age-related finding with no clinic significance. In the present study, eight 15-32-year-old horses of different breeds with cerebral siderocalcinosis were studied. Four of these horses had acute and severe central nervous system clinical signs of unknown etiology, 2 horses had neurological signs of known cause, and 2 horses did not have neurological signs. Gross examination of the brains in 4 animals revealed symmetrical foci of malacia in the cerebellar white matter. Histologically, moderate to severe mineralization of blood vessels and parenchyma were observed in all 8 horses, occasionally associated with necrosis of the adjacent tissue. Some horses were tested by virus isolation, polymerase chain reaction, immunohistochemistry, and serology to investigate Rabies virus; West Nile virus; Equid herpesvirus 1 and 4; Eastern, Western, Venezuelan, and Saint Louis encephalitis virus; and Sarcocystis neurona infection. These tests were negative in all samples analyzed. Brain cholinesterase activity and heavy metal screening were also unremarkable. The significance of the vascular and parenchymal mineralization in the brains of some of these horses remains undetermined. However, the severity of the lesions observed in the brains of some of the animals in the present study, coupled with the negative results for other common causes of neurological disease in horses, suggests a possible relationship between siderocalcinosis and the clinical signs observed. PMID:22529137

  11. Vascular endothelial dysfunction and pharmacological treatment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jin; Bo; Su

    2015-01-01

    The endothelium exerts multiple actions involving regulation of vascular permeability and tone, coagulation and fibrinolysis, inflammatory and immunological reactions and cell growth. Alterations of one or more such actions may cause vascular endothelial dysfunction. Different risk factors such as hypercholesterolemia, homocystinemia, hyperglycemia, hypertension, smo-king, inflammation, and aging contribute to the development of endothelial dysfunction. Mechanisms underlying endothelial dysfunction are multiple, including impaired endothelium-derived vasodilators, enhanced endothelium-derived vasoconstrictors, over production of reactive oxygen species and reactive nitrogen species, activation of inflammatory and immune reactions, and imbalance of coagulation and fibrinolysis. Endothelial dysfunction occurs in many cardiovascular diseases, which involves different mechanisms, depending on specific risk factors affecting the disease. Among these mechanisms, a reduction in nitric oxide(NO) bioavailability plays a central role in the development of endothelial dysfunction because NO exerts diverse physiological actions, including vasodilation, anti-inflammation, antiplatelet, antiproliferation and antimigration. Experimental and clinical studies have demonstrated that a variety of currently used or investigational drugs, such as angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, angiotensin AT1 receptors blockers, angiotensin-(1-7), antioxidants, beta-blockers, calcium channel blockers, endothelial NO synthase enhancers, phosphodiesterase 5 inhibitors, sphingosine-1-phosphate and statins, exert endothelial protective effects. Due to the difference in mechanisms of action, these drugs need to be used according to specific mechanisms underlying endothelial dysfunction of the disease.

  12. An anatomic study of vascularized fibular grafts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU Yue-liang; XU Yong-qing; YANG Jun; Li Jun; LAN Xiu-fu

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To study the applied anatomy of the vascular and muscular innervations related to vascularized fibular grafts.Methods: Thirty-four cadaveric lower extremities were dissected for this study.The observations included fibular length,fibular nutrient artery,arcuate arteries,and innervation of fibular muscles.The fibulas were averagely divided into four segments and the locations of relevant vessels and nerves were ascertained.Results: All specimens had 1 fibular nutrient artery and 4-9 arcuate arteries except 1 specimen which had only 1 arcuate artery.The fibular nutrient artery and the first threearcuate arteries were constantly located between the distal half of the 1/4 segment and 2/4 segment of the fibula.The muscular branch of the superficial peroneal nerve passed through the surface of the periosteum in the 2/4 segment of the fibula.Conclusions: The most proximal osteotomy point locates at the midpoint of the 1/4 segment by which it ensure the maximal potential for preserving the nutrient vessels.The muscular branch of the superficial peroneal nerve is fragile to injury at the 2/4 segment of the fibula.

  13. VEGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitor II (VRI) induced vascular insufficiency in zebrafish as a model for studying vascular toxicity and vascular preservation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In ischemic disorders such as chronic wounds and myocardial ischemia, there is inadequate tissue perfusion due to vascular insufficiency. Besides, it has been observed that prolonged use of anti-angiogenic agents in cancer therapy produces cardiovascular toxicity caused by impaired vessel integrity and regeneration. In the present study, we used VEGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitor II (VRI) to chemically induce vascular insufficiency in zebrafish in vivo and human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) in vitro to further study the mechanisms of vascular morphogenesis in these pathological conditions. We also explored the possibility of treating vascular insufficiency by enhancing vascular regeneration and repair with pharmacological intervention. We observed that pretreatment of VRI induced blood vessel loss in developing zebrafish by inhibiting angiogenesis and increasing endothelial cell apoptosis, accompanied by down-regulation of kdr, kdrl and flt-1 genes expression. The VRI-induced blood vessel loss in zebrafish could be restored by post-treatment of calycosin, a cardiovascular protective isoflavone. Similarly, VRI induced cytotoxicity and apoptosis in HUVEC which could be rescued by calycosin post-treatment. Further investigation of the underlying mechanisms showed that the PI3K/AKT/Bad cell survival pathway was a main contributor of the vascular regenerative effect of calycosin. These findings indicated that the cardiovascular toxicity in anti-angiogenic therapy was mainly caused by insufficient endothelial cell survival, suggesting its essential role in vascular integrity, repair and regeneration. In addition, we showed that VRI-induced blood vessel loss in zebrafish represented a simple and effective in vivo model for studying vascular insufficiency and evaluating cancer drug vascular toxicities. - Highlights: • In vivo VRI model • Rescue effects of calycosin • Calycosin EC survival pathways

  14. VEGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitor II (VRI) induced vascular insufficiency in zebrafish as a model for studying vascular toxicity and vascular preservation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Shang; Dang, Yuan Ye; Oi Lam Che, Ginny [State Key Laboratory of Quality Research in Chinese Medicine and Institute of Chinese Medical Sciences, University of Macau, Avenida da Universidade, Taipa, Macao (China); Kwan, Yiu Wa [School of Biomedical Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Shatin, N.T., Hong Kong (China); Chan, Shun Wan [State Key Laboratory of Chinese Medicine and Molecular Pharmacology, Department of Applied Biology and Chemical Technology, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hong Kong (China); Leung, George Pak Heng [Pharmacology and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, The University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong (China); Lee, Simon Ming Yuen, E-mail: simonlee@umac.mo [State Key Laboratory of Quality Research in Chinese Medicine and Institute of Chinese Medical Sciences, University of Macau, Avenida da Universidade, Taipa, Macao (China); Hoi, Maggie Pui Man, E-mail: maghoi@umac.mo [State Key Laboratory of Quality Research in Chinese Medicine and Institute of Chinese Medical Sciences, University of Macau, Avenida da Universidade, Taipa, Macao (China)

    2014-11-01

    In ischemic disorders such as chronic wounds and myocardial ischemia, there is inadequate tissue perfusion due to vascular insufficiency. Besides, it has been observed that prolonged use of anti-angiogenic agents in cancer therapy produces cardiovascular toxicity caused by impaired vessel integrity and regeneration. In the present study, we used VEGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitor II (VRI) to chemically induce vascular insufficiency in zebrafish in vivo and human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) in vitro to further study the mechanisms of vascular morphogenesis in these pathological conditions. We also explored the possibility of treating vascular insufficiency by enhancing vascular regeneration and repair with pharmacological intervention. We observed that pretreatment of VRI induced blood vessel loss in developing zebrafish by inhibiting angiogenesis and increasing endothelial cell apoptosis, accompanied by down-regulation of kdr, kdrl and flt-1 genes expression. The VRI-induced blood vessel loss in zebrafish could be restored by post-treatment of calycosin, a cardiovascular protective isoflavone. Similarly, VRI induced cytotoxicity and apoptosis in HUVEC which could be rescued by calycosin post-treatment. Further investigation of the underlying mechanisms showed that the PI3K/AKT/Bad cell survival pathway was a main contributor of the vascular regenerative effect of calycosin. These findings indicated that the cardiovascular toxicity in anti-angiogenic therapy was mainly caused by insufficient endothelial cell survival, suggesting its essential role in vascular integrity, repair and regeneration. In addition, we showed that VRI-induced blood vessel loss in zebrafish represented a simple and effective in vivo model for studying vascular insufficiency and evaluating cancer drug vascular toxicities. - Highlights: • In vivo VRI model • Rescue effects of calycosin • Calycosin EC survival pathways.

  15. MRI analysis of vascular compressive trigeminal neuralgia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To analyze the offending vessels of vascular compressive trigeminal neuralgia by magnetic resonance tomographic angiography (MRTA). Methods: MRTA images of 235 asymptomatic trigeminal nerves and 147 symptomatic trigeminal nerves were analyzed by two radiologists who were blinded to the clinical findings. Judgment was made on if there were some vessels close to the trigeminal nerve. The diameter of the offending vessel, the distance from the offending vessel's contact point to the pons and the direction of the vessel toward the nerve were also recorded at the same time. Group t-test and Chi-Square test were used for statistics. Results: Two hundred and forty-two trigeminal nerves of all 382 nerves can be detected offending vessels on MRTA images, 111 of 242 trigeminal nerves were asymptomatic, the rest 131 were symptomatic. Statistical analysis indicated that the distance from the offending vessel's contact point to the pons in symptomatic group (the median is 2 mm) was shorter than that in the asymptomatic group (the median is 4 mm) (P<0.01). In 89.3% cases (117/131) of the symptomatic group the angle between the vessel and the nerve is larger than 45 degree, but only in 67.6% cases (75/111) in the asymptomatic group the angle is larger than 45 degree. That means significant difference is between the two groups (P<0.01). Vessel-nerve compression can be seen in 1 case of asymptomatic group (0.4%, 1/235) and 45 eases in symptomatic group (30.6%, 45/147). The vessel-nerve compression rate of the symptomatic group was much higher than that of the asymptomatic group (P<0.01). Conclusion: MR is a useful tool to evaluate the offending vessels of vascular compressive trigeminal neuralgia. The distance from the offending vessel's contact point to the pons and the direction of the vessel toward the nerve are related to the onset of vascular compressive trigeminal neuralgia. (authors)

  16. Emergency intervention therapy for renal vascular injury

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Feng-yong; WANG Mao-qiang; FAN Qing-sheng; WANG Zhi-jun; DUAN Feng; SONG Peng

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of the interventional techniques in the treatment of renal vascular injury.Methods: A total of 16 patients with renal vascular injuries were treated by superselective arterial embolization.The renal injuries resulted from renal biopsy in 7 patients,endovascular intervention in 2.percutaneous puncture and pyelostomy in 2.local resection of renal tumor in 1 and trauma in 4.With regards to clinical manifestations,there was hemorrhagic shock in 8 patients,severe flank pain in 14,and hematuria in 14.CT and ultrasonography confmued that 15 Patients had perirenal hematoma.The embolization was performed with microcoils in 13 and standard stainless steel coils in 3 patients,associated with polyvinyl alcohol particles (PVA) in 9,and gelfoam particles in 6 cases.Results: Renal angiogram revealed arteriovenous fistula in renal parenchyma in 9 cases,pseudoaneurysm in 3 and extravasation of contrast media in 4.The arterial embolization was successful in all 16 cases in a single session.The angiography at the end of therapy showed that abnormal vessels had disappeared without other major intrarenal arterial branch occlusion.In 13 patients with hemodynamical compromise,blood loss-related symptoms were immediately relieved after blood transfusion.In 14 patients with severe flank pain,the pain was progressively relieved.Hematuda ceased in 14 patients 2-14 days after the embolization procedures.The renal function was impaired after the procedure in 6 cases,in which preoperative renal insufficiency was exacerbated in 3 and developed new renal dysfunction in 3.2 of whom received hemodialysis.The ultrasonography showed that perirenal hematoma was gradually absorbed within 2.6 mortths after the procedure.A11 patients were followed up in 6-78 months (mean,48 months).Six patients died of primary diseases (5 cases of renal failure and multiple organ failure and 1 case of malignant tumor).Ten patients survived without bleeding and further

  17. Sensory neuropeptides and nitric oxide in nasal vascular regulation

    OpenAIRE

    Rinder, Johan

    1996-01-01

    Sensory neuropeptides and nitric oxide in nasal vascular regulation By Johan Rinder, M.D. Division of Pharmacology, Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, Karolinska Institute, S- 171 77 Stockholm, Sweden and Department of Oto-Rhino-Laryngology, Karolinska Hospital, S-17176 Stockholm, SwedenThe role of sensory neuropeptides and nitric oxide in vascular regulation was investigated in the pig nasal mucosa...

  18. Major lipids, apolipoproteins, and risk of vascular disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Collaboration, Emerging Risk Factors; Di Angelantonio, Emanuele; Sarwar, Nadeem;

    2009-01-01

    CONTEXT: Associations of major lipids and apolipoproteins with the risk of vascular disease have not been reliably quantified. OBJECTIVE: To assess major lipids and apolipoproteins in vascular risk. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: Individual records were supplied on 302,430 people without init...

  19. Apoptosis and calcification of vascular endothelial cell under hyperhomocysteinemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Kuaifa; Chen, Zhujun; Liu, Meng; Peng, Jian; Wu, Pingsheng

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, it is found that increase in Hcy level in blood can directly or indirectly cause vascular endothelial cell injury and induce vascular calcification. However, the mechanism of vascular endothelial cell injury and vascular calcification has not been studied thoroughly. This paper carried out experiment for research aiming at discussing the effect and action mechanism of Hhcy on endothelial cells and vascular calcification. Firstly, human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) were cultured and then intervened by Hcy of different concentrations (0, 0.01, 0.1, 1.0, 3.0, 5.0 mmol/L) and at different action time (3, 6, 12, 24 h). Then apoptosis rate and reactive oxygen were detected by flow cytometry. At the same time, the model for the culture of rat vascular calcification was set up and induced into Hhcy so as to detect the total plasma Hcy level and judge vascular calcification degree. The results showed that with the increase in Hcy concentration and extension of action period, the apoptosis rate and generation of reactive oxygen of HUVECs all significantly increased, and the differences were all statistically significant (P animal calcification model, mass of black particle deposition was seen after Von Kossa staining of rat vessels in calcification group. Compared with the control group, the vascular calcium content, alkaline phosphatase activity and osteocalcin content in calcification group all increased (P benefits on clinical prevention works. PMID:25476479

  20. Insertional mutagenesis in the vascular wilt pathogen Verticillium dahliae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Santhanam, P.

    2014-01-01

    Vascular wilt diseases caused by soil-borne pathogens are among the most devastating plant diseases worldwide. The ascomycete fungus Verticillium dahliae causes vascular wilt diseases in hundreds of dicotyledonous plant species, including important crops such as eggplant, lettuce, olive, spinach

  1. An integrated approach for vascular health: a call to action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neill, Blair J; Rana, Shadab N; Bowman, Vincent

    2015-01-01

    Vascular diseases such as stroke, myocardial infarction, most causes of heart failure, dementia, peripheral arterial disease, certain kidney, and many lung and eye conditions are a result of disorders in the blood vessels (large and small) throughout the entire human body. Vascular diseases are the leading cause of preventable death and disability in Canada. Most vascular diseases share common risk factors (high blood pressure, diabetes, dyslipidemia, and obesity), which can be influenced by modifiable health behaviours such as unhealthy diet, smoking, lack of physical activity, and stress. Ninety percent of Canadians face an increased risk, which could be modified by managing these health behaviours and risk factors. Canada's aging population, combined with alarming trends in obesity, physical inactivity, high blood pressure, and diabetes are expected to further increase the social and economic effect of vascular diseases in the coming decades, unless there are major changes in health policy. Even more concerning is the increase in vascular risk factors among Canada's youth, and ethnically diverse populations. Vascular diseases affect not only the patient, but also place burdens on their spouses, families, friends, and communities. Tremendous potential exists to reduce the effects of vascular diseases through healthy public policy, supporting Canadians to make healthy lifestyle changes, and coordinating efforts across the continuum of care in a patient-focused manner. Vascular health requires partnerships for action across many sectors including government, health care practitioners, academia, not-for-profit organizations, and the private sector. The health sector alone cannot solve this problem. PMID:25547559

  2. Genetic and hormonal control of vascular tissue proliferation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smet, Wouter; Rybel, De Bert

    2016-01-01

    The plant vascular system develops from a handful of provascular initial cells in the early embryo into a whole range of different cell types in the mature plant. In order to account for such proliferation and to generate this kind of diversity, vascular tissue development relies on a large numbe

  3. Cognitive function following stroke and vascular cognitive impairment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Haan, Edward H.; Nys, Gudrun M.; Van Zandvoort, Martine J.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose of review This review of the cognitive status following stroke and vascular cognitive impairment starts by questioning the concept of vascular dementia and related concepts. Our position is that in many cases these labels promote a superficial conceptualization of an inherently complex and h

  4. Experimental autologous substitute vascular graft for transplantation surgery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kobori, L; Dallos, G; Gouw, ASH; Nemeth, T; Nemes, B; Fehervari, I; Tegzess, Adam; Slooff, MJH; Perner, F; De Jong, KP

    2000-01-01

    Vascular complications in fiver transplantation are a major cause of graft failure and mortality. The aim of the study was to create autologous vascular graft without risk of rejection. Posterior rectus fascia sheath lined with peritoneum was used for iliac artery replacement in seven mongrel dogs.

  5. Vascular Burden and Cognitive Function in Late-Life Depression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zuidersma, Marij; Izaks, Gerbrand J.; Naarding, Paul; Comijs, Hannie C.; Oude Voshaar, Richard C.

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the relation of vascular risk factors, subclinical, and manifest vascular disease with four domains of cognitive functioning in a large sample of clinically depressed older persons. METHODS: A cross-sectional analysis was used, and depressed patients were recruited from genera

  6. Vascular burden and cognitive function in late-life depression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zuidersma, M.; Izaks, G.J.; Naarding, P.; Comijs, H.C.; Oude Voshaar, R.C.

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the relation of vascular risk factors, subclinical, and manifest vascular disease with four domains of cognitive functioning in a large sample of clinically depressed older persons. METHODS: A cross-sectional analysis was used, and depressed patients were recruited from genera

  7. Psychosocial and vascular risk factors of depression in later life

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oldehinkel, AJ; Ormel, J; Brilman, EI; van den Berg, MD

    2003-01-01

    Background: Research on the aetiology of late-life depression has typically focused on either risk factors from the psychosocial stress-vulnerability domain or degenerative biological changes (for instance, vascular disease). We examined whether vascular risk factors could be interpreted within the

  8. Near-infrared spectroscopy during peripheral vascular surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eiberg, J P; Schroeder, T V; Vogt, K C;

    1997-01-01

    and after the operation. Following the use of peripheral vascular grafts an immediate postoperative increase in tissue saturation of median 28 (range -10 to +81) arbitrary units was noted (P ... that near-infrared spectroscopy is appropriate for perioperative monitoring during vascular grafting....

  9. 21 CFR 870.3450 - Vascular graft prosthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Vascular graft prosthesis. 870.3450 Section 870... prosthesis. (a) Identification. A vascular graft prosthesis is an implanted device intended to repair... Prostheses 510(k) Submissions.”...

  10. Macrophage migration inhibitory factor induces vascular leakage via autophagy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong-Ru Chen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Vascular leakage is an important feature of acute inflammatory shock, which currently has no effective treatment. Macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF is a pro-inflammatory cytokine that can induce vascular leakage and plays an important role in the pathogenesis of shock. However, the mechanism of MIF-induced vascular leakage is still unclear. In this study, using recombinant MIF (rMIF, we demonstrated that MIF induced disorganization and degradation of junction proteins and increased the permeability of human endothelial cells in vitro. Western blotting analysis showed that rMIF treatment induced LC3 conversion and p62 degradation. Inhibition of autophagy with a PI3K inhibitor (3-MA, a ROS scavenger (NAC or autophagosomal-lysosomal fusion inhibitors (bafilomycin A1 and chloroquine rescued rMIF-induced vascular leakage, suggesting that autophagy mediates MIF-induced vascular leakage. The potential involvement of other signaling pathways was also studied using different inhibitors, and the results suggested that MIF-induced vascular leakage may occur through the ERK pathway. In conclusion, we showed that MIF triggered autophagic degradation of endothelial cells, resulting in vascular leakage. Inhibition of MIF-induced autophagy may provide therapeutic targets against vascular leakage in inflammatory shock.

  11. Lesion-symptom mapping in vascular cognitive impairment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Biesbroek, J.M.

    2016-01-01

    Cerebral vascular disease (CVD) is an important cause of cognitive decline and dementia, either alone or in combination with neurodegenerative diseases, such as Alzheimer's Disease (AD). The contribution of CVD to cognitive decline and dementia is referred to as Vascular Cognitive Impairment (VCI).

  12. Deep dorsal vein arterialisation in vascular impotence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wespes, E; Corbusier, A; Delcour, C; Vandenbosch, G; Struyven, J; Schulman, C C

    1989-11-01

    A series of 12 patients with vasculogenic impotence (4 arterial lesions; 8 arterial and venous lesions) underwent deep dorsal vein arterialisation after pre-operative assessment by a multidisciplinary approach. Cumulative graft patency was 58% (7 of 12 patients) up to 21 months but only 4 patients developed almost normal erections. Digital angiography, with and without the intracavernous injection of papaverine, was performed during follow-up to determine the vascular physiological status. At flaccidity, the corpora cavernosa were never opacified in the absence of a venocorporeal shunt. The penile glans was always visualised. Opacification of the deep dorsal vein and the circumflex system decreased with penile rigidity, resulting from their compression between Buck's fascia and the tunica albuginea. Intracavernous pressure recorded before and after the surgical procedure showed a marked increase when a caverno-venous shunt was performed. Hypervascularisation of the glans occurred in 2 cases. The relevance of this new surgical technique and its functional mechanism are discussed.

  13. Foetal vascular responses to thromboxane receptor blockade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. A. Meyer

    1992-01-01

    Full Text Available We hypothesized that foetal administration of SQ-29,548, a putative thromboxane receptor blocker, would prevent foeto–placental vasoconstriction produced by the thromboxane mimic U46619. Arterial blood gases, continuous monitoring of maternal and foetal heart rates and blood pressures were performed in chronically catheterized pregnant ewes. Foetal blood flows and vascular resistance were determined with radioactive microspheres. SQ-29,548 effectively blocked the expected vasoconstrictive effects of thromboxane. However, prolonged infusion of SQ-29,548 resulted in significant decreases in umbilical–placental blood flow and foetal mean arterial pressure. This was accompanied by a respiratory acidemia. Potential therapy for the vasoconstrictive disorders of pregnancy with SQ-29,548 awaits further investigation of its intrinsic vasoactive properties in the umbilical–placental vasculature.

  14. Subclinical pulmonary involvement in collagen vascular diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A recruitment of immune and inflammatory cells into alveolar spaces has been reported in patients with collagen vascular diseases (CVD) and a normal chest radiograph. These findings defined the concept of subclinical alveolitis (SCA). To determine whether SCA may be associated with CT signs of interstitial lung disease (ILD), the authors of this paper compared bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) findings and high-resolution (HRCT) scans in 36 patients with CVD and normal chest radiographs (systemic sclerosis [SS, n = 21], rheumatoid arthritis [RA, n = 9], primary Sjogren's syndrome [PS, n = 6]). HRCT scans were obtained in supine and prone positions. Results of BAL revealed SCA in 17/36 patients (47%); lymphocyte SCA in 4/36 (24%); neutrophil SCA in 7/36 (41%); and mixed SCA in 6/36 (35%)

  15. Transluminal angioplasty, fibrinolysis, and newer vascular interventions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This refresher course presents an overview of the current status of transluminal angioplasty in the treatment of peripheral vascular disease, renovascular hypertension, and upper extremity vasculature. Indications for therapy, accepted techniques, and the diagnosis and treatment of complications are major topic areas. Newer areas of increasing application are discussed, particularly popliteal and tibial angioplasty. Newer devices and procedures such as lasers, percutaneous atherectomy, and mechanical recanalization devices are reviewed and their role in the current therapeutic armamentarium discussed. The current status of catheter-directed fibrinolytic techniques is presented, particularly as they relate to the concomitant use of transluminal angioplasty. The choice of lytic agents and newer agents is reviewed. Long-term results and complication rates are discussed by anatomic area

  16. Current status of vascularized composite tissue allotransplantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karoline Edtinger

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Vascularized composite tissue allotransplantation (VCA offers treatment options of complex functional deficiencies that cannot be repaired with conventional reconstructive methods. VCAs consist of blocks of functional units comprising different tissue types such as skin, bone, muscle, nerves, blood vessels, tendons, ligaments and others, and are thus substantially different from the composition of organ transplants. The field of VCA has made fascinating progresses in the recent past. Among other VCAs, numerous successful hand, face and limb transplants have been performed in the world. At the same time, specific questions in regard to innate and adaptive immunity, consequences of ischemia/reperfusion injury, immunosuppression, preservation, and regenerative capacity remain. In spite of this, the field is poised to make significant advances in the near future.

  17. Abdominal vascular syndromes: characteristic imaging findings*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardarelli-Leite, Leandro; Velloni, Fernanda Garozzo; Salvadori, Priscila Silveira; Lemos, Marcelo Delboni; D'Ippolito, Giuseppe

    2016-01-01

    Abdominal vascular syndromes are rare diseases. Although such syndromes vary widely in terms of symptoms and etiologies, certain imaging findings are characteristic. Depending on their etiology, they can be categorized as congenital-including blue rubber bleb nevus syndrome, Klippel-Trenaunay syndrome, and hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia (Rendu-Osler-Weber syndrome)-or compressive-including "nutcracker" syndrome, median arcuate ligament syndrome, Cockett syndrome (also known as May-Thurner syndrome), and superior mesenteric artery syndrome. In this article, we aimed to illustrate imaging findings that are characteristic of these syndromes, through studies conducted at our institution, as well as to perform a brief review of the literature on this topic. PMID:27777480

  18. Pathogenesis of diabetic cerebral vascular diseasecomplication

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ren-Shi Xu

    2015-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus is one of the most potent independentrisk factors for the development of diabetic cerebralvascular disease (CVD). Many evidences suggested thathyperglycemia caused excess free fatty acids, the lossof endothelium-derived nitric oxide, insulin resistance,the prothrombotic state, endothelial dysfunction,the abnormal release of endothelial vasoactivators,vascular smooth muscle dysfunction, oxidative stress,and the downregulation of miRs participated in vesselgeneration and recovery as well as the balance ofendotheliocytes. In turn, these abnormalities, mainly viaphosphatidylinositol 3 kinase, mitogen-activated proteinkinase, polyol, hexosamine, protein kinase C activation,and increased generation of advanced glycosylation endproducts pathway, play an important role in inducingdiabetic CVD complication. A deeper comprehensionof pathogenesis producing diabetic CVD could offerbase for developing new therapeutic ways preventingdiabetic CVD complications, therefore, in the paper wemainly reviewed present information about the possiblepathogenesis of diabetic CVD complication.

  19. [Neurourological signs of chronic cerebral vascular diseases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shvarts, P G; Dutov, V V; Kadykov, A S; Shvedkov, V V; Popov, S V; Plotnikov, A N

    2013-01-01

    Disorders of urination, along with motor and cognitive disorders, are characteristic of different forms of chronic cerebral vascular diseases (CCVD). Irritation symptoms are more frequent in subcortical arteriosclerotic encephalopathy (SAE) and multi infarct hypertonic encephalopathy (MIHE). Overactive urine bladder syndrome (OUBS) caused by neurogenic detrusive hyperactivity manifests itself in frequent urination, nocturia and imperative enuresis and thus decreases quality of life and results in disability of patents with CCVD. At the same time, the character of symptoms points indirectly to the localization of lacunar infarction or the extent of severity of leukoareosis. It is the most frequent form of disorders of urination in the first years of disease that significantly aggravates its course and needs timed diagnosis and pharmacological treatment. Competitive antagonists of muscarinic receptors M2, M3 subtypes are the most effective drugs for treatment of OUBS comorbid to CCVD. PMID:23994932

  20. Vascular Growth Factors and Glomerular Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartlett, Christina S; Jeansson, Marie; Quaggin, Susan E

    2016-01-01

    The glomerulus is a highly specialized microvascular bed that filters blood to form primary urinary filtrate. It contains four cell types: fenestrated endothelial cells, specialized vascular support cells termed podocytes, perivascular mesangial cells, and parietal epithelial cells. Glomerular cell-cell communication is critical for the development and maintenance of the glomerular filtration barrier. VEGF, ANGPT, EGF, SEMA3A, TGF-β, and CXCL12 signal in paracrine fashions between the podocytes, endothelium, and mesangium associated with the glomerular capillary bed to maintain filtration barrier function. In this review, we summarize the current understanding of these signaling pathways in the development and maintenance of the glomerulus and the progression of disease. PMID:26863327

  1. Gait and Equilibrium in Subcortical Vascular Dementia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita Moretti

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Subcortical vascular dementia is a clinical entity, widespread, even challenging to diagnose and correctly treat. Patients with this diagnosis are old, frail, often with concomitant pathologies, and therefore, with many drugs in therapy. We tried to diagnose and follow up for three years more than 600 patients. Study subjects were men and women, not bedridden, aged 68–94 years, outpatients, recruited from June, 1st 2007 to June, 1st 2010. We examined them clinically, neurologically, with specific consideration on drug therapies. Our aim has been to define gait and imbalance problem, if eventually coexistent with the pathology of white matter and/or with the worsening of the deterioration. Drug intake interference has been detected and considered.

  2. Poikiloderma vasculare atrophicans: A distinct clinical entity?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vikram K Mahajan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a typical case of poikiloderma vasculare atrophicans (PVA in a 48-year-old female. Histologically, the features were suggestive of PVA with the absence of Pautrier′s microabscess or atypical lymphoid cells. The biopsy specimen was positive for cluster of differentiation (CD 8 on immunohistochemical staining. Its exact pathogenesis remains obscure, and it remains unclear whether PVA actually is mycosis fungoides (MF, a forme fruste of MF, or a distinct and benign dermatosis with CD8+ phenotype that can perhaps be labeled as PVA. However, it has a long benign clinical course without progression to tumor stage of MF in most cases, and its status within the spectrum of cutaneous T-cell lymphoma remains poorly understood. Yet it is imperative to distinguish PVA from poikilodermic MF.

  3. Intraoperative neuromonitoring in major vascular surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    So, V C; Poon, C C M

    2016-09-01

    There has been a growing interest in using intraoperative neuromonitoring to reduce the incidence of stroke and paralysis in major vascular interventions. Electroencephalography, various neurophysiological evoked potential measurements, transcranial Doppler, and near-infrared spectroscopy are some of the modalities currently used to detect neural injuries. A good understanding of these modalities and their interactions with anaesthesia is important to maximize their value and to allow meaningful interpretation of their results. In view of the inter-individual differences in anatomy, physiological reserves, and severity of pathological processes, neuromonitoring may be a valuable method to evaluate the well-being of the nervous system during and after surgical interventions. In this review, we summarize some of their applications, efficacies, and drawbacks in major carotid and aortic surgeries. PMID:27566804

  4. The prevalence of obesity-related hypertension and risk for new vascular events in patients with vascular diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vernooij, Joris W P; van der Graaf, Yolanda; Visseren, Frank L J; Spiering, Wilko

    2012-10-01

    Higher body weight is associated with an increased prevalence of vascular risk factors. Obesity leads to hypertension by various mechanisms, often referred to as obesity-related hypertension. Aim of the present study was to evaluate the prevalence and the vascular risk of the combination of obesity and hypertension in patients with vascular diseases. A cohort of patients with various clinical manifest vascular diseases (n = 4,868) was screened for vascular risk factors and followed (median follow-up 4.2 years) for the occurrence of vascular events (stroke, myocardial infarction, and vascular death). The prevalence of obesity was 18% (95% confidence interval (CI) 17-19%) and the prevalence of hypertension was 83% (95% CI 82-84%). The prevalence of the combination of obesity and hypertension was 16% (95% CI 15-17%). Patients with high blood pressure (BP) combined with a high weight (highest tertile systolic BP (SBP) in the highest tertile BMI) were not at higher risk for new vascular events (hazard ratios (HR) 1.29; 95% CI 0.89-1.88) or mortality (HR 1.18; 95% CI 0.81-1.73) compared to patients without high BP and high weight (patients in the lowest tertile of SBP in the lowest tertile of BMI). Patients with only high weight did not have an elevated risk either for vascular events (HR 1.34; 95% CI 0.91-1.98) or mortality (HR 1.22; 95% CI 0.81-1.83) compared to patients without high BP and high weight. The prevalence of the combination of hypertension and obesity is low in patients with vascular diseases and does not confer a higher risk for recurrent vascular diseases and mortality than each risk factor alone.

  5. BK Channels in the Vascular System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnamoorthy-Natarajan, G; Koide, M

    2016-01-01

    Autoregulation of blood flow is essential for the preservation of organ function to ensure continuous supply of oxygen and essential nutrients and removal of metabolic waste. This is achieved by controlling the diameter of muscular arteries and arterioles that exhibit a myogenic response to changes in arterial blood pressure, nerve activity and tissue metabolism. Large-conductance voltage and Ca(2+)-dependent K(+) channels (BK channels), expressed exclusively in smooth muscle cells (SMCs) in the vascular wall of healthy arteries, play a critical role in regulating the myogenic response. Activation of BK channels by intracellular, local, and transient ryanodine receptor-mediated "Ca(2+) sparks," provides a hyperpolarizing influence on the SMC membrane potential thereby decreasing the activity of voltage-dependent Ca(2+) channels and limiting Ca(2+) influx to promote SMC relaxation and vasodilation. The BK channel α subunit, a large tetrameric protein with each monomer consisting of seven-transmembrane domains, a long intracellular C-terminal tail and an extracellular N-terminus, associates with the β1 and γ subunits in vascular SMCs. The BK channel is regulated by factors originating within the SMC or from the endothelium, perivascular nerves and circulating blood, that significantly alter channel gating properties, Ca(2+) sensitivity and expression of the α and/or β1 subunit. The BK channel thus serves as a central receiving dock that relays the effects of the changes in several such concomitant autocrine and paracrine factors and influences cardiovascular health. This chapter describes the primary mechanism of regulation of myogenic response by BK channels and the alterations to this mechanism wrought by different vasoactive mediators. PMID:27238270

  6. Vascular Response of the Segments Adjacent to the Proximal and Distal Edges of the ABSORB Everolimus-Eluting Bioresorbable Vascular Scaffold

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gogas, Bill D; Serruys, Patrick W; Diletti, Roberto;

    2012-01-01

    This study sought to investigate in vivo the vascular response at the proximal and distal edges of the second-generation ABSORB everolimus-eluting bioresorbable vascular scaffold (BVS).......This study sought to investigate in vivo the vascular response at the proximal and distal edges of the second-generation ABSORB everolimus-eluting bioresorbable vascular scaffold (BVS)....

  7. Diverse Imaging characteristics of a mandibular intraosseous vascular lesion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Handa, Hina; Naidu, Giridhar S.; Dara, Balaji Gandhi Babu; Deshpande, Ashwini; Raghavendra, Raju [Peoples Dental Academy, Bhopal (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2014-03-15

    Intraosseous vascular lesions of the maxillofacial region are rare, and the differential diagnosis of intraosseous vascular malformations from other jaw lesions can be challenging. In the present case, magnetic resonance imaging and three-dimensional computed tomographic angiography (CTA) was used for diagnosis, and the lesion was treated with surgical excision. Diverse characteristics such as the 'honeycomb' and 'sunburst' radiographic appearances and the absence of major peripheral feeder vessels in the CTA were noted. Intraosseous vascular malformations have a varied radiographic appearance, and the nomenclature of these lesions is equally diverse, with several overlapping terms. Pathologists do not generally differentiate among intraosseous vascular lesions on the basis of histopathology, although these lesions may present with contrasting immunohistochemical and clinical behaviors requiring varied treatment strategies. This case report highlights the need for multiple imaging modalities to differentiate among vascular lesions, as well as to better understand the behaviors of these unique lesions.

  8. Vascular gastric anomalies as a cause of relapsing bleeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Golubović Gradimir

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Although relatively rare, gastric vascular anomalies can be recognized as a source of both chronic and acute blood loss, most often presenting as long term iron deficiency anemia, rarely as severe acute gastrointestinal bleeding. Case report. We present five patients with various gastric vascular anomalies, diagnosed during the year of 2003. in the Clinical Hospital Center Zemun. The diagnosis was based on endoscopic appearances, clinical history and characteristic histological findings. Gastric vascular anomalies presented in our review were: portal hypertensive gastropathy, gastric antral vascular ectasia, angiodysplasia, hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia and Dieulafoy lesion. The used treatment modalities included surgery and various endoscopic techniques (schlerotherapy, argon plasma coagulation. Conclusion. Patients presented with chronic iron deficiency anemia or acute and recurrent gastrointestinal hemorrhage should be considered as having one of gastric vascular anomalies.

  9. Cartilage oligomeric matrix protein enhances the vascularization of acellular nerves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei-ling Cui

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Vascularization of acellular nerves has been shown to contribute to nerve bridging. In this study, we used a 10-mm sciatic nerve defect model in rats to determine whether cartilage oligomeric matrix protein enhances the vascularization of injured acellular nerves. The rat nerve defects were treated with acellular nerve grafting (control group alone or acellular nerve grafting combined with intraperitoneal injection of cartilage oligomeric matrix protein (experimental group. As shown through two-dimensional imaging, the vessels began to invade into the acellular nerve graft from both anastomotic ends at day 7 post-operation, and gradually covered the entire graft at day 21. The vascular density, vascular area, and the velocity of revascularization in the experimental group were all higher than those in the control group. These results indicate that cartilage oligomeric matrix protein enhances the vascularization of acellular nerves.

  10. The Electroretinogram in Patients with Retinal Vascular Occlusion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shizhou Huang; Lezheng Wu; Taiqing Luo; De-Zheng Wu; Futian Jiang; Guangwei Luo; Juanmei Ma

    2001-01-01

    Purpose: to measure and analyze the electroretinogram (ERG) in patients with retinal vascular occlusion. Method: fifty-eight cases (59 eyes) of retinal vascular occlusion and the fellow eyes of 47 cases were tested with Ganzfeld ERG. The scotopic and photopic ERG, and oscillatory potentials were tested according to the ERG standard of ISCEV. Results: The abnormal rates of Ops and b wave were higher in retinal vascular occlusion. The abnormal ERG appeared mostly in CRVO among four types of retinal vascular occlusion. The comparisons of some amplitudes and latencies between the fellow eyes and the affected eyes showed statistically significant difference. Conclusion: The oscillatory potentials and b waves have important roles in evaluating the retinal function of patients with retinal vascular occlusions. There are some clinical significance for comparing ERG between the affected eye and the fellow eye. Eye Science 2001; 17: 50 ~ 53.

  11. Regional differences in perivascular adipose tissue impacting vascular homeostasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gil-Ortega, Marta; Somoza, Beatriz; Huang, Yu; Gollasch, Maik; Fernández-Alfonso, Maria S

    2015-07-01

    Perivascular adipose tissue (PVAT) releases several important vasoactive factors with physiological and pathophysiological paracrine effects. A large body of evidence suggests regional phenotypic and functional differences among PVAT depots, depending on the specific vascular bed or different regions in the vascular bed where the PVAT is located. These non-uniform and separate PVATs exert various paracrine effects on vascular structure and function that largely impact disease states, such as endothelial dysfunction, atherosclerosis, or insulin resistance. This emerging view of PVAT function requires considering heterogeneous PVAT as a specialized organ that can differentially regulate vascular function depending on its anatomical location. In this context, the adipose-vascular axis may represent a novel target for pharmacological intervention in vasculopathy in cardiometabolic disorders.

  12. Pumps, Aqueducts, and Drought Management: vascular physiology in vascular cognitive impairment

    OpenAIRE

    Marshall, Randolph S.; Lazar, Ronald M

    2010-01-01

    Vascular cognitive impairment has been traditionally defined by structural pathology – an accumulation of infarcts -- leading to progressive cognitive decline. Recent evidence, however, suggests that cognitive impairment may be independently mediated by hemodynamic dysfunction including global and hemispheral hypoperfusion and altered cerebral blood flow regulation. In this review we examine evidence for the contribution of hemodynamic impairment to cognitive dysfunction in the setting of lar...

  13. Vascular protection in diabetic stroke: role of matrix metalloprotease-dependent vascular remodeling

    OpenAIRE

    Elgebaly, Mostafa M.; Prakash, Roshini; Li, Weiguo; Ogbi, Safia; Maribeth H Johnson; Mezzetti, Erin M.; Fagan, Susan C; Ergul, Adviye

    2010-01-01

    Temporary focal ischemia causes greater hemorrhagic transformation (HT) in diabetic Goto-Kakizaki (GK) rats, a model with increased cerebrovascular matrix metalloprotease (MMP) activity and tortuosity. The objective of the current study was to test the hypotheses that (1) diabetes-induced cerebrovascular remodeling is MMP dependent and (2) prevention of vascular remodeling by glucose control or MMP inhibition reduces HT in diabetic stroke. Control and GK rats were treated with vehicle, metfor...

  14. In vitro differentiation of porcine aortic vascular precursor cells to endothelial and vascular smooth muscle cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaniboni, Andrea; Bernardini, Chiara; Bertocchi, Martina; Zannoni, Augusta; Bianchi, Francesca; Avallone, Giancarlo; Mangano, Chiara; Sarli, Giuseppe; Calzà, Laura; Bacci, Maria Laura; Forni, Monica

    2015-09-01

    Recent findings suggest that progenitor and multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) are associated with vascular niches. Cells displaying mesenchymal properties and differentiating to whole components of a functional blood vessel, including endothelial and smooth muscle cells, can be defined as vascular stem cells (VSCs). Recently, we isolated a population of porcine aortic vascular precursor cells (pAVPCs), which have MSC- and pericyte-like properties. The aim of the present work was to investigate whether pAVPCs possess VSC-like properties and assess their differentiation potential toward endothelial and smooth muscle lineages. pAVPCs, maintained in a specific pericyte growth medium, were cultured in high-glucose DMEM + 10% FBS (long-term medium, LTM) or in human endothelial serum-free medium + 5% FBS and 50 ng/ml of hVEGF (endothelial differentiation medium, EDM). After 21 days of culture in LTM, pAVPCs showed an elongated fibroblast-like morphology, and they seem to organize in cord-like structures. qPCR analysis of smooth muscle markers [α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA), calponin, and smooth muscle myosin (SMM) heavy chain] showed a significant increment of the transcripts, and immunofluorescence analysis confirmed the presence of α-SMA and SMM proteins. After 21 days of culture in EDM, pAVPCs displayed an endothelial cell-like morphology and revealed the upregulation of the expression of endothelial markers (CD31, vascular endothelial-cadherin, von Willebrand factor, and endothelial nitric oxide synthase) showing the CD31-typical pattern. In conclusion, pAVPCs could be defined as a VSC-like population considering that, if they are maintained in a specific pericyte medium, they express MSC markers, and they have, in addition to the classical mesenchymal trilineage differentiation potential, the capacity to differentiate in vitro toward the smooth muscle and the endothelial cell phenotypes. PMID:26135800

  15. General Surgery Resident Vascular Operative Experience in the Era of Endovascular Surgery and Vascular Fellowships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Huan; Maximus, Steven; Kim, Jerry J; Smith, Brian; Kim, Dennis; Koopmann, Matthew; DeVirgilio, Christian

    2015-10-01

    Advances in endovascular surgery have resulted in a decline in major open arterial reconstructions nationwide. Our objective is to investigate the effect of endovascular surgery on general surgery resident experience with open vascular surgery. Between 2004 and 2014, 112 residents graduated from two academic institutions in Southern California. Residents were separated into those who graduated in 2004 to 2008 (period 1) and in 2009 to 2014 (period 2). Case volumes of vascular procedures were compared using two-sample t test. A total of 43 residents were in period 1 and 59 residents were in period 2. In aggregate, there was no significant difference in open cases recorded between the two periods (84 vs 87, P = 0.194). Subgroup analysis showed period 2 recorded significantly fewer cases of open aneurysm repair (5 vs 3, P surgery residents experienced a significant decline in several index open major arterial reconstruction cases. This decline was offset by maintenance of dialysis access procedures. If the trend continues, future general surgeons will not be proficient in open vascular procedures.

  16. Regulation Effect of Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor on Human Fetal Choroid Vascularization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JinsongZhao; YiWang; 等

    2002-01-01

    Purpose:To investigate the spatial and temporal regulation effect of vascular endothelial growth factor(VEGF) on human fetal choroids vascularization.Methods:The eyeballs of 54 human fetuses from the 9th week to the 40th week due to accidental abortion were studied by immunohistochemically stainin for the expression of VEGF and proliferation cell nuclear antigen (PCNA).Results: (1)The distribution of VEGF expression in the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) decreased with the incrase of age,the peak of which was between the 9th and 14th week.(2)PCNA immunoreactivity was localized within choriocapillaris endothelium .The expression level decreased alone with fetus age.In this period the choriocapillaris endothelium kept proliferation,differentiation,canalization and remodeled to form the choroids vessels(3)Statistically significant correlations were shown between the expression of VEGF in the PRE and that of PCNA in choriocapillaris endothelium(r=0.933,P<0.01).Couclusin:VEGF expression in PRE was positively involved in modulating human fetal choroids vascularization .Eye Science 2000;16:11-14.

  17. Regulation Effect of Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor on Human Fetal Choroid Vascularization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jinsong Zhao; Yue Song; Yi Wang; Xiaoguang Zhang

    2000-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate the spatial and temporal regulation effect of vascular endothelial growth factor(VEGF) on human fetal choroid vascularization. Methods: The eyeballs of 54 human fetuses from the 9th week to the 40th week due to accidental abortion were studied by immunohistochemically staining for the expression of VEGF and proliferation cell nuclear antigen (PCNA). Results: (1) The distribution of VEGF expression in the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) decreased with the increase of age, the peak of which was between the 9th and 14th week. (2) PCNA immunoreactivity was localized within choriocapillaris endothelium. The expression level decreased alone with fetus age. In this period the choriocapillaris endothelium kept proliferation, differentiation, canalization and remodelled to form the choroid vessels. (3)Statistically significant correlations were shown between the expression of VEGF in the PRE and that of PCNA in choriocapillaris endothelium(r =0. 933, P < 0. 01). Conclusion: VEGF expression in RPE was positively involved in modulating human fetal choroid vascularization. Eye Science 2000; 16:11 ~ 14.

  18. Nucleotide excision DNA repair is associated with age-related vascular dysfunction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Durik (Matej); M. Kavousi (Maryam); I. van der Pluijm (Ingrid); A.J. Isaacs (Aaron); C. Cheng (Cheng); K. Verdonk (Koen); A.E. Loot (Annemarieke); H. Oeseburg (Hisko); U.M. Bhaggoe (Usha); F.P.J. Leijten (Frank); R. van Veghel (Richard); R. de Vries (René); G. Rudež (Goran); R.M.C. Brandt (Renata); Y. Ridwan (Yanto); E.D. van Deel (Elza); M. de Boer (Martine); D. Tempel (Dennie); I. Fleming (Ingrid); G.F. Mitchell (Gary); G.C. Verwoert (Germaine); K.V. Tarasov (Kirill); A.G. Uitterlinden (André); A. Hofman (Albert); H.J. Duckers (Henricus); C.M. van Duijn (Cock); B.A. Oostra (Ben); J.C.M. Witteman (Jacqueline); D.J.G.M. Duncker (Dirk); A.H.J. Danser (Jan); J.H.J. Hoeijmakers (Jan); A.J.M. Roks (Anton)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Vascular dysfunction in atherosclerosis and diabetes mellitus, as observed in the aging population of developed societies, is associated with vascular DNA damage and cell senescence. We hypothesized that cumulative DNA damage during aging contributes to vascular dysfunction.

  19. DMPD: Lipoprotein trafficking in vascular cells. Molecular Trojan horses and cellularsaboteurs. [Dynamic Macrophage Pathway CSML Database

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 9287290 Lipoprotein trafficking in vascular cells. Molecular Trojan horses and cell...ml) Show Lipoprotein trafficking in vascular cells. Molecular Trojan horses and cellularsaboteurs. PubmedID ...9287290 Title Lipoprotein trafficking in vascular cells. Molecular Trojan horses

  20. Imaging Vascular Disease and Amyloid in the Aging Brain: Implications for Treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Villeneuve, Sylvia; Jagust, William J.

    2015-01-01

    Vascular risk factors (e.g. hypertension, dyslipidemia and diabetes) are well known risk factors for Alzheimer’ disease. These vascular risk factors lead to vascular brain injuries, which also increase the likelihood of dementia. The advent of amyloid PET imaging has helped establish that vascular risk factors also lead to Alzheimer’s disease via pathways that are independent from vascular brain injuries, at least, when vascular brain injuries are measured as white matter lesions and infarcts...

  1. Tratamiento esclerosante de las malformaciones vasculares Sclerosing treatment of vascular malformations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Cabrera

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available La escleroterapia convencional con esclerosantes líquidos se utiliza desde hace muchos años en el tratamiento de las malformaciones vasculares venosas, linfáticas y de bajo flujo, siendo eficaz sólo en aquéllas de reducido tamaño como complemento pre o postoperatorio. El uso de esclerosantes líquidos tiene la limitación de la dilución e inactivación progresiva en un gran volumen hemático, de la irregular distribución del esclerosante sobre el endotelio, del manejo del esclerosante una vez inyectado y de su imperceptibilidad al eco-Doppler. A su vez, tanto el etanol como el morruato sódico -esclerosantes más habitualmente utilizados- producen importantes efectos secundarios. Por el contrario, la utilización de esclerosantes, concretamente polidocanol, en microespuma mejora significativamente el procedimiento, ya que la microespuma desplaza la sangre en lugar de mezclarse y diluirse con ella, facilita un reparto homogéneo del esclerosante sobre la superficie endotelial, y finalmente la ecogenicidad de las microburbujas, que la hacen directamente visible junto con su consistencia manejable, hacen que pueda distribuirse más fácilmente a lo largo de la zona tratada. Se comenta la experiencia sobre 50 pacientes con malformaciones vasculares venosas o de bajo flujo, tratadas con esta nueva forma de esclerosante. Asimismo, se revisa y protocoliza el uso de OK-432 (picibanil como tratamiento esclerosante de elección de las malformaciones vasculares linfáticas, especialmente las macroquísticas.Traditional sclerotherapy with liquid sclerosants has been used for many years in the treatment of venous, lymphatic and low flow vascular malformations; it is efficient only with those vascular malformations of reduced size as a pre or post-operational complement. The use of liquid sclerosants has the limitations of their dilution and progressive inactivation in a great haematic volume, the irregular distribution of the sclerosant on the

  2. Engineered human vascularized constructs accelerate diabetic wound healing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Yu-I; Cho, Hongkwan; Papa, Arianne E; Burke, Jacqueline A; Chan, Xin Yi; Duh, Elia J; Gerecht, Sharon

    2016-09-01

    Stem cell-based therapy is emerging as a promising approach for chronic diabetic wounds, but strategies for optimizing both cellular differentiation and delivery remain as major obstacles. Here, we study bioengineered vascularized constructs as a therapeutic modality for diabetic wound healing. We developed a wound model in immunodeficient rodent and treated it with engineered vascularized constructs from endothelial progenitors or early vascular cells-derived from human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) reprogrammed either from healthy donor or type-1 diabetic patient. We found that all vascularized constructs expedited wound closure and reperfusion, with endothelial progenitor constructs having the earliest maximum closure rate followed closely by healthy and diabetic hiPSC-derivative constructs. This was accompanied by rapid granulation layer formation and regression in all vascularized construct groups. Macrophage infiltration into the hydrogel matrix occurred during early stages of healing, seeming to facilitate rapid neovascularization of the wound that could then better persist in the vascularized constructs. Blood perfusion of the human vasculature could be detected after three days, indicating rapid integration with the host vasculature. Overall, we propose a potential therapeutic strategy using allograft or autologous vascularized constructs to treat type-1 diabetic wounds. This approach highlights the unprecedented prospects of designing patient-specific stem cell therapy. PMID:27328431

  3. Polarity, Continuity, and Alignment in Plant Vascular Strands

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Megan G. Sawchuk; Enrico Scarpella

    2013-01-01

    Plant vascular cells are joined end to end along uninterrupted lines to connect shoot organs with roots;vascular strands are thus polar, continuous, and internally aligned. What controls the formation of vascular strands with these properties? The “auxin canalization hypothesis”-based on positive feedback between auxin flow through a cell and the cell’s capacity for auxin transport-predicts the selection of continuous files of cells that transport auxin polarly, thus accounting for the polarity and continuity of vascular strands. By contrast, polar, continuous auxin transport-though required-is insufficient to promote internal alignment of vascular strands, implicating additional factors. The auxin canalization hypothesis was derived from the response of mature tissue to auxin application but is consistent with molecular and cellular events in embryo axis formation and shoot organ development. Objections to the hypothesis have been raised based on vascular organizations in callus tissue and shoot organs but seem unsupported by available evidence. Other objections call instead for further research; yet the inductive and orienting influence of auxin on continuous vascular differentiation remains unique.

  4. Vascular Neurology Nurse Practitioner Provision of Telemedicine Consultations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bart M. Demaerschalk

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The objective was to define and evaluate a role for the Vascular Neurology-Nurse Practitioner (VN-NP in the delivery of telemedicine consultations in partnership with a vascular neurologist. Methods. Prospective stroke alert patients at participating hospitals underwent a two-way audio video telemedicine consultation with a VN-NP at a remotely located stroke center in partnership with a vascular neurologist. Demographic information, National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS scores, diagnoses, CT contraindications to thrombolysis, thrombolysis eligibility, and time interval data were collected. The inter-rater agreement between VN-NP and vascular neurologist assessments was calculated. Results. Ten patients were evaluated. Four were determined to have ischemic stroke, one had a transient ischemic attack, two had intracerebral hemorrhages, and three were stroke mimics. Overall, three patients received thrombolysis. The inter-rater agreement between VN-NP and vascular neurologist assessments were excellent, ranging from 0.9 to 1.0. The duration of VN-NP consultation was 53.2±9.0 minutes, which included the vascular neurologist supervisory evaluation time of 12.0±9.6 minutes. Conclusion. This study illustrated that a stroke center VN-NP, in partnership with a vascular neurologist, could deliver timely telemedicine consultations, accurate diagnoses, and correct treatments in acute stroke patients who presented to remotely located rural emergency departments within a hub and spoke network. VN-NPs may fulfill the role of a telestroke provider.

  5. Endovascular Management of Vascular Injury during Transsphenoidal Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cinar, C; Bozkaya, H; Parildar, M; Oran, I

    2013-03-01

    Vascular injury is an unusual and serious complication of transsphenoidal surgery. We aimed to define the role of angiography and endovascular treatment in patients with vascular injuries occurring during transsphenoidal surgery. During the last ten-year period, we retrospectively evaluated nine patients with vascular injury after transsphenoidal surgery. Eight patients were symptomatic due to vascular injury, while one had only suspicion of vascular injury during surgery. Four patients presented with epistaxis, two with subarachnoid hemorrhage, one with exophthalmos, and one with hemiparesia. Emergency angiography revealed a pseudoaneurysm in four patients, contrast extravasation in two, vessel dissection in one, vessel wall irregularity in one, and arteriovenous fistula in one. All patients but one were treated successfully with parent artery occlusion, with one covered stent implantation, one stent-assisted coiling method, while one patient was managed conservatively. One patient died due to complications related to the primary insult without rebleeding. Vascular injuries suspected intra or postoperatively must be investigated rapidly after transsphenoidal surgery. Endovascular treatment with parent artery occlusion is feasible with acceptable morbidity and mortality rates in the treatment of vascular injuries occurring in transsphenoidal surgery.

  6. Vascular cognitive impairments in chronic kidney disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. V. Rogova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to study the specific features of development of cognitive impairments (CIs, the role of traditional cardiovascular risk factors and renal failure-induced factors in patients with Stages I–IV chronic kidney disease (CKD and to assess an association of CIs with the signs of vascular wall remodeling in them. Patients and methods. Fifty-one patients aged 53±10 years with CKD were examined. Among them, there were 20 patients with Stages I–II CKD: a glomerular filtration rate (GFR of і60 ml/min/1.73 m2, signs of renal lesion; 20 with Stages III CKD: a GFR of <60–30 ml/min/1.73 m2, and 11 with Stages VI CKD: a GFR of <30–15 ml/min/1.73 m2. Results and discussion. CIs were more common in the patients with Stages III–IV than in those with Stages I–II, as shown by the scores of the mini-mental state examination (p<0.001, the frontal assessment battery (p=0.001, and the regulatory function test (p<0.001. These tests showed that the magnitude of CIs increased with the higher stage of CKD. Stages III–IV CKD is an independent predictor of CIs in persons with predialysis-stage kidney lesion. CIs were found to be related to hyperhomocysteinemia, anemia, abdominal obesity, left ventricular hypertrophy, and patient age. The signs of atherosclerotic lesion of the common carotid arteries and the indicators of arterial stiffness were also associated with the incidence and magnitude of CIs in CKD. The detection of CIs in patients with early CKD allows one to timely initiate adequate therapy aimed particularly at improving cerebral circulation, eliminating the impact of risk factors, and slowing down the vascular remodeling. The management tactics for patients with CKD must involve the identification and correction of cardiovascular risk factors, and duplex scanning of the wall of the common carotid arteries may be used as a noninvasive method to assess the risk of the development and progression of CIs in predialysis CKD. 

  7. Congenital vascular anomalies: current perspectives on diagnosis, classification, and management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blei F

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Francine Blei,1 Mark E Bittman2 1Vascular Anomalies Program, Lenox Hill Hospital, Northwell Health, 2Department of Radiology, New York University Langone Medical Center, New York, NY, USA Abstract: The term "congenital vascular anomalies" encompasses those vascular lesions present at birth. Many of these lesions may be detected in utero. This review serves to apprise the readership of newly identified diagnoses and updated classification schemes. Attention is focused on clinical features, patterns of presentation, clinical manifestations and behavior, diagnostic tools, and treatment modalities. It is an invigorating period for this field, with a surge in vascular anomalies-related basic and clinical research, genetics, pharmacology, clinical trials, and patient advocacy. A large number of professional conferences now include vascular anomalies in the agenda, and trainees in multiple specialties are gaining expertise in this discipline. We begin with a summary of classification schemes and introduce the updated classification adopted by the International Society for the Study of Vascular Anomalies. Disease entities are described, with liberal use of photographs, as many diagnoses can be established based on a thorough history and visual appearance and it is thus essential to develop a familiarity with diagnosis-specific physical features. Peripheral (non-central nervous system vascular anomalies are the focus of this review. We focus on those entities in which diagnostic radiology is routinely used and accentuate when histologic confirmation is essential. We also underscore some differences in approach to the pediatric vs adolescent or adult patient. A list of Internet-based resources is included, with hyperlinks to informative sites. References are limited to seminal discoveries and review articles. We hope that our enthusiasm in writing this review will be shared by those who read this review. Keywords: vascular anomalies, hemangiomas, vascular

  8. Spontaneous Splenic Rupture in Vascular Ehlers-Danlos Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batagini, Nayara Cioffi; Gornik, Heather; Kirksey, Lee

    2015-01-01

    Vascular Ehlers-Danlos Syndrome (VEDS) is a rare autosomal dominant collagen vascular disorder. Different from other Ehler-Danlos Syndrome subtypes, VEDS has poor prognosis due to severe fragility of connective tissues and association with life-threatening vascular and gastrointestinal complications. Spontaneous splenic rupture is a rare but hazardous complication related to this syndrome. To date, only 2 cases have been reported in the literature. Here we present another case of this uncommon complication, occurring in a 54-year-old woman in clinical follow-up for VEDS who presented with sudden onset of abdominal pain and hypotension. PMID:26323967

  9. Vascular Complications of Pancreatitis: Role of Interventional Therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barge, Jaideep U.; Lopera, Jorge E. [University of Texas Health Science Center, San Antonio (United States)

    2012-02-15

    Major vascular complications related to pancreatitis can cause life-threatening hemorrhage and have to be dealt with as an emergency, utilizing a multidisciplinary approach of angiography, endoscopy or surgery. These may occur secondary to direct vascular injuries, which result in the formation of splanchnic pseudoaneurysms, gastrointestinal etiologies such as peptic ulcer disease and gastroesophageal varices, and post-operative bleeding related to pancreatic surgery. In this review article, we discuss the pathophysiologic mechanisms, diagnostic modalities, and treatment of pancreatic vascular complications, with a focus on the role of minimally-invasive interventional therapies such as angioembolization, endovascular stenting, and ultrasound-guided percutaneous thrombin injection in their management.

  10. Systemic Multiple Aneurysms Caused by Vascular Ehlers-Danlos Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gui, Xinyu; Li, Fangda; Wu, Lingeer; Zheng, Yuehong

    2016-07-01

    Systemic multiple aneurysms are rare and usually associated with collagen tissue disease, such as Ehlers-Danlos syndrome (EDS) or Marfan syndrome. In the present case, we describe a 39-year-old male patient with systemic multiple aneurysms and acute intraperitoneal hemorrhage who was clinically diagnosed with vascular EDS. Coil embolization of the distal segment of the common hepatic artery was performed, which resolved the patient's symptoms. With this case presentation, we aim to increase the awareness of vascular EDS among clinicians and emphasize the extreme fragility of the arteries in patients with vascular EDS. PMID:27206743

  11. Persistent Primitive Trigeminal Artery: An Unusual Cause of Vascular Tinnitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ananya Panda

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Pulsatile tinnitus is generally of vascular origin and can be due to arterial, venous, or systemic causes. While certain congenital anatomical variants and arterial vascular loops have been commonly found in symptomatic patients undergoing imaging, persistent primitive trigeminal artery in association with isolated tinnitus is unusual. Thus we report a patient with unilateral isolated pulsatile tinnitus who was evaluated with magnetic resonance angiography and was found to have a persistent primitive trigeminal artery. We also briefly discuss vascular tinnitus as well as the embryology, imaging, and classification of persistent primitive trigeminal artery with the clinical implications.

  12. Persistent Primitive Trigeminal Artery: An Unusual Cause of Vascular Tinnitus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arora, Arundeep; Jana, Manisha

    2013-01-01

    Pulsatile tinnitus is generally of vascular origin and can be due to arterial, venous, or systemic causes. While certain congenital anatomical variants and arterial vascular loops have been commonly found in symptomatic patients undergoing imaging, persistent primitive trigeminal artery in association with isolated tinnitus is unusual. Thus we report a patient with unilateral isolated pulsatile tinnitus who was evaluated with magnetic resonance angiography and was found to have a persistent primitive trigeminal artery. We also briefly discuss vascular tinnitus as well as the embryology, imaging, and classification of persistent primitive trigeminal artery with the clinical implications. PMID:24459596

  13. Persistent primitive trigeminal artery: an unusual cause of vascular tinnitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panda, Ananya; Arora, Arundeep; Jana, Manisha

    2013-01-01

    Pulsatile tinnitus is generally of vascular origin and can be due to arterial, venous, or systemic causes. While certain congenital anatomical variants and arterial vascular loops have been commonly found in symptomatic patients undergoing imaging, persistent primitive trigeminal artery in association with isolated tinnitus is unusual. Thus we report a patient with unilateral isolated pulsatile tinnitus who was evaluated with magnetic resonance angiography and was found to have a persistent primitive trigeminal artery. We also briefly discuss vascular tinnitus as well as the embryology, imaging, and classification of persistent primitive trigeminal artery with the clinical implications. PMID:24459596

  14. Materials and surface modification for tissue engineered vascular scaffolds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhong-Kui; Wu, Zhong-Shi; Lu, Ting; Yuan, Hao-Yong; Tang, Hao; Tang, Zhen-Jie; Tan, Ling; Wang, Bin; Yan, Si-Ming

    2016-10-01

    Although vascular implantation has been used as an effective treatment for cardiovascular disease for many years, off-the-shelf and regenerable vascular scaffolds are still not available. Tissue engineers have tested various materials and methods of surface modification in the attempt to develop a scaffold that is more suitable for implantation. Extracellular matrix-based natural materials and biodegradable polymers, which are the focus of this review, are considered to be suitable materials for production of tissue-engineered vascular grafts. Various methods of surface modification that have been developed will also be introduced, their impacts will be summarized and assessed, and challenges for further research will briefly be discussed. PMID:27484610

  15. Advances in Vascular Hyporeactivity After Shock: The Mechanisms and Managements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Chenyang; Yang, Guangming; Li, Tao; Liu, Liangming

    2015-12-01

    Vascular reactivity to vasoconstrictors and vasodilators is greatly reduced after severe trauma, shock, and sepsis or multiple organ dysfunction syndrome. This reduced vascular reactivity severely interferes with the treatment of shock and other critical conditions. In particular, it interferes with the efficacy of vasoactive agents. Consequently, it is very important to elucidate the mechanisms and search for the effective treatment measures. In recent years, a lot of studies focused on the characteristics and the change rules of vascular hyporeactivity and mechanisms following shock. Also, the treatment approaches based on various mechanisms have been a hot pot these years.

  16. Utility of the arteriography in vascular trauma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is re-examined in a retrospective way the clinical information of 320 patients handled during a period of 13 months, to determine how frequent it is identified arterial injuries clinically silent through routine arteriography, and with which frequency these injuries are serious enough to require surgical handling. The study of the angiographic diagnosis was done to find out if there were one or more of the following clinical findings: stable haematoma, deficit of pulse, bleeding record, deficit of perispheric nerve, deficit of central nerve, heart-blow, haematoma or pulsatile mass, thrill, widen mediastinum or proximity to an important neurovascular package. A total of 595 cases were studied. In 128 occasions the arteriography was done when the patient showed abnormal clinical findings, detecting 47 injuries in 37 patients who required surgery or endovascular treatment. The anatomical proximity was the indication to evaluate 467 cases, detecting 20 injuries, four of which required surgery. In asymptomatic patients, the probability to detect vascular injury and required surgery, was significantly less than in symptomatic patients (p < 0.0000001 and p < 0.000045 respectively). In case of trauma, the need of an arteriography is based on the clinical findings, in which absence; the routine diagnostic arteriography detects fewer injuries, and occasionally identifies important injuries that require surgery. The results of this study suggest that, in asymptomatic patients the routine usage of the arteriography is given up and should be practiced selectively only on symptomatic patients

  17. Statins and vascular dementia: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giannopoulos, Sotirios; Katsanos, Aristeidis H; Kosmidou, Maria; Tsivgoulis, Georgios

    2014-01-01

    The impact of statin therapy on dementia has been a hot topic of debate over the last decade and still remains highly controversial. Among all causes of dementia, vascular dementia (VaD) is the one type that is more likely to benefit from statins. To date no randomized clinical trials have been published and no systematic review has investigated a possible preventive effect of statins on the VaD subtype. In the present literature review, we tried to identify all available data on the effect of statins specifically in patients with VaD, and to further discuss this possible association. Our literature search highlighted two cross-sectional studies, two prospective cohort studies, and one retrospective cohort study. Two of the studies found a significant positive effect of statin treatment on VaD, depicted by the lower incidence of VaD in statin users, while the others reported non-significant associations. The relatively small numbers of VaD patients and statin users, as well as the presence of confounders and biases, make the interpretation of results extremely difficult. Statins may exert a benefit in the prevention of all-type dementia and VaD, through several mechanisms except for hyperlipidemia reduction. A well-designed randomized clinical trial is the ideal study design to address the effect of statin therapy in VaD and to draw final conclusions.

  18. Vascular cemeteries formed by biological nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sommer, Andrei P., E-mail: andrei.sommer@uni-ulm.de [University of Ulm, Institute of Micro and Nanomaterials (Germany); Tsurumoto, Toshiyuki [Nagasaki University, Department of Macroscopic Anatomy, Graduate School of Biomedical Science (Japan)

    2013-04-15

    We report the discovery of dense colonies of globular structures ranging from 100 nm to 5 {mu}m in the tunica media of the femoral artery of an 89-year-old female cadaver. Systematic analysis using scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and light microscopy reveals that the globular structures are surrounded by vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) and consist predominantly of calcium phosphate. Inspection of the images suggests the action of two complementary growth processes. The structures may grow both in size and in number locally by Ostwald ripening and a replicative route, respectively. Morphology in conjunction with the quality of their native growth niche suggests that they are different from nanocrystals released from apoptotic bodies. Their tendency to fill VSMC pockets leads to the speculation that they could represent an effort of the VSMC system to wall off cytotoxic nanocrystals liberated from apoptotic bodies. Alternatively, the structures may be equivalent with nanobacteria (NB)-a nomenclature which caused confusion. This is reflected by the multitude of names used by different authors for the nanoentities (living nanovesicles, nanobionta, calcifying nanoparticles, and nanons). Indeed, there is no clear definition in the literature as to what NB are. Considering that the calcium phosphate nanoparticles have been identified in the human body, we used in our study the descriptive name biological nanoparticles-the world's first nanoparticles.

  19. Vascular Closure Devices in Interventional Radiology Practice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patel, Rafiuddin, E-mail: rafiuddin.patel@ouh.nhs.uk [John Radcliffe Hospital, Department of Radiology (United Kingdom); Muller-Hulsbeck, Stefan, E-mail: muehue@diako.de [Diakonissen Hospital, Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology/Neuroradiology (Germany); Morgan, Robert, E-mail: robert.morgan@stgeorges.nhs.uk [St George’s Hospital, Department of Radiology (United Kingdom); Uberoi, Raman, E-mail: raman.uberoi@orh.nhs.uk [John Radcliffe Hospital, Department of Radiology (United Kingdom)

    2015-08-15

    Manual compression (MC) is a well-established technique for haemostasis following percutaneous arterial intervention. However, MC is labour and time intensive with potential limitations, particularly for patients who are coagulopathic, unable to comply with bed rest or obese and when large sheaths or anti-coagulants are used. There are a variety of vascular closure devices (VCDs) available to overcome these limitations. This review gives an overview of current VCDs, their mechanism of action, individual strengths and weaknesses, evidence base and utility in interventional radiology (IR) practice. The majority of the published evidence on VCDs is derived from patients undergoing cardiac interventions, which should be borne in mind when considering the applicability and transfer of this data for general IR practice. Overall, the evidence suggests that most VCDs are effective in achieving haemostasis with a similar rate of complications to MC although the complication profile associated with VCDs is distinct to that of MC. There is insufficient evidence to comparatively analyse the different types of VCDs currently available or reliably judge their cost-effectiveness. The interventional radiologist should have a thorough understanding of the available techniques for haemostasis and be able to identify and utilise the most appropriate strategy and closure technique for the individual patient.

  20. Photoacoustic tomography of vascular compliance in humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hai, Pengfei; Zhou, Yong; Liang, Jinyang; Li, Chiye; Wang, Lihong V.

    2015-12-01

    Characterization of blood vessel elastic properties can help in detecting thrombosis and preventing life-threatening conditions such as acute myocardial infarction or stroke. Vascular elastic photoacoustic tomography (VE-PAT) is proposed to measure blood vessel compliance in humans. Implemented on a linear-array-based photoacoustic computed tomography system, VE-PAT can quantify blood vessel compliance changes due to simulated thrombosis and occlusion. The feasibility of the VE-PAT system was first demonstrated by measuring the strains under uniaxial loading in perfused blood vessel phantoms and quantifying their compliance changes due to the simulated thrombosis. The VE-PAT system detected a decrease in the compliances of blood vessel phantoms with simulated thrombosis, which was validated by a standard compression test. The VE-PAT system was then applied to assess blood vessel compliance in a human subject. Experimental results showed a decrease in compliance when an occlusion occurred downstream from the measurement point in the blood vessels, demonstrating VE-PAT's potential for clinical thrombosis detection.