WorldWideScience

Sample records for cerebral media fetal

  1. ISOINMUNIZACION Rh: EVALUACION DE LA UTILIDAD DEL DOPPLER DE ARTERIA CEREBRAL MEDIA EN LA PREDICCION Y MANEJO DE ANEMIA FETAL

    OpenAIRE

    2003-01-01

    Se presenta la experiencia en el manejo de pacientes altamente sensibilizadas por incompatibilidad Rh, analizando la utilidad de la evaluación de la velocidad circulatoria fetal, por Doppler-color, a través de la medición de la velocidad máxima sistólica (VMS) de la arteria cerebral media (ACM). Se realizan 19 transfusiones intravasculares en 3 casos afectados por esta enfermedad. En 14 de ellas se encontró anemia fetal moderada o leve, la que fue diagnosticada correctamente en 13 oportunidad...

  2. Radiation-induced apoptosis in developing fetal rat cerebral cortex

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, Woong Ki; Nam, Taek Keun; Lee, Min Cheol; Ahn, Sung Ja; Song, Ju Young; Park, Seung Jin; Nah, Byung Sik [College of Medicine, Chonnam National Univ., Gwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    2003-09-01

    The study was performed to investigate apoptosis by radiation in the developing fetal rat brain. Fetal brains were irradiated in utero between the 17th and 19th days of fetal life(E17-19) by linear accelerator. A dose of irradiation ranging from 1 Gy to 4 Gy was used to evaluate dose dependency. To test time dependency the rats were irradiated with 2 Gy and then the fetal brain specimens were removed at variable time course; 1, 3, 6, 12 and 24 hours after the onset of irradiation. Immunohistochemical staining using in situ TdT-mediated dUTP nick end labelling (TUNEL) technique was used for apoptotic cells. The cerebral cortex, including three zones of cortical zone (CZ), intermediate zone (IZ), and ventricular zone (VZ), was examined. TUNEL positive cells revealed typical features of apoptotic cells under light microscope in the fetal rat cerebral cortex. Apoptotic cells were not found in the cerebral cortex of non-irradiated fetal rats, but did appear in the entire cerebral cortex after 1 Gy irradiation, and were more extensive at the ventricular and intermediate zones than at the cortical zone. The extent of apoptosis was increased with increasing doses of radiation. Apoptosis reached the peak at 6 hours after the onset of 2 Gy irradiation and persisted until 24 hours. Typical morphologic features of apoptosis by irradiation were observed in the developing fetal rat cerebral cortex. It was more extensive at the ventricular and intermediate zones than at the cortical zone, which suggested that stem cells or early differentiating cells are more radiosensitive than differentiated cells of the cortical zone.

  3. Cerebral Organoids Recapitulate Epigenomic Signatures of the Human Fetal Brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chongyuan Luo

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Organoids derived from human pluripotent stem cells recapitulate the early three-dimensional organization of the human brain, but whether they establish the epigenomic and transcriptional programs essential for brain development is unknown. We compared epigenomic and regulatory features in cerebral organoids and human fetal brain, using genome-wide, base resolution DNA methylome and transcriptome sequencing. Transcriptomic dynamics in organoids faithfully modeled gene expression trajectories in early-to-mid human fetal brains. We found that early non-CG methylation accumulation at super-enhancers in both fetal brain and organoids marks forthcoming transcriptional repression in the fully developed brain. Demethylated regions (74% of 35,627 identified during organoid differentiation overlapped with fetal brain regulatory elements. Interestingly, pericentromeric repeats showed widespread demethylation in multiple types of in vitro human neural differentiation models but not in fetal brain. Our study reveals that organoids recapitulate many epigenomic features of mid-fetal human brain and also identified novel non-CG methylation signatures of brain development.

  4. SIGNIFICADO CLÍNICO DEL DOPPLER PATOLÓGICO EN LA ARTERIA CEREBRAL MEDIA EN FETOS DEL TERCER TRIMESTRE

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    Antecedentes: La flujometría Doppler fetal es usada de forma rutinaria y sistemática. Es incierta la utilidad clínica del Doppler de la arteria cerebral media (ACM) en fetos del tercer trimestre con crecimiento normal. Objetivo: Determinar los resultados perinatales en fetos del tercer trimestre con índice de pulsatilidad (IP) de la arteria cerebral media (ACM) bajo el percentil 5 comparado con fetos con Doppler cerebral normal. Método: Estudio de cohorte retrospectivo en fetos del tercer tri...

  5. Accuracy of CT angiography in the assessment of a fetal origin of the posterior cerebral artery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lugt, A. van der; Buter, T.C.; Govaere, F.; Siepman, D.A.M.; Tanghe, H.L.J.; Dippel, D.W.J. [Department of Radiology, Erasmus MC, Rotterdam (Netherlands)

    2004-09-01

    An uncommon cause of cerebral ischemia in the territory of the posterior cerebral artery (PCA) is the combination of a fetal origin of the PCA and atherosclerotic disease in the internal carotid artery. This study compared the accuracy of CTA with DSA in the assessment of a fetal origin of the PCA. Patients in whom an intracranial DSA and CTA had been performed were reviewed. A fetal origin was defined as a normal-sized patent posterior communicating artery (PCoA) with hypoplasia or aplasia of the ipsilateral P1 segment. One hundred PCAs in 51 patients were analyzed. A fetal origin was present in ten vessels (10%, eight patients). CTA revealed all of them. CTA considered an additional three vessels as having a fetal origin, while DSA revealed a PCoA with the same diameter as the P1 segment of the PCA. Sensitivity and specificity of CTA in the assessment of a fetal origin could be estimated at 100 and 97%, respectively. Positive and negative predictive values were 77 and 100%, respectively. CTA can be considered a valid diagnostic tool for the assessment of a fetal origin of the PCA in patients with a cerebral ischemic event in the territory of the PCA. (orig.)

  6. Doppler velocimetry with emphasis on the fetal cerebral circulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.J. Noordam (Marja)

    1996-01-01

    textabstractIn this thesis the following questions were addressed: 1. Are changes in placental vascular resistance associated with alterations in arterial down stream impedance at fetal level? To this purpose placental embolization was carried-out in the fetal lamb with subsequent Doppler velocimetr

  7. Mild fetal cerebral ventriculomegaly as a prenatal sonographic marker for Kartagener syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wessels, Marja W; den Hollander, Nicolette S; Willems, Patrick J

    2003-03-01

    Primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD), also referred to as immotile-cilia syndrome or Kartagener syndrome, is a group of genetic disorders caused by defective cilia leading to chronic sinupulmonary infection, situs inversus and reduced fertility. Some PCD patients also have cerebral ventriculomegaly or hydrocephalus. We report here two fetuses and one newborn with mild cerebral ventriculomegaly and a suspected and/or confirmed diagnosis of PCD. These cases demonstrate that mild fetal cerebral ventriculomegaly can be a prenatal sonographic marker of PCD, certainly in fetuses with situs inversus or a history of a previous sib with PCD.

  8. Dissecting human cerebral organoids and fetal neocortex using single-cell RNAseq

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treutlein, Barbara

    Cerebral organoids - three-dimensional cultures of human cerebral tissue derived from pluripotent stem cells - have emerged as models of human cortical development. However, the extent to which in vitro organoid systems recapitulate neural progenitor cell proliferation and neuronal differentiation programs observed in vivo remains unclear. Here we use single-cell RNA sequencing (scRNA-seq) to dissect and compare cell composition and progenitor-to-neuron lineage relationships in human cerebral organoids and fetal neocortex. Covariation network analysis using the fetal neocortex data reveals known and novel interactions among genes central to neural progenitor proliferation and neuronal differentiation. In the organoid, we detect diverse progenitors and differentiated cell types of neuronal and mesenchymal lineages, and identify cells that derived from regions resembling the fetal neocortex. We find that these organoid cortical cells use gene expression programs remarkably similar to those of the fetal tissue in order to organize into cerebral cortex-like regions. Our comparison of in vivo and in vitro cortical single cell transcriptomes illuminates the genetic features underlying human cortical development that can be studied in organoid cultures.

  9. Human cerebral organoids recapitulate gene expression programs of fetal neocortex development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camp, J Gray; Badsha, Farhath; Florio, Marta; Kanton, Sabina; Gerber, Tobias; Wilsch-Bräuninger, Michaela; Lewitus, Eric; Sykes, Alex; Hevers, Wulf; Lancaster, Madeline; Knoblich, Juergen A; Lachmann, Robert; Pääbo, Svante; Huttner, Wieland B; Treutlein, Barbara

    2015-12-22

    Cerebral organoids-3D cultures of human cerebral tissue derived from pluripotent stem cells-have emerged as models of human cortical development. However, the extent to which in vitro organoid systems recapitulate neural progenitor cell proliferation and neuronal differentiation programs observed in vivo remains unclear. Here we use single-cell RNA sequencing (scRNA-seq) to dissect and compare cell composition and progenitor-to-neuron lineage relationships in human cerebral organoids and fetal neocortex. Covariation network analysis using the fetal neocortex data reveals known and previously unidentified interactions among genes central to neural progenitor proliferation and neuronal differentiation. In the organoid, we detect diverse progenitors and differentiated cell types of neuronal and mesenchymal lineages and identify cells that derived from regions resembling the fetal neocortex. We find that these organoid cortical cells use gene expression programs remarkably similar to those of the fetal tissue to organize into cerebral cortex-like regions. Our comparison of in vivo and in vitro cortical single-cell transcriptomes illuminates the genetic features underlying human cortical development that can be studied in organoid cultures.

  10. Endotoxin has acute and chronic effects on the cerebral circulation of fetal sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Susan Y S; Phillips, David J; Stockx, Elaine M; Yu, Victor Y H; Walker, Adrian M

    2009-03-01

    We studied the impact of endotoxemia on cerebral blood flow (CBF), cerebral vascular resistance (CVR), and cerebral oxygen transport (O(2) transport) in fetal sheep. We hypothesized that endotoxemia impairs CBF regulation and O(2) transport, exposing the brain to hypoxic-ischemic injury. Responses to lipopolysaccharide (LPS; 1 microg/kg iv on 3 consecutive days, n = 9) or normal saline (n = 5) were studied. Of LPS-treated fetuses, five survived and four died; in surviving fetuses, transient cerebral vasoconstriction at 0.5 h (DeltaCVR approximately +50%) was followed by vasodilatation maximal at 5-6 h (DeltaCVR approximately -50%) when CBF had increased (approximately +60%) despite reduced ABP (approximately -20%). Decreased CVR and increased CBF persisted 24 h post-LPS and the two subsequent LPS infusions. Cerebral O(2) transport was sustained, although arterial O(2) saturation was reduced (P circulation in two phases: 1) acute vasoconstriction (1 h) and 2) prolonged vasodilatation despite impaired endothelial dilatation (24 h). In surviving fetuses, LPS causes brain injury despite cerebral O(2) transport being maintained by elevated cerebral perfusion; thus sustained O(2) transport does not prevent brain injury in endotoxemia. In contrast, cerebral hypoperfusion and reduced O(2) transport occur in fetuses destined to die, emphasizing the importance of sustaining O(2) transport for survival.

  11. The role of blood flow distribution in the regulation of cerebral oxygen availability in fetal growth restriction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luria, Oded; Bar, Jacob; Kovo, Michal; Malinger, Gustavo; Golan, Abraham; Barnea, Ofer

    2012-04-01

    Fetal growth restriction (FGR) elicits hemodynamic compensatory mechanisms in the fetal circulation. These mechanisms are complex and their effect on the cerebral oxygen availability is not fully understood. To quantify the contribution of each compensatory mechanism to the fetal cerebral oxygen availability, a mathematical model of the fetal circulation was developed. The model was based on cardiac-output distribution in the fetal circulation. The compensatory mechanisms of FGR were simulated and their effects on cerebral oxygen availability were analyzed. The mathematical analysis included the effects of cerebral vasodilation, placental resistance to blood flow, degree of blood shunting by the ductus venosus and the effect of maternal-originated placental insufficiency. The model indicated a unimodal dependency between placental blood flow and cerebral oxygen availability. Optimal cerebral oxygen availability was achieved when the placental blood flow was mildly reduced compared to the normal flow. This optimal ratio was found to increase as the hypoxic state of FGR worsens. The model indicated that cerebral oxygen availability is increasingly dependent on the cardiac output distribution as the fetus gains weight.

  12. Early cerebral hemodynamic, metabolic and histological changes in hypoxic-ischemic fetal lambs during postnatal life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen eRey-Santano

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The hemodynamic, metabolic and biochemical changes produce during transition from fetal to neonatal life could be aggravated if asphyctic event occur during fetal life. The aim of the study was to examine the regional cerebral blood flow (RCBF, histological changes, and cerebral brain metabolism in preterm lambs, and to analyze the role of oxidative stress for the first hours of postnatal life following severe fetal asphyxia. 18 chronically instrumented fetal lambs were assigned to: hypoxic-ischemic group, following fetal asphyxia animals were delivered and maintained on intermittent-positive-pressure-ventilation for 3 hours, and non-injured animals that were managed similarly to the previous group and used as control group. During hypoxic-ischemic insult, injured group developed acidosis, hypoxia, hypercapnia, latacidaemia and tachycardia in comparison to control group, without hypotension. Intermittent-positive-pressure-ventilation transiently improved gas exchange and cardiovascular parameters. After HI injury and during ventilation-support, the increased RCBF in inner zones was maintained for hypoxic-ischemic group, but cortical flow did not exhibit differences compared to the control group. Also, the increase of TUNEL positive cells (apoptosis and antioxidant enzymes, and decrease of ATP reserves was significantly higher in the brain regions where the RCBF were not increased.In conclusion, early metabolic, histological and hemodynamic changes involved in brain damage have been intensively investigated and reported in premature asphyctic lambs for the first 3 hours of postnatal life. Those changes have been described in human neonates, so our model could be useful to test the security and the effectiveness of different neuroprotective or ventilatory strategies when are applied in the first hours after fetal hypoxic-ischemic injury.

  13. Fetal middle cerebral artery blood flow characteristics of gestational hypertension combined with fetal distress in uterus as well as their correlation with hypoxia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wei Yin; Jian-Hua Wang

    2017-01-01

    Objective:To study the fetal middle cerebral artery blood flow characteristics of gestational hypertension combined with fetal distress in uterus as well as their correlation with hypoxia. Methods: Puerperae with hypertensive disorders in pregnancy and fetal distress in uterus, puerperae with hypertensive disorders in pregnancy alone and healthy puerperae who gave birth in our hospital between January 2013 and January 2016 were included in group A, group B and group C of the study respectively. At 34-36 weeks of pregnancy, color Doppler ultrasonography was conducted to determine fetal middle cerebral artery blood flow parameters; after childbirth, umbilical arterial blood was collected to determine blood gas analysis parameters, and the placenta tissue was collected to determine oxidative stress and mitochondria damage indexes.Results:Fetal middle cerebral artery S/D, PI and RI of group A were significantly higher than those of group B and group C while umbilical artery pH value and PaO2 as well as HCO3- and BE content were significantly lower than those of group B and group C; fetal middle cerebral artery S/D, PI and RI as well as umbilical artery pH value, PaO2, HCO3- and BE content of group B were not significantly different from those of group C; Nrf2, ARE, NQO1, VitC, SVCT1, SVCT2, ATP, PGC-1α, PGC-1β, NRF1 and NRF2 content in placenta tissue of group A were significantly lower than those of group B and group C while ROS content was significantly higher than those of group B and group C; Nrf2, ARE, NQO1, VitC, SVCT1, SVCT2, ATP, PGC-1α, PGC-1β, NRF1 and NRF2 content in placenta tissue of group B were significantly lower than those of group C while ROS content was significantly higher than that of group C. Fetal middle cerebral artery S/D, PI and RI were negatively correlated with umbilical artery pH value, PaO2, HCO3- and BE content as well as Nrf2, ARE, NQO1, VitC, SVCT1, SVCT2, ATP, PGC-1α, PGC-1β, NRF1 and NRF2 content, and were positively correlated

  14. Liquid-Diet with Alcohol Alters Maternal, Fetal and Placental Weights and the Expression of Molecules Involved in Integrin Signaling in the Fetal Cerebral Cortex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ujjwal K. Rout

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Maternal alcohol consumption during pregnancy causes wide range of behavioral and structural deficits in children, commonly known as Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS. Children with FAS may suffer behavioral deficits in the absence of obvious malformations. In rodents, the exposure to alcohol during gestation changes brain structures and weights of offspring. The mechanism of FAS is not completely understood. In the present study, an established rat (Long-Evans model of FAS was used. The litter size and the weights of mothers, fetuses and placentas were examined on gestation days 18 or 20. On gestation day 18, the effects of chronic alcohol on the expression levels of integrin receptor subunits, phospholipase-Cγ and N-cadherin were examined in the fetal cerebral cortices. Presence of alcohol in the liquid-diet reduced the consumption and decreased weights of mothers and fetuses but increased the placental weights. Expression levels of β1 and α3 integrin subunits and phospholipase-Cγ2 were significantly altered in the fetal cerebral cortices of mothers on alcohol containing diet. Results show that alcohol consumption during pregnancy even with protein, mineral and vitamin enriched diet may affect maternal and fetal health, and alter integrin receptor signaling pathways in the fetal cerebral cortex disturbing the development of fetal brains.

  15. Region-specific maturation of cerebral cortex in human fetal brain: diffusion tensor imaging and histology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trivedi, Richa; Gupta, Rakesh K.; Saksena, Sona [Sanjay Gandhi Post Graduate Institute of Medical Sciences, Department of Radiodiagnosis, Lucknow, UP (India); Husain, Nuzhat; Srivastava, Savita [CSM Medical University, Department of Pathology, Lucknow (India); Rathore, Ram K.S.; Sarma, Manoj K. [Indian Institute of Technology, Department of Mathematics and Statistics, Kanpur (India); Malik, Gyanendra K. [CSM Medical University, Department of Pediatrics, Lucknow (India); Das, Vinita [CSM Medical University, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Lucknow (India); Pradhan, Mandakini [Sanjay Gandhi Postgraduate Institute of Medical Sciences, Department of Medical Genetics, Lucknow (India); Pandey, Chandra M. [Sanjay Gandhi Postgraduate Institute of Medical Sciences, Department of Biostatistics, Lucknow (India); Narayana, Ponnada A. [University of Texas Medical School at Houston, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Imaging, Houston, TX (United States)

    2009-09-15

    In this study, diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) immunohistochemical analysis in different cortical regions in fetal brains at different gestational age (GA) were performed. DTI was performed on 50 freshly aborted fetal brains with GA ranging from 12 to 42 weeks to compare age-related fractional anisotropy (FA) changes in different cerebral cortical regions that include frontal, parietal, occipital, and temporal lobes at the level of thalami. GFAP immunostaining was performed and the percentage of GFAP-positive areas was quantified. The cortical FA values in the frontal lobe peaked at around 26 weeks of GA, occipital and temporal lobes at around 20 weeks, and parietal lobe at around 23 weeks. A significant, but modest, positive correlation (r=0.31, p=0.02) was observed between cortical FA values and percentage area of GFAP expression in cortical region around the time period during which the migrational events are at its peak, i.e., GA {<=} 28 weeks for frontal cortical region and GA{<=}22 weeks for rest of the lobes. The DTI-derived FA quantification with its GFAP immunohistologic correlation in cortical regions of the various lobes of the cerebral hemispheres supports region-specific migrational and maturational events in human fetal brain. (orig.)

  16. Patterns of fetal lamb regional cerebral blood flow during and after prolonged hypoxia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashwal, S; Majcher, J S; Vain, N; Longo, L D

    1980-10-01

    In an effort to determine to what extent cerebral blood flow (CBF) varies in different parts of the brain during prolonged fetal hypoxia, we measured flow to 34 regions in 12 chronically catheterized fetal lambs 130 to 140 days gestation. Control values of PO2, PCO2 pH, heart rate, and blood pressure were obtained, and CBF was measured by use of radioactive labeled microspheres during a control period, during (15-, 30-, and 90-min) reduction of maternal inspired O2 concentration (fetal arterial PO2 was maintained at 12 to 15 torr), and 60 min after returning the ewe to room air. control blood flow to cortical, subcortical, and brainstem structures equaled 134, 186, and 254 ml x min-1 x 100 g-1, respectively. During hypoxia, CBF increased 92%, and 60 min after fetal oxygenation was restored, it remained 50% above control values. We noted a similar response in regional CBF to the cortex, subcortex, and brainstem during and after hypoxia. Blood flow to smaller areas within the three major regions were quite homogenous and had a similar pattern of response to hypoxia. We conclude that: (1) significant fetal regional CBF differences occurred in utero with brainstem and subcortical flows being substantially greater than flows to other regions of the brain; (2) during prolonged intrauterine hypoxia, total regional CBF increased 92%; (3) 1 hr after fetal oxygenation was restored, CBF still remained 50% above control values; and finally, (4) there was no significant preferential shunting of regional CBF during prolonged hypoxia in utero.

  17. The expression of thyroid hormone transporters in the human fetal cerebral cortex during early development and in N-Tera-2 neurodifferentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, S-Y; Martín-Santos, A; Loubière, L S; González, A M; Stieger, B; Logan, A; McCabe, C J; Franklyn, J A; Kilby, M D

    2011-06-01

    Associations of neurological impairment with mutations in the thyroid hormone (TH) transporter, MCT8, and with maternal hypothyroxinaemia, suggest that THs are crucial for human fetal brain development. It has been postulated that TH transporters regulate the cellular supply of THs within the fetal brain during development. This study describes the expression of TH transporters in the human fetal cerebral cortex (7–20 weeks gestation) and during retinoic acid induced neurodifferentiation of the human N-Tera-2 (NT2) cell line, in triiodothyronine (T3) replete and T3-depleted media. Compared with adult cortex, mRNAs encoding OATP1A2, OATP1C1, OATP3A1 variant 2, OATP4A1, LAT2 and CD98 were reduced in fetal cortex at different gestational ages, whilst mRNAs encoding MCT8, MCT10, OATP3A1 variant 1 and LAT1 were similar. From the early first trimester, immunohistochemistry localised MCT8 and MCT10 to the microvasculature and to undifferentiated CNS cells. With neurodifferentiation, NT2 cells demonstrated declining T3 uptake, accompanied by reduced expressions of MCT8, LAT1, CD98 and OATP4A1. T3 depletion significantly reduced MCT10 and LAT2 mRNA expression at specific time points during neurodifferentiation but there were no effects upon T3 uptake, neurodifferentiation marker expression or neurite lengths and branching. MCT8 repression also did not affect NT2 neurodifferentiation. In conclusion, many TH transporters are expressed in the human fetal cerebral cortex from the first trimester, which could regulate cellular TH supply during early development. However, human NT2 neurodifferentiation is not dependent upon T3 or MCT8 and there were no compensatory changes to promote T3 uptake in a T3-depleted environment.

  18. Oxygen supply to the fetal cerebral circulation in hypoplastic left heart syndrome: a simulation study based on the theoretical models of fetal circulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakazaki, Sayaka; Masutani, Satoshi; Sugimoto, Masaya; Tamura, Masanori; Kuwata, Seiko; Kurishima, Clara; Saiki, Hirofumi; Iwamoto, Yoichi; Ishido, Hirotaka; Senzaki, Hideaki

    2015-03-01

    Hypoxia due to congenital heart diseases (CHDs) adversely affects brain development during the fetal period. Head circumference at birth is closely associated with neuropsychiatric development, and it is considerably smaller in newborns with hypoplastic left heart syndrome (HLHS) than in normal newborns. We performed simulation studies on newborns with CHD to evaluate the cerebral circulation during the fetal period. The oxygen saturation of cerebral blood flow in newborns with CHD was simulated according to a model for normal fetal circulation in late pregnancy. We compared the oxygen saturation of cerebral blood flow between newborns with tricuspid atresia (TA; a disease showing univentricular circulation and hypoplasia of the right ventricle), those with transposition of the great arteries (TGA; a disease showing abnormal mixing of arterial and venous blood), and those with HLHS. The oxygen saturation of cerebral blood flow in newborns with normal circulation was 75.7 %, whereas it was low (49.5 %) in both newborns with HLHS and those with TA. Although the oxygen level is affected by the blood flow through the foramen ovale, the oxygen saturation in newborns with TGA was even lower (43.2 %). These data, together with previous reports, suggest that the cerebral blood flow rate is decreased in newborns with HLHS, and the main cause was strongly suspected to be retrograde cerebral perfusion through a patent ductus arteriosus. This study provides important information about the neurodevelopmental prognosis of newborns with HLHS and suggests the need to identify strategies to resolve this unfavorable cerebral circulatory state in utero.

  19. Acute Fetal Anemia Diagnosed by Middle Cerebral Artery Doppler Velocimetry in Stage V Twin–Twin Transfusion Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Salcedo

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available In stage V twin–twin transfusion syndrome (TTTS, up to 50% of surviving twins die or experience permanent disabilities, likely due to acute intertwin hemorrhage resulting in sudden severe anemia of the survivor. Although fetal middle cerebral artery (MCA Doppler studies demonstrate strong correlation with fetal hemoglobin values, acute hemorrhagic events are more difficult to diagnose, and optimal timing of delivery of the survivor poses an obstetric dilemma. We report a case of newly diagnosed stage V TTTS at 28 weeks gestation, complicated by acute severe anemia diagnosed by significantly abnormal fetal MCA Doppler studies. The anemic twin was urgently delivered and is doing well without significant sequelae.

  20. Combined transcriptome analysis of fetal human and mouse cerebral cortex exposed to alcohol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashimoto-Torii, Kazue; Kawasawa, Yuka Imamura; Kuhn, Alexandre; Rakic, Pasko

    2011-03-08

    Fetal exposure to environmental insults increases the susceptibility to late-onset neuropsychiatric disorders. Alcohol is listed as one of such prenatal environmental risk factors and known to exert devastating teratogenetic effects on the developing brain, leading to complex neurological and psychiatric symptoms observed in fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD). Here, we performed a coordinated transcriptome analysis of human and mouse fetal cerebral cortices exposed to ethanol in vitro and in vivo, respectively. Up- and down-regulated genes conserved in the human and mouse models and the biological annotation of their expression profiles included many genes/terms related to neural development, such as cell proliferation, neuronal migration and differentiation, providing a reliable connection between the two species. Our data indicate that use of the combined rodent and human model systems provides an effective strategy to reveal and analyze gene expression changes inflicted by various physical and chemical environmental exposures during prenatal development. It also can potentially provide insight into the pathogenesis of environmentally caused brain disorders in humans.

  1. Dyke-Davidoff-Masson syndrome: case report of fetal unilateral ventriculomegaly and hypoplastic left middle cerebral artery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piro, Ettore; Piccione, Maria; Marrone, Gianluca; Giuffrè, Mario; Corsello, Giovanni

    2013-05-14

    Prenatal ultrasonographic detection of unilateral cerebral ventriculomegaly arises suspicion of pathological condition related to cerebrospinal fluid flow obstruction or cerebral parenchimal pathology. Dyke-Davidoff-Masson syndrome is a rare condition characterized by cerebral hemiatrophy, calvarial thickening, skull and facial asymmetry, contralateral hemiparesis, cognitive impairment and seizures. Congenital and acquired types are recognized and have been described, mainly in late childhood, adolescence and adult ages. We describe a female infant with prenatal diagnosis of unilateral left ventriculomegaly in which early brain MRI and contrast enhanced-MRI angiography, showed cerebral left hemiatrophy associated with reduced caliber of the left middle cerebral artery revealing the characteristic findings of the Dyke-Davidoff-Masson syndrome. Prenatal imaging, cerebral vascular anomaly responsible for the cerebral hemiatrophy and the early clinical evolution have never been described before in such a young child and complete the acquired clinical descriptions in older children. Differential diagnosis, genetic investigations, neurophysiologic assessments, short term clinical and developmental follow up are described. Dyke-Davidoff-Masson syndrome must be ruled out in differential diagnosis of fetal unilateral ventriculomegaly. Early clinical assessment, differential diagnosis and cerebral imaging including cerebral MRI angiography allow the clinicians to diagnose also in early infancy this rare condition.

  2. Concentration-dependent effects of cocaine on monoamine-induced constriction of cannulated, pressurized cerebral arteries from fetal sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreiber, M D; Madden, J A; Covert, R F; Hershenson, M B; Torgerson, L J

    1995-01-01

    Drugs, such as cocaine, which may alter monoamine neurotransmitter responsiveness, could adversely affect the regulation of cerebral vasculature. Cocaine exhibits at least two mechanisms that may alter vascular responsiveness: synaptic uptake inhibition, which may augment response to stimulation, and Na+ channel inhibition, which may attenuate response. To help elicit the concentration-dependent effects of cocaine, the effects of cocaine on monoamine neurotransmitter responsiveness were studied in vitro on fetal sheep cerebral arteries (120 days gestation). The changes in diameter of segments of cannulated, pressurized fetal sheep cerebral artery were measured with a videomicroscaler system. Cumulative concentration-response curves (10(-10) to 10(-4)M) were generated for two monoamines, norepinephrine and serotonin, alone and in the presence of cocaine (10(-5) or 10(-4)M). Cocaine caused concentration-dependent alteration of response. At 10(-4)M, cocaine attenuated mean maximal norepinephrine-induced vasoconstriction 46.2% (P < 0.05). At 10(-5)M, cocaine increased sensitivity to norepinephrine (log EC50 decreased -6.63 +/- 0.09 to -7.11 +/- 0.03) and to serotonin (log EC50 decreased -7.24 +/- 0.04 to -7.81 +/- 0.09) (P < 0.05). The higher concentration of cocaine (10(-4)M) did not significantly decrease log EC50 norepinephrine. Cocaine (10(-4)M) also attenuated the response to single doses of norepinephrine (10(-6)M) and serotonin (10(-6)M) by 26.5% and 40.0%, respectively (P < or = 0.05). It is concluded that cocaine has concentration-dependent effects on vasoconstriction of the fetal sheep cerebral artery in vitro. This cocaine-induced alteration of cerebral vascular responsiveness to monoamines may be important in the regulation of fetal cerebral blood flow.

  3. MCT8 expression in human fetal cerebral cortex is reduced in severe intrauterine growth restriction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Shiao Y; Hancox, Laura A; Martín-Santos, Azucena; Loubière, Laurence S; Walter, Merlin N M; González, Ana-Maria; Cox, Phillip M; Logan, Ann; McCabe, Christopher J; Franklyn, Jayne A; Kilby, Mark D

    2014-02-01

    The importance of the thyroid hormone (TH) transporter, monocarboxylate transporter 8 (MCT8), to human neurodevelopment is highlighted by findings of severe global neurological impairment in subjects with MCT8 (SLC16A2) mutations. Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR), usually due to uteroplacental failure, is associated with milder neurodevelopmental deficits, which have been partly attributed to dysregulated TH action in utero secondary to reduced circulating fetal TH concentrations and decreased cerebral thyroid hormone receptor expression. We postulate that altered MCT8 expression is implicated in this pathophysiology; therefore, in this study, we sought to quantify changes in cortical MCT8 expression with IUGR. First, MCT8 immunohistochemistry was performed on occipital and parietal cerebral cortex sections obtained from appropriately grown for gestational age (AGA) human fetuses between 19 weeks of gestation and term. Secondly, MCT8 immunostaining in the occipital cortex of stillborn IUGR human fetuses at 24-28 weeks of gestation was objectively compared with that in the occipital cortex of gestationally matched AGA fetuses. Fetuses demonstrated widespread MCT8 expression in neurons within the cortical plate and subplate, in the ventricular and subventricular zones, in the epithelium of the choroid plexus and ependyma, and in microvessel wall. When complicated by IUGR, fetuses showed a significant fivefold reduction in the percentage area of cortical plate immunostained for MCT8 compared with AGA fetuses (PMCT8 expression was negatively correlated with the severity of IUGR indicated by the brain:liver weight ratios (r(2)=0.28; PMCT8 expression in the IUGR fetal brain could further compromise TH-dependent brain development.

  4. Antenatal taurine reduces cerebral cell apoptosis in fetal rats with intrauterine growth restriction*

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jing Liu; Xiaofeng Wang; Ying Liu; Na Yang; Jing Xu; Xiaotun Ren

    2013-01-01

    From pregnancy to parturition, Sprague-Dawley rats were daily administered a low protein diet to establish a model of intrauterine growth restriction. From the 12th day of pregnancy, 300 mg/kg rine was daily added to food until spontaneous delivery occurred. Brain tissues from normal neo-natal rats at 6 hours after delivery, neonatal rats with intrauterine growth restriction, and neonatal rats with intrauterine growth restriction undergoing taurine supplement were obtained for further experiments. The terminal deoxyribonucleotidyl transferase (TdT)-mediated biotin-16-dUTP nick-end labeling assay revealed that the number of apoptotic cel s in the brain tissue of neonatal rats with intrauterine growth restriction significantly increased. Taurine supplement in pregnant rats reduced cel apoptosis in brain tissue from neonatal rats with intrauterine growth restriction. nohistochemical staining revealed that taurine supplement increased glial cel line-derived neuro-trophic factor expression and decreased caspase-3 expression in the cerebral cortex of intrauterine growth-restricted fetal rats. These results indicate that taurine supplement reduces cel apoptosis through the glial cel line-derived neurotrophic factor-caspase-3 signaling pathway, resulting in a protective effect on the intrauterine growth-restricted fetal rat brain.

  5. Evidence for Abnormal Fetal Middle Cerebral Artery Values in Addict Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Mohammadi Fard

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Objective: Addiction is a risk factor for perinatal morbidity and mortality, although the pre-cise mechanism is unknown. They may alter oxygen delivery to the fetus. The middle cerebral artery (MCA pulsatility index (PI is a sensitive parameter for detection of blood flow redistribution or centrali-zation. The aim of this study was to determine whether addiction, without smoking, is associated with changes in the PI of the MCA and the umbilical artery (UA."nPatients and Methods: The PI of the MCA and UA were determined prospectively in 212 consecutive addict and pregnant women with singleton pregnan-cies (study group and in 212 matched pregnant women without addiction (control group. The con-trol group was matched for maternal age, gravidity, parity and gestational age at examination. Patients with fetal structural or chromosomal anomalies, dia-betes mellitus, and smokers were excluded. A PI be-low the 5th percentile for the MCA was considered abnormal. "nResults: The rate of abnormal MCA PI was signifi-cantly higher in the study group than control group: 33.3% vs. 6.3%, respectively, (p < 0.0001. "nConclusions: Our observations provide evidence of cerebral blood flow redistribution in fetuses with ad-dicted mothers.

  6. A case study of trastuzumab treatment for metastatic breast cancer in pregnancy: fetal risks and management of cerebral metastases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandrawa, Christine L; Stewart, Josephine; Fabinyi, Gavin C; Walker, Susan P

    2011-08-01

    Trastuzumab increases survival amongst women with human epidermal growth factor receptor (HER)-2 receptor positive metastatic breast cancer, but maternal and fetal risks are associated with advanced disease and its treatment in pregnancy. We present a case of a primigravid with HER-2 positive metastatic breast cancer who received trastuzumab throughout pregnancy. She presented with cerebral metastases, requiring surgical decompression and resection. Reversible oligohydramnios developed during pregnancy. Fetal safety data on trastuzumab in pregnancy is limited, but case reports suggest a recurring pattern of (mostly reversible) oligohydramnios.

  7. The expression of thyroid hormone transporters in the human fetal cerebral cortex during early development and in N-Tera-2 neurodifferentiation

    OpenAIRE

    Chan, S.Y.; Martín-Santos, A; Loubière, L S; González, A. M.; Stieger, B.; LOGAN, A.; McCabe, C. J.; Franklyn, J.A.; Kilby, M. D.

    2011-01-01

    Associations of neurological impairment with mutations in the thyroid hormone (TH) transporter, MCT8, and with maternal hypothyroxinaemia, suggest that THs are crucial for human fetal brain development. It has been postulated that TH transporters regulate the cellular supply of THs within the fetal brain during development. This study describes the expression of TH transporters in the human fetal cerebral cortex (7–20 weeks gestation) and during retinoic acid induced neurodifferentiation of t...

  8. Genes expressed in specific areas of the human fetal cerebral cortex display distinct patterns of evolution.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelle Lambert

    Full Text Available The developmental mechanisms through which the cerebral cortex increased in size and complexity during primate evolution are essentially unknown. To uncover genetic networks active in the developing cerebral cortex, we combined three-dimensional reconstruction of human fetal brains at midgestation and whole genome expression profiling. This novel approach enabled transcriptional characterization of neurons from accurately defined cortical regions containing presumptive Broca and Wernicke language areas, as well as surrounding associative areas. We identified hundreds of genes displaying differential expression between the two regions, but no significant difference in gene expression between left and right hemispheres. Validation by qRTPCR and in situ hybridization confirmed the robustness of our approach and revealed novel patterns of area- and layer-specific expression throughout the developing cortex. Genes differentially expressed between cortical areas were significantly associated with fast-evolving non-coding sequences harboring human-specific substitutions that could lead to divergence in their repertoires of transcription factor binding sites. Strikingly, while some of these sequences were accelerated in the human lineage only, many others were accelerated in chimpanzee and/or mouse lineages, indicating that genes important for cortical development may be particularly prone to changes in transcriptional regulation across mammals. Genes differentially expressed between cortical regions were also enriched for transcriptional targets of FoxP2, a key gene for the acquisition of language abilities in humans. Our findings point to a subset of genes with a unique combination of cortical areal expression and evolutionary patterns, suggesting that they play important roles in the transcriptional network underlying human-specific neural traits.

  9. Effect of Magnesium Sulfate on Doppler Parameters of Fetal Umbilical and Middle Cerebral Arteries in Women with Severe Preeclampsia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nazanin Farshchian

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To assess the effect of injecting magnesium sulfate on Doppler parameters of fetal umbilical and middle cerebral arteries (MCA in women with severe preeclampsia. Materials and Methods: A total of 21 patients with severe preeclampsia admitted to Imam Reza Hospital, Kermanshah (Iran, were evaluated. Before and after administration of magnesium sulfate, Doppler ultrasound scan was carried out to measure fetal middle cerebral artery and umbilical artery blood flow. Paired t-test was used for statistical analysis. Results: After injection of magnesium sulfate, the mean resistivity index (RI-umbilical, and pulsatility index (PI-cerebral showed a statistically significant reduction ( P < 0.001. The cerebroumbilical C/U ratio increased after the intervention ( P < 0.001. The PI-umbilical ( P = 0.1 and pre- and post-RI-cerebral ( P = 0.96 did not have statistically significant changes. Conclusions: Infusion of magnesium sulfate significantly decreases the flow in the fetus RI-umbilical and PI-MCA, and it increases C/U ratio indices in color Doppler ultrasound.

  10. Fetal-Type Variants of the Posterior Cerebral Artery and Concurrent Infarction in the Major Arterial Territories of the Cerebral Hemisphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen L. Lambert BS

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Fetal-type or fetal posterior cerebral artery (FPCA is a variant of cerebrovascular anatomy in which the distal posterior cerebral artery (PCA territory is perfused by a branch of the internal carotid artery (ICA. In the presence of FPCA, thromboembolism in the anterior circulation may result in paradoxical PCA territory infarction with or without concomitant infarction in the territories of the middle (MCA or the anterior (ACA cerebral artery. We describe 2 cases of FPCA and concurrent acute infarction in the PCA and ICA territories—right PCA and MCA in Patient 1 and left PCA, MCA, and ACA in Patient 2. Noninvasive angiography detected a left FPCA in both patients. While FPCA was clearly the mechanism of paradoxical infarction in Patient 2, it turned out to be an incidental finding in Patient 1 when evidence of a classic right PCA was uncovered from an old computed tomography scan image. Differences in anatomical details of the FPCA in each patient suggest that the 2 FPCAs are developmentally different. The FPCA of Patient 1 appeared to be an extension of the embryonic left posterior communicating artery (PcomA. Patient 2 had 2 PCAs on the left (PCA duplication, classic bilateral PCAs, and PcomAs, and absent left anterior choroidal artery (AchoA, suggesting developmental AchoA-to-FPCA transformation on the left. These 2 cases underscore the variable anatomy, clinical significance, and embryological origins of FPCA variants.

  11. Adenosine mediates decreased cerebral metabolic rate and increased cerebral blood flow during acute moderate hypoxia in the near-term fetal sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blood, Arlin B; Hunter, Christian J; Power, Gordon G

    2003-12-15

    Exposure of the fetal sheep to moderate to severe hypoxic stress results in both increased cortical blood flow and decreased metabolic rate. Using intravenous infusion of 8-cyclopentyl-1,3-dipropylxanthine (DPCPX), a selective adenosine A1 receptor antagonist that is permeable to the blood brain barrier, we examine the role of adenosine A1 receptors in mediating cortical blood flow and metabolic responses to moderate hypoxia. The effects of DPCPX blockade are compared to controls as well as animals receiving intravenous 8-(p-sulfophenyl)-theophylline) (8-SPT), a non-selective adenosine receptor antagonist which has been found to be blood brain barrier impermeable. Laser Doppler flow probes, tissue PO2, and thermocouples were implanted in the cerebral cortices of near-term fetal sheep. Catheters were placed in the brachial artery and sagittal sinus vein for collection of samples for blood gas analysis. Three to seven days later responses to a 30-min period of fetal hypoxemia (arterial PO2 10-12 mmHg) were studied with administration of 8-SPT, DPCPX, or vehicle. Cerebral metabolic rate was determined by calculation of both brain heat production and oxygen consumption. In response to hypoxia, control experiments demonstrated a 42 +/- 7 % decrease in cortical heat production and a 35 +/- 10 % reduction in oxygen consumption. In contrast, DPCPX infusion during hypoxia resulted in no significant change in brain heat production or oxygen consumption, suggesting the adenosine A1 receptor is involved in lowering metabolic rate during hypoxia. The decrease in cerebral metabolic rate was not altered by 8-SPT infusion, suggesting that the response is not mediated by adenosine receptors located outside the blood brain barrier. In response to hypoxia, control experiments demonstrated a 35 +/- 7 % increase in cortical blood flow. DPCPX infusion did not change this increase in cortical blood flow, however 8-SPT infusion attenuated increases in flow, indicating that hypoxic

  12. Morphological evaluation of the cerebral blood vessels in the late gestation fetal sheep following hypoxia in utero.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baburamani, Ana A; Lo, Camden; Castillo-Melendez, Margie; Walker, David W

    2013-01-01

    Hypoxia can significantly contribute to the development of permanent brain injury in the term neonate; however the response of cerebral blood vessels is not well understood. This study aimed to quantitatively measure vascular density and morphology using laminin immunohistochemistry as a marker of blood vessels, and determine the effects of a single, severe bout of hypoxia (umbilical cord occlusion, UCO) late in gestation on the developing cerebrovasculature in fetal sheep. At 124-126 days gestation singleton fetal sheep underwent surgery for implantation of catheters and placement of an inflatable cuff around the umbilical cord. A 10 min UCO or sham UCO (n=5) occurred at 132 days gestation. Fetal brains were collected at 24 h (n=5) or 48 h (n=4) after UCO for vascular density and morphology analysis of laminin immunohistochemistry. 48 h following a single, brief bout of severe hypoxia late in gestation decreased vascular density was seen in the caudate nucleus and no changes in vascular morphology occurred. However closer analysis revealed a significant shift in the frequency of smaller (≤10 μm) to larger (≤100 μm) perimeter blood vessels in periventricular and subcortical white matter. Close examination of the frequency distribution of vascular perimeter highlights that alterations in vascular morphology persist in the near term fetal brain for up to 48 h following a brief (10 min) hypoxia in white but not gray matter. These findings suggest that the near term brain may still be vulnerable to white matter injury following in utero hypoxia.

  13. Aneurisma gigante da arteria cerebral media: relato de um caso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geraldo Pianetti Filho

    1978-06-01

    Full Text Available É relatado um caso de aneurisma gigante da artéria cerebral média com as dimensões de 12,0 x 8,0 x 6,0 cm, tratado cirurgicamente mediante craniotomia e ressecção. É feita breve análise da conduta diante dos aneurismas gigantes. Os autores acreditam ser este o maior aneurisma cerebral já descrito até o presente momento.

  14. Bilateral Superior Cerebellar Artery Embolic Occlusion with a Fetal-Type Posterior Cerebral Artery Providing Collateral Circulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taylor J. Bergman

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Bilateral infarction of the superior cerebellar arteries with sparing of the rest of the posterior circulation, particularly the posterior cerebral arteries, is an uncommon finding in neurological practice. Most commonly, the deficits of the superior cerebellar arteries and posterior cerebral arteries occur together due to the close proximity of their origins at the top of the basilar artery. A patient was transferred to the neurological intensive care unit with a history of recent-onset falls from standing, profound hypertension, dizziness, and headaches. The neurological exam revealed cerebellar signs, including dysmetria of the right upper extremity and a decreased level of consciousness. Computed tomography of the head and neck revealed decreased attenuation throughout most of the cerebellar hemispheres suggestive of ischemic injury with sparing of the rest of the brain. Further investigation with a computed tomography angiogram revealed a fetal-type posterior cerebral artery on the right side that was providing collateral circulation to the posterior brain. Due to this embryological anomaly, the patient was spared significant morbidity and mortality that would have likely occurred had the circulation been more typical of an adult male.

  15. Neonatal lactic acidosis, complex I/IV deficiency, and fetal cerebral disruption

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Straaten, HLM; van Tintelen, JP; Trijbels, JMF; van den Heuvel, LP; Troost, D; Rozemuller, JM; Duran, M; de Vries, LS; Schuelke, M; Barth, PG

    2005-01-01

    Cerebral developmental abnormalities occur in various inborn errors of metabolism including peroxisomal deficiencies, pyruvate dehydrogenase complex deficiency and others. Associations with abnormalities of the respiratory chain are rare. Here we report male and female siblings with microcephaly, a

  16. Unilateral fetal-type circle of Willis anatomy causes right-left asymmetry in cerebral blood flow with pseudo-continuous arterial spin labeling: A limitation of arterial spin labeling-based cerebral blood flow measurements?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barkeij Wolf, Jurriaan Jh; Foster-Dingley, Jessica C; Moonen, Justine Ef; van Osch, Matthias Jp; de Craen, Anton Jm; de Ruijter, Wouter; van der Mast, Roos C; van der Grond, Jeroen

    2016-09-01

    The accuracy of cerebral blood flow measurements using pseudo-continuous arterial spin labeling can be affected by vascular factors other than cerebral blood flow, such as flow velocity and arterial transit time. We aimed to elucidate the effects of common variations in vascular anatomy of the circle of Willis on pseudo-continuous arterial spin labeling signal. In addition, we investigated whether possible differences in pseudo-continuous arterial spin labeling signal could be mediated by differences in flow velocities. Two hundred and three elderly participants underwent magnetic resonance angiography of the circle of Willis and pseudo-continuous arterial spin labeling scans. Mean pseudo-continuous arterial spin labeling-cerebral blood flow signal was calculated for the gray matter of the main cerebral flow territories. Mean cerebellar gray matter pseudo-continuous arterial spin labeling-cerebral blood flow was significantly lower in subjects having a posterior fetal circle of Willis variant with an absent P1 segment. The posterior fetal circle of Willis variants also showed a significantly higher pseudo-continuous arterial spin labeling-cerebral blood flow signal in the ipsilateral flow territory of the posterior cerebral artery. Flow velocity in the basilar artery was significantly lower in these posterior fetal circle of Willis variants. This study indicates that pseudo-continuous arterial spin labeling measurements underestimate cerebral blood flow in the posterior flow territories and cerebellum of subjects with a highly prevalent variation in circle of Willis morphology. Additionally, our data suggest that this effect is mediated by concomitant differences in flow velocity between the supplying arteries.

  17. Pseudo-asymmetry of cerebral blood flow in arterial spin labeling caused by unilateral fetal-type circle of Willis: Technical limitation or a way to better understanding physiological variations of cerebral perfusion and improving arterial spin labeling acquisition?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Law-Ye, B; Geerts, B; Galanaud, D; Dormont, D; Pyatigorskaya, N

    2016-09-01

    In the recently published article, "Unilateral fetal-type circle of Willis anatomy causes right-left asymmetry in cerebral blood flow with pseudo-continuous arterial spin labeling: A limitation of arterial spin labeling-based cerebral blood flow measurements?", it was shown by the method of arterial spin labeling (ASL) that unilateral fetal-type circle of Willis could induce variation of blood flow in cerebellar and posterior cerebral artery territory. We believe that the reported observation, rather than being a limitation, gives several interesting cues for understanding the ASL sequence. In this commentary, we formulate some suggestions regarding the use of ASL in clinical practice, discuss the potential causes of the above-mentioned pseudo-asymmetry and consider future improvements of the ASL technique.

  18. Mild fetal cerebral ventriculomegaly as a prenatal sonographic marker for Kartagener syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.W. Wessels (Marja); N.S. den Hollander (Nicolette); P.J. Willems (Patrick)

    2003-01-01

    textabstractPrimary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD), also referred to as immotile-cilia syndrome or Kartagener syndrome, is a group of genetic disorders caused by defective cilia leading to chronic sinupulmonary infection, situs inversus and reduced fertility. Some PCD patients also have cerebral ventricul

  19. MCT8 expression in human fetal cerebral cortex is reduced in severe intrauterine growth restriction

    OpenAIRE

    Shiao Y Chan; Hancox, Laura A; Martín-Santos, Azucena; Loubière, Laurence S; Walter, Merlin N.M.; González, Ana-Maria; Cox, Phillip M; Logan, Ann; Christopher J. McCabe; Franklyn, Jayne A; Kilby, Mark D

    2014-01-01

    The importance of the thyroid hormone (TH) transporter, monocarboxylate transporter 8 (MCT8), to human neurodevelopment is highlighted by findings of severe global neurological impairment in subjects with MCT8 (SLC16A2) mutations. Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR), usually due to uteroplacental failure, is associated with milder neurodevelopmental deficits, which have been partly attributed to dysregulated TH action in utero secondary to reduced circulating fetal TH concentrations and de...

  20. Fetal-type posterior cerebral artery and cerebrovascular diseases%胚胎型大脑后动脉与脑血管病

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    金玲; 毕国荣

    2016-01-01

    Fetal-type posterior cerebral artery is a common embryonic derivation type of the Willis.This article reviews the definition and typing of the fetal-type posterior cerebral artery,and its relationship with collateral circulation,ischemic stroke,and intracranial aneurysm,etc.%胚胎型大脑后动脉是一种常见的Willis环胚胎变异类型.文章对胚胎型大脑后动脉的定义、分型以及其与侧支循环、缺血性卒中、颅内动脉瘤等疾病的关系进行了综述.

  1. Selective reduction of cerebral cortex GABA neurons in a late gestation model of fetal alcohol spectrum disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smiley, John F; Saito, Mariko; Bleiwas, Cynthia; Masiello, Kurt; Ardekani, Babak; Guilfoyle, David N; Gerum, Scott; Wilson, Donald A; Vadasz, Csaba

    2015-09-01

    Fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD) are associated with cognitive and behavioral deficits, and decreased volume of the whole brain and cerebral cortex. Rodent models have shown that early postnatal treatments, which mimic ethanol toxicity in the third trimester of human pregnancy, acutely induce widespread apoptotic neuronal degeneration and permanent behavioral deficits. However, the lasting cellular and anatomical effects of early ethanol treatments are still incompletely understood. This study examined changes in neocortex volume, thickness, and cellular organization that persist in adult mice after postnatal day 7 (P7) ethanol treatment. Post mortem brain volumes, measured by both MRI within the skull and by fluid displacement of isolated brains, were reduced 10-13% by ethanol treatment. The cerebral cortex showed a similar reduction (12%) caused mainly by lower surface area (9%). In spite of these large changes, several features of cortical organization showed little evidence of change, including cortical thickness, overall neuron size, and laminar organization. Estimates of total neuron number showed a trend level reduction of about 8%, due mainly to reduced cortical volume but unchanged neuron density. However, counts of calretinin (CR) and parvalbumin (PV) subtypes of GABAergic neurons showed a striking >30% reduction of neuron number. Similar ethanol effects were found in male and female mice, and in C57BL/6By and BALB/cJ mouse strains. Our findings indicate that the cortex has substantial capacity to develop normal cytoarchitectonic organization after early postnatal ethanol toxicity, but there is a selective and persistent reduction of GABA cells that may contribute to the lasting cognitive and behavioral deficits in FASD.

  2. Early effects of low doses of ionizing radiation on the fetal cerebral cortex in rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Norton, S.; Kimler, B.F. (Univ. of Kansas Medical Center, Kansas City (USA))

    1990-11-01

    Pregnant rats were exposed to gamma radiation from a 137Cs irradiator on gestational Day 15. Fetuses that received 0.25, 0.5, 0.75, or 1.0 Gy were examined 24 h after irradiation for changes in the cells of the cerebral mantle of the developing brain. The extent of changes following 0.5 Gy was studied at 3, 6, 12, or 24 h after exposure. Cortical thickness of the cerebral mantle was not significantly altered. The number of pyknotic cells, number of macrophages, nuclear area, and number of mitotic cells were altered in a dose-related way. The number of pyknotic cells was significantly increased at all doses. A positive correlation between the number of pyknotic cells and the number of macrophages developed with time. At 3 h after irradiation about 60% of pyknotic cells were found in the subventricular zone and about 25% in the intermediate zone and cortical plate. The number of such cells in the upper layers of the cortex steadily increased up to 24 h, at which time about 70% of pyknotic cells were in these two layers. The relationship of the movement of pyknotic cells to migration of postmitotic neuroblasts is discussed.

  3. Safety of contrast media in cerebral angiography: iopamidol vs. methylglucamine iothalamate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bird, C R; Drayer, B P; Velaj, R; Triolo, P J; Allen, S; Bates, M; Yeates, A E; Heinz, E R; Osborne, D R

    1984-01-01

    A randomized double-blind study was performed in 27 patients to compare the clinical safety, incidence of pain and warmth, and film quality produced by iopamidol and Conray-60 in selective cerebral angiography. No complications or adverse reactions occurred in either group. Iopamidol was significantly less painful than was methylglucamine iothalamate for common carotid artery injections and caused significantly less heat in both common carotid and internal carotid artery injections. Film quality and diagnostic accuracy were excellent in both groups. These results, when viewed in conjunction with laboratory data demonstrating the decreased neurotoxicity of nonionic contrast agents, suggest that iopamidol is an important advance in the development of angiographic contrast media.

  4. "Social Media has Opened a World of 'Open communication:'" experiences of Adults with Cerebral Palsy who use Augmentative and Alternative Communication and Social Media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caron, Jessica; Light, Janice

    2016-01-01

    An online focus group was used to investigate the experiences of nine individuals with cerebral palsy who use augmentative and alternative communication (AAC) and social media. Information was gathered related to (a) advantages of social media, (b) disadvantages of social media, (c) barriers to successful use, (d) supports to successful use, and (e) recommendations for other individuals using AAC, support personnel, policy makers, and technology developers. Participants primarily chose to focus on social media as a beneficial tool and viewed it as an important form of communication. The participants did describe barriers to social media use (e.g., technology). Despite barriers, all the participants in this study took an active role in learning to use social media. The results are discussed as they relate to themes and with reference to published literature.

  5. Usability testing of gaming and social media applications for stroke and cerebral palsy upper limb rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdés, Bulmaro A; Hilderman, Courtney G E; Hung, Chai-Ting; Shirzad, Navid; Van der Loos, H F Machiel

    2014-01-01

    As part of the FEATHERS (Functional Engagement in Assisted Therapy Through Exercise Robotics) project, two motion tracking and one social networking applications were developed for upper limb rehabilitation of stroke survivors and teenagers with cerebral palsy. The project aims to improve the engagement of clients during therapy by using video games and a social media platform. The applications allow users to control a cursor on a personal computer through bimanual motions, and to interact with their peers and therapists through the social media. The tracking applications use either a Microsoft Kinect or a PlayStation Eye camera, and the social media application was developed on Facebook. This paper presents a usability testing of these applications that was conducted with therapists from two rehabilitation clinics. The "Cognitive Walkthrough" and "Think Aloud" methods were used. The objectives of the study were to investigate the ease of use and potential issues or improvements of the applications, as well as the factors that facilitate and impede the adoption of technology in current rehabilitation programs.

  6. Diagnóstico não invasivo da anemia fetal pela medida do pico de velocidade sistólica na dopplervelocimetria da artéria cerebral média Noninvasive fetal anemia diagnosis by middle cerebral artery peak systolic velocity waveform measurement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Roberto Taveira

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: avaliar se existe associação entre a medida do pico de velocidade sistólica (PVS na dopplervelocimetria da artéria cerebral média (ACM e a concentração de hemoglobina fetal e determinar a sua capacidade diagnóstica. MÉTODOS: entre janeiro de 2000 e maio de 2003, 44 gestantes isoimunizadas foram submetidas a transfusão intra-uterina. Realizou-se estudo dopplervelocimétrico da ACM antes de cada transfusão fetal, sempre com intervalo inferior a 3 horas, antecedendo o procedimento. O PVS da ACM foi considerado alterado quando seu valor era superior a 1,5 múltiplo da mediana para a respectiva idade gestacional. A concentração de hemoglobina do cordão foi aferida antes de se iniciar a infusão de sangue, realizada no Hemocue® (B-Hemoglobin Photometer Hemocue AB; Angelholm, Sweden. O estudo estatístico foi feito pelo teste do chi2 e também foram calculados os valores de sensibilidade, especificidade, valores preditivos positivo e negativo. RESULTADOS: foram realizados 83 procedimentos, sendo que em 33 a hemoglobina fetal era inferior a 10,0 g/dL. Houve associação significativa entre as variáveis estudadas, pPURPOSE: to assess the correlation between middle cerebral artery peak systolic velocity and umbilical cord blood hemoglobin concentration and to determine its diagnostic value. PATIENTS AND METHODS: a cross-sectional prospective study was performed from January 2000 to May 2003. Forty-four isoimmunized pregnant women underwent a protocol for the identification of fetal hemolysis. When intrauterine transfusions were indicated, the umbilical cord blood hemoglobin concentration was measured at the beginning of the procedure. Each intrauterine transfusion preceded by Doppler velocimetry of the middle cerebral artery was regarded as one case, summing up eighty-three procedures. In all cases, the middle cerebral artery Doppler examinations were performed within the three hours preceding fetal blood sample collection. The

  7. ECG changes during cerebral angiography; A comparison of low osmolality contrast media

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitsumori, Michihide; Abe, Mitsuyuki (Kyoto Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Medicine); Hayakawa, Katsumi (Kyoto City Hospital (Japan). Department of Radiology)

    334 electrocardiographic recordings obtained from 109 patients who underwent cerebral angiography with low osmolality contrast media (CM) were analysed. CM used in this study included meglumine sodium ioxaglate, iopamidol and iohexol. A tachycardial effect greater than 10 percent was seen in 8.3 percent of the recordings, while a bradycardial effect greater than 10 percent was seen in 11.1 percent. Assessment was based on the type of CM used, age of the patients, usage of atropine sulfate as premedication, and the vessel injected. Patients who were under 19 years of age, and unpremedicated had a significantly higher incidence of bradycardia. On the other hand, there was no significant difference of the incidence of electrocardiographic abnormality between the 3 CM, and between the 2 injected vessel groups. The authors have also analysed the incidence of generalized adverse effect. There was no serious complication, however, 11.9 percent of the patients who under-went cerebral angiography with ioxaglate developed urticaria and this was significantly higher than in the other 2 CM groups. (author). 17 refs.; 9 tabs.

  8. Expression of c-Fos protein and nitricoxide synthase in neurons of cerebral cortex from fetal rats in hypoxia and protective role of Angelica sinensis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hong Yu; Hongxian Zhao; Yuling Wu

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Both c-Fos protein and nitricoxide synthase (NOS) have been used as general indexes in relative research about neurons, but it is lack of reports that c-Fos protein and NOS are applied synchronously to study the neurons of hypoxic fetal rats in uterus.OBJECTIVE: To study the effect of hypoxia in uterus on the expression of c-Fos protein and NOS in neurons of cerebral cortex from fetal rats and whether Angelica sinensis has the protective effect on these neurons in hypoxia.DESIGN: Randomized control experiment.SETTING: Department of Histology and Embryology, Luzhou Medical College.MATERIALS: Twelve adult female Wistar rats in oestrum and 1 male Wistar rat with bodymass from 220 to 250 g were chosen. Parenteral solution of Angelica sinensis mainly contained angelica sinensis, 10 mL/ampoule, was provided by Department of Agent of the Second Hospital Affiliated to Hubei Medical University (batch number: 01062310).METHODS: This experiment was completed in the Department of Histology and Embryology of Luzhou Medical College from September 2003 to June 2004. ① Twelve adult female Wistar rats in oestrum and 1 male Wistar rat were housed in one rearing cage. Vaginal embolus was performed on conceive female rat at 8:00 am next day.On the 15th conceiving day,all conceiving rats were divided randomly into three groups:control group, hypoxia group and Angelica group with 4 in each group. Rats in hypoxia group and Angelica group were modeled with hypotonic hypoxia in uterus. Angelica group: Rats were injected with 8 mL/kg Angelica sinensis injection through caudal veins before hypoxia.Hypoxia group:Rats were injected with the same volume of saline.Control group:Rats were not modeled and fed with normal way. ② Twenty embryos of rats were chosen randomly from each group and then routinely embedded in paraffin. Paraffin sections were cut from the brain of embryos to anterior fontanelle. Double-label staining was used to detect the expression of nNOS and c-Fos in

  9. Three Case Reports of Successful Vibration Therapy of the Plantar Fascia for Spasticity Due to Cerebral Palsy-Like Syndrome, Fetal-Type Minamata Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usuki, Fusako; Tohyama, Satsuki

    2016-04-01

    Fetal-type Minamata disease is caused by the exposure to high concentrations of methylmercury in the fetal period and shows cerebral palsy-like clinical features. Relief of spasticity is a major task of rehabilitation to improve their activities of daily living. Here we report the effect of long-term vibration therapy on bilateral lower-limb spasticity in 3 patients with fetal-type Minamata disease. We used a simple, inexpensive, and noninvasive approach with hand-held vibration massagers, which were applied to the plantar fascia at 90 Hz for 15 minutes. The effect was observed soon after the first treatment and resulted in better performance of the repetitive facilitation. Vibration therapy for 1 year improved Modified Ashworth Scale for the ankle flexors in 2 cases. The labored gait improved and gait speed increased in another case. Continued vibration therapy for another 1 year further improved Modified Ashworth Scale score and range of motion of ankle dorsiflexion in 1 case. This case showed the decreased amplitude of soleus H-reflex after the 15-minute vibration therapy, suggesting that α-motor neuron excitability was suppressed. Vibration therapy using a hand-held vibration massager may offer safe and effective treatment for lower-limb spasticity in patients with chronic neurological disorders.

  10. Optical characterization of two-layered turbid media for non-invasive, absolute oximetry in cerebral and extracerebral tissue.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bertan Hallacoglu

    Full Text Available We introduce a multi-distance, frequency-domain, near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS method to measure the optical coefficients of two-layered media and the thickness of the top layer from diffuse reflectance measurements. This method features a direct solution based on diffusion theory and an inversion procedure based on the Levenberg-Marquardt algorithm. We have validated our method through Monte Carlo simulations, experiments on tissue-like phantoms, and measurements on the forehead of three human subjects. The Monte Carlo simulations and phantom measurements have shown that, in ideal two-layered samples, our method accurately recovers the top layer thickness (L, the absorption coefficient (µ a and the reduced scattering coefficient (µ' s of both layers with deviations that are typically less than 10% for all parameters. Our method is aimed at absolute measurements of hemoglobin concentration and saturation in cerebral and extracerebral tissue of adult human subjects, where the top layer (layer 1 represents extracerebral tissue (scalp, skull, dura mater, subarachnoid space, etc. and the bottom layer (layer 2 represents cerebral tissue. Human subject measurements have shown a significantly greater total hemoglobin concentration in cerebral tissue (82±14 µM with respect to extracerebral tissue (30±7 µM. By contrast, there was no significant difference between the hemoglobin saturation measured in cerebral tissue (56%±10% and extracerebral tissue (62%±6%. To our knowledge, this is the first time that an inversion procedure in the frequency domain with six unknown parameters with no other prior knowledge is used for the retrieval of the optical coefficients and top layer thickness with high accuracy on two-layered media. Our absolute measurements of cerebral hemoglobin concentration and saturation are based on the discrimination of extracerebral and cerebral tissue layers, and they can enhance the impact of NIRS for cerebral hemodynamics and

  11. Ascitis fetal masiva idiopática aislada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yolimar Navarro Briceño

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available La ascitis fetal esta comúnmente asociada a malformaciones gastrointestinales y urinarias, anemia, infección y anomalías cromosómicas. La ascitis fetal masiva idiopática es rara. Se reporta un caso de una embarazada de 33 años referida a las 17 semanas después que se detectó ascitis en ausencia de anomalías estructurales. La evaluación cardiaca y las pruebas diagnósticas de infecciones virales fueron negativas. A las 28 semanas se detectó ascitis masiva sin otros signos de hidrops fetal. La velocidad sistólica pico de la arteria cerebral media fetal estaba elevada. El Doppler de la arteria umbilical, crecimiento fetal y volumen de líquido amniótico estaban normales. El ecocardiograma fetal estaba normal. Se realizó la amniocentesis con resultados normales del cariotipo. A pesar de la persistencia de la ascitis masiva durante el seguimiento, el crecimiento fetal y el volumen de líquido amniótico eran normales con valores elevados de la velocidad sistólica pico de la arteria cerebral media fetal. A las 33 semanas la paciente se realizó cesárea de emergencia por sufrimiento fetal agudo. Se obtuvo un recién nacido vivo femenino normal con valores normales de hemoglobina al nacer. El flujo vascular hepático, vesical y hepato-portal fueron normales. La ascitis se resolvió completamente al octavo día después del nacimiento y el recién nacido fue dado de alta a los 15 días.

  12. Cuantificación del signo de la arteria cerebral media hiperdensa con TCMD Quantification of hyperdense middle cerebral artery sign by multidetector computed tomography (MDCT.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Meli

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Objetivos. Obtener una cuantificación absoluta y relativa de la densidad en el signo de la arteria cerebral media (ACM con el fin de lograr un valor objetivo para el diagnóstico temprano de isquemia cerebral aguda con TCMD. Materiales y Métodos. Se incluyeron 40 pacientes, 20 con sospecha de isquemia cerebral aguda (edad media 73,4 años y 20 pacientes controles (edad media 71,2 años, p=0,63, que se realizaron TC cerebral con un equipo de 64 filas de detectores. La cuantificación absoluta se realizó midiendo la densidad en UH en el segmento de la ACM visualmente de mayor densidad. También se midió la densidad en el mismo segmento de la ACM contralateral para calcular la diferencia entre ambas arterias (cuantificación relativa. Resultados. En pacientes casos, la densidad media de la ACM afectada (62,5 UH, IC 99%: 46,2-78,7 fue mayor que la de la ACM contralateral (39,3 UH, IC 99%: 33,3-45,3 (p=0,0004 y también fue mayor en comparación con la ACM en pacientes controles (44,7 UH, IC 99%: 37,4-52 (p=0,0045. En la cuantificación relativa, la diferencia media entre la densidad de la ACM afectada y la de ACM contralateral en los pacientes casos fue de 23,2 UH (IC 95%: 11,7-34,7, mientras que, en pacientes controles, la diferencia media entre la densidad de la ACM derecha y la ACM izquierda fue 5,2 UH (IC 95%: 2,4-8,4 (diferencia: 17,8 UH, p=0,0032, IC 95%: 6,8-28,8. Conclusión. Mostramos diferencias significativas (absolutas y relativas en la densidad de la ACM en pacientes con sospecha de isquemia cerebral aguda en comparación con sujetos normales.Purposes. To obtain absolute and relative quantification values of density in the middle cerebral artery (MCA sign, in order to obtain an objective value for an early diagnosis of acute ischemic stroke using MDCT. Material and Methods. Forty adult patients, 20 with suspected diagnosis of acute ischemic stroke (mean age: 73.4 years and 20 controls (mean age: 71.2 years, p=0.63, underwent brain

  13. Fetal cerebral ventricular atria width of 8-10mm: A possible prenatal risk factor for adolescent treated Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kivilevitch, Zvi; Gabis, Lidia V; Katorza, Eldad; Achiron, Reuven

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of our research was to study the in-utero and long term post-natal outcome of fetal isolated cerebral ventricular atria width between 8 and 10mm. We conducted a retrospective, observational, case-control study, of low risk pregnant women, between 1993 and 2001. One hundred and forty one fetuses with isolated cerebral ventricular atria width between 8 and 10mm, corresponding to 2-4 standard deviations above the mean, and 309 controls, with atrial width below this level, were included for the analysis. Clinical data concerning pre and post-natal outcome was retrieved from computerized medical records. Matching of cases with controls was based on age, with a ratio of 2-3 controls per case. Statistical analysis included: T-test, Chi-Square, and Multiple Logistic Regression analysis. The study group was characterized by a predominance of male gender, left side involvement, and higher birth weight, compared to the control group. Long term post-natal follow-up at a mean age of 12.7 years (±1.9) demonstrated an adjusted odds ratio of 2.589 (95% CI 1.415-4.737, p=0.001), being diagnosed as Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), and treated by Methylphenidate (Ritalin(®)), during childhood, compared to the control group (23.6% and 10.0% respectively) (p=0.001). Cerebral atria width was an independent factor, controlled for the only two significant variants between groups, gender and weight over 90th centile. In conclusions, our preliminary results show that fetuses with prenatal finding of isolated cerebral ventricular atria width between 8 and 10mm are more likely of being diagnosed and treated as ADHD during childhood.

  14. Pressure passive cerebral blood flow and breakdown of the blood-brain barrier in experimental fetal asphyxia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lou, H C; Lassen, N A; Tweed, W A

    1979-01-01

    Cerebral blood flow (CBF) was studied in non-exteriorized near-term sheep fetuses using the radioactive microsphere technique. By partially occluding the umbilical vessels for a period of 1--1 1/2 hours a progressive and severe asphyxia with a final arterial pH of 6.90 was achieved. Varying...

  15. Efeitos da estimulação vibro-acústica na velocidade do sangue da artéria cerebral média e na freqüência cardíaca fetal: 1. entre a 35ª e 41ª semanas de gestação The effect of vibratory acoustic stimulation on fetal middle cerebral artery impedance and instantaneous fetal heart rate: 1. a transversal study on fetuses with 35 to 41 weeks of gestational age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivo Behle

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available RESUMO Objetivos: estudar, em fetos hígidos, quais são as respostas da freqüência cardíaca fetal basal e da resistência na artéria cerebral média à estimulação vibro-acústica padronizada. Métodos: em estado comportamental de hipo ou de inatividade fetal (apnéia e ausência de movimentos corpóreos, mediu-se o índice de pulsatilidade (IP da artéria cerebral média (ACM, bem como calculou-se a freqüência cardíaca fetal basal (FCFB pela análise da onda espectral, antes e após a aplicação de estímulo vibro-acústico (EVA por 3 segundos. Foram empregados ecógrafos de alta resolução, com Doppler pulsado e mapeamento a cores. A fonte sonora emitia som com 400 a 40.000 Hz, sob forma de varredura, com pressão sonora de 65 a 110 dB. Resultados: a média da FCFB pré-estímulo foi 139 bpm, com desvio padrão de 3,14 bpm. A média da FCFB pós-estímulo foi 153 bpm, com desvio padrão de 7,23 bpm (pSUMMARY Purpose: to examine the response of the fetal heart rate (FHR and middle cerebral artery resistance (MCA PI to vibratory stimulation (VAS in normal human fetuses. Methods: when the fetuses were without activity (in apnea and without corporal movements, we obtained baseline measurements of MCA PI and FHR before and after the application of a 3-sec vibratory acoustic stimulus. Real time ultrasonography with pulsed wave and color Doppler imaging was used for the execution of the study. The VAS was performed using a bicycle horn with 400 to 4000 Hz and sound pressure was 65 to 110 dB. Results: the FHR before VAS was 139 ± 3.14 bpm and after VAS was 153 ± 7.23 bpm (p<0.0001. The MCA PI rate before VAS was 1.84 ± 0.07 and after VAS was 1.56 ± 0.04 (p<0.001. In all cases we observed a fetal response with vigorous corporal movements, FHR rise and MCA PI reduction after VAS. Conclusions: we conclude that VAS, in human fetuses near term, for 3 sec as described in this study, determines some response, with increase in FHR and corporal

  16. Fetal heart rate patterns in neonatal hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy: relationship with early cerebral activity and neurodevelopmental outcome.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Murray, Deirdre M

    2012-01-31

    Despite widespread use of fetal heart rate monitoring, the timing of injury in hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE) remains unclear. Our aim was to examine fetal heart rate patterns during labor in infants with clinical and electroencephalographic (EEG) evidence of HIE and to relate these findings to neurodevelopmental outcome. Timing of onset of pathological cardiotocographs (CTGs) was determined in each case by two blinded reviewers and related to EEG grade at birth and neurological outcome at 24 months. CTGs were available in 35 infants with HIE (17 mild, 12 moderate, 6 severe on EEG). Admission CTGs were normal in 24\\/35 (69%), suspicious in 8\\/35 (23%), and pathological in 3\\/35 (8%). All CTGs developed nonreassuring features prior to delivery. Three patterns of fetal heart rate abnormalities were seen: group 1, abnormal CTGs on admission in 11\\/35 (31%); group 2, normal CTGs on admission with gradual deterioration to pathological in 20\\/35 cases (57%); and group 3, normal CTGs on admission with acute sentinel events in 4\\/35 (11.5%). The median (interquartile range) duration between the development of pathological CTGs and delivery was 145 (81, 221) minutes in group 2 and 22 (12, 28) minutes in group 3. There was no correlation between duration of pathological CTG trace and grade of encephalopathy (R = 0.09, P = 0.63) or neurological outcome (P = 0.75). However, the grade of encephalopathy was significantly worse in group 3 (P = 0.001), with a trend to worse outcomes. The majority of infants with HIE have normal CTG traces on admission but develop pathological CTG patterns within hours of delivery. More severe encephalopathy was associated with normal admission CTG and acute sentinel events shortly before delivery.

  17. Fetal heart rate patterns in neonatal hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy: relationship with early cerebral activity and neurodevelopmental outcome.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Murray, Deirdre M

    2009-09-01

    Despite widespread use of fetal heart rate monitoring, the timing of injury in hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE) remains unclear. Our aim was to examine fetal heart rate patterns during labor in infants with clinical and electroencephalographic (EEG) evidence of HIE and to relate these findings to neurodevelopmental outcome. Timing of onset of pathological cardiotocographs (CTGs) was determined in each case by two blinded reviewers and related to EEG grade at birth and neurological outcome at 24 months. CTGs were available in 35 infants with HIE (17 mild, 12 moderate, 6 severe on EEG). Admission CTGs were normal in 24\\/35 (69%), suspicious in 8\\/35 (23%), and pathological in 3\\/35 (8%). All CTGs developed nonreassuring features prior to delivery. Three patterns of fetal heart rate abnormalities were seen: group 1, abnormal CTGs on admission in 11\\/35 (31%); group 2, normal CTGs on admission with gradual deterioration to pathological in 20\\/35 cases (57%); and group 3, normal CTGs on admission with acute sentinel events in 4\\/35 (11.5%). The median (interquartile range) duration between the development of pathological CTGs and delivery was 145 (81, 221) minutes in group 2 and 22 (12, 28) minutes in group 3. There was no correlation between duration of pathological CTG trace and grade of encephalopathy (R = 0.09, P = 0.63) or neurological outcome (P = 0.75). However, the grade of encephalopathy was significantly worse in group 3 (P = 0.001), with a trend to worse outcomes. The majority of infants with HIE have normal CTG traces on admission but develop pathological CTG patterns within hours of delivery. More severe encephalopathy was associated with normal admission CTG and acute sentinel events shortly before delivery.

  18. Dopplervelocimetria da artéria cerebral média fetal e outros parâmetros de vitalidade fetal na sobrevida neonatal em gestações com insuficiência placentária

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roseli Mieko Yamamoto Nomura

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Estudar a dopplervelocimetria da artéria cerebral média fetal em gestações complicadas pela insuficiência placentária e verificar o seu papel no prognóstico de sobrevida neonatal. MÉTODOS: Trata-se de estudo prospectivo de 93 gestantes com diagnóstico de insuficiência placentária estabelecida antes da 34ª semana. A insuficiência placentária foi caracterizada pelo Doppler de artéria umbilical (AU alterado (> p95. Foram analisados os seguintes parâmetros: índice de pulsatilidade (IP da artéria umbilical (AU, IP da artéria cerebral média (ACM, relação cerebroplacentária -RCP(IP-ACM/IP-AU, pico de velocidade sistólicada ACM (PVS-ACM e IP para veias (IPV do ducto venoso (DV. Os parâmetros foram analisados pelos valores absolutos, em escores zeta (desvios padrão a partir da média ou múltiplos da mediana (MoM. O desfecho investigado foi o óbito neonatal no período de internação após o nascimento. RESULTADOS: Nas 93 gestações analisadas, ocorreram 25 (26,9% óbitos neonatais. No grupo que evoluiu com óbito neonatal, quando comparado com o grupo com sobrevida, houve associação significativa com o diagnóstico de diástole zero ou reversa (88% vs. 23,6%, p < 0,001, com maior mediana do IP da AU (2,9 vs. 1,7, p < 0,001 e seu escore zeta (10,4 vs. 4,9, p < 0,001; maior valor do PVS-ACM MoM (1,4 vs. 1,1, p = 0,012; menor valor da RCP (0,4 vs. 0,7, p < 0,001; maior valor do IPV-DV (1,2 vs. 0,8, p < 0,001 e no escore zeta do DV (3,6 vs.0,6, p<0,001. Na regressão logística, as variáveis independentes para a prediçãodoóbito neonatal foram a idade gestacional no parto (OR = 0,45; IC95% 0,3 a 0,7, p < 0,001 e o escore zeta do IP-AU (OR 1,14, IC95% 1,0 a 1,3, p = 0,046. CONCLUSÃO: Apesar da associação verificada pela análise univariada entre a morte neonatal e os parâmetros da dopplervelocimetria cerebral fetal, a análise multivariada identificou a prematuridadeeograude insuficiência da circula

  19. 椎动脉发育不良与胚胎型大脑后动脉%Vertebral artery hypoplasia and fetal posterior cerebral artery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨丽娟; 吕慧灵; 柳海斌; 李欢

    2015-01-01

    Objective To study the incidence of vertebral artery hypoplasia and the coexistant ver‐tebral artery hypoplasia and fetal posterior cerebral artery ratio .Methods Six hundred and eight patients screened from the 13298 people undergoing physical examination were divided into obser‐vation group (n=306) and control group (n=302) .The detection rate of fetal posterior cerebral artery in 2 groups was analyzed .Results Vertebral artery hypoplasia was detected in 1342 out of the 13298 patients with an incidence of 10 .1% .Coexistant vertebral artery hypoplasia and fetal posterior cerebral artery were detected in 150 patients of observation group with an incidence of 49 .0% and in 53 patients of control group with an incidence of 17 .5% .The detection rate of fetal posterior cerebral artery was significantly higher in observation group than in control group (P<0 .01) .Conclusion Vertebral artery hypoplasia is not uncommon and is usually complicated by fe‐tal posterior cerebral artery .%目的:研究椎动脉发育不良的发生率以及椎动脉发育不良与胚胎型大脑后动脉合并存在的概率。方法在颈动脉超声检查的13298例受检者中,筛选出行头颅磁共振血管成像检查,且入住神经内科病房的患者608例,将椎动脉内径≤2.5 m m或双侧管径不对称>50%以上定义为椎动脉发育不良。胚胎型大脑后动脉包括完全型胚胎型大脑后动脉和部分型胚胎型大脑后动脉。将存在单侧或双侧椎动脉发育不良的患者306例作为观察组,无椎动脉发育不良的患者302例作为对照组,分析2组间胚胎型大脑后动脉的检出率。结果13298例患者中,检出椎动脉发育不良患者1342例,椎动脉发育不良的发生率为10.1%;观察组患者合并胚胎型大脑后动脉的患者150例,检出率49.0%,其中完全型胚胎型大脑后动脉109例,部分型胚胎型大脑后动脉30例;对照组合并胚

  20. Effect of Testosterone on Neuronal Morphology and Neuritic Growth of Fetal Lamb Hypothalamus-Preoptic Area and Cerebral Cortex in Primary Culture.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radhika C Reddy

    Full Text Available Testosterone plays an essential role in sexual differentiation of the male sheep brain. The ovine sexually dimorphic nucleus (oSDN, is 2 to 3 times larger in males than in females, and this sex difference is under the control of testosterone. The effect of testosterone on oSDN volume may result from enhanced expansion of soma areas and/or dendritic fields. To test this hypothesis, cells derived from the hypothalamus-preoptic area (HPOA and cerebral cortex (CTX of lamb fetuses were grown in primary culture to examine the direct morphological effects of testosterone on these cellular components. We found that within two days of plating, neurons derived from both the HPOA and CTX extend neuritic processes and express androgen receptors and aromatase immunoreactivity. Both treated and control neurites continue to grow and branch with increasing time in culture. Treatment with testosterone (10 nM for 3 days significantly (P < 0.05 increased both total neurite outgrowth (35% and soma size (8% in the HPOA and outgrowth (21% and number of branch points (33% in the CTX. These findings indicate that testosterone-induced somal enlargement and neurite outgrowth in fetal lamb neurons may contribute to the development of a fully masculine sheep brain.

  1. In vitro characteristics of pulmonary neuroendocrine cells isolated from rabbit fetal lung. I. Effects of culture media and nerve growth factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cutz, E; Yeger, H; Wong, V; Bienkowski, E; Chan, W

    1985-12-01

    Pulmonary neuroendocrine (NE) cells, dispersed throughout the airway mucosa as single cells and as innervated clusters (neuroepithelial bodies), were isolated from rabbit fetal lung and studied in short-term culture. The effects of culture media and nerve growth factor (NGF) on in vitro maintenance, differentation, and cell kinetics of isolated NE cells were examined. For demonstration of NE cells in intact lung, during cell separation and after culture, immunostaining for serotonin, formaldehyde-induced fluorescence method, histochemical reaction for acetylcholinesterase, and electron microscopy were used. The isolation procedure consisted of mechanical and enzymatic dissociation of lung tissue followed by separation of isolated cells on a discontinuous gradient of Percoll, resulting in 5- to 10-fold enrichment in NE cells. Cell fractions enriched in NE cells were cultured up to 7 days either in supplemented alpha-minimal essential medium with fetal bovine serum or in defined, hormone-supplemented, serum-free medium. NGF (2.5 S 5 to 50 ng/ml) was added to both serum-supplemented and serum-free media; cultures without NGF served as control. The number of serotonin-immunoreactive NE cells maintained in serum-supplemented medium (0.5% fetal bovine serum) increased significantly (p less than 0.05) on days 4 and 7 compared with cultures grown in serum-free medium. NE cells maintained in serum-supplemented medium incorporated [3H]thymidine and their labeling index was significantly increased (p less than 0.01) on day 7, whereas few or no NE cells were labeled in cultures grown in serum-free medium. NGF had no effect on the maintenance or kinetics of NE cells. Cultured NE cells formed elongated (unipolar or bipolar) neurite-like cytoplasmic processes with a button-like ending, regardless of the presence of NGF. Amine accumulated in perinuclear cytoplasm and in button-like endings. Staining for acetylcholinesterase (strongly positive in intact neuroepithelial bodies) was

  2. Using Doppler measurement of fetal middle cerebral artery peak systolic velocity on prediction of fetal anemia%彩超大脑中动脉血流峰值速度检测胎儿宫内贫血的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    凌奕; 金松; 张越青; 南瑞霞; 华少萍; 莫秀兰; 胡春霞; 黄元华

    2011-01-01

    目的:通过对胎儿大脑中动脉血流峰值速度(middle cerebral artery peak systolic velocity MCA-PSV)和胎儿血红蛋白关系的研究,评估胎儿MCA-PSV在预测胎儿贫血中的临床应用价值,为l临床提供一种无创伤的检测胎儿贫血的新方法.方法:采用前瞻性对照研究,正常单胎组85例,正常双胎22例,胎儿贫血高危组50例,所有病例均查脐血血常规测血红蛋白含量.脐穿前1周内做MCA-PSV检测,分析胎儿MCA-PSV和胎儿血红蛋白的关系.评估胎儿MCA-PSV预测胎儿贫血的准确性.结果:①以相应孕周正常值的中位数的倍数MOM值为单位,胎儿MCA-PSV与Hh浓度呈负相关(P<0.001).②MCA-PSV预测轻度贫血灵敏度25%,特异度98%,预测重度贫血的敏感性及特异性均为100%.③重度贫血胎儿MCA-PSV升高早于二维超声异常表现.④正常双胎与单胎MCA-PSV与Hb浓度无显著差异.结论:胎儿大脑中动脉血流峰值速度预测胎儿贫血无创伤,发现早,准确性高,可作为临床胎儿贫血尤其是重度贫血的预测指标.%Objective: To investigate the relationship between fetal haemoglobin (Hb) concentration and fetal middle cerebral artery peak systolic velocity ( MCA - PSV) in fetuses at high risk for anemia, and to establish a noninvasive method to predict fetal anemia. Methods: 85 normal fetuses in control group , 22 twin fetus and 50 high risk fetus in research group were analyzed. Fetal middle cerebral artery peak systolic velocity ( MCA - PSV) were measured within 1 week of blood sampling. Fetal Hb values were obtained by cordocentesis during prenatal diagnosis, before termination of pregnancy or after delivery. For the high risk group monthly Doppler ultrasound commenced at 16 weeks, and continued until blood sampling. Marl - G's data was used as the normal value of Hb and MCA - PSV at each gestafional age. Both MCA- PSV and Hemoglobin concentration were expressed as multiples of the median (MOM) . Results: ① There

  3. Alterações ultra-sonográficas na gravidez Rh negativo sensibilizada avaliada pela espectrofotometria do líquido amniótico e pela dopplervelocimetria da artéria cerebral média Ultrasound findings in Rh-alloimmunized pregnancies assessed by spectrophotometric analysis of amniotic fluid and Doppler velocimetry of fetal middle cerebral artery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciano Marcondes Machado Nardozza

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar e confrontar a presença de alterações ultra-sonográficas nas gestações Rh negativo sensibilizadas, quando a anemia fetal foi determinada ou pela espectrofotometria do líquido amniótico, ou pela dopplervelocimetria da artéria cerebral média. MATERIAIS E MÉTODOS: Observacional descritivo com grupo de comparação. Nosso grupo de estudo foi constituído por 99 pacientes, avaliadas no período de janeiro de 1995 a janeiro de 2004. Foram analisados e comparados dois grupos: 74 gestantes sensibilizadas pelo fator Rh cuja anemia fetal foi acompanhada pela espectrofotometria (grupo SE e 25 gestantes sensibilizadas pelo fator Rh cuja anemia fetal foi acompanhada pela dopplervelocimetria (grupo SD. Avaliamos a presença ou não de alterações ultra-sonográficas no acompanhamento pré-natal e confrontamos os dois grupos de estudo. RESULTADOS: No grupo cuja anemia fetal foi acompanhada através da espectrofotometria (grupo SE, apuramos modificações placentárias, principalmente o aumento da espessura e sua alteração textural, mais assiduamente que as encontradiças no grupo de gestantes sensibilizadas, em que a anemia foi determinada através da dopplervelocimetria (grupo SD (64% X 32%, p = 6,294. CONCLUSÃO: As alterações ultra-sonográficas foram detectadas em dobro quando a anemia foi avaliada pela espectrofotometria em comparação com o grupo seguido pela dopplervelocimetria.OBJECTIVE: To evaluate and compare existing ultrasound findings in women with Rh-alloimmunized pregnancies with diagnosis of fetal anemia by spectrophotometric analysis of amniotic fluid or Doppler ultrasound of the fetal middle cerebral artery. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This was an observational descriptive study involving 99 patients evaluated between January 1995 and January 2004. Patients were divided into two groups: 74 Rh-isoimmunized women submitted to spectrophotometry of the amniotic fluid (group S and 25 Rh-isoimmunized women submitted to

  4. Effects of iodinated contrast media in a novel model for cerebral vasospasm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Nikitina

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective We developed an in vitro model for vasospasm post subarachnoid hemorrhage that was suitable for investigating brain vessel autoregulation. We further investigated the effects of iodinated contrast medium on the vascular tone and the myogenic response of spastic cerebral vessels. Method We isolated and perfused the superior cerebellar arteries of rats. The vessels were pressurized and studied under isobaric conditions. Coagulated blood was used to simulate subarachnoid hemorrhage. The contrast medium iodixanol was applied intraluminally. Results Vessels exposed to blood developed significantly stronger myogenic tone (65.7 ± 2.0% vs 77.1 ± 1.2% of the maximum diameter, for the blood and the control group, respectively and significantly decreased myogenic response, compared with the control groups. The contrast medium did not worsen the myogenic tone or the myogenic response in any group. Conclusion Our results show that deranged myogenic response may contribute to cerebral blood flow disturbances subsequent to subarachnoid hemorrhage. The contrast medium did not have any negative influence on vessel tone or myogenic response in this experimental setting.

  5. Observation on the development of fetal cerebral sulci by prenatal ultrasound%超声观察胎儿大脑沟回发育及其临床意义

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈晓康; 林惠通; 吕国荣

    2009-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the pattern of development of fetal cerebral sulei by prenatal ultrasound and its clinical significance. Methods Sixty hundred and ninety-two fetuses at age from 17 to 40 weeks were observed for the development and depth of cerebral sulci (parietal-occipital sulcus, calcarine suleus, central sulcus, eingulate sulcus, cingulate gyrus, and sylvian fissure) by transabdominal ultrasonography. Results Parietal-occipital sulcus,calcarine sulcus,and sylvian fissure were visible at about 19 weeks of gestation, central sulcus was at about 25 weeks, cingulate sulcus and cingulate gyrus were at about 26 weeks. One case of them was considered as cerebral sulei growth retardation due to the signs of invisible parietal-occipital sulcus and sylvian fissure at 24 weeks of gestation. Two cases were considered as cerebral sulci growth retardation due to the signs of invisible parietal occipital sulcus and central sulcus and the shallow blunt shape of sylvian fissure at 29 weeks of gestation. There were positive correlations between the depths of fetal cerebral sulci and gestational weeks, and negative correlations between their relative depths and gestational weeks(all P <0.05), Conclusions Transabdominal ultrasonography can be use to observe the development of fetal cerebral sulci (parietal-occipital sulcus, calcarine sulcus, central sulcus, eingulate sulcus,cingulate gyrus,and sylvian fissure). The depth of cerebral sulci is relative to gestational weeks,and would be considered for prenatal assessment of cerebral sulci maldevelopment, such as cerebral sulci growth retardation and lissencephalia.%目的 探讨产前超声检测胎儿大脑沟回的发育过程及其临床意义.方法 经腹部超声观测692例孕19~39周胎儿大脑沟回(顶枕沟、距状沟、中央沟、扣带沟、扣带回、大脑外侧裂)发生、发展并测量其深度.结果 顶枕沟、距状沟、大脑外侧裂在19周左右可显示.中央沟在25周左右可显

  6. Daily ethanol exposure during late ovine pregnancy: physiological effects in the mother and fetus in the apparent absence of overt fetal cerebral dysmorphology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenna, Kelly; De Matteo, Robert; Hanita, Takushi; Rees, Sandra; Sozo, Foula; Stokes, Victoria; Walker, David; Bocking, Alan; Brien, James; Harding, Richard

    2011-10-01

    High levels of ethanol (EtOH) consumption during pregnancy adversely affect fetal development; however, the effects of lower levels of exposure are less clear. Our objectives were to assess the effects of daily EtOH exposure (3.8 USA standard drinks) on fetal-maternal physiological variables and the fetal brain, particularly white matter. Pregnant ewes received daily intravenous infusions of EtOH (0.75 g/kg maternal body wt over 1 h, 8 fetuses) or saline (8 fetuses) from 95 to 133 days of gestational age (DGA; term ∼145 DGA). Maternal and fetal arterial blood was sampled at 131-133 DGA. At necropsy (134 DGA) fetal brains were collected for analysis. Maternal and fetal plasma EtOH concentrations reached similar maximal concentration (∼0.11 g/dl) and declined at the same rate. EtOH infusions produced mild reductions in fetal arterial oxygenation but there were no changes in maternal oxygenation, maternal and fetal Pa(CO(2)), or in fetal mean arterial pressure or heart rate. Following EtOH infusions, plasma lactate levels were elevated in ewes and fetuses, but arterial pH fell only in ewes. Fetal body and brain weights were similar between groups. In three of eight EtOH-exposed fetuses there were small subarachnoid hemorrhages in the cerebrum and cerebellum associated with focal cortical neuronal death and gliosis. Overall, there was no evidence of cystic lesions, inflammation, increased apoptosis, or white matter injury. We conclude that daily EtOH exposure during the third trimester-equivalent of ovine pregnancy has modest physiological effects on the fetus and no gross effects on fetal white matter development.

  7. Fetal Circulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Peripheral Artery Disease Venous Thromboembolism Aortic Aneurysm More Fetal Circulation Updated:Oct 18,2016 click to enlarge The ... fetal heart. These two bypass pathways in the fetal circulation make it possible for most fetuses to survive ...

  8. Fetal Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, John T.; Sladek, John R.

    1989-11-01

    This article reviews some of the significant contributions of fetal research and fetal tissue research over the past 20 years. The benefits of fetal research include the development of vaccines, advances in prenatal diagnosis, detection of malformations, assessment of safe and effective medications, and the development of in utero surgical therapies. Fetal tissue research benefits vaccine development, assessment of risk factors and toxicity levels in drug production, development of cell lines, and provides a source of fetal cells for ongoing transplantation trials. Together, fetal research and fetal tissue research offer tremendous potential for the treatment of the fetus, neonate, and adult.

  9. Optimization of chemically defined cell culture media--replacing fetal bovine serum in mammalian in vitro methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van der Valk, J; Brunner, D; De Smet, K;

    2010-01-01

    Quality assurance is becoming increasingly important. Good laboratory practice (GLP) and good manufacturing practice (GMP) are now established standards. The biomedical field aims at an increasing reliance on the use of in vitro methods. Cell and tissue culture methods are generally fast, cheap......, reproducible and reduce the use of experimental animals. Good cell culture practice (GCCP) is an attempt to develop a common standard for in vitro methods. The implementation of the use of chemically defined media is part of the GCCP. This will decrease the dependence on animal serum, a supplement...... with an undefined and variable composition. Defined media supplements are commercially available for some cell types. However, information on the formulation by the companies is often limited and such supplements can therefore not be regarded as completely defined. The development of defined media is difficult...

  10. 影响胎儿大脑中动脉血流峰速的临床相关因素%Related clinical effect factors of peak velocity of blood flow of fetal middle cerebral artery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    凌奕; 金松; 南瑞霞; 华少萍; 张宏玉; 胡春霞; 莫秀兰

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To analyze the related clinical effect factors of peak velocity of blood flow of fetal middle cerebral artery ( MCA) , provide a basis for predicting fetal anemia by peak velocity of blood flow of MCA. Methods; 140 fetuses from the hospital were analyzed and divided into normal control group (85 fetuses), uncomplicated twin group (22 fetuses) , thalassemia group (IS fetuses) and fetal anomaly group (18 fetuses) , all the fetuses received color Doppler examination of peak velocity of blood flow of MCA and hemoglobin detection. MOM value was used as the unit, the differences of peak velocities of blood flow of MCA and fetal hemoglobin contents among the four groups were analyzed. Results; There was no significant difference in peak velocity of blood flow of MCA and fetal hemoglobin content between uncomplicated twin group and single pregnancy group. In thalassemia group, the peak velocity of blood flow of MCA increased significantly , while fetal hemoglobin content decreased. Compared with normal single pregnancy group, the peak velocity of blood flow of MCA in fetal anomaly group increased significantly (P < 0. 05 ) , but after exclusing anemia fetuses, there is no significant difference in the peak velocity of blood flow of MCA between fetal anomaly non - anemia group and normal single pregnancy group. Conclusion: The peak velocity of blood flow of MCA is significantly related to fetal anemia, but there was no correlation between peak velocity of blood now of MCA and un-complicated twin pregnancy; the study shows that there is no significant difference in the peak velocity of blood flow of MCAbetween fetal anomaly non - anemia group and normal single pregnancy group after exclusing anemia fetuses, a further study with large samples is needed.%目的:分析影响胎儿大脑中动脉血流峰速(MCA-PSV)的临床相关因素,为应用MCA-PSV预测胎儿贫血提供依据.方法:对海南医学院附属医院140例胎儿进行临

  11. Removal of transmissible spongiform encephalopathy prion from large volumes of cell culture media supplemented with fetal bovine serum by using hollow fiber anion-exchange membrane chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, Ming Li; Bailey, Andy; Avory, Tiffany; Tanimoto, Junji; Burnouf, Thierry

    2015-01-01

    Cases of variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease in people who had consumed contaminated meat products from cattle with bovine spongiform encephalopathy emphasize the need for measures aimed at preventing the transmission of the pathogenic prion protein (PrPSc) from materials derived from cattle. Highly stringent scrutiny is required for fetal bovine serum (FBS), a growth-medium supplement used in the production of parenteral vaccines and therapeutic recombinant proteins and in the ex vivo expansion of stem cells for transplantation. One such approach is the implementation of manufacturing steps dedicated to removing PrPSc from materials containing FBS. We evaluated the use of the QyuSpeed D (QSD) adsorbent hollow-fiber anion-exchange chromatographic column (Asahi Kasei Medical, Tokyo, Japan) for the removal of PrPSc from cell culture media supplemented with FBS. We first established that QSD filtration had no adverse effect on the chemical composition of various types of culture media supplemented with 10% FBS or the growth and viability characteristics of human embryonic kidney (HEK293) cells, baby hamster kidney (BHK-21) cells, African green monkey kidney (Vero) cells, and Chinese hamster ovary (CHO-k1) cells propagated in the various culture-medium filtrates. We used a 0.6-mL QSD column for removing PrPSc from up to 1000 mL of Dulbecco's modified Eagle's medium containing 10% FBS previously spiked with the 263K strain of hamster-adapted scrapie. The Western blot analysis, validated alongside an infectivity assay, revealed that the level of PrPSc in the initial 200mL flow-through was reduced by 2.5 to > 3 log10, compared with that of the starting material. These results indicate that QSD filtration removes PrPSc from cell culture media containing 10% FBS, and demonstrate the ease with which QSD filtration can be implemented in at industrial-scale to improve the safety of vaccines, therapeutic recombinant proteins, and ex vivo expanded stem cells produced using growth

  12. Removal of transmissible spongiform encephalopathy prion from large volumes of cell culture media supplemented with fetal bovine serum by using hollow fiber anion-exchange membrane chromatography.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming Li Chou

    Full Text Available Cases of variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease in people who had consumed contaminated meat products from cattle with bovine spongiform encephalopathy emphasize the need for measures aimed at preventing the transmission of the pathogenic prion protein (PrPSc from materials derived from cattle. Highly stringent scrutiny is required for fetal bovine serum (FBS, a growth-medium supplement used in the production of parenteral vaccines and therapeutic recombinant proteins and in the ex vivo expansion of stem cells for transplantation. One such approach is the implementation of manufacturing steps dedicated to removing PrPSc from materials containing FBS. We evaluated the use of the QyuSpeed D (QSD adsorbent hollow-fiber anion-exchange chromatographic column (Asahi Kasei Medical, Tokyo, Japan for the removal of PrPSc from cell culture media supplemented with FBS. We first established that QSD filtration had no adverse effect on the chemical composition of various types of culture media supplemented with 10% FBS or the growth and viability characteristics of human embryonic kidney (HEK293 cells, baby hamster kidney (BHK-21 cells, African green monkey kidney (Vero cells, and Chinese hamster ovary (CHO-k1 cells propagated in the various culture-medium filtrates. We used a 0.6-mL QSD column for removing PrPSc from up to 1000 mL of Dulbecco's modified Eagle's medium containing 10% FBS previously spiked with the 263K strain of hamster-adapted scrapie. The Western blot analysis, validated alongside an infectivity assay, revealed that the level of PrPSc in the initial 200mL flow-through was reduced by 2.5 to > 3 log10, compared with that of the starting material. These results indicate that QSD filtration removes PrPSc from cell culture media containing 10% FBS, and demonstrate the ease with which QSD filtration can be implemented in at industrial-scale to improve the safety of vaccines, therapeutic recombinant proteins, and ex vivo expanded stem cells produced

  13. Reference Ranges of Blood Flow Parameter Ratios of the Normal Second-trimester Fetal Middle Cerebral Artery%正常中孕胎儿大脑中动脉血流参数比值的正常值范围

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗支农; 郭会平; 韦怀新; 刘刚纯; 陈春艾; 王新玉; 曹晓桦; 钟梅

    2001-01-01

    Objective To assess reference ranges of blood flow parameterratios of the normal second-trimester fetal middle cerebral artery.Methods Blood flow parameters of middle cerebral artery,head circumference and fetal weight were assessed in 215 normal fetus at 16 to 31 weeks gestation by two-dimension imaging,color Doppler power imaging and pulsed Doppler.Results During 16 to 31 weeks gestation,unit weight maximum and mean blood flow velocities per minute of fetal middle cerebral artery were decreased with gestation age.Unit head circumference maximum and mean blood flow velocities per minute of fetal middle cerebral artery were changed little during the normal second-trimester.Conclusion This study offers a theoretic basis to the early prediction of fetal hyperdynamic circulation with Doppler ultrasound.%目的确定正常中孕胎儿大脑中动脉血流参数比值的正常值范围。方法应用二维超声、彩色多普勒能量图及脉冲多普勒技术对215例16~31孕周正常胎儿头围、体重及大脑中动脉血流参数进行检测。结果正常中孕胎儿每分钟单位体重大脑中动脉的最大速度及平均速度随孕周的增加而降低;每分钟单位头围大脑中动脉的最大速度及平均速度在中孕期间变化小。结论本研究为多普勒超声早期预测胎儿高动力循环状态提供了理论依据。

  14. Fetal magnetic resonance imaging of the central nervous system: a pictorial essay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huisman, Thierry A.G.M.; Kubik-Huch, Rahel; Marincek, Borut [Institute of Diagnostic Radiology, University Hospital, Zurich (Switzerland); Wisser, Josef [Clinic for Obstetrics, University Hospital, Zurich (Switzerland); Martin, Ernst [Department of Neuroradiology and Magnetic Resonance, University Children' s Hospital, Zurich (Switzerland)

    2002-08-01

    Prenatal ultrasonography is the primary screening modality for the evaluation of fetal pathology. Ultrafast fetal MRI is a recent development that examines the fetus in utero. The short acquisition times (as short as 400 ms/slice) allow to picture freeze the fetus without the need for fetal sedation. The high spatial resolution, good contrast-to-noise ratio, and the multiplanar capabilities are especially advantageous in pathologies of the fetal central nervous system (CNS). Fetal MRI currently serves as a second-line imaging tool for complex fetal cerebral malformations and pathologies. Fetal ventriculomegaly, lesions within the posterior fossa, and abnormalities in cerebral myelination, migration, and sulcation are particularly well identified. (orig.)

  15. Antenatal taurine supplementation reduces cerebral cell apoptosis in fetal rats with growth restriction%孕鼠补充牛磺酸减少胎儿生长受限胎鼠脑细胞凋亡

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王晓凤; 滕慧云; 刘敬; 杨娜; 任晓暾

    2013-01-01

    论 FGR胎鼠脑细胞凋亡显著增多.孕鼠补充牛磺酸可以显著减少FGR胎鼠脑细胞凋亡,其机制可能与牛磺酸能够促进GDNF表达和减少caspase-3表达有关.%Objective To explore the effect of antenatal taurine supplementation on cerebral apoptosis and the expression of glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) and caspase-3 in fetal rats with fetal growth restriction (FGR).Methods Fifteen pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into three groups:control group,FGR model group (model group) and FGR with antenatal taurine supplementation group (taurine group).Taurine was added into the diet of taurine group at a dose of 300 mg/(kg · d) from the 12th day of gestation until natural delivery.Two appropriate for gestational age (AGA) newborn rats were randomly selected from each mother in control group and two FGR fetal rats were randomly selected from each mother both in model and taurine groups.Apoptosis of neural cells in the brain was detected by terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase mediated nick end labeling (TUNEL).Changes in protein expression of GDNF and caspase-3 were detected by immunohistochemistry.Levene method,one-way ANOVA and SNK-test,or Kruskal Wallis rank sum test and Tamhane’ s test were applied for statistical analysis.Results (1)The total amounts of fetal rats in control group,model group and taurine group were 65,60 and 59.The mean body weight of fetal rats were (6.36±0.44) g,(4.55 ± 0.45) g and (5.11±0.67) g,respectively.All fetal rats developed FGR in model group,while 76.3%(45/59) of fetal rats were FGR in taurine group.Therefore,FGR model was successfully established.(2) In control group,there were few expression of TUNEL positive cells in cerebral cortex.A large amount of TUNEL positive cells were found in the cortex,hippocampal and white matter area in model group,but less positive cells were identified in taurine group than in model group.The amount of apoptotic brain cells in the three groups

  16. Vigilancia Fetal

    OpenAIRE

    SAONA UGARTE, Pedro

    2013-01-01

    La percepción de la actividad fetal por la madre es la técnica más antigua y menos costosa de controlar el bienestar fetal. Tradicionalmente se ha considerado la disminución o ausencia de movimientos fetales percibidos por la madre, como una señal de alarma, en especial cuando existe insuficiencia útero placentaria. Varios investigadores han descrito el valor del registro diario de movimientos fetales como un método para identificar el feto en peligrote morir. El poder discernir si el feto se...

  17. Doppler colour flow imaging of fetal intracerebral arteries relative to fetal behavioural states in normal pregnancy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.J. Noordam (Marja); F.M.E. Hoekstra (Franciska); W.C.J. Hop (Wim); J.W. Wladimiroff (Juriy)

    1994-01-01

    textabstractIn 14 normally developing term fetuses, the relationship between the blood flow velocity waveforms at cerebral arterial level (internal carotid artery, anterior, middle and posterior cerebral artery) and fetal behavioural states was studied using Doppler colour flow imaging. Behavioural

  18. Doppler obstétrico posterior al uso de Betametasona para la maduración pulmonar fetal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keibis Jiménez Castillejo

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de la investigación fue determinar las modificaciones del Doppler obstétrico posterior al uso de betametasona para la maduración pulmonar fetal. Se realizó una investigación de tipo explicativa, prospectiva y longitudinal con un diseño cuasi-experimental y una muestra no probabilística intencional de 106 pacientes que acudieron a la consulta Pre-natal de Alto Riesgo del Hospital Central “Dr. Urquinaona". Una vez seleccionadas las pacientes se les administró inyecciones intramusculares de betametasona (12 mg/día por dos días consecutivos. Se realizaron las mediciones de índice de pulsatilidad e índice de resistencia en las arterias uterinas, umbilical y cerebral media fetal. No se encontraron diferencias estadísticamente significativas entre las determinaciones del índice de pulsatilidad y de resistencia de las arterias uterinas (p = ns. Se observaron disminuciones significativas en el índice de pulsatilidad y de resistencia de la arteria umbilical en la segunda y tercera medición al compararla con la medición inicial (p < 0,05. Se encontraron disminuciones en el índice de pulsatilidad de la arteria cerebral media fetal en ambos periodos de estudio comparado con los valores iniciales y solo se observó una disminución significativa del índice de resistencia en la segunda medición (p < 0,05. Se concluye que el uso de betametasona para la maduración pulmonar fetal produce modificaciones en la evaluación Doppler de las arterias umbilical y cerebral media fetal. Obstetric doppler after use of Betamethasone for fetal lung maturation Abstract The objective of research was to determine modifications of obstetric Doppler after to fetal lung maturation. An explicative, prospective and longitudinal research was done with a quasi-experimental design and an intentional non probabilistic sample of 106 patients who assisted to High Risk Antenatal Consult at Hospital Central “Dr. Urquinaona". Once patients were selected

  19. Cerebral Palsy. Fact Sheet = La Paralisis Cerebral. Hojas Informativas Sobre Discapacidades.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Information Center for Children and Youth with Disabilities, Washington, DC.

    This fact sheet on cerebral palsy is written in both English and Spanish. First, it provides a definition of cerebral palsy and considers various causes (e.g., an insufficient amount of oxygen reaching the fetal or newborn brain). The fact sheet then offers incidence figures and explains characteristics of the three main types of cerebral palsy:…

  20. Relationship between Mild Fetal Lateral Cerebral Ventriculomegaly and Clinical Prognosis%胎儿侧脑室轻度增宽的超声测量结果与临床预后的关系研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    傅文英; 孙耕妹; 赵佩英

    2011-01-01

    目的 探讨胎儿轻度侧脑室增宽与临床预后的关系.方法 选择产前检查发现侧脑室后角轻度增宽的胎儿34例为观察组,侧脑室正常的胎儿30例为对照组,进行新生儿神经行为(NBNA)评分,比较两组有无差异.结果 34例胎儿侧脑室轻度增宽中仅1例染色体为21-三体,1例未查染色体;有3例在妊娠中期首次发现侧脑室轻度增宽后因加重而引产.两组胎儿性别构成比比较,差异无统计学意义(P>0.05);观察组胎儿出生后NBNA评分较对照组高,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05).结论 侧脑室轻度增宽的胎儿,尤其是>12 mm的胎儿,出生后发生神经系统发育不良的风险较侧脑室正常胎儿增加;侧脑室轻度增宽与胎儿性别无关;因胎儿脑室扩张是一动态的过程,如不合并染色体和其他的结构异常,大部分预后良好.%Objective To investigate the relationship between mild fetal lateral cerebral ventriculomegaly and the clinical prognosis. Methods Totally 34 fetuses were found to be with mild lateral cerebral ventriculomegaly ( MLCV group ); 30 fetuses with normal lateral cerebral ventricles were enrolled as control group. Neonatal behavioral neurological assessment ( NBNA ) was performed. Results In the MLCV group, one case was with trisomy 21, one did not undergo chromosome screening, and three were aborted due to exaggerated MLCV in the 2nd trimester. The proportions of sex showed no significant difference between these two groups ( P > 0. 05 ). The NBNA grade was significantly higher in MLCV group than in control group ( P <0. 05 ). Conclusion Fetuses with MLCV ( especially when > 12 mm ) have increased risks of nervous system ahnormalities. However, since FLCV is a dynamic process , and the prognosis can be good if no unusual chromosome and other abnormal structure exist.

  1. PAPEL DE LA MEDICIÓN DE LA VELOCIDAD SISTÓLICA MÁXIMA EN ARTERIA CEREBRAL MEDIA EN LA ISOINMUNIZACIÓN RHESUS

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    Objetivo: Evaluación del papel de la velocidad sistólica máxima en arteria cerebral media (VSM-ACM) en casos de isoinmunización Rh. Métodos: 67 casos de isoinmunización Rh, en el Hospital La Paz desde febrero del 2006 hasta agosto del 2009, con título de anticuerpos > 1:32, afectación en embarazo previo y/o casos de isoinmunización anti- Kell, en los que se ha realizado medición de la VSM-ACM. Resultados: La capacidad de detección de anemia moderada-severa en base a la medición de VSM-ACM pre...

  2. Fetal Macrosomia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... might need special care in the hospital's neonatal intensive care unit. Keep in mind that your baby might ... References Copel JA, et al. Fetal macrosomia. In: Obstetric Imaging. Philadelphia, Pa.: Saunders Elsevier; 2012. http://www. ...

  3. Fetal Ultrasound

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... needle placement during certain prenatal tests, such as amniocentesis or chorionic villus sampling. Determine fetal position before ... home. Accessed Aug. 11, 2015. Ghidini A. Diagnostic amniocentesis. http://www.uptodate.com/home. Accessed Aug. 11, ...

  4. Fetal pain

    OpenAIRE

    Adama van Scheltema, Phebe

    2011-01-01

    Recent studies have suggested that the fetus is capable of exhibiting a stress response to intrauterine needling, resulting in alterations in fetal stress hormone levels. Intrauterine transfusions are performed by inserting a needle either in the umbilical cord root at the placental surface (PCI), or in the intrahepatic portion of the umbilical vein (IHV). Aim of our study was to test the hypothesis that fetal hormonal changes during intrauterine transfusion are more pronounced when the needl...

  5. Fetal Biophysical Profile Scoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.R. HaghighatKhah

    2009-01-01

    significance. Fetal breathing movements, amniotic fluid volume, and the non-stress test are the most powerful variables. For example, when the biophysical profile score is 2, the perinatal mortality varies between 428/1000 with only fetal movement present to 66/1000 if the non-stress test is reactive and all of the ultrasound parameters are absent (Manning 1990b. Some authors have, therefore, proposed utilization of a modified biophysical profile that incorporates only the non-stress test and amniotic fluid volume (Miller 1996. Although the positive predictive value of these 2 tests is equivalent to a biophysical profile score of 6, the perinatal mortality is still increased over a normal test score of 8 or 10 (Manning 1990b. The false positive rate with the modified biophysical profile score is also substantially higher. "nConclusions: The fetus expresses its well being or compromised status through a number of different biophysical activities that are controlled by different central nervous system centers. The utilization of the biophysical score for antepartum surveillance in high-risk patients has resulted in a reduction in perinatal mortality when compared to historical controls. The appropriate management of the viable fetus with an abnormal biophysical profile score may also decrease long-term neurological morbidity (Manning 1998. "nIt is unlikely that in the future additional variables will be added to the biophysical profile score. However, perhaps the incorporation of the fetal state (i.e., eye movements and Doppler flow studies of specific fetal vessels (umbilical artery, middle cerebral artery, ductus venosus will be incorporated into a complete assessment of the fetal condition "n "nTable 1. Components of the 30 Minute Biophysical Profile Score "nComponent "nDefinition "nFetal movements "n> 3 body or limb movements "nFetal tone "nOne episode of active extension and flexion of the limbs; opening and closing of hand "nFetal breathing movements "n>1

  6. Roles of taurine-mediated tonic GABAA receptor activation in the radial migration of neurons in the fetal mouse cerebral cortex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomonori eFurukawa

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available γ-Aminobutyric acid (GABA depolarizes embryonic cerebrocortical neurons and continuous activation of the GABAA receptor (GABAAR contributes to their tonic depolarization. Although multiple reports have demonstrated a role of GABAAR activation in neocortical development, including in migration, most of these studies have used pharmacological blockers. Herein, we performed in utero electroporation in GABA synthesis-lacking homozygous GAD67-GFP knock-in mice (GAD67GFP/GFP to label neurons born in the ventricular zone. Three days after electroporation, there were no differences in the distribution of labeled cells between the genotypes. The dose-response properties of cells labeled to detect GABA were equivalent among genotypes. However, continuous blockade of GABAAR with the GABAAR antagonist SR95531 accelerated radial migration. This effect of GABAAR blockade in GAD67GFP/GFP mice suggested a role for alternative endogenous GABAAR agonists. Thus, we tested the role of taurine, which is derived from maternal blood but is abundant in the fetal brain. The taurine-evoked currents in labeled cells were mediated by GABAAR. Taurine uptake was blocked by a taurine transporter inhibitor, 2-(guanidinoethanesulfonic acid (GES, and taurine release was blocked by a volume-sensitive anion channel blocker, 4-(2-butyl-6,7-dichlor-2-cyclopentylindan-1-on-5-yl oxobutyric acid (DCPIB, as examined through high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC. GES increased the extracellular taurine concentration and induced an inward shift of the holding current, which was reversed by SR95531. In a taurine-deficient mouse model, the GABAAR-mediated tonic currents were greatly reduced, and radial migration was accelerated. As the tonic currents were equivalent among the genotypes of GAD67-GFP knock-in mice, taurine, rather than GABA, might play a major role as an endogenous agonist of embryonic tonic GABAAR conductance, regulating the radial migration of neurons in the

  7. Fetal cerebrovascular circulation: a review of prenatal ultrasound assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degani, S

    2008-01-01

    Antenatal intrauterine cerebrovascular events were found to play an important role in the pathogenesis of perinatal brain damage. Changes in placental vascular resistance, cardiac contractibility, vessel compliance, and blood viscosity alter the normal dynamics of fetal cerebral circulation. The circulatory mechanisms described in animal fetuses also operate in the human fetus. The isthmus of the aorta represents a watershed area reflecting the redistribution of blood during increased peripheral resistance and hypoxia. The fetal cerebrovascular system acts locally within the skull and interacts with the other components of fetal circulation to compensate by redistribution of blood in case of shortage in resources. The introduction of various sonographic techniques and the collection of data from the arterial and venous cerebral circulation have improved our understanding of the regulatory mechanisms involved in fetal cerebral hemodynamic events. Anatomical and physiological considerations of cerebral vasculature in health and disease are relevant in the research of variations in fetal brain blood perfusion. Changes in flow characteristics in fetal cerebral vasculature can be used for clinical decisions. However, caution is advised before applying research data into practice. The clinical utility is well established in situations of fetal compromise such as growth restriction and anemia.

  8. Efeito do sulfato de magnésio sobre o índice de pulsatilidade das artérias uterinas, umbilical e cerebral média fetal de acordo com a persistência da incisura protodiastólica da artéria uterina na pré-eclâmpsia grave Effect of magnesium sulfate on pulsatility index of uterine, umbilical and fetal middle cerebral arteries according to the persistence of bilateral diastolic notch of uterine arteries in patients with severe preeclampsia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex Sandro Rolland Souza

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: avaliar o efeito do sulfato de magnésio sobre o índice de pulsatilidade (IP das artérias uterinas, umbilicais e cerebral média fetal, de acordo com a persistência ou não da incisura protodiastólica bilateral das artérias uterinas na pré-eclâmpsia grave. MÉTODOS: foi desenvolvido um estudo do tipo coorte, incluindo 40 gestantes com pré-eclâmpsia grave, das quais 23 apresentavam incisura protodiastólica bilateral e 17, incisura ausente/unilateral. As pacientes foram submetidas a doplervelocimetria antes e depois de 20 minutos da administração intravenosa de 6 g do sulfato de magnésio. O exame foi realizado com a paciente em posição semi-Fowler, obtendo-se os sonogramas durante a inatividade fetal, em períodos de apneia e ausência de contrações uterinas. Todos os exames foram realizados por dois pesquisadores, considerando a média como resultado final. A comparação dos IP antes e depois do sulfato de magnésio em cada grupo foi realizada pelo teste de Wilcoxon. A diferença das duas medidas (antes e depois do sulfato de magnésio foi comparada entre os grupos (incisura bilateral e incisura ausente/unilateral utilizando-se o teste de Mann-Whitney. RESULTADOS: houve um aumento significativo da frequência cardíaca materna e uma diminuição da pressão arterial materna e da mediana dos IP das duas artérias uterinas e da artéria cerebral média fetal depois da utilização do sulfato de magnésio em ambos os grupos. Houve redução significativa do IP da artéria uterina esquerda e da artéria umbilical apenas no grupo com incisura protodiastólica unilateral/ausente. No entanto, não foram encontradas diferenças significativas em relação ao IP da artéria uterina direita e relação umbilical/cerebral antes e depois do sulfato de magnésio em cada grupo. Não se encontrou diferença entre os grupos, antes e depois do sulfato de magnésio, para nenhum dos desfechos estudados. CONCLUSÕES: após a administra

  9. Neurodevelopment after fetal growth restriction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baschat, Ahmet A

    2014-01-01

    Fetal growth restriction (FGR) can emerge as a complication of placental dysfunction and increases the risk for neurodevelopmental delay. Marked elevations of umbilical artery (UA) Doppler resistance that set the stage for cardiovascular and biophysical deterioration with subsequent preterm birth characterize early-onset FGR. Minimal, or absent UA Doppler abnormalities and isolated cerebral Doppler changes with subtle deterioration and a high risk for unanticipated term stillbirth are characteristic for late-onset FGR. Nutritional deficiency manifested in lagging head growth is the most powerful predictor of developmental delay in all forms of FGR. Extremes of blood flow resistance and cardiovascular deterioration, prematurity and intracranial hemorrhage increase the risks for psychomotor delay and cerebral palsy. In late-onset FGR, regional cerebral vascular redistribution correlates with abnormal behavioral domains. Irrespective of the phenotype of FGR, prenatal tests that provide precise and independent stratification of risks for adverse neurodevelopment have yet to be determined.

  10. [Prenatal imaging of the fetal brain--indications and developmental implications of fetal MRI].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Sira, Liat; Garel, Catherine; Leitner, Yael; Gross-Tsur, Varda

    2008-01-01

    Cerebral anomalies at birth account for approximately 9% of all isolated anomalies and are present in 15.9% of babies with multiple malformations and, thereby, warrant concern in antenatal diagnosis. Ultrasonography is the basic screening examination for the pregnant woman due to its efficiency, availability, low cost and real time capability. Many of the major anomalies can be diagnosed by ultrasound during the first trimester of pregnancy. However subtle abnormalities can be missed by ultrasonography or detected only in later stages of pregnancy. Fetal MRI has proved itself to be an effective adjuvant imaging tool and is indicated whenever there is a diagnostic query on ultrasound or a need to define a suspected brain anomaly. The information obtained from fetal MRI has significant implications for parental counseling regarding both the type of malformation as well as the neurological and developmental prognosis. Current indications for fetal MRI, focusing on various common fetal cerebral pathologies, will be addressed in this review.

  11. Fetal pain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Adama van Scheltema, Phebe

    2011-01-01

    Recent studies have suggested that the fetus is capable of exhibiting a stress response to intrauterine needling, resulting in alterations in fetal stress hormone levels. Intrauterine transfusions are performed by inserting a needle either in the umbilical cord root at the placental surface (PCI), o

  12. MRI of fetal acquired brain lesions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prayer, Daniela [Department of Radiodiagnostics, Medical University of Vienna (Austria)]. E-mail: daniela.prayer@meduniwien.ac.at; Brugger, Peter C. [Center of Anatomy and Cell Biology, Medical University of Vienna (Austria); Kasprian, Gregor [Department of Radiodiagnostics, Medical University of Vienna (Austria); Witzani, Linde [Department of Radiodiagnostics, Medical University of Vienna (Austria); Helmer, Hanns [Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Medical University of Vienna (Austria); Dietrich, Wolfgang [Department of Neurosurgery, Medical University of Vienna (Austria); Eppel, Wolfgang [Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Medical University of Vienna (Austria); Langer, Martin [Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Medical University of Vienna (Austria)

    2006-02-15

    Acquired fetal brain damage is suspected in cases of destruction of previously normally formed tissue, the primary cause of which is hypoxia. Fetal brain damage may occur as a consequence of acute or chronic maternal diseases, with acute diseases causing impairment of oxygen delivery to the fetal brain, and chronic diseases interfering with normal, placental development. Infections, metabolic diseases, feto-fetal transfusion syndrome, toxic agents, mechanical traumatic events, iatrogenic accidents, and space-occupying lesions may also qualify as pathologic conditions that initiate intrauterine brain damage. MR manifestations of acute fetal brain injury (such as hemorrhage or acute ischemic lesions) can easily be recognized, as they are hardly different from postnatal lesions. The availability of diffusion-weighted sequences enhances the sensitivity in recognizing acute ischemic lesions. Recent hemorrhages are usually readily depicted on T2 (*) sequences, where they display hypointense signals. Chronic fetal brain injury may be characterized by nonspecific changes that must be attributable to the presence of an acquired cerebral pathology. The workup in suspected acquired fetal brain injury also includes the assessment of extra-CNS organs that may be affected by an underlying pathology. Finally, the placenta, as the organ that mediates oxygen delivery from the maternal circulation to the fetus, must be examined on MR images.

  13. Fetal syringomyelia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Anne; Chitayat, David; Blaser, Susan; Keating, Sarah; Shannon, Patrick

    2014-08-06

    We explored the prevalence of syringomyelia in a series of 113 cases of fetal dysraphism and hindbrain crowding, of gestational age ranging from 17.5 to 34 weeks with the vast majority less than 26 weeks gestational age. We found syringomyelia in 13 cases of Chiari II malformations, 5 cases of Omphalocele/Exostrophy/Imperforate anus/Spinal abnormality (OEIS), 2 cases of Meckel Gruber syndrome and in a single pair of pyopagus conjoined twins. Secondary injury was not uncommon, with vernicomyelia in Chiari malformations, infarct like histology, or old hemorrhage in 8 cases of syringomyelia. Vernicomyelia did not occur in the absence of syrinx formation. The syringes extended from the sites of dysraphism, in ascending or descending patterns. The syringes were usually in a major proportion anatomically distinct from a dilated or denuded central canal and tended to be dorsal and paramedian or median. We suggest that fetal syringomyelia in Chiari II malformation and other dysraphic states is often established prior to midgestation, has contributions from the primary malformation as well as from secondary in utero injury and is anatomically and pathophysiologically distinct from post natal syringomyelia secondary to hindbrain crowding.

  14. Role of fetal monitoring in high risk pregnancy by fetal electrocardiogram

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Somya Girish Goyal

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Non-stress test is an external monitoring of fetal heart rate by electrocardiograph. Although intermittent auscultation of fetal heart rate is equivalent to continuous electronic fetal monitoring in detecting fetal compromise1 but continuous electronic fetal monitoring is indicated in high risk patients women whose foetuses are at high risk for neonatal encephalopathy or cerebral palsy.2 Objective of current study was to study the efficacy and diagnostic value of non-stress Test for surveillance and its usefulness to detect fetal distress at early stage which help to decide further management in mode of delivery. Methods: Design: prospective study. NST was done in 50 high risk patients for minimum of 20 minutes and in patients with non-reactive non stress test it was continued for 40 minutes. Maternal age, parity, complications during labour, and delivery, mode of delivery, indications of caesarean section and perinatal outcome were noted. Results: Out of total 50 cases studied patient delivered vaginally were 24 and Caesarean was done in 26 cases. Most LSCS were performed due to PIH (35% and related complications like IUGR, eclampsia (10%, fetal distress, previous caesarean pregnancy, IUGR, oligohydraminos and meconium stained liquor. 52% patients were delivered by caesarean and 48% by normal delivery. Conclusions: Routine use of electronic fetal heart monitoring helped in reduction of neonatal morbidity and mortality with increased rate of caesarean section. [Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol 2014; 3(4.000: 893-897

  15. Medio ambiente fetal Fetal environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    César Bernardo Ospina Arcila

    1996-04-01

    Full Text Available Con base en el artículo clásico "Monte Everest in utero" se hace un análisis de la situación que afronta el feto con respecto a la disponibilidad de oxígeno; para una mejor comprensión del sufrimiento fetal se revisan los siguientes conceptos: presión barométrica, presión parcial del oxígeno atmosférico, presión parcial del oxígeno inspirado, presión barométrica intranasal, ecuación del gas alveolar y difusión de gases a través de la membrana alvéolo capilar. Based on the classical paper by Eastman "Mount Everest in utero" an analysis is made of the situation faced by the fetus with respect to the availability of oxygen; for a better under. standing of fetal distress the following concepts are reviewed: barometric pressure, partial pressure of atmosferic oxygen, partial pressure of inspired oxygen, barometric intranasal pressure, alveolar gas equation and gas diffusion through alveolo-capilar membrane.

  16. Fetal pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rokyta, Richard

    2008-12-01

    The fetus reacts to nociceptive stimulations through different motor, autonomic, vegetative, hormonal, and metabolic changes relatively early in the gestation period. With respect to the fact that the modulatory system does not yet exist, the first reactions are purely reflexive and without connection to the type of stimulus. While the fetal nervous system is able to react through protective reflexes to potentially harmful stimuli, there is no accurate evidence concerning pain sensations in this early period. Cortical processes occur only after thalamocortical connections and pathways have been completed at the 26th gestational week. Harmful (painful) stimuli, especially in fetuses have an adverse effect on the development of humans regardless of the processes in brain. Moreover, pain activates a number of subcortical mechanisms and a wide spectrum of stress responses influence the maturation of thalamocortical pathways and other cortical activation which are very important in pain processing.

  17. Fetal growth potential and pregnancy outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bukowski, Radek

    2004-02-01

    Although the association of fetal growth restriction and adverse pregnancy outcomes is well known, lack of sensitivity limits its clinical value. To a large extent, this limitation is a result of traditionally used method to define growth restriction by comparing fetal or birth weight to population norms. The use of population norms, by virtue of their inability to fully consider individual variation, results in high false positive and negative rates. An alternative, calculating fetal individually optimal growth potential, based on physiological determinants of individual growth, is superior in predicting adverse outcomes of pregnancy. Impairment of fetal growth potential identifes some adverse pregnancy outcomes that are not associated with growth restrction defined by population norms. When compared with traditional population-based norms, fetal growth potential is a better predictor of several important adverse outcomes of pregnancy which include: stillbirth, neonatal mortality and morbidity, and long-term adverse neonatal outcomes like neonatal encephalopathy, cerebral palsy and cognitive abilities. Impairment of individual growth potential is also strongly associated with spontaneous preterm delivery. Although definitive interventional trials have not been conducted as yet to validate the clinical value of fetal growth potential, many observational studies, conducted in various populations, indicate its significant promise in this respect.

  18. Ataque cerebral

    OpenAIRE

    Takeuchi Tan, Yuri; Fundación Valle de Lili

    1998-01-01

    ¿Qué es un ataque cerebral?/¿Qué tipos de ataque cerebral existen?/¿Cuáles son los síntomas de un ataque cerebral?/Factores de riesgo para un ataque cerebral/Tratamiento médico del ataque cerebral/¿por qué es importante acudir temprano cuando se presentan las señales de alarma?/ Manejo preventivo del ataque cerebral isquémico/Tratamiento quirúrgico del ataque cerebral/Enfermedad vascular cerebral hemorrágica/¿Cómo está constituido el grupo de ataque cerebral de la fundación Clínica Valle d...

  19. Fetal pain?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanhatalo, S; van Nieuwenhuizen, O

    2000-05-01

    During the last few years a vivid debate, both scientifically and emotionally, has risen in the medical literature as to whether a fetus is able to feel pain during abortion or intrauterine surgery. This debate has mainly been inspired by the demonstration of various hormonal or motor reactions to noxious stimuli at very early stages of fetal development. The aims of this paper are to review the literature on development of the pain system in the fetus, and to speculate about the relationship between "sensing" as opposed to "feeling" pain and the number of reactions associated with painful stimuli. While a cortical processing of pain theoretically becomes possible after development of the thalamo-cortical connections in the 26th week of gestation, noxious stimuli may trigger complex reflex reactions much earlier. However, more important than possible painfulness is the fact that the noxious stimuli, by triggering stress responses, most likely affect the development of an individual at very early stages. Hence, it is not reasonable to speculate on the possible emotional experiences of pain in fetuses or premature babies. A clinically relevant aim is rather to avoid and/or treat any possibly noxious stimuli, and thereby prevent their potential adverse effects on the subsequent development.

  20. New advances in fetal MR neuroimaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garel, Catherine [Hopital Robert Debre, Department of Paediatric Imaging, Paris (France)

    2006-07-15

    MR is now routinely and widely used in fetal neuroimaging and has proven to be valuable in the detection of many cerebral lesions, either genetically determined or acquired in utero. However, its efficiency has certain limits in the detection of diffuse white-matter abnormalities, the evaluation of fibre development and the demonstration of metabolic disorders. Moreover, conventional fetal MR imaging provides only a morphological approach to the fetal brain. New techniques such as diffusion-weighted imaging, diffusion tensor imaging, proton MR spectroscopy and functional MR imaging are developing. The majority of these are not used routinely. The principles, aims, technical problems and possible applications of these techniques for imaging the fetus are discussed. (orig.)

  1. 妊娠糖尿病胎儿脐动脉、大脑中动脉血流监测与妊娠结局相关性分析%Correlations of umbilical artery and middle cerebral artery blood flow parameters of gestational diabetes fetal with pregnancy outcome

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李慧

    2015-01-01

    目的 通过超声监测妊娠期糖尿病( GDM)胎儿脐动脉( UA)、大脑中动脉( MCA)血流参数,探讨其在胎儿宫内缺氧中的诊断价值. 方法 研究组为妊娠期糖尿病单胎孕妇92例,对照组为正常妊娠单胎孕妇172例,应用超声测量UA、MCA血流参数:收缩期峰值流速/舒张末期流速( S/D)、搏动指数( PI)、阻力指数( RI) ,计算MCA-PI/UA-PI值,研究组及对照组按照不同妊娠结局分别分成正常妊娠结局及异常妊娠结局两类. 结果 正常妊娠结局胎儿中,研究组MCA-S/D值及UA-S/D值、MCA-PI/UA-PI与对照组间有明显差异(P1;研究组中不良妊娠结局胎儿MCA、UA血流参数异常的例数明显高于对照组,MCA-PI/UA-PI<1的例数也明显增多. 结论 通过超声监测妊娠期糖尿病胎儿脐动脉、大脑中动脉血流参数,能够预测胎儿宫内缺氧及不良妊娠结局,为临床及时诊治提供可靠依据.%Objective To evaluate the diagnostic value of the gestational diabetes fetal umbilical artery and middle cerebral artery blood flow parameters for the gestational diabetes fetal for fetal hypoxia.Methods Ninety-two cases of pregnant women with gestational diabetes fetal were in research group.One hundred seventy-two normal pregnant women were in control group.The resistance index ( RI) ,pulsatility index ( PI) and S/D ratio of fetal UA and MCA were detected by color Doppler ultrasound ,and MCA-PI/UA-PI were calculated.Two group were divided into two subgroup:well outcomews and adverse outcomes.Results Compared with well outcomes fetal, the S/D ratio of MCA and UA and MCA-PI/UA-PI in two group was significant difference(P<0.05).The cases of adverse outcomes were increased in group of GDM, and MCA-PI/UA-PI<1 in more cases in group of GDM.Conclusions Through the detection of GDM fetal UA and MCA blood flow spectrum, we can predict fetal distress and adverse pregnancy outcomes for clinical treatment and prognosis.

  2. Cerebral Palsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerebral palsy is a group of disorders that affect a person's ability to move and to maintain balance ... do not get worse over time. People with cerebral palsy may have difficulty walking. They may also have ...

  3. Cerebral Palsy: General Information. Fact Sheet Number 2 = La Paralisis Cerebral: Informacion General. Fact Sheet Number 18.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Interstate Research Associates, McLean, VA.

    This fact sheet on cerebral palsy is offered in both English and Spanish. First, it provides a definition and considers various causes (e.g., an insufficient amount of oxygen reaching the fetal or newborn brain). The fact sheet then offers incidence figures and explains characteristics of the three main types of cerebral palsy: spastic, athetoid,…

  4. Cerebral malaria Malaria cerebral

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Blair Trujillo

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available Is the most common complication of P. falciparum malaria; nearly 90% of people who have suffered CM can recover without neurological problems. Currently there are four hypotheses that explain pathogenesis of CM: cytoadherence and sequestering of parasitized red blood cells to cerebral capillaries; rosette formation and parasitized red blood cells agglutination; production of cytokines and activation of second messengers and opening of the blood-brain barrier. However the main question remains to be answered; how the host-parasite interaction in the vascular space interferes transiently with cerebral function? Recently, the beta amyloid precursor peptide has been employed as marker of neural injury in CM. It is expected that the beta amyloid precursor peptide will help to understand the pathogenesis of CM in complicated patients of endemic areas of Colombia. La malaria Cerebral (MC es la complicación más frecuente de la malaria por P. falciparum; aproximadamente el 90% de las personas que la han padecido se recuperan completamente sin secuelas neurológicas. Aún no se conoce con claridad su patogénesis pero se han postulado cuatro hipótesis o mecanismos posibles: 1 citoadherencia y secuestro de glóbulos rojos parasitados en la microvasculatura cerebral; 2 formación de rosetas y aglutinación de glóbulos rojos parasitados; 3 producción de citoquinas y activación de segundos mensajeros y, 4 apertura de la barrera hematoencefálica. Sin embargo, queda un interrogante sin resolver aún: ¿qué proceso se lleva a cabo para que el parásito, desde el espacio microvascular, pueda interferir transitoriamente con la función cerebral? Recientemente se ha utilizado el precursor de la proteína b-Amiloide como un marcador de daño neuronal en MC; este precursor será de gran ayuda en futuras investigaciones realizadas en nuestro medio que aporten información para comprender la patogénesis de la MC.

  5. RM fetal en las anomalías del SNC: Aspectos de interés para el obstetra Abnormalities in fetal CNS: Interesting issues to the obstetrician

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Recio Rodríguez

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available La resonancia magnética (RM fetal es una técnica de imagen en auge, útil en la valoración del cerebro y columna fetal. Ayuda a estudiar el desarrollo cerebral fetal y se puede realizar un diagnóstico precoz de las anomalías congénitas. La imagen de RM muestra gran resolución de contraste y permite diferenciar mejor que la ecografía entre hallazgos normales y patológicos. Además, algunas malformaciones cerebrales o lesiones destructivas ocultas en la ecografía prenatal pueden ser detectadas por RM. Revisamos las indicaciones, utilidad, seguridad, aspectos técnicos de la RM fetal y la apariencia del desarrollo cerebral fetal, y evaluamos su contribución en el diagnóstico de las patologías de las diferentes regiones cerebrales y de la patología espinal fetal.Fetal MR imaging (MRI is an increasingly available technique used to evaluate the fetal brain and spine, because it provides a unique opportunity to evaluate fetal brain development and to make an early diagnosis of congenital abnormalities. MRI allows a better differentiation between normal and abnormal signal intensity of fetal tissues due to its higher contrast resolution compared to prenatal sonography (US. Therefore, structural abnormalities such as brain malformations and destructive lesions that could be sonographically occult on prenatal sonography can be detected at fetal MRI. We review indications, utility, safety, and technical aspects of fetal MR imaging and the appearance of normal fetal brain development evaluating its contribution in the diagnosis of fetal diseases of different brain regions and spinal disorders.

  6. Fetal behavioral teratology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, Gerard H. A.; Mulder, Eduard J. H.; Ververs, F. F. Tessa

    2010-01-01

    Ultrasound studies of fetal motor behavior provide direct - in vivo - insight in the functioning of the motor component of the fetal central nervous system. In this article, studies are reviewed showing changes in the first timetable of appearance of fetal movements, changes in quality and/or quanti

  7. The relationship between fetal biophysical profile and cord blood PH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valadan M

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available "nBackground: The Biophysical Profile (BPP is a noninvasive test that predicts the presence or absence of fetal asphyxia and, ultimately, the risk of fetal death in the antenatal period. Intervention on the basis of an abnormal biophysical profile result has been reported to yield a significant reduction in prenatal mortality, and an association exists between biophysical profile scoring and a decreased cerebral palsy rate in a given population. The BPP evaluates five characteristics: fetal movement, tone, breathing, heart reactivity, and amniotic fluid (AF volume estimation. The purpose of study was to determine whether there are different degree of acidosis at which the biophysical activity (acute marker are affected. "nMethods: In a prospective study of 140 patients undergoing cesarean section before onset of labor, the fetal biophysical profile was performed 24h before the time of cesarean and was matched with cord arterial PH that was obtained from a cord segment (10-20cm that was double clamped after delivery of newborn. (using cord arterial PH less than 7.20 for the diagnosis of acidosis. "nResults: The fetal biophysical profile was found to have a significant relationship with umbilical blood PH. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value of fetal biophysical profile score were: 88.9%, 88.6%, 50%, 98.1%. "nConclusion: The first manifestations of fetal acidosis are nonreactive nonstress testing and fetal breathing loss; in advanced acidemia fetal movements and fetal tone are compromised. A protocol of antepartum fetal evaluation is suggested based upon the individual biophysical components rather than the score alone.

  8. Fetal MRI: An approach to practice: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sahar N. Saleem

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available MRI has been increasingly used for detailed visualization of the fetus in utero as well as pregnancy structures. Yet, the familiarity of radiologists and clinicians with fetal MRI is still limited. This article provides a practical approach to fetal MR imaging. Fetal MRI is an interactive scanning of the moving fetus owed to the use of fast sequences. Single-shot fast spin-echo (SSFSE T2-weighted imaging is a standard sequence. T1-weighted sequences are primarily used to demonstrate fat, calcification and hemorrhage. Balanced steady-state free-precession (SSFP, are beneficial in demonstrating fetal structures as the heart and vessels. Diffusion weighted imaging (DWI, MR spectroscopy (MRS, and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI have potential applications in fetal imaging. Knowing the developing fetal MR anatomy is essential to detect abnormalities. MR evaluation of the developing fetal brain should include recognition of the multilayered-appearance of the cerebral parenchyma, knowledge of the timing of sulci appearance, myelination and changes in ventricular size. With advanced gestation, fetal organs as lungs and kidneys show significant changes in volume and T2-signal. Through a systematic approach, the normal anatomy of the developing fetus is shown to contrast with a wide spectrum of fetal disorders. The abnormalities displayed are graded in severity from simple common lesions to more complex rare cases. Complete fetal MRI is fulfilled by careful evaluation of the placenta, umbilical cord and amniotic cavity. Accurate interpretation of fetal MRI can provide valuable information that helps prenatal counseling, facilitate management decisions, guide therapy, and support research studies.

  9. Cerebral palsy litigation: change course or abandon ship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sartwelle, Thomas P; Johnston, James C

    2015-06-01

    The cardinal driver of cerebral palsy litigation is electronic fetal monitoring, which has continued unabated for 40 years. Electronic fetal monitoring, however, is based on 19th-century childbirth myths, a virtually nonexistent scientific foundation, and has a false positive rate exceeding 99%. It has not affected the incidence of cerebral palsy. Electronic fetal monitoring has, however, increased the cesarian section rate, with the expected increase in mortality and morbidity risks to mothers and babies alike. This article explains why electronic fetal monitoring remains endorsed as efficacious in the worlds' labor rooms and courtrooms despite being such a feeble medical modality. It also reviews the reasons professional organizations have failed to condemn the use of electronic fetal monitoring in courtrooms. The failures of tort reform, special cerebral palsy courts, and damage limits to stem the escalating litigation are discussed. Finally, the authors propose using a currently available evidence rule-the Daubert doctrine that excludes "junk science" from the courtroom-as the beginning of the end to cerebral palsy litigation and electronic fetal monitoring's 40-year masquerade as science.

  10. Value of Diagnosis the Dysplasis of Fetal Cerebral Sulcus and Gyrus Abnormality by Two-dimensional Combined with Three-dimensional Ultrasonography%二维联合三维超声诊断胎儿脑沟脑回发育异常的临床应用价值

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈晓康; 吕国荣; 凌乐文

    2014-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the value of two-dimensional combined with three-dimensional ultrasound (2D&3D-US) on diagnosing the dysplasia of the fetal cerebral sulcus and gyrus . Methods 2D-US was performed to record the growth of cerebral sulcus and gyrus of 66 fetuses ,who were suspicious central nervous system dysplastic . Then 3D-US were performed for volume scan in three orthogonal planes mode display and storage ,offline diagnostics ,and comparing the diagnosis and follow-up results . Results Compared to the follow-up or autopsy ,36 fetuses proved to be 2cerebral sulcus and gyrus dysplasia or combine with it . Of them ,10 fetuses were agyric ,26 fetuses were hypoplasia ,and the rest 30 fetuses were normal . The diagnose accordance rate of 2D&3D and 2D-US were 92 .42% (61/66)and 75 .76%(50/66) ,respectively . There was statistically significant difference between them (χ2 =6 .68 ,P<0 .01) . Conclusions 2D&3D-US could promote the accurate diagnosis in dysplasia of fetal cerebral sulcus and gyrus ,w hich has an important clinical value .%目的:探讨二维联合三维超声诊断胎儿脑沟脑回发育异常的应用价值。方法对疑有中枢神经系统畸形的66胎胎儿,行二维超声检测记录脑沟脑回发育情况,后行三维超声容积扫描,以三正交多平面模式显示并储存,下线诊断,并将诊断结果与随访结果进行比较。结果经随访或尸检证实36胎胎儿存在或合并有脑沟回发育异常(10胎脑沟回未发育,26胎脑沟回发育迟缓);30胎正常。二维联合三维超声诊断符合率为92.42%(61/66),单纯二维超声诊断符合率为75.76%(50/66),两者有显著差异(χ2=6.68,P<0.01)。结论二维联合三维超声可提高胎儿脑沟脑回发育异常诊断的准确性,具有重要的临床应用价值。

  11. ASCITIS FETAL AISLADA

    OpenAIRE

    2003-01-01

    La ascitis fetal aislada es una entidad asociada a múltiples patologías, el diagnostico se realiza usualmente cuando fueron descartados las otras causas de ascitis fetal. Se describe el diagnóstico prenatal de un paciente con ascitis fetal aislada compatible con atresia ileal y peritonitis meconial secundaria a perforación de ileon distal. La ascitis fetal se resolvió posterior a la cirugía al segundo día de vida. Este caso tiene un buen pronostico debido al control tanto prenatal como intra ...

  12. Fetal Health and Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... specific prenatal tests to monitor both the mother's health and fetal health during each trimester. With modern technology, health professionals can Detect birth defects Identify problems that ...

  13. Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caley, Linda M.; Kramer, Charlotte; Robinson, Luther K.

    2005-01-01

    Fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD) is a serious and widespread problem in this country. Positioned within the community with links to children, families, and healthcare systems, school nurses are a critical element in the prevention and treatment of those affected by fetal alcohol spectrum disorder. Although most school nurses are familiar…

  14. Fetal scalp pH testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fetal scalp blood; Scalp pH testing; Fetal blood testing - scalp; Fetal distress - fetal scalp testing; Labor - fetal scalp testing ... a baby. In these cases, testing the scalp pH can help the doctor decide whether the fetus ...

  15. Prenatal Diagnosis of Fetal Encephalomalacia after Maternal Diabetic Ketoacidosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rozalyn Love

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction - Encephalomalacia in a developing fetus is a rare and devastating neurological finding on radiologic imaging. Maternal diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA can lead to metabolic and vascular derangements which can cause fetal encephalomalacia. Case - We report the case of a 27-year-old pregnant woman with White's Class C diabetes mellitus who presented in the 25th week of gestation with DKA. Four weeks after her discharge, marked fetal cerebral ventriculomegaly was noted on ultrasound. A subsequent fetal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI demonstrated extensive, symmetric cystic encephalomalacia, primarily involving both cerebral hemispheres. The pregnancy was continued with close fetal and maternal surveillance. The patient underwent a repeat cesarean delivery in her 37th week. The infant had a 1 month neonatal intensive care unit stay with care rendered by a multiple disciplinary team of pediatric subspecialists. The postnatal course was complicated by global hypotonia, poor feeding, delayed development and ultimately required anticonvulsants for recurrent seizures. He died at the age of 9 months from aspiration during a seizure. Discussion - Although the maternal mortality from DKA has declined, DKA still confers significant neurological fetal morbidity to its survivors.

  16. A CASE REPORT-ANTENATAL DIAGNOSIS OF FETAL INTRACRANIAL HAEMORHAGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalyani

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available 26 years old para 1 with 26 weeks of pregnancy presented with intermittent fever. Her obstetric history included one spontaneous first trimester miscarriage and one previous Caesarean Section for meconium stained amniotic fluid. Her antenatal course was uneventful so far. On investigation she tested IgM dengue positive. Her WBC count, platelet count and coagulation profiles were within normal limits. Obstetric sonography was done which was suggestive of a single live intrauterine gestation corresponding with growth appropriate for gestational age with moderate polyhydramnios (AFI 25cms with hyperechoic cerebral cisterns suggestive of intracranial haemorrhage. Fetal MRI was done which revealed generalized atrophy of the brain parenchyma with subdural haematoma over posterior cerebral convexities extending along tentorial leaflets. Patient went into preterm labour at 27 weeks and delivered male baby of 980gms which was an intrapartum fetal demise. Fetal intracranial hemorrhage occurs in 5 in 10,000 pregnancies. Hemorrhage may occur either within the cerebral ventricles (Intraventricular haemorrhage, IVH, subdural space or infratentorial fossa. IVH are common variety and are characteristic of immature brain. IVH are subdivided according to their severity into four grades: the first three grades are limited to the ventricles, while the fourth grade includes parenchymal involvement occurring in the most severe cases. Fetal stroke is caused by antenatal hemorrhagic, ischemic or thrombotic injury. Although there is no identifiable risk factor in 50% of cases of fetal stroke, the most common maternal conditions associated with it are alloimmune thrombocytopenia and trauma. Outcome is usually poor, for those fetuses affected with high grade IVH or subdural hemorrhages. USG helps in accurate diagnosis of fetal ICH and prenatal MRI also contributes to the accuracy of diagnosis.

  17. Vasoespasmo cerebral

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio A. F. de Salles

    1987-09-01

    Full Text Available Vasoespasmo cerebral ocorre em patologias como enxaqueca, hemorragia subaracnóidea, trauma de crânio, após isquemia e/ou hipoxia. A fisiopatologia do vasoespasmo cerebral nestas patologias não está completamente desvendada. Neste artigo são analisados os fatores neuroquímicos e morfológicos responsáveis pelo controle circulatório cerebral. As alterações circulatórias que seguem a hemorragia subaracnóidea são utilizadas como exemplo. Conclui-se que fatores bioquímicos, fisiológicos e morfológicos são responsáveis pelas manifestações vasculares que ocorrem após a hemorragia subaracnóidea. Alternativas de tratamento do vasoespasmo cerebral são discutidas.

  18. Digital subtraction angiography in cerebral infarction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Sin Young; Kim, Ji Hun; Suh, Hong Kil; Kim, Hyo Heon; Kwack, Eun Young; Lee, Il Seong [College of Medicine Hallym University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1995-01-15

    The usefulness and radiographic findings of the angiography in cerebral infarction are well known. We attempted to evaluate the angiographic causes, findings, and the usefulness of DSA in cerebral infarction. The authors reviewed retrospectively DSA images of 51 patients who were diagnosed as having cerebral infarction by brain CT and/or MRI and clinical settings. DSA was performed in all 51 patients, and in 3 patients, conventional angiogram was also done. Both carotid DSA images were obtained in AP, lateral, oblique projections, and one or both vertebral DSA images in AP and lateral. The authors reviewed the patient's charts for symptoms, operative findings and final diagnosis, and analysed DSA findings of cerebral atherosclerosis with focus on 6 major cerebral arteries. Among the 51 patients of cerebral infarction 43 patients (84.3%) had cerebral atherosclerosis, 1 dissecting aneurysm, 1 moyamoya disease and 6 negative in angiogram. DSA findings of cerebral atherosclerosis were multiple narrowing in 42 patients (97.7%), tortuosity in 22 (51.2%), dilatation in 14, occlusion in 12, avascular region in 8, collaterals in 7, ulcer in 6, and delayed washout of contrast media in 3. In cerebral atherosclerosis, internal carotid artery was involved in 37 patients (86.0%), middle cerebral artery in 29 (67.4%) posterior cerebral artery in 28, anterior cerebral artery in 26, vertebral artery in 22, and basilar artery in 15. Intracranial involvement of cerebral atherosclerosis (64.9%) was more common than extracranial involvement (16.2%). In cerebral infarction MRA may be the screening test, but for more precise evaluation of vascular abnormality and its extent, DSA should be considered.

  19. Cerebral Paragonimiasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyazaki, I

    1975-01-01

    The first case of cerebral paragonimiasis was reported by Otani in Japan in 1887. This was nine years after Kerbert's discovery of the fluke in the lungs of Bengal tigers and seven years after a human pulmonary infection by the fluke was demonstrated by Baelz and Manson. The first case was a 26-year-old man who had been suffering from cough and hemosputum for one year. The patient developed convulsive seizures with subsequent coma and died. The postmortem examination showed cystic lesions in the right frontal and occipital lobes. An adult fluke was found in the occipital lesion and another was seen in a gross specimen of normal brain tissue around the affected occipital lobe. Two years after Otani's discovery, at autopsy a 29-year-old man with a history of Jacksonian seizure was reported as having cerebral paragonimiasis. Some time later, however, it was confirmed that the case was actually cerebral schistosomiasis japonica. Subsequently, cases of cerebral paragonimiasis were reported. However, the majority of these cases were not confirmed histologically. It was pointed out that some of these early cases were probably not Paragonimus infection. After World War II, reviews as well as case reports were published. Recently, investigations have been reported from Korea, with a clinicla study on 62 cases of cerebral paragonimiasis seen at the Neurology Department of the National Medical Center, Seoul, between 1958 and 1964. In 1971 Higashi described a statistical study on 105 cases of cerebral paragonimiasis that had been treated surgically in Japan.

  20. Intrauterine extremity gangrene and cerebral infarction at term

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tanvig, M; Jørgensen, J S; Nybo, M;

    2011-01-01

    Intrauterine extremity gangrene in combination with cerebral infarction is a serious and rare event. We present a case with a healthy mother who gave birth to a child with this condition. At term, the mother presented at the antenatal clinic with decreased fetal movements. Cardiotocography (CTG......) showed signs of fetal distress and a caesarean section was performed. The left arm of the newborn was found gangrenous. Amputation of the arm was necessary and the child was subsequently treated with anticoagulant therapy due to thrombosis and cerebral infarction in the left hemisphere found by magnetic...

  1. The Value of ultrasonography in pregnancy a severe thalassemia fetal middle cerebral artery in prenatal diagnosis%怀孕中期应用彩超检测120例 a 型重度地中海贫血胎儿大脑中动脉的临床研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    叶菀华; 徐婉芳; 林洋洋

    2015-01-01

    Objective To analyze and study the value of the mid-pregnancy ultrasound detected a line of severe thalassemia fetal middle cerebral artery in prenatal diagnosis.Methods Since January 2012 to September 2014 in our hospital as a result of both spouses thalassemia line villus sampling or amniocentesis diagnostic examination of 240 cases of pregnant women,fetuses of pregnant women test group were confirmed by villus sampling inspection or amniocentesis is a confirmed diagnosis of thalassemia,a control group of pregnant women do not carry a fetus thalassemia gene,the fetus is normal.Research object villus sampling or amniocentesis to check whether they carry a diagnosis of fetal thalassemia gene;at the same time ultrasonography to measure the fetal middle cerebral artery peak systolic velocity.Results The experimental group,a moderate to severe thalassemia 59 cases (49.17%),10 cases of thalassemia a moderate groups (8.33%),a mild thalassemia 51 cases (42.50%);120 cases in the control group (100.00%)no a thalassemia. A test group with moderate to severe thalassemia MCA -PSV was significantly higher,with statistical significance as well as with other types of control group,the difference between the experimental group,(P <0.05).Conclusion In mid-pregnancy ultrasound examina-tion performed fetal middle cerebral artery,the diagnosis of a severe thalassemia has a high diagnostic value,and the detection method is fast,safe,reliable,economical and practical.%目的:分析并研究怀孕中期行彩超检测 a 型重度地中海贫血胎儿大脑中动脉在产前诊断中的价值。方法:选取夫妻双方为 a 型地中海贫血行绒毛采样检查或羊膜腔穿刺术诊断的孕妇240例,每组120例。试验组孕妇的胎儿均经绒毛采样检查或羊膜腔穿刺术诊断确诊为 a 型地中海贫血;对照组孕妇的胎儿不携带 a 型地中海贫血基因,胎儿正常。对研究对象进行绒毛采样检查或羊膜腔穿

  2. Contribution of fetal MRI to the diagnosis of inner ear abnormalities: report of two cases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tilea, Bogdana; Garel, Catherine; Elmaleh-Berges, Monique; Sebag, Guy [Hopital Robert Debre, Department of Paediatric Imaging, Paris (France); Menez, Francoise; Delezoide, Anne-Lise [Hopital Robert Debre, Department of Developmental Biology, Paris (France); Vuillard, Edith [Hopital Robert Debre, Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Paris (France)

    2006-02-01

    We report two cases of fetal inner ear abnormalities diagnosed by MRI. Cerebral MRI was performed on two fetuses, at 32 and 30 weeks gestation, following US that demonstrated multiple malformations suggestive of CHARGE syndrome in one fetus and ventriculomegaly and poor visibility of the posterior fossa in the other. MRI revealed vestibular hypoplasia and agenesis of the semicircular canals in one fetus and cystic cochleas, partial vermian agenesis and an occipital meningocele in the second fetus. Both pregnancies were terminated and there was good correlation between fetal MRI, ex utero CT and fetopathological findings. The inner ears should be carefully examined when performing fetal cerebral MRI because abnormalities of the inner ear may be associated with cerebral anomalies. (orig.)

  3. Corpus callosum agenesis: Role of fetal magnetic resonance imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Achour Radhouane

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Corpus callosum agenesis (CCA was evaluated by ultrasound examination and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI with many studies. Ultrasonography was able to suspect CCA by indirect signs but a definitive diagnosis of CCA was achieved in rare cases. MRI was able to diagnose complete CCA in majority of cases. Additional neurological abnormalities including heterotopia, gyration anomaly, asymmetry of the cerebral hemispheres, and Dandy-Walker variant were documented, as well as an ocular anomaly which was described, by MRI examination. Prenatal counseling for fetal agenesis of the corpus callosum is difficult as the prognosis is uncertain. The association with other cerebral abnormalities increases the likelihood of a poor outcome and ultrasonographic assessment of the fetal brain is limited. We found MRI to be a safe and useful additional procedure to complement ultrasonographic diagnosis or suspicion of CCA.

  4. Fetal and neonatal thyrotoxicosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chandar Mohan Batra

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Fetal thyrotoxicosis is a rare disease occurring in 1 out of 70 pregnancies with Grave′s disease or in 1 out of 4000-50,000 deliveries. The mortality is 12-20%, usually from heart failure, but other complications are tracheal compression, infections and thrombocytopenia. It results from transfer of thyroid stimulating immunoglobulins from mother to fetus through the placenta. This transplacental transfer begins around 20 th week of pregnancy and reaches its maximum by 30 th week. These autoantibodies bind to the fetal thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH receptors and increase the secretion of the thyroid hormones. The mother has an active autoimmune thyroid disease or has been treated for it in the past. She may be absolutely euthyroid due to past treatment by drugs, surgery or radioiodine ablation, but still have active TSH receptor stimulating autoantibodies, which can cause fetal thyrotoxicosis. The other features of this disease are fetal tachycardia, fetal goiter and history of spontaneous abortions and findings of goiter, ascites, craniosyntosis, fetal growth retardation, maceration and hydrops at fetal autopsy. If untreated, this disease can result in intrauterine death. The treatment for this disease consists of giving carbimazole to the mother, which is transferred through the placenta to the fetus. The dose of carbimazole is titrated with the fetal heart rate. If the mother becomes hypothyroid due to carbimazole, thyroxine is added taking advantage of the fact that very little of thyroxine is transferred across the placenta. Neonatal thyrotoxicosis patients are very sick and require emergency treatment. The goal of the treatment is to normalize thyroid functions as quickly as possible, to avoid iatrogenic hypothyroidism while providing management and supportive therapy for the infant′s specific signs and symptoms.

  5. Vasoespasmo cerebral

    OpenAIRE

    1987-01-01

    Vasoespasmo cerebral ocorre em patologias como enxaqueca, hemorragia subaracnóidea, trauma de crânio, após isquemia e/ou hipoxia. A fisiopatologia do vasoespasmo cerebral nestas patologias não está completamente desvendada. Neste artigo são analisados os fatores neuroquímicos e morfológicos responsáveis pelo controle circulatório cerebral. As alterações circulatórias que seguem a hemorragia subaracnóidea são utilizadas como exemplo. Conclui-se que fatores bioquímicos, fisiológicos e morfológi...

  6. Fetal Hemodynamics and Fetal Growth Indices by Ultrasound in Late Pregnancy and Birth Weight in Gestational Diabetes Mellitus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Fang; Liu, Yong; Lai, Ya-Ping; Gu, Xiao-Ning; Liu, Dong-Mei; Yang, Min

    2016-01-01

    Background: The offspring of women with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) are prone to macrosomia. However, birth weight is difficult to be correctly estimated by ultrasound because of fetal asymmetric growth characteristics. This study aimed to investigate the correlations between fetal hemodynamics, fetal growth indices in late pregnancy, and birth weight in GDM. Methods: A total of 147 women with GDM and 124 normal controls (NC) were enrolled in this study. Fetal hemodynamic indices, including the systolic/diastolic ratio (S/D), resistance index (RI), pulsatility index (PI) of umbilical artery (UA), middle cerebral artery (MCA), and renal artery (RA), were collected. Fetal growth indices, including biparietal diameter (BPD), head circumference (HC), abdominal circumference (AC), and femur length, were also measured by ultrasound. Birth weight, newborn gender, and maternal clinical data were collected. Results: The independent samples t-test showed that BPD, HC, and AC were larger in GDM than in NC (P 0.05). RA (S/D, PI, and RI) was positively correlated with birth weight in GDM (r = 0.168, 0.207, and 0.184, respectively, P 0.05). Conclusion: Fetal hemodynamic indices in late pregnancy might be helpful for estimating newborn birth weight in women with GDM. PMID:27569240

  7. 施普善对HSV-1感染乳鼠脑神经细胞保护作用研究%Study of Cerebrolysin protection on HSV - 1 infected fetal mice cerebral nerve cell

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    倪坤; 杨世炳; 唐久来; 吴德; 杨李; 段军; 张玲

    2011-01-01

    目的 探讨施普善对HSV-1感染小鼠神经细胞保护作用.方法 建立HSV-1感染神经系统的小鼠模型,将模型分为未治疗和施普善治疗组,同时设正常对照组,比较各组小鼠病死率、血清NO、IL-lβ水平变化和电镜下小鼠神经细胞形态结构变化.结果 施普善治疗组小鼠病死率、血清NO及IL-1β水平均比未治疗组明显降低,差异有统计学意义(P<0.01);电镜下施普善治疗组小鼠神经细胞,髓鞘病变均较轻.结论 施普善可能通过降低HSV-1感染小鼠血清NO、IL-1β水平,减轻神经细胞的炎症反应及细胞因子引起的神经毒性作用,达到对神经细胞的保护作用.%Objective To study Cerebrolysin protection on the mice cerebral nerve cells which were infected HSV - 1. Methods The HSV-1 infectod rats model were built, then the rats were divided into two groups:cerebrolysin -treated group and untreated group, meanwhile the normal control group was set. The mortality rate, NO and IL - 1β levels in serum were detected, and the variations of nerve cells were examined under microscope. Results The mortality rate, NO and IL - lβ levels in blood in Cerebrolysin - treated group were obviously lower than those in untreated group (P <0.01 ). Nerve cells were damaged slightly and myelin sheath changed gently under microscope in Cerebrolysin - treated group. Conclusion The protective mechanism of Cerebrolysin for nerve cell can cut down NO and IL - 1β levels in serum of rats with HSV - 1 infection and lessen inflammatory reaction in neurocytes and the neurotoxic action caused by cytokines.

  8. [Fetal ocular anomalies: the advantages of prenatal magnetic resonance imaging].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brémond-Gignac, D; Copin, H; Elmaleh, M; Milazzo, S

    2010-05-01

    Congenital ocular malformations are uncommon and require prenatal diagnosis. Severe anomalies are more often detected by trained teams and minor anomalies are more difficult to identify and must be systematically sought, particularly when multiple malformations or a family and maternal history is known. The prenatal diagnosis-imaging tool most commonly used is ultrasound but it can be completed by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), which contributes crucial information. Fetal dysmorphism can occur in various types of dysfunction and prenatal diagnosis must recognize fetal ocular anomalies. After systematic morphologic ultrasound imaging, different abnormalities detected by MRI are studied. Classical parameters such as binocular and interorbital measurements are used to detect hypotelorism and hypertelorism. Prenatal ocular anomalies such as cataract microphthalmia, anophthalmia, and coloboma have been described. Fetal MRI added to prenatal sonography is essential in detecting cerebral and general anomalies and can give more information on the size and morphology of the eyeball. Fetal abnormality detection includes a detailed family and maternal history, an amniotic fluid sample for karyotype, and other analyses for a better understanding of the images. Each pregnancy must be discussed with all specialists for genetic counseling. With severe malformations, termination of pregnancy is proposed because of risk of blindness and associated cerebral or systemic anomalies. Early prenatal diagnosis of ocular malformations can also detect associated abnormalities, taking congenital cataracts that need surgical treatment into account as early as possible. Finally, various associated syndromes need a pediatric check-up that could lead to emergency treatment.

  9. Dopamine does not limit fetal cerebrovascular responses to hypoxia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayock, Dennis E; Bennett, Rachel; Robinson, Roderick D; Gleason, Christine A

    2007-01-01

    Dopamine is used clinically to stabilize mean arterial blood pressure (MAP) in sick infants. One goal of this therapeutic intervention is to maintain adequate cerebral blood flow (CBF) and perfusion pressure. High-dose intravenous dopamine has been previously demonstrated to increase cerebrovascular resistance (CVR) in near-term fetal sheep. We hypothesized that this vascular response might limit cerebral vasodilatation during acute isocapnic hypoxia. We studied nine near-term chronically catheterized unanesthetized fetal sheep. Using radiolabeled microspheres to measure fetal CBF, we calculated CVR at baseline, during fetal hypoxia, and then with the addition of an intravenous dopamine infusion at 2.5, 7.5, and 25 microg.kg(-1).min(-1) while hypoxia continued. During acute isocapnic fetal hypoxia, CBF increased 73.0 +/- 14.1% and CVR decreased 38.9 +/- 4.9% from baseline. Dopamine infusion at 2.5 and 7.5 microg.kg(-1).min(-1), begun during hypoxia, did not alter CVR or MAP, but MAP increased when dopamine infusion was increased to 25 microg.kg(-1).min(-1). Dopamine did not alter CBF or affect the CBF response to hypoxia at any dose. However, CVR increased at a dopamine infusion rate of 25 microg.kg(-1).min(-1). This increase in CVR at the highest dopamine infusion rate is likely an autoregulatory response to the increase in MAP, similar to our previous findings. Therefore, in chronically catheterized unanesthetized near-term fetal sheep, dopamine does not alter the expected cerebrovascular responses to hypoxia.

  10. Pathogenesis of cerebral malformations in human fetuses with meningomyelocele

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Wit, Olga A; den Dunnen, Wilfred Fa; Sollie, Krystyne M; Muñoz, Rosa Iris; Meiners, Linda C; Brouwer, Oebele F; Rodríguez, Esteban M; Sival, Deborah A

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Fetal spina bifida aperta (SBA) is characterized by a spinal meningomyelocele (MMC) and associated with cerebral pathology, such as hydrocephalus and Chiari II malformation. In various animal models, it has been suggested that a loss of ventricular lining (neuroepithelial/ependymal denud

  11. Orthodontic Treatment for a Patient with Cerebral Palsy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TANG Kai-hong; DUAN Chang-hua; WANG Zeng-quan

    2009-01-01

    @@ Cerebral palsy(CP) is a group of permanent disorders asso-ciated with the developmental brain injuries that occur during fe-tal development, at birth, or shortly after birth[1,2]. Very few of such patients had the chance to be treated their maloccluded teeth. So, many orthodontists have no experience on such cases.

  12. Plasticity of fetal cartilaginous cells

    OpenAIRE

    Quintin, Aurelie; Schizas, Constantin; Scaletta, Corinne; Jaccoud, Sandra; Applegate, Lee Ann; Pioletti, Dominique P.

    2010-01-01

    Tissue-specific stem cells found in adult tissues can participate to the repair process following injury. However adult tissues, such as articular cartilage and intervertebral disc, have low regeneration capacity, whereas fetal tissues, such as articular cartilage, show high regeneration ability. The presence of fetal stem cells in fetal cartilaginous tissues and their involvement in the regeneration of fetal cartilage is unknown. The aim of the study was to assess the chondrogenic differenti...

  13. Pathogenesis of cerebral malformations in human fetuses with meningomyelocele

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brouwer Oebele F

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Fetal spina bifida aperta (SBA is characterized by a spinal meningomyelocele (MMC and associated with cerebral pathology, such as hydrocephalus and Chiari II malformation. In various animal models, it has been suggested that a loss of ventricular lining (neuroepithelial/ependymal denudation may trigger cerebral pathology. In fetuses with MMC, little is known about neuroepithelial/ependymal denudation and the initiating pathological events. The objective of this study was to investigate whether neuroepithelial/ependymal denudation occurs in human fetuses and neonates with MMC, and if so, whether it is associated with the onset of hydrocephalus. Methods Seven fetuses and 1 neonate (16–40 week gestational age, GA with MMC and 6 fetuses with normal cerebral development (22–41 week GA were included in the study. Identification of fetal MMC and clinical surveillance of fetal head circumference and ventricular width was performed by ultrasound (US. After birth, MMC was confirmed by histology. We characterized hydrocephalus by increased head circumference in association with ventriculomegaly. The median time interval between fetal cerebral ultrasound and fixing tissue for histology was four days. Results At 16 weeks GA, we observed neuroepithelial/ependymal denudation in the aqueduct and telencephalon together with sub-cortical heterotopias in absence of hydrocephalus and/or Chiari II malformation. At 21–34 weeks GA, we observed concurrence of aqueductal neuroepithelial/ependymal denudation and progenitor cell loss with the Chiari II malformation, whereas hydrocephalus was absent. At 37–40 weeks GA, neuroepithelial/ependymal denudation coincided with Chiari II malformation and hydrocephalus. Sub-arachnoidal fibrosis at the convexity was absent in all fetuses but present in the neonate. Conclusion In fetal SBA, neuroepithelial/ependymal denudation in the telencephalon and the aqueduct can occur before Chiari II malformation

  14. Fetal fluid and protein dynamics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pasman, Suzanne

    2010-01-01

    In this thesis fetal fluid and protein dynamics are investigated to gain insight in fetal (patho-)physiology. Studies were performed in fetuses with severe anemia and/or hydrops fetalis. Measurements were performed in fetal blood or amniotic fluid, obtained before or during intrauterine transfusion.

  15. Efecto del Diazepam sobre el desarrollo fetal

    OpenAIRE

    2001-01-01

    El diazepam se absorbe rápida y completamente después de la administración oral y atraviesa la barrera placentaria; su tasa de penetración en el tejido placentario es de 31,5% a las 4 horas, su vida media es prolongada y la existencia de metabolitos activos hace que su efecto sea acumulativo. Este trabajo se realizó en un modelo in vivo, usando 10 mg/Kg/día de diazepam intramuscular, en donde se estudió el efecto del diazepam sobre el desarrollo fetal, utilizando un modelo experimental en el ...

  16. Congenital cardiovascular malformations and the fetal circulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudolph, A M

    2010-03-01

    After birth, gas exchange is achieved in the lung, whereas prenatally it occurs in the placenta. This is associated with differences in blood flow patterns in the fetus as compared with the postnatal circulation. Congenital cardiovascular malformations are associated with haemodynamic changes in the fetus, which differ from those occurring postnatally. Obstruction to cardiac outflow may alter myocardial development, resulting in progressive ventricular hypoplasia. Alteration of oxygen content may profoundly influence pulmonary vascular and ductus arteriosus responses. Interference in blood flow and oxygen content may affect cerebral development as a result of inadequate oxygen or energy substrate supply. The circulatory effects may be gestational dependent, related to maturation of vascular responses in different organs. These prenatal influences of congenital cardiac defects may severely affect immediate, as well as longterm, postnatal prognosis and survival. This has stimulated the development of techniques for palliation of disturbed circulation during fetal life.

  17. Stillbirth and fetal growth restriction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bukowski, Radek

    2010-09-01

    The association between stillbirth and fetal growth restriction is strong and supported by a large body of evidence and clinically employed for the stillbirth prediction. However, although assessment of fetal growth is a basis of clinical practice, it is not trivial. Essentially, fetal growth is a result of the genetic growth potential of the fetus and placental function. The growth potential is the driving force of fetal growth, whereas the placenta as the sole source of nutrients and oxygen might become the rate limiting element of fetal growth if its function is impaired. Thus, placental dysfunction may prevent the fetus from reaching its full genetically determined growth potential. In this sense fetal growth and its aberration provides an insight into placental function. Fetal growth is a proxy for the test of the effectiveness of placenta, whose function is otherwise obscured during pregnancy.

  18. Reproductive decisions after fetal genetic counselling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pergament, Eugene; Pergament, Deborah

    2012-10-01

    A broad range of testing modalities for fetal genetic disease has been established. These include carrier screening for single-gene mutations, first-trimester and second-trimester screening for chromosome abnormalities and open neural-tube defects, prenatal diagnosis by means of chorionic villus sampling and amniocentesis, and preimplantation genetic diagnosis. Reproductive decisions before and after fetal genetic counselling represent the culmination of a dynamic interaction between prospective parents, obstetrician and genetic counsellor. The decision to undergo genetic testing before and after genetic counselling is influenced by a host of interrelated factors, including patient-partner and family relationships, patient-physician communication, societal mores, religious beliefs, and the media. Because of the complexity of personal and societal factors involved, it is not surprising that genetic counselling concerning reproductive decision-making must be individualised. A limited number of principles, guidelines and standards apply when counselling about testing for fetal genetic disease. These principles are that genetic counselling should be non-directive and unbiased and that parental decisions should be supported regardless of the reproductive choice. A critical responsibility of the obstetrician and genetic counsellor is to provide accurate and objective information about the implications, advantages, disadvantages and consequences of any genetic testing applied to prospective parents and their fetuses. These principles and responsibilities will be tested as newer technologies, such as array comparative genome hybridisation, non-invasive prenatal diagnosis and sequencing of the entire genome are introduced into the field of reproductive genetics and become routine practice.

  19. Forskolin and the meiosis inducing substance synergistically initiate meiosis in fetal male germ cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Byskov, A G; Fenger, M; Westergaard, L

    1993-01-01

    We have shown that Meiosis Inducing Substance (MIS) and forskolin synergistically and dose dependently induce meiosis in germ cells of cultured fetal mouse testes. We used a bioassay which consists of fetal mouse testes and ovaries cultured for 6 days. In this study MIS media are spent culture...... are fixed, squashed, and DNA-stained. In these preparations germ cells and somatic cells can be distinguished, and the number of germ cells in the different stages of meiosis is counted as is the number of somatic cells in mitosis. MIS activity is defined to be present in a medium when meiosis is induced...... in male germ cells during culture. We found that MIS media as well as forskolin induced meiosis in fetal male germ cells in a dose-dependent manner. In addition, MIS media and forskolin acted synergistically by inducing meiosis. Female germ cells seem to be unaffected by the various culture media...

  20. Forskolin and the meiosis inducing substance synergistically initiate meiosis in fetal male germ cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Byskov, A G; Fenger, M; Westergaard, L;

    1993-01-01

    are fixed, squashed, and DNA-stained. In these preparations germ cells and somatic cells can be distinguished, and the number of germ cells in the different stages of meiosis is counted as is the number of somatic cells in mitosis. MIS activity is defined to be present in a medium when meiosis is induced......We have shown that Meiosis Inducing Substance (MIS) and forskolin synergistically and dose dependently induce meiosis in germ cells of cultured fetal mouse testes. We used a bioassay which consists of fetal mouse testes and ovaries cultured for 6 days. In this study MIS media are spent culture...... in male germ cells during culture. We found that MIS media as well as forskolin induced meiosis in fetal male germ cells in a dose-dependent manner. In addition, MIS media and forskolin acted synergistically by inducing meiosis. Female germ cells seem to be unaffected by the various culture media...

  1. The fetal circulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiserud, Torvid; Acharya, Ganesh

    2004-12-30

    Accumulating data on the human fetal circulation shows the similarity to the experimental animal physiology, but with important differences. The human fetus seems to circulate less blood through the placenta, shunt less through the ductus venosus and foramen ovale, but direct more blood through the lungs than the fetal sheep. However, there are substantial individual variations and the pattern changes with gestational age. The normalised umbilical blood flow decreases with gestational age, and, at 28 to 32 weeks, a new level of development seems to be reached. At this stage, the shunting through the ductus venosus and the foramen ovale reaches a minimum, and the flow through the lungs a maximum. The ductus venosus and foramen ovale are functionally closely related and represent an important distributional unit for the venous return. The left portal branch represents a venous watershed, and, similarly, the isthmus aorta an arterial watershed. Thus, the fetal central circulation is a very flexible and adaptive circulatory system. The responses to increased afterload, hypoxaemia and acidaemia in the human fetus are equivalent to those found in animal studies: increased ductus venosus and foramen ovale shunting, increased impedance in the lungs, reduced impedance in the brain, increasingly reversed flow in the aortic isthmus and a more prominent coronary blood flow.

  2. CORIOAMNIONITIS HISTOLÓGICA Y MORBIMORTALIDAD NEONATAL: APROXIMACIÓN AL SÍNDROME DE RESPUESTA INFLAMATORIA FETAL

    OpenAIRE

    Rincón Ricote,M. Inmaculada; Magdaleno Dans, Fernando; Sancha Naranjo,Marta; Omeñaca Teres,Félix; González González,Antonio

    2010-01-01

    Antecedentes: El síndrome de respuesta inflamatoria fetal (SRIF) es una entidad relacionada con la presencia de inflamación intrauterina y suele asociarse a infección intraamniótica. Su consecuencia más grave es la lesión cerebral y posterior desarrollo de parálisis cerebral. Objetivo: Evaluar la relación entre el síndrome de respuesta inflamatoria fetal y el desarrollo de complicaciones neonatales. Método: Estudio descriptivo y retrospectivo, realizado en el Hospital Universitario La Paz de ...

  3. Diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of cerebral palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Shea, Thomas Michael

    2008-12-01

    Cerebral palsy is the most prevalent cause of persisting motor function impairment with a frequency of about 1/500 births. In developed countries, the prevalence rose after introduction of neonatal intensive care, but in the past decade, this trend has reversed. A recent international workshop defined cerebral palsy as "a group of permanent disorders of the development of movement and posture, causing activity limitation, that are attributed to non-progressive disturbances that occurred in the developing fetal or infant brain." In a majority of cases, the predominant motor abnormality is spasticity; other forms of cerebral palsy include dyskinetic (dystonia or choreo-athetosis) and ataxic cerebral palsy. In preterm infants, about one-half of the cases have neuroimaging abnormalities, such as echolucency in the periventricular white matter or ventricular enlargement on cranial ultrasound. Among children born at or near term, about two-thirds have neuroimaging abnormalities, including focal infarction, brain malformations, and periventricular leukomalacia. In addition to the motor impairment, individuals with cerebral palsy may have sensory impairments, cognitive impairment, and epilepsy. Ambulation status, intelligence quotient, quality of speech, and hand function together are predictive of employment status. Mortality risk increases incrementally with increasing number of impairments, including intellectual, limb function, hearing, and vision. The care of individuals with cerebral palsy should include the provision of a primary care medical home for care coordination and support; diagnostic evaluations to identify brain abnormalities, severity of neurologic and functional abnormalities, and associated impairments; management of spasticity; and care for associated problems such as nutritional deficiencies, pain, dental care, bowel and bladder continence, and orthopedic complications. Current strategies to decrease the risk of cerebral palsy include interventions to

  4. 超声多普勒测量大脑中动脉和肝内脐静脉血流速度预测胎儿α地中海贫血的研究%COMPARISON OF THE BLOOD FLOW VELOCITY OF THE MIDDLE CEREBRAL ARTERY AND THE INTRA-HEPATIC UMBILICAL VEIN BY COLOR DOPPLER ULTRASONOGRAPHY IN PREDICTING FETAL α-THALASSEMIA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马燕; 龙凤; 余健; 李智贤; 廖新红; 叶桂宏; 李敏清; 马海英

    2011-01-01

    To investigate and compare the value of the blood flow velocity of the middle cerebral artery and the intra-hepatic umbilical vein by color Doppler ultrasonography in predicting fetal a-thalassemia. Methods: A total of 127 pregnancies of the experiment group at risk due to fetal α-thalassemia and 44 pregnancies of the normal control, were performed with two-dimensional ultrasound and Doppler imaging.The MCA peak systolic velocity (PSV), and IHUV maximum velocity (Vmax) were measured. All fetuses of the experiment group were detected α-thalassemia genotypes by amniocentesis or cordocentesis. Both MCA-PSV and IHUV-Vmax were expressed as multiples of the median(MOM). Results: The group of fetuses with Hemoglobin Bart's Hydrops Fetalis Syndrome had significantly higher MCA-PSV, IHUV-Vmax compared to the fetuses with Hemoglobin H disease , α-thalassemia Trait and the normal fetuses ( P <0.05 for each). However, there were no statistical significant difference in the MCA-PSV, IHUV-Vmax between the other groups( P>0.05). The best cut-off point of MCA-PSV and IHUV-Vmax in predicting Hemoglobin Bart's Hydrops Fetalis Syndrome were 1.29 MOM, 1.27 MOM, respectively. The sensitivity of MCA-PSV>I. 29 MOM and IHUV-Vmax >1.27 MOM in prediction of Hemoglobin Bart's Hydrops Fetalis Syndrome was 80.00%, 63.33%, respectively; and the specificity was 93.62%, 75.18%, respectively. The sensitivity and specificity of combining MCA-PSV with IHUV-Vmax in prediction of Hemoglobin Bart's Hydrops Fetalis Syndrome were 96.67%,98. 42%, respectively. Conclusion: Measurement of MCA-PSV and IHUV-Vmax by Doppler ultrasound can be a noninvasive tool to predict Hemoglobin Bart's Hydrops Fetalis Syndrome. MCA-PSV is an accurate parameter for the prediction of fetal anemia, better than IHUV-Vmax. Combined MCA-PSV with IHUV-Vmax could raise the sensitivity or the specificity, reduce the rate of missed diagnosis in prediction of Hemoglobin Barf's Hydrops Fetalis Syndrome.%

  5. Avoidance of Maternal Cell Contamination and Overgrowth in Isolating Fetal Chorionic Villi Mesenchymal Stem Cells from Human Term Placenta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sardesai, Varda S; Shafiee, Abbas; Fisk, Nicholas M; Pelekanos, Rebecca A

    2017-04-01

    Human placenta is rich in mesenchymal stem/stromal cells (MSC), with their origin widely presumed fetal. Cultured placental MSCs are confounded by a high frequency of maternal cell contamination. Our recent systematic review concluded that only a small minority of placental MSC publications report fetal/maternal origin, and failed to discern a specific methodology for isolation of fetal MSC from term villi. We determined isolation conditions to yield fetal and separately maternal MSC during ex vivo expansion from human term placenta. MSCs were isolated via a range of methods in combination; selection from various chorionic regions, different commercial media, mononuclear cell digest and/or explant culture. Fetal and maternal cell identities were quantitated in gender-discordant pregnancies by XY chromosome fluorescence in situ hybridization. We first demonstrated reproducible maternal cell contamination in MSC cultures from all chorionic anatomical locations tested. Cultures in standard media rapidly became composed entirely of maternal cells despite isolation from fetal villi. To isolate pure fetal cells, we validated a novel isolation procedure comprising focal dissection from the cotyledonary core, collagenase/dispase digestion and explant culture in endothelial growth media that selected, and provided a proliferative environment, for fetal MSC. Comparison of MSC populations within the same placenta confirmed fetal to be smaller, more osteogenic and proliferative than maternal MSC. We conclude that in standard media, fetal chorionic villi-derived MSC (CV-MSC) do not grow readily, whereas maternal MSC proliferate to result in maternal overgrowth during culture. Instead, fetal CV-MSCs require isolation under specific conditions, which has implications for clinical trials using placental MSC. Stem Cells Translational Medicine 2017;6:1070-1084.

  6. Nutritional regulation of fetal growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloomfield, Frank H; Jaquiery, Anne L; Oliver, Mark H

    2013-01-01

    Fetal growth is largely regulated by nutritional supply. The placenta is responsible for fetal nutrient supply for much of pregnancy, but in early pregnancy nutrition is histiotrophic. Both placental size and efficiency, and fetal growth, may be affected by maternal nutritional state before and during very early pregnancy. In contrast, manipulating maternal nutrition during later stages of pregnancy has a smaller than expected effect on fetal growth. Maternal nutrition before and during early pregnancy also has a greater effect on gestation length than maternal nutrition later in pregnancy, suggesting that nutritional status may regulate both fetal growth trajectory and gestation length and that these two outcomes may be linked. Thus, determination of the nutritional factors regulating fetal growth, and potentially postnatal growth and body phenotype, may lie with the maternal nutritional status even before conception.

  7. MRI of the fetal spine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simon, Erin M. [Departement of Radiology, Children' s Hospital of Philadelphia, PA (United States)

    2004-09-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging of the fetal spine is a vital complement to fetal sonographic examination. Assessing the wide spectrum of spinal dysraphism, as well as spinal neoplasia, allows for more correct prenatal diagnoses, patient care planning, and patient counselling. Proper appraisal of the value of experimental procedures, such as fetal myelomeningocoele repair, requires a high level of diagnostic accuracy for the selection and follow-up of appropriate candidates. (orig.)

  8. Fetal MRI and ultrasound of congenital CNS anomalies; Fetales MRT und Ultraschall der angeborenen ZNS-Fehlbildungen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pogledic, I.; Reith, W. [Universitaetsklinikum des Saarlandes, Homburg/Saar, Klinik fuer Diagnostische und Interventionelle Neuroradiologie, Homburg/Saar (Germany); Meyberg-Solomayer, G. [Universitaetsklinikum des Saarlandes, Homburg/Saar, Klinik fuer Frauenheilkunde, Geburtsheilkunde und Reproduktionsmedizin, Homburg/Saar (Germany)

    2013-02-15

    In the last decade the newest technologies, fetal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and 3D ultrasound, have given an insight into the minute structures of the fetal brain. However, without knowledge of the basic developmental processes the imaging is futile. Knowledge of fetal neuroanatomy corresponding to the gestational week is necessary in order to recognize pathological structures. Furthermore, a modern neuroradiologist should be acquainted with the three steps in the formation of the cerebral cortex: proliferation, migration and differentiation of neurons in order to be in a position to suspect that there is a pathology and start recognizing and discovering the abnormalities. The fetal MRI has become an important complementary method to ultrasound especially in cortical malformations when confirmation of the prenatal diagnosis is needed and additional pathologies need to be diagnosed. In this manner these two methods help in parental counseling and treatment planning. (orig.) [German] Dank neuer Technologien (z. B. fetale MRT, 3-D-Sonographie) ist es moeglich, kleinste Hirnstrukturen darzustellen. Ohne Kenntnisse der grundlegenden Entwicklungsprozesse des Gehirns waere die Bildgebung jedoch sinnlos. Um pathologische Veraenderungen zu erkennen, ist es notwendig, den Stand der fetalen Neuroanatomie in der entsprechenden Schwangerschaftswoche zu kennen. Heutzutage sollte sich ein Neuroradiologe mit den 3 Schritten der kortikalen Entwicklung - Proliferation, Migration und Differenzierung der Neuronen - vertraut machen. Nur dann wird er in der Lage sein, pathologische Veraenderungen in Betracht zu ziehen, bzw. diese zu erkennen. Die fetale MRT ist besonders wichtig, ergaenzend zur zerebralen Sonographie, zur Diagnosebestaetigung bei kortikalen Veraenderungen und Nachweis weiterer Pathologien. In dieser Kombination ermoeglichen diese Methoden eine adaequate Beratung der Eltern und Planung der Behandlung. (orig.)

  9. Ovine fetal necrobacillosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agerholm, J.S.; Boye, Mette; Aalbæk, B.

    2007-01-01

    were found in several tissues. Histologically, placental lesions were characterized by locally diffuse infiltration of neutrophils, closely associated with abundant small Gram-negative and FISH-positive rods, thrombosis and necrosis. Lesions in the fetal-maternal interface were multifocal and consisted...... of villous necrosis and suppurative inflammation. Spread to the fetus from the placenta appeared to occur in two ways. Some fetuses had multifocal necrotizing hepatitis consistent with haematogenous spread through the umbilical vein; further dissemination to other organs occurred. Transplacental spread...

  10. Fetal cardiovascular physiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rychik, J

    2004-01-01

    The cardiovascular system of the fetus is physiologically different than the adult, mature system. Unique characteristics of the myocardium and specific channels of blood flow differentitate the physiology of the fetus from the newborn. Conditions of increased preload and afterload in the fetus, such as sacrococcygeal teratoma and twin-twin transfusion syndrome, result in unique and complex pathophysiological states. Echocardiography has improved our understanding of human fetal cadiovasvular physiology in the normal and diseased states, and has expanded our capability to more effectively treat these disease processes.

  11. Brain sparing effect: From placental insufficiency to fetal circulatory adaptation

    OpenAIRE

    Juliana Marques Simões Villas-Bôas; Izildinha Maestá; Marcos Consonni

    2008-01-01

    A aplicação e o desenvolvimento da doplervelocimetria obstétrica apresentam base para conhecimento da insuficiência placentária e comprovam o comportamento dinâmico da circulação fetal em regime de hipóxia. Na prática clínica, tornou-se quase rotineira a necessidade de se avaliar a hemodinâmica em três territórios vasculares envolvidos na gestação: artérias uterinas, umbilical e cerebral média. Em linhas gerais, a artéria cerebral expressa o balanço entre a oferta de oxigênio nas uterinas e a...

  12. Hormonal Control of Fetal Growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooke, Paul S.; Nicoll, Charles S.

    1983-01-01

    Summarizes recent research on hormonal control of fetal growth, presenting data obtained using a new method for studying the area. Effects of endocrine ablations and congenital deficiencies, studies of hormone/receptor levels, in-vitro techniques, hormones implicated in promoting fetal growth, problems with existing methodologies, and growth of…

  13. Restrictive dermopathy and fetal behaviour

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mulder, EJH; Beemer, FA; Stoutenbeek, P

    2001-01-01

    We report three siblings from consecutive pregnancies affected with restrictive dermopathy (RD). During the second pregnancy, fetal behavioural development and growth were studied extensively using ultrasound at 1-4 week intervals. Dramatic and sudden changes occurred in fetal body movements and gro

  14. Clinical implications of fetal magnetocardiography

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Quartero, H.W.P.; Stinstra, J.G.; Golbach, E.G.M.; Meijboom, E.J.; Peters, M.J.

    2002-01-01

    Objectives To test the usefulness and reliability of fetal magnetocardiography as a diagnostic or screening tool, both for fetuses with arrhythmias as well as for fetuses with a congenital heart defect. Methods We describe 21 women with either a fetal arrhythmia or a congenital heart defect disc

  15. Relationship between lipidemia and carotid intima-media thickness in patients with cerebral infarction%脑梗死患者血脂水平与颈动脉内中膜厚度的相关性分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖胜; 陈婧; 汪宏良; 肖劲松

    2012-01-01

    目的 探讨脑梗死(CI)患者血脂水平与颈动脉内中膜厚度(CIMT)的相关性.方法 测定120例CI患者(CI组)和120例神经科非CI患者(对照组)CIMT、血浆氧化低密度脂蛋白(ox-LDL)及血清总胆固醇(TC)、三酰甘油(TG)、低密度脂蛋白胆固醇(LDL-C)、高密度脂蛋白胆固醇(HDL-C)、载脂蛋白A1(Apo-A1)、载脂蛋白B (Apo-B)、脂蛋白(a)[ LP(a)]水平,并进行相关分析.结果 CI组TC、TG、Apo-B、LP(a)和ox-LDL水平高于对照组(P< 0.01);CI组CIMT检测结果 为1.1±0.32 mm,高于对照组的0.8±0.54 mm(P<0.01);CI组TC、TG、LDL-C、Apo-B 、LP(a)、ox-LDL与CIMT呈正相关(P<0.01),HDL-C、Apo-A1与CIMT呈负相关(P<0.01).结论 脂代谢异常与CI患者动脉粥样硬化密切相关;CI患者体内可能存在脂质过氧化反应;抑制脂质过氧化,减少ox-LDL的生成有助于预防和治疗CI.%Objective To investigate the relationship between lipidemia and carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT) in patients with cerebral infarction(CI). Methods CIMT,plasma oxidized low-density lipoprotein(ox-LDL)level and serum level of total cho-lesterol(TC) , triacylglycerol (TG) , low density lipoprotein-cholestero ( LDL-C) , high density lipoprotein-cholestero( HDL-C) , ap-oprotein AL(Apo-Al) ,apoprotein B(Apo-B) and lipoprotein(a)[LP(a)] were detected in 120 cases of patients with CI(CI group) and 120 non-CI subjects(control group). Results Levels of TC,TG, Apo-B, LP(a) and ox-LDL in CI group were higher than those in control group (P< 0. 01). CIMT of CI group was 1. 1 ± 0. 32 mm, which was higher than 0. 8 ± 0. 54 mm of control group(P< 0. 01). In CI group,TC,TG, LDL-C, Apo-B,LP(a) and ox-LDL were positively correlated with CIMT(P<0. 01) ,but HDL-C and Apo-Al were negatively correlated with CIMT(P<0. 01). Conclusion There could be certain correlation between abnormal lipid metabolism and atherosclerosis in patients with CI. There could be peroxidatic reaction of lipid in patients with CI

  16. Ensayo. Parálisis cerebral infantil. Estado actual y posibilidades futuras de tratamiento

    OpenAIRE

    Hernando Rafael; Victor Ayulo

    1991-01-01

    El trasplante tejido nervioso embrionario y fetal en diferentesportes l encéfalo a nivel experimental, abre nuevas posibilidades futuras su utilizacidn en humanos. La aplicación clínica reciente en el tratamiento la esquiwfrenia y enfermedad Parkinson es apenas el comienw del largo camino reconstrucci6n cerebral. Los autores creen que esta técnica puede utilizarse también en el tratamiento la parálisis cerebral infantil.

  17. Impact of fetal echocardiography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simpson John

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Prenatal diagnosis of congenital heart disease is now well established for a wide range of cardiac anomalies. Diagnosis of congenital heart disease during fetal life not only identifies the cardiac lesion but may also lead to detection of associated abnormalities. This information allows a detailed discussion of the prognosis with parents. For continuing pregnancies, appropriate preparation can be made to optimize the postnatal outcome. Reduced morbidity and mortality, following antenatal diagnosis, has been reported for coarctation of the aorta, hypoplastic left heart syndrome, and transposition of the great arteries. With regard to screening policy, most affected fetuses are in the "low risk" population, emphasizing the importance of appropriate training for those who undertake such obstetric anomaly scans. As a minimum, the four chamber view of the fetal heart should be incorporated into midtrimester anomaly scans, and where feasible, views of the outflow tracts should also be included, to increase the diagnostic yield. Newer screening techniques, such as measurement of nuchal translucency, may contribute to identification of fetuses at high risk for congenital heart disease and prompt referral for detailed cardiac assessment.

  18. Fetal and maternal outcomes in pregnancies complicated with fetal macrosomia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Alkhatim Alsammani

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Fetal macrosomia remains a considerable challenge in current obstetrics due to the fetal and maternal complications associated with this condition. Aim: This study was designed to determine the prevalence of fetal macrosomia and associated fetal and maternal morbidity and mortality in the Al Qassim Region of Saudi Arabia. Materials and Methods: This register-based study was conducted from January 1, 2011 through December 30, 2011 at the Maternity and Child Hospital, Qassim, Saudi Arabia. Macrosomia was defined as birth weight of 4 kg or greater. Malformed babies and those born dead were excluded. Results: The total number of babies delivered was 9241; of these, 418 were macrosomic. Thus, the prevalence of fetal macrosomia was 4.5%. The most common maternal complications were postpartum hemorrhage (5 cases, 1.2%, perineal tear (7 cases, 1.7%, cervical lacerations (3 cases, 0.7%, and shoulder dystocia (40 cases, 9.6% that resulted in 4 cases of Erb′s palsy (0.96%, and 6 cases of bone fractures (1.4%. The rate of cesarean section among women delivering macrosomic babies was 47.6% (199, while 52.4% (219 delivered vaginally. Conclusion: Despite extensive efforts to reduce fetal and maternal complications associated with macrosomia, considerable fetal and maternal morbidity remain associated with this condition.

  19. Employees with Cerebral Palsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... problems in the muscles or nerves. Instead, faulty development or damage to motor areas in the brain disrupt the brain's ability to adequately control movement and posture (United Cerebral Palsy, 2010). "Cerebral" refers to the ...

  20. United Cerebral Palsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... be sure to follow us on Twitter . United Cerebral Palsy UCP educates, advocates and provides support services to ... Partners Merz Logo Sprint Relay Copyright © 2015 United Cerebral Palsy 1825 K Street NW Suite 600 Washington, DC ...

  1. Cambios de los receptores de benzodiazepinas en la sustancia negra como consecuencia de lesión del territorio de la arteria cerebral media en un modelo experimental de isquemia con reperfusión en ratas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hernán J. Pimienta J.

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Se han demostrado cambios remotos o exofocales en la sustancia negra, en modelos experimentales de isquemia focal, con compromiso de la corteza cerebral y el estriado dorsolateral.  Se ha propuesto que estos cambios obedecen al desbalance entre las actividades excitatorias e inhibitoria.

  2. Malformation of the fetal brain in thanatophoric dysplasia: US and MRI findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fink, A.M. [The Royal Children' s Hospital, Department of Medical Imaging, Melbourne, Victoria (Australia); The Royal Women' s Hospital, Fetal Management Unit, Melbourne, Victoria (Australia); The University of Melbourne, Department of Radiology, Melbourne, Victoria (Australia); Hingston, Tania; Sampson, Amanda [The Royal Women' s Hospital, Fetal Management Unit, Melbourne, Victoria (Australia); Ng, Jessica [The Royal Children' s Hospital, Department of Anatomical Pathology, Melbourne, Victoria (Australia); The Royal Women' s Hospital, Department of Anatomical Pathology, Melbourne, Victoria (Australia); Palma-Dias, Ricardo [The Royal Women' s Hospital, Fetal Management Unit, Melbourne, Victoria (Australia); The University of Melbourne, Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Melbourne (Australia)

    2010-12-15

    We present a case in which the unusual cerebral malformations of thanatophoric dysplasia (TD) were identified on a 21-week fetal US and confirmed by antenatal MRI, postmortem imaging and autopsy. TD is the most common lethal skeletal dysplasia and is characterized by short long bones, which are often bowed (type 1), a small thorax, and skull deformities. There is also a recognised constellation of abnormalities of the brain primarily affecting the temporal lobes that, although well described in the postmortem setting, are not widely recognized in fetal imaging. Familiarity with this appearance will facilitate accurate antenatal diagnosis. (orig.)

  3. [A case of fetal death resulting from a massive fetomaternal hemorrhage].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denef, M; Capelle, X; Vanlinthout, C; Lepage, S; Emonts, P

    2015-01-01

    We report the case of a late stillbirth which unexpectedly occurred in a patient without any medical history and after a meticulous obstetrical follow up. Stillbirth is unfortunately not unusual and implies a complete etiological work up. In the present observation, the Kleihauer test and anatomoclinical examination concluded that the death was due to an acute cerebral anoxy resulting from a massive fetomaternal hemorrhage (HFM). HFM is rarely considered as the cause of a late stillbirth, but its occurrence is certainly underestimated. Yet, if HFM is identified before fetal death, an .adequate management could considerably improve the fetal prognosis and, sometines, save the child's life.

  4. Fetal MRI demonstrates glioependymal cyst in a case of sonographic unilateral ventriculomegaly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muehler, Matthias R. [Charite-Universtitaetsmedizin Berlin, Department of Radiology, Berlin (Germany); Universite Paris 5, Laboratoire de Recherche en Imagerie (LRI), Faculte de Medecine Necker, Paris (France); Hartmann, Christian [Charite-Universtitaetsmedizin Berlin Campus Virchow-Klinikum, Department of Neuropathology, Berlin (Germany); Werner, Walter [Carl Gustav Carus University Medical Center, Department of Clinical Genetics, Dresden (Germany); Meyer, Oliver [Charite-Universtitaetsmedizin Berlin Campus Virchow-Klinikum, Department of Transfusion Medicine, Berlin (Germany); Bollmann, Rainer [Charite-Universtitaetsmedizin Berlin Campus Mitte, Division of Prenatal Medicine, Berlin (Germany); Klingebiel, Randolf [Charite-Universtitaetsmedizin Berlin Campus Mitte, Department of Neuroradiology, Berlin (Germany)

    2007-04-15

    We report a fetus of 28 weeks' gestation in which ultrasonography demonstrated unilateral ventriculomegaly and microcephaly. Fetal MRI demonstrated a simple, left paramedian occipital cyst with rarefaction of the corpus callosum and thinning of the adjacent cortical mantle. Ischaemia was suggested as the underlying pathogenesis, but autopsy after termination of pregnancy revealed a glioependymal cyst. This case highlights consideration of the rare diagnosis of glioependymal cyst when a cystic lesion associated with cerebral malformations, particularly dysgenesis of the corpus callosum, is demonstrated and fetal MRI suggests an ischaemic origin. (orig.)

  5. Distribution of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) in maternal and fetal rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandberg, J A; Duhart, H M; Lipe, G; Binienda, Z; Slikker, W; Kim, C S

    1996-12-06

    The distribution of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) was examined in maternal and fetal rabbits. Pregnant New Zealand rabbits (28-30 d gestational age) were anesthetized with ketamine/xylazine and the femoral vein and artery were catheterized for compound administration and sampling. Dams received iv [14C]2,4-D (12.5 microCi/kg) with unlabeled sodium 2,4-D (1, 10, or 40 mg/kg) in saline. Blood and tissue were collected up to 2 h after dosing. Fetal to maternal plasma AUC ratios were 0.09, 0.07, and 0.16 after the 1, 10, or 40 mg/kg dose, respectively. Extraplasma AUCs were greatest in maternal kidney and uterus and lowest in maternal and fetal brain. A greater than fourfold elevation in fetal AUC was found when the dose was increased from 10 to 40 mg/kg, suggesting saturation of maternal plasma binding of 2,4-D. Although the in vitro fetal brain tissue to incubation media ratio was unity (1.03 +/- 0.1, mean +/- SD), fetal brain AUCs were 10% or less of the fetal plasma AUCs, indicating the brain barrier system to 2,4-D is functioning in the late-gestation fetal rabbit. However, its development may not be complete due to the higher brain tissue to plasma ratios in the fetus compared to the dam.

  6. Influence of basement membrane proteins and endothelial cell-derived factors on the morphology of human fetal-derived astrocytes in 2D.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda F Levy

    Full Text Available Astrocytes are the most prevalent type of glial cell in the brain, participating in a variety of diverse functions from regulating cerebral blood flow to controlling synapse formation. Astrocytes and astrocyte-conditioned media are widely used in models of the blood-brain barrier (BBB, however, very little is known about astrocyte culture in 2D. To test the hypothesis that surface coating and soluble factors influence astrocyte morphology in 2D, we quantitatively analyzed the morphology of human fetal derived astrocytes on glass, matrigel, fibronectin, collagen IV, and collagen I, and after the addition soluble factors including platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF, laminin, basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF, and leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF. Matrigel surface coatings, as well as addition of leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF to the media, were found to have the strongest effects on 2D astrocyte morphology, and may be important in improving existing BBB models. In addition, the novel set of quantitative parameters proposed in this paper provide a test for determining the influence of compounds on astrocyte morphology, both to screen for new endothelial cell-secreted factors that influence astrocytes, and to determine in a high-throughput way which factors are important for translation to more complex, 3D BBB models.

  7. MR evaluation of fetal demise

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Victoria, Teresa; Chauvin, Nancy Anne; Johnson, Ann M.; Kramer, Sandra Sue; Epelman, Monica [The Children' s Hospital of Philadelphia, Department of Radiology, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Capilla, Elena [Hospital Universitario Clinico San Carlos de Madrid, Madrid (Spain)

    2011-07-15

    Fetal demise is an uncommon event encountered at MR imaging. When it occurs, recognition by the interpreting radiologist is important to initiate appropriate patient management. To identify MR findings of fetal demise. Following IRB approval, a retrospective search of the radiology fetal MR database was conducted searching the words ''fetal demise'' and ''fetal death.'' Fetuses with obvious maceration or no sonographic confirmation of death were excluded. Eleven cases formed the study group. These were matched randomly to live fetuses of similar gestational age. Images were reviewed independently by three pediatric radiologists. The deceased fetus demonstrates decreased MR soft-tissue contrast and definition of tissue planes, including loss of gray-white matter differentiation in the brain. The signal within the cardiac chambers, when visible, is bright on HASTE sequences from the stagnant blood; the heart is small. Pleural effusions and decreased lung volumes may be seen. Interestingly, the fetal orbits lose their anatomical round shape and become smaller and more elliptical; a dark, irregular rim resembling a mask may be seen. Although fetal demise is uncommonly encountered at MR imaging, radiologists should be aware of such imaging findings so prompt management can be instituted. (orig.)

  8. Fetal valproate syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parmarth G Chandane

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Antenatal use of anticonvulsant valproic acid can result in a well-recognized cluster of facial dysmorphism, congenital anomalies and neurodevelopmental retardation. In this report, we describe a case with typical features of fetal valproate syndrome (FVS. A 26-year-old female with epilepsy controlled on sodium valproate 800 mg/day since 3 years, gave birth to a male child with characteristic features of FVS. She also had 3 spontaneous first-trimester abortions during those 3 years. Sodium valproate, a widely used anticonvulsant and mood regulator, is a well-recognized teratogen that can result in facial dysmorphism, craniosynostosis, neural tube defects, and neurodevelopmental retardation. Therefore, we strongly recommend avoidance of valproic acid and supplementation of folic acid during pregnancy.

  9. Fetal pain perception and pain management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van de Velde, Marc; Jani, Jacques; De Buck, Frederik; Deprest, J

    2006-08-01

    This paper gives an overview of current science related to the concept of fetal pain. We have answered three important questions: (1) does fetal pain exist? (2) does management of fetal pain benefit the unborn child? and (3) which techniques are available to provide good fetal analgesia?

  10. The Danish Fetal Medicine database

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ekelund, Charlotte; Kopp, Tine Iskov; Tabor, Ann

    2016-01-01

    trimester ultrasound scan performed at all public hospitals in Denmark are registered in the database. MAIN VARIABLES/DESCRIPTIVE DATA: Data on maternal characteristics, ultrasonic, and biochemical variables are continuously sent from the fetal medicine units' Astraia databases to the central database via...... analyses are sent to the database. CONCLUSION: It has been possible to establish a fetal medicine database, which monitors first-trimester screening for chromosomal abnormalities and second-trimester screening for major fetal malformations with the input from already collected data. The database...

  11. Cerebral microangiopathies; Zerebrale Mikroangiopathien

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Linn, Jennifer [Klinikum der Universitaet Muenchen (Germany). Abt. fuer Neuroradiologie

    2011-03-15

    Cerebral microangiopathies are a very heterogenous group of diseases characterized by pathological changes of the small cerebral vessels. They account for 20 - 30 % of all ischemic strokes. Degenerative microangiopathy and sporadic cerebral amyloid angiography represent the typical acquired cerebral microangiopathies, which are found in over 90 % of cases. Besides, a wide variety of rare, hereditary microangiopathy exists, as e.g. CADASIL (Cerebral Autosomal Dominant Arteriopathy with Subcortical Infarcts and Leukoencephalopathy), Fabrys disease and MELAS syndrome (Mitochondrial myopathy, Encephalopathy, Lactic Acidosis, and Stroke-like episodes). (orig.)

  12. Fetal laser therapy: applications in the management of fetal pathologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathis, Jérôme; Raio, Luigi; Baud, David

    2015-07-01

    Fetoscopic coagulation of placental anastomoses is the treatment of choice for severe twin-to-twin transfusion syndrome. In the present day, fetal laser therapy is also used to treat amniotic bands, chorioangiomas, sacrococcygeal teratomas, lower urinary tract obstructions and chest masses, all of which will be reviewed in this article. Amniotic band syndrome can cause limb amputation by impairing downstream blood flow. Large chorioangiomas (>4 cm), sacrococcygeal teratomas or fetal hyperechoic lung lesions can lead to fetal compromise and hydrops by vascular steal phenomenon or compression. Renal damage, bladder dysfunction and lastly death because of pulmonary hypolasia may be the result of megacystis caused by a posterior urethral valve. The prognosis of these pathologies can be dismal, and therapy options are limited, which has brought fetal laser therapy to the forefront. Management options discussed here are laser release of amniotic bands, laser coagulation of the placental or fetal tumor feeding vessels and laser therapy by fetal cystoscopy. This review, largely based on case reports, does not intend to provide a level of evidence supporting laser therapy over other treatment options. Centralized evaluation by specialists using strict selection criteria and long-term follow-up of these rare cases are now needed to prove the value of endoscopic or ultrasound-guided laser therapy.

  13. Fetal and maternal analgesia/anesthesia for fetal procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van de Velde, Marc; De Buck, Frederik

    2012-01-01

    For many prenatally diagnosed conditions, treatment is possible before birth. These fetal procedures can range from minimal invasive punctions to full open fetal surgery. Providing anesthesia for these procedures is a challenge, where care has to be taken for both mother and fetus. There are specific physiologic changes that occur with pregnancy that have an impact on the anesthetic management of the mother. When providing maternal anesthesia, there is also an impact on the fetus, with concerns for potential negative side effects of the anesthetic regimen used. The question whether the fetus is capable of feeling pain is difficult to answer, but there are indications that nociceptive stimuli have a physiologic reaction. This nociceptive stimulation of the fetus also has the potential for longer-term effects, so there is a need for fetal analgesic treatment. The extent to which a fetus is influenced by the maternal anesthesia depends on the type of anesthesia, with different needs for extra fetal anesthesia or analgesia. When providing fetal anesthesia, the potential negative consequences have to be balanced against the intended benefits of blocking the physiologic fetal responses to nociceptive stimulation.

  14. Fetal-maternal erythrocyte distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003407.htm Fetal-maternal erythrocyte distribution To use the sharing features ... unborn baby is leaking into the mother's blood circulation. The more of the baby's cells there are, ...

  15. The Danish Fetal Medicine Database

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ekelund, Charlotte K; Petersen, Olav Bjørn; Jørgensen, Finn S

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To describe the establishment and organization of the Danish Fetal Medicine Database and to report national results of first-trimester combined screening for trisomy 21 in the 5-year period 2008-2012. DESIGN: National register study using prospectively collected first-trimester screening...... data from the Danish Fetal Medicine Database. POPULATION: Pregnant women in Denmark undergoing first-trimester screening for trisomy 21. METHODS: Data on maternal characteristics, biochemical and ultrasonic markers are continuously sent electronically from local fetal medicine databases (Astraia Gmbh......%. The national screen-positive rate increased from 3.6% in 2008 to 4.7% in 2012. The national detection rate of trisomy 21 was reported to be between 82 and 90% in the 5-year period. CONCLUSION: A national fetal medicine database has been successfully established in Denmark. Results from the database have shown...

  16. Evaluation of fetal ventriculomegaly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Özgür Aydın

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the prenatal and postnatal follow up, treatment and the outcome of the patients with ventriculomegaly. Methods: Patients with lateral cerebral ventricle size 10mm and higher were included. 69 patients were considered but 8 patients refused to join our study. The patients were divided into two groups as they had additional anomalies (combined ventriculomegaly or not (isolated ventriculomegaly. Each group was divided into three subgroups according to their lateral cerebral ventricle size as mild (10-12 mm, moderate (12.1-4.9 mm, severe (15 mm and more ventriculomegaly. Results: 10 fetuses with isolated ventriculomegaly and combined ventriculomegaly died after birth. Neurosurgical operations were performed for ten patients. We performed chromosomal analysis for 16.7% of our patients. Caesarian delivery was higher (91.7% in combined ventriculomegaly groups and all newborns went to NNICU. In isolated ventriculomegaly group 18 patients showed normal neurological development at sixth month. None of the patients with combined ventriculomegaly group showed normal neurological development at sixth month. In severe ventriculomegaly group termination ratio was higher (64.7% than isolated ventriculomegaly group (11%. The survival rate was 90% in mild ventriculomegaly group and 42.9% in severe ventriculomegaly group.Conclusion: Termination is more often in isolated severe ventriculomegaly than mild and moderate ventriculomegaly group because the prognosis is worse. Because the prognosis of the patients with mild ventriculomegaly is good decision for termination will be well evaluated with the family. J Clin Exp Invest 2013; 4 (2: 141-147Key words: Prenatal diagnosis, growth & development,prognosis

  17. Acquired CNS lesions in fetal MRI; Erworbene ZNS-Laesionen im fetalen MRT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reith, W.; Pogledic, I. [Universitaetsklinikum des Saarlandes, Homburg/Saar, Klinik fuer Diagnostische und Interventionelle Neuroradiologie, Homburg/Saar (Germany)

    2013-02-15

    Acquired central nervous system (CNS) lesions are often subtle; therefore, the prenatal diagnosis of these lesions is extremely important. The fetal ultrasound examination and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) are two important imaging methods that give an insight into these types lesions. The method of choice during pregnancy is still fetal ultrasound; however, fetal MRI is important when there are certain pathologies, e.g. periventricular leukomalacia (PVL) or malformations of the vein of Galen. In this manner clinicians can plan further therapy after childbirth in advance (e.g. cerebral angiography or embolization). (orig.) [German] Die erworbenen ZNS-Laesionen sind oft subtil, und eine praezise praenatale Diagnostik ist in diesen Faellen besonders wichtig. Die fetale Sonographie und das fetale MRT koennen hierzu einen relevanten Beitrag leisten. Die Sonographie ist immer noch die Untersuchungsmethode der Wahl waehrend der Schwangerschaft. Insbesondere bei bestimmten Pathologien wie der periventrikulaeren Leukomalazie (PVL) oder einer V. -Galeni-Malformation ist das fetale MRT sehr hilfreich, um nach der Geburt die entsprechenden weitergehenden Massnahmen, wie eine zerebrale Angiographie und Embolisation, fruehzeitig zu planen. (orig.)

  18. Development of Mechanical and Failure Properties in Sheep Cerebral Arteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nye, Kevin S; Converse, Matthew I; Dahl, Mar Janna; Albertine, Kurt H; Monson, Kenneth L

    2017-04-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a devastating problem for people of all ages, but the nature of the response to such injury is often different in children than in adults. Cerebral vessel damage and dysfunction are common following TBI, but age-dependent, large-deformation vessel response has not been characterized. Our objective was to investigate the mechanical properties of cerebral arteries as a function of development. Sheep middle cerebral arteries from four age groups (fetal, newborn, juvenile, and adult) were subjected to biaxial loading around physiological conditions and then to failure in the axial direction. Results show little difference among age groups under physiological loading conditions, but response varied significantly with age in response to large axial deformation. Vessels from all age groups reached the same ultimate stretch level, but the amount of stress carried at a given level of stretch increased significantly with age through the developmental period (fetal to juvenile). Our results are the first to identify changes in cerebral vessel response to large deformations with age and may lead to new insights regarding differences in response to TBI with age.

  19. Evidence for developmental programming of cerebral laterality in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Alexander; Osmond, Clive; Godfrey, Keith M; Phillips, David I W

    2011-02-16

    Adverse fetal environments are associated with depression, reduced cognitive ability and increased stress responsiveness in later life, but underlying mechanisms are unknown. Environmental pressures on the fetus, resulting from variations in placental function and maternal nutrition, health and stress might alter neurodevelopment, promoting the development of some brain regions over others. As asymmetry of cerebral activity, with greater right hemisphere activity, has been associated with psychopathology, we hypothesized that regional specialization during fetal life might be reflected persistently in the relative activity of the cerebral hemispheres. We tested this hypothesis in 140 healthy 8-9 year-old children, using tympanic membrane temperature to assess relative blood flow to the cerebral hemispheres at rest and following psychosocial stress (Trier Social Stress Test for Children). Their birth weight and placental weight had already been measured when their mothers took part in a previous study of pregnancy outcomes. We found that children who had a smaller weight at birth had evidence of greater blood flow to the right hemisphere than to the left hemisphere (r = -.09, P = .29 at rest; r = -.18, P = .04 following stress). This finding was strengthened if the children had a relatively low birth weight for their placental weight (r = -.17, P = .05 at rest; r = -.31, P = .0005 following stress). Our findings suggest that lateralization of cerebral activity is influenced persistently by early developmental experiences, with possible consequences for long-term neurocognitive function.

  20. Cardioembolic occlusion of the internal carotid artery presented with infarction in the posterior cerebral artery territory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XUE Su-fang; JIA Jian-ping

    2010-01-01

    @@ Posterior circulation stroke may rarely be associated with occlusive disease in the anterior circulation, such as in the context of a direct (fetal) origin of the posterior cerebral artery (PCA) from the internal carotid artery (ICA), or in the presence of a persistent trigeminal artery (PTA) or persistent hypoglossal artery (PHA).1,2

  1. Fetal programming of adult disease: implications for prenatal care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Christopher; Rogers, John M; Desai, Mina; Ross, Michael G

    2011-04-01

    The obesity epidemic, including a marked increase in the prevalence of obesity among pregnant women, represents a critical public health problem in the United States and throughout the world. Over the past two decades, it has been increasingly recognized that the risk of adult health disorders, particularly metabolic syndrome, can be markedly influenced by prenatal and infant environmental exposures (ie, developmental programming). Low birth weight, together with infant catch-up growth, is associated with a significant risk of adult obesity and cardiovascular disease, as well as adverse effects on pulmonary, renal, and cerebral function. Conversely, exposure to maternal obesity or high birth weight also represents an increased risk for childhood and adult obesity. In addition, fetal exposure to select chemicals (eg, phytoestrogens) or environmental pollutants (eg, tobacco smoke) may affect the predisposition to adult disease. Animal models have confirmed human epidemiologic findings and provided insight into putative programming mechanisms, including altered organ development, cellular signaling responses, and epigenetic modifications (ie, control of gene expression without modification of DNA sequence). Prenatal care is transitioning to incorporate goals of optimizing maternal, fetal, and neonatal health to prevent or reduce adult-onset diseases. Guidelines regarding optimal pregnancy nutrition and weight gain, management of low- and high-fetal-weight pregnancies, use of maternal glucocorticoids, and newborn feeding strategies, among others, have yet to fully integrate long-term consequences on adult health.

  2. Neuroprotection via matrix-trophic coupling between cerebral endothelial cells and neurons

    OpenAIRE

    Guo, Shuzhen; Kim, Woo Jean; Lok, Josephine; Lee, Sun-Ryung; Besancon, Elaine; Luo, Bing-Hao; Stins, Monique F.; Wang, Xiaoying; Dedhar, Shoukat; Lo, Eng H.

    2008-01-01

    The neurovascular unit is an emerging concept that emphasizes homeostatic interactions between endothelium and cerebral parenchyma. Here, we show that cerebral endothelium are not just inert tubes for delivering blood, but they also secrete trophic factors that can be directly neuroprotective. Conditioned media from cerebral endothelial cells broadly protects neurons against oxygen-glucose deprivation, oxidative damage, endoplasmic reticulum stress, hypoxia, and amyloid neurotoxicity. This ph...

  3. Fetal Hemodynamics and Fetal Growth Indices by Ultrasound in Late Pregnancy and Birth Weight in Gestational Diabetes Mellitus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fang Liu; Yong Liu; Ya-Ping Lai; Xiao-Ning Gu; Dong-Mei Liu; Min Yang

    2016-01-01

    Background:The offspring of women with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) are prone to macrosomia.However,birth weight is difficult to be correctly estimated by ultrasound because of fetal asymmetric growth characteristics.This study aimed to investigate the correlations between fetal hemodynamics,fetal growth indices in late pregnancy,and birth weight in GDM.Methods:A total of 147 women with GDM and 124 normal controls (NC) were enrolled in this study.Fetal hemodynamic indices,including the systolic/diastolic ratio (S/D),resistance index (RI),pulsatility index (PI) of umbilical artery (UA),middle cerebral artery (MCA),and renal artery (RA),were collected.Fetal growth indices,including biparietal diameter (BPD),head circumference (HC),abdominal circumference (AC),and femur length,were also measured by ultrasound.Birth weight,newborn gender,and matemal clinical data were collected.Results:The independent samples t-test showed that BPD,HC,and AC were larger in GDM than in NC (P < 0.05).Fetal hemodynamic indices of the UA and MCA were lower (P < 0.05),but those of the RA were higher (P < 0.001) in GDM than in NC.Birth weight was higher in GDM than in NC (P < 0.001).Pearson's correlation analysis showed that hemodynamic indices of the UA were negatively correlated with birth weight,BPD,HC,and AC in both groups (P < 0.05).MCA (S/D,PI,and RI) was negatively correlated with birth weight,HC,and AC in GDM (r =-0.164,-0.206,-0.200,-0.226,-0.189,-0.179,-0.196,-0.177,and-0.172,respectively,P < 0.05),but there were no correlations in NC (P > 0.05).RA (S/D,PI,and RI) was positively correlated with birth weight in GDM (r =0.168,0.207,and 0.184,respectively,P < 0.05),but there were no correlations in NC (P > 0.05).Conclusion:Fetal hemodynamic indices in late pregnancy might be helpful for estimating newborn birth weight in women with GDM.

  4. Fetal trauma: brain imaging in four neonates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Breysem, Luc; Mussen, E.; Demaerel, P.; Smet, M. [Department of Radiology, University Hospitals, Herestraat 49, 3000, Leuven (Belgium); Cossey, V. [Department of Pediatrics, University Hospitals, Leuven (Belgium); Voorde, W. van de [Department of Forensic Medicine, University Hospitals, Leuven (Belgium)

    2004-09-01

    The purpose of this paper is to describe brain pathology in neonates after major traffic trauma in utero during the third trimester. Our patient cohort consisted of four neonates born by emergency cesarean section after car accident in the third trimester of pregnancy. The median gestational age (n=4) was 36 weeks (range: 30-38). Immediate post-natal and follow-up brain imaging consisted of cranial ultrasound (n=4), computed tomography (CT) (n=1) and post-mortem magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) (n=1). Pathology findings were correlated with the imaging findings (n=3). Cranial ultrasound demonstrated a huge subarachnoidal hemorrhage (n=1), subdural hematoma (n=1), brain edema with inversion of the diastolic flow (n=1) and severe ischemic changes (n=1). In one case, CT demonstrated the presence and extension of the subarachnoidal hemorrhage, a parietal fracture and a limited intraventricular hemorrhage. Cerebellar hemorrhage and a small cerebral frontal contusion were seen on post-mortem MRI in a child with a major subarachnoidal hemorrhage on ultrasound. None of these four children survived (three children died within 2 days and one child died after 1 month). Blunt abdominal trauma during pregnancy can cause fetal cranial injury. In our cases, skull fracture, intracranial hemorrhage and hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy were encountered. (orig.)

  5. Media education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strasburger, Victor C

    2010-11-01

    The American Academy of Pediatrics recognizes that exposure to mass media (eg, television, movies, video and computer games, the Internet, music lyrics and videos, newspapers, magazines, books, advertising) presents health risks for children and adolescents but can provide benefits as well. Media education has the potential to reduce the harmful effects of media and accentuate the positive effects. By understanding and supporting media education, pediatricians can play an important role in reducing harmful effects of media on children and adolescents.

  6. CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCE AND PROGNOSIS OF FETAL ARRHYTHMIAS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qing-bo Fan; Ming-ying Gai; Jian-qiu Yang; Fei-fei Xing

    2004-01-01

    Objective To explore fetal arrhythmia clinical significance and its correlation with fetal prognosis.Methods Twenty-six cases of fetal arrhythmia detected among 12 799 pregnant women recorded over a ten-year period in Peking Uinon Medical College (PUMC) Hospital were reviewed retrospectively. Fetal arrhythmia was diagnosed by fetal auscultation, ultrasonography, electric fetal heart monitoring, and fetal echocardiography.Results Twenty-six fetuses were documented with fetal arrhythmia (3 tachycardia, 4 bradycardia, 19 normal heart rate with irregular fetal cardiac rhythm). The incidence of fetal arrhythmia in our hospital was 0.2%. They were diagnosed at the average of 35 weeks' gestation (15 to 41 weeks). Twenty-two cases were diagnosed by antenatal fetal auscultation, 1 case was diagnosed by ultrasonography, and 3 cases were diagnosed by electric fetal heart monitoring. Fetal echocardiograms were performed on 17 fetuses, 6 cases (35.3%) of which showed that ventricular premature beats with normal structure of fetal heart.All neonates survived postnatally and 24 of them (92.3%) were followed up. Echocardiograms were performed for 16 neonates and 2 of them were identified as atrial septal defects with normal heart rhythms. The results of follow-up showed that the two patients had no apparent clinical manifestation. The echocardiogram showed that atrial septal defect obliterated already.Conclusion The prognosis is well for most of the fetuses with arrhythmias, with low incidence of heart deformation.

  7. A computational model of the fetal circulation to quantify blood redistribution in intrauterine growth restriction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Garcia-Canadilla

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR due to placental insufficiency is associated with blood flow redistribution in order to maintain delivery of oxygenated blood to the brain. Given that, in the fetus the aortic isthmus (AoI is a key arterial connection between the cerebral and placental circulations, quantifying AoI blood flow has been proposed to assess this brain sparing effect in clinical practice. While numerous clinical studies have studied this parameter, fundamental understanding of its determinant factors and its quantitative relation with other aspects of haemodynamic remodeling has been limited. Computational models of the cardiovascular circulation have been proposed for exactly this purpose since they allow both for studying the contributions from isolated parameters as well as estimating properties that cannot be directly assessed from clinical measurements. Therefore, a computational model of the fetal circulation was developed, including the key elements related to fetal blood redistribution and using measured cardiac outflow profiles to allow personalization. The model was first calibrated using patient-specific Doppler data from a healthy fetus. Next, in order to understand the contributions of the main parameters determining blood redistribution, AoI and middle cerebral artery (MCA flow changes were studied by variation of cerebral and peripheral-placental resistances. Finally, to study how this affects an individual fetus, the model was fitted to three IUGR cases with different degrees of severity. In conclusion, the proposed computational model provides a good approximation to assess blood flow changes in the fetal circulation. The results support that while MCA flow is mainly determined by a fall in brain resistance, the AoI is influenced by a balance between increased peripheral-placental and decreased cerebral resistances. Personalizing the model allows for quantifying the balance between cerebral and peripheral

  8. A computational model of the fetal circulation to quantify blood redistribution in intrauterine growth restriction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Canadilla, Patricia; Rudenick, Paula A; Crispi, Fatima; Cruz-Lemini, Monica; Palau, Georgina; Camara, Oscar; Gratacos, Eduard; Bijnens, Bart H; Bijens, Bart H

    2014-06-01

    Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) due to placental insufficiency is associated with blood flow redistribution in order to maintain delivery of oxygenated blood to the brain. Given that, in the fetus the aortic isthmus (AoI) is a key arterial connection between the cerebral and placental circulations, quantifying AoI blood flow has been proposed to assess this brain sparing effect in clinical practice. While numerous clinical studies have studied this parameter, fundamental understanding of its determinant factors and its quantitative relation with other aspects of haemodynamic remodeling has been limited. Computational models of the cardiovascular circulation have been proposed for exactly this purpose since they allow both for studying the contributions from isolated parameters as well as estimating properties that cannot be directly assessed from clinical measurements. Therefore, a computational model of the fetal circulation was developed, including the key elements related to fetal blood redistribution and using measured cardiac outflow profiles to allow personalization. The model was first calibrated using patient-specific Doppler data from a healthy fetus. Next, in order to understand the contributions of the main parameters determining blood redistribution, AoI and middle cerebral artery (MCA) flow changes were studied by variation of cerebral and peripheral-placental resistances. Finally, to study how this affects an individual fetus, the model was fitted to three IUGR cases with different degrees of severity. In conclusion, the proposed computational model provides a good approximation to assess blood flow changes in the fetal circulation. The results support that while MCA flow is mainly determined by a fall in brain resistance, the AoI is influenced by a balance between increased peripheral-placental and decreased cerebral resistances. Personalizing the model allows for quantifying the balance between cerebral and peripheral-placental remodeling

  9. Fetal privacy and confidentiality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botkin, J R

    1995-01-01

    With the advent of new and better contraceptive methods and the ability to facilitate and manipulate fertilization and gestation, couples will gain greater control over their fertility. Once a pregnancy has been established or an in vitro embryo created, the ability to evaluate the embryo and fetus will increase dramatically with progress in human genetic research. Preconception and preimplantation genetic testing and screening are now possible, and the technology to perform prenatal screening early in gestation is advancing rapidly. Nonsurgical methods facilitate induced abortion with a relatively lower degree of trauma upon the woman undergoing the procedure. These capabilities may all be used to enable and even encourage the genetic selection of future children. Despite the ethical concerns associated with prenatal testing and abortion, these services will continue to be an integral aspect of reproductive medicine. As technology advances, however, it will be possible to test and screen for conditions which do not produce serious defects. Genetic conditions which produce relatively mild impacts upon health will be identifiable in the embryo or fetus, while late-onset conditions and genetic factors which have only a probability of affecting health will also be located in the fetal genome. Prospective parents may therefore soon have the capability of selecting their most desirable embryo in vitro, or terminating all undesirable fetuses in vivo until the preferred child is delivered. The medical profession must take some responsibility for establishing guidelines on the use of reproductive technology. The standards of practice for the medical profession must reflect the results of a broad social debate over competing moral values. The author develops an argument for legal and ethical limitations on the application of prenatal testing and screening technology, suggesting that for some medical conditions, respect for the privacy and confidentiality of the fetus

  10. Human fetal mesenchymal stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Donoghue, Keelin; Chan, Jerry

    2006-09-01

    Stem cells have been isolated at all stages of development from the early developing embryo to the post-reproductive adult organism. However, the fetal environment is unique as it is the only time in ontogeny that there is migration of stem cells in large numbers into different organ compartments. While fetal neural and haemopoietic stem cells (HSC) have been well characterised, only recently have mesenchymal stem cells from the human fetus been isolated and evaluated. Our group have characterised in human fetal blood, liver and bone marrow a population of non-haemopoietic, non-endothelial cells with an immunophenotype similar to adult bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSC). These cells, human fetal mesenchymal stem cells (hfMSC), are true multipotent stem cells with greater self-renewal and differentiation capacity than their adult counterparts. They circulate in first trimester fetal blood and have been found to traffic into the maternal circulation, engrafting in bone marrow, where they remain microchimeric for decades after pregnancy. Though fetal microchimerism has been implicated in the pathogenesis of autoimmune disease, the biological role of hfMSC microchimerism is unknown. Potential downstream applications of hfMSC include their use as a target cell for non-invasive pre-natal diagnosis from maternal blood, and for fetal cellular and gene therapy. Using hfMSC in fetal therapy offers the theoretical advantages of avoidance of immune rejection, increased engraftment, and treatment before disease pathology sets in. Aside from allogeneic hfMSC in utero transplantation, the use of autologous hfMSC has been brought a step forward with the development of early blood sampling techniques, efficient viral transduction and clonal expansion. Work is ongoing to determine hfMSC fate post-transplantation in murine models of genetic disease. In this review we will examine what is known about hfMSC biology, as well as discussing areas for future research. The

  11. Two cases of fetal goiter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashish Saini

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Anterior fetal neck masses are rarely encountered. Careful routine ultrasound screening can reveal intrauterine fetal goiters (FGs. The incidence of goitrous hypothyroidism is 1 in 30,000-50,000 live births. The consequences of both FG and impaired thyroid function are serious. Aims and Objectives: To emphasize role of ultrasound in both invasive and non-invasive management of FG. Materials and Methods: Two pregnant patients, during second trimester, underwent routine antenatal ultrasound revealing FG, were investigated and managed. Results: Case 1: Revealed FG with fetal hypothyroidism. Intra-amniotic injection l-thyroxine given. Follow-up ultrasound confirmed the reduction of the goiter size. At birth, thyroid dyshormogenesis was suspected and neonate discharged on 50 mcg levothyroxine/day with normal growth and development so far. Case 2: Hypothyroid mother with twin pregnancy revealed FG, in twin 1, confirmed on magnetic resonance imaging (1.5 × 1.63 cm. The other twin had no thyroid swelling. Cordocentesis confirmed hypothyroidism in twin 1. Maternal thyroxine dose increased as per biochemical parameters leading to reduction in FG size. Mother delivered preterm and none of the twins had thyroid swelling. Fetal euthyroidism was confirmed on biochemical screening. Conclusion: FG during pregnancy should be thoroughly evaluated, diagnosed and immediately treated; although in utero options for fetal hypothyroidism management are available, emphasis should be laid on non-invasive procedures. Newer and better resolution techniques in ultrasonography are more specific and at the same time are less harmful.

  12. Schwann cell cultures from human fetal dorsal root ganglia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yaping Feng; Hui Zhu; Jiang Hao; Xinmin Wang; Shengping Wu; Li Bai; Xiangming Li; Yun Zha

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND:Previous studies have used many methods for in vitro Schwann cells (SCs) cul-tures and purification,such as single cell suspension and cytosine arabinoside.However,it has been difficult to obtain sufficient cellular density,and the procedures have been quite tedious.OBJECTIVE:To investigate the feasibility of culturing high-density SCs using fetal human dorsal root ganglion tissue explants.DESIGN,TIME AND SETTING:Cell culture and immunohistochemistry were performed at the Cen-tral Laboratory of Kunming General Hospital of Chinese PLA between March 2001 and October 2008.MATERIALS:Culture media containing 10% fetal bovine serum,as well as 0.2% collagenase and 0.25% trypsin were purchased from Gibco,USA;mouse anti-human S-100 monoclonal antibody and goat anti-mouse IgG labeled with horseradish peroxidase were provided by Beijing Institute of Bi-ological Products,China.METHODS:Primarily cultured SCs were dissociated from dorsal root ganglia of human aborted fe-tuses at 4-6 months pregnancy.Following removal of the dorsal root ganglion perineurium,the gan-glia were dissected into tiny pieces and digested with 0.2% collagenase and 0.25% trypsin (volume ratio 1:1),then explanted and cultured.SC purification was performed with 5 mL 10% fetal bovine serum added to the culture media,followed by differential adhesion.MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES:SCs morphology was observed under inverted phase contrast light microscopy.SC purity was evaluated according to percentage of S-100 immunostained cells.RESULTS:SCs were primarily cultured for 5-6 days and then subcultured for 4-5 passages.The highly enriched SC population reached > 95% purity and presented with normal morphology.CONCLUSION:A high purity of SCs was obtained with culture methods using human fetal dorsal root ganglion tissue explants.

  13. Can anomalies of fetal brain circulation be useful in the management of growth restricted fetuses?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez-Andrade, Edgar; Serralde, Jesus Andres Benavides; Cruz-Martinez, Rogelio

    2012-02-01

    Assessment of the fetal cerebral circulation provides important information on the hemodynamic changes associated with chronic hypoxia and intrauterine growth restriction. Despite the incorporation of new US parameters, the landmark for the fetal brain hemodynamic evaluation is still the middle cerebral artery. However, new vascular territories, such as the anterior and posterior cerebral arteries, might provide additional information on the onset of the brain sparing effect. The fractional moving blood volume estimation and three-dimensional power Doppler ultrasound indices are new techniques that seem to be promising in identifying cases at earlier stages of vascular deterioration; still, they are not available for clinical application and more information is needed on the reproducibility and advantages of three-dimensional power Doppler ultrasound blood flow indices. In the past, the brain sparing effect was considered as a protective mechanism; however, recent information challenges this concept. There is growing evidence of an association between brain sparing effect and increased risk of abnormal neurodevelopment after birth. Even in mild late-onset intrauterine growth restriction affected fetuses with normal umbilical artery blood flow, increased cerebral blood perfusion can be associated with a substantial risk of abnormal neuroadaptation and neurodevelopment during childhood.

  14. Physiology of the fetal circulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiserud, Torvid

    2005-12-01

    Our understanding of fetal circulatory physiology is based on experimental animal data, and this continues to be an important source of new insight into developmental mechanisms. A growing number of human studies have investigated the human physiology, with results that are similar but not identical to those from animal studies. It is time to appreciate these differences and base more of our clinical approach on human physiology. Accordingly, the present review focuses on distributional patterns and adaptational mechanisms that were mainly discovered by human studies. These include cardiac output, pulmonary and placental circulation, fetal brain and liver, venous return to the heart, and the fetal shunts (ductus venosus, foramen ovale and ductus arteriosus). Placental compromise induces a set of adaptational and compensational mechanisms reflecting the plasticity of the developing circulation, with both short- and long-term implications. Some of these aspects have become part of the clinical physiology of today with consequences for surveillance and treatment.

  15. Fetal scalp blood sampling during labor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chandraharan, Edwin; Wiberg, Nana

    2014-01-01

    Fetal cardiotocography is characterized by low specificity; therefore, in an attempt to ensure fetal well-being, fetal scalp blood sampling has been recommended by most obstetric societies in the case of a non-reassuring cardiotocography. The scientific agreement on the evidence for using fetal...... scalp blood sampling to decrease the rate of operative delivery for fetal distress is ambiguous. Based on the same studies, a Cochrane review states that fetal scalp blood sampling increases the rate of instrumental delivery while decreasing neonatal acidosis, whereas the National Institute of Health...... and Clinical Excellence guideline considers that fetal scalp blood sampling decreases instrumental delivery without differences in other outcome variables. The fetal scalp is supplied by vessels outside the skull below the level of the cranial vault, which is likely to be compressed during contractions...

  16. Births and deaths including fetal deaths

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Access to a variety of United States birth and death files including fetal deaths: Birth Files, 1968-2009; 1995-2005; Fetal death file, 1982-2005; Mortality files,...

  17. Increasing fetal ovine number per gestation alters fetal plasma clinical chemistry values.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zywicki, Micaela; Blohowiak, Sharon E; Magness, Ronald R; Segar, Jeffrey L; Kling, Pamela J

    2016-08-01

    Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) is interconnected with developmental programming of lifelong pathophysiology. IUGR is seen in human multifetal pregnancies, with stepwise rises in fetal numbers interfering with placental nutrient delivery. It remains unknown whether fetal blood analyses would reflect fetal nutrition, liver, and excretory function in the last trimester of human or ovine IUGR In an ovine model, we hypothesized that fetal plasma biochemical values would reflect progressive placental, fetal liver, and fetal kidney dysfunction as the number of fetuses per gestation rose. To determine fetal plasma biochemical values in singleton, twin, triplet, and quadruplet/quintuplet ovine gestation, we investigated morphometric measures and comprehensive metabolic panels with nutritional measures, liver enzymes, and placental and fetal kidney excretory measures at gestational day (GD) 130 (90% gestation). As anticipated, placental dysfunction was supported by a stepwise fall in fetal weight, fetal plasma glucose, and triglyceride levels as fetal number per ewe rose. Fetal glucose and triglycerides were directly related to fetal weight. Plasma creatinine, reflecting fetal renal excretory function, and plasma cholesterol, reflecting placental excretory function, were inversely correlated with fetal weight. Progressive biochemical disturbances and growth restriction accompanied the rise in fetal number. Understanding the compensatory and adaptive responses of growth-restricted fetuses at the biochemical level may help explain how metabolic pathways in growth restriction can be predetermined at birth. This physiological understanding is important for clinical care and generating interventional strategies to prevent altered developmental programming in multifetal gestation.

  18. Fetal/neonatal alloimmune thrombocytopenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sachs, Ulrich J

    2013-01-01

    In fetal/neonatal alloimmune thrombocytopenia (FNAIT), antibodies against paternal antigens present on fetal platelets are produced by the mother. These antibodies will cross the placenta and can cause thrombocytopenia of the unborn. One severe consequence of thrombocytopenia is intracranial bleeding which may lead to death or severe sequelae. FNAIT index cases in one family are usually detected at birth only since antenatal screening programmes have not been installed so far. Subsequent pregnancies of immunized mothers may require special diagnostic and prophylactic interventions, and interdisciplinary counselling and treatment involving obstetricians, pediatricians and immunohematologists may prove useful for optimized care. This short review covers pathogenesis, clinical presentation, diagnostic, and therapeutic options in FNAIT.

  19. Cerebral hypoxia and ischemia in preterm infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Ravarino

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Premature birth is a major public health issue internationally affecting 13 million babies worldwide. Hypoxia and ischemia is probably the commonest type of acquired brain damage in preterm infants. The clinical manifestations of hypoxic-ischemic injury in survivors of premature birth include a spectrum of cerebral palsy and intellectual disabilities. Until recently, the extensive brain abnormalities in preterm neonates appeared to be related mostly to destructive processes that lead to substantial deletion of neurons, axons, and glia from necrotic lesions in the developing brain. Advances in neonatal care coincide with a growing body of evidence that the preterm gray and white matter frequently sustain less severe insults, where tissue destruction is the minor component. Periventricular leukomalacia (PVL is the major form of white matter injury and consists classically of focal necrotic lesions, with subsequent cyst formation, and a less severe but more diffuse injury to cerebral white mater, with prominent astrogliosis and microgliosis but without overt necrosis. With PVL a concomitant injury occurs to subplate neurons, located in the subcortical white matter. Severe hypoxic-ischemic insults that trigger significant white matter necrosis are accompanied by neuronal degeneration in cerebral gray and white matter. This review aims to illustrate signs of cerebral embryology of the second half of fetal life and correlate hypoxic-ischemic brain injury in the premature infant. This should help us better understand the symptoms early and late and facilitate new therapeutic strategies. Proceedings of the International Course on Perinatal Pathology (part of the 10th International Workshop on Neonatology · October 22nd-25th, 2014 · Cagliari (Italy · October 25th, 2014 · The role of the clinical pathological dialogue in problem solving Guest Editors: Gavino Faa, Vassilios Fanos, Peter Van Eyken

  20. Reversible cerebral vasoconstriction syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saini Monica

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Reversible cerebral vasoconstriction syndromes (RCVS are a group of disorders that have in common an acute presentation with headache, reversible vasoconstriction of cerebral arteries, with or without neurological signs and symptoms. In contrast to primary central nervous system vasculitis, they have a relatively benign course. We describe here a patient who was diagnosed with RCVS.

  1. Prediction of fetal acidemia in placental abruption

    OpenAIRE

    MATSUDA, Yoshio; OGAWA, Masaki; KONNO, Jun; MITANI, Minoru; MATSUI, Hideo

    2013-01-01

    Background To determine the major predictive factors for fetal acidemia in placental abruption. Methods A retrospective review of pregnancies with placental abruption was performed using a logistic regression model. Fetal acidemia was defined as a pH of less than 7.0 in umbilical artery. The severe abruption score, which was derived from a linear discriminant function, was calculated to determine the probability of fetal acidemia. Results Fetal acidemia was seen in 43 survivors (43/222, 19%)....

  2. Media violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strasburger, V C

    1999-01-01

    For decades, media violence has been viewed as largely a Western problem. New studies indicate that Indian children have increasing access to the media and that media violence will subject them to the same problems as Western children: imitation, desensitization, fear, and inappropriate attitudes about violence and aggression. Solutions exist but will have to be implemented within the next decade to protect Indian children and adolescents from the harmful effects of media violence.

  3. Unilateral Huge Hydronephrosis Necessitating Fetal Interventions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayşenur Cerrah Celayir

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Fetal intervention for obstructive uropathy was first performed at the University of California, San Francisco in 1981. Since then diagnostic criteria for fetal intervention have been laid down to assist in proper patient selection. Unilateral fetal hydronephrosis doesn’t require prenatal intervention; but prenatal intervention might be required in selected cases, especially when hydronephrosis compresses adjacent organs.

  4. Analysis of blood flow parameters in pre-eclampsia fetal ductus venous, umbilical vein,umbilical artery and middle cerebral artery for predicting perinatal outcome%子痫前期胎儿静脉导管、脐静脉和脐动脉及大脑中动脉血流检测对围生儿预后的预测分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李建华; 刘姿; 林珏瑛; 周莹莹; 吴曙粤

    2016-01-01

    测不良出生结局的指标,若结合脐动脉血流频谱进行联合分析,可更准确地评估胎儿宫内状况。%Objective To explore the value of the blood flow in pre-eclampsia fetal ductus venous(DV),umbilical vein (UV),umbilical artery(UA) and middle cerebral artery(MCA)in predicting adverse perinatal outcome. Methods Color Doppler ultrasound was used to measure the blood flow parameters of fetal DV,UV,UA and MCA in 65 cases of preeclampsia women(32 cases of slight preeclampsia group and 33 cases of severe preeclampsia group) and 65 normal pregnant women(contrast group). The blood flow parameters included:peak velocity during ventricular systole(S),peak velocity during ventricular diastole(D), highest velocity during atrial contraction(A) and mean velocity(Vmean), preload index(PLI),venous peak velocity index (PVIV),venous pulsation index (PIV),S/A,the shunt ratio of umbilical vein (Qdv/Quv),the resistance index(RI),pulsatility index (PI)and S/D of the umbilical artery and middle cerebral artery. The perinatal outcome,birth weight,Apgar scores,saturation of blood oxygen of umbilical artery,pH value of umbilical vein were compared. The relationship between the parameters and the fetal adverse prognosis situation was analyzed. Results There were significant differences of PLI,PVIV,PIV and Qdv/Quv between severe preeclampsia group,slight preeclampsia group and group(all P<0.05). Compared with UA and MCA, DV,PIV, Qdv/Quv could predict the adverse birth outcome earlier(all P<0.05). Ductus venous PLI,PVIV,PIV,S/A,Qdv/Quv of DV and RI,PI,S/D of UA had better prediction for the perinatal adverse birth outcome(all P<0.05). There was significant difference of birth weight , Apgar scores , saturation of blood oxygen of UA , pH value of umbilical vein between the groups(all P<0 . 05). Conclusion DV,umbilical venous flow spectrum could reflects pre-eclampsia fetal status and predict adverse outcome,and it can be used as indicator to predict adverse birth outcome

  5. [Cognitive stimulation in children with cerebral palsy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muriel, V; Garcia-Molina, A; Aparicio-Lopez, C; Ensenat, A; Roig-Rovira, T

    2014-11-16

    Introduccion. La paralisis cerebral a menudo cursa con deficits cognitivos de atencion, visuopercepcion, funciones ejecutivas y memoria de trabajo. Objetivo. Analizar el efecto de un tratamiento de estimulacion cognitiva sobre las capacidades cognitivas en niños con pa­ralisis cerebral. Pacientes y metodos. Muestra de 15 niños con paralisis cerebral, con una edad media de 8,80 ± 2,51 años, clasificados mediante el Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS) en nivel I (n = 6), nivel II (n = 4), nivel III (n = 2) y nivel V (n = 3). Los deficits cognitivos se evaluaron mediante la escala de inteligencia de Wechsler para niños (WISC-IV) y el Continuous Performance Test (CPT-II). Se administraron los cuestionarios para padres y profesores del Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function (BRIEF) y las escalas de evaluacion de Conners (CPRS-48 y CTRS-28). Se realizo un programa de estimulacion cognitiva dos horas semanales durante ocho semanas. Resultados. Se observaron diferencias estadisticamente significativas tras aplicar el tratamiento de estimulacion cognitivo en el indice de razonamiento perceptivo de la WISC-IV. No se obtuvieron diferencias antes y despues del tratamiento en las puntuaciones del Conners y del BRIEF. Tampoco se hallaron diferencias en los resultados de la WISC-IV en funcion del sexo ni en el GMFCS. Conclusion. El rendimiento cognitivo de los niños con paralisis cerebral mejora tras la aplicacion de un programa de rehabilitacion cognitiva.

  6. Blood-brain barrier permeability during dopamine-induced hypertension in fetal sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, A P; Robinson, R; Koehler, R C; Traystman, R J; Gleason, C A

    2001-07-01

    Dopamine is often used as a pressor agent in sick newborn infants, but an increase in arterial blood pressure could disrupt the blood-brain barrier (BBB), especially in the preterm newborn. Using time-dated pregnant sheep, we tested the hypothesis that dopamine-induced hypertension increases fetal BBB permeability and cerebral water content. Barrier permeability was assessed in nine brain regions, including cerebral cortex, caudate, thalamus, brain stem, cerebellum, and spinal cord, by intravenous injection of the small tracer molecule [(14)C]aminoisobutyric acid at 10 min after the start of dopamine or saline infusion. We studied 23 chronically catheterized fetal sheep at 0.6 (93 days, n = 10) and 0.9 (132 days, n = 13) gestation. Intravenous infusion of dopamine increased mean arterial pressure from 38 +/- 3 to 53 +/- 5 mmHg in 93-day fetuses and from 55 +/- 5 to 77 +/- 8 mmHg in 132-day fetuses without a decrease in arterial O(2) content. These 40% increases in arterial pressure are close to the maximum hypertension reported for physiological stresses at these ages in fetal sheep. No significant increases in the brain transfer coefficient of aminoisobutyric acid were detected in any brain region in dopamine-treated fetuses compared with saline controls at 0.6 or 0.9 gestation. There was also no significant increase in cortical water content with dopamine infusion at either age. We conclude that a 40% increase in mean arterial pressure during dopamine infusion in normoxic fetal sheep does not produce substantial BBB disruption or cerebral edema even as early as 0.6 gestation.

  7. Fetal onset of general movements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luechinger, Annemarie B.; Hadders-Algra, Mijna; Van Kan, Colette M.; de Vries, JIP

    2008-01-01

    Perinatal qualitative assessment of general movements (GMs) is a tool to evaluate the integrity of the young nervous system. The aim of this investigation was to study the emergence of GMs. Fetal onset of GMs was studied sonographically in 18 fetuses during the first trimester of uncomplicated in vi

  8. Early GABAergic circuitry in the cerebral cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luhmann, Heiko J; Kirischuk, Sergei; Sinning, Anne; Kilb, Werner

    2014-06-01

    In the cerebral cortex GABAergic signaling plays an important role in regulating early developmental processes, for example, neurogenesis, migration and differentiation. Transient cell populations, namely Cajal-Retzius in the marginal zone and thalamic input receiving subplate neurons, are integrated as active elements in transitory GABAergic circuits. Although immature pyramidal neurons receive GABAergic synaptic inputs already at fetal stages, they are integrated into functional GABAergic circuits only several days later. In consequence, GABAergic synaptic transmission has only a minor influence on spontaneous network activity during early corticogenesis. Concurrent with the gradual developmental shift of GABA action from excitatory to inhibitory and the maturation of cortical synaptic connections, GABA becomes more important in synchronizing neuronal network activity.

  9. Fetal magnetic resonance imaging and human genetics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hengstschlaeger, Markus [Medical Genetics, Obstetrics and Gynecology, Medical University of Vienna, Waehringer Guertel 18-20, 1090 Vienna (Austria)]. E-mail: markus.hengstschlaeger@meduniwien.ac.at

    2006-02-15

    The use of fetal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), in addition to prenatal genetic testing and sonography, has the potential to improve prenatal diagnosis of genetic disorders. MRI plays an important role in the evaluation of fetal abnormalities and malformations. Fetal MRI often enables a differential diagnosis, a determination of the extent of the disorder, the prognosis, and an improvement in therapeutic management. For counseling of parents, as well as to basically understand how genetic aberrations affect fetal development, it is of great importance to correlate different genotypes with fetal MRI data.

  10. Unilateral cerebral polymicrogyria with ipsilateral cerebral hemiatrophy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hayakawa, Katsumi [Department of Radiology, Kyoto City Hospital, 1-2 Higashi-Takada-cho, Mibu, Nakagyo-ku, 604-8845 Kyoto (Japan); Kanda, Toyoko; Yamori, Yuriko [Department of Pediatric Neurology, St. Joseph Hospital for Handicapped Children, 603-8323 Kyoto (Japan)

    2002-10-01

    We evaluated six children in whom MR imaging showed unilateral cerebral polymicrogyria associated with ipsilateral cerebral atrophy and ipsilateral brain stem atrophy. The aim of this study was to clarify whether this disorder based on neuroimaging constitutes a new homogeneous clinical entity. The subjects were six children whose ages at the time of MR imaging ranged from 8 months to 11 years. Their clinical and MR features were analyzed. All of the children were born between 38 and 42 weeks gestation, without any significant perinatal events. Spastic hemiplegia and epilepsy were observed in all of the patients, and mental retardation was observed in four. The MR findings included unilateral cerebral polymicrogyria associated with ipsilateral cerebral hemiatrophy and ipsilateral brain stem atrophy in all patients. The ipsilateral sylvian fissure was hypoplastic in four patients. These patients showed relatively homogeneous clinical and neuroimaging features. Although the additional clinical features varied according to the site and the extent affected by the polymicrogyria, this disorder could constitute a new relatively homogeneous clinical entity. (orig.)

  11. Lack of action of exogenously administered T3 on the fetal rat brain despite expression of the monocarboxylate transporter 8.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grijota-Martínez, Carmen; Díez, Diego; Morreale de Escobar, Gabriella; Bernal, Juan; Morte, Beatriz

    2011-04-01

    Mutations of the monocarboxylate transporter 8 gene (MCT8, SLC16A2) cause the Allan-Herndon-Dudley syndrome, an X-linked syndrome of severe intellectual deficit and neurological impairment. Mct8 transports thyroid hormones (T4 and T3), and the Allan-Herndon-Dudley syndrome is likely caused by lack of T3 transport to neurons during critical periods of fetal brain development. To evaluate the role of Mct8 in thyroid hormone action in the fetal brain we administered T4 or T3 to thyroidectomized pregnant dams treated with methyl-mercapto-imidazol to produce maternal and fetal hypothyroidism. Gene expression was then measured in the fetal cerebral cortex. T4 increased Camk4, Sema3c, and Slc7a3 expression, but T3 was without effect. To investigate the cause for the lack of T3 action we analyzed the expression of organic anion transport polypeptide (Oatp14, Slco1c1), a T4 transporter, and Mct8 (Slc16a2), a T4 and T3 transporter, by confocal microscopy. Both proteins were present in the brain capillaries forming the blood-brain barrier and in the epithelial cells of the choroid plexus forming the blood-cerebrospinal fluid barrier. It is concluded that T4 from the maternal compartment influences gene expression in the fetal cerebral cortex, possibly after transport via organic anion transporter polypeptide and/or Mct8, and conversion to T3 in the astrocytes. On the other hand, T3 does not reach the target neurons despite the presence of Mct8. The data indicate that T4, through local deiodination, provides most T3 in the fetal rat brain. The role of Mct8 as a T3 transporter in the fetal rat brain is therefore uncertain.

  12. Computed tomography in spastic cerebral palsy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pedersen, H.; Taudorf, K.; Melchior, J.C.

    1982-09-01

    Eighty-three children with spastic cerebral palsy (CP) were examined with cranial CT. In 56 cases the CT findings were abnormal. The most frequent abnormality was atrophy, present in 44 patients. The frequency of pathologic CT increased with severity of the CP. Patients with CP of postnatal aetiology more often had abnormal CT than patients with other known causes. Pathologic CT findings were seen more often in patients with seizures than in patients without. Infarctions and hemiatrophy were much more frequent in patients with hemiplegia than in patients with other types of spastic CP. A special kind of central atrophy, called isolated atrophy around the cella media, is described. This condition was seen in 20% of cases, most often in hemi- and paraplegic patients. Early infarctions in the border areas between the vascular territories of the internal carotid and the posterior cerebral artery may be the reason for this kind of atrophy.

  13. The impact of intermittent umbilical cord occlusions on the inflammatory response in pre-term fetal sheep.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew P Prout

    Full Text Available Fetal hypoxic episodes may occur antepartum with the potential to induce systemic and cerebral inflammatory responses thereby contributing to brain injury. We hypothesized that intermittent umbilical cord occlusions (UCOs of sufficient severity but without cumulative acidosis will lead to a fetal inflammatory response. Thirty-one chronically instrumented fetal sheep at ∼0.85 of gestation underwent four consecutive days of hourly UCOs from one to three minutes duration for six hours each day. Maternal and fetal blood samples were taken for blood gases/pH and plasma interleukin (IL-1β and IL-6 levels. Animals were euthanized at the end of experimental study with brain tissue processed for subsequent counting of microglia and mast cells. Intermittent UCOs resulted in transitory fetal hypoxemia with associated acidemia which progressively worsened the longer umbilical blood flow was occluded, but with no cumulative blood gas or pH changes over the four days of study. Fetal arterial IL-1β and IL-6 values showed no significant change regardless of the severity of the UCOs, nor was there any evident impact on the microglia and mast cell counts for any of the brain regions studied. Accordingly, intermittent UCOs of up to three minutes duration with severe, but limited fetal hypoxemia and no cumulative acidemia, do not result in either a systemic or brain inflammatory response in the pre-term ovine fetus. However, fetal IL-1B and IL-6 values were found to be well correlated with corresponding maternal values supporting the placenta as a primary source for these cytokines with related secretion into both circulations. Female fetuses were also found to have higher IL-1β levels than males, indicating that gender may impact on the fetal inflammatory response to various stimuli.

  14. Antithyroid drug-induced fetal goitrous hypothyroidism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Ase Krogh; Sundberg, Karin; Brocks, Vibeke

    2011-01-01

    Maternal overtreatment with antithyroid drugs can induce fetal goitrous hypothyroidism. This condition can have a critical effect on pregnancy outcome, as well as on fetal growth and neurological development. The purpose of this Review is to clarify if and how fetal goitrous hypothyroidism can...... be prevented, and how to react when prevention has failed. Understanding the importance of pregnancy-related changes in maternal thyroid status when treating a pregnant woman is crucial to preventing fetal goitrous hypothyroidism. Maternal levels of free T(4) are the most consistent indication of maternal...... and fetal thyroid status. In patients with fetal goitrous hypothyroidism, intra-amniotic levothyroxine injections improve fetal outcome. The best way to avoid maternal overtreatment with antithyroid drugs is to monitor closely the maternal thyroid status, especially estimates of free T(4) levels....

  15. THE MATERNAL-FETAL MEDICINE: AN UPDATE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincenzo Berghella

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The development of Maternal-Fetal Medicine is contributing to an improvement of maternal well-being and of neonatal health, introducing a number of new and useful technologies. Advances in genomics in the field of prenatal screening and diagnosis allowed the discovery of fragments of cell-free fetal DNA in the maternal circulation and the use of chromosomal microarrays, which can test for microdeletions and microduplications in addition to aneuploidies. Color Doppler applications during pregnancy are expanding exponentially and Doppler flow velocity waveforms indices have provided important information from maternal, placental and fetal circulation with clinical implications. Ultrasound monitoring of fetal growth represents a fundamental tool to evaluate fetal wellbeing and several methods have been developed to improve fetal weight estimation accuracy. The combination of new biophysical and biochemical markers is enriching Maternal-Fetal Medicine and more research will allow to improve pregnancy outcome.

  16. Anestesia e paralisia cerebral

    OpenAIRE

    Március Vinícius M Maranhão

    2005-01-01

    JUSTIFICATIVA E OBJETIVOS: A paralisia cerebral (PC) é uma doença não progressiva decorrente de lesão no sistema nervoso central, levando a um comprometimento motor do paciente. O portador de PC freqüentemente é submetido a procedimentos cirúrgicos devido a doenças usuais e situações particulares decorrentes da paralisia cerebral. Foi objetivo deste artigo revisar aspectos da paralisia cerebral de interesse para o anestesiologista, permitindo um adequado manuseio pré, intra e pós-operatório n...

  17. Study of Doppler indices of umbilical artery and middle cerebral artery in pregnancies at and beyond forty weeks of gestation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subhra Ghosh

    2016-12-01

    Conclusions: Vascular resistance in the umbilical artery and middle cerebral artery does not change abruptly when gestation exceeds 280 days. It also cannot be taken as the sole method of fetal surveillance when date is crossed. [Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol 2016; 5(12.000: 4174-4179

  18. Management of fetal pain during invasive fetal procedures. A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, W; Deprest, J; Missant, C; Van de Velde, M

    2004-01-01

    In recent years, fetal stress and analgesia draw more and more attention. Evidence that fetuses show a significant endocrinological and hemodynamical response to invasive stimuli, and that these responses can be blocked by analgesia, suggests that fetuses experience a stress response, even if this does not signify they experience "pain". Moreover, it is becoming increasingly clear that experiences of pain of a fetus will be "remembered" by the developing nervous system, perhaps for the entire life of the individual, which can probably lead to abnormal behavioural patterns or altered nociception. But up to now, the entire mechanism of fetal stress response and the optimal analgesic drug, dose and route of administration is not so clear.

  19. Malignant Hemispheric Cerebral Infarction Associated with Idiopathic Systemic Capillary Leak Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kei Miyata

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Idiopathic systemic capillary leak syndrome (ISCLS is a rare condition that is characterized by unexplained episodic capillary hyperpermeability due to a shift of fluid and protein from the intravascular to the interstitial space. This results in diffuse general swelling, fetal hypovolemic shock, hypoalbuminemia, and hemoconcentration. Although ISCLS rarely induces cerebral infarction, we experienced a patient who deteriorated and was comatose as a result of massive cerebral infarction associated with ISCLS. In this case, severe hypotensive shock, general edema, hemiparesis, and aphasia appeared after serious antecedent gastrointestinal symptoms. Progressive life-threatening ischemic cerebral edema required decompressive hemicraniectomy. The patient experienced another episode of severe hypotension and limb edema that resulted in multiple extremity compartment syndrome. Treatment entailed forearm and calf fasciotomies. Cerebral edema in the ischemic brain progresses rapidly in patients suffering from ISCLS. Strict control of fluid volume resuscitation and aggressive diuretic therapy may be needed during the post-leak phase of fluid remobilization.

  20. Prenatal diagnosis of congenital fetal heart abnormalities and clinical analysis*

    OpenAIRE

    Li,Hui; Wei, Jun; Ma, Ying; Shang, Tao

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To study the value of detecting fetal congenital heart disease (CHD) using the five transverse planes technique of fetal echocardiography. Methods: Nine hundred and eighty-two high-risk pregnancies for fetal CHD were included in this study, the fetal heart was scanned with the five transverse planes technique of fetal echocardiography described by Yagel, autopsy was conducted when pregnancy was terminated. Blood from fetal heart was collected for fetal chromosome analysis. A close ...

  1. Demonstration of cerebral vessels by multiplane computed cerebral angiotomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asari S.; Satch, T.; Sakurai, M.; Yamamoto, Y. (Matsuyama Shimin Hospital, Matsuyama (Japan)); Sadamoto, K.

    1981-06-01

    1. Cerebral arteries and veins were demonstrated by multiplane computed cerebral angiotomography (combination of axial, modified coronal, half axial (Towne), and semisagittal planes). The vessels which were demonstrated by various planes were as follows: Axial plane: Willis ring, middle cerebral arteries (horizontal and insular portions), anterior cerebral arteries (Horizontal and ascending portions), posterior cerebral arteries, basal vein of Rosenthal, internal cerebral veins (and the subependymal veins which join the ICV), and vein of Galen. Coronal plane: intermal carotid arteries (supraclinoid portion), anterior cerebral arteries (horizontal portion), middle cerebral arteries (horizontal and insular portions), lenticulostriate arteries, basal vein of Rosenthal (and the subependymal veins which join this vessel), internal cerebral veins, and vein of Galen. Half axial plane (Towne projection): basilar artery, vertebral arteries, posterior cerebral arteries, superior cerebellar arteries, middle cerebral arteries (horizontal portion), and anterior cerebral arteries (horizontal and ascending portions). Semisagittal plane: internal carotid artery (supraclinoid portion), posterior communicating artery, posterior carebral artery, superior cerebellar artery, internal cerebral vein, basal vein of Rosenthal, vein of Galen, and straight shinus. 2. A detailed knowledge of normal cerebrovascular structures acquired by computed tomography (CT) is essential in detecting and more precisely localizing lesions such as cerebrovascular disease, neoplasm or abscess, in differentiating these lesions from the normal contrast-enhanced structures, and in understanding the spatial relationship between the mass lesion and the neighboring vessels. In addition, it will be possible to discover such asymptomatic cerebrovascular diseases as non-ruptured aneurysms, arteriovenous malformations, and Moyamoya disease by means of computed cerebral angiotomography.

  2. Cerebral venous sinus thrombosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Renowden, Shelley [Frenchay Hospital, Bristol BS16 1LE (United Kingdom)

    2004-02-01

    A comprehensive synopsis on cerebral venous thrombosis is presented. It emphasizes the various aetiologies, the wide clinical spectrum and the unpredictable outcome. Imaging techniques and pitfalls are reported and the therapeutic options are discussed. (orig.)

  3. Media Flow

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kabel, Lars

    2016-01-01

    News and other kinds of journalistic stories, 16-17 hours a day, all year round, on all platforms, also the moderated social media. The key research thesis behind this article is that the continuous and speedy stream of news stories and media content now is becoming the centre of the production...... processes and the value creation in converged multimedia newsrooms. The article identify new methods and discuss editorial challenges in handling media flow....

  4. Acute ischemic cerebral attack

    OpenAIRE

    Franco-Garcia Samir; Barreiro-Pinto Belis

    2010-01-01

    The decrease of the cerebral blood flow below the threshold of autoregulation led to changes of cerebral ischemia and necrosis that traduce in signs and symtoms of focal neurologic dysfunction called acute cerebrovascular symdrome (ACS) or stroke. Two big groups according to its etiology are included in this category the hemorragic that constitue a 20% and the ischemic a 80% of cases. Great interest has wom the ischemic ACS because of its high social burden, being the third cause of no violen...

  5. Mecanismo de centralização: da insuficiência placentária à adaptação circulatória fetal Brain sparing effect: from placental insufficiency to fetal circulatory adaptation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Marques Simões Villas-Bôas

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available A aplicação e o desenvolvimento da doplervelocimetria obstétrica apresentam base para conhecimento da insuficiência placentária e comprovam o comportamento dinâmico da circulação fetal em regime de hipóxia. Na prática clínica, tornou-se quase rotineira a necessidade de se avaliar a hemodinâmica em três territórios vasculares envolvidos na gestação: artérias uterinas, umbilical e cerebral média. Em linhas gerais, a artéria cerebral expressa o balanço entre a oferta de oxigênio nas uterinas e a captação pelas umbilicais. Atualmente, quando este balanço é desfavorável, procura-se ainda conhecer a reserva cardíaca fetal pelo estudo do ducto venoso. Contudo, precisar e interpretar índices de resistência vascular nem sempre é tarefa fácil. O ponto de partida é ter em mente os fundamentos sobre os quais se assenta o papel da doplervelocimetria para a avaliação do bem-estar fetal.The application and development of obstetric Dopplervelocimetry provide a basis for the investigation of placental insufficiency and demonstrate the dynamic behavior of fetal circulation during hypoxia. In clinical practice, assessing hemodynamics in three vascular regions involved in pregnancy, namely the uterine, umbilical and middle cerebral arteries, has become routine. Roughly, the cerebral artery expresses the balance between uterine artery oxygen supply and umbilical artery oxygen uptake. Currently, when such balance is unfavorable, the fetal cardiac reserve is investigated by assessing the venous duct. However, determining and interpreting vascular resistance indexes is not an easy task. The starting point is to know the physiopathology of placental insufficiency and fetal circulatory adaptation through which Doppler confirmed its role in the assessment of fetal well-being.

  6. Determination of Doppler Middle Cerebral Artery Waveform Indices in Normal 20 – 40 Weeks Pregnancies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Vahdinia

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Objective: The aim of prenatal evaluation is to prevent fetal death. One of the main methods of evaluation of fetus health before delivery is Doppler flow velocity waveform analysis of fetus vessels. Increasing of resistance in fetal circulatory system causes the preferential shunt of blood flow from non-critical organs toward critical organs such as brain. The increase in brain blood flow leads to reduction of brain vessels resistance and results in changes of fetal cerebral arteries Doppler flow velocity indices. Evaluation of Doppler wave of middle cerebral artery can predict most of the at risk fetuses in high-risk pregnancies."nIn this study we tried to obtain normal value (and their changes across the progress of pregnancy of Doppler flow velocity indices (PI, RI, S/D ratio and PSV of middle cerebral artery in 20 - 40 weeks normal pregnancies in an Iranian population and evaluate the effect of fetus heart rate according to the above mentioned indices."nPatients and Methods: In this cross section study, 400 pregnant women with normal pregnancies and gestational age between 20 to 40 weeks were studied about middle cerebral artery Doppler examination. Mothers with preeclampsia, diabetes mellitus, hypertension, abnormal uterine bleeding, induction ovulation, multifetal pregnancy, major fetal anomalies, history of LD or any other OCP usage and intra uterine growth retardation were excluded from the study. All cases were evaluated by gray scale ultrasonography initially and then a Doppler study of middle cerebral artery was done."nResults: According to the results of this study, with progression of pregnancy PI, RI, S/D ratio values decrease and PSV value increases in middle cerebral artery. These changes were statistically significant and were more characteristic during late weeks of pregnancy. In addition, mean fetal heart rate had been significantly reduced with pregnancy progression."nConclusion: Values of RI, PI, S/D ratio and

  7. Mass Media

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    叶全荣

    2006-01-01

    @@ Every day,we are all influenced by the mass media.Although some critics of the media claim that these means of communication are used mainly to control our thinking and get us to buy products that we don't need,the media also contribute to keeping people informed.In other words,while dangers do exist,the benefits of the media far outweigh(超过)the disadvantages.Most of the messages brought to viewers,listeners,and readers are designed either to inform or to entertain,and neither of these goals can be considered dangerous or harmful.

  8. Fetal evaluation of spine dysraphism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bulas, Dorothy [George Washington University Medical Center, Division of Diagnostic Imaging and Radiology, Children' s National Medical Center, Washington, DC (United States)

    2010-06-15

    Spinal dysraphism or neural tube defects (NTD) encompass a heterogeneous group of congenital spinal anomalies that result from the defective closure of the neural tube early in gestation with anomalous development of the caudal cell mass. Advances in ultrasound and MRI have dramatically improved the diagnosis and therapy of spinal dysraphism and caudal spinal anomalies both prenatally and postnatally. Advances in prenatal US including high frequency linear transducers and three dimensional imaging can provide detailed information concerning spinal anomalies. MR imaging is a complementary tool that can further elucidate spine abnormalities as well as associated central nervous system and non-CNS anomalies. Recent studies have suggested that 3-D CT can help further assess fetal spine anomalies in the third trimester. With the advent of fetal therapy including surgery, accurate prenatal diagnosis of open and closed spinal dysraphism becomes critical in appropriate counselling and perinatal management. (orig.)

  9. Fetal origin of vascular aging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shailesh Pitale

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Aging is increasingly regarded as an independent risk factor for development of cardiovascular diseases such as atherosclerosis and hypertension and their complications (e.g. MI and Stroke. It is well known that vascular disease evolve over decades with progressive accumulation of cellular and extracellular materials and many inflammatory processes. Metabolic syndrome, obesity and diabetes are conventionally recognized as risk factors for development of coronary vascular disease (CVD. These conditions are known to accelerate ageing process in general and vascular ageing in particular. Adverse events during intrauterine life may programme organ growth and favour disease later in life, popularly known as, ′Barker′s Hypothesis′. The notion of fetal programming implies that during critical periods of prenatal growth, changes in the hormonal and nutritional milieu of the conceptus may alter the full expression of the fetal genome, leading to permanent effects on a range of physiological.

  10. Examiner's finger-mounted fetal tissue oximetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanayama, Naohiro; Niwayama, Masatsugu

    2014-06-01

    The best way to assess fetal condition is to observe the oxygen status of the fetus (as well as to assess the condition of infants, children, and adults). Previously, several fetal oximeters have been developed; however, no instrument has been utilized in clinical practice because of the low-capturing rate of the fetal oxygen saturation. To overcome the problem, we developed a doctor's finger-mounted fetal tissue oximeter, whose sensor volume is one hundredth of the conventional one. Additionally, we prepared transparent gloves. The calculation algorithm of the hemoglobin concentration was derived from the light propagation analysis based on the transport theory. We measured neonatal and fetal oxygen saturation (StO2) with the new tissue oximeter. Neonatal StO was measured at any position of the head regardless of amount of hair. Neonatal StO was found to be around 77%. Fetal StO was detected in every position of the fetal head during labor regardless of the presence of labor pain. Fetal StO without labor pain was around 70% in the first stage of labor and around 60% in the second stage of labor. We concluded that our new concept of fetal tissue oximetry would be useful for detecting fetal StO in any condition of the fetus.

  11. Cerebral palsy and congenital malformations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garne, Ester; Dolk, Helen; Krägeloh-Mann, Inge;

    2007-01-01

    AIM: To determine the proportion of children with cerebral palsy (CP) who have cerebral and non-cerebral congenital malformations. METHODS: Data from 11 CP registries contributing to the European Cerebral Palsy Database (SCPE), for children born in the period 1976-1996. The malformations were...... classified as recognized syndromes, chromosomal anomalies, cerebral malformations or non-cerebral malformations. Prevalence of malformations was compared to published data on livebirths from a European database of congenital malformations (EUROCAT). RESULTS: Overall 547 out of 4584 children (11.9%) with CP...... were reported to have a congenital malformation. The majority (8.6% of all children) were diagnosed with a cerebral malformation. The most frequent types of cerebral malformations were microcephaly and hydrocephaly. Non-cerebral malformations were present in 97 CP children and in further 14 CP children...

  12. Sildenafil citrate and uteroplacental perfusion in fetal growth restriction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marzieh Vahid Dastjerdi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: To determine whether the phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitor, Sildenafil citrate, affects uteroplacental perfusion. Materials and Methods: Based on a randomized double-blinded and placebo-controlled trial, forty one pregnant women with documented intrauterine growth retardation at 24-37 weeks of gestation were evaluated for the effect of a single dose of Sildenafil citrate on uteroplacental circulation as determined by Doppler ultrasound study of the umbilical and middle cerebral arteries. Statistical analysis included χ2 -test to compare proportions, and independent-samples t-test and paired student′s t-test to compare continuous variables. Results: Sildenafil group fetuses demonstrated a significant decrease in systolic/diastolic ratios (0.60 [SD 0.40] [95% Cl 0.37-0.84], P=0.000, and pulsatility index (0.12 [SD 0.15] [95% Cl 0.02-0.22], P=0.019 for the umbilical artery and a significant increase in middle cerebral artery pulsatility index (MCA PI (0.51 [SD 0.60] [95% Cl 0.16-0.85], P=0.008. Conclusion: Doppler velocimetry index values reflect decreased placental bed vascular resistance after Sildenafil. Sildenafil citrate can improve fetoplacental perfusion in pregnancies complicated by intrauterine growth restriction. It could be a potential therapeutic strategy to improve uteroplacental blood flow in pregnancies with fetal growth restriction (FGR.

  13. Monitoring of cerebral haemodynamics in newborn infants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liem, K Djien; Greisen, Gorm

    2010-01-01

    The most important cerebrovascular injuries in newborn infants, particularly in preterm infants, are cerebral haemorrhage and ischemic injury. The typical cerebral vascular anatomy and the disturbance of cerebral haemodynamics play important roles in the pathophysiology. The term 'cerebral...

  14. Fetal magnetic resonance: technique applications and normal fetal anatomy; Resonance magnetica fetal: tecnica aplicaciones y anatomia normal del feto

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, C.; Darnell, A.; Duran, C.; Mellado, F.; Corona, M [Corporacio Sanitaria del Parc Tauli. Sabadell (Spain)

    2003-07-01

    Ultrasonography is the preferred diagnostic imaging technique for intrauterine fetal examination. Nevertheless, circumstances sometimes dictate the use of other techniques in order to analyze fetal structures. The advent of ultra rapid magnetic resonance (MR) sequencing has led to the possibility of doing MR fetal studies, since images are obtained in an extradordiarily short time and are not affected by either maternal or fetal movements. It does not employ ionizing radiations, it provides high-contrast images and it can obtain such images in any plane of space without being influenced by either the child bearer's physical characteristics of fetal position. MR provides good quality images of most fetal organs. It is extremely useful in analysing distinct structures, as well as permitting an evaluation of cervical structures, lungs, diaphragms, intra-abdominal and retroperitoneal structures, and fetal extremities. It can also provide useful information regarding the placenta,umbilical cord, amniotic fluid and uterus. The objective of this work is to describe MR technique as applied to intrauterine fetal examination, and to illustrate normal fetal anatomy as manifested by MR and its applications. (Author) 42 refs.

  15. Mixed Media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Erin

    2010-01-01

    While institutions do not often have a hook as compelling as an eagerly awaited movie, great content is critical for media relations success--and coupling it with the right distribution channel can ensure the story finds the right audience. Even better, retooling it for several media platforms can extend the life and reach of a story. The changes…

  16. Media places

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Linde, Per; Messeter, Jörn

    for the Media places project, give some brief insights into the themes of setting up temporary digital streams of media and mobile games. Considering the work-in-progress character of the research and the smaller format of text, no real in-depth analysis will be carried out. The goal is rather to position...

  17. Media darling

    CERN Multimedia

    Chalmers, Matthew

    2008-01-01

    He is the media-friendly face of particle physics, appearing on countless TV and radio shows in the run-up to the opening of CERN's Large Hadron Collider. Matthew Chalmers discovers how Brian Cox finds the time to be both a physicist and a media personality. (2 pages)

  18. Prenatal Exposure to Perfluoroalkyl Substances and the Risk of Congenital Cerebral Palsy in Children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liew, Zeyan; Ritz, Beate; Bonefeld-Jørgensen, Eva Cecilie;

    2014-01-01

    Perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) are persistent pollutants and endocrine disruptors that may affect fetal brain development. We investigated whether prenatal exposure to PFASs increases the risk of congenital cerebral palsy (CP). The source population for this study includes 83,389 liveborn...... singletons and mothers enrolled in the Danish National Birth Cohort during 1996-2002. We identified 156 CP cases by linking the cohort to the Danish National Cerebral Palsy Register, and we randomly selected 550 controls using a case-cohort design. We measured 16 PFASs in maternal plasma collected in early...

  19. Fetal Behavior and Heart Rate in Twin Pregnancy : A Review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tendais, Iva; Visser, Gerard H. A.; Figueiredo, Barbara; Montenegro, Nuno; Mulder, Eduard J. H.

    2013-01-01

    Fetal movements and fetal heart rate (FHR) are well-established markers of fetal well-being and maturation of the fetal central nervous system. The purpose of this paper is to review and discuss the available knowledge on fetal movements and heart rate patterns in twin pregnancies. There is some evi

  20. Evidence for developmental programming of cerebral laterality in humans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Jones

    Full Text Available Adverse fetal environments are associated with depression, reduced cognitive ability and increased stress responsiveness in later life, but underlying mechanisms are unknown. Environmental pressures on the fetus, resulting from variations in placental function and maternal nutrition, health and stress might alter neurodevelopment, promoting the development of some brain regions over others. As asymmetry of cerebral activity, with greater right hemisphere activity, has been associated with psychopathology, we hypothesized that regional specialization during fetal life might be reflected persistently in the relative activity of the cerebral hemispheres. We tested this hypothesis in 140 healthy 8-9 year-old children, using tympanic membrane temperature to assess relative blood flow to the cerebral hemispheres at rest and following psychosocial stress (Trier Social Stress Test for Children. Their birth weight and placental weight had already been measured when their mothers took part in a previous study of pregnancy outcomes. We found that children who had a smaller weight at birth had evidence of greater blood flow to the right hemisphere than to the left hemisphere (r = -.09, P = .29 at rest; r = -.18, P = .04 following stress. This finding was strengthened if the children had a relatively low birth weight for their placental weight (r = -.17, P = .05 at rest; r = -.31, P = .0005 following stress. Our findings suggest that lateralization of cerebral activity is influenced persistently by early developmental experiences, with possible consequences for long-term neurocognitive function.

  1. Maternal psychological impact of fetal echocardiography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sklansky, Mark; Tang, Alvin; Levy, Denis; Grossfeld, Paul; Kashani, Iraj; Shaughnessy, Robin; Rothman, Abraham

    2002-02-01

    The maternal psychological impact of fetal echocardiography may be deleterious in the face of newly diagnosed congenital heart disease. This questionnaire-based study prospectively examined the psychological impact of both normal and abnormal fetal echocardiography. Normal fetal echocardiography decreased maternal anxiety, increased happiness, and increased the closeness women felt toward their unborn children. In contrast, when fetal echocardiography detected congenital heart disease, maternal anxiety typically increased, and mothers commonly felt less happy about being pregnant. However, among women who had recently delivered infants with congenital heart disease, those who had had fetal echocardiography during the pregnancy felt less responsible for their infants' defects and tended to have improved their relationships with the infants' fathers after the prenatal diagnosis of congenital heart disease. Further study of the psychological and medical impact of fetal echocardiography will be necessary to define and optimize the clinical value of this powerful diagnostic tool.

  2. Effect of intermittent umbilical cord occlusion on fetal respiratory activity and brain adenosine in late-gestation sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Carole S; Schaefer, Rachel; White, Susan E; Homan, Jacobus H; Fraher, Laurence; Harding, Richard; Bocking, Alan D

    2002-01-01

    It was hypothesized that intermittent umbilical cord occlusion (UCO) would inhibit ovine fetal breathing movements (FBM) in association with increased cerebral adenosine levels. To test this hypothesis, on two successive days during late gestation (133-134 days; term = 146 days), microdialysis samples were collected from the brains of 10 chronically instrumented fetal sheep during 2-h periods of complete UCO induced every 30 min (Day 1: 2-min UCOs; Day 2: 4-min UCOs). Control fetuses (n = 10) underwent no UCO. Tracheal pressure was measured throughout. This regimen resulted in a decrease in fetal arterial PO2 (PaO2) during each UCO to 7.3 +/- 0.8 mmHg (Pfluid (ECF) adenosine during UCO increased by 219 +/- 215% (Pmechanisms.

  3. Successful delivery of fetus with fetal inherited thrombophilia after two fetal deaths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juras, Josip; Ivanisević, Marina; Oresković, Slavko; Mihaljević, Slobodan; Vujić, Goran; Delmis, Josip

    2013-12-01

    A pregnant woman with inherited thrombophilia (factor II mutation--20210A) had two late pregnancy losses. The first pregnancy was not well documented, but the second pregnancy was complicated by fetal thrombophilia and umbilical artery thrombosis, proven after fetal death. During the third pregnancy enoxaparine was introduced in the therapy and early amniocentesis was performed. Fetal thrombophilia was proven again. Early delivery was induced and performed with no complications, resulting in a live healthy infant. A history of miscarriages or recurrent fetal loss should raise suspicion of thrombophilia as a potential cause. It is debatable whether amniocentesis in pursuit of fetal thrombophilia should be performed and whether this will lead to a better perinatal outcome. When fetal thrombophilia is diagnosed, an earlier induction of delivery should be considered, taking into account the fetal extrauterine viability. The aforementioned approach of early delivery in cases of inherited fetal thrombophilia could be a possible solution for better perinatal outcomes.

  4. Nanomedicine in cerebral palsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balakrishnan B

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Bindu Balakrishnan,1 Elizabeth Nance,1 Michael V Johnston,2 Rangaramanujam Kannan,3 Sujatha Kannan1 1Department of Anesthesiology and Critical Care Medicine, Johns Hopkins University; Baltimore, MD, USA; 2Department of Neurology and Pediatrics, Kennedy Krieger Institute, Baltimore, MD, USA; 3Department of Ophthalmology, Center for Nanomedicine, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD, USA Abstract: Cerebral palsy is a chronic childhood disorder that can have diverse etiologies. Injury to the developing brain that occurs either in utero or soon after birth can result in the motor, sensory, and cognitive deficits seen in cerebral palsy. Although the etiologies for cerebral palsy are variable, neuroinflammation plays a key role in the pathophysiology of the brain injury irrespective of the etiology. Currently, there is no effective cure for cerebral palsy. Nanomedicine offers a new frontier in the development of therapies for prevention and treatment of brain injury resulting in cerebral palsy. Nanomaterials such as dendrimers provide opportunities for the targeted delivery of multiple drugs that can mitigate several pathways involved in injury and can be delivered specifically to the cells that are responsible for neuroinflammation and injury. These materials also offer the opportunity to deliver agents that would promote repair and regeneration in the brain, resulting not only in attenuation of injury, but also enabling normal growth. In this review, the current advances in nanotechnology for treatment of brain injury are discussed with specific relevance to cerebral palsy. Future directions that would facilitate clinical translation in neonates and children are also addressed. Keywords: dendrimer, cerebral palsy, neuroinflammation, nanoparticle, neonatal brain injury, G4OH-PAMAM

  5. Clinical Neuroimaging of cerebral ischemia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakagawara, Jyoji [Nakamura Memorial Hospital, Sapporo (Japan)

    1999-06-01

    Notice points in clinical imaging of cerebral ischemia are reviewed. When cerebral blood flow is determined in acute stage of cerebral embolism (cerebral blood flow SPECT), it is important to find area of ischemic core and ischemic penumbra. When large cortex area is assigned to ischemic penumbra, thrombolytic therapy is positively adapted, but cautious correspondence is necessary when ischemic core is recognized. DWI is superior in the detection of area equivalent to ischemic core of early stage, but, in imaging of area equivalent to ischemic penumbra, perfusion image or distribution image of cerebral blood volume (CBV) by MRI need to be combined. Luxury perfusion detected by cerebral blood flow SPECT in the cases of acute cerebral embolism suggests vascular recanalization, but a comparison with CT/MRI and continuous assessment of cerebral circulation dynamics were necessary in order to predict brain tissue disease (metabolic abnormality). In hemodynamic cerebral ischemia, it is important to find stage 2 equivalent to misery perfusion by quantification of cerebral blood flow SPECT. Degree of diaschisis can indicate seriousness of brain dysfunction for lacuna infarct. Because cerebral circulation reserve ability (perfusion pressure) is normal in all areas of the low cerebral blood flow by diaschisis mechanism, their areas are easily distinguished from those of hemodynamic cerebral ischemia. (K.H.)

  6. Fetal Alcohol Syndrome a Global Problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_163096.html Fetal Alcohol Syndrome a Global Problem: Report Countries with highest alcohol use during pregnancy include Belarus, Britain, Denmark, Ireland ...

  7. Isolated Fetal Ascite Associated with Cardiac Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vehbi Doğan

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Fetal ascite is defined as fluid accumulation in peritoneal cavity. It can be seen as isolated disease or an early sign of hydrops fetalis. Once fetal ascite is detected, a careful examination for hydops fetalis and possible underlying disease is necessary, since its prognosis and treatment depends mostly on the cause. Non-immunologic fetal ascite is an uncommon problem occurring for many reasons, such as urinary tract obstruction, congenital infections, genetic and metabolic diseases, gastrointestinal diseases and cardiovascular diseases. Here in this report we present two isolated fetal ascite that occurred secondary to cardiac diseases.

  8. MR imaging of the fetal brain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glenn, Orit A. [University of California, San Francisco, Department of Radiology, Neuroradiology Section, San Francisco, CA (United States)

    2010-01-15

    Fetal MRI is clinically performed to evaluate the brain in cases where an abnormality is detected by prenatal sonography. These most commonly include ventriculomegaly, abnormalities of the corpus callosum, and abnormalities of the posterior fossa. Fetal MRI is also increasingly performed to evaluate fetuses who have normal brain findings on prenatal sonogram but who are at increased risk for neurodevelopmental abnormalities, such as complicated monochorionic twin pregnancies. This paper will briefly discuss the common clinical conditions imaged by fetal MRI as well as recent advances in fetal MRI research. (orig.)

  9. Media violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantor, J

    2000-08-01

    Research on the effects of media violence is not well understood by the general public. Despite this fact, there is an overwhelming consensus in the scientific literature about the unhealthy effects of media violence. Meta-analyses show that media-violence viewing consistently is associated with higher levels of antisocial behavior, ranging from the trivial (imitative violence directed against toys) to the serious (criminal violence), with many consequential outcomes in between (acceptance of violence as a solution to problems, increased feelings of hostility, and the apparent delivery of painful stimulation to another person). Desensitization is another well-documented effect of viewing violence, which is observable in reduced arousal and emotional disturbance while witnessing violence, the reduced tendency to intervene in a fight, and less sympathy for the victims of violence. Although there is evidence that youth who are already violent are more likely to seek out violent entertainment, there is strong evidence that the relationship between violence viewing and antisocial behavior is bidirectional. There is growing evidence that media violence also engenders intense fear in children which often lasts days, months, and even years. The media's potential role in solutions to these problems is only beginning to be explored, in investigations examining the uses and effects of movie ratings, television ratings, and the V-chip, and the effects of media literacy programs and public education efforts. Future research should explore important individual differences in responses to media violence and effective ways to intervene in the negative effects.

  10. Cerebral phaeohyphomycosis by Exophiala dermatitidis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Sood

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Cerebral phaeohyphomycosis is a rare and frequently fatal disease. We report a case of cerebral phaeohyphomycosis caused by Exophiala dermatitidis in a young immuno competent male presenting to a tertiary care hospital in Jaipur.

  11. Cerebral phaeohyphomycosis by Exophiala dermatitidis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sood, S; Vaid, V K; Sharma, M; Bhartiya, H

    2014-01-01

    Cerebral phaeohyphomycosis is a rare and frequently fatal disease. We report a case of cerebral phaeohyphomycosis caused by Exophiala dermatitidis in a young immuno competent male presenting to a tertiary care hospital in Jaipur.

  12. Zika Virus Infection with Prolonged Maternal Viremia and Fetal Brain Abnormalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Driggers, Rita W; Ho, Cheng-Ying; Korhonen, Essi M; Kuivanen, Suvi; Jääskeläinen, Anne J; Smura, Teemu; Rosenberg, Avi; Hill, D Ashley; DeBiasi, Roberta L; Vezina, Gilbert; Timofeev, Julia; Rodriguez, Fausto J; Levanov, Lev; Razak, Jennifer; Iyengar, Preetha; Hennenfent, Andrew; Kennedy, Richard; Lanciotti, Robert; du Plessis, Adre; Vapalahti, Olli

    2016-06-02

    The current outbreak of Zika virus (ZIKV) infection has been associated with an apparent increased risk of congenital microcephaly. We describe a case of a pregnant woman and her fetus infected with ZIKV during the 11th gestational week. The fetal head circumference decreased from the 47th percentile to the 24th percentile between 16 and 20 weeks of gestation. ZIKV RNA was identified in maternal serum at 16 and 21 weeks of gestation. At 19 and 20 weeks of gestation, substantial brain abnormalities were detected on ultrasonography and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) without the presence of microcephaly or intracranial calcifications. On postmortem analysis of the fetal brain, diffuse cerebral cortical thinning, high ZIKV RNA loads, and viral particles were detected, and ZIKV was subsequently isolated.

  13. [CT findings in "fresh" cerebral paragonimiasis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, H Z; Xie, F W; Sun, S C

    1992-01-01

    There are few reports on CT findings in "fresh" cerebral paragonimiasis. We have experienced four cases of "fresh" cerebral paragonimiasis examined by CT scan. Three patients were children aged 7, 9, and 14 years, and one was an adult aged 25 years. Three patients were examined by CT scan 2 to 6 months after the onset of high grade fever, convulsion and focal deficit signs, and a patient was examined one month after his progressive visual disturbance. The unique CT findings are multilocular cystic lesions in temporo-occipital or in temporo-parietal lobes with extensive brain edema. Two cases were also associated with "soap-bubble" calcifications. The cysts were more dense than CSF and enhanced by contrast media. The histopathological specimen showed that the eggs of paragonimus were in the abscess cavity, of which the wall was composed with highly vascular gliomesenchymal capsule and numerous cell infiltration. Three patients underwent craniotomy for removal of abscess and decompression. Bitionol were administered and all patients recovered well. We also discussed the differential diagnosis of cerebral parasitic granulomas.

  14. [Cerebral ischemia and histamine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adachi, Naoto

    2002-10-01

    Cerebral ischemia induces excess release of glutamate and an increase in the intracellular Ca2+ concentration, which provoke catastrophic enzymatic processes leading to irreversible neuronal injury. Histamine plays the role of neurotransmitter in the central nervous system, and histaminergic fibers are widely distributed in the brain. In cerebral ischemia, release of histamine from nerve endings has been shown to be enhanced by facilitation of its activity. An inhibition of the histaminergic activity in ischemia aggravates the histologic outcome. In contrast, intracerebroventricular administration of histamine improves the aggravation, whereas blockade of histamine H2 receptors aggravates ischemic injury. Furthermore, H2 blockade enhances ischemic release of glutamate and dopamine. These findings suggest that central histamine provides beneficial effects against ischemic neuronal damage by suppressing release of excitatory neurotransmitters. However, histaminergic H2 action facilitates the permeability of the blood-brain barrier and shows deleterious effects on cerebral edema.

  15. Cerebral hemodynamics in migraine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hachinski, V C; Olesen, Jes; Norris, J W

    1977-01-01

    Clinical and angiographic findings in migraine are briefly reviewed in relation to cerebral hemodynamic changes shown by regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) studies. Three cases of migraine studied by the intracarotid xenon 133 method during attacks are reported. In classic migraine, with typical...... prodromal symptoms, a decrease in cerebral blood flow has been demonstrated during the aura. Occasionally, this flow decrease persists during the headache phase. In common migraine, where such prodromata are not seen, a flow decrease has not been demonstrated. During the headache phase of both types...... of migraine, rCBF has usually been found to be normal or in the high range of normal values. The high values may represent postischemic hyperemia, but are probably more frequently secondary to arousal caused by pain. Thus, during the headache phase rCBF may be subnormal, normal or high. These findings do...

  16. Fetal cardiac rhabdomyoma: case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Mostafa Ghavami

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: The primary manifestation of cardiac tumors in embryonic period is a very rare condition. Cardiac rhabdomyomas most frequently arise in the ventricular myocardium, they may also occur in the atria and the epicardial surface. In spite of its benign nature, the critical location of the tumor inside the heart can lead to lethal arrhythmias and chamber obstruction. Multiple rhabdomyomas are strongly associated with tuberous sclerosis which is associated with mental retardation and epilepsy of variable severity. Ultrasonography as a part of routine prenatal screening, is the best method for the diagnosis of cardiac rhabdomyomas. In the review of articles published in Iran, fetal cardiac rhabdomyoma was not reported. Case presentation: We report a case of cardiac rhabdomyoma on a 24-year-old gravid 1, referred to Day Medical Imaging Center for routine evaluation of fetal abnormalities at 31 weeks of her gestational age. Ultrasonographic examination displayed a homogenous echogenic mass (13×9mm, originating from the left ventricle of the fetal heart. It was a normal pregnancy without any specific complications. Other organs of the fetus were found normal and no cardiac abnormalities were appeared. No Pericardial fluid effusion was found. The parents did not have consanguineous marriage. They did not also have any specific disease such as tuberous sclerosis. Conclusion: The clinical features of cardiac rhabdomyomas vary widely, depending on the location, size, and number of tumors in the heart. Although cardiac rhabdomyoma is a benign tumor in many affected fetuses, an early prenatal diagnosis of the tumor is of great significance in making efficient planning and providing adequate follow up visits of the patients and the complications such as, heart failure and outlet obstruction of cardiac chambers.

  17. Ischemic Stroke Due to Middle Cerebral Artery M1 Segment Occlusion: Latvian Stroke Register Data / Išēmisks Insults Sakarā ar Arteria Cerebri Media M1 Segmenta Oklūziju: Insulta Reģistra Dati

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valante Ramona

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Išēmisks insults visbiežāk notiek vidējās cerebrālās artērijas apasiņošanas baseinā. Tika veikts retrospektīvs Insulta reģistra datu pētījums. Pētījumam tika atlasīti un apstrādāti pacientu dati laika periodā no 2013. gada janvāra līdz 2014. decembrim. Datu analīzei tika atlasīti 478 pacienti, kuriem ar angiogrāfijas metodi, bija apstiprināta ACM oklūzija. Puse no pacientiem bija vīrieši 237 (49,6% ar vidējo vecumu 69,51 gadi, sievietēm vidējais vecums bija 74,58 gadi. Biežākais insulta cēlonis bija kardioembolija - 294 (61, 5% gadījumos. Sīko asinsvadu saslimšana nebija kā cēlonis ACM M1 segmenta oklūzijas gadījumā. Reperfūzijas terapiju saņēma 209 (43,7% pacienti. Iestājoties neiroloģiskais stāvoklis abās grupās bija līdzīgs, taču izrakstoties lielāks uzlabojums bija reperfūzijas terapijas grupā NIHSS 6,82 salīdzinot ar konservatīvas terapijas grupu - NIHSS 8,2 (SD ± 6,23 (p < 0,05. Izrakstoties pacientu funkcionālais stāvoklis bija labāks reperfūzijas grupā, mRS 0-2 bija 39,2% gadījumu, kā arī slikts funkcionālais iznākums (mRS 4-5 bija sastopams retāk - tikai 34,5% gadījumu. Mirstība arī bija zemāka reperfūzijas grupā - 7,6%, salīdzinot ar konservatīvās terapijas grupu - 13,4%. Biežākais cēlonis ACM M1 segmenta oklūzijas insultam ir kardioembolija. Pacientiem ir liela atkārtotu insultu incidence. Iestājoties reperfūzijas terapijas un konservatīvas terapijas grupu pacientiem neiroloģiskais stāvoklis bija līdzīgs. Taču reperfūzijas grupā pacientiem izrakstoties bija ievērojamāks uzlabojums novērtējot neiroloģisko stāvokli. Arī funkcionālais stāvoklis izrakstoties bija labāks pacientiem, kas saņēma reperfūzijas terapiju.

  18. From Augmentation Media to Meme Media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Yuzuru

    Computers as meta media are now evolving from augmentation media vehicles to meme media vehicles. While an augmentation media system provides a seamlessly integrated environment of various tools and documents, meme media system provides further functions to edit and distribute tools and documents. Documents and tools on meme media can easily…

  19. Community Media: Muting the Democratic Media Discourse?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carpentier, N.; Lie, R.; Servaes, J.

    2003-01-01

    Focuses on the concept of community media. Components that construct the identity of community media; Multi-theoretical approaches for analysis of community media; Definition of community media based on the concept of alternative media; Link between community media and civil society; Problems faced

  20. Social Media

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Anlässlich der 10. Wissenschaftlichen Tagung „Soziale Medien“ am 27. und 28. Juni 2013 im Statistischen Bundesamt in Wiesbaden und in Fortsetzung des 2010 erschienenen Recherche Spezial Web 2.0 – Alle machen mit! werden in dieser Ausgabe in sechs Kapiteln Nachweise zu Veröffentlichungen und Forschungsprojekte der letzten drei Jahre zusammengestellt, die sich mit der Rolle von Social Media in verschiedenen Nutzungskontexten befassen. Social-Media-Dienste sind mittlerweile fester Bestandtei...

  1. Media Bias

    OpenAIRE

    Sendhil Mullainathan; Andrei Shleifer

    2002-01-01

    There are two different types of media bias. One bias, which we refer to as ideology, reflects a news outlet's desire to affect reader opinions in a particular direction. The second bias, which we refer to as spin, reflects the outlet's attempt to simply create a memorable story. We examine competition among media outlets in the presence of these biases. Whereas competition can eliminate the effect of ideological bias, it actually exaggerates the incentive to spin stories.

  2. Novel isolation strategy to deliver pure fetal-origin and maternal-origin mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) populations from human term placenta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, J; Shafiee, A; Wang, W; Fisk, N M; Khosrotehrani, K

    2014-11-01

    The placenta is an abundant source of mesenchymal stem/stromal cells (MSC). Although presumed of translationally-advantageous fetal origin, the literature instead suggests a high incidence of either contaminating or pure maternal MSC. Despite definitional criteria that MSC are CD34-, increasing evidence suggests that fetal MSC may be CD34 positive in vivo. We flow sorted term placental digests based on CD34+ expression and exploited differential culture media to isolate separately pure fetal and maternal MSC populations. This method has considerable translational implications, in particular to clinical trials underway with "placental" MSC of uncertain or decidual origin.

  3. Fetal stress hormone changes during intrauterine transfusions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Adama van Scheltema, P.N.; Pasman, S.A.; Wolterbeek, R..; Deprest, J.A.; Oepkes, D.; Buck, F. De; Velde, M van de; Vandenbussche, F.P.H.A.

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To document fetal stress hormone and Doppler changes after intrauterine transfusions (IUTs) in either the intrahepatic portion of the umbilical vein (IHV) or the placental cord insertion (PCI). METHOD: Pregnant women scheduled for IUT for fetal anemia (N = 25) were included prospectively.

  4. Digital atlas of fetal brain MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chapman, Teresa; Weinberger, E. [Department of Radiology, Seattle Children' s Hospital, Seattle, WA (United States); Matesan, Manuela [University of Washington, Department of Radiology, Seattle, WA (United States); Bulas, Dorothy I. [Division of Diagnostic Imaging and Radiology, Children' s National Medical Center, Washington, DC (United States)

    2010-02-15

    Fetal MRI can be performed in the second and third trimesters. During this time, the fetal brain undergoes profound structural changes. Interpretation of appropriate development might require comparison with normal age-based models. Consultation of a hard-copy atlas is limited by the inability to compare multiple ages simultaneously. To provide images of normal fetal brains from weeks 18 through 37 in a digital format that can be reviewed interactively. This will facilitate recognition of abnormal brain development. T2-W images for the atlas were obtained from fetal MR studies of normal brains scanned for other indications from 2005 to 2007. Images were oriented in standard axial, coronal and sagittal projections, with laterality established by situs. Gestational age was determined by last menstrual period, earliest US measurements and sonogram performed on the same day as the MR. The software program used for viewing the atlas, written in C, permits linked scrolling and resizing the images. Simultaneous comparison of varying gestational ages is permissible. Fetal brain images across gestational ages 18 to 37 weeks are provided as an interactive digital atlas and are available for free download. Improved interpretation of fetal brain abnormalities can be facilitated by the use of digital atlas cataloging of the normal changes throughout fetal development. Here we provide a description of the atlas and a discussion of normal fetal brain development. (orig.)

  5. Fetal trauma from motor vehicle collisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friese, Greg; Wojciehoski, Randal F

    2005-07-01

    To summarize: The best fetal protection is proper maternal use of seat belt restraints. All pregnant occupants in a motor vehicle crash require physician evaluation. Focus on maternal assessment. Maternal stability is the best indicator of fetal stability. Key treatments are high-flow oxygen, i.v. fluid loading and immobilizing in left lateral position. Evaluate the fetus after maternal stabilization.

  6. Maternal diabetes and the fetal heart

    OpenAIRE

    Hornberger, L K

    2006-01-01

    Maternal diabetes mellitus significantly affects the fetal heart and fetal–placental circulation in both structure and function. The influence of pre‐conceptional diabetes begins during embryonic development in the first trimester, with altered cardiac morphogenesis and placental development. It continues to have an influence on the fetal circulation through the second and third trimesters and into the perinatal and neonatal period

  7. Fetal behavior in normal dichorionic twin pregnancy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mulder, E. J. H.; Derks, J. B.; de Laat, M. W. M.; Visser, G. H. A.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: A prospective study was performed to compare fetal behavioral development in healthy dichorionic twins and singletons, and identify twin intra-pair associations (synchrony) of fetal movements and rest-activity cycles using different criteria to define synchrony. Subjects and methods: Twe

  8. Fetal deaths in Brazil: a systematic review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbeiro, Fernanda Morena dos Santos; Fonseca, Sandra Costa; Tauffer, Mariana Girão; Ferreira, Mariana de Souza Santos; da Silva, Fagner Paulo; Ventura, Patrícia Mendonça; Quadros, Jesirée Iglesias

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To review the frequency of and factors associated with fetal death in the Brazilian scientific literature. METHODS A systematic review of Brazilian studies on fetal deaths published between 2003 and 2013 was conducted. In total, 27 studies were analyzed; of these, 4 studies addressed the quality of data, 12 were descriptive studies, and 11 studies evaluated the factors associated with fetal death. The databases searched were PubMed and Lilacs, and data extraction and synthesis were independently performed by two or more examiners. RESULTS The level of completeness of fetal death certificates was deficient, both in the completion of variables, particularly sociodemographic variables, and in defining the underlying causes of death. Fetal deaths have decreased in Brazil; however, inequalities persist. Analysis of the causes of death indicated maternal morbidities that could be prevented and treated. The main factors associated with fetal deaths were absent or inadequate prenatal care, low education level, maternal morbidity, and adverse reproductive history. CONCLUSIONS Prenatal care should prioritize women that are most vulnerable (considering their social environment or their reproductive history and morbidities) with the aim of decreasing the fetal mortality rate in Brazil. Adequate completion of death certificates and investment in the committees that investigate fetal and infant deaths are necessary. PMID:25902565

  9. Fetal Pain, Abortion, Viability and the Constitution

    OpenAIRE

    Cohen, I. Glenn; Sayeed, Sadath Ali

    2011-01-01

    In early 2010, the Nebraska state legislature passed a new abortion restricting law asserting a new, compelling state interest in preventing fetal pain. In this article, we review existing constitutional abortion doctrine and note difficulties presented by persistent legal attention to a socially derived viability construct. We then offer a substantive biological, ethical, and legal critique of the new fetal pain rationale.

  10. Fetal pain, abortion, viability, and the Constitution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, I Glenn; Sayeed, Sadath

    2011-01-01

    In early 2010, the Nebraska state legislature passed a new abortion restricting law asserting a new, compelling state interest in preventing fetal pain. In this article, we review existing constitutional abortion doctrine and note difficulties presented by persistent legal attention to a socially derived viability construct. We then offer a substantive biological, ethical, and legal critique of the new fetal pain rationale.

  11. Fetal Pain: Life in Troubled Waters

    OpenAIRE

    Johnson, Johnnye S.

    2007-01-01

    Maternal well-being is the key to fetal well-being. A fetus is highly vulnerable and sensitive to pain and stress, and exposure has the potential for negative developmental consequences. Childbirth educators can help raise parental awareness about the importance of the maternal environment for best outcomes in fetal development.

  12. Expert systems for fetal assessment in labour

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lutomski, J.E.; Meaney, S.; Greene, R.A.; Ryan, A.C.; Devane, D.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Cardiotocography (CTG) records the fetal heart rate in relation to maternal uterine contractions and is one of the most common forms of fetal assessment during labour. Despite guidelines for CTG interpretation, substantial inter- and intra-observer variation in interpretation has been re

  13. Fetal tissue transplant research: ethical dilemmas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farnam, C R

    1996-01-01

    The transplant of cells from fetal tissue shows promise as a therapy for certain diseases. The use and research of fetal tissue, and methods of obtaining the tissue, have raised ethical dilemmas. Consideration must be given concerning the mother, the fetus, and the tissue recipient.

  14. Fetal goiter and bilateral ovarian cysts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lassen, Pernille; Sundberg, Karin; Juul, Anders

    2008-01-01

    A unique case of fetal goiter accompanied by bilateral ovarian cysts in a mother treated with methimazole for Graves'disease is reported. The abnormal findings were detected by ultrasound at 31 weeks of gestation. Umbilical fetal blood sampling revealed elevated serum TSH, normal concentrations o...

  15. Propofol Pharmacokinetics and Estimation of Fetal Propofol Exposure during Mid-Gestational Fetal Surgery: A Maternal-Fetal Sheep Model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pornswan Ngamprasertwong

    Full Text Available Measuring fetal drug concentrations is extremely difficult in humans. We conducted a study in pregnant sheep to simultaneously describe maternal and fetal concentrations of propofol, a common intravenous anesthetic agent used in humans. Compared to inhalational anesthesia, propofol supplemented anesthesia lowered the dose of desflurane required to provide adequate uterine relaxation during open fetal surgery. This resulted in better intraoperative fetal cardiac outcome. This study describes maternal and fetal propofol pharmacokinetics (PK using a chronically instrumented maternal-fetal sheep model.Fetal and maternal blood samples were simultaneously collected from eight mid-gestational pregnant ewes during general anesthesia with propofol, remifentanil and desflurane. Nonlinear mixed-effects modeling was performed by using NONMEM software. Total body weight, gestational age and hemodynamic parameters were tested in the covariate analysis. The final model was validated by bootstrapping and visual predictive check.A total of 160 propofol samples were collected. A 2-compartment maternal PK model with a third fetal compartment appropriately described the data. Mean population parameter estimates for maternal propofol clearance and central volume of distribution were 4.17 L/min and 37.7 L, respectively, in a typical ewe with a median heart rate of 135 beats/min. Increase in maternal heart rate significantly correlated with increase in propofol clearance. The estimated population maternal-fetal inter-compartment clearance was 0.0138 L/min and the volume of distribution of propofol in the fetus was 0.144 L. Fetal propofol clearance was found to be almost negligible compared to maternal clearance and could not be robustly estimated.For the first time, a maternal-fetal PK model of propofol in pregnant ewes was successfully developed. This study narrows the gap in our knowledge in maternal-fetal PK model in human. Our study confirms that maternal heart

  16. Experimental Focal Cerebral Ischemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Thomas

    2007-01-01

    of the middle cerebral artery (MCAO) was used as an experimental model of ischemic stroke. MCAO produces an acute lesion consisting of an ischemic core or focus with severely reduced blood flow surrounded by a borderzone or ischemic penumbra with less pronounced blood flow reduction. Cells in the ischemic focus...

  17. Association between maternal psychological status and fetal hemodynamic circulation in late pregnancy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fu Jing; Yang Ruifen; Ma Xiaodong; Xia Huimin

    2014-01-01

    Background The prevalence reported of maternal depression from the first to the third trimester was 7.4%,12.8%,12.0% respectively,which implies that around one-tenth of pregnant women suffer from psychological disorder during the whole pregnancy.It is assumed that during pregnancy the maternal-fetal circulation unit is also affected by maternal psychological status.The aim of this study is to explore the association between maternal psychological status and fetal dynamic blood flow circulation during pregnancy.Methods We recruited 102 singleton low risk pregnant women between 30 to 33 gestational weeks.The Symptom Checklist-90 (SCL-90) was used to assess maternal psychological status.Ultrasound Doppler was used to measure blood flow changes in maternal-fetal circulation.Pulsatility index (PI) value was measured in umbilical artery (UA),fetal middle cerebral artery (MCA) and maternal uterine arteries (UTA).Peak systolic velocity (PSV) was measured in MCA and velocity was measured in umbilical vein (UV).Statistical analysis was performed with standard nonparametric MannWhitney U tests.Two-tailed P values <0.05 were considered statistical significance.Results Of the 102 pregnant women,12 patients show high levels of poor mental health.Women with poor mental health have higher umbilical artery PI values than good mental health patients (P=0.020).A higher MCA PI value is found in poor mental health patients but this does not reach statistical significance (P=0.053).Women with hostility show lower placental scores (P=0.030).Women with somatization demonstrate higher values in UA PI,MCA PI and MCA PSV (P=0.049,0.030 and 0.035 respectively).A higher MCA PSV value is also found in phobic anxiety patients (P=0.046).Conclusions Poor mental health during pregnancy is found to have an adverse effect on maternal-fetal circulation.Umbilical artery and fetal cerebral circulation are more sensitive and affected by maternal psychological disorder.

  18. Age-Related Increases in Long-Range Connectivity in Fetal Functional Neural Connectivity Networks In Utero

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomason, Moriah E.; Grove, Lauren E.; Lozon, Tim A.; Vila, Angela M.; Ye, Yongquan; Nye, Matthew J.; Manning, Janessa H.; Pappas, Athina; Hernandez-Andrade, Edgar; Yeo, Lami; Mody, Swati; Berman, Susan; Hassan, Sonia S.; Romero, Roberto

    2015-01-01

    Formation of operational neural networks is one of the most significant accomplishments of human fetal brain growth. Recent advances in functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) have made it possible to obtain information about brain function during fetal development. Specifically, resting-state fMRI and novel signal covariation approaches have opened up a new avenue for non-invasive assessment of neural functional connectivity (FC) before birth. Early studies in this area have unearthed new insights about principles of prenatal brain function. However, very little is known about the emergence and maturation of neural networks during fetal life. Here, we obtained cross-sectional rs-fMRI data from 39 fetuses between 24 and 38 weeks postconceptual age to examine patterns of connectivity across ten neural FC networks. We identified primitive forms of motor, visual, default mode, thalamic, and temporal networks in the human fetal brain. We discovered the first evidence of increased long-range, cerebral-cerebellar, cortical-subcortical, and intra-hemispheric FC with advancing fetal age. Continued aggregation of data about fundamental neural connectivity systems in utero is essential to establishing principles of connectomics at the beginning of human life. Normative data provides a vital context against which to compare instances of abnormal neurobiological development. PMID:25284273

  19. Age-related increases in long-range connectivity in fetal functional neural connectivity networks in utero

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moriah E. Thomason

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Formation of operational neural networks is one of the most significant accomplishments of human fetal brain growth. Recent advances in functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI have made it possible to obtain information about brain function during fetal development. Specifically, resting-state fMRI and novel signal covariation approaches have opened up a new avenue for non-invasive assessment of neural functional connectivity (FC before birth. Early studies in this area have unearthed new insights about principles of prenatal brain function. However, very little is known about the emergence and maturation of neural networks during fetal life. Here, we obtained cross-sectional rs-fMRI data from 39 fetuses between 24 and 38 weeks postconceptual age to examine patterns of connectivity across ten neural FC networks. We identified primitive forms of motor, visual, default mode, thalamic, and temporal networks in the human fetal brain. We discovered the first evidence of increased long-range, cerebral-cerebellar, cortical-subcortical, and intra-hemispheric FC with advancing fetal age. Continued aggregation of data about fundamental neural connectivity systems in utero is essential to establishing principles of connectomics at the beginning of human life. Normative data provides a vital context against which to compare instances of abnormal neurobiological development.

  20. Efeitos da ingestão de glicose sobre a circulação materno-fetal Materno-fetal hemodynamic repercussion of glucose ingestion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rose Mary de Castro Ranciaro

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: analisar o efeito da glicose na hemodinâmica materno-fetal pela avaliação doplervelocimétrica da circulação materno-fetal e fetoplacentária. MÉTODOS: trata-se de estudo realizado por único observador, no qual foram incluídas 31 gestantes clinicamente sadias entre a 28ª e a 36ª semana. Os parâmetros foram avaliados imediatamente antes e 60 minutos após a ingestão de 50 g de glicose. Foram utilizados como critérios de inclusão a avaliação clínica e laboratorial normal, a presença de feto único, a idade gestacional entre a 28ª e a 36ª semana de gestação confirmada por exame de ultra-sonografia e/ou a data da última menstruação, a glicemia de jejum menor ou igual a 110 mg/dL e o teste de sobrecarga após 50 g de glicose menor de 140 mg/dL. Como critérios de exclusão, adotaram-se a presença de malformação ou alterações de desenvolvimento fetal, o trabalho de parto, os antecedentes familiares de diabetes, as patologias próprias ou intercorrentes à gestação e o uso de fumo, álcool ou outras drogas. Foram avaliados os vasos maternos da artéria carótida comum e artérias uterinas, os vasos placentários da artéria umbilical e os vasos fetais da artéria cerebral média e aorta abdominal. Foram analisados os seguintes parâmetros em cada vaso: índice de resistência, índice de pulsatilidade, velocidade sistólica máxima, velocidade diastólica final e tempo de aceleração. A freqüência cardíaca fetal foi avaliada pelo modo M da ultra-sonografia. Para análise estatística foi utilizado o teste t de Student quando a variável diferença de antes e depois da ingestão de glicose apresentou distribuição normal no teste de Kolmogorov-Smirnov. Quando a normalidade foi rejeitada, utilizamos o teste não-paramétrico de Wilcoxon, com o nível de significância sempre estabelecido de pPURPOSE: to analyze the effect of glucose in the materno-fetal hemodynamics through dopplervelocimetric assessment of

  1. Parálisis cerebral Cerebral palsy

    OpenAIRE

    Jorge Malagon Valdez

    2007-01-01

    El término parálisis cerebral (PC) engloba a un gran número de síndromes neurológicos clínicos, de etiología diversa. Estos síndromes se caracterizan por tener una sintomatología común: los trastornos motores. Algunos autores prefieren manejar términos como "encefalopatía fija", "encefalopatías no evolutivas". Se mencionan la utilidad de programas de intervención temprana y métodos especiales de rehabilitación, así como el manejo de las deficiencias asociadas como la epilepsia, deficiencia me...

  2. Parálisis cerebral Cerebral palsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Malagon Valdez

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available El término parálisis cerebral (PC engloba a un gran número de síndromes neurológicos clínicos, de etiología diversa. Estos síndromes se caracterizan por tener una sintomatología común: los trastornos motores. Algunos autores prefieren manejar términos como "encefalopatía fija", "encefalopatías no evolutivas". Se mencionan la utilidad de programas de intervención temprana y métodos especiales de rehabilitación, así como el manejo de las deficiencias asociadas como la epilepsia, deficiencia mental, trastornos del lenguaje, audición, visión, déficit de la atención que mejoran el pronóstico de manera significativa. El pronóstico también depende de la gravedad del padecimiento y de las manifestaciones asociadas.The term cerebral palsy (CP, is used for a great number of clinical neurological syndromes. The syndromes are characterized by having a common cause, motor defects. It is important, because they can cause a brain damage by presenting motor defects and some associated deficiencies, such as mental deficiency, epilepsy, language and visual defects and pseudobulbar paralysis, with the nonevolving fact. Some authors prefer using terms such as "non-evolving encephalopathies". In the treatment the utility of prevention programs of early stimulation and special rehabilitation methods, and treatment of associated deficiencies such as epilepsy, mental deficiency, language, audition and visual problems, and the attention deficit improve the prognosis in an important way. The prognosis depends on the severity of the disease and the associated manifestations.

  3. Media Training

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva

    2009-01-01

    With the LHC starting up soon, the world's media are again turning their attention to CERN. We're all likely to be called upon to explain what is happening at CERN to media, friends and neighbours. The seminar will be given by BBC television news journalists Liz Pike and Nadia Marchant, and will deal with the kind of questions we're likely to be confronted with through the restart period. The training is open for everybody. Make sure you arrive early enough to get a seat - there are only 200 seats in the Globe. The session will also be webcast: http://webcast.cern.ch/

  4. Fetal pain: an infantile debate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derbyshire, S W G

    2001-02-01

    The question of whether a fetus can experience pain is an immense challenge. The issue demands consideration of the physical and psychological basis of being and the relation between the two. At the center of this debate is the question of how it is that we are conscious, a question that has inspired the writing of some of our most brilliant contemporary philosophers and scientists, with one commentary suggesting surrender. In my earlier review I attempted to draw together the various strands of thinking that had attacked the question of fetal pain and relate them back to the bigger question of consciousness. In their vituperative response, Benatar and Benatar bite off my finger before looking to where I am pointing. I will examine each of their criticisms.

  5. Depletion of TGF-β from fetal bovine serum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oida, Takatoku; Weiner, Howard L

    2010-10-31

    TGF-β is one of the key cytokines controlling immune responses. Measuring TGF-β from culture supernatants in vitro is an important index of immune function. However, fetal bovine serum (FBS) contains a high level of latent TGF-β that often hampers measuring T cell-derived TGF-β in culture using FBS-supplemented medium. In this report, we generated anti-latency associated peptide (LAP) monoclonal antibodies which cross-react with bovine LAP, and developed a protocol to deplete TGF-β from FBS. This provides the ability to reliably quantify TGF-β in vitro without relying on serum-free media which do not support growth of murine T cells.

  6. Fetal alcohol syndrome: neuropsychiatric phenomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burd, Larry; Klug, Marilyn G; Martsolf, John T; Kerbeshian, Jacob

    2003-01-01

    Fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) is a common developmental disorder with impairments in multiple neuropsychiatric spheres of varying severity. Few population-derived studies of the behavioral phenotype are available. The purpose of this study was to estimate the prevalence of neuropsychiatric disorders in three groups: subjects who met criteria for FAS (n=152); subjects who met criteria for partial FAS/ARND (n=150); and referred subjects who did not meet criteria for either FAS or partial FAS/ARND (n=86). Each subject had a standardized evaluation by a medical geneticist. All subjects were from North Dakota. We found increases in the prevalence rates of neuropsychiatric disorders in subjects with FAS compared to subjects with partial FAS/ARND and the lowest rates in the group that did not meet criteria for either FAS or partial FAS/ARND. Comorbid attention deficit hyperactivity disorder occurred in 73% of cases with FAS, in 72% cases with partial FAS/ARND, and in 36% subjects who did not meet criteria for either. For other neuropsychiatric disorders, a similar distribution of comorbidity was found. This study supports the concept of a continuum of impairment resulting from prenatal alcohol exposure. The presence of complex cognitive, behavioral, and physical symptomatology in the affected subjects with prenatal alcohol exposure would seem to fit well under the diagnostic rubric of fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD). Diagnosis and long-term management will require increasing access to multidisciplinary child development teams including mental health professionals who treat children and adolescents. Adults will require care primarily from teams with expertise in mental health and developmental disabilities.

  7. Social Media

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-01

    Digital Marketing and Ecommerce Professionals. 29 January 2010. 20 May 2010. <http://econsultancy.com/blog/5324-20+-mind-blowing-social- media...Statistics Revisited.” Econsultancy | Community of Digital Marketing and Ecommerce Professionals. 29 Jan. 2010. 20 May 2010. <http://econsultancy.com/blog

  8. Streaming Media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pulley, John

    2009-01-01

    At a time when the evolutionary pace of new media resembles the real-time mutation of certain microorganisms, the age-old question of how best to connect with constituents can seem impossibly complex--even for an elite institution plugged into the motherboard of Silicon Valley. Identifying the most effective vehicle for reaching a particular…

  9. Applications of cerebral SPECT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McArthur, C., E-mail: claire.mcarthur@nhs.net [Department of Neuroradiology, Institute of Neurological Sciences, Glasgow (United Kingdom); Jampana, R.; Patterson, J.; Hadley, D. [Department of Neuroradiology, Institute of Neurological Sciences, Glasgow (United Kingdom)

    2011-07-15

    Single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) can provide three-dimensional functional images of the brain following the injection of one of a series of radiopharmaceuticals that crosses the blood-brain barrier and distributes according to cerebral perfusion, neurotransmitter, or cell density. Applications include differentiating between the dementias, evaluating cerebrovascular disease, preoperative localization of epileptogenic foci, diagnosing movement disorders, and evaluation of intracerebral tumours, while also proving a useful research tool. Unlike positronemission tomography (PET), SPECT imaging is widely available and can be performed in any department that has access to a rotating gamma camera. The purpose of this review is to demonstrate the utility of cerebral SPECT and increase awareness of its role in the investigation of neurological and psychiatric disorders.

  10. Phenylpropanolamine and cerebral hemorrhage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McDowell, J.R.; LeBlanc, H.J.

    1985-05-01

    Computerized tomography, carotid angiograms, and arteriography were used to diagnose several cases of cerebral hemorrhage following the use of phenylpropanolamine. The angiographic picture in one of the three cases was similar to that previously described in association with amphetamine abuse and pseudoephedrine overdose, both substances being chemically and pharmacologically similar to phenylpropanolamine. The study suggests that the arterial change responsible for symptoms may be due to spasm rather than arteriopathy. 14 references, 5 figures.

  11. Decreased fetal movements at home were recorded by a newly developed fetal movement recorder in a case of a non-reassuring fetal status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryo, Eiji; Kamata, Hideo; Seto, Michiharu

    2014-10-01

    A fetal movement acceleration measurement (FMAM) recorder was developed for home monitoring of fetal movements. We provided a 32-year-old pregnant woman with the FMAM recorder to home monitor fetal movements, thereby self-recording decreased fetal movements at 30 weeks' gestation. On routine checkup, a non-stress test revealed scant fetal heart rate accelerations. At 31 weeks' gestation, the woman underwent an emergent caesarean delivery because of a non-reassuring fetal heart rate pattern, and delivered a female neonate weighing 1312 g, whose umbilical cord was slightly narrowed at the umbilicus. Our experience with the present case suggests the usefulness of the FMAM recorder.

  12. Cerebral salt wasting syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harshal Dholke

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Traumatic brain injury (TBI is on the rise, especially in today′s fast-paced world. TBI requires not only neurosurgical expertise but also neurointensivist involvement for a better outcome. Disturbances of sodium balance are common in patients with brain injury, as the central nervous system plays a major role in sodium regulation. Hyponatraemia, defined as serum sodium <135 meq/L is commonly seen and is especially deleterious as it can contribute to cerebral oedema in these patients. Syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion (SIADH, is the most well-known cause of hyponatraemia in this subset of patients. Cerebral Salt Wasting Syndrome (CSWS, leading to renal sodium loss is an important cause of hyponatraemia in patients with TBI. Although incompletely studied, decreased renal sympathetic responses and cerebral natriuretic factors play a role in the pathogenesis of CSWS. Maintaining a positive sodium balance and adequate hydration can help in the treatment. It is important to differentiate between SIADH and CSWS when trying to ascertain a case for patients with acute brain injury, as the treatment of the two are diametrically opposite.

  13. Cerebral oxygenation and hyperthermia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony Richard Bain

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Hyperthermia is associated with marked reductions in cerebral blood flow (CBF. Increased distribution of cardiac output to the periphery, increases in alveolar ventilation and resultant hypocapnia each contribute to the fall in CBF during passive hyperthermia; however, their relative contribution remains a point of contention, and probably depends on the experimental condition (e.g. posture and degree of hyperthermia. The hyperthermia-induced hyperventilatory response reduces arterial CO2 pressure (PaCO2 causing cerebral vasoconstriction and subsequent reductions in flow. During supine passive hyperthermia, the majority of recent data indicate that reductions in PaCO2 may be the primary, if not sole, culprit for reduced CBF. On the other hand, during more dynamic conditions (e.g. hemorrhage or orthostatic challenges, an inability to appropriately decrease peripheral vascular conductance presents a condition whereby adequate cerebral perfusion pressure may be compromised secondary to reductions in systemic blood pressure. Although studies have reported maintenance of pre-frontal cortex oxygenation (assessed by near-infrared spectroscopy during exercise and severe heat stress, the influence of cutaneous blood flow is known to contaminate this measure. This review discusses the governing mechanisms associated with changes in CBF and oxygenation during moderate to severe (i.e. 1.0°C to 2.0°C increase in body core temperature levels of hyperthermia. Future research directions are provided.

  14. Cerebral malformations without antenatal diagnosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Girard, Nadine J. [Diagnostic Neuroradiology, Hopital Timone, Marseille (France)

    2010-06-15

    Cerebral malformations are usually described following the different steps in development. Disorders of neurulation (dysraphisms), or diverticulation (holoprosencephalies and posterior fossa cysts), and total commissural agenesis are usually diagnosed in utero. In contrast, disorders of histogenesis (proliferation-differentiation, migration, organization) are usually discovered in infants and children. The principal clinical symptoms that may be a clue to cerebral malformation include congenital hemiparesis, epilepsy and mental or psychomotor retardation. MRI is the imaging method of choice to assess cerebral malformations. (orig.)

  15. Thyroxine inner ring monodeiodinating activity in fetal tissues of the rat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, T.S.; Chopra, I.J.; Boado, R.; Soloman, D.H.; Chua Teco, G.N.

    1988-02-01

    We studied thyroxine (T4) inner ring monodeiodinating activity (5-MA) in various tissues of fetal, maternal, and adult male rats. Tissue homogenates were incubated with 0.26 microM T4 in 0.1 M phosphate buffer (pH 7.4) containing 10 mM EDTA and 400 mM dithiothreitol (final volume 0.7 ml) for 10 min at 37 degrees C; the 3,3',5'-triiodothyronine (rT3) generated was measured by radioimmunoassay of ethanol extracts of incubation mixture and the result was corrected for rT3 degradation during incubation. Compared to maternal tissues, T4 to rT3 5-MA in the 14-day-old fetus was increased about 70 times in skeletal muscle (mean +/- SEM, velocity, 5.4 +/- 0.9 versus 0.08 +/- 0.01, pmol rT3/h/mg protein); approximately 8 times in intestine (0.72 +/- 0.17 versus 0.09 +/- 0.03);and approximately 4 times in cerebral cortex (19 +/- 0.5 versus 4.5 +/- 0.9), while it was similar in skin (3.2 +/- 0.48 versus 2.6 +/- 0.52). Hepatic T4 5-MA approximated 1.1 +/- 0.63 in the 14-day-old fetus; it could not be measured reliably in maternal or 19-day fetal tissue because of extensive (greater than 90%) degradation of rT3 during incubation. Relative to mother, T4 5-MA in 19-day fetal tissues was increased approximately 30-fold intestine, approximately 20-fold in skeletal muscle, and approximately 6-fold in cerebral cortex while it was similar in skin. The T4 5-MA in maternal rat tissues did not differ significantly from corresponding values in adult male rat, except skin, where it was lower in the mother rat (2.6 +/- 0.52 versus 4.6 +/- 0.61, p less than 0.05). In summary, relative to adult tissues T4 5-MA is exceedingly active in several fetal tissues, most notably in skeletal muscle followed by intestine and cerebral cortex.

  16. Fetal Nerve Cell Transplantation in Early Post-Resuscitation Period in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damira Tazhibayeva

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Fetal cell transplantation is a promising biomedical approach for disease treatment; however, the use of fetal cell therapy is still experimental. This research was deemed a necessity to provide evidence-based research for the application of cell transplantation as a treatment method. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of fetal nerve cell transplantation in rat survivors (and non-survivors after clinical death by mechanical asphyxia.Methods. 68 white laboratory rats were divided into two groups of identical age and sex: a control group of 12-month adult male rats (n = 26 and an experimental group (n = 42. Rats were fixed under ether anesthesia. We then blocked the oral and nasal regions with cotton wool soaked in saline solution. A four-minute clinical death though acute mechanical asphyxia was simulated by applying the method of N. Shim. After the 4-minute clinical death, we resuscitated the rats using external cardiac massage and artifical respiration. Suspension of the fetal nerve cells was injected intraperitoneally at 1mm3 per 25g at the time of cardiac activity restoration. Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH and creatine phosphokinase (CPK levels were examined in the homogenate cerebral cortex of reanimated animals. We recorded the survival rate during the post-resuscitation period and analyzed the integrative brain functions using anxiety-phobic status and latent inhibition.Results. After fetal nerve cell transplantation, the enzymatic reactions in the experimental group became normal with a significant decrease in LDH and an increase in CPK levels compared to the control group. In the control group, 10 rats died and 16 lived (62% survival rate, while 7 rats died and 35 lived (83% survival rate in the experimental group during the first 7 days. Rats that did not receive the treatment tended to die sooner than those in the experimental group. As a result of transplantation, the anxiety level in the experimental group

  17. Magnesium sulphate for fetal neuroprotection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bickford, Celeste D; Magee, Laura A; Mitton, Craig;

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to assess the cost-effectiveness of administering magnesium sulphate to patients in whom preterm birth at ... sensitivity analyses were used to compare the administration of magnesium sulphate with the alternative of no treatment. Two separate cost perspectives were utilized in this series of analyses: a health system and a societal perspective. In addition, two separate measures of effectiveness were utilized: cases...... of cerebral palsy (CP) averted and quality-adjusted life years (QALYs). RESULTS: From a health system and a societal perspective, respectively, a savings of $2,242 and $112,602 is obtained for each QALY gained and a savings of $30,942 and $1,554,198 is obtained for each case of CP averted when magnesium...

  18. [Chronic otitis mediaChronic Otitis Media].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohles, N; Schulz, T; Eßer, D

    2015-11-01

    There are 2 different kinds of chronic otitis media: Otitis media chronica mesotympanalis and otitis media chronica epitympanalis (cholesteatoma). The incidence of chronic otitis media as reported in literature differs in a wide range. The incidence rates vary between 0.45 and 46%. Both, otitis media chronica mesotympanalis and cholesteatoma, lead to eardrum perforation due to lengthy and recurring inflammations. Furthermore, chronic otitis media is characterized by frequently recurring otorrhea and conductive hearing loss.

  19. Cerebral Autoregulation in Normal Pregnancy and Preeclampsia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Veen, Teelkien R.; Panerai, Ronney B.; Haeri, Sina; Griffioen, Annemiek C.; Zeeman, Gerda; Belfort, Michael A.

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To test the hypothesis that preeclampsia is associated with impaired dynamic cerebral autoregulation. METHODS: In a prospective cohort analysis, cerebral blood flow velocity of the middle cerebral artery (determined by transcranial Doppler), blood pressure (determined by noninvasive arter

  20. Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders (FASDs): Treatments

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and the Public Identifying Alcohol-Exposed Pregnancies through Biomarkers International Research National Task Force on Fetal Alcohol ... manage high energy levels, inability to focus, or depression. Following are some examples of medications used to ...

  1. Noninvasive fetal RhD genotyping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Frederik Banch; Damkjær, Merete Berthu; Dziegiel, Morten Hanefeld

    2014-01-01

    Immunization against RhD is the major cause of hemolytic disease of the fetus and newborn (HDFN), which causes fetal or neonatal death. The introduction of postnatal immune prophylaxis in the 1960s drastically reduced immunization incidents in pregnant, D-negative women. In several countries......, antenatal prophylaxis is combined with postnatal prophylaxis to further minimize the immunization risk. Due to lack of knowledge of the fetal RhD type, antenatal prophylaxis is given to all D-negative women. In the European population, approximately 40% of pregnant women carry a D-negative fetus...... and are thus at no risk of immunization. Noninvasive fetal RhD genotyping enables antenatal prophylaxis to be targeted to only those women carrying a D-positive fetus to avoid unnecessary treatment. Based on an analysis of cell-free fetal DNA from the plasma of pregnant women, this approach has recently...

  2. Fetal bowel anomalies - US and MR assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rubesova, Erika [Stanford University, Department of Radiology, Lucile Packard Children' s Hospital, Stanford, CA (United States)

    2012-01-15

    The technical quality of prenatal US and fetal MRI has significantly improved during the last decade and allows an accurate diagnosis of bowel pathology prenatally. Accurate diagnosis of bowel pathology in utero is important for parental counseling and postnatal management. It is essential to recognize the US presentation of bowel pathology in the fetus in order to refer the patient for further evaluation or follow-up. Fetal MRI has been shown to offer some advantages over US for specific bowel abnormalities. In this paper, we review the normal appearance of the fetal bowel on US and MRI as well as the typical presentations of bowel pathologies. We discuss more specifically the importance of recognizing on fetal MRI the abnormalities of size and T1-weighted signal of the meconium-filled distal bowel. (orig.)

  3. Fetal magnetocardiography: Methods for rapid data reduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosher, John C.; Flynn, Edward R.; Quinn, A.; Weir, A.; Shahani, U.; Bain, R. J. P.; Maas, P.; Donaldson, G. B.

    1997-03-01

    Fetal magnetocardigraphy (fMCG) provides a unique method for noninvasive observations of the fetal heart. Electrical currents generated by excitable tissues within the fetal heart yield measurable external magnetic fields. Measurements are performed with superconducting quantum interference devices inductively coupled to magnetometer or gradiometer coils, and the resulting signals are converted to digital form in the data acquisition system. The measured fields are usually contaminated by fetal and maternal movements (usually respiration), other physiological fields such as skeletal muscle contraction, the maternal cardiac signal, and environmental electromagnetic fields. Sensitivity to relatively distant sources, both physiological and environmental, is substantially reduced by the use of magnetic gradiometers. Other contaminants may be removed by proper signal conditioning which may be automatically applied using "black box" algorithms that are transparent to the user and highly efficient. These procedures can rapidly reduce the complex signal plus noise waveforms to the desired fMCG with minimal operator interference.

  4. Molecular pathophysiology of cerebral edema.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stokum, Jesse A; Gerzanich, Volodymyr; Simard, J Marc

    2016-03-01

    Advancements in molecular biology have led to a greater understanding of the individual proteins responsible for generating cerebral edema. In large part, the study of cerebral edema is the study of maladaptive ion transport. Following acute CNS injury, cells of the neurovascular unit, particularly brain endothelial cells and astrocytes, undergo a program of pre- and post-transcriptional changes in the activity of ion channels and transporters. These changes can result in maladaptive ion transport and the generation of abnormal osmotic forces that, ultimately, manifest as cerebral edema. This review discusses past models and current knowledge regarding the molecular and cellular pathophysiology of cerebral edema.

  5. Erythropoietin elevation in the chronically hyperglycemic fetal lamb

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Philipps, A.F. (Univ. of Connecticut Health Center, Farmington) Widness, J.A.; Garcia, J.F.; Raye, J.R.; Swartz, R.

    1982-05-01

    The effects of chronic fetal glucose infusion upon fetal oxygenation and endogenous erythropoietin (Ep) production were studied using the chronically catheterized fetal lamb. Fetal glucose infusion at rates between 5 and 20 mg/kg/min resulted in sustained fetal hyperglycemia. During glucose infusion (maximal glucose concentration achieved = 55.4 +/- 3.7 mg/dl) fetal arterial oxygen contents fell from 5.8 +/- 0.9 to 4.2 +/- 1.0 ml/dl while no changes were observed in simultaneously sampled, noninfused twins. Although plasma insulin concentration rose in the infused fetuses, the elevations were inconstant and no relationship between fetal plasma insulin concentration and decrement in fetal oxygen content was evident. The changes in plasma Ep concentration were noted prior to any significant fetal metabolic acidosis (as evidence of tissue hypoxia) and no changes in plasma Ep concentration were observed in simultaneously sampled noninfused twins. No relationship was apparent between fetal arterial plasma insulin and Ep concentrations. Since neither fetal anemia nor hemodilution occurred in these preparations, glucose-induced fetal hyposemia is the likely mechanism behind elevated fetal Ep concentrations in these experiments. Similarities between this animal model and human fetuses and infants of diabetic mothers suggest that chronic in utero hypoxemia may be a common feature responsible for such diverse abnomalities as polycythemia, hyperbilirubinemia, and late fetal demise. The mechanism behind the glucose-induced fetal hypoxemia is not known.

  6. Impact of Oxidative Stress in Fetal Programming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loren P. Thompson

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Intrauterine stress induces increased risk of adult disease through fetal programming mechanisms. Oxidative stress can be generated by several conditions, such as, prenatal hypoxia, maternal under- and overnutrition, and excessive glucocorticoid exposure. The role of oxidant molecules as signaling factors in fetal programming via epigenetic mechanisms is discussed. By linking oxidative stress with dysregulation of specific target genes, we may be able to develop therapeutic strategies that protect against organ dysfunction in the programmed offspring.

  7. Otitis media with effusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    OME; Secretory otitis media; Serous otitis media; Silent otitis media; Silent ear infection; Glue ear ... fluid drains from the tube and is swallowed. Otitis media with effusion (OME) and ear infections are ...

  8. The Use of Fetal Noninvasive Electrocardiography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakhno, Igor

    2016-01-01

    Preeclampsia (PE) is one of the severe complications of pregnancy that leads to fetal deterioration. The aim was to survey the validity of fetal distress diagnostics in case of Doppler ultrasonic umbilical vein and arteries blood flow velocity investigation and ECG parameters analysis obtained from maternal abdominal signal before labor in preeclamptic patients. Fetal noninvasive ECG and umbilical arterial and venous Doppler investigation were performed in 120 patients at 34-40 weeks of gestation. And 30 of them had physiological gestation and were involved in Group I. In Group II 52 pregnant women with mild-moderate PE were observed. 38 patients with severe PE were monitored in Group III. The most considerable negative correlation was determined in pair Apgar score 1 versus T/QRS (R = -0.50; p < 0.05). So the increased T/QRS ratio was the most evident marker of fetal distress. Fetal noninvasive ECG showed sensitivity of 96.6% and specificity of 98.4% and, therefore, was determined as more accurate method for fetal monitoring.

  9. Biomedical Instruments for Fetal and Neonatal Surveillance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rolfe, P [Oxford BioHorizons Ltd. (United Kingdom); Scopesi, F [Gaslini Institute, University of Genoa (Italy); Serra, G [Gaslini Institute, University of Genoa (Italy)

    2006-10-15

    Specialised instruments have been developed to aid the care of the fetus and the newborn baby. Miniature sensors using optical, electrical, chemical, mechanical and magnetic principles have been produced for capturing key measurands. These include temperature, pressure, flow and dimension, as well as several specific molecules such as glucose, oxygen and carbon dioxide. During pregnancy ultrasound imaging and blood flow techniques provide valuable information concerning fetal abnormalities, fetal growth, fetal breathing and fetal heart rate. Signal processing and pattern recognition can be useful for deriving indicators of fetal distress and clinical status, based on biopotentials as well as ultrasound signals. Fetal pH measurement is a critical requirement during labour and delivery. The intensive care of ill preterm babies involves provision of an optimal thermal environment and respiratory support. Monitoring of blood gas and acid-base status is essential, and this involves both blood sampling for in vitro analysis as well as the use of invasive or non-invasive sensors. For the future it will be vital that the technologies used are subjected to controlled trials to establish benefit or otherwise.

  10. Maternal feeding controls fetal biological clock.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hidenobu Ohta

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: It is widely accepted that circadian physiological rhythms of the fetus are affected by oscillators in the maternal brain that are coupled to the environmental light-dark (LD cycle. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: To study the link between fetal and maternal biological clocks, we investigated the effects of cycles of maternal food availability on the rhythms of Per1 gene expression in the fetal suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN and liver using a transgenic rat model whose tissues express luciferase in vitro. Although the maternal SCN remained phase-locked to the LD cycle, maternal restricted feeding phase-advanced the fetal SCN and liver by 5 and 7 hours respectively within the 22-day pregnancy. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results demonstrate that maternal feeding entrains the fetal SCN and liver independently of both the maternal SCN and the LD cycle. This indicates that maternal-feeding signals can be more influential for the fetal SCN and particular organ oscillators than hormonal signals controlled by the maternal SCN, suggesting the importance of a regular maternal feeding schedule for appropriate fetal molecular clockwork during pregnancy.

  11. The Use of Fetal Noninvasive Electrocardiography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor Lakhno

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Preeclampsia (PE is one of the severe complications of pregnancy that leads to fetal deterioration. The aim was to survey the validity of fetal distress diagnostics in case of Doppler ultrasonic umbilical vein and arteries blood flow velocity investigation and ECG parameters analysis obtained from maternal abdominal signal before labor in preeclamptic patients. Fetal noninvasive ECG and umbilical arterial and venous Doppler investigation were performed in 120 patients at 34–40 weeks of gestation. And 30 of them had physiological gestation and were involved in Group I. In Group II 52 pregnant women with mild-moderate PE were observed. 38 patients with severe PE were monitored in Group III. The most considerable negative correlation was determined in pair Apgar score 1 versus T/QRS (R=-0.50; p<0.05. So the increased T/QRS ratio was the most evident marker of fetal distress. Fetal noninvasive ECG showed sensitivity of 96.6% and specificity of 98.4% and, therefore, was determined as more accurate method for fetal monitoring.

  12. Aortic isthmus Doppler velocimetry: role in assessment of preterm fetal growth restriction.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Kennelly, M M

    2012-02-01

    Intrauterine fetal growth restriction (IUGR) is an important pregnancy complication associated with significant adverse clinical outcome, stillbirth, perinatal morbidity and cerebral palsy. To date, no uniformly accepted management protocol of Doppler surveillance that reduces mortality and cognitive morbidity has emerged. Aortic isthmus (AoI) evaluation has been proposed as a potential monitoring tool for IUGR fetuses. In this review, the current knowledge of the relationship between AoI Doppler velocimetry and preterm fetal growth restriction is reviewed. Relevant technical aspects and reproducibility data are reviewed as we discuss AoI Doppler and its place within the existing repertoire of Doppler assessments in placental insufficiency. The AoI is a link between the right and left ventricles which perfuse the lower and upper body, respectively. The clinical use of AoI waveforms for monitoring fetal deterioration in IUGR has been limited, but preliminary work suggests that abnormal AoI impedance indices are an intermediate step between placental insufficiency-hypoxemia and cardiac decompensation. Further prospective studies correlating AoI indices with arterial and venous Doppler indices and perinatal outcome are required before encorporating this index into clinical practice.

  13. Antenatal taurine supplementation for improving brain ultrastructure in fetal rats with intrauterine growth restriction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, J; Liu, L; Chen, H

    2011-05-05

    Changes in brain ultrastructure of fetal rats with intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) were explored and the effects of antenatal taurine supplementation on their brain ultrastructure were determined. Fifteen pregnant rats were randomly divided into three groups: control group, IUGR model group and IUGR group given antenatal taurine supplements. Taurine was added to the diet of the taurine group at a dose of 300 mg/kg/d from 12 days after conception until natural delivery. Transmission electron microscopy was used to observe ultrastructural changes in the brains of the newborn rats. At the same time, brain cellular apoptosis was detected using TUNEL, and the changes in protein expression of neuron specific enolase and glial fibrillary acidic protein were analyzed using immunohistochemistry. The results showed that: 1) The average body weight and cerebral weight were significantly lower in the IUGR group than in the control group (ptaurine was supplemented (ptaurine supplementation. 3) The results of TUNEL showed that the counts of apoptotic brain cells in IUGR groups were significantly increased from those in control groups and that taurine could significantly decrease brain cell apoptosis (ptaurine-supplementation could significantly increase the counts of neuron specific enolase and glial fibrillary acidic protein immunoreactive cells in fetal rats with IUGR (ptaurine can significantly improve the IUGR fetal brain development.

  14. Development of quantitative Doppler indices for uteroplacental and fetal blood flow during the third trimester.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joern, H; Funk, A; Goetz, M; Kuehlwein, H; Klein, A; Fendel, H

    1996-01-01

    The aim of our study was to describe the development of uteroplacental and fetal blood flow during the third trimester. Doppler examination was carried out on 393 uncomplicated pregnancies with uncomplicated term delivery. Using a pulsed color Doppler, we calculated the maximum systolic, mean and maximum end-diastolic velocity after correcting the angle of insonation. Patients under tocolysis or other medication influencing blood flow parameters were excluded from this cross-sectional study. Summarizing the results gained by Doppler ultrasound investigation of the uteroplacental and fetal blood vessels, we created quantiles as quantitative Doppler indices for the maximum systolic, mean (TAMX = time averaged maximum velocity) and maximum end-diastolic velocity. The following conclusions could be drawn: (1) resistance to the blood flow in the maternal portion of the placenta does not change during the third trimester; (2) resistance to the blood flow on the fetal side of the placenta decreases up to week 42 of gestation; (3) cerebral vascular resistance decreases constantly up to gestational week 42; and (4) vascular resistance to the blood flow of the kidney decreases only slightly during the third trimester. This study offers clinically important values for quantitative Doppler flow velocimetry for the first time. We hope that our findings improve the usefulness of Doppler ultrasound as a diagnostic tool in obstetrical management.

  15. Existence of vimentin and GFAP protein expressions as a result of 2-Methoxyethanol administration in cerebral cortex tissue of Swiss Webster mice (Mus musculus): an immunohistochemical analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irnidayanti, Yulia

    2014-07-01

    Une of the plastic-based materials widely used in the plastics industry in various countries is ester phthalate. This compound will be oxidized in the body into 2-methoxyethanol (2-ME). The effect of 2-ME on human health and environment depends on the number, duration and the frequency of exposure. Recently, the incidence of brain damage tends to increase. In the last decade, it has been widely reported the negative effects of chemical pollutants to the environment. The aim of this study were to know the existence of the expression of Vimentin and GFAP proteins caused by 2-ME on the histological structure of the cerebral cortex of mice fetal during the prenatal period on gestation day 14 (GD 14) and day 18 (GD 18). The 2-ME compound was injected intraperitoneally with a dose of 7.5 mmol kg(-1) of body weight at GD-10. The result showed that there is a change in existence Vimentin protein in the cerebral cortex fetal of treated mice at GD 14, which is very conspicuous. Meanwhile, a change in existence of GFAP protein in cerebral cortex fetal of treated mice at GD 14, have relatively no difference from controls and no impact on histological structure changes of the cerebral corteks at GD 14. The change in existence of Vimentin protein in the cerebral cortex fetal of treated mice at GD 14 have an impact on histological structure of the cerebral cortex of mice treated at GD 18. It is believed that the impact is due to the effects of 2-methoxyethanol.

  16. Cerebral small-resistance artery structure and cerebral blood flow in normotensive subjects and hypertensive patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Ciuceis, Carolina; Porteri, Enzo; Rizzoni, Damiano; Boari, Gianluca E.M.; Rosei, Enrico Agabiti [University of Brescia, Clinica Medica, Department of Clinical and Experimental Sciences, Brescia (Italy); Cornali, Claudio; Mardighian, Dikran; Fontanella, Marco M. [University of Brescia, Section of Neurosurgery, Department of Medical and Surgical Specialties, Radiological Sciences and Public Health, Brescia (Italy); Pinardi, Chiara [Spedali Civili, Medical Physics Unit, Brescia (Italy); University of Brescia, Section of Neuroradiology, Department of Medical and Surgical Specialties, Radiological Sciences and Public Health, Brescia (Italy); Rodella, Luigi F.; Rezzani, Rita [University of Brescia, Section of Anatomy, Department of Clinical and Experimental Sciences, Brescia (Italy); Gasparotti, Roberto [University of Brescia, Section of Neurosurgery, Department of Medical and Surgical Specialties, Radiological Sciences and Public Health, Brescia (Italy); University of Brescia, Section of Neuroradiology, Department of Medical and Surgical Specialties, Radiological Sciences and Public Health, Brescia (Italy)

    2014-12-15

    The aim of this study was to prospectively investigate whether the structure of cerebral small-resistance arteries is related to cerebral perfusion parameters as measured with dynamic susceptibility-weighted contrast magnetic resonance imaging (DSC-MRI) in a selected cohort of hypertensive and normotensive patients. Ten hypertensive and 10 normotensive patients were included in the study. All patients underwent neurosurgical intervention for an intracranial tumor and were investigated with DSC-MRI at 1.5 T. Cerebral small-resistance arteries were dissected from a small portion of morphologically normal cerebral tissue and mounted on an isometric myograph for the measurement of the media-to-lumen (M/L) ratio. A quantitative assessment of cerebral blood flow (CBF) and volume (CBV) was performed with a region-of-interest approach. Correlation coefficients were calculated for normally distributed variables. The institutional review board approved the study, and informed consent was obtained from all patients. Compared with normotensive subjects, hypertensive patients had significantly lower regional CBF (mL/100 g/min) in the cortical grey matter (55.63 ± 1.90 vs 58.37 ± 2.19, p < 0.05), basal ganglia (53.34 ± 4.39 vs 58.22. ± 4.33, p < 0.05), thalami (50.65 ± 3.23 vs 57.56 ± 4.45, p < 0.01), subcortical white matter (19.32 ± 2.54 vs 22.24 ± 1.9, p < 0.05), greater M/L ratio (0.099 ± 0.013 vs 0.085 ± 0.012, p < 0.05), and lower microvessel density (1.66 ± 0.67 vs 2.52 ± 1.28, p < 0.05). A statistically significant negative correlation was observed between M/L ratio of cerebral arteries and CBF in the cortical grey matter (r = -0.516, p < 0.05), basal ganglia (r = -0.521, p < 0.05), thalami (r = -0.527 p < 0.05), and subcortical white matter (r = -0.612, p < 0.01). Our results indicate that microvascular structure might play a role in controlling CBF, with possible clinical consequences. (orig.)

  17. Cerebral palsy: definition, assessment and rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, Carol L; Malouin, Francine

    2013-01-01

    Over the last 25 years the definition and classification of cerebral palsy (CP) have evolved, as well as the approach to rehabilitation. CP is a disorder of the development of movement and posture, causing activity limitations attributed to nonprogressive disturbances of the fetal or infant brain that may also affect sensation, perception, cognition, communication, and behavior. Motor control during reaching, grasping, and walking are disturbed by spasticity, dyskinesia, hyperreflexia, excessive coactivation of antagonist muscles, retained developmental reactions, and secondary musculoskeletal malformations, together with paresis and defective programing. Weakness and hypoextensibility of the muscles are due not only to inadequate recruitment of motor units, but also to changes in mechanical stresses and hormonal factors. Two methods, the General Movements Assessment and the Test of Infant Motor Performance, now permit the early detection of CP, while the development of valid and reliable outcome measures, particularly the Gross Motor Function Measure (GMFM), have made it possible to evaluate change over time and the effects of clinical interventions. The GMFM has further led to the development of predictive curves of motor function while the Gross Motor Classification System and the Manual Ability Classification System provide standardized means to classify the severity of the movement disability. With the emergence of the task-oriented approach, the focus of therapy in rehabilitation has shifted from eliminating deficits to enhancing function across all performance domains by emphasizing fitness, function, participation, and quality of life. There is growing evidence supporting selected interventions and interest for the therapy and social integration of adults with CP.

  18. Influência do Tabagismo no Sistema Vascular Materno-fetal: estudo com Dopplervelocimetria Effect of Cigarette Smoking on Maternal-fetal Blood Flow: Doppler Velocimetry Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilberto Rodrigues Pinto

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: avaliar a influência do tabagismo materno na dinâmica vascular materno-fetal, por meio da dopplervelocimetria obstétrica das artérias uterinas, umbilical e cerebral média. Métodos: estudo prospectivo em 42 gestantes saudáveis, sendo 20 fumantes e 22 não-fumantes. Foram realizadas ultra-sonografias para determinar o tempo de gestação e exame de dopplervelocimetria pulsátil das artérias uterinas, umbilical e cerebral média nas 24ª, 28ª, 32ª e 36ª semana para avaliar o fluxo vascular materno-fetal. As fumantes foram orientadas a não fumar por pelo menos 2 horas antes do exame. Resultados: o índice de resistência (IR médio das artérias uterinas D e E foi maior no grupo de fumantes na 36ª semana com média de 0,50 e desvio padrão de 0,034. O índice de pulsatilidade (IP da artéria umbilical foi maior no grupo de fumantes na 28ª semana [x (DP = 1,135 (0,182], p = 0,008; o IP da artéria cerebral média (ACM não se mostrou diferente entre os grupos, porém, a relação IP ACM/umbilical foi menor no grupo de fumantes, na 32ª semana [x (DP = 1,9 (0,291], p = 0,027 e na 36ª semana [x (DP = 1,850 (0,465], p = 0,014. Conclusões: os índices de dopplervelocimetria mostraram que no grupo de fumantes há aumento na resistência da circulação útero-placentária e feto-placentária, associado a concomitante diminuição na resistência da ACM, mimetizando uma tendência do tabagismo levar à hipóxia crônica do feto.Purpose: to evaluate the influence of cigarette smoking on uteroplacental, fetoplacental and fetal blood flow by obstetric Doppler velocimetry of the uterine, umbilical and middle cerebral arteries. Method: a prospective study with 42 healthy pregnant women, 20 of whom were smokers and 24 nonsmokers. Ultrasound was performed initially to determine the gestation time. The pregnant women next underwent pulsed and color Doppler velocimetry of the uterine, umbilical and middle cerebral arteries at the 24th, 28

  19. Media matters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, L M

    1995-01-01

    The impact of the mass media on woman's status was addressed at two 1995 conferences: the Fourth World Conference on Women, held in Beijing, China, and the Congress of the World Association for Christian Communication, held in Puebla, Mexico. The globalization process facilitated by the mass media has served to increase the power of patriarchy, with no advantages to the cause of women's rights. Coverage of popular movements has been suppressed out of deference to male-controlled governments. Coverage of the Beijing Conference highlighted celebrities and personal stories, to the exclusion of the economic and political issues under debate. Television has commodified women, reinforcing their oppression. On the other hand, the alternative media, which tend to be decentralized, democratic, low-cost, and low in technology, are presenting women as subjects rather than objects and deconstructing gender stereotypes. Of concern, however, is the tendency of computer technology to widen the gap between social classes and developed and developing countries. Women must use information networks to disseminate information on women's rights and strengthen the links between women throughout the world.

  20. Media Education Initiatives by Media Organizations: The Uses of Media Literacy in Hong Kong Media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Donna; Lee, Alice Y. L.

    2014-01-01

    As more media organizations have engaged in media education, this paper investigates the goals and practices of these activities. This article coins media education initiatives by media organizations with the term "media-organization media literac"y (MOML). Four MOML projects in Hong Kong were selected for examination. Built on critical…

  1. Fetal and neonatal endocrine disruptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unüvar, Tolga; Büyükgebiz, Atilla

    2012-06-01

    Endocrine disruptors are substances commonly encountered in every setting and condition in the modern world. It is virtually impossible to avoid the contact with these chemical compounds in our daily life. Molecules defined as endocrine disruptors constitute an extremely heterogeneous group and include synthetic chemicals used as industrial solvents/lubricants and their by-products. Natural chemicals found in human and animal food (phytoestrogens) also act as endocrine disruptors. Different from adults, children are not exposed only to chemical toxins in the environment but may also be exposed during their intrauterine life. Hundreds of toxic substances, which include neuro-immune and endocrine toxic chemical components that may influence the critical steps of hormonal, neurological and immunological development, may affect the fetus via the placental cord and these substances may be excreted in the meconium. Children and especially newborns are more sensitive to environmental toxins compared to adults. Metabolic pathways are immature, especially in the first months of life. The ability of the newborn to metabolize, detoxify and eliminate many toxins is different from that of the adults. Although exposures occur during fetal or neonatal period, their effects may sometimes be observed in later years. Further studies are needed to clarify the effects of these substances on the endocrine system and to provide evidence for preventive measures.

  2. Fetal echocardiography in ectopia cordis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Repondek-Liberska, M; Janiak, K; Wloch, A

    2000-01-01

    Ectopia cordis is an extremely rare congenital abnormality occurring in 5.5 to 7.9 per 1 million live births with high lethality. Between January 1995 and October 1997 eight cases of ectopia cordis were diagnosed at our institute before birth. On the basis of echocardiography the fetal heart anatomy was categorized as either normal heart anatomy (NHA; n = 3) or congenital heart defect (CHD; n = 5). In the majority of cases (seven of eight) other abnormalities were present. Some reports have described ectopia cordis being diagnosed in the first trimester of pregnancy. In our study group the average gestational age at diagnosis was 26 weeks. The prenatal diagnosis of isolated ectopia cordis is easy; counseling the patient, the perinatal management including term, place, and method of delivery, and optimal care of the newborn are more difficult. Ectopia cordis is a malformation that pediatricians rarely encounter, even at pediatric cardiology centers. Much more frequently it is a problem for sonographers and obstetricians; however, pediatric cardiologists should be aware of diagnostic algorithm for such cases, especially when additional abnormalities are present.

  3. Neurodevelopmental changes of fetal pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowery, Curtis L; Hardman, Mary P; Manning, Nirvana; Hall, R Whit; Anand, K J S; Clancy, Barbara

    2007-10-01

    Pain in the developing fetus is controversial because of the difficulty in measuring and interpreting pain during gestation. It has received increased attention lately because of recently introduced legislation that would require consideration of fetal pain during intentional termination of pregnancy. During development, sensory fibers are abundant by 20 weeks; a functional spinal reflex is present by 19 weeks; connections to the thalamus are present by 20 weeks; and connections to subplate neurons are present by 17 weeks with intensive differentiation by 25 weeks. These cells are important developmentally, but decline as a result of natural apoptosis. Mature thalamocortical projections are not present until 29 to 30 weeks, which has led many to believe the fetus does not experience emotional "pain" until then. Pain requires both nociception and emotional reaction or interpretation. Nociception causes physiologic stress, which in turn causes increases in catecholamines, cortisol, and other stress hormones. Physiological stress is different from the emotional pain felt by the more mature fetus or infant, and this stress is mitigated by pain medication such as opiates. The plasticity of the developing brain makes it vulnerable to the stressors that cause long-term developmental changes, ultimately leading to adverse neurological outcomes. Whereas evidence for conscious pain perception is indirect, evidence for the subconscious incorporation of pain into neurological development and plasticity is incontrovertible. Scientific data, not religious or political conviction, should guide the desperately needed research in this field. In the meantime, it seems prudent to avoid pain during gestation.

  4. Fetal MR imaging of posterior intracranial dural sinus thrombosis: a report of three cases with variable outcomes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Byrd, Sharon E.; Elias, Dean [Rush Medical College and Rush University Medical Center, Department of Diagnostic Radiology and Nuclear Medicine Section of Neuroradiology, Chicago, IL (United States); Abramowicz, Jacques S. [Rush Medical College and Rush University Medical Center, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Rush Fetal and Neonatal Medicine Center, Chicago, IL (United States); Kent, Paul [Rush Medical College and Rush University Medical Center, Department of Pediatrics, Division of Hematology and Oncology, Chicago, IL (United States); Kimura, Robert E. [Rush Medical College and Rush University Medical Center, Department of Pediatrics, Division of Neonatology, Chicago, IL (United States); Heydeman, Peter T. [Rush Medical College and Rush University Medical Center, Department of Pediatrics, Division of Pediatric Neurology, Chicago, IL (United States)

    2012-05-15

    Thrombosis of fetal intracranial dural sinuses is a rare entity. A specific type of midline dural sinus thrombosis (DST) at the torcular Herophili with extension into the superior sagittal sinus (SSS) was initially seen on fetal US and was referred to fetal MRI for definite diagnosis and better delineation. Retrospective comparison to medical literature of three cases, diagnosed at our institution, of midline fetal DST with MR imaging findings and clinical outcomes. We reviewed MRI findings on T2-weighted images of our three cases of fetal midline DST and clinical outcomes of these fetuses and compared our findings to medical literature. The MR imaging and clinical findings of our cases extend over 6 years. They consist of three pregnant women, 31-39 years of age each with a single fetus, with fetal MR imaging performed at different gestational ages (GA). Case 1 the MR imaging was performed at 21 5/7 weeks' GA, case 2 at 24 and 33 4/7 weeks' GA, and case 3 at 22 and 25 weeks' GA. Postnatal MRI was performed in case 2 at 6 months of life and case 3 at 1 day of life. Clinical follow-up occurred during the last 6 years. In all of our cases, T2-W MR imaging demonstrated ballooned midline torcular Herophili with iso- to hypointense mass with or without focal eccentric area of greater hypointensity occupying the torcular Herophili with extension into the SSS. Case 3 had associated leptomeningeal dural vascular malformation overlying the left cerebral hemisphere with development of migrational disorder in the left cerebral hemisphere. Clinical outcome consisted of fetal demise in case 1, normal postnatal outcome in case 2 and severe brain damage with poor postnatal outcome in case 3. Our findings of large iso-hypointense thrombus with or without a focal eccentric area more hypointense to thrombus in a dilated torcular Herophili with extension into the SSS on T2-W images corresponds to the majority of cases of this rare type of DST in the medical literature

  5. Continuous fetal tissue pH measurement in labor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, B K; Noumoff, J; Klein, S A; Katz, M

    1978-11-01

    Fifty-one women in labor had continuous monitoring of fetal scalp tissue pH, fetal heart rate by ECG, and uterine contractions. A miniature pH electrode secured by a double spiral fetal ECG electrode was used for measurement of fetal pH every 15 seconds. The results were correlated with fetal scalp blood pH values obtained simultaneously. Fetal scalp sampling is intermittent, requires repeated scalp incisions, is subject to errors due to air mixing and coagulation of the blood sample, and is uncomfortable for the parturient. Placement of the tissue pH electrode allows continuous data recording with the minimum discomfort to the patient and the least number of fetal scalp incisions. Clinical use of the tissue pH electrode might be a practical alternative to fetal scalp samples, if the data obtained accurately reflect fetal status.

  6. Evaluation of the fetal QT interval using non-invasive fetal ECG technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behar, Joachim; Zhu, Tingting; Oster, Julien; Niksch, Alisa; Mah, Douglas Y; Chun, Terrence; Greenberg, James; Tanner, Cassandre; Harrop, Jessica; Sameni, Reza; Ward, Jay; Wolfberg, Adam J; Clifford, Gari D

    2016-09-01

    Non-invasive fetal electrocardiography (NI-FECG) is a promising alternative continuous fetal monitoring method that has the potential to allow morphological analysis of the FECG. However, there are a number of challenges associated with the evaluation of morphological parameters from the NI-FECG, including low signal to noise ratio of the NI-FECG and methodological challenges for getting reference annotations and evaluating the accuracy of segmentation algorithms. This work aims to validate the measurement of the fetal QT interval in term laboring women using a NI-FECG electrocardiogram monitor. Fetal electrocardiogram data were recorded from 22 laboring women at term using the NI-FECG and an invasive fetal scalp electrode simultaneously. A total of 105 one-minute epochs were selected for analysis. Three pediatric electrophysiologists independently annotated individual waveforms and averaged waveforms from each epoch. The intervals measured on the averaged cycles taken from the NI-FECG and the fetal scalp electrode showed a close agreement; the root mean square error between all corresponding averaged NI-FECG and fetal scalp electrode beats was 13.6 ms, which is lower than the lowest adult root mean square error of 16.1 ms observed in related adult QT studies. These results provide evidence that NI-FECG technology enables accurate extraction of the fetal QT interval.

  7. Hyperventilation, cerebral perfusion, and syncope

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Immink, R V; Pott, F C; Secher, N H

    2014-01-01

    dioxide (PaCO2) and oxygen (PaO2) partial pressures so that hypercapnia/hypoxia increases and hypocapnia/hyperoxia reduces global cerebral blood flow. Cerebral hypoperfusion and TLOC have been associated with hypocapnia related to HV. Notwithstanding pronounced cerebrovascular effects of PaCO2...

  8. Resting cerebral blood flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ances, B M.; Sisti, D; Vaida, F; Liang, C L.; Leontiev, O; Perthen, J E.; Buxton, R B.; Benson, D; Smith, D M.; Little, S J.; Richman, D D.; Moore, D J.; Ellis, R J.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: HIV enters the brain soon after infection causing neuronal damage and microglial/astrocyte dysfunction leading to neuropsychological impairment. We examined the impact of HIV on resting cerebral blood flow (rCBF) within the lenticular nuclei (LN) and visual cortex (VC). Methods: This cross-sectional study used arterial spin labeling MRI (ASL-MRI) to measure rCBF within 33 HIV+ and 26 HIV− subjects. Nonparametric Wilcoxon rank sum test assessed rCBF differences due to HIV serostatus. Classification and regression tree (CART) analysis determined optimal rCBF cutoffs for differentiating HIV serostatus. The effects of neuropsychological impairment and infection duration on rCBF were evaluated. Results: rCBF within the LN and VC were significantly reduced for HIV+ compared to HIV− subjects. A 2-tiered CART approach using either LN rCBF ≤50.09 mL/100 mL/min or LN rCBF >50.09 mL/100 mL/min but VC rCBF ≤37.05 mL/100 mL/min yielded an 88% (29/33) sensitivity and an 88% (23/26) specificity for differentiating by HIV serostatus. HIV+ subjects, including neuropsychologically unimpaired, had reduced rCBF within the LN (p = 0.02) and VC (p = 0.001) compared to HIV− controls. A temporal progression of brain involvement occurred with LN rCBF significantly reduced for both acute/early (<1 year of seroconversion) and chronic HIV-infected subjects, whereas rCBF in the VC was diminished for only chronic HIV-infected subjects. Conclusion: Resting cerebral blood flow (rCBF) using arterial spin labeling MRI has the potential to be a noninvasive neuroimaging biomarker for assessing HIV in the brain. rCBF reductions that occur soon after seroconversion possibly reflect neuronal or vascular injury among HIV+ individuals not yet expressing neuropsychological impairment. GLOSSARY AEH = acute/early HIV infection; ANOVA = analysis of variance; ASL-MRI = arterial spin labeling MRI; CART = classification and regression tree; CBF = cerebral blood flow; CH = chronic HIV

  9. The number of fetal cells in maternal blood is associated to exercise and fetal gender

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schlütter, Jacob Mørup; Kirkegaard, Ida; Christensen, Connie Britta;

    were then stained with a cocktail of fetal cell-specific antibodies, identified and counted. Results: Participants carrying male fetuses had higher median number of fcmbs per 30 mL blood than those carrying female fetuses (5 vs. 3, p=0.004). Exercise within 3 hours (1.5 vs. 4, p=0.02) and 24 hours (2......Introduction: We have established a robust method to specifically identify and isolate a placental fetal cell in maternal blood (fcmbs) at a gestational age of 12 weeks. The concentration of these cells, however, varies considerably among pregnant women (median 3 fcmbs/30 mL blood, range 0...... activity was obtained by a questionnaire and a structured interview. The number of fcmbs was assessed in 30 mL blood processed by a proprietary method developed in-house. Fetal cells in the blood, binding to fetal cell specific antibodies, were initially isolated by magnetic cell sorting. The fetal cells...

  10. FETAL ECHOCARDIOGRAPHY: A STUDY OF CLINICAL OUTCOME

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajanish

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND : S tructural abnormalities of the heart and great vessels are fairly common congenital lab normalities with the incidenceof8 in 1000 live births. With the advent of real time scanners fetal cardia can atomy can be analyze d echocardiographically. The earlier diagnosis will make an impact on clinical management of fetus with congenital heart disease. It helps intimely triage and optimal management of specific congenital heart disease either structural , functional orarrhythmia . OBJECTIVES : This study was conducted to note the spectrum of congenital heart diseases detected on fetal echo in pregnant mothers referred with high risk for CHD sand to assess the outcome of prenatally detected congenital heart diseases. MATERIAL S AND METHODS : T he study is aprospective descriptive study conducted in a tertiary care pediatric hospital in Mumbai over period of one year . P regnant mothers were referred for fetal echo , where pregnancy was considered as high risk for CHDs due to maternal , fetalfactorsorabnormallevel 1 scan.Fetal echowas performed by a trained pediatric cardiologistat 18 to 20 week of gestation using HP sonos 2000 echocardiographicmachinewith3/3.5 Hz transducer. Cardiac lesionsandoutcome of pregnancy was noted by postnatal follow - up of patients. RESULTS : A total of 170 patients underwent fetal echo , 13 patients have not delivered and 48 were lost to follow - up. Fetal echo was normal in 130(76.4% and abnormalities were detected in 40(23.5%.Structural anomalies were seen in 24(14.1% , arrhythmia in 5(2.9% and functional abnormalities in 11(6.4%.On outcome analysis84 (77.1% arealive , IUD /terminationof pregnancyoccurred in 18(16.5% , neonatal death in 6 (5.5% , infant death in 1 (0.9%. CONCLUSIONS : All ranges of CHDs can be diagnosed by fetal echocardiography . O utcome of prenatally detected complex congenital heart disease is poor ; nonetheless earlier detection provides a n opportunity for early interventions and

  11. [Biomechanical characteristics of human fetal membranes. Preterm fetal membranes are stronger than term fetal membranes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rangaswamy, N; Abdelrahim, A; Moore, R M; Uyen, L; Mercer, B M; Mansour, J M; Kumar, D; Sawady, J; Moore, J J

    2011-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the biomechanical characteristics of human fetal membranes (FM) throughout gestation. Biomechanical properties were determined for 115 FM of 23-41 weeks gestation using our previously described methodology. The areas of membrane immediately adjacent to the strongest and weakest tested spots were sampled for histomorphometric analysis. Clinical data on the patients whose FM were examined were also collected. FM less than 28 weeks gestation were associated with higher incidence of abruption and chorioamnionitis. Topographically FM at all gestations had heterogeneous biomechanical characteristics over their surfaces with distinct weak areas. The most premature membranes were the strongest. FM strength represented by rupture force and work to rupture decreased with increasing gestation in both weak and strong regions of FM. This decrease in FM strength was most dramatic at more than 38 weeks gestation. The FM component amnion-chorion sublayers were thinner in the weak areas compared to strong areas. Compared to term FM, preterm FM are stronger but have similar heterogeneous weak and strong areas. Following a gradual increase in FM weakness with increasing gestation, there is a major drop-off at term 38 weeks gestation. The FM weak areas are thinner than the stronger areas. Whether the difference in thickness is enough to account for the strength differences is unknown.

  12. Boy or Girl? Maternal Psychological Correlates of Knowing Fetal Sex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotila, Letitia E; Schoppe-Sullivan, Sarah J; Kamp Dush, Claire M

    2014-10-01

    Ultrasound provides a reliable, convenient way to determine fetal sex, but not all expectant mothers pursue this knowledge. We used logistic regression to investigate whether maternal personality, parenting perfectionism, and gender role beliefs were associated with knowing fetal sex in a recent sample of first-time expectant mothers. We also tested whether conscientiousness and extraversion moderated the association between gender role beliefs and knowing fetal sex. Mothers who were more open to experience were less likely to know fetal sex, whereas mothers high in parenting perfectionism were more likely to know fetal sex. Conscientious mothers who espoused more egalitarian gender role beliefs were less likely to know fetal sex.

  13. Social Attitudes toward Cerebral Palsy and Potential Uses in Medical Education Based on the Analysis of Motion Pictures

    OpenAIRE

    Marek Jóźwiak; Brian Po-Jung Chen; Bartosz Musielak; Jacek Fabiszak; Andrzej Grzegorzewski

    2015-01-01

    This study presents how motion pictures illustrate a person with cerebral palsy (CP), the social impact from the media, and the possibility of cerebral palsy education by using motion pictures. 937 motion pictures were reviewed in this study. With the criteria of nondocumentary movies, possibility of disability classification, and availability, the total number of motion pictures about CP was reduced to 34. The geographical distribution of movie number ever produced is as follows: North Ameri...

  14. Maternal obesity affects fetal neurodevelopmental and metabolic gene expression: a pilot study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea G Edlow

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: One in three pregnant women in the United States is obese. Their offspring are at increased risk for neurodevelopmental and metabolic morbidity. Underlying molecular mechanisms are poorly understood. We performed a global gene expression analysis of mid-trimester amniotic fluid cell-free fetal RNA in obese versus lean pregnant women. METHODS: This prospective pilot study included eight obese (BMI≥30 and eight lean (BMI<25 women undergoing clinically indicated mid-trimester genetic amniocentesis. Subjects were matched for gestational age and fetal sex. Fetuses with abnormal karyotype or structural anomalies were excluded. Cell-free fetal RNA was extracted from amniotic fluid and hybridized to whole genome expression arrays. Genes significantly differentially regulated in 8/8 obese-lean pairs were identified using paired t-tests with the Benjamini-Hochberg correction (false discovery rate of <0.05. Biological interpretation was performed with Ingenuity Pathway Analysis and the BioGPS gene expression atlas. RESULTS: In fetuses of obese pregnant women, 205 genes were significantly differentially regulated. Apolipoprotein D, a gene highly expressed in the central nervous system and integral to lipid regulation, was the most up-regulated gene (9-fold. Apoptotic cell death was significantly down-regulated, particularly within nervous system pathways involving the cerebral cortex. Activation of the transcriptional regulators estrogen receptor, FOS, and STAT3 was predicted in fetuses of obese women, suggesting a pro-estrogenic, pro-inflammatory milieu. CONCLUSION: Maternal obesity affects fetal neurodevelopmental and metabolic gene expression as early as the second trimester. These findings may have implications for postnatal neurodevelopmental and metabolic abnormalities described in the offspring of obese women.

  15. Animal Models of Cerebral Palsy: Hypoxic Brain Injury in the Newborn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Daniel WILSON

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available How to Cite This Article: Wilson MD. Animal Models of Cerebral Palsy: Hypoxic Brain Injury in the Newborn. Iran J Child Neurol. Spring2015; 9(2:9-16.AbstractObjectiveHypoxic insults are implicated in the spectrum of fetal disorders, including cerebral palsy (CP. In view of the major contribution of intrapartum risk factors and prematurity to subsequent neurological morbidity and mortality in humans, this study aimed to clarify the pathophysiology of brain injury, especially periventricular white matter damage (WMD, that occur in utero to the immature and near-term fetal CNS.Materials & MethodsAn evaluation of the resulting neurological and behavioural phenotype in the newborn was performed by utilising a battery of neurobehavioural tests, including the Morris water-maze and the open-field test, followed by cerebral MRI and histopathology.ResultsThis study used a murine model to examine the deleterious effects of WMD brought about by cerebral hypoxia-ischemia (HI and the characteristic features of CP in mice. Murine models have proven themselves valuable in the area of experimental neuroscience.Conclusion Hypoxia-treated mice were observed to demonstrate a significant neurofunctional deficit compared with sham mice on two behavioral measures. Indeed, different brain regions, including the sensorimotor cortex, the striatum, and the hippocampus were noticeably damaged after HI insult, as determined by both MRI and histopathology. These results, albeit qualitative in nature, appear to support the pre-existing finding that the long-term neurofunctional outcome in animal subjects with CP is strongly associated with the anatomical extent and pattern of cerebral damage as determined by both delayed neuroimaging and histopathology.

  16. Cerebral sinus venous thrombosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hernando Raphael Alvis-Miranda

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Cerebral sinus venous thrombosis (CSVT is a rare phenomenon that can be seen with some frequency in young patients. CSVT is a multifactorial condition with gender-related specific causes, with a wide clinical presentation, the leading causes differ between developed and developing countries, converting CSVT in a condition characterized by a highly variable clinical spectra, difficult diagnosis, variable etiologies and prognosis that requires fine medical skills and a high suspicious index. Patients who presents with CSVT should underwent to CT-scan venography (CVT and to the proper inquiry of the generating cause. This disease can affect the cerebral venous drainage and related anatomical structure. The symptoms may appear in relation to increased intracranial pressure imitating a pseudotumorcerebri. Prognosis depends on the early detection. Correcting the cause, generally the complications can be prevented. Mortality trends have diminished, and with the new technologies, surely it will continue. This work aims to review current knowledge about CSVT including its pathogenesis, etiology, clinical manifestations, diagnosis, and treatment.

  17. Cerebral imaging in pediatrics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gordon, I. [London, Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children (United Kingdom)

    1998-06-01

    Radioisotope brain imaging has focused mainly on regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF). However the use of ligand which go to specific receptor sites is being introduced in pediatrics, mainly psychiatry. rCBF is potentially available in many institutions, especially with the availability of multi-headed gamma cameras. The use of this technique in pediatrics requires special attention to detail in the manner of data acquisition and handling the child. The interpretation of the rCBF study in a child requires knowledge of normal brain maturation. The major clinical use in pediatrics is epilepsy because of the advances in surgery and the frequency of complex partial seizures. Other indications in pediatric neurology include brain death, acute neurological loss including stroke, language disorders, cerebral palsy, hypertension due to renovascular disease, traumatic brain injury and migraine. There are pediatric physiological conditions in which rCBF has been undertaken, these include anorexia nervosa, autism, Gilles de la Tourette syndrome (GTS) and attention deficit disorder-hyperactivity (ADHD). Research using different ligands to specific receptor sites will also be reviewed in pediatrics.

  18. Cerebral cartography and connectomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sporns, Olaf

    2015-05-19

    Cerebral cartography and connectomics pursue similar goals in attempting to create maps that can inform our understanding of the structural and functional organization of the cortex. Connectome maps explicitly aim at representing the brain as a complex network, a collection of nodes and their interconnecting edges. This article reflects on some of the challenges that currently arise in the intersection of cerebral cartography and connectomics. Principal challenges concern the temporal dynamics of functional brain connectivity, the definition of areal parcellations and their hierarchical organization into large-scale networks, the extension of whole-brain connectivity to cellular-scale networks, and the mapping of structure/function relations in empirical recordings and computational models. Successfully addressing these challenges will require extensions of methods and tools from network science to the mapping and analysis of human brain connectivity data. The emerging view that the brain is more than a collection of areas, but is fundamentally operating as a complex networked system, will continue to drive the creation of ever more detailed and multi-modal network maps as tools for on-going exploration and discovery in human connectomics.

  19. Cerebral sinus venous thrombosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvis-Miranda, Hernando Raphael; Milena Castellar-Leones, Sandra; Alcala-Cerra, Gabriel; Rafael Moscote-Salazar, Luis

    2013-01-01

    Cerebral sinus venous thrombosis (CSVT) is a rare phenomenon that can be seen with some frequency in young patients. CSVT is a multifactorial condition with gender-related specific causes, with a wide clinical presentation, the leading causes differ between developed and developing countries, converting CSVT in a condition characterized by a highly variable clinical spectra, difficult diagnosis, variable etiologies and prognosis that requires fine medical skills and a high suspicious index. Patients who presents with CSVT should underwent to CT-scan venography (CVT) and to the proper inquiry of the generating cause. This disease can affect the cerebral venous drainage and related anatomical structure. The symptoms may appear in relation to increased intracranial pressure imitating a pseudotumorcerebri. Prognosis depends on the early detection. Correcting the cause, generally the complications can be prevented. Mortality trends have diminished, and with the new technologies, surely it will continue. This work aims to review current knowledge about CSVT including its pathogenesis, etiology, clinical manifestations, diagnosis, and treatment. PMID:24347950

  20. Association between maternal-fetal genetic histocompatibility and maternal undernutrition in mice: influence on intrauterine growth Associação entre histocompatibilidade genética materno-fetal e desnutrição materna em camundongos: influência no crescimento fetal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celso M. Rebello

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of maternal-fetal genetic histocompatibility and the association of that condition with maternal undernutrition regarding fetal growth and litter size. STUDY DESIGN: Fetuses that were either syngeneic or allogeneic with the mothers were bred, using mice of well-defined syngeneic strains (A/J and Balb/c. Pregnant mice were fed using either unrestricted normal diet with 22% protein, consumed ad libitum, or a diet containing 14% protein, with intake restricted to 70% of that consumed by the unrestricted group. At the end of gestation, the number of fetoplacental units and fetal losses, the fetal and placental weight, and the weights of fetal brain and liver were recorded. RESULTS: Fetuses from undernourished mothers showed a reduction in body, placental, and brain weight (P OBJETIVO: Avaliar os efeitos da histocompatibilidade genética materno-fetal e sua associação com a desnutrição materna em relação ao crescimento fetal e número de fetos. MÉTODOS: Fetos singênicos ou alogênicos em relação às respectivas mães foram obtidos através de cruzamentos de camundongos com linhagens genéticas bem definidas (A/J e Balb/c. As fêmeas grávidas foram alimentadas ad libitum com dieta normal contendo 22% de proteínas ou dieta com restrição, contendo 14% de proteína e aporte máximo de 70% do total consumido pelo grupo em dieta livre. No final da gestação, o número de unidades feto-placentárias e de perdas fetais, o peso da placenta e do feto, assim como o peso do cérebro e do fígado foram anotados. RESULTADOS: Os fetos das mães submetidas à desnutrição mostraram redução no peso corpóreo, placentário e cerebral (p<0.01, sendo que a associação entre a compatibilidade genética materno-fetal resultou em maior restrição ao crescimento fetal (p<0.01. Foi observada uma redução no número de fetos viáveis por fêmea entre os animais do grupo de restri

  1. Recent advances in fetal gene therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckley, Suzanne M K; Rahim, Ahad A; Chan, Jerry K Y; David, Anna L; Peebles, Donald M; Coutelle, Charles; Waddingtont, Simon N

    2011-04-01

    Over the first decade of this new millennium gene therapy has demonstrated clear clinical benefits in several diseases for which conventional medicine offers no treatment. Clinical trials of gene therapy for single gene disorders have recruited predominantly young patients since older subjects may have suffered irrevocablepathological changes or may not be available because the disease is lethal relatively early in life. The concept of fetal gene therapy is an extension of this principle in that diseases in which irreversible changes occur at or beforebirth can be prevented by gene supplementation or repair in the fetus or associated maternal tissues. This article ccnsiders the enthusiasm and skepticism held for fetal gene therapy and its potential for clinical application. It coversa spectrum of candidate diseases for fetal gene therapy including Pompe disease, Gaucher disease, thalassemia, congenital protein C deficiency and cystic fibrosis. It outlines successful and not-so-successful examples of fetal gene therapy in animal models. Finally the application and potential of fetal gene transfer as a fundamental research tool for developmental biology and generation of somatic transgenic animals is surveyed.

  2. Adjustable fetal phantom for pulse oximetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stubán, Norbert; Niwayama, Masatsugu

    2009-05-01

    As the measuring head of a fetal pulse oximeter must be attached to the head of the fetus inside the mother's uterus during labor, testing, and developing of fetal pulse oximeters in real environment have several difficulties. A fetal phantom could enable evaluation of pulse oximeters in a simulated environment without the restrictions and difficultness of medical experiments in the labor room. Based on anatomic data we developed an adjustable fetal head phantom with three different tissue layers and artificial arteries. The phantom consisted of two arteries with an inner diameter of 0.2 and 0.4 mm. An electronically controlled pump produced pulse waves in the arteries. With the phantom we investigated the sensitivity of a custom-designed wireless pulse oximeter at different pulsation intensity and artery diameters. The results showed that the oximeter was capable of identifying 4% and 2% changes in diameter between the diastolic and systolic point in arteries of over 0.2 and 0.4 mm inner diameter, respectively. As the structure of the phantom is based on reported anatomic values, the results predict that the investigated custom-designed wireless pulse oximeter has sufficient sensitivity to detect the pulse waves and to calculate the R rate on the fetal head.

  3. Cerebral Endothelial Function Determined by Cerebrovascular Reactivity to L-Arginine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janja Pretnar-Oblak

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Endothelium forms the inner cellular lining of blood vessels and plays an important role in many physiological functions including the control of vasomotor tone. Cerebral endothelium is probably one of the most specific types but until recently it was impossible to determine its function. In this review, the role of cerebrovascular reactivity to L-arginine (CVR-L-Arg for assessment of cerebral endothelial function is discussed. L-Arginine induces vasodilatation through enhanced production of nitric oxide (NO in the cerebral endothelium. Transcranial Doppler sonography is used for evaluation of cerebral blood flow changes. The method is noninvasive, inexpensive, and enables reproducible measurements. CVR-L-Arg has been compared to flow-mediated dilatation as a gold standard for systemic endothelial function and intima-media thickness as a marker for morphological changes. However, it seems to show specific cerebral endothelial function. So far CVR-L-Arg has been used to study cerebral endothelial function in many pathological conditions such as stroke, migraine, etc. In addition CVR-L-Arg has also proven its usefulness in order to show potential improvement after pharmacological interventions. In conclusion CVR-L-Arg is a promising noninvasive research method that could provide means for evaluation of cerebral endothelial function in physiological and pathological conditions.

  4. Maternal Nodal inversely affects NODAL and STOX1 expression in the fetal placenta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hari Krishna Thulluru

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Nodal, a secreted signaling protein from the TGFβ-super family plays a vital role during early embryonic development. Recently, it was found that maternal decidua-specific Nodal knockout mice show intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR and preterm birth. As the chromosomal location of NODAL is in the same linkage area as the susceptibility gene STOX1, associated with the familial form of early-onset, IUGR-complicated pre-eclampsia, their potential maternal-fetal interaction was investigated. Pre-eclamptic mothers with children who carried the STOX1 susceptibility allele themselves all carried the NODAL H165R SNP, which causes a 50% reduced activity. Surprisingly, in decidua Nodal knockout mice the fetal placenta showed up-regulation of STOX1 and NODAL expression. Conditioned media of human first trimester decidua and a human endometrial stromal cell line (T-HESC treated with siRNAs against NODAL or carrying the H165R SNP were also able to induce NODAL and STOX1 expression when added to SGHPL-5 first trimester extravillous trophoblast cells. Finally, a human TGFß-BMP-Signaling-Pathway PCR-Array on decidua and the T-HESC cell line with Nodal knockdown revealed upregulation of Activin-A, which was confirmed in conditioned media by ELISA. We show that maternal decidua Nodal knockdown gives upregulation of NODAL and STOX1 mRNA expression in fetal extravillous trophoblast cells, potentially via upregulation of Activin-A in the maternal decidua. As both Activin-A and Nodal have been implicated in pre-eclampsia, being increased in serum of pre-eclamptic women and upregulated in pre-eclamptic placentas respectively, this interaction at the maternal-fetal interface might play a substantial role in the development of pre-eclampsia.

  5. Cerebrovascular hemodynamics in patients with cerebral arteriosclerosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jianbo Yang; Changcong Cui; Chengbin Wu

    2011-01-01

    The present study observed hemodynamic changes in 26 patients with cerebral arteriosclerosis using a cerebral circulation dynamics detector and transcranial Doppler.In patients with cerebral arteriosclerosis the blood supply and flow rate in the bilateral carotid arteries and the blood flow rate in the anterior cerebral and middle cerebral arteries were similar to normal controls, but the cerebral vascular resistance, critical pressure and pulsatility index were increased, and cerebral arterial elasticity and cerebral blood flow autoregulation were decreased.Compared with the lesioned hemisphere of patients with cerebral infarction, the total blood supply and blood flow rate of patients with cerebral arteriosclerosis were higher.Compared with normal subjects, patients with cerebral arteriosclerosis exhibited cognitive disturbances, mainly in short-term memory, attention, abstract capability, and spatial and executive dysfunction.Results showed that cerebral arteriosclerosis does not directly affect the blood supply of a cerebral hemisphere, but affects cognitive function.The increased cerebral vascular resistance and reduced autoregulation of cerebral blood vessels may be important hemodynamic mechanisms of arteriosclerosis-induced cerebral infarction.

  6. Vascular risk factors, atherosclerosis, cerebral white matter lesions and cerebral perfusion in a population-based study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Claus, J.J. [Dept. of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Erasmus Univ. Medical School, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Breteler, M.M.B. [Dept. of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Erasmus Univ. Medical School, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Hasan, D. [Dept. of Neurology, Univ. Hospital Rotterdam Dijkzigt, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Krenning, E.P. [Dept. of Nuclear Medicine, Univ. Hospital Rotterdam Dijkzigt, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Bots, M.L. [Dept. of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Erasmus Univ. Medical School, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Grobbee, D.E. [Dept. of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Erasmus Univ. Medical School, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Swieten, J.C. van [Dept. of Neurology, Univ. Hospital Rotterdam Dijkzigt, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Harskamp, F. van [Dept. of Neurology, Univ. Hospital Rotterdam Dijkzigt, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Hofman, A. [Dept. of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Erasmus Univ. Medical School, Rotterdam (Netherlands)

    1996-06-01

    We studied risk factors for cerebral vascular disease (blood pressure and hypertension, factor VIIc, factor VIIIc, fibrinogen), indicators of atherosclerosis (intima-media thickness and plaques in the carotid artery) and cerebral white matter lesions in relation to regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) in 60 persons (aged 65-85 years) recruited from a population-based study. rCBF was assessed with single-photon emission tomography using technetium-99m d,l-hexamethylpropylene amine oxime ({sup 99m}Tc-HMPAO). Statistical analysis was performed with multiple linear regression with adjustment for age, sex and ventricle-to-brain ratio. A significant positive association was found between systolic and diastolic blood pressure and temporo-parietal rCBF. In analysis with quartiles of the distribution, we found a threshold effect for the relation of low diastolic blood pressure ({<=}60 mmHg) and low temporo-parietal rCBF. Levels of plasma fibrinogen were inversely related to parietal rCBF, with a threshold effect of high fibrinogen levels (>3.2 g/l) and low rCBF. Increased atherosclerosis was related to low rCBF in all cortical regions, but these associations were not significant. No consistent relation was observed between severity of cerebral white matter lesions and rCBF. Our results may have implications for blood pressure control in the elderly population. (orig.)

  7. Fetal stromal niches enhance human embryonic stem cell-derived hematopoietic differentiation and globin switch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, King Yiu; Fong, Benny Shu Pan; Tsang, Kam Sze; Lau, Tze Kin; Ng, Pak Cheung; Lam, Audrey Carmen; Chan, Kathy Yuen Yee; Wang, Chi Chiu; Kung, Hsiang Fu; Li, Chi Kong; Li, Karen

    2011-01-01

    Hematopoiesis during mammalian embryonic development has been perceived as a migratory phenomenon, from the yolk sac blood island to the aorta-gonad-mesonephros (AGM) region, fetal liver (FL), and subsequently, the fetal bone marrow. In this study, we investigated the effects of primary stromal cells from fetal hematopoietic niches and their conditioned media (CM), applied singly or in sequential orders, on induction of human embryonic stem cells, H1, H9, and H14 lines, to hematopoietic cells. Our results demonstrated that stromal support of FL, AGM + FL, and AGM + FL + fetal bone marrow significantly increased the proliferation of embryoid bodies (EB) at day 18 of hematopoietic induction in the presence of thrombopoietin, stem cell factor, and Flt-3 ligand. AGM + FL also increased hematopoietic colony-forming unit (CFU) formation. CM did not enhance EB proliferation but CM of FL and AGM + FL significantly increased the density of total CFU and early erythroid (burst-forming unit) progenitors. Increased commitment to the hematopoietic lineage was demonstrated by enhanced expressions of CD45, alpha-, beta-, and gamma-globins in CFU at day 32, compared with EB at day 18. CM of FL significantly increased these globin expressions, indicating enhanced switches from embryonic to fetal and adult erythropoiesis. Over 50% and 10% of cells derived from CFU expressed CD45 and beta-globin proteins, respectively. Expressions of hematopoietic regulatory genes (Bmi-1, β-Catenin, Hox B4, GATA-1) were increased in EB or CFU cultures supported by FL or sequential CM. Our study has provided a strategy for derivation of hematopoietic cells from embryonic stem cells under the influence of primary hematopoietic niches and CM, particularly the FL.

  8. CEREBRAL PALSY AND MUSIC ACHIEVEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miodrag L. STOSHLJEVIKJ

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Pupils with cerebral palsy attend elementary education accordind to a regular and special teaching plan and program. Regular school curriculum was reformed in 1992, while special plan and program has not been changed and adapted according to pupil’s needs and capacities. Music is one of the best means of expressing oneself and plays a very important role in the development of every child, the child with cerebral palsy in particular.In order to test the possibility of pupils with cerebral palsy, with and without mental retardation, to apprehend the actual program content, we have conducted research on musical achievement of children with cerebral palsy. During 2007 a research was carried out, on the sample of 27 pupils with cerebral palsy and mild mental retardation who attended classes in the school “Miodrag Matikj”, and a sample of16 students with cerebral palsy without mental retardation who attended the school “Dr. Dragan Hercog” in Belgrade.Results of the research, as well as analysis of music curriculum content, indicated that the capacities of students with cerebral palsy to carry out the curriculum tasks require special approach and methodology. Therefore, we introduced some proposals to overcome the difficulties in fulfilling music curriculum demands of those pupils. We made special emphasis on the use of computer based Assistive technology which facilitates the whole process to a large extent.

  9. Automatic real-time tracking of fetal mouth in fetoscopic video sequence for supporting fetal surgeries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Rong; Xie, Tianliang; Ohya, Jun; Zhang, Bo; Sato, Yoshinobu; Fujie, Masakatsu G.

    2013-03-01

    Recently, a minimally invasive surgery (MIS) called fetoscopic tracheal occlusion (FETO) was developed to treat severe congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH) via fetoscopy, by which a detachable balloon is placed into the fetal trachea for preventing pulmonary hypoplasia through increasing the pressure of the chest cavity. This surgery is so dangerous that a supporting system for navigating surgeries is deemed necessary. In this paper, to guide a surgical tool to be inserted into the fetal trachea, an automatic approach is proposed to detect and track the fetal face and mouth via fetoscopic video sequencing. More specifically, the AdaBoost algorithm is utilized as a classifier to detect the fetal face based on Haarlike features, which calculate the difference between the sums of the pixel intensities in each adjacent region at a specific location in a detection window. Then, the CamShift algorithm based on an iterative search in a color histogram is applied to track the fetal face, and the fetal mouth is fitted by an ellipse detected via an improved iterative randomized Hough transform approach. The experimental results demonstrate that the proposed automatic approach can accurately detect and track the fetal face and mouth in real-time in a fetoscopic video sequence, as well as provide an effective and timely feedback to the robot control system of the surgical tool for FETO surgeries.

  10. The relationship between maternal and fetal vitamin D, insulin resistance, and fetal growth.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Walsh, Jennifer M

    2013-05-01

    Evidence for a role of vitamin D in maintaining normal glucose homeostasis is inconclusive. We sought to clarify the relationship between maternal and fetal insulin resistance and vitamin D status. This is a prospective cohort study of 60 caucasian pregnant women. Concentrations of 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25-OHD), glucose, insulin, and leptin were measured in early pregnancy and at 28 weeks. Ultrasound at 34 weeks assessed fetal anthropometry including abdominal wall width, a marker of fetal adiposity. At delivery birth weight was recorded and fetal 25-OHD, glucose, C-peptide, and leptin measured in cord blood. Insulin resistance was calculated using the Homeostasis Model Assessment (HOMA) equation. We found that those with lower 25-OHD in early pregnancy had higher HOMA indices at 28 weeks, (r = -.32, P = .02). No significant relationship existed between maternal or fetal leptin and 25-OHD, or between maternal or fetal 25-OHD and fetal anthropometry or birth weight. The incidence of vitamin D deficiency was high at each time point (15%-45%). These findings lend support to routine antenatal supplementation with vitamin D in at risk populations.

  11. Physiology of the fetal and transitional circulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finnemore, Anna; Groves, Alan

    2015-08-01

    The fetal circulation is an entirely transient event, not replicated at any point in later life, and functionally distinct from the pediatric and adult circulations. Understanding of the physiology of the fetal circulation is vital for accurate interpretation of hemodynamic assessments in utero, but also for management of circulatory compromise in premature infants, who begin extrauterine life before the fetal circulation has finished its maturation. This review summarizes the key classical components of circulatory physiology, as well as some of the newer concepts of physiology that have been appreciated in recent years. The immature circulation has significantly altered function in all aspects of circulatory physiology. The mechanisms and significance of these differences are also discussed, as is the impact of these alterations on the circulatory transition of infants born prematurely.

  12. Rapidly Regressive Unilateral Fetal Pleural Effusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tuncay Yuce

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Intrauterine pleural effusion of fetal lungs rarely regresses without intervention. In our case we treated a women at 32th weeks of gestation. Her pregnancy was complicated with fetal pleural effusion and polyhydramniosis. A therapeutic thoracocentesis was planned and she received two courses of betamethasone prior to procedure. On the day of planned procedure, a substantial regression of pleural effusion was observed and procedure was postponed. During her antenatal follow-up a complete regression of pleural effusion was observed. After delivery pleural effusion did not relapse. These findings hint there may be a role of antenatal steroids in treatment of fetal pleural effusion, which is known to be resistant to treatment modalities both during antenatal and postnatal period. [Cukurova Med J 2015; 40(Suppl 1: 25-28

  13. Mechanisms of Fetal Programming in Hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Edward Jones

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Events that occur in the early fetal environment have been linked to long-term health and lifespan consequences in the adult. Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR, which may occur as a result of nutrient insufficiency, exposure to hormones, or disruptions in placental structure or function, may induce the fetus to alter its developmental program in order to adapt to the new conditions. IUGR may result in a decrease in the expression of genes that are responsible for nephrogenesis as nutrients are rerouted to the development of more essential organs. Fetal survival under these conditions often results in low birth weight and a deficit in nephron endowment, which are associated with hypertension in adults. Interestingly, male IUGR offspring appear to be more severely affected than females, suggesting that sex hormones may be involved. The processes of fetal programming of hypertension are complex, and we are only beginning to understand the underlying mechanisms.

  14. CEREBRAL PALSY : ANTENATAL RISK FACTORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srinivasa Rao

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Cerebral palsy (CP is a group of permanent movement disorders that appear in early childhood. Cerebral palsy is caused by abnormal development or damage to the parts of the brain that control movement, balance, and posture. Most often the problems occur during pregnancy; however, they may also occur during childbirth, or shortly after birth. Often the cause is unknown. AIM: To study the different antenatal maternal risk factors associated with cerebral palsy in the study group. MATERIA LS AND METHODS: Retrospective study was done to assess possible associated antenatal risk factors for cerebral palsy. Mothers of 100 cerebral palsy children were selected who are treated in Rani Chandramani Devi Hospital, a Government hospital in Visakhapa tn am, Andhra Pradesh State, India , from 2012 to 2014 and 100 controls, mothers of normal children were studied. Detailed antenatal history was obtained from the mothers of the children in both affected and control group. RESULTS: From the data, we conclude that the association of maternal anaemia with cerebral palsy is 7.3 times higher; association of maternal hypertension with cerebral palsy is 6.6 time higher, association with Pre - eclampsia is 6 times higher; association with Eclampsia is 8.6 times higher ; with antepartum haemorrhage, the association is 8.6 times higher and association of multiple pregnancy with cerebral palsy is 4.8 times higher than with controls. CONCLUSION: From this study of the role of antenatal risk factors, in the occurrence of cer ebral palsy in children it is concluded that the most common risk factor associated with cerebral palsy is the maternal anaemia and the other important risk factors associated being hypertension, pre eclampsia, eclampsia, antepartum haemorrhage and multipl e births.

  15. Geographic Media Literacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukinbeal, Chris

    2014-01-01

    While the use of media permeates geographic research and pedagogic practice, the underlying literacies that link geography and media remain uncharted. This article argues that geographic media literacy incorporates visual literacy, information technology literacy, information literacy, and media literacy. Geographic media literacy is the ability…

  16. Measuring News Media Literacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maksl, Adam; Ashley, Seth; Craft, Stephanie

    2015-01-01

    News media literacy refers to the knowledge and motivations needed to identify and engage with journalism. This study measured levels of news media literacy among 500 teenagers using a new scale measure based on Potter's model of media literacy and adapted to news media specifically. The adapted model posits that news media literate individuals…

  17. Rheology of fetal and maternal blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinhart, W H; Danoff, S J; King, R G; Chien, S

    1985-01-01

    Rheological parameters were measured in 10 pairs of mothers and newborns. Whole blood viscosity was similar despite a higher fetal hematocrit (47.0 +/- 5.1 versus 35.5 +/- 12.0%, mean +/- SD, p less than 0.05). When the hematocrit of the suspension of red cells in plasma was adjusted to 45%, the viscosity was significantly lower in the fetal blood over a wide range of shear rates (0.52-208 S-1). The main reason for the lower viscosity in the fetal blood was the lower plasma viscosity as compared to the maternal blood (1.08 +/- 0.05 versus 1.37 +/- 0.08 centipoise, p less than 0.05); this in turn was attributable to a lower total plasma protein concentration (4.74 +/- 0.71 versus 6.47 +/- 0.64 g/dl, p less than 0.05). All protein fractions were lower in the fetal plasma. The assessment of red cell deformability by filtration through polycarbonate sieves revealed that the resistance of a fetal red cell was three times higher than that of a maternal red cell in a 2.6-micron pore, but there was no significant difference in resistance for these red cells in 6.9-micron pores. This higher filtration resistance of fetal red cells through the small pores was mainly due to their large volume (115.4 +/- 10.8 versus 93.5 +/- 5.9 fl, p less than 0.001). Measurements on membrane-free hemoglobin solutions indicated that the internal viscosity of these two types of red cells was not different.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  18. Role of fetal surgery in spinal dysraphism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Martina Messing-Jünger

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Open spinal dysraphism is a common and clinically challenging organo-genetic malformation. Due to the well-known multi-organ affection with significant implication on the lives of patients and their families, abortion after prenatal diagnosis became reality in most parts of the world. After publication of the Management of Myelomeningocele Study (MOMS results fetal surgery seems to be a new option and a broad discussion arose regarding advantages and risks of in utero treatment of spina bifida. This paper tries to evaluate objectively the actual state of knowledge and experience. This review article gives a historical overview as well as the experimental and pathophysiological background of fetal surgery in open spinal dysraphism. Additionally clinical follow-up experience of foetoscopically treated patients are presented and discussed. After carefully outweighing all available information on fetal surgery for spina bifida, one has to conclude, in accordance with the MOMS investigators, that in utero surgery cannot be considered a standard option at present time. But there is clear evidence of the hypothesis that early closure of the spinal canal has a positive influence on spinal cord function and severity of Chiari malformation type II, has been proven. A persisting problem is the fetal risk of prematurity and the maternal risk of uterus damage. There is also evidence that due to technical restrictions, fetal closure of the spinal canal bears unsolved problems leading to a higher postnatal incidence of complication surgery. Finally, missing long-term results make a definite evaluation impossible so far. At the moment, fetal surgery in open spinal dysraphism is not a standard of care despite promising results regarding central nervous system protection due to early spinal canal closure. Many technical problems need to be solved in the future in order to make this option a safe and standard one.

  19. New treatment of early fetal chylothorax

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nygaard, Ulrikka; Sundberg, Karin; Nielsen, Henriette Svarre

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate OK-432, a preparation of Streptococcus pyogenes, in the treatment of early fetal chylothorax. METHODS: A prospective study of all fetuses (n=7) with persistent early chylothorax (gestational ages 16-21 weeks) referred to the tertiary center of fetal medicine in Denmark in 2...... effusions, lung hypoplasia, or hydrops. CONCLUSION: Persistent early chylothorax is a condition with a high mortality rate and no established treatment option. Use of OK-432 is a promising therapy for selected fetuses with persistent chylothorax early in the second trimester....

  20. Tumours of the fetal body: a review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Avni, Fred E.; Massez, Anne; Cassart, Marie [University Clinics of Brussels - Erasme Hospital, Department of Medical Imaging, Brussels (Belgium)

    2009-11-15

    Tumours of the fetal body are rare, but lesions have been reported in all spaces, especially in the mediastinum, the pericardial space, the adrenals, the kidney, and the liver. Lymphangioma and teratoma are the commonest histological types encountered, followed by cardiac rhabdomyoma. Adrenal neuroblastoma is the commonest malignant tumour. Imaging plays an essential role in the detection and work-up of these tumours. In addition to assisting clinicians it also helps in counselling parents. Most tumours are detected by antenatal US, but fetal MRI is increasingly used as it brings significant additional information in terms of tumour extent, composition and complications. (orig.)

  1. Pontomedullary disconnection: fetal and neonatal considerations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCann, Emma; Sweeney, Elizabeth [Royal Liverpool Children' s Hospital, Department of Clinical Genetics, Liverpool (United Kingdom); Pilling, David [Royal Liverpool Children' s Hospital, Department of Paediatric Radiology, Liverpool (United Kingdom); Hesseling, Markus; Subhedar, Nim [Liverpool Women' s Hospital, Department of Neonatology, Liverpool (United Kingdom); Roberts, Devender [Liverpool Women' s Hospital, Department of Fetal Medicine, Liverpool (United Kingdom)

    2005-08-01

    The cerebellar and pontocerebellar hypoplasias present a unique challenge when detected in the developing fetus. A diverse aetiology and prognosis make counselling of these families difficult. Advances in fetal imaging allow for more accurate diagnosis and counselling, but postnatal MRI is still required. A case is presented in which cerebellar hypoplasia was detected at 20 weeks gestation. Later fetal imaging provided further information, but a diagnosis of pontomedullary disconnection was not made until the postnatal MRI scan. The clinical findings and possible causes of such pontocerebellar abnormalities are discussed. (orig.)

  2. Sonographic Findings in Fetal Renal Vein Thrombosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerber, Rebecca E; Bromley, Bryann; Benson, Carol B; Frates, Mary C

    2015-08-01

    We present the sonographic findings of fetal renal vein thrombosis in a series of 6 patients. The mean gestational age at diagnosis was 31.2 weeks. Four cases were unilateral, and 2 were bilateral. The most common findings were renal enlargement and intrarenal vascular calcifications, followed by increased renal parenchymal echogenicity. Inferior vena cava thrombosis was found in 4 patients and common iliac vein thrombosis in 2. Fetal renal vein thrombosis is an uncommon diagnosis with characteristic sonographic findings. The presence of these findings should prompt Doppler interrogation of the renal vein and inferior vena cava to confirm the diagnosis.

  3. [Fetal pain: immediate and long term consequences].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houfflin Debarge, Véronique; Dutriez, Isabelle; Pusniak, Benoit; Delarue, Eléonore; Storme, Laurent

    2010-06-01

    Several situations are potentially painful for fetuses, such as malformations and invasive procedures. Nociceptive pathways are known to be functional at 26 weeks. Even if it is not possible to evaluate the fetal experience of pain, it is essential to examine its immediate and long-term consequences. As early as the beginning of the second trimester, hemodynamic and hormonal responses are observed following fetal nociceptive stimulation, In experimental studies, long-term changes have been noted in the corticotrop axis, subsequent responses to pain, and behavior after perinatal nociceptive stimulation.

  4. Cerebral toxoplasmosis in AIDS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christ, F.; Steudel, H.; Klotz, D.

    1986-02-01

    Since 1982 (Hauser and co-workers), literature has reported focal cerebral tissue charges in AIDS patients whose diagnosis was unclear at first but which could be identified finally as florid toxoplasmosis encephalitis by biopsy and autopsy. It was found that the value of otherwise reliable serological tests (KBR, Sabin-Feldmann tests, etc.) is questionable in patients with severely impaired or incompetent immune systems, and, in particular, that a negative or uncharacteristic test result may not preclude any opportunistic infection process. Furthermore, isolation of Toxoplasma gondii or specific antibodies from the cerebrospinal fluid will be successful in exceptional cases only. In patients with AIDS or lymphadenopathy syndrome, the differential diagnosis will have to include - first and foremost - reactivated toxoplasma infection (not newly acquired, as a rule) if central neurological symptoms occur.

  5. Changes of Cerebral

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Objective: To explore the strengthening of acupuncture analgesic mechanism on the level of β-endorphin and proopimelanocortin mRNA expression in the arcuate nucleus of hypothalamus in rats following electroacupuncture(EA) combined with melatonin (MEL). Methods: Integrated optical density (IOD) was measured by ABC immuno-histochemical and in situ hybridization technique with computerized image processing. The rat's brain was coronally sectioned after combination of EA and MEL. Results: IOD of β-endorphin-like immunopositive substance in rat's brain was lowered significantly, which was measured after MEL (60 mg/kg) was injected intraperitoneally and followed by EA 30 min later for 30 min, and the IOD of cerebral POMC mRNA positive substance increased significantly 10 hrs later. Conclusion:The mechanism of MEL in enhancing EA analgesic effect might be related with the release and synthesis of β-endorphin

  6. [Diagnosis of fetal malformations with ultrasound--state of development].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fendel, M; Fendel, H

    1983-01-01

    Ultrasonography is of great importance for the prenatal diagnosis of fetal malformations and abnormalities. An early diagnosis in the second trimester is of great interest for an intrauterine or an extrauterine therapy planning (the choice of the time and mode of delivery). Defects of the neural tube including hydrocephalus, malformations of the extremities, the gastrointestinal tract, omphaloceles, the urogenital and cardiac system are described. Four cases of fetal malformations are presented: fetal myelomeningocele, hydrocephalus, bilateral hydronephrosis and lymphangioma with fetal ascites.

  7. Cerebral Arterial Fenestrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooke, Daniel L; Stout, Charles E; Kim, Warren T; Kansagra, Akash P; Yu, John Paul; Gu, Amy; Jewell, Nicholas P; Hetts, Steven W; Higashida, Randall T; Dowd, Christopher F; Halbach, Van V

    2014-01-01

    Summary Arterial fenestrations are an anatomic variant with indeterminate significance. Given the controversy surrounding fenestrations we sought their prevalence within our practice along with their association with other cerebrovascular anomalies. We retrospectively reviewed 10,927 patients undergoing digital subtraction angiography between 1992 and 2011. Dictated reports were searched for the terms “fenestration” or “fenestrated” with images reviewed for relevance, yielding 228 unique cases. A Medline database search from February 1964 to January 2013 generated 304 citations, 127 cases of which were selected for analysis. Cerebral arterial fenestrations were identified in 228 patients (2.1%). At least one aneurysm was noted in 60.5% of patients, with an aneurysm arising from the fenestration in 19.6% of patients. Aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage or non-aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage were present in 60.1% and 15.8%, respectively. For the subset of patients with an aneurysm arising directly from a fenestration relative to those patients with an aneurysm not immediately associated with a fenestration, the prevalence of aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage was 66.7% vs. 58.6% (p = 0.58). Fenestrations were more often within the posterior circulation (73.2%) than the anterior circulation (24.6%), though there was no difference in the prevalence of aneurysms within these groups (61.1% vs. 60.7%, p = 1.0). Cerebral arterial fenestrations are an anatomic variant more often manifesting at the anterior communicating arterial complex and basilar artery and with no definite pathological relationship with aneurysms. PMID:24976087

  8. Perspectives of fetal dystocia in cattle and buffalo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Govind Narayan Purohit

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available We review the causes of fetal dystocia in cows and buffalo. Two fetal causes are distinct fetal oversize and fetal abnormalities. Fetal oversize is common in heifers, cows of beef cattle breeds, prolonged gestations, increased calf birth weight, male calves and perinatal fetal death with resultant emphysema. Fetal abnormalities include monsters, fetal diseases and fetal maldispositions, and it is difficult to deliver such fetuses because of their altered shape. Although monsters are rare in cattle, a large number of monstrosities have been reported in river buffalo; yet also here, overall incidence is low. Diseases of the fetus resulting in dystocia include hydrocephalus, ascites, anasarca and hydrothorax. The most common cause of dystocia in cattle seems to be fetal maldispositions, of which limb flexion and head deviation appear to be the most frequent. We provide a brief description of the management of dystocia from different causes in cattle and buffalo. A case analysis of 192 and 112 dystocia in cattle and buffalo, respectively, at our referral center revealed that dystocia is significantly higher (P<0.05 in first and second parity cows and buffalo, and that dystocia of fetal origin is common in cows (65.62% but less frequent (40.17% in buffalo. In buffalo, the single biggest cause of dystocia was uterine torsion (53.57%. Fetal survival was significantly (P<0.05 higher both in cows and buffalo when delivery was completed within 12 h of second stage of labor.

  9. Agonist mediated fetal muscle-type nicotinic acetylcholine receptor desensitization

    Science.gov (United States)

    The exposure of a developing embryo or fetus to teratogenic alkaloids from plants has the potential to cause developmental defects in livestock due to the inhibition of fetal movement by alkaloids. The mechanism behind the inhibition of fetal movement is the desensitization of fetal muscle-type nico...

  10. 21 CFR 864.7455 - Fetal hemoglobin assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... hemoglobin present. The assay may be used to detect fetal red cells in the maternal circulation or to detect... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Fetal hemoglobin assay. 864.7455 Section 864.7455...) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Hematology Kits and Packages § 864.7455 Fetal...

  11. Oxidative Stress in Fetal Distress: Potential Prospects for Diagnosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saša Raicevic

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Our aim was to investigate the relation between fetal distress and oxidative stress. Fetal distress was associated with increased concentration of superoxide in the fetal blood and with significant increase of the level of H2O2 in both maternal and fetal blood. The activity of superoxide dismutase was increased roughly sixfold (p < 0.01 in the maternal [7330 ± 2240 U/g of hemoglobin in controls (C and 36811 ± 16862 U/g in fetal distress (FD] and fetal blood (C: 5930 ± 2641 U/g; FD: 41912 ± 17133 U/g. In contrast, fetal distress was related to a considerable decrease of catalase activity in both maternal (C: 26011 ± 8811 U/g; FD: 7212 ± 1270 U/g and fetal blood (C: 37194 ± 9191 U/g; FD: 6173 ± 1965 U/g. From this we concluded that in fetal distress, the maternal and fetal bloods are exposed to superoxide- and H2O2-mediated oxidative stress, which could be initiated by hypoxic conditions in the fetal blood and placenta. A tremendous increase/decrease of the activities of superoxide dismutase/catalase in the blood of women bearing a distressed fetus in comparison to healthy subjects implies that the assessment of superoxide dismutase/catalase activity could be of use for establishing a timely and accurate ante- or intrapartum diagnosis of fetal distress.

  12. Anestesia e paralisia cerebral Anestesia y parálisis cerebral Anesthesia and cerebral palsy

    OpenAIRE

    Március Vinícius M Maranhão

    2005-01-01

    JUSTIFICATIVA E OBJETIVOS: A paralisia cerebral (PC) é uma doença não progressiva decorrente de lesão no sistema nervoso central, levando a um comprometimento motor do paciente. O portador de PC freqüentemente é submetido a procedimentos cirúrgicos devido a doenças usuais e situações particulares decorrentes da paralisia cerebral. Foi objetivo deste artigo revisar aspectos da paralisia cerebral de interesse para o anestesiologista, permitindo um adequado manuseio pré, intra e pós-operatório n...

  13. Neuromodulation of cerebral blood flow

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ter Laan, Mark

    2014-01-01

    Dit proefschrift behandelt de modulatie van de cerebrale doorbloeding (cerebral blood flow, CBF) door cervicale elektrische stimulatie en de aanname dat het sympathisch zenuwstelsel hierin een specifieke rol speelt. Enkele resultaten met cervicale ruggenmergsstimulatie (spinal cord stimulation, SCS)

  14. Learn More About Cerebral Palsy

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2008-03-30

    This podcast describes the causes, preventions, types, and signs and symptoms of cerebral palsy.  Created: 3/30/2008 by National Center on Birth Defects and Developmental Disabilities.   Date Released: 3/21/2008.

  15. Cerebral Laterality and Verbal Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherman, Jay L.; And Others

    1976-01-01

    Research suggests that we process information by way of two distinct and functionally separate coding systems. Their location, somewhat dependent on cerebral laterality, varies in right- and left-handed persons. Tests this dual coding model. (Editor/RK)

  16. Prenatal diagnosis of a placental infarction hematoma associated with fetal growth restriction, preeclampsia and fetal death: clinicopathological correlation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aurioles-Garibay, Alma; Hernandez-Andrade, Edgar; Romero, Roberto; Qureshi, Faisal; Ahn, Hyunyoung; Jacques, Suzanne M; Garcia, Maynor; Yeo, Lami; Hassan, Sonia S

    2014-01-01

    The lesion termed 'placental infarction hematoma' is associated with fetal death and adverse perinatal outcome. Such a lesion has been associated with a high risk of fetal death and abruption placentae. The fetal and placental hemodynamic changes associated with placental infarction hematoma have not been reported. This paper describes a case of early and severe growth restriction with preeclampsia, and progressive deterioration of the fetal and placental Doppler parameters in the presence of a placental infarction hematoma.

  17. Cerebral candidiasis. Computed tomography appearance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chaabane, M.; Ladeb, M.F.; Bouhaouala, M.H.; Ben Hammouda, M.; Ataalah, R.; Gannouni, A.; Krifa, H.

    1989-07-01

    A three year old child who had been suffering from oral candidiasis since the age of 1 year presented with osteitis of the clavicle, 2 cerebral frontal abscesses and an occipital abscess which extended across the calvaria and was associated with osteolysis. Histological and microbiological studies following surgery confirmed the diagnosis of candidiasis in this girl who was found to have IgA immunodefinciency. The authors report the computed tomographic appearance of the cerebral lesions and review the literature. (orig.).

  18. Parálisis cerebral :

    OpenAIRE

    Giral Lamenca, Mónica

    2015-01-01

    Se aborda el tema de la parálisis cerebral definiendo qué es, clasificando los tipos de parálisis dependiendo de la afectación y las características principales. Se explican algunos de sus tratamientos, se dan sistemas alternativos y/o aumentativos de comunicación para un alumno con PC (parálisis cerebral).

  19. Fetal subjects and maternal objects: reproductive technology and the new fetal/maternal relation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Squier, S

    1996-10-01

    This essay examines three tendencies nurtured in the practices of reproductive technology - tendencies with profoundly disturbing implications for us as individuals and as social beings. They are: 1) the increasing subjectification of the fetus (that is, the increasing tendency to posit a fetal subject), 2) the increasing objectification of the gestating woman, leading to her representation as interchangeable object rather than unique subject, and 3) the increasing tendency to conceive of the fetus and the mother as social, medical, and legal antagonists. Considering the construction of fetus, mother, and the fetal/maternal relation in earlier (Western) historical periods, a contemporary work of literature, a government report, and the popular press, I argue that as the fetus is increasingly being understood as a subject, the mother is increasingly being reduced to an antagonist, an obstacle to fetal health, and an object. The essay concludes by offering some tentative conclusions about the general process of fetal subjectification in the United States and Europe.

  20. Abnormal fetal head shape: aetiology and management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Olav Bjørn; David, Anna; Thomasson, Louise;

    2007-01-01

    (lemon-shaped), 18.4% with aneuploidy (mostly strawberry-shaped). 19.5% were dolicocephalic, most secondary to fetal position or oligohydramnios (see table). 13 had confirmed craniosynostosis, including thanatophoric dysplasia, Craniofrontonasal dysplasia, Aperts syndrome, Baller-Gerold syndrome, I...

  1. Jaundice during pregnancy: maternal and fetal outcome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jayanthi Krishnamoorthy

    2016-08-01

    Conclusions: Jaundice in pregnancy has adverse fetomaternal outcome. Improvement in health awareness, education and regular antenatal checkups, early referrals result in early diagnosis and treatment of jaundice during pregnancy thus reducing maternal and fetal mortality and morbidity. [Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol 2016; 5(8.000: 2541-2545

  2. Neuroimaging and Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norman, Andria L.; Crocker, Nicole; Mattson, Sarah N.; Riley, Edward P.

    2009-01-01

    The detrimental effects of prenatal alcohol exposure on the developing brain include structural brain anomalies as well as cognitive and behavioral deficits. Initial neuroimaging studies of fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD) using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) confirmed previous autopsy reports of overall reduction in brain volume and…

  3. Fetal goiter and bilateral ovarian cysts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lassen, Pernille; Sundberg, Karin; Juul, Anders

    2008-01-01

    by each injection and followed by a gradual reduction of fetal goiter as well as the left ovarian cyst. The right cyst ruptured spontaneously. At 36 weeks + 4 days, the patient underwent elective caesarean section and gave birth to a female, weighing 2,880 g with 1- and 5-min Apgar scores of 10...

  4. Special Tests for Monitoring Fetal Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... growth problems, Rh sensitization , or high blood pressure • Decreased movement of the fetus • Pregnancy that goes past ... on how far along you are in your pregnancy, you may have another BPP within the next ... BPP performed? The fetal heart rate is monitored in the same way it is ...

  5. REFLECTANCE PULSE OXIMETRY IN FETAL LAMBS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    DASSEL, AC; GRAAFF, R; AARNOUDSE, JG; ELSTRODT, JM; HEIDA, P; KOELINK, MH; DEMUL, FF; GREVE, J

    1992-01-01

    Transmission pulse oximetry is used for monitoring in many clinical settings. However, for fetal monitoring during labor and in situations with poor peripheral perfusion, transmission pulse oximetry cannot be used. Therefore, we developed a reflectance pulse oximeter, which uses the relative intensi

  6. Possible fetal determinants of male infertility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juul, Anders; Almstrup, Kristian; Andersson, Anna-Maria

    2014-01-01

    , increasing indirect evidence exists that exposure to ubiquitous endocrine disrupting chemicals, present at measurable concentrations in individuals, might affect development of human fetal testis. If confirmed, health policies to prevent male reproductive problems should not only target adult men, but also...

  7. Ultrasound assessment of fetal cardiac function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crispi, Fàtima; Valenzuela‐Alcaraz, Brenda; Cruz‐Lemini, Monica

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Introduction: Fetal heart evaluation with US is feasible and reproducible, although challenging due to the smallness of the heart, the high heart rate and limited access to the fetus. However, some cardiac parameters have already shown a strong correlation with outcomes and may soon be incorporated into clinical practice. Materials and Methods: Cardiac function assessment has proven utility in the differential diagnosis of cardiomyopathies or prediction of perinatal mortality in congenital heart disease. In addition, some cardiac parameters with high sensitivity such as MPI or annular peak velocities have shown promising results in monitoring and predicting outcome in intrauterine growth restriction or congenital diaphragmatic hernia. Conclusion: Cardiac function can be adequately evaluated in most fetuses when appropriate expertise, equipment and time are available. Fetal cardiac function assessment is a promising tool that may soon be incorporated into clinical practice to diagnose, monitor or predict outcome in some fetal conditions. Thus, more research is warranted to further define specific protocols for each fetal condition that may affect cardiac function. PMID:28191192

  8. Imaging of the fetal central nervous system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pistorius, L.R.

    2008-01-01

    Introduction : Ultrasound and MR imaging of the fetal central nervous system (CNS) develop at an ever-increasing rate. Theoretically, the two modalities should be synergistic, but a literature review revealed the difficulties of determining the merit of either technique and revealed gaps in our know

  9. Reduced fetal telomere length in gestational diabetes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Xu

    Full Text Available Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM is an important complication of pregnancy that poses significant threats to women and their offspring. Telomere length shortens as cellular damage increases and is associated with metabolic diseases. Telomere length in fetal leucocytes was determined in 82 infants of women with GDM (N = 82 and 65 normal pregnant women (N = 65. Women with preeclampsia (N = 45 and gestational hypertension (N = 23 were also studied. In the GDM group, telomere length was significantly shorter than normal pregnancy (P = 0.028, but there were no significant differences in fetal telomere length between preeclampsia and normal pregnancy (P = 0.841 and between gestational hypertension and normal pregnancy (P = 0.561. Regression analysis revealed that fetal telomere length was significantly associated with intrauterine exposure to GDM (P = 0.027 after adjustment for maternal age, gestational age at delivery, birth weight and fetal gender. Shortened telomere length may increase the risk of metabolic diseases in adulthood of GDM offspring.

  10. Fetal Alcohol Syndrome: A Behavioral Teratology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavale, Kenneth A.; Karge, Belinda D.

    1986-01-01

    The review examines the literature on the behaviorally teratogenic aspects of Fetal Alcohol Syndrome, including: (1) prevalence of alcohol abuse among women, (2) acute and chronic effects of alcohol on the fetus, (3) genetic susceptibility, (4) neuropathology, (5) correlative conditions, and (6) animal studies. (Author/DB)

  11. MATERNO-FETAL IMMUNOTOLERANCE: AN EVOLUTIONARY VIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luana Paulesu

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Since Medawar (1953, much attention has been given to the immunological paradox of the survival and growth of the semi-allogeneic fetus in the maternal uterus. Numerous studies, mainly on the human placenta, have established fundamental mechanisms of this phenomenon; however, many aspects are still unclear and the complex process has yet to be completely defined. One of the accepted principles is that the secretion and action of mediators, i.e. cytokines, at the materno-fetal interface have a central role. Focusing on the cytokine Interleukin-1 (IL-1 the review highlights the importance of a physiological approach based on evolutionary studies in animals using similar or different reproductive strategies. Data on IL-1 in viviparity and oviparity, two reproductive strategies in which female reproductive tissues have to deal with paternal-derived antigens on sperm, fertilized eggs, and embryo, will be presented and discussed in the light of materno-fetal immuntolerance. Ovuliparity, a reproductive modality in which the eggs are released from the female reproductive tract and fertilization and embryonic development take place in the external environment will also be extensively reported as a negative control in the studies on materno-fetal immunotolerance. The evidence shown reveals that non-mammalian vertebrates with different reproductive strategies represent a good model to understand biological mechanisms allowing fetal acceptance and growth in the maternal tissues.

  12. Fetal bladder wall regeneration with a collagen biomatrix and histological evaluation of bladder exstrophy in a fetal sheep model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roelofs, Luc A. J.; Eggink, Alex J.; de Kaa, Christina A. Hulsbergen-van; Wijnen, Rene M. H.; van Kuppevelt, Toin H.; van Moerkerk, Herman T. B.; Crevels, A. Jane; Hanssen, Alex; Lotgering, Fred K.; van den Berg, Paul P.; Feitz, Wout F. J.

    2008-01-01

    Objectives: To evaluate histological changes in an animal model for bladder exstrophy and fetal repair of the bladder defect with a molecular-defined dual-layer collagen biomatrix to induce fetal bladder wall regeneration. Methods: In 12 fetal lambs the abdominal wall and bladder were opened by a mi

  13. Fetal movements and placental lactogen levels for fetal-placental evaluation. A preliminary report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spellacy, W N; Cruz, A C; Gelman, S R; Buhi, W C

    1977-01-01

    Fetal movements were measured by 37 pregnant women during a 10-minute period while they were lying on their left side at various times during the day with the highest rates in the evening. Preliminary assessments of fetal movement and serum hPL levels in pregnant women suggest that the two tests might complement each other in providing more information about the status of the placenta and fetus.

  14. Mapping primary gyrogenesis during fetal development in primate brains: high-resolution in utero structural MRI study of fetal brain development in pregnant baboons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Kochunov

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The global and regional changes in the fetal cerebral cortex in primates were mapped during primary gyrification (PG; weeks 17-25 of 26 weeks total gestation. Studying pregnant baboons using high-resolution MRI in utero, measurements included cerebral volume, cortical surface area, gyrification index and length and depth of ten primary cortical sulci. Seven normally developing fetuses were imaged in two animals longitudinally and sequentially. We compared these results to those on PG that from the ferret studies and analyzed them in the context of our recent studies of phylogenetics of cerebral gyrification. We observed that in both primates and non-primates, the cerebrum undergoes a very rapid transformation into the gyrencephalic state, subsequently accompanied by an accelerated growth in brain volume and cortical surface area. However, PG trends in baboons exhibited some critical differences from those observed in ferrets. For example, in baboons, the growth along the long (length axis of cortical sulci was unrelated to the growth along the short (depth axis and far outpaced it. Additionally, the correlation between the rate of growth along the short sulcal axis and heritability of sulcal depth was negative and approached significance (r=-0.60;p<.10, while the same trend for long axis was positive and not significant (p=0.3;p=0.40. These findings, in an animal that shares a highly orchestrated pattern of PG with humans, suggest that ontogenic processes that influence changes in sulcal length and depth are diverse and possibly driven by different factors in primates than in non-primates.

  15. Therapeutic implications of melatonin in cerebral edema.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rathnasamy, Gurugirijha; Ling, Eng-Ang; Kaur, Charanjit

    2014-12-01

    Cerebral edema/brain edema refers to the accumulation of fluid in the brain and is one of the fatal conditions that require immediate medical attention. Cerebral edema develops as a consequence of cerebral trauma, cerebral infarction, hemorrhages, abscess, tumor, hypoxia, and other toxic or metabolic factors. Based on the causative factors cerebral edema is differentiated into cytotoxic cerebral edema, vasogenic cerebral edema, osmotic and interstitial cerebral edema. Treatment of cerebral edema depends on timely diagnosis and medical assistance. Pragmatic treatment strategies such as antihypertensive medications, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, barbiturates, steroids, glutamate and N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor antagonists and trometamol are used in clinical practice. Although the above mentioned treatment approaches are being used, owing to the complexity of the mechanisms involved in cerebral edema, a single therapeutic strategy which could ameliorate cerebral edema is yet to be identified. However, recent experimental studies have suggested that melatonin, a neurohormone produced by the pineal gland, could be an effective alternative for treating cerebral edema. In animal models of stroke, melatonin was not only shown to reduce cerebral edema but also preserved the blood brain barrier. Melatonin's beneficial effects were attributed to its properties, such as being a potent anti-oxidant, and its ability to cross the blood brain barrier within minutes after its administration. This review summarizes the beneficial effects of melatonin when used for treating cerebral edema.

  16. Detection of fetal QRS-complexes by external methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahopelto, J; Hukkinen, K; Katila, T E; Laine, H; Kariniemi, V

    1975-01-01

    A new method is presented for detection of the QRS complexes and the fetal heart rate from the fetal magnetocardiogram and from the fetal electrocardiogram. In the method, the amplitude, the polarity and the shape of the QRS complex are tested. By using the described equipment it is possible to detect all consecutive heart beat intervals from a fetal electrocardiogram with less than 1% error in timing. When an external fetal electrocardiogram was used for testing, generally slightly over 10% of the QRS complexes were lost since they were simultaneous with the maternal complexes. In addition, complexes were also lost due to noise.

  17. Advertising on social media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sumit Goyal

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available This communication reports the latest trends of advertising on social media. Social media advertising means to gain traffic or attention of online users through social media sites. Today, when a user thinks about buying something, he first comes to the internet, searches for that product, compares its price with other competing brands and takes a decision, which one to buy. In this write-up, author has discussed many aspects concerning advertising through social media, viz., what is social media? What is the impact of social media on mainstream media, why to advertise on social media? and what should be the strategy for advertising on social media. The author is of the view that in the year 2013, $4 billion will be spent on social media advertising across the globe and social media industry will generate over 1,00,000 new jobs all around the world.

  18. Fetal Growth Restriction Induces Heterogeneous Effects on Vascular Biomechanical and Functional Properties in Guinea Pigs (Cavia porcellus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cañas, Daniel; Herrera, Emilio A.; García-Herrera, Claudio; Celentano, Diego; Krause, Bernardo J.

    2017-01-01

    Aim: Fetal growth restriction (FGR) is associated with a variety of cardiometabolic diseases in adulthood which could involve remodeling processes of the vascular walls that could start in the fetal period. However, there is no consensus whether this remodeling affects in a similar way the whole vascular system. We aimed to determine the effects of FGR on the vasoactive and biomechanical properties of umbilical and systemic vessels in fetal guinea pigs. Methods: FGR was induced by implanting ameroid occluders at mid-gestation in uterine arteries of pregnant guinea pigs, whilst the control group was exposed to simulated surgery. At the term of gestation, systemic arteries (aorta, carotid and femoral) and umbilical vessels were isolated to determine ex vivo contractile and biomechanical responses (stretch-stress until rupture) on a wire myograph, as well as opening angle and residual stresses. Histological characteristics in tissue samples were measured by van Gieson staining. Results: Aorta and femoral arteries from FGR showed an increased in biomechanical markers of stiffness (p < 0.01), contractile capacity (p < 0.05) and relative media thickness (p < 0.01), but a reduced internal diameter (p < 0.001), compared with controls. There were no differences in the biomechanical properties of carotid and umbilical from control and FGR fetuses, but FGR umbilical arteries had a decreased contractile response to KCl (p < 0.05) along with a reduced relative media thickness (p < 0.05). Conclusion: Altogether, these changes in functional, mechanical and morphological properties suggest that FGR is associated with a heterogeneous pro-constrictive vascular remodeling affecting mainly the lower body fetal arteries. These effects would be set during a pathologic pregnancy in order to sustain the fetal blood redistribution in the FGR and may persist up to adulthood increasing the risk of a cardiovascular disease. PMID:28344561

  19. Fetal growth and timing of parturition in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jun; Sundaram, Rajeshwari; Sun, Wenyu; Troendle, James

    2008-10-15

    Animal studies indicate that either the fetus or the intrauterine environment, both of which set the pattern for fetal growth, may affect the timing of parturition. The authors examined the association between fetal growth and timing of spontaneous onset of labor in humans among low-risk white US women with singleton pregnancies (1987-1991). They restricted the data to pregnancies which had a reliable date of the last menstrual period, normal fetal growth in the first half of pregnancy, and no history of or current pregnancy complications that might have impaired fetal growth (n = 3,360). Subjects received ultrasound examinations at 15-22 and 31-35 weeks' gestation. Fetal growth was adjusted for parity, fetal sex, and maternal prepregnancy weight and height. Results showed that slower or faster fetal growth in the second half of pregnancy resulted in substantially lower or higher birth weight, respectively. However, fetal growth in the second half of pregnancy, even at extremes (2 standard deviations below or above the mean), did not have a meaningful impact on the timing of parturition; neither did fetal growth acceleration or deceleration in late pregnancy. Thus, in low-risk pregnancies where fetal growth is normal in early gestation, fetal growth in the second half of pregnancy does not affect the timing of normal parturition.

  20. Cerebral edema associated with acute hepatic failure.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fujiwara,Masachika

    1985-02-01

    Full Text Available The clinicopathological findings of cerebral edema were investigated in patients with acute hepatic failure autopsied at Okayama University Hospital between 1970 and 1980 retrospectively. Nine (64% of 14 hepatic failure cases were found to have cerebral edema during a post-mortem examination of the brain. Clinical features of the patients with cerebral edema were not significantly different from those of the patients without cerebral edema. However, general convulsions were observed more frequently in patients later found to have cerebral edema. Moreover, the length of time from deep coma to death was much shorter in the brain edema cases with cerebral herniation than without herniation.

  1. Monitoring Cerebral Oxygenation in Neonates: An Update

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dix, Laura Marie Louise; van Bel, Frank; Lemmers, Petra Maria Anna

    2017-01-01

    Cerebral oxygenation is not always reflected by systemic arterial oxygenation. Therefore, regional cerebral oxygen saturation (rScO2) monitoring with near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) is of added value in neonatal intensive care. rScO2 represents oxygen supply to the brain, while cerebral fractional tissue oxygen extraction, which is the ratio between rScO2 and systemic arterial oxygen saturation, reflects cerebral oxygen utilization. The balance between oxygen supply and utilization provides insight in neonatal cerebral (patho-)physiology. This review highlights the potential and limitations of cerebral oxygenation monitoring with NIRS in the neonatal intensive care unit. PMID:28352624

  2. Identification of circulating fetal cell markers by microarray analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brinch, Marie; Hatt, Lotte; Singh, Ripudaman

    2012-01-01

    identified by XY fluorescence in situ hybridization and confirmed by reverse-color fluorescence in situ hybridization were shot off microscope slides by laser capture microdissection. The expression pattern of a subset of expressed genes was compared between fetal cells and maternal blood cells using stem......OBJECTIVE: Different fetal cell types have been found in the maternal blood during pregnancy in the past, but fetal cells are scarce, and the proportions of the different cell types are unclear. The objective of the present study was to identify specific fetal cell markers from fetal cells found...... in the maternal blood circulation at the end of the first trimester. METHOD: Twenty-three fetal cells were isolated from maternal blood by removing the red blood cells by lysis or combining this with removal of large proportions of maternal white blood cells by magnetic-activated cell sorting. Fetal cells...

  3. Cerebral trypanosomiasis and AIDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antunes Apio Claudio Martins

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available A 36 year-old black female, complaining of headache of one month's duration presented with nausea, vomiting, somnolence, short memory problems, loss of weight, and no fever history. Smoker, intravenous drugs abuser, promiscuous lifestyle. Physical examination: left homonimous hemianopsia, left hemiparesis, no papilledema, diffuse hyperreflexia, slowness of movements. Brain CT scan: tumor-like lesion in the splenium of the corpus calosum, measuring 3.5 x 1.4 cm, with heterogeneous enhancing pattern, sugesting a primary CNS tumor. Due to the possibility of CNS infection, a lumbar puncture disclosed an opening pressure of 380 mmH(20; 11 white cells (lymphocytes; glucose 18 mg/dl (serum glucose 73 mg/dl; proteins 139 mg/dl; presence of Trypanosoma parasites. Serum Elisa-HIV tests turned out to be positive. Treatment with benznidazole dramatically improved clinical and radiographic picture, but the patient died 6 weeks later because of respiratory failure. T. cruzi infection of the CNS is a rare disease, but we have an increasing number of cases in HIV immunecompromised patients. Diagnosis by direct observation of CSF is uncommon, and most of the cases are diagnosed by pathological examination. It is a highly lethal disease, even when properly diagnosed and treated. This article intends to include cerebral trypanosomiasis in the differential diagnosis of intracranial space-occupying lesions, especially in immunecompromised patients from endemic regions.

  4. Pseudotumoral delayed cerebral radionecrosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ciaudo-Lacroix, C.; Lapresle, J. (Centre Hospitalier de Bicetre, 94 - Le Kremlin-Bicetre (France))

    1985-01-01

    A 60 year-old woman with a scalp epithelioma underwent radiotherapy, the dose being 57 Gray. A first epileptic seizure occurred twenty months later. Neurological examination revealed signs of left hemisphere involvement. ..gamma..EG, angiography, CT scans, demonstrated a pseudotumoral avascular process. On account of the localisation, the patient being right-handed, no surgical procedure was performed. In spite of corticotherapy and anticonvulsive treatment, seizures recurred and neurological signs slowly progressed. The patient died, 22 months after the first seizure, of an associated disseminated carcinoma with cachexia. Neuropathological examination showed a massive lesion presenting all the features of delayed radionecrosis in the left hemisphere: situated mainly in the white matter; numerous vascular abnormalities; wide-spread demyelination; disappearance of oligoglial cells. The Authors recall the clinical and anatomical aspects of this condition for which the only successful treatment is surgical removal when location and size of the lesion permit. Finally, the mechanisms which have been proposed to explain this delayed cerebral radionecrosis are discussed.

  5. Dopplervelocimetria dos Compartimentos Arterial e Venoso da Circulação Fetal e Umbilical em Gestação de Alto-Risco: Análise dos Resultados Perinatais Dopplervelocimetry of the Arterial and Venous Compartments of the Fetal and Umbilical Circulation in High-Risk Pregnancy: Perinatal Results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joelma Queiroz Andrade

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Objetivos: estudar o perfil hemodinâmico fetal em gestantes de alto risco e avaliar a relação das suas alterações com os resultados perinatais. Métodos: realizou-se estudo prospectivo transversal em 108 gestantes atendidas no ambulatório de pré-natal da Clínica Obstétrica do HCFMUSP. Tais gestantes foram encaminhadas ao Setor de Avaliação de Vitalidade Fetal, onde foram submetidas à dopplervelocimetria das artérias umbilicais, cerebral média, aorta, ducto venoso e veia cava inferior. Os critérios de inclusão foram gestantes que apresentavam qualquer doença ou intercorrência na gravidez encaminhadas para avaliação da vitalidade fetal, nas quais a resolução da gestação ocorreu nas próximas 24 horas após os exames. Foram excluídas as pacientes com gestação gemelar ou com malformação fetal. Resultados: as repercussões hemodinâmicas na circulação fetal foram demonstradas pela observação de alterações na dopplervelocimetria das artérias umbilicais, aorta, artéria cerebral média, ducto venoso e veia cava inferior. Valores alterados do índice de pulsatilidade (IP da artéria umbilical foram observados em 25,9% dos casos, da aorta em 24,0% e da artéria cerebral média em 34,2%. O IPV do ducto venoso estava alterado em 18,2% dos casos e o da veia cava inferior em 46,6%. Os segmentos da circulação fetal que melhor se correlacionaram com os resultados perinatais foram a artéria umbilical e o ducto venoso. O IP alterado da artéria umbilical correlacionou-se significativamente com índices de Apgar de 1º minuto inferior a 7 em 42,8% e com necessidade de UTI neonatal em 50,0% dos casos. O IPV (indice de pulsatilidade para veias do ducto venoso alterado apresentou associação significativa com o índice de Apgar de 1º minuto inferior a 7 (52,6%, Apgar de 5º minuto inferior a 7 (15,7%, acidemia no nascimento (60,0%, necessidade de UTI neonatal (52,6% e óbito neonatal (21,1%. Os valores de predição da altera

  6. Why Media Matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Locatis, Craig

    2007-01-01

    Whether media affect learning has been debated for decades. The discussion of media's effectiveness has raised questions about the usefulness of comparison studies, not only in assessing applications of technology but in other areas as well. Arguments that media do not affect learning are re-examined and issues concerning media effects on expert…

  7. Media Violence and Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groebel, Jo

    1998-01-01

    Presents the results of the UNESCO global study on media violence and children which was conducted between 1996 and 1997. Highlights include the role of the media, media heroes as role models, media violence and aggression, differences by gender, rural versus urban environments, the pervasiveness of television, and recommendations. (Author/LRW)

  8. [Cerebral artery infarction presented as an unusual complication of acute middle otitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moscote-Salazar, Luis Rafael; Alcalá-Cerra, Gabriel; Castellar-Leones, Sandra Milena; Gutiérrez-Paternina, Juan José

    2013-01-01

    Introducción: la otitis media aguda es una inflamación del oído medio frecuente en la edad pediátrica. Aproximadamente 2 % de todos los casos desarrolla complicaciones intracraneales, más específicamente meningitis; por lo general, los infartos cerebrales originados por esta última son venosos. Rara vez se ha descrito la ocurrencia de un infarto arterial cerebral como complicación directa de la otitis media aguda. Caso clínico: niña de 12 meses de edad quien fue llevada a un servicio de urgencias por síndrome febril secundario a otitis media aguda y alteración del estado de conciencia. A la exploración física se identificó que estaba somnolienta, con anisocoria, midriasis en el ojo derecho y hemiparesia izquierda. Con la tomografía axial computarizada de cerebro se apreció un infarto arterial cerebral extenso. Los padres no autorizaron la craniectomía descompresiva y la paciente falleció a las 48 horas de su ingreso hospitalario. Conclusiones: a pesar de los recursos tecnológicos con los que se dispone actualmente, el infarto cerebral relacionado con la otitis media aguda tiene una evolución tórpida. Los signos neurológicos focalizadores y el deterioro progresivo deben apuntar a la ineficacia del tratamiento antimicrobiano instaurado.

  9. Modificações da hemodinâmica fetal pelo estímulo sonoro: avaliação pela dopplervelocimetria colorida Vibro-acoustic stimulation induced hemodynamic fetal changes assessed by color doppler

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Mauad Filho

    1999-04-01

    Full Text Available Objetivos: verificar se ocorrem ou não alterações hemodinâmicas na aréria cerebral média (ACM aferido pela dopplervelocimetria colorida após realização de um estímulo sonoro. Métodos: trinta fetos de gestantes consideradas clinicamente normais com idade gestacional igual ou superior a 28 semanas foram submetidos a um estímulo sonoro. Examinamos as alterações da velocidade sangüínea na ACM fetal por meio do índice de resistência e da freqüência cardíaca fetal, pelo doppler colorido, antes e depois do estímulo acústico. Resultados: a média da freqüência cardíaca fetal (FCF antes do estímulo sonoro foi de 142,41 batimentos por minuto (bpm com desvio padrão de 9,01 e faixa de variação de 122 a 162 bpm. Após o estímulo sonoro, a média da FCF foi de 159,44 bpm com desvio padrão de 15,49, com faixa de variação de 130 a 187 bpm (pPurpose: to determine the possible occurrence of hemodynamic changes in the middle cerebral artery of the fetus (MCA using color doppler after vibro-acoustic stimulation. Methods: thirty fetuses from pregnant women considered to be clinically normal, with a gestational age of 28 weeks or more were submitted to vibro-acoustic stimulation. We examined the changes in blood flow rate in the middle cerebral artery of the fetus on the basis of resistance index (RI and fetal heart rate (FHR by color doppler before and after the sound stimulus. Results: mean FHR before vibro-acoustic stimulation was 142.41 beats per minute (bpm with a standard deviation of 9.01 and a range of 122 to 162 bpm. After stimulation, mean FHR was 159.44 bpm with a standard deviation of 15.49 and a range of 130 to 187 bpm (p<0.01. Mean RI in the MCA of the fetuses was 75.89% (range: 64 to 91% before the experiment. After the vibro-acoustic stimulation, mean RI was 66.93% (range: 47 to 83%; p < 0.01. Conclusions: we observed that a sound stimulus provokes the well-known immediate and significant elevation of FHR and a

  10. Online Detection of Fetal Acidemia during Labour by Testing Synchronization of EEG and Heart Rate: A Prospective Study in Fetal Sheep

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Severe fetal acidemia during labour can result in life-lasting neurological deficits, but the timely detection of this condition is often not possible. This is because the positive predictive value (PPV) of fetal heart rate (FHR) monitoring, the mainstay of fetal health surveillance during labour, to detect concerning fetal acidemia is around 50%. In fetal sheep model of human labour, we reported that severe fetal acidemia (pH

  11. A Modified Technique for Culturing Primary Fetal Rat Cortical Neurons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sui-Yi Xu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The study explored a modified primary culture system for fetal rat cortical neurons. Day E18 embryos from pregnant Sprague Dawley rats were microdissected under a stereoscope. To minimize enzymatic damage to the cultured neurons, we applied a sequential digestion protocol using papain and Dnase I. The resulting sifted cell suspension was seeded at a density of 50,000 cells per cm2 onto 0.1 mg/mL L-PLL-covered vessels. After a four-hour incubation in high-glucose Dulbecco’s Modified Eagle’s Medium (HG-DMEM to allow the neurons to adhere, the media was changed to neurobasal medium that was refreshed by changing half of the volume after three days followed by a complete medium change every week. The cells displayed progressively robust neurite extension, and nonneuronal-like cells could barely be detected by five days in vitro (DIV; cell growth was still substantial at 14 DIV. Neurons were identified by β-tubulin III immunofluorescence, and neuronal purity within the cultures was assessed at over 95% by both flow cytometry and by dark-field counting of β-tubulin III-positive cells. These results suggest that the protocol was successful and that the high purity of neurons in this system could be used as the basis for generating various cell models of neurological disease.

  12. Zika Virus Infection and Stillbirths: A Case of Hydrops Fetalis, Hydranencephaly and Fetal Demise.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manoel Sarno

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The rapid spread of Zika virus in the Americas and current outbreak of microcephaly in Brazil has raised attention to the possible deleterious effects that the virus may have on fetuses.We report a case of a 20-year-old pregnant woman who was referred to our service after a large Zika virus outbreak in the city of Salvador, Brazil with an ultrasound examination that showed intrauterine growth retardation of the fetus at the 18th gestational week. Ultrasound examinations in the 2nd and 3rd trimesters demonstrated severe microcephaly, hydranencephaly, intracranial calcifications and destructive lesions of posterior fossa, in addition to hydrothorax, ascites and subcutaneous edema. An induced labor was performed at the 32nd gestational week due to fetal demise and delivered a female fetus. ZIKV-specific real-time polymerase chain reaction amplification products were obtained from extracts of cerebral cortex, medulla oblongata and cerebrospinal and amniotic fluid, while extracts of heart, lung, liver, vitreous body of the eye and placenta did not yield detectable products.This case report provides evidence that in addition to microcephaly, there may be a link between Zika virus infection and hydrops fetalis and fetal demise. Given the recent spread of the virus, systematic investigation of spontaneous abortions and stillbirths may be warranted to evaluate the risk that ZIKV infection imparts on these outcomes.

  13. Transplantation of Fetal Stem Cells: a New Horizon for Treat¬ment of Degenerative Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farideh RAZI

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: The purpose of the current study was to present an overview of different types of stem-cells and their application for treatment different degenerative disorders with specific focus on ongoing clinical trials. Methods: For the purpose of the current narrative review article, a comprehensive search was carried out on the existing literature in Google Scholar, PubMed and Scopus using the keywords: stem-cell (fetal and mesenchymal, regenerative. Relevant articles published from 1957 to 2013 are extracted and presented. Results: During the past decades, different types of stem-cells (including adult and fetal have been used for treatment of a wide range of immunologic (Severe Combined Immunodeficiency, Di George syndrome, neurologic (Parkinson’s disease, Huntington Chorea, Cerebral Palsy, musculoskeletal (ALS, and cardiovascular diseases (heart failure and cardiomyopathies as well as chronic and acute ulcers, and diabetes. Conclusion: The results of our study demonstrated that during the past decades, stem-cell technology has been applied for treatment of a wide range of degenerative disorders with considerable success. The current ongoing clinical trials clearly demonstrate a great potential and a promising future for the technology in terms of offering curative treatment for a wide range of hitherto-incurable diseases. Keywords: Stem cell, Transplantation, Treatment, Review Article 

  14. Cell-free fetal DNA and cell-free total DNA levels in spontaneous abortion with fetal chromosomal aneuploidy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji Hyae Lim

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Cell-free fetal DNA and cell-free total DNA in maternal circulation have been proposed as potential markers for noninvasive monitoring of the placental condition during the pregnancy. However, the correlation of and change in cell-free fetal DNA and cell-free total DNA in spontaneous abortion (SA with fetal chromosomal aneuploidy have not yet been reported. Therefore, we investigated cell-free fetal DNA and cell-free total DNA levels in SA women with fetal chromosomal aneuploidy. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A nested case-control study was conducted with maternal plasma collected from 268 women in their first trimester of pregnancy. Subjects included 41 SA with normal fetal karyotype, 26 SA with fetal chromosomal aneuploidy, and 201 normal controls. The unmethylated PDE9A gene was used to measure the maternal plasma levels of cell-free fetal DNA. The GAPDH gene was used to measure the maternal plasma levels of cell-free total DNA. The diagnostic accuracy was measured using receiver-operating characteristic (ROC curves. Levels of cell-free fetal DNA and cell-free total DNA were significantly higher in both SA women with normal fetal karyotype and SA women with fetal chromosomal aneuploidy in comparison with the normal controls (P<0.001 in both. The correlation between cell-free fetal DNA and cell-free total DNA levels was stronger in the normal controls (r = 0.843, P<0.001 than in SA women with normal karyotype (r = 0.465, P = 0.002 and SA women with fetal chromosomal aneuploidy (r = 0.412, P = 0.037. The area under the ROC curve for cell-free fetal DNA and cell-free total DNA was 0.898 (95% CI, 0.852-0.945 and 0.939 (95% CI, 0.903-0.975, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Significantly high levels of cell-free fetal DNA and cell-free total DNA were found in SA women with fetal chromosomal aneuploidy. Our findings suggest that cell-free fetal DNA and cell-free total DNA may be useful biomarkers for the prediction of SA

  15. Understanding social media logic

    OpenAIRE

    José van Dijck; Thomas Poell

    2013-01-01

    Over the past decade, social media platforms have penetrated deeply into the mech­anics of everyday life, affecting people's informal interactions, as well as institutional structures and professional routines. Far from being neutral platforms for everyone, social media have changed the conditions and rules of social interaction. In this article, we examine the intricate dynamic between social media platforms, mass media, users, and social institutions by calling attention to social media lo...

  16. Social media influencer marketing

    OpenAIRE

    Isosuo, Heli

    2016-01-01

    The marketing field is changing simultaneously with the digital world. Social media is getting more and more important to marketers, and there is a need to stand out in the social media noise. Social media influencer marketing could be a good alternative to other types of marketing. A need from the consignor and the interest of the author were the motivations for conducting the study. Sääskilahti Consulting has a social media influencer network Somevaikuttajat, which is offering social media ...

  17. Middle cerebral artery blood velocity during rowing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Secher, Niels Henry; Pott, F; Knudsen, L.;

    1997-01-01

    original,arterial blood pressure,central venous pressure,cerebral blood flow, exercise, transcranial Doppler......original,arterial blood pressure,central venous pressure,cerebral blood flow, exercise, transcranial Doppler...

  18. Creatine supplementation during pregnancy: summary of experimental studies suggesting a treatment to improve fetal and neonatal morbidity and reduce mortality in high-risk human pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickinson, Hayley; Ellery, Stacey; Ireland, Zoe; LaRosa, Domenic; Snow, Rodney; Walker, David W

    2014-04-27

    While the use of creatine in human pregnancy is yet to be fully evaluated, its long-term use in healthy adults appears to be safe, and its well documented neuroprotective properties have recently been extended by demonstrations that creatine improves cognitive function in normal and elderly people, and motor skills in sleep-deprived subjects. Creatine has many actions likely to benefit the fetus and newborn, because pregnancy is a state of heightened metabolic activity, and the placenta is a key source of free radicals of oxygen and nitrogen. The multiple benefits of supplementary creatine arise from the fact that the creatine-phosphocreatine [PCr] system has physiologically important roles that include maintenance of intracellular ATP and acid-base balance, post-ischaemic recovery of protein synthesis, cerebral vasodilation, antioxidant actions, and stabilisation of lipid membranes. In the brain, creatine not only reduces lipid peroxidation and improves cerebral perfusion, its interaction with the benzodiazepine site of the GABAA receptor is likely to counteract the effects of glutamate excitotoxicity - actions that may protect the preterm and term fetal brain from the effects of birth hypoxia. In this review we discuss the development of creatine synthesis during fetal life, the transfer of creatine from mother to fetus, and propose that creatine supplementation during pregnancy may have benefits for the fetus and neonate whenever oxidative stress or feto-placental hypoxia arise, as in cases of fetal growth restriction, premature birth, or when parturition is delayed or complicated by oxygen deprivation of the newborn.

  19. Cerebral Salt Wasting Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Salih Sevdi

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available A serum sodium (Na value below 135 mEq/L is evaluated as hyponatremia. Hyponatremia is the most common electrolyte abnormality observed in hospitalized patients in particular. Hypovolemic hypoosmolar hyponatremia is the most frequent clinical table. One of the reasons of this is cerebral salt-wasting syndrome (CSWS. CSWS is a rare condition progressing with low plasma osmolality, urine osmolality above 100-150 mOsm/kg and urine- Na concentration above 20 mEq/L. In the blood and urine sample analysis performed upon sudden loss of consciousness on the 15th day of the intensive care unit follow-up of 79-year-old female patients due to falling from stairs, blood biochemistry Na value was 120 mEq/L, plasma osmolality was 250 mOsm/kg, urine Na value was 180 mEq/L, urine osmolality was 1200 mOsm/kg, urine diuresis was >3 mL/kg/hour. The central venous pressure was 2 mmHg. The patient, considered to be diagnosed with CSWS, was treated with 9% NaCl and 3% hypertonic saline solution. Her clinical course was improved on the 18th day. She died on the 81st day secondary to septicemia in the subsequent follow-up. In this article, it was aimed to report a patient with CSWS which progresses with low percentage in intensive care unit patients with head trauma, is frequently confused with inappropriate antidiuretic hormone syndrome and progresses mortally when not diagnosed distinctively well.

  20. Metabolomics application in maternal-fetal medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fanos, Vassilios; Atzori, Luigi; Makarenko, Karina; Melis, Gian Benedetto; Ferrazzi, Enrico

    2013-01-01

    Metabolomics in maternal-fetal medicine is still an "embryonic" science. However, there is already an increasing interest in metabolome of normal and complicated pregnancies, and neonatal outcomes. Tissues used for metabolomics interrogations of pregnant women, fetuses and newborns are amniotic fluid, blood, plasma, cord blood, placenta, urine, and vaginal secretions. All published papers highlight the strong correlation between biomarkers found in these tissues and fetal malformations, preterm delivery, premature rupture of membranes, gestational diabetes mellitus, preeclampsia, neonatal asphyxia, and hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy. The aim of this review is to summarize and comment on original data available in relevant published works in order to emphasize the clinical potential of metabolomics in obstetrics in the immediate future.

  1. Fetal chromosome analysis: screening for chromosome disease?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Philip, J; Tabor, Ann; Bang, J

    1983-01-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the rationale of the current indications for fetal chromosome analysis. 5372 women had 5423 amniocentesis performed, this group constituting a consecutive sample at the chromosome laboratory, Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen from March 1973 to September 1980 (Group...... to women having amniocentesis, although considered not to have any increased risk of fetal chromosome abnormality (1390 pregnancies, group B). They were also compared with 750 consecutive pregnancies in women 25-34 years of age, in whom all heritable diseases were excluded (group C). The risk of unbalanced...... with women without elevated risk. Spontaneous abortion rate and prematurity rate did not differ from rates expected without amniocentesis. It is concluded that current indications may be characterized as a mixture of evident high risk factors and factors with only a minor influence on risk. Indications...

  2. Hormonal and metabolic responses of fetal lamb during cardiopulmonary bypass

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苏肇伉; 周成斌; 张海波; 祝忠群

    2003-01-01

    Objective To study the hormonal and metabolic responses of fetal lamb during cardiopulmonary bypass.Methods Six pregnant ewes underwent fetal cardiopulmonary bypasses with artificial oxygenators and roller pumps for 30 minutes, which maintained the blood gas value at the fetal physiological level. The fetal blood pressure, heart rate, pH value and blood lactate levels were monitored. The levels of catecholamine, cortisol and insulin were measured pre-bypass and then again 30 minutes later. The blood glucose and free fatty acid levels were monitored continuously during the bypass. Fetal hepatic PAS staining was also carried out.Results There were no changes before and during the bypass in fetal blood pressure, heart rate and blood gas. However, pH values decreased and blood lactate levels increased (P<0.05). The fetal catecholamine and cortisol levels increased significantly (P<0.01), while the levels of insulin did not change. The blood glucose and free fatty acid levels increased at the beginning of the bypass (P<0.01), and then gradually slowed down during the bypass. The fetal hepatic PAS staining showed that hepatic glycogen was consumed in large amounts. After 30 minutes of bypass, the fetal lamb would not survive more than 1 hour.Conclusion The fetal lamb has a strong negative reaction to cardiopulmonary bypass.

  3. Análise dos Testes de Vitalidade Fetal e dos Resultados Perinatais em Gestações de Alto Risco com Oligoidrâmnio Analysis of Fetal Well-being and Perinatal Outcome in the High-risk Pregnancies Complicated by Oligohydramnios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roseli Mieko Yamamoto Nomura

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available Objetivos: analisar, em gestações de alto risco com diagnóstico de oligoidrâmnio, os resultados dos testes de avaliação da vitalidade fetal e os resultados perinatais. Métodos: foram selecionadas retrospectivamente 572 gestações de alto risco com diagnóstico de oligoidrâmnio, caracterizado por ILA inferior ou igual a 5,0 cm. Destas, 220 apresentavam diagnóstico de oligoidrâmnio grave (ILA Purpose: to evaluate, in the high-risk pregnancies with oligohydramnios, the assessment tools for fetal well-being and perinatal results. Methods: five hundred seventy-two high-risk pregnancies were retrospectively analyzed. All of them presented with oligohydramnios established by AFI <=5.0 cm. Severe oligohydramnios was detected in 220 cases (AFI<=3,0 cm. The fetal well-being tests included: antepartum cardiotocography, biophysical profile score (BPS and dopplervelocimetry of umbilical and middle cerebral arteries. Multiple gestation, fetal anomalies and premature rupture of membrane cases were excluded. Results: severe oligohydramnios was significantlly associated with abnormal and suspected cardiotocography results (23.2%, abnormal biophysical profile score (10.5%, abnormal results of middle cerebral artery dopplervelocimetry (54.5%, small for gestational age infants (32.7% and meconial amniotic fluid (27.9% when compared to pregnancies with AFI between 3.1 and 5.0 cm. This group presented: abnormal or suspected cardiotocography results (13.9%, abnormal biophysical profile score (4.3%, abnormal results of middle cerebral artery dopplervelocimetry (33.9%, small for gestational age infants (21.0% and meconial amniotic fluid (16.8%. Conclusion: the oligohydramnios severity in high-risk pregnancies allows to discriminate the cases that are related to adverse perinatal outcome.

  4. Value of fetal skeletal radiographs in the diagnosis of fetal death

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bourliere-Najean, B.; Russel, A.S.; Petit, P.; Devred, P. [Department of Pediatric Radiology, CHU Timone, 264 rue St. Pierre, 13385 Marseille cedex 5 (France); Panuel, M. [Department of Radiology, Hopital Nord, chemin Bourrelys, 13915 Marseille cedex 20 (France); Piercecchi-Marti, M.D.; Fredouille, C. [Department of Pathology, CHU Timone, 264 rue St. Pierre, 13385 Marseille cedex 5 (France); Sigaudy, S.; Philip, N. [Department of Genetics, CHU Timone, 264 rue St. Pierre, 13385 Marseille cedex 5 (France)

    2003-05-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the value of fetal skeletal radiographs in determining the etiology of fetal death. A total of 1193 post-mortem fetal skeletal radiographs were analysed. Fetuses were classified into one of three groups (group I: abnormality diagnosed during pregnancy; group II: maternal pathology; group III: spontaneous abortion of pregnancy, IIIa before 26 weeks of gestation (WG), IIIb after 26 weeks of gestation). Face, supine and lateral skeletal views were performed. Skeletal abnormalities were detected in 33.9% of the fetuses, including 22.7% with minor abnormalities (abnormal rib number, no nasal bone ossification, amesophalangia or P2 hypoplasia of the fifth digit) and 14.5% with major abnormalities (other skeletal abnormalities). Among the fetuses with major abnormalities, 98.8% came from group I, 2.9% came from group II, 2.3% came from group IIIa and none came from group IIIb. Fetal skeletal radiographs are not useful in fetuses arising from spontaneous abortion of pregnancy without abnormality on ultrasound screening, abnormality clinical examination or in fetuses with prenatal diagnosis of chromosomal abnormality. This practice is valuable only if there is a multidisciplinary team, with all the participants (pathologists, radiologists, geneticists) knowledgeable about fetal pathology. In the absence of this multidisciplinary approach, it is easier to X-ray all fetuses to avoid misdiagnosis and the important consequences for genetic counselling. (orig.)

  5. Cerebral venous thrombosis in childhood

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huisman, T.A.G.M.; Martin, E.; Willi, U.V. [Dept. of Diagnostic Imaging and Radiology, University Children' s Hospital Zurich (Switzerland); Holzmann, D. [Dept. of Otorhinolaryngology, University Children' s Hospital Zurich, Zurich (Switzerland)

    2001-09-01

    This was a retrospective study to determine different etiologies of cerebral venous thrombosis (CVT) in childhood and to correlate extent and location of thrombosis with the etiology and the age of the child as well as the final outcome. In addition, the radiologic approach is discussed. This was a retrospective analysis of 19 children with CVT. The children were examined by contrast-enhanced dynamic CT. Radiologic findings were correlated with the etiology of CVT. Cerebral venous thrombosis is not as infrequent in children as has been thought. Cerebral venous thrombosis in children can occur due to trauma (n=9), infections (n=7), or coagulation disorders (n=3). Extent and location of thrombosis, as well as complications, final outcome, and therapy, depend on the etiology. Computed tomography remains a valuable primary imaging modality in the diagnosis of CVT in the acutely injured or diseased child. (orig.)

  6. Neuronal autophagy in cerebral ischemia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Feng Xu; Jin-Hua Gu; Zheng-Hong Qin

    2012-01-01

    Autophagy has evolved as a conserved process for the bulk degradation and recycling of cytosolic components,such as long-lived proteins and organelles.In neurons,autophagy is important for homeostasis and protein quality control and is maintained at relatively low levels under normal conditions,while it is upregulated in response to pathophysiological conditions,such as cerebral ischemic injury.However,the role of autophagy is more complex.It depends on age or brain maturity,region,severity of insult,and the stage of ischemia.Whether autophagy plays a beneficial or a detrimental role in cerebral ischemia depends on various pathological conditions.In this review,we elucidate the role of neuronal autophagy in cerebral ischemia.

  7. Can postmortem fetal MR imaging replace autopsy?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Jeong Yeon; Song, Mi Jin [Sungkyunkwan Univ. School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Seoung Hyup [Seoul National Univ. College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2001-02-01

    The purposes of this study were to compare postmortem fetal MRI findings with autopsy findings and to assess whether postmortem MRI can replace autopsy. The study group consisted of 13 stillborn fetuses, seven that died immediately after birth, and five terminated because of anomalies seen on prenatal sonograms. A total 17 were male, and eight were female, and their gestational ages were from 20 to 41 (average;28.2) weeks. Spin-echo T1-and T2-weighted axial, sagittal, and coronal MR images were obtained, and autopsy findings were divided into major and minor. A major finding was defined as an anomaly or syndrome which caused fetal death or termination of the pregnancy: minor findings were classified, on the basis of gross inspection, as internal or external. MR images were retrospectively analyzed by two radiologists unaware of the autopsy findings, and by comparison with these, the postmortem MRI detection rates for major and minor findings was then determined. In seven of 25 fetuses, MR imaging revealed major findings, a dietction rate of 100%. There were two cases of anencephaly, two of trisomy-18, and one each of hydrops fetalis with large cystic hygroma, diaphragmatic hernia, and Dandy-Walker malformation. Twenty-three of 60 minor findings (38.3%) were detected by MRI. The detection rates for external and internal findings were 29.6%(8/27) and 45.5%(15/33), respectively. Although a limitation of our study is the low detection rate for minor findings, postmortem fetal MRI may help diagnose the major cause of fetal death.

  8. Umbilical Cord Segmental Hemorrhage and Fetal Distress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larciprete, Giovanni; Romanini, Maria Elisabetta; Arduini, Domenico; Cirese, Elio; Slowikowska-Hilczer, Jolanta; Kula, Krzysztof

    2006-01-01

    We describe an unexplained case of umbilical cord segmental hemorrhage linked with meconium-stained amniotic fluid. A severely asphyxiated infant was delivered at term by Caesarean section. There were poor prognostic signs on fetal cardiotocography with rupture of membranes with meconium-stained amniotic fluid. The pathophysiologic mechanism in this case is still unknown, even if we argued a possible role of the umbilical cord shortness. PMID:23674981

  9. Formate metabolism in fetal and neonatal sheep

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    By virtue of its role in nucleotide synthesis, as well as the provision of methyl groups for vital methylation reactions, one-carbon metabolism plays a crucial role in growth and development. Formate, a critical albeit neglected component of one-carbon metabolism, occurs extracellularly and may provide insights into cellular events. We examined formate metabolism in chronically cannulated fetal sheep (gestation days 119–121, equivalent to mid-third trimester in humans) and in their mothers as...

  10. Fetal MR imaging diagnosis of pulmonary agenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuwashima, Shigeko; Kaji, Yasushi

    2010-01-01

    A woman was referred to our institution with an ultrasound (US) suggestive of right-sided heart in fetus at 34 weeks' gestation. Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging revealed right-sided heart, small right hemithorax, and completely absent right main bronchus and right pulmonary artery. From our experience with this case, we point out 5 important MR imaging findings needed for prenatal diagnosis of pulmonary agenesis. Fetal MR imaging also provided information about anomalies of other organs.

  11. Jaundice during pregnancy: maternal and fetal outcome

    OpenAIRE

    Jayanthi Krishnamoorthy; Anuradha Murugesan

    2016-01-01

    Background: Jaundice affects a small percentage of pregnant women, yet it takes a major toll on health of both mother and fetus especially in developing countries like India. Jaundice in pregnancy carries a grave prognosis for both the fetus and the mother, and is responsible for 10% of maternal deaths. The aim of the study was to find out the effect of jaundice during pregnancy on maternal and fetal outcome. Methods: 51 pregnant women with jaundice during pregnancy attending the Institute...

  12. Fetal hydantoin syndrome: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Singh

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Fetal hydantoin syndrome (FHS is a spectrum of defects caused to the developing fetus by exposure to the teratogenic effects of antiepileptic drug (AED phenytoin during pregnancy. Its clinical manifestations include limb abnormalities, ocular defects, central nervous system anomalies, intrauterine growth restriction, and hand and phalangeal anomalies. This case report presents an 8-year-old child born to an epileptic mother with a history of AED therapy, with features suggestive of FHS.

  13. Induction of fetal demise before abortion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diedrich, Justin; Drey, Eleanor

    2010-06-01

    For decades, the induction of fetal demise has been used before both surgical and medical second-trimester abortion. Intracardiac potassium chloride and intrafetal or intra-amniotic digoxin injections are the pharmacologic agents used most often to induce fetal demise. In the last several years, induction of fetal demise has become more common before second-trimester abortion. The only randomized, placebo-controlled trial of induced fetal demise before surgical abortion used a 1 mg injection of intra-amniotic digoxin before surgical abortion at 20-23 weeks' gestation and found no difference in procedure duration, difficulty, estimated blood loss, pain scores or complications between groups. Inducing demise before induction terminations at near viable gestational ages to avoid signs of life at delivery is practiced widely. The role of inducing demise before dilation and evacuation (D&E) remains unclear, except for legal considerations in the United States when an intact delivery is intended. There is a discrepancy between the one published randomized trial that used 1 mg intra-amniotic digoxin that showed no improvement in D&E outcomes and observational studies using different routes, doses and pre-abortion intervals that have made claims for its use. Additional randomized trials might provide clearer evidence upon which to make further recommendations about any role of inducing demise before surgical abortion. At the current time, the Society of Family Planning recommends that pharmacokinetic studies followed by randomized controlled trials be conducted to assess the safety and efficacy of feticidal agents to improve abortion safety.

  14. Maturation of Fetal Responses to Music

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kisilevsky, B. S.; Hains, S. M. J.; Jacquet, A.-Y.; Granier-Deferre, C.; Lecanuet, J. P.

    2004-01-01

    Maturation of fetal response to music was characterized over the last trimester of pregnancy using a 5-minute piano recording of Brahms' Lullaby, played at an average of 95, 100, 105 or 110 dB (A). Within 30 seconds of the onset of the music, the youngest fetuses (28-32 weeks GA) showed a heart rate increase limited to the two highest dB levels;…

  15. Cardiovascular function in term fetal sheep conceived, gestated and studied in the hypobaric hypoxia of the Andean altiplano.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrera, Emilio A; Rojas, Rodrigo T; Krause, Bernardo J; Ebensperger, Germán; Reyes, Roberto V; Giussani, Dino A; Parer, Julian T; Llanos, Aníbal J

    2016-03-01

    High-altitude hypoxia causes intrauterine growth restriction and cardiovascular programming. However, adult humans and animals that have evolved at altitude show certain protection against the effects of chronic hypoxia. Whether the highland fetus shows similar protection against high altitude gestation is unclear. We tested the hypothesis that high-altitude fetal sheep have evolved cardiovascular compensatory mechanisms to withstand chronic hypoxia that are different from lowland sheep. We studied seven high-altitude (HA; 3600 m) and eight low-altitude (LA; 520 m) pregnant sheep at ∼90% gestation. Pregnant ewes and fetuses were instrumented for cardiovascular investigation. A three-period experimental protocol was performed in vivo: 30 min of basal, 1 h of acute superimposed hypoxia (∼10% O2) and 30 min of recovery. Further, we determined ex vivo fetal cerebral and femoral arterial function. HA pregnancy led to chronic fetal hypoxia, growth restriction and altered cardiovascular function. During acute superimposed hypoxia, LA fetuses redistributed blood flow favouring the brain, heart and adrenals, whereas HA fetuses showed a blunted cardiovascular response. Importantly, HA fetuses have a marked reduction in umbilical blood flow versus LA. Isolated cerebral arteries from HA fetuses showed a higher contractile capacity but a diminished response to catecholamines. In contrast, femoral arteries from HA fetuses showed decreased contractile capacity and increased adrenergic contractility. The blunting of the cardiovascular responses to hypoxia in fetuses raised in the Alto Andino may indicate a change in control strategy triggered by chronic hypoxia, switching towards compensatory mechanisms that are more cost-effective in terms of oxygen uptake.

  16. Fetal MRI in experimental tracheal occlusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wedegaertner, Ulrike [Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Universitaetsklinikum Hamburg-Eppendorf, Martinistrasse 52, 20251 Hamburg (Germany)]. E-mail: wedegaer@uke.uni-hamburg.de; Schroeder, Hobe J. [Experimental Gynecology, Department of Obstetrics and Prenatal Medicine, Universitaetsklinikum Hamburg-Eppendorf, Hamburg (Germany); Adam, Gerhard [Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Universitaetsklinikum Hamburg-Eppendorf, Hamburg (Germany)

    2006-02-15

    Congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH) is associated with a high mortality, which is mainly due to pulmonary hypoplasia and secondary pulmonary hypertension. In severely affected fetuses, tracheal occlusion (TO) is performed prenatally to reverse pulmonary hypoplasia, because TO leads to accelerated lung growth. Prenatal imaging is important to identify fetuses with pulmonary hypoplasia, to diagnose high-risk fetuses who would benefit from TO, and to monitor the effect of TO after surgery. In fetal imaging, ultrasound (US) is the method of choice, because it is widely available, less expensive, and less time-consuming to perform than magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). However, there are some limitations for US in the evaluation of CDH fetuses. In those cases, MRI is helpful because of a better tissue contrast between liver and lung, which enables evaluation of liver herniation for the diagnosis of a high-risk fetus. MRI provides the ability to determine absolute lung volumes to detect lung hypoplasia. In fetal sheep with normal and hyperplastic lungs after TO, lung growth was assessed on the basis of cross-sectional US measurements, after initial lung volume determination by MRI. To monitor fetal lung growth after prenatal TO, both MRI and US seem to be useful methods.

  17. Fetal MRI: incidental findings in the mother

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdullah, Selwan B. [University of Maryland Medical Center, Diagnostic Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Baltimore, MD (United States); University of Minnesota, Medical School, Minneapolis, MN (United States); Dietz, Kelly R.; Holm, Tara L. [University of Minnesota, Department of Radiology, Minneapolis, MN (United States)

    2016-11-15

    Fetal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a routinely used tool in prenatal diagnosis; however, there is a lack of studies evaluating incidental findings observed in the mother. This study describes and quantifies incidental findings observed in the mother during fetal MRI. We reviewed all fetal MRI studies at the University of Minnesota Medical Center from February 2008 to September 2014. Two pediatric radiologists retrospectively conducted a consensus evaluation. The maternal findings were categorized into neurologic, gynecologic, urinary, gastrointestinal and musculoskeletal. Hydronephrosis consistent with the stage of pregnancy was recorded but was not included as an abnormal finding. Abnormal findings were classified into three groups, depending on their clinical significance: level I (low), level II (medium) and level III (high). We evaluated 332 pregnant patients with a mean age of 29.3 years and a mean gestational age of 29 weeks. Of these, 55.4% had at least 1 incidental finding, for a total of 262 incidental maternal findings. Of the 262 abnormalities, 113 (43.1%) were neurologic, 69 were gynecologic (26.3%), 36 (13.7%) urinary, 24 (9.2%) gastrointestinal and 20 (7.6%) musculoskeletal. Of the 262 incidental findings, 237 (90.5%) were level I, 24 (9.2%) were level II and 1 (0.4%) was level III. Our results suggest that although the vast majority of incidental maternal findings are benign, more significant findings are still encountered and should be expected. (orig.)

  18. Fetal MRI of clubfoot associated with myelomeningocele

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Servaes, Sabah; Hernandez, Andrea; Gonzalez, Leonardo; Victoria, Teresa; Jaramillo, Diego; Christopher Edgar, J.; Johnson, Ann [Children' s Hospital of Philadelphia, Department of Radiology, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Johnson, Mark [Children' s Hospital of Philadelphia, Department of Fetal Surgery, Philadelphia, PA (United States)

    2010-12-15

    The sensitivity and specificity of evaluating clubfoot deformity by MR in high-risk fetuses is currently unknown. To correlate fetal MRI with US in the assessment of clubfoot and to identify the MRI features most characteristic of clubfoot. With IRB approval and informed consent, the presence of fetal clubfoot was prospectively evaluated in mothers referred for MRI for a fetus with myelomeningocele. Two radiologists blind to the US results independently reviewed the MRI for the presence of clubfoot. MRI results were compared with US results obtained the same day and birth outcomes. Of 20 patients enrolled, there were 13 clubfeet. Interobserver agreement for the presence of clubfoot was 100%. The sensitivity of the MRI exam was 100% and the specificity 85.2%. A dedicated sagittal imaging plane through the ankle region allowed the most confident diagnosis; medial deviation of the foot relative to the leg was seen in all 13 fetuses with clubfoot. The correlation of fetal MRI with US in the evaluation of clubfoot yields a sensitivity of 100% and specificity of 85.2%. The sagittal plane provided the most useful information. (orig.)

  19. Role of fetal DNA in preeclampsia (review).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konečná, Barbora; Vlková, Barbora; Celec, Peter

    2015-02-01

    Preeclampsia is an autoimmune disorder characterized by hypertension. It begins with abnormal cytotrophoblast apoptosis, which leads to inflammation and an increase in the levels of anti-angiogenic factors followed by the disruption of the angiogenic status. Increased levels of fetal DNA and RNA coming from the placenta, one of the most commonly affected organs in pregnancies complicated by preeclampsia, have been found in pregnant women with the condition. However, it remains unknown as to whether this is a cause or a consequence of preeclampsia. Few studies have been carried out on preeclampsia in which an animal model of preeclampsia was induced by an injection of different types of DNA that are mimic fetal DNA and provoke inflammation through Toll-like receptor 9 (TLR9) or cyclic guanosine monophosphate-adenosine monophosphate (cGAMP). The specific mechanisms involved in the development of preeclampsia are not yet fully understood. It is hypothesized that the presence of different fragments of fetal DNA in maternal plasma may cause for the development of preeclampsia. The function of DNase during preeclampsia also remains unresolved. Studies have suggested that its activity is decreased or the DNA is protected against its effects. Further research is required to uncover the pathogenesis of preeclampsia and focus more on the condition of patients with the condition.

  20. [Fetal pain - neurobiological causes and consequences].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves, Nuno; Rebelo, Sandra; Tavares, Isaura

    2010-01-01

    The existence of putatively painful situations to the fetus demands a careful evaluation of the issue of fetal pain. Several indirect approaches are used to evaluate the existence of fetal pain. Neurobiological studies showed that from the 30th week on, the anatomical and physiological system for pain transmission is already developed, with the connections from the periphery to the cortex being successively established. Stress responses to a painful stimulation are complex but they can be detected from the 16th week on. There is activation of the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis, autonomic nervous system and hemodynamic changes in response to nociceptive stimulation. In prematures exposed to pain there are significant increases of adrenaline, noradrenaline and cortisol, hemodynamic changes, motor reflexes and facial reactions. The changes induced by strong nociceptive stimulation of newborns have important postnatal consequences since they affect future reactions to noxious stimuli. Central sensitization and immaturity of the pain inhibitory system are the main neurobiological explanations for the increased pain. Detailed studies of the neurobiological mechanisms of the transmission of painful stimuli along with follow-up studies of the consequences of exposure to pain during the development of the fetus are necessary to fully understand fetal pain.

  1. Hypertext atlas of fetal and neonatal pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jezová, Marta; Múcková, Katarína; Soucek, Ondrej; Feit, Josef; Vlasín, Pavel

    2008-07-15

    Hypertext atlas of fetal and neonatal pathology is a free resource for pregraduate students of medicine, pathologists and other health professionals dealing with prenatal medicine. The atlas can be found at http://www.muni.cz/atlases. The access is restricted to registered users. Concise texts summarize the gross and microscopic pathology, etiology, and clinical signs of both common and rare fetal and neonatal conditions. The texts are illustrated with over 300 images that are accompanied by short comments. The atlas offers histological pictures of high quality. Virtual microscope interface is used to access the high-resolution histological images. Fetal ultrasound video clips are included. Case studies integrate clinical history, prenatal ultrasonographic examination, gross pathology and histological features. The atlas is available in English (and Czech) and equipped with an active index. The atlas is suitable both for medical students and pathologists as a teaching and reference tool. The atlas is going to be further expanded while keeping the high quality of the images.

  2. Fetal Electrocardiogram (fECG Gated MRI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martyn N.J. Paley

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available We have developed a Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI-compatible system to enable gating of a scanner to the heartbeat of a foetus for cardiac, umbilical cord flow and other possible imaging applications. We performed radiofrequency safety testing prior to a fetal electrocardiogram (fECG gated imaging study in pregnant volunteers (n = 3. A compact monitoring device with advanced software capable of reliably detecting both the maternal electrocardiogram (mECG and fECG simultaneously was modified by the manufacturer (Monica Healthcare, Nottingham, UK to provide an external TTL trigger signal from the detected fECG which could be used to trigger a standard 1.5 T MR (GE Healthcare, Milwaukee, WI, USA gating system with suitable attenuation. The MR scanner was tested by triggering rapidly during image acquisition at a typical fetal heart rate (123 beats per minute using a simulated fECG waveform fed into the gating system. Gated MR images were also acquired from volunteers who were attending for a repeat fetal Central Nervous System (CNS examination using an additional rapid cardiac imaging sequence triggered from the measured fECG. No adverse safety effects were encountered. This is the first time fECG gating has been used with MRI and opens up a range of new possibilities to study a developing foetus.

  3. Neuroevolutional Approach to Cerebral Palsy and Speech.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mysak, Edward D.

    Intended for cerebral palsy specialists, the book emphasizes the contribution that a neuroevolutional approach to therapy can make to habilitation goals of the child with cerebral palsy and applies the basic principles of the Bobath approach to therapy. The first section discusses cerebral palsy as a reflection of disturbed neuro-ontogenisis and…

  4. Fenestration of the anterior cerebral artery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ito, J.; Washiyama, K.; Hong, K.C.; Ibuchi, Y.

    1981-08-01

    Three cases of angiographically demonstrated fenestration of the anterior cerebral artery are reported. Fenestration occurred at the medial half of the horizontal segment of the anterior cerebral artery in all cases. Its embryology and clinical significance are briefly discussed, and the anatomical and radiological literature on fenestration of the anterior cerebral artery is reviewed.

  5. Cerebral toksoplasmose primaert diagnosticeret som tumor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cortsen, M E; Skøt, J; Skriver, E B

    1992-01-01

    Three cases of cerebral toxoplasmosis as the presenting manifestation of AIDS are reported. The initial diagnoses were brain tumors because of the cerebral mass lesions which resembled glioblastoma. In the light of the increasing occurrence of AIDS, attention is drawn to cerebral toxoplasmosis...

  6. Maturational change in the cortical response to hypoperfusion injury in the fetal sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, K; Mallard, C; Guan, J; Marks, K; Bennet, L; Gunning, M; Gunn, A; Gluckman, P; Williams, C

    1998-05-01

    A characteristic of perinatal encephalopathies are the distinct patterns of neuronal and glial cell loss. Cerebral hypoperfusion is thought to be a major cause of these lesions. Gestational age is likely to influence outcome. This study compares the cortical electrophysiologic and histopathologic responses to hypoperfusion injury between preterm and near term fetuses. Chronically instrumented 0.65 (93-99-d, n = 9) and 0.9 (119-133-d, n = 6) gestation fetal sheep underwent 30 min of cerebral hypoperfusion injury. The parasagittal cortical EEG and impedance (measure of cytotoxic edema) responses plus histologic outcome (3 d) were compared. The acute rise in impedance was similar in amplitude, but the onset was delayed (5.0 +/- 0.7 versus 9.1 +/- 1.1 min, p preterm fetuses relative to those near term. In contrast the extent of the secondary rise was reduced (p preterm fetuses (19.8 +/- 1.0 versus 40.5 +/- 3.5 h, p fall in EEG spectral edge frequency. The preterm fetuses had a milder loss of EEG intensity at 72 h (-7.7 +/- 1.5 versus -12.8 +/- 0.9 dB, p term. In contrast the preterm fetuses developed subcortical infarcts (p term. In contrast, the preterm fetuses had a more rapidly evolving injury leading to necrosis of the subcortical white matter.

  7. Lifetime costs of cerebral palsy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kruse, Marie; Michelsen, Susan Ishøy; Flachs, Esben Meulengracht;

    2009-01-01

    This study quantified the lifetime costs of cerebral palsy (CP) in a register-based setting. It was the first study outside the US to assess the lifetime costs of CP. The lifetime costs attributable to CP were divided into three categories: health care costs, productivity costs, and social costs....... The population analyzed was retrieved from the Danish Cerebral Palsy Register, which covers the eastern part of the country and has registered about half of the Danish population of individuals with CP since 1950. For this study we analyzed 2367 individuals with CP, who were born in 1930 to 2000 and were alive...

  8. Features to validate cerebral toxoplasmosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina da Cunha Correia

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Neurotoxoplasmosis (NT sometimes manifests unusual characteristics. Methods We analyzed 85 patients with NT and AIDS according to clinical, cerebrospinal fluid, cranial magnetic resonance, and polymerase chain reaction (PCR characteristics. Results In 8.5%, focal neurological deficits were absent and 16.4% had single cerebral lesions. Increased sensitivity of PCR for Toxoplasma gondii DNA in the central nervous system was associated with pleocytosis and presence of >4 encephalic lesions. Conclusions Patients with NT may present without focal neurological deficit and NT may occur with presence of a single cerebral lesion. Greater numbers of lesions and greater cellularity in cerebrospinal fluid improve the sensitivity of PCR to T gondii.

  9. Unpacking New Media Literacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Der-Thanq “victor” Chen

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The 21st century has marked an unprecedented advancement of new media. New media has become so pervasive that it has penetrated into every aspect of our society. New media literacy plays an essential role for any citizen to participate fully in the 21st century society. Researchers have documented that literacy has evolved historically from classic literacy (reading-writing-understanding to audiovisual literacy to digital literacy or information literacy and recently to new media literacy. A review of literature on media literacy reveals that there is a lack of thorough analysis of unique characteristics of new media and its impacts upon the notion of new media literacy. The purpose of the study is to unpack new media literacy and propose a framework for a systematic investigation of new media literacy.

  10. Media Pluralism and Diversity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    challenges for media pluralism policies in the light of a fast changing media environment. The book is unique in that it confronts insights from all parts of the world and from a broad range of disciplines including law, economics, media studies, and sociology.......In the western world, a diverse and pluralistic media landscape is deemed essential for democracy. But how universal is media pluralism as a concept underpinning media policies? To what extent do normative approaches, regulatory dimensions and monitoring systems differ throughout the world......? Adopting a truly global, theoretical and multidisciplinary perspective, Media Pluralism and Diversity advances our understanding of media pluralism across the globe. It compares metrics developed in different parts of the world to assess levels of, or threats to, media pluralism. It identifies common...

  11. Role of sex steroids and their receptors in human preterm infants: Impacts on future treatment strategies for cerebral development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hübner, Stephanie; Reich, Bettina; Heckmann, Matthias

    2015-12-15

    Preterm birth is a major risk factor for cerebral complications, such as hemorrhage or periventricular leukomalacia, which lead to lifelong neurodevelopmental deficits. Hypoxia/ischemia, inflammation, hyperoxia, and prematurity itself contribute to the extent of impaired neurodevelopment. Preterm birth leads to disruption of the placental supply of estrogens and progesterone. Postnatally, the plasma levels of estrogens and progesterone drop 100-fold. Preterm infants are deprived of the placental supply of these hormones for up to sixteen weeks. Thus, supplementation of estradiol and progesterone to mimic intrauterine conditions may potentially improve a premature infant́s extrauterine development and help protect the brain against neurological complications. However, preliminary clinical studies did not find improved outcomes except for a trend towards less cerebral palsy. The decrease in estrogen and progesterone concentrations is accompanied by persistent, high postnatal production of fetal zone steroids, mainly dehydroepiandrosterone, which serve as precursors for maternal estrogen synthesis during pregnancy. This commentary will combine knowledge from endocrinology, pharmacology, and neonatology to explain the discrepancies between promising animal models and clinical findings. Most important targets will be classical and non-classical estrogen receptors, which interact differently-not only with estrogens but also with fetal zone steroids. The fetal zone is unique among humans and higher primates. Therefore, a clearly defined model is required to study the role of sex steroids and their receptors before further clinical studies begin.

  12. Recommendations for fetal echocardiography in twin pregnancy in 2016

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leszczyńska Katarzyna

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Progress in the fields of fetal cardiology and fetal surgery have been seen not only in singleton pregnancies but also in multiple pregnancies. Proper interpretation of prenatal echocardiography is critical to clinical decision making, family counseling and perinatal management for obstetricians, maternal fetal medicine specialists, neonatologists and pediatric cardiologists. Fetal echocardiography is one of the most challenging and time-consuming prenatal examinations to perform, especially in multiple gestations. Performing just the basic fetal exam in twin gestations may take an hour or more. Thus, it is not practical to perform this exam in all cases of multiple gestations. Therefore our review and recommendations are related to fetal echocardiography in twin gestation.

  13. Clinical relevance of fetal hemodynamic monitoring: Perinatal implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pruetz, Jay D; Votava-Smith, Jodie; Miller, David A

    2015-08-01

    Comprehensive assessment of fetal wellbeing involves monitoring of fetal growth, placental function, central venous pressure, and cardiac function. Ultrasound evaluation of the fetus using 2D, color Doppler, and pulse-wave Doppler techniques form the foundation of antenatal diagnosis of structural anomalies, rhythm abnormalities and altered fetal circulation. Accurate and timely prenatal identification of the fetus at risk is critical for appropriate parental counseling, antenatal diagnostic testing, consideration for fetal intervention, perinatal planning, and coordination of postnatal care delivery. Fetal hemodynamic monitoring and serial assessment are vital to ensuring fetal wellbeing, particularly in the setting of complex congenital anomalies. A complete hemodynamic evaluation of the fetus gives important information on the likelihood of a smooth postnatal transition and contributes to ensuring the best possible outcome for the neonate.

  14. MRI of normal and pathological fetal lung development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kasprian, Gregor [University Clinic of Radiodiagnostics, Medical University of Vienna (Austria)]. E-mail: gregor.kasprian@meduniwien.ac.at; Balassy, Csilla [University Clinic of Radiodiagnostics, Medical University of Vienna (Austria); Brugger, Peter C. [Center of Anatomy and Cell Biology, Medical University of Vienna (Austria); Prayer, Daniela [University Clinic of Radiodiagnostics, Medical University of Vienna (Austria)

    2006-02-15

    Normal fetal lung development is a complex process influenced by mechanical and many biochemical factors. In addition to ultrasound, fetal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) constitutes a new method to investigate this process in vivo during the second and third trimester. The techniques of MRI volumetry, assessment of signal intensities, and MRI spectroscopy of the fetal lung have been used to analyze this process and have already been applied clinically to identify abnormal fetal lung growth. Particularly in conditions such as oligohydramnios and congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH), pulmonary hypoplasia may be the cause of neonatal death. A precise diagnosis and quantification of compromised fetal lung development may improve post- and perinatal management. The main events in fetal lung development are reviewed and MR volumetric data from 106 normal fetuses, as well as different examples of pathological lung growth, are provided.

  15. Fetal Goiter was Resolved with Decreasing Maternal Propylthiouracil Dose

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    And Yavuz

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available We report a case of fetal goiter diagnosed by detailed ultrasonography. A 33-year-old woman at twenty weeks of gestation was referred to our hospital for detailed ultrasonography. A fetal goiter was identified. She was receiving propylthiouracil (PTU 100 mg daily for Graves’ disease. Amniocentesis was performed and fetal thyroid function was evaluated as normal. Her recent thyroid function tests were normal, but anti-thyroid antibodies were positive. The dose of PTU was reduced to 50 mg. However, at twenty six weeks of gestation, maternal thyroid-related autoantibodies became undetectable. A fetal magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated a slight shrinkage of the fetal goiter at 30 weeks. The fetus was delivered vaginally. Thyroid function tests of the neonate were normal, and neonatal goiter was nonpalpable. Fetal goiter is a rare disease. It can be spontaneously resolved by decreasing the maternal dose of PTU.

  16. Fetal stem cell transplantation: Past, present, and future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishii, Tetsuya; Eto, Koji

    2014-09-26

    Since 1928, human fetal tissues and stem cells have been used worldwide to treat various conditions. Although the transplantation of the fetal midbrain substantia nigra and dopaminergic neurons in patients suffering from Parkinson's disease is particularly noteworthy, the history of other types of grafts, such as those of the fetal liver, thymus, and pancreas, should be addressed as there are many lessons to be learnt for future stem cell transplantation. This report describes previous practices and complications that led to current clinical trials of isolated fetal stem cells and embryonic stem (ES) cells. Moreover, strategies for transplantation are considered, with a particular focus on donor cells, cell processing, and the therapeutic cell niche, in addition to ethical issues associated with fetal origin. With the advent of autologous induced pluripotent stem cells and ES cells, clinical dependence on fetal transplantation is expected to gradually decline due to lasting ethical controversies, despite landmark achievements.

  17. Fetal stem cell transplantation: Past, present, and future

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tetsuya; Ishii; Koji; Eto

    2014-01-01

    Since 1928, human fetal tissues and stem cells have been used worldwide to treat various conditions. Although the transplantation of the fetal midbrain substantia nigra and dopaminergic neurons in patients suffering from Parkinson’s disease is particularly noteworthy, the history of other types of grafts, such as those of the fetal liver, thymus, and pancreas, should be addressed as there are many lessons to be learnt for future stem cell transplantation. This report describes previous practices and complications that led to current clinical trials of isolated fetal stem cells and embryonic stem(ES) cells. Moreover, strategies for transplantation are considered, with a particular focus on donor cells, cell processing, and the therapeutic cell niche, in addition to ethical issues associated with fetal origin. With the advent of autologous induced pluripotent stem cells and ES cells, clinical dependence on fetal transplantation is expected to gradually decline due to lasting ethical controversies, despite landmark achievements.

  18. Fatores de risco maternos associados à acidose fetal Maternal risk factors associated with fetal acidosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Mauro Madi

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: avaliar os fatores de risco maternos associados à acidose fetal. MÉTODOS: estudo tipo caso-controle composto por 188 recém-nascidos, sendo que 47 compuseram o grupo casos (pH de artéria umbilical OBJECTIVES: to assess maternal risk factors associated with fetal acidosis. METHODS: a case-control type study was conducted of 188 neonates, of whom 47 comprised the case group (umbilical arterial pH <7.0 and 141 the control (umbilical arterial pH E7.1 <7.3. The study included only single-gestation neonates without congenital malformations. Both maternal and fetal variables were taken into consideration. Statistical analysis involved the calculation of the raw and adjusted Odds Ratio, Student's t-test, the chi-squared test and multivariate analysis using Enter-method non-conditional logistic regression. The level of statistical significance was set at p<0.05. RESULTS: in the case group higher percentages of caesarian sections and pre-term births were observed, involving almost five times as much intensive care and twenty-five times more likelihood of Apgar in the 5th minute <7. No association was observed between the groups and fetal presentation, mother's age, history of miscarriage, years of schooling of mother or attendance at prenatal sessions. After multivariate analysis, the only risk factors that remained significant were complications relating to the placenta or the umbilical cord. Deliveries involving complications relating to the placenta or the umbilical cord were three times more likely to involve fetal acidemia. CONCLUSIONS: acidemia among neonates was associated with a higher percentage of caesarians, premature births, a need for intensive care and treatment and an Apgar index of <7 in the 5th minute. After multivariate analysis, complications relating to premature displacement of the placenta and the umbilical cord were the only remaining risk factors associated with fetal acidemia.

  19. Simultaneous measurements of umbilical uptake, fetal utilization rate, and fetal turnover rate of glucose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hay, W W; Sparks, J W; Quissell, B J; Battaglia, F C; Meschia, G

    1981-06-01

    Fetal umbilical glucose uptake was compared with simultaneous measurements of glucose turnover and utilization rates in 12 pregnant sheep, at a mean of 137 days gestational age (range, 118-146 days). Umbilical glucose uptake was calculated by application of the Fick principle. Fetal glucose turnover rate was measured by a primed-constant infusion of [14C]- and [3H]glucose (glucose turnover rate = tracer infusion rate divided by fetal glucose sp act). The calculation of fetal glucose utilization rate required substraction of the loss of tracer to the placenta from the tracer infusion rate, thus defining the net tracer entry into the fetus for direct comparison with the net umbilical glucose uptake. In fed, normoglycemic sheep, these measurements demonstrated statistical equivalence of umbilical glucose uptake rate (4.77 mg.min-1.kg-1 +/- 0.34 SE) and glucose utilization rate ([14C]glucose, 5.58 mg.min-1.kg-1 +/- 0.54 SE; and [3H]glucose, 7.19 mg.min-1.kg-1 +/- 1.24 SE) when tested by two-way analysis of variance (P greater than 0.1). In three fasted, hypoglycemic sheep, the umbilical glucose uptake rate fell to 1.43 mg.min-1.kg-1 +/- 0.56 SE, which was considerably lower than the simultaneous glucose utilization rate ([14C]glucose, 4.78 mg.min-1.kg-1 +/- 0.48 SE; and [3H]glucose, 6.81 mg.min-1.kg-1 +/- 2.19 SE). Thus, in the normoglycemic, late-gestation fetal lamb, there appears to be little glucogenesis, whereas glucogenesis may become significant during fasting-induced fetal hypoglycemia.

  20. Social Media Reputation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Etter, Michael Andreas; Ravasi, Davide; Colleoni, Elanor

    Social media enable millions of users to create and disseminate narratives about organizations that increase their public exposure and shape public perceptions. In this paper, we draw on the sociology of news production and research on computer-mediated communication to discuss how different...... motivational drivers and contextual conditions associated with the formation of narratives in traditional news media and social media influence their content, diffusion, and impact significantly. Our analysis suggests that current theories of media reputation may provide an incomplete representation...... of the phenomenon, and highlight theoretically relevant differences and interrelationships between reputational dynamics involving news media and social media....

  1. Avaliação da vitalidade fetal anteparto Antenatal fetal surveillance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roseli Mieko Yamamoto Nomura

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available O contexto atual da atividade médica exige do obstetra e ginecologista ampla compreensão dos avanços científicos e tecnológicos de sua área. O objetivo primordial da avaliação fetal antenatal é identificar fetos de risco para eventos adversos ou para o óbito e, assim, atuar preventivamente para evitar o insucesso. O perfil biofísico fetal atinge sua máxima eficiência quando aplicado dentro do contexto clínico de cada caso. Em gestações de alto risco, a doplervelocimetria da artéria umbilical mostrou-se útil para melhorar os resultados perinatais. Na restrição de crescimento fetal por insuficiência placentária grave, antes da 34ª semana de gestação, a doplervelocimetria do ducto venoso tem sido importante instrumento na condução dos casos. Nenhum teste isoladamente é considerado o melhor na avaliação da vitalidade fetal anteparto, entretanto, a análise conjunta de todos os métodos irá propiciar melhor compreensão da resposta fetal à hipóxia.The present context of medical practice demands from the obstetrician and gynecologist broad understanding of the scientific and technological advances of the area. The main purpose of prenatal evaluation is to identify fetuses at risk for adverse events or death, for preventive action to avoid mishappenings. The determination of fetal biophysical profile reaches its maximum efficiency when applied within the clinical context of each case. In high risk gestations, the Doppler velocimetry of the umbilical artery has shown to be useful to improve perinatal outcome. In the fetal growth deficit, due to severe placentary insufficiency, Doppler velocimetry of the venous duct has been showing to be an important tool in handling of the cases before the 34th week of gestation. Although no test itself is considered the best to evaluate the fetus's prenatal vitality, the joint analysis of all methods may lead to a better understanding of the fetal response to hypoxia.

  2. Stability of resazurin in buffers and mammalian cell culture media

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Eva; Nicolaisen, G.M.

    1999-01-01

    The utility of a ferricyanide/ferrocyanide system used in the AlamarBlue(TM) (Serotec, Oxford, UK) vital. dye to inhibit the reduction of resazurin by mammalian cell culture media is questioned. Resazurin was found to be relatively stable when dissolved in phosphate-buffered saline (PBS). The use...... of HEPES resulted in a huge immediate dye reduction, which was significantly enhanced by exposure to diffuse light from fluorescent tubes in the laboratory 8 h per day. The reduction of resazurin by various cell culture media was time and temperature dependent, and it was significantly enhanced......'s nutrient mixture F-10 and F-12. Fetal calf serum (5-20%) slightly decreased resazurin reduction during the first 2 days of incubation. The reduction of resazurin by mammalian cell culture media do not appear to be problematic under normal culture conditions, and it is primarily dependent upon the presence...

  3. Contraceptives and cerebral thrombosis: a five-year national case-control study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lidegaard, Øjvind; Kreiner, Svend

    2002-01-01

    Oral contraceptives; Cerebral thrombosis; Thrombotic stroke; Transitory cerebral ischemic attack; Thrombosis......Oral contraceptives; Cerebral thrombosis; Thrombotic stroke; Transitory cerebral ischemic attack; Thrombosis...

  4. The Effects of Fetal Surgery on Retinopathy of Prematurity Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudha Nallasamy

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Fetal surgery is selectively offered for severe or life-threatening fetal malformations. These infants are often born prematurely and are thus at risk for retinopathy of prematurity (ROP. It is not known whether fetal surgery confers an increased risk of developing severe ROP relative to published rates in standard premature populations ≤37 weeks of age grouped by birth weight (

  5. Dichorionic twin pregnancy discordant for fetal anencephaly: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taşcı, Yasemin; Karasu, Yetkin; Erten, Ozlem; Karadağ, Burak; Göktolga, Umit

    2012-01-01

    Dichorionic twin pregnancy discordant for fetal anencephaly is a serious condition that threatens the normal co-twin's life by causing polyhydramniosis, preterm labor and sudden death of one or both of the fetuses. We report a case of dichorionic twin pregnancy discordant for fetal anencephaly delivered at the 32(nd) week of gestation because of preterm labor and nonreassuring fetal monitoring. The aim of this case report is to summarize management options in this situation.

  6. [Fetal circulation in normal pregnancy and in placental insufficiency].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanov, B; Malinova, M

    2010-01-01

    The fetal circulation is different from the adult circulation. One of the quite common conditions that are challenging to the developing fetus is placental hypoxia. Regardless of its cause, placental vascular insufficiency is commonly assumed to be an important factor in the development of intrauterine growth retardation. Several mechanisms are involved in the fetal adaptation to the decompensation during hypoxemia. Doppler Ultrasound technologies can help to evaluate of the fetal wellbeing.

  7. Fetal-Maternal Hemorrhage: A Case and Literature Review

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    Nearly all pregnancies include an insignificant hemorrhage of fetal blood into the maternal circulation. In some cases, the hemorrhage is large enough to compromise the fetus, resulting in fetal demise, stillbirth, or delivery of a severely anemic infant. Unfortunately, the symptoms of a significant fetal-maternal hemorrhage can be subtle, nonspecific, and difficult to identify at the time of the event. We present the case of a severely anemic newborn who was delivered in our facility with an...

  8. Diagnosis of Fetal Central Nervous System Anomalies by Ultrasonography

    OpenAIRE

    F. Tuncay Ozgunen

    2003-01-01

    During the last 30 years, one of the most important instruments in diagnosis is ultrasonograph. It has an indispensible place in obstetrics. Its it possible to evaluate normal fetal anatomy, to follow-up fetal growth and to diagnose fetal congenital anomalies by ultrasonography. Central nervous system anomalies is the one of the most commonly seen and the best time for screening is between 18- and 22-week of pregnancy. In this paper, it is presented the sonographic features of some outstandin...

  9. Prenatal Diagnosis of Fetal Peters’ Plus Syndrome: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neerja Gupta

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Peters’ plus syndrome is a rare but clinically recognizable autosomal recessive ocular genetic syndrome. Diagnosis during the fetal life is challenging due to the presence of nonspecific findings such as ventriculomegaly in the growth-retarded fetuses. We report the first case of fetal Peters’ plus syndrome from India, where fetal ultrasound and the family history were helpful in providing a clue to the diagnosis that was confirmed later on by the DNA analysis.

  10. Turkish Media Elites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Ali Arslan

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available The media is one of the most important institutions in society. It is a reality that media play very substantial role in the production and social distribution of knowledge. In addition to that, mass media provides the greatest communication opportunities to the people. Also, contemporary media provides very distinctive weapons to obtain power, wealth and prestige in the society. If media owners and elites are so powerful, the identification of media elites is of great importance. Hence, this study aims to analyse contemporary Turkish media: A full picture of Turkish media elites in terms of important social, political and demographic indicators will be given in this paper. The managers, editors, influential columnists and reporters of major Turkish media elites are defined as Turkish media elites. Firstly, the paper will focuse on the demographic peculiarities of Turkish media elites. Secondly, the educational background and family structure of Turkish media elites will be examined. Then, social origins and other social characteristics of Contemporary Turkish media elites will be investigated.

  11. AMAMM - All Media Are Mixed Media

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    All Media Are Mixed Media Alle medier er blandingsmedier. Alle kunstarter er kompositte. Alle sanser er sammensatte. Alle medialiteter er miksede og mangfoldige. Alle er AMAMM. Denne påstand står centralt i ord-, billed- og medie-teoretikeren W.J.T. Mitchells forfatterskab. I hosstående bog tager...

  12. Methods of fetal MR: beyond T2-weighted imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brugger, Peter C. [Center of Anatomy and Cell Biology, Integrative Morphology Group, Medical University of Vienna, Waehringerstrasse 13, 1090 Vienna (Austria)]. E-mail: peter.brugger@meduniwien.ac.at; Stuhr, Fritz [Department of Radiology, Medical University of Vienna, Waehringerguertel 18-20, 1090 Vienna (Austria); Lindner, Christian [Department of Radiology, Medical University of Vienna, Waehringerguertel 18-20, 1090 Vienna (Austria); Prayer, Daniela [Department of Radiology, Medical University of Vienna, Waehringerguertel 18-20, 1090 Vienna (Austria)

    2006-02-15

    The present work reviews the basic methods of performing fetal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Since fetal MRI differs in many respects from a postnatal study, several factors have to be taken into account to achieve satisfying image quality. Image quality depends on adequate positioning of the pregnant woman in the magnet, use of appropriate coils and the selection of sequences. Ultrafast T2-weighted sequences are regarded as the mainstay of fetal MR-imaging. However, additional sequences, such as T1-weighted images, diffusion-weighted images, echoplanar imaging may provide further information, especially in extra- central-nervous system regions of the fetal body.

  13. Differential Diagnosis of Cardiac Malposition by Fetal Echocardiography

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ying WU; Feng TAO; Tao LIU; Ling ZANG; Shi-long LIU

    2009-01-01

    Objectives To explore the method and operating skill of fetal echocardiography in diagnosing cardiac malposition. Methods 91 consecutive fetuses were studied (control: 50 cases, cardiac malposition : 41 cases) between 2003 and 2008. The position of fetal heart was evaluated according to the fetal posture and the visceral situs by fetal routine scan-ning. The detailed echocardiography should be performed in the differential diagnosis of cardiac lesions when the heart was found to be abnormal position. Results In the control group, all fetuses were levocardia. 39 cases of cardiac mal-positions were detected by fetal echocardiography, included 25 fetuses with dextrocardia, 6 mesocard, 5 with levover-sion of heart, 3 common heart of conjoined twins and 2 extrathorax heart. Two of dextroversion were missed by fetal routine scanning, but found by autopsy or operation after birth. Conclusions When the abnormal visceral situs was found by fetal routine scanning, there is exceedingly high incidence of cardiac malpositions. Proficiently operating skill of fetal echocardiography is helpful to detect abnormal fetal cardiac position.

  14. Distribution of melatonin receptor in human fetal brain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Guo-quan; SHAO Fu-yuan; ZHAO Ying; LIU Zhi-min

    2001-01-01

    Objective: To study the distribution of 2 kinds of melatonin receptor subtypes (mtl and MT2) in human fetal brain. Methods: The fetal brain tissues were sliced and the distribution ofmelatonin receptors in human fetal brain were detected using immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridization. Results: Melatonin receptor mtl existed in the cerebellun and hypothalamus, melatonin receptor MT2 exists in hypothalamus, occipital and medulla. Conclusion: Two kinds of melatonin receptors, mtl and MT2 exist in the membrane and cytosol of brain cells, indicating that human fetal brain is a target organ of melatonin.

  15. Fetal weight estimation by ultrasonic measurement of abdominal circumference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kearney, K; Vigneron, N; Frischman, P; Johnson, J W

    1978-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare ultrasonic measurements of fetal abdominal circumference to ultrasonic measurements of fetal biparietal diameter, as a means of estimating fetal body weight. Of 58 fetuses who had abdominal circumferences measured, 48 (82%) of the predicted weights were within 15% of the actual birth weights. Forty-four of the same 58 fetuses had satisfactory biparietal diameter measurements, but only 21 (48%) of the predicted weights were within 15% of the actual birthweights. Ultrasonic measurement of abdominal circumference appears to be a more reliable index of fetal body weight than other currently available techniques.

  16. Molecular mechanisms underlying the fetal programming of adult disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vo, Thin; Hardy, Daniel B

    2012-08-01

    Adverse events in utero can be critical in determining quality of life and overall health. It is estimated that up to 50 % of metabolic syndrome diseases can be linked to an adverse fetal environment. However, the mechanisms linking impaired fetal development to these adult diseases remain elusive. This review uncovers some of the molecular mechanisms underlying how normal physiology may be impaired in fetal and postnatal life due to maternal insults in pregnancy. By understanding the mechanisms, which include epigenetic, transcriptional, endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, and reactive oxygen species (ROS), we also highlight how intervention in fetal and neonatal life may be able to prevent these diseases long-term.

  17. The use of acoustic stimulation to inspect the fetal mouth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Keun Young; Jun, Hyun Ah; Jang, Pong Rheem; Lee, Keung Hee [Hallym University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Nagey, David A. [The Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore (United States)

    2000-12-15

    The normal neonatal response to sound stimulus consists of a generalized paroxysmal startle reflex. We recently noted an increase in fetal movements, head turning, mouth opening, tongue protrusion, cheek motion, hand to head movement and fetal eye blinking subsequent to fetal vibroacoustic stimulation. These movements are thought to represent portions of a startle response. Evaluation of the fetal face is an essential part of routine sonographic examination and of a level II examination. The complexity of the face in combination with suboptimal positioning may make it difficult to obtain adequate images of the fetal mouth. The fetal mouth is especially difficult to examine if it remains closed. It appeared to us that approximately 50% of the time, fetuses may be seen touching their face and head with their hands. This action may make evaluation of the face more difficult because of the shadowing caused by the overlying bones of the hands. We hypothesized that if vibroacoustic stimulation brings about fetal mouth movement and opening and/or withdrawal of the fetal hand from the mouth, it may facilitate anatomic evaluation for cleft lip and palate. Sonographic examination of the fetal mouth is facilitated if the mouth is open or moving. This study was designed to determine whether acoustic stimulation of the fetus would cause it to move its mouth. 109 women with uncomplicated pregnancies between 20 and 39 weeks gestation consented.

  18. Embodying Investigations of Cerebral Palsy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martiny, Kristian Møller Moltke

    The main question of Kristian Martiny’s dissertation is: how do we help persons living with the brain damage, cerebral palsy (CP)? This question is as complex and difficult to answer as any healthcare question. Martiny argues that we need to ‘open up’ how we do ( cognitive ) science in order...

  19. Sirt1 in cerebral ischemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koronowski, Kevin B.; Perez-Pinzon, Miguel A.

    2015-01-01

    Cerebral ischemia is among the leading causes of death worldwide. It is characterized by a lack of blood flow to the brain that results in cell death and damage, ultimately causing motor, sensory, and cognitive impairments. Today, clinical treatment of cerebral ischemia, mostly stroke and cardiac arrest, is limited and new neuroprotective therapies are desperately needed. The Sirtuin family of oxidized nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+)-dependent deacylases has been shown to govern several processes within the central nervous system as well as to possess neuroprotective properties in a variety of pathological conditions such as Alzheimer’s Disease, Parkinson’s Disease, and Huntington’s Disease, among others. Recently, Sirt1 in particular has been identified as a mediator of cerebral ischemia, with potential as a possible therapeutic target. To gather studies relevant to this topic, we used PubMed and previous reviews to locate, select, and resynthesize the lines of evidence presented here. In this review, we will first describe some functions of Sirt1 in the brain, mainly neurodevelopment, learning and memory, and metabolic regulation. Second, we will discuss the experimental evidence that has implicated Sirt1 as a key protein in the regulation of cerebral ischemia as well as a potential target for the induction of ischemic tolerance. PMID:26819971

  20. Sirt1 in cerebral ischemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin B Koronowski

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Cerebral ischemia is among the leading causes of death worldwide. It is characterized by a lack of blood flow to the brain that results in cell death and damage, ultimately causing motor, sensory, and cognitive impairments. Today, clinical treatment of cerebral ischemia, mostly stroke and cardiac arrest, is limited and new neuroprotective therapies are desperately needed. The Sirtuin family of oxidized nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD +-dependent deacylases has been shown to govern several processes within the central nervous system as well as to possess neuroprotective properties in a variety of pathological conditions such as Alzheimer′s Disease, Parkinson′s Disease, and Huntington′s Disease, among others. Recently, Sirt1 in particular has been identified as a mediator of cerebral ischemia, with potential as a possible therapeutic target. To gather studies relevant to this topic, we used PubMed and previous reviews to locate, select, and resynthesize the lines of evidence presented here. In this review, we will first describe some functions of Sirt1 in the brain, mainly neurodevelopment, learning and memory, and metabolic regulation. Second, we will discuss the experimental evidence that has implicated Sirt1 as a key protein in the regulation of cerebral ischemia as well as a potential target for the induction of ischemic tolerance.

  1. Graft selection in cerebral revascularization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baaj, Ali A; Agazzi, Siviero; van Loveren, Harry

    2009-05-01

    Cerebral revascularization constitutes an important treatment modality in the management of complex aneurysms, carotid occlusion, tumor, and moyamoya disease. Graft selection is a critical step in the planning of revascularization surgery, and depends on an understanding of graft and regional hemodynamics, accessibility, and patency rates. The goal of this review is to highlight some of these properties.

  2. Pathogenesis of cerebral amyloid angiopathy.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rensink, A.A.M.; Waal, R.M.W. de; Kremer, H.P.H.; Verbeek, M.M.

    2003-01-01

    Cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA) is the result of the deposition of an amyloidogenic protein in cortical and leptomeningeal vessels. The most common type of CAA is caused by amyloid beta-protein (Abeta), which is particularly associated with Alzheimer's disease (AD). Excessive Abeta-CAA formation c

  3. MR imaging of cerebral palsy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saginoya, Toshiyuki [Urasoe General Hospital, Okinawa (Japan); Yamaguchi, Keiichiro; Kuniyoshi, Kazuhide [and others

    1996-06-01

    We evaluated 35 patients with cerebral palsy on the basis of MR imaging findings in the brain. The types of palsy were spastic quadriplegia (n=11), spastic diplegia (n=9), spastic hemiplegia (n=2), double hemiplegia (n=1), athetosis (n=10) and mixed (n=2). Of all patients, 28 (80%) generated abnormal findings. In spastic quadriplegia, although eight cases revealed severe brain damage, two cases showed no abnormal findings in the brain. One of the three had cervical cord compression caused by atlanto-axial subluxation. In spastic diplegia, the findings were divided according to whether the patient was born at term or preterm. If the patient had been born prematurely, the findings showed periventricular leukomalacia and abnormally high intensity in the posterior limbs of the internal capsule on T2-weighted images. MR imaging in spastic hemiplegia revealed cerebral infarction. In the athetoid type, half of all cases showed either no abnormal findings or slight widening of the lateral ventricle. Three cases showed abnormal signals of the basal ganglia. The reason why athetoid-type palsy did not show severe abnormality is unknown. We believe that MR imaging is a useful diagnostic modality to detect damage in the brain in cerebral palsy and plays an important role in the differentiation of cerebral palsy from the spastic palsy disease. (author)

  4. Ocular defects in cerebral palsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katoch Sabita

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available There is a high prevalence of ocular defects in children with developmental disabilities. This study evaluated visual disability in a group of 200 cerebral palsy (CP patients and found that 68% of the children had significant visual morbidity. These findings emphasize the need for an early ocular examination in patients with CP.

  5. [Cerebral blood flow during labor].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fendel, H; Funk, A; Jörn, H; Gans, A

    1990-01-01

    The successful results obtained using Doppler sonography for antepartal diagnosis gave cause to use the method during labor. For this purpose doppler measurements of the intern fetal carotid artery of a group of 7 patients with normal course of pregnancy were made and a continuous direct CTG was recorded simultaneously. The Doppler parameter, the S/D-ratio, for the contraction phases were compared with those of the contraction--free phases. During the contraction phase the S/D-ratio was higher than during the relaxation period of the uterus. The difference between these values were proved to be statistically significant. A comparison of the doppler parameter of the patients at onset of labor and the patients at the end of labor showed, that the S/D-ratio increased significantly at the end of labor. This result demonstrates, that the intravascular resistance in the fetal carotid artery increased due to the cephalic pressure.

  6. Examination of the effectiveness of DVD decision support tools for patients with unruptured cerebral aneurysms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nozaki, Kazuhiko; Okubo, Chie; Yokoyama, Yoko; Morita, Akio; Akamatsu, Rie; Nakayama, Takeo; Fukuhara, Shun-ichi; Hashimoto, Nobuo

    2007-12-01

    Preventative treatments for unruptured cerebral aneurysms include craniotomy, endovascular treatment, and follow up. Since there is no agreement as to the best procedure, it is important to provide adequate information so that the patient and physician can share in the decision-making process. A multi-media DVD was created to inform patients of the facts. This study examined how effectively this DVD changes patients' recognition including knowledge of unruptured cerebral aneurysms. Forty-seven patients with unruptured cerebral aneurysms who sought neurosurgery consultation between December 2005 and February 2006 completed a questionnaire before and after watching the DVD, as well as at 3 months follow up. Before watching the DVD, the average knowledge score was 8.72 out of 15 total points. The average score increased to 12.4 after watching the DVD (p DVD (p DVD (p DVD, 69.6% were satisfied with their decision after watching the DVD. All participants responded that the use of multi-media images was helpful in better understanding treatment options and in making informed decisions. The DVD was favorably accepted as a decision support tool by patients with unruptured cerebral aneurysm and effectively increased patients' knowledge.

  7. Neuroprotection via matrix-trophic coupling between cerebral endothelial cells and neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Shuzhen; Kim, Woo Jean; Lok, Josephine; Lee, Sun-Ryung; Besancon, Elaine; Luo, Bing-Hao; Stins, Monique F; Wang, Xiaoying; Dedhar, Shoukat; Lo, Eng H

    2008-05-27

    The neurovascular unit is an emerging concept that emphasizes homeostatic interactions between endothelium and cerebral parenchyma. Here, we show that cerebral endothelium are not just inert tubes for delivering blood, but they also secrete trophic factors that can be directly neuroprotective. Conditioned media from cerebral endothelial cells broadly protects neurons against oxygen-glucose deprivation, oxidative damage, endoplasmic reticulum stress, hypoxia, and amyloid neurotoxicity. This phenomenon is largely mediated by endothelial-produced brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) because filtering endothelial-conditioned media with TrkB-Fc eliminates the neuroprotective effect. Endothelial production of BDNF is sustained by beta-1 integrin and integrin-linked kinase (ILK) signaling. Noncytotoxic levels of oxidative stress disrupts ILK signaling and reduces endothelial levels of neuroprotective BDNF. These data suggest that cerebral endothelium provides a critical source of homeostatic support for neurons. Targeting these signals of matrix and trophic coupling between endothelium and neurons may provide new therapeutic opportunities for stroke and other CNS disorders.

  8. Cerebral edema in drug addicts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daruši Dragana J.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. The effect of drugs leaves permanent consequences on the brain, organic in type, followed by numerous manifestations, and it significantly affects the development of mental dysfunctions. The clinicians are often given a task to estimate a patient’s personality during treatment or during experts estimate of a drug addict. The aim of this research was to determine the differences, if any, in characteristics of addicts experience and personality traits in drug addicts with or without cerebral edema. Methods. The research was conducted on a sample of 252 male drug addicts, the average age of 23.3 (SD = 4.3 years. Cerebral edema was confirmed on magnetic resonance (MR images of the brain performed during the treatment of the addicts. The participants were tested by the psychologists using Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI-201 test, and the data were processed using canonical discriminate analysis within the SPSS program. The dependent variable in the study was cerebral edema. A block of independent variables, designed for the requirements of this study, consisted of two subgroups. The first one consisted of 12 variables describing the relevant characteristics of drug abuse. The second subgroup consisted of 8 psychopathological tendencies in the personality defined by the mentioned test. Results. Cerebral edema was confirmed in 52 (20.63% of the drug addicts. The differences between the groups of drug addicts with and without cerebral edema were determined in the following: the time span of taking drugs (0.301, use of alcohol parallel with drugs (0.466, and treatment for addiction (0.603. In the drug addicts with a cerebral edema, MMPI-201 confirmed the increase in the scales for hypochondria, psychopathic deviations and psychastenia, and the decrease in the scales for schizophrenia and depression. Conclusion. Our study confirmed a possible connection between cerebral edema and personality traits in a number of the

  9. Anestesia e paralisia cerebral Anestesia y parálisis cerebral Anesthesia and cerebral palsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Március Vinícius M Maranhão

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available JUSTIFICATIVA E OBJETIVOS: A paralisia cerebral (PC é uma doença não progressiva decorrente de lesão no sistema nervoso central, levando a um comprometimento motor do paciente. O portador de PC freqüentemente é submetido a procedimentos cirúrgicos devido a doenças usuais e situações particulares decorrentes da paralisia cerebral. Foi objetivo deste artigo revisar aspectos da paralisia cerebral de interesse para o anestesiologista, permitindo um adequado manuseio pré, intra e pós-operatório neste tipo de paciente. CONTEÚDO: O artigo aborda aspectos da paralisia cerebral como etiologia, classificação, fatores de risco, fisiopatologia, quadro clínico, diagnóstico, terapêuticas utilizadas bem como avaliação pré-operatória, medicação pré-anestésica, manuseio intra e pós-operatório, analgesia pós-operatória e dor crônica. CONCLUSÕES: O anestesiologista desempenha um papel importante na diminuição da morbidade e mortalidade anestésico-cirúrgica em pacientes portadores de paralisia cerebral. O conhecimento da fisiopatologia dos diferentes tipos de paralisia cerebral bem como das doenças associadas e suas terapêuticas é imprescindível, pois permite ao anestesiologista antecipar e prevenir complicações intra e pós-operatórias neste tipo de paciente.JUSTIFICATIVA Y OBJETIVOS: La parálisis cerebral (PC es una enfermedad no progresiva consecuente de una lesión en el sistema nervioso central, llevando a un comprometimiento motor del paciente. El portador de PC, frecuentemente es sometido a procedimientos quirúrgicos debido a enfermedades usuales y situaciones particulares consecuentes de la parálisis cerebral. El objetivo de este artículo, fue revisar aspectos de la parálisis cerebral de interés para el anestesista, permitiendo un adecuado manoseo pre, intra y posoperatorio en este tipo de paciente. CONTENIDO: El artículo aborda aspectos de la parálisis cerebral como etiología, clasificación, factores de

  10. Media and Crime

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agger, Gunhild; Waade, Anne Marit

    2011-01-01

    Recent developments in the relationship between media and crime are analyzed, taking both fiction and journalism in account......Recent developments in the relationship between media and crime are analyzed, taking both fiction and journalism in account...

  11. Sociale media als leermiddel

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rubens, Wilfred

    2012-01-01

    Rubens, W. (2012, 5 juni). Sociale media als leermiddel. Presentatie over het gebruik van sociale media binnen het onderwijs, verzorgd tijdens een ouderraadbijeenkomst van de Katholieke Scholengemeenschap Etten-Leur, Etten-Leur, Nederland.

  12. MODERN MEDIA EDUCATION MODELS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Fedorov

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The author supposed that media education models can be divided into the following groups:- educational-information models (the study of the theory, history, language of media culture, etc., based on the cultural, aesthetic, semiotic, socio-cultural theories of media education;- educational-ethical models (the study of moral, religions, philosophical problems relying on the ethic, religious, ideological, ecological, protectionist theories of media education;- pragmatic models (practical media technology training, based on the uses and gratifications and ‘practical’ theories of media education;- aesthetical models (aimed above all at the development of the artistic taste and enriching the skills of analysis of the best media culture examples. Relies on the aesthetical (art and cultural studies theory; - socio-cultural models (socio-cultural development of a creative personality as to the perception, imagination, visual memory, interpretation analysis, autonomic critical thinking, relying on the cultural studies, semiotic, ethic models of media education.

  13. Automating the Media Center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holloway, Mary A.

    1988-01-01

    Discusses the need to develop more efficient information retrieval skills by the use of new technology. Lists four stages used in automating the media center. Describes North Carolina's pilot programs. Proposes benefits and looks at the media center's future. (MVL)

  14. Trends in media use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Donald F; Foehr, Ulla G

    2008-01-01

    American youth are awash in media. They have television sets in their bedrooms, personal computers in their family rooms, and digital music players and cell phones in their backpacks. They spend more time with media than any single activity other than sleeping, with the average American eight- to eighteen-year-old reporting more than six hours of daily media use. The growing phenomenon of "media multitasking"--using several media concurrently--multiplies that figure to eight and a half hours of media exposure daily. Donald Roberts and Ulla Foehr examine how both media use and media exposure vary with demographic factors such as age, race and ethnicity, and household socioeconomic status, and with psychosocial variables such as academic performance and personal adjustment. They note that media exposure begins early, increases until children begin school, drops off briefly, then climbs again to peak at almost eight hours daily among eleven- and twelve-year-olds. Television and video exposure is particularly high among African American youth. Media exposure is negatively related to indicators of socioeconomic status, but that relationship may be diminishing. Media exposure is positively related to risk-taking behaviors and is negatively related to personal adjustment and school performance. Roberts and Foehr also review evidence pointing to the existence of a digital divide--variations in access to personal computers and allied technologies by socioeconomic status and by race and ethnicity. The authors also examine how the recent emergence of digital media such as personal computers, video game consoles, and portable music players, as well as the media multitasking phenomenon they facilitate, has increased young people's exposure to media messages while leaving media use time largely unchanged. Newer media, they point out, are not displacing older media but are being used in concert with them. The authors note which young people are more or less likely to use several

  15. The cerebral perivascular cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angelov, D N; Walther, M; Streppel, M; Guntinas-Lichius, O; Neiss, W F

    1998-01-01

    fluorescent mode this DAB reaction product selectively quenches the fluorescence of all immunopositive cells, i.e. only those neuronophages that do not bind to the primary antibody remain fluorescent. Combining FG-labeling of neuronophages with immunoquenching, a population of small round fluorescent cells was discovered, localized in the immediate vicinity of the motoneurons long after the neuronofugal migration of microglia. As the fluorescence of these cells was not quenched after a triple immunostaining with anti-neuronal-specific enolase, anti-GFAP and OX-42 (quenching all fluorescence from neurons, astroglia, and microglia), they seem to represent a new, immunologically unidentified neuronophage. Following this triple immunostaining, a broad panel of antibodies was tested to stain, quench fluorescence, and thus immunotype these enigmatic phagocytes. Only the monoclonal antibody ED2, the classical marker for perivascular cells, specifically stained the small round neuronophages. Although the perivascular cells are in the vicinity of the basal lamina of the cerebral vasculature, they must not be confused with the pericytes, which are not able to perform phagocytosis. In contrast, the perivascular cells are macrophages-ED2 recognizes an established macrophage membrane antigen. In addition, after neuronal injury a subset of the perivascular cells starts to synthesize MHC class II glycoproteins and IL-1 beta. Hence this population of cells seems to possess the complete machinery required for antigen presentation: They are macrophages, upregulate MHC class II molecules and IL-1 beta, and due to their anatomical location, have access to circulating T lymphocytes. What was still lacking, however, was a direct proof of neuronophagia. Our experiments provided this proof. (ABSTRACT TRUNCATED)

  16. Managing social media conversations

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this thesis was to explore how companies can manage (monitor and control) social media conversations. Regardless of the companies’ presence in social media networks, they or their industry are constantly being discussed in social media. Therefore organisations should be present in social media, monitor and participate in conversations, in order to turn them into their benefit. There are software and services available to help in monitoring. Variety of tools and statistic de...

  17. The social media image

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    How do the organization and presentation of large-scale social media images recondition the process by which visual knowledge, value, and meaning are made in contemporary conditions? Analyzing fundamental elements in the changing syntax of existing visual software ontology—the ways current social media platforms and aggregators organize and categorize social media images—this article relates how visual materials created within social media platforms manifest distinct modes of knowledge produc...

  18. Children and the Media

    OpenAIRE

    Dennis, Everette E.; Pease, Edward C.

    1996-01-01

    Throughout history the media has primarily been produced by adults, for adults, about adults. Increasingly, children have become a matter of high priority in the modern media society, and as they have, they have also become the subject of much concern. From debates in Congress about the detrimental effects of movies, comic books, and video games over the last century to efforts to court children as media consumers, there is a clear recognition that the media are not now and probably ne...

  19. Advertising on social media

    OpenAIRE

    Sumit Goyal

    2013-01-01

    This communication reports the latest trends of advertising on social media. Social media advertising means to gain traffic or attention of online users through social media sites. Today, when a user thinks about buying something, he first comes to the internet, searches for that product, compares its price with other competing brands and takes a decision, which one to buy. In this write-up, author has discussed many aspects concerning advertising through social media, viz., what is social me...

  20. Children's Media Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, Amy B.

    2008-01-01

    Amy Jordan addresses the need to balance the media industry's potentially important contributions to the healthy development of America's children against the consequences of excessive and age-inappropriate media exposure. Much of the philosophical tension regarding how much say the government should have about media content and delivery stems…