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Sample records for cerebral media fetal

  1. Doppler velocimetry with emphasis on the fetal cerebral circulation

    OpenAIRE

    Noordam, Marja

    1996-01-01

    textabstractIn this thesis the following questions were addressed: 1. Are changes in placental vascular resistance associated with alterations in arterial down stream impedance at fetal level? To this purpose placental embolization was carried-out in the fetal lamb with subsequent Doppler velocimetry in the fetal descending aorta (chapter 2). 2. What happens to the human fetal cerebral circulation relative to normal and raised umbilical placental resistance? To answer this question, the human...

  2. Viscoelastic evaluation of fetal umbilical vein for reconstruction of middle cerebral artery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dongyuan Li; Donghui Xu; Peng Li; Jun Wei; Kun Yang; Conghai Zhao

    2013-01-01

    The transplantation of artificial blood vessels with<6 mm inner diameter as substitutes for human arterioles or veins has not achieved satisfactory results. Umbilical vein has been substituted for ar-tery in vascular transplantation, but it remains unclear whether the stress relaxation and creep tween these vessels are consistent. In this study, we used the fetal umbilical vein and middle cere-bral artery from adult male cadavers to make specimens 15 mm in length, 0.196-0.268 mm in nica media thickness, and 2.82-2.96 mm in outer diameter. The results demonstrated that the stress decrease at 7 200 seconds was similar between the middle cerebral artery and fetal umbilical vein specimens, regardless of initial stress of 18.7 kPa or 22.5 kPa. However, the strain increase at 7 200 seconds of fetal umbilical veins was larger than that of middle cerebral arteries. Moreover, the stress relaxation experiment showed that the stress decrease at 7 200 seconds of the fetal umbilical vein and middle cerebral artery specimens under 22.5 kPa initial stress was less than the decrease in these specimens under 18.7 kPa initial stress. These results indicate that the fetal umbilical vein has appropriate stress relaxation and creep properties for transplantation. These properties are advantageous for vascular reconstruction, indicating that the fetal umbilical vein can be transplanted to repair middle cerebral artery injury.

  3. MR imaging of fetal cerebral anomalies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background. Prenatal diagnosis of fetal brain anomalies relies mainly upon ultrasonography. However, even in the most experienced hands, the technique has limitations for some difficult diagnoses. MRI is an excellent imaging modality for the paediatric and adult brain. Objective. To assess the value of prenatal MRI when a cerebral anomaly was detected by US and where the prognosis depended on the identification of other anomalies undetectable by US, or where fetuses were at risk for a CNS lesion even when the US was normal. Materials and methods. Four hundred prenatal MRI examinations were performed since 1988, and confirmed by postnatal follow-up or pathological examination. Two-thirds of the examinations were performed after 25 weeks of gestation, one-third between 21 and 26 weeks. Fetal immobilisation was obtained by maternal premedication with flunitrazepam, administered orally 1 h before the examination. The examinations were performed on 1.5 T scanners using one or two surface coils. Results. Prenatal MRI allowed the diagnosis of serious unsuspected lesions such as neuronal migration disorders, ischaemic and haemorrhagic lesions and the abnormalities observed in tuberous sclerosis. It helped to characterise ventricular dilatation and anomalies of the corpus callosum and of the posterior fossa. Conclusions. MRI is a valuable complementary tool when prenatal US is incomplete, doubtful or limited. Prenatal MRI is particularly useful for the detection of ischaemic and haemorrhagic lesions, neuronal migration disorders and tuberous sclerosis lesions. Detection of these associated anomalies worsens the fetal prognosis, has medico-legal implications and modifies obstetric management. Normal prenatal MRI does not exclude an anomaly. (orig.)

  4. MR imaging of fetal cerebral anomalies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sonigo, P.C.; Carteret, M.; Brunelle, F.O. [Department of Radiology, Hopital Des Enfants Malades, Paris (France); Rypens, F.F. [Department of Radiology, Hopital Des Enfants Malades, Paris (France)]|[Department of Radiology, Hopital Erasme, Brussels (Belgium); Delezoide, A.L. [Department of Pathology, Hopital Des Enfants Malades, Paris (France)

    1998-04-01

    Background. Prenatal diagnosis of fetal brain anomalies relies mainly upon ultrasonography. However, even in the most experienced hands, the technique has limitations for some difficult diagnoses. MRI is an excellent imaging modality for the paediatric and adult brain. Objective. To assess the value of prenatal MRI when a cerebral anomaly was detected by US and where the prognosis depended on the identification of other anomalies undetectable by US, or where fetuses were at risk for a CNS lesion even when the US was normal. Materials and methods. Four hundred prenatal MRI examinations were performed since 1988, and confirmed by postnatal follow-up or pathological examination. Two-thirds of the examinations were performed after 25 weeks of gestation, one-third between 21 and 26 weeks. Fetal immobilisation was obtained by maternal premedication with flunitrazepam, administered orally 1 h before the examination. The examinations were performed on 1.5 T scanners using one or two surface coils. Results. Prenatal MRI allowed the diagnosis of serious unsuspected lesions such as neuronal migration disorders, ischaemic and haemorrhagic lesions and the abnormalities observed in tuberous sclerosis. It helped to characterise ventricular dilatation and anomalies of the corpus callosum and of the posterior fossa. Conclusions. MRI is a valuable complementary tool when prenatal US is incomplete, doubtful or limited. Prenatal MRI is particularly useful for the detection of ischaemic and haemorrhagic lesions, neuronal migration disorders and tuberous sclerosis lesions. Detection of these associated anomalies worsens the fetal prognosis, has medico-legal implications and modifies obstetric management. Normal prenatal MRI does not exclude an anomaly. (orig.) With 19 figs., 33 refs.

  5. Asymmetry of fetal cerebral hemispheres: in utero ultrasound study

    OpenAIRE

    Hering-Hanit, R; Achiron, R.; Lipitz, S; Achiron, A

    2001-01-01

    BACKGROUND—Slight morphological asymmetry of the cerebral hemispheres has been observed in fetal and newborn brains. In adults, sex differences in hemispheric asymmetry have also been reported.
OBJECTIVE—To establish whether cerebral hemisphere asymmetry correlates with sex in fetuses.
METHODS—Left-right cerebral hemisphere asymmetry, and the correlation with sex, were studied in 51 male and 51 female fetuses of 20-22 weeks gestation, using diagnostic ultrasound scanning....

  6. Fetal cerebral-umbilical Doppler ratio in prediction of fetal distress in patients with preeclampsia

    OpenAIRE

    Jurišić Aleksandar; Jurišić Žaklina; Pažin Vladimir; Vasiljević Mladenko; Janković-Ražnatović Svetlana; Dragojević-Dikić Svetlana

    2010-01-01

    Bacground/Aim. The use of color Doppler ultrasonography provides noninvasive observation, confirmation and quantification of pathophysiological processes in fetoplacental circulation in pregnant patients. By blood vessel mapping and the obtained waves spectral analysis it is possible to evaluate vascular resistency of the fetus blood vessels. The aim of the study was to evaluate cerebral-umbilical pulsatility index ratio in fetal circulation in prediction of fetal distress in patients with pr...

  7. Value of fetal cerebral MRI in sonographically proven cardiac rhabdomyoma

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    Muehler, Matthias R.; Hamm, Bernd [Charite - Universitaetsmedizin Berlin, Department of Radiology, Berlin (Germany); Rake, Annett [Charite - Universitaetsmedizin Berlin, Section for Prenatal Medicine, Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, Berlin (Germany); Schwabe, Michael [Charite - Universitaetsmedizin Berlin, Department of Pathology, Berlin (Germany); Schmidt, Susanne [Charite - Universitaetsmedizin Berlin, Paediatric Radiology, Berlin (Germany); Kivelitz, Dietmar [Charite - Universitaetsmedizin Berlin, Department of Radiology, Berlin (Germany); Leipzig Heart Center, Department of Radiology, Leipzig (Germany); Chaoui, Rabih [Prenatal Diagnosis and Human Genetics, Berlin (Germany)

    2007-05-15

    Tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) is an autosomal dominant phakomatosis associated with intracardiac rhabdomyomas. The aim of our study was to examine the value of cerebral MRI in diagnosing TSC in fetuses with intracardiac rhabdomyomas, applying the TSC Consensus Conference (TSCCC) criteria. In a prospective manner six consecutive fetuses with cardiac rhabdomyomas (21-34 weeks' gestation) underwent cerebral MRI. The MRI results were correlated with clinical follow-up at 10-34 months after birth, histology, and genetic data. In five of the six fetuses the diagnosis of TSC was established. In two of five fetuses MRI demonstrated cerebral manifestations of TSC that correlated well with severe epilepsy manifesting during the follow-up period. In another two of five fetuses MRI as well as clinical follow-up were normal. One of five pregnancies was terminated and histology demonstrated microscopically small subependymal nodules not demonstrated by MRI. The results of our study agree with the available literature that fetal MRI is sufficient for the detection of cerebral lesions in TSC and should be better promoted. The TSCCC criteria can also be applied to fetal MRI. (orig.)

  8. The Instrumented Fetal Sheep as a Model of Cerebral White Matter Injury in the Premature Infant

    OpenAIRE

    Back, Stephen A.; Riddle, Art; Dean, Justin; Hohimer, A. Roger

    2012-01-01

    Despite advances in neonatal intensive care, survivors of premature birth remain highly susceptible to unique patterns of developmental brain injury that manifest as cerebral palsy and cognitive-learning disabilities. The developing brain is particularly susceptible to cerebral white matter injury related to hypoxia-ischemia. Cerebral white matter development in fetal sheep shares many anatomical and physiological similarities with humans. Thus, the fetal sheep has provided unique experimenta...

  9. Diagnostic efficacy of biophysical tests and cerebral-umbilical index when assessing fetal oxygenation

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    Čančarević-Đajić Branka

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Perinatal morbidity and mortality are the ultimate indicators of antenatal care today, whose responsible task is to assess the respiratory function of the placenta, fetal growth and placental maturation in order to provide conditions for the delivery of a living and viable newborn. The diagnostic procedures of antenatal care tested within this study were the biophysical tests of cardiotocography and the fetal biophysical profile, along with the colour doppler evaluation of the cerebral-umbilical ratio. The objective of this study was to determine the most effective diagnostic procedure when assessing fetal oxygenation. Materials and Methods. The prospective study included 119 pregnant women. They all underwent cardiotocography, biophysical profile and colour doppler evaluation of the cerebral-umbilical ratio. The babies’ umbilical artery blood pH was determined in the first minute upon birth, along with the Apgar score. Results. The results were processed statistically and the most effective diagnostic procedure for the evaluation of fetal oxygenation was selected, after which the rates of perinatal morbidity and mortality were calculated. The findings revealed that cardiotocography was the most sensitive antepartal predictor of fetal acidosis, while the fetal biophysical profile proved the most specific. The rates of perinatal morbidity and of perinatal mortality were 24.37% and 1.68%, respectively. Conclusion. The findings analysis revealed a high statistical significance of both biophysical tests and the cerebral-umbilical ratio evaluation as predictors of the fetal distress syndrome. The analysis of the cerebral-umbilical ratio and biophysical tests showed that the cerebral-umbilical ratio evaluation not only was more sensitive as a parameter compared to biophysical tests but it was also more specific than cardiotocography. Cardiotocography is the most sensitive antepartal predictor of fetal acidosis, followed by the cerebral

  10. Accuracy of CT angiography in the assessment of a fetal origin of the posterior cerebral artery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An uncommon cause of cerebral ischemia in the territory of the posterior cerebral artery (PCA) is the combination of a fetal origin of the PCA and atherosclerotic disease in the internal carotid artery. This study compared the accuracy of CTA with DSA in the assessment of a fetal origin of the PCA. Patients in whom an intracranial DSA and CTA had been performed were reviewed. A fetal origin was defined as a normal-sized patent posterior communicating artery (PCoA) with hypoplasia or aplasia of the ipsilateral P1 segment. One hundred PCAs in 51 patients were analyzed. A fetal origin was present in ten vessels (10%, eight patients). CTA revealed all of them. CTA considered an additional three vessels as having a fetal origin, while DSA revealed a PCoA with the same diameter as the P1 segment of the PCA. Sensitivity and specificity of CTA in the assessment of a fetal origin could be estimated at 100 and 97%, respectively. Positive and negative predictive values were 77 and 100%, respectively. CTA can be considered a valid diagnostic tool for the assessment of a fetal origin of the PCA in patients with a cerebral ischemic event in the territory of the PCA. (orig.)

  11. Radiosurgery for cerebral arteriovenous malformation during pregnancy: A case report focusing on fetal exposure to radiation

    OpenAIRE

    Nagayama, Kazuki; Kurita, Hiroki; Tonari, Ayako; Takayama, Makoto(Department of Health and Physical Education, Tokyo Gakugei University); Shiokawa, Yoshiaki

    2010-01-01

    Introduction: We present the case of a pregnant woman who underwent linear accelerator (LINAC)-based stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) and we discuss the fetal exposure to radiation. Clinical Presentation: A 20-year-old woman at 18 weeks of gestation presented with right cerebral hemorrhage and underwent urgent evacuation of the hematoma. She recovered well after surgery, but cerebral angiography after the surgery revealed a small deeply seated arteriovenous malformation (AVM) in the right fron...

  12. Twin-twin transfusion syndrome: cerebral ischemia is not the only fetal MR imaging finding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Twin-twin transfusion syndrome (TTTS) is a complication of monochorionic/diamniotic twin pregnancies. An imbalance of blood flow occurs through placental anastomoses, causing potentially significant morbidity and mortality in both twins. Although the sonographic findings of TTTS are well documented, we believe that MR imaging is a valuable adjunct. We describe the fetal MR imaging findings associated with TTTS. From 2003 to 2005, 37 consecutive MR imaging studies were performed on multiple-gestation pregnancies. Of the 37, 25 were consistent with TTTS, correlated and confirmed by sonographic criteria. MR fetal abnormalities were documented. Cerebral ischemia, which could not be demonstrated by sonography, was delineated well by MR imaging. New findings noted on fetal MR imaging were enlargement of cerebral venous sinuses in both twins, dilatation of the renal collecting system in the recipient, lung lesions in the recipient and cerebral malformations in the donor. MR imaging is an important adjunct in TTTS imaging. Its benefit over sonography is its clear definition of cerebral pathology, which is important for intervention and counseling. The new findings, particularly in the urinary tract and cerebral venous sinuses, also help support the diagnosis of TTTS and might reveal additional consequences of the altered hemodynamics that occur in TTTS. (orig.)

  13. Cerebrovascular ischemic changes associated with fetal posterior cerebral artery- descriptive retrospective study with magnetic resonance imaging and angiography of brain

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    Venkatraman Indiran

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Circle of Willis, the main collateral pathway for cerebral circulation, is complete in only a portion of the population. There are many variations in the Circle of Willis. Fetal posterior cerebral artery, which is defined as posterior cerebral artery arising from internal carotid artery, is a common variant of the Circle of Willis. Though association between the fetal posterior cerebral artery and ischemia have been studied, no specific study has been conducted in the Indian population. We aim to identify the incidence of small and large vessel strokes in patients with fetal posterior cerebral artery using Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI and Magnetic Resonance Angiography (MRA of brain in the Indian population. Materials and methods: We retrospectively reviewed MR angiographies of the brain performed in our institution, in order to assess the posterior cerebral circulation and its association with small ischemic changes and large vessel strokes. Results: 92 of the 140 patients (65% with fetal posterior cerebral artery (PCA had small vessel ischemic changes. 72 patients (51.4% had large vessel infarcts in any of the vascular territories. 35% of the patients included in this study showed infarcts in the middle cerebral artery (MCA territory and 15 % showed infarcts in the PCA territory. Conclusion: Higher incidence of MCA infarcts in our study probably suggests that PCA cannot aid in collateral formation cases of reduced flow across the internal carotid artery and that fetal PCA could be an important risk factor in cerebrovascular ischemic diseases.

  14. Utility of Intraoperative Fetal Heart Rate Monitoring for Cerebral Arteriovenous Malformation Surgery during Pregnancy

    OpenAIRE

    FUKUDA, Kenji; MASUOKA, Jun; TAKADA, Shigeki; Katsuragi, Shinji; Ikeda, Tomoaki; IIHARA, Koji

    2014-01-01

    We report two methods of intraoperative fetal heart rate (FHR) monitoring in cases of cerebral arteriovenous malformation surgery during pregnancy. In one case in her third trimester, cardiotocography was used. In another case in her second trimester, ultrasound sonography was used, with a transesophageal echo probe attached to her lower abdomen. Especially, the transesophageal echo probe was useful because of the advantages of being flexible and easy to attach to the mother's lower abdomen c...

  15. Early cerebral hemodynamic, metabolic and histological changes in hypoxic-ischemic fetal lambs during postnatal life

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    Carmen eRey-Santano

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The hemodynamic, metabolic and biochemical changes produce during transition from fetal to neonatal life could be aggravated if asphyctic event occur during fetal life. The aim of the study was to examine the regional cerebral blood flow (RCBF, histological changes, and cerebral brain metabolism in preterm lambs, and to analyze the role of oxidative stress for the first hours of postnatal life following severe fetal asphyxia. 18 chronically instrumented fetal lambs were assigned to: hypoxic-ischemic group, following fetal asphyxia animals were delivered and maintained on intermittent-positive-pressure-ventilation for 3 hours, and non-injured animals that were managed similarly to the previous group and used as control group. During hypoxic-ischemic insult, injured group developed acidosis, hypoxia, hypercapnia, latacidaemia and tachycardia in comparison to control group, without hypotension. Intermittent-positive-pressure-ventilation transiently improved gas exchange and cardiovascular parameters. After HI injury and during ventilation-support, the increased RCBF in inner zones was maintained for hypoxic-ischemic group, but cortical flow did not exhibit differences compared to the control group. Also, the increase of TUNEL positive cells (apoptosis and antioxidant enzymes, and decrease of ATP reserves was significantly higher in the brain regions where the RCBF were not increased.In conclusion, early metabolic, histological and hemodynamic changes involved in brain damage have been intensively investigated and reported in premature asphyctic lambs for the first 3 hours of postnatal life. Those changes have been described in human neonates, so our model could be useful to test the security and the effectiveness of different neuroprotective or ventilatory strategies when are applied in the first hours after fetal hypoxic-ischemic injury.

  16. Liquid-Diet with Alcohol Alters Maternal, Fetal and Placental Weights and the Expression of Molecules Involved in Integrin Signaling in the Fetal Cerebral Cortex

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    Ujjwal K. Rout

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Maternal alcohol consumption during pregnancy causes wide range of behavioral and structural deficits in children, commonly known as Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS. Children with FAS may suffer behavioral deficits in the absence of obvious malformations. In rodents, the exposure to alcohol during gestation changes brain structures and weights of offspring. The mechanism of FAS is not completely understood. In the present study, an established rat (Long-Evans model of FAS was used. The litter size and the weights of mothers, fetuses and placentas were examined on gestation days 18 or 20. On gestation day 18, the effects of chronic alcohol on the expression levels of integrin receptor subunits, phospholipase-Cγ and N-cadherin were examined in the fetal cerebral cortices. Presence of alcohol in the liquid-diet reduced the consumption and decreased weights of mothers and fetuses but increased the placental weights. Expression levels of β1 and α3 integrin subunits and phospholipase-Cγ2 were significantly altered in the fetal cerebral cortices of mothers on alcohol containing diet. Results show that alcohol consumption during pregnancy even with protein, mineral and vitamin enriched diet may affect maternal and fetal health, and alter integrin receptor signaling pathways in the fetal cerebral cortex disturbing the development of fetal brains.

  17. Evaluation of fetal brain development by magnetic resonance imaging. Subependymal germinal matrix layer and cerebral ventricle

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    Kinoshita, Yoshimasa; Yokota, Akira [Univ. of Occupational and Environmental Health, Kitakyushu, Fukuoka (Japan); Okudera, Toshio

    1999-10-01

    Three dimensional data of brain from the formalin-fixed fetuses were collected without isolation, by the 4.7 tesla super high magnetic field MRI and the developmental process of the cerebral parenchyma was studied by 3D images. Subjects were 13 fetal brain and MRI was performed using 3D-steady-state free precession sequence. The isolated brain is very soft and fragile and is deformed by its weight at the imaging. However 3D-MRI can be obtained without isolation, and the deformation is remarkably small. The subependymal germinal matrix layer did not be observed in 7 weeks-old fetus, appeared at 9 weeks-old and increased gradually. Then it rapidly reduced from 28 weeks-old. The volume calculated, from 3D-MRI, increased rapidly from 9 weeks-old to 23 weeks-old, and reached the maximum (2.346 mm{sup 3}) at 23 weeks-old. The relation between fetal ages and volume of cerebral ventricle also showed similar pattern. This method will be useful to examine the development of the fetal brain without any damage. (K.H.)

  18. Region-specific maturation of cerebral cortex in human fetal brain: diffusion tensor imaging and histology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trivedi, Richa; Gupta, Rakesh K.; Saksena, Sona [Sanjay Gandhi Post Graduate Institute of Medical Sciences, Department of Radiodiagnosis, Lucknow, UP (India); Husain, Nuzhat; Srivastava, Savita [CSM Medical University, Department of Pathology, Lucknow (India); Rathore, Ram K.S.; Sarma, Manoj K. [Indian Institute of Technology, Department of Mathematics and Statistics, Kanpur (India); Malik, Gyanendra K. [CSM Medical University, Department of Pediatrics, Lucknow (India); Das, Vinita [CSM Medical University, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Lucknow (India); Pradhan, Mandakini [Sanjay Gandhi Postgraduate Institute of Medical Sciences, Department of Medical Genetics, Lucknow (India); Pandey, Chandra M. [Sanjay Gandhi Postgraduate Institute of Medical Sciences, Department of Biostatistics, Lucknow (India); Narayana, Ponnada A. [University of Texas Medical School at Houston, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Imaging, Houston, TX (United States)

    2009-09-15

    In this study, diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) immunohistochemical analysis in different cortical regions in fetal brains at different gestational age (GA) were performed. DTI was performed on 50 freshly aborted fetal brains with GA ranging from 12 to 42 weeks to compare age-related fractional anisotropy (FA) changes in different cerebral cortical regions that include frontal, parietal, occipital, and temporal lobes at the level of thalami. GFAP immunostaining was performed and the percentage of GFAP-positive areas was quantified. The cortical FA values in the frontal lobe peaked at around 26 weeks of GA, occipital and temporal lobes at around 20 weeks, and parietal lobe at around 23 weeks. A significant, but modest, positive correlation (r=0.31, p=0.02) was observed between cortical FA values and percentage area of GFAP expression in cortical region around the time period during which the migrational events are at its peak, i.e., GA {<=} 28 weeks for frontal cortical region and GA{<=}22 weeks for rest of the lobes. The DTI-derived FA quantification with its GFAP immunohistologic correlation in cortical regions of the various lobes of the cerebral hemispheres supports region-specific migrational and maturational events in human fetal brain. (orig.)

  19. Viscoelastic evaluation of fetal umbilical vein for reconstruction of middle cerebral artery

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Dongyuan; Xu, Donghui; Li, Peng; Wei, Jun; Yang, Kun; Zhao, Conghai

    2013-01-01

    The transplantation of artificial blood vessels with < 6 mm inner diameter as substitutes for human arterioles or veins has not achieved satisfactory results. Umbilical vein has been substituted for ar-tery in vascular transplantation, but it remains unclear whether the stress relaxation and creep tween these vessels are consistent. In this study, we used the fetal umbilical vein and middle cere-bral artery from adult male cadavers to make specimens 15 mm in length, 0.196–0.268 mm in nica med...

  20. Tissue culture media supplemented with 10% fetal calf serum contains a castrate level of testosterone.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sedelaar, J.P.M.; Isaacs, J.T.

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Human prostate cancer cells are routinely maintained in media supplemented with 10% Fetal Calf Serum (FCS) to provide androgen. In the present study, total and free testosterone levels in 10%FCS supplemented tissue culture media were determined and compared to levels in intact and castra

  1. Acute Fetal Anemia Diagnosed by Middle Cerebral Artery Doppler Velocimetry in Stage V Twin–Twin Transfusion Syndrome

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    Jennifer Salcedo

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available In stage V twin–twin transfusion syndrome (TTTS, up to 50% of surviving twins die or experience permanent disabilities, likely due to acute intertwin hemorrhage resulting in sudden severe anemia of the survivor. Although fetal middle cerebral artery (MCA Doppler studies demonstrate strong correlation with fetal hemoglobin values, acute hemorrhagic events are more difficult to diagnose, and optimal timing of delivery of the survivor poses an obstetric dilemma. We report a case of newly diagnosed stage V TTTS at 28 weeks gestation, complicated by acute severe anemia diagnosed by significantly abnormal fetal MCA Doppler studies. The anemic twin was urgently delivered and is doing well without significant sequelae.

  2. Developmental changes in regional cerebral blood flow in fetal and newborn lambs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szymonowicz, W; Walker, A M; Cussen, L; Cannata, J; Yu, V Y

    1988-01-01

    Developmental changes in regional cerebral blood flow (CBF) were determined using radioactively labeled microspheres to measure flow to the cortex, brain stem, cerebellum, white matter, caudate nucleus, and choroid plexus in three groups of chronically catheterized lambs under physiological conditions: 90- to 100-day preterm fetal lambs (n = 14), 125- to 136-day near-term fetal lambs (n = 11), and newborn lambs 5-44 days old (n = 10). We continually monitored heart rate, central venous pressure, and mean arterial blood pressure (MAP) and periodically measured arterial blood O2 and CO2 tensions (PaO2, PaCO2, respectively), pH, hemoglobin, and oxygen saturation (SaO2). The regional CBF measurements (ml.100 g-1.min-1) revealed that in all three age groups the high flow areas are the choroid plexus and caudate nucleus, whereas the lowest flow area is the white matter. There is, however, a different hierarchy of regional CBF in utero (cortex less than cerebellum and brain stem) compared with extrauterine life in the newborn lamb (cortex and cerebellum greater than brain stem). Analysis of regional cerebral oxygen delivery [CBF times arterial oxygen content (CaO2)] demonstrated a progressively increasing oxygen transport to the cortex with increasing gestational maturity and after birth. Oxygen transport to the brain stem, cerebellum, and white matter increased with gestational age, but did not increase after birth. Relationships between regional CBF and natural physiological variations of cardiorespiratory parameters (PaO2, SaO2, CaO2, pH, PaCO2, and MAP) were assessed using regression analysis. Correlations of regional CBF with PaO2 and SaO2 suggest that cerebral perfusion is not primarily determined by CaO2 when variations occur within the physiological range.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:3337259

  3. Alteration of rat fetal cerebral cortex development after prenatal exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls.

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    Elise Naveau

    Full Text Available Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs are environmental contaminants that persist in environment and human tissues. Perinatal exposure to these endocrine disruptors causes cognitive deficits and learning disabilities in children. These effects may involve their ability to interfere with thyroid hormone (TH action. We tested the hypothesis that developmental exposure to PCBs can concomitantly alter TH levels and TH-regulated events during cerebral cortex development: progenitor proliferation, cell cycle exit and neuron migration. Pregnant rats exposed to the commercial PCB mixture Aroclor 1254 ended gestation with reduced total and free serum thyroxine levels. Exposure to Aroclor 1254 increased cell cycle exit of the neuronal progenitors and delayed radial neuronal migration in the fetal cortex. Progenitor cell proliferation, cell death and differentiation rate were not altered by prenatal exposure to PCBs. Given that PCBs remain ubiquitous, though diminishing, contaminants in human systems, it is important that we further understand their deleterious effects in the brain.

  4. Antenatal taurine reduces cerebral cell apoptosis in fetal rats with intrauterine growth restriction*

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jing Liu; Xiaofeng Wang; Ying Liu; Na Yang; Jing Xu; Xiaotun Ren

    2013-01-01

    From pregnancy to parturition, Sprague-Dawley rats were daily administered a low protein diet to establish a model of intrauterine growth restriction. From the 12th day of pregnancy, 300 mg/kg rine was daily added to food until spontaneous delivery occurred. Brain tissues from normal neo-natal rats at 6 hours after delivery, neonatal rats with intrauterine growth restriction, and neonatal rats with intrauterine growth restriction undergoing taurine supplement were obtained for further experiments. The terminal deoxyribonucleotidyl transferase (TdT)-mediated biotin-16-dUTP nick-end labeling assay revealed that the number of apoptotic cel s in the brain tissue of neonatal rats with intrauterine growth restriction significantly increased. Taurine supplement in pregnant rats reduced cel apoptosis in brain tissue from neonatal rats with intrauterine growth restriction. nohistochemical staining revealed that taurine supplement increased glial cel line-derived neuro-trophic factor expression and decreased caspase-3 expression in the cerebral cortex of intrauterine growth-restricted fetal rats. These results indicate that taurine supplement reduces cel apoptosis through the glial cel line-derived neurotrophic factor-caspase-3 signaling pathway, resulting in a protective effect on the intrauterine growth-restricted fetal rat brain.

  5. Evidence for Abnormal Fetal Middle Cerebral Artery Values in Addict Women

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    M. Mohammadi Fard

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Objective: Addiction is a risk factor for perinatal morbidity and mortality, although the pre-cise mechanism is unknown. They may alter oxygen delivery to the fetus. The middle cerebral artery (MCA pulsatility index (PI is a sensitive parameter for detection of blood flow redistribution or centrali-zation. The aim of this study was to determine whether addiction, without smoking, is associated with changes in the PI of the MCA and the umbilical artery (UA."nPatients and Methods: The PI of the MCA and UA were determined prospectively in 212 consecutive addict and pregnant women with singleton pregnan-cies (study group and in 212 matched pregnant women without addiction (control group. The con-trol group was matched for maternal age, gravidity, parity and gestational age at examination. Patients with fetal structural or chromosomal anomalies, dia-betes mellitus, and smokers were excluded. A PI be-low the 5th percentile for the MCA was considered abnormal. "nResults: The rate of abnormal MCA PI was signifi-cantly higher in the study group than control group: 33.3% vs. 6.3%, respectively, (p < 0.0001. "nConclusions: Our observations provide evidence of cerebral blood flow redistribution in fetuses with ad-dicted mothers.

  6. A study of different scenarios of fetal middle cerebral artery peak systolic velocity in an Indian population

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    Sushil G Kachewar

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Fetal Middle Cerebral Artery Peak Systolic Velocity (MCA-PSV is being increasingly used for non-invasively diagnosing fetal anemias irrespective of their cause. A study was therefore undertaken to find out what different scenarios can be encountered in the local obstetric population. Doppler ultrasound measurements of fetal MCA-PSV were done in 1200 pregnant women who were referred for antenatal ultrasound between 12 - 40 weeks of gestation. Statistical analysis was done using Microsoft Excel 2007 and SPSS software version 12. The different scenarios encountered in this study were then compiled and are presented here. With increasing gestational age, the value of MCA-PSV was seen to increase correspondingly in all normal fetuses. This correlation between the two was thus positive and was found to be statistically significant (p < 0.05. Abnormally raised values of MCA-PSV were seen in fetuses with severe anemia due to ABO-Rh Iso-immunization which left untreated, ultimately resulted in fetal hydrops. Almost similar and normal values were seen in separate as well as conjoint healthy twins. Abnormally elevated values were seen in twins with discordant growths. Fetal MCA-PSV is very useful to confirm the presence or absence of fetal anemia irrespective of underlying cause in singleton as well as twin pregnancies. For complete assessment, it is essential that the specialist is thoroughly aware of the different scenarios that can be encountered while using this non-invasive method.

  7. The expression of thyroid hormone transporters in the human fetal cerebral cortex during early development and in N-Tera-2 neurodifferentiation

    OpenAIRE

    Chan, S Y; Martín-Santos, A; Loubière, L.S.; González, A.M.; Stieger, B.; Logan, A; McCabe, C.J.; Franklyn, J A; Kilby, M. D.

    2011-01-01

    Associations of neurological impairment with mutations in the thyroid hormone (TH) transporter, MCT8, and with maternal hypothyroxinaemia, suggest that THs are crucial for human fetal brain development. It has been postulated that TH transporters regulate the cellular supply of THs within the fetal brain during development. This study describes the expression of TH transporters in the human fetal cerebral cortex (7–20 weeks gestation) and during retinoic acid induced neurodifferentiation of t...

  8. Nomograms of Iranian fetal middle cerebral artery Doppler waveforms and uniformity of their pattern with other populations' nomograms

    OpenAIRE

    Sobhani Narges; Nezami Nariman; Tarzamni Mohammad; Eshraghi Nazanin; Tarzamni Maryam; Talebi Yashar

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background Doppler flow velocity waveform analysis of fetal vessels is one of the main methods for evaluating fetus health before labor. Doppler waves of middle cerebral artery (MCA) can predict most of the at risk fetuses in high risk pregnancies. In this study, we tried to obtain normal values and their nomograms during pregnancy for Doppler flow velocity indices of MCA in 20 – 40 weeks of normal pregnancies in Iranian population and compare their pattern with other countries' nomo...

  9. Effects of contrast media on renal graft function and survival after cerebral angiography of cadaveric donors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effects of intravascularly administered ionic contrast media on renal graft function and survival were retrospectively evaluated in 211 recipients of cadaveric renal transplants. The renal grafts were explanted from the donors within 24 hours (mean 16 hours) after cerebral angiography. There were no differences in renal function of graft survival between those exposed and those not exposed to contrast media before nephrectomy. (orig.)

  10. 复杂性双胎胎儿脑损伤%Complicated twin and fetal cerebral injury

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张晓菁; 王谢桐

    2012-01-01

    单绒毛膜双胎存活胎儿脑损伤的发生率增加,潜在有效治疗的窗口期很窄.严密监测双胎宫内生长发育情况,强调脐动脉多普勒血流监测评估的重要性,适时终止妊娠,血管闭塞法选择性减胎和胎儿镜下吻合血管激光消融等方法,是防止存活胎儿低血压性脑损伤的有效措施.一胎儿死亡后3~4周存活胎儿颅部超声和磁共振检查有助于脑损伤的诊断.%In monochorionic twin pregnancy, the vascular anastomosis always results in poor perinatal outcome and increases rate of cerebral injury of the surviving twin. The window for potentially effective treatment is very narrow. It is essential to evaluate the fetal intrauterine growth by monitoring the umbilical artery Doppler flow. Terminating pregnancy when necessary, selective reduction of the fetus by vascular occlusion and selective fetoscopic laser photocoagula-tion are effective methods to prevent hypotension related cerebral injury of the survival fetus. Cranial Ultrasound and MRI are helpful methods to diagnose the brain damage of the survival fetus after 3-4 weeks of one fetal death.

  11. Diagnostic efficacy of biophysical tests and cerebral-umbilical index when assessing fetal oxygenation

    OpenAIRE

    Čančarević-Đajić Branka; Vilendečić Rade

    2013-01-01

    Introduction. Perinatal morbidity and mortality are the ultimate indicators of antenatal care today, whose responsible task is to assess the respiratory function of the placenta, fetal growth and placental maturation in order to provide conditions for the delivery of a living and viable newborn. The diagnostic procedures of antenatal care tested within this study were the biophysical tests of cardiotocography and the fetal biophysical profile, along with the colour doppler evaluation of...

  12. Neonatal lactic acidosis, complex I/IV deficiency, and fetal cerebral disruption

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Straaten, HLM; van Tintelen, JP; Trijbels, JMF; van den Heuvel, LP; Troost, D; Rozemuller, JM; Duran, M; de Vries, LS; Schuelke, M; Barth, PG

    2005-01-01

    Cerebral developmental abnormalities occur in various inborn errors of metabolism including peroxisomal deficiencies, pyruvate dehydrogenase complex deficiency and others. Associations with abnormalities of the respiratory chain are rare. Here we report male and female siblings with microcephaly, a

  13. Pseudo-asymmetry of cerebral blood flow in arterial spin labeling caused by unilateral fetal-type circle of Willis: Technical limitation or a way to better understanding physiological variations of cerebral perfusion and improving arterial spin labeling acquisition?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Law-Ye, B; Geerts, B; Galanaud, D; Dormont, D; Pyatigorskaya, N

    2016-09-01

    In the recently published article, "Unilateral fetal-type circle of Willis anatomy causes right-left asymmetry in cerebral blood flow with pseudo-continuous arterial spin labeling: A limitation of arterial spin labeling-based cerebral blood flow measurements?", it was shown by the method of arterial spin labeling (ASL) that unilateral fetal-type circle of Willis could induce variation of blood flow in cerebellar and posterior cerebral artery territory. We believe that the reported observation, rather than being a limitation, gives several interesting cues for understanding the ASL sequence. In this commentary, we formulate some suggestions regarding the use of ASL in clinical practice, discuss the potential causes of the above-mentioned pseudo-asymmetry and consider future improvements of the ASL technique.

  14. Deleterious Effects of High Dose Connexin 43 Mimetic Peptide Infusion After Cerebral Ischaemia in Near-Term Fetal Sheep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alistair J. Gunn

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Hypoxic-ischaemic brain injury at birth is associated with 1–3/1000 cases of moderate to severe encephalopathy. Previously, we have shown that connexin 43 hemichannel blockade, with a specific mimetic peptide, reduced the occurrence of seizures, improved recovery of EEG power and sleep state cycling, and improved cell survival following global cerebral ischaemia. In the present study, we examined the dose response for intracerebroventricular mimetic peptide infusion (50 µmol/kg/h for 1 h, followed by 50 µmol/kg/24 h (low dose or 50 µmol/kg/h for 25 h (high dose or vehicle only (control group, starting 90 min after the end of ischaemia, following global cerebral ischaemia, induced by 30 min bilateral carotid artery occlusion, in near-term fetal sheep (128 ± 1 days gestation. Both peptide infusion groups were associated with a transient significant increase in EEG power between 2–12 h after ischaemia. The ischaemia-low dose group showed a significant recovery of EEG power from day five compared to the ischaemia-vehicle and -high dose groups. In contrast, the high dose infusion was associated with greater secondary increase in impedance (brain cell swelling, as well as a trend towards a greater increase in lactate concentration and mortality. These data suggest that higher doses of connexin mimetic peptide are not beneficial and may be associated with adverse outcomes, most likely attributable to uncoupling of connexin 43 gap junctions leading to dysfunction of the astrocytic syncytium.

  15. Mild fetal cerebral ventriculomegaly as a prenatal sonographic marker for Kartagener syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.W. Wessels (Marja); N.S. den Hollander (Nicolette); P.J. Willems (Patrick)

    2003-01-01

    textabstractPrimary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD), also referred to as immotile-cilia syndrome or Kartagener syndrome, is a group of genetic disorders caused by defective cilia leading to chronic sinupulmonary infection, situs inversus and reduced fertility. Some PCD patients also have cerebral ventricul

  16. Alteration of rat fetal cerebral cortex development after prenatal exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls

    OpenAIRE

    Naveau, Elise; Pinson, Anneline; GERARD, Arlette; Nguyen, Laurent; Charlier, Corinne; Thomé, Jean-Pierre; Zoeller, Robert Thomas; Bourguignon, Jean-Pierre; Parent, Anne-Simone

    2014-01-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are environmental contaminants that persist in environment and human tissues. Perinatal exposure to these endocrine disruptors causes cognitive deficits and learning disabilities in children. These effects may involve their ability to interfere with thyroid hormone (TH) action. We tested the hypothesis that developmental exposure to PCBs can concomitantly alter TH levels and TH-regulated events during cerebral cortex development: progenitor proliferation, cell...

  17. Selective reduction of cerebral cortex GABA neurons in a late gestation model of fetal alcohol spectrum disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smiley, John F; Saito, Mariko; Bleiwas, Cynthia; Masiello, Kurt; Ardekani, Babak; Guilfoyle, David N; Gerum, Scott; Wilson, Donald A; Vadasz, Csaba

    2015-09-01

    Fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD) are associated with cognitive and behavioral deficits, and decreased volume of the whole brain and cerebral cortex. Rodent models have shown that early postnatal treatments, which mimic ethanol toxicity in the third trimester of human pregnancy, acutely induce widespread apoptotic neuronal degeneration and permanent behavioral deficits. However, the lasting cellular and anatomical effects of early ethanol treatments are still incompletely understood. This study examined changes in neocortex volume, thickness, and cellular organization that persist in adult mice after postnatal day 7 (P7) ethanol treatment. Post mortem brain volumes, measured by both MRI within the skull and by fluid displacement of isolated brains, were reduced 10-13% by ethanol treatment. The cerebral cortex showed a similar reduction (12%) caused mainly by lower surface area (9%). In spite of these large changes, several features of cortical organization showed little evidence of change, including cortical thickness, overall neuron size, and laminar organization. Estimates of total neuron number showed a trend level reduction of about 8%, due mainly to reduced cortical volume but unchanged neuron density. However, counts of calretinin (CR) and parvalbumin (PV) subtypes of GABAergic neurons showed a striking >30% reduction of neuron number. Similar ethanol effects were found in male and female mice, and in C57BL/6By and BALB/cJ mouse strains. Our findings indicate that the cortex has substantial capacity to develop normal cytoarchitectonic organization after early postnatal ethanol toxicity, but there is a selective and persistent reduction of GABA cells that may contribute to the lasting cognitive and behavioral deficits in FASD.

  18. Nomograms of Iranian fetal middle cerebral artery Doppler waveforms and uniformity of their pattern with other populations' nomograms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sobhani Narges

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Doppler flow velocity waveform analysis of fetal vessels is one of the main methods for evaluating fetus health before labor. Doppler waves of middle cerebral artery (MCA can predict most of the at risk fetuses in high risk pregnancies. In this study, we tried to obtain normal values and their nomograms during pregnancy for Doppler flow velocity indices of MCA in 20 – 40 weeks of normal pregnancies in Iranian population and compare their pattern with other countries' nomograms. Methods During present descriptive cross-sectional study, 1037 normal pregnant women with 20th–40th week gestational age were underwent MCA Doppler study. All cases were studied by gray scale ultrasonography initially and Doppler of MCA afterward. Resistive Index (RI, Pulsative Index (PI, Systolic/Diastolic ratio (S/D ratio, and Peak Systolic Velocity (PSV values of MCA were determined for all of the subjects. Results Results of present study showed that RI, PI, S/D ratio values of MCA decreased with parabolic pattern and PSV value increased with simple pattern, as gestational age progressed. These changes were statistically significant (P = 0.000 for all of indices and more characteristic during late weeks of pregnancy. Conclusion Values of RI, PI and S/D ratio indices reduced toward the end of pregnancy, but PSV increased. Despite the trivial difference, nomograms of various Doppler indices in present study have similar pattern with other studies.

  19. Fetal MRI; Fetales MRT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blondin, D. [Inst. fuer Diagn. Radiologie, Uniklinikum Duesseldorf (Germany); Turowski, B. [Inst. fuer Diagn. Radiologie, Neuroradiologie, Uniklinikum Duesseldorf (Germany); Schaper, J. [Inst. fuer Diagn. Radiologie, Kinderradiologie, Uniklinikum Duesseldorf (Germany)

    2007-02-15

    Ultrasonography is the method of choice for prenatal malformation screening, but it does not always provide sufficient information for correct diagnosis or adequate abnormality evaluation. Fetal MRI is increasingly being used to complete sonographic findings. It was initially used for evaluation of cerebral abnormalities but is increasingly being applied to other fetal areas. In vivo investigation of fetal brain maturation has been enhanced by MRI. An adequate analysis of fetal chest and abdomen can be achieved with fast T2-, T1-weighted and diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI). The advantages include the great field of view and the excellent soft tissue contrast. This allows correct diagnosis of congenital diaphragmatic hernia and evaluation of the consequences on pulmonary growth. Other pulmonary malformations, such as cystic adenomatoid malformation, sequestration and brochogenic cysts, can also be easily identified. Renal position can be quickly determined using DWI sequences and renal agenesia can be easily diagnosed with only one sequence. Prenatal MRI is virtually as effective as postnatal examination, dispenses with transport of a potentially very ill newborn, and provides logistic advantages. Therefore, prenatal MRI is useful for adequate postnatal treatment of newborns with malformations. (orig.)

  20. Entry and distribution of microglial cells in human embryonic and fetal cerebral cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monier, Anne; Adle-Biassette, Homa; Delezoide, Anne-Lise; Evrard, Philippe; Gressens, Pierre; Verney, Catherine

    2007-05-01

    Microglial cells penetrate into and scatter throughout the human cortical grey and white matter according to a specific spatiotemporal pattern during the first 2 trimesters of gestation. Routes of entry were quantitatively and qualitatively different from those identified in the diencephalon. Starting at 4.5 gestational weeks, amoeboid microglial cells, characterized by different antibodies as Iba1, CD68, CD45, and MHC-II, entered the cerebral wall from the ventricular lumen and the leptomeninges. Migration was mainly radial and tangential toward the immature white matter, subplate layer, and cortical plate, whereas pial cells populated the prospective layer I. The intraparenchymal vascular route of entry was detectable only from 12 gestational weeks. Interestingly, microglial cells accumulated in restricted laminar bands particularly at 19 to 24 gestational weeks among the corona radiata fibers rostrally, extending caudally in the immature white matter to reach the visual radiations. This accumulation of proliferating MIB1-positive microglia (as shown by MIB1-Iba1 double immunolabeling) was located at the site of white matter injury in premature neonates. The spatiotemporal organization of microglia in the immature white and grey matter suggests that these cells may play active roles in developmental processes and in injury to the developing brain. PMID:17483694

  1. Safety of contrast media in cerebral angiography: iopamidol vs. methylglucamine iothalamate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bird, C R; Drayer, B P; Velaj, R; Triolo, P J; Allen, S; Bates, M; Yeates, A E; Heinz, E R; Osborne, D R

    1984-01-01

    A randomized double-blind study was performed in 27 patients to compare the clinical safety, incidence of pain and warmth, and film quality produced by iopamidol and Conray-60 in selective cerebral angiography. No complications or adverse reactions occurred in either group. Iopamidol was significantly less painful than was methylglucamine iothalamate for common carotid artery injections and caused significantly less heat in both common carotid and internal carotid artery injections. Film quality and diagnostic accuracy were excellent in both groups. These results, when viewed in conjunction with laboratory data demonstrating the decreased neurotoxicity of nonionic contrast agents, suggest that iopamidol is an important advance in the development of angiographic contrast media.

  2. Dyke-Davidoff-Masson syndrome: case report of fetal unilateral ventriculomegaly and hypoplastic left middle cerebral artery

    OpenAIRE

    Piro, E.; Piccione, M; Marrone, G; Giuffrè, M; G. Corsello

    2013-01-01

    Prenatal ultrasonographic detection of unilateral cerebral ventriculomegaly arises suspicion of pathological condition related to cerebrospinal fluid flow obstruction or cerebral parenchimal pathology. Dyke-Davidoff-Masson syndrome is a rare condition characterized by cerebral hemiatrophy, calvarial thickening, skull and facial asymmetry, contralateral hemiparesis, cognitive impairment and seizures. Congenital and acquired types are recognized and have been described, mainly in late childhood...

  3. Diagnóstico não invasivo da anemia fetal pela medida do pico de velocidade sistólica na dopplervelocimetria da artéria cerebral média Noninvasive fetal anemia diagnosis by middle cerebral artery peak systolic velocity waveform measurement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Roberto Taveira

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: avaliar se existe associação entre a medida do pico de velocidade sistólica (PVS na dopplervelocimetria da artéria cerebral média (ACM e a concentração de hemoglobina fetal e determinar a sua capacidade diagnóstica. MÉTODOS: entre janeiro de 2000 e maio de 2003, 44 gestantes isoimunizadas foram submetidas a transfusão intra-uterina. Realizou-se estudo dopplervelocimétrico da ACM antes de cada transfusão fetal, sempre com intervalo inferior a 3 horas, antecedendo o procedimento. O PVS da ACM foi considerado alterado quando seu valor era superior a 1,5 múltiplo da mediana para a respectiva idade gestacional. A concentração de hemoglobina do cordão foi aferida antes de se iniciar a infusão de sangue, realizada no Hemocue® (B-Hemoglobin Photometer Hemocue AB; Angelholm, Sweden. O estudo estatístico foi feito pelo teste do chi2 e também foram calculados os valores de sensibilidade, especificidade, valores preditivos positivo e negativo. RESULTADOS: foram realizados 83 procedimentos, sendo que em 33 a hemoglobina fetal era inferior a 10,0 g/dL. Houve associação significativa entre as variáveis estudadas, pPURPOSE: to assess the correlation between middle cerebral artery peak systolic velocity and umbilical cord blood hemoglobin concentration and to determine its diagnostic value. PATIENTS AND METHODS: a cross-sectional prospective study was performed from January 2000 to May 2003. Forty-four isoimmunized pregnant women underwent a protocol for the identification of fetal hemolysis. When intrauterine transfusions were indicated, the umbilical cord blood hemoglobin concentration was measured at the beginning of the procedure. Each intrauterine transfusion preceded by Doppler velocimetry of the middle cerebral artery was regarded as one case, summing up eighty-three procedures. In all cases, the middle cerebral artery Doppler examinations were performed within the three hours preceding fetal blood sample collection. The

  4. "Social Media has Opened a World of 'Open communication:'" experiences of Adults with Cerebral Palsy who use Augmentative and Alternative Communication and Social Media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caron, Jessica; Light, Janice

    2016-01-01

    An online focus group was used to investigate the experiences of nine individuals with cerebral palsy who use augmentative and alternative communication (AAC) and social media. Information was gathered related to (a) advantages of social media, (b) disadvantages of social media, (c) barriers to successful use, (d) supports to successful use, and (e) recommendations for other individuals using AAC, support personnel, policy makers, and technology developers. Participants primarily chose to focus on social media as a beneficial tool and viewed it as an important form of communication. The participants did describe barriers to social media use (e.g., technology). Despite barriers, all the participants in this study took an active role in learning to use social media. The results are discussed as they relate to themes and with reference to published literature. PMID:26056722

  5. "Social Media has Opened a World of 'Open communication:'" experiences of Adults with Cerebral Palsy who use Augmentative and Alternative Communication and Social Media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caron, Jessica; Light, Janice

    2016-01-01

    An online focus group was used to investigate the experiences of nine individuals with cerebral palsy who use augmentative and alternative communication (AAC) and social media. Information was gathered related to (a) advantages of social media, (b) disadvantages of social media, (c) barriers to successful use, (d) supports to successful use, and (e) recommendations for other individuals using AAC, support personnel, policy makers, and technology developers. Participants primarily chose to focus on social media as a beneficial tool and viewed it as an important form of communication. The participants did describe barriers to social media use (e.g., technology). Despite barriers, all the participants in this study took an active role in learning to use social media. The results are discussed as they relate to themes and with reference to published literature.

  6. Nitrate and nitrite anion concentration in the intact cerebral cortex of preterm and nearterm fetal sheep: indirect index of in vivo nitric oxide formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, J D; Zeballos, G A; Penning, D H; Kimura, K A; Atkins, B; Brien, J F

    1998-04-01

    Pregnant sheep with a microdialysis probe implanted in the fetal cerebral cortex were used to determine if nitrate and nitrite anions (nitrate/nitrite) could be quantitated in the microdialysate as an indirect index of in vivo nitric oxide formation. Pregnant ewes (term, about 147 days) were surgically instrumented at gestational day (GD) 90 (n = 3; preterm) and GD 121 (n = 3; nearterm). Three days later, following an overnight probe equilibration period, five dialysate samples were collected continuously on ice at 1-h intervals (infusion rate of 1 (microl/min). The nitrate/nitrite concentration was determined by reducing a 10-microl aliquot of each dialysate fraction with hot acidic vanadium followed by chemiluminescence quantitation of the nitric oxide product. The lower limit of quantitative sensitivity of the method is 25 picomoles. Nitrate/nitrite concentration was 16.6+/-7.3 microM for the preterm fetus and 19.7+/-1.9 microM for the nearterm fetus. The data demonstrate that nitrate/nitrite, as an index of in vivo nitric oxide formation, can be quantitated in microdialysate samples collected from the intact fetal sheep cerebral cortex. PMID:9741385

  7. Expression of c-Fos protein and nitricoxide synthase in neurons of cerebral cortex from fetal rats in hypoxia and protective role of Angelica sinensis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hong Yu; Hongxian Zhao; Yuling Wu

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Both c-Fos protein and nitricoxide synthase (NOS) have been used as general indexes in relative research about neurons, but it is lack of reports that c-Fos protein and NOS are applied synchronously to study the neurons of hypoxic fetal rats in uterus.OBJECTIVE: To study the effect of hypoxia in uterus on the expression of c-Fos protein and NOS in neurons of cerebral cortex from fetal rats and whether Angelica sinensis has the protective effect on these neurons in hypoxia.DESIGN: Randomized control experiment.SETTING: Department of Histology and Embryology, Luzhou Medical College.MATERIALS: Twelve adult female Wistar rats in oestrum and 1 male Wistar rat with bodymass from 220 to 250 g were chosen. Parenteral solution of Angelica sinensis mainly contained angelica sinensis, 10 mL/ampoule, was provided by Department of Agent of the Second Hospital Affiliated to Hubei Medical University (batch number: 01062310).METHODS: This experiment was completed in the Department of Histology and Embryology of Luzhou Medical College from September 2003 to June 2004. ① Twelve adult female Wistar rats in oestrum and 1 male Wistar rat were housed in one rearing cage. Vaginal embolus was performed on conceive female rat at 8:00 am next day.On the 15th conceiving day,all conceiving rats were divided randomly into three groups:control group, hypoxia group and Angelica group with 4 in each group. Rats in hypoxia group and Angelica group were modeled with hypotonic hypoxia in uterus. Angelica group: Rats were injected with 8 mL/kg Angelica sinensis injection through caudal veins before hypoxia.Hypoxia group:Rats were injected with the same volume of saline.Control group:Rats were not modeled and fed with normal way. ② Twenty embryos of rats were chosen randomly from each group and then routinely embedded in paraffin. Paraffin sections were cut from the brain of embryos to anterior fontanelle. Double-label staining was used to detect the expression of nNOS and c-Fos in

  8. Usability testing of gaming and social media applications for stroke and cerebral palsy upper limb rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdés, Bulmaro A; Hilderman, Courtney G E; Hung, Chai-Ting; Shirzad, Navid; Van der Loos, H F Machiel

    2014-01-01

    As part of the FEATHERS (Functional Engagement in Assisted Therapy Through Exercise Robotics) project, two motion tracking and one social networking applications were developed for upper limb rehabilitation of stroke survivors and teenagers with cerebral palsy. The project aims to improve the engagement of clients during therapy by using video games and a social media platform. The applications allow users to control a cursor on a personal computer through bimanual motions, and to interact with their peers and therapists through the social media. The tracking applications use either a Microsoft Kinect or a PlayStation Eye camera, and the social media application was developed on Facebook. This paper presents a usability testing of these applications that was conducted with therapists from two rehabilitation clinics. The "Cognitive Walkthrough" and "Think Aloud" methods were used. The objectives of the study were to investigate the ease of use and potential issues or improvements of the applications, as well as the factors that facilitate and impede the adoption of technology in current rehabilitation programs. PMID:25570770

  9. Effect of contrast media on renal function in elderly patients suffering from ischemic cerebral vasular disease and undergoing angiography

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李绍钦

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effects of the low-osmolar nonionic contrast media on renal function in elderly patients suffering from ischemic cerebral vascular disease and undergoing angiography.To study the incidence and risk factors for contrast-induced nephropathy(CIN).Methods 276 elderly patients who were going to receive selective cranial angiography and bilateral renal angiogra-

  10. Three Case Reports of Successful Vibration Therapy of the Plantar Fascia for Spasticity Due to Cerebral Palsy-Like Syndrome, Fetal-Type Minamata Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usuki, Fusako; Tohyama, Satsuki

    2016-04-01

    Fetal-type Minamata disease is caused by the exposure to high concentrations of methylmercury in the fetal period and shows cerebral palsy-like clinical features. Relief of spasticity is a major task of rehabilitation to improve their activities of daily living. Here we report the effect of long-term vibration therapy on bilateral lower-limb spasticity in 3 patients with fetal-type Minamata disease. We used a simple, inexpensive, and noninvasive approach with hand-held vibration massagers, which were applied to the plantar fascia at 90 Hz for 15 minutes. The effect was observed soon after the first treatment and resulted in better performance of the repetitive facilitation. Vibration therapy for 1 year improved Modified Ashworth Scale for the ankle flexors in 2 cases. The labored gait improved and gait speed increased in another case. Continued vibration therapy for another 1 year further improved Modified Ashworth Scale score and range of motion of ankle dorsiflexion in 1 case. This case showed the decreased amplitude of soleus H-reflex after the 15-minute vibration therapy, suggesting that α-motor neuron excitability was suppressed. Vibration therapy using a hand-held vibration massager may offer safe and effective treatment for lower-limb spasticity in patients with chronic neurological disorders.

  11. ECG changes during cerebral angiography; A comparison of low osmolality contrast media

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitsumori, Michihide; Abe, Mitsuyuki (Kyoto Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Medicine); Hayakawa, Katsumi (Kyoto City Hospital (Japan). Department of Radiology)

    334 electrocardiographic recordings obtained from 109 patients who underwent cerebral angiography with low osmolality contrast media (CM) were analysed. CM used in this study included meglumine sodium ioxaglate, iopamidol and iohexol. A tachycardial effect greater than 10 percent was seen in 8.3 percent of the recordings, while a bradycardial effect greater than 10 percent was seen in 11.1 percent. Assessment was based on the type of CM used, age of the patients, usage of atropine sulfate as premedication, and the vessel injected. Patients who were under 19 years of age, and unpremedicated had a significantly higher incidence of bradycardia. On the other hand, there was no significant difference of the incidence of electrocardiographic abnormality between the 3 CM, and between the 2 injected vessel groups. The authors have also analysed the incidence of generalized adverse effect. There was no serious complication, however, 11.9 percent of the patients who under-went cerebral angiography with ioxaglate developed urticaria and this was significantly higher than in the other 2 CM groups. (author). 17 refs.; 9 tabs.

  12. Ascitis fetal masiva idiopática aislada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yolimar Navarro Briceño

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available La ascitis fetal esta comúnmente asociada a malformaciones gastrointestinales y urinarias, anemia, infección y anomalías cromosómicas. La ascitis fetal masiva idiopática es rara. Se reporta un caso de una embarazada de 33 años referida a las 17 semanas después que se detectó ascitis en ausencia de anomalías estructurales. La evaluación cardiaca y las pruebas diagnósticas de infecciones virales fueron negativas. A las 28 semanas se detectó ascitis masiva sin otros signos de hidrops fetal. La velocidad sistólica pico de la arteria cerebral media fetal estaba elevada. El Doppler de la arteria umbilical, crecimiento fetal y volumen de líquido amniótico estaban normales. El ecocardiograma fetal estaba normal. Se realizó la amniocentesis con resultados normales del cariotipo. A pesar de la persistencia de la ascitis masiva durante el seguimiento, el crecimiento fetal y el volumen de líquido amniótico eran normales con valores elevados de la velocidad sistólica pico de la arteria cerebral media fetal. A las 33 semanas la paciente se realizó cesárea de emergencia por sufrimiento fetal agudo. Se obtuvo un recién nacido vivo femenino normal con valores normales de hemoglobina al nacer. El flujo vascular hepático, vesical y hepato-portal fueron normales. La ascitis se resolvió completamente al octavo día después del nacimiento y el recién nacido fue dado de alta a los 15 días.

  13. Optical characterization of two-layered turbid media for non-invasive, absolute oximetry in cerebral and extracerebral tissue.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bertan Hallacoglu

    Full Text Available We introduce a multi-distance, frequency-domain, near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS method to measure the optical coefficients of two-layered media and the thickness of the top layer from diffuse reflectance measurements. This method features a direct solution based on diffusion theory and an inversion procedure based on the Levenberg-Marquardt algorithm. We have validated our method through Monte Carlo simulations, experiments on tissue-like phantoms, and measurements on the forehead of three human subjects. The Monte Carlo simulations and phantom measurements have shown that, in ideal two-layered samples, our method accurately recovers the top layer thickness (L, the absorption coefficient (µ a and the reduced scattering coefficient (µ' s of both layers with deviations that are typically less than 10% for all parameters. Our method is aimed at absolute measurements of hemoglobin concentration and saturation in cerebral and extracerebral tissue of adult human subjects, where the top layer (layer 1 represents extracerebral tissue (scalp, skull, dura mater, subarachnoid space, etc. and the bottom layer (layer 2 represents cerebral tissue. Human subject measurements have shown a significantly greater total hemoglobin concentration in cerebral tissue (82±14 µM with respect to extracerebral tissue (30±7 µM. By contrast, there was no significant difference between the hemoglobin saturation measured in cerebral tissue (56%±10% and extracerebral tissue (62%±6%. To our knowledge, this is the first time that an inversion procedure in the frequency domain with six unknown parameters with no other prior knowledge is used for the retrieval of the optical coefficients and top layer thickness with high accuracy on two-layered media. Our absolute measurements of cerebral hemoglobin concentration and saturation are based on the discrimination of extracerebral and cerebral tissue layers, and they can enhance the impact of NIRS for cerebral hemodynamics and

  14. Cuantificación del signo de la arteria cerebral media hiperdensa con TCMD Quantification of hyperdense middle cerebral artery sign by multidetector computed tomography (MDCT.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Meli

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Objetivos. Obtener una cuantificación absoluta y relativa de la densidad en el signo de la arteria cerebral media (ACM con el fin de lograr un valor objetivo para el diagnóstico temprano de isquemia cerebral aguda con TCMD. Materiales y Métodos. Se incluyeron 40 pacientes, 20 con sospecha de isquemia cerebral aguda (edad media 73,4 años y 20 pacientes controles (edad media 71,2 años, p=0,63, que se realizaron TC cerebral con un equipo de 64 filas de detectores. La cuantificación absoluta se realizó midiendo la densidad en UH en el segmento de la ACM visualmente de mayor densidad. También se midió la densidad en el mismo segmento de la ACM contralateral para calcular la diferencia entre ambas arterias (cuantificación relativa. Resultados. En pacientes casos, la densidad media de la ACM afectada (62,5 UH, IC 99%: 46,2-78,7 fue mayor que la de la ACM contralateral (39,3 UH, IC 99%: 33,3-45,3 (p=0,0004 y también fue mayor en comparación con la ACM en pacientes controles (44,7 UH, IC 99%: 37,4-52 (p=0,0045. En la cuantificación relativa, la diferencia media entre la densidad de la ACM afectada y la de ACM contralateral en los pacientes casos fue de 23,2 UH (IC 95%: 11,7-34,7, mientras que, en pacientes controles, la diferencia media entre la densidad de la ACM derecha y la ACM izquierda fue 5,2 UH (IC 95%: 2,4-8,4 (diferencia: 17,8 UH, p=0,0032, IC 95%: 6,8-28,8. Conclusión. Mostramos diferencias significativas (absolutas y relativas en la densidad de la ACM en pacientes con sospecha de isquemia cerebral aguda en comparación con sujetos normales.Purposes. To obtain absolute and relative quantification values of density in the middle cerebral artery (MCA sign, in order to obtain an objective value for an early diagnosis of acute ischemic stroke using MDCT. Material and Methods. Forty adult patients, 20 with suspected diagnosis of acute ischemic stroke (mean age: 73.4 years and 20 controls (mean age: 71.2 years, p=0.63, underwent brain

  15. Relationship Between CarotidIntima-Media Thickness and Silent Cerebral Infarction in Japanese Subjects With Type 2 Diabetes

    OpenAIRE

    Nomura, Kazuhiro; Hamamoto, Yoshiyuki; Takahara, Shiho; Kikuchi, Osamu; Honjo, Sachiko; Ikeda, Hiroki; Wada, Yoshiharu; Nabe, Koichro; Okumra, Ryosuke; Koshiyama, Hiroyuki

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE We examined the relationship between intima-media thickness of common carotid artery (CCA-IMT) and silent cerebral infarction (SCI) with the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) study in Japanese subjects with type 2 diabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS The brain MRI study and the carotid ultrasonography were performed in a total of 217 consecutive Japanese subjects with type 2 diabetes. Various risk factors for SCI were examined using multiple logistic analyses. RESULTS The SCI was fo...

  16. Cerebral Palsy Litigation

    OpenAIRE

    Sartwelle, Thomas P.; Johnston, James C.

    2015-01-01

    The cardinal driver of cerebral palsy litigation is electronic fetal monitoring, which has continued unabated for 40 years. Electronic fetal monitoring, however, is based on 19th-century childbirth myths, a virtually nonexistent scientific foundation, and has a false positive rate exceeding 99%. It has not affected the incidence of cerebral palsy. Electronic fetal monitoring has, however, increased the cesarian section rate, with the expected increase in mortality and morbidity risks to mothe...

  17. Fetal MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ultrasonography is the method of choice for prenatal malformation screening, but it does not always provide sufficient information for correct diagnosis or adequate abnormality evaluation. Fetal MRI is increasingly being used to complete sonographic findings. It was initially used for evaluation of cerebral abnormalities but is increasingly being applied to other fetal areas. In vivo investigation of fetal brain maturation has been enhanced by MRI. An adequate analysis of fetal chest and abdomen can be achieved with fast T2-, T1-weighted and diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI). The advantages include the great field of view and the excellent soft tissue contrast. This allows correct diagnosis of congenital diaphragmatic hernia and evaluation of the consequences on pulmonary growth. Other pulmonary malformations, such as cystic adenomatoid malformation, sequestration and brochogenic cysts, can also be easily identified. Renal position can be quickly determined using DWI sequences and renal agenesia can be easily diagnosed with only one sequence. Prenatal MRI is virtually as effective as postnatal examination, dispenses with transport of a potentially very ill newborn, and provides logistic advantages. Therefore, prenatal MRI is useful for adequate postnatal treatment of newborns with malformations. (orig.)

  18. Fetal outcome in relation with Colour Doppler study of middle cerebral artery AND umblical artery in intrauterine growth restriction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yellapragada Lakshmi Nalini

    2015-07-01

    Conclusion: With the Colour Doppler, the study of middle cerebral artery flow along with umbilical artery flows was useful in identifying IUGR and managing them in an appropriate way. [Int J Res Med Sci 2015; 3(7.000: 1721-1725

  19. Efeitos da estimulação vibro-acústica na velocidade do sangue da artéria cerebral média e na freqüência cardíaca fetal: 1. entre a 35ª e 41ª semanas de gestação The effect of vibratory acoustic stimulation on fetal middle cerebral artery impedance and instantaneous fetal heart rate: 1. a transversal study on fetuses with 35 to 41 weeks of gestational age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivo Behle

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available RESUMO Objetivos: estudar, em fetos hígidos, quais são as respostas da freqüência cardíaca fetal basal e da resistência na artéria cerebral média à estimulação vibro-acústica padronizada. Métodos: em estado comportamental de hipo ou de inatividade fetal (apnéia e ausência de movimentos corpóreos, mediu-se o índice de pulsatilidade (IP da artéria cerebral média (ACM, bem como calculou-se a freqüência cardíaca fetal basal (FCFB pela análise da onda espectral, antes e após a aplicação de estímulo vibro-acústico (EVA por 3 segundos. Foram empregados ecógrafos de alta resolução, com Doppler pulsado e mapeamento a cores. A fonte sonora emitia som com 400 a 40.000 Hz, sob forma de varredura, com pressão sonora de 65 a 110 dB. Resultados: a média da FCFB pré-estímulo foi 139 bpm, com desvio padrão de 3,14 bpm. A média da FCFB pós-estímulo foi 153 bpm, com desvio padrão de 7,23 bpm (pSUMMARY Purpose: to examine the response of the fetal heart rate (FHR and middle cerebral artery resistance (MCA PI to vibratory stimulation (VAS in normal human fetuses. Methods: when the fetuses were without activity (in apnea and without corporal movements, we obtained baseline measurements of MCA PI and FHR before and after the application of a 3-sec vibratory acoustic stimulus. Real time ultrasonography with pulsed wave and color Doppler imaging was used for the execution of the study. The VAS was performed using a bicycle horn with 400 to 4000 Hz and sound pressure was 65 to 110 dB. Results: the FHR before VAS was 139 ± 3.14 bpm and after VAS was 153 ± 7.23 bpm (p<0.0001. The MCA PI rate before VAS was 1.84 ± 0.07 and after VAS was 1.56 ± 0.04 (p<0.001. In all cases we observed a fetal response with vigorous corporal movements, FHR rise and MCA PI reduction after VAS. Conclusions: we conclude that VAS, in human fetuses near term, for 3 sec as described in this study, determines some response, with increase in FHR and corporal

  20. Fetal heart rate patterns in neonatal hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy: relationship with early cerebral activity and neurodevelopmental outcome.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Murray, Deirdre M

    2012-01-31

    Despite widespread use of fetal heart rate monitoring, the timing of injury in hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE) remains unclear. Our aim was to examine fetal heart rate patterns during labor in infants with clinical and electroencephalographic (EEG) evidence of HIE and to relate these findings to neurodevelopmental outcome. Timing of onset of pathological cardiotocographs (CTGs) was determined in each case by two blinded reviewers and related to EEG grade at birth and neurological outcome at 24 months. CTGs were available in 35 infants with HIE (17 mild, 12 moderate, 6 severe on EEG). Admission CTGs were normal in 24\\/35 (69%), suspicious in 8\\/35 (23%), and pathological in 3\\/35 (8%). All CTGs developed nonreassuring features prior to delivery. Three patterns of fetal heart rate abnormalities were seen: group 1, abnormal CTGs on admission in 11\\/35 (31%); group 2, normal CTGs on admission with gradual deterioration to pathological in 20\\/35 cases (57%); and group 3, normal CTGs on admission with acute sentinel events in 4\\/35 (11.5%). The median (interquartile range) duration between the development of pathological CTGs and delivery was 145 (81, 221) minutes in group 2 and 22 (12, 28) minutes in group 3. There was no correlation between duration of pathological CTG trace and grade of encephalopathy (R = 0.09, P = 0.63) or neurological outcome (P = 0.75). However, the grade of encephalopathy was significantly worse in group 3 (P = 0.001), with a trend to worse outcomes. The majority of infants with HIE have normal CTG traces on admission but develop pathological CTG patterns within hours of delivery. More severe encephalopathy was associated with normal admission CTG and acute sentinel events shortly before delivery.

  1. Fetal heart rate patterns in neonatal hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy: relationship with early cerebral activity and neurodevelopmental outcome.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Murray, Deirdre M

    2009-09-01

    Despite widespread use of fetal heart rate monitoring, the timing of injury in hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE) remains unclear. Our aim was to examine fetal heart rate patterns during labor in infants with clinical and electroencephalographic (EEG) evidence of HIE and to relate these findings to neurodevelopmental outcome. Timing of onset of pathological cardiotocographs (CTGs) was determined in each case by two blinded reviewers and related to EEG grade at birth and neurological outcome at 24 months. CTGs were available in 35 infants with HIE (17 mild, 12 moderate, 6 severe on EEG). Admission CTGs were normal in 24\\/35 (69%), suspicious in 8\\/35 (23%), and pathological in 3\\/35 (8%). All CTGs developed nonreassuring features prior to delivery. Three patterns of fetal heart rate abnormalities were seen: group 1, abnormal CTGs on admission in 11\\/35 (31%); group 2, normal CTGs on admission with gradual deterioration to pathological in 20\\/35 cases (57%); and group 3, normal CTGs on admission with acute sentinel events in 4\\/35 (11.5%). The median (interquartile range) duration between the development of pathological CTGs and delivery was 145 (81, 221) minutes in group 2 and 22 (12, 28) minutes in group 3. There was no correlation between duration of pathological CTG trace and grade of encephalopathy (R = 0.09, P = 0.63) or neurological outcome (P = 0.75). However, the grade of encephalopathy was significantly worse in group 3 (P = 0.001), with a trend to worse outcomes. The majority of infants with HIE have normal CTG traces on admission but develop pathological CTG patterns within hours of delivery. More severe encephalopathy was associated with normal admission CTG and acute sentinel events shortly before delivery.

  2. Using Doppler measurement of fetal middle cerebral artery peak systolic velocity on prediction of fetal anemia%彩超大脑中动脉血流峰值速度检测胎儿宫内贫血的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    凌奕; 金松; 张越青; 南瑞霞; 华少萍; 莫秀兰; 胡春霞; 黄元华

    2011-01-01

    目的:通过对胎儿大脑中动脉血流峰值速度(middle cerebral artery peak systolic velocity MCA-PSV)和胎儿血红蛋白关系的研究,评估胎儿MCA-PSV在预测胎儿贫血中的临床应用价值,为l临床提供一种无创伤的检测胎儿贫血的新方法.方法:采用前瞻性对照研究,正常单胎组85例,正常双胎22例,胎儿贫血高危组50例,所有病例均查脐血血常规测血红蛋白含量.脐穿前1周内做MCA-PSV检测,分析胎儿MCA-PSV和胎儿血红蛋白的关系.评估胎儿MCA-PSV预测胎儿贫血的准确性.结果:①以相应孕周正常值的中位数的倍数MOM值为单位,胎儿MCA-PSV与Hh浓度呈负相关(P<0.001).②MCA-PSV预测轻度贫血灵敏度25%,特异度98%,预测重度贫血的敏感性及特异性均为100%.③重度贫血胎儿MCA-PSV升高早于二维超声异常表现.④正常双胎与单胎MCA-PSV与Hb浓度无显著差异.结论:胎儿大脑中动脉血流峰值速度预测胎儿贫血无创伤,发现早,准确性高,可作为临床胎儿贫血尤其是重度贫血的预测指标.%Objective: To investigate the relationship between fetal haemoglobin (Hb) concentration and fetal middle cerebral artery peak systolic velocity ( MCA - PSV) in fetuses at high risk for anemia, and to establish a noninvasive method to predict fetal anemia. Methods: 85 normal fetuses in control group , 22 twin fetus and 50 high risk fetus in research group were analyzed. Fetal middle cerebral artery peak systolic velocity ( MCA - PSV) were measured within 1 week of blood sampling. Fetal Hb values were obtained by cordocentesis during prenatal diagnosis, before termination of pregnancy or after delivery. For the high risk group monthly Doppler ultrasound commenced at 16 weeks, and continued until blood sampling. Marl - G's data was used as the normal value of Hb and MCA - PSV at each gestafional age. Both MCA- PSV and Hemoglobin concentration were expressed as multiples of the median (MOM) . Results: ① There

  3. In the Know and in the News: How Science and the Media Communicate About Stem Cells, Autism and Cerebral Palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharpe, Kimberly; Di Pietro, Nina; Illes, Judy

    2016-02-01

    Stem cell research has generated considerable attention for its potential to remediate many disorders of the central nervous system including neurodevelopmental disorders such as autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and cerebral palsy (CP) that place a high burden on individual children, families and society. Here we characterized messaging about the use of stem cells for ASD and CP in news media articles and concurrent dissemination of discoveries through conventional science discourse. We searched LexisNexis and Canadian Newsstand for news articles from the US, UK, Canada and Australia in the period between 2000 and 2014, and PubMed for peer reviewed articles for the same 10 years. Using in-depth content analysis methods, we found less cautionary messaging about stem cells for ASD and CP in the resulting sample of 73 media articles than in the sample of 87 science papers, and a privileging of benefits over risk. News media also present stem cells as ready for clinical application to treat these neurodevelopmental disorders, even while the science literature calls for further research. Investigative news reports that explicitly quote researchers, however, provide the most accurate information to actual science news. The hope, hype, and promise of stem cell interventions for neurodevelopmental disorders, combined with the extreme vulnerability of these children and their families, creates a perfect storm in which journalists and stem cell scientists must commit to a continued, if not even more robust, partnership to promote balanced and accurate messaging. PMID:26454430

  4. Fetal Circulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Pressure High Blood Pressure Tools & Resources Stroke More Fetal Circulation Updated:Jul 8,2016 click to enlarge The ... fetal heart. These two bypass pathways in the fetal circulation make it possible for most fetuses to survive ...

  5. Observation on the development of fetal cerebral sulci by prenatal ultrasound%超声观察胎儿大脑沟回发育及其临床意义

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈晓康; 林惠通; 吕国荣

    2009-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the pattern of development of fetal cerebral sulei by prenatal ultrasound and its clinical significance. Methods Sixty hundred and ninety-two fetuses at age from 17 to 40 weeks were observed for the development and depth of cerebral sulci (parietal-occipital sulcus, calcarine suleus, central sulcus, eingulate sulcus, cingulate gyrus, and sylvian fissure) by transabdominal ultrasonography. Results Parietal-occipital sulcus,calcarine sulcus,and sylvian fissure were visible at about 19 weeks of gestation, central sulcus was at about 25 weeks, cingulate sulcus and cingulate gyrus were at about 26 weeks. One case of them was considered as cerebral sulei growth retardation due to the signs of invisible parietal-occipital sulcus and sylvian fissure at 24 weeks of gestation. Two cases were considered as cerebral sulci growth retardation due to the signs of invisible parietal occipital sulcus and central sulcus and the shallow blunt shape of sylvian fissure at 29 weeks of gestation. There were positive correlations between the depths of fetal cerebral sulci and gestational weeks, and negative correlations between their relative depths and gestational weeks(all P <0.05), Conclusions Transabdominal ultrasonography can be use to observe the development of fetal cerebral sulci (parietal-occipital sulcus, calcarine sulcus, central sulcus, eingulate sulcus,cingulate gyrus,and sylvian fissure). The depth of cerebral sulci is relative to gestational weeks,and would be considered for prenatal assessment of cerebral sulci maldevelopment, such as cerebral sulci growth retardation and lissencephalia.%目的 探讨产前超声检测胎儿大脑沟回的发育过程及其临床意义.方法 经腹部超声观测692例孕19~39周胎儿大脑沟回(顶枕沟、距状沟、中央沟、扣带沟、扣带回、大脑外侧裂)发生、发展并测量其深度.结果 顶枕沟、距状沟、大脑外侧裂在19周左右可显示.中央沟在25周左右可显

  6. Optimization of chemically defined cell culture media--replacing fetal bovine serum in mammalian in vitro methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van der Valk, J; Brunner, D; De Smet, K;

    2010-01-01

    , reproducible and reduce the use of experimental animals. Good cell culture practice (GCCP) is an attempt to develop a common standard for in vitro methods. The implementation of the use of chemically defined media is part of the GCCP. This will decrease the dependence on animal serum, a supplement...... with an undefined and variable composition. Defined media supplements are commercially available for some cell types. However, information on the formulation by the companies is often limited and such supplements can therefore not be regarded as completely defined. The development of defined media is difficult...

  7. Alterações ultra-sonográficas na gravidez Rh negativo sensibilizada avaliada pela espectrofotometria do líquido amniótico e pela dopplervelocimetria da artéria cerebral média Ultrasound findings in Rh-alloimmunized pregnancies assessed by spectrophotometric analysis of amniotic fluid and Doppler velocimetry of fetal middle cerebral artery

    OpenAIRE

    Luciano Marcondes Machado Nardozza; Luiz Camano; Antonio Fernandes Moron; David Baptista da Silva Pares; Paulo Alexandre Chinen; Guilherme Antonio Rago Lobo

    2006-01-01

    OBJETIVO: Avaliar e confrontar a presença de alterações ultra-sonográficas nas gestações Rh negativo sensibilizadas, quando a anemia fetal foi determinada ou pela espectrofotometria do líquido amniótico, ou pela dopplervelocimetria da artéria cerebral média. MATERIAIS E MÉTODOS: Observacional descritivo com grupo de comparação. Nosso grupo de estudo foi constituído por 99 pacientes, avaliadas no período de janeiro de 1995 a janeiro de 2004. Foram analisados e comparados dois grupos: 74 gestan...

  8. Fetal echocardiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    USG performed with a high-end machine, using a good cine-loop facility is extremely helpful in the diagnosis of fetal cardiac anomalies. In fetal echocardiography, the four-chamber view and the outflow-tract view are used to diagnose cardiac anomalies. The most important objective during a targeted anomaly scan is to identify those cases that need a dedicated fetal echocardiogram. Associated truncal and chromosomal anomalies need to be identified. This review shows how fetal echocardiography, apart from identifying structural defects in the fetal heart, can be used to look at rhythm abnormalities and other functional aspects of the fetal heart

  9. Fetal Heart

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the right atrium to the left atrium during fetal development, but closes after birth. So the ductus arteriosus and the foramen ovale are part of the fetal circulatory system before birth but disappear soon after ...

  10. Fetal development

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002398.htm Fetal development To use the sharing features on this page, ... Cunningham FG, Leveno KJ, Bloom SL, et al. Fetal growth and development. In: Cunningham FG, Leveno KL, Bloom SL, et ...

  11. 先天性HCMV感染胎鼠大脑皮层ET-1 mRNA的研究%Study on endothelin-1 mRNA of cerebral cortex of fetal mouse following congenital human cytomegalovirus infection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁中玉; 王明丽; 陈贵海; 李京培

    2001-01-01

    目的 对先天性人巨细胞病毒(HCMV)感染的胎鼠大脑皮层内皮素-1(ET-1)mRNA进行测定,以探讨先天性HCMV感染致脑损害的机制。方法 在建立先天性HCMV中枢神经系统(CNS)感染胎鼠模型的基础上,用逆转录-聚合酶链式反应(RT-PCR)测定受不同病毒剂量感染的胎鼠大脑皮层ET-1mRNA,并用地高辛标记的ET-1寡核苷酸探针对大脑皮层细胞印片进行原位杂交以检测相应mRNA转录量及胞内定位。结果 在大脑皮层组织的上清液中HCMV分离阳性;病理学研究证实受染胎鼠大脑皮层表现为侵袭性脑膜脑炎性改变,并在神经细胞内发现特异性核内嗜碱性包涵体。RT-PCR和原位杂交研究发现,受染胎鼠大脑皮层内ET-1mRNA转录量增加,以1.0ml和0.5ml组为显著,而0.25ml组与正常对照组比较无明显差别。结论 HCMV可经胎盘垂直传播至胎鼠脑组织。先天性HCMV感染可刺激受染胎鼠CNSET-1mRNA的转录,且与母鼠所接种的病毒量存在一定的量效关系。这些结果提示,ET-1在先天性HCMV感染脑损害过程中,早期可导致组织缺血性改变,而晚期则与受损大脑皮层的功能恢复有关。这对了解先天性HCMV感染致CNS损伤的机理将提供有价值的参考依据,同时也为临床防治和优生优育提供一种有价值的手段。%Objective To explore mechanisms of brain damage followingcongenitally infected human cytomegalovirus, the transcription of endothelin-1 (ET-1) mRNA of fetal mouse cerebral cortex (HCMV) were analyzed. Methods On the basis of developing congenital HCMV infective fetal model, reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) was used to determine ET-1 mRNA of fetal mouse cerebral cortex infected by different inoculum size meanwhile the intracellular location of mRNA's was conducted with in situ hybridization by digoxigenin labelled ET-1 mRNA oligonucleotide probe. Virus isolation and sections coated

  12. Fetal magnetic resonance imaging of the central nervous system: a pictorial essay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huisman, Thierry A.G.M.; Kubik-Huch, Rahel; Marincek, Borut [Institute of Diagnostic Radiology, University Hospital, Zurich (Switzerland); Wisser, Josef [Clinic for Obstetrics, University Hospital, Zurich (Switzerland); Martin, Ernst [Department of Neuroradiology and Magnetic Resonance, University Children' s Hospital, Zurich (Switzerland)

    2002-08-01

    Prenatal ultrasonography is the primary screening modality for the evaluation of fetal pathology. Ultrafast fetal MRI is a recent development that examines the fetus in utero. The short acquisition times (as short as 400 ms/slice) allow to picture freeze the fetus without the need for fetal sedation. The high spatial resolution, good contrast-to-noise ratio, and the multiplanar capabilities are especially advantageous in pathologies of the fetal central nervous system (CNS). Fetal MRI currently serves as a second-line imaging tool for complex fetal cerebral malformations and pathologies. Fetal ventriculomegaly, lesions within the posterior fossa, and abnormalities in cerebral myelination, migration, and sulcation are particularly well identified. (orig.)

  13. Fetal magnetic resonance imaging of the central nervous system: a pictorial essay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prenatal ultrasonography is the primary screening modality for the evaluation of fetal pathology. Ultrafast fetal MRI is a recent development that examines the fetus in utero. The short acquisition times (as short as 400 ms/slice) allow to picture freeze the fetus without the need for fetal sedation. The high spatial resolution, good contrast-to-noise ratio, and the multiplanar capabilities are especially advantageous in pathologies of the fetal central nervous system (CNS). Fetal MRI currently serves as a second-line imaging tool for complex fetal cerebral malformations and pathologies. Fetal ventriculomegaly, lesions within the posterior fossa, and abnormalities in cerebral myelination, migration, and sulcation are particularly well identified. (orig.)

  14. Removal of transmissible spongiform encephalopathy prion from large volumes of cell culture media supplemented with fetal bovine serum by using hollow fiber anion-exchange membrane chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, Ming Li; Bailey, Andy; Avory, Tiffany; Tanimoto, Junji; Burnouf, Thierry

    2015-01-01

    Cases of variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease in people who had consumed contaminated meat products from cattle with bovine spongiform encephalopathy emphasize the need for measures aimed at preventing the transmission of the pathogenic prion protein (PrPSc) from materials derived from cattle. Highly stringent scrutiny is required for fetal bovine serum (FBS), a growth-medium supplement used in the production of parenteral vaccines and therapeutic recombinant proteins and in the ex vivo expansion of stem cells for transplantation. One such approach is the implementation of manufacturing steps dedicated to removing PrPSc from materials containing FBS. We evaluated the use of the QyuSpeed D (QSD) adsorbent hollow-fiber anion-exchange chromatographic column (Asahi Kasei Medical, Tokyo, Japan) for the removal of PrPSc from cell culture media supplemented with FBS. We first established that QSD filtration had no adverse effect on the chemical composition of various types of culture media supplemented with 10% FBS or the growth and viability characteristics of human embryonic kidney (HEK293) cells, baby hamster kidney (BHK-21) cells, African green monkey kidney (Vero) cells, and Chinese hamster ovary (CHO-k1) cells propagated in the various culture-medium filtrates. We used a 0.6-mL QSD column for removing PrPSc from up to 1000 mL of Dulbecco's modified Eagle's medium containing 10% FBS previously spiked with the 263K strain of hamster-adapted scrapie. The Western blot analysis, validated alongside an infectivity assay, revealed that the level of PrPSc in the initial 200mL flow-through was reduced by 2.5 to > 3 log10, compared with that of the starting material. These results indicate that QSD filtration removes PrPSc from cell culture media containing 10% FBS, and demonstrate the ease with which QSD filtration can be implemented in at industrial-scale to improve the safety of vaccines, therapeutic recombinant proteins, and ex vivo expanded stem cells produced using growth

  15. Antenatal taurine supplementation reduces cerebral cell apoptosis in fetal rats with growth restriction%孕鼠补充牛磺酸减少胎儿生长受限胎鼠脑细胞凋亡

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王晓凤; 滕慧云; 刘敬; 杨娜; 任晓暾

    2013-01-01

    论 FGR胎鼠脑细胞凋亡显著增多.孕鼠补充牛磺酸可以显著减少FGR胎鼠脑细胞凋亡,其机制可能与牛磺酸能够促进GDNF表达和减少caspase-3表达有关.%Objective To explore the effect of antenatal taurine supplementation on cerebral apoptosis and the expression of glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) and caspase-3 in fetal rats with fetal growth restriction (FGR).Methods Fifteen pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into three groups:control group,FGR model group (model group) and FGR with antenatal taurine supplementation group (taurine group).Taurine was added into the diet of taurine group at a dose of 300 mg/(kg · d) from the 12th day of gestation until natural delivery.Two appropriate for gestational age (AGA) newborn rats were randomly selected from each mother in control group and two FGR fetal rats were randomly selected from each mother both in model and taurine groups.Apoptosis of neural cells in the brain was detected by terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase mediated nick end labeling (TUNEL).Changes in protein expression of GDNF and caspase-3 were detected by immunohistochemistry.Levene method,one-way ANOVA and SNK-test,or Kruskal Wallis rank sum test and Tamhane’ s test were applied for statistical analysis.Results (1)The total amounts of fetal rats in control group,model group and taurine group were 65,60 and 59.The mean body weight of fetal rats were (6.36±0.44) g,(4.55 ± 0.45) g and (5.11±0.67) g,respectively.All fetal rats developed FGR in model group,while 76.3%(45/59) of fetal rats were FGR in taurine group.Therefore,FGR model was successfully established.(2) In control group,there were few expression of TUNEL positive cells in cerebral cortex.A large amount of TUNEL positive cells were found in the cortex,hippocampal and white matter area in model group,but less positive cells were identified in taurine group than in model group.The amount of apoptotic brain cells in the three groups

  16. Fetal MRI: techniques and protocols

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prayer, Daniela [Department of Neuroradiology, University Clinics of Radiodiagnostics, Medical University Vienna, Waehringerguertel 18-10, 1090, Vienna (Austria); Brugger, Peter Christian [Department of Anatomy, Integrative Morphology Group, Medical University Vienna (Austria); Prayer, Lucas [Diagnosezentrum Urania, Vienna (Austria)

    2004-09-01

    The development of ultrafast sequences has led to a significant improvement in fetal MRI. Imaging protocols have to be adjusted to the rapidly developing fetal central nervous system (CNS) and to the clinical question. Sequence parameters must be changed to cope with the respective developmental stage, to produce images free from motion artefacts and to provide optimum visualization of the region and focus of interest. In contrast to postnatal studies, every suspect fetal CNS abnormality requires examination of the whole fetus and the extrafetal intrauterine structures including the uterus. This approach covers both aspects of fetal CNS disorders: isolated and complex malformations and cerebral lesions arising from the impaired integrity of the feto-placental unit. (orig.)

  17. Bidirectional encroachment of collagen into the tunica media in cerebral autosomal dominant arteriopathy with subcortical infarcts and leukoencephalopathy

    OpenAIRE

    Dong, Hairong; BLAIVAS, MILA; Michael M Wang

    2012-01-01

    Arteries in cerebral autosomal dominant arteriopathy with subcortical infarcts and leukoencephalopathy (CADASIL) are susceptible to smooth muscle loss and fibrosis, but the molecular components underlying these dramatic vascular changes are not well characterized. The purpose of this study was to investigate the distribution of collagen isoforms in the cerebral vessels of North American CADASIL patients with classical NOTCH3 mutations. Expression of type I-VI collagen in brains obtained at au...

  18. Doppler obstétrico posterior al uso de Betametasona para la maduración pulmonar fetal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keibis Jiménez Castillejo

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de la investigación fue determinar las modificaciones del Doppler obstétrico posterior al uso de betametasona para la maduración pulmonar fetal. Se realizó una investigación de tipo explicativa, prospectiva y longitudinal con un diseño cuasi-experimental y una muestra no probabilística intencional de 106 pacientes que acudieron a la consulta Pre-natal de Alto Riesgo del Hospital Central “Dr. Urquinaona". Una vez seleccionadas las pacientes se les administró inyecciones intramusculares de betametasona (12 mg/día por dos días consecutivos. Se realizaron las mediciones de índice de pulsatilidad e índice de resistencia en las arterias uterinas, umbilical y cerebral media fetal. No se encontraron diferencias estadísticamente significativas entre las determinaciones del índice de pulsatilidad y de resistencia de las arterias uterinas (p = ns. Se observaron disminuciones significativas en el índice de pulsatilidad y de resistencia de la arteria umbilical en la segunda y tercera medición al compararla con la medición inicial (p < 0,05. Se encontraron disminuciones en el índice de pulsatilidad de la arteria cerebral media fetal en ambos periodos de estudio comparado con los valores iniciales y solo se observó una disminución significativa del índice de resistencia en la segunda medición (p < 0,05. Se concluye que el uso de betametasona para la maduración pulmonar fetal produce modificaciones en la evaluación Doppler de las arterias umbilical y cerebral media fetal. Obstetric doppler after use of Betamethasone for fetal lung maturation Abstract The objective of research was to determine modifications of obstetric Doppler after to fetal lung maturation. An explicative, prospective and longitudinal research was done with a quasi-experimental design and an intentional non probabilistic sample of 106 patients who assisted to High Risk Antenatal Consult at Hospital Central “Dr. Urquinaona". Once patients were selected

  19. Cerebral Palsy. Fact Sheet = La Paralisis Cerebral. Hojas Informativas Sobre Discapacidades.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Information Center for Children and Youth with Disabilities, Washington, DC.

    This fact sheet on cerebral palsy is written in both English and Spanish. First, it provides a definition of cerebral palsy and considers various causes (e.g., an insufficient amount of oxygen reaching the fetal or newborn brain). The fact sheet then offers incidence figures and explains characteristics of the three main types of cerebral palsy:…

  20. Relationship between Mild Fetal Lateral Cerebral Ventriculomegaly and Clinical Prognosis%胎儿侧脑室轻度增宽的超声测量结果与临床预后的关系研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    傅文英; 孙耕妹; 赵佩英

    2011-01-01

    目的 探讨胎儿轻度侧脑室增宽与临床预后的关系.方法 选择产前检查发现侧脑室后角轻度增宽的胎儿34例为观察组,侧脑室正常的胎儿30例为对照组,进行新生儿神经行为(NBNA)评分,比较两组有无差异.结果 34例胎儿侧脑室轻度增宽中仅1例染色体为21-三体,1例未查染色体;有3例在妊娠中期首次发现侧脑室轻度增宽后因加重而引产.两组胎儿性别构成比比较,差异无统计学意义(P>0.05);观察组胎儿出生后NBNA评分较对照组高,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05).结论 侧脑室轻度增宽的胎儿,尤其是>12 mm的胎儿,出生后发生神经系统发育不良的风险较侧脑室正常胎儿增加;侧脑室轻度增宽与胎儿性别无关;因胎儿脑室扩张是一动态的过程,如不合并染色体和其他的结构异常,大部分预后良好.%Objective To investigate the relationship between mild fetal lateral cerebral ventriculomegaly and the clinical prognosis. Methods Totally 34 fetuses were found to be with mild lateral cerebral ventriculomegaly ( MLCV group ); 30 fetuses with normal lateral cerebral ventricles were enrolled as control group. Neonatal behavioral neurological assessment ( NBNA ) was performed. Results In the MLCV group, one case was with trisomy 21, one did not undergo chromosome screening, and three were aborted due to exaggerated MLCV in the 2nd trimester. The proportions of sex showed no significant difference between these two groups ( P > 0. 05 ). The NBNA grade was significantly higher in MLCV group than in control group ( P <0. 05 ). Conclusion Fetuses with MLCV ( especially when > 12 mm ) have increased risks of nervous system ahnormalities. However, since FLCV is a dynamic process , and the prognosis can be good if no unusual chromosome and other abnormal structure exist.

  1. Fetal and maternal manifestations of tuberous sclerosis complex: Value of fetal MRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goel, Reema; Aggarwal, Nishant; Lemmon, Monica E; Bosemani, Thangamadhan

    2016-02-01

    Tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) is a genetic disorder characterized by benign hamartomas in various organ systems of the body. Prenatal screening of fetuses of mothers affected with TSC using ultrasonography (US) may detect cardiac lesions. Fetal US is not sensitive for evaluation of the brain. We describe brain MRI findings in a fetus with cardiac rhabdomyomas identified on prenatal screening US. Postnatal brain MRI at 5 days of age demonstrated fetal MRI findings without significant added information. Fetal MRI is the imaging modality of choice for evaluation of cerebral manifestations of TSC. Maternal manifestations of TSC in the abdomen or pelvis may also be demonstrated on fetal MRI. PMID:26838171

  2. Fetal echocardiography

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Hori D. Fetal arrhythmia: prenatal diagnosis and perinatal management. J Obstet Gynaecol Res . 2009 ... G Lee, MD, MSc, IBCLC, Associate Professor of Pediatrics, Division of Neonatology, Medical University of ...

  3. Fetal Biophysical Profile Scoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.R. HaghighatKhah

    2009-01-01

    significance. Fetal breathing movements, amniotic fluid volume, and the non-stress test are the most powerful variables. For example, when the biophysical profile score is 2, the perinatal mortality varies between 428/1000 with only fetal movement present to 66/1000 if the non-stress test is reactive and all of the ultrasound parameters are absent (Manning 1990b. Some authors have, therefore, proposed utilization of a modified biophysical profile that incorporates only the non-stress test and amniotic fluid volume (Miller 1996. Although the positive predictive value of these 2 tests is equivalent to a biophysical profile score of 6, the perinatal mortality is still increased over a normal test score of 8 or 10 (Manning 1990b. The false positive rate with the modified biophysical profile score is also substantially higher. "nConclusions: The fetus expresses its well being or compromised status through a number of different biophysical activities that are controlled by different central nervous system centers. The utilization of the biophysical score for antepartum surveillance in high-risk patients has resulted in a reduction in perinatal mortality when compared to historical controls. The appropriate management of the viable fetus with an abnormal biophysical profile score may also decrease long-term neurological morbidity (Manning 1998. "nIt is unlikely that in the future additional variables will be added to the biophysical profile score. However, perhaps the incorporation of the fetal state (i.e., eye movements and Doppler flow studies of specific fetal vessels (umbilical artery, middle cerebral artery, ductus venosus will be incorporated into a complete assessment of the fetal condition "n "nTable 1. Components of the 30 Minute Biophysical Profile Score "nComponent "nDefinition "nFetal movements "n> 3 body or limb movements "nFetal tone "nOne episode of active extension and flexion of the limbs; opening and closing of hand "nFetal breathing movements "n>1 episode of >30

  4. Roles of taurine-mediated tonic GABAA receptor activation in the radial migration of neurons in the fetal mouse cerebral cortex

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    Tomonori eFurukawa

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available γ-Aminobutyric acid (GABA depolarizes embryonic cerebrocortical neurons and continuous activation of the GABAA receptor (GABAAR contributes to their tonic depolarization. Although multiple reports have demonstrated a role of GABAAR activation in neocortical development, including in migration, most of these studies have used pharmacological blockers. Herein, we performed in utero electroporation in GABA synthesis-lacking homozygous GAD67-GFP knock-in mice (GAD67GFP/GFP to label neurons born in the ventricular zone. Three days after electroporation, there were no differences in the distribution of labeled cells between the genotypes. The dose-response properties of cells labeled to detect GABA were equivalent among genotypes. However, continuous blockade of GABAAR with the GABAAR antagonist SR95531 accelerated radial migration. This effect of GABAAR blockade in GAD67GFP/GFP mice suggested a role for alternative endogenous GABAAR agonists. Thus, we tested the role of taurine, which is derived from maternal blood but is abundant in the fetal brain. The taurine-evoked currents in labeled cells were mediated by GABAAR. Taurine uptake was blocked by a taurine transporter inhibitor, 2-(guanidinoethanesulfonic acid (GES, and taurine release was blocked by a volume-sensitive anion channel blocker, 4-(2-butyl-6,7-dichlor-2-cyclopentylindan-1-on-5-yl oxobutyric acid (DCPIB, as examined through high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC. GES increased the extracellular taurine concentration and induced an inward shift of the holding current, which was reversed by SR95531. In a taurine-deficient mouse model, the GABAAR-mediated tonic currents were greatly reduced, and radial migration was accelerated. As the tonic currents were equivalent among the genotypes of GAD67-GFP knock-in mice, taurine, rather than GABA, might play a major role as an endogenous agonist of embryonic tonic GABAAR conductance, regulating the radial migration of neurons in the

  5. Fetal Brain MRI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Tahmasebpour

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available MRI is a useful supplement to ultrasonography for the assessment of fetal brain malformations. Superior soft tissue contrast and the ability to depict sulcation and myelination are the strengths of MRI. Subtle or inconclusive ultrasonography abnormalities can be confirmed or ruled out by MRI. In some cases, additional findings detected with MRI often help in arriving at a definitive diagnosis, which is necessary for parental counseling and for guiding management. Fast T2W sequences form the basis of fetal MRI. There have been no reports of deleterious effects of MRI on the fetus. A few case examples are presented to illustrate the advantages of MRI. "nThe database comprises MR images of a total of 26 fetuses (gestational age 22-23 weeks reformed be-cause of suspected abnormalities due to ultrasonic findings, family history or maternal illness and scanned on a 1.5T MR system using single-shot fast spin echo "SSFSE, HASTE" T2 sequence, slice thick-ness 3mm, no gap. "HASTE=fourier acquisition single shotturbospinecho". In the normal fetus the ventricular size or volume did not vary with the gestational age but cerebral and cerebellar volumes increase during the same period "Grossman et al." Diagnostic accuracy is about 48%. "OB/GYN news, Chicago". Today it is not necessary to use sedatives or muscle relaxants to control fetal movement "ultra-fast MRI techniques". Modified technique for 50% reduction in the time necessary to take MRI images of the fetal brain is dedicated by Kianosh Hosseinzadeh, by using a line of reference through the eyes "AJR 2005"."nOur fetuses are 22-23 weeks in gestational age, 26 in number and we found agenesis of corpus callosum, hydrocephaly, holoprosencephaly, mega-cisterna magna, occipital meningocele, Arnold Chiari malformation type 1, Dandy Walker syndrome and lissencephaly

  6. Fetal cardiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doppler echocardiography makes it possible to diagnose congenital heart disease in early pregnancy. It allows us to study the anatomical configuration of the fetal heart, and additionally, to evaluate the physiological conditions of the fetus. Evaluation of the direction, velocity, wave form pattern, and quantification of blood flow at the various sites in the fetal heart helps us to assess the characteristics of the fetal circulation and condition of the fetal heart. In order to use this technique in pathological situations, an initial study of the developing normal human fetal circulation was necessary. The authors studied 34 uncomplicated pregnancies by serial Doppler echocardiography. The studies were performed every 4 weeks from 16-weeks gestation to term. The pulsed Doppler sector scanner provided cardiac cross-sectional images, mitral and tricuspid blood velocities were obtained from apical four-chamber views. Angle corrected maximal and mean temporal velocities were calculated by digitizing the Doppler frequency shift recording on a graphic tablet computed with a minicomputer. The angle between the Doppler interrogation beam and the direction of blood flow was kept as small as possible in order to minimize the error

  7. Fetal MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prayer, D.; Brugger, P.C. [University Hospital of Vienna (Austria). Division of Neuroradiology

    2004-07-01

    New, ultrafast sequences have made it possible to obtain MR images of the fetus without maternal sedation or immobilization of the fetus itself. While fetal MRI began as an adjunct to ultrasound, it has now been shown that MRI can provide additional information that may change prognosis, the management of pregnancy, or the treatment of the newborn child. It is of particular value in the assessment of malformations of the central nervous system. The steady development and adaptation of MR-sequences to the needs of fetal imaging has led to new indications that can support prognostic and therapeutic decisions. (orig.)

  8. Ultrasound of the Fetal Veins Part 3: The Fetal Intracerebral Venous System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karl, K; Heling, K S; Chaoui, R

    2016-02-01

    The study of the intracerebral venous system in the fetus can only be achieved by means of high-resolution ultrasound equipment with sensitive color Doppler. In the past two decades, there has been a growing interest in the ultrasound examination of the fetal brain with few studies reporting on the brain vasculature during various stages of gestation. In comparison to other fetal venous systems, reports on the assessment of the fetal cerebral venous system are still scarce. This article presents a review on the fetal intracranial venous system with detailed discussions on the anatomy of the superficial and deep cerebral veins. Color Doppler of the main fetal cerebral veins to include the superior sagittal sinus, the straight sinus, the vein of Galen, the internal cerebral veins, the transverse sinuses and others is also discussed. Furthermore, this article highlights abnormal clinical conditions such as aneurysm of the vein of Galen, thrombosis of the dural sinus and variation in the course of some veins such as the straight sinus and falcine sinus. The role of pulsed Doppler examination in normal and growth-restricted fetuses is also discussed. PMID:26114342

  9. Efeito do sulfato de magnésio sobre o índice de pulsatilidade das artérias uterinas, umbilical e cerebral média fetal de acordo com a persistência da incisura protodiastólica da artéria uterina na pré-eclâmpsia grave Effect of magnesium sulfate on pulsatility index of uterine, umbilical and fetal middle cerebral arteries according to the persistence of bilateral diastolic notch of uterine arteries in patients with severe preeclampsia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex Sandro Rolland Souza

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: avaliar o efeito do sulfato de magnésio sobre o índice de pulsatilidade (IP das artérias uterinas, umbilicais e cerebral média fetal, de acordo com a persistência ou não da incisura protodiastólica bilateral das artérias uterinas na pré-eclâmpsia grave. MÉTODOS: foi desenvolvido um estudo do tipo coorte, incluindo 40 gestantes com pré-eclâmpsia grave, das quais 23 apresentavam incisura protodiastólica bilateral e 17, incisura ausente/unilateral. As pacientes foram submetidas a doplervelocimetria antes e depois de 20 minutos da administração intravenosa de 6 g do sulfato de magnésio. O exame foi realizado com a paciente em posição semi-Fowler, obtendo-se os sonogramas durante a inatividade fetal, em períodos de apneia e ausência de contrações uterinas. Todos os exames foram realizados por dois pesquisadores, considerando a média como resultado final. A comparação dos IP antes e depois do sulfato de magnésio em cada grupo foi realizada pelo teste de Wilcoxon. A diferença das duas medidas (antes e depois do sulfato de magnésio foi comparada entre os grupos (incisura bilateral e incisura ausente/unilateral utilizando-se o teste de Mann-Whitney. RESULTADOS: houve um aumento significativo da frequência cardíaca materna e uma diminuição da pressão arterial materna e da mediana dos IP das duas artérias uterinas e da artéria cerebral média fetal depois da utilização do sulfato de magnésio em ambos os grupos. Houve redução significativa do IP da artéria uterina esquerda e da artéria umbilical apenas no grupo com incisura protodiastólica unilateral/ausente. No entanto, não foram encontradas diferenças significativas em relação ao IP da artéria uterina direita e relação umbilical/cerebral antes e depois do sulfato de magnésio em cada grupo. Não se encontrou diferença entre os grupos, antes e depois do sulfato de magnésio, para nenhum dos desfechos estudados. CONCLUSÕES: após a administra

  10. Elevated Middle Cerebral Artery Peak Systolic Velocity in a Nonanemic Fetus with Alpha-Thalassemia Trait

    OpenAIRE

    Kent Heyborne

    2009-01-01

    Background. Elevated middle cerebral artery peak systolic velocity (MCA-PSV) has been reported in nonanemic fetuses following fetal transfusion, and has been attributed to a major population of red blood cells (RBCs) with an adult mean corpuscular volume (MCV) in the fetal circulation. Reported here is an analogous case of elevated MCA-PSV with a normal fetal hematocrit and relative fetal microcytosis due to fetal α-thalassemia trait. Case. Ultrasound findings concerning for early hydrops pro...

  11. Cerebral Hypoxia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Enhancing Diversity Find People About NINDS NINDS Cerebral Hypoxia Information Page Synonym(s): Hypoxia, Anoxia Table of Contents ( ... Trials Organizations Publicaciones en Español What is Cerebral Hypoxia? Cerebral hypoxia refers to a condition in which ...

  12. MRI of fetal acquired brain lesions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prayer, Daniela [Department of Radiodiagnostics, Medical University of Vienna (Austria)]. E-mail: daniela.prayer@meduniwien.ac.at; Brugger, Peter C. [Center of Anatomy and Cell Biology, Medical University of Vienna (Austria); Kasprian, Gregor [Department of Radiodiagnostics, Medical University of Vienna (Austria); Witzani, Linde [Department of Radiodiagnostics, Medical University of Vienna (Austria); Helmer, Hanns [Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Medical University of Vienna (Austria); Dietrich, Wolfgang [Department of Neurosurgery, Medical University of Vienna (Austria); Eppel, Wolfgang [Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Medical University of Vienna (Austria); Langer, Martin [Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Medical University of Vienna (Austria)

    2006-02-15

    Acquired fetal brain damage is suspected in cases of destruction of previously normally formed tissue, the primary cause of which is hypoxia. Fetal brain damage may occur as a consequence of acute or chronic maternal diseases, with acute diseases causing impairment of oxygen delivery to the fetal brain, and chronic diseases interfering with normal, placental development. Infections, metabolic diseases, feto-fetal transfusion syndrome, toxic agents, mechanical traumatic events, iatrogenic accidents, and space-occupying lesions may also qualify as pathologic conditions that initiate intrauterine brain damage. MR manifestations of acute fetal brain injury (such as hemorrhage or acute ischemic lesions) can easily be recognized, as they are hardly different from postnatal lesions. The availability of diffusion-weighted sequences enhances the sensitivity in recognizing acute ischemic lesions. Recent hemorrhages are usually readily depicted on T2 (*) sequences, where they display hypointense signals. Chronic fetal brain injury may be characterized by nonspecific changes that must be attributable to the presence of an acquired cerebral pathology. The workup in suspected acquired fetal brain injury also includes the assessment of extra-CNS organs that may be affected by an underlying pathology. Finally, the placenta, as the organ that mediates oxygen delivery from the maternal circulation to the fetus, must be examined on MR images.

  13. Fetal magnetic resonance imaging and ultrasound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wataganara, Tuangsit; Ebrashy, Alaa; Aliyu, Labaran Dayyabu; Moreira de Sa, Renato Augusto; Pooh, Ritsuko; Kurjak, Asim; Sen, Cihat; Adra, Abdallah; Stanojevic, Milan

    2016-07-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has been increasingly adopted in obstetrics practice in the past three decades. MRI aids prenatal ultrasound and improves diagnostic accuracy for selected maternal and fetal conditions. However, it should be considered only when high-quality ultrasound cannot provide certain information that affects the counseling, prenatal intervention, pregnancy course, and delivery plan. Major indications of fetal MRI include, but are not restricted to, morbidly adherent placenta, selected cases of fetal brain anomalies, thoracic lesions (especially in severe congenital diaphragmatic hernia), and soft tissue tumors at head and neck regions of the fetus. For fetal anatomy assessment, a 1.5-Tesla machine with a fast T2-weighted single-shot technique is recommended for image requisition of common fetal abnormalities. Individual judgment needs to be applied when considering usage of a 3-Tesla machine. Gadolinium MRI contrast is not recommended during pregnancy. MRI should be avoided in the first half of pregnancy due to small fetal structures and motion artifacts. Assessment of fetal cerebral cortex can be achieved with MRI in the third trimester. MRI is a viable research tool for noninvasive interrogation of the fetus and the placenta. PMID:27092644

  14. MRI of fetal acquired brain lesions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Acquired fetal brain damage is suspected in cases of destruction of previously normally formed tissue, the primary cause of which is hypoxia. Fetal brain damage may occur as a consequence of acute or chronic maternal diseases, with acute diseases causing impairment of oxygen delivery to the fetal brain, and chronic diseases interfering with normal, placental development. Infections, metabolic diseases, feto-fetal transfusion syndrome, toxic agents, mechanical traumatic events, iatrogenic accidents, and space-occupying lesions may also qualify as pathologic conditions that initiate intrauterine brain damage. MR manifestations of acute fetal brain injury (such as hemorrhage or acute ischemic lesions) can easily be recognized, as they are hardly different from postnatal lesions. The availability of diffusion-weighted sequences enhances the sensitivity in recognizing acute ischemic lesions. Recent hemorrhages are usually readily depicted on T2 (*) sequences, where they display hypointense signals. Chronic fetal brain injury may be characterized by nonspecific changes that must be attributable to the presence of an acquired cerebral pathology. The workup in suspected acquired fetal brain injury also includes the assessment of extra-CNS organs that may be affected by an underlying pathology. Finally, the placenta, as the organ that mediates oxygen delivery from the maternal circulation to the fetus, must be examined on MR images

  15. Role of fetal monitoring in high risk pregnancy by fetal electrocardiogram

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Somya Girish Goyal

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Non-stress test is an external monitoring of fetal heart rate by electrocardiograph. Although intermittent auscultation of fetal heart rate is equivalent to continuous electronic fetal monitoring in detecting fetal compromise1 but continuous electronic fetal monitoring is indicated in high risk patients women whose foetuses are at high risk for neonatal encephalopathy or cerebral palsy.2 Objective of current study was to study the efficacy and diagnostic value of non-stress Test for surveillance and its usefulness to detect fetal distress at early stage which help to decide further management in mode of delivery. Methods: Design: prospective study. NST was done in 50 high risk patients for minimum of 20 minutes and in patients with non-reactive non stress test it was continued for 40 minutes. Maternal age, parity, complications during labour, and delivery, mode of delivery, indications of caesarean section and perinatal outcome were noted. Results: Out of total 50 cases studied patient delivered vaginally were 24 and Caesarean was done in 26 cases. Most LSCS were performed due to PIH (35% and related complications like IUGR, eclampsia (10%, fetal distress, previous caesarean pregnancy, IUGR, oligohydraminos and meconium stained liquor. 52% patients were delivered by caesarean and 48% by normal delivery. Conclusions: Routine use of electronic fetal heart monitoring helped in reduction of neonatal morbidity and mortality with increased rate of caesarean section. [Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol 2014; 3(4.000: 893-897

  16. Medio ambiente fetal Fetal environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    César Bernardo Ospina Arcila

    1996-04-01

    Full Text Available Con base en el artículo clásico "Monte Everest in utero" se hace un análisis de la situación que afronta el feto con respecto a la disponibilidad de oxígeno; para una mejor comprensión del sufrimiento fetal se revisan los siguientes conceptos: presión barométrica, presión parcial del oxígeno atmosférico, presión parcial del oxígeno inspirado, presión barométrica intranasal, ecuación del gas alveolar y difusión de gases a través de la membrana alvéolo capilar. Based on the classical paper by Eastman "Mount Everest in utero" an analysis is made of the situation faced by the fetus with respect to the availability of oxygen; for a better under. standing of fetal distress the following concepts are reviewed: barometric pressure, partial pressure of atmosferic oxygen, partial pressure of inspired oxygen, barometric intranasal pressure, alveolar gas equation and gas diffusion through alveolo-capilar membrane.

  17. Fetal growth potential and pregnancy outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bukowski, Radek

    2004-02-01

    Although the association of fetal growth restriction and adverse pregnancy outcomes is well known, lack of sensitivity limits its clinical value. To a large extent, this limitation is a result of traditionally used method to define growth restriction by comparing fetal or birth weight to population norms. The use of population norms, by virtue of their inability to fully consider individual variation, results in high false positive and negative rates. An alternative, calculating fetal individually optimal growth potential, based on physiological determinants of individual growth, is superior in predicting adverse outcomes of pregnancy. Impairment of fetal growth potential identifes some adverse pregnancy outcomes that are not associated with growth restrction defined by population norms. When compared with traditional population-based norms, fetal growth potential is a better predictor of several important adverse outcomes of pregnancy which include: stillbirth, neonatal mortality and morbidity, and long-term adverse neonatal outcomes like neonatal encephalopathy, cerebral palsy and cognitive abilities. Impairment of individual growth potential is also strongly associated with spontaneous preterm delivery. Although definitive interventional trials have not been conducted as yet to validate the clinical value of fetal growth potential, many observational studies, conducted in various populations, indicate its significant promise in this respect.

  18. 产前补充牛磺酸促进宫内生长受限胎鼠脑细胞增殖%Influences of antenatal administration of taurine on cerebral neurogenesis of fetal rats with intrauterine growth restriction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈慧; 李坚; 刘敬; 刘丽; 刘娜

    2011-01-01

    Objective To provide the experimental evidence for clinical application of taurine,rat model of intrauterine growth restriction (FGR) was made to investigate influence of prenatal administration of taurine on neurogenesis.Methods Fifteen pregnant rats were divided into control,FGR model and taurine groups,5 rats for each group.Rats in the control group were supplied with unlimited food and drink while the other two groups were fed by 40% food intake of the control group throughout pregnancy.Since gestational day 12,taurine (100 mg/kg) was added into diet of taurine group every day until term delivery.Brain tissues were obtained immediately after baby rats were born.Expression of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA),neuron-specific enolase (NSE) and glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) of brain tissue was measured by semi-quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and immunohistochemistry; meanwhile,numbers of PCNA-immunoreactive cells in subventricular zone,subgranular zone and cerebral cortex were compared with ANOVA test or q test.Results Levels of PCNA mRNA and GFAP mRNA expression in FGR group were significantly higher than those of control group (PCNA mRNA:1.002±0.011 vs 0.894 ± 0.040,P<0.01; GFAP-mRNA:1.012±0.013 vs 0.913±0.012,P<0.01).Compared to FGR model group,mRNA expressions of PCNA and GFAP in taurine groups were higher (1.090±0.029,P<0.01 ; 1.034±0.011,P>0.05).There was a significant decrease in the expression of NSE mRNA in FGR group compared with control group (0.796±0.036 vs 1.582±0.057,P<0.01),while the expression in taurine group (0.933±0.027) was significantly higher than that in FGR model group (P < 0.01).PCNA immunoreactive cells were mostly distributed in subventricular zone,followed by subgranular zone and cerebral cortex.Conclusions Prenatal application of taurine could enhance neurogenesis of FGR newborn rats and improve survival of neurons to ameliorate FGR brain damage.%目的 通过建立胎儿生长受限(fetal

  19. Tuberculoma cerebral Cerebral tuberculoma

    OpenAIRE

    ELIZABETH CLARA BARROSO; TÂNIA REGINA BRÍGIDO DE OLIVEIRA; ANA MARIA DANTAS DO AMARAL; VALÉRIA GÓES FERREIRA PINHEIRO; ANA LÚCIA DE OLIVEIRA SOUSA

    2002-01-01

    Relata-se o caso de paciente com crises convulsivas de início recente. A tomografia computadorizada cerebral evidenciou imagem sugestiva de lesão expansiva metastática frontoparietal direita. A investigação de tumor primário ou outra doença foi negativa e o exame histopatológico do tecido cerebral diagnosticou tuberculoma. As convulsões foram controladas com a associação de hidantoína 300mg/dia ao esquema específico, utilizado por 18 meses. A tuberculose do sistema nervoso central representa ...

  20. Cerebral Palsy: General Information. Fact Sheet Number 2 = La Paralisis Cerebral: Informacion General. Fact Sheet Number 18.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Interstate Research Associates, McLean, VA.

    This fact sheet on cerebral palsy is offered in both English and Spanish. First, it provides a definition and considers various causes (e.g., an insufficient amount of oxygen reaching the fetal or newborn brain). The fact sheet then offers incidence figures and explains characteristics of the three main types of cerebral palsy: spastic, athetoid,…

  1. Cerebral Palsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerebral palsy is a group of disorders that affect a person's ability to move and to maintain balance ... do not get worse over time. People with cerebral palsy may have difficulty walking. They may also have ...

  2. 妊娠晚期胎儿大脑中动脉血流峰值速度对地中海贫血的快速预测价值%QUICK PREDICTION FOR FETAL THALASSEMIA IN LATE PREGNANCY BY MIDDLE CEREBRAL ARTERY PEAK SYSTOLIC VELOCITY IN HIGH RISK SYSTOLIC VELOCITY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    凌奕; 金松; 华少萍; 黄振兰; 谢毅强; 南瑞霞; 陈蔚; 钟叶超

    2011-01-01

    [Objective] To investigate the quick prediction for fetal thalassemia in late pregnancy by middle cerebral artery peak systolic velocity in high risk systolic velocity. [Methods] 100 cases of normal fetuses in control group and 25 cases of thalassemia fetus were included in the study. Compared the MCA-PSV in each group and calculated the prediction value. [Results] MCA-PSV in severe thalassaemia group was significantly higher than mild thalassaemia group. The sensitivity and specificity in predicting severe fetal anemia were 100% and 100% respectively and 50% and 100% in fetuses with moderate anemia. [Conclusion] Fetal MCA-PSV has the value of quick prediction. It can be a relied prediction method when the diagnosis is missed or failed.%[目的]通过对妊娠晚期不同程度地中海贫血胎儿大脑中动脉血流峰值速度middle cerebral artery peak systolic velocity (MCA-PSV)的分析,探讨妊娠晚期MCA-PSV快速筛查和预测重度地贫的价值,为临床提供一种弥补中孕产前诊断失败或错过的补救方法.[方法]回顾性分析2008.01~2010.12妊娠晚期接受MCA-PSV检查的病例,正常胎儿组100例,产前诊断确诊为各型地贫的病例25例,分析各类妊娠晚期地中海贫血胎儿大脑中动脉血流蜂值速度的特点及MCA-PSV在胎儿地中海贫血的预测价值.[结果]重型地贫胎儿MCA-PSV明显高于正常组以及轻度和中间型地贫胎儿.以1.55 MOM为切割值,晚孕重度地中海贫血的敏感性100%和特异性达100%.以>1.29 MOM为切割值,中度地中海贫血的敏感性50%和特异性100%.[结论]妊娠晚期MCA-PSV具有快速筛查和预测重度地贫的价值,为临床提供一种弥补中孕产前诊断失败或错过的补救方法.

  3. Fetal Alcohol Exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a woman drinks while pregnant. Alcohol can disrupt fetal development at any stage during a pregnancy—including at ... Clinical Diagnoses IOM Diagnoses Fetal Alcohol Syndrome ... pregnancy can disrupt normal development of the face and the brain. In fact, ...

  4. RM fetal en las anomalías del SNC: Aspectos de interés para el obstetra Abnormalities in fetal CNS: Interesting issues to the obstetrician

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Recio Rodríguez

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available La resonancia magnética (RM fetal es una técnica de imagen en auge, útil en la valoración del cerebro y columna fetal. Ayuda a estudiar el desarrollo cerebral fetal y se puede realizar un diagnóstico precoz de las anomalías congénitas. La imagen de RM muestra gran resolución de contraste y permite diferenciar mejor que la ecografía entre hallazgos normales y patológicos. Además, algunas malformaciones cerebrales o lesiones destructivas ocultas en la ecografía prenatal pueden ser detectadas por RM. Revisamos las indicaciones, utilidad, seguridad, aspectos técnicos de la RM fetal y la apariencia del desarrollo cerebral fetal, y evaluamos su contribución en el diagnóstico de las patologías de las diferentes regiones cerebrales y de la patología espinal fetal.Fetal MR imaging (MRI is an increasingly available technique used to evaluate the fetal brain and spine, because it provides a unique opportunity to evaluate fetal brain development and to make an early diagnosis of congenital abnormalities. MRI allows a better differentiation between normal and abnormal signal intensity of fetal tissues due to its higher contrast resolution compared to prenatal sonography (US. Therefore, structural abnormalities such as brain malformations and destructive lesions that could be sonographically occult on prenatal sonography can be detected at fetal MRI. We review indications, utility, safety, and technical aspects of fetal MR imaging and the appearance of normal fetal brain development evaluating its contribution in the diagnosis of fetal diseases of different brain regions and spinal disorders.

  5. Radionuclide fetal imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hepato-biliary scanning with sup (99m) Tc-P.G. demonstrated in a jaundiced patient at 31 weeks pregnancy the filling of the fetal bladder 6 h after injection. This finding was confirmed by ultrasound. Fetal urinary bladder activity was seen until 33 h after injection. Fetal hepatic radio-activity could not be displayed although the localisation of the fetal liver was marked by ultrasound. (orig.)

  6. Malaria cerebral Cerebral malaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Hugo Zapata Zapata

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available La malaria Cerebral (MC es la complicación más frecuente de la malaria por P. falciparum; aproximadamente el 90% de las personas que la han padecido se recuperan completamente sin secuelas neurológicas. Aún no se conoce con claridad su patogénesis pero se han postulado cuatro hipótesis o mecanismos posibles: 1 citoadherencia y secuestro de glóbulos rojos parasitados en la microvasculatura cerebral; 2 formación de rosetas y aglutinación de glóbulos rojos parasitados; 3 producción de citoquinas y activación de segundos mensajeros y, 4 apertura de la barrera hematoencefálica. Sin embargo, queda un interrogante sin resolver aún: ¿qué proceso se lleva a cabo para que el parásito, desde el espacio microvascular, pueda interferir transitoriamente con la función cerebral? Recientemente se ha utilizado el precursor de la proteína b-Amiloide como un marcador de daño neuronal en MC; este precursor será de gran ayuda en futuras investigaciones realizadas en nuestro medio que aporten información para comprender la patogénesis de la MC. Is the most common complication of P. falciparum malaria; nearly 90% of people who have suffered CM can recover without neurological problems. Currently there are four hypotheses that explain pathogenesis of CM: cytoadherence and sequestering of parasitized red blood cells to cerebral capillaries; rosette formation and parasitized red blood cells agglutination; production of cytokines and activation of second messengers and opening of the blood-brain barrier. However the main question remains to be answered; how the host-parasite interaction in the vascular space interferes transiently with cerebral function? Recently, the beta amyloid precursor peptide has been employed as marker of neural injury in CM. It is expected that the beta amyloid precursor peptide will help to understand the pathogenesis of CM in complicated patients of endemic areas of Colombia.

  7. Fetal behavioral teratology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, Gerard H. A.; Mulder, Eduard J. H.; Ververs, F. F. Tessa

    2010-01-01

    Ultrasound studies of fetal motor behavior provide direct - in vivo - insight in the functioning of the motor component of the fetal central nervous system. In this article, studies are reviewed showing changes in the first timetable of appearance of fetal movements, changes in quality and/or quanti

  8. Gestational dexamethasone alters fetal neuroendocrine axis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, R G

    2016-09-01

    This study tested whether the maternal transport of dexamethasone (DEXA) may affect the development of the neuroendocrine system. DEXA (0.2mg/kg b.w., subcutaneous injection) was administered to pregnant rats from gestation day (GD) 1-20. In the DEXA-treated group, a decrease in maternal serum thyroxine (T4), triiodothyronine (T3), and increase in thyrotropin (TSH) levels (hypothyroid status) were observed at GDs 15 & 20 with respect to control group. The reverse pattern (hyperthyroid status) was observed in their fetuses at embryonic days (EDs) 15 & 20. Although the maternal body weight was diminished, the weight of the thyroid gland was increased at studied GDs as compared to the control group. The fetal growth retardation, hyperleptinemia, hyperinsulinism, and cytokines distortions (transforming growth factor-beta; TGF-β, tumor necrosis factor-alpha; TNF-α, and interferon-γ; IFN-γ) were noticed at examined EDs if compared to the control group. Alternatively, the maternofetal thyroid dysfunctions due to the maternal DEXA administration attenuated the levels of fetal cerebral norepinephrine (NE) and epinephrine (E), and elevated the levels of dopamine (DA) and 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) at considered days. These alterations were age-dependent and might damage the nerve transmission. Finally, maternal DEXA might act as neuroendocrine disruptor causing dyshormonogenesis and fetal cerebral dysfunction. PMID:27220267

  9. Fetal MRI: An approach to practice: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sahar N. Saleem

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available MRI has been increasingly used for detailed visualization of the fetus in utero as well as pregnancy structures. Yet, the familiarity of radiologists and clinicians with fetal MRI is still limited. This article provides a practical approach to fetal MR imaging. Fetal MRI is an interactive scanning of the moving fetus owed to the use of fast sequences. Single-shot fast spin-echo (SSFSE T2-weighted imaging is a standard sequence. T1-weighted sequences are primarily used to demonstrate fat, calcification and hemorrhage. Balanced steady-state free-precession (SSFP, are beneficial in demonstrating fetal structures as the heart and vessels. Diffusion weighted imaging (DWI, MR spectroscopy (MRS, and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI have potential applications in fetal imaging. Knowing the developing fetal MR anatomy is essential to detect abnormalities. MR evaluation of the developing fetal brain should include recognition of the multilayered-appearance of the cerebral parenchyma, knowledge of the timing of sulci appearance, myelination and changes in ventricular size. With advanced gestation, fetal organs as lungs and kidneys show significant changes in volume and T2-signal. Through a systematic approach, the normal anatomy of the developing fetus is shown to contrast with a wide spectrum of fetal disorders. The abnormalities displayed are graded in severity from simple common lesions to more complex rare cases. Complete fetal MRI is fulfilled by careful evaluation of the placenta, umbilical cord and amniotic cavity. Accurate interpretation of fetal MRI can provide valuable information that helps prenatal counseling, facilitate management decisions, guide therapy, and support research studies.

  10. Fetal MRI: An approach to practice: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saleem, Sahar N

    2014-09-01

    MRI has been increasingly used for detailed visualization of the fetus in utero as well as pregnancy structures. Yet, the familiarity of radiologists and clinicians with fetal MRI is still limited. This article provides a practical approach to fetal MR imaging. Fetal MRI is an interactive scanning of the moving fetus owed to the use of fast sequences. Single-shot fast spin-echo (SSFSE) T2-weighted imaging is a standard sequence. T1-weighted sequences are primarily used to demonstrate fat, calcification and hemorrhage. Balanced steady-state free-precession (SSFP), are beneficial in demonstrating fetal structures as the heart and vessels. Diffusion weighted imaging (DWI), MR spectroscopy (MRS), and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) have potential applications in fetal imaging. Knowing the developing fetal MR anatomy is essential to detect abnormalities. MR evaluation of the developing fetal brain should include recognition of the multilayered-appearance of the cerebral parenchyma, knowledge of the timing of sulci appearance, myelination and changes in ventricular size. With advanced gestation, fetal organs as lungs and kidneys show significant changes in volume and T2-signal. Through a systematic approach, the normal anatomy of the developing fetus is shown to contrast with a wide spectrum of fetal disorders. The abnormalities displayed are graded in severity from simple common lesions to more complex rare cases. Complete fetal MRI is fulfilled by careful evaluation of the placenta, umbilical cord and amniotic cavity. Accurate interpretation of fetal MRI can provide valuable information that helps prenatal counseling, facilitate management decisions, guide therapy, and support research studies. PMID:25685519

  11. The relationship between fetal biophysical profile and cord blood PH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valadan M

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available "nBackground: The Biophysical Profile (BPP is a noninvasive test that predicts the presence or absence of fetal asphyxia and, ultimately, the risk of fetal death in the antenatal period. Intervention on the basis of an abnormal biophysical profile result has been reported to yield a significant reduction in prenatal mortality, and an association exists between biophysical profile scoring and a decreased cerebral palsy rate in a given population. The BPP evaluates five characteristics: fetal movement, tone, breathing, heart reactivity, and amniotic fluid (AF volume estimation. The purpose of study was to determine whether there are different degree of acidosis at which the biophysical activity (acute marker are affected. "nMethods: In a prospective study of 140 patients undergoing cesarean section before onset of labor, the fetal biophysical profile was performed 24h before the time of cesarean and was matched with cord arterial PH that was obtained from a cord segment (10-20cm that was double clamped after delivery of newborn. (using cord arterial PH less than 7.20 for the diagnosis of acidosis. "nResults: The fetal biophysical profile was found to have a significant relationship with umbilical blood PH. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value of fetal biophysical profile score were: 88.9%, 88.6%, 50%, 98.1%. "nConclusion: The first manifestations of fetal acidosis are nonreactive nonstress testing and fetal breathing loss; in advanced acidemia fetal movements and fetal tone are compromised. A protocol of antepartum fetal evaluation is suggested based upon the individual biophysical components rather than the score alone.

  12. Tuberculoma cerebral Cerebral tuberculoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ELIZABETH CLARA BARROSO

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Relata-se o caso de paciente com crises convulsivas de início recente. A tomografia computadorizada cerebral evidenciou imagem sugestiva de lesão expansiva metastática frontoparietal direita. A investigação de tumor primário ou outra doença foi negativa e o exame histopatológico do tecido cerebral diagnosticou tuberculoma. As convulsões foram controladas com a associação de hidantoína 300mg/dia ao esquema específico, utilizado por 18 meses. A tuberculose do sistema nervoso central representa 5-15% das formas extrapulmonares e é reconhecida como de alta letalidade. Apresentação tumoral como a relatada é rara, particularmente em imunocompetentes. Quando tratada, pode ter bom prognóstico e deve entrar sempre no diagnóstico diferencial de massas cerebrais.It is reported a case of a previously healthy man with seizures of sudden onset. A contrast head computerized tomogram (CT showed a right frontoparietal expanding lesion suggesting to be metastatic. No prior disease was found on investigation. The histologic exam of the brain revealed tuberculoma. The seizures were controlled with Hidantoin 300 mg/day and antituberculosis chemotherapy for 18 months. Central nervous system tuberculosis (5-15% of the extrapulmonary forms is highly lethal. The case reported herein is specially rare in immunocompetent patients. It may have good prognosis and should be considered in the differential diagnosis of brain tumours.

  13. Value of Diagnosis the Dysplasis of Fetal Cerebral Sulcus and Gyrus Abnormality by Two-dimensional Combined with Three-dimensional Ultrasonography%二维联合三维超声诊断胎儿脑沟脑回发育异常的临床应用价值

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈晓康; 吕国荣; 凌乐文

    2014-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the value of two-dimensional combined with three-dimensional ultrasound (2D&3D-US) on diagnosing the dysplasia of the fetal cerebral sulcus and gyrus . Methods 2D-US was performed to record the growth of cerebral sulcus and gyrus of 66 fetuses ,who were suspicious central nervous system dysplastic . Then 3D-US were performed for volume scan in three orthogonal planes mode display and storage ,offline diagnostics ,and comparing the diagnosis and follow-up results . Results Compared to the follow-up or autopsy ,36 fetuses proved to be 2cerebral sulcus and gyrus dysplasia or combine with it . Of them ,10 fetuses were agyric ,26 fetuses were hypoplasia ,and the rest 30 fetuses were normal . The diagnose accordance rate of 2D&3D and 2D-US were 92 .42% (61/66)and 75 .76%(50/66) ,respectively . There was statistically significant difference between them (χ2 =6 .68 ,P<0 .01) . Conclusions 2D&3D-US could promote the accurate diagnosis in dysplasia of fetal cerebral sulcus and gyrus ,w hich has an important clinical value .%目的:探讨二维联合三维超声诊断胎儿脑沟脑回发育异常的应用价值。方法对疑有中枢神经系统畸形的66胎胎儿,行二维超声检测记录脑沟脑回发育情况,后行三维超声容积扫描,以三正交多平面模式显示并储存,下线诊断,并将诊断结果与随访结果进行比较。结果经随访或尸检证实36胎胎儿存在或合并有脑沟回发育异常(10胎脑沟回未发育,26胎脑沟回发育迟缓);30胎正常。二维联合三维超声诊断符合率为92.42%(61/66),单纯二维超声诊断符合率为75.76%(50/66),两者有显著差异(χ2=6.68,P<0.01)。结论二维联合三维超声可提高胎儿脑沟脑回发育异常诊断的准确性,具有重要的临床应用价值。

  14. Cerebral Palsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 1 • 2 • 3 For Teens For Kids For Parents MORE ON THIS TOPIC Cerebral Palsy: Keith's Story Physical Therapy I Have Cerebral Palsy. Can I Babysit? Body Image and Self-Esteem Contact Us Print Resources Send to a friend ...

  15. Lactate metabolism in the fetal rabbit lung

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lactate is frequently overlooked as a potential substrate for the fetal lung, even though it is present in the fetal circulation in concentrations as high as 8 mM. These high concentrations, coupled with the relatively low levels of glucose in the fetal blood, may indicate that lactate can substitute for glucose in pulmonary energy generation and phospholipid synthesis. A series of experiments was therefore undertaken in order to investigate the role of lactate in perinatal pulmonary development. Explants from 30 day gestation fetal rabbit lungs were incubated in Krebs-Ringer bicarbonate buffer supplemented with 3 mM (U-14C)-glucose and varying levels of lactate. In the absence of medium lactate, fetal rabbit lung explants were capable of producing lactate at a rate of approximately 200 etamoles/mg protein/hour. The addition of lactate to the bathing medium immediately reduced net lactate production and above 4 mM, fetal rabbit lung explants became net utilizers of lactate. Media lactate concentrations of 2.5 mM, 5 mM and 10 mM also decreased glucose incorporation into total tissue disaturated phosphatidylcholine by approximately 20%, 35%, and 45%, respectively. Glucose incorporation into surfactant phosphatidylcholine was also reduced by approximately 50%, when lactate was present in the incubation medium at a concentration of 5 mM. Additional experiments also revealed that fetal lung lactate dehydrogenase activity was almost twice that found in the adult rabbit lung. These data indicate that lactate may be an important carbon source for the developing lung and could be a significant component in the manufacture of surfactant phosphatidylcholine during late gestation

  16. Diagnosis of fetal origin of posterior cerebral artery and variation of arteries nearby with 64-slice spiral CT angiography%64层螺旋C TA在胚胎型大脑后动脉及其邻近血管变异诊断中的运用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭泽标; 吴宗山; 林承露; 郭磊

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate the value of 64-slice spiral CT angiography(CTA)in the diagnosis of fetal origin of posterior cerebral artery (FTP)and the variations of the artery nearby.Methods All images were reconstructed with maximum intensity projection (MIP),volume rendering(VR),multiplanar reconstruction(MPR)and curve planar reconstruction(CPR).Thirty-seven patients with an FTP diagnosed by CTA were analyzed retrospectively to assess the value of CTA in the diagnosis of FTP and the variation of arteries nearby.Re-sults Nine cases variation of the A1 segment of anterior cerebral artery(ACA)and 1 2 cases of variation of the vertebral-basilar artery were found in the 37 patients with FTP.Dysplasia or deficiency of the posterior cerebral artery(PCA)originated from the basilar artery(BA)were demonstrated in all the 37 patients with FTP.Conclusions Patients with FTP are frequently complicated with a variation of the artery nearby and almost all the FTP complicated with the dysplasia or deficiency of the PCA originated from the BA.%目的:探讨64层螺旋CT血管成像(CTA)在诊断胚胎型大脑后动脉(FTP)及其邻近血管变异中的价值。方法采用最大密度投影(MIP),容积再现技术(VR)和曲面重建(CPR)对所采集的头颈血管源图像进行影像重建并回顾性分析37例CTA诊断的FTP影像学资料,研究CTA在FTP的诊断和FTP邻近血管的改变。结果37例FTP中,合并大脑前动脉(ACA)A1段变异9例,合并椎-基底动脉变异12例,所有37例FTP病例同侧基底动脉起源的大脑后动脉(B-PCA)均有不同程度发育不良或缺如。结论 FTP患者常合并邻近血管的变异,几乎所有FTP患者同侧B-PCA发育不良或缺如。

  17. Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caley, Linda M.; Kramer, Charlotte; Robinson, Luther K.

    2005-01-01

    Fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD) is a serious and widespread problem in this country. Positioned within the community with links to children, families, and healthcare systems, school nurses are a critical element in the prevention and treatment of those affected by fetal alcohol spectrum disorder. Although most school nurses are familiar…

  18. Fetal Neurobehavioral Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiPietro, Janet A.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Investigated the ontogeny of fetal autonomic, motoric, state, and interactive functioning in 31 healthy fetuses from 20 weeks through term. Found that male fetuses were more active than female fetuses, and that greater maternal stress appraisal was associated with reduced fetal heart rate variability. Found that an apparent period of…

  19. Challenge of Fetal Mortality

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to yield the number of previous pregnancies. Data source and methods This report contains data from the Fetal Death Data File and Linked Birth/Infant Death Data Set, NVSS. The vital statistics Fetal Death Data File contains information from all ...

  20. Intrauterine blood transfusion in immune hydrops fetalis, corrects middle cerebral artery Doppler velocimetry very quickly

    OpenAIRE

    Yalinkaya, Ahmet; Evsen, Mehmet Sıddık; Celik, Yusuf; Sak, Muhammet Erdal; Soydinc, Hatice Ender; Taner, Mehmet Zeki

    2012-01-01

    The aim of our study was to evaluate the middle cerebral artery velocimetry before and after intrauterine blood transfusion in immune hydrops fetalis. The current study was conducted in a tertiary research hospital, from February 2009 to January 2011. Nineteen intrauterine blood transfusions performed during the study period. The factors recorded were age of the mothers, gestational weeks, pre-transfusion fetal hematocrit and post-transfusion fetal hematocrit, and also middle cerebral artery ...

  1. Cerebral palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, H Kerr; Rosenbaum, Peter; Paneth, Nigel; Dan, Bernard; Lin, Jean-Pierre; Damiano, Diane L; Becher, Jules G; Gaebler-Spira, Deborah; Colver, Allan; Reddihough, Dinah S; Crompton, Kylie E; Lieber, Richard L

    2016-01-01

    Cerebral palsy is the most common cause of childhood-onset, lifelong physical disability in most countries, affecting about 1 in 500 neonates with an estimated prevalence of 17 million people worldwide. Cerebral palsy is not a disease entity in the traditional sense but a clinical description of children who share features of a non-progressive brain injury or lesion acquired during the antenatal, perinatal or early postnatal period. The clinical manifestations of cerebral palsy vary greatly in the type of movement disorder, the degree of functional ability and limitation and the affected parts of the body. There is currently no cure, but progress is being made in both the prevention and the amelioration of the brain injury. For example, administration of magnesium sulfate during premature labour and cooling of high-risk infants can reduce the rate and severity of cerebral palsy. Although the disorder affects individuals throughout their lifetime, most cerebral palsy research efforts and management strategies currently focus on the needs of children. Clinical management of children with cerebral palsy is directed towards maximizing function and participation in activities and minimizing the effects of the factors that can make the condition worse, such as epilepsy, feeding challenges, hip dislocation and scoliosis. These management strategies include enhancing neurological function during early development; managing medical co-morbidities, weakness and hypertonia; using rehabilitation technologies to enhance motor function; and preventing secondary musculoskeletal problems. Meeting the needs of people with cerebral palsy in resource-poor settings is particularly challenging. PMID:27188686

  2. Prenatal Diagnosis of Fetal Encephalomalacia after Maternal Diabetic Ketoacidosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rozalyn Love

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction - Encephalomalacia in a developing fetus is a rare and devastating neurological finding on radiologic imaging. Maternal diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA can lead to metabolic and vascular derangements which can cause fetal encephalomalacia. Case - We report the case of a 27-year-old pregnant woman with White's Class C diabetes mellitus who presented in the 25th week of gestation with DKA. Four weeks after her discharge, marked fetal cerebral ventriculomegaly was noted on ultrasound. A subsequent fetal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI demonstrated extensive, symmetric cystic encephalomalacia, primarily involving both cerebral hemispheres. The pregnancy was continued with close fetal and maternal surveillance. The patient underwent a repeat cesarean delivery in her 37th week. The infant had a 1 month neonatal intensive care unit stay with care rendered by a multiple disciplinary team of pediatric subspecialists. The postnatal course was complicated by global hypotonia, poor feeding, delayed development and ultimately required anticonvulsants for recurrent seizures. He died at the age of 9 months from aspiration during a seizure. Discussion - Although the maternal mortality from DKA has declined, DKA still confers significant neurological fetal morbidity to its survivors.

  3. A CASE REPORT-ANTENATAL DIAGNOSIS OF FETAL INTRACRANIAL HAEMORHAGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalyani

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available 26 years old para 1 with 26 weeks of pregnancy presented with intermittent fever. Her obstetric history included one spontaneous first trimester miscarriage and one previous Caesarean Section for meconium stained amniotic fluid. Her antenatal course was uneventful so far. On investigation she tested IgM dengue positive. Her WBC count, platelet count and coagulation profiles were within normal limits. Obstetric sonography was done which was suggestive of a single live intrauterine gestation corresponding with growth appropriate for gestational age with moderate polyhydramnios (AFI 25cms with hyperechoic cerebral cisterns suggestive of intracranial haemorrhage. Fetal MRI was done which revealed generalized atrophy of the brain parenchyma with subdural haematoma over posterior cerebral convexities extending along tentorial leaflets. Patient went into preterm labour at 27 weeks and delivered male baby of 980gms which was an intrapartum fetal demise. Fetal intracranial hemorrhage occurs in 5 in 10,000 pregnancies. Hemorrhage may occur either within the cerebral ventricles (Intraventricular haemorrhage, IVH, subdural space or infratentorial fossa. IVH are common variety and are characteristic of immature brain. IVH are subdivided according to their severity into four grades: the first three grades are limited to the ventricles, while the fourth grade includes parenchymal involvement occurring in the most severe cases. Fetal stroke is caused by antenatal hemorrhagic, ischemic or thrombotic injury. Although there is no identifiable risk factor in 50% of cases of fetal stroke, the most common maternal conditions associated with it are alloimmune thrombocytopenia and trauma. Outcome is usually poor, for those fetuses affected with high grade IVH or subdural hemorrhages. USG helps in accurate diagnosis of fetal ICH and prenatal MRI also contributes to the accuracy of diagnosis.

  4. A rare combination of atypical cerebral vascular anatomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koleilat, Issam; Eidt, John

    2015-10-01

    A 57-year-old woman presented with neurologic deficits consistent with a cerebrovascular accident. Her workup demonstrated the simultaneous occurrence of three uncommon cerebrovascular congenital anomalies in a single patient: (1) persistent trigeminal artery, (2) persistent fetal origin of the posterior cerebral artery and (3) bilateral occurrence of the vertebral arteries terminating in the posterior inferior cerebellar arteries. These persistent fetal cerebrovascular anatomic variants are reviewed and the clinical relevance discussed. PMID:25414171

  5. Cerebral hypoxia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the veins ( deep vein thrombosis ) Lung infections (pneumonia) Malnutrition When to Contact a Medical Professional Cerebral hypoxia ... References Bernat JL. Coma, vegetative state, and brain death. In: Goldman L, Schafer AI, eds. Goldman's Cecil ...

  6. Intrauterine extremity gangrene and cerebral infarction at term

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tanvig, M; Jørgensen, J S; Nybo, M;

    2011-01-01

    Intrauterine extremity gangrene in combination with cerebral infarction is a serious and rare event. We present a case with a healthy mother who gave birth to a child with this condition. At term, the mother presented at the antenatal clinic with decreased fetal movements. Cardiotocography (CTG......) showed signs of fetal distress and a caesarean section was performed. The left arm of the newborn was found gangrenous. Amputation of the arm was necessary and the child was subsequently treated with anticoagulant therapy due to thrombosis and cerebral infarction in the left hemisphere found by magnetic...

  7. Cerebral Paragonimiasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyazaki, I

    1975-01-01

    The first case of cerebral paragonimiasis was reported by Otani in Japan in 1887. This was nine years after Kerbert's discovery of the fluke in the lungs of Bengal tigers and seven years after a human pulmonary infection by the fluke was demonstrated by Baelz and Manson. The first case was a 26-year-old man who had been suffering from cough and hemosputum for one year. The patient developed convulsive seizures with subsequent coma and died. The postmortem examination showed cystic lesions in the right frontal and occipital lobes. An adult fluke was found in the occipital lesion and another was seen in a gross specimen of normal brain tissue around the affected occipital lobe. Two years after Otani's discovery, at autopsy a 29-year-old man with a history of Jacksonian seizure was reported as having cerebral paragonimiasis. Some time later, however, it was confirmed that the case was actually cerebral schistosomiasis japonica. Subsequently, cases of cerebral paragonimiasis were reported. However, the majority of these cases were not confirmed histologically. It was pointed out that some of these early cases were probably not Paragonimus infection. After World War II, reviews as well as case reports were published. Recently, investigations have been reported from Korea, with a clinicla study on 62 cases of cerebral paragonimiasis seen at the Neurology Department of the National Medical Center, Seoul, between 1958 and 1964. In 1971 Higashi described a statistical study on 105 cases of cerebral paragonimiasis that had been treated surgically in Japan.

  8. Fetal tachycardia : diagnosis and treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oudijk, Martijn Alexander

    2003-01-01

    Part I: Fetal tachyarrhythmias Diagnosis Fetal tachycardia is a serious condition warranting specialized evaluation. In chapter 2, methods of diagnosis of fetal tachycardia are described, including doppler and M-mode echocardiography and fetal magnetocardiography. The study presented in chapter 3 d

  9. Contribution of fetal MRI to the diagnosis of inner ear abnormalities: report of two cases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tilea, Bogdana; Garel, Catherine; Elmaleh-Berges, Monique; Sebag, Guy [Hopital Robert Debre, Department of Paediatric Imaging, Paris (France); Menez, Francoise; Delezoide, Anne-Lise [Hopital Robert Debre, Department of Developmental Biology, Paris (France); Vuillard, Edith [Hopital Robert Debre, Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Paris (France)

    2006-02-01

    We report two cases of fetal inner ear abnormalities diagnosed by MRI. Cerebral MRI was performed on two fetuses, at 32 and 30 weeks gestation, following US that demonstrated multiple malformations suggestive of CHARGE syndrome in one fetus and ventriculomegaly and poor visibility of the posterior fossa in the other. MRI revealed vestibular hypoplasia and agenesis of the semicircular canals in one fetus and cystic cochleas, partial vermian agenesis and an occipital meningocele in the second fetus. Both pregnancies were terminated and there was good correlation between fetal MRI, ex utero CT and fetopathological findings. The inner ears should be carefully examined when performing fetal cerebral MRI because abnormalities of the inner ear may be associated with cerebral anomalies. (orig.)

  10. Cerebral palsy - resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resources - cerebral palsy ... The following organizations are good resources for information on cerebral palsy : National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke -- www.ninds.nih.gov/disorders/cerebral_palsy/cerebral_palsy. ...

  11. Cerebral Palsy (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Story" 5 Things to Know About Zika & Pregnancy Cerebral Palsy KidsHealth > For Parents > Cerebral Palsy Print A A ... kids who are living with the condition. About Cerebral Palsy Cerebral palsy is one of the most common ...

  12. Gaining insight of fetal brain development with diffusion MRI and histology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Hao; Vasung, Lana

    2014-02-01

    Human brain is extraordinarily complex and yet its origin is a simple tubular structure. Its development during the fetal period is characterized by a series of accurately organized events which underlie the mechanisms of dramatic structural changes during fetal development. Revealing detailed anatomy at different stages of human fetal brain development provides insight on understanding not only this highly ordered process, but also the neurobiological foundations of cognitive brain disorders such as mental retardation, autism, schizophrenia, bipolar and language impairment. Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and histology are complementary tools which are capable of delineating the fetal brain structures at both macroscopic and microscopic levels. In this review, the structural development of the fetal brains has been characterized with DTI and histology. Major components of the fetal brain, including cortical plate, fetal white matter and cerebral wall layer between the ventricle and subplate, have been delineated with DTI and histology. Anisotropic metrics derived from DTI were used to quantify the microstructural changes during the dynamic process of human fetal cortical development and prenatal development of other animal models. Fetal white matter pathways have been traced with DTI-based tractography to reveal growth patterns of individual white matter tracts and corticocortical connectivity. These detailed anatomical accounts of the structural changes during fetal period may provide the clues of detecting developmental and cognitive brain disorders at their early stages. The anatomical information from DTI and histology may also provide reference standards for diagnostic radiology of premature newborns. PMID:23796901

  13. Fetal magnetic resonance imaging of the brain: technical considerations and normal brain development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huisman, Thierry A.G.M.; Kubik-Huch, Rahel; Marincek, Borut [Institute of Diagnostic Radiology, University Hospital Zurich, 8091 Zurich (Switzerland); Martin, Ernst [Department of Neuroradiology and Magnetic Resonance, University Children' s Hospital, 8091 Zurich (Switzerland)

    2002-08-01

    Fetal MRI examines non-invasively the unborn fetus. Ultrafast MRI sequences effectively suppress fetal motion. Multiple case reports and studies have shown that fetal MRI is particularly helpful in the evaluation of the central nervous system. The high contrast-to-noise ratio, the high spatial resolution, the multiplanar capabilities, the large field of view and the simultaneous visualisation of fetal and maternal structures have proven to be advantageous. Fetal MRI is particularly helpful in the evaluation of the normal and pathological development of the brain. Despite the fact that no side effects have been reported or are to be expected, the use of MRI during pregnancy is still limited to the second and third trimester of pregnancy. Magnetic resonance imaging contrast media are not to be used as it passes the placenta. Ultrasound remains the primary screening modality for fetal pathology; fetal MRI can serve as an adjunct or second-line imaging modality. (orig.)

  14. Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... can cause a group of conditions called fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASDs). Effects can include physical and behavioral problems such as trouble with Learning and remembering Understanding and following directions Controlling emotions Communicating and socializing Daily life skills, such as ...

  15. Corpus callosum agenesis: Role of fetal magnetic resonance imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Achour Radhouane

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Corpus callosum agenesis (CCA was evaluated by ultrasound examination and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI with many studies. Ultrasonography was able to suspect CCA by indirect signs but a definitive diagnosis of CCA was achieved in rare cases. MRI was able to diagnose complete CCA in majority of cases. Additional neurological abnormalities including heterotopia, gyration anomaly, asymmetry of the cerebral hemispheres, and Dandy-Walker variant were documented, as well as an ocular anomaly which was described, by MRI examination. Prenatal counseling for fetal agenesis of the corpus callosum is difficult as the prognosis is uncertain. The association with other cerebral abnormalities increases the likelihood of a poor outcome and ultrasonographic assessment of the fetal brain is limited. We found MRI to be a safe and useful additional procedure to complement ultrasonographic diagnosis or suspicion of CCA.

  16. Fetal and neonatal thyrotoxicosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chandar Mohan Batra

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Fetal thyrotoxicosis is a rare disease occurring in 1 out of 70 pregnancies with Grave′s disease or in 1 out of 4000-50,000 deliveries. The mortality is 12-20%, usually from heart failure, but other complications are tracheal compression, infections and thrombocytopenia. It results from transfer of thyroid stimulating immunoglobulins from mother to fetus through the placenta. This transplacental transfer begins around 20 th week of pregnancy and reaches its maximum by 30 th week. These autoantibodies bind to the fetal thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH receptors and increase the secretion of the thyroid hormones. The mother has an active autoimmune thyroid disease or has been treated for it in the past. She may be absolutely euthyroid due to past treatment by drugs, surgery or radioiodine ablation, but still have active TSH receptor stimulating autoantibodies, which can cause fetal thyrotoxicosis. The other features of this disease are fetal tachycardia, fetal goiter and history of spontaneous abortions and findings of goiter, ascites, craniosyntosis, fetal growth retardation, maceration and hydrops at fetal autopsy. If untreated, this disease can result in intrauterine death. The treatment for this disease consists of giving carbimazole to the mother, which is transferred through the placenta to the fetus. The dose of carbimazole is titrated with the fetal heart rate. If the mother becomes hypothyroid due to carbimazole, thyroxine is added taking advantage of the fact that very little of thyroxine is transferred across the placenta. Neonatal thyrotoxicosis patients are very sick and require emergency treatment. The goal of the treatment is to normalize thyroid functions as quickly as possible, to avoid iatrogenic hypothyroidism while providing management and supportive therapy for the infant′s specific signs and symptoms.

  17. Fetal and neonatal thyrotoxicosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batra, Chandar Mohan

    2013-10-01

    Fetal thyrotoxicosis is a rare disease occurring in 1 out of 70 pregnancies with Grave's disease or in 1 out of 4000-50,000 deliveries. The mortality is 12-20%, usually from heart failure, but other complications are tracheal compression, infections and thrombocytopenia. It results from transfer of thyroid stimulating immunoglobulins from mother to fetus through the placenta. This transplacental transfer begins around 20(th) week of pregnancy and reaches its maximum by 30(th) week. These autoantibodies bind to the fetal thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) receptors and increase the secretion of the thyroid hormones. The mother has an active autoimmune thyroid disease or has been treated for it in the past. She may be absolutely euthyroid due to past treatment by drugs, surgery or radioiodine ablation, but still have active TSH receptor stimulating autoantibodies, which can cause fetal thyrotoxicosis. The other features of this disease are fetal tachycardia, fetal goiter and history of spontaneous abortions and findings of goiter, ascites, craniosyntosis, fetal growth retardation, maceration and hydrops at fetal autopsy. If untreated, this disease can result in intrauterine death. The treatment for this disease consists of giving carbimazole to the mother, which is transferred through the placenta to the fetus. The dose of carbimazole is titrated with the fetal heart rate. If the mother becomes hypothyroid due to carbimazole, thyroxine is added taking advantage of the fact that very little of thyroxine is transferred across the placenta. Neonatal thyrotoxicosis patients are very sick and require emergency treatment. The goal of the treatment is to normalize thyroid functions as quickly as possible, to avoid iatrogenic hypothyroidism while providing management and supportive therapy for the infant's specific signs and symptoms. PMID:24251220

  18. Fetal Hemodynamics and Fetal Growth Indices by Ultrasound in Late Pregnancy and Birth Weight in Gestational Diabetes Mellitus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Fang; Liu, Yong; Lai, Ya-Ping; Gu, Xiao-Ning; Liu, Dong-Mei; Yang, Min

    2016-01-01

    Background: The offspring of women with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) are prone to macrosomia. However, birth weight is difficult to be correctly estimated by ultrasound because of fetal asymmetric growth characteristics. This study aimed to investigate the correlations between fetal hemodynamics, fetal growth indices in late pregnancy, and birth weight in GDM. Methods: A total of 147 women with GDM and 124 normal controls (NC) were enrolled in this study. Fetal hemodynamic indices, including the systolic/diastolic ratio (S/D), resistance index (RI), pulsatility index (PI) of umbilical artery (UA), middle cerebral artery (MCA), and renal artery (RA), were collected. Fetal growth indices, including biparietal diameter (BPD), head circumference (HC), abdominal circumference (AC), and femur length, were also measured by ultrasound. Birth weight, newborn gender, and maternal clinical data were collected. Results: The independent samples t-test showed that BPD, HC, and AC were larger in GDM than in NC (P 0.05). RA (S/D, PI, and RI) was positively correlated with birth weight in GDM (r = 0.168, 0.207, and 0.184, respectively, P 0.05). Conclusion: Fetal hemodynamic indices in late pregnancy might be helpful for estimating newborn birth weight in women with GDM. PMID:27569240

  19. Development of prenatal lateralization : evidence from fetal mouth movements.

    OpenAIRE

    Reissland, Nadja; Francis, Brian; Aydin, Ezra; Mason, James; Exley, Kendra

    2014-01-01

    Background: Human lateralized behaviors relate to the asymmetric development of the brain. Research of the prenatal origins of laterality is equivocal with some studies suggesting that fetuses exhibit lateralized behavior and other not finding such laterality. Given that by around 22 weeks gestation the left cerebral hemisphere compared to the right is significantly larger in both male and female fetuses we expected that the right side of the fetal face would show more movement with increa...

  20. Tuberculoma cerebral

    OpenAIRE

    BARROSO ELIZABETH CLARA; OLIVEIRA TÂNIA REGINA BRÍGIDO DE; AMARAL ANA MARIA DANTAS DO; PINHEIRO VALÉRIA GÓES FERREIRA; SOUSA ANA LÚCIA DE OLIVEIRA

    2002-01-01

    Relata-se o caso de paciente com crises convulsivas de início recente. A tomografia computadorizada cerebral evidenciou imagem sugestiva de lesão expansiva metastática frontoparietal direita. A investigação de tumor primário ou outra doença foi negativa e o exame histopatológico do tecido cerebral diagnosticou tuberculoma. As convulsões foram controladas com a associação de hidantoína 300mg/dia ao esquema específico, utilizado por 18 meses. A tuberculose do sistema nervoso central representa ...

  1. [Fetal ocular anomalies: the advantages of prenatal magnetic resonance imaging].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brémond-Gignac, D; Copin, H; Elmaleh, M; Milazzo, S

    2010-05-01

    Congenital ocular malformations are uncommon and require prenatal diagnosis. Severe anomalies are more often detected by trained teams and minor anomalies are more difficult to identify and must be systematically sought, particularly when multiple malformations or a family and maternal history is known. The prenatal diagnosis-imaging tool most commonly used is ultrasound but it can be completed by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), which contributes crucial information. Fetal dysmorphism can occur in various types of dysfunction and prenatal diagnosis must recognize fetal ocular anomalies. After systematic morphologic ultrasound imaging, different abnormalities detected by MRI are studied. Classical parameters such as binocular and interorbital measurements are used to detect hypotelorism and hypertelorism. Prenatal ocular anomalies such as cataract microphthalmia, anophthalmia, and coloboma have been described. Fetal MRI added to prenatal sonography is essential in detecting cerebral and general anomalies and can give more information on the size and morphology of the eyeball. Fetal abnormality detection includes a detailed family and maternal history, an amniotic fluid sample for karyotype, and other analyses for a better understanding of the images. Each pregnancy must be discussed with all specialists for genetic counseling. With severe malformations, termination of pregnancy is proposed because of risk of blindness and associated cerebral or systemic anomalies. Early prenatal diagnosis of ocular malformations can also detect associated abnormalities, taking congenital cataracts that need surgical treatment into account as early as possible. Finally, various associated syndromes need a pediatric check-up that could lead to emergency treatment.

  2. 施普善对HSV-1感染乳鼠脑神经细胞保护作用研究%Study of Cerebrolysin protection on HSV - 1 infected fetal mice cerebral nerve cell

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    倪坤; 杨世炳; 唐久来; 吴德; 杨李; 段军; 张玲

    2011-01-01

    目的 探讨施普善对HSV-1感染小鼠神经细胞保护作用.方法 建立HSV-1感染神经系统的小鼠模型,将模型分为未治疗和施普善治疗组,同时设正常对照组,比较各组小鼠病死率、血清NO、IL-lβ水平变化和电镜下小鼠神经细胞形态结构变化.结果 施普善治疗组小鼠病死率、血清NO及IL-1β水平均比未治疗组明显降低,差异有统计学意义(P<0.01);电镜下施普善治疗组小鼠神经细胞,髓鞘病变均较轻.结论 施普善可能通过降低HSV-1感染小鼠血清NO、IL-1β水平,减轻神经细胞的炎症反应及细胞因子引起的神经毒性作用,达到对神经细胞的保护作用.%Objective To study Cerebrolysin protection on the mice cerebral nerve cells which were infected HSV - 1. Methods The HSV-1 infectod rats model were built, then the rats were divided into two groups:cerebrolysin -treated group and untreated group, meanwhile the normal control group was set. The mortality rate, NO and IL - 1β levels in serum were detected, and the variations of nerve cells were examined under microscope. Results The mortality rate, NO and IL - lβ levels in blood in Cerebrolysin - treated group were obviously lower than those in untreated group (P <0.01 ). Nerve cells were damaged slightly and myelin sheath changed gently under microscope in Cerebrolysin - treated group. Conclusion The protective mechanism of Cerebrolysin for nerve cell can cut down NO and IL - 1β levels in serum of rats with HSV - 1 infection and lessen inflammatory reaction in neurocytes and the neurotoxic action caused by cytokines.

  3. Vein of galen aneurysmal malformation: prognostic markers depicted on fetal MRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Matthias W; Vaught, Arthur J; Poretti, Andrea; Blakemore, Karin J; Huisman, Thierry A G M

    2015-02-01

    Fetal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) serves a dual role in the prenatal diagnostic work up of a vein of Galen aneurysmal malformation (VGAM). First, it may confirm the prenatal ultrasound findings and secondly it may identify prognostically important secondary complications of the VGAM. Progressive heart failure with development of fetal hydrops and hemispheric white matter injuries are associated with a poor outcome in children with a VGAM. We present the prenatal findings using both ultrasound and MRI of a fetus with VGAM including bilateral injury of the cerebral hemispheres, severe dilatation of the jugular veins, cardiomegaly, and hydrops fetalis. The neonate died within 30 minutes after delivery. Moreover, fetal MRI revealed complete placenta praevia, uterine fibroids, and wrapping of the umbilical cord around the fetal neck. This additional information is unrelated to the fetal pathology, but could have been of importance to plan the delivery. PMID:25924177

  4. Cerebellar cytokine expression in a rat model for fetal asphyctic preconditioning and perinatal asphyxia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vlassaks, Evi; Brudek, Tomasz; Pakkenberg, Bente;

    2014-01-01

    was decreased 96 h postfetal asphyxia. When applied as preconditioning stimulus, fetal asphyxia attenuates the cerebellar cytokine response. These results indicate that sublethal fetal asphyxia may protect the cerebellum from perinatal asphyxia-induced damage via inhibition of inflammation.......Asphyctic brain injury is a major cause of neuronal inflammation in the perinatal period. Fetal asphyctic preconditioning has been shown to modulate the cerebral inflammatory cytokine response, hereby protecting the brain against asphyctic injury at birth. This study was designated to examine...... the effects of perinatal asphyxia and fetal asphyctic preconditioning on the inflammatory cytokine response in the cerebellum. Fetal asphyxia was induced at embryonic day 17 by clamping the uterine vasculature for 30 min. At term birth, global perinatal asphyxia was induced by placing the uterine horns...

  5. Cerebral Arteriosclerosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the brain can cause a hemorrhagic stroke. Both types of stroke can be fatal. Cerebral arteriosclerosis is also related to a condition known as vascular dementia, in which small, symptom-free strokes cause cumulative damage and death to neurons (nerve cells) in the brain. Personality changes in ...

  6. Pathogenesis of cerebral malformations in human fetuses with meningomyelocele

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Wit, Olga A; den Dunnen, Wilfred Fa; Sollie, Krystyne M; Muñoz, Rosa Iris; Meiners, Linda C; Brouwer, Oebele F; Rodríguez, Esteban M; Sival, Deborah A

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Fetal spina bifida aperta (SBA) is characterized by a spinal meningomyelocele (MMC) and associated with cerebral pathology, such as hydrocephalus and Chiari II malformation. In various animal models, it has been suggested that a loss of ventricular lining (neuroepithelial/ependymal denud

  7. Orthodontic Treatment for a Patient with Cerebral Palsy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TANG Kai-hong; DUAN Chang-hua; WANG Zeng-quan

    2009-01-01

    @@ Cerebral palsy(CP) is a group of permanent disorders asso-ciated with the developmental brain injuries that occur during fe-tal development, at birth, or shortly after birth[1,2]. Very few of such patients had the chance to be treated their maloccluded teeth. So, many orthodontists have no experience on such cases.

  8. Fetal abdominal magnetic resonance imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This review deals with the in vivo magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) appearance of the human fetal abdomen. Imaging findings are correlated with current knowledge of human fetal anatomy and physiology, which are crucial to understand and interpret fetal abdominal MRI scans. As fetal MRI covers a period of more than 20 weeks, which is characterized not only by organ growth, but also by changes and maturation of organ function, a different MR appearance of the fetal abdomen results. This not only applies to the fetal intestines, but also to the fetal liver, spleen, and adrenal glands. Choosing the appropriate sequences, various aspects of age-related and organ-specific function can be visualized with fetal MRI, as these are mirrored by changes in signal intensities. Knowledge of normal development is essential to delineate normal from pathological findings in the respective developmental stages

  9. Fetal fluid and protein dynamics

    OpenAIRE

    Pasman, Suzanne

    2010-01-01

    In this thesis fetal fluid and protein dynamics are investigated to gain insight in fetal (patho-)physiology. Studies were performed in fetuses with severe anemia and/or hydrops fetalis. Measurements were performed in fetal blood or amniotic fluid, obtained before or during intrauterine transfusion. The severity of anemia can be predicted by measurement of bilirubin in amniotic fluid. We showed that this concentration is based on bilirubin in fetal blood and on albumin concentrations. Albumin...

  10. CELLULAR FETAL MICROCHIMERISM IN PREECLAMPSIA

    OpenAIRE

    Gammill, Hilary S; Aydelotte, Tessa M.; Guthrie, Katherine A.; Nkwopara, Evangelyn C.; Nelson, J. Lee

    2013-01-01

    Previous studies have shown elevated concentrations of free fetal deoxyribonucleic acid and erythroblasts in maternal circulation in preeclampsia compared with normal pregnancy. Pluripotent and immunocompetent fetal cells also transfer to the maternal circulation during pregnancy, but whether concentrations of fetal mononuclear cells also differed in preeclampsia was unknown. We sought to quantify cellular fetal microchimerism in maternal circulation in women with preeclampsia and healthy con...

  11. Fetal Amelia: A Case Report

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammed Abdul-Latif; Asfhaq Ahmed; Shahila Tanzeem; Nihal Al Riyami

    2012-01-01

     Congenital limb defects are rare fetal anomalies with a birth prevalence of 0.55 per 1,000. Amelia is an extremely rare birth defect marked by the complete absence of one or more limbs. We report a case of fetal amelia, ultrasound findings, manifestations and the fetal outcome.

  12. Fetal fluid and protein dynamics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pasman, Suzanne

    2010-01-01

    In this thesis fetal fluid and protein dynamics are investigated to gain insight in fetal (patho-)physiology. Studies were performed in fetuses with severe anemia and/or hydrops fetalis. Measurements were performed in fetal blood or amniotic fluid, obtained before or during intrauterine transfusion.

  13. Fetal middle cerebral artery blood flow veloeity in prediction of fetal thalassaemia%胎儿大脑中动脉血流峰值速度在预测胎儿地中海贫血中的临床应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张越青; 凌奕; 金松; 南瑞霞; 张建辉; 莫秀兰; 华少萍

    2010-01-01

    目的:评估胎儿大脑中动脉血流峰值速度(middle cerebral artery peak systolic velocity,MCA-PSV)在预测胎儿地中海贫血(地贫)中的临床应用价值.方法:对100例孕16~41周的单胎妊娠孕妇行二维及多谱勒超声检查,胎儿地中海贫血高危孕妇每月1次,测量胎儿MCA-PSV直到获得脐血血红蛋白(Hb)值为止.胎儿地中海贫血高危孕妇并行羊膜腔穿刺或脐血穿刺进行地贫基因诊断.每例患者行脐血穿刺前或分娩后均做胎儿血红蛋白(Hb)测定.MCA-PSV和Hb均用相应孕周中位数的倍数(MOM)表示.分析两者的相关性及MCA-PSV在胎儿地中海贫血的预测价值.结果:胎儿MCA-PSV与Hb浓度呈负相关(r=0.82);重型地贫胎儿MCA-PSV明显高于正常组以及轻度和中间型地贫胎儿.预测的敏感性和特异性为100%(7/7);7例Hb Barts胎儿水肿综合征MCA-PSV升高早于胎儿出现形体异常改变.结论:胎儿大脑中动脉血流峰值速度预测胎儿重型地贫,无创伤、发现早、准确性高,是产前筛查和诊断的有效途径之一.

  14. Pathogenesis of cerebral malformations in human fetuses with meningomyelocele

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brouwer Oebele F

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Fetal spina bifida aperta (SBA is characterized by a spinal meningomyelocele (MMC and associated with cerebral pathology, such as hydrocephalus and Chiari II malformation. In various animal models, it has been suggested that a loss of ventricular lining (neuroepithelial/ependymal denudation may trigger cerebral pathology. In fetuses with MMC, little is known about neuroepithelial/ependymal denudation and the initiating pathological events. The objective of this study was to investigate whether neuroepithelial/ependymal denudation occurs in human fetuses and neonates with MMC, and if so, whether it is associated with the onset of hydrocephalus. Methods Seven fetuses and 1 neonate (16–40 week gestational age, GA with MMC and 6 fetuses with normal cerebral development (22–41 week GA were included in the study. Identification of fetal MMC and clinical surveillance of fetal head circumference and ventricular width was performed by ultrasound (US. After birth, MMC was confirmed by histology. We characterized hydrocephalus by increased head circumference in association with ventriculomegaly. The median time interval between fetal cerebral ultrasound and fixing tissue for histology was four days. Results At 16 weeks GA, we observed neuroepithelial/ependymal denudation in the aqueduct and telencephalon together with sub-cortical heterotopias in absence of hydrocephalus and/or Chiari II malformation. At 21–34 weeks GA, we observed concurrence of aqueductal neuroepithelial/ependymal denudation and progenitor cell loss with the Chiari II malformation, whereas hydrocephalus was absent. At 37–40 weeks GA, neuroepithelial/ependymal denudation coincided with Chiari II malformation and hydrocephalus. Sub-arachnoidal fibrosis at the convexity was absent in all fetuses but present in the neonate. Conclusion In fetal SBA, neuroepithelial/ependymal denudation in the telencephalon and the aqueduct can occur before Chiari II malformation

  15. Employees with Cerebral Palsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Resources Home | Accommodation and Compliance Series: Employees with Cerebral Palsy (CP) By Eddie Whidden, MA Preface Introduction Information ... SOAR) at http://AskJAN.org/soar. Information about Cerebral Palsy (CP) What is CP? Cerebral palsy is a ...

  16. A Rare Malignant Fetal Brain Tumor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iruretagoyena, Jesus Igor; Heiser, Timothy; Iskandar, Bermans; Shah, Dinesh

    2016-01-01

    A gravida 4, para 3 female at 37 weeks' gestation presented for a routine ultrasound. She had an otherwise uncomplicated low-risk pregnancy. The sonographic evaluation of the fetus revealed a macrocephaly and a deviation of the brain midline structures with a mass effect as well as a massively dilated left cerebral ventricular system with ill-defined echogenic ventricular delineation. Multiple free intracavitary echogenicities and disruptions of the brain mantle were visible. Our images were suggestive of either an intracranial bleed with the presence of an underlying tumor or a spontaneous bleed. A postnatal MRI was consistent with our prenatal findings of a possible tumor. The postnatal biopsy revealed an anaplastic astroblastoma within a hemorrhagic background. The infant received multiple courses of chemotherapy and further tumor debulking. At present, the infant is 18 months old. This is only the 4th case of an astrocytoma identified in the fetal period, and our case has the longest known survival yet. PMID:26044034

  17. Stillbirth and fetal growth restriction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bukowski, Radek

    2010-09-01

    The association between stillbirth and fetal growth restriction is strong and supported by a large body of evidence and clinically employed for the stillbirth prediction. However, although assessment of fetal growth is a basis of clinical practice, it is not trivial. Essentially, fetal growth is a result of the genetic growth potential of the fetus and placental function. The growth potential is the driving force of fetal growth, whereas the placenta as the sole source of nutrients and oxygen might become the rate limiting element of fetal growth if its function is impaired. Thus, placental dysfunction may prevent the fetus from reaching its full genetically determined growth potential. In this sense fetal growth and its aberration provides an insight into placental function. Fetal growth is a proxy for the test of the effectiveness of placenta, whose function is otherwise obscured during pregnancy.

  18. Reproductive decisions after fetal genetic counselling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pergament, Eugene; Pergament, Deborah

    2012-10-01

    A broad range of testing modalities for fetal genetic disease has been established. These include carrier screening for single-gene mutations, first-trimester and second-trimester screening for chromosome abnormalities and open neural-tube defects, prenatal diagnosis by means of chorionic villus sampling and amniocentesis, and preimplantation genetic diagnosis. Reproductive decisions before and after fetal genetic counselling represent the culmination of a dynamic interaction between prospective parents, obstetrician and genetic counsellor. The decision to undergo genetic testing before and after genetic counselling is influenced by a host of interrelated factors, including patient-partner and family relationships, patient-physician communication, societal mores, religious beliefs, and the media. Because of the complexity of personal and societal factors involved, it is not surprising that genetic counselling concerning reproductive decision-making must be individualised. A limited number of principles, guidelines and standards apply when counselling about testing for fetal genetic disease. These principles are that genetic counselling should be non-directive and unbiased and that parental decisions should be supported regardless of the reproductive choice. A critical responsibility of the obstetrician and genetic counsellor is to provide accurate and objective information about the implications, advantages, disadvantages and consequences of any genetic testing applied to prospective parents and their fetuses. These principles and responsibilities will be tested as newer technologies, such as array comparative genome hybridisation, non-invasive prenatal diagnosis and sequencing of the entire genome are introduced into the field of reproductive genetics and become routine practice.

  19. Clinical course of fetal hydrocephalus: 40 cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pretorius, D H; Davis, K; Manco-Johnson, M L; Manchester, D; Meier, P R; Clewell, W H

    1985-04-01

    The clinical course and outcome of hydrocephalus diagnosed in utero is not well understood. To approach this problem 40 cases were reviewed of intrauterine fetal hydrocephalus diagnosed with sonography, and follow-up information was obtained regarding them. Sonograms were evaluated for cerebral dimensions, biparietal diameter, brain mantle size, ventricular ratio, amount of amniotic fluid, and associated abnormalities. Neonatal brain sonograms and computed tomographic (CT) scans were reviewed also. Clinical charts were reviewed for maternal age and parity, referral source, family history, fetal age at diagnosis and delivery, mode of delivery, physical examination and/or autopsy findings, karyotype, amniotic alpha 1 fetoprotein level, cause of death, shunt placement after birth, and status of live infants. The observations indicate that the prognosis for fetal hydrocephalus is poor. Only six infants (15%) were alive after an average follow-up of 13 months. Three children were normal and the other three had neurologic abnormalities ranging from severe (paralysis and incontinence) to minimal (2-3 months delayed motor development). Thirty-four fetuses or neonates died. Nine families elected to terminate pregnancy. Ten opted for decompression at delivery for progressive hydrocephalus. Neural tube defects were present in 12 of 23 infants at delivery. Fourteen other infants had additional significant congenital abnormalities. Other abnormal sonographic findings included polyhydramnios (13 of 38), oligohydramnios or decreased fluid (nine of 38), neural tube defect (nine of 40), and other congenital abnormalities (nine of 40). These findings indicate that hydrocephalus diagnosed in utero by sonography is caused by a heterogeneous group of disorders. In general, the prognosis for normal development is poor. Individual prognoses, however, depend on the specific malformations and the interventions used. PMID:3883714

  20. Cerebral palsy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reviews cranial MR findings in patients with cerebral palsy (CP) to clarify and categorize this disorder. The MR images of 40 patients with clinical CP were retrospectively reviewed. All patients suffered either varying spastic plegias, hypotonicity, or choreoathetosis. Concomitantly, the patients suffered from static encephalopathy, developmental delay, and/or microcephaly. Twenty-four patients were born at or near term, 10 were premature, and incomplete birth histories were available in six. The MR images revealed mild to severe degrees of white matter damage in 24 patients (12 term, nine premature, three unknown)

  1. Fetal varicella syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramachandra S

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Fetal varicella syndrome is a rare condition of the newborn, presenting with cutaneous scars, limb defects and ocular and central nervous system abnormalities. It is due to varicella or zoster developing in the fetus following maternal varicella infection during early pregnancy. We are reporting one such patient who presented with a linear, depressed, erythematous scar over the left forearm and axillary fold, with a history of maternal chicken pox during the first trimester of pregnancy.

  2. Fetal varicella syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Ramachandra S; Metta Arun; Haneef Nayeem; Kodali Sandeep

    2010-01-01

    Fetal varicella syndrome is a rare condition of the newborn, presenting with cutaneous scars, limb defects and ocular and central nervous system abnormalities. It is due to varicella or zoster developing in the fetus following maternal varicella infection during early pregnancy. We are reporting one such patient who presented with a linear, depressed, erythematous scar over the left forearm and axillary fold, with a history of maternal chicken pox during the first trimester of pregnancy.

  3. Fetal and neonatal thyrotoxicosis

    OpenAIRE

    Chandar Mohan Batra

    2013-01-01

    Fetal thyrotoxicosis is a rare disease occurring in 1 out of 70 pregnancies with Grave′s disease or in 1 out of 4000-50,000 deliveries. The mortality is 12-20%, usually from heart failure, but other complications are tracheal compression, infections and thrombocytopenia. It results from transfer of thyroid stimulating immunoglobulins from mother to fetus through the placenta. This transplacental transfer begins around 20 th week of pregnancy and reaches its maximum by 30 th week. These autoan...

  4. Cerebral malaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Postels, Douglas G; Birbeck, Gretchen L

    2013-01-01

    Malaria, the most significant parasitic disease of man, kills approximately one million people per year. Half of these deaths occur in those with cerebral malaria (CM). The World Health Organization (WHO) defines CM as an otherwise unexplained coma in a patient with malarial parasitemia. Worldwide, CM occurs primarily in African children and Asian adults, with the vast majority (greater than 90%) of cases occurring in children 5 years old or younger in sub-Saharan Africa. The pathophysiology of the disease is complex and involves infected erythrocyte sequestration, cerebral inflammation, and breakdown of the blood-brain barrier. A recently characterized malarial retinopathy is visual evidence of Plasmodium falciparum's pathophysiological processes occurring in the affected patient. Treatment consists of supportive care and antimalarial administration. Thus far, adjuvant therapies have not been shown to improve mortality rates or neurological outcomes in children with CM. For those who survive CM, residual neurological abnormalities are common. Epilepsy, cognitive impairment, behavioral disorders, and gross neurological deficits which include motor, sensory, and language impairments are frequent sequelae. Primary prevention strategies, including bed nets, vaccine development, and chemoprophylaxis, are in varied states of development and implementation. Continuing efforts to find successful primary prevention options and strategies to decrease neurological sequelae are needed. PMID:23829902

  5. Forskolin and the meiosis inducing substance synergistically initiate meiosis in fetal male germ cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Byskov, A G; Fenger, M; Westergaard, L;

    1993-01-01

    We have shown that Meiosis Inducing Substance (MIS) and forskolin synergistically and dose dependently induce meiosis in germ cells of cultured fetal mouse testes. We used a bioassay which consists of fetal mouse testes and ovaries cultured for 6 days. In this study MIS media are spent culture...... are fixed, squashed, and DNA-stained. In these preparations germ cells and somatic cells can be distinguished, and the number of germ cells in the different stages of meiosis is counted as is the number of somatic cells in mitosis. MIS activity is defined to be present in a medium when meiosis is induced...... in male germ cells during culture. We found that MIS media as well as forskolin induced meiosis in fetal male germ cells in a dose-dependent manner. In addition, MIS media and forskolin acted synergistically by inducing meiosis. Female germ cells seem to be unaffected by the various culture media...

  6. Forskolin and the meiosis inducing substance synergistically initiate meiosis in fetal male germ cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Byskov, A G; Fenger, M; Westergaard, L;

    1993-01-01

    are fixed, squashed, and DNA-stained. In these preparations germ cells and somatic cells can be distinguished, and the number of germ cells in the different stages of meiosis is counted as is the number of somatic cells in mitosis. MIS activity is defined to be present in a medium when meiosis is induced......We have shown that Meiosis Inducing Substance (MIS) and forskolin synergistically and dose dependently induce meiosis in germ cells of cultured fetal mouse testes. We used a bioassay which consists of fetal mouse testes and ovaries cultured for 6 days. In this study MIS media are spent culture...... in male germ cells during culture. We found that MIS media as well as forskolin induced meiosis in fetal male germ cells in a dose-dependent manner. In addition, MIS media and forskolin acted synergistically by inducing meiosis. Female germ cells seem to be unaffected by the various culture media...

  7. MRI of the fetal spine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simon, Erin M. [Departement of Radiology, Children' s Hospital of Philadelphia, PA (United States)

    2004-09-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging of the fetal spine is a vital complement to fetal sonographic examination. Assessing the wide spectrum of spinal dysraphism, as well as spinal neoplasia, allows for more correct prenatal diagnoses, patient care planning, and patient counselling. Proper appraisal of the value of experimental procedures, such as fetal myelomeningocoele repair, requires a high level of diagnostic accuracy for the selection and follow-up of appropriate candidates. (orig.)

  8. Management of fetal growth restriction

    OpenAIRE

    Alberry, M; Soothill, P

    2007-01-01

    Fetal growth restriction (FGR) is challenging because of the difficulties in reaching a definitive diagnosis of the cause and planning management. FGR is associated not only with a marked increased risk in perinatal mortality and morbidity but also with long‐term outcome risks. Combinations of fetal biometry, amniotic fluid volume, heart rate patterns, arterial and venous Doppler, and biophysical variables allow a comprehensive fetal evaluation of FGR. However, no evidence supports that the u...

  9. Glucose metabolism of fetal rat brain in utero, measured with labeled deoxyglucose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mammals have low cerebral metabolic rates immediately after birth and, by inference, also before birth. In this study, we extended the deoxyglucose method to the fetal rat brain in utero. Rate constants for deoxyglucose transfer across the maternal placental and fetal blood-brain barriers, and lumped constant, have not been reported. Therefore, we applied a new method of determining the lumped constant regionally to the fetal rat brain in utero. The lumped constant averaged 0.55 ± 0.15 relative to the maternal circulation. On this basis, we determined the glucose metabolic rate of the fetal rat brain to be one third of the corresponding maternal value, or 19 ± 2 μmol hg-1 min-1. (author)

  10. Fetal MRI and ultrasound of congenital CNS anomalies; Fetales MRT und Ultraschall der angeborenen ZNS-Fehlbildungen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pogledic, I.; Reith, W. [Universitaetsklinikum des Saarlandes, Homburg/Saar, Klinik fuer Diagnostische und Interventionelle Neuroradiologie, Homburg/Saar (Germany); Meyberg-Solomayer, G. [Universitaetsklinikum des Saarlandes, Homburg/Saar, Klinik fuer Frauenheilkunde, Geburtsheilkunde und Reproduktionsmedizin, Homburg/Saar (Germany)

    2013-02-15

    In the last decade the newest technologies, fetal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and 3D ultrasound, have given an insight into the minute structures of the fetal brain. However, without knowledge of the basic developmental processes the imaging is futile. Knowledge of fetal neuroanatomy corresponding to the gestational week is necessary in order to recognize pathological structures. Furthermore, a modern neuroradiologist should be acquainted with the three steps in the formation of the cerebral cortex: proliferation, migration and differentiation of neurons in order to be in a position to suspect that there is a pathology and start recognizing and discovering the abnormalities. The fetal MRI has become an important complementary method to ultrasound especially in cortical malformations when confirmation of the prenatal diagnosis is needed and additional pathologies need to be diagnosed. In this manner these two methods help in parental counseling and treatment planning. (orig.) [German] Dank neuer Technologien (z. B. fetale MRT, 3-D-Sonographie) ist es moeglich, kleinste Hirnstrukturen darzustellen. Ohne Kenntnisse der grundlegenden Entwicklungsprozesse des Gehirns waere die Bildgebung jedoch sinnlos. Um pathologische Veraenderungen zu erkennen, ist es notwendig, den Stand der fetalen Neuroanatomie in der entsprechenden Schwangerschaftswoche zu kennen. Heutzutage sollte sich ein Neuroradiologe mit den 3 Schritten der kortikalen Entwicklung - Proliferation, Migration und Differenzierung der Neuronen - vertraut machen. Nur dann wird er in der Lage sein, pathologische Veraenderungen in Betracht zu ziehen, bzw. diese zu erkennen. Die fetale MRT ist besonders wichtig, ergaenzend zur zerebralen Sonographie, zur Diagnosebestaetigung bei kortikalen Veraenderungen und Nachweis weiterer Pathologien. In dieser Kombination ermoeglichen diese Methoden eine adaequate Beratung der Eltern und Planung der Behandlung. (orig.)

  11. Cerebral cysticercosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two cases of histologically proven cerebral cysticercosis are presented. In both cases subcutaneous tissue nodules, a rare feature, were present. Several disease patterns are apparent - meningeal, parenchymatous and ventricular, spinal cord lesions and mixed patterns. Epilepsy is by far the major presenting symptom of cysticercosis, which in turn plays a significant role in the causation of adult-onset epilepsy in Blacks. Despite its drawbacks, the haemag-glutination inhibition test remains the most satisfactory serological method at present available for the diagnosis of cysticercosis; it is positive in up to 85% of cases of proven cysticercosis. With the advent of computed tomography many cases of unsuspected cysticercosis (symptomatic or asymptomatic) are being discovered

  12. Intrauterine Extremity Gangrene and Cerebral Infarction at Term: A Case Report

    OpenAIRE

    G. Zachariassen; Nybo, M.; J. S. Jørgensen; Tanvig, M.

    2011-01-01

    Intrauterine extremity gangrene in combination with cerebral infarction is a serious and rare event. We present a case with a healthy mother who gave birth to a child with this condition. At term, the mother presented at the antenatal clinic with decreased fetal movements. Cardiotocography (CTG) showed signs of fetal distress and a caesarean section was performed. The left arm of the newborn was found gangrenous. Amputation of the arm was necessary and the child was subsequently treated with ...

  13. Assessment of fetal heart disorder by means of fetal magnetocardiography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Łozińska, Maria; Dunajski, Zbigniew

    2006-10-01

    Fetal magnetocardiography is new method for investigations of electrical activity of the fetal heart. The idea and build of system for magnetic signal registration is described. Two cases of premature atrial contraction and complete AV block diagnosis by means of magnetic field recording system are described.

  14. Comparison between human fetal and adult skin

    OpenAIRE

    Coolen, N.A.; Schouten, K.C.; Middelkoop, E.; Ulrich, M.

    2009-01-01

    Healing of early-gestation fetal wounds results in scarless healing. Since the capacity for regeneration is probably inherent to the fetal skin itself, knowledge of the fetal skin composition may contribute to the understanding of fetal wound healing. The aim of this study was to analyze the expression profiles of different epidermal and dermal components in the human fetal and adult skin. In the human fetal skin (ranging from 13 to 22 weeks’ gestation) and adult skin biopsies, the expression...

  15. Fetal cardiovascular physiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rychik, J

    2004-01-01

    The cardiovascular system of the fetus is physiologically different than the adult, mature system. Unique characteristics of the myocardium and specific channels of blood flow differentitate the physiology of the fetus from the newborn. Conditions of increased preload and afterload in the fetus, such as sacrococcygeal teratoma and twin-twin transfusion syndrome, result in unique and complex pathophysiological states. Echocardiography has improved our understanding of human fetal cadiovasvular physiology in the normal and diseased states, and has expanded our capability to more effectively treat these disease processes.

  16. Clinical implications of fetal magnetocardiography

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Quartero, H.W.P.; Stinstra, J.G.; Golbach, E.G.M.; Meijboom, E.J.; Peters, M.J.

    2002-01-01

    Objectives To test the usefulness and reliability of fetal magnetocardiography as a diagnostic or screening tool, both for fetuses with arrhythmias as well as for fetuses with a congenital heart defect. Methods We describe 21 women with either a fetal arrhythmia or a congenital heart defect disc

  17. Restrictive dermopathy and fetal behaviour

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mulder, EJH; Beemer, FA; Stoutenbeek, P

    2001-01-01

    We report three siblings from consecutive pregnancies affected with restrictive dermopathy (RD). During the second pregnancy, fetal behavioural development and growth were studied extensively using ultrasound at 1-4 week intervals. Dramatic and sudden changes occurred in fetal body movements and gro

  18. Impact of fetal echocardiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prenatal diagnosis of congenital heart disease is now well established for a wide range of cardiac anomalies. Diagnosis of congenital heart disease during fetal life not only identifies the cardiac lesion but may also lead to detection of associated abnormalities. This information allows a detailed discussion of the prognosis with parents. For continuing pregnancies, appropriate preparation can be made to optimize the postnatal outcome. Reduced morbidity and mortality, following antenatal diagnosis, has been reported for coarctation of the aorta, hypoplastic left heart syndrome, and transposition of the great arteries. With regard to screening policy, most affected fetuses are in the “low risk” population, emphasizing the importance of appropriate training for those who undertake such obstetric anomaly scans. As a minimum, the four chamber view of the fetal heart should be incorporated into midtrimester anomaly scans, and where feasible, views of the outflow tracts should also be included, to increase the diagnostic yield. Newer screening techniques, such as measurement of nuchal translucency, may contribute to identification of fetuses at high risk for congenital heart disease and prompt referral for detailed cardiac assessment

  19. Public health issues related to infection in pregnancy and cerebral palsy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schendel, Diana E.; Schuchat, Anne; Thorsen, Poul

    2002-01-01

    Cerebral palsy is the most common neuromotor developmental disability of childhood, affecting as many as 8,000 to 12,000 children born in the U.S. each year (corresponding to a prevalence rate of between 2 and 3 per 1000 children). Recent improvements in neonatal care have not resulted in a decline...... in the overall prevalence of cerebral palsy and, in fact, greater numbers of very preterm/very low birth weight infants are surviving with cerebral palsy and other developmental problems. Infection in pregnancy may be an important cause of the disorder. In preterm infants, there appears to be about a 2-fold...... increased risk for cerebral palsy from chorioamnionitis, and in term infants the estimated increased risk is about 4-fold. Provisionally, chorioamnionitis might account for 12% of spastic cerebral palsy in term infants and 28% of cerebral palsy in preterm infants. Studies of biochemical markers of fetal...

  20. Ensayo. Parálisis cerebral infantil. Estado actual y posibilidades futuras de tratamiento

    OpenAIRE

    Hernando Rafael; Victor Ayulo

    1991-01-01

    El trasplante tejido nervioso embrionario y fetal en diferentesportes l encéfalo a nivel experimental, abre nuevas posibilidades futuras su utilizacidn en humanos. La aplicación clínica reciente en el tratamiento la esquiwfrenia y enfermedad Parkinson es apenas el comienw del largo camino reconstrucci6n cerebral. Los autores creen que esta técnica puede utilizarse también en el tratamiento la parálisis cerebral infantil.

  1. Relations between fetal brain-sparing circulation, oxytocin challenge test, mode of delivery and fetal outcome in growth-restricted term fetuses.

    OpenAIRE

    Fu, Jing; Olofsson, Per

    2011-01-01

    Objective. The study was designed as a prospective non-interventional, observational study to elucidate the potential value of fetal middle cerebral artery Doppler velocimetry to identify brain-sparing flow in a surveillance program for suspected intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR). Material and methods. The study was carried out at Skåne University Hospital, Malmö, Sweden. One hundred and twenty-six single pregnancies suspected of IUGR at ≥36 gestational weeks were assessed. The main outc...

  2. Fetal and maternal outcomes in pregnancies complicated with fetal macrosomia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Alkhatim Alsammani

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Fetal macrosomia remains a considerable challenge in current obstetrics due to the fetal and maternal complications associated with this condition. Aim: This study was designed to determine the prevalence of fetal macrosomia and associated fetal and maternal morbidity and mortality in the Al Qassim Region of Saudi Arabia. Materials and Methods: This register-based study was conducted from January 1, 2011 through December 30, 2011 at the Maternity and Child Hospital, Qassim, Saudi Arabia. Macrosomia was defined as birth weight of 4 kg or greater. Malformed babies and those born dead were excluded. Results: The total number of babies delivered was 9241; of these, 418 were macrosomic. Thus, the prevalence of fetal macrosomia was 4.5%. The most common maternal complications were postpartum hemorrhage (5 cases, 1.2%, perineal tear (7 cases, 1.7%, cervical lacerations (3 cases, 0.7%, and shoulder dystocia (40 cases, 9.6% that resulted in 4 cases of Erb′s palsy (0.96%, and 6 cases of bone fractures (1.4%. The rate of cesarean section among women delivering macrosomic babies was 47.6% (199, while 52.4% (219 delivered vaginally. Conclusion: Despite extensive efforts to reduce fetal and maternal complications associated with macrosomia, considerable fetal and maternal morbidity remain associated with this condition.

  3. Fetal MRI demonstrates glioependymal cyst in a case of sonographic unilateral ventriculomegaly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muehler, Matthias R. [Charite-Universtitaetsmedizin Berlin, Department of Radiology, Berlin (Germany); Universite Paris 5, Laboratoire de Recherche en Imagerie (LRI), Faculte de Medecine Necker, Paris (France); Hartmann, Christian [Charite-Universtitaetsmedizin Berlin Campus Virchow-Klinikum, Department of Neuropathology, Berlin (Germany); Werner, Walter [Carl Gustav Carus University Medical Center, Department of Clinical Genetics, Dresden (Germany); Meyer, Oliver [Charite-Universtitaetsmedizin Berlin Campus Virchow-Klinikum, Department of Transfusion Medicine, Berlin (Germany); Bollmann, Rainer [Charite-Universtitaetsmedizin Berlin Campus Mitte, Division of Prenatal Medicine, Berlin (Germany); Klingebiel, Randolf [Charite-Universtitaetsmedizin Berlin Campus Mitte, Department of Neuroradiology, Berlin (Germany)

    2007-04-15

    We report a fetus of 28 weeks' gestation in which ultrasonography demonstrated unilateral ventriculomegaly and microcephaly. Fetal MRI demonstrated a simple, left paramedian occipital cyst with rarefaction of the corpus callosum and thinning of the adjacent cortical mantle. Ischaemia was suggested as the underlying pathogenesis, but autopsy after termination of pregnancy revealed a glioependymal cyst. This case highlights consideration of the rare diagnosis of glioependymal cyst when a cystic lesion associated with cerebral malformations, particularly dysgenesis of the corpus callosum, is demonstrated and fetal MRI suggests an ischaemic origin. (orig.)

  4. Effect of antenatal administration of thyrotrophin releasing hormone on fetal flow velocity waveforms

    OpenAIRE

    Bajoria, R.; Stagiannis, K.; Fisk, N.

    1997-01-01

    AIM—To determine whether antenatal administration of thyrotrophin releasing hormone (TRH), to promote lung maturation, alters blood flow through the fetal middle cerebral, umbilical artery, or ductus arteriosus and through the maternal uterine arteries.
METHODS—The effect of transplacentally administered TRH on the fetal circulation was prospectively evaluated in 30 patients between 24 and 34 weeks' gestation. TRH (400 µg) was given to the mother intravenously either as a bolus or an infusion...

  5. Insulin-like growth factor-1 is a potent neuronal rescue agent after hypoxic-ischemic injury in fetal lambs.

    OpenAIRE

    Johnston, B M; Mallard, E C; Williams, C. E.; Gluckman, P D

    1996-01-01

    This study was designed to determine the potential of IGF-1 as a neuronal rescue agent after cerebral ischemia. Unanesthetized late gestation fetal sheep were subjected to 30-min cerebral ischemia by inflation of carotid artery occluder cuffs. 2 h later either 0.1 microgram rhIGF-1, 1 microgram rhIGF-1, 10 micrograms rhIGF-1, or vehicle was infused into a lateral cerebral ventricle over 1 h. Histologic outcome was assessed 5 d later. Overall neuronal loss was reduced with 0.1 microgram (P < 0...

  6. United Cerebral Palsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... be sure to follow us on Twitter . United Cerebral Palsy UCP educates, advocates and provides support services to ... Partners Merz Logo Sprint Relay Copyright © 2015 United Cerebral Palsy 1825 K Street NW Suite 600 Washington, DC ...

  7. MR evaluation of fetal demise

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fetal demise is an uncommon event encountered at MR imaging. When it occurs, recognition by the interpreting radiologist is important to initiate appropriate patient management. To identify MR findings of fetal demise. Following IRB approval, a retrospective search of the radiology fetal MR database was conducted searching the words ''fetal demise'' and ''fetal death.'' Fetuses with obvious maceration or no sonographic confirmation of death were excluded. Eleven cases formed the study group. These were matched randomly to live fetuses of similar gestational age. Images were reviewed independently by three pediatric radiologists. The deceased fetus demonstrates decreased MR soft-tissue contrast and definition of tissue planes, including loss of gray-white matter differentiation in the brain. The signal within the cardiac chambers, when visible, is bright on HASTE sequences from the stagnant blood; the heart is small. Pleural effusions and decreased lung volumes may be seen. Interestingly, the fetal orbits lose their anatomical round shape and become smaller and more elliptical; a dark, irregular rim resembling a mask may be seen. Although fetal demise is uncommonly encountered at MR imaging, radiologists should be aware of such imaging findings so prompt management can be instituted. (orig.)

  8. MR evaluation of fetal demise

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Victoria, Teresa; Chauvin, Nancy Anne; Johnson, Ann M.; Kramer, Sandra Sue; Epelman, Monica [The Children' s Hospital of Philadelphia, Department of Radiology, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Capilla, Elena [Hospital Universitario Clinico San Carlos de Madrid, Madrid (Spain)

    2011-07-15

    Fetal demise is an uncommon event encountered at MR imaging. When it occurs, recognition by the interpreting radiologist is important to initiate appropriate patient management. To identify MR findings of fetal demise. Following IRB approval, a retrospective search of the radiology fetal MR database was conducted searching the words ''fetal demise'' and ''fetal death.'' Fetuses with obvious maceration or no sonographic confirmation of death were excluded. Eleven cases formed the study group. These were matched randomly to live fetuses of similar gestational age. Images were reviewed independently by three pediatric radiologists. The deceased fetus demonstrates decreased MR soft-tissue contrast and definition of tissue planes, including loss of gray-white matter differentiation in the brain. The signal within the cardiac chambers, when visible, is bright on HASTE sequences from the stagnant blood; the heart is small. Pleural effusions and decreased lung volumes may be seen. Interestingly, the fetal orbits lose their anatomical round shape and become smaller and more elliptical; a dark, irregular rim resembling a mask may be seen. Although fetal demise is uncommonly encountered at MR imaging, radiologists should be aware of such imaging findings so prompt management can be instituted. (orig.)

  9. Early Diagnosis and Early Intervention in Cerebral Palsy

    OpenAIRE

    Hadders-Algra, Mijna

    2014-01-01

    This paper reviews the opportunities and challenges for early diagnosis and early intervention in cerebral palsy (CP). CP describes a group of disorders of the development of movement and posture, causing activity limitation that is attributed to disturbances that occurred in the fetal or infant brain. Therefore, the paper starts with a summary of relevant information from developmental neuroscience. Most lesions underlying CP occur in the second half of gestation, when developmental activity...

  10. Fetal valproate syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parmarth G Chandane

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Antenatal use of anticonvulsant valproic acid can result in a well-recognized cluster of facial dysmorphism, congenital anomalies and neurodevelopmental retardation. In this report, we describe a case with typical features of fetal valproate syndrome (FVS. A 26-year-old female with epilepsy controlled on sodium valproate 800 mg/day since 3 years, gave birth to a male child with characteristic features of FVS. She also had 3 spontaneous first-trimester abortions during those 3 years. Sodium valproate, a widely used anticonvulsant and mood regulator, is a well-recognized teratogen that can result in facial dysmorphism, craniosynostosis, neural tube defects, and neurodevelopmental retardation. Therefore, we strongly recommend avoidance of valproic acid and supplementation of folic acid during pregnancy.

  11. Cerebral palsy and epilepsy

    OpenAIRE

    Knežević-Pogančev Marija

    2010-01-01

    Introduction. Cerebral palsy is the most common cause of physical disability in early childhood. Epilepsy is known to have a high association with cerebral palsy. All types of epileptic seizures can be seen in patients with cerebral palsy. Complex partial and secondary generalized ones are the most frequent seizure types. In persons with cerebral palsy and mental retardation, the diagnosis of epilepsy presents unique difficulties. Generally they are not able to describe the epileptic ev...

  12. MR imaging of fetal abnormalities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We retrospectively reviewed 20 cases of fetal non-sedated MRI, in comparison with the findings at birth or at autopsy. In normal fetuses and cases of hydramnios, the MR Images poor with lots of motion artifacts. The MRI motion artifacts of anomalous fetus were less prominent than those of normal fetuses. In pregnancies with severe fetal anomalies and/or oligo-hydramnios, MR Images were more clear, and had less artifacts. MRI was more useful for prenatal evaluation of pregnancies with severe fetal anomalies. (author)

  13. Fetal homologue of infant crying

    OpenAIRE

    Gingras, J.; Mitchell, E; Grattan, K

    2005-01-01

    Four behavioural states are recognised in the human fetus and are comparable to those of the neonate: 1F (quiet sleep), 2F (active state), 3F (quiet awake), and 4F (active awake). State 5, or crying, is not considered to have a fetal correlate. In a study assessing the effects of exposure to tobacco and cocaine during pregnancy on fetal response and habituation to vibroacoustic stimulation, what appears to be the fetal homologue of crying was observed. These behaviours were seen on ultrasound...

  14. Relationship between lipidemia and carotid intima-media thickness in patients with cerebral infarction%脑梗死患者血脂水平与颈动脉内中膜厚度的相关性分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖胜; 陈婧; 汪宏良; 肖劲松

    2012-01-01

    目的 探讨脑梗死(CI)患者血脂水平与颈动脉内中膜厚度(CIMT)的相关性.方法 测定120例CI患者(CI组)和120例神经科非CI患者(对照组)CIMT、血浆氧化低密度脂蛋白(ox-LDL)及血清总胆固醇(TC)、三酰甘油(TG)、低密度脂蛋白胆固醇(LDL-C)、高密度脂蛋白胆固醇(HDL-C)、载脂蛋白A1(Apo-A1)、载脂蛋白B (Apo-B)、脂蛋白(a)[ LP(a)]水平,并进行相关分析.结果 CI组TC、TG、Apo-B、LP(a)和ox-LDL水平高于对照组(P< 0.01);CI组CIMT检测结果 为1.1±0.32 mm,高于对照组的0.8±0.54 mm(P<0.01);CI组TC、TG、LDL-C、Apo-B 、LP(a)、ox-LDL与CIMT呈正相关(P<0.01),HDL-C、Apo-A1与CIMT呈负相关(P<0.01).结论 脂代谢异常与CI患者动脉粥样硬化密切相关;CI患者体内可能存在脂质过氧化反应;抑制脂质过氧化,减少ox-LDL的生成有助于预防和治疗CI.%Objective To investigate the relationship between lipidemia and carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT) in patients with cerebral infarction(CI). Methods CIMT,plasma oxidized low-density lipoprotein(ox-LDL)level and serum level of total cho-lesterol(TC) , triacylglycerol (TG) , low density lipoprotein-cholestero ( LDL-C) , high density lipoprotein-cholestero( HDL-C) , ap-oprotein AL(Apo-Al) ,apoprotein B(Apo-B) and lipoprotein(a)[LP(a)] were detected in 120 cases of patients with CI(CI group) and 120 non-CI subjects(control group). Results Levels of TC,TG, Apo-B, LP(a) and ox-LDL in CI group were higher than those in control group (P< 0. 01). CIMT of CI group was 1. 1 ± 0. 32 mm, which was higher than 0. 8 ± 0. 54 mm of control group(P< 0. 01). In CI group,TC,TG, LDL-C, Apo-B,LP(a) and ox-LDL were positively correlated with CIMT(P<0. 01) ,but HDL-C and Apo-Al were negatively correlated with CIMT(P<0. 01). Conclusion There could be certain correlation between abnormal lipid metabolism and atherosclerosis in patients with CI. There could be peroxidatic reaction of lipid in patients with CI

  15. Telencephalic Flexure and Malformations of the Lateral Cerebral (Sylvian) Fissure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarnat, Harvey B; Flores-Sarnat, Laura

    2016-10-01

    After sagittal division of the prosencephalon at 4.5 weeks of gestation, the early fetal cerebral hemisphere bends or rotates posteroventrally from seven weeks of gestation. The posterior pole of the telencephalon thus becomes not the occipital but the temporal lobe as the telencephalic flexure forms the operculum and finally the lateral cerebral or Sylvian fissure. The ventral part is infolded to become the insula. The frontal and temporal lips of the Sylvian fissure, as well as the insula, all derive from the ventral margin of the primitive telencephalon, hence may be influenced by genetic mutations with a ventrodorsal gradient of expression. The telencephalic flexure also contributes to a shift of the hippocampus from a dorsal to a ventral position, the early rostral pole of the hippocampus becoming caudal and dorsal becoming ventral. The occipital horn is the most recent recess of the lateral ventricle, hence most vulnerable to anatomic variations that affect the calcarine fissure. Many major malformations include lack of telencephalic flexure (holoprosencephaly, extreme micrencephaly) or dysplastic Sylvian fissure (lissencephalies, hemimegalencephaly, schizencephaly). Although fissures and sulci are genetically programmed, mechanical forces of growth and volume expansion are proposed to be mainly extrinsic (including ventricles) for fissures and intrinsic for sulci. In fetal hydrocephalus, the telencephalic flexure is less affected because ventricular dilatation occurs later in gestation. Flexures can be detected prenatally by ultrasound and fetal magnetic resonance imaging and should be described neuropathologically in cerebral malformations. PMID:27590993

  16. Fetal laser therapy: applications in the management of fetal pathologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathis, Jérôme; Raio, Luigi; Baud, David

    2015-07-01

    Fetoscopic coagulation of placental anastomoses is the treatment of choice for severe twin-to-twin transfusion syndrome. In the present day, fetal laser therapy is also used to treat amniotic bands, chorioangiomas, sacrococcygeal teratomas, lower urinary tract obstructions and chest masses, all of which will be reviewed in this article. Amniotic band syndrome can cause limb amputation by impairing downstream blood flow. Large chorioangiomas (>4 cm), sacrococcygeal teratomas or fetal hyperechoic lung lesions can lead to fetal compromise and hydrops by vascular steal phenomenon or compression. Renal damage, bladder dysfunction and lastly death because of pulmonary hypolasia may be the result of megacystis caused by a posterior urethral valve. The prognosis of these pathologies can be dismal, and therapy options are limited, which has brought fetal laser therapy to the forefront. Management options discussed here are laser release of amniotic bands, laser coagulation of the placental or fetal tumor feeding vessels and laser therapy by fetal cystoscopy. This review, largely based on case reports, does not intend to provide a level of evidence supporting laser therapy over other treatment options. Centralized evaluation by specialists using strict selection criteria and long-term follow-up of these rare cases are now needed to prove the value of endoscopic or ultrasound-guided laser therapy.

  17. MRS of normal and impaired fetal brain development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Girard, Nadine [Service de Neuroradiologie, Assistance Publique-Hopitaux de Marseille, Hopital la Timone, Universite de la Mediterranee, Marseille (France)]. E-mail: nadine.girard@ap-hm.fr; Fogliarini, Celine [Centre de Resonance Magnetique Biologique et Medicale, UMR CNRS 6612, Universite de la Mediterranee, Faculte de Medecine la Timone, Marseille (France); Viola, Angele [Centre de Resonance Magnetique Biologique et Medicale, UMR CNRS 6612, Universite de la Mediterranee, Faculte de Medecine la Timone, Marseille (France); Confort-Gouny, Sylviane [Centre de Resonance Magnetique Biologique et Medicale, UMR CNRS 6612, Universite de la Mediterranee, Faculte de Medecine la Timone, Marseille (France); Le Fur, Yann [Centre de Resonance Magnetique Biologique et Medicale, UMR CNRS 6612, Universite de la Mediterranee, Faculte de Medecine la Timone, Marseille (France); Viout, Patrick [Centre de Resonance Magnetique Biologique et Medicale, UMR CNRS 6612, Universite de la Mediterranee, Faculte de Medecine la Timone, Marseille (France); Chapon, Frederique [Service de Neuroradiologie, Assistance Publique-Hopitaux de Marseille, Hopital la Timone, Universite de la Mediterranee, Marseille (France); Levrier, Olivier [Service de Neuroradiologie, Assistance Publique-Hopitaux de Marseille, Hopital la Timone, Universite de la Mediterranee, Marseille (France); Cozzone, Patrick [Centre de Resonance Magnetique Biologique et Medicale, UMR CNRS 6612, Universite de la Mediterranee, Faculte de Medecine la Timone, Marseille (France)

    2006-02-15

    Cerebral maturation in the human fetal brain was investigated by in utero localized proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS). Spectra were acquired on a clinical MR system operating at 1.5 T. Body phased array coils (four coils) were used in combination with spinal coils (two coils). The size of the nominal volume of interest (VOI) was 4.5 cm{sup 3} (20 mm x 15 mm x 15 mm). The MRS acquisitions were performed using a spin echo sequence at short and long echo times (TE = 30 ms and 135 ms) with a VOI located within the cerebral hemisphere at the level of the centrum semiovale. A significant reduction in myo-inositol and choline and an increase in N-acetylaspartate were observed with progressive age. The normal MR spectroscopy data reported here will help to determine whether brain metabolism is altered, especially when subtle anatomic changes are observed on conventional images. Some examples of impaired fetal brain development studied by MRS are illustrated.

  18. FETAL MONITORING DURING THE OBSTETRIC LABOR

    OpenAIRE

    Salcedo-Ramos Francisco; Méndez-Rodríguez Rogelio; Vallejo-Navarro Carolina

    2015-01-01

    The intrapartum fetal monitoring is part of the tests to assess the fetal well-being. It is an easy, cheap, reproducible and non-invasive method without adverse effects or contraindications. The main objective of this method is to assess the fetal status during the obstetric labor, identifying the fetus that probably could have alterations. It is determined for alterations in the next variables: [A] Frequency, variability and decelerations of the fetal cardiac rhythm [B] Fetal ...

  19. The Danish Fetal Medicine Database

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ekelund, Charlotte K; Petersen, Olav B; Jørgensen, Finn S;

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To describe the establishment and organization of the Danish Fetal Medicine Database and to report national results of first-trimester combined screening for trisomy 21 in the 5-year period 2008-2012. DESIGN: National register study using prospectively collected first-trimester screening...... data from the Danish Fetal Medicine Database. POPULATION: Pregnant women in Denmark undergoing first-trimester screening for trisomy 21. METHODS: Data on maternal characteristics, biochemical and ultrasonic markers are continuously sent electronically from local fetal medicine databases (Astraia Gmbh......%. The national screen-positive rate increased from 3.6% in 2008 to 4.7% in 2012. The national detection rate of trisomy 21 was reported to be between 82 and 90% in the 5-year period. CONCLUSION: A national fetal medicine database has been successfully established in Denmark. Results from the database have shown...

  20. Fetal-maternal erythrocyte distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003407.htm Fetal-maternal erythrocyte distribution To use the sharing features ... unborn baby is leaking into the mother's blood circulation. The more of the baby's cells there are, ...

  1. Cerebral microangiopathies; Zerebrale Mikroangiopathien

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Linn, Jennifer [Klinikum der Universitaet Muenchen (Germany). Abt. fuer Neuroradiologie

    2011-03-15

    Cerebral microangiopathies are a very heterogenous group of diseases characterized by pathological changes of the small cerebral vessels. They account for 20 - 30 % of all ischemic strokes. Degenerative microangiopathy and sporadic cerebral amyloid angiography represent the typical acquired cerebral microangiopathies, which are found in over 90 % of cases. Besides, a wide variety of rare, hereditary microangiopathy exists, as e.g. CADASIL (Cerebral Autosomal Dominant Arteriopathy with Subcortical Infarcts and Leukoencephalopathy), Fabrys disease and MELAS syndrome (Mitochondrial myopathy, Encephalopathy, Lactic Acidosis, and Stroke-like episodes). (orig.)

  2. Acquired CNS lesions in fetal MRI; Erworbene ZNS-Laesionen im fetalen MRT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reith, W.; Pogledic, I. [Universitaetsklinikum des Saarlandes, Homburg/Saar, Klinik fuer Diagnostische und Interventionelle Neuroradiologie, Homburg/Saar (Germany)

    2013-02-15

    Acquired central nervous system (CNS) lesions are often subtle; therefore, the prenatal diagnosis of these lesions is extremely important. The fetal ultrasound examination and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) are two important imaging methods that give an insight into these types lesions. The method of choice during pregnancy is still fetal ultrasound; however, fetal MRI is important when there are certain pathologies, e.g. periventricular leukomalacia (PVL) or malformations of the vein of Galen. In this manner clinicians can plan further therapy after childbirth in advance (e.g. cerebral angiography or embolization). (orig.) [German] Die erworbenen ZNS-Laesionen sind oft subtil, und eine praezise praenatale Diagnostik ist in diesen Faellen besonders wichtig. Die fetale Sonographie und das fetale MRT koennen hierzu einen relevanten Beitrag leisten. Die Sonographie ist immer noch die Untersuchungsmethode der Wahl waehrend der Schwangerschaft. Insbesondere bei bestimmten Pathologien wie der periventrikulaeren Leukomalazie (PVL) oder einer V. -Galeni-Malformation ist das fetale MRT sehr hilfreich, um nach der Geburt die entsprechenden weitergehenden Massnahmen, wie eine zerebrale Angiographie und Embolisation, fruehzeitig zu planen. (orig.)

  3. Evaluation of fetal ventriculomegaly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Özgür Aydın

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the prenatal and postnatal follow up, treatment and the outcome of the patients with ventriculomegaly. Methods: Patients with lateral cerebral ventricle size 10mm and higher were included. 69 patients were considered but 8 patients refused to join our study. The patients were divided into two groups as they had additional anomalies (combined ventriculomegaly or not (isolated ventriculomegaly. Each group was divided into three subgroups according to their lateral cerebral ventricle size as mild (10-12 mm, moderate (12.1-4.9 mm, severe (15 mm and more ventriculomegaly. Results: 10 fetuses with isolated ventriculomegaly and combined ventriculomegaly died after birth. Neurosurgical operations were performed for ten patients. We performed chromosomal analysis for 16.7% of our patients. Caesarian delivery was higher (91.7% in combined ventriculomegaly groups and all newborns went to NNICU. In isolated ventriculomegaly group 18 patients showed normal neurological development at sixth month. None of the patients with combined ventriculomegaly group showed normal neurological development at sixth month. In severe ventriculomegaly group termination ratio was higher (64.7% than isolated ventriculomegaly group (11%. The survival rate was 90% in mild ventriculomegaly group and 42.9% in severe ventriculomegaly group.Conclusion: Termination is more often in isolated severe ventriculomegaly than mild and moderate ventriculomegaly group because the prognosis is worse. Because the prognosis of the patients with mild ventriculomegaly is good decision for termination will be well evaluated with the family. J Clin Exp Invest 2013; 4 (2: 141-147Key words: Prenatal diagnosis, growth & development,prognosis

  4. Prenatal diagnosis of fetal syndromes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A syndrome is a pattern of multiple anomalies arising due to a single known causative factor. Ultrasonography has enabled us to recognize many fetal anomalies and dysmorphic features. Recognition of the anomaly pattern leads to the diagnosis of a particular syndrome. This enables us to counsel prospective parents and aids in management. We present a selection of fetal syndromes in the form of a pictorial essay

  5. Cardioembolic occlusion of the internal carotid artery presented with infarction in the posterior cerebral artery territory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XUE Su-fang; JIA Jian-ping

    2010-01-01

    @@ Posterior circulation stroke may rarely be associated with occlusive disease in the anterior circulation, such as in the context of a direct (fetal) origin of the posterior cerebral artery (PCA) from the internal carotid artery (ICA), or in the presence of a persistent trigeminal artery (PTA) or persistent hypoglossal artery (PHA).1,2

  6. Fetal trauma: brain imaging in four neonates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this paper is to describe brain pathology in neonates after major traffic trauma in utero during the third trimester. Our patient cohort consisted of four neonates born by emergency cesarean section after car accident in the third trimester of pregnancy. The median gestational age (n=4) was 36 weeks (range: 30-38). Immediate post-natal and follow-up brain imaging consisted of cranial ultrasound (n=4), computed tomography (CT) (n=1) and post-mortem magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) (n=1). Pathology findings were correlated with the imaging findings (n=3). Cranial ultrasound demonstrated a huge subarachnoidal hemorrhage (n=1), subdural hematoma (n=1), brain edema with inversion of the diastolic flow (n=1) and severe ischemic changes (n=1). In one case, CT demonstrated the presence and extension of the subarachnoidal hemorrhage, a parietal fracture and a limited intraventricular hemorrhage. Cerebellar hemorrhage and a small cerebral frontal contusion were seen on post-mortem MRI in a child with a major subarachnoidal hemorrhage on ultrasound. None of these four children survived (three children died within 2 days and one child died after 1 month). Blunt abdominal trauma during pregnancy can cause fetal cranial injury. In our cases, skull fracture, intracranial hemorrhage and hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy were encountered. (orig.)

  7. Fetal trauma: brain imaging in four neonates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Breysem, Luc; Mussen, E.; Demaerel, P.; Smet, M. [Department of Radiology, University Hospitals, Herestraat 49, 3000, Leuven (Belgium); Cossey, V. [Department of Pediatrics, University Hospitals, Leuven (Belgium); Voorde, W. van de [Department of Forensic Medicine, University Hospitals, Leuven (Belgium)

    2004-09-01

    The purpose of this paper is to describe brain pathology in neonates after major traffic trauma in utero during the third trimester. Our patient cohort consisted of four neonates born by emergency cesarean section after car accident in the third trimester of pregnancy. The median gestational age (n=4) was 36 weeks (range: 30-38). Immediate post-natal and follow-up brain imaging consisted of cranial ultrasound (n=4), computed tomography (CT) (n=1) and post-mortem magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) (n=1). Pathology findings were correlated with the imaging findings (n=3). Cranial ultrasound demonstrated a huge subarachnoidal hemorrhage (n=1), subdural hematoma (n=1), brain edema with inversion of the diastolic flow (n=1) and severe ischemic changes (n=1). In one case, CT demonstrated the presence and extension of the subarachnoidal hemorrhage, a parietal fracture and a limited intraventricular hemorrhage. Cerebellar hemorrhage and a small cerebral frontal contusion were seen on post-mortem MRI in a child with a major subarachnoidal hemorrhage on ultrasound. None of these four children survived (three children died within 2 days and one child died after 1 month). Blunt abdominal trauma during pregnancy can cause fetal cranial injury. In our cases, skull fracture, intracranial hemorrhage and hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy were encountered. (orig.)

  8. Relationship between fetal-type posterior cerebral artery and internal carotid artery and basilar artery: An anatomy analysis on 3.0 T 3D time of flight MRA%胚胎型大脑后动脉与颈内动脉及基底动脉内径的关系:3.0 T高场3D-TOF-MRA解剖学分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    慕青; 柳海斌; 张宇新

    2013-01-01

    目的 探讨胚胎型大脑后动脉的存在对同侧大脑前动脉、颈内动脉和基底动脉内径可能的影响,为影像学分析提供参考信息.方法 对50例来院接受3.0 T 3D-TOF-MRA检查者的检查结果进行回顾性分析.于最大密度投影法三维重建结果上测量后交通动脉、大脑后动脉P1段、大脑前动脉A1段、颈内动脉和基底动脉的内径,以统计学分析探索胚胎型大脑后动脉的出现是否对各目标血管的内径产生影响.结果 本研究中20%的样本具备胚胎型大脑后动脉(10/50).根据本研究结果,尚不能认为胚胎型大脑后动脉的存在伴随着大脑前动脉A1段正常率的变化.与不具备右侧胚胎型大脑后动脉的样本相比,具备右侧胚胎型大脑后动脉者的同侧颈内动脉内径较大(t=-2.108,P=0.040),而基底动脉内径较小(t=2.935,P =0.005).左侧有胚胎型大脑后动脉组和无胚胎型大脑后动脉组间左侧颈内动脉内径的差异无统计学意义.左侧有胚胎型大脑后动脉组和无胚胎型大脑后动脉组间基底动脉内径的差异无统计学意义.结论 胚胎型大脑后动脉并非少见.根据本研究结果,右侧胚胎型大脑后动脉的存在伴有右颈内动脉和基底动脉内径的改变.%Objective To discuss the possible influence of the existence of fetal-type posterior cerebral artery(FTP) on the diameters of anterior cerebral artery(ACA) on the same side,internal carotid artery(ICA) on the same side and basilar artery (BA) in order to provide reference information for performing medical imaging analysis.Methods A retrospective analyse was performed on 50 cases examined by 3.0 T 3D-TOF-MRA in the hospital.Artery diameters of the posterior communicating artery,posterior cerebral artery P1 segment,ACA A1 segment,ICA and BA were measured on maximum intensity projection(MIP) images.Statistic methods were used to explore whether these diameters were influenced by the existance of FTP

  9. A computational model of the fetal circulation to quantify blood redistribution in intrauterine growth restriction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Garcia-Canadilla

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR due to placental insufficiency is associated with blood flow redistribution in order to maintain delivery of oxygenated blood to the brain. Given that, in the fetus the aortic isthmus (AoI is a key arterial connection between the cerebral and placental circulations, quantifying AoI blood flow has been proposed to assess this brain sparing effect in clinical practice. While numerous clinical studies have studied this parameter, fundamental understanding of its determinant factors and its quantitative relation with other aspects of haemodynamic remodeling has been limited. Computational models of the cardiovascular circulation have been proposed for exactly this purpose since they allow both for studying the contributions from isolated parameters as well as estimating properties that cannot be directly assessed from clinical measurements. Therefore, a computational model of the fetal circulation was developed, including the key elements related to fetal blood redistribution and using measured cardiac outflow profiles to allow personalization. The model was first calibrated using patient-specific Doppler data from a healthy fetus. Next, in order to understand the contributions of the main parameters determining blood redistribution, AoI and middle cerebral artery (MCA flow changes were studied by variation of cerebral and peripheral-placental resistances. Finally, to study how this affects an individual fetus, the model was fitted to three IUGR cases with different degrees of severity. In conclusion, the proposed computational model provides a good approximation to assess blood flow changes in the fetal circulation. The results support that while MCA flow is mainly determined by a fall in brain resistance, the AoI is influenced by a balance between increased peripheral-placental and decreased cerebral resistances. Personalizing the model allows for quantifying the balance between cerebral and peripheral

  10. Fetal scalp blood sampling during labor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chandraharan, Edwin; Wiberg, Nana

    2014-01-01

    Fetal cardiotocography is characterized by low specificity; therefore, in an attempt to ensure fetal well-being, fetal scalp blood sampling has been recommended by most obstetric societies in the case of a non-reassuring cardiotocography. The scientific agreement on the evidence for using fetal...... and Clinical Excellence guideline considers that fetal scalp blood sampling decreases instrumental delivery without differences in other outcome variables. The fetal scalp is supplied by vessels outside the skull below the level of the cranial vault, which is likely to be compressed during contractions...

  11. Cerebral angiography in leptomeningitis and cerebritis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This is a report of the cerebral angiographic findings in cases of meningitis and cerebritis. Fifty-nine patients, 38 of whom were under 1 year of age, underwent cerebral angiography by means of femoral catheterization. All the patients had signs of increased intracranial pressure, seizures, focal cerebral signs, positive transillumination of the head, and or abnormal brain scan findings. A few patients who did not respond to systemic antibiotics as was expected were also evaluated by means of cerebral angiography. The following characteristic angiographic findings were observed in 18 cases of active meningitis: (1) A hasy appearance around the arteries (halo formation) between the late arterial and capillary phases. (2) Narrowing of the arteries in the basal cistern. This sometimes extended to the peripheral arteries. (3) Irregular caliber following the narrowing of arteries (in few cases). (4) Circulation time so slow that veins could be seen in the late arterial phase. (5) Halo formation around the anterior chroidal artery and the clear appearance of the choroid plexus in the venous phase (when the infectious process reached the choroid plexus). Cerebritis could be identified on the angiograms by two signs: (1) local swelling of the brain (mainly the temporal lobe) and (2) staining around the veins without any abnormal signs in the arterial phase (laminar staining). In conclusion, angiography is a meaningful test by which to determine the phase of meningitis and cerebritis. These two conditions should be treated based on valid information obtained by means of CSF examinations and neuroradiological tests, especially CT scan and cerebral angiography. (author)

  12. Fetal Sex Differences in Intrapartum Electronic Fetal Monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, Anne C; Triebwasser, Jourdan E; Tuuli, Methodius; Caughey, Aaron B; Macones, George A; Cahill, Alison G

    2016-07-01

    Objective The article aimed to estimate differences in electronic fetal monitoring (EFM) patterns in term gestations attributable to fetal sex. Study Design We conducted a prospective cohort study of consecutive, singleton, nonanomalous, term gestations that labored during admission. EFM characteristics in the 30 minutes prior to delivery were evaluated. Logistic regression models estimated adjusted risks for EFM features by sex. To further estimate the impact of sex, we limited the analysis to gestations without composite morbidity (morbidity defined as arterial cord pH care unit admission). Results Of 2,639 deliveries, 1,400 (53%) were male. Male fetuses had a higher number of decelerations (median [interquartile range]: 8 [5, 11] vs. 7 [4, 10], p take into account factors such as fetal sex. PMID:26906183

  13. Statins and cerebral hemodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giannopoulos, Sotirios; Katsanos, Aristeidis H; Tsivgoulis, Georgios; Marshall, Randolph S

    2012-01-01

    HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors (statins) are associated with improved stroke outcome. This observation has been attributed in part to the palliative effect of statins on cerebral hemodynamics and cerebral autoregulation (CA), which are mediated mainly through the upregulation of endothelium nitric oxide synthase (eNOS). Several animal studies indicate that statin pretreatment enhances cerebral blood flow after ischemic stroke, although this finding is not further supported in clinical settings. Cerebral vasomotor reactivity, however, is significantly improved after long-term statin administration in most patients with severe small vessel disease, aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage, or impaired baseline CA. PMID:22929438

  14. Schwann cell cultures from human fetal dorsal root ganglia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yaping Feng; Hui Zhu; Jiang Hao; Xinmin Wang; Shengping Wu; Li Bai; Xiangming Li; Yun Zha

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND:Previous studies have used many methods for in vitro Schwann cells (SCs) cul-tures and purification,such as single cell suspension and cytosine arabinoside.However,it has been difficult to obtain sufficient cellular density,and the procedures have been quite tedious.OBJECTIVE:To investigate the feasibility of culturing high-density SCs using fetal human dorsal root ganglion tissue explants.DESIGN,TIME AND SETTING:Cell culture and immunohistochemistry were performed at the Cen-tral Laboratory of Kunming General Hospital of Chinese PLA between March 2001 and October 2008.MATERIALS:Culture media containing 10% fetal bovine serum,as well as 0.2% collagenase and 0.25% trypsin were purchased from Gibco,USA;mouse anti-human S-100 monoclonal antibody and goat anti-mouse IgG labeled with horseradish peroxidase were provided by Beijing Institute of Bi-ological Products,China.METHODS:Primarily cultured SCs were dissociated from dorsal root ganglia of human aborted fe-tuses at 4-6 months pregnancy.Following removal of the dorsal root ganglion perineurium,the gan-glia were dissected into tiny pieces and digested with 0.2% collagenase and 0.25% trypsin (volume ratio 1:1),then explanted and cultured.SC purification was performed with 5 mL 10% fetal bovine serum added to the culture media,followed by differential adhesion.MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES:SCs morphology was observed under inverted phase contrast light microscopy.SC purity was evaluated according to percentage of S-100 immunostained cells.RESULTS:SCs were primarily cultured for 5-6 days and then subcultured for 4-5 passages.The highly enriched SC population reached > 95% purity and presented with normal morphology.CONCLUSION:A high purity of SCs was obtained with culture methods using human fetal dorsal root ganglion tissue explants.

  15. Fetal exposure in diagnostic radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The problem of possible radiation damage to the fetus or embryo as a result of diagnostic radiography during pregnancy, particularly in the early stages, is discussed. Recommendations of therapeutic abortion after fetal exposure require an adequate knowledge of the doses involved. In the absence of actual dose measurements or estimates, approximate exposure levels may be determined from the literature. A summary of published values for radiography involving the lower abdomen is given. Data is also presented from a series of fetal exposures resulting mostly from routine diagnostic radiography when pregnancy was not known at the time but was established later. Results of actual dose measurements using a phantom and of dose calculations based on published values are in reasonable agreement indicating that literature values of dose provide a satisfactory alternative to measurement. These data suggest that diagnostic radiography rarely, if ever, results in fetal exposures high enough to justify therapeutic abortion. (author)

  16. Fetal Programming and Metabolic Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rinaudo, Paolo; Wang, Erica

    2014-01-01

    Metabolic syndrome is reaching epidemic proportions, particularly in developing countries. In this review, we explore the concept—based on the developmental-origin-of-health-and-disease hypothesis—that reprogramming during critical times of fetal life can lead to metabolic syndrome in adulthood. Specifically, we summarize the epidemiological evidence linking prenatal stress, manifested by low birth weight, to metabolic syndrome and its individual components. We also review animal studies that suggest potential mechanisms for the long-term effects of fetal reprogramming, including the cellular response to stress and both organ- and hormone-specific alterations induced by stress. Although metabolic syndrome in adulthood is undoubtedly caused by multiple factors, including modifiable behavior, fetal life may provide a critical window in which individuals are predisposed to metabolic syndrome later in life. PMID:21910625

  17. Births and deaths including fetal deaths

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Access to a variety of United States birth and death files including fetal deaths: Birth Files, 1968-2009; 1995-2005; Fetal death file, 1982-2005; Mortality files,...

  18. FETAL MONITORING DURING THE OBSTETRIC LABOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salcedo-Ramos Francisco

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The intrapartum fetal monitoring is part of the tests to assess the fetal well-being. It is an easy, cheap, reproducible and non-invasive method without adverse effects or contraindications. The main objective of this method is to assess the fetal status during the obstetric labor, identifying the fetus that probably could have alterations. It is determined for alterations in the next variables: [A] Frequency, variability and decelerations of the fetal cardiac rhythm [B] Fetal movements. [C] Changes in the cardiac activity according to the uterine activity. The findings allow classifying the fetal status in three categories. And in this way, the adequate measures could be established before irreversible lesions and death could occur in the fetus. Rev.cienc.biomed. 2015;6(1:170-178 KEYWORDS Cardiotocography; Fetal Monitoring; Heart fetal rate; Obstetric labor.

  19. Increasing fetal ovine number per gestation alters fetal plasma clinical chemistry values.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zywicki, Micaela; Blohowiak, Sharon E; Magness, Ronald R; Segar, Jeffrey L; Kling, Pamela J

    2016-08-01

    Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) is interconnected with developmental programming of lifelong pathophysiology. IUGR is seen in human multifetal pregnancies, with stepwise rises in fetal numbers interfering with placental nutrient delivery. It remains unknown whether fetal blood analyses would reflect fetal nutrition, liver, and excretory function in the last trimester of human or ovine IUGR In an ovine model, we hypothesized that fetal plasma biochemical values would reflect progressive placental, fetal liver, and fetal kidney dysfunction as the number of fetuses per gestation rose. To determine fetal plasma biochemical values in singleton, twin, triplet, and quadruplet/quintuplet ovine gestation, we investigated morphometric measures and comprehensive metabolic panels with nutritional measures, liver enzymes, and placental and fetal kidney excretory measures at gestational day (GD) 130 (90% gestation). As anticipated, placental dysfunction was supported by a stepwise fall in fetal weight, fetal plasma glucose, and triglyceride levels as fetal number per ewe rose. Fetal glucose and triglycerides were directly related to fetal weight. Plasma creatinine, reflecting fetal renal excretory function, and plasma cholesterol, reflecting placental excretory function, were inversely correlated with fetal weight. Progressive biochemical disturbances and growth restriction accompanied the rise in fetal number. Understanding the compensatory and adaptive responses of growth-restricted fetuses at the biochemical level may help explain how metabolic pathways in growth restriction can be predetermined at birth. This physiological understanding is important for clinical care and generating interventional strategies to prevent altered developmental programming in multifetal gestation.

  20. Increasing fetal ovine number per gestation alters fetal plasma clinical chemistry values.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zywicki, Micaela; Blohowiak, Sharon E; Magness, Ronald R; Segar, Jeffrey L; Kling, Pamela J

    2016-08-01

    Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) is interconnected with developmental programming of lifelong pathophysiology. IUGR is seen in human multifetal pregnancies, with stepwise rises in fetal numbers interfering with placental nutrient delivery. It remains unknown whether fetal blood analyses would reflect fetal nutrition, liver, and excretory function in the last trimester of human or ovine IUGR In an ovine model, we hypothesized that fetal plasma biochemical values would reflect progressive placental, fetal liver, and fetal kidney dysfunction as the number of fetuses per gestation rose. To determine fetal plasma biochemical values in singleton, twin, triplet, and quadruplet/quintuplet ovine gestation, we investigated morphometric measures and comprehensive metabolic panels with nutritional measures, liver enzymes, and placental and fetal kidney excretory measures at gestational day (GD) 130 (90% gestation). As anticipated, placental dysfunction was supported by a stepwise fall in fetal weight, fetal plasma glucose, and triglyceride levels as fetal number per ewe rose. Fetal glucose and triglycerides were directly related to fetal weight. Plasma creatinine, reflecting fetal renal excretory function, and plasma cholesterol, reflecting placental excretory function, were inversely correlated with fetal weight. Progressive biochemical disturbances and growth restriction accompanied the rise in fetal number. Understanding the compensatory and adaptive responses of growth-restricted fetuses at the biochemical level may help explain how metabolic pathways in growth restriction can be predetermined at birth. This physiological understanding is important for clinical care and generating interventional strategies to prevent altered developmental programming in multifetal gestation. PMID:27565903

  1. Cerebral hypoxia and ischemia in preterm infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Ravarino

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Premature birth is a major public health issue internationally affecting 13 million babies worldwide. Hypoxia and ischemia is probably the commonest type of acquired brain damage in preterm infants. The clinical manifestations of hypoxic-ischemic injury in survivors of premature birth include a spectrum of cerebral palsy and intellectual disabilities. Until recently, the extensive brain abnormalities in preterm neonates appeared to be related mostly to destructive processes that lead to substantial deletion of neurons, axons, and glia from necrotic lesions in the developing brain. Advances in neonatal care coincide with a growing body of evidence that the preterm gray and white matter frequently sustain less severe insults, where tissue destruction is the minor component. Periventricular leukomalacia (PVL is the major form of white matter injury and consists classically of focal necrotic lesions, with subsequent cyst formation, and a less severe but more diffuse injury to cerebral white mater, with prominent astrogliosis and microgliosis but without overt necrosis. With PVL a concomitant injury occurs to subplate neurons, located in the subcortical white matter. Severe hypoxic-ischemic insults that trigger significant white matter necrosis are accompanied by neuronal degeneration in cerebral gray and white matter. This review aims to illustrate signs of cerebral embryology of the second half of fetal life and correlate hypoxic-ischemic brain injury in the premature infant. This should help us better understand the symptoms early and late and facilitate new therapeutic strategies. Proceedings of the International Course on Perinatal Pathology (part of the 10th International Workshop on Neonatology · October 22nd-25th, 2014 · Cagliari (Italy · October 25th, 2014 · The role of the clinical pathological dialogue in problem solving Guest Editors: Gavino Faa, Vassilios Fanos, Peter Van Eyken

  2. Cerebral Palsy (CP) Quiz

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Submit Button Past Emails CDC Features Pop Quiz: Cerebral Palsy Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook Tweet ... Sandy is the parent of a child with cerebral palsy and the Board President of Gio’s Garden , a ...

  3. Fetal MR Imaging of Gastrointestinal Abnormalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furey, Elizabeth A; Bailey, April A; Twickler, Diane M

    2016-01-01

    Fetal magnetic resonance (MR) imaging plays an increasing and valuable role in antenatal diagnosis and perinatal management of fetal gastrointestinal (GI) abnormalities. Advances in MR imaging data acquisition and use of motion-insensitive techniques have established MR imaging as an important adjunct to obstetric ultrasonography (US) for fetal diagnosis. In this regard, MR imaging provides high diagnostic accuracy for antenatal diagnosis of common and uncommon GI pathologic conditions. In the setting of fetal GI disease, T1-weighted images demonstrate the amount and distribution of meconium, which is crucial to the diagnostic capability of fetal MR imaging. Specifically, knowledge of the T1 signal intensity characteristics of fetal meconium, the normal pattern of meconium with advancing gestational age, and the expected caliber of small and large bowel in the fetus is key to diagnosis of abnormalities of the GI tract. Use of ultrafast T2-weighted sequences for evaluation of the expected location and morphology of fluid-containing structures, including the stomach and small bowel, in the fetal abdomen further aids in diagnostic confidence. Uncommonly encountered fetal GI pathologic conditions, especially cloacal dysmorphology, may demonstrate characteristic MR imaging patterns, which may add additional information to that from fetal US, allowing improved fetal and neonatal management. This article discusses common indications for fetal MR imaging of the GI tract, imaging protocols for fetal GI MR imaging, the normal appearance of the fetal GI tract with advancing gestational age, and the imaging appearances of common fetal GI abnormalities, as well as uncommon fetal GI conditions with characteristic appearances. (©)RSNA, 2016. PMID:27163598

  4. Fetal magnetic resonance imaging and human genetics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hengstschlaeger, Markus [Medical Genetics, Obstetrics and Gynecology, Medical University of Vienna, Waehringer Guertel 18-20, 1090 Vienna (Austria)]. E-mail: markus.hengstschlaeger@meduniwien.ac.at

    2006-02-15

    The use of fetal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), in addition to prenatal genetic testing and sonography, has the potential to improve prenatal diagnosis of genetic disorders. MRI plays an important role in the evaluation of fetal abnormalities and malformations. Fetal MRI often enables a differential diagnosis, a determination of the extent of the disorder, the prognosis, and an improvement in therapeutic management. For counseling of parents, as well as to basically understand how genetic aberrations affect fetal development, it is of great importance to correlate different genotypes with fetal MRI data.

  5. Unsupervised fetal cortical surface parcellation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahdouh, Sonia; Limperopoulos, Catherine

    2016-03-01

    At the core of many neuro-imaging studies, atlas-based brain parcellations are used for example to study normal brain evolution across the lifespan. These atlases rely on the assumption that the same anatomical features are present on all subjects to be studied and that these features are stable enough to allow meaningful comparisons between different brain surfaces and structures These methods, however, often fail when applied to fetal MRI data, due to the lack of consistent anatomical features present across gestation. This paper presents a novel surface-based fetal cortical parcellation framework which attempts to circumvent the lack of consistent anatomical features by proposing a brain parcellation scheme that is based solely on learned geometrical features. A mesh signature incorporating both extrinsic and intrinsic geometrical features is proposed and used in a clustering scheme to define a parcellation of the fetal brain. This parcellation is then learned using a Random Forest (RF) based learning approach and then further refined in an alpha-expansion graph-cut scheme. Based on the votes obtained by the RF inference procedure, a probability map is computed and used as a data term in the graph-cut procedure. The smoothness term is defined by learning a transition matrix based on the dihedral angles of the faces. Qualitative and quantitative results on a cohort of both healthy and high-risk fetuses are presented. Both visual and quantitative assessments show good results demonstrating a reliable method for fetal brain data and the possibility of obtaining a parcellation of the fetal cortical surfaces using only geometrical features.

  6. Media education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strasburger, Victor C

    2010-11-01

    The American Academy of Pediatrics recognizes that exposure to mass media (eg, television, movies, video and computer games, the Internet, music lyrics and videos, newspapers, magazines, books, advertising) presents health risks for children and adolescents but can provide benefits as well. Media education has the potential to reduce the harmful effects of media and accentuate the positive effects. By understanding and supporting media education, pediatricians can play an important role in reducing harmful effects of media on children and adolescents.

  7. Media education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strasburger, Victor C

    2010-11-01

    The American Academy of Pediatrics recognizes that exposure to mass media (eg, television, movies, video and computer games, the Internet, music lyrics and videos, newspapers, magazines, books, advertising) presents health risks for children and adolescents but can provide benefits as well. Media education has the potential to reduce the harmful effects of media and accentuate the positive effects. By understanding and supporting media education, pediatricians can play an important role in reducing harmful effects of media on children and adolescents. PMID:20876180

  8. The impact of intermittent umbilical cord occlusions on the inflammatory response in pre-term fetal sheep.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew P Prout

    Full Text Available Fetal hypoxic episodes may occur antepartum with the potential to induce systemic and cerebral inflammatory responses thereby contributing to brain injury. We hypothesized that intermittent umbilical cord occlusions (UCOs of sufficient severity but without cumulative acidosis will lead to a fetal inflammatory response. Thirty-one chronically instrumented fetal sheep at ∼0.85 of gestation underwent four consecutive days of hourly UCOs from one to three minutes duration for six hours each day. Maternal and fetal blood samples were taken for blood gases/pH and plasma interleukin (IL-1β and IL-6 levels. Animals were euthanized at the end of experimental study with brain tissue processed for subsequent counting of microglia and mast cells. Intermittent UCOs resulted in transitory fetal hypoxemia with associated acidemia which progressively worsened the longer umbilical blood flow was occluded, but with no cumulative blood gas or pH changes over the four days of study. Fetal arterial IL-1β and IL-6 values showed no significant change regardless of the severity of the UCOs, nor was there any evident impact on the microglia and mast cell counts for any of the brain regions studied. Accordingly, intermittent UCOs of up to three minutes duration with severe, but limited fetal hypoxemia and no cumulative acidemia, do not result in either a systemic or brain inflammatory response in the pre-term ovine fetus. However, fetal IL-1B and IL-6 values were found to be well correlated with corresponding maternal values supporting the placenta as a primary source for these cytokines with related secretion into both circulations. Female fetuses were also found to have higher IL-1β levels than males, indicating that gender may impact on the fetal inflammatory response to various stimuli.

  9. [Cognitive stimulation in children with cerebral palsy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muriel, V; Garcia-Molina, A; Aparicio-Lopez, C; Ensenat, A; Roig-Rovira, T

    2014-11-16

    Introduccion. La paralisis cerebral a menudo cursa con deficits cognitivos de atencion, visuopercepcion, funciones ejecutivas y memoria de trabajo. Objetivo. Analizar el efecto de un tratamiento de estimulacion cognitiva sobre las capacidades cognitivas en niños con pa­ralisis cerebral. Pacientes y metodos. Muestra de 15 niños con paralisis cerebral, con una edad media de 8,80 ± 2,51 años, clasificados mediante el Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS) en nivel I (n = 6), nivel II (n = 4), nivel III (n = 2) y nivel V (n = 3). Los deficits cognitivos se evaluaron mediante la escala de inteligencia de Wechsler para niños (WISC-IV) y el Continuous Performance Test (CPT-II). Se administraron los cuestionarios para padres y profesores del Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function (BRIEF) y las escalas de evaluacion de Conners (CPRS-48 y CTRS-28). Se realizo un programa de estimulacion cognitiva dos horas semanales durante ocho semanas. Resultados. Se observaron diferencias estadisticamente significativas tras aplicar el tratamiento de estimulacion cognitivo en el indice de razonamiento perceptivo de la WISC-IV. No se obtuvieron diferencias antes y despues del tratamiento en las puntuaciones del Conners y del BRIEF. Tampoco se hallaron diferencias en los resultados de la WISC-IV en funcion del sexo ni en el GMFCS. Conclusion. El rendimiento cognitivo de los niños con paralisis cerebral mejora tras la aplicacion de un programa de rehabilitacion cognitiva.

  10. Early GABAergic circuitry in the cerebral cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luhmann, Heiko J; Kirischuk, Sergei; Sinning, Anne; Kilb, Werner

    2014-06-01

    In the cerebral cortex GABAergic signaling plays an important role in regulating early developmental processes, for example, neurogenesis, migration and differentiation. Transient cell populations, namely Cajal-Retzius in the marginal zone and thalamic input receiving subplate neurons, are integrated as active elements in transitory GABAergic circuits. Although immature pyramidal neurons receive GABAergic synaptic inputs already at fetal stages, they are integrated into functional GABAergic circuits only several days later. In consequence, GABAergic synaptic transmission has only a minor influence on spontaneous network activity during early corticogenesis. Concurrent with the gradual developmental shift of GABA action from excitatory to inhibitory and the maturation of cortical synaptic connections, GABA becomes more important in synchronizing neuronal network activity.

  11. Ex vivo culture of human fetal gonads

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, A; Nielsen, J.E.; Perlman, S;

    2015-01-01

    '-deoxyuridine (BrdU) incorporation assay. MAIN RESULTS AND THE ROLE OF CHANCE: A novel ex vivo 'hanging-drop' culture model for human fetal gonads was successfully established. Continued proliferation of cells without signs of increased apoptosis was observed after 2 weeks of culture. In cultured fetal ovaries......STUDY QUESTION: What are the effects of experimentally manipulating meiosis signalling by addition of retinoic acid (RA) in cultured human fetal gonads? SUMMARY ANSWER: RA-treatment accelerated meiotic entry in cultured fetal ovary samples, while addition of RA resulted in a dysgenetic gonadal...... phenotype in fetal testis cultures. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: One of the first manifestations of sex differentiation is the initiation of meiosis in fetal ovaries. In contrast, meiotic entry is actively prevented in the fetal testis at this developmental time-point. It has previously been shown that RA...

  12. THE MATERNAL-FETAL MEDICINE: AN UPDATE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincenzo Berghella

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The development of Maternal-Fetal Medicine is contributing to an improvement of maternal well-being and of neonatal health, introducing a number of new and useful technologies. Advances in genomics in the field of prenatal screening and diagnosis allowed the discovery of fragments of cell-free fetal DNA in the maternal circulation and the use of chromosomal microarrays, which can test for microdeletions and microduplications in addition to aneuploidies. Color Doppler applications during pregnancy are expanding exponentially and Doppler flow velocity waveforms indices have provided important information from maternal, placental and fetal circulation with clinical implications. Ultrasound monitoring of fetal growth represents a fundamental tool to evaluate fetal wellbeing and several methods have been developed to improve fetal weight estimation accuracy. The combination of new biophysical and biochemical markers is enriching Maternal-Fetal Medicine and more research will allow to improve pregnancy outcome.

  13. Antithyroid drug-induced fetal goitrous hypothyroidism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Ase Krogh; Sundberg, Karin; Brocks, Vibeke;

    2011-01-01

    Maternal overtreatment with antithyroid drugs can induce fetal goitrous hypothyroidism. This condition can have a critical effect on pregnancy outcome, as well as on fetal growth and neurological development. The purpose of this Review is to clarify if and how fetal goitrous hypothyroidism can...... be prevented, and how to react when prevention has failed. Understanding the importance of pregnancy-related changes in maternal thyroid status when treating a pregnant woman is crucial to preventing fetal goitrous hypothyroidism. Maternal levels of free T(4) are the most consistent indication of maternal...... and fetal thyroid status. In patients with fetal goitrous hypothyroidism, intra-amniotic levothyroxine injections improve fetal outcome. The best way to avoid maternal overtreatment with antithyroid drugs is to monitor closely the maternal thyroid status, especially estimates of free T(4) levels....

  14. Unilateral cerebral polymicrogyria with ipsilateral cerebral hemiatrophy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We evaluated six children in whom MR imaging showed unilateral cerebral polymicrogyria associated with ipsilateral cerebral atrophy and ipsilateral brain stem atrophy. The aim of this study was to clarify whether this disorder based on neuroimaging constitutes a new homogeneous clinical entity. The subjects were six children whose ages at the time of MR imaging ranged from 8 months to 11 years. Their clinical and MR features were analyzed. All of the children were born between 38 and 42 weeks gestation, without any significant perinatal events. Spastic hemiplegia and epilepsy were observed in all of the patients, and mental retardation was observed in four. The MR findings included unilateral cerebral polymicrogyria associated with ipsilateral cerebral hemiatrophy and ipsilateral brain stem atrophy in all patients. The ipsilateral sylvian fissure was hypoplastic in four patients. These patients showed relatively homogeneous clinical and neuroimaging features. Although the additional clinical features varied according to the site and the extent affected by the polymicrogyria, this disorder could constitute a new relatively homogeneous clinical entity. (orig.)

  15. Unilateral cerebral polymicrogyria with ipsilateral cerebral hemiatrophy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hayakawa, Katsumi [Department of Radiology, Kyoto City Hospital, 1-2 Higashi-Takada-cho, Mibu, Nakagyo-ku, 604-8845 Kyoto (Japan); Kanda, Toyoko; Yamori, Yuriko [Department of Pediatric Neurology, St. Joseph Hospital for Handicapped Children, 603-8323 Kyoto (Japan)

    2002-10-01

    We evaluated six children in whom MR imaging showed unilateral cerebral polymicrogyria associated with ipsilateral cerebral atrophy and ipsilateral brain stem atrophy. The aim of this study was to clarify whether this disorder based on neuroimaging constitutes a new homogeneous clinical entity. The subjects were six children whose ages at the time of MR imaging ranged from 8 months to 11 years. Their clinical and MR features were analyzed. All of the children were born between 38 and 42 weeks gestation, without any significant perinatal events. Spastic hemiplegia and epilepsy were observed in all of the patients, and mental retardation was observed in four. The MR findings included unilateral cerebral polymicrogyria associated with ipsilateral cerebral hemiatrophy and ipsilateral brain stem atrophy in all patients. The ipsilateral sylvian fissure was hypoplastic in four patients. These patients showed relatively homogeneous clinical and neuroimaging features. Although the additional clinical features varied according to the site and the extent affected by the polymicrogyria, this disorder could constitute a new relatively homogeneous clinical entity. (orig.)

  16. Prevalence, Type, Distribution, and Severity of Cerebral Palsy in Relation to Gestational Age: A Meta-Analytic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Himpens, E.; Van den Broeck, C.; Oostra, A.; Calders, P.; Vanhaesebrouck, P.

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this review is to determine the relationship between gestational age (GA) and prevalence, type, distribution, and severity of cerebral palsy (CP). Epidemiological studies with cohorts expressed by GA were assessed. A comprehensive meta-analysis and meta-regression was performed on four fetal age categories. Studies of children with CP…

  17. Computed tomography in spastic cerebral palsy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pedersen, H.; Taudorf, K.; Melchior, J.C.

    1982-09-01

    Eighty-three children with spastic cerebral palsy (CP) were examined with cranial CT. In 56 cases the CT findings were abnormal. The most frequent abnormality was atrophy, present in 44 patients. The frequency of pathologic CT increased with severity of the CP. Patients with CP of postnatal aetiology more often had abnormal CT than patients with other known causes. Pathologic CT findings were seen more often in patients with seizures than in patients without. Infarctions and hemiatrophy were much more frequent in patients with hemiplegia than in patients with other types of spastic CP. A special kind of central atrophy, called isolated atrophy around the cella media, is described. This condition was seen in 20% of cases, most often in hemi- and paraplegic patients. Early infarctions in the border areas between the vascular territories of the internal carotid and the posterior cerebral artery may be the reason for this kind of atrophy.

  18. Computed tomography in spastic cerebral palsy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eigthy-three children with spastic cerebral plays (CP) were examined with cranial CT. In 56 cases the CT findings were abnormal. The most frequent abnormality was atrophy, present in 44 patients. The frequency of pathologic CT increased with severity of the CP. Patients with CP of postnatal aetiology more often had abnormal CT than patients with other known causes. Pathologic CT findings were seen more often in patients with seizures than in patients without. Infarctions and hemiatrophy were much more frequent in patients with hemiplegia than in patients with other types of spastic CP. A special kind of central atrophy, called isolated atrophy around the cella media, is described. This condition was seen in 20% of cases, most often in hemi- and paraplegic patients. Early infarctions in the border areas between the vasular territories of the internal carotid and the posterior cerebral artery may be the reason for this kind of atrophy. (orig.)

  19. Malignant Hemispheric Cerebral Infarction Associated with Idiopathic Systemic Capillary Leak Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kei Miyata

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Idiopathic systemic capillary leak syndrome (ISCLS is a rare condition that is characterized by unexplained episodic capillary hyperpermeability due to a shift of fluid and protein from the intravascular to the interstitial space. This results in diffuse general swelling, fetal hypovolemic shock, hypoalbuminemia, and hemoconcentration. Although ISCLS rarely induces cerebral infarction, we experienced a patient who deteriorated and was comatose as a result of massive cerebral infarction associated with ISCLS. In this case, severe hypotensive shock, general edema, hemiparesis, and aphasia appeared after serious antecedent gastrointestinal symptoms. Progressive life-threatening ischemic cerebral edema required decompressive hemicraniectomy. The patient experienced another episode of severe hypotension and limb edema that resulted in multiple extremity compartment syndrome. Treatment entailed forearm and calf fasciotomies. Cerebral edema in the ischemic brain progresses rapidly in patients suffering from ISCLS. Strict control of fluid volume resuscitation and aggressive diuretic therapy may be needed during the post-leak phase of fluid remobilization.

  20. Fetal magnetic resonance imaging of the brain; Fetale Magnetresonanztomographie des Gehirns

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huisman, T.A.G.M. [Johns Hopkins Hospital, Baltimore, MD (United States). Div. of Pediatric Radiology

    2008-03-15

    Fetal magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) is a valuable adjunct to ultrasonography (US) in prenatal diagnosis. The high spatial resolution, the large field-of-view, the different contrasts that can be generated and the development of functional MRI-sequences are especially valuable in the diagnosis of complex pathologies of the central nervous system. In addition, fetal MRI does not suffer from obscuring maternal or fetal osseous structures, intestinal gas or maternal obesitas. The ultrafast MRI sequences allow imaging without fetal sedation. Nowadays, fetal MRI is used to confirm, complete or correct US-findings in order to offer the best possible fetal treatment pre- and postnatally. (orig.)

  1. Mecanismo de centralização: da insuficiência placentária à adaptação circulatória fetal Brain sparing effect: from placental insufficiency to fetal circulatory adaptation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Marques Simões Villas-Bôas

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available A aplicação e o desenvolvimento da doplervelocimetria obstétrica apresentam base para conhecimento da insuficiência placentária e comprovam o comportamento dinâmico da circulação fetal em regime de hipóxia. Na prática clínica, tornou-se quase rotineira a necessidade de se avaliar a hemodinâmica em três territórios vasculares envolvidos na gestação: artérias uterinas, umbilical e cerebral média. Em linhas gerais, a artéria cerebral expressa o balanço entre a oferta de oxigênio nas uterinas e a captação pelas umbilicais. Atualmente, quando este balanço é desfavorável, procura-se ainda conhecer a reserva cardíaca fetal pelo estudo do ducto venoso. Contudo, precisar e interpretar índices de resistência vascular nem sempre é tarefa fácil. O ponto de partida é ter em mente os fundamentos sobre os quais se assenta o papel da doplervelocimetria para a avaliação do bem-estar fetal.The application and development of obstetric Dopplervelocimetry provide a basis for the investigation of placental insufficiency and demonstrate the dynamic behavior of fetal circulation during hypoxia. In clinical practice, assessing hemodynamics in three vascular regions involved in pregnancy, namely the uterine, umbilical and middle cerebral arteries, has become routine. Roughly, the cerebral artery expresses the balance between uterine artery oxygen supply and umbilical artery oxygen uptake. Currently, when such balance is unfavorable, the fetal cardiac reserve is investigated by assessing the venous duct. However, determining and interpreting vascular resistance indexes is not an easy task. The starting point is to know the physiopathology of placental insufficiency and fetal circulatory adaptation through which Doppler confirmed its role in the assessment of fetal well-being.

  2. Media Literacy

    OpenAIRE

    Gelu Mihai LEICU; Laura Rita PITARIU

    2015-01-01

    Media are part of our lives today. Our pupils watch TV, play online games, blog, upload videos on YouTube, use Facebook, etc. Messages transmitted by the media flow constantly into our and their minds. Media literacy provides us with a range of information and abilities which help us analyse, evaluate, and even create messages in various modes of the media. Students are encouraged to think critically about the media they consume. Hobbs has found out that media literacy implies: a set of skill...

  3. Examiner's finger-mounted fetal tissue oximetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanayama, Naohiro; Niwayama, Masatsugu

    2014-06-01

    The best way to assess fetal condition is to observe the oxygen status of the fetus (as well as to assess the condition of infants, children, and adults). Previously, several fetal oximeters have been developed; however, no instrument has been utilized in clinical practice because of the low-capturing rate of the fetal oxygen saturation. To overcome the problem, we developed a doctor's finger-mounted fetal tissue oximeter, whose sensor volume is one hundredth of the conventional one. Additionally, we prepared transparent gloves. The calculation algorithm of the hemoglobin concentration was derived from the light propagation analysis based on the transport theory. We measured neonatal and fetal oxygen saturation (StO2) with the new tissue oximeter. Neonatal StO was measured at any position of the head regardless of amount of hair. Neonatal StO was found to be around 77%. Fetal StO was detected in every position of the fetal head during labor regardless of the presence of labor pain. Fetal StO without labor pain was around 70% in the first stage of labor and around 60% in the second stage of labor. We concluded that our new concept of fetal tissue oximetry would be useful for detecting fetal StO in any condition of the fetus.

  4. Fetal cardiac interventions: clinical and experimental research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Shi-Min; Humuruola, Gulimila

    2016-01-01

    Fetal cardiac interventions for congenital heart diseases may alleviate heart dysfunction, prevent them evolving into hypoplastic left heart syndrome, achieve biventricular outcome and improve fetal survival. Candidates for clinical fetal cardiac interventions are now restricted to cases of critical aortic valve stenosis with evolving hypoplastic left heart syndrome, pulmonary atresia with an intact ventricular septum and evolving hypoplastic right heart syndrome, and hypoplastic left heart syndrome with an intact or highly restrictive atrial septum as well as fetal heart block. The therapeutic options are advocated as prenatal aortic valvuloplasty, pulmonary valvuloplasty, creation of interatrial communication and fetal cardiac pacing. Experimental research on fetal cardiac intervention involves technical modifications of catheter-based cardiac clinical interventions and open fetal cardiac bypass that cannot be applied in human fetuses for the time being. Clinical fetal cardiac interventions are plausible for midgestation fetuses with the above-mentioned congenital heart defects. The technical success, biventricular outcome and fetal survival are continuously being improved in the conditions of the sophisticated multidisciplinary team, equipment, techniques and postnatal care. Experimental research is laying the foundations and may open new fields for catheter-based clinical techniques. In the present article, the clinical therapeutic options and experimental fetal cardiac interventions are described. PMID:27279868

  5. Fetal evaluation of spine dysraphism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bulas, Dorothy [George Washington University Medical Center, Division of Diagnostic Imaging and Radiology, Children' s National Medical Center, Washington, DC (United States)

    2010-06-15

    Spinal dysraphism or neural tube defects (NTD) encompass a heterogeneous group of congenital spinal anomalies that result from the defective closure of the neural tube early in gestation with anomalous development of the caudal cell mass. Advances in ultrasound and MRI have dramatically improved the diagnosis and therapy of spinal dysraphism and caudal spinal anomalies both prenatally and postnatally. Advances in prenatal US including high frequency linear transducers and three dimensional imaging can provide detailed information concerning spinal anomalies. MR imaging is a complementary tool that can further elucidate spine abnormalities as well as associated central nervous system and non-CNS anomalies. Recent studies have suggested that 3-D CT can help further assess fetal spine anomalies in the third trimester. With the advent of fetal therapy including surgery, accurate prenatal diagnosis of open and closed spinal dysraphism becomes critical in appropriate counselling and perinatal management. (orig.)

  6. Fetal origin of vascular aging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shailesh Pitale

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Aging is increasingly regarded as an independent risk factor for development of cardiovascular diseases such as atherosclerosis and hypertension and their complications (e.g. MI and Stroke. It is well known that vascular disease evolve over decades with progressive accumulation of cellular and extracellular materials and many inflammatory processes. Metabolic syndrome, obesity and diabetes are conventionally recognized as risk factors for development of coronary vascular disease (CVD. These conditions are known to accelerate ageing process in general and vascular ageing in particular. Adverse events during intrauterine life may programme organ growth and favour disease later in life, popularly known as, ′Barker′s Hypothesis′. The notion of fetal programming implies that during critical periods of prenatal growth, changes in the hormonal and nutritional milieu of the conceptus may alter the full expression of the fetal genome, leading to permanent effects on a range of physiological.

  7. Determination of Doppler Middle Cerebral Artery Waveform Indices in Normal 20 – 40 Weeks Pregnancies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Vahdinia

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Objective: The aim of prenatal evaluation is to prevent fetal death. One of the main methods of evaluation of fetus health before delivery is Doppler flow velocity waveform analysis of fetus vessels. Increasing of resistance in fetal circulatory system causes the preferential shunt of blood flow from non-critical organs toward critical organs such as brain. The increase in brain blood flow leads to reduction of brain vessels resistance and results in changes of fetal cerebral arteries Doppler flow velocity indices. Evaluation of Doppler wave of middle cerebral artery can predict most of the at risk fetuses in high-risk pregnancies."nIn this study we tried to obtain normal value (and their changes across the progress of pregnancy of Doppler flow velocity indices (PI, RI, S/D ratio and PSV of middle cerebral artery in 20 - 40 weeks normal pregnancies in an Iranian population and evaluate the effect of fetus heart rate according to the above mentioned indices."nPatients and Methods: In this cross section study, 400 pregnant women with normal pregnancies and gestational age between 20 to 40 weeks were studied about middle cerebral artery Doppler examination. Mothers with preeclampsia, diabetes mellitus, hypertension, abnormal uterine bleeding, induction ovulation, multifetal pregnancy, major fetal anomalies, history of LD or any other OCP usage and intra uterine growth retardation were excluded from the study. All cases were evaluated by gray scale ultrasonography initially and then a Doppler study of middle cerebral artery was done."nResults: According to the results of this study, with progression of pregnancy PI, RI, S/D ratio values decrease and PSV value increases in middle cerebral artery. These changes were statistically significant and were more characteristic during late weeks of pregnancy. In addition, mean fetal heart rate had been significantly reduced with pregnancy progression."nConclusion: Values of RI, PI, S/D ratio and

  8. Cerebral Aneurysms Fact Sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... cerebral aneurysm from forming. People with a diagnosed brain aneurysm should carefully control high blood pressure, stop smoking, and avoid cocaine use or other stimulant drugs. They should also ...

  9. Cerebral amyloid angiopathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Fenichel GM, Jankovic J, Mazziotta JC, eds. Bradley's Neurology in Clinical Practice . 6th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier ... al. Course of cerebral amyloid angiopathy-related inflammation. Neurology. 2007;68:1411-1416. PMID: 17452586 www.ncbi. ...

  10. Acute ischemic cerebral attack

    OpenAIRE

    Franco-Garcia Samir; Barreiro-Pinto Belis

    2010-01-01

    The decrease of the cerebral blood flow below the threshold of autoregulation led to changes of cerebral ischemia and necrosis that traduce in signs and symtoms of focal neurologic dysfunction called acute cerebrovascular symdrome (ACS) or stroke. Two big groups according to its etiology are included in this category the hemorragic that constitue a 20% and the ischemic a 80% of cases. Great interest has wom the ischemic ACS because of its high social burden, being the third cause of no violen...

  11. Rehabilitation in cerebral palsy.

    OpenAIRE

    Molnar, G. E.

    1991-01-01

    Cerebral palsy is the most frequent physical disability of childhood onset. Over the past four decades, prevalence has remained remarkably constant at 2 to 3 per 1,000 live births in industrialized countries. In this article I concentrate on the rehabilitation and outcome of patients with cerebral palsy. The epidemiologic, pathogenetic, and diagnostic aspects are highlighted briefly as they pertain to the planning and implementation of the rehabilitation process.

  12. Sildenafil citrate and uteroplacental perfusion in fetal growth restriction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marzieh Vahid Dastjerdi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: To determine whether the phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitor, Sildenafil citrate, affects uteroplacental perfusion. Materials and Methods: Based on a randomized double-blinded and placebo-controlled trial, forty one pregnant women with documented intrauterine growth retardation at 24-37 weeks of gestation were evaluated for the effect of a single dose of Sildenafil citrate on uteroplacental circulation as determined by Doppler ultrasound study of the umbilical and middle cerebral arteries. Statistical analysis included χ2 -test to compare proportions, and independent-samples t-test and paired student′s t-test to compare continuous variables. Results: Sildenafil group fetuses demonstrated a significant decrease in systolic/diastolic ratios (0.60 [SD 0.40] [95% Cl 0.37-0.84], P=0.000, and pulsatility index (0.12 [SD 0.15] [95% Cl 0.02-0.22], P=0.019 for the umbilical artery and a significant increase in middle cerebral artery pulsatility index (MCA PI (0.51 [SD 0.60] [95% Cl 0.16-0.85], P=0.008. Conclusion: Doppler velocimetry index values reflect decreased placental bed vascular resistance after Sildenafil. Sildenafil citrate can improve fetoplacental perfusion in pregnancies complicated by intrauterine growth restriction. It could be a potential therapeutic strategy to improve uteroplacental blood flow in pregnancies with fetal growth restriction (FGR.

  13. Fetal magnetic resonance: technique applications and normal fetal anatomy; Resonance magnetica fetal: tecnica aplicaciones y anatomia normal del feto

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, C.; Darnell, A.; Duran, C.; Mellado, F.; Corona, M [Corporacio Sanitaria del Parc Tauli. Sabadell (Spain)

    2003-07-01

    Ultrasonography is the preferred diagnostic imaging technique for intrauterine fetal examination. Nevertheless, circumstances sometimes dictate the use of other techniques in order to analyze fetal structures. The advent of ultra rapid magnetic resonance (MR) sequencing has led to the possibility of doing MR fetal studies, since images are obtained in an extradordiarily short time and are not affected by either maternal or fetal movements. It does not employ ionizing radiations, it provides high-contrast images and it can obtain such images in any plane of space without being influenced by either the child bearer's physical characteristics of fetal position. MR provides good quality images of most fetal organs. It is extremely useful in analysing distinct structures, as well as permitting an evaluation of cervical structures, lungs, diaphragms, intra-abdominal and retroperitoneal structures, and fetal extremities. It can also provide useful information regarding the placenta,umbilical cord, amniotic fluid and uterus. The objective of this work is to describe MR technique as applied to intrauterine fetal examination, and to illustrate normal fetal anatomy as manifested by MR and its applications. (Author) 42 refs.

  14. Fetal Behavior and Heart Rate in Twin Pregnancy : A Review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tendais, Iva; Visser, Gerard H. A.; Figueiredo, Barbara; Montenegro, Nuno; Mulder, Eduard J. H.

    2013-01-01

    Fetal movements and fetal heart rate (FHR) are well-established markers of fetal well-being and maturation of the fetal central nervous system. The purpose of this paper is to review and discuss the available knowledge on fetal movements and heart rate patterns in twin pregnancies. There is some evi

  15. Media violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strasburger, V C

    1999-01-01

    For decades, media violence has been viewed as largely a Western problem. New studies indicate that Indian children have increasing access to the media and that media violence will subject them to the same problems as Western children: imitation, desensitization, fear, and inappropriate attitudes about violence and aggression. Solutions exist but will have to be implemented within the next decade to protect Indian children and adolescents from the harmful effects of media violence.

  16. Cerebral palsy and congenital malformations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garne, Ester; Dolk, Helen; Krägeloh-Mann, Inge;

    2007-01-01

    AIM: To determine the proportion of children with cerebral palsy (CP) who have cerebral and non-cerebral congenital malformations. METHODS: Data from 11 CP registries contributing to the European Cerebral Palsy Database (SCPE), for children born in the period 1976-1996. The malformations were...... classified as recognized syndromes, chromosomal anomalies, cerebral malformations or non-cerebral malformations. Prevalence of malformations was compared to published data on livebirths from a European database of congenital malformations (EUROCAT). RESULTS: Overall 547 out of 4584 children (11.9%) with CP...... were reported to have a congenital malformation. The majority (8.6% of all children) were diagnosed with a cerebral malformation. The most frequent types of cerebral malformations were microcephaly and hydrocephaly. Non-cerebral malformations were present in 97 CP children and in further 14 CP children...

  17. Maternal psychological impact of fetal echocardiography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sklansky, Mark; Tang, Alvin; Levy, Denis; Grossfeld, Paul; Kashani, Iraj; Shaughnessy, Robin; Rothman, Abraham

    2002-02-01

    The maternal psychological impact of fetal echocardiography may be deleterious in the face of newly diagnosed congenital heart disease. This questionnaire-based study prospectively examined the psychological impact of both normal and abnormal fetal echocardiography. Normal fetal echocardiography decreased maternal anxiety, increased happiness, and increased the closeness women felt toward their unborn children. In contrast, when fetal echocardiography detected congenital heart disease, maternal anxiety typically increased, and mothers commonly felt less happy about being pregnant. However, among women who had recently delivered infants with congenital heart disease, those who had had fetal echocardiography during the pregnancy felt less responsible for their infants' defects and tended to have improved their relationships with the infants' fathers after the prenatal diagnosis of congenital heart disease. Further study of the psychological and medical impact of fetal echocardiography will be necessary to define and optimize the clinical value of this powerful diagnostic tool.

  18. Ketamine modulates fetal hemodynamic and endocrine responses to umbilical cord occlusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarate, Miguel A; Chang, Eileen I; Antolic, Andrew; Wood, Charles E

    2016-09-01

    Umbilical cord occlusion (UCO) is a hypoxic insult that has been used to model birth asphyxia and umbilical cord compression in utero. UCO triggers vigorous neural and endocrine responses that include increased plasma ACTH and cortisol concentrations, increased blood pressure (BP), and decreased heart rate (HR). We have previously reported that ketamine, a noncompetitive N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor antagonist, can modify the fetal hemodynamic and ACTH responses to ventilatory hypoxia and cerebral ischemia-reperfusion. We performed the present experiments to test the hypothesis that ketamine has similar effects on the neuroendocrine and cardiovascular responses to UCO Fetal sheep were chronically catheterized at gestational day 125. Ketamine (3 mg/kg) was administered intravenously to the fetus 10 min prior to the insult. UCO was induced for 30 min by reducing the umbilical vein blood flow until fetal PaO2 levels were reduced from 17 ± 1 to 11 ± 1 mm Hg. UCO produced an initial increase on fetal BP in both control and ketamine groups (P = 0.018 time), followed by a decrease in the control group, but values remained higher with ketamine. HR decreased after UCO (P = 0.041 stimulus*time) in both groups, but the reduction was greater initially in control compared to ketamine groups. Fetal PaCO2 levels increased after UCO (P ketamine groups. UCO significantly decreased fetal pH values (P ketamine group. Ketamine delayed the cortisol responses to UCO (P ketamine augmented the cardiovascular response to UCO, but did not alter the ACTH response to UCO. PMID:27597770

  19. Fetal Placental Thrombosis and Neonatal Implications

    OpenAIRE

    Wintermark, Pia; Boyd, Theonia; Parast, Mana M; Van Marter, Linda J; Warfield, Simon K.; Robertson, Richard L.; Ringer, Steven A.

    2009-01-01

    We present the neonatal complications of two premature newborn infants whose placentas demonstrated placental thrombosis in the fetal circulation. Both mothers presented with a 3-day history of decreased fetal movements before delivery. The first infant presented with thrombocytopenia and disseminated intravascular coagulation. The second infant had extended bilateral extended hemorrhagic venous infarctions. Severe fetal placental vascular lesions seem to be a predisposing factor for some adv...

  20. Fetal leucocyte count in rhesus disease.

    OpenAIRE

    Davies, N P; Buggins, A G; Snijders, R J; Noble, P N; Layton, D. M.; Nicolaides, K H

    1992-01-01

    The effect of fetal anaemia on the total and differential leucocyte counts was studied by examining blood samples obtained by cordocentesis from 177 previously untransfused rhesus affected fetuses at 17-36 weeks' gestation. The mean fetal total leucocyte, lymphocyte, and monocyte counts were significantly lower than the corresponding values in normal controls and there were significant associations between the decrease in these cells and the degree of fetal anaemia. Possible mechanisms for le...

  1. Prenatal Exposure to Perfluoroalkyl Substances and the Risk of Congenital Cerebral Palsy in Children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liew, Zeyan; Ritz, Beate; Bonefeld-Jørgensen, Eva Cecilie;

    2014-01-01

    Perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) are persistent pollutants and endocrine disruptors that may affect fetal brain development. We investigated whether prenatal exposure to PFASs increases the risk of congenital cerebral palsy (CP). The source population for this study includes 83,389 liveborn...... singletons and mothers enrolled in the Danish National Birth Cohort during 1996-2002. We identified 156 CP cases by linking the cohort to the Danish National Cerebral Palsy Register, and we randomly selected 550 controls using a case-cohort design. We measured 16 PFASs in maternal plasma collected in early...

  2. Fetal Glucocorticoid Synthesis Is Required for Development of Fetal Adrenal Medulla and Hypothalamus Feedback Suppression

    OpenAIRE

    Huang, Chen-Che Jeff; Shih, Meng-Chun Monica; Hsu, Nai-Chi; Chien, Yu; Chung, Bon-Chu

    2012-01-01

    During pregnancy, fetal glucocorticoid is derived from both maternal supply and fetal secretion. We have created mice with a disruption of the Cyp11a1 gene resulting in loss of fetal steroid secretion but preserving the maternal supply. Cyp11a1null embryos have appreciable although lower amounts of circulating corticosterone, the major mouse glucocorticoid, suggesting that transplacental corticosterone is a major source of corticosterone in fetal circulation. These embryos thus provide a mean...

  3. Intrapartum fetal monitoring by ST-analysis of the fetal ECG

    OpenAIRE

    Westerhuis, M.E.M.H.

    2010-01-01

    Objective Intrapartum fetal monitoring aims to identify fetuses at risk for neonatal and long-term injury due to asphyxia. To serve this purpose, cardiotocography (CTG) combined with ST-analysis of the fetal electrocardiogram (ECG), which is a relatively new method, may be used. The main aim of this thesis was to quantify the (cost) effectiveness of intrapartum fetal monitoring by ST-analysis of the fetal ECG in women with a singleton term pregnancy in cephalic position. Methods Several studi...

  4. Evidence for developmental programming of cerebral laterality in humans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Jones

    Full Text Available Adverse fetal environments are associated with depression, reduced cognitive ability and increased stress responsiveness in later life, but underlying mechanisms are unknown. Environmental pressures on the fetus, resulting from variations in placental function and maternal nutrition, health and stress might alter neurodevelopment, promoting the development of some brain regions over others. As asymmetry of cerebral activity, with greater right hemisphere activity, has been associated with psychopathology, we hypothesized that regional specialization during fetal life might be reflected persistently in the relative activity of the cerebral hemispheres. We tested this hypothesis in 140 healthy 8-9 year-old children, using tympanic membrane temperature to assess relative blood flow to the cerebral hemispheres at rest and following psychosocial stress (Trier Social Stress Test for Children. Their birth weight and placental weight had already been measured when their mothers took part in a previous study of pregnancy outcomes. We found that children who had a smaller weight at birth had evidence of greater blood flow to the right hemisphere than to the left hemisphere (r = -.09, P = .29 at rest; r = -.18, P = .04 following stress. This finding was strengthened if the children had a relatively low birth weight for their placental weight (r = -.17, P = .05 at rest; r = -.31, P = .0005 following stress. Our findings suggest that lateralization of cerebral activity is influenced persistently by early developmental experiences, with possible consequences for long-term neurocognitive function.

  5. MR imaging of the fetal brain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glenn, Orit A. [University of California, San Francisco, Department of Radiology, Neuroradiology Section, San Francisco, CA (United States)

    2010-01-15

    Fetal MRI is clinically performed to evaluate the brain in cases where an abnormality is detected by prenatal sonography. These most commonly include ventriculomegaly, abnormalities of the corpus callosum, and abnormalities of the posterior fossa. Fetal MRI is also increasingly performed to evaluate fetuses who have normal brain findings on prenatal sonogram but who are at increased risk for neurodevelopmental abnormalities, such as complicated monochorionic twin pregnancies. This paper will briefly discuss the common clinical conditions imaged by fetal MRI as well as recent advances in fetal MRI research. (orig.)

  6. Fetal movements as a predictor of health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Jonathan; Nowlan, Niamh C; Vaidyanathan, Ravi; Shaw, Caroline J; Lees, Christoph C

    2016-09-01

    The key determinant to a fetus maintaining its health is through adequate perfusion and oxygen transfer mediated by the functioning placenta. When this equilibrium is distorted, a number of physiological changes, including reduced fetal growth, occur to favor survival. Technologies have been developed to monitor these changes with a view to prolong intrauterine maturity while reducing the risks of stillbirth. Many of these strategies involve complex interpretation, for example Doppler ultrasound for fetal blood flow and computerized analysis of fetal heart rate changes. However, even with these modalities of fetal assessment to determine the optimal timing of delivery, fetal movements remain integral to clinical decision-making. In high-risk cohorts with fetal growth restriction, the manifestation of a reduction in perceived movements may warrant an expedited delivery. Despite this, there has been little evolution in the development of technologies to objectively evaluate fetal movement behavior for clinical application. This review explores the available literature on the value of fetal movement analysis as a method of assessing fetal wellbeing, and demonstrates how interdisciplinary developments in this area may aid in the improvement of clinical outcomes. PMID:27374723

  7. Fetal magnetocardiographic mapping using independent component analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comani, S; Mantini, D; Alleva, G; Di Luzio, S; Romani, G L

    2004-12-01

    Fetal magnetocardiography (fMCG) is the only noninvasive technique allowing effective assessment of fetal cardiac electrical activity during the prenatal period. The reconstruction of reliable magnetic field mapping associated with fetal heart activity would allow three-dimensional source localization. The efficiency of independent component analysis (ICA) in restoring reliable fetal traces from multichannel fMCG has already been demonstrated. In this paper, we describe a method of reconstructing a complete set of fetal signals hidden in multichannel fMCG preserving their correct spatial distribution, waveform, polarity and amplitude. Fetal independent components, retrieved with an ICA algorithm (FastICA), were interpolated (fICI method) using information gathered during FastICA iterations. The restored fetal signals were used to reconstruct accurate magnetic mapping for every millisecond during the average beat. The procedure was validated on fMCG recorded from the 22nd gestational week onward with a multichannel MCG system working in a shielded room. The interpolated traces were compared with those obtained with a standard technique, and the consistency of fetal mapping was checked evaluating source localizations relative to fetal echocardiographic information. Good magnetic field distributions during the P-QRS-T waves were attained with fICI for all gestational periods; their reliability was confirmed by three-dimensional source localizations. PMID:15712724

  8. Isolated Fetal Ascite Associated with Cardiac Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vehbi Doğan

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Fetal ascite is defined as fluid accumulation in peritoneal cavity. It can be seen as isolated disease or an early sign of hydrops fetalis. Once fetal ascite is detected, a careful examination for hydops fetalis and possible underlying disease is necessary, since its prognosis and treatment depends mostly on the cause. Non-immunologic fetal ascite is an uncommon problem occurring for many reasons, such as urinary tract obstruction, congenital infections, genetic and metabolic diseases, gastrointestinal diseases and cardiovascular diseases. Here in this report we present two isolated fetal ascite that occurred secondary to cardiac diseases.

  9. Normal MR imaging of fetal organs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MR imaging has recently been used in medical scene, especially in obstetrics. The definite prenatal diagnosis of fetal anomaly using MR imaging has proved to be useful. But MR imaging of normal fetal organs remains to be understood. There have been not complete systemical research works about normal fetus by MR imaging, up to date. MR imaging on 25 pregnant cases were carried out to get the definite diagnosis of the possible fetal anomalies. MR imaging in fetus is usually disturbed by fetal movement. Generally, diazepam to mother or muscle relaxants to fetus have been used in given cases in order to obtain good quality of imaging. Mothers were requested to walk around the lobby in hospital before examination and fetal movement was decreased, resulting in 85% good imaging. The understanding of normal findings of fetal organs by MR imagings is important for diagnosis of the fetal anomalies. For example, brain and bowel showed high signals in T1 weighted images. Lung showed high signal in T2 weighted images. Liver was demonstrated clearly in T1 weighted images and proton density images. Heart and vessels showed low signals because of flow void phenomenon. Thus, it is necessary to detect and diagnose fetal anomalies after understanding the normal findings of fetal organs in MR imaging. (author)

  10. Noninvasive Fetal Sex Determination Using Cell-Free Fetal DNA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devaney, Stephanie A.; Palomaki, Glenn E.; Scott, Joan A.; Bianchi, Diana W.

    2015-01-01

    Context Noninvasive prenatal determination of fetal sex using cell-free fetal DNA provides an alternative to invasive techniques for some heritable disorders. In some countries this testing has transitioned to clinical care, despite the absence of a formal assessment of performance. Objective To document overall test performance of noninvasive fetal sex determination using cell-free fetal DNA and to identify variables that affect performance. Data Sources Systematic review and meta-analysis with search of PubMed (January 1, 1997–April 17, 2011) to identify English-language human studies reporting primary data. References from review articles were also searched. Study Selection and Data Extraction Abstracts were read independently to identify studies reporting primary data suitable for analysis. Covariates included publication year, sample type, DNA amplification methodology, Y chromosome sequence, and gestational age. Data were independently extracted by 2 reviewers. Results From 57 selected studies, 80 data sets (representing 3524 male-bearing pregnancies and 3017 female-bearing pregnancies) were analyzed. Overall performance of the test to detect Y chromosome sequences had the following characteristics: sensitivity, 95.4% (95% confidence interval [CI], 94.7%–96.1%) and specificity, 98.6% (95% CI, 98.1%–99.0%); diagnostic odds ratio (OR), 885; positive predictive value, 98.8%; negative predictive value, 94.8%; area under curve (AUC), 0.993 (95% CI, 0.989–0.995), with significant interstudy heterogeneity. DNA methodology and gestational age had the largest effects on test performance. Methodology test characteristics were AUC, 0.988 (95% CI, 0.979–0.993) for polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and AUC, 0.996 (95% CI, 0.993–0.998) for real-time quantitative PCR (RTQ-PCR) (P=.02). Gestational age test characteristics were AUC, 0.989 (95% CI, 0.965–0.998) (20 weeks) (P=.02 for comparison of diagnostic ORs across age ranges). RTQ-PCR (sensitivity, 96

  11. Nanomedicine in cerebral palsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balakrishnan B

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Bindu Balakrishnan,1 Elizabeth Nance,1 Michael V Johnston,2 Rangaramanujam Kannan,3 Sujatha Kannan1 1Department of Anesthesiology and Critical Care Medicine, Johns Hopkins University; Baltimore, MD, USA; 2Department of Neurology and Pediatrics, Kennedy Krieger Institute, Baltimore, MD, USA; 3Department of Ophthalmology, Center for Nanomedicine, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD, USA Abstract: Cerebral palsy is a chronic childhood disorder that can have diverse etiologies. Injury to the developing brain that occurs either in utero or soon after birth can result in the motor, sensory, and cognitive deficits seen in cerebral palsy. Although the etiologies for cerebral palsy are variable, neuroinflammation plays a key role in the pathophysiology of the brain injury irrespective of the etiology. Currently, there is no effective cure for cerebral palsy. Nanomedicine offers a new frontier in the development of therapies for prevention and treatment of brain injury resulting in cerebral palsy. Nanomaterials such as dendrimers provide opportunities for the targeted delivery of multiple drugs that can mitigate several pathways involved in injury and can be delivered specifically to the cells that are responsible for neuroinflammation and injury. These materials also offer the opportunity to deliver agents that would promote repair and regeneration in the brain, resulting not only in attenuation of injury, but also enabling normal growth. In this review, the current advances in nanotechnology for treatment of brain injury are discussed with specific relevance to cerebral palsy. Future directions that would facilitate clinical translation in neonates and children are also addressed. Keywords: dendrimer, cerebral palsy, neuroinflammation, nanoparticle, neonatal brain injury, G4OH-PAMAM

  12. Zika Virus Infection with Prolonged Maternal Viremia and Fetal Brain Abnormalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Driggers, Rita W; Ho, Cheng-Ying; Korhonen, Essi M; Kuivanen, Suvi; Jääskeläinen, Anne J; Smura, Teemu; Rosenberg, Avi; Hill, D Ashley; DeBiasi, Roberta L; Vezina, Gilbert; Timofeev, Julia; Rodriguez, Fausto J; Levanov, Lev; Razak, Jennifer; Iyengar, Preetha; Hennenfent, Andrew; Kennedy, Richard; Lanciotti, Robert; du Plessis, Adre; Vapalahti, Olli

    2016-06-01

    The current outbreak of Zika virus (ZIKV) infection has been associated with an apparent increased risk of congenital microcephaly. We describe a case of a pregnant woman and her fetus infected with ZIKV during the 11th gestational week. The fetal head circumference decreased from the 47th percentile to the 24th percentile between 16 and 20 weeks of gestation. ZIKV RNA was identified in maternal serum at 16 and 21 weeks of gestation. At 19 and 20 weeks of gestation, substantial brain abnormalities were detected on ultrasonography and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) without the presence of microcephaly or intracranial calcifications. On postmortem analysis of the fetal brain, diffuse cerebral cortical thinning, high ZIKV RNA loads, and viral particles were detected, and ZIKV was subsequently isolated. PMID:27028667

  13. Zika Virus Infection with Prolonged Maternal Viremia and Fetal Brain Abnormalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Driggers, Rita W; Ho, Cheng-Ying; Korhonen, Essi M; Kuivanen, Suvi; Jääskeläinen, Anne J; Smura, Teemu; Rosenberg, Avi; Hill, D Ashley; DeBiasi, Roberta L; Vezina, Gilbert; Timofeev, Julia; Rodriguez, Fausto J; Levanov, Lev; Razak, Jennifer; Iyengar, Preetha; Hennenfent, Andrew; Kennedy, Richard; Lanciotti, Robert; du Plessis, Adre; Vapalahti, Olli

    2016-06-01

    The current outbreak of Zika virus (ZIKV) infection has been associated with an apparent increased risk of congenital microcephaly. We describe a case of a pregnant woman and her fetus infected with ZIKV during the 11th gestational week. The fetal head circumference decreased from the 47th percentile to the 24th percentile between 16 and 20 weeks of gestation. ZIKV RNA was identified in maternal serum at 16 and 21 weeks of gestation. At 19 and 20 weeks of gestation, substantial brain abnormalities were detected on ultrasonography and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) without the presence of microcephaly or intracranial calcifications. On postmortem analysis of the fetal brain, diffuse cerebral cortical thinning, high ZIKV RNA loads, and viral particles were detected, and ZIKV was subsequently isolated.

  14. Combined use of ultrasound and computed tomography in the evaluation of fetal intracranial abnormilaty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antenatal ultrasonic findings in two pregnancies with fetal intracranial abnormality were completed by taking a restricted number of computed tomography (CT) scans under ultrasonic control. General information achieved by CT was not greater compared with ultrasonography. CT demonstrated better than ultrasound the calcified areas in the intracranial teratoma of the fetus. In the case of fetal hydrocephaly the existence of a dilated, but otherwise intact cerebral ventricular system was established CT after a somewhat controversial ultrasonic finding. CT can be used as a complementary examination when there are specific problems to be evaluated after antenatal ultrasonic scanning. CT should be used in these cases under ultrasonic control and the information of the both methods must be combined for the clinical decisions. (orig.)

  15. Anti-E Alloimmunization: A Rare Cause of Severe Fetal Hemolytic Disease Resulting in Pregnancy Loss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    An-Shine Chao

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available We report a case of severe intrauterine hemolysis caused by sole anti-E alloimmunization. A 36-year-old multipara woman presented with hydrops fetalis at 27 weeks of gestation. She had a history of previous neonatal death. In this pregnancy, she was found to have very high titer of anti-E antibody. Ultrasonography detected marked skin edema, cardiomegaly, hepatosplenomegaly, pleural effusion, ascites, placentomegaly, and polyhydramnios. The Doppler peak systolic velocity in the middle cerebral artery was 0.8 m/s, indicating severe fetal anemia. Multiple intrauterine transfusions for the anemic fetus were administered. However, persistent severe fetal anemia and placentomegaly caused poor neonatal death and mirror syndrome in the mother. Uncommon red blood cell alloimmunization has to be watched for early in any population, especially in a woman with a history of unexplained perinatal loss.

  16. Clinical Neuroimaging of cerebral ischemia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakagawara, Jyoji [Nakamura Memorial Hospital, Sapporo (Japan)

    1999-06-01

    Notice points in clinical imaging of cerebral ischemia are reviewed. When cerebral blood flow is determined in acute stage of cerebral embolism (cerebral blood flow SPECT), it is important to find area of ischemic core and ischemic penumbra. When large cortex area is assigned to ischemic penumbra, thrombolytic therapy is positively adapted, but cautious correspondence is necessary when ischemic core is recognized. DWI is superior in the detection of area equivalent to ischemic core of early stage, but, in imaging of area equivalent to ischemic penumbra, perfusion image or distribution image of cerebral blood volume (CBV) by MRI need to be combined. Luxury perfusion detected by cerebral blood flow SPECT in the cases of acute cerebral embolism suggests vascular recanalization, but a comparison with CT/MRI and continuous assessment of cerebral circulation dynamics were necessary in order to predict brain tissue disease (metabolic abnormality). In hemodynamic cerebral ischemia, it is important to find stage 2 equivalent to misery perfusion by quantification of cerebral blood flow SPECT. Degree of diaschisis can indicate seriousness of brain dysfunction for lacuna infarct. Because cerebral circulation reserve ability (perfusion pressure) is normal in all areas of the low cerebral blood flow by diaschisis mechanism, their areas are easily distinguished from those of hemodynamic cerebral ischemia. (K.H.)

  17. Intrauterine Extremity Gangrene and Cerebral Infarction at Term: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Tanvig

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Intrauterine extremity gangrene in combination with cerebral infarction is a serious and rare event. We present a case with a healthy mother who gave birth to a child with this condition. At term, the mother presented at the antenatal clinic with decreased fetal movements. Cardiotocography (CTG showed signs of fetal distress and a caesarean section was performed. The left arm of the newborn was found gangrenous. Amputation of the arm was necessary and the child was subsequently treated with anticoagulant therapy due to thrombosis and cerebral infarction in the left hemisphere found by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI. At one year of age the boy was doing well and had prosthesis as a left arm. He had no signs of further complications. Despite thorough examination of the parents and the child, the reason for the thrombosis is still unknown.

  18. Maturation of the mitochondrial redox response to profound asphyxia in fetal sheep.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul P Drury

    Full Text Available UNLABELLED: Fetal susceptibility to hypoxic brain injury increases over the last third of gestation. This study examined the hypothesis that this is associated with impaired mitochondrial adaptation, as measured by more rapid oxidation of cytochrome oxidase (CytOx during profound asphyxia. METHODS: Chronically instrumented fetal sheep at 0.6, 0.7, and 0.85 gestation were subjected to either 30 min (0.6 gestational age (ga, n = 6, 25 min (0.7 ga, n = 27 or 15 min (0.85 ga, n = 17 of complete umbilical cord occlusion. Fetal EEG, cerebral impedance (to measure brain swelling and near-infrared spectroscopy-derived intra-cerebral oxygenation (ΔHb = HbO(2 - Hb, total hemoglobin (THb and CytOx redox state were monitored continuously. Occlusion was associated with profound, rapid fall in ΔHb in all groups to a plateau from 6 min, greatest at 0.85 ga compared to 0.6 and 0.7 ga (p<0.05. THb initially increased at all ages, with the greatest rise at 0.85 ga (p<0.05, followed by a progressive fall from 7 min in all groups. CytOx initially increased in all groups with the greatest rise at 0.85 ga (p<0.05, followed by a further, delayed increase in preterm fetuses, but a striking fall in the 0.85 group after 6 min of occlusion. Cerebral impedance (a measure of cytotoxic edema increased earlier and more rapidly with greater gestation. In conclusion, the more rapid rise in CytOx and cortical impedance during profound asphyxia with greater maturation is consistent with increasing dependence on oxidative metabolism leading to earlier onset of neural energy failure before the onset of systemic hypotension.

  19. Changes in fetal ovine metabolism and oxygen delivery with fetal bypass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Christopher T; Baker, R Scott; Clark, Kenneth E; Eghtesady, Pirooz

    2011-07-01

    Since the 1980s, attempts at experimental fetal cardiac bypass for the purpose of correcting severe congenital heart defects in the womb have been hampered by deterioration of placental function. This placental pathophysiology in turn affects transplacental transport of nutrients and gas exchange. To date, the effects of bypass on fetal metabolism and oxygen delivery have not been studied. Nine Suffolk sheep fetuses from 109-121 days gestation were instrumented and placed on fetal bypass for 30 min and followed postbypass for 2 h. Blood gases, glucose, and lactate were serially measured in the fetal arterial and umbilical venous circulations throughout the procedure. Insulin and glucagon levels were serially measured by immunoassay in fetal plasma. Fetal-placental hemodynamics were measured continuously. The expression of glycogen content was examined in fetal liver. Oxygen delivery to the fetus and fetal oxygen consumption were significantly deranged after the conduct of bypass (in-group ANOVA (P = 0.001) and overall contrast (P = 0.072) with planned contrast (P < 0.05) for delivery and consumption, respectively). There were significant alterations in fetal glucose metabolism in the postbypass period; however, insulin and glucagon levels did not change. Fetal liver glycogen content appeared lower after bypass. This is the first report documenting fetal metabolic dysregulation that occurs in response to the conduct of fetal bypass. The significant alterations in fetal oxygen and glucose delivery coupled with hepatic glycogen depletion complicate and impede fetal recovery. These initial findings warrant further investigation of interventions to restore metabolic and hemodynamic homeostasis after fetal bypass. PMID:21508289

  20. Cardiotocography (CTG) as the screening method of fetal condition assessment

    OpenAIRE

    V. Zulčić-Nakić; A. Latifagić; I. Šerak; D. Kapidžić; Dž. Ljuca; Z. Fatušić; M. Kapidžić

    2007-01-01

    A basic function of fetal monitoring is an analysis of fetal cardiac action. Cardiotocography (CTG) cannot provide all necessary information for assessment of the fetal condition as it is not sufficiently reliable and gives a large number of false positive results that increase the number of cesarean sections. An objective of this work was to establish CTG reliability as a method for assessment of intrapartal fetal condition. Based on CTG parameters (baseline fetal heart rate, fetal heart ra...

  1. Imaging of fetal chest masses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barth, Richard A. [Lucile Packard Children' s Hospital, Stanford University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Stanford, CA (United States)

    2012-01-15

    Prenatal imaging with high-resolution US and rapid acquisition MRI plays a key role in the accurate diagnosis of congenital chest masses. Imaging has enhanced our understanding of the natural history of fetal lung masses, allowing for accurate prediction of outcome, parental counseling, and planning of pregnancy and newborn management. This paper will focus on congenital bronchopulmonary malformations, which account for the vast majority of primary lung masses in the fetus. In addition, anomalies that mimic masses and less common causes of lung masses will be discussed. (orig.)

  2. The role of magnetic resonance imaging in the diagnostic work-up of fetal ventriculomegaly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardoen, L; De Catte, L; Demaerel, P; Devlieger, R; Lewi, L; Deprest, J; Claus, F

    2011-01-01

    The indication for fetal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) remains a subject of debate, partly because of questions concerning its diagnostic accuracy compared to ultrasound, partly because of practical factors such as accessibility, high costs and available expertise. Most studies advocate an added value for MRI in cases diagnosed with central nervous system pathology. MRI is a good modality to detect small foci of brain hemorrhage, to depict callosal anomalies, to add information about normal and pathological cortical development, and is a more sensitive imaging method to detect white matter pathology. This manuscript discusses the role of MRI as an adjunct to ultrasound for cases diagnosed-- with cerebral ventriculomegaly. PMID:24753861

  3. [CT findings in "fresh" cerebral paragonimiasis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, H Z; Xie, F W; Sun, S C

    1992-01-01

    There are few reports on CT findings in "fresh" cerebral paragonimiasis. We have experienced four cases of "fresh" cerebral paragonimiasis examined by CT scan. Three patients were children aged 7, 9, and 14 years, and one was an adult aged 25 years. Three patients were examined by CT scan 2 to 6 months after the onset of high grade fever, convulsion and focal deficit signs, and a patient was examined one month after his progressive visual disturbance. The unique CT findings are multilocular cystic lesions in temporo-occipital or in temporo-parietal lobes with extensive brain edema. Two cases were also associated with "soap-bubble" calcifications. The cysts were more dense than CSF and enhanced by contrast media. The histopathological specimen showed that the eggs of paragonimus were in the abscess cavity, of which the wall was composed with highly vascular gliomesenchymal capsule and numerous cell infiltration. Three patients underwent craniotomy for removal of abscess and decompression. Bitionol were administered and all patients recovered well. We also discussed the differential diagnosis of cerebral parasitic granulomas.

  4. Cerebral abscess in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A cerebral abscess (CA) is a focal, infectious process only or multiple, located in the cerebral parenchyma that produces tisular lysis and it behaves like a lesion of space occupative, being a suppurative illness, who origin is a distant infection, or for continuity that studies initially as an area of focal cerebritis and it is developed to a collection surrounded purulent. At the moment they are perfecting technical and protocols diagnoses and therapeutic and measures for allow to control the natural history of the illness, making from the confrontation to this pathology a necessarily interdisciplinary complicated art, stiller in the infantile population, due to their difficulty in the diagnosis and the relevance of the same one. The paper includes epidemiology, etiology, risk factors, localization, pathology, clinic, diagnoses, treatment and diagnostic images

  5. Cerebral hemodynamics in migraine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hachinski, V C; Olesen, Jes; Norris, J W;

    1977-01-01

    Clinical and angiographic findings in migraine are briefly reviewed in relation to cerebral hemodynamic changes shown by regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) studies. Three cases of migraine studied by the intracarotid xenon 133 method during attacks are reported. In classic migraine, with typical...... prodromal symptoms, a decrease in cerebral blood flow has been demonstrated during the aura. Occasionally, this flow decrease persists during the headache phase. In common migraine, where such prodromata are not seen, a flow decrease has not been demonstrated. During the headache phase of both types...... of migraine, rCBF has usually been found to be normal or in the high range of normal values. The high values may represent postischemic hyperemia, but are probably more frequently secondary to arousal caused by pain. Thus, during the headache phase rCBF may be subnormal, normal or high. These findings do...

  6. Expert systems for fetal assessment in labour

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lutomski, J.E.; Meaney, S.; Greene, R.A.; Ryan, A.C.; Devane, D.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Cardiotocography (CTG) records the fetal heart rate in relation to maternal uterine contractions and is one of the most common forms of fetal assessment during labour. Despite guidelines for CTG interpretation, substantial inter- and intra-observer variation in interpretation has been re

  7. New treatment of early fetal chylothorax

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nygaard, Ulrikka; Sundberg, Karin; Nielsen, Henriette Svarre;

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate OK-432, a preparation of Streptococcus pyogenes, in the treatment of early fetal chylothorax. METHODS: A prospective study of all fetuses (n=7) with persistent early chylothorax (gestational ages 16-21 weeks) referred to the tertiary center of fetal medicine in Denmark...

  8. Protein synthesis during hypoxia in fetal lambs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The goal of this study was to test the hypothesis that the rate of fetal protein synthesis decreases during fetal hypoxia. Catheters were inserted into 13 sheep fetuses under maternal spinal and local fetal anesthesia. Five days after surgery, an infusion of L-[14C]tyrosine was begun. Measurements were first made when tyrosine-specific activity reached steady state at 3 h and then again 3 h after fetal oxygen delivery was reduced by lowering the maternal inspired oxygen concentration. Umbilical blood flow was measured by injecting microspheres containing one of five radiolabels into the inferior venacava. Fetal tyrosine uptake across the umbilical circulation was 1.34 +/- 0.20 μ mol x kg-1 x min-1 during normoxia and decreased to 0.72 +/- 0.12 μ mol x kg-1 x min-1 during hypoxia. Tyrosine use from the plasma compartment was 1.25 +/- 0.18 μ mol x kg-1 x min-1 during normoxia and decreased to 0.64 +/- 0.12 μ mol x kg-1 x min-1 during hypoxia. Fetal tyrosine use decreased during reduced oxygen delivery because the rate of tyrosine use for fetal protein synthesis decreased. Fetal oxygen consumption decreased by 40 μ mol x kg-1 x min-1 during hypoxia. Decreased protein synthesis reduced the energy needed for protein synthesis and explained 28 μ mol x kg-1 x min-1 of this reduction

  9. Maternal diabetes and the fetal heart

    OpenAIRE

    Hornberger, L K

    2006-01-01

    Maternal diabetes mellitus significantly affects the fetal heart and fetal–placental circulation in both structure and function. The influence of pre‐conceptional diabetes begins during embryonic development in the first trimester, with altered cardiac morphogenesis and placental development. It continues to have an influence on the fetal circulation through the second and third trimesters and into the perinatal and neonatal period

  10. Noninvasive fetal genotyping of paternally inherited alleles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scheffer, P.G.

    2012-01-01

    The results presented in this thesis indicate that cell-free fetal DNA is a reliably analyte for prenatal genetic diagnosis in everyday clinical practice. Already, invasive procedures solely to determine the fetal sex or red cell antigen status belong to the past. Large-scale nation-wide prenatal sc

  11. Fetal deaths in Brazil: a systematic review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbeiro, Fernanda Morena dos Santos; Fonseca, Sandra Costa; Tauffer, Mariana Girão; Ferreira, Mariana de Souza Santos; da Silva, Fagner Paulo; Ventura, Patrícia Mendonça; Quadros, Jesirée Iglesias

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To review the frequency of and factors associated with fetal death in the Brazilian scientific literature. METHODS A systematic review of Brazilian studies on fetal deaths published between 2003 and 2013 was conducted. In total, 27 studies were analyzed; of these, 4 studies addressed the quality of data, 12 were descriptive studies, and 11 studies evaluated the factors associated with fetal death. The databases searched were PubMed and Lilacs, and data extraction and synthesis were independently performed by two or more examiners. RESULTS The level of completeness of fetal death certificates was deficient, both in the completion of variables, particularly sociodemographic variables, and in defining the underlying causes of death. Fetal deaths have decreased in Brazil; however, inequalities persist. Analysis of the causes of death indicated maternal morbidities that could be prevented and treated. The main factors associated with fetal deaths were absent or inadequate prenatal care, low education level, maternal morbidity, and adverse reproductive history. CONCLUSIONS Prenatal care should prioritize women that are most vulnerable (considering their social environment or their reproductive history and morbidities) with the aim of decreasing the fetal mortality rate in Brazil. Adequate completion of death certificates and investment in the committees that investigate fetal and infant deaths are necessary. PMID:25902565

  12. Fetal Brain Behavior and Cognitive Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, R.

    2000-01-01

    Presents information on prenatal brain development, detailing the functions controlled by the medulla, pons, and midbrain, and the implications for cognitive development. Concludes that fetal cognitive motor activity, including auditory discrimination, orienting, the wake-sleep cycle, fetal heart rate accelerations, and defensive reactions,…

  13. Transient non-autoimmune fetal heart block

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Breur, JMPJ; Oudijk, MA; Stoutenbeek, P; Visser, GHA; Meijboom, EJ

    2005-01-01

    Objectives: Fetal heart block is a rare and irreversible condition associated with structural heart defects or maternal autoantibodies (SS-A/Ro and SS-B/La) resulting in permanent damage of the atrioventricular (AV) node. This is the first report of 4 cases with a transient fetal heart block in stru

  14. Cerebral fat embolism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A case of cerebral fat embolism is reported. A 18-year-old patient with multiple bone fractures was in semiconma immediately after an injury. Brain CT showed no brain swelling or intracranial hematoma. Hypoxemia and alcoholemia were noted on admission, which returned to normal without improvement of consciousness level. In addition, respiratory symptoms with positive radiographic changes, tachycardia, pyrexia, sudden drop in hemoglobin level, and sudden thrombocytopenia developed. These symptoms were compatible with Gurd's criteria of systemic fat embolism. Eight days after injury, multiple low density areas appeared on CT and disappeared within the subsequent two weeks, and subdural effusion with cerebral atrophy developed. These CT findings were not considered due to cerebral trauma. Diagnosis of cerebral fat embolism was made. The subdural effusion was drained. Neurologic and pulmonary recoveries took place slowly and one month following the injury the patient became alert and exhibited fully coordinated limb movement. The CT scans of the present case well corresponded with hitherto reported pathological findings. Petechiae in the white matter must have developed on the day of injury, which could not be detected by CT examination. It is suggested that some petechial regions fused to purpuras and then gradually resolved when they were detected as multiple low density areas on CT. CT in the purpuras phase would have shown these lesions as high density areas. These lesions must have healed with formation of tiny scars and blood pigment which were demonstrated as the disappearance of multiple low density areas by CT examination. Cerebral atrophy and subsequent subdural effusion developed as a result of demyelination. The patient took the typical clinical course of cerebral fat embolism and serial CT scans served for its assessment. (author)

  15. Media Flow

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kabel, Lars

    2015-01-01

    News and other kinds of journalistic stories, 16-17 hours a day, all year round, on all platforms, also the moderated social media. The key research thesis behind this article is that the continuous and speedy stream of news stories and media content now is becoming the centre of the production...... processes and the value creation in converged multimedia newsrooms. The article identify new methods and discuss editorial challenges in handling media flow....

  16. Experimental Focal Cerebral Ischemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Thomas

    2007-01-01

    Focal cerebral ischemia due to occlusion of a major cerebral artery is the cause of ischemic stroke which is a major reason of mortality, morbidity and disability in the populations of the developed countries. In the seven studies summarized in the thesis focal ischemia in rats induced by occlusion......-PBN on the periinfarct depolarizations and infarct volume was investigated. In study number six, the activity of the mitochondrial electron transport complexes I, II and IV was evaluated histochemically during reperfusion after MCAO in order to assess the possible role of mitochondrial dysfunction in focal ischemic...

  17. Periconceptional intake of vitamins and fetal death

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nohr, Ellen A; Olsen, Jorn; Bech, Bodil H;

    2014-01-01

    ratios (HR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI). Follow-up started at 8 completed weeks of gestation, and comparisons were made with no supplement use at any time during the periconceptional period. RESULTS: Any multivitamin use was associated with a small increased crude risk of fetal death [HR 1.12 (1......-week periconceptional period. A telephone interview provided information about maternal characteristics and data on fetal death came from registers. The associations between periconceptional multivitamin or folate-only use and early (death were estimated by hazard.......12-1.48)], a decreased risk of late losses was indicated when use started after conception [HR 0.65 (0.39-1.09)]. Folate-only use was not associated with fetal death. CONCLUSIONS: Multivitamin use was associated with a modest increased risk of early fetal death. For late fetal death, regular supplement use after...

  18. Propofol Pharmacokinetics and Estimation of Fetal Propofol Exposure during Mid-Gestational Fetal Surgery: A Maternal-Fetal Sheep Model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pornswan Ngamprasertwong

    Full Text Available Measuring fetal drug concentrations is extremely difficult in humans. We conducted a study in pregnant sheep to simultaneously describe maternal and fetal concentrations of propofol, a common intravenous anesthetic agent used in humans. Compared to inhalational anesthesia, propofol supplemented anesthesia lowered the dose of desflurane required to provide adequate uterine relaxation during open fetal surgery. This resulted in better intraoperative fetal cardiac outcome. This study describes maternal and fetal propofol pharmacokinetics (PK using a chronically instrumented maternal-fetal sheep model.Fetal and maternal blood samples were simultaneously collected from eight mid-gestational pregnant ewes during general anesthesia with propofol, remifentanil and desflurane. Nonlinear mixed-effects modeling was performed by using NONMEM software. Total body weight, gestational age and hemodynamic parameters were tested in the covariate analysis. The final model was validated by bootstrapping and visual predictive check.A total of 160 propofol samples were collected. A 2-compartment maternal PK model with a third fetal compartment appropriately described the data. Mean population parameter estimates for maternal propofol clearance and central volume of distribution were 4.17 L/min and 37.7 L, respectively, in a typical ewe with a median heart rate of 135 beats/min. Increase in maternal heart rate significantly correlated with increase in propofol clearance. The estimated population maternal-fetal inter-compartment clearance was 0.0138 L/min and the volume of distribution of propofol in the fetus was 0.144 L. Fetal propofol clearance was found to be almost negligible compared to maternal clearance and could not be robustly estimated.For the first time, a maternal-fetal PK model of propofol in pregnant ewes was successfully developed. This study narrows the gap in our knowledge in maternal-fetal PK model in human. Our study confirms that maternal heart

  19. Novel isolation strategy to deliver pure fetal-origin and maternal-origin mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) populations from human term placenta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, J; Shafiee, A; Wang, W; Fisk, N M; Khosrotehrani, K

    2014-11-01

    The placenta is an abundant source of mesenchymal stem/stromal cells (MSC). Although presumed of translationally-advantageous fetal origin, the literature instead suggests a high incidence of either contaminating or pure maternal MSC. Despite definitional criteria that MSC are CD34-, increasing evidence suggests that fetal MSC may be CD34 positive in vivo. We flow sorted term placental digests based on CD34+ expression and exploited differential culture media to isolate separately pure fetal and maternal MSC populations. This method has considerable translational implications, in particular to clinical trials underway with "placental" MSC of uncertain or decidual origin.

  20. Mass Media

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    叶全荣

    2006-01-01

    @@ Every day,we are all influenced by the mass media.Although some critics of the media claim that these means of communication are used mainly to control our thinking and get us to buy products that we don't need,the media also contribute to keeping people informed.In other words,while dangers do exist,the benefits of the media far outweigh(超过)the disadvantages.Most of the messages brought to viewers,listeners,and readers are designed either to inform or to entertain,and neither of these goals can be considered dangerous or harmful.

  1. Angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) activity in fetal calf serum: implications for cell culture research

    OpenAIRE

    Lubel, J. S.; Herath, C. B.; Velkoska, E.; Casley, D. J.; Burrell, L. M.; Angus, P. W.

    2008-01-01

    Cell culture experiments often employ the use of culture media that contain fetal calf serum (FCS). The angiotensin peptides angiotensin II and angiotensin 1–7 have opposing effects with angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) being the enzyme predominantly responsible for generating angiotensin 1–7 from angiotensin II. The effect of FCS on angiotensin peptides has not previously been described. We have shown that FCS has ACE2 enzyme activity capable of degrading angiotensin II and generating ...

  2. Cerebral atrophic and degenerative changes following various cerebral diseases, (1)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patients having cerebral atrophic and degenerative changes following hypoglycemia, cerebral contusion, or cerebral hypoxia including cerebrovascular disorders were reported. Description was made as to cerebral changes visualized on CT images and clinical courses of a patient who revived 10 minutes after heart stoppage during neurosurgery, a newborn with asphyxia, a patient with hypoglycemia, a patient who suffered from asphyxia by an accident 10 years before, a patient with carbon monoxide poisoning at an acute stage, a patient who had carbon monoxide poisoning 10 years before, a patient with diffuse cerebral ischemic changes, a patient with cerebral edema around metastatic tumor, a patient with respiration brain, a patient with neurological sequelae after cerebral contusion, a patient who had an operation to excise right parietal lobe artery malformation, and a patient who was shooted by a machine gun and had a lead in the brain for 34 years. (Tsunoda, M.)

  3. Association between maternal psychological status and fetal hemodynamic circulation in late pregnancy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fu Jing; Yang Ruifen; Ma Xiaodong; Xia Huimin

    2014-01-01

    Background The prevalence reported of maternal depression from the first to the third trimester was 7.4%,12.8%,12.0% respectively,which implies that around one-tenth of pregnant women suffer from psychological disorder during the whole pregnancy.It is assumed that during pregnancy the maternal-fetal circulation unit is also affected by maternal psychological status.The aim of this study is to explore the association between maternal psychological status and fetal dynamic blood flow circulation during pregnancy.Methods We recruited 102 singleton low risk pregnant women between 30 to 33 gestational weeks.The Symptom Checklist-90 (SCL-90) was used to assess maternal psychological status.Ultrasound Doppler was used to measure blood flow changes in maternal-fetal circulation.Pulsatility index (PI) value was measured in umbilical artery (UA),fetal middle cerebral artery (MCA) and maternal uterine arteries (UTA).Peak systolic velocity (PSV) was measured in MCA and velocity was measured in umbilical vein (UV).Statistical analysis was performed with standard nonparametric MannWhitney U tests.Two-tailed P values <0.05 were considered statistical significance.Results Of the 102 pregnant women,12 patients show high levels of poor mental health.Women with poor mental health have higher umbilical artery PI values than good mental health patients (P=0.020).A higher MCA PI value is found in poor mental health patients but this does not reach statistical significance (P=0.053).Women with hostility show lower placental scores (P=0.030).Women with somatization demonstrate higher values in UA PI,MCA PI and MCA PSV (P=0.049,0.030 and 0.035 respectively).A higher MCA PSV value is also found in phobic anxiety patients (P=0.046).Conclusions Poor mental health during pregnancy is found to have an adverse effect on maternal-fetal circulation.Umbilical artery and fetal cerebral circulation are more sensitive and affected by maternal psychological disorder.

  4. Effects of embryo culture media do not persist after implantation: a histological study in mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hemkemeyer, Sandra A.; Schwarzer, Caroline; Boiani, Michele; Ehmcke, Jens; Le Gac, Séverine; Schlatt, Stefan; Nordhoff, Verena

    2014-01-01

    Is post-implantation embryonic development after blastocyst transfer affected by exposure to different assisted reproduction technology (ART) culture media? Fetal development and placental histology of ART embryos cultured in vitro in different ART media was not impaired compared with embryos grow

  5. Print media vs internet media

    OpenAIRE

    Koganuramath, M. M.; Angadi, Mallikarjun

    1999-01-01

    The Information Technology has revolutionised the communication media with the emergence of Internet. This paper describes the pace of change in print media to On-line journalism. The process has began with On-line journalism utilising Internet wherein websites are replacing the print media. Most of the On-line newspapers are free, interactive and archival in nature and it provides users to search the information on newspapers through various access points i.e. by contributors, title, and dat...

  6. Efeitos da ingestão de glicose sobre a circulação materno-fetal Materno-fetal hemodynamic repercussion of glucose ingestion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rose Mary de Castro Ranciaro

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: analisar o efeito da glicose na hemodinâmica materno-fetal pela avaliação doplervelocimétrica da circulação materno-fetal e fetoplacentária. MÉTODOS: trata-se de estudo realizado por único observador, no qual foram incluídas 31 gestantes clinicamente sadias entre a 28ª e a 36ª semana. Os parâmetros foram avaliados imediatamente antes e 60 minutos após a ingestão de 50 g de glicose. Foram utilizados como critérios de inclusão a avaliação clínica e laboratorial normal, a presença de feto único, a idade gestacional entre a 28ª e a 36ª semana de gestação confirmada por exame de ultra-sonografia e/ou a data da última menstruação, a glicemia de jejum menor ou igual a 110 mg/dL e o teste de sobrecarga após 50 g de glicose menor de 140 mg/dL. Como critérios de exclusão, adotaram-se a presença de malformação ou alterações de desenvolvimento fetal, o trabalho de parto, os antecedentes familiares de diabetes, as patologias próprias ou intercorrentes à gestação e o uso de fumo, álcool ou outras drogas. Foram avaliados os vasos maternos da artéria carótida comum e artérias uterinas, os vasos placentários da artéria umbilical e os vasos fetais da artéria cerebral média e aorta abdominal. Foram analisados os seguintes parâmetros em cada vaso: índice de resistência, índice de pulsatilidade, velocidade sistólica máxima, velocidade diastólica final e tempo de aceleração. A freqüência cardíaca fetal foi avaliada pelo modo M da ultra-sonografia. Para análise estatística foi utilizado o teste t de Student quando a variável diferença de antes e depois da ingestão de glicose apresentou distribuição normal no teste de Kolmogorov-Smirnov. Quando a normalidade foi rejeitada, utilizamos o teste não-paramétrico de Wilcoxon, com o nível de significância sempre estabelecido de pPURPOSE: to analyze the effect of glucose in the materno-fetal hemodynamics through dopplervelocimetric assessment of

  7. Media darling

    CERN Multimedia

    Chalmers, Matthew

    2008-01-01

    He is the media-friendly face of particle physics, appearing on countless TV and radio shows in the run-up to the opening of CERN's Large Hadron Collider. Matthew Chalmers discovers how Brian Cox finds the time to be both a physicist and a media personality. (2 pages)

  8. Mixed Media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Erin

    2010-01-01

    While institutions do not often have a hook as compelling as an eagerly awaited movie, great content is critical for media relations success--and coupling it with the right distribution channel can ensure the story finds the right audience. Even better, retooling it for several media platforms can extend the life and reach of a story. The changes…

  9. Recurrent cerebral thrombosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neuroradiological techniques were used to elucidate pathophysiology of recurrent cerebral thrombosis. Twenty-two patients with cerebral thrombosis who suffered a second attack under stable conditions more than 22 days after the initial stroke were studied. Hypertension, diabetes mellitus, and hypercholesterolemia were also seen in 20, 8, and 12 patients, respectively. The patients were divided into three groups according to their symptoms: (I) symptoms differed between the first and second strokes (n=12); (II) initial symptoms were suddenly deteriorated (n=6); and (III) symptoms occurring in groups I and II were seen (n=4). In group I, contralateral hemiparesis or suprabulbar palsy was often associated with the initial hemiparesis. The time of recurrent stroke varied from 4 months to 9 years. CT and MRI showed not only lacunae in both hemispheres, but also deep white-matter ischemia of the centrum semi-ovale. In group II, hemiparesis or visual field defect was deteriorated early after the initial stroke. In addition, neuroimaging revealed that infarction in the posterior cerebral artery was progressed on the contralateral side, or that white matter lesion in the middle artery was enlarged in spite of small lesion in the left cerebral hemisphere. All patients in group III had deterioration of right hemiparesis associated with aphasia. CT, MRI, SPECT, and angiography indicated deep white-matter ischemia caused by main trunk lesions in the left hemisphere. Group III seemed to be equivalent to group II, except for laterality of the lesion. Neuroradiological assessment of the initial stroke may help to predict the mode of recurrence, although pathophysiology of cerebral thrombosis is complicated and varies from patient to patient. (N.K.)

  10. An intelligent fetal monitoring system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An intelligent monitoring system is constructed by a multi-micro-computer system. The monitoring signals are fetal heart rate (FHR) and uterine contraction (UC) through the conventional monitoring device for a day until the delivery. These signals are fed to a micro-computer in digital format, and evaluated by the computer in real time according to the diagnostic algorithm of the expert physician. Monitoring signals are always displayed on the CRT screen and in the case of dangerous state of the fetus, warning signal will appear on the screen and the doctor or nurse will be called. All these signals are sent to the next micro-computer with 10MB hard disk system. On this computer, the doctor and nurse can retrieve and inspect the details of the process by clock-key and/or events-key. After finishing monitoring process, summarized report is constructed and printed out on the paper

  11. 21 CFR 884.4500 - Obstetric fetal destructive instrument.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Obstetric fetal destructive instrument. 884.4500... Devices § 884.4500 Obstetric fetal destructive instrument. (a) Identification. An obstetric fetal destructive instrument is a device designed to crush or pull the fetal body to facilitate the delivery of...

  12. Fetal Heart Rate Response to Maternal Exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monga, Manju

    2016-09-01

    Current guidelines regarding recommended exercise in pregnancy appear consistent with reported research regarding fetal heart changes in response to maternal exercise. Fetal heart rate increases during pregnancy, but maternal exercise appears well tolerated if performed in uncomplicated pregnancies and not in the supine position. Maximal levels of exercise that are well tolerated by the fetus have not yet been well defined; however, recent literature suggests that sustained exercise during pregnancy may have beneficial effects on autonomic control of fetal heart rate and variability that may lead to long-term health benefits. PMID:27388963

  13. The development of cerebral amyloid angiopathy in cerebral vessels. A review with illustrations based upon own investigated post mortem cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendel, T A; Wierzba-Bobrowicz, T; Lewandowska, E; Stępień, T; Szpak, G M

    2013-12-01

    The process of β-amyloid accumulation in cerebral vessels is presented. Cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA) was confirmed during an autopsy. It was diagnosed according to the Boston criteria. Cerebral amyloid angiopathy can involve all kinds of cerebral vessels (cortical and leptomeningeal arterioles, capillaries and veins). The development of CAA is a progressive process. β-amyloid appears first in the tunica media, surrounding smooth muscle cells, and in the adventitia. β-amyloid is progressively accumulated, causing a gradual loss of smooth muscle cells in the vessel wall and finally replacing them. Then, the detachment and delamination of the outer part of the tunica media results in the "double barrel" appearance, fibrinoid necrosis, and microaneurysm formation. Microbleeding with perivascular deposition of erythrocytes and blood breakdown products can also occur. β-amyloid can also be deposited in the surrounding of the affected vessels of the brain parenchyma, known as "dysphoric CAA". Ultrastructurally, when deposits of amyloid fibers were localized in or outside the arteriolar wall, the degenerating vascular smooth muscle cells were observed. In the Institute of Psychiatry and Neurology the study was carried out in a group of 48 patients who died due to intracerebral hemorrhage caused by sporadic CAA. PMID:24375040

  14. Parálisis cerebral Cerebral palsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Malagon Valdez

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available El término parálisis cerebral (PC engloba a un gran número de síndromes neurológicos clínicos, de etiología diversa. Estos síndromes se caracterizan por tener una sintomatología común: los trastornos motores. Algunos autores prefieren manejar términos como "encefalopatía fija", "encefalopatías no evolutivas". Se mencionan la utilidad de programas de intervención temprana y métodos especiales de rehabilitación, así como el manejo de las deficiencias asociadas como la epilepsia, deficiencia mental, trastornos del lenguaje, audición, visión, déficit de la atención que mejoran el pronóstico de manera significativa. El pronóstico también depende de la gravedad del padecimiento y de las manifestaciones asociadas.The term cerebral palsy (CP, is used for a great number of clinical neurological syndromes. The syndromes are characterized by having a common cause, motor defects. It is important, because they can cause a brain damage by presenting motor defects and some associated deficiencies, such as mental deficiency, epilepsy, language and visual defects and pseudobulbar paralysis, with the nonevolving fact. Some authors prefer using terms such as "non-evolving encephalopathies". In the treatment the utility of prevention programs of early stimulation and special rehabilitation methods, and treatment of associated deficiencies such as epilepsy, mental deficiency, language, audition and visual problems, and the attention deficit improve the prognosis in an important way. The prognosis depends on the severity of the disease and the associated manifestations.

  15. Assessment of fetal-maternal haemorrhage in mothers with hereditary persistence of fetal haemoglobin.

    OpenAIRE

    Patton, W N; Nicholson, G S; Sawers, A H; Franklin, I M; Ala, F A; Simpson, A W

    1990-01-01

    Kleihauer examination of peripheral blood cannot be used reliably to detect transplacental fetal-maternal haemorrhage in mothers with hereditary persistence of fetal haemoglobin (HPFH). In Rh(D) negative pregnancies diagnostic confusion with a large fetal-maternal haemorrhage could result in the administration of inappropriately excessive amounts of anti-D immunoglobulin, and the inability to diagnose and quantify transplacental haemorrhage in maternal HPFH by current methods could result in ...

  16. ST analysis of the fetal ECG : towards evidence based fetal surveillance

    OpenAIRE

    J.H. Becker

    2012-01-01

    It was the aim of this thesis to perform a meta-analysis of published trial on FECG monitoring during labor, to assess its effects on fetal outcome, on the use of FBS, and on instrumental and operative interventions. Furthermore we conducted secondary studies of published data sets to address thus far unresolved issues, such as: are the consensus-based recommendations for additional fetal information effective in preventing fetal acidosis; what is the association between the baseline T/QRS of...

  17. Social media

    OpenAIRE

    Sova, Ondřej

    2012-01-01

    This thesis deals with social media and is trying to characterize them with focus on their development which led to the creation of social networks. The history of the internet is very short, but its development was giant, and only few people can imagine the world without it. Social media grew in parallel to the internet, so they are its integral part from the beginning. Social media were slowly replacing press, because they gave us a new dimension in the form of immediate feedback. They also...

  18. Fetal magnetic resonance imaging: methods and techniques; Fetale Magnetresonanztomographie: Methoden und Technik

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brugger, P.C. [Zentrum fuer Anatomie und Zellbiologie, Medizinische Universitaet Wien (Austria). Arbeitsgruppe Integrative Morphologie; Stuhr, F.; Lindner, C.; Prayer, D. [Medizinische Universitaet Wien (Austria). Klinik fuer Radiodiagnostik

    2006-02-15

    Since the introduction of fetal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) into prenatal diagnostics, advances in coil technology and development of ultrafast sequences have further enhanced this technique. At present numerous sequences are available to visualize the whole fetus with high resolution and image quality, even in late stages of pregnancy. Taking into consideration the special circumstances of examination and adjusting sequence parameters to gestational age, fetal anatomy can be accurately depicted. The variety of sequences also allows further characterization of fetal tissues and pathologies. Fetal MRI not only supplies additional information to routine ultrasound studies, but also reveals fetal morphology and pathology in a way hitherto not possible. (orig.) [German] Seit Einfuehrung der fetalen Magnetresonanztomographie (MRT) in die praenatale Diagnostik wurde das Verfahren durch neue Spulentechniken und die Entwicklung ultraschneller Sequenzen kontinuierlich weiter entwickelt. Gegenwaertig steht eine Vielzahl von Sequenzen zur Verfuegung, die es erlauben, mit hoher Bildqualitaet und raeumlicher Aufloesung selbst in fortgeschrittenen Schwangerschaftsstadien den gesamten Feten darzustellen. Unter Beruecksichtigung der speziellen Untersuchungsbedingungen und des Schwangerschaftsalters kann so die fetale Anatomie genau abgebildet werden. Die Vielfalt an Sequenzen und deren gezielter Einsatz ermoeglichen es weiter, fetale Gewebe und Pathologien naeher zu charakterisierten. Auf diese Weise liefert die fetale MRT nicht nur Zusatzinformationen zur Routineultraschalluntersuchung, sie gibt auch Aufschluss ueber bestimmte fetale Morphologien und Pathologien, die bisher nicht darstellbar waren. (orig.)

  19. Maternal plasma fetal DNA fractions in pregnancies with low and high risks for fetal chromosomal aneuploidies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irena Hudecova

    Full Text Available Recently published international guidelines recommend the clinical use of noninvasive prenatal test (NIPT for aneuploidy screening only among pregnant women whose fetuses are deemed at high risk. The applicability of NIPT to aneuploidy screening among average risk pregnancies requires additional supportive evidence. A key determinant of the reliability of aneuploidy NIPT is the fetal DNA fraction in maternal plasma. In this report, we investigated if differences in fetal DNA fractions existed between different pregnancy risk groups. One hundred and ninety-five singleton pregnancies with male fetuses divided into 3 groups according to first trimester screening parameters were examined for fetal DNA percentage by counting Y chromosome DNA sequences using massively parallel sequencing. Fetal DNA fractions were compared between risk groups and assessed for correlations with first trimester screening parameters. There was no statistically significant difference in fetal DNA fractions across the high, intermediate and low risk groups. Fetal DNA fraction showed a strong negative correlation with maternal weight. Fetal DNA fraction also showed weak but significant correlations with gestational age, crown-rump length, multiple of medians of free β-subunit of human chorionic gonadotropin and pregnancy-associated plasma protein A. Similar fetal DNA fractions in maternal plasma between high, intermediate and low risk pregnant women is a precondition for uniform performance of the aneuploidy NIPTs for the general population. This study thus shows that the aneuploidy screening by NIPT is likely to offer similar analytical reliability without respect to the a priori fetal aneuploidy risk.

  20. Indications and technique of fetal magnetic resonance imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evaluation and confirmation of fetal pathologies previously suspected or diagnosed with ultrasound. Ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Technique for prenatal fetal examination. Fetal MRI is an established supplementary technique to prenatal ultrasound. Fetal MRI should only be used as an additional method in prenatal diagnostics and not for routine screening. Fetal MRI should only be performed in perinatal medicine centers after a previous level III ultrasound examination. (orig.)

  1. Fetal MRI of pathological brain development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Because of the superior tissue contrast, high spatial resolution, and multiplanar capabilities, fetal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) can depict fetal brain pathologies with high accuracy. Pathological fetal brain development may result from malformations or acquired conditions. Differentiation of these etiologies is important with respect to managing the actual pregnancy or counseling future pregnancies. As a widened ventricular system is a common hallmark of both maldevelopment and acquired conditions, it may cause problems in the differential diagnosis. Fetal MRI can provide detailed morphological information, which allows refinement of the diagnosis of ventricular enlargement in a large number of cases. Systematic work-up of morphological details that may be recognized on MR images provides an approach for achieving a correct diagnosis in cases of ventricle enlargement. (orig.)

  2. Evaluation of fetal anomalies with MR imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Twenty pregnant women underwent MR imaging (0.5 T) after US disclosed a significant fetal anomaly. The ability of MR imaging to depict the abnormalities was assessed. Of 20 abnormalities, 17 were visualized with MR imaging. Abnormalities included conjoined twins, omphalocele, gastroschisis, hydrocephalus, hydronephrosis, fetal ascites, facial teratoma, anencephaly, bladder outlet obstruction, thanatophoric dwarfism, cystic, hygroma, and fetal ovarian cyst. Thirteen of 14 abnormalities in third-trimester fetuses were visualized, as were four of six abnormalities in second-trimester fetuses. Associated polyhydramnios or oligohydramnios was evident in six of six cases. Anomalies were best delineated with T1-weighted sequences. The study suggests that MR imaging is potentially useful as a complementary imaging modality in the evaluation of fetal anomalies

  3. Fetal bowel anomalies - US and MR assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rubesova, Erika [Stanford University, Department of Radiology, Lucile Packard Children' s Hospital, Stanford, CA (United States)

    2012-01-15

    The technical quality of prenatal US and fetal MRI has significantly improved during the last decade and allows an accurate diagnosis of bowel pathology prenatally. Accurate diagnosis of bowel pathology in utero is important for parental counseling and postnatal management. It is essential to recognize the US presentation of bowel pathology in the fetus in order to refer the patient for further evaluation or follow-up. Fetal MRI has been shown to offer some advantages over US for specific bowel abnormalities. In this paper, we review the normal appearance of the fetal bowel on US and MRI as well as the typical presentations of bowel pathologies. We discuss more specifically the importance of recognizing on fetal MRI the abnormalities of size and T1-weighted signal of the meconium-filled distal bowel. (orig.)

  4. Media violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willis, E; Strasburger, V C

    1998-04-01

    American media are the most violent in the world, and American society is now paying a high price in terms of real life violence. Research has confirmed that mass media violence contributes to aggressive behavior, fear, and desensitization of violence. Television, movies, music videos, computer/video games are pervasive media and represent important influences on children and adolescents. Portraying rewards and punishments and showing the consequences of violence are probably the two most essential contextual factors for viewers as they interpret the meaning of what they are viewing on television. Public health efforts have emphasized public education, media literacy campaign for children and parents, and an increased use of technology to prevent access to certain harmful medial materials. PMID:9568012

  5. Cerebral localization in antiquity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, F Clifford

    2009-07-01

    Fragments of neurology can be found in the oldest medical writings in antiquity. Recognizable cerebral localization is seen in Egyptian medical papyri. Most notably, the Edwin Smith papyrus describes hemiplegia after a head injury. Similar echoes can be seen in Homer, the Bible, and the pre-Hippocratic writer Alcmaeon of Croton. While Biblical writers thought that the heart was the seat of the soul, Hippocratic writers located it in the head. Alexandrian anatomists described the nerves, and Galen developed the ventricular theory of cognition whereby mental functions are classified and localized in one of the cerebral ventricles. Medieval scholars, including the early Church Fathers, modified Galenic ventricular theory so as to make it a dynamic model of cognition. Physicians in antiquity subdivided the brain into separate areas and attributed to them different functions, a phenomenon that connects them with modern neurologists. PMID:20183203

  6. Music and cerebral hemodynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marinoni, M; Grassi, E; Latorraca, S; Caruso, A; Sorbi, S

    2000-09-01

    Previous studies performed by positron emission tomography and Transcranial Doppler (TCD) found a different cerebral activation during musical stimuli in musicians compared to non-musicians. The aim of our study is to evaluate by means of TCD, possible different pattern of cerebral activation during the performance of different musical tasks in musicians, non-musicians and lyrical singers. Our findings show a left hemispheric activation in musicians and a right one in non-musicians. Preliminary data on lyrical singers' activation patterns need further confirmation with a larger population. These data could be related to a different approach to music listening in musicians (analytical) and non-musicians who are supposed to have an emotional approach to music. PMID:10942664

  7. Community Media: Muting the Democratic Media Discourse?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carpentier, N.; Lie, R.; Servaes, J.

    2003-01-01

    Focuses on the concept of community media. Components that construct the identity of community media; Multi-theoretical approaches for analysis of community media; Definition of community media based on the concept of alternative media; Link between community media and civil society; Problems faced

  8. From Augmentation Media to Meme Media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Yuzuru

    Computers as meta media are now evolving from augmentation media vehicles to meme media vehicles. While an augmentation media system provides a seamlessly integrated environment of various tools and documents, meme media system provides further functions to edit and distribute tools and documents. Documents and tools on meme media can easily…

  9. Social Media

    OpenAIRE

    Weller, Katrin; Meckel, Martin Sebastian; Stahl, Matthias

    2013-01-01

    Anlässlich der 10. Wissenschaftlichen Tagung „Soziale Medien“ am 27. und 28. Juni 2013 im Statistischen Bundesamt in Wiesbaden und in Fortsetzung des 2010 erschienenen Recherche Spezial Web 2.0 – Alle machen mit! werden in dieser Ausgabe in sechs Kapiteln Nachweise zu Veröffentlichungen und Forschungsprojekte der letzten drei Jahre zusammengestellt, die sich mit der Rolle von Social Media in verschiedenen Nutzungskontexten befassen. Social-Media-Dienste sind mittlerweile fester Bestandtei...

  10. Fetal MR imaging of Kniest dysplasia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yazici, Zeynep [Uludag University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Gorukle (Turkey); Kline-Fath, Beth M.; Laor, Tal [Cincinnati Children' s Hospital Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Cincinnati, OH (United States); Tinkle, Bradley T. [Cincinnati Children' s Hospital Medical Center, Division of Human Genetics, Cincinnati, OH (United States)

    2010-03-15

    We present a case of Kniest dysplasia, a rare form of the type II collagenopathies, with prenatal MRI. Sonography revealed only short limbs in the fetus. Fetal MRI findings included enlarged hyaline cartilaginous structures with abnormally high T2 signal intensity, delayed ossification of the pubic and ischial bones, and platyspondyly. By delineating the cartilaginous abnormalities, fetal MRI can contribute to the prenatal diagnosis of chondrodysplasias. (orig.)

  11. Pictorial essay: MRI of the fetal brain

    OpenAIRE

    B, Ganesh Rao; Ramamurthy, BS

    2009-01-01

    MRI is a useful supplement to USG for the assessment of fetal brain malformations. Superior soft tissue contrast and the ability to depict sulcation and myelination are the strengths of MRI. Subtle or inconclusive USG abnormalities can be confirmed or ruled out by MRI. In some cases, additional findings detected with MRI often help in arriving at a definitive diagnosis, which is necessary for parental counseling and for guiding management. Fast T2W sequences form the basis of fetal MRI. There...

  12. THE MATERNAL-FETAL MEDICINE: AN UPDATE

    OpenAIRE

    Vincenzo Berghella; Alessandro Ghidini; Giancarlo Mari; Mariarosaria Di Tommaso; Silvia Vannuccini; Filiberto Maria Severi; Felice Petraglia

    2013-01-01

    The development of Maternal-Fetal Medicine is contributing to an improvement of maternal well-being and of neonatal health, introducing a number of new and useful technologies. Advances in genomics in the field of prenatal screening and diagnosis allowed the discovery of fragments of cell-free fetal DNA in the maternal circulation and the use of chromosomal microarrays, which can test for microdeletions and microduplications in addition to aneuploidies. Color Doppler applications during pregn...

  13. Methylomic trajectories across human fetal brain development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiers, Helen; Hannon, Eilis; Schalkwyk, Leonard C; Smith, Rebecca; Wong, Chloe C Y; O'Donovan, Michael C; Bray, Nicholas J; Mill, Jonathan

    2015-03-01

    Epigenetic processes play a key role in orchestrating transcriptional regulation during development. The importance of DNA methylation in fetal brain development is highlighted by the dynamic expression of de novo DNA methyltransferases during the perinatal period and neurodevelopmental deficits associated with mutations in the methyl-CpG binding protein 2 (MECP2) gene. However, our knowledge about the temporal changes to the epigenome during fetal brain development has, to date, been limited. We quantified genome-wide patterns of DNA methylation at ∼ 400,000 sites in 179 human fetal brain samples (100 male, 79 female) spanning 23 to 184 d post-conception. We identified highly significant changes in DNA methylation across fetal brain development at >7% of sites, with an enrichment of loci becoming hypomethylated with fetal age. Sites associated with developmental changes in DNA methylation during fetal brain development were significantly underrepresented in promoter regulatory regions but significantly overrepresented in regions flanking CpG islands (shores and shelves) and gene bodies. Highly significant differences in DNA methylation were observed between males and females at a number of autosomal sites, with a small number of regions showing sex-specific DNA methylation trajectories across brain development. Weighted gene comethylation network analysis (WGCNA) revealed discrete modules of comethylated loci associated with fetal age that are significantly enriched for genes involved in neurodevelopmental processes. This is, to our knowledge, the most extensive study of DNA methylation across human fetal brain development to date, confirming the prenatal period as a time of considerable epigenomic plasticity. PMID:25650246

  14. Methylomic trajectories across human fetal brain development

    OpenAIRE

    Spiers, Helen; Hannon, Eilis; Schalkwyk, Leonard C; Smith, Rebecca; Wong, Chloe C. Y.; Michael C. O’Donovan; Bray, Nicholas J.; Mill, Jonathan

    2015-01-01

    Epigenetic processes play a key role in orchestrating transcriptional regulation during development. The importance of DNA methylation in fetal brain development is highlighted by the dynamic expression of de novo DNA methyltransferases during the perinatal period and neurodevelopmental deficits associated with mutations in the methyl-CpG binding protein 2 (MECP2) gene. However, our knowledge about the temporal changes to the epigenome during fetal brain development has, to date, been limited...

  15. Human Fetal Progenitor Tenocytes for Regenerative Medicine.

    OpenAIRE

    Grognuz A.; Scaletta C.; Farron A.; Raffoul W.; Applegate L.A.

    2016-01-01

    Tendon injuries are very frequent and affect a wide and heterogeneous population. Unfortunately, the healing process is long with outcomes that are not often satisfactory due to fibrotic tissue appearance, which leads to scar and adhesion development. Tissue engineering and cell therapies emerge as interesting alternatives to classical treatments. In this study, we evaluated human fetal progenitor tenocytes (hFPTs) as a potential cell source for treatment of tendon afflictions, as fetal cells...

  16. Dysphagia in cerebral palsy

    OpenAIRE

    Salghetti, Annamaria; Martinuzzi, Andrea

    2013-01-01

    Abstract. Feeding problemsare often present in children with neuromotor impairment: dysphagia is usuallyseen in the most severe form of cerebral palsy and it’s defined as thedifficulty with any of the four phases of swallowing. Clinical consequences aremalnutrition and recurrent chest infections that reduce expected duration andquality of life. In order to prevent these consequences it’s important todetect with clinical and instrumental examinations dysphagia symptoms and totreat them. Clinic...

  17. Nanomedicine in cerebral palsy

    OpenAIRE

    Balakrishnan B; Nance E; Johnston MV; Kannan R; Kannan S

    2013-01-01

    Bindu Balakrishnan,1 Elizabeth Nance,1 Michael V Johnston,2 Rangaramanujam Kannan,3 Sujatha Kannan1 1Department of Anesthesiology and Critical Care Medicine, Johns Hopkins University; Baltimore, MD, USA; 2Department of Neurology and Pediatrics, Kennedy Krieger Institute, Baltimore, MD, USA; 3Department of Ophthalmology, Center for Nanomedicine, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD, USA Abstract: Cerebral palsy is a chronic childhood disorder that can have diverse etiologies. Injury to the...

  18. Phenylpropanolamine and cerebral hemorrhage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McDowell, J.R.; LeBlanc, H.J.

    1985-05-01

    Computerized tomography, carotid angiograms, and arteriography were used to diagnose several cases of cerebral hemorrhage following the use of phenylpropanolamine. The angiographic picture in one of the three cases was similar to that previously described in association with amphetamine abuse and pseudoephedrine overdose, both substances being chemically and pharmacologically similar to phenylpropanolamine. The study suggests that the arterial change responsible for symptoms may be due to spasm rather than arteriopathy. 14 references, 5 figures.

  19. Radiopharmaceuticals for cerebral studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For obtain good brain scintillation images in nuclear medicine must be used several radiopharmaceuticals. Cerebral studies give a tumors visual image as well as brain anomalities detection and are helpful in the diagnostic diseases . Are described in this work: a cerebrum radiopharmaceuticals classification,labelled compounds proceeding and Tc 99m good properties in for your fast caption, post administration and blood purification for renal way

  20. Phenylpropanolamine and cerebral hemorrhage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Computerized tomography, carotid angiograms, and arteriography were used to diagnose several cases of cerebral hemorrhage following the use of phenylpropanolamine. The angiographic picture in one of the three cases was similar to that previously described in association with amphetamine abuse and pseudoephedrine overdose, both substances being chemically and pharmacologically similar to phenylpropanolamine. The study suggests that the arterial change responsible for symptoms may be due to spasm rather than arteriopathy. 14 references, 5 figures

  1. [Insomnia and cerebral hypoperfusion].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Káposzta, Zoltán; Rácz, Klára

    2007-11-18

    Insomnia is defined as difficulty with the initiation, maintenance, duration, or quality of sleep that results in the impairment of daytime functioning, despite adequate opportunity and circumstances for sleep. In most countries approximately every third inhabitant has insomnia. Insomnia can be classified as primary and secondary. The pathogenesis of primary insomnia is unknown, but available evidence suggests a state of hyperarousal. Insomnia secondary to other causes is more common than primary insomnia. Cerebral hypoperfusion can be the cause of insomnia in some cases. In such patients the cerebral blood flow should be improved using parenteral vascular therapy. If insomnia persists despite treatment, then therapy for primary insomnia should be instituted using benzodiazepine-receptor agonists such as Zolpidem, Zopiclone, or Zaleplon. In those cases Midazolam cannot be used for the treatment of insomnia due to its marked negative effect on cerebral blood flow. In Hungary there is a need to organize multidisciplinary Insomnia Clinics because insomnia is more than a disease, it is a public health problem in this century. PMID:17988972

  2. Cerebral oxygenation and hyperthermia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony Richard Bain

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Hyperthermia is associated with marked reductions in cerebral blood flow (CBF. Increased distribution of cardiac output to the periphery, increases in alveolar ventilation and resultant hypocapnia each contribute to the fall in CBF during passive hyperthermia; however, their relative contribution remains a point of contention, and probably depends on the experimental condition (e.g. posture and degree of hyperthermia. The hyperthermia-induced hyperventilatory response reduces arterial CO2 pressure (PaCO2 causing cerebral vasoconstriction and subsequent reductions in flow. During supine passive hyperthermia, the majority of recent data indicate that reductions in PaCO2 may be the primary, if not sole, culprit for reduced CBF. On the other hand, during more dynamic conditions (e.g. hemorrhage or orthostatic challenges, an inability to appropriately decrease peripheral vascular conductance presents a condition whereby adequate cerebral perfusion pressure may be compromised secondary to reductions in systemic blood pressure. Although studies have reported maintenance of pre-frontal cortex oxygenation (assessed by near-infrared spectroscopy during exercise and severe heat stress, the influence of cutaneous blood flow is known to contaminate this measure. This review discusses the governing mechanisms associated with changes in CBF and oxygenation during moderate to severe (i.e. 1.0°C to 2.0°C increase in body core temperature levels of hyperthermia. Future research directions are provided.

  3. The Use of Fetal Noninvasive Electrocardiography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor Lakhno

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Preeclampsia (PE is one of the severe complications of pregnancy that leads to fetal deterioration. The aim was to survey the validity of fetal distress diagnostics in case of Doppler ultrasonic umbilical vein and arteries blood flow velocity investigation and ECG parameters analysis obtained from maternal abdominal signal before labor in preeclamptic patients. Fetal noninvasive ECG and umbilical arterial and venous Doppler investigation were performed in 120 patients at 34–40 weeks of gestation. And 30 of them had physiological gestation and were involved in Group I. In Group II 52 pregnant women with mild-moderate PE were observed. 38 patients with severe PE were monitored in Group III. The most considerable negative correlation was determined in pair Apgar score 1 versus T/QRS (R=-0.50; p<0.05. So the increased T/QRS ratio was the most evident marker of fetal distress. Fetal noninvasive ECG showed sensitivity of 96.6% and specificity of 98.4% and, therefore, was determined as more accurate method for fetal monitoring.

  4. Maternal feeding controls fetal biological clock.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hidenobu Ohta

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: It is widely accepted that circadian physiological rhythms of the fetus are affected by oscillators in the maternal brain that are coupled to the environmental light-dark (LD cycle. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: To study the link between fetal and maternal biological clocks, we investigated the effects of cycles of maternal food availability on the rhythms of Per1 gene expression in the fetal suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN and liver using a transgenic rat model whose tissues express luciferase in vitro. Although the maternal SCN remained phase-locked to the LD cycle, maternal restricted feeding phase-advanced the fetal SCN and liver by 5 and 7 hours respectively within the 22-day pregnancy. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results demonstrate that maternal feeding entrains the fetal SCN and liver independently of both the maternal SCN and the LD cycle. This indicates that maternal-feeding signals can be more influential for the fetal SCN and particular organ oscillators than hormonal signals controlled by the maternal SCN, suggesting the importance of a regular maternal feeding schedule for appropriate fetal molecular clockwork during pregnancy.

  5. Biomedical Instruments for Fetal and Neonatal Surveillance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rolfe, P [Oxford BioHorizons Ltd. (United Kingdom); Scopesi, F [Gaslini Institute, University of Genoa (Italy); Serra, G [Gaslini Institute, University of Genoa (Italy)

    2006-10-15

    Specialised instruments have been developed to aid the care of the fetus and the newborn baby. Miniature sensors using optical, electrical, chemical, mechanical and magnetic principles have been produced for capturing key measurands. These include temperature, pressure, flow and dimension, as well as several specific molecules such as glucose, oxygen and carbon dioxide. During pregnancy ultrasound imaging and blood flow techniques provide valuable information concerning fetal abnormalities, fetal growth, fetal breathing and fetal heart rate. Signal processing and pattern recognition can be useful for deriving indicators of fetal distress and clinical status, based on biopotentials as well as ultrasound signals. Fetal pH measurement is a critical requirement during labour and delivery. The intensive care of ill preterm babies involves provision of an optimal thermal environment and respiratory support. Monitoring of blood gas and acid-base status is essential, and this involves both blood sampling for in vitro analysis as well as the use of invasive or non-invasive sensors. For the future it will be vital that the technologies used are subjected to controlled trials to establish benefit or otherwise.

  6. Biomedical Instruments for Fetal and Neonatal Surveillance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rolfe, P.; Scopesi, F.; Serra, G.

    2006-10-01

    Specialised instruments have been developed to aid the care of the fetus and the newborn baby. Miniature sensors using optical, electrical, chemical, mechanical and magnetic principles have been produced for capturing key measurands. These include temperature, pressure, flow and dimension, as well as several specific molecules such as glucose, oxygen and carbon dioxide. During pregnancy ultrasound imaging and blood flow techniques provide valuable information concerning fetal abnormalities, fetal growth, fetal breathing and fetal heart rate. Signal processing and pattern recognition can be useful for deriving indicators of fetal distress and clinical status, based on biopotentials as well as ultrasound signals. Fetal pH measurement is a critical requirement during labour and delivery. The intensive care of ill preterm babies involves provision of an optimal thermal environment and respiratory support. Monitoring of blood gas and acid-base status is essential, and this involves both blood sampling for in vitro analysis as well as the use of invasive or non-invasive sensors. For the future it will be vital that the technologies used are subjected to controlled trials to establish benefit or otherwise.

  7. Ultrasonographic Findings of Fetal Congenital Intracranial Teratoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Hak Jong [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Young Ho; Song, Mi Jin; Cho, Jeong Yeon; Min, Jee Yeon; Moon, Min Hwan; Kim, Jeong Ah [Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, Seongnam (Korea, Republic of)

    2005-06-15

    To evaluate the sonographic findings of fetal congenital intracranial teratoma. From 1994 to 2002, of the 11 fetuses which had been diagnosed with fetal intracranial tumors after second level fetal ultrasonography, the six that were confirmed after autopsy as congenital intracranial teratomas were included in our study. The sonographic findings, including size, homogeneity, echogenicity compared with surrounding normal brain tissues, cystic components, and tumor related calcification, were retrospectively evaluated. The incidence of fetal congenital intracranial teratoma out of all fetal intracranial tumors was 54.5% (6 of 11 cases) during the 8-year period. The mean mass size was 7.4 cm (3.0-15.0 cm). Two thirds of (4/6) of the teratoma cases showed high echogenicity compared with normal brain tissues, and two thirds (4/6) showed heterogeneous echogenicity. Four teratoma cases (67%) showed cysts in the mass with a mean size of 1.9cm. One third (2/6) showed calcifications within the tumor. Out of the six cases, two had oropharyngeal teratoma with extension into the intracranial portion (so called epignathus) and showed homogenous mass without any cysts or calcifications. The typical sonographic appearance of intracranial teratoma was a heterogeneous, hyperechoic mass with cysts. In the epignathus cases, the sonographic appearances differed somewhat from the others. An understanding of the sonographic findings of fetal intracranial teratoma will help in the timely counseling of the parents and in obstetric decision making

  8. The Use of Fetal Noninvasive Electrocardiography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakhno, Igor

    2016-01-01

    Preeclampsia (PE) is one of the severe complications of pregnancy that leads to fetal deterioration. The aim was to survey the validity of fetal distress diagnostics in case of Doppler ultrasonic umbilical vein and arteries blood flow velocity investigation and ECG parameters analysis obtained from maternal abdominal signal before labor in preeclamptic patients. Fetal noninvasive ECG and umbilical arterial and venous Doppler investigation were performed in 120 patients at 34-40 weeks of gestation. And 30 of them had physiological gestation and were involved in Group I. In Group II 52 pregnant women with mild-moderate PE were observed. 38 patients with severe PE were monitored in Group III. The most considerable negative correlation was determined in pair Apgar score 1 versus T/QRS (R = -0.50; p < 0.05). So the increased T/QRS ratio was the most evident marker of fetal distress. Fetal noninvasive ECG showed sensitivity of 96.6% and specificity of 98.4% and, therefore, was determined as more accurate method for fetal monitoring.

  9. Biomedical Instruments for Fetal and Neonatal Surveillance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Specialised instruments have been developed to aid the care of the fetus and the newborn baby. Miniature sensors using optical, electrical, chemical, mechanical and magnetic principles have been produced for capturing key measurands. These include temperature, pressure, flow and dimension, as well as several specific molecules such as glucose, oxygen and carbon dioxide. During pregnancy ultrasound imaging and blood flow techniques provide valuable information concerning fetal abnormalities, fetal growth, fetal breathing and fetal heart rate. Signal processing and pattern recognition can be useful for deriving indicators of fetal distress and clinical status, based on biopotentials as well as ultrasound signals. Fetal pH measurement is a critical requirement during labour and delivery. The intensive care of ill preterm babies involves provision of an optimal thermal environment and respiratory support. Monitoring of blood gas and acid-base status is essential, and this involves both blood sampling for in vitro analysis as well as the use of invasive or non-invasive sensors. For the future it will be vital that the technologies used are subjected to controlled trials to establish benefit or otherwise

  10. Antenatal taurine supplementation for improving brain ultrastructure in fetal rats with intrauterine growth restriction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, J; Liu, L; Chen, H

    2011-05-01

    Changes in brain ultrastructure of fetal rats with intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) were explored and the effects of antenatal taurine supplementation on their brain ultrastructure were determined. Fifteen pregnant rats were randomly divided into three groups: control group, IUGR model group and IUGR group given antenatal taurine supplements. Taurine was added to the diet of the taurine group at a dose of 300 mg/kg/d from 12 days after conception until natural delivery. Transmission electron microscopy was used to observe ultrastructural changes in the brains of the newborn rats. At the same time, brain cellular apoptosis was detected using TUNEL, and the changes in protein expression of neuron specific enolase and glial fibrillary acidic protein were analyzed using immunohistochemistry. The results showed that: 1) The average body weight and cerebral weight were significantly lower in the IUGR group than in the control group (ptaurine was supplemented (ptaurine supplementation. 3) The results of TUNEL showed that the counts of apoptotic brain cells in IUGR groups were significantly increased from those in control groups and that taurine could significantly decrease brain cell apoptosis (ptaurine-supplementation could significantly increase the counts of neuron specific enolase and glial fibrillary acidic protein immunoreactive cells in fetal rats with IUGR (ptaurine can significantly improve the IUGR fetal brain development.

  11. Aortic isthmus Doppler velocimetry: role in assessment of preterm fetal growth restriction.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Kennelly, M M

    2012-02-01

    Intrauterine fetal growth restriction (IUGR) is an important pregnancy complication associated with significant adverse clinical outcome, stillbirth, perinatal morbidity and cerebral palsy. To date, no uniformly accepted management protocol of Doppler surveillance that reduces mortality and cognitive morbidity has emerged. Aortic isthmus (AoI) evaluation has been proposed as a potential monitoring tool for IUGR fetuses. In this review, the current knowledge of the relationship between AoI Doppler velocimetry and preterm fetal growth restriction is reviewed. Relevant technical aspects and reproducibility data are reviewed as we discuss AoI Doppler and its place within the existing repertoire of Doppler assessments in placental insufficiency. The AoI is a link between the right and left ventricles which perfuse the lower and upper body, respectively. The clinical use of AoI waveforms for monitoring fetal deterioration in IUGR has been limited, but preliminary work suggests that abnormal AoI impedance indices are an intermediate step between placental insufficiency-hypoxemia and cardiac decompensation. Further prospective studies correlating AoI indices with arterial and venous Doppler indices and perinatal outcome are required before encorporating this index into clinical practice.

  12. Cerebral malformations without antenatal diagnosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Girard, Nadine J. [Diagnostic Neuroradiology, Hopital Timone, Marseille (France)

    2010-06-15

    Cerebral malformations are usually described following the different steps in development. Disorders of neurulation (dysraphisms), or diverticulation (holoprosencephalies and posterior fossa cysts), and total commissural agenesis are usually diagnosed in utero. In contrast, disorders of histogenesis (proliferation-differentiation, migration, organization) are usually discovered in infants and children. The principal clinical symptoms that may be a clue to cerebral malformation include congenital hemiparesis, epilepsy and mental or psychomotor retardation. MRI is the imaging method of choice to assess cerebral malformations. (orig.)

  13. [Studies on features of fetal movement and development of human fetus with use of fetal actogram].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatsumura, M

    1991-08-01

    In 167 normal fetuses at 26 to 41 weeks of gestation, features of fetal movement and fetal development were investigated with use of actocardiograph in connection with a microcomputer system. The signals of fetal movement obtained by actocardiograph were stored in a floppy disc every 250 ms for 5 minutes through an AD-converter, and were analyzed every 5 minutes with the computer to reveal 3-dimensional (3-D) histograms. The 3-D histogram of fetal movement was composed of number, amplitude and interval of the signals in 11 voltage steps between 0.05 and 0.55V. The histogram clearly indicated state of fetal behavior, being either resting or active state. Fetal movement such as rolling movement, breathing movement and hiccup could be also identified with the computer analysis. In 68 normal fetuses at 14 to 41 weeks of gestation, the cross-correlation between fetal movement and fetal heart rate (FHR) were examined with the computer analysis. Finally fetal responses to acoustic and light stimulation were evaluated with use of pure-tone generator and flashlight. Acoustic stimulation was carried out in 53 normal fetuses at 28 to 41 weeks and light stimulation was performed in 116 normal fetuses at 18 to 41 weeks of gestation. The fetal responses were evaluated with actocardiogram. As a result, 1) Frequency in active state decreased and resting state increased as gestational weeks advanced, and then the frequencies of both state remained constant after 37 weeks of gestation. Duration of resting state also increased from 26 weeks to 37 weeks. These observations may suggest that fetal behavior can be established by 37 weeks of gestation. 2) Frequency in rolling movement decreased until 37 weeks of gestation, and then the movement increased during 38-41 weeks. Frequency in breathing movement increased to 33 weeks of gestation, then it remained constant. Hiccup occurred most frequently at 30-33 weeks, and it decreased thereafter. The function in fetal respiratory movement may

  14. Cerebral Autoregulation in Normal Pregnancy and Preeclampsia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Veen, Teelkien R.; Panerai, Ronney B.; Haeri, Sina; Griffioen, Annemiek C.; Zeeman, Gerda; Belfort, Michael A.

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To test the hypothesis that preeclampsia is associated with impaired dynamic cerebral autoregulation. METHODS: In a prospective cohort analysis, cerebral blood flow velocity of the middle cerebral artery (determined by transcranial Doppler), blood pressure (determined by noninvasive arter

  15. Influência do Tabagismo no Sistema Vascular Materno-fetal: estudo com Dopplervelocimetria Effect of Cigarette Smoking on Maternal-fetal Blood Flow: Doppler Velocimetry Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilberto Rodrigues Pinto

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: avaliar a influência do tabagismo materno na dinâmica vascular materno-fetal, por meio da dopplervelocimetria obstétrica das artérias uterinas, umbilical e cerebral média. Métodos: estudo prospectivo em 42 gestantes saudáveis, sendo 20 fumantes e 22 não-fumantes. Foram realizadas ultra-sonografias para determinar o tempo de gestação e exame de dopplervelocimetria pulsátil das artérias uterinas, umbilical e cerebral média nas 24ª, 28ª, 32ª e 36ª semana para avaliar o fluxo vascular materno-fetal. As fumantes foram orientadas a não fumar por pelo menos 2 horas antes do exame. Resultados: o índice de resistência (IR médio das artérias uterinas D e E foi maior no grupo de fumantes na 36ª semana com média de 0,50 e desvio padrão de 0,034. O índice de pulsatilidade (IP da artéria umbilical foi maior no grupo de fumantes na 28ª semana [x (DP = 1,135 (0,182], p = 0,008; o IP da artéria cerebral média (ACM não se mostrou diferente entre os grupos, porém, a relação IP ACM/umbilical foi menor no grupo de fumantes, na 32ª semana [x (DP = 1,9 (0,291], p = 0,027 e na 36ª semana [x (DP = 1,850 (0,465], p = 0,014. Conclusões: os índices de dopplervelocimetria mostraram que no grupo de fumantes há aumento na resistência da circulação útero-placentária e feto-placentária, associado a concomitante diminuição na resistência da ACM, mimetizando uma tendência do tabagismo levar à hipóxia crônica do feto.Purpose: to evaluate the influence of cigarette smoking on uteroplacental, fetoplacental and fetal blood flow by obstetric Doppler velocimetry of the uterine, umbilical and middle cerebral arteries. Method: a prospective study with 42 healthy pregnant women, 20 of whom were smokers and 24 nonsmokers. Ultrasound was performed initially to determine the gestation time. The pregnant women next underwent pulsed and color Doppler velocimetry of the uterine, umbilical and middle cerebral arteries at the 24th, 28

  16. High glucose causes delayed fetal lung maturation as measured by fluorescence anisotropy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gewolb, I H; Unger, M E; Merdian, W; Deutsch, J; Cavalieri, R L

    1993-06-15

    Fluorescence anisotropy has been used to estimate the microviscosity of the surfactant phospholipid bilayer and no predict fetal lung maturity in human amniotic fluid; its usefulness in in vitro systems has been recently demonstrated. To investigate the effect of high glucose on lung development, anisotropy measurements were performed on 20-day fetal rat lung explant homogenates and culture media after culture for 48 hours in medium containing final concentrations of 10, 50, and 100mM glucose. Anisotropy of lung tissue cultured in 100mM glucose was significantly increased when compared to those cultured in 10mM glucose (p < .01). After 48 hours, the media from samples grown in 100mM glucose had significantly higher anisotropy (.2210 +/- .0031) than did media from explants grown in 50mM glucose (.2027 +/- .0079; p < .05), or in 10mM glucose (.1886 +/- .0046; p < .001). Relative fluorescence intensity of explants grown in 100mM glucose was 74.4 +/- 5.7% of those grown in 10mM glucose (p < .01). Fluorescence intensity of media was also decreased by 15-30% under higher glucose considerations (p < .05). These data suggest that surfactant synthesized and secreted under high glucose conditions, such as exist in the infant of the diabetic gestation, may have qualitative as well as quantitative changes. PMID:8512578

  17. Cerebral palsy: definition, assessment and rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, Carol L; Malouin, Francine

    2013-01-01

    Over the last 25 years the definition and classification of cerebral palsy (CP) have evolved, as well as the approach to rehabilitation. CP is a disorder of the development of movement and posture, causing activity limitations attributed to nonprogressive disturbances of the fetal or infant brain that may also affect sensation, perception, cognition, communication, and behavior. Motor control during reaching, grasping, and walking are disturbed by spasticity, dyskinesia, hyperreflexia, excessive coactivation of antagonist muscles, retained developmental reactions, and secondary musculoskeletal malformations, together with paresis and defective programing. Weakness and hypoextensibility of the muscles are due not only to inadequate recruitment of motor units, but also to changes in mechanical stresses and hormonal factors. Two methods, the General Movements Assessment and the Test of Infant Motor Performance, now permit the early detection of CP, while the development of valid and reliable outcome measures, particularly the Gross Motor Function Measure (GMFM), have made it possible to evaluate change over time and the effects of clinical interventions. The GMFM has further led to the development of predictive curves of motor function while the Gross Motor Classification System and the Manual Ability Classification System provide standardized means to classify the severity of the movement disability. With the emergence of the task-oriented approach, the focus of therapy in rehabilitation has shifted from eliminating deficits to enhancing function across all performance domains by emphasizing fitness, function, participation, and quality of life. There is growing evidence supporting selected interventions and interest for the therapy and social integration of adults with CP.

  18. Foxc1 is required by pericytes during fetal brain angiogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julie A. Siegenthaler

    2013-05-01

    Brain pericytes play a critical role in blood vessel stability and blood–brain barrier maturation. Despite this, how brain pericytes function in these different capacities is only beginning to be understood. Here we show that the forkhead transcription factor Foxc1 is expressed by brain pericytes during development and is critical for pericyte regulation of vascular development in the fetal brain. Conditional deletion of Foxc1 from pericytes and vascular smooth muscle cells leads to late-gestation cerebral micro-hemorrhages as well as pericyte and endothelial cell hyperplasia due to increased proliferation of both cell types. Conditional Foxc1 mutants do not have widespread defects in BBB maturation, though focal breakdown of BBB integrity is observed in large, dysplastic vessels. qPCR profiling of brain microvessels isolated from conditional mutants showed alterations in pericyte-expressed proteoglycans while other genes previously implicated in pericyte–endothelial cell interactions were unchanged. Collectively these data point towards an important role for Foxc1 in certain brain pericyte functions (e.g. vessel morphogenesis but not others (e.g. barriergenesis.

  19. Fetal MR imaging of posterior intracranial dural sinus thrombosis: a report of three cases with variable outcomes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Byrd, Sharon E.; Elias, Dean [Rush Medical College and Rush University Medical Center, Department of Diagnostic Radiology and Nuclear Medicine Section of Neuroradiology, Chicago, IL (United States); Abramowicz, Jacques S. [Rush Medical College and Rush University Medical Center, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Rush Fetal and Neonatal Medicine Center, Chicago, IL (United States); Kent, Paul [Rush Medical College and Rush University Medical Center, Department of Pediatrics, Division of Hematology and Oncology, Chicago, IL (United States); Kimura, Robert E. [Rush Medical College and Rush University Medical Center, Department of Pediatrics, Division of Neonatology, Chicago, IL (United States); Heydeman, Peter T. [Rush Medical College and Rush University Medical Center, Department of Pediatrics, Division of Pediatric Neurology, Chicago, IL (United States)

    2012-05-15

    Thrombosis of fetal intracranial dural sinuses is a rare entity. A specific type of midline dural sinus thrombosis (DST) at the torcular Herophili with extension into the superior sagittal sinus (SSS) was initially seen on fetal US and was referred to fetal MRI for definite diagnosis and better delineation. Retrospective comparison to medical literature of three cases, diagnosed at our institution, of midline fetal DST with MR imaging findings and clinical outcomes. We reviewed MRI findings on T2-weighted images of our three cases of fetal midline DST and clinical outcomes of these fetuses and compared our findings to medical literature. The MR imaging and clinical findings of our cases extend over 6 years. They consist of three pregnant women, 31-39 years of age each with a single fetus, with fetal MR imaging performed at different gestational ages (GA). Case 1 the MR imaging was performed at 21 5/7 weeks' GA, case 2 at 24 and 33 4/7 weeks' GA, and case 3 at 22 and 25 weeks' GA. Postnatal MRI was performed in case 2 at 6 months of life and case 3 at 1 day of life. Clinical follow-up occurred during the last 6 years. In all of our cases, T2-W MR imaging demonstrated ballooned midline torcular Herophili with iso- to hypointense mass with or without focal eccentric area of greater hypointensity occupying the torcular Herophili with extension into the SSS. Case 3 had associated leptomeningeal dural vascular malformation overlying the left cerebral hemisphere with development of migrational disorder in the left cerebral hemisphere. Clinical outcome consisted of fetal demise in case 1, normal postnatal outcome in case 2 and severe brain damage with poor postnatal outcome in case 3. Our findings of large iso-hypointense thrombus with or without a focal eccentric area more hypointense to thrombus in a dilated torcular Herophili with extension into the SSS on T2-W images corresponds to the majority of cases of this rare type of DST in the medical literature

  20. Fetal MR imaging of posterior intracranial dural sinus thrombosis: a report of three cases with variable outcomes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thrombosis of fetal intracranial dural sinuses is a rare entity. A specific type of midline dural sinus thrombosis (DST) at the torcular Herophili with extension into the superior sagittal sinus (SSS) was initially seen on fetal US and was referred to fetal MRI for definite diagnosis and better delineation. Retrospective comparison to medical literature of three cases, diagnosed at our institution, of midline fetal DST with MR imaging findings and clinical outcomes. We reviewed MRI findings on T2-weighted images of our three cases of fetal midline DST and clinical outcomes of these fetuses and compared our findings to medical literature. The MR imaging and clinical findings of our cases extend over 6 years. They consist of three pregnant women, 31-39 years of age each with a single fetus, with fetal MR imaging performed at different gestational ages (GA). Case 1 the MR imaging was performed at 21 5/7 weeks' GA, case 2 at 24 and 33 4/7 weeks' GA, and case 3 at 22 and 25 weeks' GA. Postnatal MRI was performed in case 2 at 6 months of life and case 3 at 1 day of life. Clinical follow-up occurred during the last 6 years. In all of our cases, T2-W MR imaging demonstrated ballooned midline torcular Herophili with iso- to hypointense mass with or without focal eccentric area of greater hypointensity occupying the torcular Herophili with extension into the SSS. Case 3 had associated leptomeningeal dural vascular malformation overlying the left cerebral hemisphere with development of migrational disorder in the left cerebral hemisphere. Clinical outcome consisted of fetal demise in case 1, normal postnatal outcome in case 2 and severe brain damage with poor postnatal outcome in case 3. Our findings of large iso-hypointense thrombus with or without a focal eccentric area more hypointense to thrombus in a dilated torcular Herophili with extension into the SSS on T2-W images corresponds to the majority of cases of this rare type of DST in the medical literature. (orig.)

  1. Continuous fetal tissue pH measurement in labor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, B K; Noumoff, J; Klein, S A; Katz, M

    1978-11-01

    Fifty-one women in labor had continuous monitoring of fetal scalp tissue pH, fetal heart rate by ECG, and uterine contractions. A miniature pH electrode secured by a double spiral fetal ECG electrode was used for measurement of fetal pH every 15 seconds. The results were correlated with fetal scalp blood pH values obtained simultaneously. Fetal scalp sampling is intermittent, requires repeated scalp incisions, is subject to errors due to air mixing and coagulation of the blood sample, and is uncomfortable for the parturient. Placement of the tissue pH electrode allows continuous data recording with the minimum discomfort to the patient and the least number of fetal scalp incisions. Clinical use of the tissue pH electrode might be a practical alternative to fetal scalp samples, if the data obtained accurately reflect fetal status.

  2. Abnormalities of fetal rib number and associated fetal anomalies using three dimensional ultrasonography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sameh Ahmad Khodair

    2014-09-01

    Conclusion: Abnormal number of fetal ribs more to be an isolated finding (4.3% but it may also be seen with other anomalies (3.7% in this study. 3DUS is useful for scanning the fetal ribs in the mid trimester of the pregnancy for early detection of associated genetic aberrations.

  3. Cerebral small-resistance artery structure and cerebral blood flow in normotensive subjects and hypertensive patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Ciuceis, Carolina; Porteri, Enzo; Rizzoni, Damiano; Boari, Gianluca E.M.; Rosei, Enrico Agabiti [University of Brescia, Clinica Medica, Department of Clinical and Experimental Sciences, Brescia (Italy); Cornali, Claudio; Mardighian, Dikran; Fontanella, Marco M. [University of Brescia, Section of Neurosurgery, Department of Medical and Surgical Specialties, Radiological Sciences and Public Health, Brescia (Italy); Pinardi, Chiara [Spedali Civili, Medical Physics Unit, Brescia (Italy); University of Brescia, Section of Neuroradiology, Department of Medical and Surgical Specialties, Radiological Sciences and Public Health, Brescia (Italy); Rodella, Luigi F.; Rezzani, Rita [University of Brescia, Section of Anatomy, Department of Clinical and Experimental Sciences, Brescia (Italy); Gasparotti, Roberto [University of Brescia, Section of Neurosurgery, Department of Medical and Surgical Specialties, Radiological Sciences and Public Health, Brescia (Italy); University of Brescia, Section of Neuroradiology, Department of Medical and Surgical Specialties, Radiological Sciences and Public Health, Brescia (Italy)

    2014-12-15

    The aim of this study was to prospectively investigate whether the structure of cerebral small-resistance arteries is related to cerebral perfusion parameters as measured with dynamic susceptibility-weighted contrast magnetic resonance imaging (DSC-MRI) in a selected cohort of hypertensive and normotensive patients. Ten hypertensive and 10 normotensive patients were included in the study. All patients underwent neurosurgical intervention for an intracranial tumor and were investigated with DSC-MRI at 1.5 T. Cerebral small-resistance arteries were dissected from a small portion of morphologically normal cerebral tissue and mounted on an isometric myograph for the measurement of the media-to-lumen (M/L) ratio. A quantitative assessment of cerebral blood flow (CBF) and volume (CBV) was performed with a region-of-interest approach. Correlation coefficients were calculated for normally distributed variables. The institutional review board approved the study, and informed consent was obtained from all patients. Compared with normotensive subjects, hypertensive patients had significantly lower regional CBF (mL/100 g/min) in the cortical grey matter (55.63 ± 1.90 vs 58.37 ± 2.19, p < 0.05), basal ganglia (53.34 ± 4.39 vs 58.22. ± 4.33, p < 0.05), thalami (50.65 ± 3.23 vs 57.56 ± 4.45, p < 0.01), subcortical white matter (19.32 ± 2.54 vs 22.24 ± 1.9, p < 0.05), greater M/L ratio (0.099 ± 0.013 vs 0.085 ± 0.012, p < 0.05), and lower microvessel density (1.66 ± 0.67 vs 2.52 ± 1.28, p < 0.05). A statistically significant negative correlation was observed between M/L ratio of cerebral arteries and CBF in the cortical grey matter (r = -0.516, p < 0.05), basal ganglia (r = -0.521, p < 0.05), thalami (r = -0.527 p < 0.05), and subcortical white matter (r = -0.612, p < 0.01). Our results indicate that microvascular structure might play a role in controlling CBF, with possible clinical consequences. (orig.)

  4. [Biomechanical characteristics of human fetal membranes. Preterm fetal membranes are stronger than term fetal membranes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rangaswamy, N; Abdelrahim, A; Moore, R M; Uyen, L; Mercer, B M; Mansour, J M; Kumar, D; Sawady, J; Moore, J J

    2011-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the biomechanical characteristics of human fetal membranes (FM) throughout gestation. Biomechanical properties were determined for 115 FM of 23-41 weeks gestation using our previously described methodology. The areas of membrane immediately adjacent to the strongest and weakest tested spots were sampled for histomorphometric analysis. Clinical data on the patients whose FM were examined were also collected. FM less than 28 weeks gestation were associated with higher incidence of abruption and chorioamnionitis. Topographically FM at all gestations had heterogeneous biomechanical characteristics over their surfaces with distinct weak areas. The most premature membranes were the strongest. FM strength represented by rupture force and work to rupture decreased with increasing gestation in both weak and strong regions of FM. This decrease in FM strength was most dramatic at more than 38 weeks gestation. The FM component amnion-chorion sublayers were thinner in the weak areas compared to strong areas. Compared to term FM, preterm FM are stronger but have similar heterogeneous weak and strong areas. Following a gradual increase in FM weakness with increasing gestation, there is a major drop-off at term 38 weeks gestation. The FM weak areas are thinner than the stronger areas. Whether the difference in thickness is enough to account for the strength differences is unknown.

  5. Media Training

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva

    2009-01-01

    With the LHC starting up soon, the world's media are again turning their attention to CERN. We're all likely to be called upon to explain what is happening at CERN to media, friends and neighbours. The seminar will be given by BBC television news journalists Liz Pike and Nadia Marchant, and will deal with the kind of questions we're likely to be confronted with through the restart period. The training is open for everybody. Make sure you arrive early enough to get a seat - there are only 200 seats in the Globe. The session will also be webcast: http://webcast.cern.ch/

  6. Hyperventilation, cerebral perfusion, and syncope

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Immink, R V; Pott, F C; Secher, N H;

    2014-01-01

    This review summarizes evidence in humans for an association between hyperventilation (HV)-induced hypocapnia and a reduction in cerebral perfusion leading to syncope defined as transient loss of consciousness (TLOC). The cerebral vasculature is sensitive to changes in both the arterial carbon di...

  7. Maternal obesity affects fetal neurodevelopmental and metabolic gene expression: a pilot study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea G Edlow

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: One in three pregnant women in the United States is obese. Their offspring are at increased risk for neurodevelopmental and metabolic morbidity. Underlying molecular mechanisms are poorly understood. We performed a global gene expression analysis of mid-trimester amniotic fluid cell-free fetal RNA in obese versus lean pregnant women. METHODS: This prospective pilot study included eight obese (BMI≥30 and eight lean (BMI<25 women undergoing clinically indicated mid-trimester genetic amniocentesis. Subjects were matched for gestational age and fetal sex. Fetuses with abnormal karyotype or structural anomalies were excluded. Cell-free fetal RNA was extracted from amniotic fluid and hybridized to whole genome expression arrays. Genes significantly differentially regulated in 8/8 obese-lean pairs were identified using paired t-tests with the Benjamini-Hochberg correction (false discovery rate of <0.05. Biological interpretation was performed with Ingenuity Pathway Analysis and the BioGPS gene expression atlas. RESULTS: In fetuses of obese pregnant women, 205 genes were significantly differentially regulated. Apolipoprotein D, a gene highly expressed in the central nervous system and integral to lipid regulation, was the most up-regulated gene (9-fold. Apoptotic cell death was significantly down-regulated, particularly within nervous system pathways involving the cerebral cortex. Activation of the transcriptional regulators estrogen receptor, FOS, and STAT3 was predicted in fetuses of obese women, suggesting a pro-estrogenic, pro-inflammatory milieu. CONCLUSION: Maternal obesity affects fetal neurodevelopmental and metabolic gene expression as early as the second trimester. These findings may have implications for postnatal neurodevelopmental and metabolic abnormalities described in the offspring of obese women.

  8. Adjustable fetal phantom for pulse oximetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stubán, Norbert; Niwayama, Masatsugu

    2009-05-01

    As the measuring head of a fetal pulse oximeter must be attached to the head of the fetus inside the mother's uterus during labor, testing, and developing of fetal pulse oximeters in real environment have several difficulties. A fetal phantom could enable evaluation of pulse oximeters in a simulated environment without the restrictions and difficultness of medical experiments in the labor room. Based on anatomic data we developed an adjustable fetal head phantom with three different tissue layers and artificial arteries. The phantom consisted of two arteries with an inner diameter of 0.2 and 0.4 mm. An electronically controlled pump produced pulse waves in the arteries. With the phantom we investigated the sensitivity of a custom-designed wireless pulse oximeter at different pulsation intensity and artery diameters. The results showed that the oximeter was capable of identifying 4% and 2% changes in diameter between the diastolic and systolic point in arteries of over 0.2 and 0.4 mm inner diameter, respectively. As the structure of the phantom is based on reported anatomic values, the results predict that the investigated custom-designed wireless pulse oximeter has sufficient sensitivity to detect the pulse waves and to calculate the R rate on the fetal head.

  9. Occupational Lifting, Fetal Death and Preterm Birth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mocevic, Emina; Svendsen, Susanne Wulff; Jørgensen, Kristian Tore;

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: We examined the association between occupational lifting during pregnancy and risk of fetal death and preterm birth using a job exposure matrix (JEM). METHODS: For 68,086 occupationally active women in the Danish National Birth Cohort, interview information on occupational lifting...... the JEM. We used Cox regression models with gestational age as underlying time variable and adjustment for covariates. RESULTS: We observed 2,717 fetal deaths and 3,128 preterm births within the study cohort. No exposure-response relation was observed for fetal death, but for women with a prior fetal...... death, we found a hazard ratio (HR) of 2.87 (95% CI 1.37, 6.01) for stillbirth (fetal death ≥22 completed gestational weeks) among those who lifted >200 kg/day. For preterm birth, we found an exposure-response relation for primigravid women, reaching a HR of 1.43 (95% CI 1.13, 1.80) for total loads >200...

  10. Noninvasive fetal RhD genotyping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clausen, Frederik Banch; Damkjær, Merete Berthu; Dziegiel, Morten Hanefeld

    2014-04-01

    Immunization against RhD is the major cause of hemolytic disease of the fetus and newborn (HDFN), which causes fetal or neonatal death. The introduction of postnatal immune prophylaxis in the 1960s drastically reduced immunization incidents in pregnant, D-negative women. In several countries, antenatal prophylaxis is combined with postnatal prophylaxis to further minimize the immunization risk. Due to lack of knowledge of the fetal RhD type, antenatal prophylaxis is given to all D-negative women. In the European population, approximately 40% of pregnant women carry a D-negative fetus and are thus at no risk of immunization. Noninvasive fetal RhD genotyping enables antenatal prophylaxis to be targeted to only those women carrying a D-positive fetus to avoid unnecessary treatment. Based on an analysis of cell-free fetal DNA from the plasma of pregnant women, this approach has recently undergone technical improvements and rapid clinical implementation. As a screening assay, the sensitivity is >99.3% from a gestational age of approximately 10-11 weeks. In addition, fetal RhD genotyping is widely used to assess the risk of HDFN in anti-D immunized women. PMID:24642067

  11. Indicated preterm birth for fetal anomalies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craigo, Sabrina D

    2011-10-01

    Between 2% and 3% of pregnancies are complicated by fetal anomalies. For most anomalies, there is no advantage to late preterm or early-term delivery. The risks of maternal or fetal complication are specific for each anomaly. Very few anomalies pose potential maternal risk. Some anomalies carry ongoing risks to the fetus, such as an increased risk of fetal death, hemorrhage, or organ damage. In a limited number of select cases, the advantages of late preterm or early-term birth may include avoiding an ongoing risk of fetal death related to the anomaly, allowing delivery in a controlled setting with availability of subspecialists and allowing direct care for the neonate with organ injury. The optimal gestational age for delivery cannot be determined for all pregnancies complicated by fetal anomalies. For most pregnancies complicated by anomalies, there is no change to obstetrical management regarding timing of delivery. For those that may benefit from late preterm or early-term delivery, variability exists such that each management plan should be individualized. PMID:21962626

  12. Cerebral Hemorrhage and APOE genotype

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sun xiaojiang; Wu ping; Zhang jing; Lu shanqing; Li bing

    2000-01-01

    Background and Purpose: Current evidence Suggests that the apolipoprotein E (APOE)ε 4 allele predisposes to cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA) whereas ε 2 is associated with CAA-zelated hemorrhage. In this study we examined potential clinical risk factors inpatients with cerebral hemorrhage and assessed these with respect to APOE genotype. Methoeds: 146 patinas with cerebral hemorrhage and 70 normal controls were investigated. APOE genotypes were determined with use of polymerase Chain reaction techniques.Results: The frequency of allele gene ( 0.180 ) and the percentage of the APOE ε 4 genotype in the cerebral hemorrhage group were Significantly higher as compared with the e 4 prequency ( O.O72 ) in the control group respectively ( p=O.O389 ) .Conelusious: APOE ε 4 :allele is a risk gene for cerebral hemorrhage.

  13. Therapeutic interventions in cerebral palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Dilip R

    2005-11-01

    Various therapeutic interventions have been used in the management of children with cerebral palsy. Traditional physiotherapy and occupational therapy are widely used interventions and have been shown to be of benefit in the treatment of cerebral palsy. Evidence in support of the effectiveness of the neurodevelopmental treatment is equivocal at best. There is evidence to support the use and effectiveness of neuromuscular electrical stimulation in children with cerebral palsy. The effectiveness of many other interventions used in the treatment of cerebral palsy has not been clearly established based on well-controlled trials. These include: sensory integration, body-weight support treadmill training, conductive education, constraint-induced therapy, hyperbaric oxygen therapy, and the Vojta method. This article provides an overview of salient aspects of popular interventions used in the management of children with cerebral palsy. PMID:16391455

  14. Cerebral hemodynamics in moyamoya disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rebuild-up phenomenon, an electroencephalographic pathological finding in moyamoya disease, was evaluated in the context of dynamic changes in cerebral circulation after hyperventilation. Sequential functional angiography after hyperventilation, measurement of cerebral blood flow (CBF) by the outflow method, and Kr-81m single photon emission tomography were employed for clarification of the sequential dynamic changes in cerebral circulation after hyperventilation. In most cases there was a persistent decrease in CBF even after arterial carbon dioxide tension (PaCO2) had been normalized, which suggests that the response of the cerebral circulation to the changes in PaCO2 is delayed. Moreover, this feature was most prominent in the superficial layer of the cerebrum. For the most part, coincidence and synchronization were documented between rebuild-up and the delayed response of the cerebral circulation. These findings indicate that the delayed CBF response to hyperventilation contributes pathogenetically to rebuild-up in moyamoya disease. (author)

  15. Quantitative and qualitative analysis of transient fetal compartments during prenatal human brain development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lana eVasung

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The cerebral wall of the human fetal brain is composed of transient cellular compartments, which show characteristic spatiotemporal relationships with major neurogenic events (proliferation, migration, axonal growth, dendritic differentiation, synaptogenesis, cell death, and myelination. The aim of the present study was to obtain new quantitative data describing volume, surface area, and thickness of transient compartments in the human fetal cerebrum. Forty-four postmortem fetal hemispheres aged 13-40 postconceptional weeks (PCW were included in this study. High-resolution TI MRI was acquired on 19 hemispheres and MRI images were processed using the MNI-ACE toolbox. Delineation of fetal compartments was performed semi-automatically by co-registration of MRI with histological sections and age-matched brains from Zagreb Neuroembryological Collection. Growth trajectories of transient fetal compartments were reconstructed and the composition of telencephalic wall was quantitatively assessed. Between 13 and 25 PCW, when the intensity of neuronal proliferation decreases drastically, the relative volume of proliferative (ventricular and subventricular compartments showed pronounced decline. In contrast, synapse- and extracellular matrix-rich subplate compartment continued to grow during the first two trimesters, occupying up to 45% of telencephalon and reaching its maximum volume and thickness around 30 PCW. This developmental maximum coincides with a period of intensive growth of long cortico-cortical fibers, which enter and wait in subplate before approaching the cortical plate. Although we did not find significant age related changes in thickness of the cortical plate, the volume, gyrification index, and surface area of the cortical plate continued to exponentially grow during the last phases of prenatal development. This cortical expansion coincides developmentally with the transformation of embryonic cortical columns, dendritic differentiation

  16. Streaming Media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pulley, John

    2009-01-01

    At a time when the evolutionary pace of new media resembles the real-time mutation of certain microorganisms, the age-old question of how best to connect with constituents can seem impossibly complex--even for an elite institution plugged into the motherboard of Silicon Valley. Identifying the most effective vehicle for reaching a particular…

  17. Media democracy

    OpenAIRE

    Pels, D.

    2008-01-01

    The present article compendiously presents the interlinked and abruptly developing processes of media democracy and political matters’ personalization. The writer expressly opts for these processes which can radically rejuvenate communication and trust among citizens and politicians and therefore reinforce, up to a certain extend, modern democracy’s function itself.

  18. Cerebral imaging in pediatrics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radioisotope brain imaging has focused mainly on regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF). However the use of ligand which go to specific receptor sites is being introduced in pediatrics, mainly psychiatry. rCBF is potentially available in many institutions, especially with the availability of multi-headed gamma cameras. The use of this technique in pediatrics requires special attention to detail in the manner of data acquisition and handling the child. The interpretation of the rCBF study in a child requires knowledge of normal brain maturation. The major clinical use in pediatrics is epilepsy because of the advances in surgery and the frequency of complex partial seizures. Other indications in pediatric neurology include brain death, acute neurological loss including stroke, language disorders, cerebral palsy, hypertension due to renovascular disease, traumatic brain injury and migraine. There are pediatric physiological conditions in which rCBF has been undertaken, these include anorexia nervosa, autism, Gilles de la Tourette syndrome (GTS) and attention deficit disorder-hyperactivity (ADHD). Research using different ligands to specific receptor sites will also be reviewed in pediatrics

  19. Cerebral cartography and connectomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sporns, Olaf

    2015-05-19

    Cerebral cartography and connectomics pursue similar goals in attempting to create maps that can inform our understanding of the structural and functional organization of the cortex. Connectome maps explicitly aim at representing the brain as a complex network, a collection of nodes and their interconnecting edges. This article reflects on some of the challenges that currently arise in the intersection of cerebral cartography and connectomics. Principal challenges concern the temporal dynamics of functional brain connectivity, the definition of areal parcellations and their hierarchical organization into large-scale networks, the extension of whole-brain connectivity to cellular-scale networks, and the mapping of structure/function relations in empirical recordings and computational models. Successfully addressing these challenges will require extensions of methods and tools from network science to the mapping and analysis of human brain connectivity data. The emerging view that the brain is more than a collection of areas, but is fundamentally operating as a complex networked system, will continue to drive the creation of ever more detailed and multi-modal network maps as tools for on-going exploration and discovery in human connectomics.

  20. Cerebral sinus venous thrombosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hernando Raphael Alvis-Miranda

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Cerebral sinus venous thrombosis (CSVT is a rare phenomenon that can be seen with some frequency in young patients. CSVT is a multifactorial condition with gender-related specific causes, with a wide clinical presentation, the leading causes differ between developed and developing countries, converting CSVT in a condition characterized by a highly variable clinical spectra, difficult diagnosis, variable etiologies and prognosis that requires fine medical skills and a high suspicious index. Patients who presents with CSVT should underwent to CT-scan venography (CVT and to the proper inquiry of the generating cause. This disease can affect the cerebral venous drainage and related anatomical structure. The symptoms may appear in relation to increased intracranial pressure imitating a pseudotumorcerebri. Prognosis depends on the early detection. Correcting the cause, generally the complications can be prevented. Mortality trends have diminished, and with the new technologies, surely it will continue. This work aims to review current knowledge about CSVT including its pathogenesis, etiology, clinical manifestations, diagnosis, and treatment.

  1. Cerebral imaging in pediatrics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gordon, I. [London, Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children (United Kingdom)

    1998-06-01

    Radioisotope brain imaging has focused mainly on regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF). However the use of ligand which go to specific receptor sites is being introduced in pediatrics, mainly psychiatry. rCBF is potentially available in many institutions, especially with the availability of multi-headed gamma cameras. The use of this technique in pediatrics requires special attention to detail in the manner of data acquisition and handling the child. The interpretation of the rCBF study in a child requires knowledge of normal brain maturation. The major clinical use in pediatrics is epilepsy because of the advances in surgery and the frequency of complex partial seizures. Other indications in pediatric neurology include brain death, acute neurological loss including stroke, language disorders, cerebral palsy, hypertension due to renovascular disease, traumatic brain injury and migraine. There are pediatric physiological conditions in which rCBF has been undertaken, these include anorexia nervosa, autism, Gilles de la Tourette syndrome (GTS) and attention deficit disorder-hyperactivity (ADHD). Research using different ligands to specific receptor sites will also be reviewed in pediatrics.

  2. Reading Strategies in Children with Cerebral Visual Impairment Caused by Periventricular Leukomalacia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fellenius, Kerstin; Ek, Ulla; Jacobson, Lena

    2001-01-01

    Four children with cerebral visual impairment caused by periventricular leukomalacia were followed for two years during their process of learning to read in mainstream classes. Two of the children were offered both Braille and print reading as reading media. The other two children read ordinary print without special teaching. Differences in…

  3. The relationship between maternal and fetal vitamin D, insulin resistance, and fetal growth.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Walsh, Jennifer M

    2013-05-01

    Evidence for a role of vitamin D in maintaining normal glucose homeostasis is inconclusive. We sought to clarify the relationship between maternal and fetal insulin resistance and vitamin D status. This is a prospective cohort study of 60 caucasian pregnant women. Concentrations of 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25-OHD), glucose, insulin, and leptin were measured in early pregnancy and at 28 weeks. Ultrasound at 34 weeks assessed fetal anthropometry including abdominal wall width, a marker of fetal adiposity. At delivery birth weight was recorded and fetal 25-OHD, glucose, C-peptide, and leptin measured in cord blood. Insulin resistance was calculated using the Homeostasis Model Assessment (HOMA) equation. We found that those with lower 25-OHD in early pregnancy had higher HOMA indices at 28 weeks, (r = -.32, P = .02). No significant relationship existed between maternal or fetal leptin and 25-OHD, or between maternal or fetal 25-OHD and fetal anthropometry or birth weight. The incidence of vitamin D deficiency was high at each time point (15%-45%). These findings lend support to routine antenatal supplementation with vitamin D in at risk populations.

  4. Automatic real-time tracking of fetal mouth in fetoscopic video sequence for supporting fetal surgeries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Rong; Xie, Tianliang; Ohya, Jun; Zhang, Bo; Sato, Yoshinobu; Fujie, Masakatsu G.

    2013-03-01

    Recently, a minimally invasive surgery (MIS) called fetoscopic tracheal occlusion (FETO) was developed to treat severe congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH) via fetoscopy, by which a detachable balloon is placed into the fetal trachea for preventing pulmonary hypoplasia through increasing the pressure of the chest cavity. This surgery is so dangerous that a supporting system for navigating surgeries is deemed necessary. In this paper, to guide a surgical tool to be inserted into the fetal trachea, an automatic approach is proposed to detect and track the fetal face and mouth via fetoscopic video sequencing. More specifically, the AdaBoost algorithm is utilized as a classifier to detect the fetal face based on Haarlike features, which calculate the difference between the sums of the pixel intensities in each adjacent region at a specific location in a detection window. Then, the CamShift algorithm based on an iterative search in a color histogram is applied to track the fetal face, and the fetal mouth is fitted by an ellipse detected via an improved iterative randomized Hough transform approach. The experimental results demonstrate that the proposed automatic approach can accurately detect and track the fetal face and mouth in real-time in a fetoscopic video sequence, as well as provide an effective and timely feedback to the robot control system of the surgical tool for FETO surgeries.

  5. Fetal magnetic resonance imaging of thoracic and abdominal malformations; Fetale Magnetresonanztomographie thorakaler und abdomineller Malformationen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woitek, R.; Asenbaum, U.; Furtner, J.; Prayer, D. [Medizinische Universitaet Wien, Abteilung fuer Neuroradiologie und Muskuloskelettale Radiologie, Universitaetsklinik fuer Radiodiagnostik, Wien (Austria); Brugger, P.C. [Medizinische Universitaet Wien, Zentrum fuer Anatomie und Zellbiologie, Wien (Austria)

    2013-02-15

    Diagnosis and differential diagnosis of fetal thoracic and abdominal malformations. Ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). In cases of suspected pathologies based on fetal ultrasound MRI can be used for more detailed examinations and can be of assistance in the differential diagnostic process. Improved imaging of anatomical structures and of the composition of different tissues by the use of different MRI sequences. Fetal MRI has become a part of clinical routine in thoracic and abdominal malformations and is the basis for scientific research in this field. In cases of thoracic or abdominal malformations fetal MRI provides important information additional to ultrasound to improve diagnostic accuracy, prognostic evaluation and surgical planning. (orig.) [German] Diagnose und Differenzialdiagnose fetaler thorakaler und abdomineller Malformationen. Ultraschall, MRT. MRT zur weiteren Abklaerung und genaueren Differenzierung bei vielen im Ultraschall gestellten Verdachtsdiagnosen. Verbesserte anatomische Darstellung mittels MRT und Darstellung unterschiedlicher Gewebezusammensetzung mittels verschiedener MR-Sequenzen. Die fetale MRT ist bei der angegebenen Fragestellung in die klinische Routine eingegangen und liefert weiterhin die Basis fuer wissenschaftliche Untersuchungen in diesem Bereich. Die fetale MRT liefert beim Vorliegen thorakaler oder abdomineller Malformationen komplementaer zum Ultraschall wichtige Zusatzinformationen, um die diagnostische Genauigkeit zu erhoehen, die Prognoseabschaetzung zu verbessern und ggf. eine bessere chirurgische Planung zu ermoeglichen. (orig.)

  6. Adrenergic receptors in human fetal liver membranes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Falkay, G.; Kovacs, L. (Albert Szent-Gyoergyi Medical Univ. Szeged, Semmelweis (Hungary))

    1990-01-01

    The adrenergic receptor binding capacities in human fetal and adult livers were measured to investigate the mechanism of the reduced alpha-1 adrenoreceptor response of the liver associated with a reciprocal increase in beta-adrenoreceptor activity in a number of conditions. Alpha-1 and beta-adrenoreceptor density were determined using {sup 3}H-prazosin and {sup 3}H-dihydroalprenolol, respectively, as radioligand. Heterogeneous populations of beta-adrenoreceptors were found in fetal liver contrast to adult. Decreased alpha-1 and increased beta-receptor density were found which may relate to a decreased level in cellular differentiation. These findings may be important for the investigation of perinatal hypoglycemia of newborns after treatment of premature labor with beta-mimetics. This is the first demonstration of differences in the ratio of alpha-1 and beta-adrenoceptors in human fetal liver.

  7. Abnormal fetal head shape: aetiology and management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Olav Bjørn; David, Anna; Thomasson, Louise;

    2007-01-01

    Background: Abnormal head shape is an uncommon finding on prenatal ultrasound, often associated with breech presentation, spinabifida, aneuploidy or secondary to oligohydramnios or fetal position. Other aetiologies are rarer and may be more difficult to define. Objective: To determine the aetiology...... (lemon-shaped), 18.4% with aneuploidy (mostly strawberry-shaped). 19.5% were dolicocephalic, most secondary to fetal position or oligohydramnios (see table). 13 had confirmed craniosynostosis, including thanatophoric dysplasia, Craniofrontonasal dysplasia, Aperts syndrome, Baller-Gerold syndrome, I......-cell disease, Muenke craniosynostosis and two with an as yet undefined craniosynostosis syndrome. Overall, 16.5 % had an underlying genetic syndrome. Conclusions: Abnormal fetal head shape may be a normal variant, but is commonly associated with a wide variety of underlying pathologies. In view of the high...

  8. Biomarker tests for fetal lung maturity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung-Pineda, Van; Gronowski, Ann M

    2010-12-01

    The production of surfactant is a key step in fetal lung development. Surfactant decreases alveolar surface tension, thereby preventing alveolar collapse and allowing efficient gas exchange. The lack of adequate amounts of lung surfactant results in respiratory distress syndrome. Tests that assess surfactant concentrations in amniotic fluid are good predictors of infants that will not develop respiratory distress syndrome. The most frequently used test to assess fetal lung maturity (TDx FLM II) will not be available after December 2011. Therefore, we review the currently available tests for fetal lung maturity including lecithin:sphingomyelin ratio, phosphatidyl glycerol, surfactant:albumin ratio and lamellar body counts. Herein, we discuss their clinical utility and consider a suitable replacement for the future. PMID:21133706

  9. Prostaglandin E2 decreases fetal breathing movements, but not pulmonary blood flow, in fetal sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savich, R D; Guerra, F A; Lee, C C; Kitterman, J A

    1995-04-01

    Fetal breathing movements are vital for normal fetal lung growth. Inhibition of these fetal breathing movements is associated with pulmonary hypoplasia. Pulmonary hypoplasia also occurs subsequent to alterations in other factors, such as a significant decrease in pulmonary blood flow. The prostaglandin system is known to have profound effects on both fetal breathing movements and on the pulmonary vascular system. We studied six late-gestation chronically instrumented fetal sheep by using an electromagnetic flow transducer around the left pulmonary artery to determine whether a decrease in fetal breathing movements, subsequent to a continuous infusion of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), is associated with a decrease in pulmonary blood flow. A continuous PGE2 infusion of 0.88 +/- 0.11 microgram.kg-1.min-1 over 120 min led to a significant decrease in fetal breathing movements (control 40.5 +/- 3.6%, infusion 3.3 +/- 1.6%; P < 0.001). In contrast, the PGE2 infusion had no effect on mean left pulmonary artery blood flow (control 27.7 +/- 9.3 ml.min-1.kg-1, infusion 23.8 +/- 7.0 ml.min-1.kg-1. The PGE2 infusion demonstrated central effects in the percentage of time the fetus was in high-voltage electrocortical activity (control 41.9 +/- 2.5%, infusion 56.5 +/- 5.4%; P < 0.05) and in the amount of time spent in low-voltage electrocortical activity without fetal breathing movements (control 17.5 +/- 2.7%, infusion 40.2 +/- 4.8%; P < 0.05). A significant decrease in the fetal heart rate during the infusion was seen with no effect on either the systemic or pulmonary blood pressure.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7615458

  10. Role of fetal surgery in spinal dysraphism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Martina Messing-Jünger

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Open spinal dysraphism is a common and clinically challenging organo-genetic malformation. Due to the well-known multi-organ affection with significant implication on the lives of patients and their families, abortion after prenatal diagnosis became reality in most parts of the world. After publication of the Management of Myelomeningocele Study (MOMS results fetal surgery seems to be a new option and a broad discussion arose regarding advantages and risks of in utero treatment of spina bifida. This paper tries to evaluate objectively the actual state of knowledge and experience. This review article gives a historical overview as well as the experimental and pathophysiological background of fetal surgery in open spinal dysraphism. Additionally clinical follow-up experience of foetoscopically treated patients are presented and discussed. After carefully outweighing all available information on fetal surgery for spina bifida, one has to conclude, in accordance with the MOMS investigators, that in utero surgery cannot be considered a standard option at present time. But there is clear evidence of the hypothesis that early closure of the spinal canal has a positive influence on spinal cord function and severity of Chiari malformation type II, has been proven. A persisting problem is the fetal risk of prematurity and the maternal risk of uterus damage. There is also evidence that due to technical restrictions, fetal closure of the spinal canal bears unsolved problems leading to a higher postnatal incidence of complication surgery. Finally, missing long-term results make a definite evaluation impossible so far. At the moment, fetal surgery in open spinal dysraphism is not a standard of care despite promising results regarding central nervous system protection due to early spinal canal closure. Many technical problems need to be solved in the future in order to make this option a safe and standard one.

  11. Social Attitudes toward Cerebral Palsy and Potential Uses in Medical Education Based on the Analysis of Motion Pictures

    OpenAIRE

    Marek Jóźwiak; Brian Po-Jung Chen; Bartosz Musielak; Jacek Fabiszak; Andrzej Grzegorzewski

    2015-01-01

    This study presents how motion pictures illustrate a person with cerebral palsy (CP), the social impact from the media, and the possibility of cerebral palsy education by using motion pictures. 937 motion pictures were reviewed in this study. With the criteria of nondocumentary movies, possibility of disability classification, and availability, the total number of motion pictures about CP was reduced to 34. The geographical distribution of movie number ever produced is as follows: North Ameri...

  12. Cerebrovascular hemodynamics in patients with cerebral arteriosclerosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jianbo Yang; Changcong Cui; Chengbin Wu

    2011-01-01

    The present study observed hemodynamic changes in 26 patients with cerebral arteriosclerosis using a cerebral circulation dynamics detector and transcranial Doppler.In patients with cerebral arteriosclerosis the blood supply and flow rate in the bilateral carotid arteries and the blood flow rate in the anterior cerebral and middle cerebral arteries were similar to normal controls, but the cerebral vascular resistance, critical pressure and pulsatility index were increased, and cerebral arterial elasticity and cerebral blood flow autoregulation were decreased.Compared with the lesioned hemisphere of patients with cerebral infarction, the total blood supply and blood flow rate of patients with cerebral arteriosclerosis were higher.Compared with normal subjects, patients with cerebral arteriosclerosis exhibited cognitive disturbances, mainly in short-term memory, attention, abstract capability, and spatial and executive dysfunction.Results showed that cerebral arteriosclerosis does not directly affect the blood supply of a cerebral hemisphere, but affects cognitive function.The increased cerebral vascular resistance and reduced autoregulation of cerebral blood vessels may be important hemodynamic mechanisms of arteriosclerosis-induced cerebral infarction.

  13. Cerebral Endothelial Function Determined by Cerebrovascular Reactivity to L-Arginine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janja Pretnar-Oblak

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Endothelium forms the inner cellular lining of blood vessels and plays an important role in many physiological functions including the control of vasomotor tone. Cerebral endothelium is probably one of the most specific types but until recently it was impossible to determine its function. In this review, the role of cerebrovascular reactivity to L-arginine (CVR-L-Arg for assessment of cerebral endothelial function is discussed. L-Arginine induces vasodilatation through enhanced production of nitric oxide (NO in the cerebral endothelium. Transcranial Doppler sonography is used for evaluation of cerebral blood flow changes. The method is noninvasive, inexpensive, and enables reproducible measurements. CVR-L-Arg has been compared to flow-mediated dilatation as a gold standard for systemic endothelial function and intima-media thickness as a marker for morphological changes. However, it seems to show specific cerebral endothelial function. So far CVR-L-Arg has been used to study cerebral endothelial function in many pathological conditions such as stroke, migraine, etc. In addition CVR-L-Arg has also proven its usefulness in order to show potential improvement after pharmacological interventions. In conclusion CVR-L-Arg is a promising noninvasive research method that could provide means for evaluation of cerebral endothelial function in physiological and pathological conditions.

  14. Prenatal ultrasound findings of fetal neoplasms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Soo Hyun; Cho, Jeong Yeon; Song, Mi Jin; Min, Jee Yeon; Han, Byoung Hee; Lee, Young Ho; Cho, Byung Jae [Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Seung Hyup [Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2002-01-01

    A variety of neoplasms can develop in each tetal organ. Most fetal neoplasms can be detected by careful prenatal ultrasonographic examination. Some neoplosms show specific ultrasonographic findings suggesting the differential diagnosis, but others do not. Knowledge of the presence of a neoplasm in the fetus may alter the prenatal management of a pregnancy and the mode of delivery, and facilitates immediate postnatal treatment. During the last five years, we experienced 32 cases of fetal neoplasms in a variety of organs. We describe their typical and ultrasonographic findings with correlating postnatal CT, MRI, and pathologic findings.

  15. Fetal magnetocardiogram recordings and Fourier spectral analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anastasiadis, P; Anninos, P A; Lüdinghausen, M V; Kotini, A; Galazios, G; Limberis, B

    1999-07-01

    Power spectral analysis of fetal magnetocardiogram (FMCG) data was evaluated in 64 pregnancies, using the non-invasive one channel superconducting quantum interference device (DC-SQUID), in order to investigate the power spectral amplitude distribution in the frequency range between 2 and 3 Hz. In all cases with normal and uncomplicated pregnancies, the data from the fetal heart and specifically the QRS complexes, were identifiable and unaffected by any maternal cardiac activity and furthermore the power spectral amplitudes, which varied between 120 and 350 fT/Hz, were directly related to gestational age. PMID:15512338

  16. Noninvasive fetal RhD genotyping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Frederik Banch; Damkjær, Merete Berthu; Dziegiel, Morten Hanefeld

    2014-01-01

    Immunization against RhD is the major cause of hemolytic disease of the fetus and newborn (HDFN), which causes fetal or neonatal death. The introduction of postnatal immune prophylaxis in the 1960s drastically reduced immunization incidents in pregnant, D-negative women. In several countries, ant...... undergone technical improvements and rapid clinical implementation. As a screening assay, the sensitivity is >99.3% from a gestational age of approximately 10-11weeks. In addition, fetal RhD genotyping is widely used to assess the risk of HDFN in anti-D immunized women....

  17. Pontomedullary disconnection: fetal and neonatal considerations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCann, Emma; Sweeney, Elizabeth [Royal Liverpool Children' s Hospital, Department of Clinical Genetics, Liverpool (United Kingdom); Pilling, David [Royal Liverpool Children' s Hospital, Department of Paediatric Radiology, Liverpool (United Kingdom); Hesseling, Markus; Subhedar, Nim [Liverpool Women' s Hospital, Department of Neonatology, Liverpool (United Kingdom); Roberts, Devender [Liverpool Women' s Hospital, Department of Fetal Medicine, Liverpool (United Kingdom)

    2005-08-01

    The cerebellar and pontocerebellar hypoplasias present a unique challenge when detected in the developing fetus. A diverse aetiology and prognosis make counselling of these families difficult. Advances in fetal imaging allow for more accurate diagnosis and counselling, but postnatal MRI is still required. A case is presented in which cerebellar hypoplasia was detected at 20 weeks gestation. Later fetal imaging provided further information, but a diagnosis of pontomedullary disconnection was not made until the postnatal MRI scan. The clinical findings and possible causes of such pontocerebellar abnormalities are discussed. (orig.)

  18. Sonographic Findings in Fetal Renal Vein Thrombosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerber, Rebecca E; Bromley, Bryann; Benson, Carol B; Frates, Mary C

    2015-08-01

    We present the sonographic findings of fetal renal vein thrombosis in a series of 6 patients. The mean gestational age at diagnosis was 31.2 weeks. Four cases were unilateral, and 2 were bilateral. The most common findings were renal enlargement and intrarenal vascular calcifications, followed by increased renal parenchymal echogenicity. Inferior vena cava thrombosis was found in 4 patients and common iliac vein thrombosis in 2. Fetal renal vein thrombosis is an uncommon diagnosis with characteristic sonographic findings. The presence of these findings should prompt Doppler interrogation of the renal vein and inferior vena cava to confirm the diagnosis.

  19. Pictorial essay: MRI of the fetal brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MRI is a useful supplement to USG for the assessment of fetal brain malformations. Superior soft tissue contrast and the ability to depict sulcation and myelination are the strengths of MRI. Subtle or inconclusive USG abnormalities can be confirmed or ruled out by MRI. In some cases, additional findings detected with MRI often help in arriving at a definitive diagnosis, which is necessary for parental counseling and for guiding management. Fast T2W sequences form the basis of fetal MRI. There have been no reports of deleterious effects of MRI on the fetus. A few case examples are presented to illustrate the advantages of MRI

  20. Tumours of the fetal body: a review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Avni, Fred E.; Massez, Anne; Cassart, Marie [University Clinics of Brussels - Erasme Hospital, Department of Medical Imaging, Brussels (Belgium)

    2009-11-15

    Tumours of the fetal body are rare, but lesions have been reported in all spaces, especially in the mediastinum, the pericardial space, the adrenals, the kidney, and the liver. Lymphangioma and teratoma are the commonest histological types encountered, followed by cardiac rhabdomyoma. Adrenal neuroblastoma is the commonest malignant tumour. Imaging plays an essential role in the detection and work-up of these tumours. In addition to assisting clinicians it also helps in counselling parents. Most tumours are detected by antenatal US, but fetal MRI is increasingly used as it brings significant additional information in terms of tumour extent, composition and complications. (orig.)

  1. Tracking fetal development through molecular analysis of maternal biofluids☆

    OpenAIRE

    Edlow, Andrea G; Bianchi, Diana W.

    2012-01-01

    Current monitoring of fetal development includes fetal ultrasonography, chorionic villus sampling or amniocentesis for chromosome analysis, and maternal serum biochemical screening for analytes associated with aneuploidy and open neural tube defects. Over the last 15 years, significant advances in noninvasive prenatal diagnosis (NIPD) via cell-free fetal (cff) nucleic acids in maternal plasma have resulted in the ability to determine fetal sex, RhD genotype, and aneuploidy. Cff nucleic acids ...

  2. Differentiation potential of the fetal rat liver-derived cells.

    OpenAIRE

    Zygmunt Pojda; Jerzy Moraczewski; Tomasz Oldak; Marzena Jastrzewska; Agnieszka Gajkowska; Iwona Grabowska; Eugeniusz K Machaj

    2005-01-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells derived from bone marrow or several fetal tissues can be expanded and differentiated into other cell lines. The fetal liver is the source of early hematopoietic cells and also, as a fetal tissue, may be considered as a source of pluripotent stem cells. The differentiation potential of fetal rat liver cells have been examined. Freshly isolated liver cells from 14-d fetuses were cultured in Dulbecco medium supplemented with 10% FCS. The plastic-adherent cells were then pa...

  3. Fetal cardiac interventions: an update of therapeutic options

    OpenAIRE

    Shi-Min Yuan

    2014-01-01

    Objective: This article aims to present updated therapeutic options for fetal congenital heart diseases. Methods: Data source for the present study was based on comprehensive literature retrieval on fetal cardiac interventions in terms of indications, technical approaches and clinical outcomes. Results: About 5% of fetal congenital heart diseases are critical and timely intrauterine intervention may alleviate heart function. Candidates for fetal cardiac interventions are limited. The...

  4. CEREBRAL PALSY AND MUSIC ACHIEVEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miodrag L. STOSHLJEVIKJ

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Pupils with cerebral palsy attend elementary education accordind to a regular and special teaching plan and program. Regular school curriculum was reformed in 1992, while special plan and program has not been changed and adapted according to pupil’s needs and capacities. Music is one of the best means of expressing oneself and plays a very important role in the development of every child, the child with cerebral palsy in particular.In order to test the possibility of pupils with cerebral palsy, with and without mental retardation, to apprehend the actual program content, we have conducted research on musical achievement of children with cerebral palsy. During 2007 a research was carried out, on the sample of 27 pupils with cerebral palsy and mild mental retardation who attended classes in the school “Miodrag Matikj”, and a sample of16 students with cerebral palsy without mental retardation who attended the school “Dr. Dragan Hercog” in Belgrade.Results of the research, as well as analysis of music curriculum content, indicated that the capacities of students with cerebral palsy to carry out the curriculum tasks require special approach and methodology. Therefore, we introduced some proposals to overcome the difficulties in fulfilling music curriculum demands of those pupils. We made special emphasis on the use of computer based Assistive technology which facilitates the whole process to a large extent.

  5. On Media Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedorov, Alexander

    2008-01-01

    This monograph analyzes the theory and practice of media education and media literacy. The book also includes the list of Russian media education literature and addresses of websites of the associations for media education.

  6. Otitis media with effusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    OME; Secretory otitis media; Serous otitis media; Silent otitis media; Silent ear infection; Glue ear ... drains from the tube and is swallowed. Otitis media with effusion (OME) and ear infections are connected ...

  7. CEREBRAL PALSY : ANTENATAL RISK FACTORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srinivasa Rao

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Cerebral palsy (CP is a group of permanent movement disorders that appear in early childhood. Cerebral palsy is caused by abnormal development or damage to the parts of the brain that control movement, balance, and posture. Most often the problems occur during pregnancy; however, they may also occur during childbirth, or shortly after birth. Often the cause is unknown. AIM: To study the different antenatal maternal risk factors associated with cerebral palsy in the study group. MATERIA LS AND METHODS: Retrospective study was done to assess possible associated antenatal risk factors for cerebral palsy. Mothers of 100 cerebral palsy children were selected who are treated in Rani Chandramani Devi Hospital, a Government hospital in Visakhapa tn am, Andhra Pradesh State, India , from 2012 to 2014 and 100 controls, mothers of normal children were studied. Detailed antenatal history was obtained from the mothers of the children in both affected and control group. RESULTS: From the data, we conclude that the association of maternal anaemia with cerebral palsy is 7.3 times higher; association of maternal hypertension with cerebral palsy is 6.6 time higher, association with Pre - eclampsia is 6 times higher; association with Eclampsia is 8.6 times higher ; with antepartum haemorrhage, the association is 8.6 times higher and association of multiple pregnancy with cerebral palsy is 4.8 times higher than with controls. CONCLUSION: From this study of the role of antenatal risk factors, in the occurrence of cer ebral palsy in children it is concluded that the most common risk factor associated with cerebral palsy is the maternal anaemia and the other important risk factors associated being hypertension, pre eclampsia, eclampsia, antepartum haemorrhage and multipl e births.

  8. Perspectives of fetal dystocia in cattle and buffalo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Govind Narayan Purohit

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available We review the causes of fetal dystocia in cows and buffalo. Two fetal causes are distinct fetal oversize and fetal abnormalities. Fetal oversize is common in heifers, cows of beef cattle breeds, prolonged gestations, increased calf birth weight, male calves and perinatal fetal death with resultant emphysema. Fetal abnormalities include monsters, fetal diseases and fetal maldispositions, and it is difficult to deliver such fetuses because of their altered shape. Although monsters are rare in cattle, a large number of monstrosities have been reported in river buffalo; yet also here, overall incidence is low. Diseases of the fetus resulting in dystocia include hydrocephalus, ascites, anasarca and hydrothorax. The most common cause of dystocia in cattle seems to be fetal maldispositions, of which limb flexion and head deviation appear to be the most frequent. We provide a brief description of the management of dystocia from different causes in cattle and buffalo. A case analysis of 192 and 112 dystocia in cattle and buffalo, respectively, at our referral center revealed that dystocia is significantly higher (P<0.05 in first and second parity cows and buffalo, and that dystocia of fetal origin is common in cows (65.62% but less frequent (40.17% in buffalo. In buffalo, the single biggest cause of dystocia was uterine torsion (53.57%. Fetal survival was significantly (P<0.05 higher both in cows and buffalo when delivery was completed within 12 h of second stage of labor.

  9. Agonist mediated fetal muscle-type nicotinic acetylcholine receptor desensitization

    Science.gov (United States)

    The exposure of a developing embryo or fetus to teratogenic alkaloids from plants has the potential to cause developmental defects in livestock due to the inhibition of fetal movement by alkaloids. The mechanism behind the inhibition of fetal movement is the desensitization of fetal muscle-type nico...

  10. 21 CFR 864.7455 - Fetal hemoglobin assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Fetal hemoglobin assay. 864.7455 Section 864.7455... assay. (a) Identification. A fetal hemoglobin assay is a device that is used to determine the presence... hemoglobin present. The assay may be used to detect fetal red cells in the maternal circulation or to...

  11. CEREBRAL PALSY AND MUSIC ACHIEVEMENT

    OpenAIRE

    Miodrag L. STOSHLJEVIKJ; EMINOVIKJ Fadilj N.; NIKIKJ Radmila M.; Gordana I. ACHIKJ; Sanela R. PACIKJ

    2015-01-01

    Pupils with cerebral palsy attend elementary education accordind to a regular and special teaching plan and program. Regular school curriculum was reformed in 1992, while special plan and program has not been changed and adapted according to pupil’s needs and capacities. Music is one of the best means of expressing oneself and plays a very important role in the development of every child, the child with cerebral palsy in particular.In order to test the possibility of pupils with cerebral pal...

  12. Prenatal diagnosis of a placental infarction hematoma associated with fetal growth restriction, preeclampsia and fetal death: clinicopathological correlation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aurioles-Garibay, Alma; Hernandez-Andrade, Edgar; Romero, Roberto; Qureshi, Faisal; Ahn, Hyunyoung; Jacques, Suzanne M; Garcia, Maynor; Yeo, Lami; Hassan, Sonia S

    2014-01-01

    The lesion termed 'placental infarction hematoma' is associated with fetal death and adverse perinatal outcome. Such a lesion has been associated with a high risk of fetal death and abruption placentae. The fetal and placental hemodynamic changes associated with placental infarction hematoma have not been reported. This paper describes a case of early and severe growth restriction with preeclampsia, and progressive deterioration of the fetal and placental Doppler parameters in the presence of a placental infarction hematoma.

  13. Non-invasive prenatal diagnosis of fetal trisomy 21 using cell-free fetal DNA in maternal blood

    OpenAIRE

    Lim, Ji Hyae; Park, So Yeon; Ryu, Hyun Mee

    2013-01-01

    Since the existence of cell-free fetal DNA (cff-DNA) in maternal circulation was discovered, it has been identified as a promising source of fetal genetic material in the development of reliable methods for non-invasive prenatal diagnosis (NIPD) of fetal trisomy 21 (T21). Currently, a prenatal diagnosis of fetal T21 is achieved through invasive techniques, such as chorionic villus sampling or amniocentesis. However, such invasive diagnostic tests are expensive, require expert technicians, and...

  14. Media Education Initiatives by Media Organizations: The Uses of Media Literacy in Hong Kong Media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Donna; Lee, Alice Y. L.

    2014-01-01

    As more media organizations have engaged in media education, this paper investigates the goals and practices of these activities. This article coins media education initiatives by media organizations with the term "media-organization media literac"y (MOML). Four MOML projects in Hong Kong were selected for examination. Built on critical…

  15. Cerebral toxoplasmosis in AIDS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christ, F.; Steudel, H.; Klotz, D.

    1986-02-01

    Since 1982 (Hauser and co-workers), literature has reported focal cerebral tissue charges in AIDS patients whose diagnosis was unclear at first but which could be identified finally as florid toxoplasmosis encephalitis by biopsy and autopsy. It was found that the value of otherwise reliable serological tests (KBR, Sabin-Feldmann tests, etc.) is questionable in patients with severely impaired or incompetent immune systems, and, in particular, that a negative or uncharacteristic test result may not preclude any opportunistic infection process. Furthermore, isolation of Toxoplasma gondii or specific antibodies from the cerebrospinal fluid will be successful in exceptional cases only. In patients with AIDS or lymphadenopathy syndrome, the differential diagnosis will have to include - first and foremost - reactivated toxoplasma infection (not newly acquired, as a rule) if central neurological symptoms occur.

  16. Cerebral white matter hypoplasia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper demonstrates the MR imaging findings in children with cerebral white matter hypoplasia (CWMH). The MR studies of four children, aged 3-7 y (mean age, 2.3 y) with a diagnosis of CWMH were reviewed. In all cases multiplanar T1-weighted and T2-weighted spin-echo images were obtained. All children had similar histories of severe developmental delay and nonprogressive neurologic deficits despite normal gestational and birth histories. In two cases there was a history of maternal cocaine abuse. Autopsy correlation was available in one child. The MR images of all four children demonstrated diffuse lack of white matter and enlarged ventricles but normal-appearing gray matter. The corpus callosum, although completely formed, was severely thinned. There was no evidence of gliosis or porencephaly, and the distribution of myelin deposition was normal for age in all cases. Autopsy finding in one child correlated exactly with the MR finding

  17. Cerebral oxygenation after birth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hessel, Trine W; Hyttel-Sorensen, Simon; Greisen, Gorm

    2014-01-01

    AIM: To compare absolute values of regional cerebral tissue oxygenation (cStO2 ) during haemodynamic transition after birth and repeatability during steady state for two commercial near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) devices. METHODS: In a prospective observational study, the INVOS 5100C and FORE......-SIGHT were compared on 12 term newborns delivered by elective caesarean section. During the 10 min following umbilical cord clamping, cStO2 was measured simultaneously with the neonatal sensors from each device. Repeated measurements were taken the following day. RESULTS: Three and 8 min after clamping......: The INVOS and FORE-SIGHT cStO2 estimates showed oxygenation-level-dependent difference during birth transition. The better repeatability of FORE-SIGHT could be due to the lower response to change in saturation....

  18. Adaptation of an articulated fetal skeleton model to three-dimensional fetal image data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klinder, Tobias; Wendland, Hannes; Wachter-Stehle, Irina; Roundhill, David; Lorenz, Cristian

    2015-03-01

    The automatic interpretation of three-dimensional fetal images poses specific challenges compared to other three-dimensional diagnostic data, especially since the orientation of the fetus in the uterus and the position of the extremities is highly variable. In this paper, we present a comprehensive articulated model of the fetal skeleton and the adaptation of the articulation for pose estimation in three-dimensional fetal images. The model is composed out of rigid bodies where the articulations are represented as rigid body transformations. Given a set of target landmarks, the model constellation can be estimated by optimization of the pose parameters. Experiments are carried out on 3D fetal MRI data yielding an average error per case of 12.03+/-3.36 mm between target and estimated landmark positions.

  19. MRI evaluation of fetal vitality and maturity; Avaliacao da vitalidade e maturidade fetal pela ressonancia magnetica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rego, Salete J.F. [Instituto Nacional do Cancer, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Secaf, Eduardo [Sao Paulo Univ., SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina; Magalhaes, Alvaro Cebrian A. [Sao Paulo Univ., SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina, Dept. de Radiologia

    1995-05-01

    Assessment of fetal vitality is an essential part of feto-maternal medicine. In clinical practice, this is carried out by investigation of the fetal growth pattern and biochemical or biophysical tests of fetal heath. MRI has the ability of characterizing different soft tissues and is the only technique that can display in the uterus the process of physiological myelinization and may well present a noninvasive method to determine lung maturity. MRI is more powerful technique allowing more detailed visualization of the fetal brain, better images can be obtained of areas such as posterior fossa. The major advantage of MRI over imaging modalities is the potential for biochemical and metabolic studies and it will make an important contribution to obstetric research. (author)., 10 refs., 7 figs p.

  20. Acute ischemic cerebral attack

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franco-Garcia Samir

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The decrease of the cerebral blood flow below the threshold of autoregulation led to changes of cerebral ischemia and necrosis that traduce in signs and symtoms of focal neurologic dysfunction called acute cerebrovascular symdrome (ACS or stroke. Two big groups according to its etiology are included in this category the hemorragic that constitue a 20% and the ischemic a 80% of cases. Great interest has wom the ischemic ACS because of its high social burden, being the third cause of no violent death in the world and the first of disability. Many risk factors favor the presentation of these events and some of them are susceptible of modification and therfore are objetives of primary prevention just as the control of diabetes, hypertension and the practice of healthy habits of life. The advances in the knowledge of the physiopatology, had taken to sustantial change in the nomenclature and management of ischemic ACS. Within these changes it was substituted the term cerebrovascular accident fo acute stroke, making emphasis in the key rol of a timely management with goals of time similiar to the acute coronary syndrome. It was redefined the time of acute ischemic attack to a one hour. Once stablished the cerebrovascular attack the semiology of symtoms with frecuency will led us make a topographic diagnosis of the in injury that joined to the cerebral TAC will allow us to exclude an hemorragic event and to start the treatment. In the management of these patients its essential the coordination of the differents teams of work, from the early recognition of symtoms on the part of patients andthe family, the rapid activation and response of emergency systems and the gearing of health care institutions. Are pillars of treatment: the abcde of reanimatiion, to avoid the hiperpirexis, the seizures, the hipoglicemy, the hiperglicemy, to achieve the thrombolysis in the first three hours of the begining of symtoms, to use antiplatelets, antithrombotic profilaxis

  1. The added predictive value of biphasic events in ST analysis of the fetal electrocardiogram for intrapartum fetal monitoring

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Becker, Jeroen H; Krikhaar, Anniek; Schuit, Ewoud; Mårtendal, Annika; Maršál, Karel; Kwee, Anneke; Visser, Gerard H A; Amer-Wåhlin, Isis

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To study the predictive value of biphasic ST-events for interventions for suspected fetal distress and adverse neonatal outcome, when using ST-analysis of the fetal electrocardiogram (FECG) for intrapartum fetal monitoring. DESIGN: Prospective cohort study. SETTING: Three academic hospita

  2. MATERNO-FETAL IMMUNOTOLERANCE: AN EVOLUTIONARY VIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luana Paulesu

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Since Medawar (1953, much attention has been given to the immunological paradox of the survival and growth of the semi-allogeneic fetus in the maternal uterus. Numerous studies, mainly on the human placenta, have established fundamental mechanisms of this phenomenon; however, many aspects are still unclear and the complex process has yet to be completely defined. One of the accepted principles is that the secretion and action of mediators, i.e. cytokines, at the materno-fetal interface have a central role. Focusing on the cytokine Interleukin-1 (IL-1 the review highlights the importance of a physiological approach based on evolutionary studies in animals using similar or different reproductive strategies. Data on IL-1 in viviparity and oviparity, two reproductive strategies in which female reproductive tissues have to deal with paternal-derived antigens on sperm, fertilized eggs, and embryo, will be presented and discussed in the light of materno-fetal immuntolerance. Ovuliparity, a reproductive modality in which the eggs are released from the female reproductive tract and fertilization and embryonic development take place in the external environment will also be extensively reported as a negative control in the studies on materno-fetal immunotolerance. The evidence shown reveals that non-mammalian vertebrates with different reproductive strategies represent a good model to understand biological mechanisms allowing fetal acceptance and growth in the maternal tissues.

  3. REFLECTANCE PULSE OXIMETRY IN FETAL LAMBS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    DASSEL, AC; GRAAFF, R; AARNOUDSE, JG; ELSTRODT, JM; HEIDA, P; KOELINK, MH; DEMUL, FF; GREVE, J

    1992-01-01

    Transmission pulse oximetry is used for monitoring in many clinical settings. However, for fetal monitoring during labor and in situations with poor peripheral perfusion, transmission pulse oximetry cannot be used. Therefore, we developed a reflectance pulse oximeter, which uses the relative intensi

  4. Jaundice during pregnancy: maternal and fetal outcome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jayanthi Krishnamoorthy

    2016-08-01

    Conclusions: Jaundice in pregnancy has adverse fetomaternal outcome. Improvement in health awareness, education and regular antenatal checkups, early referrals result in early diagnosis and treatment of jaundice during pregnancy thus reducing maternal and fetal mortality and morbidity. [Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol 2016; 5(8.000: 2541-2545

  5. Imaging of the fetal central nervous system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pistorius, L.R.

    2008-01-01

    Introduction : Ultrasound and MR imaging of the fetal central nervous system (CNS) develop at an ever-increasing rate. Theoretically, the two modalities should be synergistic, but a literature review revealed the difficulties of determining the merit of either technique and revealed gaps in our know

  6. Is fetal cardiac function gender dependent?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Clur, S. A. B.; Rengerink, K. Oude; Mol, B. W.; Ottenkamp, J.; Bilardo, C. M.

    2011-01-01

    Introduction An increased nuchal translucency (NT) is more common in males. A delayed diastolic cardiac function maturation has been proposed to explain this and the reported gender-related differences in ductus venosus (DV) flow. Objective To investigate gender-related differences in fetal cardiac

  7. Is fetal cardiac function gender dependent?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.A.B. Clur; K. Oude Rengerink; B.W. Mol; J. Ottenkamp; C.M. Bilardo

    2011-01-01

    An increased nuchal translucency (NT) is more common in males. A delayed diastolic cardiac function maturation has been proposed to explain this and the reported gender-related differences in ductus venosus (DV) flow. To investigate gender-related differences in fetal cardiac function. One hundred a

  8. Fetal goiter and bilateral ovarian cysts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lassen, Pernille; Sundberg, Karin; Juul, Anders;

    2008-01-01

    by each injection and followed by a gradual reduction of fetal goiter as well as the left ovarian cyst. The right cyst ruptured spontaneously. At 36 weeks + 4 days, the patient underwent elective caesarean section and gave birth to a female, weighing 2,880 g with 1- and 5-min Apgar scores of 10...

  9. Fetal Alcohol Syndrome: A Behavioral Teratology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavale, Kenneth A.; Karge, Belinda D.

    1986-01-01

    The review examines the literature on the behaviorally teratogenic aspects of Fetal Alcohol Syndrome, including: (1) prevalence of alcohol abuse among women, (2) acute and chronic effects of alcohol on the fetus, (3) genetic susceptibility, (4) neuropathology, (5) correlative conditions, and (6) animal studies. (Author/DB)

  10. Neuroimaging and Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norman, Andria L.; Crocker, Nicole; Mattson, Sarah N.; Riley, Edward P.

    2009-01-01

    The detrimental effects of prenatal alcohol exposure on the developing brain include structural brain anomalies as well as cognitive and behavioral deficits. Initial neuroimaging studies of fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD) using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) confirmed previous autopsy reports of overall reduction in brain volume and…

  11. Fetal cardiac arrhythmias: diagnosis and management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feit, L R

    2001-05-01

    The diagnosis and management of fetal cardiac arrhythmias requires complex skills and knowledge, and has had a great impact on the care of infants with congenital heart disease and their families. Optimal benefits will be derived from a thoughtful team approach, with skillful internal communication, and especially when parental involvement is encouraged in the decision making process. PMID:11392955

  12. Interleukins & Fetal Fibronectin Levels In Preterm Delivery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ragab H. EL-Yamani* and Maha G. Soliman

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available Although the prevention of preterm birth remains the most important challenge in obstetrics, the mechanism for the onset of preterm labor has not been fully explained. The purpose of the present study is to investigate the usefulness of cervicovaginal fetal fibronectin and certain cytokines (interleukin-1B and interleukin-8 levels during pregnancy as markers of preterm and term delivery. This study was performed on 130 pregnant women at 24 to 29 years old age. The women were classified into group I (women not in labor, n=65 and group II (women with spontaneous labor, n=65. Each group was classified into two subgroups [preterm delivery (37 weeks gestation, n=25]. We obtained cervicovaginal swabs for fetal fibronectin and cervicovaginal fluids for cytokines determination. The present study revealed that fetal fibronectin, IL- lB and IL-8 levels were significantly higher in patients in preterm labor than in patients at preterm not in labor. They were significantly higher in women at full term in labor than in women at full term not in labor. Interleukin- lB and IL-8 obtained from women not in labor increased exponentially as gestational age increased, and the cytokines levels were significantly correlated. This study revealed that cervicovaginal measurement of fetal fibronectin, IL-lB and IL-8 in combination with clinical findings may be useful for the evaluation of patients with threatened premature delivery.

  13. Maternal endotoxin-induced fetal growth restriction in rats: Fetal responses in toll-like receptor

    OpenAIRE

    Banun Kusumawardani; Marsetyawan HNE Soesatyo; Djaswadi Dasuki; Widya Asmara

    2012-01-01

    Background: Porphyromonas gingivalis as a major etiology of periodontal disease can produce virulence factor, lipopolysaccharide/LPS, which is expected to play a role in the intrauterine fetal growth. Trophoblast at the maternal-fetal interface actively participates in response to infection through the expression of a family of natural immune receptors, toll-like receptor (TLR). Purpose: the aims of study were to identify endotoxin concentration in maternal blood serum of Porphyromonas gingiv...

  14. Mapping primary gyrogenesis during fetal development in primate brains: high-resolution in utero structural MRI study of fetal brain development in pregnant baboons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Kochunov

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The global and regional changes in the fetal cerebral cortex in primates were mapped during primary gyrification (PG; weeks 17-25 of 26 weeks total gestation. Studying pregnant baboons using high-resolution MRI in utero, measurements included cerebral volume, cortical surface area, gyrification index and length and depth of ten primary cortical sulci. Seven normally developing fetuses were imaged in two animals longitudinally and sequentially. We compared these results to those on PG that from the ferret studies and analyzed them in the context of our recent studies of phylogenetics of cerebral gyrification. We observed that in both primates and non-primates, the cerebrum undergoes a very rapid transformation into the gyrencephalic state, subsequently accompanied by an accelerated growth in brain volume and cortical surface area. However, PG trends in baboons exhibited some critical differences from those observed in ferrets. For example, in baboons, the growth along the long (length axis of cortical sulci was unrelated to the growth along the short (depth axis and far outpaced it. Additionally, the correlation between the rate of growth along the short sulcal axis and heritability of sulcal depth was negative and approached significance (r=-0.60;p<.10, while the same trend for long axis was positive and not significant (p=0.3;p=0.40. These findings, in an animal that shares a highly orchestrated pattern of PG with humans, suggest that ontogenic processes that influence changes in sulcal length and depth are diverse and possibly driven by different factors in primates than in non-primates.

  15. Anestesia e paralisia cerebral Anestesia y parálisis cerebral Anesthesia and cerebral palsy

    OpenAIRE

    Március Vinícius M Maranhão

    2005-01-01

    JUSTIFICATIVA E OBJETIVOS: A paralisia cerebral (PC) é uma doença não progressiva decorrente de lesão no sistema nervoso central, levando a um comprometimento motor do paciente. O portador de PC freqüentemente é submetido a procedimentos cirúrgicos devido a doenças usuais e situações particulares decorrentes da paralisia cerebral. Foi objetivo deste artigo revisar aspectos da paralisia cerebral de interesse para o anestesiologista, permitindo um adequado manuseio pré, intra e pós-operatório n...

  16. Learn More About Cerebral Palsy

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2008-03-30

    This podcast describes the causes, preventions, types, and signs and symptoms of cerebral palsy.  Created: 3/30/2008 by National Center on Birth Defects and Developmental Disabilities.   Date Released: 3/21/2008.

  17. Fetal eye movements on magnetic resonance imaging.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramona Woitek

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: Eye movements are the physical expression of upper fetal brainstem function. Our aim was to identify and differentiate specific types of fetal eye movement patterns using dynamic MRI sequences. Their occurrence as well as the presence of conjugated eyeball motion and consistently parallel eyeball position was systematically analyzed. METHODS: Dynamic SSFP sequences were acquired in 72 singleton fetuses (17-40 GW, three age groups [17-23 GW, 24-32 GW, 33-40 GW]. Fetal eye movements were evaluated according to a modified classification originally published by Birnholz (1981: Type 0: no eye movements; Type I: single transient deviations; Type Ia: fast deviation, slower reposition; Type Ib: fast deviation, fast reposition; Type II: single prolonged eye movements; Type III: complex sequences; and Type IV: nystagmoid. RESULTS: In 95.8% of fetuses, the evaluation of eye movements was possible using MRI, with a mean acquisition time of 70 seconds. Due to head motion, 4.2% of the fetuses and 20.1% of all dynamic SSFP sequences were excluded. Eye movements were observed in 45 fetuses (65.2%. Significant differences between the age groups were found for Type I (p = 0.03, Type Ia (p = 0.031, and Type IV eye movements (p = 0.033. Consistently parallel bulbs were found in 27.3-45%. CONCLUSIONS: In human fetuses, different eye movement patterns can be identified and described by MRI in utero. In addition to the originally classified eye movement patterns, a novel subtype has been observed, which apparently characterizes an important step in fetal brainstem development. We evaluated, for the first time, eyeball position in fetuses. Ultimately, the assessment of fetal eye movements by MRI yields the potential to identify early signs of brainstem dysfunction, as encountered in brain malformations such as Chiari II or molar tooth malformations.

  18. Cerebral palsy: classification and etiology

    OpenAIRE

    Bialik, Gad M.; Givon, Uri

    2004-01-01

    Cerebral palsy (CP), a common condition of abnormalities in the brain, arises early in life. Since the term was first introduced in 1843, many authors have tried to define and classify CP. The most recent definition was released by the American Academy for Cerebral Palsy and Developmental Medicine (AACPDM) in 2005. This article summarizes the latest and familiar classifications of, and etiologies associated with CP.

  19. CEREBRAL PALSY : ANTENATAL RISK FACTORS

    OpenAIRE

    Srinivasa Rao; Vidyullatha; Subbalakshmi

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Cerebral palsy (CP) is a group of permanent movement disorders that appear in early childhood. Cerebral palsy is caused by abnormal development or damage to the parts of the brain that control movement, balance, and posture. Most often the problems occur during pregnancy; however, they may also occur during childbirth, or shortly after birth. Often the cause is unknown. AIM: To study the different antenatal maternal risk factors associated with cere...

  20. Bone age in cerebral palsy

    OpenAIRE

    Miranda, Eduardo Régis de Alencar Bona; Palmieri, Maurício D'arc; de Assumpção, Rodrigo Montezuma César; Yamada, Helder Henzo; Rancan, Daniela Regina; Fucs, Patrícia Maria de Moraes Barros

    2013-01-01

    Objective To compare the chronological age and bone age among cerebral palsy patients in the outpatient clinic and its correlation with the type of neurological involvement, gender and functional status. Methods 401 patients with spastic cerebral palsy, and ages ranging from three months to 20 years old, submitted to radiological examination for bone age and analyzed by two independent observers according Greulich & Pyle. Results In the topographic distribution, there was a significant delay (p

  1. Sirt1 in cerebral ischemia

    OpenAIRE

    Koronowski, Kevin B.; Perez-Pinzon, Miguel A.

    2015-01-01

    Cerebral ischemia is among the leading causes of death worldwide. It is characterized by a lack of blood flow to the brain that results in cell death and damage, ultimately causing motor, sensory, and cognitive impairments. Today, clinical treatment of cerebral ischemia, mostly stroke and cardiac arrest, is limited and new neuroprotective therapies are desperately needed. The Sirtuin family of oxidized nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+)-dependent deacylases has been shown to govern seve...

  2. Cerebral candidiasis. Computed tomography appearance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chaabane, M.; Ladeb, M.F.; Bouhaouala, M.H.; Ben Hammouda, M.; Ataalah, R.; Gannouni, A.; Krifa, H.

    1989-07-01

    A three year old child who had been suffering from oral candidiasis since the age of 1 year presented with osteitis of the clavicle, 2 cerebral frontal abscesses and an occipital abscess which extended across the calvaria and was associated with osteolysis. Histological and microbiological studies following surgery confirmed the diagnosis of candidiasis in this girl who was found to have IgA immunodefinciency. The authors report the computed tomographic appearance of the cerebral lesions and review the literature. (orig.).

  3. Cerebral candidiasis. Computed tomography appearance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A three year old child who had been suffering from oral candidiasis since the age of 1 year presented with osteitis of the clavicle, 2 cerebral frontal abscesses and an occipital abscess which extended across the calvaria and was associated with osteolysis. Histological and microbiological studies following surgery confirmed the diagnosis of candidiasis in this girl who was found to have IgA immunodefinciency. The authors report the computed tomographic appearance of the cerebral lesions and review the literature. (orig.)

  4. Intrathecal treatment of cerebral vasospasm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yi Ping; Shields, Lisa B E; Yao, Tom L; Dashti, Shervin R; Shields, Christopher B

    2013-11-01

    Treatment of cerebral vasospasm after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) remains a major therapeutic challenge. Systemic drug administration is the current treatment of choice, but patients often do not respond beneficially to this approach. Intrathecal (IT) drug administration has several anatomic and pharmacodynamic advantages over conventional systemic treatment of cerebral vasospasm. We reviewed the most recent literature describing IT administration of several drugs to treat aneurysm-induced SAH and cerebral vasospasm, including 16 clinical trials using IT fibrinolytic agents and 10 trials using several IT vasodilators. We evaluated the safety and effectiveness of these trials but made no attempt to perform a meta-analysis using these data. IT drug administration of fibrinolytic agents and vasodilators caused lysis of the subarachnoid clot burden and diminished cerebral vasospasm, respectively. The studies reviewed reported a wide range of drug doses, intervals between aneurysm hemorrhage and initiation of treatment, success of clot dissolution, and degree of vasodilation of vessels in vasospasm. Treatment of vasospasm by IT drug administration is safe and largely effective after the aneurysm has been secured. Our findings indicate that IT treatment effectively delivers a higher drug concentration to vessels in vasospasm with minimal systemic effects. Drugs administered by this route are reported to lyse subarachnoid clots, attenuate cerebral vasospasm, improve clinical outcomes, and decrease the incidence of hydrocephalus. With greater understanding of drug pharmacodynamics, the IT route of drug administration may provide a rational, alternative approach to treating aneurysm-induced cerebral vasospasm. PMID:22651990

  5. Monitoring of cerebral haemodynamics in newborn infants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liem, K Djien; Greisen, Gorm

    2010-01-01

    The most important cerebrovascular injuries in newborn infants, particularly in preterm infants, are cerebral haemorrhage and ischemic injury. The typical cerebral vascular anatomy and the disturbance of cerebral haemodynamics play important roles in the pathophysiology. The term 'cerebral...... haemodynamics' includes cerebral blood flow (CBF), cerebral blood flow velocity, and cerebral blood volume (CBV). Therapy aimed at changing vascular anatomy is not available. Therefore, prevention of disturbances in CBF and CBV is pivotal. However, continuous monitoring of CBF and CBV is still unavailable for....... Using it even without knowing the exact level of CBF and CBV, it is possible to aim to keep CBF and CBV stable. Futureresearch should focus on development of monitoring tools, gaining more insight in neonatal cerebral autoregulation, and demonstrating clinical benefits of a 'cerebral perfusion...

  6. Ruptured cerebral aneurysm associated with a persistent primitive trigeminal artery variant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Takahiro; Hasegawa, Yu; Ohmori, Yuki; Kawano, Takayuki; Kai, Yutaka; Morioka, Motohiro; Kuratsu, Jun-ichi

    2011-01-01

    Background: Primitive trigeminal artery variants (PTAVs) are one of the rare persistent fetal anastomoses between the carotid and vertebrobasilar circulations. They originate from the internal carotid artery and join one of the cerebellar arteries instead of the basilar artery. Case Description: We present an 82-year-old woman with subarachnoid hemorrhage due to a ruptured aneurysm originating at a PTAV. Three-dimensional computed tomography angiogram and cerebral angiography revealed bilateral PTAV and two aneurysms originating at the left PTAV. The proximal and distal aneurysms were saccular and fusiform, respectively. She underwent surgical treatment and her postoperative course was uneventful. Conclusion: Our case demonstrates that extremely rare cerebral aneurysms associated with PTAV can be addressed successfully by surgical intervention. PMID:22059121

  7. Epidemiological study of 183 patients with spontaneous rupture of cerebral aneurysm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cerebral vessels aneurysms represent a significant part of the cerebral vessels pathology. There is no extensive study on that in Bulgaria. We present a study of 183 patients with spontaneous rupture of cerebral aneurysm, diagnosed and treated in UMHATEM ‘Pirogov’, Sofia. We used clinical methods - data from subject history, analysis of the accompanying documentation, subject medical chart; imaging-diagnostics methods - CT, DSA and MRI; and statistical methods. A total of 183 patients with ruptured intracranial aneurysms were studied. 65% were females and 35% were men.The ration female/male is 1.86, The mean age of all patients is 53.1 ±10.1 years. The highest incidence of ruptured aneurysms is seen in the age group 50 to 59 years. Aneurysms of a. cerebri media and a. communicants anterior are the most frequent (63.4% in total); while the lest are those of a basilaris (4.9%). 88.5% of the aneurysms in the studied group are small, 9.8% are large and 1.6% are giant. Intracranial hematomas are seen in 13.1% of the patients with ruptured aneurysms. Most frequently hematomas are connected with a. cerebri media and a.communicants anterior (87.5% in total). Patients with multiple aneurysms are 11.5% in total, 85.7% of them with an aneurysm of a.cerebri media. The incidence of ruptured cerebral aneurysms is higher amongst female. Frequency in the fifth decade of life is the highest. Most often seen are the aneurysms of a. cerebri media and a. communicants anterior, and the least - those of a. basilaris. Intracranial hematomas most frequently are associated with ruptures of a. cerebri media and a. communicants anterior, in patients with multiple aneurysms the highest is the frequency of aneurysms of a. cerebri media. (authors)

  8. Cell-Free Fetal DNA and Cell-Free Total DNA Levels in Spontaneous Abortion with Fetal Chromosomal Aneuploidy

    OpenAIRE

    Ji Hyae Lim; Min Hyoung Kim; You Jung Han; Da Eun Lee; So Yeon Park; Jung Yeol Han; Moon Young Kim; Hyun Mee Ryu

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Cell-free fetal DNA and cell-free total DNA in maternal circulation have been proposed as potential markers for noninvasive monitoring of the placental condition during the pregnancy. However, the correlation of and change in cell-free fetal DNA and cell-free total DNA in spontaneous abortion (SA) with fetal chromosomal aneuploidy have not yet been reported. Therefore, we investigated cell-free fetal DNA and cell-free total DNA levels in SA women with fetal chromosomal aneuploidy....

  9. Fetal short time variation during labor: a non-invasive alternative to fetal scalp pH measurements?

    OpenAIRE

    Schiermeier, Sven; Reinhard, Joscha; Hatzmann, Hendrike; Zimmermann, Ralf C.; Westhof, Gregor

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To determine whether short time variation (STV) of fetal heart beat correlates with scalp pH measurements during labor. Patients and methods: From 1279 deliveries, 197 women had at least one fetal scalp pH measurement. Using the CTG-Player®, STVs were calculated from the electronically saved cardiotocography (CTG) traces and related to the fetal scalp pH measurements. Results: There was no correlation between STV and fetal scalp pH measurements (r=−0.0592). Conclusions: Fetal ST...

  10. Effects of Hyperglycemia and Effects of Ketosis on Cerebral Perfusion, Cerebral Water Distribution, and Cerebral Metabolism

    OpenAIRE

    Glaser, Nicole; Ngo, Catherine; Anderson, Steven; Yuen, Natalie; Trifu, Alexandra; O’Donnell, Martha

    2012-01-01

    Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) may cause brain injuries in children. The mechanisms responsible are difficult to elucidate because DKA involves multiple metabolic derangements. We aimed to determine the independent effects of hyperglycemia and ketosis on cerebral metabolism, blood flow, and water distribution. We used magnetic resonance spectroscopy to measure ratios of cerebral metabolites (ATP to inorganic phosphate [Pi], phosphocreatine [PCr] to Pi, N-acetyl aspartate [NAA] to creatine [Cr], ...

  11. Cerebral edema associated with acute hepatic failure.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fujiwara,Masachika

    1985-02-01

    Full Text Available The clinicopathological findings of cerebral edema were investigated in patients with acute hepatic failure autopsied at Okayama University Hospital between 1970 and 1980 retrospectively. Nine (64% of 14 hepatic failure cases were found to have cerebral edema during a post-mortem examination of the brain. Clinical features of the patients with cerebral edema were not significantly different from those of the patients without cerebral edema. However, general convulsions were observed more frequently in patients later found to have cerebral edema. Moreover, the length of time from deep coma to death was much shorter in the brain edema cases with cerebral herniation than without herniation.

  12. Absence of fetal placental waterfall phenomenon in chronically prepared fetal lambs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thornburg, K L; Bissonnette, J M; Faber, J J

    1976-04-01

    An electromagnetic flow sensor was placed on the distal fetal aorta (umbilical flow fraction 78.1 +/- 1.6 SEM, %), an inflatable occluder was tied around the umbilical cord, and catheters were placed in distal branches of an umbilical artery and vein, a uterine vein, and in the amniotic cavity. An inflatalbe occluder was tied around the vagina of some of the ewes. Control values 3 days after surgery were (mean +/- SE): fetal femoral artery pH, 7.37 +/- 0.01; umbilical blood flow, 186 +/- 14 ml-min-1 .kg fetus-1; fetal arterial blood pressure, 39 +/- 3 mmHg; and umbilical venous pressure, 7.4 +/- 1.0 mmHg (above intrauterine pressure). Fetal weight at autopsy was 3.1 +/- 0.3 kg, n = 11. Small increases in umbilical vein pressure caused immediate decreases in placental blood flow without decreases in fetal arterial blood pressure. The relation between venous pressure and umbilical blood flow at constant arterial pressure was that of an inert system, i.e., no evidence of a surrounding pressure (Starling resistor effect or waterfall phenomenon) could be found with increases in venous pressures of 2-40 mmHg. The results were not affected by increases in uterine vein pressure between 2 and 30 mmHg, nor by anesthesia and supine position of the ewe, nor by ganglionic blockade of the fetal ANS. It was concluded that surrounding pressures in the fetal placental circulation could not be demonstrated. PMID:1267019

  13. Modificações da hemodinâmica fetal pelo estímulo sonoro: avaliação pela dopplervelocimetria colorida Vibro-acoustic stimulation induced hemodynamic fetal changes assessed by color doppler

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Mauad Filho

    1999-04-01

    Full Text Available Objetivos: verificar se ocorrem ou não alterações hemodinâmicas na aréria cerebral média (ACM aferido pela dopplervelocimetria colorida após realização de um estímulo sonoro. Métodos: trinta fetos de gestantes consideradas clinicamente normais com idade gestacional igual ou superior a 28 semanas foram submetidos a um estímulo sonoro. Examinamos as alterações da velocidade sangüínea na ACM fetal por meio do índice de resistência e da freqüência cardíaca fetal, pelo doppler colorido, antes e depois do estímulo acústico. Resultados: a média da freqüência cardíaca fetal (FCF antes do estímulo sonoro foi de 142,41 batimentos por minuto (bpm com desvio padrão de 9,01 e faixa de variação de 122 a 162 bpm. Após o estímulo sonoro, a média da FCF foi de 159,44 bpm com desvio padrão de 15,49, com faixa de variação de 130 a 187 bpm (pPurpose: to determine the possible occurrence of hemodynamic changes in the middle cerebral artery of the fetus (MCA using color doppler after vibro-acoustic stimulation. Methods: thirty fetuses from pregnant women considered to be clinically normal, with a gestational age of 28 weeks or more were submitted to vibro-acoustic stimulation. We examined the changes in blood flow rate in the middle cerebral artery of the fetus on the basis of resistance index (RI and fetal heart rate (FHR by color doppler before and after the sound stimulus. Results: mean FHR before vibro-acoustic stimulation was 142.41 beats per minute (bpm with a standard deviation of 9.01 and a range of 122 to 162 bpm. After stimulation, mean FHR was 159.44 bpm with a standard deviation of 15.49 and a range of 130 to 187 bpm (p<0.01. Mean RI in the MCA of the fetuses was 75.89% (range: 64 to 91% before the experiment. After the vibro-acoustic stimulation, mean RI was 66.93% (range: 47 to 83%; p < 0.01. Conclusions: we observed that a sound stimulus provokes the well-known immediate and significant elevation of FHR and a

  14. COMPARACIÓN DEL ESTADIO FETAL OBTENIDO POSTMORTEM MEDIANTE DOS METODOS ANTROPOMETRICOS. COMPARISON OF FETAL STAGE OBTAINED POSTMORTEM BY TWO ANTHROPOMETRIC METHODS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emanuel Repetto

    2011-03-01

    fetos: 1 grupo A (60 fetos estadificado ecográficamente y 2 grupo B (60 fetos estadificado por tabla de Hansmann. A ambos grupos se le realizaron múltiples mediciones siguiendo parámetros probados según la literatura internacional. Se utilizó calibre de precisión. Parámetros evaluados: longitud vertex-coxis, circunferencia cefálica, diámetro cefálico occipito-frontal, biparietal, longitud mentón-vertex, perímetro toráxico-transverso, circunferencia abdomi-nal y longitudes de brazo, antebrazo, mano, muslo, pierna y pie. Estos valores fueron agrupados por semanas, obteniéndose la media y aplicándose la prueba t de Student. Los resultados demostraron que la diferencia entre los parámetros medidos en el grupo A y en el grupo B eran significativas en todas las semanas, por lo que se observa disparidad en la determinación del estadio fetal por ecografía y los registros correspondientes a la medición vertex-coxis (tabla de Hansmann postmortem. Concluímos que los resultados obtenidos por ambas modalidades de medición son diferentes para una misma edad gestacional y, por ende, resultaría más apropiado referirse a fetos con ciertas dimensiones según alguno de estos parámetros que a “edad gestacional”.

  15. Maternal hypertension programs increased cerebral tissue damage following stroke in adult offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ventura, Nicole M; Jin, Albert Y; Tse, M Yat; Peterson, Nichole T; Andrew, R David; Mewburn, Jeffrey D; Pang, Stephen C

    2015-10-01

    The maternal system is challenged with many physiological changes throughout pregnancy to prepare the body to meet the metabolic needs of the fetus and for delivery. Many pregnancies, however, are faced with pathological stressors or complications that significantly impact maternal health. A shift in this paradigm is now beginning to investigate the implication of pregnancy complications on the fetus and their continued influence on offspring disease risk into adulthood. In this investigation, we sought to determine whether maternal hypertension during pregnancy alters the cerebral response of adult offspring to acute ischemic stroke. Atrial natriuretic peptide gene-disrupted (ANP(-/-)) mothers exhibit chronic hypertension that escalates during pregnancy. Through comparison of heterozygote offspring born from either normotensive (ANP(+/-WT)) or hypertensive (ANP(+/-KO)) mothers, we have demonstrated that offspring exposed to maternal hypertension exhibit larger cerebral infarct volumes following middle cerebral artery occlusion. Observation of equal baseline cardiovascular measures, cerebrovascular structure, and cerebral blood volumes between heterozygote offspring suggests no added influences on offspring that would contribute to adverse cerebral response post-stroke. Cerebral mRNA expression of endothelin and nitric oxide synthase vasoactive systems demonstrated up-regulation of Et-1 and Nos3 in ANP(+/-KO) mice and thus an enhanced acute vascular response compared to ANP(+/-WT) counterparts. Gene expression of Na(+)/K(+) ATPase channel isoforms, Atp1a1, Atp1a3, and Atp1b1, displayed no significant differences. These investigations are the first to demonstrate a fetal programming effect between maternal hypertension and adult offspring stroke outcome. Further mechanistic studies are required to complement epidemiological evidence of this phenomenon in the literature. PMID:26169981

  16. Cerebral trypanosomiasis and AIDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antunes Apio Claudio Martins

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available A 36 year-old black female, complaining of headache of one month's duration presented with nausea, vomiting, somnolence, short memory problems, loss of weight, and no fever history. Smoker, intravenous drugs abuser, promiscuous lifestyle. Physical examination: left homonimous hemianopsia, left hemiparesis, no papilledema, diffuse hyperreflexia, slowness of movements. Brain CT scan: tumor-like lesion in the splenium of the corpus calosum, measuring 3.5 x 1.4 cm, with heterogeneous enhancing pattern, sugesting a primary CNS tumor. Due to the possibility of CNS infection, a lumbar puncture disclosed an opening pressure of 380 mmH(20; 11 white cells (lymphocytes; glucose 18 mg/dl (serum glucose 73 mg/dl; proteins 139 mg/dl; presence of Trypanosoma parasites. Serum Elisa-HIV tests turned out to be positive. Treatment with benznidazole dramatically improved clinical and radiographic picture, but the patient died 6 weeks later because of respiratory failure. T. cruzi infection of the CNS is a rare disease, but we have an increasing number of cases in HIV immunecompromised patients. Diagnosis by direct observation of CSF is uncommon, and most of the cases are diagnosed by pathological examination. It is a highly lethal disease, even when properly diagnosed and treated. This article intends to include cerebral trypanosomiasis in the differential diagnosis of intracranial space-occupying lesions, especially in immunecompromised patients from endemic regions.

  17. Asymptomatic ischemic cerebral lesions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For the purpose of studying the incidence, pathomorphology and etiology of asymptomatic ischemic cerebral lesions, we carried out a brain MRI study on 65 patients with diabetes mellitus accompanied with hypertension who are thought to belong to a high risk group of ischemic cerebrovascular diseases. Excluding the abnormality of tendon reflex due to diabetic neuropathy, sixty percent of the total patients had some mild neurological signs and symptoms, most of them was discrepancy in tendon reflex. The percentage of the patients in whom MRI disclosed some abnormalities was as high as 70%, they were lacunar stroke, multiple lacunar state, cortical infarct, and patchy high signal lesions visible only in the T2 weighted image. Lacunes or these patchy high signal lesions (considered to be the dilatation of the perivascular space or true lacunes) tended to be found along the border zone or the terminal zone. These results indicate that asymptomatic patients in whom MRI discloses the abnormalities should be considered as candidates for the future onset of multi-infarct. (author)

  18. [Plasma osmolarity and cerebral volume].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boulard, G

    2001-02-01

    Under normal physiological conditions, the osmolarity of extracellular fluids (ECFs) and natremia are controlled by two regulatory mechanisms modulating the water balance and sodium outflow from information collected by the osmoreceptors and baroreceptors, respectively. As well, under normal physiological conditions, water and electrolytes of brain ECFs are secreted by the endothelial cells of brain capillaries. Furthermore, isotonicity is present on both sides of the blood-brain barrier. In the event of systemic osmolarity disorders, water transport subject to osmosis laws occurs at the level of the blood-brain barrier. In the case of plasmatic hyperosmolarity cerebral dehydration is observed, while cerebral edema occurs in the contrary case. However, plasmatic osmolarity disorders have less effect on the cerebral volume when their introduction is slow. Experimentation in acute conditions shows that measured variations of the cerebral water content are lower than calculated variations, thus suggesting the existence of an adaptive mechanism, that is, the cerebral osmoregulation which limits the variation of the volume of brain cells by modulating their osmoactive molecule content. These osmoactive molecules are, on the one hand, the electrolytes, which are early and rapidly mobilized, and, on the other hand, the organic osmoles (amino acids, etc.), whose secretion is slower and delayed. This phenomenon should be taken into account in the treatment of osmolarity disorders. Thus, the related-risk of treatment for natremia disorders is therapeutic reversal of the osmotic gradient at the level of the blood-brain barrier. This reversal, which corresponds to a second osmotic stress, requires the implementation of a new procedure of cerebral osmoregulation in the opposite direction of the preceding one. As successive osmotic stresses decrease the effectiveness of brain osmoregulation, the risk for cerebral dehydration and pontine myelinolysis increases when the treatment

  19. Transplantation of Fetal Stem Cells: a New Horizon for Treat¬ment of Degenerative Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farideh RAZI

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: The purpose of the current study was to present an overview of different types of stem-cells and their application for treatment different degenerative disorders with specific focus on ongoing clinical trials. Methods: For the purpose of the current narrative review article, a comprehensive search was carried out on the existing literature in Google Scholar, PubMed and Scopus using the keywords: stem-cell (fetal and mesenchymal, regenerative. Relevant articles published from 1957 to 2013 are extracted and presented. Results: During the past decades, different types of stem-cells (including adult and fetal have been used for treatment of a wide range of immunologic (Severe Combined Immunodeficiency, Di George syndrome, neurologic (Parkinson’s disease, Huntington Chorea, Cerebral Palsy, musculoskeletal (ALS, and cardiovascular diseases (heart failure and cardiomyopathies as well as chronic and acute ulcers, and diabetes. Conclusion: The results of our study demonstrated that during the past decades, stem-cell technology has been applied for treatment of a wide range of degenerative disorders with considerable success. The current ongoing clinical trials clearly demonstrate a great potential and a promising future for the technology in terms of offering curative treatment for a wide range of hitherto-incurable diseases. Keywords: Stem cell, Transplantation, Treatment, Review Article 

  20. Zika Virus Infection and Stillbirths: A Case of Hydrops Fetalis, Hydranencephaly and Fetal Demise.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manoel Sarno

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The rapid spread of Zika virus in the Americas and current outbreak of microcephaly in Brazil has raised attention to the possible deleterious effects that the virus may have on fetuses.We report a case of a 20-year-old pregnant woman who was referred to our service after a large Zika virus outbreak in the city of Salvador, Brazil with an ultrasound examination that showed intrauterine growth retardation of the fetus at the 18th gestational week. Ultrasound examinations in the 2nd and 3rd trimesters demonstrated severe microcephaly, hydranencephaly, intracranial calcifications and destructive lesions of posterior fossa, in addition to hydrothorax, ascites and subcutaneous edema. An induced labor was performed at the 32nd gestational week due to fetal demise and delivered a female fetus. ZIKV-specific real-time polymerase chain reaction amplification products were obtained from extracts of cerebral cortex, medulla oblongata and cerebrospinal and amniotic fluid, while extracts of heart, lung, liver, vitreous body of the eye and placenta did not yield detectable products.This case report provides evidence that in addition to microcephaly, there may be a link between Zika virus infection and hydrops fetalis and fetal demise. Given the recent spread of the virus, systematic investigation of spontaneous abortions and stillbirths may be warranted to evaluate the risk that ZIKV infection imparts on these outcomes.

  1. Semi-automated analysis of EEG spikes in the preterm fetal sheep using wavelet analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Presentation Preference Oral Presentation Perinatal hypoxia plays a key role in the cause of brain injury in premature infants. Cerebral hypothermia commenced in the latent phase of evolving injury (first 6-8 h post hypoxic-ischemic insult) is the lead candidate for treatment however currently there is no means to identify which infants can benefit from treatment. Recent studies suggest that epileptiform transients in latent phase are predictive of neural outcome. To quantify this, an automated means of EEG analysis is required as EEG monitoring produces vast amounts of data which is timely to analyse manually. We have developed a semi-automated EEG spike detection method which employs a discretized version of the continuous wavelet transform (CWT). EEG data was obtained from a fetal sheep at approximately 0.7 of gestation. Fetal asphyxia was maintained for 25 min and the EEG recorded for 8 h before and after asphyxia. The CWT was calculated followed by the power of the wavelet transform coefficients. Areas of high power corresponded to spike waves so thresholding was employed to identify the spikes. The performance of the method was found have a good sensitivity and selectivity, thus demonstrating that this method is a simple, robust and potentially effective spike detection algorithm.

  2. Cell-free fetal DNA and cell-free total DNA levels in spontaneous abortion with fetal chromosomal aneuploidy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji Hyae Lim

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Cell-free fetal DNA and cell-free total DNA in maternal circulation have been proposed as potential markers for noninvasive monitoring of the placental condition during the pregnancy. However, the correlation of and change in cell-free fetal DNA and cell-free total DNA in spontaneous abortion (SA with fetal chromosomal aneuploidy have not yet been reported. Therefore, we investigated cell-free fetal DNA and cell-free total DNA levels in SA women with fetal chromosomal aneuploidy. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A nested case-control study was conducted with maternal plasma collected from 268 women in their first trimester of pregnancy. Subjects included 41 SA with normal fetal karyotype, 26 SA with fetal chromosomal aneuploidy, and 201 normal controls. The unmethylated PDE9A gene was used to measure the maternal plasma levels of cell-free fetal DNA. The GAPDH gene was used to measure the maternal plasma levels of cell-free total DNA. The diagnostic accuracy was measured using receiver-operating characteristic (ROC curves. Levels of cell-free fetal DNA and cell-free total DNA were significantly higher in both SA women with normal fetal karyotype and SA women with fetal chromosomal aneuploidy in comparison with the normal controls (P<0.001 in both. The correlation between cell-free fetal DNA and cell-free total DNA levels was stronger in the normal controls (r = 0.843, P<0.001 than in SA women with normal karyotype (r = 0.465, P = 0.002 and SA women with fetal chromosomal aneuploidy (r = 0.412, P = 0.037. The area under the ROC curve for cell-free fetal DNA and cell-free total DNA was 0.898 (95% CI, 0.852-0.945 and 0.939 (95% CI, 0.903-0.975, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Significantly high levels of cell-free fetal DNA and cell-free total DNA were found in SA women with fetal chromosomal aneuploidy. Our findings suggest that cell-free fetal DNA and cell-free total DNA may be useful biomarkers for the prediction of SA

  3. A Modified Technique for Culturing Primary Fetal Rat Cortical Neurons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sui-Yi Xu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The study explored a modified primary culture system for fetal rat cortical neurons. Day E18 embryos from pregnant Sprague Dawley rats were microdissected under a stereoscope. To minimize enzymatic damage to the cultured neurons, we applied a sequential digestion protocol using papain and Dnase I. The resulting sifted cell suspension was seeded at a density of 50,000 cells per cm2 onto 0.1 mg/mL L-PLL-covered vessels. After a four-hour incubation in high-glucose Dulbecco’s Modified Eagle’s Medium (HG-DMEM to allow the neurons to adhere, the media was changed to neurobasal medium that was refreshed by changing half of the volume after three days followed by a complete medium change every week. The cells displayed progressively robust neurite extension, and nonneuronal-like cells could barely be detected by five days in vitro (DIV; cell growth was still substantial at 14 DIV. Neurons were identified by β-tubulin III immunofluorescence, and neuronal purity within the cultures was assessed at over 95% by both flow cytometry and by dark-field counting of β-tubulin III-positive cells. These results suggest that the protocol was successful and that the high purity of neurons in this system could be used as the basis for generating various cell models of neurological disease.

  4. Geographic Media Literacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukinbeal, Chris

    2014-01-01

    While the use of media permeates geographic research and pedagogic practice, the underlying literacies that link geography and media remain uncharted. This article argues that geographic media literacy incorporates visual literacy, information technology literacy, information literacy, and media literacy. Geographic media literacy is the ability…

  5. Measuring News Media Literacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maksl, Adam; Ashley, Seth; Craft, Stephanie

    2015-01-01

    News media literacy refers to the knowledge and motivations needed to identify and engage with journalism. This study measured levels of news media literacy among 500 teenagers using a new scale measure based on Potter's model of media literacy and adapted to news media specifically. The adapted model posits that news media literate individuals…

  6. SAFETY IN ONLINE MEDIA – FREEDOM OF THE MEDIA; SAFETY OF MEDIA ACTORS AND MEDIA EDUCATION

    OpenAIRE

    Moeller, Ch

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, prepared for the international conference ‘Mass Media – Society – Education: Media Safety Problems’ at the Chelyabinsk State University’s Department for Journalism and Media Education from September 30 – October 3, 2013, I would like to address three dimensions of media safety and security in online media.

  7. Hormonal and metabolic responses of fetal lamb during cardiopulmonary bypass

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苏肇伉; 周成斌; 张海波; 祝忠群

    2003-01-01

    Objective To study the hormonal and metabolic responses of fetal lamb during cardiopulmonary bypass.Methods Six pregnant ewes underwent fetal cardiopulmonary bypasses with artificial oxygenators and roller pumps for 30 minutes, which maintained the blood gas value at the fetal physiological level. The fetal blood pressure, heart rate, pH value and blood lactate levels were monitored. The levels of catecholamine, cortisol and insulin were measured pre-bypass and then again 30 minutes later. The blood glucose and free fatty acid levels were monitored continuously during the bypass. Fetal hepatic PAS staining was also carried out.Results There were no changes before and during the bypass in fetal blood pressure, heart rate and blood gas. However, pH values decreased and blood lactate levels increased (P<0.05). The fetal catecholamine and cortisol levels increased significantly (P<0.01), while the levels of insulin did not change. The blood glucose and free fatty acid levels increased at the beginning of the bypass (P<0.01), and then gradually slowed down during the bypass. The fetal hepatic PAS staining showed that hepatic glycogen was consumed in large amounts. After 30 minutes of bypass, the fetal lamb would not survive more than 1 hour.Conclusion The fetal lamb has a strong negative reaction to cardiopulmonary bypass.

  8. Diagnostic value of ultrafast fetal MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To analyze cases of fetal pathology evaluated by Ultra Fast MR sequences. Material and methods: 12 patients (2nd. and 3rd. trimester of pregnancy) have been studied by obstetric US and MR. Results: In our series we found intestinal duplication cyst, ureteropelvic junction obstruction and multicystic dysplastic kidney, esophageal atresia, acardia, anencephalic syndrome, semilobar holoprosencephaly, congenital diafragmatic hernia, cystic adenomatoid malformation, onphalocele and several scoliosis, duodenal stenosis, cervical teratoma and uretral atresia. In 8/12 cases (66%) MRI provide additional information as compared to US. Conclusion: The Ultra Fast MR sequences allows the evaluation of patients in the second and third trimester of pregnancy without sedation. It should be considered as a complementary method of the US to confirm fetal anomalies. The information provided by MRI is useful in planning adequate therapeutic decisions. (author)

  9. Fetal chromosome analysis: screening for chromosome disease?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Philip, J; Tabor, Ann; Bang, J;

    1983-01-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the rationale of the current indications for fetal chromosome analysis. 5372 women had 5423 amniocentesis performed, this group constituting a consecutive sample at the chromosome laboratory, Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen from March 1973 to September 1980 (Group...... A + B). Pregnant women 35 years of age, women who previously had a chromosomally abnormal child, families with translocation carriers or other heritable chromosomal disease, families where the father was 50 years or more and women in families with a history of Down's syndrome (group A), were compared...... to women having amniocentesis, although considered not to have any increased risk of fetal chromosome abnormality (1390 pregnancies, group B). They were also compared with 750 consecutive pregnancies in women 25-34 years of age, in whom all heritable diseases were excluded (group C). The risk of unbalanced...

  10. Litigation related to intrapartum fetal surveillance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schifrin, Barry S; Soliman, Mohamed; Koos, Brian

    2016-01-01

    The role of intrapartum care including cardiotocography (CTG) monitoring in cases of perinatal neurological injury receives considerable debate in both clinical and medicolegal settings. The debate, however, has distracted attention from fundamental questions about the timing, mechanism, and preventability of perinatal injury. CTG tracings are used as a surrogate for asphyxia with the timing of intervention ("rescue") predicated on the presumed severity of asphyxia. Using CTG in this way has prevented intrapartum stillbirth, but it has not reduced the long-term injury in part, because, contrary to popular belief, the majority of intrapartum fetal injuries are unassociated with severe hypoxia or severe neonatal depression. This article describes the timing and mechanisms, including mechanical factors, of intrapartum perinatal injury and the benefit of using the CTG, not for the purpose of "rescue", but for identifying risk factors for fetal injury and keeping the fetus out of harm's way. PMID:26227999

  11. Automated fetal spine detection in ultrasound images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolay, Paresh; Vajinepalli, Pallavi; Bhattacharya, Puranjoy; Firtion, Celine; Sisodia, Rajendra Singh

    2009-02-01

    A novel method is proposed for the automatic detection of fetal spine in ultrasound images along with its orientation in this paper. This problem presents a variety of challenges, including robustness to speckle noise, variations in the visible shape of the spine due to orientation of the ultrasound probe with respect to the fetus and the lack of a proper edge enclosing the entire spine on account of its composition out of distinct vertebra. The proposed method improves robustness and accuracy by making use of two independent techniques to estimate the spine, and then detects the exact location using a cross-correlation approach. Experimental results show that the proposed method is promising for fetal spine detection.

  12. Fetal echocardiographic evaluation of the bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sklansky, Mark; Renner, Michael; Clough, Patricia; Levine, Gregg; Campbell, Michelle; Stone, Rae; Schmitt, Todd; Chang, Ruey-Kang; Shannon-Rodriguez, Jayne

    2010-03-01

    In humans, fetal echocardiography represents the most important tool for the assessment of the cardiovascular well-being of the fetus. However, because of logistic, anatomic, and behavioral challenges, detailed fetal echocardiographic evaluation of marine mammals has not been previously described. Because the application of fetal echocardiography to cetaceans could have both clinical and academic importance, an approach to evaluating the fetal dolphin's cardiovascular status was developed with conventional, fetal echocardiographic techniques developed in humans. Eight singleton fetal bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) were evaluated, each between 6 and 11 mo gestation; six fetuses underwent two fetal echocardiographic evaluations each, four at 3-mo intervals, and two at 0.5-mo intervals. Evaluations were performed without sedation, using conventional, portable ultrasound systems. Multiple transducers, probes, and maternal dolphin positions were used to optimize image quality. Fetal echocardiography included two-dimensional imaging and color flow mapping of the heart and great arteries, as well as pulsed Doppler evaluation of the umbilical artery and vein. Thorough evaluations of the fetal dolphins' cardiovascular status were performed, with the greatest resolution between 8 and 9 mo gestation. With the use of published human fetal echocardiographic findings for comparison, fetal echocardiography demonstrated normal structure and function of the heart and great arteries, including the pulmonary veins, inferior vena cava, right and left atria, foramen ovale, tricuspid and mitral valves, right and left ventricles, ventricular septum, pulmonary and aortic valves, main pulmonary artery and ascending aorta, and ductus arteriosus. Pulsed Doppler techniques demonstrated normal umbilical arterial and venous waveforms, and color flow mapping demonstrated absence of significant valvar regurgitation. Fetal echocardiography, particularly between 8 and 9 mo gestation, can

  13. Análise dos Testes de Vitalidade Fetal e dos Resultados Perinatais em Gestações de Alto Risco com Oligoidrâmnio Analysis of Fetal Well-being and Perinatal Outcome in the High-risk Pregnancies Complicated by Oligohydramnios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roseli Mieko Yamamoto Nomura

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available Objetivos: analisar, em gestações de alto risco com diagnóstico de oligoidrâmnio, os resultados dos testes de avaliação da vitalidade fetal e os resultados perinatais. Métodos: foram selecionadas retrospectivamente 572 gestações de alto risco com diagnóstico de oligoidrâmnio, caracterizado por ILA inferior ou igual a 5,0 cm. Destas, 220 apresentavam diagnóstico de oligoidrâmnio grave (ILA Purpose: to evaluate, in the high-risk pregnancies with oligohydramnios, the assessment tools for fetal well-being and perinatal results. Methods: five hundred seventy-two high-risk pregnancies were retrospectively analyzed. All of them presented with oligohydramnios established by AFI <=5.0 cm. Severe oligohydramnios was detected in 220 cases (AFI<=3,0 cm. The fetal well-being tests included: antepartum cardiotocography, biophysical profile score (BPS and dopplervelocimetry of umbilical and middle cerebral arteries. Multiple gestation, fetal anomalies and premature rupture of membrane cases were excluded. Results: severe oligohydramnios was significantlly associated with abnormal and suspected cardiotocography results (23.2%, abnormal biophysical profile score (10.5%, abnormal results of middle cerebral artery dopplervelocimetry (54.5%, small for gestational age infants (32.7% and meconial amniotic fluid (27.9% when compared to pregnancies with AFI between 3.1 and 5.0 cm. This group presented: abnormal or suspected cardiotocography results (13.9%, abnormal biophysical profile score (4.3%, abnormal results of middle cerebral artery dopplervelocimetry (33.9%, small for gestational age infants (21.0% and meconial amniotic fluid (16.8%. Conclusion: the oligohydramnios severity in high-risk pregnancies allows to discriminate the cases that are related to adverse perinatal outcome.

  14. Value of fetal skeletal radiographs in the diagnosis of fetal death

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this study was to assess the value of fetal skeletal radiographs in determining the etiology of fetal death. A total of 1193 post-mortem fetal skeletal radiographs were analysed. Fetuses were classified into one of three groups (group I: abnormality diagnosed during pregnancy; group II: maternal pathology; group III: spontaneous abortion of pregnancy, IIIa before 26 weeks of gestation (WG), IIIb after 26 weeks of gestation). Face, supine and lateral skeletal views were performed. Skeletal abnormalities were detected in 33.9% of the fetuses, including 22.7% with minor abnormalities (abnormal rib number, no nasal bone ossification, amesophalangia or P2 hypoplasia of the fifth digit) and 14.5% with major abnormalities (other skeletal abnormalities). Among the fetuses with major abnormalities, 98.8% came from group I, 2.9% came from group II, 2.3% came from group IIIa and none came from group IIIb. Fetal skeletal radiographs are not useful in fetuses arising from spontaneous abortion of pregnancy without abnormality on ultrasound screening, abnormality clinical examination or in fetuses with prenatal diagnosis of chromosomal abnormality. This practice is valuable only if there is a multidisciplinary team, with all the participants (pathologists, radiologists, geneticists) knowledgeable about fetal pathology. In the absence of this multidisciplinary approach, it is easier to X-ray all fetuses to avoid misdiagnosis and the important consequences for genetic counselling. (orig.)

  15. The number of fetal cells in maternal blood is associated to exercise and fetal gender

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schlütter, Jacob Mørup; Kirkegaard, Ida; Christensen, Connie Britta;

    activity was obtained by a questionnaire and a structured interview. The number of fcmbs was assessed in 30 mL blood processed by a proprietary method developed in-house. Fetal cells in the blood, binding to fetal cell specific antibodies, were initially isolated by magnetic cell sorting. The fetal cells...... were then stained with a cocktail of fetal cell-specific antibodies, identified and counted. Results: Participants carrying male fetuses had higher median number of fcmbs per 30 mL blood than those carrying female fetuses (5 vs. 3, p=0.004). Exercise within 3 hours (1.5 vs. 4, p=0.02) and 24 hours (2...... vs. 4, p=0.06) decreased the number of fcmbs, whereas coitus the evening before increased the number (4 vs. 3, p=0.11). Conclusion: The number of fcmbs is affected by normal activities. This should be taken into account when planning collection of fetal cells in connection for prenatal diagnosis...

  16. O6-methylguanine DNA methyltransferase in human fetal tissues: fetal and maternal factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O6-Methylguanine methyltransferase (O6-MT) was measured and compared in extracts of 7 human fetal tissues obtained from 21 different fetal specimens as a function of fetal age and race, and maternal smoking and drug usage. Activity was determined from the proteinase-K solubilized radioactivity transferred from the DNA to the O6-MT. S9 homogenates were incubated with a heat depurinated [3H]-methylnitrosourea alkylated DNA. Liver exhibited the highest activity followed by kidney, lung, small intestine, large intestine, skin and brain. Each of the tissues exhibited a 3- to 5-fold level of interindividual variation of O6-MT. There did not appear to be any significant difference of O6-MT in the tissues obtained from mothers who smoked cigarettes during pregnancy. Also, fetal race and age did not appear to account for the level of variation of O6-MT. The fetal tissues obtained from an individual using phenobarbital and smoking exhibited 4-fold increases in O6-MT activity. The tissues obtained from another individual on kidney dialysis were 2- to 3-fold higher than the normal population. These data suggest that the variation in human O6-MT can not be explained by racial or smoking factors, but may be modulated by certain drugs

  17. Value of fetal skeletal radiographs in the diagnosis of fetal death

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bourliere-Najean, B.; Russel, A.S.; Petit, P.; Devred, P. [Department of Pediatric Radiology, CHU Timone, 264 rue St. Pierre, 13385 Marseille cedex 5 (France); Panuel, M. [Department of Radiology, Hopital Nord, chemin Bourrelys, 13915 Marseille cedex 20 (France); Piercecchi-Marti, M.D.; Fredouille, C. [Department of Pathology, CHU Timone, 264 rue St. Pierre, 13385 Marseille cedex 5 (France); Sigaudy, S.; Philip, N. [Department of Genetics, CHU Timone, 264 rue St. Pierre, 13385 Marseille cedex 5 (France)

    2003-05-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the value of fetal skeletal radiographs in determining the etiology of fetal death. A total of 1193 post-mortem fetal skeletal radiographs were analysed. Fetuses were classified into one of three groups (group I: abnormality diagnosed during pregnancy; group II: maternal pathology; group III: spontaneous abortion of pregnancy, IIIa before 26 weeks of gestation (WG), IIIb after 26 weeks of gestation). Face, supine and lateral skeletal views were performed. Skeletal abnormalities were detected in 33.9% of the fetuses, including 22.7% with minor abnormalities (abnormal rib number, no nasal bone ossification, amesophalangia or P2 hypoplasia of the fifth digit) and 14.5% with major abnormalities (other skeletal abnormalities). Among the fetuses with major abnormalities, 98.8% came from group I, 2.9% came from group II, 2.3% came from group IIIa and none came from group IIIb. Fetal skeletal radiographs are not useful in fetuses arising from spontaneous abortion of pregnancy without abnormality on ultrasound screening, abnormality clinical examination or in fetuses with prenatal diagnosis of chromosomal abnormality. This practice is valuable only if there is a multidisciplinary team, with all the participants (pathologists, radiologists, geneticists) knowledgeable about fetal pathology. In the absence of this multidisciplinary approach, it is easier to X-ray all fetuses to avoid misdiagnosis and the important consequences for genetic counselling. (orig.)

  18. Is intrapartum fetal blood sampling a gold standard diagnostic tool for fetal distress?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahendru, Amita A; Lees, Christoph C

    2011-06-01

    Developed in 1960s, cardiotocography is a screening test and fetal blood sampling (FBS) is an adjunctive, diagnostic technique to detect fetal hypoxia. A fetal blood sample pH value of less than 7.20 has a higher specificity than a pathological CTG to predict low Apgar score at 1 min. Though with a pathological CTG and despite a normal FBS pH value the risk of delivering a hypoxic infant is 30-50%, FBS has assumed considerable importance in purportedly reducing unnecessary obstetric intervention. The evidence for this is weak: the use of FBS with CTG has been shown to reduce operative vaginal deliveries though not Caesarean sections due to fetal distress. There is no difference in the umbilical artery pH at delivery with the use of intermittent FBS with CTG compared to CTG alone. FBS is an invasive procedure: obtaining an adequate blood sample is often difficult and the pH results are affected by handling of the sample, aerobic contamination and processing. Validation of intrapartum FBS requires that the pH and other values obtained are compared to a 'gold standard' technique. Although FBS has been compared to other tests such as scalp lactate, pulse oximetry, fetal ECG waveform analysis, and central haemodynamics in labouring rhesus monkeys, none of these can be considered as 'gold standard'. In the light of the existing evidence, the role of intrapartum FBS as a gold standard diagnostic technique is unproven. PMID:21300427

  19. Maturation of Fetal Responses to Music

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kisilevsky, B. S.; Hains, S. M. J.; Jacquet, A.-Y.; Granier-Deferre, C.; Lecanuet, J. P.

    2004-01-01

    Maturation of fetal response to music was characterized over the last trimester of pregnancy using a 5-minute piano recording of Brahms' Lullaby, played at an average of 95, 100, 105 or 110 dB (A). Within 30 seconds of the onset of the music, the youngest fetuses (28-32 weeks GA) showed a heart rate increase limited to the two highest dB levels;…

  20. Elevated fetal steroidogenic activity in autism

    OpenAIRE

    Baron-Cohen, S.; Auyeung, B; Nørgaard-Pedersen, B; Hougaard, D. M.; Abdallah, M. W.; Melgaard, L.; Cohen, A S; Chakrabarti, Bhisma; Ruta, L.; Lombardo, M V

    2015-01-01

    Autism affects males more than females, giving rise to the idea that the influence of steroid hormones on early fetal brain development may be one important early biological risk factor. Utilizing the Danish Historic Birth Cohort and Danish Psychiatric Central Register, we identified all amniotic fluid samples of males born between 1993 and 1999 who later received ICD-10 (International Classification of Diseases, 10th Revision) diagnoses of autism, Asperger syndrome or PDD-NOS (pervasive deve...

  1. Fetal hydantoin syndrome: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Singh

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Fetal hydantoin syndrome (FHS is a spectrum of defects caused to the developing fetus by exposure to the teratogenic effects of antiepileptic drug (AED phenytoin during pregnancy. Its clinical manifestations include limb abnormalities, ocular defects, central nervous system anomalies, intrauterine growth restriction, and hand and phalangeal anomalies. This case report presents an 8-year-old child born to an epileptic mother with a history of AED therapy, with features suggestive of FHS.

  2. Can postmortem fetal MR imaging replace autopsy?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purposes of this study were to compare postmortem fetal MRI findings with autopsy findings and to assess whether postmortem MRI can replace autopsy. The study group consisted of 13 stillborn fetuses, seven that died immediately after birth, and five terminated because of anomalies seen on prenatal sonograms. A total 17 were male, and eight were female, and their gestational ages were from 20 to 41 (average;28.2) weeks. Spin-echo T1-and T2-weighted axial, sagittal, and coronal MR images were obtained, and autopsy findings were divided into major and minor. A major finding was defined as an anomaly or syndrome which caused fetal death or termination of the pregnancy: minor findings were classified, on the basis of gross inspection, as internal or external. MR images were retrospectively analyzed by two radiologists unaware of the autopsy findings, and by comparison with these, the postmortem MRI detection rates for major and minor findings was then determined. In seven of 25 fetuses, MR imaging revealed major findings, a dietction rate of 100%. There were two cases of anencephaly, two of trisomy-18, and one each of hydrops fetalis with large cystic hygroma, diaphragmatic hernia, and Dandy-Walker malformation. Twenty-three of 60 minor findings (38.3%) were detected by MRI. The detection rates for external and internal findings were 29.6%(8/27) and 45.5%(15/33), respectively. Although a limitation of our study is the low detection rate for minor findings, postmortem fetal MRI may help diagnose the major cause of fetal death

  3. Rapid method for fetal brain fixation.

    OpenAIRE

    Nicholls, J. M.

    1988-01-01

    A quicker alternative to the standard removal and fixation of brain tissue was sought. Whole fetal brains were fixed in situ using a mercuric based fixative. The subarachnoid space was perfused overnight with Heidenhain's Susa fixative. The following day the brains were removed from the cranium in the standard manner. After storage for three days in Susa's fixative the brain was sliced and processed, with excellent preservation of gross and microscopic architecture. The cost is only marginall...

  4. Umbilical Cord Segmental Hemorrhage and Fetal Distress

    OpenAIRE

    Larciprete, Giovanni; Romanini, Maria Elisabetta; Arduini, Domenico; Cirese, Elio; Slowikowska-Hilczer, Jolanta; Kula, Krzysztof

    2006-01-01

    We describe an unexplained case of umbilical cord segmental hemorrhage linked with meconium-stained amniotic fluid. A severely asphyxiated infant was delivered at term by Caesarean section. There were poor prognostic signs on fetal cardiotocography with rupture of membranes with meconium-stained amniotic fluid. The pathophysiologic mechanism in this case is still unknown, even if we argued a possible role of the umbilical cord shortness.

  5. Fetal Electrocardiogram (fECG) Gated MRI

    OpenAIRE

    Paley, Martyn N.J.; Morris, Janet E.; Debbie Jarvis; Griffiths, Paul D.

    2013-01-01

    We have developed a Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI)-compatible system to enable gating of a scanner to the heartbeat of a foetus for cardiac, umbilical cord flow and other possible imaging applications. We performed radiofrequency safety testing prior to a fetal electrocardiogram (fECG) gated imaging study in pregnant volunteers (n = 3). A compact monitoring device with advanced software capable of reliably detecting both the maternal electrocardiogram (mECG) and fECG simultaneously was modi...

  6. Regional cerebral blood flow after hemorrhagic hypotension in the preterm, near-term, and newborn lamb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szymonowicz, W; Walker, A M; Yu, V Y; Stewart, M L; Cannata, J; Cussen, L

    1990-10-01

    Developmental changes in regional cerebral blood flow (CBF) responses to hemorrhagic hypotension during normoxia and normocapnia were determined using radioactively labeled microspheres to measure flow to the cortex, brainstem, cerebellum, white matter, caudate nucleus, and choroid plexus in three groups of chronically catheterized lambs: 90- to 100-d preterm fetal lambs (n = 9); 125- to 136-d near-term fetal lambs (n = 9); and newborn lambs 5- to 35-d-old (n = 8). Heart rate, central venous pressure, and arterial blood pressure were monitored continuously and arterial blood gas tensions, pH, Hb, and oxygen saturation together with regional CBF were measured periodically. Hemorrhagic hypotension produced a mean decrease in arterial blood pressure of 27 +/- 4, 23 +/- 2, and 41 +/- 4% in the three groups, respectively, whereas reinfusion of the lamb's blood resulted in a return to control blood pressure within 3% in all three groups. In the pre-term fetal lamb, CBF decreased significantly in all regions during hypotension. In the near-term fetal lamb, only blood flow to the cortex decreased significantly during hypotension. In the newborn lamb, only the choroid plexus demonstrated a significant decrease in blood flow during hypotension. The lower limit of regional CBF autoregulation was identical to the resting mean arterial pressure in fetal life but significantly lower in newborn lambs. These experiments demonstrate for the first time that vulnerability to hypotension decreases with increasing maturity and that the brainstem, the phylogenetically oldest region of the brain, is the least vulnerable to the effects of hypotension at any age in the lamb model. PMID:2235134

  7. Cardiovascular function in term fetal sheep conceived, gestated and studied in the hypobaric hypoxia of the Andean altiplano.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrera, Emilio A; Rojas, Rodrigo T; Krause, Bernardo J; Ebensperger, Germán; Reyes, Roberto V; Giussani, Dino A; Parer, Julian T; Llanos, Aníbal J

    2016-03-01

    High-altitude hypoxia causes intrauterine growth restriction and cardiovascular programming. However, adult humans and animals that have evolved at altitude show certain protection against the effects of chronic hypoxia. Whether the highland fetus shows similar protection against high altitude gestation is unclear. We tested the hypothesis that high-altitude fetal sheep have evolved cardiovascular compensatory mechanisms to withstand chronic hypoxia that are different from lowland sheep. We studied seven high-altitude (HA; 3600 m) and eight low-altitude (LA; 520 m) pregnant sheep at ∼90% gestation. Pregnant ewes and fetuses were instrumented for cardiovascular investigation. A three-period experimental protocol was performed in vivo: 30 min of basal, 1 h of acute superimposed hypoxia (∼10% O2) and 30 min of recovery. Further, we determined ex vivo fetal cerebral and femoral arterial function. HA pregnancy led to chronic fetal hypoxia, growth restriction and altered cardiovascular function. During acute superimposed hypoxia, LA fetuses redistributed blood flow favouring the brain, heart and adrenals, whereas HA fetuses showed a blunted cardiovascular response. Importantly, HA fetuses have a marked reduction in umbilical blood flow versus LA. Isolated cerebral arteries from HA fetuses showed a higher contractile capacity but a diminished response to catecholamines. In contrast, femoral arteries from HA fetuses showed decreased contractile capacity and increased adrenergic contractility. The blunting of the cardiovascular responses to hypoxia in fetuses raised in the Alto Andino may indicate a change in control strategy triggered by chronic hypoxia, switching towards compensatory mechanisms that are more cost-effective in terms of oxygen uptake.

  8. Assessment and control of fetal exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The assessment and control of fetal exposure to radiation in the workplace is an issue that is complicated by both biological and political/social ramifications. As a result of the dramatic increase in the number of women employed as radiation workers during the past 10 years, many facilities using radioactive materials have instituted fetal protection programs with special requirements for female radiation workers. It is necessary, however, to ensure that any fetal protection program be developed in such a way as to be nondiscriminatory. A study has been initiated whose purpose is to balance the political/social and the biological ramifications associated with occupational protection of the developing embryo/fetus. Several considerations are involved in properly balancing these factors. These considerations include appropriate methods of declaring the pregnancy, training workers, controlling the dose to the embryo/fetus, measuring and calculating the dose to the embryo/fetus, and recording the pertinent information. Alternative strategies for handling these factors while ensuring maximum protection of the embryo/fetus and the rights and responsibilities of employees and employers are discussed

  9. Elevated fetal steroidogenic activity in autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baron-Cohen, S; Auyeung, B; Nørgaard-Pedersen, B; Hougaard, D M; Abdallah, M W; Melgaard, L; Cohen, A S; Chakrabarti, B; Ruta, L; Lombardo, M V

    2015-03-01

    Autism affects males more than females, giving rise to the idea that the influence of steroid hormones on early fetal brain development may be one important early biological risk factor. Utilizing the Danish Historic Birth Cohort and Danish Psychiatric Central Register, we identified all amniotic fluid samples of males born between 1993 and 1999 who later received ICD-10 (International Classification of Diseases, 10th Revision) diagnoses of autism, Asperger syndrome or PDD-NOS (pervasive developmental disorder not otherwise specified) (n=128) compared with matched typically developing controls. Concentration levels of Δ4 sex steroids (progesterone, 17α-hydroxy-progesterone, androstenedione and testosterone) and cortisol were measured with liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. All hormones were positively associated with each other and principal component analysis confirmed that one generalized latent steroidogenic factor was driving much of the variation in the data. The autism group showed elevations across all hormones on this latent generalized steroidogenic factor (Cohen's d=0.37, P=0.0009) and this elevation was uniform across ICD-10 diagnostic label. These results provide the first direct evidence of elevated fetal steroidogenic activity in autism. Such elevations may be important as epigenetic fetal programming mechanisms and may interact with other important pathophysiological factors in autism. PMID:24888361

  10. Fetal MRI of clubfoot associated with myelomeningocele

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Servaes, Sabah; Hernandez, Andrea; Gonzalez, Leonardo; Victoria, Teresa; Jaramillo, Diego; Christopher Edgar, J.; Johnson, Ann [Children' s Hospital of Philadelphia, Department of Radiology, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Johnson, Mark [Children' s Hospital of Philadelphia, Department of Fetal Surgery, Philadelphia, PA (United States)

    2010-12-15

    The sensitivity and specificity of evaluating clubfoot deformity by MR in high-risk fetuses is currently unknown. To correlate fetal MRI with US in the assessment of clubfoot and to identify the MRI features most characteristic of clubfoot. With IRB approval and informed consent, the presence of fetal clubfoot was prospectively evaluated in mothers referred for MRI for a fetus with myelomeningocele. Two radiologists blind to the US results independently reviewed the MRI for the presence of clubfoot. MRI results were compared with US results obtained the same day and birth outcomes. Of 20 patients enrolled, there were 13 clubfeet. Interobserver agreement for the presence of clubfoot was 100%. The sensitivity of the MRI exam was 100% and the specificity 85.2%. A dedicated sagittal imaging plane through the ankle region allowed the most confident diagnosis; medial deviation of the foot relative to the leg was seen in all 13 fetuses with clubfoot. The correlation of fetal MRI with US in the evaluation of clubfoot yields a sensitivity of 100% and specificity of 85.2%. The sagittal plane provided the most useful information. (orig.)

  11. MRI diagnosis of fetal congenital diaphragmatic hernia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To explore the diagnostic value of MRI on fetal congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH). Methods: Fourteen pregnant women with gestation from 16 to 39 weeks were studied with a 1.5 T superconductive MR unit within 24 to 48 hours after ultrasound studies. Fast-imaging employing steady-state acquisition (FIESTA), single-shot fast spin echo (SSFSE) and T1-weighted fast inversion recovery motion insensitive (FIRM) sequences were employed on the axial, coronal and sagittal planes of the fetal brain, thorax and abdomen, especially the thorax. Prenatal US and MR imaging findings were compared with postnatal diagnoses (13 fetuses) or autopsy (1 fetus). US, MR imaging and surgery were used for postnatal evaluation. Results: Fourteen pregnant women (12 with a single fetus and 2 with twin fetuses) were studied. There were 12 fetuses (in 2 cases, being one of twins) with a left-sided and 2 with right-sided diaphragmatic hernias. For all cases, the prenatal MRI diagnosis was correct when compared with postnatal diagnosis or autopsy. Two CDHs were missed and 2 were misdiagnosed by US. Intrathoracic herniated organs in 12 left CDH included the colon (n=1), the stomach (n=1), the bowel (n=5), or both the stomach and bowel (n=5). Intrathoracic herniated organs in 2 right CDH included the bowel (n=1), or the bowel and the right lobe of the liver (n=1). Conclusion: Prenatal MRI is effective in the assessment of fetal congenital diaphragmatic hernia. (authors)

  12. Fetal MRI in experimental tracheal occlusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wedegaertner, Ulrike [Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Universitaetsklinikum Hamburg-Eppendorf, Martinistrasse 52, 20251 Hamburg (Germany)]. E-mail: wedegaer@uke.uni-hamburg.de; Schroeder, Hobe J. [Experimental Gynecology, Department of Obstetrics and Prenatal Medicine, Universitaetsklinikum Hamburg-Eppendorf, Hamburg (Germany); Adam, Gerhard [Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Universitaetsklinikum Hamburg-Eppendorf, Hamburg (Germany)

    2006-02-15

    Congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH) is associated with a high mortality, which is mainly due to pulmonary hypoplasia and secondary pulmonary hypertension. In severely affected fetuses, tracheal occlusion (TO) is performed prenatally to reverse pulmonary hypoplasia, because TO leads to accelerated lung growth. Prenatal imaging is important to identify fetuses with pulmonary hypoplasia, to diagnose high-risk fetuses who would benefit from TO, and to monitor the effect of TO after surgery. In fetal imaging, ultrasound (US) is the method of choice, because it is widely available, less expensive, and less time-consuming to perform than magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). However, there are some limitations for US in the evaluation of CDH fetuses. In those cases, MRI is helpful because of a better tissue contrast between liver and lung, which enables evaluation of liver herniation for the diagnosis of a high-risk fetus. MRI provides the ability to determine absolute lung volumes to detect lung hypoplasia. In fetal sheep with normal and hyperplastic lungs after TO, lung growth was assessed on the basis of cross-sectional US measurements, after initial lung volume determination by MRI. To monitor fetal lung growth after prenatal TO, both MRI and US seem to be useful methods.

  13. Modeling the biomechanics of fetal movements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verbruggen, Stefaan W; Loo, Jessica H W; Hayat, Tayyib T A; Hajnal, Joseph V; Rutherford, Mary A; Phillips, Andrew T M; Nowlan, Niamh C

    2016-08-01

    Fetal movements in the uterus are a natural part of development and are known to play an important role in normal musculoskeletal development. However, very little is known about the biomechanical stimuli that arise during movements in utero, despite these stimuli being crucial to normal bone and joint formation. Therefore, the objective of this study was to create a series of computational steps by which the forces generated during a kick in utero could be predicted from clinically observed fetal movements using novel cine-MRI data of three fetuses, aged 20-22 weeks. A custom tracking software was designed to characterize the movements of joints in utero, and average uterus deflection of [Formula: see text] mm due to kicking was calculated. These observed displacements provided boundary conditions for a finite element model of the uterine environment, predicting an average reaction force of [Formula: see text] N generated by a kick against the uterine wall. Finally, these data were applied as inputs for a musculoskeletal model of a fetal kick, resulting in predicted maximum forces in the muscles surrounding the hip joint of approximately 8 N, while higher maximum forces of approximately 21 N were predicted for the muscles surrounding the knee joint. This study provides a novel insight into the closed mechanical environment of the uterus, with an innovative method allowing elucidation of the biomechanical interaction of the developing fetus with its surroundings. PMID:26534772

  14. Revisiting the argument from fetal potential

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manninen Bertha

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract One of the most famous, and most derided, arguments against the morality of abortion is the argument from potential, which maintains that the fetus' potential to become a person and enjoy the valuable life common to persons, entails that its destruction is prima facie morally impermissible. In this paper, I will revisit and offer a defense of the argument from potential. First, I will criticize the classical arguments proffered against the importance of fetal potential, specifically the arguments put forth by philosophers Peter Singer and David Boonin, by carefully unpacking the claims made in these arguments and illustrating why they are flawed. Secondly, I will maintain that fetal potential is morally relevant when it comes to the morality of abortion, but that it must be accorded a proper place in the argument. This proper place, however, cannot be found until we first answer a very important and complex question: we must first address the issue of personal identity, and when the fetus becomes the type of being who is relevantly identical to a future person. I will illustrate why the question of fetal potential can only be meaningfully addressed after we have first answered the question of personal identity and how it relates to the human fetus.

  15. Fetal MRI in experimental tracheal occlusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH) is associated with a high mortality, which is mainly due to pulmonary hypoplasia and secondary pulmonary hypertension. In severely affected fetuses, tracheal occlusion (TO) is performed prenatally to reverse pulmonary hypoplasia, because TO leads to accelerated lung growth. Prenatal imaging is important to identify fetuses with pulmonary hypoplasia, to diagnose high-risk fetuses who would benefit from TO, and to monitor the effect of TO after surgery. In fetal imaging, ultrasound (US) is the method of choice, because it is widely available, less expensive, and less time-consuming to perform than magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). However, there are some limitations for US in the evaluation of CDH fetuses. In those cases, MRI is helpful because of a better tissue contrast between liver and lung, which enables evaluation of liver herniation for the diagnosis of a high-risk fetus. MRI provides the ability to determine absolute lung volumes to detect lung hypoplasia. In fetal sheep with normal and hyperplastic lungs after TO, lung growth was assessed on the basis of cross-sectional US measurements, after initial lung volume determination by MRI. To monitor fetal lung growth after prenatal TO, both MRI and US seem to be useful methods

  16. Fetal breathing movements and changes at birth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koos, Brian J; Rajaee, Arezoo

    2014-01-01

    The fetus, which develops within a fluid-filled amniotic sac, relies on the placenta for respiratory gas exchange rather than the lungs. While not involved in fetal oxygenation, fetal breathing movements (FBM) nevertheless have an important role in lung growth and in development of respiratory muscles and neural regulation. FBM are regulated differently in many respects than postnatal respiration, which results from the unique intrauterine environment. Prominent distinctions of FBM include its episodic nature and apnea-sensitivity to hypoxia. The latter characteristic is the basis for using FBM in the assessment of fetuses at risk for hypoxic injury. At birth, the transition to continuous postnatal respiration involves a fall in temperature, gaseous distention of the lungs, activation of the Hering-Breuer reflexes, and functional connectivity of afferent O2 chemoreceptor activity with respiratory motoneurons and arousal centers. Importantly, exposure to drugs or adverse conditions in utero not only can change patterns of FBM but also can lead to epigenetic dysregulation in postnatal respiration. Such changes, can blunt respiratory and arousal defenses against hypoxic challenges in sleep. Thus, fetal hypoxia and/or drug exposure may in later life dispose sleeping infants, children, and adults to hypertension, diabetes mellitus, brain injury, and sudden death. PMID:25015803

  17. Role of fetal DNA in preeclampsia (review).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konečná, Barbora; Vlková, Barbora; Celec, Peter

    2015-02-01

    Preeclampsia is an autoimmune disorder characterized by hypertension. It begins with abnormal cytotrophoblast apoptosis, which leads to inflammation and an increase in the levels of anti-angiogenic factors followed by the disruption of the angiogenic status. Increased levels of fetal DNA and RNA coming from the placenta, one of the most commonly affected organs in pregnancies complicated by preeclampsia, have been found in pregnant women with the condition. However, it remains unknown as to whether this is a cause or a consequence of preeclampsia. Few studies have been carried out on preeclampsia in which an animal model of preeclampsia was induced by an injection of different types of DNA that are mimic fetal DNA and provoke inflammation through Toll-like receptor 9 (TLR9) or cyclic guanosine monophosphate-adenosine monophosphate (cGAMP). The specific mechanisms involved in the development of preeclampsia are not yet fully understood. It is hypothesized that the presence of different fragments of fetal DNA in maternal plasma may cause for the development of preeclampsia. The function of DNase during preeclampsia also remains unresolved. Studies have suggested that its activity is decreased or the DNA is protected against its effects. Further research is required to uncover the pathogenesis of preeclampsia and focus more on the condition of patients with the condition.

  18. Fetal autopsy and closing the gap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandasamy, Yogavijayan; Kilcullen, Meegan; Watson, David

    2016-06-01

    Over the past 30 years, the perinatal mortality rate (PMR) in Australia has been reduced to almost a quarter of that observed in the 1970s. To a large extent, this decline in the PMR has been driven by a reduction in neonatal mortality. Stillbirth rates have, however, remained relatively unchanged, and stillbirth rates for Aboriginal or Torres Strait Islander mothers have remained approximately twice that for non-Indigenous women over the last 10 years. The causes for this difference remain to be fully established. Fetal autopsy is the single most important investigative tool to determine the cause of fetal demise. While facilitators and barriers to gaining consent for autopsy have been identified in a non-Indigenous context, these are yet to be established for Indigenous families. In order to address the gap in stillbirths between Indigenous and non-Indigenous mothers, it is essential to identify culturally appropriate ways when approaching Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander families for consent after fetal death. Culturally safe and appropriate counselling at this time provides the basis for respectful care to families while offering an opportunity to gain knowledge to reduce the PMR. Identifying the cause of preventable stillbirth is an important step in narrowing the disparity in stillbirth rates between Indigenous and non-Indigenous mothers. PMID:27250705

  19. Fetal Electrocardiogram (fECG Gated MRI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martyn N.J. Paley

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available We have developed a Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI-compatible system to enable gating of a scanner to the heartbeat of a foetus for cardiac, umbilical cord flow and other possible imaging applications. We performed radiofrequency safety testing prior to a fetal electrocardiogram (fECG gated imaging study in pregnant volunteers (n = 3. A compact monitoring device with advanced software capable of reliably detecting both the maternal electrocardiogram (mECG and fECG simultaneously was modified by the manufacturer (Monica Healthcare, Nottingham, UK to provide an external TTL trigger signal from the detected fECG which could be used to trigger a standard 1.5 T MR (GE Healthcare, Milwaukee, WI, USA gating system with suitable attenuation. The MR scanner was tested by triggering rapidly during image acquisition at a typical fetal heart rate (123 beats per minute using a simulated fECG waveform fed into the gating system. Gated MR images were also acquired from volunteers who were attending for a repeat fetal Central Nervous System (CNS examination using an additional rapid cardiac imaging sequence triggered from the measured fECG. No adverse safety effects were encountered. This is the first time fECG gating has been used with MRI and opens up a range of new possibilities to study a developing foetus.

  20. What You Should Know about Cerebral Aneurysms

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... T. Quiz 5 Things to Know About Stroke What You Should Know About Cerebral Aneurysms Updated:Jun ... Damage Treatments Click image to view an animation What is a cerebral aneurysm? An aneurysm is a ...